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Annual Report of The Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and Welfare For the Year Ended… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1953

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Annual Report of
The Social Welfare Branch
of the Department  of
Health and Welfare
For the Year Ended March 31st
1952
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1953  Victoria, B.C., November 30th, 1952.
To His Honour Clarence Wallace, C.B.E.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The Annual Report of the Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and
Welfare for the year ended March 31st, 1952, is herewith respectfully submitted.
E. C. MARTIN,
Minister of Health and Welfare.
Office of the Minister of Health and Welfare,
Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C. Social Welfare Branch,
Victoria, B.C., November 30th, 1952.
The Honourable E. C. Martin,
Minister of Health and Welfare, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Social Welfare Branch
for the year ended March 31st, 1952.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
E. W. GRIFFITH,
Deputy Minister of Welfare. TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Letter of Transmittal  3
Letter of Transmittal  4
Letter of Transmittal  7
Assistant Director of Welfare  9
Regional Administration—
Region I    14
Region II  16
Region III  17
Region IV  18
Region V  21
Family Division—
Social Allowances  22
Mothers' Allowances  28
Family Service  34
Child Welfare Division  3 8
Old-age Pension Board and Old-age Assistance and Blind Persons' Allowance Boards 51
Medical Services Division  77
Institutions—
Industrial School for Boys  79
Industrial School for Girls  86
Provincial Home  91
Welfare Institutions Licensing Board  94
Social Service Department, Division of Tuberculosis Control  102
Social Service Department, Division of Venereal Disease Control  103
Psychiatric Division—Social Services, Provincial Mental Health Services  104  REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
E. W. Griffith, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Welfare.
Sir,—I have pleasure in submitting the Annual Report of the Social Welfare Branch
of the Department of Health and Welfare for the year ended March 31st, 1952.
In the following pages will be found reports of the heads of divisions and other
senior officials of the Branch. These officials have been encouraged to present the records
of their various responsibilities in their own manner with emphasis placed on the phases
which in their opinion is warranted.
A careful reading of the reports will serve to reveal the scope of the work of this
Branch. In recent years particularly, our Branch has come to be regarded as an indispensable service in the large and small communities of this Province and in the isolated
rural areas. This total coverage of the Province, fraught as it is with many difficult
problems of transportation, together with the generalized services given by our staff,
makes our Provincial welfare programme unique in Canada and possibly in North
America. It is based on the needs of the people of this Province whom it is our duty and
privilege to serve and with the view to economical administration.
Not only the extent of our services will be revealed in reading this Report. Each
section, in its own way, reveals the nature of some of the problems which come to our
twenty-seven district offices and by implication to the fourteen municipal social welfare
offices which play a growing part in the total public welfare service of the Province.
Certain illustrations, carefully disguised so as not to reveal identities, depict the nature of
the services given in relation to those problems. It will be evident to the reader, I feel
sure, that our services are designed and carried out to maintain and restore the greatest
degree of self-reliance and self-dependence that is possible, having regard to the circumstances of the individuals and families served.
Of growing importance are the more specialized services given by certain divisions
of this Branch. The programme of treatment being built in our Boys' and Girls' Industrial Schools will be, I am sure, a matter of satisfaction to the people of this Province.
The communities, I feel, could do more, through developing more adequate recreation
facilities and obtaining the services of competent youth leaders, to reduce juvenile
delinquency. This has already been demonstrated in a few municipalities. It becomes
incumbent, however, upon the Provincial Government to provide treatment for this
behaviour when it occurs among our young people who, without such facilities, could
resort to a career of crime.
The development of specialized social welfare services in the Provincial Mental
Health Service, a branch of the Provincial Secretary's Department, has been marked in
this past year. Here, though appointed by the Social Welfare Branch, our social workers
become a part of the professional " team " under the direction of the psychiatrist working
toward either the cure or the prevention of mental illness. The work of this Division's
social workers in implementing the rehabilitation plan for each discharged patient is
worthy of special note, the field staff of this Branch helping to carry out such planning in
areas away from the Lower Mainland.
To the already heavy responsibilities of our Regional Administrators and field staff,
another duty has been added. I refer to the part each of our officials will be required
to play in the Provincial civil-defence programme. While we deplore the necessity of
making such preparations, each of us in his respective sphere will do his utmost to ensure
that adequate welfare services are available should the necessity arise. W 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA
During the year under review the Branch as a whole has functioned harmoniously.
In a great measure this is due to the co-operative endeavours of our senior officials—
Divisional Heads, Regional Administrators, Field Consultants, and Supervisors. Their
knowledge of social welfare and the importance of each phase of it has meant a smooth
integration of the various divisions and with the field staff. I especially wish to commend
the social workers for their loyalty and hard work. The continuing co-operation of
municipal administrations is indeed appreciated and greatly assists in maintaining the
standard of public welfare services in British Columbia.
Respectfully submitted.
C. W. LUNDY,
Director of Welfare. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 9
ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF WELFARE
I beg to submit the following report for the fiscal year 1951-52:—
STAFF
It is axiomatic to say that the standards of service of any department of government
can be only as high as the quality of the staff employed to give those services. Even
with well-qualified staff, other considerations combine to lessen the effectiveness of the
services they can give. The numbers of people to be served; the nature of their problems; the development of new services demanded by the public; the geographic territory
to be covered—all must be taken into account in assessing the standard of the work done.
From my observation, and from reports reaching me, the past year has been one of steady
growth. The quality of the staff has continued to rise. Of a total of 221 on the staff at
March 31st, 1952, 155 have professional training from a school of social work, the
remainder having been given our in-service training course. Added to training, in
evaluating quality of staff, must be their experience, and in that regard the figures are
encouraging. Though 31 have less than one year and 32 have only one and a half years
of experience, 94 have from two to five years, 20 from six to ten years, and the remainder
range from eleven to twenty-two years of experience in social work.
NATURE OF THE SERVICE
The generalized service the staff in the district offices gives is both economically
and professionally sound. First, there is no duplication in travelling nor any overlapping
of services to families. Secondly, the services which are being given to all people are
based on the social workers' knowledge of family life, of the economic, social, and cultural
structure of society, and upon the principles (which are based on democratic and Christian concepts) underlying the practice of social case-work. However, as the reports of
the Regional Administrators will reveal, the nature of the problems coming to the district
offices vary considerably. In the Okanagan offices of Region 3, for example, there is a
larger proportion of child welfare services, because this economically stable area, populated largely by younger families, provides a number of adequate foster homes for children who become the wards of the Government. In one office in an area comprised of
mature families there are few services needed in regard to problems of family relationships, but in the same region in a highly industrialized city where family life is less settled,
family services comprise a much greater volume of work. Similarly, in several coastal
areas where climate is milder a large number of old people make up a high proportion
of the case-loads of the staff.
PLACEMENT OF STAFF
Because of these regional and district variations in the nature of the problems, the
allocation of staff must be carefully made. This allocation or placement of staff is made
regionally, and is governed, in so far as numbers of staff are concerned, by the size of
the case-loads; that is, by the number of people to be served. Industrial development,
or its opposite, has also to be taken into account in anticipation of needed services. Other
considerations in placing staff are the qualifications, experience, sex, and age of the
social workers.
Once assigned to a region, the Regional Administrator may utilize a social worker
to the best advantage. For example, a social worker with training, experience, and aptitude in working with children may be placed in the office in which the child welfare
problems are heavy. A growing practice is that of assigning to a few of the in-service
trained staff a case-load comprised largely of Old-age Assistance cases. Though the
latter work requires identical skill in forming helpful relationships, in interviewing and W  10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
in the use of resources, the administrative routines involved are time-consuming and
intricate. Relieved of the bulk of this taxing work, the staff with professional training
and greater experience can thus devote more time to the areas of their generalized practice which demands more time and more intensive work.
CASE-LOAD
Throughout the Province the total case-load has been steadily increasing in the past
year in spite of unprecedented economic prosperity. Periods of movement, change, and
development invariably bring with them heightened social unrest, which has relatively
little to do with wages and payrolls. The following table reveals the numbers of people
served during the year and the nature of their problems:—
Provincial Case-loads as at March 31st, 1952
Family Service  1,341
Mothers' Allowance  507
Social Allowance  9,171
Blind Persons' Allowance  336
Old-age Assistance   7,788
Old-age Security Bonus and Health Services  31,846
Child Welfare Division  4,221
Tuberculosis Division  366
Psychiatric Division  353
Collections   127
Hospital Clearance  22
Provincial Home  11
Provincial Infirmary .  21
Welfare Institutions  223
Total  56,333
The above figures require this further amplification: The greatest volume of work
is obviously in the three " assistance " categories. Though the bulk of those receiving
assistance are in the aged or ageing group of the population, the utmost vigilance is maintained to assure their adequate care in time of illness or infirmity, and to minister to
various other social needs as they arise. For the younger persons and families in these
categories (and for some who are older as well), the objective of the professional services
given is that of rehabilitation. These efforts involve the use of many kinds of knowledge
and co-operative work with other professions, and with community or Province-wide
resources. All this is to the end that the individual or family have the desire to be independent, and support must be given to help overcome both the emotional and physical
obstacles which stand in the way of achieving independence.
In the Family Service and Child Welfare categories, as in the medical and psychiatric services, the necessity of making full use of professional knowledge and skill will be
apparent. These services, with those of rehabilitation, require much time and thought
and sustained activity, as well as quick responsible action in times of crisis.
STAFF DEVELOPMENT
Standards of service, even with well-qualified staff, are likely to remain static, or
even regress, unless there is a conscious effort made to develop the abilities of those
employed. The key official involved in this matter is the district supervisor, who has the
combined functions of district-office administrator and teacher. In order to strengthen
the calibre of our supervisors, an institute was conducted for them in October, 1951, in
which the services of a member of the faculty of the University School of Social Work
were enlisted, with excellent results. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 11
One in-service training class was conducted during this year, and three orientation
periods for newly graduated staff were conducted in the summer months. These programmes—the former for the untrained staff which we must employ because there are
insufficient numbers of professionally trained people available, the latter to famialiarize
inexperienced professional staff with the work of the Branch—are but preliminary to the
continuing task of increasing staff competence by means of constant supervision and
other devices.
Our Branch publication, British Columbia's Welfare, is one of these devices. It
serves to keep the scattered staff informed of all new developments and resources within
the Province, and contains articles of an educational and interpretive nature. Its circulation, moreover, to municipal officials, public health personnel, other departments of
government, other social agencies, libraries, and schools of social work, makes it an
excellent medium of interpretation.
Other staff-development devices are our circulating library, our system of granting
educational leave, and the bursary scheme which provides financial aid for staff members
who have proved their value to assist them to take professional training. Four of these
bursaries were awarded last year, while three staff members were granted leave of absence
for additional training.
Attendance at conferences is another medium of staff development, though when
extensive travel is involved, delegations to national or regional conferences are usually
restricted to those who are asked to take part in the programme. Hence, in June, 1951,
five senior members of staff attended the Western Regional Conference on Social Work
in Winnipeg, and in September four senior officials attended the West Coast Regional
Conference of the American Public Welfare Association held in Berkeley, Calif. The
contribution made by our staff to these conferences has always been acknowledged as
outstanding, and delegates invariably shared the knowledge they have gained with the
remainder of the staff.
A regional staff conference was held in November in Vernon, attended by the
Assistant Director. These conferences, too, are a medium of staff development, and as
the programmes deal with problems the staff are meeting in their work, they have pointed
significance.
DIVISIONAL DEVELOPMENT
The year under review has seen marked progress in the Boys' and Girls' Industrial
Schools. The two separate committees of the Branch, each chaired by the Assistant
Director, have served to bring school officials closer to the general administration of the
Branch, and to facilitate the acceptance and implementation of the planning undertaken.
The programme of treatment is beginning to have definite results, as the reports herein of
the two schools will amply testify.
The rapid expansion of the Psychiatric Division has considerable significance. The
placement of social workers in The Woodlands School (school for the intellectually
retarded) is a major development, which is fully covered in the report of the Psychiatric
Division. Extension of the services of the social workers in the Mental Hospital, Crease
Clinic, and Homes for the Aged testify to the importance of these skilled services in those
settings.
Of major significance to the work of the field staff of this Branch is the history-
making changes in Canada's new schemes of social security for the aged. The work
involved in " shifting gears " from the old order to the new was considerable, as other
reports herein testify. Though the bulk of those over 70 years of age will presumably
relieve our staff of the time-consuming administrative work the former Old-age Pension
administration entailed, it is nevertheless anticipated that many of those over 70 will
continue to look to our social workers for help with other problems, such as health needs,
housing, boarding-home care, family difficulties, and others which grow more acute with
advancing age. W 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The appointment of an Acting Medical Social Work Consultant to assist the Medical
Director in planning and servicing those requiring special medical treatment is a significant development. Case-work consultation on different health problems is now afforded
the field staff, and similar consultative services are made available to certain private
treatment centres in the City of Vancouver.
EVALUATION OF PROGRESS
From the foregoing section of this report the conclusion can be made that the work
of the entire Branch, both the field and divisional services, has grown not only in quantity
but in quality in the past year. The growth in the quality of our services can be attributed
to the devotion of the staff to their work and to the vitality and professional and administrative acumen of our senior officials.
OTHER ACTIVITIES AND EVENTS
In the months of June, July, and August the Assistant Director was on loan to the
Government of the Province of Newfoundland for the purpose of conducting a survey of
that Province's social welfare services.
Following this absence, the office of the Assistant Director was moved to the Parliament Buildings, Victoria. This move served to consolidate all staff files, and thenceforward staff matters pertaining to the institutions of the Branch as well as the field and
division have been under the jurisdiction of this office.
In October the offices of the Senior Field Consultant, formerly in Vernon, and of the
Office Consultant, formerly in Vancouver, were also moved to Victoria. At the same
time the Field Consultant from Region IV moved her office to Vancouver in order to give
her services to Region II as well as Region IV. This added work was made necessary
by the resignation of one of the Field Consultants, Mrs. Edna Alexander, whose services
had been of inestimable value over the ten years of her employment.
The death in September of Miss Isobel Harvey, our Research Consultant, removed
from our ranks one who had served this Branch faithfully and well for many years.
Originally appointed in 1932, Miss Harvey helped materially in the building of the early
Welfare Field Service and of this Province's standards of child welfare. The death of
Mr. James Niven, Assistant Regional Administrator of Region II, was another decided
loss to this Branch, his service in the former Unemployment Relief Branch and in the
present Branch being of a very high order.
Three United Nations Fellows were given opportunities to study the work of this
Branch and of related agencies during the year. These were Miss Tsuneko Hirano, of
Japan (Tokyo); Mrs. Freny Irani, of India (Bombay); and Miss Kathleen B. Crisp, of
Australia (Melbourne).
FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS
Planning for the creation of a sixth region of the Branch was concluded toward the
end of this fiscal year. The new region will consist of the Fraser Valley area from Pitt
Meadows east to Hope and south to the International Border. The growth in population
and the heavy concentration of rural municipalities in this territory made this move a
necessity.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The continuing value to the service of this Branch of the Field Consultants must be
gratefully acknowledged. The regions covered make their work arduous, and their devotion and professional competence is an inspiration. They have succeeded in effecting a
closer integration between field and division than has ever existed before, and through
them the general administration is appraised of the problems which affect the standards
of service of the Branch. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
W  13
Regional Administrators, Field Consultants, and divisional heads, through their
annual meeting, through the regular meeting of the Planning Council, and through consultation during the Assistant Director's field-trips, have contributed much to the over-all
policy-making functions of the general administration.
Finally, the continuing high standard of service given by the training supervisor in
the total area of staff development and in assisting with certain personnel duties during
the past year is acknowledged.
Respectfully submitted.
Amy Leigh,
Assistant Director of Welfare. W   14
BRITISH COLUMBIA
REGIONAL ADMINISTRATION
REGION I
I beg to submit the annual report for the fiscal year 1951-52, which outlines statistical information and briefly the activities of the Social Welfare Branch in Region I
This region covers approximately 13,300 square miles and has a population of
approximately 205,000. The areas covered are Vancouver Island, the Gulf Islands, the
Mainland Coast north-west from Sarah Point to Ocean Falls and adjacent islands in
the area.
The number of municipalities coming under the provisions of the " Social Assistance
Act" was increased by the inclusion of the Village of Lake Cowichan. The annual tax
revenue of this municipality was in excess of the exemption allowance of $12,500; therefore, liability for payment of Social Assistance costs was mandatory. The field welfare
work in Lake Cowichan Municipality is looked after by the Social Welfare Branch on
the reimbursement basis of 15 cents per capita.
The following table shows the status of areas in the region regarding social welfare
administration, also figures on population (1951 Census) and welfare case-loads in each
listed organized area:—
Area
Population,
19S1 Census
Welfare Services
Per
Capita
Plan
Amalgamated
Plan
Welfare
Case-load
Village of Campbell River..
City of Cumberland	
City of Courtenay..	
City of Port Alberni	
City of Alberni 	
City of Nanaimo 	
City of Ladysmith	
Municipality of North Cowichan..
City of Duncan	
Village of Lake Cowichan	
Municipality of Esquimau	
Municipality of Central Saanich..
Municipality of Oak Bay	
Municipality of Saanich	
City of Victoria  	
1,958
860
1,737
7,800
3,302
7,136
2,083
6,636
2,753
1,601
10,085
2,058
11,969
28,249
50,774
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Case-load in unorganized territory...
Total case-load for region..
44
58
116
259
126
483
105
271
125
36
250
86
286
1,352
3,411
7,008
3,740
10,748
There are twenty-eight social workers and three district supervisors actively engaged
in carrying out the social welfare work in the region, and they operate from seven administrative offices which, taking into consideration the distribution of population and the caseload, are located geographically so as to meet the needs of the people in as many areas
as possible.
A breakdown of the case-load by categories and administrative offices is shown in
the following table. This table includes all cases as at March 31st, 1952, residing in
organized and unorganized territory.
- REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
W 15
Category
Saanich
Alberni
Courtenay
Nanaimo
Duncan
Victoria
District
Victoria
City
Total
9
150
23
170
990
10
58
7
109
4
88
274
118
51
52
8
162
8
117
504
180
46
36
6
276
8
228
1,046
190
35
18
7
79
3
98
406
98
27
46
9
179
1
206
1,052
102
43
8
17
528
22
366
2,350
120
218
Mothers' Allowance 	
63
1,483
69
Old-age Assistance 	
1,273
6,622
Child Welfare . 	
688
332
Totals  	
1,352
709
1,077
1,825
736
1,638
3,411
10,748
It will be noticed in the above table there are 1,273 Old-age Assistance cases listed.
This is a new category of public assistance which became effective January 1st, 1952.
The processing of applications for this number of individuals placed a very heavy burden
on the social workers from August, 1951, to the end of March, 1952.
The increase in Social Allowance rates April 1st, 1951, helped considerably the
plight of persons receiving this form of public aid. All municipalities in the region were
in agreement with the Government's action in approving increased payment, but strong
objections were raised regarding the new division of financial responsibility. It was felt
the Government had broken faith with its municipalities by departing from the shareable
arrangement—that is, the 80-per-cent Provincial and 20-per-cent municipal sharing of
costs—which had existed for some years. However, I am pleased to report there has
been no noticeable lessening in the co-operation and understanding of the two administrations of welfare, Provincial and municipal, in our joint efforts to meet the welfare
needs of our citizens.
The placing of aged persons who, due to physical infirmities, require nursing or
boarding care weighed heavily on the working-time of the workers. Suitable accommodation is just not available to meet the needs. We were most unfortunate on November
30th, 1951, to lose a fifteen-bed private hospital in the northern section of the region.
This establishment, privately operated, and filled to capacity at the time, was closed, due
mainly to the health of the operator.
During the year the Government-owned boat M.V. " Sheily," which is used exclusively by the Social Welfare Branch, travelled over 5,000 nautical miles, and the skipper
and the accompanying social worker in visiting the northern section of the region and
the Gulf Islands, which are only accessible by water, were away from their home port for
129 days.
On March 24th, 25th, and 26th, 1952, the social workers, district supervisors, and
welfare administrators of this region gathered together for the first staff conference which
had been held for several years, there being a total attendance of forty-five persons. Very
active participation was taken by those present in the varied agenda which had been
planned by the field staff and administration for staff development and learning by discussion on a practical level.
The seasonal curtailment of employment due to heavy snowfalls in the winter,
together with dry summer spells, was again felt in the major and minor industries of the
area. Logging and lumbering operations, together with light allied businesses dependent
upon them, were forced to cease operations for several months during the year. This
shut-down resulted in increased appeals by individuals to welfare offices.
In conclusion, may I say the members of the Social Welfare Branch in this region,
in co-operation with municipal employees on the same level, have, during the year immediately'past, conscientiously endeavoured to meet and even to anticipate the needs of
persons requiring our services. We gratefully acknowledge the co-operation given by
other agencies, private and voluntary, who have in numerous ways been helpful.
Respectfully submitted. E L RlMMER;
Regional Administrator. W 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REGION II
I beg to submit the following report of the activities of the Social Welfare Branch
in Region II for the fiscal year 1951-52:—
The geographic boundaries of this region were altered during the year to include
areas in the northern section on the west coast of the Mainland. The case-load in the
Ocean Falls, Bella Coola, and Bella Bella areas was transferred back from Region I.
Region II now encompasses its original territory.
In the western part of Region V, which is administered by Region II, a new Provincial office was opened at Terrace. This office is housed in a building shared with the
Public Health Branch. Because of increased population in the Terrace area, due to the
Kitimat development and the establishment of large logging camps by the Port Edward
pulp-mill, it was found impossible to continue to handle the work from the Prince Rupert
office. Part of the case-load formerly carried by the Smithers office was taken over by
the social worker at Terrace, which has resulted in a more equitable distribution of work.
Although it has been possible to provide adequate boarding-home care, the nursing-
home bed shortage has been acute. There has been a small increase in the over-all
number of beds available for this type of care; nevertheless, hospital clearance for elderly
persons suffering from chronic illness has made a constant demand on staff time.
The foster-home programme has been receiving more attention and has made
increased demands upon both municipal and Provincial staffs. The placement of wards
and non-wards in areas formerly handled by the Children's Aid Society has continued
to grow, and it is expected that this part of the work will continue to take more time.
An emergent situation was faced in September in Vancouver City when a large
number of Chinese Canadians began to apply for Old-age Assistance. To handle the
situation, it was necessary to hire an interpreter and make extra staff available in the
Vancouver district office. For the balance of the fiscal year all Chinese applicants for
this type of assistance were handled by this office.
Several municipalities requested surveys to be made of their municipal departments
so that the officials would know whether or not an efficient service was being given to the
citizens of their areas. After the surveys were made, in certain instances reorganization
took place which made it possible for a better service to be made available in the municipalities. The reorganization which took place included staff changes, administrative
changes, and reallotment of case-loads.
As 1951 was the year in which the census was taken, it was necessary to acquaint
various municipalities with the fact that under the " Social Assistance Act" their population growth might make it necessary for them to open their own offices. When preliminary population figures became available, plans were worked out with the municipalities affected in order that offices could be established.
The number of municipalities which, under provisions of the " Social Assistance
Act," are obligated to contribute to welfare costs was increased by the inclusion of the
Village of Hope. The village accepted the plan whereby the Province handles the social
welfare work and receives payment on the 15-cents-per-cap/ta-of-population basis for
the services rendered.
Respectfully submitted.
J.A. Sadler,
Regional Administrator. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 17
REGION III
I beg to submit the following report on the activities of the Social Welfare Branch
in Region III for the fiscal year 1951-52:—
There has been no change in our geographical boundaries since our last report nor
in the number of persons employed in connection with the administering of social services
to the people of this region; that is, the Okanagan, Thompson, and Similkameen Valleys.
The twenty-one organized areas of this region have a population of 60,000 according to the 1951 Census, and this indicates a 54-per-cent increase in population during
the past ten years. The population of the unorganized territory of this region has likewise increased considerably since the last census. This expansion has resulted in the
necessity of increasing the school and hospital facilities of many centres at an accelerated
rate.
Generally speaking, economic conditions have been favourable throughout the
region. The farm crops has been good and the returns to the growers satisfactory. The
beef-producers received prices beyond all expectation, and prices for dairy products have
been fair. While some fruit-growers were still feeling the effects of the severe weather
experienced during the winter 1949-50, the valley produced a fair fruit-crop with reasonable returns. The mining industry remained steady and the lumbering operations gave
steady employment, and, with attractive returns to both operators and employees, contributed much to the prosperity of the region as a whole. There was a considerable
amount of highway and other construction work, which provided much employment.
The tourist trade has been increasing as the highways are improved, and the tourist
accommodation is being expanded steadily. While the home-building decreased somewhat during the year, other operations opened up, which absorbed any surplus labour.
A number of persons drew unemployment insurance benefits during the winter months,
but the majority of these are people who are occupied in connection with the handling
of the fruit and vegetable crop. This area would greatly benefit by some industry which
would absorb that class of labour in the off-season.
As stated in a previous Report, the social services to the people of this region are
provided by five Provincial and four municipal offices. The four larger municipalities
have their own welfare officers, whose salaries are shared by our Department, and the
other seventeen organized areas are serviced by our Provincial staff on a per capita basis.
During the fiscal year 10,511 cases received service from the social workers of this region.
At the close of the year we had 6,218 active cases, and 5,189 of this number were receiving financial assistance, which included children in care whose maintenance was being
paid by public funds.
During the period January to March, 1952, the persons between the ages of 65 and
69 were transferred from Social Allowance to Old-age Assistance. During the process
of transfer much additional work was required by the field staff. At the same time,
applications were being completed for persons over 70 years of age who were applying
for cost-of-living bonus under the new Old-age Security scheme. Since the Indians are
now eligible for Old-age Assistance, Old-age Security, and cost-of-living bonus, our
services have been extended to the Indian reservations.
In the year 1951-52, 344 children received care in foster homes within this region.
At the beginning of the year we had 235 children in foster homes and 253 at the close
of the year. During the twelve-month period 26 of these children in care were placed
for adoption, 30 were returned to their families as the home circumstances had improved
to the point where it was deemed in the best interest of the children that they should
rejoin their families, 9 were discharged from care due to coming of age or marriage,
5 were repatriated to another Province, 4 were sent to the Boys' and Girls' Industrial
Schools for treatment, 1 was transferred to The Woodlands School, 2 deceased, and 14
secured employment. W 18
BRITISH COLUMBIA
We have enjoyed the fullest co-operation of the public health units, Probation
Service, D.V.A. staffs, medical profession, school authorities, municipal offices, and many
local organizations, without whose help our work would be more difficult and costly.
Respectfully submitted.
F. G. Hassard,
Regional Administrator.
REGION IV
I beg to submit the annual report of the activities of the Social Welfare Branch in
Region IV for the fiscal year 1951-52.
Region IV comprises the south-easterly three-cornered section of British Columbia.
The Alberta and International Borders form two sides of the rough triangle, and the
third is a line through Carmi on the south-west, up through Nakusp and Golden at the
north. This rugged section contains an area of 27,833 square miles of mountains and
valleys, lakes and rivers, and a population of 89,936 persons, most of whom either
directly or indirectly derive their livelihood from the region's three major industries—
mining, lumbering, and agriculture.
The region is divided, geographically, into four districts—the East Kootenay, the
West Kootenay, the Kaslo-Slocan, and Grand Forks-Greenwood areas—and a brief
economic and social description of each follows in that order.
The East Kootenay
As one of its industries, the East Kootenay has its famous Sullivan mine at Kim-
berley, where over 2,100 persons are employed by the Consolidated Mining & Smelting
Company. There are also the coal mines and coke-ovens in the Fernie-Michel-Natal
section, which employ approximately 1,400 persons and produce 63 per cent of the
Province's total coal production. Silver-lead-zinc ore is mined in great volume, principally at the Sullivan mine, but also at mines near Field, Spillimacheen, and Invermere.
Refined tin is produced at the Sullivan concentrator, being recovered as a by-product in
milling silver-lead-zinc ore. Gypsum, barite, magnesite, and phosphate are other deposits
found in this district.    The mining payroll is approximately $10,000,000 per year.
The lumber industry, with an annual payroll of $4,500,000 in this section of the
region, is also of great importance to the economy of the East Kootenay.
In this district, too, is the well-known farming area of the Creston Valley. Here
the main commercial crops range from wheat to fruits, both tree-fruits and the small
varieties of berries. Peas are raised in large quantities, and hops are a relatively new
crop in the area.
The main centres in the East Kootenay, an area of 17,413 square miles, are the
Cities of Cranbrook, Fernie, Kimberley, and the incorporated Villages of Creston and
Invermere. The population of the East Kootenay is 32,521—14,149 persons residing
in organized areas and 18,372 in unorganized territory. To serve this population, district
offices are located in Creston, Cranbrook, and Fernie.
Roads in some parts of the East Kootenay are good, but many of the miles of roads
in the country to be traversed are gravel and dirt. An average of approximately 7,000
miles per month was driven by the workers in the East Kootenay District, and during
the winter months, because of snow and ice on mountain highways, driving is both
treacherous and time-consuming.
The district supervisor's headquarters are in Cranbrook, and during 1951-52 there
were two social workers in Creston, three stationed in Cranbrook, and one in Fernie.
The Cranbrook office takes in the territory north to Golden and Field, a distance of some
200 miles from the district office. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 19
As instigated the year before, one social worker from the Cranbrook office handled
all the Old-age Pension cases in the Cranbrook and Fernie districts. With the implementation of the Old-age Security Act, the case-load of this worker increased from 520
as of April 1st, 1951, to 631 at March 31st, 1952. In Creston the generalized workers
handled the work with this group, and the Old-age Assistance and Old-age Security bonus
figures accounted for about half their case-load.
The five workers covering generalized case-loads had a total, including shared
services, of 843 cases at April 1st, 1951, and 798 as at March 31st, 1952. Approximately 46 per cent of these were cases in receipt of financial assistance, 30 per cent were
cases involving the Child Welfare Division, and 10 per cent were in the Family Service
category.
The West Kootenay
The West Kootenay District comprises the area west of Kootenay Lake to the Cascades, including the Cities of Nelson, Trail, Rossland, Kaslo, the Municipality of Tadanac,
and the incorporated Village of Castlegar. This district is the most densely populated
of the region. There are 4,593 square miles in this section, practically entirely mountainous, and, therefore, agriculture is one of the minor industries of the West Kootenay.
The total population is 43,037, with 24,865 persons residing in urban localities and
18,172 in rural districts. Mining (base metals, silver, gold, and tungsten being the
largest deposits) and lumbering are the major industries in this district. Mining contributes about $13,000,000 and lumbering approximately $1,500,000 to the annual
payroll.
In the West Kootenay we have district offices at Nelson and Trail. The district
supervisor, who also supervises the New Denver staff, is in the Nelson office, while our
third district supervisor has headquarters in the Trail office.
Until July, 1951, four generalized case-workers in the Nelson district office handled
all categories, but in that month an additional in-service worker was appointed, and he
relieved the other workers of an average of approximately 150 Old-age Pension cases
each. The appointment by the Attorney-General's Department of a Probation Officer
in the summer of 1951, who covers the Nelson and Trail areas, relieved those district
offices of considerable work also.
Like the East Kootenay, the Nelson district office case-load, exclusive of Old-age
Pensions, decreased during the year 1951-52. At April 1st, 1951, the figures were 544,
and at March 31st, 1952, 522. Approximately 48 per cent of these were cases in receipt
of Social or Mothers' Allowances, 13 per cent were Child Welfare, and 7 per cent were
Family Services. The total Old-age Pension load increased from 734 at April 1st, 1951,
to 972 at March 31st, 1952.
Roads in this area are fairly good throughout, except for side-roads, and the distances to be travelled are not nearly so great as in the East Kootenay. An average of
2,500 miles per month is driven by the Nelson district office workers.
The City of Trail, with a population of 11,430, and the City of Rossland, population
4,604, are practically entirely maintained by the operations of the Consolidated Mining
& Smelting Company smelter at Trail, whose annual payroll is over $11,000,000.
The Trail district office, with three social workers, is headquarters for the district
supervisor, who also supervises the Grand Forks office. The total load for this office,
including pensions and shared services, was 680 at April 1st, 1951, and 758 at March
31st, 1952. Here again the increase was in the Old-age Pension load only, the other
categories dropping from 362 at April 1st, 1951, to 348 at March 31st, 1952. Fifty-four
per cent of the total load was Old-age Pensions and 38 per cent of the balance were cases
in receipt of Mothers' and Social Allowances; 14 per cent were Family Service and 40 per
cent Child Welfare cases. The case-load of the Trail District office is fairly concentrated,
and an average of only 1,000 miles per month was driven by the workers serving this area. W 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Kaslo-Slocan
The Kaslo-Slocan area is predominantly a mining district, and the economy of the
area varies with the activity of the mines. During 1951—52 the mine operators enjoyed
high base-metal prices, and mining once again assumed boom proportions in the New
Denver-Sandon section. Lumbering is also important in this district, but most of the
forty-odd producing operations are small.
Our district office at New Denver covers a sparsely settled section of approximately
3,274 square miles with a population of 6,151. The only organized area is Slocan City,
with a population of 374. The New Denver office was staffed during 1951-52 by one
social worker. Because New Denver was one of the evacuation centres for Japanese
during the war, a project supervisor is located in New Denver also. This official attended
to the administration of the T.B. sanatorium and adjacent pavilion, used as a home for
elderly Japanese.
More than one-quarter of the New Denver clients were Japanese—Social Allowance
and Old-age Pension cases—and the majority of these were congregated in New Denver.
Of the Occidental cases, 63 per cent were Old-age Pension cases, 15 per cent Social
Allowance, 15 per cent Child Welfare, and 3 per cent Family Service. Except for the
concentration of Japanese at New Denver, the case-load is scattered, and the New Denver
worker drives an average of 750 miles per month in covering his territory.
Grand Forks-Greenwood
The Grand Forks-Greenwood district is that section of the region from the Cascade
summits west to Carmi and bordering the International Boundary, often referred to as
the Kettle Valley or " Boundary Country." The chief industries in this district are lumbering and agriculture, with mining now of minor importance. The Grand Forks Valley
has developed into an important seed-producing section. The area of this district is
2,683 square miles and the population is 8,012 persons, 2,455 of whom live in the organized territories of Grand Forks and Greenwood.
The district office in Grand Forks was in charge of one social worker until September, 1951, when a second was appointed. This office is supervised by the district supervisor with headquarters in Trail. The case-load is large in Grand Forks, and the district
is widespread. Roads are both good and bad, and an average of 1,250 miles per month
is driven to cover the cases active through the Grand Forks office. Old-age Pensions
made up about 60 per cent of the total load of 445 at April 1st, 1951, and increased to
65 per cent of the total of 539 as at March 31st, 1952. Of the balance, 5 per cent was
Family Service, 16 per cent Social Allowance, and 9 per cent Child Welfare.
Staff
The turnover of staff, both field and clerical, during the year 1951-52 was heavy.
The three district supervisors were all appointed to this region in September, 1951. Two
social workers left to take educational leave, and there were three transfers (one out of
the region and two in), one resignation, and five appointments of new workers. There
were also two transfers within the region. In the clerical staff there were four resignations and six appointments. At the end of the fiscal year the field staff in this region
numbered twenty-one and the clerical staff fifteen.
Ethnic Groups
In Region IV we have two ethnic groups—the Doukhobors and Japanese—both of
which bring their own unique problems to the Social Welfare Branch. The largest settlements of Doukhobors are in the Brilliant area, the Slocan Valley, and the Grand Forks
district. The Sons of Freedom sect is concentrated in the Krestova and Gilpin settlements, but members of this group, as well as of the independent and orthodox Douk-
J REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 21
hobors are to be found in almost every section of the region. Their employment, other
than in the agricultural field, is most commonly found in the lumber camps and mills,
and many of these are operated by those of Doukhobor faith.
The Japanese group has been decreasing quite rapidly in this region. Assistance
has been granted to those persons and families unable to finance their own transportation
who wished to locate elsewhere. A number of the younger Japanese have returned to the
Coast, while many of the older unemployable group have been relocated with members
of their families all across Canada. Among those remaining at New Denver, the majority
form groups of older single unemployable persons, most of whom are in receipt of Old-
age Security pensions.
Respectfully submitted.
J. W. Smith,
Regional Administrator.
REGION V
I beg to submit the following report of the activities of the Social Welfare Branch in
Region V for the fiscal year 1951-52:—
Highlight of the staff situation in Region V during the past year was the appointment
of a district supervisor for the Prince George, Quesnel, and Williams Lake offices. This
appointment brought the social-worker staff up to establishment for the first time in two
years, and the improvement in the quality of work being done was noticeable almost
immediately.
A second permanent worker was also appointed in the Peace River District to help
with the increased case-load in that area.
During the year one worker was transferred from the Pouce Coupe office to another
region and was replaced by a worker from the Prince George district office. One social
worker resigned from the Government service to take over as a municipal social welfare
administrator.
The clerical situation in the Prince George office continued poor, at one time the
clerical staff being reduced to one.
The boom conditions in the region which were reported last year have continued,
and have actually increased in tempo. Preparatory work on the Kenney Dam is completed and the fill itself will be started early in May.
The lumber industry continues to be the economic mainstay of the area, and in spite
of the loss of some markets there was a considerable increase in the number of carloads
of lumber shipped.
While it is likely that there will eventually be a levelling-off of the present boom
conditions, the economic stability of the region is evidenced by the new banking facilities
in Prince George. Two banks are putting up new buildings, and another is doubling the
size of its present building. It is also likely that another bank may be opening an office
in the city in the near future.
The City of Prince George itself has developed into a boom town, and a number of
large warehouses are being constructed by wholesale houses from the Coast. A large
number of private dwellings are also being built, but not nearly enough to take care of the
increase in population.
The Village of Quesnel is also a busy, thriving place and, as of January 1st of this
year, took over responsibility for payment of its own costs for social welfare. Our worker
continues to do the social work in the village on the per capita basis.
Respectfully submitted.
A. A. Shipp,
Regional Administrator. W 22
BRITISH COLUMBIA
FAMILY DIVISION
I beg to present the report of the Family Division, which is concerned with those
services of the Social Welfare Branch rendered within the provisions of the " Social
Assistance Act," the " Mothers' Allowances Act," and the Family Service programme,
for the fiscal year April 1st, 1951, to March 31st, 1952.
SOCIAL ALLOWANCE SECTION
The total case-load, as at the end of this fiscal year, shows a decrease of nearly
10 per cent, but this is not a true decrease as it is largely the result of the implementation of the " Old-age Assistance Act." Again in the monthly case-load we see the usual
fluctuation during the summer and earlier autumn months with a rise to a new high in
January, 1952. It is reasonable to assume, therefore, that if it had not been for the
Old-age Assistance programme, the year-end total would have shown a marked increase
over the previous year.
Case-load
A comparative statement of the case-load in the month ending the fiscal year for
the past three years is as follows:—
Table I.—Case-load
March, 1950
March, 1951
March, 1952
Heads of families .
Dependents	
Single recipients....
Totals	
3,244
7,295
7,236
3,068
6,878
7,428
17,775
17,374
2,870
6,615
6,176
15,661
Table II.—Case-load
on a Monthly Basis
Heads of
Families
Dependents
Single
Recipients
Total
April, 1951 - 	
3,058
3,018
2,974
2,907
2,900
2,845
2,842
2,908
3.047
6,775
6,611
6,458
6,312
6,190
6,097
6,059
6,244
6.646
7,470
7,451
7,384
7,285
7,431
7,410
7,395
7,535
7,691
7,732
6,321
6,176
17,303
May, 1951                            	
17,080
June, 1951            	
16,816
July, 1951              - _	
16,504
16,521
September, 1951 - , 	
October, 1951   	
16,352
16,296
16,687
17,384
January, 1952 ,;. „ '
3,103                  6,829
2,954                6,746
2.870                 6.615
17,664
16,021
March  1952                                - -	
15,661 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
W 23
lows:-
Of the case-load of 15,661 as of March, 1952, a breakdown by regions is as fol-
Table III.—Individuals in Receipt of Assistance, by Regions,
as at March 31st, 1952
Region I—
Alberni .
Courtenay
Duncan	
Nanaimo ..
Victoria —
Unorganized
Territory
32
     220
42
.....     247
....     175
Alberni City	
Campbell River .
Courtenay 	
Central Saanich .
Cumberland  	
Duncan  	
Esquimalt 	
Ladysmith	
Lake Cowichan .
Nanaimo	
North Cowichan
Oak Bay	
Port Alberni 	
Saanich	
Victoria	
Organized
Territory
45
11
30
5
17
16
38
18
11
..     123
61
17
106
..     183
..     569
716
1,250
Region II—
Abbotsford
Chilliwack .
New Westminster
Vancouver 	
1,966
38
93
Burnaby 	
Chilliwack City ...
721
63
56
Chilliwhack Town
164
36
      196
Delta	
      131
29
Kent	
23
      168
......     244
      127
108
22
New Westminster
North Vancouver
North  Vancouver
Pitt Meadows
Port Coquitlam ...
City	
District
614
....     120
115
16
69
31
......     253
38
      733
Vancouver   	
West Vancouver
Westview  	
4,094
47
4
423
,130
Region III—
Kamloops
Kelowna 	
Penticton -
Princeton ..
Revelstoke
Salmon Arm .
Vernon 	
8,553
333
Armstrong  	
        15
275
Coldstream    	
        10
127
Enderby	
       28
43
Kamloops  	
      146
43
Kelowna  	
      146
103
Merritt  	
        33
195
       60
        16
        11
Penticton 	
      151
Revelstoke  	
        16
Salmon Arm City  	
       21
Salmon Arm District.	
       45
Spallumcheen 	
         63
Summerland	
        19
Vernon 	
      155
1,119
935
2,054 W 24
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table III,
Region IV—
—Individuals in Rec
as at March 31st,
Unorganized
Territory
      Ill
      161
 _      110
        57
      112
      182
       387
       195
eipt of Assistance,
1952—Continued
Cranbrook  	
by Regions,
Organized
Territory
            29
        32
Fernie  	
Fernie 	
        61
         22
Grand Forks 	
Greenwood 	
Kaslo .....   	
         2
          4
        47
         74
Trail    	
       167
1,482
      280
        27
Region V—
Slocan	
Trail  	
Quesnel  	
Dawson Creek 	
         85
383
     1,
        12
       321
 ...       66
          58
         83
        86
       106
        48
         9
        87
Smithers 	
Terrace  	
Williams Lake	
          67
Totals.
975
4,715
248
1,223
10,946 15,661
Compared with March, 1951, totals for Region I (2,416), Region II (9,405),
Region III (2,343), Region IV (1,979), and Region V (1,231), the following percentage decrease has taken place by region: Region I, 18 per cent; Region II, 9 per cent;
Region III, 12 per cent; Region IV, 5 per cent;  and Region V, less than 1 per cent.
It will be noted that the distribution of case-load as between organized and
unorganized territory remains almost the same as last year. Approximately 30 per
cent of the case-load resides in unorganized territory and 70 per cent resides in
organized territory. By region, the case-load is divided as follows: Approximately
13 per cent resides in Region I, 55 per cent in Region II, 13 per cent in Region III,
11 per cent in Region IV, and 8 per cent in Region V.
When legal residence as determined by the " Residence and Responsibility Act"
is taken into account, the distribution is as follows:-—
Table IV.—Legal Residence of Social Allowance Recipients, March, 1950—52
Municipal responsibilities-
Provincial responsibilities-
Totals	
March, 1950
10,992
6,783
March, 1951
10,867
6,507
March, 1952
9,653
6,008
17,775
17,374
15,661
Table V.-
—Comparative Table on Percentage Basis
March, 1950
March, 1951
March, 1952
Per Cent
61.84
38.16
Per Cent
62.55
37.45
Per Cent
61.63
38.37
These figures indicate a variation of less than 1 per cent in the distribution of
case-load on the basis of legal residence.
] REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
W 25
The following table outlines the expenditures made by the Social Welfare Branch,
with the increase due largely to the increased scale of allowances effective April 1st, 1951.
Table VI.—Expenditures by the Province of Social Allowances Medical Services,
etc., 1951-52
Fiscal Year
1949-50
Fiscal Year
1950-51
Fiscal Year
1951-52
1. Cases who are the responsibility of a municipality (80 and 50
per cent paid by the Province) *-.
Cases who are the sole responsibility of the Province (100 per
cent paid by the Province)..
Repatriation, transportation within the Province, nursing- and
boarding-home care (other than T.B.), special allowances and
grants-
Emergency payments, such as where a family may lose its home
by fire or similar circumstances  	
Municipal and Provincial cases—
(a) Tuberculosis, boarding-, nursing-, and private-home cases	
(b) Transportation of tuberculosis cases   —
(c) Comforts allowances for tuberculosis cases 	
Net Social Allowances..
6. Administration,
indigents..
hospitalization, social allowances re Japanese
Less Dominion Government share .
7. Hospital insurance premiums, including co-insurance..
8. Medical Services and drugs,.—	
Totals      	
Total cost of Social Allowance to the Province 1951-52 .
51,874,641.68
1,247,494.64
586,159.02
13,686.25
295,701.09
3,714.67
12,153.80
$2,082,944.80
1,367,185.71
730,455.56
10,613.71
324,354.44
3,834.63
17,071.80
$2,242,944.68
1,609,975.17
874.
26;
349.
5.
17.
343.22
.183.43
544.35
893.59
945.86
$4,033,551.15
$4,536,460.65
$5,126,830.30
$257,714.37
125,525.49
$207,306.94
40,000.00
$180,662.81
$132,188.88
$167,306.94
$180,662.81
$758,260.00
$1,050,421.89
$1,739,807.50
$948,724.10
$1,145,982.34
$1,269,457.90
$5,872,724.13
$6,900,171.82
8,316,758.51
1 Increase granted April 1st, 1951, placed on 50-50 shareable basis with municipalities.
Some of the significant changes in the Social Allowance programme during the past
year have been as follows:—
(1) Effective April 1st, 1951, the Social Allowance scale in which the Province
would share for municipal responsibilities on a percentage basis was
increased by $5 for Group 1, $10 for Group 2, and $1 for each additional
dependent over Group 2. While the scale of allowances previously in pay
was shareable with municipalities on an 80-20 basis, these increases were
shareable on a 50—50 basis and were discretionary for the municipal areas.
The result has been that not all municipalities implemented the increase,
consequently there has been lack of uniformity in the amount of allowances granted throughout the Province, with no doubt resultant hardships
for the recipients thus deprived of the maximum scale to which they might
otherwise be entitled.
This new basis of sharing costs did not apply, of course, to other
forms of assistance granted—namely, transportation charges, emergency
health aid, costs of boarding- and nursing-home care, and T.B. extras—
which remained shareable on the 80-20 basis. For Provincial responsibilities the total cost of social assistance is a 100-per-cent charge on the
Province.
(2) Effective January 1st, 1952, the maximum shareable nursing-home rate
was raised to $120; and
(3) Effective March 1st, 1952, the maximum shareable boarding-home and
nursing-home rates were again raised to $65 and $135 per month respectively. Variations within these maximums were to be based on the
standard of service, services rendered, and facilities available within
the respective boarding and nursing homes. W 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
(4) The usual Christmas bonus paid to Social Allowance and Mothers'
Allowance recipients was increased to $2 for a single person and $5 for
Group 2 or more.
Rehabilitation
During the year we have tried to emphasize the rehabilitative aspects of our work.
Rehabilitation is, of course, an all-inclusive term with mental, physical, social, and
economic aspects, none of which is more important than the others. However, for those
individuals and families in receipt of public assistance, economic rehabilitation to
independence can be a truly major factor in their total rehabilitation.
The following case outline in an example of what can be achieved:—
In 1950 Mr. X. applied for Social Allowance on behalf of himself and two young children.
His wife was a patient in a sanatorium and he also was suffering from tuberculosis and was on
" bed rest at home." Social Allowance was granted plus T.B. extras. Mrs. X. returned home
within a month, and allowance plus extras was added for her.
The condition of both Mr. and Mrs. X. improved, and some months later Mr. X. called
on our worker to report that the doctor felt he could begin plans to take light employment. This
presented a real problem for Mr. X. He had completed Grade VIII at 14 and since leaving
school had been employed in logging operations—falling, blocking, and rigging—until he became
ill. He could not return to this heavy work and had no special skill and limited academic
training. A worker suggested that he make an inventory of all the light-employment jobs
involved in logging operations. This appealed to Mr. X., and such a list was made. Our worker
then wrote to the Rehabilitation Officer of the Division of Tuberculosis Control and inquired
about the various courses Mr. X. might take which would prepare him for work with the forestry
branch, etc. After lengthy negotiations with the Rehabilitation Officer, the responsible municipality, patient's doctor, and the Vancouver Vocational Institute, arrangements were completed
for Mr. X. to enter a course to train as logging-camp timekeeper and first-aid man. He entered
this course in September, 1951. His wife and children were maintained by Social Allowance at
their home in the community in which they lived, while Mr. X. drew Social Allowance in the
City of Vancouver in a sufficient amount to pay his maintenance in a boarding-house there.
Mr. X. completed his course in lanuary, 1952.
A month later Mr. X. came to the office to inform the worker that he had accepted a job
with a logging company. The job would pay $300 plus board and room and included timekeeping and light work, such as operating the company motor-boat to pick up mail and express.
Mr. X. had had a T.B. check-up and was fit for this work. Mr. X. and those who had worked
with him were very pleased with his successful rehabilitation and return to independence.
One other aspect of our emphasis on rehabilitation which has been referred to in
previous Annual Reports merits mention again in this Report. This is our financial
participation in a limited number of cases who are being trained in the Rehabilitation
Centre of the Western Society for Rehabilitation.
One such case is that of a young man who had been paraplegic since childhood as the result
of a shooting accident, and had been in receipt of assistance for many years. The assessment
of his potentialities was that he had only Grade VII education, but was of independent spirit,
ambitious, well motivated, and, if given the opportunity, would probably do much to improve
his own economic situation. He was admitted to the Rehabilitation Centre in Vancouver in
April, 1951, where he remained for nine months. Along with the physical retraining, he was
given psychological and aptitude tests. The conclusion was reached that he would be best
suited for benchwork of the assembly-line type in light manufacturing. He showed a keen
interest in his retraining programme, and during this time his social adjustment had improved
and attention was turned to plans for his employment. He was trained in brace-walking and
learned to walk with crutches with a fair degree of success, but will always require a wheelchair
for a great portion of the time. On his discharge, a boarding home with accommodation compatible with his disabilities was found for him. For a period thereafter he continued as an
out-patient. Within a short time, but with some difficulty, employment was found for him in a
factory. The work is tedious and can be unpleasant, but he has continued at it with commendable
perseverance, as it represents the first work he has ever done and the first money he has ever
earned. Because of costs for clothing, transportation, recreation, and other incidentals, he is
not yet entirely self-supporting, but his need for supplementation is minor to the achievement
for him of almost total independence. He continues to attend the Rehabilitation Centre one
half-day per week in order to maintain his physical competence at its present level. Every hope
is maintained that more suitable and more remunerative employment will be found for him. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 27
This case has been used because it is an outstanding example of what can be
accomplished in physical and economic rehabilitation, but it would be unfair to omit the
information that as this young man has legal residence in Saskatchewan that Province has
co-operated fully in the plan for him and has reimbursed this Province for the cost of
his retraining and after-care. All other such cases during the year were Provincial
responsibilities or municipal responsibilities, for which the Province shared the costs.
Not all examples can be " success stories " from the point of view of economic independence.
They can, however, have happy endings. For another young man suffering from extensive
residual paralysis resulting from poliomyelitis, a short period in the Rehabilitation Centre of the
Western Society for Rehabilitation meant development in so far as was physically possible of his
ability to care for himself so that he might fulfil his own and his family's wish to return to
his own home in a small community in the Province. Because of his handicap, employment
was not considered, but with help and encouragement his interest in crafts of a diversional
nature was developed. Since his return home, in which rearrangement and a few structural
changes made it possible for him to be there, he has been a far happier person among his family
and friends than he would otherwise have been if placed in a nursing home or institution, which
would have been the possible alternatives. A recent report from the social worker states that
this is an example of the return of a completely dependent person, from a physical standpoint,
to a home whose facilities, income, social, and cultural circumstances would appear at first sight
inadequate. (This was the home he knew, however, and the one to which he wished to return,
and where the interest expressed by the family more than compensated for any difficulties.) The
patient, however, despite his reduced and limited remaining physical abilities, has a buoyant spirit
together with the ability to interest himself in the things he can do, and he has, on his own
initiative, been exploring the possibilities of handicrafts other than leathercraft, which he learned
during his long hospitalization. Despite the limited financial position of the family, there has
been a steady improvement in the physical aspects of the home. This seems to spring both from
a desire to make the accommodation as pleasant as possible for the boy himself and a need to
suitably receive the patient's guests, the numbers of which have increased and added to the social
life of the family in general. His contacts are not all within the home, however, as he was
recently seen by the social worker at a local recreation spot, sitting in his brother's car and
enjoying the outing with the group of young people who accompanied him. For this boy, aged
19, life is at present much fuller and offers more opportunities to social contacts than would ever
be possible had he been placed in an institution or nursing or boarding home, apart from his
mother and father and seven brothers and sisters. Social Allowance will have to continue
indefinitely to assist this young man, but with helpful and wise planning by all who assisted in
the plan, he has perhaps achieved his maximum happiness.
Not all examples of rehabilitative assistance can be so dramatic or exceptional, but
are none the less important. Some grants are made to the non-handicapped or minor-
handicapped group in vocational training, such as shorthand and typing, book-keeping,
metal work or mechanics, shoe-mending, or nurse's aide, and usually mean ultimate
independence for the person or family. Even small extra grants to cover the cost of
special text-books, rental of a typewriter, or purchase of uniforms or equipment for a
technical course have been all that was needed to make possible training which restored
the person or family to economic independence with no further need of Social Allowance.
General Comments
There have been no amendments to the " Social Assistance Act" or regulations in
the past year.
There are now seventy-three municipalities (thirty-five cities, twenty-eight districts,
and ten villages) participating with the Province under the provisions of this Act.
Under section 13 of the regulations, which grants the right of appeal to the Director
of Welfare to any applicant or recipient of Social Allowance in respect of any decision
which he considers affects him adversely, there have been seven such appeals made during
this fiscal year.
During the year the divisional supervisor had the privilege of participating in
institutes at conferences held in Regions IV and I, in that order. The first institute dealt
with the topic " Factors Involved in Assistance Giving," with major emphasis on general
principles and attitudes of the worker and the applicant or recipient.   The second institute W 28
BRITISH COLUMBIA
dealt with the nature, content, purpose, and goal of the first interview in assistance-giving.
For the supervisor these were enlightening and enjoyable experiences, granting to her
a better opportunity to know those who work in the field service and without whose
co-operation and help no programme could be implemented or achieved.
MOTHERS' ALLOWANCES SECTION
Administration of the Mothers' Allowances remains centralized in the divisional
office, consequently a considerable portion of divisional staff-time is devoted to the
reviewing of applications, grants, adjustments, and cancellations. During this fiscal year
the writing of the cheques was taken over by the Department of Finance, but monthly
change lists of grants, adjustments, cancellations, and changes of address are prepared in
the divisional office, and the cheques are mailed from this office.
The case-load has continued to decline, as in several years past and as is shown in
the following comparative statement:—
Table I.—Statement of Case-load
As at March, 1950  643
As at March, 1951  569
As at March, 1952  503
This represents a decrease of 11.6 per cent in the year under review.
On a monthly basis the case-load figures for this fiscal year are as follows:—
Table II.—Monthly Case-load, April 1st, 1951, to March 31st, 1952
Month
Number of
Allowances
in Pay
Number of Persons
Mothers
Children
Incapacitated
Husbands
April-
May-...
June	
July—
August	
September—
October	
November	
December.	
January.— -
February	
March	
562
552
542
532
540
533
524
527
518
519
505
503
562
552
542
532
540
533
524
527
518
519
505
503
1,189
1,164
1,141
1,123
1,148
1,127
1,109
1,113
1,097
1,106
1,072
1,064
109
107
100
96
94
97
98
102
102
99
95
94
In spite of this decrease in case-load, the total applications and reapplications
received this year show a marked upswing, from 102 in the previous year to 143 in the
year under review, an increase of 40 per cent. The yearly total of grants rose from 83 in
the previous year to 103 in this year, a comparable increase of 41 per cent. Cancellations
totalled 169. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 29
Table HI.—Statement of Applications Considered and Decisions Made
Applications pending as at April 1st, 1951  7
New applications received during year  108
Reapplications received during year  35
Total  150
Decisions—
Grants   103
Refusals   26
Withdrawn   3
132
Applications pending as at March 31st, 1952  18
Total  150
Reasons for refusals—
Mother's earnings in excess  2
Unearned income in excess  2
Not a resident in British Columbia three years  1
Not legally separated  2
Husband not totally disabled one year  1
Social Allowance preferable  2
Not legally married  2
Mother unable to qualify under section 7 of " Mothers'
Allowances Act "  2
Desertion eligibility requirements not met  2
Other children maintaining  1
Assets in excess  7
Husband died outside British Columbia  2
Total  26
Reasons for applications pending—
Awaiting information re assets  3
Awaiting information re other income  1
Documents and medical report required  9
First investigation report not received  2
Decision pending  2
Awaiting clarifying information with specific reference to
eligibility requirements of the Act and regulations  1 W 30
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table IV.—Reasons for Cancellation of the Allowances
Mother remarried 	
Mother deceased	
Mother left British Columbia..
Whereabouts unknown	
Husband released from penitentiary-
Only child removed from home_
22
1
3
2
Mother's earnings in excess     42
Unearned income in excess—
Husband not totally disabled.
Deserting husband returned-.
  2
  15
  1
  3
2
Only child 18 years of age  15
Only child under 18 years left school :  22
Only child under 16 years left school  10
Older children maintaining  2
Personal property in excess  7
Withdrawn at mother's request  5
Social Allowance preferable  4
Section 7 of " Mothers' Allowances Act "  10
Separation by mutual agreement  1
Total.
169
Of the cancelled cases, the length of time each family had been in receipt of Mothers'
Allowance is as follows:—
Years        1    2   3   4   5   6   7   8    9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Cases   - 20 20 12 14 14 14 13   7   8   9 10   6   5 11    2   2 ____    1 _    1
Total cases, 169.   Average length of time on allowance, 6.61 years.
Table V.—Status and Number of Mothers and Dependents in Receipt
of Allowance as at March, 1952
Status of Mother in Accordance with Eligibility
Number of Children
Qualifications Set by the Act
1
2
3
4
3
6
7
8
9
Total
133
1
6
21
3
7
1
2
12
1
109
3
4
21
8
8
5
12
57
2
4
12
1
1
1
5
6
19
1
1
5
1
6
7
2
2
i
3
1
1
1
1
1
3
	
1
331
Husband in penitentiary   	
8
17
59
Incapacitated husbands away (hospital or institution, etc).
18
17
3
12
37
1
187
170
89
33
12
8
3
1
503 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
W 31
From these figures further totals emerge as follows:—
Table VI.—Number of Individuals for Whom Allowance Granted
Mothers      503
Husbands         59 *
Children   1,064
Total  1,626
1 This figure applies only to those incapacitated husbands residing in the home and who are included in the Mothers'
Allowance grant. In addition, there are the 18 husbands in hospital or institution or cared for elsewhere and 17 husbands
who are in receipt of Old-age Assistance, Blind Pension, or Old-age Security (total, 35), who are not included in the
Mothers' Allowance grant.
Of the total case-load, the percentage of one-child cases has increased slightly to
37 per cent, while two-child cases have shown a decrease to 33 per cent; together they
represent 70 per cent of the total case-load. During the year, grants were made in 28
one-child cares and 40 two-child cases, or 66 per cent of the total grants of 103.
Costs of Mothers' Allowances
Although the case-load decreased, the total payments to Mothers' Allowance
recipients rose by $19,042.87 because of the increased scale of allowances which became
effective April 1st, 1951. As with the increase granted in 1948, this latest increase is
also paid from Social Allowance funds, and it is therefore necessary to show the costs
in two separate statements. W 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VII.—Mothers' Allowance Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year
April 1st, 1951, to March 31st, 1952
Advance received from Minister of Finance  $287,936.25
Additional advance required from Minister of Finance 4.22
Bank interest  11.70
$287,952.17
Allowances paid as follows:—
Month Amount of Allowance
April, 1951   $25,504.22
May, 1951      25,202.25
June, 1951      24,430.33
July, 1951      23,805.30
August, 1951      24,322.85
September, 1951      24,136.62
October, 1951      23,496.38
November, 1951      23,777.88
December, 1951      23,190.54
January, 1952     23,374.10
February, 1952     22,691.55
March, 1952     22,508.10
  $286,440.12
Recredited to Minister of Finance:—
June, 1951   $289.90
July, 1951      222.50
August, 1951      103.00
September, 1951      292.25
October, 1951      228.75
November, 1951        73.70
December, 1951     195.25
January, 1952       50.00
February, 1952       45.00
         1,500.35
Bank interest paid to Minister of Finance,
May, 1952  11.70
  $287,952.17
The books and records of the Mothers' Allowances Fund have been examined under my direction. I hereby certify
that the above statement is a true account of the receipts and disbursements of the Director of Welfare under authority
of the " Mothers' Allowances Act " for twelve months' period ending March 31st, 1952, according to the information
furnished me, and as disclosed by the books and records submitted for my inspection.
J. A. CRAIG,
Comptroller-General. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
W 33
Table VIII.—Financial Statement of Supplementary Social Allowances Paid to Mothers'
Allowance Recipients for the Fiscal Year April 1st, 1951, to March 31st, 1952
Advance received from Minister of Finance.
$130,463.50
Allowances paid as follows:—
Month Amount of Allowance
April, 1951   $11,188.00
May, 1951     11,047.05
June, 1951      10,742.40
July, 1951      10,519.05
August, 1951     10,736.75
September, 1951      10,620.40
October, 1951     10,348.40
November, 1951      10,490.90
December, 1951      10,251.85
Christmas bonus       2,590.00
January, 1952     10,352.75
February, 1952     10,055.60
March, 1952     10,037.35
  $128,980.50
Recredited to Minister of Finance:—
June, 1951   $132.50
July, 1951        88.00
August, 1951       37.00
September, 1951      133.00
October, 1951      111.00
November, 1951        35.00
December, 1951       95.50
January, 1952       19.50
February, 1952       19.50
  671.00
Unexpended balance of advance refunded
to Minister of Finance, May, 1952 812.00
$130,463.50
The books and records have been examined under my direction. I hereby certify that the above statement is a true
account of the receipts and disbursements of the Director of Welfare for twelve months' period ending March 31st, 1952,
according to the information furnished me, and as disclosed by the books and records submitted for my inspection.
3. A. CRAIG,
Comptroller-General.
Table IX.—Statement Showing per Capita Cost
Fiscal Year
Total
Expenditure
Population
at June of
Each Year
Per Capita
Cost to the
Province
1949-50..
1950-51..
1951-52..
$437,941.70
397,679.20
415,592.62
1,114,000
1,138,000
1,153,000
$0.39
.35
.36 W 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Mothers' Allowances Advisory Board
The Advisory Board, under the chairmanship of Mrs. F. W. Smelts, held one meeting
during the year under review to consider the following topics:—
(1) Schedule of exemptions and deductions relating to other income  of
Mothers' Allowance recipients.
(2) Employment of Mothers' Allowance recipients and seasonal earnings.
(3) Declaration of earnings.
(4) Section 5 of the " Mothers' Allowances Act " relating to property qualification based on assessed value of property.
General Comments
No amendments were made in the " Mothers' Allowances Act" and regulations
during the year. An increase in scale of allowances became effective April 1st, 1951,
when an additional $10 per month was granted for a mother and one child, and $1 for
each dependent in excess of one.
Rising costs of living, however, still continue to present budgeting problems to the
mothers, especially those who, because of illness or age of their children, are unable to
supplement their allowance by part-time earnings.
The decreased case-load continues to be a reflection of the more flexible provisions
under the " Social Assistance Act" and its less complicated eligibility requirements.
Mothers' Allowances continue, however, to be the obvious resource for families in need
and who qualify, where the residence and responsibility rests in municipal or organized
areas.   The following table will illustrate this point:—
Table X.—Proportion of Applications and Grants in Organized Territory
Total applications and reapplications received  143
Applicants residing in organized territory  138
Applicants having legal residence in organized territory 128
Total grants made during year  103
Recipients residing in organized territory  100
Recipients having legal residence in organized territory    94
Allowances in pay as at March 31st, 1952  503
Recipients having legal residence in unorganized territory      75
Recipients having legal residence in organized territory 428
The figures indicate that of the total applications and reapplications received, 96.5
per cent resided in organized area and 89.5 per cent had legal residence in organized area.
Of the grants made, 97.8 per cent were in the first group and 91 per cent in the latter.
Of the case-load as at March, 1952, only 15 per cent approximately had legal
residence in unorganized territory, while 85 per cent had legal residence in organized
territory.
FAMILY SERVICE SECTION
The Family Service case-load has remained at a slightly increased but relatively
stable level over last year, as will be seen by the following table:—
Table I.—Total of Family Service Cases from April 1st, 1951, to March 31st, 1952
April, 1951   1,341
May, 1951  1,336
June, 1951   1,364
July, 1951   1,367 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 35
August, 1951 --  1,353
September, 1951   1,336
October, 1951   1,378
November, 1951   1,389
December, 1951  1,343
January, 1952  1,312
February, 1952  1,311
March, 1952  1,341
This is a case-load for which it is most difficult to " render an account of stewardship." There are usually no remarkable or dramatic results. There are no costs to be
tabulated in dollars and cents and only human values to be considered, which have no
monetary equivalent. These are the cases to which Mary Richmond's definition of social
case-work applies to the fullest extent in that they imply the " art of doing different things
for and with different people by co-operating with them to achieve at one and the same
time their own and society's betterment." Due to the exigencies of our service, it can,
for the most part, be done only at the supportive level, which has been described as a
process of focusing our attention on the client's present and real problems, with little
attempt made to give him or her insight into the unconscious causes of his or her
behaviour.
It may be the family who need help in planning for a mentally defective school-aged
son. They will need interpretation of the implications of mental defect to help them
understand and accept his mental handicap, appreciation of their responsibilities in the
situation, and the resources available to them in planning for his training and care.
It may be the young boy who has appeared in Juvenile Court and is on probation,
or released from the Industrial School, to the home of relatives who will need careful
supervision and helpful encouragement in his conduct and his plans.
Sometimes it is a family who need only informed help and advice regarding
resources for treatment of a serious and major health problem of one of their members.
The problem may be one that has arisen from a mixed marriage or a common-law
union, or it may be the father who has asked help in reconstructing the family life of
himself and his children after the desertion of his wife, or it may be the problem of—
Mr. and Mrs. Y., in their fifties, who were living at home with an adult daughter who had just
had a baby after having been deserted by her husband. The daughter wanted to keep the baby,
and this met with the approval of the parents. However, Mr. and Mrs. Y. were in fair health only
and considered that they needed financial assistance, and displayed a strange apathy to action.
Counselling was given in regards to keeping the home (which Mr. and Mrs. Y. had wanted to
sell to obtain some money) and the value of the daughter working in the district. This would
provide some income, and Mrs. Y. could help in caring for the baby. Mr. Y. was advised on the
possibilities of obtaining light employment, which was available due to local circumstances. The
emphasis was placed on planning, forethought, and keeping the home and family together so that
mutual help could be realized. They kept their home. Mr. Y. obtained work and the daughter
found light work. The family remains together, and the wisdom of the plan of strengthening the
family is apparent.
Later problems may come which will have to be treated as they arise, but for the time being
the family has made an adjustment to their problems which is satisfactory to themselves.
OTHER SERVICES
Family Allowances
Inquiries made by the Family Allowances Division of the Department of National
Health and Welfare regarding family situations in which the use of or eligibility for Family
Allowances is in question continue to be channelled through the Family Division.
During the year under review the volume of these requests was as follows:— W 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table II.—Requests Received from Family Allowances Division,
April 1st, 1951, to March 31st, 1952
Pending as at April 1st, 1951     66
Received during fiscal year April 1st, 1951, to March 31st,
1952, by months—
April   3 0
May  26
June  19
July   15
August  31
September   34
October  37
November  37
December  27
January, 1952  32
February  46
March   46
  380
Total case-load  446
Cases completed within fiscal year  369
Cases pending as at April 1st, 1952     77
Table III.—Requests to District Offices and Other Agencies
Pending as at April 1st, 1951 .     87
Requests forwarded during fiscal year April 1st, 1951, to
March 31st, 1952, by regions—
Region I1     60
Region II1  194
Region III     35
Region IV     49
Region V     33
- 371
Total number of requests  458
Requests completed within fiscal year, by regions—
Region I1     61
Region II1  188
Region III     33
Region IV ,     52
Region V     35
  369
Requests pending as at April 1st, 1952     89
1 Includes private-agency referrals.
During the past year we have also undertaken the administration of Family
Allowance in three cases. As explained in previous Reports, this is considered and
undertaken as a last resort in those cases where serious misuse of the allowance would
continue and the children derive little or no benefit if the funds were not administered.
. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 37
Old-age Security
Effective January 1st, 1952, we also undertook to be the referral channel from the
Old Age Security Division of the Department of National Health and Welfare for requests
to assist applicants in completing their application for Old-age Security. Older people
can become confused by rules and regulations and forms and correspondence, and
occasionally need help in sorting out requirements and documents and information
necessary to their application.
The volume of this service has so far been light for the three months it has been in
effect and is tabulated as follows:—
Requests Received from Old Age Security Division, Commencing January 1st, 1952,
to March 31st, 1952
Requests received to March 31st, 1952—
January   1
February   3
March  :  5
Total requests received  9
Requests completed by regions—Region II  5
Requests outstanding as at March 31st, 1952  4
Legal Aid
During the past year we have been gratified and encouraged with the beginnings of
an experimental legal-aid service by the Law Society of British Columbia to serve the
Province outside the Cities of Victoria and Vancouver. The eventual coverage and
organization of the plan will, of course, rest with the Law Society and Bar Associations,
but the Division did offer to be the channel of referral for cases known to the Branch who
would appear to merit assistance from a legal-aid service. At the end of this year no
evaluation of the help this service has been or will be to us is possible as the plan is only
in its early stages. We can only express our appreciation of its availability and the help
it may be to many clients known to us.
CONCLUSION
In the services of Social Allowances, Mothers' Allowances, and Family Service, we
wish to express our thanks for the co-operation given by the field-service supervisors,
administrators, and consultants, without whose help these services could not be given.
To members of the municipal welfare departments, Governmental departments, and
private service agencies also, we wish to extend our appreciation of their help and
co-operation.
(Miss) J. M. Riddell,
Provincial Supervisor, Family Division. W 38
BRITISH COLUMBIA
CHILD WELFARE DIVISION
I beg to present herewith the annual report for the Child Welfare Division for the
fiscal year ended March 31st, 1952.
For many years after the Child Welfare Division was established, it remained largely
dependent upon the three Children's Aid Societies for placement and supervision of
children who had to be taken into care from all parts of the Province. However, the
gradual acceptance by Government of increased responsibilities for children, so readily
traced in the various changes and amendments to the " Protection of Children Act," and
in other pieces of social legislation throughout the past twenty years, has altered the
situation considerably. The establishment of a Provincial field staff capable of initiating
and expanding resources needed to fulfil these clearly defined legislative responsibilities
has been, of course, a paralleling and resultant development.
To-day, while Child Welfare Division still must look to Children's Aid Societies
for placement of some children, whose needs make it necessary for them to be near to
facilities not available outside the larger cities of the Province, we are now in a position
to reciprocate to a degree and offer our resources to a fair number of children in their
care.
As the Provincial field staff grew, needed placement resources were developed, and
as the number of children in Child Welfare Division care increased yearly, our goal has
been to build policies which would permit us to fulfil the responsibilities of guardianship,
with due recognition and understanding of each child's individual differences and needs.
Previous annual reports have dealt at some length with these policies as they affect
practice, and in this report it seems appropriate to consider them in the light of statutory
provisions and obligations. This would seem timely, not only from an administrative
control standpoint, but also as a first and necessary step in the planning of future
Divisional projects and developments.
ADMINISTRATION OF THE " PROTECTION OF CHILDREN ACT "
The " Protection of Children Act" primarily provides for the removal of children
from conditions of neglect through Court procedure. However, in Section I a provision
of the utmost importance is made, whereby services are to be developed " for the amelioration of family conditions that lead to neglect of children." This, of course, implies that
there be effective social services available for children in their own homes and is therefore
closely and inevitably associated with the administration of programmes which provide
assistance to families. As has been pointed out in the annual reports of the Supervisor
of the Family Division, there is an urgent need to revise Branch policies as they relate
to the amounts granted in Social Allowances and Mothers' Allowances. At their present
level the entire structure of our preventive services is being dangerously weakened. It is
no exaggeration to say that some of the family histories of children in care make it clear
that a parent's discouragement in trying to maintain a household on the meagre allowances granted was a major contributing factor to the family's ultimate breakdown. There
is obviously a need for greater correlation between the provisions of the " Protection of
Children Act" as they apply to preventive family work and the provisions of the Acts
and policies governing financial aid to families. Services to children in foster care can
be sound only if the services available to them in their own homes are adequate and
humane.
This same Section I of the " Protection of Children Act " also provides our mandate
to develop alternative care for children when an unavoidable and temporary family breakdown occurs. Later in this report, when we review the reasons why some children came
into care this year, it will be evident that workers have endeavoured to emphasize this
important aspect of the Act's administration. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 39
APPREHENSIONS UNDER THE " PROTECTION OF CHILDREN ACT "
In spite of what help may be given, some family situations cannot be changed nor
improved, and to protect the children, guardianship must be vested through Court in
the Superintendent of Child Welfare or a Children's Aid Society. Many of the children
involved in these actions have known rejection and great deprivation, but not all. Sometimes tragedy cuts across the stream of life of an ordinary, happy family, and the children
are left alone and distressed. A number of such situations occurred this year. A widowed mother of three children suddenly became mentally ill, and it was not possible
for the doctors to say when, if ever, she would be well enough to leave hospital and
re-establish her home. A father of five children, whose wife had died previously, met
with a fatal industrial accident. Another, with two children, contracted a terminal illness.
The mother and father of four other small children were killed in the same automobile
accident. Each year a number of similar tragic happenings occur, and inherent in the
provisions of the Statute is an obligation on our part to provide suitable care for the
children concerned.
Letters of authority under the " Protection of Children Act" to apprehend 263
children from 168 families were issued during the year. Satisfactory plans, however,
were subsequently made within 23 of the family groups for 60 of the children, the
majority of whom were transients, but 203 from 149 families were brought before a
Court, as provided for in the Act. This is a decrease from last year of 40 in the number
of children admitted by apprehension but brings the total number of wards in the care
of the Superintendent of Child Welfare, as of March 31st, 1952, to 706 and the total
number of wards under the " Protection of Children Act " in care during the fiscal year
to 848.
ADMINISTRATION OF THE " JUVENILE DELINQUENTS ACT "
Another group of children for whom we must plan by statutory provision and by
order of a Court are those who get into difficulty with the law and are committed by
a Judge of a Juvenile Court to the Superintendent under the " Juvenile Delinquents Act."
Two less than last year's number of nineteen boys and girls came to us under these circumstances this year. As of March 31st, 1952, we are caring for fifty-two boys and girls
with this status, and during the past year there had been sixty-nine. Most of them are
between 13 and 17 years of age and have had great reason in their lives to be hostile and
suspicious of society. When we speak later of the limitations of an ordinary foster-home
programme and indicate the need to develop more facilities for " group living," it is with
a number of these young people in mind.
Some of the 758 children with " ward " status under the " Protection of Children
Act" or " Juvenile Delinquents Act" will in time return to their parents when home
conditions have been improved, but the majority will remain under our guardianship as
provided by the Acts until they become of age. Many will find employment and be
self-supporting before that time, of course, but our statutory responsibility as guardian
will continue until they are 21 years of age.
What help we are able to give in their preparation for adult work and life depends
first, of course, on how successful we have been as workers in helping each child resolve
the never-to-be-minimized problem of having to be apart from his own parents. So
great a hurdle can this be that many of our boys and girls, although not lacking in ability,
find the concentration needed in study difficult. They are consequently frequently unsure
of their ultimate goal and are behind others in their age-group at school.
As their legal guardian, we would seem obligated to provide them special consideration in this connection, and policies, although practical, have been kept flexible to allow
for the varied interests, abilities, and ambitions we can expect to encounter in the large
group of children who look to us for help and direction.
. W 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Several boys and girls are being provided extended maintenance to enable them to
complete matriculation or training of one kind or another. One young girl who has been
a ward for many years finished her nurse's training this year, and throughout her three
years' course it seemed our privilege as guardian to see that she had a monthly allowance
to meet the unprovided necessities. When she was awarded a special merit medal the
night of her graduation, we were confident the expenditures made had been right and
good. Three boys will have completed a diesel-engine course next year, and another
wants to ready himself for a teacher's training course in the fall.
One girl, who all her life has shown an extraordinary ability with animals, was
apprenticed at a dog kennel two years ago, and this year qualified for a well-paid position
with a highly reputable veterinary surgeon in an eastern city. Another girl, who had had
a particularly unsettled life, will be going to her first school next fall.
For all these boys and girls we have endeavoured to formulate plans to meet their
particular needs. The money spent in all instances for fees or maintenance was not
Departmental funds, and we would like to pay special tribute at this time to the group
of business and professional men who have interested themselves this year in our
children and are contributing generously to the education and training of several. We
are, of course, appreciative of their financial help, but because voluntary participation
in a public child welfare service is a new development in this Province, the group's
interest becomes of even greater importance to us as an expression of confidence from
the community in our programme.
There have been a number of boys with ambitions to become pilots or radar
operators enlist in the Royal Canadian Air Force this year, and one girl has turned to
the armed services, where she hopes to graduate as a qualified telegrapher. We have
tried in a small way to let these young people know, too, that their enlistment and going
away to train is of importance to us. Appropriate gifts have been sent to them at the
time of their departure and periodically throughout the months of their course. As
a resource for these purchases, we are wholly indebted to two private citizens. They,
like we, believe that when young people cannot expect to receive the usual " boxes from
home," they should have at least an occasional and similar expression of interest and
pride in them from the organization they have come to know through the years as their
legal guardian.
CHILDREN IN CARE AT REQUEST OF PARENT OR GUARDIAN
Children who are wards have a special call on the Division's resources because, by
Court order, they have been found in need of protection. There are other children, however, toward whom we have a deep obligation. These are the children whose parent, or
parents, although wanting to care for them, are temporarily unable to do so. Our
statutory responsibility " to ameliorate family conditions that lead to neglect" requires
us to extend protection to this group also. Our efforts to fulfil the requirements of this
section of the Act are clearly seen in a review of the number of children admitted during
the past twelve months, not by order of a Court, but at the request of a parent or parents.
Five hundred and forty-three children were cared for on this basis throughout the
year, and 287 were still in care as of March 31st, 1952. The period of time each needs
to be out of his own home varies, but if some plan for care had not been made for the
259 children from 178 families admitted this year during a temporary family crisis, it
is obvious, from the reasons for admission as shown below, that the children's future
well-being might well have been seriously jeopardized. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 41
Reasons for the Placement of 259 Children at Parent's or Guardian's Request
Children      Families
Mother hospitalized for confinement  4 3
Mental or physical illness of parent or parents  38 17
Mother or father deceased  10 4
Father deserted, mother needing temporary help  30 6
Mother deserted, father needing temporary help  13 6
Parents divorced or separated  32 25
Mother in gaol, father needing temporary help  1 1
Father in gaol, mother needing temporary help  4 2
Special medical or psychiatric treatment for child  11 11
Marital difficulties, child showing behaviour problems 28 17
Pending custody decision in Supreme Court  2 1
Pending adoption placement, child of married parents 5 5
Pending   adoption   placement,   child   of   unmarried
parents  68 67
Juvenile transients pending return home  2 2
248        167
From Fairbridge Farm School     11 11
Totals  259        178
Housekeepers have been used quite successfully this year in the occasional instance
of temporary family crisis, and the children consequently have not had to be placed out
of their own home. Another's illness can be a frightening experience for children, but
if they have also to leave all things familiar behind and live with strangers in strange
surroundings during the crisis, their fears and those of the ill parent are increased. As
will be seen in the reasons for admission of children in the above table, a high number
might have been cared for through the placement of competent housekeepers in the home,
and, in conjunction with the Family Division, we look to see this service developed
wherever possible throughout the Province.
In summary, there were 727 children in the care of the Superintendent of Child
Welfare during the fiscal year April 1st, 1951, to March 31st, 1952. Of these 1,350,
including 111 children from a Children's Aid Society and 40 wards of other Provinces,
were placed in Child Welfare Division foster homes. Three hundred and twenty-three
only of our children were cared for by a Children's Aid Society during the year. Twenty-
seven other wards were under the supervision of another Province at our request, 21
were in a correctional institution, and 6 were in the Provincial Mental Hospital, making
a total of 1,277 in the care of the Superintendent of Child Welfare as at the beginning
of the new fiscal year.
In fulfilling our role as " parent and protector " to so large a " family," many and
diverse are the problems workers must be prepared to meet. There is a constant need
for them to replenish their knowledge and skills, and it becomes of prime importance
that increased staff-development opportunities be provided them.
Of interest to the field staff in particular will be the following chart showing the
number and status of children placed in each region as of March 31st, 1952:— W 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Children in Child Welfare Division Foster Homes as at March 31st, 1952
Region
P.C.A.
Wards
J.D.A.
Wards
C.A.S.
Wards
O.P.
Wards
Before
Court
S.C.W.
Non-
wards
C.A.S.
Non-
wards
O.P.
Non-
wards
Total
I    	
II -  	
Ill      -
70
136
164
97
82
6
12
12
11
6
18
28
14
6
14
3
17
5
2
2
12
19
22
12
13
36
55
40
39
32
2
2
147
269
257
IV	
167
V      _      ...
149
Totals.    	
549
47
80
29
78
202
4
989
" Statutory guardianship " is a remote and impersonal term and to a child falls far
short of having one's own parents unless ways and means are devised to let him know
that his needs, strivings, and ambitions are of importance to us and can be realized. The
many families throughout the Province who open their homes and hearts to our children
are, of course, the very core of our efforts to provide them warm and understanding care,
and to these hundreds of foster fathers and mothers we give our thanks daily.
An adequate number of good foster-parents and the professional help of skilled and
resourceful workers, together with the continual maintenance of policies which are both
flexible and humane, are the means, of course, by which an agency's statutory guardianship can become a meaningful factor in a child's life. Impressive strides have been made
in connection with all three in the Social Welfare Branch, but always, because children
are involved, these seem never enough.
One of the basic services which, as guardians, we must provide a child is adequate
medical supervision. The majority of our children are physically healthy, and policy
provides well for their continued good health. There were, however, thirteen boys and
girls in care this year who, because of severe crippling conditions, have known long
periods of hospitalization and discomfort in their lives. Two of these children died
recently, and little help can be obtained for four others. One little girl, however, who
has been badly handicapped since birth, is responding well in one of the fine new
retraining and treatment units in Vancouver. Another 10-year-old girl, who suffers from
an obscure bone condition, has aroused the interest of a number of prominent medical
men, and we are hopeful a plan for her treatment and help will result. Two other of these
children have regressed physically and mentally to the point where they will shortly be
admitted to The Woodlands School, but we are happy to be able to provide them at least
a brief interval of life with parents before terminal institutional care becomes necessary.
For this group of children who need constant and good physical care, special rates are
paid, and wherever possible the bleakness of their lives is lessened by the fostering of
community interest in their needs.
Next to the physically handicapped and mentally retarded children, those with deep
emotional trouble demand our help most. There are few resources to be used for them
as yet, unfortunately, and these must be increased rapidly if our guardianship is to mean
anything to some of these boys and girls. What has been happening in two of our foster-
homes during the past four years convinces us that something helpful to their problems
could be built up in the way of a " group living " experience. Each of these homes has
had a population of eight to ten children, and while the foster-parents in each has the
ability to give of themselves generously, they have no need for any deep affectional
response from their young charges. After a period of placement in these particular
homes, several boys and girls, who had found it impossible to settle in the more personal
atmosphere of an ordinary foster home, have responded well and have been able to move
along into more satisfactory relationships in the community and school.
lim, for instance, has been one of Mr. and Mrs. Y.'s ten foster-children for two years and
there is now little resemblance between the boy who recently enrolled in a special radio technician's course, and who had a month previously made application to join the Air Cadets REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
W 43
sponsored by one of the town's leading business-men, and the sullen, unhappy little boy who was
brought into care six years ago. He had been deserted by his father when 3 years old and had
known such hurting rejection from his mother that it was no longer possible for him to let himself
love or be loved by any other parent. For the four years preceding his placement in the Y.
home, there has been a practically unbroken record of run-aways and disasters in foster homes,
but in the " give and take " of the group's discipline and the understanding but not demanding
guidance of Mr. and Mrs. Y., Jim has learned to live with people again and to believe that they
can be and are interested in him.
As our population of children in care increases, there will inevitably be a higher
proportion of boys and girls disturbed as Jim was. Foster-home care, in the usual sense,
is not the answer for them, and it is our fervent hope that future policy will permit the
establishment of additional " group homes " like Mr. and Mrs. Y.'s and Mr. and Mrs. G.'s.
With these as a resource, workers with special aptitudes and skills in work with children
could do much to help the disturbed boys and girls we know find their way.
ELIGIBILITY OF CHILDREN IN CARE FOR FAMILY ALLOWANCES
All children in care under the age of 16, as provided under the " Family Allowances
Act," receive Family Allowances, and this has become an invaluable resource to us.
Many purchases not always possible on limited Departmental budgets are made, children
are taught to save and spend their money wisely, and many special plans throughout the
year are realized because individual children have been encouraged and have had the
foresight to accumulate the needed amount of money in their trust accounts. Many and
diverse were the ways in which $27,705.12 was disbursed during the past fiscal year, as
the following statement reveals: —
Balance held in trust as at April 1st, 1951  $19,333.15
Amount of Family Allowances received during the year    32,024.68
Total
$51,357.83
Disbursements made as follows—
Paid to foster-mothers	
Paid to adoptive mothers at time of
child's placement	
Paid to natural mothers at time of
child's discharge	
Paid to children after their discharge
Recreational, including such items as
skates, skis, sports equipment, bicycles, musical instruments, camp
and other summer vacations,
Guide and Scout uniforms	
Music lessons	
Gifts 	
Special clothing	
Watches	
Pens	
Special transportation costs	
Special education fees	
Luggage	
Toys for self or others	
Miscellaneous 	
Refunds to Family Allowances Board
Transferred to Children's Aid Societies
Transferred to other Provinces	
$17,114.00
1,216.85
2,994.78
832.68
3,059.40
157.89
298.54
414.17
178.13
35.85
41.65
31.15
76.55
176.83
289.22
231.99
499.06
56.38
27,705.12
Balance held in trust as at March 31st, 1952 $23,652.71 W 44
BRITISH COLUMBIA
CHILDREN IN THE CARE OF A CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY
The three Children's Aid Societies, chartered as they are under the " Protection of
Children Act," must provide similar programmes for the care of children within their
areas of jurisdiction. The Vancouver Children's Aid Society had in care 1,209 children,
the Catholic Children's Aid Society 537, and the Victoria Children's Aid Society 231
as of March 31st, 1952.
FINANCIAL DISBURSEMENTS AS PROVIDED FOR UNDER
THE " PROTECTION OF CHILDREN ACT "
The cost of maintaining children in foster-home care is understandably higher than
it would be in ordinary family-home management. The " Protection of Children Act"
places the major onus for responsibility for such costs with the Provincial Government,
and the following is a statement of statutory disbursements made by the Child Welfare
Division during the fiscal year:—
Cost of Maintaining Children in Child Welfare Division Foster Homes,
Children's Aid Societies, and Sundry Expenditures
The cost of maintaining children in Child Welfare Division foster homes during the
fiscal year ended March 31st, 1952, was carried as provided under the "Protection of
Children Act " as follows:—
Gross cost of maintenance to Provincial Government  $343,478.01
Less—
Municipal 20-per-cent share for children
with municipal residence      $25,590.91
Parents' contributions         7,563.02
Received from other Provinces         4,519.66
Received from Children's Aid Societies
for their children in care of Superintendent of Child Welfare       28,296.82
Received from Fairbridge Farm School
and Dominion Government (Indian
Department)       14,028.69
Miscellaneous collections  570.08
Sundry refunds         1,564.22
       82,133.40
Net cost to Provincial Government  $261,344.61 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 45
Cost of total number of children in the care of Children's Aid Societies chargeable
to Provincial Government or municipal governments during the fiscal year ended March
31st, 1952, was carried as follows:—
Brought forward  $261,344.61
Cost of maintenance of children with Provincial
residence   $335,989.87
Refunds to municipalities, 80 per cent of maintenance of children with municipal residence as
provided under " Protection of Children Act"    314,504.73
$650,494.60
Less—
20 per cent of cost paid by
municipalities for children in care of Superintendent of Child Welfare, Children's Aid
Societies   $11,129.98
Parents' contributions        4,149.81
Paid by other Provinces       5,432.06
Paid by Fairbridge Farm
School and Dominion
Government      13,989.19
Children's Aid Societies _____      2,320.35
Miscellaneous refunds       6,634.47
      43,655.86
     606,838.74
Gross transportation of children       $4,641.27
Less—
Reimbursements from parents, etc        $633.41
Sundry refunds  122.60
  756.01
         3,885.26
Grants to institutions         1,300.00
Net cost to Province  $873,368.61
Of the total number of 1,977 children cared for by the three Children's Aid Societies
as of March 31st, 1952, 888 were chargeable 100 per cent to the Provincial Government,
683 to a municipality, and as provided for each municipality involved was reimbursed
by the Provincial Government for 80 per cent of the cost. Thirty-six of the children were
fully paid for by other agencies, and 370 were maintained by Community Chest funds.
This link back to the community through the yearly collection of Community Chest
funds, to support certain phases of the three agencies' work with children, represents
that element of private enterprise so vital to the Canadian democratic concept of social
welfare programmes. The fact that during the last few years Community Chest drives
have fallen short of the amount needed to meet the costs of what is traditionally considered " private " or voluntary family and child welfare work, must therefore continue to
be of real concern to the public welfare department. It may be the Provincial services
have reached a point where they must expand more rapidly than has been the policy so
far and be ready in the near future to assume responsibility for some of the work well W 46
BRITISH COLUMBIA
established as essential and now done by the Children's Aid Societies. A larger portion
of the funds available to them from private sources could then be used for more essentially
" private " projects. Historically, this is the role of the private agency, and while we
have already, at the individual agency's request, accepted the transfer of certain parts of
their services, these do not represent any large degree of financial relief to the agencies.
In the past four years the Children's Aid Societies have shortened their areas of
foster-home placement in the Fraser Valley and on Vancouver Island, and, as pointed
out earlier, we are purposely limiting our requests for placement of children with them.
We have also assumed responsibility for adoption placements in certain areas close to
Vancouver and Victoria and more recently have agreed to do the investigations required
under the " Adoption Act" in stepfather and relative adoption applications from these
same areas. However, if the requirements of the " Protection of Children Act" are to
be fulfilled, and at the same time if the place of the private agency in the community is
to be safeguarded and strengthened, it may be necessary for Government to accept the
transfer of larger blocks of work from these agencies in the not too distant future. This,
of course, would mean a considerable expansion of staff and staff-development programmes within the Provincial services. New Departmental policy with the Greater
Vancouver and Victoria areas would also need to be formulated, since these are the
areas now serviced under the " Protection of Children Act" and other pieces of child
welfare legislation by the three Children's Aid Societies.
ADMINISTRATION OF THE " ADOPTION ACT "
Adoption placement of children, although not usually thought of as part of the
administration of the "Protection of Children Act," is nevertheless one of the most
positive means through which protection and future security can be extended a child.
Children who cannot be reared by their own parent or parents, and particularly children
of unmarried mothers, are a vulnerable group. Many of them become known to us as
young babies, and we interpret our responsibility to " ameliorate family conditions that
lead to neglect" as an obligation on our part to provide them mothers and fathers who,
wherever possible through adoption, will be able to give the same enduring love and
care a child with his own parents has a right to expect.
Community interest in adoption placement has developed at a phenomenal rate
everywhere during the past few years. Paralleling this, and emerging out of a growing
awareness in child welfare agencies of the unmet needs of many children in foster homes,
has come a marked change in practice with regard to the selection of children for adoption. Ideally, for each child needing and able to accept parents there should be a home
in which his special needs will be understood and met. The increased number of children
we have been able to plan for through adoption during the past four years proves this
ideal could become a reality situation if workers were freed sufficiently to devote the
necessary time to home finding and home evaluation.
Total Adoption Placements Made by Child Welfare Division during
the Past Four Years
Region
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
I     _              	
IT
25
29
36
19
8
18
55
35
24
15
40
74
41
38
16
38
81
III  - -	
IV      - 	
V -    - -     .
59
34
27
Totals                       	
117
147
209
239 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
W 47
During the past year, too, and with the same determination to serve better the child
in need of parents, the Children's Aid Societies placed an additional 272 children in
adoption homes.
One of the most important facts revealed in the adoption statistics this year is the
increased number of hard-to-place children we have been able to plan for on a permanent basis. These included children of mixed racial origin, children with treatable physical
handicaps, and children who were older than the much preferred baby age. We have
also been happy about the additional number of Roman Catholic parents who have
applied to us for children. This has made it possible for us to assist the Catholic Children's Aid Society to a much greater extent than ever before in their efforts to curtail
institutional placement of young children.
The religion, region of placement, and age-group of the 239 children placed by
Child Welfare Division in adoptive homes during the year is shown in the following
table:—
Region
Religion
Age of Child
Roman
Catholic
Protestant
Other
Total
Under
1 Mo.
1-2
Mos.
3-5
Mos.
6-11
Mos.
1-2
Yrs.
3-4
Yrs.
5-8
Yrs.
1	
3
1
6
7
5
35
79
53
27
22
1
38
81
59
34
27
12
33
20
6
4
16
24
20
17
9
2
11
9
3
3
2
7
6
5
3
3
2
3
4
3
2
2
2
II
III....
4
IV
V.	
Totals	
2
22
216               1
1
239
75
86
28    |    23
1
12
9
6
There were 817 adoptions completed by Supreme Court order during the year,
399 of which had been under Social Welfare Branch supervision and 418 by Children's
Aid Societies. The decline in the number of private adoption placements being made,
as shown in the table following, proves rather conclusively that real headway has been
made in dealing with this difficult problem.
Adoptions Completed, April 1st, 1951, to March 31st, 1952
SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH SUPERVISION
Agency
Placement
Private
Placement
Relatives
Adopting
Total
Region I    	
28
77
37
30
16
30
65
8
10
19
15
27
15
14
8
73
169
Region III.     	
Region IV    ■	
Region V       _ —
60
54
43
Totals 	
188
132
79
399
CHILDREN'S
AID
SOCIETY SUP!
3RVISION
1
186
36
37
50
5
8
65
9
22
1
|         301
Catholic Children's Aid Society 	
1           50
67
259
1
63
96
|          418
1 W 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
ADMINISTRATION OF THE " CHILDREN OF UNMARRIED
PARENTS ACT "
Policies in our work with unmarried mothers and fathers have also their roots in
the preventive aspects of protection legislation in that the " Children of Unmarried
Parents Act " (section 4) requires the Superintendent of Child Welfare to make whatever
inquiries " seem advisable in the interest of the child." This provision enables us to
approach unmarried mothers and offer appropriate services. Frequently adoption placement of the child is the mother's request, and paternity becomes an important factor not
only in the selection of suitable adoptive parents, but because of the child's right to know
his identity should it be of importance to him at some future time.
There are also hospital and medical bills to be met, and the child's father has a
responsibility under the Act to assist with these as well as to help the mother financially
during her period of unemployment. If the mother's decision is to keep her child, the
important question of his maintenance must then be considered, with her and the father.
What action is possible depends, of course, on the mother's wishes, the proof of paternity
available, and the father's resources and readiness to meet his obligation. During the
year, 19 new affiliation orders under the "Children of Unmarried Parents Act" were
made by Court, making a total of 148 being enforced. Sixty-four new agreements with
the Superintendent of Child Welfare, as provided for under the Act, were also obtained,
making a total of 248 on which payments are being received. Twelve settlements in full
were accepted during the year, and a total of $39,091.65 was collected under the Act,
an increase of $427.48 over last year.
The Division of Vital Statistics advises the registration of 1,371 births of children
born out of wedlock in the Province during the past twelve months, and we are pleased
to be able to say that the statistics of Children's Aid Societies and the Social Welfare
Branch establish the majority of these mothers have accepted service from a social agency.
PROTECTION OF IMMIGRANT CHILDREN UNDER THE
" PROTECTION OF CHILDREN ACT "
Our services to the Jewish overseas and the Fairbridge Farm School children can
also be termed both protective and preventive, as defined under the " Protection of Children Act." The Jewish children had lost their parents through death and persecution in
Europe, and while none of the Fairbridge children were orphans, they, too, lacked parents
in this Province to protect and guide them through their formative years. Placement in
foster homes of both groups has been an interesting and, in most instances, a rewarding
experience.
The last of the children were removed from the Fairbridge Farm School at Duncan
this year, and a total of sixty-two is now in the care of the Superintendent of Child Welfare
and placed as follows: In Vancouver Children's Aid Society foster homes, twelve; in Vancouver Catholic Children's Aid Society foster homes, four; in Victoria Children's Aid
Society foster homes, thirteen; and in Child Welfare Division foster homes, thirty-three.
In this group are forty-five boys and seventeen girls, and they range in age from
11 to 19 years. Considering the many years of institutional living they have known
away from parents, their adjustment to life in a family has been good. Several have been
encouraged to continue their education, and the majority have made a secure place for
themselves in the communities in which they are living.
The Jewish children's previous experiences, although of a most harsh and cruel
nature, have not prevented them from settling well in their foster homes and becoming
closely identified with the Jewish community, as much as might have been expected.
Some have shown considerable emotional disturbance, but since their arrival in this
Province some four years ago the majority have been able to make a reasonably good REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 49
social adjustment and very fine progress in school and training. As a result, many have
now moved into permanent and satisfying employment situations.
As of March 31st, 1952, fifteen of the original forty-six Jewish overseas children
remained in care, but only $151.11 was being expended monthly for their maintenance;
six are in free homes, three are receiving partial maintenance while completing advanced
education or training, and six, although still under 21 years of age, are self-supporting.
During this year nineteen were discharged from care, fourteen of these had reached their
majority and were independent, three had married, and two had joined relatives outside
of British Columbia.
Children coming to Canada from other countries without their parents have special
and very real problems to face. Their language is frequently different and always there
are cultural differences. These two factors combine sometimes to make their adjustment
extremely difficult, and this can be true even when the child is designated to live with
relatives, as are the applicants referred to us by the Canadian Immigration Department.
Thirty such referrals were received this year, and seven were carried over from last year.
When discussing their plans with relatives, not only are we able to safeguard against
obviously unwise placements, but we can also acquaint the family with a source of help
should it be needed after the child's arrival.
Nine of the children involved in these applications were residing in the United
Kingdom, four in the United States of America, and the remaining twenty-four in eight
different European countries.
ACT FOR THE LEGITIMATION OF CHILDREN
Legitimation of children born to the parents prior to their marriage is a protective
measure of vital importance to their future. Twenty-three applications, including sixteen
new referrals, were considered this year, and seventeen of these were finalized by our
recommendation that the birth be legitimated. When this is not possible, alternative
means of clarifying the child's status in the home through adoption is discussed with the
mother and her husband and in many instances is a satisfactory and acceptable solution
for them.
ACT FOR THE EQUAL GUARDIANSHIP OF INFANTS
Investigations at the request of the Supreme Court in custody-of-children applications are also made, as a protective measure. Seventy-nine such requests were worked on
during the year, including fifty-one new referrals, and twenty-five are still active, to be
completed at a later date.
The bitterness which so often exists between the parents and relatives involved in
these actions frequently makes it difficult for them to consider the child's future interests
objectively. Usually the marriage has broken beyond the point of reconciliation, but it
may still be possible to help the parents separate their personal problems from the needs
of their children. In fulfilling the Court's request for an investigation of the parents'
plan for the child, workers try to give this kind of helpful service. The situations are
complicated and difficult, however, and make a heavy demand on the skills of staff and
on their already limited time. Seldom, at this time because of other pressures, are
workers able to do more than compile the report for Court purposes, and yet this could
be an important source of intake for preventive family work.
CONCLUSION
I have purposely confined this report to a review of legislative responsibilities as these
relate to policy and affect the lives of children in their own homes and in foster care. The
Social Welfare Branch has grown to be the largest child-caring agency in this Province,
and because it is a Province-wide administration, many factors tend to increase the W 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA
responsibilities implied. Remote district offices are difficult for the Branch to keep
staffed. Many areas lack the community resources necessary in the placement of children,
and beautiful as it is, the topography and vastness of the Province further complicates
preventive work with families and the finding and supervision of foster homes. Over and
above these is the ever-pressing problem of how to give to workers and supervisors the
guidance and support they need and could expect to receive if employed in an urban area
and by an under-one-roof administration.
All these factors and many others peculiar to a large and widespread operation like
the Social Welfare Branch make the administration of legislation difficult. Further
decentralization of programmes, as child welfare, offers a solution, but the timing and
success of such plans are wholly dependent upon the readiness of staff and the adequacy
of funds available. Children everywhere deserve thoughtful care, and children in the care
of an agency, because of their handicaps and needs, are indeed special and demand of
that agency, always, special considerations.
In closing this report I would like to thank the many agencies, public and private,
which have assisted us this past year. To the clerical and social work staff in the Division
and district offices also, I would express my sincere appreciation for the work they are
doing for children. Many times it is done, I know, at great personal sacrifice and has
mostly as its reward only the satisfaction of knowing in oneself that something worth while
has been accomplished.
(Miss) Ruby McKay,
Superintendent of Child Welfare. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 51
OLD-AGE PENSION BOARD AND OLD-AGE ASSISTANCE AND
BLIND PERSONS' ALLOWANCES BOARDS
GENERAL
The year 1951-52 saw the greatest change in the field of aid for the elderly people
in Canada since the first " Old Age Pensions Act" was passed in 1927. Pensions were
still granted under the old Act and regulations from April 1st to December 31st, 1951,
and no changes were made in that Act or its regulations during that period, but as from
January 1st, 1952, people of 70 years of age and over were provided for by entirely
new legislation—the Old Age Security Act. This represented a fundamental change.
Whereas pensions under the old Act were granted on a means-test basis, pensions under
the new Act are granted without a means test. In addition, whereas pensions under the
old Act were paid for partly by the Provincial Government and partly by the Federal
Government and were administered by the former, pensions under the new Act are paid
for entirely by the Federal Government and are also administered by that Government
through the Old Age Security Division of the Department of National Health and
Welfare, with offices in the City of Victoria.
" THE OLD AGE PENSIONS ACT " IN RETROSPECT
Before leaving the old Act to history, it might be interesting to look back over some
facts relating to the operation of that legislation in this Province. During the whole period
of its operation, from 1927 to 1951, applications were received from 65,326 persons—
64,076 were granted and 1,250 were refused. There were 28,759 deaths, while 4,991
pensioners were suspended or transferred to other Provinces. On December 31st, 1951,
there were 30,326 pensioners on the payroll, excluding the blind and those transferred
here from other Provinces, or 33,744 including the blind and those transferred from other
Provinces.
The average age at which persons applied for pension was 71.04 years for men and
73.89 for women, but the oldest applicant submitted her application when she was 100
years of age. She had been in receipt of old-age pension in England for about ten years,
but came to Canada in her eightieth year and was confronted with the necessity of putting
in twenty years to meet the residence requirements for pension here, which she succeeded
in doing.   Her application was granted and she lived to be 104.
The average length of time on pension for men was 8.15 years and for women 6.03
years, but sixteen of the persons who applied for and were granted pensions during the
first fiscal year 1927-28 were still living and on pension on December 31st, 1951, when
they were transferred to old-age security. The average age at which pensioners died was
79.279 years for men and 79.916 years for women; hence it appears that if a person in
this Province reaches 70, he or she has a further life expectancy of approximately nine
years.
In the period of a little more than twenty-four years that the Act was in force there
was a total expenditure of $100,597,689.04 on pensions. This includes both old-age
and blind pensions and both the Federal and Provincial Government shares of the cost.
This expenditure was supplemented by the payment of an additional $19,242,882.86 in
the form of cost-of-living bonuses by the Provincial Government between April 1st, 1942,
and December 31st, 1951. A total of $119,840,571.90 was therefore paid to the aged
in this Province during this period without considering medical services, medicines, and
hospitalization that were provided free of charge.
In passing judgment on the old Act, it would seem fair to say that although the
pensions paid under it could scarcely be considered at any time as constituting adequate W 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
maintenance by themselves alone, and it was not the original intention that they should,
they did give the older people an added sense of security and a degree of independence
which made their later years much happier and healthier than they would otherwise
have been and undoubtedly were an important contributing factor in the lengthening of
their life-span.
" THE OLD AGE ASSISTANCE ACT "
The year 1951-52 witnessed the making of another landmark in the field of legislation for older people in the passing of " The Old Age Assistance Act" to provide for
persons between the ages of 65 and 69 years. This Act was assented to on June 30th,
1951, and came into force on January 1st, 1952, concurrently with " The Old Age
Security Act." Like " The Old Age Pensions Act," it requires twenty years' residence
in Canada and ability to meet a means test. However, the means test has been relaxed
to a considerable degree. The total allowable annual income from all sources has been
increased from $600 to $720 for single persons and from $1,080 to $1,200 for married
persons. In addition, the amount of personal property exempted from consideration
for income purposes has been increased from $250 to $1,000 for single persons and
from $500 to $2,000 for married persons. Moreover, the method of calculating income
from personal property is radically different from that under the old Act. The annuity
principle has been discarded. After deducting the exemption of $1,000 or $2,000, as
the case may be, the income to be charged on the balance is determined by dividing such
balance by the number of months between the proposed date of commencement of
assistance and the date on which the applicant will reach the age of 70 years and then
multiply the result by 12 to bring the calculated income to an annual basis. There are
a number of other differences between this Act and regulations and " The Old Age
Pensions Act " and regulations, but it does not seem necessary to discuss them here.
The cost of assistance under this Act is shared on a 50-50 basis by the Provincial
and Federal Governments, but the cost of administration is met entirely by the Province.
The administration is in charge of the Old-age Assistance Board, appointed on January
1st, 1952, by authority of the Provincial " Old-age Assistance Act," which was passed
at the 1951 fall session of the Legislature and assented to on October 27th, 1951.
"THE BLIND PERSONS ACT"
Prior to January 1st, 1952, pensions for the blind were provided under an amendment made to " The Old Age Pensions Act " in 1937. However, a separate Act, entitled
"The Blind Persons Act," was passed by the Federal Parliament in 1951 and was
assented to on June 30th of that year. This Act came into force on January 1st, 1952.
It provides for allowances up to a maximum of $40 a month for blind persons between
the ages of 21 and 69 years on a means-test basis. The residence requirement has been
reduced to ten years in Canada instead of the former twenty. The total allowable income
has been increased by $240 a year, but the former personal property exemptions of $250
and $500 for single or married persons respectively have been removed.
Seventy-five per cent of the cost of the allowances paid under this Act is borne by
the Federal Government and 25 per cent by the Province, but the cost of administration
is met entirely by the Province. The administration is in charge of the Blind Persons'
Allowances Board, appointed on January 1st, 1952, by authority of the Provincial
"Blind Persons' Allowances Act," which was passed at the 1951 fall session of the
Legislature and assented to on October 27th, 1951.
Blind persons of 70 years of age and over are now provided for under the Federal
" Old Age Security Act."
COST-OF-LIVING BONUS
The Government of British Columbia continued to pay a cost-of-living bonus of
$10 a month on a flat-rate basis to its old-age and blind pensioners until December 31st, REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 53
1951, without change, and it continued to pay this bonus on the same basis after that
date to former blind pensioners who were transferred to old-age security or blind persons'
allowance. Commencing on January 1st, 1952, however, with the above-noted exceptions, the bonus has been paid on a new basis. To be eligible for part or all of the
maximum bonus of $10 a month, all persons, except the blind of 70 or over and former
blind pensioners under 70, must meet a special means test. The various groups affected
now receive their bonuses as follows:—
(1) The former old-age pensioners who are now on old-age security may
receive part or all of the $10 bonus if their total annual incomes, including any bonus paid, do not exceed $720 a year in the case of unmarried
persons, or $1,320 a year in the case of a married couple where both were
former old-age pensioners or one was an old-age pensioner and the other
is now on old-age assistance, or $1,200 where one was an old-age pensioner and the other is not eligible for old-age assistance or old-age security.
(2) Old-age security pensioners who were not on the former old-age pension
may receive part or all of the $10 bonus if their total annual incomes,
including any bonus paid, do not exceed $720 in the case of unmarried
persons, or $1,200 in the case of a married couple where both are on
old-age security, or $1,080 where one spouse is on old-age security but
the other is not eligible for either old-age assistance or old-age security.
(3) Recipients of old-age assistance may receive part or all of the $10 bonus
if their total annual incomes, including any bonus paid, do not exceed
$720 a year in the case of unmarried persons, or $1,200 in the case of a
married couple where both are in receipt of old-age assistance, or $ 1,080
where one spouse is on assistance but the other is not eligible for such
assistance.
(4) Recipients of blind persons' allowances may receive the full $10 bonus
if their total annual incomes, excluding any bonus paid, do not exceed
$840 a year in the case of unmarried persons, or $1,320 a year in the
case of a married couple where the spouse is sighted, or $1,440 where the
spouse is also blind, or $1,040 in the case of unmarried persons with a
dependent child or children.
(5) Blind persons who were in receipt of the former blind pension and blind
persons now on old-age security may receive the full $10 bonus if their
total annual incomes, excluding any bonus, are less than $840 a year in
the case of unmarried persons, $1,040 in the case of unmarried or separated persons with a dependent child or children; $1,320 if married and
living with a sighted spouse who was not a former old-age pensioner,
$1,440 if married and living with a sighted spouse who was in receipt of
old-age pension and British Columbia bonus as at December 31st, 1951,
and $1,560 if married and living with a spouse 70 years of age or over
who is blind.
RECIPROCAL AGREEMENTS
Agreements previously made with Alberta, Saskatchewan, New Brunswick, and the
Yukon Territory continued in force until December 31st, 1951.   As from January 1st,
1952, however, when the Old Age Assistance, Blind Persons, and Old Age Security Acts
came into effect, and payments ceased under " The Old Age Pensions Act," these agreements became inoperative. Negotiations were commenced with Alberta, Saskatchewan,
and the Yukon immediately, however, with a view to achieving new agreements with
them, and it is anticipated that when they are concluded, they will provide for payment
of the bonuses retroactively as from January 1st, 1952. As New Brunswick will not be
paying a bonus to its pensioners, no reciprocal agreement will be made with that Province. W 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
ADMINISTRATION
We regret to record the death of Mr. J. A. Ward Bell on September 5th, 1951.
He had been a member of the Board since December 1st, 1943.
The vacancy created by Mr. Bell's death was filled by the appointment of Mr. James
A. Sadler as a member of the Board on January 1st, 1952. The personnel of the Board
now consists of J. H. Creighton (Chairman), Lieut.-Col. George M. Endacott, and J. A.
Sadler.
Although the Provincial " Old-age Assistance Act" and " Blind Persons' Allowances Act" require two separate Boards, the same above-named persons constitute the
personnel of both.
The Board now has responsibility for the administration of (1) "The Old Age
Assistance Act," (2) "The Blind Persons Act," and (3) the cost-of-living bonus for
recipients of (a) old-age assistance, (b) blind persons' allowance, and (c) old-age
security. In addition, it determines eligibility for free medical service, medicines, and
hospitalization for persons in these groups and issues identification cards to those who
are eligible.
Because of the great amount of additional work involved in handling some 8,000
applications under the two new pieces of legislation—" The Old Age Assistance Act"
and " The Blind Persons Act "—and some 1,000 applications for the cost-of-living bonus
from old-age security pensioners in addition to carrying on the administration of " The
Old Age Pensions Act " until its repeal, it was necessary to employ considerable temporary
help and have the staff work overtime for four nights a week commencing with the month
of November.
GRAPHIC PRESENTATION COVERING PERIOD FROM 1927 TO
DECEMBER 31st, 1951
On page 55 will be found a graphic presentation of the trends in old-age and blind
pensions in British Columbia from the coming into force of " The Old Age Pensions Act"
in 1927 to the end of December, 1951.
The black-line graph shows the trend in cost of pensions, the dotted line shows the
trend in number of persons in receipt of pension, and the broken line shows the trend in
total population.
As " The Old Age Pensions Act " has been replaced by new legislation which came
into force on January 1st, 1952, and detailed comments have been given in past reports,
only a general review will be given here to present comparable points as well as irregularities in the various line graphs. It will be seen from the graphs that in the first two
years' operation of the Act there was an initial sharp rise in both the number and cost
of pensions and then a lessening in the rate of increase until the middle of 1930. During
the depression years a further increase began and continued fairly steadily until 1939.
During the war years and since the end of the war there have been certain changes in the
Act and regulations, and with each change the cost graph shows a sharp rise. The last
three peaks recorded at March, 1947, November, 1948, and August, 1949, were occasioned by accumulated retroactive payments of the increase in the cost-of-living bonus
and two changes in " The Old Age Pensions Act" increasing the basic pension—first,
from $25 to $30 and, finally, from $30 to $40 a month.
The sharp rise in the number-of-pensioners graph since 1947 was caused chiefly by
the raising of the allowable annual income from $425 to $600 for single people and from
$820 to $1,080 for married people, and the removing of naturalization restrictions, but
another contributing factor was the increase of supplementary social services, including
hospital insurance, medical services, and drugs. The added attraction of these services
induced many persons to apply for pension who might otherwise not have done so. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
W 55
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BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED MARCH 31st, 1952
Old-age Pensions
Table I.—Disposition of Applications
Number of new applications received  2,442
Number of new applications granted  3,61s1
Number of new applications not granted      550
1 Includes some left over from previous year.
Table II.—Miscellaneous
Number of B.C. pensioners returned to British Columbia  42
Number of new " other Province " pensioners transferred to
British Columbia        311
Number of B.C. Pensioners transferred to other Provinces        236
Number of pensioners from other Provinces transferred out
of British Columbia or suspended        339
Number of B.C. reinstatements granted        352
Number of B.C. pensions suspended        366
Number of deaths of B.C. pensioners     1,905
Number of deaths of " other Province " pensioners in British
Columbia         212
Total number of pensioners on payroll as of December 31st, 1952—
British Columbia  30,378
Other Province      3,011
  33,389
Table HI.—Reasons Why Applications Not Granted
Number
      120
Unable to prove age        31
Too much income	
Not 70 years of age_
Not sufficient residence	
Unable to prove residence-
Transfer of property	
War Veterans' Allowance__.
Pension for the Blind	
Indian 	
Refused information	
Assistance from private sources.
In mental institution	
Parents' Maintenance Act" or similar Provincial legislation
72
6
5
13
1
16
Applications withdrawn      184
Applicants died before grant        92
Whereabouts unknown  7
Per Cent
21.82
5.64
13.09
1.09
0.91
2.36
0.18
2.91
0.55
33.45
16.73
1.27
Total.
550
100.00 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
W 57
Table IV.—Sex of New Pensioners
Number
Males   1,909
Females  1,709
Total.
3,618
Per Cent
52.76
47.24
100.00
Married _.
Single 	
Widows _.
Widowers
Separated
Divorced
Table V.—Marital Status of New Pensioners
Number
  1,657
      461
      743
      412
      312
        33
Total  3,618
Table VI.—Birthplace of New Pensioners
Number
British Columbia        59
Other parts of Canada      867
British Isles  1,637
Other parts of British Empire        31
United States of America      252
Other foreign countries      772
Total  3,618
Per Cent
45.80
12.74
20.54
11.39
8.62
0.91
100.00
Per Cent
1.63
23.96
45.25
0.86
6.96
21.34
100.00
Table VII.—Ages at Granting of New Pensions
Number Per Cent
Age 70  1,962 54.22
Age 71         400 11.05
Age 72      253 6.99
Age 73      211 5.85
Age 74      194 5.36
Age 75      135 3.73
Age 76 to 80      323 8.93
Age 81 to 90      132 3.65
Age 91 and up          8 0.22
Total  3,618 100.00 W 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VIII.—Ages of Pensioners at Death
Age 70	
Number
__.     __       54
Per Cent
2.83
Age 71_      	
76
3.99
Age 72    -
84
4.41
Age 73    _____   _____
      109
5.72
Age 74	
      107
5.62
Age 75	
      129
6.77
Age 76	
Age 77 _ -     _____
      117
108
6.14
5.67
Age 78_ -
112
5.88
Age 79              ._   	
     ____     111
5.83
Age 80        	
     ____     119
6.25
Age 81                  	
_         ____     106
5.56
Age 82                   	
89
4.67
Age 83                	
      101
5.30
Age 84     -
82
4.30
Age 85	
        72
3.78
Age 86 _ -     _ —
63
3.31
Age 87
55
2.89
Age 88     -
52
2.73
Age 89 -        	
    _____       39
2.05
Age 90  —             	
        21
1.10
Age over 90	
        99
5.20
Total 	
  1,905
100.00
Table IX.—With Whom
Living alone	
Living with spouse	
Living with spouse and children
New Pensioners Live
Number
  1,015
  1,312
312
Per Cent
28.05
36.26
8.61
Living with children
372
10.31
Living with other relatives   	
      333
9.20
Living with others
     ....     148
4.09
Living in public institutions	
Living in private institutions	
        43
    _____       83
1.19
2.29
Total  	
  3,618
100.00 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
W 59
Table X.—Where New Pensioners Are Living
Number Per Cent
In own house  1,614 44.61
In home of other relatives      123 3.40
In rented house      417 11.53
In children's home      530 14.65
In rented suite      202 5.58
Boarding       105 2.90
In housekeeping room      307 8.48
In boarding home        40 1.11
In institution      126 3.48
In single room (eating out)      154 4.26
100.00
Total
3,618
Table XL—Economic Status of New Pensioners
(a) Holding real property of value—                        Number Per cent
$0  1,982 54.78
$1 to $250        94 2.60
$251 to $500      182 5.03
$501 to $750      297 8.21
$751 to $1,000      270 7.46
$ 1,001 to $ 1,500      344 9.51
$1,501 to $2,000      175 4.84
$2,001 and up      274 7.57
3,618 100.00
(b) Holding personal property of value—
$0  1,322 36.54
$1 to $250  988 27.31
$251 to $500  470 12.99
$501 to $750  255 7.05
$751 to $1,000  138 3.81
$1,001 and up  445 12.30
Total   3,618 100.00 W 60
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XII.—Number of Pensioners Living in Other Provinces Whose Pensions Were
Granted by British Columbia and Are Paid Wholly or Partially by This Province
Alberta  _   _
230
Saskatchewan	
  112
Manitoba	
     70
Ontario          _ _ _
  149
Quebec   __ _
     18
New Brunswick  	
       8
Nova Scotia    __ _
9
Prince Edward Island	
       1
Newfoundland  	
       1
Northwest Territories	
Yukon Territory 	
       1
Total 	
  599
Table XIII.—Claims against Estates, Old Age and Blind
Number of cases of death of B.C. pensioners  1,905
Number of cases where claims were made      192
Number of cases where claims were waived or withdrawn in
favour of beneficiaries        48
Number of cases on which collections were made      319
Total amount collected—
Old age  $121,795.10
Blind   392.94
Total   $122,188.04
Table XIV.—Percentage of Pensioners to Population over Ten-year
Period, 1941-511
1941
1943
1945
1947
1949
1951
Percentage of pensioners to the total population of Province-
Percentage of all persons over 70 years of age to the total
population of the Province.
Percentage of pensioners to the population over 70 years of
age	
1.79
3.60
49.79
1.74
4.85
35.87
1.65
4.94
33.36
1.80
5.08
35.37
2.38
5.31
44.86
2.81
6.29
44.67
1 Percentages based on population estimated by Dominion Bureau of Statistics.
Table XV.—Distribution of B.C. Pensioners According to the Amount of
Pensions Received (Basic Pension, $40)
Pension Per Cent
$40.00     71.53
$35.00 to $39.99
$30.00 to $34.99
$25.00 to $29.99
$20.00 to $24.99
Less than $19.99
9.28
5.38
4.26
3.23
6.32
100.00 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 61
Pensions for the Blind
Table I.—Disposition of Applications
Number of new applications received     59
Number of new applications granted     62 *
Number of new applications not granted     15
1 Includes some left over from previous year.
Table II.—Miscellaneous
Number of B.C. pensioners returned to British Columbia       1
Number of new " other Province " pensioners transferred to
British Columbia       5
Number of B.C. pensioners transferred to other Provinces       3
Number of pensioners from other Provinces transferred out of
British Columbia or suspended     13
Number of B.C. reinstatements granted       8
Number of " other Province " reinstates granted       1
Number of deaths of B.C. pensioners     25
Number of pensions suspended     12
Number of deaths of " other Province " pensioners in British
Columbia        2
Total number of pensioners on payroll as of December 31st,
1952—
British Columbia  614
Other Province     70
684
Table III.—Reasons Why Applications Not Granted
Number Per Cent
Not blind within the meaning of the Act  10 66.66
Ineligible on account of residence     1 6.67
Unable to prove age     1 6.67
Income in excess  ____ 	
Application not completed  __ 	
Property transferred   	
Applications withdrawn     3 20.00
Whereabouts unknown  ____ 	
Total   15 100.00
Table IV.—Sex of New Pensioners
Number Per Cent
Males  44 70.97
Females  18 29.03
Total   62 100.00 W 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table V.—Marital Status of New Pensioners
Married 	
Number
  25
  13
                  5
Per Cent
40.32
Single               	
20.96
Widows   —     _ _ _ _
8.07
Widowers        	
_    8
12.90
Separated       ____
._     ____                _ 11
17.75
Divorced   	
  62
ice of New Pensioners
Number
     7
Total	
100.00
Table VI.—Birthpl
British Columbia  _
Per Cent
11.29
Other parts of Canada   	
  18
29.03
British Isles ____ 	
    _____     16
25.81
Other parts of British Empire
United States of America
     4
6.45
_    5
8.07
Other foreign countries 	
  12
  62
Granting of New Pensions
Number
     2
19.35
Total	
100.00
Table VII.—Ages at (
Age 21          _____    ____
Per Cent
3.23
Age 22 to 30	
     1
1.61
Age 31 to 40
-    5
8.07
Age 41 to 50 __     -           	
          3
4.84
Age 51 to 60    	
     5
8.07
Age 61 to 70	
Age 71 to 80
  31
_    9
50.00
14.51
Age 80 and up  	
     6
9.67
  62
of Pensioners at Death
Number
Total	
100.00
Table VIII.—Ages
Age 21                   ..    -._   	
Per Cent
Age 22 to 30 —               —   	
       1
4.00
Age 31 to 40 —     	
     2
8.00
Age 41 to 50 _.          	
     1
4.00
Age 51 to 60
     2
8.00
Age 61 to 70-
     6
24.00
Age 71 to 80                    	
     8
32.00
Age 81 and up
     5
20.00
  25
Total	
100.00 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 63
Table IX.—With Whom New Pensioners Live
Number Per Cent
Living with parents     5 8.07
Living alone  14 22.58
Living with spouse  15 24.19
Living with spouse and children     8 12.90
Living with children    10 16.12
Living with others     5 8.07
Living in private institutions     2 3.23
Living in public institutions       3 4.84
Total _•_  62 100.00
Table X.—Where New Pensioners Are Living
Number Per Cent
In own house  20 32.25
In rented house     4 6.45
In rented suite     2 3.23
In children's home     2 3.23
Boarding     7 11.29
With member of family  13 20.96
In housekeeping room     5 8.07
In boarding home  	
In institution     5 8.07
In single room     4 6.45
Total  62 100.00
Table XI.—Economic Status of New Pensioners
(a) Holding real property of value—                           Number Per Cent
$0  37 59.67
$1 to $250     1 1.61
$251 to $500     2 3.23
$501 to $750     5 8.07
$751 to $1,000     9 14.51
$1,001 to $1,500     5 8.07
$1,501 to $2,000  	
$2,001 and up     3 4.84
Total  62 100.00
(b) Holding personal property of value—
$0  34 54.85
$1 to $250    15 24.19
$251 to $500  4 6.45
$501 to $750  3 4.84
$751 to $1,000    4 6.45
$1,001 to $1,500  1 1.61
$1,501 to $2,000  	
$2,001 and up  1 1.61
Total    62 100.00 W 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XII.—Number of New Pensioners Living in Other Provinces Whose Pensions Were
Granted by British Columbia and Are Paid Wholly or Partially by this Province
Alberta  3
Saskatchewan   2
Manitoba   1
Ontario   2
Quebec  __
New Brunswick	
Nova Scotia  _
Prince Edward Island  __
Newfoundland	
Northwest Territories
Yukon Territory	
Total..
Table XIII.—Distribution of B.C. Blind Pensioners According to the Amount
of Pensions Received (Basic Pension, $40)
Pension Per Cent
$40.00   85.39
$35.00 to $39.99  4.60
$30.00 to $34.99  3.13
$25.00 to $29.99  1.20
$20.00 to $24.99  1.39
$19.99 and less  4.29
100.00
Old-age Assistance (65 to 69 Years), January 1st, 1952,
to March 31st, 1952
Table I.—Disposition of Applications
Number of new applications received  8,380
Number of new applications granted  4,238
Number of new applications not granted (refused, withdrawn,
etc.)       466
Number of new applications pending  3,676
Table II.—Miscellaneous
(a) British Columbia—
Number of B.C. reinstatements granted  1
Number of deaths of B.C. recipients        26
Number of B.C. recipients suspended        14
Number of B.C. recipients transferred to old-age security       73
Total number of B.C. recipients on payroll at end
of fiscal year  4,126
(b) Other Province—
Number of new " other Province " recipients transferred to British Columbia  7
Total number of recipients (B.C. and "other Province ")
on payroll at end of fiscal year  4,133 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
Table III.—Reasons Why Applications Not Granted
Number
Not of ase                              48
w 65
Per Cent
10.30
1.07
0.22
48.49
0.43
0.43
16.74
10.73
0.64
10.95
Unable to prove age	
5
Not sufficient residence	
            1
Income in excess	
Receiving War Veterans' Allowance
Information refused 	
      226
          2
            2
Applications withdrawn  	
        78
Applicants died before grant _. 	
50
Whereabouts unknown       .
            3
Eligible for old-age security	
        51
Total	
      466
100.00
Table IV.—Sex of Recipients
Number
Male  1,822
Female   2,416
Per Cent
42.99
57.01
Total	
  4,238
100.00
Table V.—Marital Status
Married	
Single 	
Widows 	
Widowers 	
Separated	
of Recipients
Number
  1,563
      623
  1,131
      272
       584
Per Cent
36.88
14.70
26.71
6.42
13.78
1.51
Divorced 	
        65
Total	
4,238
100.00
Table VI.—Birthplace o
British Columbia
/ Recipients
Number
        89
Per Cent
2.10
21.30
45.96
0.76
6.21
23.67
Other parts of Canada                .
      903
British Isles                                   -
  1,948
Other parts of British Empire	
United States of America      	
        32
      263
Other foreign countries	
1,003
Total	
  4,238
100.00 W 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VII.—Ages at Granting of Assistance
Number Per Cent
Age 65        650 15.34
Age 66      782 18.45
Age 67      875 20.65
Age 68   1,017 24.00
Age 69      914 21.56
Total  4,23 8 100.00
Table VIII.—Ages of Recipients at Death
Number Per Cent
Age 65     2 7.69
Age 66     1 3.85
Age 67     5 19.23
Age 68     7 26.92
Age 69    11 42.31
Total  26 100.00
Table IX.—With Whom Recipients Live
Number Per Cent
Living alone  1,517 35.80
Living with spouse  1,268 29.92
Living with spouse and children      309 7.29
Living with children      648 15.29
Living with other relatives      180 4.25
Living with others      247 5.82
Living in public institutions        28 ,     0.66
Living in private institutions        41 0.97
Total  4,238 100.00
Table X.—Where Recipients Are Living
Number Per Cent
In own house  1,480 34.92
In rented house      505 11.92
In children's home      680 16.05
In home of other relatives      118 2.78
Boarding       147 3.47
In boarding home        45 1.06
In housekeeping room      646 15.24
In single room (eating out)      203 4.79
In rented suite      345 8.14
In institution        69 1.63
Total  4,238 100.00 :
REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 67
Table XI.—Economic Status of Recipients
(a) Holding real property of value—                         Number Percent
$0  2,818 66.49
$1 to $250        77 1.82
$251 to $500      263 6.20
$501 to $750      361 8.52
$751 to $1,000      238 '   5.62
$1,001 to $1,500      291 6.87
$1,501 to $2,000      112 2.64
$2,001 and up        78 1.84
Total  4,238 100.00
(b) Holding personal property of value—
$0  2,599 61.32
$1 to $250  1,118 26.38
$251 to $500  277 6.53
$501 to $750  106 2.50
$751 to $1,000  49 1.18
$1,001 to $1,500  57 1.34
$1,501 to $2,000  21 0.49
$2,001 and up  11 0.26
Total  4,238 100.00
Table XII.—Number of Recipients Living in Other Provinces Whose Assistance
Was Granted by British Columbia and Is Paid by This Province
Alberta  1
Saskatchewan  _
Manitoba  __
Ontario  1
Quebec	
New Brunswick  __
Nova Scotia  __
Prince Edward Island	
Newfoundland  __
Northwest Territories  L.
Yukon Territory  __
Total.
Table XIII.—Distribution of B.C. Recipients According to the Amount
of Assistance Received (Basic Assistance, $40)
Allowance Per Cent
$40.00  85.38
$35.00 to $39.99  3.62
$30.00 to $34.99 :  3.62
$25.00 to $29.99  2.10
$20.00 to $24.99  1.66
Less than $19.99  3.62
Total   100.00 W 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Distribution of Blind Pensioners Who Were under " The Old Age
Pensions Act " as of December 31st, 1951
Number of blind pensioners under " The Old Age Pensions Act "
as of December 31st, 1951—
British Columbia  614
Other Provinces     70
Total  684
Number of blind pensioners transferred to old-age security as of
January 1st, 1952—
British Columbia  240
Other Provinces     27
Total  267
Number of blind pensioners transferred to " The Blind Persons
Act " as of January 1st, 1952—
British Columbia   374
Other Provinces     43
Total  417
Allowances for Blind Persons (21 to 69 Years), January 1st, 1952,
to March 31st, 1952
Table I.—Disposition of Applications
Number of new applications received   55
Number of new applications granted     181
Number of new applications not granted  102
Number of new applications pending  27
Includes some received under " The Old Age Pensions Act."
; See Table III.
Table II.—Miscellaneous
Number of B.C. recipients transferred to other Provinces       1
Number of deaths of B.C. recipients       6
Number of B.C. recipients suspended       5
Number of new "other Province" recipients transferred to
British Columbia       5
Number of " other Province " recipients transferred out of
British Columbia or suspended       1
Number of deaths of " other Province " recipients in British
Columbia        1
Total on payroll at end of fiscal year—
British Columbia  380
Other Province     46
  426 "
REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 69
Table III.—Reasons Why Applications Not Granted
Number
Not blind within the meaning of the Act     _    ,'    3
Per Cent
30.00
Income in excess -   ._           2
20.00
Applications withdrawn        1
10.00
Eligible for old-age security     2
20.00
Died before grant     2
20.00
Total  10
100.00
Table IV.—Sex of New Recipients
Number
Males    10
Per Cent
55.56
Females  _   _           8
44.44
Total  18
100.00
Table V.—Marital Status of New Recipients
Number
Married     6
Per Cent
33.33
Single       4
22.22
Widows      2
11.11
Widowers     3
16.67
Separated                       _ _              _             3
16.67
Divorced   ._                        	
Total  18
100.00
Table VI.—Birthplace of New Recipients
Number
British Columbia     3
Per Cent
16.67
Other parts of Canada     3
16.67
British Isles        4
22.22
Other parts of British Empire	
United States of America "       2
11.11
Other foreign countries  .      6
33.33
Total  18
100.00
Table VII.—Ages at Granting of Allowance
Number Per Cent
Age 21  	
Age 22 to 30  	
Age 31 to 40     1 5.56
Age 41 to 50       4 22.22
Age 51 to 60     5 27.78
Age 61 to 69     8 44.44
Total  18 100.00 W 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VIII.—Ages of Recipients at Death
Number Per Cent
Age 21  	
Age 22 to 30  	
Age 31 to 40  	
Age 41 to 50  	
Age 51 to 60     2 33.34
Age 61 to 69     4 66.66
Total     6 100.00
Table IX.—With Whom Recipients Live
Number Per Cent
Living with parents     1     • 5.56
Living alone     2 11.11
Living with spouse     4 22.21
Living with spouse and children     2 11.11
Living with children     2 11.11
Living with other relatives     2 11.11
Living with others     3 16.67
Living in public institution     1 5.56
Living in private institution     1 5.56
Total  18 100.00
Table X.—Where Recipients Are Living
Number Per Cent
In own house     7 38.88
In rented house	
In rented suite     2
In children's home	
Boarding 	
With member of family	
In housekeeping room	
In boarding home	
In institution	
In single room	
Total	
2
11.11
2
11.11
3
16.67
1
5.56
1
5.56
2
11.11
8
100.00 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 71
Table XL—Economic Status of Recipients
(a) Holding real property of value— Number Per cent
$0  12 66.66
$1 to $250  	
$251 to $500  	
$501 to $750   _
$751 to $1,000  	
$1,001 to $1,500     2 11.11
$1,501 to $2,000     1 5.56
$2,001 and up     3 16.67
Total  18 100.00
(b) Holding personal property of value—
$0  13 72.22
$1 to $250     1 5.56
$251 to $500     2 11.11
$501 to $750  	
$751 to $1,000  _____
$1,001 and up .    2 11.11
Total  18 100.00
Table XII.—Number of Recipients Living in Other Provinces Whose Pensions Were
Granted by British Columbia and Are Paid by This Province
Alberta     2
Saskatchewan	
Manitoba	
Ontario	
Quebec	
New Brunswick
Nova Scotia	
Prince Edward Island
Newfoundland	
Northwest Territories
Yukon Territory	
Table XIII.—Distribution of B.C. Recipients According to the Amount
of Allowance Received (Basic Allowance, $40)
Allowance Per Cent
$40.00  94.23
$35.00 to $39.99  0.79
$30.00 to $34.99  1.57
$25.00 to $29.99  0.79
$20.00 to $24.99  1.31
$ 19.99 and less  1.31
Total  100.00 W 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Old-age Security Bonus, January 1st, 1952, to March 31st, 1952
Number of former B.C. old-age pensioners transferred to
old-age security on January 1st, 1952  30,395
Number of former B.C. old-age pensioners in receipt of cost-
of-living bonus on January 1st, 1952  25,745
Number of old-age pensioners receiving cost-of-living bonus
on March 31st, 1952  25,165
Number of old-age assistance recipients transferred to old-age
security, since January 1st, 1952  73
Number of old-age assistance recipients transferred to old-age
security but continuing to receive the cost-of-living
bonus, as of March 31st, 1952  66
Former blind pensioners transferred to old-age security on
January 1st, 1952        240
Blind persons in receipt of old-age security and receiving the
cost-of-living bonus on March 31st, 1952        210
New Applications for Cost-of-living Bonus for Old-age Security
Pensioners Since January 1st, 1952
Number of applications received  1,088
Number granted bonus and health services  423
Number granted bonus only  13
Number granted health services only  56
Number who died before application was granted  8
Number of applications withdrawn  9
Number ineligible  227
Number of applications pending  352
Total  1,088
Number of pensioners suspended	
Number of pensioners who died while in receipt of bonus and
health services 	 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 73
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
" The Old Age Pensions Act," Year Ended March 31st 1952
Total amount paid pensioners in British
/~_i„__k;o Supplementary
_OlUm0ia  Pensions Allowances Total
Old age  $10,913,951.19 $2,751,222.64 $13,665,173.83
Blind   236,372.29 56,440.70 292,812.99
Totals  $11,150,323.48 $2,807,663.34 $13,957,986.82
Less—
Amount of refunds from pensioners
and estates—
From estates of old-age pensioners       $121,795.10 $71.39       $121,866.49
From estates of blind pensioners.. 392.94 10.00 402.94
Overpayments refunded by old-age
pensioners   8,430.45 692.51 9,122.96
Overpayments   refunded   by   blind
pensioners   74.23 5.00 79.23
Miscellaneous refunds from old-age
pensioners   666.11 110.00 776.11
Miscellaneous  refunds  from  blind
pensioners             	
Totals        $131,358.83 $888.90       $132,247.73
Net  amount  paid   to  pensioners  in
British Columbia—
Old age  $10,783,059.53 $2,750,348.74 $13,533,408.27
Blind   235,905.12 56,425.70 292,330.82
Totals  $11,018,964.65 $2,806,774.44 $13,825,739.09
Add amount paid other Provinces on
account of pensioners for whom
British Columbia is partly responsible—
Old age  $61,160.11       $26,001.05 $87,161.16
Blind   1,161.74 470.00 1,631.74
Totals  $62,321.85       $26,471.05 $88,792.90
Less amount received by British Columbia on account of pensioners
for whom other Provinces are
wholly or partly responsible—
Old age        $364,628.87     $109,275.22       $473,904.09
Blind   9,129.11 1,797.82 10,926.93
Totals        $373,757.98     $111,073.04       $484,831.02 W 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Less amount refunded by the Canadian
/-*                       .               * Supplementary
government                                                        Pensions Allowances                       Total
Old age     $8,088,759.25        $8,088,759.25
Blind   176,923.77     176,923.77
Totals     $8,265,683.02       $8,265,683.02
Total amount  of  pensions  paid  by
British Columbia—
Old age-     $2,390,831.52 $2,667,074.57    $5,057,906.09
Blind   51,013.98 55,097.88 106,111.86
Totals     $2,441,845.50 $2,722,172.45    $5,164,017.95
Supplementary Allowances
Gross amount of supplementary allowances paid in
British Columbia  $2,806,774.44
Plus supplementary allowances paid to other Provinces on account of B.C. pensioners  26,471.05
Less supplementary allowances refunded by other
Provinces  111,073.04
Net  supplementary  allowances  paid  by
British Columbia  $2,722,172.45
" The Old Age Assistance Act," January 1st, 1952, to March 31st, 1952
Supplementary
Assistance Allowances Total
Total amount paid recipients in British Columbia $525,456.55 $105,985.69 $631,442.24
Less amount of refunds from recipients—
Overpayments refunded  $80.00 $56.24 $136.24
Miscellaneous refunds  40.00 10.00 50.00
Totals  $120.00 $66.24 $186.24
Net amount paid to recipients in British Columbia   $525,336.55 $105,919.45 $631,256.00
Add amount paid other Provinces on account
of recipients for whom British Columbia is
responsible          1,507.30          1,507.30
Less amount received by British Columbia on
account of recipients for whom other Provinces are responsible         2,702.57          2,702.57
Less amount refunded by the Canadian Government      262,668.27      262,668.27
Total amount paid by British Columbia   $261,473.01  $105,919.45 $367,392.46
I REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 75
" The Blind Persons Act," January 1st, 1952, to March 31st, 1952
Supplementary
Allowances Allowances Total
Total amount paid recipients in British Columbia    $50,596.22    $11,597.50    $62,193.72
Less amount of refunds from recipients—
Overpayments refunded  $160.00 $40.00 $200.00
Miscellaneous refunds	
Totals  $160.00 $40.00 $200.00
Net amount paid to recipients in British Columbia      $50,436.22    $11,557.50    $61,993.72
Add amount paid other Provinces on account
of recipients for whom British Columbia is
responsible   208.01   208.01
Less amount received by British Columbia on
account of recipients for whom other Provinces are responsible  384.00 277.50 661.50
Less amount refunded by the Canadian Government        37,827.17        37,827.17
Total amount paid by British Columbia      $12,433.06    $11,280.00    $23,713.06
Old-age Security Pensioners—Supplementary Allowances,
January 1st, 1952, to March 31st, 1952
Total amount paid recipients in British Columbia  $740,919.63
Less amount of refunds from recipients—
Overpayments refunded  $193.20
Miscellaneous refunds  10.00
Total  $203.20
Net amount paid to recipients in British Columbia  $740,716.43
Add amount paid other Provinces on account of recipients for whom British Columbia is responsible         5,493.15
Less amount received by British Columbia on account
of recipients for whom other Provinces are responsible  i       24,807.19
Total amount paid by British Columbia  $721,402.39 W 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Administration Expense
Salaries and special services  $159,088.98
Office supplies, subscriptions, etc  22,244.24
Postage, telephone and telegraph  21,053.75
Bank exchange  3,498.61
Travelling expense  598.77
Incidentals and contingencies  658.51
Office furniture and equipment  5,468.61
Rentals  14,347.43
Total  $226,958.90
Summary
Cost-of-Living Bonus
" Old-age Pension Act "  $2,722,172.45
" Old-age Assistance Act "  105,919.45
" Blind Persons' Allowances Act "  11,280.00
Universal old-age security  721,402.39
As per Public Accounts  $3,560,774.29
Administration and Pensions
Administration   $226,958.90
" Old-age Pension Act "  2,441,845.50
" Blind Persons' Allowances Act "  12,433.06
" Old-age Assistance Act "  261,473.01
As per Public Accounts  $2,942,710.47
CONCLUSION
In closing this report, the Board would like to express its sincere appreciation to the
office and field staffs for the willing spirit in which they carried a very heavy load and to
other departments of the Government and the many outside agencies that assisted so freely
in a very difficult year.
Respectfully submitted.
J. H. Creighton,
Chairman. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
W 77
MEDICAL SERVICES DIVISION
I have the privilege of presenting the report of the activities of the Medical Services
Division of the Department of Health and Welfare during the fiscal year 1951-52.
Our services, started many years ago as an " emergency " of necessity, had its roots
in sand. To-day they are planted firmly in soil, and are the mirrored reflection of present
thinking of the public about welfare. Its growth is partly illustrated in the following
table:—
Fiscal Year
1949-50
Fiscal Year
1950-51
Fiscal Year
1951-52
$592,908.17
299,478.71
24,764.96
3,990.96
13,425.22
14,156.08
$688,829.34
387,242.73
30,915.12
1,839.60
23,543.17
13,612.38
$723,524.87
Drugs	
Dental. ..            	
448,886.21
50,044.06
3,170.24
Optical  	
28,972.01
14,860.51
$948,724.10
$1,145,982.34
$1,269,457.90
The agreement with the Canadian Medical Association, British Columbia Division,
is functioning smoothly. Few, if any, complaints have reached us in reference to the
services rendered. The co-operation of the association has been excellent. The amiable
relations are a tribute to both bodies in the agreement. It is certainly evident that the
served one is uppermost in their minds. As long as this spirit exists, we need never fear
for our clients.
Negotiations and study have shown the need to increase the per capita payment from
$14.50 to $18.50. This sum would still appear to be only partial payment for these
services. We are indeed most thankful to the administration in the Medical Association
for their attitude and to the profession at large for their services. Little is known by the
public of the difficulties encountered in dealing with the medical problems in the geriatric
field—the time-consuming element, the patience required, the feelings of frustration in the
inability to deal adequately with the ravages of time, the hurdles of inadequate housing,
recreation, and insufficiency in general. These are known to your Department, and we
continue to grapple with the problems, nibbling here and there until gradually evolves one
additional problem handled and a service established—another root planted in soil.
It is unnecessary for me to elaborate on the figures quoted above of costs. I would
remark that the problem of drugs is receiving the concentrated study of both your Department and the Medical Association. It is hoped that some adequate system of supply will
be arranged at a more reasonable cost.
The dental item is of some concern. The sum in the above table represents the
charges for extractions and dentures. The problem in the prophylactic field in dentistry
has not been solved. It would appear that the acute shortage of dentists throughout this
Province is the major stumbling-block toward the solution. We will continue in our
efforts until success is assured.
The increased interest and activities by the Acting Medical Social Work Consultant
has been of outstanding assistance. This worker must always be keen, thorough, and
show a sincere interest in the medical-social problems. She must be an inspiration to be
of service to the worker in the field. She is bound to help the social worker in the field in
his or her interpretation of medical-social problems of the welfare case. The activities
of the worker have proven beyond doubt the need for this service.
Worthy of special mention is the assistance to this Division by the Western Society
for Rehabilitation. This centre was opened in January, 1949, through private funds.
The function of this society is the rehabilitation of the orthopsedically disabled, which can
include paraplegics, polios with permanent paralysis, arthritics, leg amputees, etc.   The W 78
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Social Welfare Branch became interested in the possibilities of utilization of their facilities.
Under the Branch's sponsorship, three cases were underwritten for care and treatment on
an experimental basis. The success met in this experiment led to the increase in numbers
to nine. This was accomplished with the co-operation of the municipalities and the
Western Society for Rehabilitation and the Canadian Arthritis and Rheumatism Society.
This is a splendid example of what can be accomplished through a co-operative spirit
when municipal governments, the Provincial Government, and private agencies band
together in the interests of the handicapped individual. Careful watch will be necessary
to make certain that the expansion of this service keeps pace with the public needs and
availability of accommodation.
I would be remiss in my duty if I did not call your attention to the assistance rendered
to this Division by the staff of the Vancouver General and the Out-patient Department,
and also the British Columbia Cancer Institute. We are indeed indebted to them for this
and are most appreciative of their co-operation.
Respectfully submitted.
J. C. Moscovich, M.D.,
Director. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 79
INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR BOYS
I submit herewith the forty-eighth annual report of the Provincial Industrial School
for Boys, covering the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1952.
One hundred and fifty-two boys were admitted during this period, 20.4 per cent or
31 of whom were recidivists. Of the total, 44.1 per cent were 14 years of age and under,
while 55.9 per cent were 15 years of age and over, as follows: 1 boy was 10 years of age,
2 boys were 11 years of age, 8 boys were 12 years of age, 20 boys were 13 years of age,
36 boys were 14 years of age, 39 boys were 15 years of age, 36 boys were 16 years of age,
and 10 boys were 17 years of age.   The average age was 15-%2 years.
Inmate-days for the year totalled 30,865, an increase of 854 days over the previous
year, while the average daily attendance was 84.3 boys.
Our population fluctuates from day to day, according to the number of admissions
and releases, as will be noted from the following figures showing the high and low
population by months during the year:— High low
April, 1951  109 100
May    99 95
June  96 92
July  94 78
August  79 69
September  67 59
October  66 57
November  76 65
December  82 73
January, 1952  91 82
February    99 89
March  114 97
Forty-six different Juvenile Courts are represented in our year's admissions, covering
most areas throughout the Province. Twenty-nine boys were domiciled in Region I, 89
boys in Region II, 20 boys in Region III, 8 boys in Region IV, and 6 boys in Region V.
As in previous years, offences against property were the cause of the majority of
admissions, there being 126 under this heading, principally for breaking and entering and
stealing and for theft. Eleven offences against persons and fifteen miscellaneous offences
were recorded.
The agency with which the school maintains constant liaison during the period of the
boy's stay in the school is referred to as the " supervising agency." It is from this source
we obtain social data regarding the boy's background, and it is with this agency that our
social workers jointly plan for the boy's release and rehabilitation. The distribution of
population by supervising agencies is as follows:— Boy-
Social Welfare Branch     36
Social Welfare Branch and Indian Commissioner       4
Provincial Probation _     27
Provincial Probation and Indian Commissioner       5
Vancouver Juvenile Court     42
Victoria Juvenile Court     15
Vancouver Children's Aid Society     12
Catholic Children's Aid Society       5
New Westminster Social Welfare Department       4
Burnaby Juvenile Court       1
Child Welfare Division       1
Total -  152 W 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA
HEALTH SECTION
Upon admission every boy is given a thorough physical examination, including chest
X-ray, laboratory and other tests. The results of these have often had far-reaching
effects, not only in better health, but also in social adjustment. It is the policy of the
school to give major consideration to the health needs of those in our care, and every
effort is made to restore to normal health those who are in need of medical and dental
care.
The following figures will help illustrate the variety of services rendered by this
important section of our school:—
21 boys required a total of 178 days' hospitalization for a variety of medical
and surgical care.
171 dental appointments took care of the dental needs of 96 boys.
26 boys received treatment at the Out-patient Clinics of the Vancouver General
Hospital.
The services of the Crease Clinic were called upon for 10 electro-encephalograms, 1 basal metabolism rate, 70 diagnostic X-rays, and 9 boys for
physiotherapy treatments.
22 boys required specialists' care for impaired vision, and 19 pairs of glasses
were provided.
136 chest X-rays at the Simon Fraser Health Unit formed part of our routine
examinations.
A total of 182 minor ailments were treated in the school infirmary and 32 at
the school doctor's office.
TREATMENT SECTION
Considerable progress has been made during the past year in the development of a
programme based on the concept that boys in our care require treatment of their social
illnesses in an environment designed to meet their needs. The social case-work and
group-work staff has been increased and strengthened, resulting in a more adequate
programme of treatment to meet the individual needs.
SOCIAL CASE-WORK
This department, under the direction of its supervisor, has maintained the social
case-work programme of the school, although hampered by changes in personnel during
the year. An extra load, undertaken willingly, was placed upon our staff by the request
that we loan staff members to meet an emergency at the Girls' School. Our case-work
supervisor gave half of his time for two months to these duties, as did the treatment
director.
This department has worked closely with all other agencies and services in the field,
holding many conferences, maintaining a heavy volume of correspondence, and working
on an intensive case-work basis with those boys in the school who required this treatment.
The services of the Child Guidance Clinic were used as fully as possible: 78 boys
were given full psychiatric and psychological examination; 28 boys were given special
projective vocational tests; and 160 psychiatric interviews and 4 case conferences were
held. Case-work interviews within the school showed a decided increase, there being
1,161 personal interviews, 242 collateral interviews, 212 supervision periods, 53 case
consultations, 21 case conferences, and 14 miscellaneous conferences and meetings.
EDUCATIONAL AND VOCATIONAL
The number of boys attending academic classes was the largest for some years, there
being a total of 146 registered during the year:   4 boys were in Grade IV, 14 boys in REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 81
Grade V, 13 boys in Grade VI, 30 boys in Grade VII, 32 boys in Grade VIII, 19 boys
in Grade IX, 4 boys in Grade X, 10 boys in special classes, 14 boys took academic
correspondence courses, 4 boys took cooking correspondence courses, and 2 boys took
motor mechanics correspondence courses.   The average I.Q. was 92.
Promotions made at the end of June were fairly satisfactory. Thirty-four boys out
of a total of 48 who were eligible for promotion were assigned to higher grades, while
several others were promoted on trial following satisfactory progress in our summer school
conducted during July and August.
Auditory and visual aids play an important part in our educational programme, as do
vocational films and musical recordings. Tours of industrial plants were arranged, these
being correlated with class work actually in progress at the time of the visits.
The school library has continued to grow and is becoming increasingly popular.
Approximately 200 new books have been added. The part-time services of a librarian
have proved most worth while.
Capacity classes are held daily during the entire school-day in both woodwork and
motor mechanics, with skilled instructors in charge. Student participation and interest
is very keen, all available space and equipment being taxed to the limit. This forbids our
increasing these important training features until such time as adequate facilities are at
our disposal.
Practical and theoretical training has been given to a large portion of our school
family in all phases of gardening agriculture by our gardening instructor, both the garden
and greenhouse serving a very useful purpose. Vegetables raised provide the needs of the
school during the summer months, and the grounds are beautified by propagation of many
varieties of flowers. The therapeutic value of this department is of great help in our
treatment of certain types of disturbed youngsters, who derive satisfaction from working
in close contact with nature.
Our tailor-shop, while not as glamorous as some other departments, nevertheless fills
an important place in our school, providing training for a small group of boys who, under
expert instruction, do a big job in providing many of our clothing requirements and other
equipment. The following items from our tailor's records of articles made will be found
interesting: 243 pairs of overalls, 141 pairs of tweed pants, 410 pairs of cotton shorts,
78 dish-towels, 12 baseball uniforms, and 105 pairs of tweed pants cleaned, pressed, and
repaired. In addition to the above, many other items have been taken care of, including
cooks' and kitchen boys' aprons, the care of all slipper and boot repairs, and care of the
boys' personal clothing upon admission and discharge.
RECREATIONAL AND ENTERTAINMENT
Recreational activity and entertainment occupy a major portion of the late afternoon
and evening hours.    Seasonal in aspect, the programme is quite varied.
Formal classes in physical education are held regularly under qualified instructors,
particular attention being given to remedial and general health exercises. Organized
games, including football, lacrosse, basketball, volleyball, and indoor and outdoor track
and field events are entered into enthusiastically by the boys, while the school swimming-
pool is in constant use and continues to be the most popular activity. Instruction is given
in the art of swimming and diving. Boxing, weight-lifting, floor hockey, and a variety of
group games help in rounding out the seasonal programme.
Teams representing the school play many competitive games with outside groups
from Vancouver, New Westminster, and surrounding districts. Our boys not only display
very fine sportsmanship, but can hold their own with the best.
Handicraft and hobby groups meet regularly several times each week. These
groups include activities such as art, model-building, stamp-collecting, leatherwork,
copper-tooling, toy-making, etc. W 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Service clubs and other organizations have made it possible for our boys to attend
such functions as the Pacific National Exhibition and Shrine Circus, ice carnivals,
professional hockey games, and other outstanding events.
Moving pictures are shown at the school weekly, and many artists have combined to
bring to the boys of our school a variety of musical and other entertainments.
In all details of the operation of our programme there has been a most encouraging
acceptance of the concept of treatment as our primary function.
RELIGIOUS TRAINING
Like other phases of our school programme, the handicap of inadequate quarters
prevents a satisfactory programme of religious training, and the need of a chapel or quiet
room where the boys can assemble without interference is felt.
Catholic and Protestant services are held each Sunday, the Catholic boys attending
the parish church at Port Coquitlam, and the Salvation Army and Baptist Church
alternately conducting services for the Protestant boys in our recreation-room.
STATISTICAL INFORMATION
Parental Relationships
With both parents living  88
With both parents dead  1
With adoptive parents  1
With parents living but separated  20
With parents separated and mother married again  13
With parents separated and father married again  3
With mother living and father dead  12
With father living and mother dead  6
With father dead and mother married again  4
With mother dead and father married again  2
With mother unknown and father married again  1
With father unknown and mother married again  1
Total  152
Movement of Population, April 1st, 1951, to March 31st, 1952
Number in school, April 1st, 1951  104
Number absent without leave, April 1st, 1951     15
Number in Oakalla, April 1st, 1951       1
Number of admissions during year  152
  272
Number of releases during year    146
Number in Oakalla, March 31st, 1952       3
Number absent without leave, March 31st, 1952     19
  168
Number in school, March 31st, 1952  104 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
W 83
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Expenditure and per Capita Cost
Salaries  $79,891.69
Office and school expense  1,909.96
Office furniture and equipment  208.28
Furnishings and equipment .  1,844.29
Automobiles and accessories  987.53
Travelling and transportation  2,534.39
Heat, light, power, and water  3,998.74
Janitor's supplies and maintenance of grounds  1,755.81
Laundry   2,024.73
Provisions   33,374.62
Shoes and clothing  4,302.76
Medical, surgical, and dental  5,257.44
Other hospitalization    2,224.75
Vocational and recreational supplies  1,801.58
Incidentals and contingencies __ 894.31
■
Less—
Rent collected    $478.17
Unemployment insurance deductions        70.21
Proceeds from meal tickets  2,252.00
Maintenance  1,553.00
Workmen's Compensation Board  2,031.36
$143,010.88
6,384.74
$136,626.14
Public Works expenditure         4,641.67
Decrease in inventory         2,770.24
$144,038.05
Cost-of-living bonus       28,185.62
Public Works cost-of-living bonus  813.28
	
Per Capita Cost
General operating expense  $4.67
Cost-of-living bonus       .94
$173,036.95
Total per capita cost  $5.61
Reconciliation
Expenditure as per Public Accounts  $164,811.76
Add Public Works expenditure  $4,641.67
Add Public Works cost-of-living bonus       813.28
$5,454.95
Add decrease in inventory     2,770.24
8,225.19
Expenditure as per above statement  $173,036.95 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
CONCLUSION
W 85
May I express our appreciation to the many individuals and departments of Government and to the other social-work agencies, public and private, for the efficient and
courteous co-operation we have received during the past year, and to all who have taken
a kindly interest in our programme and welfare we extend our grateful thanks.
Respectfully submitted.
George Ross,
Superintendent. W 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA
INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS
I beg to submit the thirty-eighth annual report of the Provincial Industrial School
for Girls, for the fiscal year 1951-52.
The changes begun last year have progressed during this year. The long-desired
addition of a full-time social worker to our staff was realized. The results in good
planning, individual treatment, and increased interest of private agencies and welfare
branches have more than justified this added personnel. Much consideration was also
given to the type of nurse required by such an institution as ours, culminating in the
selection of a qualified psychiatric nurse. This addition has also been of utmost value,
as her interpretive work with girls and her understanding of disturbed persons are of
much greater worth than actual bedside nursing, while her attendance at clinics, both
psychiatric and medical, has implemented the successful use of both.
ADMISSIONS
The forty-nine admissions of this year represented nineteen centres, with 40 per
cent from the Vancouver Court. By far the greater number were in the 15- to 16-year
age-group, there being 28 per cent in each of these. This has meant that a larger group
of girls than usual fall into a congenial group for sports, hobbies, and school interests.
Although over legal age for school, many of these are interested in at least partial
academic courses, especially in commercial subjects.
HEALTH
Clinics.—A team of doctor and nurse from the Division of Venereal Disease Control
visits the school once weekly for examination of all admissions and treatment of those
requiring this service.
Medical Clinics.—Medical clinics are held for complete examination of new admissions and pre-release cases. For those requiring further tests or treatment, appointments
are made for this attention at the Out-patient Department, Vancouver General Hospital.
Dental Clinics.—These are held weekly at Capitol Hill School, each girl attending
regularly until dental work is completed.
T.B. Clinic.—Chest X-rays were routine in case of all new admissions, and all Indian
girls attended diagnostic X-ray clinic.
Hospitalizations during this year were higher than usual, from various causes. There
was a total of ten admissions to Vancouver General Hospital—five for tonsillectomies,
two for observation in the psychiatric ward, one case of yellow jaundice, one for complete
extraction of teeth, and one confinement in maternity ward.
CHILD GUIDANCE CLINIC
Our well-established relationship with this clinic continued with markedly good
results. New admissions were speedily presented at the clinic for full examination and
interviews, returning frequently thereafter for treatment interviews and conferences.
There was great improvement in the attitude of the girls toward the clinic. It has been
the idea of many uninformed girls that the tests at the Child Guidance Clinic were to
determine the extent of their " craziness," but the good interpretive work being done has
erased this opinion, and girls realize that much help and understanding of their many
problems are offered by the clinic team. The girls ask to be presented to the clinic so
frequently and are so anxious to accept the advice and help offered that we could well do
with much more of the clinic's time were its programme not so crowded. We are most
appreciative of the assistance accorded us by this service. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
W 87
TRAINING AND PLACEMENT
There were fifty-one releases during the year, and of these, the majority were
returned to their own homes. One example of such placement is that of /. When she
came to us, she was a rough, rowdy girl, the product of a neighborhood gang, /.'s chief
interest was in athletics, and at this time our Pro-Rec group was attending outside classes
in /.'s old neighborhood. When chosen as one of those to attend there, /. was fearful of
the reception she might receive. However, no reference was made to her past behaviour,
and the welcome extended her was warm. From this experience grew the desire to return
to her own community upon release and prove herself a good citizen. Progress was good,
and /. applied herself well in all branches of training. Her parents supplied dentures,
which were badly needed. Previous to release /. was placed in a position where she
went daily to and from the school. Upon release, she continued satisfactorily in her job,
and shortly married a former boy friend, established in business with his father. This
marriage seems happy and successful, and the latest word announced the arrival of a
little son.
The second largest release group was to foster-home placement. One of the most
difficult to make and one of the most interesting was that of T. An illegitimate child of
a 16-year-old mother, T. came to us at the age of 13, following the birth of her own
illegitimate child. Actually committal was made so that T. might have the close psychiatric attention impossible in her own community. The child was deeply disturbed following the harrowing experiences of pregnancy, birth of her baby, removal from her home,
and a Court hearing in which community feeling was antagonistic to her to the point of
acquittal of the putative father. She expressed distrust of all persons connected with
welfare work, and violent hostility for all adults who had interfered with her life. T. was
unable, at first, to accept the fact that she was committed to this institution, maintaining
that she thought it was only a school where she could come and go as she wished.
Intensive work was done by the social worker here, with whom she related well. Thrice
weekly interviews with Child Guidance Clinic case-worker were arranged, but after six
weeks he expressed the feeling that this child was so filled with distrust and suspicion that
she could not relate to anyone. During her short stay in the school, T. applied herself
to school studies with the expressed ambition of becoming a nurse. She displayed keen
interest in typing and music, taking elementary piano lessons in the latter. She practised
industriously in both at all available times. She was already a good little cook and
housekeeper. All her conversation was on an extremely adult level, and she showed
little interest in the activities of the other girls, except in the field of athletics. Because
her committal was primarily for the purpose of psychiatric treatment, her stay was comparatively short, and at the end of three months she was placed in a temporary foster
home where she adjusted quite well. Permanent foster-home placement was effected,
and last reports indicated that the adjustment was happy and satisfactory, with effort to
conform to social standards and community living showing progress.
Of the girls placed in work positions upon leaving, adjustment has been varied.
Usually as long as the girl remained as placed, a satisfactory state has existed, but in
a number of instances restlessness and desire for excitement has led to a change in work,
sometimes for the better, but more often not.
Of the fifty-one released, only four became recidivists during the same year. Two
girls were transferred—one to Oakalla Prison Farm and one to the Provincial Mental
Hospital.
One interesting placement was that of a child who came to this country as a displaced person from Europe. M. was not in need of correctional treatment so much as
of help and understanding. In a comparatively short time a foster-home placement was
made, with foster-parents who had emigrated from Europe many years ago and are
respected members of their community. Their common religion, closely allied racial
origin, national tongue, and happy absorption into Canadian community life made this
a suitable and successful haven for this new Canadian. W 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA
OUTSIDE INFLUENCES
We have been fortunate during this year to have various voluntary contributions to
our programme. One neighbour, skilled in ceramics, offered her service once a week
to instruct groups in this art; she obtained the use of a kiln and developed a new and
interesting hobby. The young women from the Y.W.C.A. sponsored a " charm school,"
held weekly with various speakers and demonstrators in dress, cosmetics, grooming, and
posture. A group of University of British Columbia students brought us instruction in
fencing, basketball, and tap dancing. The Ex-tello Club presented us with a cheque for
the purpose of providing dress material for those interested in sewing. A number of girls
took advantage of this opportunity to choose material and patterns and made themselves
lovely frocks, under supervision of our sewing instructress. A group of the Jewish
Federation of Women met with the girls weekly on a purely social basis and have done
much to provide worth-while activities, ranging from visits to radio stations to discussion
groups embracing everything from careers to dating.
A Girl Guide troop was formed, and has carried on successfully with Guide leaders
already on staff. The Women's Musical Society continued its monthly programmes, and
the regular church services have been brought to us each Sunday. Groups of Catholic
and Protestant girls have attended their own respective community churches. To one and
all who have assisted in making us feel part of the community, we extend our grateful
appreciation.
In closing this report, I should like to say a hearty " thank you " to the many agency
and social welfare workers who have been of such help in individual cases, to the other
branches of our own Department who have given generously of their knowledge and
experience in our support, and to the members of our Advisory Committee who have
aided us in our work.
STATISTICAL INFORMATION
Population of School, March 31st, 1952
On roll, April 1st, 1951  35
Girls admitted during year April 1st, 1951, to March 31st,
1952  49
— 84
Officially released  47
Transferred to other institutions     2
Transferred out of British Columbia     2
— 51
Total unreleased, March 31st, 1952  33
Places of Apprehension
Region I     9
Region II  27
Region III     2
Region IV     1
Region V     8
Region VI     2
Total   49 report of the social welfare branch
Offences Committed
Offences against property
Offences of incorrigibility
Other offences	
Total
13
19
17
49
W 89
Parental Relationships
Normal homes	
Broken homes	
Adoptive homes	
Total 	
23
24
2
49
Ages of Girls Admitted
12 years
13 years
14 years
15 years
16 years
17 years
1950-51
(Per Cent)
5.0
31.0
17.0
20.0
27.0
1951-52
(Per Cent)
2.04
12.24
18.36
28.57
28.57
10.20
Expenses and Revenue Statement of School, March 31st, 1952
Total inmate-days from April 1st, 1951, to March 31st, 1952
Per capita cost, one year	
Per capita cost, one day	
Operating expenditure by voucher—
Salaries	
Cost-of-living bonus
7,885
$3,174.41
$8,697
$27,085.76
8,840.96
Office and school supplies, etc.—
Postage, office, and school supplies.
Telephone and telegraph	
$604.64
238.47
Travelling expenses	
Farm operations	
Furnishings, equipment, etc.	
Office furniture and equipment.
Clothing-
Clothing 	
Boots and shoes	
Janitor's supplies	
Fuel, light, and water—
Fuel -—
Water	
Light and power	
$386.23
1,120.79
$3,463.10
274.70
1,050.99
843.11
927.79
453.29
2,505.98
336.63
1,507.02
499.02
4,788.79 W 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Provisions—
Groceries  $5,196.82
Meat  2,219.93
Fish  235.43
       7,652.18
Medical attendance, medical supplies, hospitalization, and
dental cost—
Medical attendance      $745.00
Medical supplies         343.66
Hospitalization and surgery        669.00
Dental cost        433.00
Eyes examined and glasses provided  28.38
       2,219.04
Good Conduct Fund  223.98
Incidentals and contingencies  169.49
Vocational and recreational supplies  446.88
Total expenditure for year by voucher  $58,499.92
Maintenance and repairs (expended through Public Works Department)—
Salaries  $4,621.20
Cost-of-living bonus        816.00
Repairs     6,520.49
Telephone, taxes, etc.  25.19
     11,982.88
Inventory, March 31st, 1951       1,413.06
$71,895.86
Less proceeds from sale of meal tickets  $1,146.00
Less rent  339.19
Less credit for sale of garden produce  22.10
Unemployment insurance credit  10.92
Workmen's Compensation Board refund  57.06
Less Court order maintenance for inmate  60.00
$1,635.27
Less inventory, March 31st, 1952     1,681.98
       3,317.25
$68,578.61
Reconciliation
Total expenditure as per Public Accounts  $56,864,65
Add Public Works expenditure     11,982.88
Add inventory as at March 31st, 1951       1,413.06
$70,260.59
Less inventory as at March 31st, 1952       1,681.98
Expenditure (as above)   $68,578.61
Respectfully submitted.
(Miss) Ayra E. Peck,
Superintendent. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
W 91
PROVINCIAL HOME
I beg to submit the annual report of the Provincial Home, Kamloops, for the fiscal
year 1951-52.
Improvements to Interior of Building
The major improvement carried out this year consisted of the renovation of the
lower main hallway, the same being modernized, similar to the entrance hallway. The
ceiling was covered with Donnaconna, the walls proper being covered with Silvaply,
which has greatly enhanced the appearance.
Fin-type radiators were installed in the Sick Ward dispensary and bathroom, likewise in the bathroom and toilet of Ward 13, which is situated immediately above the
Sick Ward.   This improvement proved satisfactory during the winter months.
Electrical outlets were installed throughout the building, which greatly facilitated
the use of electrical cleaning equipment.
The treads of all stairways were recovered with linoleum, the same being bound
with chromium trim.
EQUIPMENT
A large four-door reach-in refrigerator was installed in the kitchen, the interior
being constructed of stainless steel, the exterior of white enamel, with chromium fittings.
ENTERTAINMENT
The highlight of the year was the visit of Their Royal Highnesses Princess Elizabeth and Prince Philip to Kamloops on October 19th, 1951. A section of the grandstand was reserved for the inmates of the Provincial Home.
Organized entertainment was carried out during the year, with greater concentration during the winter months, and many organizations contributed their talent, such as
the Kamloops Senior High School Girls' Choir, the Junior High School Girls' Choir,
St. Ann's Academy Girls' Choir, the Junior Chamber of Commerce Orchestra, the
High School Orchestra, the Kamloops Elks' Band. Regular picture shows were given
every week, interspersed with religious services conducted by various denominations,
all of which were appreciated and patronized by many inmates.
The past fiscal year can again be recorded with satisfaction, with respect to
progress in the many facets of the operation of the Provincial Home. W 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA
FINANCIAL REPORT FOR THE YEAR APRIL 1st,  1951,
TO MARCH 3 1st, 1952
Expenditure for the Fiscal Year Ended March 31st, 1952
Salaries  $53,479.01
Cost-of-living bonus   21,503.26
Expenses—
Office expense   767.15
Furnishings, equipment, etc.   3,939.18
Transportation of inmates  586.53
Heat, light, power, and water  14,103.24
Maintenance    908.54
Laundry   546.21
Provisions    35,424.36
Clothing     2,601.30
Medical and surgical  4,905.65
Other hospitalization   1,317.86
Burials    1,320.00
Feed for live stock  351.75
Incidentals and contingencies   373.44
$142,127.48
Less board ($1,851) and rent ($552.50)          2,403.50
Total  $139,723.98
Inmate-days
Inmates in the Home, April 1st, 1951  133
Inmates admitted during the year     65
  198
Inmates discharged     41
Inmates died     28
     69
Total number of inmates, March 31st, 1952  129
Total number of inmate-days  46,308
Expenditures by Department of Public Works—Maintenance and Repairs
Salaries  $ 10,556.20
Cost-of-living bonus  4,015.50
Repairs   7,914.10
Grounds   178.44
Total      $22,664.24
Summary
Provincial Home expenditure  $139,723.98
Public Works expenditure       22,664.24
Total expenditure   $162,388.22
Cost per capita: $162,388.22-f-46,308=$3.50669. report of the social welfare branch
Paid to Government Agent, Kamloops
Pensions     $58,161.69
w 93
Reconciliation
Net expenditure as per Public Accounts     $84,029.03
Add maintenance receipts       61,991.02
Add Public Works expenditure
Less pensioners' comforts
$146,020.05
22,664.24
$168,684.29
6,296.07
Total expenditure (as above)  $162,388.22
Respectfully submitted.
J. M. Shilland,
Superintendent. W 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA
WELFARE INSTITUTIONS LICENSING BOARD
I herewith submit the annual report of the administration of the " Welfare Institutions Licensing Act" for the year 1951. In view of the fact that licences are issued
on the basis of the calendar year, this report covers the period January 1st, 1951, to
December 31st, 1951.
There were no changes in administration and no amendments to the Act. However,
new regulations to the Act were drawn up, and it is expected that these will be effective
early in 1952.
LICENCES
The total number of cases dealt with was 656. There were 408 licences issued;
of these, 316 were renewal licences and 92 were new licences. In the year 65 licensed
institutions closed. At the end of the year the case-load was 432, made up of 343 licensed
institutions and 89 pending applications.
BOARD MEETINGS
The Welfare Institutions Licensing Board held eleven regular meetings and one
special meeting. The Board spent a great deal of time on drawing up more comprehensive regulations to the Act. Before finalizing these regulations, copies were sent to all
senior officials of the Social Welfare Branch and to various private agencies for study
and comment. The suggestions received were valuable and constructive and proved most
helpful to the Board when deciding on the final draft of the regulations. These new
regulations should make for better administration and should also raise the standards
of places which are licensed. Chest X-rays are now required on all applicants. The
maximum capacity of a boarding home for older people has been set at twenty persons,
and a sitting-room is now " a must" in these homes. Provision for some recreational
programme is also required.
Defined in general terms are the qualifications of a person or supervisor in charge
of a pre-school centre. These qualifications need to be more clearly defined, and it is
planned to seek expert advice from the Department of Education and others trained in
this field.
The Board also consulted with Mr. C. R. Stonehouse, Chief Inspector, Environmental Sanitation, Department of Health, concerning the section of the regulations dealing with summer camps.
WELFARE INSTITUTIONS FOR CHILDREN
A. Full-time Care of Children
Institutions for Child-care
There are eleven licensed institutions for children in this Province. Only two of
these institutions can be considered child-caring institutions where placement is of long
duration. The other nine are institutions in which specialized care and services are given,
and the length of stay of the child is usually short. By and large, conditions in these
institutions continue to improve. More and better trained staff is employed, and there
is closer co-operation between institutions and welfare agencies, and also a greater use
is being made of services such as the Child Guidance Clinics and Vocational Guidance
Services.
Few of these institutions have their own schools; the children attend the local public
schools and take part in all community activities.
St. Christopher's, a school in North Vancouver for twenty retarded boys, is doing
an excellent piece of work.   All admissions to the school are on the recommendation of REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
W 95
the Child Guidance Clinic. Training in school work, crafts, gardening, housework, and
cooking is given, each boy working at his own level. Many of the boys trained at this
school are employed and are self-supporting. The success of this school is due to the
intelligent and sympathetic understanding of the superintendent.
Three of these institutions in the outlying districts of the Province are in reality large
boarding homes for children who live in isolated areas where there are no schools. The
children stay at the institutions, attend the local schools, and usually go home on weekends and for vacations.   All institutions are visited regularly by the district social worker.
In the past few years there has been a slow and gradual trend toward institutional
care for special groups of children, such as those who, for various reasons, cannot adjust
in a foster home and the adolescent. Institutional placement, in many cases, has proven
beneficial to these children. However, when we think of children's institutions to-day,
we think of a small number of children in a setting resembling a home as closely as
possible where all the needs of the child are met. We also think of adequate, well-
trained, and kindly staff.
Section 3 of the " Societies Act" was amended this year so that any society or
organization applying for incorporation and having as its object the care of children must
have the approval of the Superintendent of Child Welfare.
Number of institutions licensed in 1951  11
Number of children cared for  648
Total days' care  121,140
Private Boarding Homes
Usually the motive for boarding children is a financial one. However, those of us
who have worked in the children's field know that there is little or no money to be made
in this way, even when the board money is paid regularly. By far the majority of
children are placed in private boarding homes because their parents are separated or
divorced, and often neither parent accepts too seriously the responsibility of paying for
the board. This uncertainty of payment has been a means of keeping those persons from
boarding children who are too interested in the financial returns.
Before a licence is issued to anyone to board children privately, a complete study
and investigation is done of the home and the applicant. The two Children's Aid Societies
in Vancouver and the Family and Children's Service in Victoria do this home study, and
in the other parts of the Province the social workers of the Provincial Social Welfare
Branch are responsible for the work.
The private boarding-home situation is well controlled in this Province, and this has
been accomplished by the co-operative effort of the Children's Aid Societies, our public
health nurses, and other Provincial and municipal authorities. The press, too, in the
larger areas, has been a great help, as all advertisements to board children are referred
either to the Children's Aid Societies or the Welfare Institutions office. All these advertisements are checked most carefully, and the homes are visited at once to explain licensing
before any children have had time to be placed in them. The majority of persons advertising to board children are unable to meet the required standards.
There are, however, many good licensed homes where children are given motherly
care and security. One of the first licensed homes still has the same four children, who
are now over 15 years of age. The eldest is employed as a stenographer and the three
boys are in high school. This is the only home that these children have known, and the
foster-mother has received very little remuneration for the good job that she has done.
There were fewer homes licensed in 1951 than the previous year.
Number of children's boarding homes licensed in 1951  49
Number of children cared for        166
Total days'care  30,025 W 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA
B. Day Care of Children
Foster Homes for Day Care
Day-care homes are for the children of mothers who must work to support them or
to supplement the family income. These homes are a " must service," especially in our
larger industrial centres. Homes used for this care are average family homes, located in
the neighbourhood as near as possible to the child's own home. The mother takes her
child to the home on her way to work and calls for him when her day's work is over.
In Vancouver, day-care homes are under the direction and supervision of the Foster
Day Care Association, a Red Feather agency. Mothers wishing the service are requested
to register with the agency, and a close contact is kept between the mother, foster home,
and agency. The cost of care is reasonable, and should the mother not be able to pay
the full charge, there is provision for financial assistance. However, every mother is
expected to pay something toward the cost of care. A kindergarten service is provided
to homes where children are old enough to benefit. Toys and cots for day-time naps are
also supplied by the agency.
In Victoria, a beginning has been made in this type of service, and the homes used
are under the supervision of the Family and Children's Service. There are homes licensed
for day care in other parts of the Province, especially in the Fraser Valley district. The
Provincial Social Welfare Branch is responsible for the supervision.
By providing good day-care homes for children of mothers who must work, we are
helping to preserve the home and family life of the community. It seems reasonable to
assume that in many cases if good day-care homes had not been available, the family
would have been forced to ask for public assistance.
Number of foster homes licensed in 1951  17
Number of children cared for        277
Total days' care  15,997
Kindergartens, Play-schools, etc.
Education of the pre-school child is now an accepted fact, and so each year the
number of licensed pre-school centres continues to grow. These centres have been established in all parts of the Province and as far north as the Peace River country.
In a pre-school centre the child is given the opportunity of working, playing, and
living with children of his own age in pleasant, attractive, and not too complicated surroundings. In the pre-school group where there is sympathetic understanding and freedom, the child learns to co-operate whole-heartedly in group activities, for the purpose
of pre-school education is to help the child to develop in self-reliance, independence,
and creative expression.
The most important part of any group is a well-trained supervisor who, by her
knowledge, training, and alert observation, is aware of the abilities and need of each
individual child in the group. She recognizes that each child is potentially different and
knows that with proper direction and care each one will make his own place in to-morrow's
world.   Unfortunately there are not enough trained supervisors to fill our needs.
Courses in pre-school education are given each year at the Vancouver Night School
and the Victoria Summer School, Department of Education. Material on this subject
can be obtained from the Extension Department of the University of British Columbia
and the Department of Education. So that persons living outside Vancouver and Victoria
may have the opportunity to become qualified supervisors, a home-study or correspondence course in pre-school work should be made available. It would seem that the most
logical place for this course would be the Extension Department of the University of
British Columbia.   It is hoped that some action will be taken to get this course started.
There are many fine pre-school centres operated by churches, parent groups, and
private persons. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 97
Number of pre-school centres licensed in 1951  127
Number of children registered        6,841
Total days' care  481,058
MATERNITY HOMES
There are three licensed maternity homes, all of which are operated by church
groups. There was an increase over last year in the number of mothers and babies
cared for. These homes are comfortable and well managed and continue to give a
valuable and much needed service to the unmarried mother. All three homes work
very closely with the Children's Aid Societies and other welfare agencies in planning
for the rehabilitation of the mother and the care of her child. The policy of the United
Church home and Maywood Home is to discharge the mother and baby at the same
time and to allow no baby to remain in the home without the mother. Our Lady of
Mercy Home, however, allows the mother to leave the home and will keep her baby
until he is 2 years of age.
Admission is either by private arrangement between the mother and the home or
through a welfare agency.
Number of homes licensed in 1951   3
Number of mothers cared for        204
Number of infants cared for        256
Total days' care  29,758
AGED-CARE
Homes licensed under the " Welfare Institutions Licensing Act" are one of the
major resources in caring for our senior citizens who have passed the age where they
can look after themselves. With the increasing number of older people placed each
year in boarding homes, one cannot but wonder about this trend and ask why their
families have not kept them at home. One reason given for the increase in boarding-
home placement of our older people is that in the years between the two wars Canada
has gradually changed from an agricultural to an industrial country. This means that
families have moved from the rural areas to the cities where the industries are located
and have become, for the most part, " apartment dwellers " or live in small houses
with only sufficient room for themselves. There is no room for the older people, and
besides, in the modern family pattern, the older person has no useful place. As for
the older people themselves, they are much happier and better in health when they
have a place of their own and companionship of their own generation.
There are many fine homes for our senior citizens in this Province which have been
established by municipal, church, and national groups. There are also excellent homes
run by private individuals. The success of these homes depends upon the kind and
sympathetic understanding of the person in charge.
The United Church home, located in Burnaby, was opened this year. With a view
of the Fraser River, it is attractive and modern and accommodates twenty-five older
people. Already an addition to this home has been planned. Licensed boarding homes
are located in all parts of the Province, which means that older people can stay in the
district they know and with their friends.
Older people do need recreational and social activities, and many of the boarding
homes have provided programmes of this nature. The new regulations to the Act state
that each boarding home is to make some provision for recreational and occupational
needs of the older people. It is hoped that there will be a greater development in this
part of our boarding-home programme. Also, the new regulations make a sitting-room
" a must " in boarding homes. W 98 BRITISH COLUMBIA
During the year the Vancouver City Social Service Department put on an institute
in meal-planning for all persons operating boarding homes for older people. This institute was most successful, and it is hoped that other such institutes will be given. One
on the illness of older people and one on recreation would be most helpful.
Indeed, our boarding homes are not without the occasional romance, as the following story will indicate.
One morning, Mrs. /., matron of one of the homes, quite excited and agitated, telephoned the office. She said that a couple in her home were planning to get married and
asked what could be done to stop it. She seemed to think that she had failed in her duty
because this romance had got beyond her. She also thought that we would frown on
romances of this kind. She was asked if the couple knew what they were doing. When
she said she thought they did, she was told that there was nothing we could do except
give them our blessing. It seems they had decided to get married as they were lonely
and their families paid little attention to them. Accordingly they were married, the
boarding-house providing the wedding supper. The old couple are still at the boarding
home and, from all reports, are " living happily ever after."
The following quotation from " Happiness in Old Age," by George Lawton, P.H.D.,
is worthy of some thought: " If we devoted to the problem of later maturity the same
thought, social imagination and well directed effort that we have given to the problem
of children, it might be possible to bring about a happier old age for the many millions
now in their early or middle maturity. If that should happen, people might be willing
to make two wishes—one to live longer, the other to grow old."
Number of homes licensed during 1951  120
Number of persons cared for       2,723
Total days'care  513,114
UNEMPLOYED ADULTS
The number of homes licensed for this purpose still remains at four, as there were
no new licences issued and no new applications received. All four homes are for young
women.
In Victoria is Rainbow House, run by a non-denominational religious group. In
Vancouver there are two homes—Bethel Home, under the auspices of the Mennonite
Church, which is for girls of that faith who are working in Vancouver, and also the
Residential Club operated by Sisters of Service, a Roman Catholic sisterhood. In Prince
Rupert is the Young Women's Lodge, which is under the direction of the Salvation Army.
This home was first for Indian girls but is now open to all girls.
All four homes are located in good residential districts, are comfortable and homey
and in pleasant surroundings, and provide the young women with experience in group
living. While there must be rules and regulations where there are numbers, these are
neither strict nor rigid. There is also wholesome entertainment and fun, and the girls
are expected and encouraged to entertain both their girl and boy friends at the home.
Protection and security are given these young women and girls who must find employment
away from their own home and family.
With conditions as exist to-day, when it seems fairly easy for a young person to
become delinquent or get involved in crime, church groups, service clubs, and other
philanthropic organizations would be doing a worth-while service by establishing or
sponsoring other such homes for the younger men and women who are on their own in
our larger centres.
Number of homes licensed in 1951  4
Number of girls cared for        352
Total days' care  14,174
J REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
W 99
SUMMER CAMPS
Camping is a recreational experience in the out-of-doors which provides special
opportunity for education and for social adjustment through group living. The thirty-
two licensed camps are providing this experience each summer for hundreds of our
children.
All camps are inspected at the beginning of the camping season by the Provincial
Health Department in order to see that conditions are healthy and sanitary. Each year
the British Columbia Camping Association conducts an institute for camp leaders and
counsellors. Also, this association holds an annual camping week to bring to the attention of the public the story of camps and camping and to point out the educational and
character-building benefits that organized camping has to offer.
Since camps have been licensed, there has been a great improvement in both the
physical and health standards and also in camp programmes. The new regulations to
the Act have defined the standards to which all camps will be asked to conform.
From one of our many interesting camp files we have taken the following " Camp
Recipe," by Mary S. Edgar:—
A bowl of clear water, hill-rimmed and blue,
Sprinkle with sunshine, diffused through and through;
Flavouring, from miles of evergreen trees,
Stirred all together with clean northland breeze.
Add a flash of white wings, the dash of a brook,
Or a slow-dropping stream from some fern-hidden nook.
Now separate children from all kith and kin,
Add fun and much singing.   Then spread on a grin;
Place them in cabins where each has a friend,
Provide them with beauty, some leisure to spend.
Season with crafts, with swimming and trips,
With archery, riding, hiking and dips.
Toast by the fire, or bake in the sun,
Until every camper is perfectly done.
Keep them in safety eight weeks—or till brown—
Then they are ready to serve back in town.
Number of summer camps licensed in 1951  32
Number of children cared for       8,957
Total days' care  152,230
CONCLUSION
Sincere appreciation is expressed to all who helped during the year with the administration of this Act. W  100
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATISTICAL INFORMATION
Table I.—Showing a Comparative Summary of Information Regarding Premises
Licensed under the " Welfare Institutions Licensing Act "
1949
1950
1951
Children—Total Care (Excluding Summer Camps)
Number licensed—
Institutions 	
Boarding homes  	
Capacity-
Number of children under care-
Number of days' care	
Number licensed..
Capacity-
Women—Pregnant1
Number of persons under care-
Number of days' care	
Adults-
Number licensed	
Capacity..
•Infirm and Unemployable
Number of persons under care._
Number of days' care 	
Number licensed _
Capacity-
Adults—Employable
Number of persons under care-
Number of days' care 	
Children—Day Care
Number licensed   	
Capacity   	
Number of children enrolled  _	
Number of attendance-days _	
Number licensed..
Capacity.-
Summer Camps
Number of persons attending..
Number of attendance-days	
11
66
748
1,025
180,467
3
106
549
32,856
68
1,206
1,823
365,130
4
58
434
11,561
111
3,026
5,309
397,945
26
1,863
7,939
164,208
10
57
683
923
189,311
3
106
522
31,055
92
1,417
2,127
405,437
4
58
474
14,835
116
3,104
3,566
408,803
25
1,909
8,005
117,023
10
55
685
882
165,953
3
116
457
28,983
108
1,585
2,366
436,487
4
58
412
15,738
127
3,228
5,771
422,379
27
1,970
7,678
102,314
11
49
613
814
151,165
3
116
460
29,758
120
1,809
2,723
513,114
4
58
352
14,174
144
3,697
7,118
497,055
32
2,258
8,957
152,230
1 Mothers and infants are included in the above figures.
Table II.—Case-load, Showing the Total Number of Separate
Licences, Applications, and Inquiries, 1951
Section A
Brought forward from 1950—
(a) Licensed welfare institutions  316
(b) Pending applications     96
Total case-load on January 1st, 1951  412
Section B
New cases received during 1951 1  244
Total case-load for 1951  656 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
W 101
Section C
Cases closed in 1951—
(a) Licensed welfare institutions     65
(b) Pending applications  159
Total subtractions  224
Case-load as at December 31st, 1951  432
Section D
Breakdown of case-load as at December 31st, 1951—
(a) Licensed welfare institutions—
(1) Children's boarding homes	
  45
(2) Children's institutions  10
(3) Homes for pregnant women  3
(4) Boarding homes for the aged  83
(5) Institutions for the aged  25
(6) Hostels for unemployed  4
(7) Kindergartens, play-schools  124
(8) Homes for foster day care  16
(9) Summer camps  26
(10) Composite licences under (1), (3), and (6)  7
(b) Applications pending
Total case-load carried into 1952 .
343
89
432
MEMBERS
The following are the members of the Welfare Institutions Licensing Board for
1951:—
Chairman: Mr. C. W. Lundy, Director of Welfare.
Members:   Dr. G. Elliot, Assistant Provincial Health Officer, Department of
Health;   Miss Ruby McKay, Superintendent, Child Welfare Division;
Mrs. Edith Pringle, R.N., Inspector of Hospitals; Mr. J. Sadler, Administrator, Region I, Social Welfare Branch.
Chief Inspector:  Mrs. Edna L. Page.
Respectfully submitted.
(Mrs.) Edna L. Page,
Chief Inspector of Welfare Institutions.
M2974
PROVINCIAL LIBRARY
VICTORIA, B, a W 102 BRITISH COLUMBIA
SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT, DIVISION OF
TUBERCULOSIS CONTROL
I beg to submit the following report of the activities of the Social Service Department,
Division of Tuberculosis Control, for the year 1951-52:—
The year has been one of great staff changes in this Department. In September the
Provincial Supervisor was granted leave of absence for three years to join the R.C.A.F.,
and she was replaced by the case-work supervisor from the Division of Venereal Disease
Control. By the end of the year, with the exception of two workers, there had been a
complete change of Social Service staff in the various units of this Division. At one
period Tranquille Sanatorium was left without a social worker, and arrangements were
made with the Kamloops district office of the Social Welfare Branch to handle referrals
from the sanatorium on an emergency basis.
In spite of these difficulties during the year, a new policy of referral was established.
Instead of waiting for a crisis to develop before a patient is referred to the Social Service
Department, it has become routine, where social-work staff is available, for all newly
admitted patients to be visited by the ward social worker soon after admission. The
purpose of this introductory visit is twofold: to acquaint the patient with the kind of
help that is available to him from the Social Service Department, and to give the social
worker an opportunity of getting to know something about the patient as a person and
how he is responding to the pressures that are part of a long-term, disabling condition.
In all our work on the wards, the closest team relationship is maintained with the doctors,
the nurses, the rehabilitation officer, and other allied workers in order to achieve the
common goal, which is to help the patient accept his tuberculosis and fight it effectively
with the weapons which are available to him in the hospital setting.
At the end of the year a serious situation arose when the Federal-Provincial health
grant which has been available since 1948 to help finance a homemaker service to families
of tuberculous patients in the metropolitan area of Vancouver was discontinued. Although
strong representations were made to the Federal Government that during the time the
homemaker service had been in operation it had proved to be economically and socially
sound, making it possible for mothers with tuberculosis to come into hospital earlier in
the course of their disease and be discharged sooner to their homes, the grant was not
renewed. It was pointed out by the Federal department that the original purpose of the
grant had been to demonstrate that homemaker service is an essential part of any effective
programme for controlling tuberculosis, and that this having been proved, it was now the
responsibility of the Provincial and municipal governments to provide this service. Until
such arrangements can be worked out at the Provincial and municipal levels, all agencies
concerned with preserving family unity and strength view with alarm the preventable
damage that is going to result when the acute need for a homemaker cannot be met.
Emergency meetings are being planned to explore every resource in the community to
bridge the gap between the Federal and local financing of this vital service.
During the year the T.B. Social Service Department was represented at various
conferences. The Provincial Supervisor attended the annual Public Health Institute in
Victoria and also was present at the Western Regional Conference on Social Work in
Winnipeg. In June the Provincial Supervisor participated in a two weeks' seminar
entitled " Counselling the Handicapped through the Rehabilitation Process." This seminar was conducted by Dr. Kenneth W. Hamilton, of the School of Social Administration,
Ohio State University, one of the foremost authorities on the continent in the field of
rehabilitation. The seminar was under the auspices of the University Department of
Extension, the British Columbia Rehabilitation Association, and the Western Society for
Physical Rehabilitation. Participating in the seminar were representatives from various
Federal and Provincial Government departments in Western Canada, as well as representatives from rehabilitation agencies in Washington and Oregon. Another member of
the staff attended the Pacific Northwest Institute on Family Services, held under the
auspices of the Family Service Association of America at Lake Wilderness, Wash.
Respectfully submitted. (Mls$) Enid s WyNESS>
Provincial Supervisor, T.B. Social Services. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 103
SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT, DIVISION OF
VENEREAL DISEASE CONTROL
I beg to submit the following report on the activities of the Social Service Department, Division of Veneral Disease Control, for the fiscal year 1951-52:—
During the year, counselling service on a case-work basis continued to be given to
all newly diagnosed patients at the Vancouver clinic. As the purpose of the counselling
service is to help the infected individual see the relationship between his infection and his
behaviour and to help him to change his behaviour pattern, the effectiveness of this
approach to the problem of controlling the venereal diseases depends on the capacity of
the patient to gain insight, and to change.
In order to obtain some idea of the kind of people who are venereal-disease
patients, a rating scale was devised to assess the capacity of the individual patient to use
this counselling service. The scale ranges from 1 to 5, with each classification specifically
defined, and at the end of each interview the social worker records the classification into
which, in her opinion, the patient comes. As capacity to take responsibility for behaviour
varies widely among the patient-group, it is hoped that information will be available from
the results of this rating which will be helpful in planning improvements in patient-
management.
In September the case-work supervisor of this Division was transferred to the
Division of Tuberculosis Control as Provincial Supervisor of Social Service in that
Division as well as in the Division of Venereal Disease Control. This transfer reduced
the case-work staff in this Division to one full-time worker, with part-time service at the
night clinics given by one of the case-workers on the T.B. staff. With this reduction in
staff there has been a decline in the research projects undertaken by the social-work
section of this Division during the year.
Respectfully submitted.
(Miss) Enid S. Wyness,
Provincial Supervisor, V.D. Social Services. W 104 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PSYCHIATRIC DIVISION
I beg to present the annual report of the social workers of the Psychiatric Division
working with the Mental Health Services of the Province of British Columbia for the
fiscal year 1951-52.
A. SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT, PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITAL,
HOMES FOR THE AGED, AND CREASE CLINIC OF PSYCHOLOGICAL
MEDICINE.
The report of the case-work activity of the Social Service Department during the
past fiscal year is reviewed from two broad aspects: First, a review is made of the social
services to patients over the past fiscal year, and of the relationship these services bear
to the function of social workers in the setting of the psychiatric hospital and clinic;
secondly, improvement over the past fiscal year in the quality and quantity of the Department's services to patients and future plans for continuing this development are stated.
The social worker, as he helps the patient referred to him, engages in specific casework functions. For example, on entering hospital, case-work services around admission and reception are made available to the patient and his relatives. Later the social
worker engages in case-work services closely related to the total treatment plan for the
patient. At some point toward the termination of treatment, the social worker brings to
the patient case-work services preparatory to his convalescence. Then case-work services
of a probationary or convalescent nature are brought to the patient as he leaves the
hospital. The latter function (probation) is one in which social workers have long been
engaged and for which they have always assumed extensive responsibility. Besides the
aforementioned case-work functions, the social worker has responsibilities in education,
community interpretation, and research.
Since the treatment of patients in both the Provincial Mental Hospital and the Crease
Clinic of Psychological Medicine is considered to be " a total push relationship situation "
which is patient-centred, the social worker contributes his skill and services to the skills
and services of psychiatry, nursing and occupational, physical, recreational, and industrial therapies. Each function of the social worker's skill is useful in the treatment of
the patient only in so far as it is purposefully related to the skills and services of the other
professions. The quality of the treatment afforded patients is wholly dependent upon
how ably the various professions can work together. Ability to work together involves
some knowledge of and respect for other professional skills, an awareness of the limitations in one's own professional skill, an understanding of the dynamics of human behaviour, and an ability to give and take or to work integratively. The relationship of the
various professions must be constantly evaluated and purposefully developed if treatment
is to be adequate.
I. Review of Social Services to Patients, April 1st, 1951,
to March 3 1st, 1952
1. Referrals
A total of 2,100 patients was referred to the Social Service Department. Of these
referrals, 1,141 patients were referred from the Provincial Mental Hospital and 959 were
patients from the Crease Clinic. A staff of thirteen social workers was responsible for
bringing this service to these patients admitted in this fiscal year.
2. Analysis of Case-work Services to Patients and Families
(a) Case-work Services in Admission and Reception of Patients to Provincial Mental Hospital, Homes for the Aged, and Crease Clinic, April 1st, 1951, to March 31st,
1952.—The following is an analysis of services in intake and reception, April 1st, 1951,
to March 31st, 1952:— REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
W 105
Total admissions, Provincial Mental Hospital  and  Crease
Clinic	
Referrals for social-history study
2,180
291
Interviews with patients on admission (reception)  273
Interviews with psychiatrist  366
Further interviews with relatives  279
Brief service to patients and relatives  429
Ward rounds, clinicals, etc.   120
The inclusion of social work as an integral part of the admission procedure was instituted at the Crease Clinic in April, 1951, and at the Provincial Mental Hospital in September, 1951. j
The responsibilities of the social worker in the admission of the patient have involved
assisting in outlining the services and facilities of the hospital and clinic to the patient and
his family; helping the family with the anxiety which surmounts when one of the members becomes mentally ill; helping the family to understand the treatment procedures
used in the hospital and clinic; whenever possible, to gather preliminary information
about the patient and his illness from either the patient himself, when able, or the relative
accompanying him; referring the relative to the continuing services of a social worker
to the end that through the growth of an understanding, sustaining, and supporting relationship the relative is helped to understand the patient and to assist in his treatment and
his final rehabilitation.
Analysis of the case-work services in admission and reception indicates that 291
evaluative studies of the patient and his illness were undertaken. It has usually been
possible for the social worker on admission and reception to dictate this information on
the day following. Consequently, the information is available for the psychiatrists,
psychologists, nursing staff, etc., within a few days of the patient's admission. In this
way, arriving at a provisional diagnosis, formulation of initial treatment plans, and mobilization of the services within the hospital for the treatment of the new patient are all
accelerated.
During the admission period, 279 interviews of a helping nature were undertaken
with relatives, 366 interviews with psychiatrists, and attendance at 120 ward rounds were
directed toward sharing social-history information obtained during the admission procedure with medical and nursing staff. Four hundred and twenty-nine interviews were
spent in brief services to relatives, during which anxiety was often lessened and the relatives' help and understanding mobilized toward the treatment and rehabilitation of the
patient.
Some 273 interviews were spent in reception of the patient. Reception involves
helping the patient to accept the need for hospitalization; helping the patient to use
effectively toward treatment all hospital facilities; helping the patient to use his social
worker in keeping and maintaining the interest of relatives, friends, employer, and
community.
Many patients come to hospital accompanied by ambulance or police escort, and
very often the patient is not aware that he is being admitted to a mental hospital. Depending on the patient's condition, the social worker on admission and reception has found
it helpful to reassure him about hospital routines, treatment, and to ask about his daily
needs. A valuable opportunity is afforded for interpretation to escorts concerning preparation of the patient for hospitalization and the value of good preparation in the patient's
ultimate acceptance and use of his treatment.
(b) Analysis of Case-work Services to the Patient during His Treatment Period.—
The 2,100 patients referred from the Provincial Mental Hospital and the Crease Clinic
were given social services comprising 13,221 interviews during the period of treatment.
Throughout this period the social worker is concerned with all aspects of the patient's W 106
BRITISH COLUMBIA
relationship with medical and nursing staff, with other patients, family, friends, and
community. The latter three areas of relationship are very important, for to-day the
period of hospitalization tends to be shorter, more intensive, and given over to specific
and specialized treatment regimens. Family and community therefore must assume
increasingly more responsibility for the continuing social treatment of the patient following discharge from hospital. To assist family and community in assuming this function
adequately, the social worker has a very important interpretative and integrative role—
interpretative of the patient's needs in his ex-mural treatment and integrative of hospital
planning and community planning in the prevention and treatment of mental illness.
During the past fiscal year 39 per cent of all interviews were directed to services
to patients on the ward. The social worker's contact with the patient on the ward during
hospitalization is directed toward building a supportive, understanding relationship,
throughout which the patient is helped to hold to whatever reality functioning he may
possess. Interest in wife, husband, children, parents, etc., is kept alive, besides which
the patient is helped to do something about those problems of which he is aware and
concerned about, while 20 per cent of all interviews were directed toward keeping up
the family's interest in the patient by allaying that often intense fear of the patient which
grew up prior to his hospitalization. This is done by familiarizing the relative with the
nature of the illness, its treatment, hospital routines; by helping the relative with his own
feeling concerning mental illness; and by helping with that feeling of guilt which the
relative often has concerning his own contribution to the patient's illness. Finally,
through support and clarification, the relative is helped to see what he can do toward
treatment and rehabilitation of the patient. Thirty-one per cent of all interviews during
the patient's hospitalization were between the social workers and the psychiatrist in formulation and reformulation of the patient's treatment plan. Fifteen per cent of all interviews were spent in consultation with nursing, occupational and industrial therapy in the
interests of the patient and his use of the treatment services of the hospital. Some 5 per
cent of all interviews during the patient's hospitalization were spent with interested people
and agencies on behalf of the patients.
(c) Analysis of Case-work Services to the Patients during the Convalescent Period.—
During the past fiscal year 675 patients were referred to Social Service at the point of
leaving the hospital and clinic. Continuing case-work services directed toward rehabilitation were extended to these patients. Of the total number of patients referred at the
point of discharge, 297 were from the Provincial Mental Hospital who were leaving to
go on trial visit or probationary visit to family, friends, or to the midway home, The Vista.
The midway home—a bridge between hospital and the demands of community in social
living—is operated under the Provincial Mental Health Services, and is available for the
use of the woman patient without resources in family or friends or whose family is unable
to provide the supportive help necessary in rehabilitation.
During the probationary period the patient is a responsibility of the hospital, and
by continuing help and supervision the social worker assists the hospital and the discharge
of its responsibility to the patient on probation. The social worker's help is focused
toward: (a) Re-establishing the patient in the community; (b) helping the patient
to become self-supporting through assistance in locating work and accommodation;
(c) helping the patient to hold to his treatment gains; (d) supporting family, relatives, or
friends in understanding the patient and those changes which his illness may have brought
about; (e) and, wherever possible, to help the patient himself live comfortably with and
settle for these changes in his ability to plan and to do.
Many of these patients will probably always carry with them a varying residual of
their illness, necessitating protective family living, protective work placement, as well as
financial subsidization in maintenance. It is in these aforementioned areas that community agencies are assuming their responsibility for rehabilitation and social treatment.
It is in the area of interpretation to community and social agencies of the services and REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 107
facilities needed for this social treatment and rehabilitation of the mentally ill that the
social worker has an important role. The City Social Service Department of Vancouver
and also the Provincial Social Welfare Branch are giving the Provincial Mental Health
Services valuable rehabilitation services. The Social Welfare Branch is giving case-work
services as well as social assistance as a means of rehabilitation. The Vancouver Family
Welfare Bureau is making its service available to a small number of patients on discharge.
The National Employment Service, Special Placements Section, is a valuable community
resource to the Mental Health Services in job finding and placement.
Three hundred and seventy-eight patients were referred from the Crease Clinic for
services of re-establishment in home and in community; that is, family case-work services
or individual counselling or supportive case-work services. In many aspects the two latter
types of service are an extension of the clinical service of the Crease Clinic into a
necessarily limited out-patient department service, so greatly needed in the total treatment and prevention of mental illness.
The Social Service Department engaged in 6,542 interviews of a rehabilitative focus.
Twenty-nine per cent of all these interviews were focused on supportive or counselling
services to the patient; 31 per cent of all interviews were spent in consultation with the
psychiatrist around pre-convalescent planning and convalescent follow-up services to the
patient; and 20 per cent of all interviews were directed toward the support of family
during the period of rehabilitation service to the patient. A further 20 per cent of all
interviews were spent in soliciting the help of interested people or agencies on behalf of
the patient.
A sample study comprised of fifty patients referred to Social Service for rehabilitation revealed that initially each patient received an average of seven preparatory interviews, involving a total of eight hours' work. Some 20 per cent of all patients referred
at the point of leaving hospital were directly assisted into job placement by the social
workers through their use, in the interests of the patient, of available community resources.
(d) The Responsibilities of the Social Service Department in Education and Training.—The first responsibility of social workers in education and training of personnel is
toward their own profession—social work. For the past two fiscal years, under the
Federal Mental Health Grants, twenty social-work students from the University of British
Columbia's School of Social Work have had their field-work placement in the Provincial
Mental Hospital and the Crease Clinic. Although direct responsibility for the supervision
of these students lay with the School of Social Work training supervisor, plans for the
general introduction and orientation to the Social Service Department, hospital, clinic,
and community agencies were evolved with the participation of the Department. Introduction of students to interdepartmental co-operation between Social Service and other
departments of the hospital and clinic, and the policies relating thereto, as well as those
policies related to the use of community resources, was the responsibility of the Social
Service Department. The Social Service Department attempted to help the students feel
the basic underlying philosophy of the service by working closely with them, sharing
through staff and through special studies. The contribution of the training supervisor
and the students to the Department's growth and services was of the finest quality. Sixty-
four periods of consultation were given by the Social Service Department to the student
project in addition to fourteen special meetings.
The second responsibility of a Social Service Department in education and training
is to the development of the social-service staff. To this end, thirty-six staff meetings
were arranged, and 976 hours of supervision were given to staff by the case-work supervisors.
The contribution of the social workers in staff meetings, in the development of the
Department's organization, administration, improvement of social-work skills and services
to patients has been outstanding. W 108 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The Social Service Department's contribution to the education of nursing staff and
psychiatric fellows has been geared to lecture periods and orientations, the content of
which was aimed at the explanation of the professional content and activities of social
work, as well as sharing the knowledge of the social-work profession in the areas of inter-
familial, intercultural relationships, present-day stresses on family life, and knowledge
of helping resources in agencies and institutions within society.
During the last fiscal year, orientations were given to nine psychiatric fellows, twenty-
five public health nurses, ten in-service-trained social workers, and nine visitors from other
parts of Canada, Great Britain, Australia, and Japan.
Over fifteen hours of lectures were given to postgraduate nurses and psychiatric
nurses.
(e) Social Service Department's Responsibility in Research.—A special study of
the rehabilitation process was undertaken by the social workers. The method used was
that of case analysis. Conclusions and recommendations point out that the large percentage of a worker's time in rehabilitation is presently taken up in an effort to discover
resources. With the present 100-per-cent patient-coverage, this large number of referrals
is inevitable. When such referrals are received, workers are at present required to drop
other work and arrange for patient's removal from hospital. There is no central hospital
office at present having a knowledge of community resources, and workers are required
to explore accommodation and jobs on an individual-case basis. This results in duplication by different workers and by each worker on different cases. Much time is consumed
in travel, in unsatisfactory telephone-lines, and in separate interviews with potential
employers or landladies.
A partial solution would seem to be the appointment of a rehabilitation person on
the staff, whose duties would include having available all resources known for accommodation, jobs, and funds, and also to act in a public-relations capacity to enlarge and
increase these resources. This person would then be consulted by individual workers,
which would eliminate the present duplication and overlapping of work and would free
the workers to continue giving valuable case-work services to other patients. This
rehabilitation person would do a large community organization job to procure and be
familiar with homes of various services and standards, job possibilities, training facilities,
and funds available. This person would be the sole channel of contact with National
Employment Service, with Special Placements Department, with employment agencies,
with personnel departments of business organizations, with individual employers, with
people providing accommodation, and also with organizations providing vocational training. In short, the rehabilitation person would have an over-all picture of the day-to-day
community resources which would then be available to individual workers when confronted with planning for a patient's rehabilitation. We would expect the rehabilitation
person also to arrange with certain employing firms or agencies to accept a certain stated
number of our patients under the handicapped clause.
We see this rehabilitation person as necessarily being an alert, mature individual,
skilled in public relations, and having the prerequisite social-work training.
Individual workers would be enabled to consult with the rehabilitation person in
a routine manner and to discuss the various patients for discharge confidently and on an
individual basis. Some patients could then be referred for interview directly to the
rehabilitation person. In this connection, there is need for greater care in discharge
planning and also for advance notice from medical staff contemplating discharge of a
patient. A careful evaluation of the patient's potentials, abilities, and aptitudes should
be made before proceeding with discharge planning; this evaluation would be done on
a team basis with the medical, social service, and psychology departments acting together.
This could be expected to result in the reduction of readmissions. Likewise, workers
would give better service in this whole area because they would be relieved of emergency
rehabilitations and would be able to save much time and energy by turning to the rehabilitation person to discuss resource possibilities. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 109
The Social Service staff finds the present telephone service inadequate, and many
hours are frequently spent in trying to make telephone calls regarding rehabilitation.
Much of this time would be saved by the very fact that the rehabilitation person would
have resources at hand and individual calls would not be required.
Present resources in the community are also inadequate, and although potentials
are not available for use at this time, it would be hoped that the rehabilitation person in
a community organization capacity would greatly extend these resources.
II. Review of Developments in Social Services over the Past Year and Future
Plans for the Continuance of Development
In referrals of patients to social services, there has been a 38.42-per-cent increase
over those referrals of the previous fiscal year. An additional service, that of social
services to the patient on the ward, has been developed. There has been a 48.06-percent increase in services to patients during the convalescent period and a 31.7-per-cent
increase in the participation of the Department in education and training.
Plans for the next fiscal year involve development of Social Service staff in the
Homes for the Aged and development of a separate Social Service Department in the
Crease Clinic, with additional and concomitant plans for increasing and improving in-
service training. Thus we hope to equip this Department to assume responsibly and
adequately the functions of social work in the clinical setting.
B. SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT, THE WOODLANDS
SCHOOL, NEW WESTMINSTER
On September 19th, 1951, a small beginning was made in the development of a
Social Service Department in The Woodlands School (school for the intellectually
retarded) by the appointment of two social workers. These workers are engaged directly
in work with the children in the institution, whereas prior to this the Social Service
Department of the Provincial Mental Hospital and the Crease Clinic had extended to
The Woodlands School a very limited information-getting service. This limited service
was not due to any lack of understanding concerning the contribution of the social worker
in a school and community programme for the intellectually retarded, nor to any lack of
realization as to the real and urgent needs of pupils and patients in the school for social
services, but rather to extreme understaffing at the Provincial Mental Hospital and the
Crease Clinic and inavailability generally of social workers for appointment.
Present Participation of Social Service Department in The
Woodlands School Programme
Realistically what the appointment of two social workers could bring in social
services to the excellent and well-advanced institutional programme which The Woodlands School provides for the intellectually retarded is exceedingly limited. The social
workers were therefore hard put to it to choose a small area in the total institutional
training-school programme in which the limited services (due to shortage of staff) could
be used to best advantage by the pupils, relatives, and the agency.
After careful consideration, social services were limited to (a) those case-work
services to pupils and relatives at the point of the admission and reception of the pupil
to the school; (b) continuing case-work services on a very selective basis to parents and
pupils after the pupil has become a resident in the school; (c) case-work services focused
on the rehabilitation of the pupil following his period of socialized education and training
in the school (again this latter service has had to be on a very selective basis), and
(d) a limited programme of community education and interpretation focused on the needs
of the intellectually retarded and the responsibility community has in providing services
geared to the continuing adjustment and social treatment of the mentally retarded. W 110 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The statistical report of the six months' operation of social services contained herein
outlines the activities of the Social Service Department of The Woodlands School in the
five aforementioned aspects of service. It also indicates how limited the services of
necessity were in adequacy of standards and in coverage.
Present Needs in the Development of Social Services in
The Woodlands School
The present need for an increased Social Service staff in The Woodlands School is
a matter of urgent necessity, involving immediate consideration and planning. To meet
the needs of this advanced and well-planned institutional training-school programme,
a programme which for many years now has left the field of custodial care and undertaken a programme of training and rehabilitation, a basic minimal staff of six social
workers, including one senior case-work supervisor, is essential.
The Contribution of the Social Worker to the Programme
for the Intellectually Retarded
1. The social worker in the setting of the institutional training-school brings his
skill in the understanding of the dynamics of human behaviour, the understanding of
interpersonal, interfamilial, cultural, group, and community relationships, and his
understanding of the economic stresses on family life, and pools his skill with the skills
of psychiatry, psychology, education, nursing, recreational, and industrial personnel to
the better understanding, education, and training of each intellectually retarded pupil
resident in the school.
2. The social worker has a responsibility to help parents and relatives as they
consider placement in the school for the intellectually retarded child. Through such
help the parents often can prepare the child for the separation from the home and from
the familiar ways of doing things and familiar ways of living. Such help to parents is
extended through a carefully planned and purposefully directed orientation to the
school, affording an observation of the school programme. Through this and through
a supporting, helpful relationship, the parents can reach a decision to place the child in
the school, having worked through to a degree, or at least having recognized, those
feelings of rejection and guilt around having a defective child. As a result, the parents
are freed to become active with the school throughout the pupil's training period and
his final rehabilitation.
3. On the admission of the child to the school, the social worker helps him become
familiar with the institution. To live as part of a group in an institution is a new
experience and demands of any of us, including the intellectually retarded so placed, the
assumption of new responsibilities regarding ourselves and our feelings for others.
A period of adjustment is always involved, and the social worker must help the pupil
through to a sound adjustment, for his whole response to the school programme of
education and training depends on his first feelings in the institutional training-school
as well as his ultimate adjustment to community. As the pupil feels his way into the
school setting and begins to play his part in it, his relationship with the social worker
continues through the use of frequent interviews. These are often self-sought by the
pupil making his own appointment, through seeking out the social worker in his office,
or sending him a note requesting a chance " to talk about things."
4. There is a responsibility to the parents of the intellectually retarded child which
the social worker must meet if the parents' interest, participation, and contribution in
the pupil's education and training are to be kept alive. That responsibility is one of
continuous interpretation to the parents of the pupil's adjustment. For example, the
request of a pupil or parent for permission for a home-visit or holiday at home must
take into consideration where the pupil is in relation to his adjustment to the school
and, probably, factors in the parental home not helpful at that time to the pupil.   Pupils REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH Will
and parents can only accept such decisions if their relationship to the social worker is
close, understanding, meaningful, and free. To develop relationships through which
parents and social workers work together in the interests of the pupil, adequate staff,
manageable case-loads, and adequate accommodation for interviewing must be provided.
5. Another responsibility which the social worker has is that of working co-operatively, relatedly, and purposefully with all personnel in the training-school who are
working directly with the pupil. The findings of the social worker concerning the pupil
as a person, his home, his parents, his potentialities, and community conditions, must
be shared with other professions in the training-school.
6. When it has been decided by the school that the pupil is stable enough within
himself and has profited sufficiently from the education and training programme in the
school to return again to the community, the social worker then commences to work
intensively with the pupil, the parents, and community for the return of this rehabilitated pupil. Appraisal of community services available for the use of the pupil is
involved, as well as appraisal of his own home for his return or of a family-care home.
Then the preparation of the parents, substitute parents, and community for the return
of the pupil must be undertaken, and possibilities for employment must be explored.
To return to the individualized aspects of community living after living, often for long
years, in the group setting of the school makes great demands on the pupil's adjustment.
It is very necessary, therefore, that the pupil's relationship with the social worker be at
this time a close, understanding one, with frequent interviews and visits to the pupil,
his residence, and his place of employment.
7. Whatever the training-school is doing and planning must be shared with community. The school is an area where specialized educational and training skills are
brought together to help the pupil reach as stabilized an adjustment as possible. This
is accomplished by developing and helping him to enjoy whatever skills and potentialities
he has. This is further accomplished by helping the pupil to become aware of his worth
and value and helping him to live as easily as possible with his limitations and incapacities.
Community has a responsibility to provide those services conducive to the continuance
of the pupil's social adjustment—job-placement and counselling services, suitable recreation facilities, accommodation, and sheltered workshops. The social worker in the
school has a great responsibility to sit down with community social agencies and lay
groups in order to (a) bring about a greater understanding of the problems of mental
deficiency to all in community; (/.) to awaken professional and lay groups in the
community to the need for a well-integrated and co-ordinated programme for the
mentally retarded; (c) to develop more effective public relations between the school
and community; and (d) to survey continuously community resources and community
needs in the services to the mentally retarded. W 112 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Statistical Summary of Social Services of The Woodlands School,
September 19th, 1951, to March 31st, 1952
Number of New Cases Referred to Social Service Department
From Vancouver district (including Burnaby, New Westminster, and
Coquitlam)—
Admissions (to Provincial Mental Hospital)  32
Pupils at The Woodlands School  41
Prospective pupils  24
— 97
From outside of Vancouver district—
Admissions (to Provincial Mental Hospital)  25
Pupils at The Woodlands School  41
Prospective pupils       7
— 73
Total   170
Number of Cases Discharged on Probation
To Vancouver district (including Burnaby, New Westminster, and
Coquitlam)—
From Provincial Mental Hospital  ____
From The Woodlands School     9
— 9
To outside of Vancouver district—
From Provincial Mental Hospital     2
From The Woodlands School     8
— 10
Total      19
Report of Social Service Work Carried Out by Members of the Social
Service Department at The Woodlands School
Initial and subsequent case-work interviews with patients, families, doctors, and other social agencies during hospitalization of patients  675
Case-work interviews for the purpose of rehabilitation, including
follow-up case-work services for patients discharged on
probation     93
Cases summarized for clinical presentation     22
Child Guidance Clinic files abstracted     28
Supervisory Service by Mail
Letters to the Provincial field staff requesting social histories
and probation visits, and of a general supervisory nature 77
Letters to other social agencies in and out of British Columbia   54
— 131
Social histories, probation and other reports, and letters of
a general consultative nature received from the Provincial field staff  36
Correspondence received from other social agencies in and
out of British Columbia  40
— 76 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH W 113
Orientation Periods
Prospective pupils' relatives   29
Field-service staff  13
Public health nurses   15
Affiliate nurses  89
Hospital and clinical administrators from University of British
Columbia   21
Special Assignments
Daily medical-staff clinics attended by members of the Social
Service Department   126
Weekly teaching clinics attended by members of the Social
Service Department     20
Other special assignments, including conferences with other
social agencies and lectures to nurses, in-service training
groups, and community groups     21
C. SOCIAL SERVICE DEPARTMENT, CHILD GUIDANCE CLINIC
During the 1951-52 year the Social Service Department has continued to develop
in its contribution to Child Guidance Clinic services.
There has been a further increase in the number of travelling clinics held throughout
the Province, which has made the social-service aspect of this a heavy job for the casework supervisor on this team. This position has been vacant during the latter part of
the year, and this work has been shared by other members of the social-work staff. The
job not only involves the social worker's contribution to diagnostic and consultative
services, but general organization, interpretation, and case consultation with the professional personnel who make use of services of the travelling clinic. It is therefore expected
that when the position is filled, the social worker's time will have to be supplemented by
that of others on the staff.
The " corrections team," working with boys and girls from the Detention Home,
Juvenile Court, Boys' and Girls' Industrial Schools, Young Offenders' Unit, and other
agencies for delinquents, has also had a busy year. The case-work supervisor on this
team has been able to participate with the psychiatrist in some direct treatment with
delinquent cases, in addition to his responsibility in the area of diagnostic and consultative help and treatment planning with the agency and institutional staffs.
Mention was made in the last Annual Report of the need for expansion in the
student-training programme for social workers. This expansion took place this year
with the establishment of a project in conjunction with the University of British Columbia
School of Social Work. Eight Master of Social Work and three Bachelor of Social Work
graduate students were in the group given field training in the Child Guidance Clinic.
The project was made possible by a Federal mental-health grant to the University of
British Columbia School, the student supervision being mainly the responsibility of a
supervisor provided by the School of Social Work. Lack of space in the Child Guidance
Clinic led to provision of offices on the campus by the University. This arrangement
made co-ordination with the rest of the clinic staff and programme appear somewhat
difficult, but this was worked out quite satisfactorily, and the project has proved to be
an important beginning in the provision of much needed trained psychiatric social workers
for the Mental Health Services and other allied agencies.
The statistics which follow this report give a brief accounting of the services of the
social workers during this year. The case-load count that is given covers only that
aspect of work where the social workers are giving direct and usually intensive case-work
help to parents and children.   The number of cases carried during the year in the Van- W  114
BRITISH COLUMBIA
couver clinic are about the same as in the last fiscal year. This gives the appearance of
a levelling-off in the steady increase in this area of work in past years, but it is actually
more related to a considerable staff turnover and shortage at present. The statistics fail
to show the large group of cases which were waiting for continued services before the end
of the fiscal year. These will be incorporated in the case-loads of new staff, who are
expected early in the next fiscal year. It seems clear, therefore, that there is a continuing
pressure for more services in this area, which will be difficult to meet with present staff
and space.
While the number of cases receiving continued treatment has not risen, there has
been a significant increase of over 60 per cent in total case-work interviews in the Vancouver clinic. This does indicate that more help is being given in the individual case
and that a greater proportion of staff time is being given to direct services to parents and
children.
The social workers' participation in services to various community agencies is covered rather indirectly in the statistics. They have responsibilities in the examination and
diagnosis of children, consultations with professional workers, treatment planning, and
interpretation. The 1,017 conferences attended in agency diagnostic service and the
275 cases given service in travelling clinic are an indication of activities in this area.
For the Victoria clinic, the statistics, when compared with those of last year, indicate a decline in almost all social services. This was the direct result of staff illness and
shortages, which left that clinic without a full-time social worker for a period of over
three months. It has been hoped that a full team would be available to develop the clinic
in Victoria, and this has now been definitely planned. It is to be expected, therefore, that
services in that area will be increased considerably, and an increase in Social Service staff
will be necessary to meet these developments.
Statistical Summary of Social Services of Provincial Child Guidance
Clinics, April 1st, 1951, to March 31st, 1952
Case-work Services
Vancouver
1951-52
Totals
1950-51
Totals
Cases brought forward from previous fiscal year-
New cases  - —
146
200
198
Reopened during year. —
Reopened from previous year-
Total intake 	
194
18
11
36
6
12
230
24
23
259
15
24
223
54
277
298
Total cases carried _ _ 	
Cases closed during fiscal year  	
Cases carried over to next fiscal year	
Total case-work interviews with and regarding clients-
Conferences attended in agency diagnostic service	
Conferences attended on cases carried by clinic 	
Consultations with psychiatrist	
Periods of supervision  	
Other Interviews and contacts-
Travelling clinics (total days)..
351
194
157
Cases given service in travelling clinics..
5,644
997
364
342
635
47
71
243
102
66
36
460
20
33
17
42
27
9
32
453
267
193
6,100
1,017
397
359
677
74
80
275
481
281
200
4,203
1,125
368
308
586
156
57
242
The foregoing reports of the three separate sections of the Psychiatric Division of
the Social Welfare Branch, which forms an integral part of the Provincial Mental Health
Services, are respectfully submitted.
(Miss) Alice K. Carroll,
Provincial Supervisor, Psychiatric Social Work.
victoria, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1953
770-153-9136  

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