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Provincial Department of Fisheries REPORT WITH APPENDICES For the Year Ended December 31st 1951 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1953]

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Provincial
Department of Fislieries
REPORT
WITH APPENDICES
For the Year Ended December 31st
1951
3fe
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1952  To His Honour Colonel Clarence Wallace, C.B.E.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I beg to submit herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial Department of
Fisheries for the year ended December 31st, 1951.
WILLIAM RALPH TALBOT CHETWYND,
Minister of Fisheries.
Department of Fisheries,
Minister of Fisheries' Office,
Victoria, B.C. The Honourable William Ralph Talbot Chetwynd,
Minister of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial
Department of Fisheries for the year ended December 31st, 1951.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
GEORGE J. ALEXANDER,
Deputy Minister. TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Value of British Columbia's Fisheries in 1951 Shows an Increase  7
The Canned-salmon Pack for British Columbia, 1951  7
British Columbia's Canned-salmon Pack by Districts  8
Review of British Columbia's Salmon-canning Industry, 1951  17
Other Canneries  18
Mild-cured Salmon   19
Dry-salt Salmon  19
Dry-salt Herring  19
Pickled Herring  19
Halibut-fishery  19
Fish Oil and Meal  21
Net-fishing in Non-tidal Waters .  22
Value of Canadian Fisheries and the Standing of the Provinces, 1950  22
Species and Value of Fish Caught in British Columbia  24
Condition of British Columbia's Salmon-spawning Grounds  24
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon (Paper No. 37) (Digest)__ 25
Herring Investigation  26
Report of the Biologist, 1951 .  29
APPENDICES
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon (No. 37).   By
D. R. Foskett, M.A., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C  35
Results of the West Coast of Vancouver Island Herring Investigation,
1951-52.   By J. C. Stevenson, M.A.; A. S. Hourston, M.A.; K. J. Jackson,
B.A.; and D. N. Outram, B.A., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C  57
The Larva of Bankia setacea Tryon.    By D. B. Quayle, Provincial Shell-fish
Laboratory, Ladysmith, B.C  88
Report of the International Fisheries Commission, 1951 ;  92
Report on the Investigations of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission for 1951  95
Salmon-spawning Report, British Columbia, 1951  98
Statistical Tables  109
c_  Report of the Provincial Department
of Fisheries for 1951
VALUE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S FISHERIES IN 1951 SHOWS
AN INCREASE
The total marketed value of the fisheries products of British Columbia for 1951
amounted to $83,812,704. This was an increase over the year previous of $14,991,346,
or approximately 21.7 per cent more than the marketed value of fisheries products in 1950.
The principal species, as marketed in 1951, were salmon, with a value of
$60,749,658; herring, with a value of $10,639,653; and halibut, with a marketed value
of $5,762,151. The salmon production in 1951 was $12,048,075 more than the production in 1950. The value of herring production in 1951 showed an increase over the year
previous of $1,326,206, and the value of the 1951 halibut-catch was increased by
$210,612.
In 1951 the total fish and shell-fish landed amounted to 5,957,580 hundredweight.
The total value of vessels, boats, premises, gear, and other equipment employed in
catching and landing fish in British Columbia in 1951 amounted to $36,934,000. This
figure is compared with $36,581,621 for capital similarly employed in 1950.
In 1951 there was a total of 13,213 persons employed in catching and landing the
fish in British Columbia. These employment figures are compared with a total of 12,159
persons similarly employed in 1950. The number of persons engaged in processing
plants, canneries, etc., in 1951 was not available at the time of going to press.
The above figures were supplied by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, and
are hereby gratefully acknowledged.
THE CANNED-SALMON PACK FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1951
The total canned-salmon pack for British Columbia for 1951 amounted to 1,957,520
cases, according to the annual returns submitted to the Provincial Department of Fisheries
by those salmon-canners licensed to operate. The 1951 salmon-pack was the largest
since 1941, in which year 2,295,433 cases were canned and, excluding 1941, the 1951
pack was larger than in any other year since 1928, when 2,035,629 cases were canned.
The 1951 total salmon-pack was 450,310 cases greater than the average annual pack for
the past ten years. The 1951 pack was composed of 428,299 cases of sockeye, 13,698
cases of springs, 3,655 cases of steelheads, 313,674 cases of cohoes, 736,093 cases of
pinks, and 462,101 cases of chums. The above figures include 13,237 cases of blue-
backs, which are combined with the cohoe-pack.
In evaluating the total canned-salmon pack for British Columbia for 1951, due
consideration must be given to the fact that the Federal Department of Fisheries was
forced, for conservation reasons, to close all fishing in British Columbia for a two-week
period during the height of the salmon-fishing season owing to the extremely dry weather
and lack of water in many of the streams, which prevented the salmon from getting up
the fresh-water streams to spawn. This two-week loss of fishing time at the height of the
season no doubt had some effect on the total pack. M 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The total sockeye-pack in 1951, amounting to 428,299 cases, was the largest pack
in the Province since 1946, in which year 543,027 cases were canned. The sockeye-
pack in 1951 was 99,538 cases greater than the average annual pack for the previous
five years.
In 1951 the spring-salmon pack amounted to 13,698 cases. The size of the spring-
salmon pack is never indicative of the size of the run, but for comparative purposes the
1951 pack is compared with the previous five years, in which the following quantities
were canned: 1950, 9,233 cases; 1949, 21,184 cases; 1948, 16,445 cases; and 1947,
10,025 cases. On a five-year average basis, the 1951 pack of springs was 419 cases less
than the five-year average for that period.
Steelheads are not salmon, but a few are canned each year—those which are caught
incidentally while fishing for other species. In 1951 the total pack of steelheads amounted
to 3,655 cases. This is compared with 3,227 cases in 1950 and 2,373 cases in 1949.
The size of the steelhead-pack is nowise indicative of the size of the run of this species.
In 1951 the cohoe-pack amounted to 313,674 cases. This was considerably larger
than the pack in recent past years. It was the largest pack of cohoe since 1941 and was
109,405 cases above the five-year average for this species.
Pink salmon were canned in 1951 to the extent of 736,093 cases. This was 26,106
cases more than in the cycle-year 1949, and 135,486 cases above the previous cycle-year,
1947. The 1951 pack of pinks, however, was 89,420 cases below the large pack in the
cycle-year 1945, when 825,513 cases were canned. The 1951 pack was 173,084 cases
greater than the average annual pack for this species in the previous five-year period.
In 1951 chum salmon were canned to the extent of 462,101 cases. This was 45,510
cases less than were canned in 1950 and 22,444 cases above the average annual pack of
chums in British Columbia for the previous five years. The pack of chum salmon in
recent years, however, is not necessarily an indication of the size of the run of this species.
Large quantities of chum salmon are frozen each season for the winter trade, and also
in recent years large quantities have found a market in the fresh condition south of the
border. This was brought about by the fact that American canners are able to pay
higher prices for chum salmon in the fall of the year, and, as a consequence, large
quantities of this species, which ordinarily would be canned in Canadian canneries, were
exported to Puget Sound for canning there.
In comparing the pack figures for any species of salmon canned in British Columbia,
the reader is referred to the text in the next section of this Report for a breakdown of the
fisheries of each species by districts. The reader should also take into consideration the
escapement to the spawning-beds.
In the Appendix to this Report will be found " Salmon-spawning Report, British
Columbia, 1951," which was supplied by the Chief Supervisor for the Federal Department of Fisheries and is hereby gratefully acknowledged.
BRITISH COLUMBIA'S CANNED-SALMON PACK BY DISTRICTS
Fraser River
The total canned-salmon pack for the Fraser River in 1951 amounted to 268,233
cases. This was 128,512 cases greater than was credited to this river system for the
year previous. It will be recalled that pink salmon appear in the Fraser River run in the
odd-numbered years, and the pink-salmon pack accounted largely for the increase over
the year previous, although sockeye, cohoe, and chum salmon also showed increases.
The total pack on the Fraser River in 1951 was the largest for this river system
since 1946, when the total pack amounted to 413,542 cases. In 1951 the pack was
composed of 145,231 cases of sockeyes, 5,719 cases of springs, 230 cases of steelheads,
14,848 cases of cohoes, 66,673 cases of pinks, and 35,530 cases of chums, half-cases
having been dropped in each instance. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M 9
Sockeye Salmon.—The Fraser River in 1951 produced a pack of sockeye salmon
amounting to 145,231 cases. This was 37,008 cases greater than were canned in the year
previous. The Fraser River sockeye runs are made up of 4- and 5-year-old fish. In
1947, the previous four-year cycle, the pack was 33,952 cases, while in 1946, the five-
year cycle for this run, the pack amounted to 341,957 cases. The 1951 sockeye-salmon
pack credited to the Fraser River was 55,553 cases higher than the average annual pack
for this species in this river system for the previous five years.
According to reports, the spawning-beds in the Upper Fraser River were all well
seeded and, in many cases, the best seeding which had occurred for a number of years.
Similar reports from most of the Lower Fraser River spawning areas would indicate
that the sockeye runs to the Fraser River, as indicated by the pack and the spawning,
are definitely improving, which, no doubt, can be attributed largely to the success of the
programme of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission and the conservation methods adopted by the Federal Department of Fisheries.
The Fraser River sockeye-salmon fishery is regulated by an international commission
under treaty between Canada and the United States. This fishery is an international one,
in that the sockeye salmon comprising this fishery pass through both Canadian and
United States territorial waters before reaching the Fraser River and hence the nationals
of both countries share in the catch. The Commission is composed of six members, three
of whom are appointed by the United States Government and three by the Canadian
Government. According to figures published by the International Pacific Salmon
Fisheries Commission in its annual report for 1951, the total sockeye-salmon pack for
the Fraser River amounted to 252,551 cases. Of this total, Canadian gear took 134,400
cases, while American fishermen caught 118,151 cases. The percentages are: Canadian
fishermen caught 53.22 per cent and United States fishermen caught 46.78 per cent.
There is some discrepancy in the figures supplied by the International Pacific Salmon
Fisheries Commission and the figures computed from returns made by the licensed
canners to the Provincial Department of Fisheries, due to the fact that the Canadian
figures include the sockeye salmon caught in Johnstone Strait, which are known to be
proceeding to the Fraser River.
For convenience a table is included in this section showing the American and
Canadian catches by percentages from 1935 to 1951, inclusive:—
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
The percentages for 1951 are based on figures supplied by the International Pacific
Salmon Fisheries Commission.
American
(Per Cent)
 •  47.00
Canadian
(Per Cent)
53.00
...                .                            25.00
75.00
                                                38.00
62.00
    ..                                                 42.00
58.00
                44.50
55.50
1  37.50
62.50
                                               39.30
60.70
37.20
62.80
37.42
62.58
29.77
70.23
                                         39.90
60.10
1                                                                  43.90
56.10
16.60
83.40
 '  59.47
40.53
          ■      49.98
50.02
L                                                                57.70
42.30
  46.78
53.22 M 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The reader will find in the Appendix to this Report a table showing the total sockeye-
salmon packs of the Fraser River, arranged in accordance with the four-year cycle, from
1895 to 1951, inclusive, showing the catches made by British Columbia and Washington
fishermen in the respective years.
Spring Salmon.—In 1951 there were 5,719 cases of spring salmon canned from fish
caught on the Fraser River. This is compared with the spring-salmon pack of the
previous few years, as follows: 1950, 1,818 cases; 1949, 9,889 cases; 1948, 2,955
cases; and 1947, 1,455 cases. The canned-salmon pack of spring salmon from the
Fraser River is in nowise indicative of the size of the catch of this species, as spring
salmon find a large outlet in other than the canned state. The fresh- and frozen-fish
trade takes large quantities of spring salmon.
Cohoe Salmon.—The Fraser River produced a total pack of 14,848 cases of cohoe
in 1951. This was the largest pack of cohoe on the Fraser since 1948, when 16,102
cases were canned. The 1951 Fraser River cohoe-pack was 4,175 cases above the
average annual pack for the previous five-year period. It must be remembered that the
pack figures quoted for springs, cohoes, pinks, and chums are for Canadian catches only.
The United States catches of each species proceeding to the Fraser River are not included
in these figures. In the case of cohoe it should be remembered that large quantities are
frozen for the winter trade, and these, of course, are in addition to the catch as indicated
by the canned-salmon pack.
Pink Salmon.—The pink-salmon run to the Fraser River occurs in the odd-numbered
years only. There is no pink-salmon run to the Fraser in the even-numbered years. In
1951 the pack of pink salmon from fish caught in the Fraser River amounted to 66,673
cases. The pack in 1949, the cycle-year for this run, was 66,626 cases. Practically all
pink salmon caught are canned, and if the canned-salmon pack is indicative of the size
of the run, it would appear that the run in 1951 was very similar to that in 1949. In 1947
the pink-salmon run to the Fraser produced a pack of 113,136 cases, while in 1945
there were 95,748 cases of pink salmon canned. The pink-salmon pack in 1951 was
7,836 cases less than the average for the previous five cycle-years for this river system.
Chum Salmon.—In 1951 the 35,530 cases of chum salmon packed on the Fraser
River were 12,188 cases less than this river produced in the year previous. The 1951
pack of chums was 15,066 cases higher than the average annual pack for this species for
the previous five-year period. The canned-salmon pack figures for chum salmon packed
on the Fraser River in recent past years are not indicative of the size of the run of this
species. In recent past years United States canners have been able to pay much higher
prices for chum salmon than Canadian packers, and, as a result, large quantities of
Canadian-caught chum salmon are exported each year for canning in United States
canneries. Another factor which must be taken into consideration is the fact that chum
salmon find a ready market in the frozen-fish trade, and large quantities are frozen each
year.
Any consideration of the canned-salmon pack as a measure of the total run must
take into account the escapement to the spawning-beds. The escapement to the various
spawning-beds of the Province is reported each year by the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries
for the Federal Government, and his report is contained in the Appendix to this Report.
The reader is referred to this spawning-bed report when appraising the salmon runs to
the different river systems.
Skeena River
The Skeena River in 1951 produced a total salmon-pack of 130,681 cases. This
was 32,792 cases greater than the pack in 1950 and was the largest pack for the Skeena
since 1948, when 193,435 cases were canned. The Skeena River pack in 1951 was composed of 61,694 cases of sockeyes, 2,055 cases of springs, 1,819 cases of steelheads,
19,977 cases of cohoes, 30,356 cases of pinks, and 14,778 cases of chums, half-cases
being dropped in each instance. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M  11
Sockeye Salmon.—The Skeena River in 1951 produced a sockeye-pack of 61,694
cases. This is compared with the previous year's pack of 47,479 cases. The 1951
sockeye-pack on the Skeena was 88 cases less than the average annual pack for this river
system for the previous five-year period.
The sockeye runs to the Skeena River have been the subject of very close observation in recent past years by the Federal fisheries biologists, owing to the fact that the
Skeena River, in latter years, has been in a period of low production. An investigation
conducted by the biologists indicated certain remedial measures which it was hoped would
improve the Skeena River sockeye production. While it may be too early to notice any
improvement, the 1951 run to the Babine received a severe blow in the nature of a rock-
slide which occurred on the Babine River about 12 miles from that river's junction with
the main Skeena. It should be remembered that probably 60 per cent of the total sockeye
run to the Skeena spawns in the Babine watershed. The slide effectively blocked a very
large portion of the Babine run in 1951. Reporting on this obstruction, the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for the Federal Government reports as follows:—
"A large rock-slide occurred in a narrow canyon of the Babine River at a point
some 12 miles above its confluence with the Skeena. It created a block to the main run
of sockeye going to the Babine watershed, where at least 60 per cent of the portent Skeena
River sockeye run normally spawns. At least two-thirds of the sockeye run to the Babine
area or about 50 per cent of the Skeena River run was affected and also, in varying
proportion, were the runs of other salmon species to this system. Due to the inaccessible
character of the terrain and distance from existing roads, nothing could be done to assist
or salvage this year's run at the obstruction. Steps were taken at once looking to earliest
feasible action. Work on an access road was commenced and has progressed favourably.
It is hoped that before the spring high water of 1952, it will have been possible to have
essential heavy equipment on the ground to undertake remedial action to ensure passage
of the 1952 run. In all, some 152,457 sockeye passed the obstruction and through the
counting-fence maintained in the Babine River by the Fisheries Research Board of
Canada. Of these, 27.4 per cent were damaged and 9.2 per cent were jacks. It is
estimated that 20,000 of this number died before spawning. There is some doubt as to
the productive efficiency of spawn deposited by the remainder. Supplies of sockeye to
the early streams flowing into Babine Lake were comparable to other years."
It is yet too early to know what detrimental effect this slide will have on the future
sockeye runs to this river system. Latest reports indicate that the access road to the
slide has been practically completed, and that measures will be taken to assist the 1952
run over the obstruction.
Spring Salmon.—As on other river systems in the Province of British Columbia, the
spring-salmon pack is never indicative of the size of the run, and in the northern waters,
generally speaking, spring salmon are canned from those fish which are caught incidental
to fishing for other species. In 1951 the Skeena River spring-salmon catch produced
a pack of 2,055 cases. This is compared with the 1950 pack, when 1,758 cases were
canned, and with 1949, in which year 2,507 cases were canned. The canned-salmon pack
of springs on the Skeena in 1948 amounted to 4,018 cases.
Cohoe Salmon.—The Skeena River is never a large producer of cohoe salmon, and
the 1951 pack of this species, amounting to 19,977 cases, must be considered a normal
one. The 1951 pack was 10,196 cases greater than the pack in the previous year, and
1,356 cases less than were canned on the Skeena River in 1949, and 1,022 cases greater
than the average annual pack of Skeena River cohoe in the previous five-year period.
Pink Salmon.—The 1951 pack of pink salmon produced on the Skeena River,
amounting to 30,356 cases, while greater by 4,100 cases than the 1950 pack, was,
nevertheless, 2,713 cases less than were canned in 1949, the cycle-year. The odd-year
cycle of pink-salmon runs to the Skeena has always been less than the cycle of the even- M  12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
numbered years. In the past years, however, this cycle has produced much larger runs.
In 1945 the Skeena River produced a pack of 69,783 cases of pink salmon, while in
1943 the pack was 54,509 cases. This cycle produced a pack of 95,236 cases in 1939.
Chum Salmon.—Chum salmon are never canned in large quantities on the Skeena
River, and 1951 was no exception. In that year there were canned 14,778 cases of
chum salmon from fish caught in the Skeena River. While this number is not large in
itself, the pack, however, was the largest pack of chum salmon on the Skeena River
since 1938, when 16,758 cases were canned. The 1951 pack was also 4,630 cases
above the average five-year pack for this species.
Nass River
The total canned-salmon pack produced from fish caught in the Nass River in
1951 amounted to 152,742 cases. This is probably a record for this river system.
The Nass has produced packs of over 100,000 cases on numerous occasions, but it
would appear that the 1951 pack was a record for this river system. In 1942 the pack
on the Nass amounted to 100,142 cases, in 1938 the pack was 113,970 cases, and in
1936 the total pack was 139,575 cases. In 1930 the pack was 113,460 cases, and in
1924 a total of 142,939 cases was canned. The 1951 pack was composed of 24,405
cases of sockeyes, 596 cases of springs, 407 cases of steelheads, 18,711 cases of cohoes,
70,880 cases of pinks, and 37,742 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—In 1951 the total pack of sockeye caught in the Nass River was
24,405 cases, which was 2,881 cases less than were canned on this river system in the
previous season. The 1951 pack was the largest pack of sockeye on the Nass River
since 1936, when in that year the pack amounted to 28,562 cases. The 1951 pack on
the Nass was 7,407 cases above the average annual pack for the previous five years.
The sockeye runs to the Nass River are 4- and 5-year-old fish, and because of this it is
difficult to compare any one year's catch with the cycle-year. It is interesting to note,
however, that the 1951 run was the progeny of 1947 and 1946. In 1947 the pack on
the Nass amounted to 10,849 cases, while the 1946 pack was 12,511 cases. It would
appear that the success of the spawning of one or both of these years was very good.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are caught and canned on the Nass River incidental
to fishing for other species and, consequently, the size of the canned-salmon pack is not
indicative of the size of the run. In 1951 there were 596 cases of spring salmon canned
on the Nass River, while in 1950 the canned pack of this species amounted to 798 cases.
In 1949 the pack was 174 cases, while 416 cases of spring salmon were canned in 1948.
Cohoe Salmon.—The Nass River has produced some fairly substantial packs of
cohoe salmon in years gone by, but in recent years the cohoe-packs have not been large.
In 1951 the Nass River produced a pack of canned cohoe amounting to 18,711 cases.
This was the largest pack of cohoe on the Nass River since 1935, when 21,810 cases
were canned. The 1951 cohoe-pack on the Nass is compared with packs of recent past
years, as follows: 1950, 2,737 cases; 1949, 6,665 cases; 1948, 8,954 cases; and 1947,
4,075 cases. The cohoe-pack on the Nass in 1942 was 15,487 cases, while 1941 produced a pack of 16,648 cases.
From the above figures it will be noted that the cohoe-packs on the Nass River have
been very erratic.
Pink Salmon.—The 70,880 cases of pink salmon canned on the Nass River in 1951
was the largest pack of this species on this river system since 1936, when 75,888 cases
were canned. The next year previous in which the pack was more than 50,000 cases
was 1930, when 79,976 cases of pink salmon were canned from fish caught in the Nass
River. The 1951 pack exceeded the cycle-year 1949 by 36,556 cases and was 44,600
cases greater than the average annual pack for this species in the previous five years.
Chum Salmon.—Chum salmon are never a large factor in the Nass River canned-
salmon production.   However, the 1951 pack of 37,742 cases of this species was much REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M  13
greater than in any recent past year and was probably responsible for the large total
pack of this species on the Nass River in the year under review. The 1952 pack of chums
on the Nass exceeded the year previous by 23,421 cases and was 22,519 cases higher
than the average annual pack of this species for the previous five-year period.
In commenting on the spawning-bed conditions on the Nass River in 1951, the
Chief Supervisor remarks that the escapement of pink salmon to the Nass River system
was heavy and chum-salmon supplies were strong over the area, showing improvement
over the brood-year. It would appear that, in addition to the large pack, the escapement
was better than usual.
Rivers Inlet
In Rivers Inlet in 1951 the total canned-salmon pack amounted to 148,996 cases
of all species. This was 23,111 cases less than were packed in Rivers Inlet in 1950,
but the 1951 pack was 22,523 cases above the average annual pack in this area for the
previous five-year period. The 1951 pack was composed of 102,565 cases of sockeyes,
937 cases of springs, 274 cases of steelheads, 12,146 cases of cohoes, 20,960 cases of
pinks, and 11,842 cases of chums, half-cases being dropped in each instance.
Sockeye Salmon.—Rivers Inlet is predominantly a sockeye-fishing area, and in
1951 the total sockeye-pack for this area was 102,565 cases. This was 40,145 cases
less than were canned in the previous season and 37,512 cases less than were canned
there in 1947, the cycle-year for the 1951 run. The 1951 pack of sockeye in Rivers
Inlet was 10,061 cases higher than the average annual pack of this species for this river
system for the previous five-year period.
In comparing averages one should remember that the Rivers Inlet production of
sockeye has been comparatively low during recent past years. This inlet has produced
well over 100,000 cases for a number of years, but until 1950 the inlet has not produced
a pack exceeding 100,000 cases since 1935. The run in 1951 must be considered as
satisfactory.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon in Rivers Inlet, like other gill-net fishing areas, is
not an important fishery. A few springs are caught each season incidental to fishing for
sockeye. In 1951 there were 937 cases of spring salmon canned in Rivers Inlet, compared with 619 cases in 1950, 743 cases in 1949, 899 cases in 1948, and 475 cases in
1947.
Cohoe Salmon.—Rivers Inlet is never a large producer of cohoe salmon, and the
12,146 cases of cohoes canned there in 1951 was the largest pack for any year since
1945, when 17,516 cases were canned in this inlet. The 1951 pack of cohoe was 7,410
cases greater than in the year previous and 4,003 cases greater than 1948, the cycle-year.
The 1951 pack of cohoes in this area was 706 cases above the average annual pack of
this species for the previous five years.
Pink Salmon.—The pink-salmon pack in Rivers Inlet is never a large factor in the
canned-salmon production of the area, and the 20,960 cases packed in 1951 was considerably above the usual pack of pinks for this area. The pack in 1950 was 12,864 cases;
in 1949, 11,937 cases; in 1948, 13,491 cases; while in 1947 the pack was only 9,025
cases. In 1946 the inlet produced a pack of pink salmon amounting to 1,641 cases.
Not since 1930 has the pink-salmon pack in Rivers Inlet approached 20,000 cases, and
in that year 18,023 cases of pinks were canned.
Chum Salmon.—Rivers Inlet was not a producer of chum salmon up until the year
1935, and in that year a small fall fishery was introduced for the first time. Since then
there have been chum salmon fished in Rivers Inlet each year, and in 1951 the total
chum-salmon production for this area was 11,842 cases. In 1950 the chum-salmon
pack was 10,041 cases, and in 1949 the pack amounted to 11,819 cases. The pack in
1948 was 11,486 cases, while in 1947 it was 13,873 cases. It will be observed from
the above figures that the 1951 pack of chums in Rivers Inlet was an average one. M 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Smith Inlet
Smith Inlet, like Rivers Inlet, is very largely a sockeye-producing area. Other
species caught there are generally caught incidentally while fishing for sockeye. The
total canned-salmon pack in Smith Inlet in 1951 was 58,022 cases and was composed
of 49,473 cases of sockeyes, 174 cases of springs, 103 cases of steelheads, 3,259 cases
of cohoes, 2,482 cases of pinks, and 2,530 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-salmon pack in Smith Inlet in 1951 was the largest
ever recorded, being 7,038 cases above the all-time record pack of sockeye in Smith
Inlet in 1950. From reports received in connection with the escapement to the spawning-
grounds, the runs of both 1950 and 1951 were quite large indeed, as the escapement to
the spawning-beds was reported to be much better than average. The Chief Supervisor
of Fisheries, in his report on the spawning-beds for 1951, remarked on the exceedingly
large size of the Smith Inlet sockeye in 1951.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are caught and canned in Smith Inlet incidental to
fishing for other species, and the pack in 1951, amounting to 174 cases, is compared
with the 71-case pack in 1950, the pack of 159 cases in 1949, and the pack of 186 cases
in 1948.
. Cohoe Salmon.—Cohoes, like spring salmon, are not fished for in Smith Inlet.
A few are caught, however, while fishing for other species. These are canned, and in
1951 the pack of cohoes in this area was 3,259 cases. The pack in 1950 was 397 cases
and 785 cases in 1949. The comparatively large pack of cohoes in Smith Inlet in 1951
was something of a record for this species.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon, like cohoe salmon, are caught only incidentally in
Smith Inlet. In 1951 the pack of this species amounted to 2,482 cases, compared with
5,308 cases in 1950, 2,533 cases in 1949, 1,481 cases in 1948, and 1,054 cases in 1947.
Chum Salmon.—The small chum-salmon fishery which has been conducted by the
seine fleet in Smith Inlet in the fall of the year was continued in 1951, and the reports
indicate that fishing was not particularly good during that season, the pack amounting to
2,530 cases. This is compared with the previous year when 4,499 cases were canned
and 1949 when 2,361 cases were packed. The 1948 pack was 1,521 cases, while that of
1947 amounted to 7,910 cases of this species. The size of the canned chum-salmon pack
in Smith Inlet is not considered in any way indicative of the size of the run of this species.
Queen Charlotte Islands
There are two species of salmon fished in the Queen Charlotte Islands district
exclusively for canning purposes. These are pinks and chums. Chum salmon are taken
every year in the Queen Charlotte Islands, but pink salmon are caught only every alternate
year, the runs coinciding with the even-numbered years. There was no run of pink
salmon to the Queen Charlotte Islands in 1951. In addition to the salmon which are
fished for in the Queen Charlotte Islands area exclusively for canning, there is a large
spring- and cohoe-salmon fishery for the fresh- and frozen-fish trade. This is a troll
fishery and is not considered in these reports of the canned-salmon packs. A few cohoes
are caught incidentally while fishing for chum salmon, and these find an outlet in the
canneries and are recorded. The canned cohoe-pack, however, is not in any way indicative of the quantity of this species caught in the Queen Charlotte Islands area.
In 1951 the total canned-salmon pack for the Queen Charlotte Islands was 88,240
cases of all species. This must be considered as a fairly good pack for the off-year for
pinks in this district. The 1951 pack was composed of 510 cases of sockeyes, 22,579
cases of cohoes, 3,455 cases of pinks, and 61,696 cases of chums, half-cases being dropped
in each instance.
Cohoe Salmon. — The 22,579 cases of cohoes caught and canned from Queen
Charlotte Islands fish in 1951 is something of a record for this species in this area, REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M  15
particularly in recent past years. The 1951 pack was the largest pack of cohoes credited
to the Queen Charlotte Islands since 1941, when 27,421 cases were canned. The cohoe-
pack in 1951 is compared with 9,021 cases in 1950, 8,141 cases in 1949, 4,145 cases in
1948, and 392 cases in 1947. As pointed out above, the size of the cohoe-pack in the
Queen Charlotte Islands is in no way indicative of the size of the run to the local streams.
It is, rather, a reflection of various economic conditions prevailing in the industry at the
time the fish were caught. Sometimes it is more convenient to can the few cohoes caught
incidental to chum-salmon fishing than it is at other times, hence the extreme variation in
the size of the cohoe-pack from year to year.
Pink Salmon.—There was no pink-salmon run to the Queen Charlotte Islands in
1951. The 3,455 cases of this species canned from this district were stragglers caught
incidentally while fishing for other varieties.
Chum Salmon.—The 61,696 cases of chum salmon canned from fish caught in the
Queen Charlotte Islands district in 1951 was considerably smaller than the pack of this
species in the year previous when 148,669 cases were canned. The 1951 pack of chum
salmon was 2,424 cases below the average annual pack for this area for the previous
five years.
Central Area
For the purpose of this Report the Central Area comprises all of the salmon-fishing
areas off the coast of British Columbia between Cape Calvert and the Skeena River,
except Rivers Inlet. Salmon-fishing in this area is conducted on many different runs of
salmon in the various parts of the district and, as a consequence, the size of the pack in
this area is no indication of the magnitude of the different runs to the various streams, but
rather reflects the size of the runs generally within the geographical limits of the area.
In 1951 the total canned-salmon pack credited to the Central Area amounted to
513,926 cases. This is compared with the packs in this district in recent past years, as
follows: 1950, 372,781 cases; 1949, 351,420 cases; 1948, 439,995 cases; and 1947,
440,951 cases. The 1951 pack in this area was composed of 22,312 cases of sockeyes,
1,082 cases of springs, 706 cases of steelheads, 61,423 cases of cohoes, 237,559 cases of
pinks, and 190,843 cases of chums, half-cases being dropped in each instance.
Sockeye Salmon.—The 1951 pack of sockeye salmon in the Central Area, amounting to 22,312 cases, was 3,685 cases above the pack of this species in 1950 and 1,305
cases above the average annual pack of sockeye in the Central Area for the previous five
years. Sockeye salmon caught in the Central Area are not the product of one individual
river system, but rather of a number of streams, and while the pack figures do not
necessarily reflect the condition of any individual stream, it would seem to indicate that
the district in general is maintaining its average production. The sockeye-salmon runs to
the streams in this district are apparently being maintained.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are caught and canned in the Central Area to some
extent, but, as in other areas, the canned spring-salmon pack is made up of fish which are
caught incidentally while fishing for other species, and the pack is not a measure of the
size of any of the runs in the district. In 1951 there were 1,082 cases of spring salmon
canned in the Central Area.   This is compared with 776 cases in 1950, 1,007 cases in
1949, 1,195 cases in 1948, and 514 cases in 1947.
Cohoe Salmon.—In 1951 there were 61,423 cases of cohoes canned in the Central
Area. This was something of a record. The 1951 pack was the largest pack of cohoes
in the Central Area for some considerable time and was 4,707 cases above the previous
large pack in 1938, when 56,716 cases were canned. The 1951 pack of cohoes in the
Central Area was 23,774 cases above the average annual pack of this species for the
previous five-year period.
Pink Salmon.—The Central Area has always been considered a high producer of
pink salmon, and, as pointed out in previous issues of this Report, the area has produced M  16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
as high as 370,000 cases of pink salmon in a single season. In comparatively recent
years, however, the pack figures for pink salmon in this area have been consistently
smaller. It is encouraging to note that the pack of this species in 1951 showed a material
increase over recent past years.
In the year under review, the Central Area produced a pack of pink salmon amounting to 237,559 cases. This is compared with 1950, when the pack amounted to 163,301
cases, 1949 with a pack of 173,456 cases, and 1948 with 152,200 cases. The 1951
season was the first time in which the pink-salmon pack for the Central Area exceeded
200,000 cases since 1943, when the pack in that year amounted to 288,109 cases. The
1951 pack was 72,008 cases higher than the average annual pack of this species for the
previous five-year period.
Chum Salmon.—In 1951 there were canned in the Central Area 190,843 cases of
chums. This was 25,959 cases above the year previous and was 7,219 cases less than
the average annual pack of chum salmon in the Central Area for the previous five years.
In considering the size of the chum-salmon pack, and to some extent the pink-
salmon pack in the Central Area for 1951, the reader must take into consideration the
extremely dry weather conditions which prevailed in this area during most of the fishing
season. Most of the streams were below normal and, as a consequence, pink and chum
salmon found it difficult in many cases to ascend the streams to spawn. This made the
fish easier to catch and may have had some bearing on the size of the canned packs of
these two species in the year under review. The exceptionally dry season in the Central
Area made it nectssary for the Federal Department of Fisheries to impose extraordinary
restrictions on fishing in order to protect sufficient fish to properly seed the spawning
areas.
Vancouver Island
In 1951 Vancouver Island and the adjacent Mainland waters produced a total pack
of canned salmon amounting to 585,240 cases. This is compared with 347,996 cases
in 1950, 538,370 cases in 1949, 317,572 cases in 1948, and 552,940 cases in 1947.
The 1951 pack was composed of 22,107 cases of sockeyes, 3,133 cases of springs, 114
cases of steelheads, 151,325 cases of cohoes, 303,102 cases of pinks, and 105,458 cases
of chums. Vancouver Island, like the Central Area, supports numerous races of salmon
running to the different watersheds. In this breakdown no attempt is made to deal with
the various races separately. It should be mentioned, however, that the sockeye salmon
caught in the Sooke traps are not credited to Vancouver Island, but to the Fraser River,
where most of them are known to migrate. Similarly, sockeye salmon caught in Johnstone Strait, between Vancouver Island and the Mainland, are also credited to the
Fraser River in this Report and not to Vancouver Island.
Sockeye Salmon.—Except as noted in the immediately preceding paragraph, Vancouver Island produced a total sockeye-salmon pack in 1951 of 22,107 cases. This was
8,301 cases greater than in the year previous and was 6,121 cases greater than the average
annual pack in the previous five-year period.
Spring Salmon.—Large quantities of spring salmon are caught each year by trolling
in the waters off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Most of these fish, however, find
a market in the fresh- and frozen-fish trade or as mild-cured salmon. The troll-caught
salmon on the lower west coast of Vancouver Island also find a market principally as fresh,
frozen, or mild-cured. Because of these outlets the canned-salmon pack figures for spring
salmon in the Vancouver Island district are in nowise indicative of the size of the catch
of this species. In 1951 there were 3,133 cases of spring salmon canned from fish
caught in the Vancouver Island district. This is compared with 3,343 cases in 1950,
6,361 cases in 1949, 6,622 cases in 1948, and 4,942 cases in 1947.
Cohoe Salmon.—Cohoe salmon, like spring salmon, find a market other than in
cans, and for this reason the canned-salmon pack is not necessarily indicative of the size REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M  17
of the catch or of the run. In the Vancouver Island district in 1951 the cohoe-pack
was 151,325 cases, which was considerably larger than in recent past years. The 1951
pack was 49,170 cases above the average annual pack of cohoes credited to the Vancouver Island district for the previous five-year period. The 1951 cohoe-pack was the
largest in this district since 1941, in which year the pack amounted to 166,908 cases.
Pink Salmon.—The pink-salmon pack in 1951 credited to Vancouver Island was
303,102 cases. This was 71,086 cases more than were canned in 1950 but was 58,681
cases less than in 1949, the cycle-year for this species. The run of pink salmon to the
Vancouver Island district in 1947 produced a pack of 355,992 cases.
Chum Salmon.—In 1951 Vancouver Island and the adjacent Mainland produced
a catch of chum salmon sufficient to fill 105,458 cases, over and above the quantity that
found a ready market in the frozen-fish trade and the fairly substantial quantity which, in
latter years, has been shipped fresh to United States markets. Because of these factors the
canned-salmon figures for chums for the Vancouver Island district are not indicative of
the catch. The pack in 1950 was 125,833 cases, while in 1949 Vancouver Island and
the adjacent Mainland was credited with a pack of 51,629 cases and 147,227 cases in
1948.
REVIEW OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-CANNING
INDUSTRY, 1951
There was a total of twenty-three salmon-canneries licensed to operate by the
Provincial Department of Fisheries in 1951. This was one less than the number licensed
in 1950. The operating canneries were located as follows: Skeena River, 6; Central
Area, 3; Rivers Inlet, 1; Vancouver Island, 1; and Fraser River and Lower Mainland, 12.
The distribution of the salmon-canneries operated in 1951 was similar to that of
1950, with one exception. In 1950 two canneries operated on Vancouver Island, while
in 1951 only one cannery operated in this area. All of the other areas supported the
same number of operating canneries as in 1950. Again in 1951 there were no salmon-
canning operations on the Nass River or in the Queen Charlotte Islands. Smith Inlet
also did not have an operating cannery in 1951. All three of these areas formerly supported operating canneries. The salmon-catch from these areas is now transported to
other areas for canning. This tendency has been remarked on in previous issues of this
Department's Report, and apparently the policy of concentrating the packing of salmon
in fewer canneries is continuing. The liberal use of ice during the salmon-canning season,
together with modern, fast packers, has made it possible for the operators to transport
fresh salmon over increasingly greater distances. This practice is no doubt encouraged
by the necessity of lowering production costs, and in recent years companies have been
concentrating their canning operations in fewer canneries. While this practice may serve
as some measure of economy in production costs, benefits are bound to be limited. The
major portion of the cost of a case of canned salmon is the price of the raw fish, and
until raw-fish prices decline or level off, the cost of producing a case of canned salmon
will remain high, regardless of the concentration of operating canneries.
Since 1947 the export of fresh salmon after September 1st has been permitted in
each year, and owing to the fact that American canners are able to pay higher prices for
Canadian fish for canning purposes than the Canadian canners, there has been a movement of large quantities of chum salmon to the United States for processing in Puget
Sound canneries. In so far as the Canadian canned-salmon pack is concerned, Canadian
canneries might as well have closed down after September 1st, as practically all of the
chum salmon caught for canning purposes after that date found a market in the United
States and were canned there. This applies to canning fish only. Large quantities of
Canadian-caught chum salmon after September 1st in each year find a market in Canadian freezes. The point is, however, that the export of raw fish, which would ordinarily
be canned in British Columbia, has had the effect of reducing the canned-salmon pack M  18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
for this Province to less than what it would have been if all the fish caught in British
Columbia waters had been canned here. This, of course, has had the effect of reducing the
number of employees and the time employed in Canadian canneries.
In considering the current pack figures for the canneries of the Lower Mainland,
it should be kept in mind that the export of raw fish reduced the pack by the equivalent of
the amount exported. Due allowance should therefore be made for these quantities
when comparing the canned-salmon pack figures with years previous to 1947.
Probably the most outstanding feature of the 1951 salmon-fishing season was the
extremely dry weather during the fishing season. This, of course, had the effect of lowering many of the coastal streams to the point where salmon reaching the streams could
not ascend them to spawn. This condition became so acute that the Federal Department
of Fisheries was forced to close all salmon-fishing for a period until the early rains came
in the Central Area, which permitted an escapement to the spawning-beds.
OTHER CANNERIES
Pilchard-canneries.-—There has been no run of pilchards off the west coast of Vancouver Island since 1949, and, as a consequence, again in 1951 no pilchard-cannery
licences were issued.
Herring-canneries.—In 1951 there were three herring-canneries licensed, and all of
these operated. This was one more than operated in 1950. In 1949 five herring-
canneries operated. The three canneries operating in 1951 produced a pack of 103,928
cases of canned herring. This is compared with 56,798 cases canned in 1950 and with
77,913 cases canned by the five canneries in 1949. The variation in the canned-herring
pack from year to year is not a function of the size of the run, but rather reflects the
market conditions prevailing at the time the herring are available. During the war
years, and immediately following the war, the canned-herring business in British Columbia attained quite large proportions. In 1947, for instance, eighteen herring-canneries
produced a pack of 1,283,670 cases. Since then, however, the canned-herring industry
has reached what'might be considered its normal production. During pre-war years
British Columbia herring were canned to the extent of from 25,000 to 40,000 cases
annually.
Tuna-fish Canneries.—The first commercial tuna-fish canning operations in British
Columbia were licensed in 1948. Tuna were caught off the British Columbia coast previous to this date, but the catch was largely frozen and shipped to United States canneries.
In 1951 there were five plants licensed to can tuna, and all of these operated. This is
compared with three in 1950. The five plants operating in British Columbia in 1951
produced a pack amounting to 102,132 cases of 7-ounce cans and 2,289 cases of 4-ounce
cans.   These figures are compared with a total pack of 77,328 cases of tuna in 1950.
The tuna-fishery off the British Columbia coast has not yet stabilized itself, and we
may expect some fairly wide fluctuations in the size of the tuna-pack until the fishery
becomes stable.
Shell-fish Canneries.—Under this heading those plants which are concerned with
the canning of various species of shell-fish are reviewed. In 1951 there were nine plants
licensed by the Provincial Department of Fisheries, all of which operated. There were
two more canneries operated in 1951 than in the year previous. The pack of the shell-fish
canneries is listed below:—■
Clams:   4,917 cases of 48/Vfc's, 14,568 cases of 24/1's, and 1,696 cases of
6/10's.
Crabs:   8,709 cases of 48/1/£'s.
Oysters:  486 cases of 48/10-oz. and 11 cases of 96/1/4's.
Abalone:   130 cases. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M  19
The above figures for 1951 are compared with the pack in 1950, which was as
follows:—
Clams:   2,352 cases of 48/1/2's,  10,144 cases of 24/1's, 6,776 cases of
48/6-oz., and 778 cases of 6/10's.
Crabs:   8,418 cases of 48/V2's.
Oysters:   3,442 cases of 48/1/2's.
Abalone:   76 cases of 48/1's.
MILD-CURED SALMON
In 1951 there were three plants licensed, and all operated on mild-cured salmon.
This is compared with five plants which operated in the year previous. The three operating plants in 1951 produced 821 tierces of mild-cured salmon, compared with 886
tierces in 1950.
DRY-SALT SALMON
Previous to the outbreak of the war in 1939, large quantities of chum salmon were
dry-salted in British Columbia each season for shipment to the Orient. In some years
the production of dry-salt salmon reached quite large proportions and was a very definite
factor in the market for fall fish.
During the war years the Provincial Government declined to issue licences for
salmon dry-salteries in order to divert as much of the salmon-catch as possible to the
salmon canners and freezers. This was done as a war measure. Since the war the
business of dry-salting salmon has not revived. In 1947 two licences were issued but
no operation took place, and no licences have been issued for salmon dry-salteries since
that time. No doubt this cessation of business in the dry-salt salmon trade is in some
measure due to unsettled conditions in the Orient.
As most of the dry-salt salmon found a market in Japan, there is a possibility of this
market reviving now that the Japanese people have obtained their sovereignty. Whether
or not economic conditions will permit of the import of chum salmon into Japan from
Canada, of course, is an economic problem which, at the present time, requires
clarification.
DRY-SALT HERRING
In British Columbia, previous to World War II, the dry-salting of herring was quite
a factor in the winter fishery, the dry-salted product being shipped to China. Since the
outbreak of the war in 1939, the bulk of British Columbia's herring-catch has been either
canned or reduced to meal and oil. During the war years the British Columbia Government declined to issue licences for herring dry-salteries in order to divert as much as
possible of the herring-catch to the canneries, the product from which being used as food
for the allied nations. Since the war some activity has taken place each season in the
dry-salting of herring, although the business has never attained anything like the
proportions of pre-war years.
In 1951 there were five plants licensed to operate as herring dry-salteries, all of
which operated. The five plants in 1951 produced a total of 4,331 cured tons of salt
herring. This figure is compared with 4,418 tons produced in the year previous. All of
the 1951 production was shipped to the Orient.
PICKLED HERRING
There has been no activity under this heading since 1947.
HALIBUT-FISHERY
The halibut-fishery on the Pacific Coast of North America is regulated by the International Fisheries Commission, which Commission is set up under a treaty between M 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Canada and the United States for the protection and rehabilitation of the halibut. The
fishery is a deep-sea fishery and is shared in by the nationals of the two countries. The
Commission regulates the fishery on a quota basis, and, on that account, there is little
fluctuation in the total amount of halibut landed from year to year, except where the
quotas are changed for any reason.
For the purpose of regulation, the coast was originally divided into a number of
areas, the principal ones, from the standpoint of production, being Areas 2 and 3.
Former Area 2 comprised the waters off the coasts of Washington and British Columbia,
from the approximate vicinity of Willapa Harbour in the south to Cape Spencer in the
north, while Area 3 comprised the waters from the northern boundary of Area 2 to the
Aleutian Islands. In order to make better use of the stocks of halibut on the different
banks, it was found necessary to further divide some of the areas, and Area 2, particularly, was subdivided. The new areas now comprise Areas 1a and 1b; Areas 2a, 2b,
and 2c; Area 3; and Area 4. Areas 1a and 1b comprise what was formerly Area 1,
while Areas 2a, 2b, and 2c were formerly Area 2. For a more detailed breakdown of
the areas and the geographical limits of each, the reader is referred to the Pacific Halibut
Regulations for 1951.
In 1951 the catch-limits set by the Commission for the different areas were as follows: Area 2a, 25,500,000 pounds; Area 3, 28,000,000 pounds; Area 4, 500,000
pounds. In Areas 2b and 2c there was no limit set, but fishing was limited to a ten-day
period only. In Areas 1a and 1b there was no catch-limit, but Area 1a closed with
Area 3, and Area 1b closed with Area 2a. In 1951 the total quota placed on Areas 2a,
3, and 4 amounted to 54,000,000 pounds.   This was the same as in the year previous.
In 1951 the total landings by all vessels in all ports from the different areas amounted
to 56,906,000 pounds, compared with 57,287,133 pounds in 1950. A breakdown of
halibut production in 1951 by areas is as follows: Area 1a, 147,000 pounds; Area 1b,
325,000 pounds; Area 2a, 26,666,000 pounds; Area 2b, 2,468,000 pounds; Area 2c,
1,213,000 pounds; and Area 3, 26,087,000 pounds. There were no landings from
Area 4 in 1951. The total production of halibut in 1951 was 381,113 pounds less than
in the year previous. These figures are contrasted with the total landings by areas in
1950 as follows: Area 1, 359,000 pounds; Area 2, which comprises Areas 2a, 2b, and
2c, 26,742,000 pounds; and Area 3, 30,185,000 pounds.
In 1950 total landings by all vessels in Canadian ports amounted to 25,275,000
pounds, compared with total landings in 1950 of 22,498,000 pounds. Of this amount,
former Area 2 produced 17,002,000 pounds, compared with 14,376,000 pounds in the
year previous. In 1951 Area 3 produced 8,273,000 pounds, compared with 8,121,610
pounds landed in Canadian ports by all vessels in 1950.
The total landings of halibut in Canadian ports by Canadian vessels only in 1951
amounted to 20,884,000 pounds, compared with 18,814,000 pounds in the year previous.
Former Area 2 was the big producer for Canadian vessels again in 1951, producing
16,346,000 pounds of the total landings by Canadian vessels in Canadian ports. Canadian
vessels also landed some halibut in American ports, and in 1951 Canadian vessels landed
582,000 pounds of halibut in American ports, all of which were taken in Area 3.
In 1951 United States vessels landed in Canadian ports a total of 4,391,000 pounds
of halibut.   This is compared with 3,683,000 pounds in 1950.
It will be noted that while the quotas for 1951, as set by the International Fisheries
Commission, were unchanged from the year previous, the total landings in 1951 were
slightly less.
The average price paid for Canadian halibut in all Canadian ports in 1951 amounted
to 15.5 cents per pound. The price paid for halibut landed at Prince Rupert in 1951 was
slightly higher and averaged 17.4 cents per pound. In addition to the halibut landed in
the various ports, the halibut-fishermen have, for a number of years, sold the halibut-
livers to the pharmaceutical trade because of the high vitamin content of the livers.   This REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M 21
has been an important source of revenue to the halibut-fishermen on the Pacific Coast for
a number of years. In 1951 Canadian halibut-fishermen received a total of $258,000
(estimated) for livers and viscera derived from the halibut-catch.
The statistical information for the above review in connection with the Pacific
halibut-fishery was supplied by the International Fisheries Commission and is hereby
gratefully acknowledged.
FISH OIL AND MEAL
The production of fish-oil and edible fish-meal has been an important branch of
British Columbia's fisheries for a number of years. Previous to World War II, pilchards
and herring were the principal species used for the production of oil and meal. Products
of the reduction plants found a ready market, the meal being used as a supplementary
food for animal-feeding and the oil found a ready market for use in manufacturing
processes of many kinds. The demand for natural sources of vitamins stimulated the
production of vitamin oils from fish products, and at the outbreak of World War II the
demand for natural sources of vitamins greatly increased the production of fish-oils of
high vitamin content in British Columbia. This increased demand for high vitamin oils
brought into use other fish besides herring and pilchards during the war years and the
years immediately after the war. Dogfish and shark livers were in high demand in those
years. Recently, however, the increased production of synthetic Vitamin A has lessened
the demand for fish-liver oil as a natural source of this vitamin, and if the price of
synthetic Vitamin A falls much lower, the market for livers containing this vitamin may
very soon disappear.
Fish-livers, cannery waste, and viscera are all utilized for the production of fish-oil
in British Columbia. In addition to the production of oils from British Columbia's
various fish and fish-livers, in recent years there has been developed considerable activity
in the use of cannery waste and viscera for the production of various pharmaceutical
products. In addition to the high vitamin-content oils used in the medicinal field, British
Columbia's fish-oils of lower vitamin potency find an outlet in many manufacturing
processes, while some of the vitamin-bearing oils of lesser quantity produced in British
Columbia are sold in quite large quantities for feeding poultry and live stock.
Fish-liver Oil.—In 1951 there were four plants licensed to reduce fish-livers into oil,
all of which operated. In 1950 the number of plants licensed was five, but only four
plants actually got into production. In 1951 the four plants which operated processed
1,346,040 pounds of livers, producing 5,250,441 million U.S.P. units of Vitamin A with
a value of $553,404. This production is compared with the 1950 production, in which
four operating plants processed 834,376 pounds of livers, producing 3,578,905 million
U.S.P. units of Vitamin A.
Pilchard-reduction.—The year 1951, like the preceding six consecutive years, did
not produce a pilchard run. The year in question was the seventh consecutive year in
which the pilchard run to British Columbia waters has been a complete failure from
a commercial standpoint, and biologists charged with the investigation of this fishery are
still not optimistic that this condition will materially improve in the near future. Pilchards
are not native to British Columbia waters but migrate off our coast from California, where
they are spawned in the ocean. There is a large pilchard-fishery in California conducted
on the same body of fish that formerly migrated to British Columbia. This fishery is
fished very heavily in California, and it is thought that the heavy fishing there has had
some bearing on the migration habits of this species.
Herring-reduction.—The winter herring-fishery in British Columbia has developed
into a very important branch of British Columbia's fishing industry. This branch of the
industry ranks second in point of dollar value in British Columbia's fisheries. The season
runs through from late in September or early in October until March in the following
year, and although a few herring are caught previous to October, the season actually M 22 ERITISH COLUMBIA
gets into full swing by the middle of November. Many of the boats used in catching
herring are also used in the salmon-fishery and, generally speaking, the herring-fishery
does not get into full swing until the boats have been released from fishing for salmon.
During the war most of the herring-catch was utilized in the herring-canneries, but since
the war the catch is principally reduced to meal and oil. This fact should be kept in mind
when figures are being compared with similar figures during the war years in connection
with the herring-fishery ana the production of herring-reduction plants.
In 1951 there were fifteen plants licensed, all of which operated. This was one more
than the number which actually operated in 1950. The fifteen operating plants in 1951
produced 32,777 tons of meal and 3,832,301 imperial gallons of oil. This production
had a total value of $8,233,965. The 1951 production of meal and oil from the herring-
fishery is compared with 1950, when the total production of meal amounted to 31,913
tons and 3,385,685 imperial gallons of oil.
Whale-reduction.—In 1948 the hunting of whales off the British Columbia coast, for
reduction purposes, was again resumed after a short period of inactivity. Whale-reduction
continued in 1951. In that year there were 437 whales captured, compared with 314
whales in the year previous. The 437 whales captured in 1951 were reduced to meal,
oil, whale-liver oil, and whale-solubles.
Miscellaneous Reduction.—Dogfish and fish-offal reduction plants are licensed by
the Provincial Department of Fisheries under miscellaneous reduction licences. These
plants operate on cannery waste and the carcasses of dogfish and produced meal and oil
for various purposes. The oil produced from the carcasses of dogfish is not to be
confused with the oil produced from dogfish-livers, the latter being a high-potency oil
which is reported in another section of this Report.
In 1951 there were fifteen plants licensed, fourteen of which operated. The number
is compared with twelve plants operated in tin year previous. The fourteen plants
operated in 1951 produced 3,217 tons of meal and 227,517 imperial gallons of oil. These
figures are contrasted with the previous year's production when the twelve operating
plants produced 1,717 tons of meal and 166,989 imperial gallons of oil.
NET-FISHING IN NON-TIDAL WATERS
Under section 24 of the Special Fishery Regulations for British Columbia, fishing
with nets in certain specified non-tidal waters within the Province is permissible under
licence from the Provincial Minister of Fisheries. This fishery is confined almost
exclusively to the residents living within reasonable distance of the lakes mentioned.
In the Appendix to this Report there again appears a table showing the name and
number of lakes in which net-fishing has been permitted, together with the number and
approximate weight of the various species of fish taken from each lake.
It will be noted that there are three different kinds of fishing licences issued for
net-fishing in non-tidal waters of the Province; namely, fur-farm, ordinary, and sturgeon.
The fur-farm licences are issued to licensed fur-farmers, and the coarse fish taken under
these licences are used as food for feeding fur-bearing animals held in captivity. Ordinary
fishing licences are issued for the capture of fish other than trout, salmon, or sturgeon,
while licences issued for sturgeon-fishing are exclusively for that fishery.
For a detailed account of the fish taken by licensed nets in the different waters of the
Province, the reader is referred to the table appearing in the Appendix to this Report.
VALUE OF CANADIAN FISHERIES AND THE STANDING
OF THE PROVINCES, 1950
The value of the fisheries products of Canada for the year 1950 totalled $182,106,597.
During that year British Columbia produced fisheries products to the value of $68,821,358,
or 37.8 per cent of Canada's total.    British Columbia in 1950 led all of the Provinces of REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
M 23
Canada in respect to the production of fisheries wealth. Her output exceeded that of
Nova Scotia, second in rank, by $30,656,391.
The market value of the fisheries products of British Columbia in 1950 was
$12,701,204 more than in the year previous. There was an increase in the value of
salmon amounting to $12,048,075.
The capital employed in 1950 in the primary fishing industry was $80,118,100.
The following statement gives the value of fishery products of the Provinces of
Canada for the years 1946 to 1950, inclusive:—
Province
1946
1947
1948
1943
1950
$43,817,147
34,270,761
16,419,983
7,927,022
6,296,658
4,871,037
4,470,877
1,399,083
1,148,886
558,264
5,014
$58,764,950
26,658,915
17,131,690
5,316,999
5,403,662
5,329,448
2,897,284
856,609
1,170,930
530,948
7,474
$58,703,803
36,090,820
20,122,378
6,393,635
5,942,723
5,414,583
3,634,376
1,527,834
1,282,437
636,352
$56,120,154
35,039,804
17,428,127
5,111,878
5,728,389
4,800,387
2,704,444
652,545
1,025,896
2,334,009
C1)
$68,821,358
38,164,967
18,053,168
5,496,282
Ontario   . 	
7,033,552
6,791,290
3,320,513
767,887
Saskatchewan   	
1,360,114
2,297,466
C1)
30,000,000
Totals..—  ._. ..
$121,124,732
$124,068,909
$139,748,941
$130,945,633
$182,106,597
1 Not available. M 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
SPECIES AND VALUE OF FISH CAUGHT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
The total marketed value of each of the principal species of fish taken in British
Columbia for the years 1946 to 1950, inclusive, is given in the following table:—
Species
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
$24,346,483
3,708,819
300,303
9,574,643
213,753
1,319,501
349,804
446,008
217,792
848,004
$35,692,625
5,296,942
647,002
12,094,582
41,750
$36,671,140
4,120,003
527,868
10,485,090
$35,897,732
4,023,110
333,200
9,412,786
$48,701,583
5,430,374
121,165
9,313,447
Pilchard 	
108,130
596,886
369,788
268,165
297,533
515,148
55
48,538
239,099
7,101
10,629
78,435
8,070
11,328
10,142
514
3,861
36,732
134,494
878,972
107,546
564,888
326,263
1,170,890
204,855
870,513
209,379
631,850
443,339
580,238
89,447
282,616
2,811
17,112
140,830
4,636
18,421
13,418
6,172
4,683
29,609
444,317
523,435
262,983
263,892
399,396
Soles        -
913,689
40,431
258,964
150
25,765
214,882
15,970
10,326
6,070
3,705
4,486
11,337
180
84,910
214,495
4,838
15,661
131,910
5,731
10,053
5,502
2,199
5,208
30,224
122,345
353,429
1,732
43,500
54,362
7,681
Perch	
20,785
11,909
2,722
7 284
Skate.                   	
25,861
Whiting  - 	
30 324
Trout 	
	
Grayfish, etc.—
Fresh _	
Livers      .
12,258
1,098,569
43,121
1,439,861
11,057
1,634,388
6,659
1,539,951
169,724
Body-oil   __	
Meal.. ..	
2,822
450,405
720
Whales	
620
639,643
2,336
987
296
Hair-seals  	
615,106
122,892
4,375
37,625
1,199
7,127
537,787
233,096
21,147
23,160
2,657
80,079
88,305
990,424
2,822
23,435
242
454,949
37,283
708,004
195
8,464
678
148,216
767,767
Shark-livers. 	
Shark-liver oil.	
184,985
Totals	
$43,817,147
$58,764,950
$58,703,803
$56,120,154!
$68,821,358
1 Corrected to date.
The above figures were supplied by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, and
are hereby gratefully acknowledged.
CONDITION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-SPAWNING GROUNDS
We are again indebted to the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for the Federal Government and the officers of his Department who conducted the investigations for furnishing
us with a copy of the Department's report on the salmon-spawning grounds of British
Columbia and in permitting the same to be published in the Appendix to this Report.
The Chief Supervisor's courtesy in supplying us with this information is gratefully
acknowledged. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M 25
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON
(PAPER No. 37)
(Digest)
Paper No. 37 in this series is again contributed by D. R. Foskett, M.A., of the staff
of the Pacific Biological Station at Nanaimo. It has been pointed out previously in the
pages of this Department's Annual Report that the work of analysing the commercial
salmon-catch in British Columbia's principal sockeye-fishing rivers has heretofore been
done with funds supplied by the Provincial Department of Fisheries. Latterly, the
extended salmon work being conducted by the Fisheries Research Board of Canada has
made it possible to have the material for the catch analyses collected simultaneously while
other field work was in progress, and arrangements have now been made to have this
investigation continued, but in future the work will be financed and carried forward by
the Fisheries Research Board of Canada. The Provincial Department of Fisheries will
continue to contribute to this work by publishing the papers relating to this investigation.
These papers will appear in the Appendix to the Annual Report of the Provincial
Department of Fisheries as heretofore.
In the introduction to this year's contribution the author refers to the excellent packs
of sockeye in both Rivers Inlet and Smith Inlet areas and draws attention to one of the
problems in connection with the utilization of the sockeye runs presented by the numbers
of jacks or 3-year-old males which are so prominent in certain areas in different years.
The author points out that because of their small size they are taken by the commercial
gear in small numbers only, in spite of the fact that they may be numerous in the run and
exceedingly numerous on the spawning-grounds, which is true for Rivers Inlet and the
Skeena River run in 1951. No experiments known to the author on the inheritance of
the tendency toward early maturity have been carried past the first generation and, therefore, they cannot be considered conclusive. The suggestion is made that some work
should be done with a view to carrying this investigation further in order that we might
better assess the value of large numbers of jacks on the spawning-beds.
Speaking of the runs to the specific areas in question, the author points out that the
sockeye-pack of 24,405 cases in 1951 was very good for the Nass River, where the
average for the past ten years has been in the neighbourhood of 15,500 cases. The
escapement to the Meziadin area, which reportedly constitutes the main spawning area
for sockeye in the Nass River system, was reported to be adequate.
In connection with the Nass River age-groups, the author points out that there is
still some doubt existing as to the particular point at which a check in the scale is
sufficiently distinct to warrant recognition as marking the completion of the year and
refers to research which is now being carried out by the Fisheries Research Board of
Canada in two other areas—namely, Lakelse Lake and Port lohn Lake—and, as a result
of this work, it is hoped that information will be obtained in these areas which will help
in a clearer understanding of the situation in other areas.
Regarding the Skeena River sockeye run of 1951, the author points out that the pack
of 61,694 cases was equal to the average pack of 61,720 cases for the past ten years.
However, the author draws attention to the fact that the escapement in 1951 was reported
to be light. The Babine area spawning population suffered tremendous losses due to
a slide in the canyon about 40 miles below Babine Lake. This slide is referred to in
another section of this Report.
Referring to the Rivers Inlet sockeye run of 1951, the author points out that this
inlet produced a very satisfactory pack, amounting to 102,565 cases. The escapement
was classed as moderate to heavy and, in the opinion of the writer, adequate in most of
the streams in the area.
The author, in this paper, refers to the situation with regard to predators in the
Rivers Inlet region by both seals and bears.    After discussing predation, the author
L M 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
suggests that an investigation might be undertaken, preferably as a joint enterprise with
the British Columbia Game Commission, in order to settle the very controversial question
as to the damage caused by bears to the spawning runs.
The Smith Inlet run of 1951, according to the author, amounting to 49,473 cases,
was the highest pack yet recorded for this inlet and more than double the twenty-six-year
average of 22,100 cases. In addition to this large pack, there was a heavy escapement
to the spawning-grounds. It will be interesting to learn whether or not this heavy
escapement in 1951 produces a run in 1955 commensurate with its size.
For more details in connection with the sockeye-salmon runs to the above-mentioned
areas, the reader is referred to Mr. Foskett's paper, published in full, with supporting
statistics, in the Appendix to this Report.
HERRING INVESTIGATION
Research on the various British Columbia herring populations was continued by the
Fisheries Research Board of Canada at the Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, during
the 1951-52 season.   The studies are supervised by J. C. Stevenson.
The main purpose of the investigation is to gain sufficient information on the herring
populations to enable more effective administration of the resource. The research
involves three interrelated fines of approach:—
(1) Comparative study of two populations which are subjected to different
methods of management. The catch of one population (that of the west
coast of Vancouver Island) is not restricted by quota, whereas the catch
of the other (the lower east coast of Vancouver Island) is limited to
40,000 tons annually. A fishing-closure date of February 5th applies to
both populations.
(2) Collection of data on the adult stocks of all other major herring populations. One of the purposes of these studies is to enable wide application
of results of the comparative study.
(3) Study of the factors that affect year-class recruitment. The present
investigation seeks to determine whether either annual variations in
survival of spawn or annual variation in abundance of juveniles is indicative of the abundance of the year-class when it is recruited to the fishery.
The main purpose of these studies is to obtain information that will enable
more precise prediction of adult abundance.
The Comparative Study
The west coast fishery in 1951—52 produced the second smallest catch of the six-year
period (30,000 tons). Average catch per unit of effort was almost as high as in the
years of greatest catch, a result considered to be due to exceptionally efficient fleet
deployment rather than great population abundance. Extent of spawn deposition on the
west coast in 1952 suggested that the amount of fish that escaped the fishery was less than
in any year since 1947. Thus it appeared that population abundance was considerably
reduced from that of 1950-51. Spawning data indicated that the main southern west
coast stocks (Area 23) suffered relatively greater reduction than the more northerly west
coast runs (Area 25). More intensive exploitation of the Area 25 runs occurred in
1951-52 than in the two previous years, principally because of the ten-day extension of
fishing past the regular closure date of February 5th.
The decrease in population abundance on the west coast was considered to be largely
a result of the recent entrance of two year-classes of generally low recruitment (1948 and
1949 year-classes). These year-classes (as III- and IV-year fish) were the main contributors to the Area 23 fishery. The 1947 year-class, which supplied the main bulk of
the 1949-50 and 1950-51 west coast fisheries, was still abundant in the Area 25 stocks REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M 27
as V-year fish in 1951-52 and, as a result, prevented a decrease in population abundance
as large as that which occurred in Area 23.
In contrast to the decrease in west coast abundance, population abundance on the
lower east coast of Vancouver Island showed a substantial increase in 1951-52. The
spawning population, as shown by extent of spawn records, showed a phenomenal increase
over that of the previous year (56 per cent). The 1947 year-class was of negligible
importance on the lower east coast in 1951-52, but the 1949 year-class (as Ill's) was
recruited in large numbers and the 1948 year-class (IV's) made an appreciable contribution to the stocks.
The present difference in the abundance of the two populations under investigation
is not considered to be a result of the effect of quota restrictions on the lower east coast
fishery. The difference is more likely a direct consequence of dissimilarity in the
recruitment of the individual year-classes to the two populations. In recent years the
year-classes entering the lower east coast stocks have been generally more uniformly
productive than those recruited to the west coast population. Early life-history studies
suggest that year-class strength on the west coast may be more affected by oceanographic
conditions than it is on the lower east coast of Vancouver Island. This indication of
a fundamental difference between the two populations is strengthened by data which
show a major difference in survival from spawning to recruitment. Year-classes on the
lower east coast have been derived from smaller spawn depositions than year-classes on
the west coast, but average recruitment from lower east coast year-classes has exceeded
average west coast recruitment. In view of this apparently fundamental difference, the
present comparative study may be considerably complicated, so much so that it may be
impossible to make direct comparisons. It appears possible that quota restrictions may
serve a useful purpose when applied to the lower east coast population, but not when
applied to the west coast fishery. Further investigation is required before results can
be conclusive.
Tag-recovery data indicated that emigration of west coast fish to other sub-districts
(about 3 per cent) was less than in previous years. The negligible movement of west
coast herring to the lower east coast was considered to be a possible result of the present
low abundance of the west coast population, and particularly of the greatly reduced
abundance of the Barkley Sound stocks, with which the lower east coast runs usually show
greatest intermixture. Similarly, recovery of lower east coast tags in west coast catches
was less than usual (3.6 per cent), presumably a consequence of the exceptionally small
west coast catch. Intermixture of these two Southern British Columbia stocks with those
of northern waters of British Columbia was relatively small. The greatest movement was
from the northern sub-district to the lower east coast and west coast, which comprised
a combined emigration of between 5 and 6 per cent. There is a strong possibility that the
heavy exploitation of the northern population in 1951-52 led to an abnormally high
recovery of tags which originated in other sub-districts.
The large degree of discreteness of west coast herring was indicated by the calculation
that only about 1,000 tons of west coast fish were caught in other sub-districts in 1951-52,
and that not more than 2,000 tons of fish from other sub-districts were taken in west
coast catches.
Detailed data from the 1951-52 study on the west coast fishable population, along
with a discussion of the implications of the results of the comparative management study
after six years of investigation, are presented in the Appendix of this Report.
General Studies on the Adult Stocks of All Major Herring Populations
A record herring-catch of 198,000 tons was taken in 1951-52 in British Columbia
waters, about 10,000 tons greater than in the previous season. The non-quota fishery in
the Queen Charlotte Islands sub-district was over three times as great as in the previous M 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
year. In sub-districts where catch quotas are applied, all quotas were taken or approximated. After the 30,000-ton quota was completed in the northern sub-district, the
fishing-grounds were thoroughly scouted, using a Federal Department of Fisheries vessel
equipped with an echo-sounder. Because of the large amount of fish present, the
Department authorized two separate quota extensions (totalling 27,300 tons), which
were taken in remarkably short periods of fishing.
In addition to the regular scouting surveys undertaken in most sub-districts, an
intensive survey of herring in inshore waters of the northern sub-district was carried out
with a vessel loaned by the industry. The quantity of herring estimated in the course of
the survey was related to the spawning in the region.
Spawning surveys were again undertaken through the assistance- of Federal Department of Fisheries officers. All herring populations except those of the middle east coast
and lower east coast sub-districts showed decreased amounts of spawning. The generally
poor recruitment of the 1948 and 1949 year-classes and the heavy exploitation of the
stocks in the 1951-52 fishing season were probably the most important factors in the
decreased spawnings. Reduction in spawn deposition was most pronounced in the west
coast and central sub-districts. There is no evidence, however, that the amount of spawn
in any of the populations has reached so low a level that future maintenance of the stocks
is threatened.
The 1947 year-class, which made heavy contributions to all major populations in
1949-50 and 1950-51, was unusually abundant in the 1951-52 fisheries as V-year fish.
It was especially productive in the three populations of Northern British Columbia and
in the more northerly stocks of the west coast of Vancouver Island. This year-class did
much to sustain population abundance in 1951-52 in the face of the relatively low
recruitment from the 1948 and 1949 year-classes. Population abundance in the 1952-53
season will be largely dependent on the amount of herring that will be contributed to the
adult stocks by the 1949 and 1950 year-classes. There is little likelihood that either will
be as abundant in any of the major populations as the 1947 year-class.
The importance of age determination in the study of year-class abundance has led
to the initiation of special scale studies designed to improve the accuracy of scale-reading.
The 1951—52 tag-recovery was the largest since the beginning of the tagging programme—a total of 4,758 tags were recovered by magnets in sixteen reduction plants
and through the operation of three tag-detectors. Tag-detector returns were less than
in the previous year, forming 5 per cent of the total, as compared to 11 per cent in the
previous season. Attention will be given to improving the efficiency of tag-detection
during the summer of 1952.
Analysis of tag returns showed limited intermixture between herring of the northern
and central sub-districts. The 1951-52 data provided the first opportunity to assess the
amount of the movement between these two populations. The data also strongly suggested that north central and south central runs comprise two fairly distinct stocks.
In addition, tagging results in 1951-52 confirmed previous tagging work in indicating
that the main inshore migration of lower east coast herring is through the Strait of Juan
de Fuca.
Predictions of fishing success were again made in the fall of 1951. These predictions, based on various data from adult-herring studies, proved to be reasonably accurate.
Studies on Survival of Herring Spawn and Juvenile Herring
Data obtained from various spawnings on the west coast of Vancouver Island in
the spring of 1952 showed that bird predation varied greatly (from 17 to 56 per cent),
but comparison of these results with those of previous years suggested that the over-all
loss through bird predation probably does not vary greatly from year to year. Loss of
spawn by factors other than bird predation appeared to be relatively small.   Study of REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M 29
the " natural" spawn mortality on eelgrass, which forms about 70 per cent of the substrate for west coast spawn, was found to be less than 5 per cent.
An extensive juvenile-herring survey was undertaken in Barkley Sound on the west
coast of Vancouver Island and in Departure Bay on the lower east coast during the
summer and fall of 1951. Estimates of juvenile abundance based on series of scouting
surveys were compared with estimates made in the preliminary survey of 1950. Analysis
of the data suggested that juvenile herring of the 1951 year-class were less abundant in
Barkley Sound than those of the 1950 year-class, while in Departure Bay the 1951 supply
of juveniles was equal to or slightly greater than the 1950 juvenile population. Marking
and tagging experiments were also conducted to estimate juvenile abundance. The value
of these estimates in predicting year-class strength will not be known until the particular
year-classes have been fully recruited to the fishing stocks.
Several groups of juveniles were found in Barkley Sound, each of which showed
relatively complete mingling within its own locality. Mixing between these groups was
limited. No evidence was obtained to indicate intermixture between the major west
coast sounds.
The 1952 juvenile study was restricted to the west coast of Vancouver Island. The
data from this study have not yet been analysed.
REPORT OF THE BIOLOGIST, 1951
The purpose of the Provincial Shell-fish Laboratory at Ladysmith is to provide an
information service on commercial molluscs and their culture and to investigate the
biology of those species as it affects their reproduction, growth, abundance, and culture.
The main effort continues to be placed on various phases of the oyster investigation.
Studies of imported Japanese oyster-seed and the provision of an independent British
Columbia supply is of importance. Examination is being made of the various phases
of oyster-culture to determine quantitatively their efficiency and possible modification,
if necessary. The biology of the oyster, especially in relation to the condition (fatness)
cycle, is being studied. Consequently, the activities in regard to clams are being confined
to the maintenance of contact with the clam-fishery and the carrying-on of routine observations to preserve continuity of records.
A series of bulletins covering the activities of the laboratory and reports of published work of interest to the industry were issued to growers and other interested individuals. During the summer oyster-breeding season these bulletins are mainly concerned
with spawning reports and spatfall forecasts.
Again, the oyster-seed imported from Japan was inspected for pests and quality
at Anacortes, Wash., the port of landing. The 1951 seed proved to be pest-free, so far
as could be determined from random sampling. Due to weather conditions in Japan in
the previous summer, the oyster-seed was somewhat larger in size and lower in count
than usual. By the end of the year, however, indications were that most of the seed
turned out to be satisfactory.
Lectures, both of a technical and general nature, were given throughout the year.
Oyster-growers were visited whenever possible, or when they asked for assistance.
Co-operation was maintained with the Provincial Department of Lands and Forests
and the Department of Health and Welfare in connection with the issue of shell-fish leases.
Some time has been devoted to the subject of paralytic shell-fish poisoning, although
this is largely a public health matter. This year has concluded a period of active participation in the study of this problem.
A small amount of time was devoted to the shipworm problem, chiefly in the direction of early life-history studies. The laboratory is in receipt of numerous inquiries
relating to this destructive organism. M 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Biological Investigations
Native Oysters
Each year small amounts of Native-oyster seed are being caught, and a concentrated
population is being built up on the experimental area in Ladysmith Harbour.
Pacific Oysters
Collection of material for a histological study of the seasonal reproduction changes
in the Pacific oyster has been completed, and some of the tissue has been sectioned.
The culture of Pacific-oyster seed from Japan has been continued, and the experiment should be concluded during the 1952-53 oyster season. Cluster-breaking studies
were included, and the production from individual cases of seed is being obtained.
Pacific-oyster breeding in various areas throughout the Province was closely followed. Although a long, almost rainless summer was experienced, water temperatures
were not any higher than normal, apparently due to almost continuous westerly winds,
which caused vertical mixing in most of the breeding areas. Commercial sets occurred
in only three areas.
Ladysmith Harbour
A spawning which occurred on July 14th and 15th resulted in a set of approximately
1 spat per Pacific-oyster shell. A second smaller spawning on July 24th and 25th
resulted in a set on August 12th and 13th which gave 3 spat per shell. A further series
of small spawnings produced scattered settings throughout the latter part of August,
which assisted in increasing slightly the cumulative set for the summer. The average
final set for the harbour was 5 spat per shell. Cultch nearest the head of the harbour
caught considerably more than that farther out.
Pendrell Sound
Water temperatures here remained consistently high during the breeding period
and were apparently adequate for good larval survival. Three separate spawnings
occurred between July 9th and 18th. A further extensive spawning occurred on July
25th. Shell exposed during the period July 27th to August 4th caught an average of
33 spat per inner Pacific-oyster shell-face. Shell-strings exposed during the period
August 4th to 13th caught a heavy set and counts on the inner faces of Pacific-oyster
shells averaged 406 spat per shell with a range of 125 to 1,091. This spatfall, originating from the spawning of July 25th, began on August 12th and continued until about
August 15th. On August 27th a gale of near-hurricane force swept the area and caused
the surface water temperature in Pendrell Sound to drop from 20° C. to 10° C. in
twenty-six hours. Eight hours later it had risen to 15° C. This sharp change in temperature coincided with a spat mortality which approached 90 per cent. Shell-strings
kept in Pendrell Sound until January, 1952, at that time held an average of 60.7 spat
per whole (both sides) Pacific-oyster shell, 3 by 5 inches, with a range of 7 to 176 spat
per shell.
Sets of commercial proportions have now been observed for two successive years
in Pendrell Sound, and at least two, and probably three, sets occurred before observations
were begun. It appears, then, that there is justification in recommending this area to
the oyster industry of British Columbia for the collection of Pacific-oyster seed. Observations indicate that the amount of seed that may be taken from the area will be limited
only by the amount of cultch material exposed.
Hotham Sound
A spatfall of commercial proportions occurred in Hotham Sound in 1951, but since
observations indicate that setting has been light and irregular in the past, further investigation is necessary before its value as a seed-producing area can be assessed. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M 31
Other Areas
Regular plankton samples were examined from Pender Harbour, Boundary Bay,
and Baynes Sound, but larval production in each case was at a low level, and no sets
of consequence occurred.
Observations and operations at the Carrington Bay lagoon were necessarily reduced
to a minimum.   No evidence of successful breeding was found.
Work in the development of a more suitable oyster-cultch material has gone forward with emphasis on the use of cement-coated Keyes-type moulded-paper egg-trays.
In 1951, 2,500 trays, with flat cardboard separators, were dipped in cement and arranged
in bundles of twenty-five trays and twenty-five separators. These bundles were placed
in crates 6 by 4 by 2 feet, each holding eight bundles. Forty bundles were used in
Pendrell Sound and the remainder in Ladysmith Harbour. The set in the latter area
was too light to provide a satisfactory assessment of the efficiency of the trays. In
Pendrell Sound, however, counts indicated that the survived catch was 2 spat per square
inch, which gives 15,000 spat per bundle of twenty-five trays and twenty-five separators,
roughly equivalent to the number of spat in a case of Japanese-oyster seed.
The general results of the egg-tray work to the present time are as follows:—
(a) A wide variety of mixes (cement, lime, and sand) give satisfactory results,
both in ability to catch spat and durability in sea-water. Only the obviously inadequate mixes proved unsatisfactory.
(b) Based on original costs, shell-strings are cheaper cultch. However, this
difference may be partly cancelled out by less costly flotation and cluster
separation in the case of the trays.
(c) The best method of handling seed caught on egg-trays is under investigation.
(d) Water circulation to the centre of the trays requires to be improved.
(e) The incorporation of cement or other material along with the paper pulp
in the manufacturing process is most necessary. An alternative is a
coating more easily applied than cement.
The Behaviour of Pacific-oyster Larva;
Knowledge of the behaviour of oyster larva? is necessary for the most efficient use
of cultch material. The vertical distribution of spatting on floating cultch was studied
and found to occur down to at least 19 feet below the surface. A maximum spatfall
occurred fairly evenly between the surface and 9 feet. The normal vertical distribution
of spatfall on the shore in Pendrell Sound is between the 1-foot and 10-foot tide-levels.
Vertical Distribution of Oyster Larva;
The vertical distribution of oyster larva? in Pendrell Sound in relation to tidal height
and daylight and darkness was studied. The data indicate there are no definite vertical
movements of larvae, and no tidal or light effects were demonstrated. The greatest proportion of the umboned larvae appear to remain above the 10-foot level and the straight-
hinged larvae to remain above the 3-foot level.
Oyster Production
The oyster production in British Columbia for 1951 for the various fisheries statistical areas are tabulated below according to the number of gallons and the weight of
oysters produced.   The data are supplied by the Dominion Department of Fisheries.
Weight in Cwt. Gal. (American)
Area 29e (Boundary Bay)   25,744 36,165
Area 20 (Sooke)         836 1,045
Area 17 (Ladysmith-Crofton)  11,226 12,442
Area 16 (Pender Harbour)      3,289 4,182
Area 14 (Baynes Sound)     3,410 5,117
Totals  44,505 58,951 M 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
This production was derived from twenty-eight producers.
At the present time there are seventy-nine oyster-lease holders, in which are included
those leasing from the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway in the Baynes Sound area.
A number are quite new leases that have not yet come into production, while others have
not produced since the leases were taken out. As of December, 1950, 3,270 acres of
foreshore, the main part of which is in the Strait of Georgia region, were being held under
lease for oyster-culture purposes.
In 1951 thirty leaseholders imported 1,985 cases of unbroken and 3,375 cases of
broken oyster-seed from Japan through the facilities of the Pacific Coast Oyster Growers'
Association.   Four growers caught seed locally.
Oyster-ground
Since practically all of the suitable oyster-ground in the Strait of Georgia region has
been taken up, any further expansion of the industry is possible only by:—
(a) The utilization of ground presently under lease but not producing.
(b) More efficient use of the ground presently in use.
(c) The improvement of marginal ground by mechanical means.
(d) The utilization of ground below the zero tide-mark.
(e) The utilization of ground outside the Strait of Georgia region.
As time allows, some attention is being paid to each of the above methods, but it is
particularly important that knowledge of the extent of suitable oyster-ground (as well as
clam-bearing areas) outside the Strait of Georgia area should be available. A part of
the time available each spring is devoted to this end. In addition to the examination of
the areas, small test plantings of seed-oysters are made in the most promising areas.
In 1951 a small section of the southern Johnstone Strait area was covered. All
areas showing any promise in Masset Inlet in the Queen Charlotte Islands were also
examined in some detail. While test plantings have shown that the rate of growth is
considerably slower than in the Strait of Georgia region, it appears that there is a limited
area that would be suitable for oyster-culture.
One of the most important problems of the oyster industry is that of the marked
fluctuations which occur in condition, or fatness, of oysters. There exists a general
seasonal trend in condition in which the spawning process is involved, but there are
variations within this seasonal trend. An investigation to define these fluctuations quantitatively has been undertaken in Ladysmith Harbour. Since changes in conditions are
no doubt due to fluctuations in food-supply and temperature, the possible sources of food,
such as phytoplankton, the smaller zooplankton, and the nanno-plankton are being
measured quantitatively weekly throughout the year. In addition, certain physical and
chemical measurements are being made. Preliminary information should be available
by the end of 1952.
Oyster-drills
In the summer of 1951 a survey was made of the Japanese-oyster drill (Tritonalia
japonica) situation in Ladysmith Harbour. Certain conclusions were drawn regarding
the distribution and abundance of drills there which will serve as a reference point regarding future fluctuations. A small population of a new Japanese drill (Purpura clavigera)
(Thais tumulosa clavigera) was discovered and every effort has been made to destroy it,
with apparent success. Only a single specimen of the eastern drill Urosalpinx cinerea
was found in the survey. Drills occur in Boundary Bay, Comox, and Ladysmith Harbour, and with care there should be no spread beyond these areas. The inspection and
selection of seed in Japan by the Pacific Coast Oyster Growers' Association and subsequent inspection of the seed on arrival in this country is apparently serving to control the
infestation of new ground by Japanese imports. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M 33
Because of the high potential value of Pendrell Sound as a seed-producing area, it
will be most important to guard against the introduction of pests, such as oyster-drills, in
that area. Drills may be introduced by using cultch of fresh oyster-shell, which may
carry either the living drills or the living egg cases. Another possible method of introducing pests into Pendrell Sound would be by scows that are used to transport the seed
or cultch to and from areas infested by pests, if the scows are allowed to rest on the beds
at low tide.
Eel-grass
As time permits, an investigation into the chemical control of eelgrass (Zostera
marina) is being carried on. If eelgrass can be eradicated and controlled, additional
acreages will be made available for oyster-culture.
Clam Investigations
Razor Clams
The razor-clam beach on the north end of Graham Island, near Massett, was examined in September, 1951. Adult clams showed quite well on all beaches. The best
showing of razor-clams of the year—that is, the 1951 brood-year—between one-quarter
and one-half inch in length, occurred on the north beach, where numbers between twenty-
five and fifty per square yard were found. Smaller numbers were found on Horseshoe
Beach and the north end of South Beach. None were found in the central area of
South Beach.
According to statistics received from the Federal Department of Fisheries, the
1951 razor-clam production totalled 135,300 pounds from 1,300 man-tides, giving a
return of 104.1 pounds per man-tide. This is a marked increase over 1950, when the
return was 56.8 pounds per man-tide. The digging intensity, however, showed a marked
drop from 6,204 man-tides in 1950, as did the total production, which dropped from
352,358 pounds in 1951.
Hard-shell Clams
The production of butter-clams in 1951 was 3,500,500 pounds; Manila clams,
178,900 pounds; and Native little-neck clams, 521,900 pounds, with 127,000 pounds of
the three species mixed, giving a total poundage of 4,329,100 pounds. Further analysis
of the hard-shell clam production will be delayed until the new method of collecting is
functioning properly.
Seal Island
The history of the clam population on Seal Island was followed, and again there
was no evidence of major breeding activity. Samples of clams are being collected at
monthly intervals to check whether breeding has occurred and to follow the seasonal
gonad change in the butter-clams.
Seal Island was closed completely during the year 1951 to commercial digging.
Paralytic Shell-fish Poisoning
The co-operative programme of investigation of shell-fish toxicity in relation to
salinity, stratification, and dinoflagellate abundance with the Pacific Oceanographic
Group at the Pacific Biological Station at Nanaimo, the Federal Department of Fisheries,
and the Department of National Health and Welfare was completed in Barkley Sound
and reported to the Pacific Coast Shellfish Committee. The results of the investigation
to demonstrate the possible use of water stratification (salinity) as an indicator of water
type, and so of the occurrence of shell-fish toxicity, were inconclusive. The plankton
sampling showed no dinoflagellates that could be definitely identified as Gonyaulax
catenella, the presumed causative organism on the Pacific Coast. In none of the samples
did any of the species of this genus occur in large numbers.   While the plankton samples M 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
were not strictly quantitative, at no time did the total dinoflagellate count reach numbers
large enough to result in toxicity values of any magnitude, although the plankton samples
may have missed periods of high dinoflagellate production.
Acknowledgments
A sincere appreciation is expressed for the assistance and co-operation given by the
Federal Department of Fisheries, the Pacific Biological Station at Nanaimo, the Pacific
Oceanographic Group at Nanaimo, the Provincial Department of Lands and Forests, the
Provincial Department of Health and Welfare, and the shell-fish industry of British
Columbia. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M 35
APPENDICES
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE
SOCKEYE SALMON (No. 37)
By D. R. Foskett, M.A., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
INTRODUCTION
The excellent packs of sockeye in the Rivers Inlet and Smith Inlet areas, 102,565
cases and 49,473 cases, following last year's high packs were indeed encouraging. The
Skeena River pack of 61,694 cases was equal to the average for the last ten years. The
Nass River pack of 24,405 cases was considerably above the average for the past thirty-
nine years of 20,200 cases.
One of the problems in connection with the utilization of the sockeye runs is that
of the jacks or 3-year-old males. Because of their small size these are taken by the
commercial gear in small numbers only, and yet may be exceedingly numerous on the
spawning-grounds, as is shown below for both the Rivers Inlet run and the Skeena River
run in 1951. Unfortunately, no experiments known to the author on the inheritance of
the tendency toward early maturity have been carried past the first generation, and thus
they cannot be considered conclusive. Also, it cannot be said at the present time whether
the number of jacks on the spawning-grounds is increasing, since accurate numerical
records over a fair number of years, such as are obtained by counting-fences, are not
available at present. It is known that certain streams will tend to have large percentages
of jacks while other streams will seldom have any jacks present.
DESIGNATION OF AGE-GROUPS
Two outstanding features in the life-history of the fish have been selected in designating the age-groups; namely, the age at maturity and the year of its life in which the
fish migrated from fresh water. These are expressed symbolically by two numbers—
one in large type, which indicates the age of maturity, and the other in small type, placed
to the right and below, which signifies the year of life in which the fish left the fresh water.
The age-groups which are met most commonly are:—
3j, 41—the " sea-types " or fish which migrate in their first year and mature
in their third and fourth year respectively.
32, 43—the " grilse " or " jacks," usually males, which migrate in their second
year and mature in their third year, or migrate in the third year and
mature in their fourth year.
^2,  52—fish which migrate in their second year and mature in their fourth and
fifth year respectively.
53, 63—fish which migrate in their third year and mature in their fifth and
sixth year respectively.
64, 74—fish which migrate in their fourth year and mature in their sixth and
seventh year respectively.
As is indicated in the discussion of the Nass River age-groups, some doubt still
exists as to the particular point at which a check is sufficiently distinct to warrant recognition as marking the completion of a year.    This is particularly the case when the
analysis of the fresh-water residence of sockeye is considered because of the small number
of circuli involved and the variability of their numbers in different areas of a large water- M 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA
shed. Research is now being carried on by the Fisheries Research Board of Canada in
two areas where doubt exists as to the length of fresh-water residence—Lakelse Lake
and Port John Lake—and it is hoped that the results obtained in these areas will help
in obtaining a clearer understanding of the situation in other areas, such as the Nass
watershed, where the absence of field surveys and stations makes it difficult to determine
the correct interpretation of doubtful scales.
The Nass River run is the most northerly of the sockeye-salmon populations in
British Columbia which is fished by our fishermen. This population has therefore been
placed first in the analyses this year, and the other populations have been placed in order
as one proceeds south along the coast. This arrangement would be upset less by the subsequent addition of new areas. Extra tables which may be introduced, as in the Rivers
Inlet report this year, will, however, be placed at the end of the regular tables to preserve
the numbering for comparative purposes.
1. THE NASS RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1951
(1) General Characteristics
The sockeye-pack of 24,405 cases was very good for the Nass River, where the
average for the past ten years has been 15,545 cases. The escapement was reported to
be adequate to the Meziadin area, which reportedly constitutes the main spawning area
for sockeye in this system.
(2) Age-groups
The three age-classes 42, 53, and 63, forming 41, 31, and 13 per cent respectively of
the 1951 sample of 2,901 fish (Tables I to VI), made up the bulk of the Nass River
sockeye-catch. The 52 age-class was represented by 239 fish or 8.6 per cent of the
sample (Tables II and III). The 31 and Ax age-classes, comprising 10 and 151 individuals respectively, formed 5.8 per cent of the sample (Tables II and III). There is
some doubt as to the legitimacy of these age-classes, since there is in many cases a very
slight check which could be interpreted as a year's growth in fresh water. The samples
of this type, coming chiefly in the early part of the sampling, have been interpreted as
" sea-run " fish in some years, for example, Paper 28, 1942, of this series, and probably
as 42 and 52 age-classes in other years when the checks were more distinct. Research
has already been instigated to determine more exactly what may be interpreted as a year
check in the fresh-water growth, and it is hoped that this will also aid in the interpretation
of salt-water checks, especially in the first year of salt-water growth when changing
physiological as well as environmental factors could be expected to have an effect on the
configuration of the scale circuli.
(3) Lengths and Weights
Though the Nass sockeye were quite large (Tables II and III), there was nothing
outstanding in the samples, the season's averages falling within the upper range of the
average lengths and weights recorded in the past ten years (Tables IV and V).
(4) Distribution of the Sexes
The over-all sex ratio of 49.4 to 50.6 is as near equality as one could expect. Only
in the 63 age-class is there any really significant deviation from an even sex ratio, the
group being 70 per cent males and thirty per cent females.
2. THE SKEENA RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1951
(1) General Characteristics
The Skeena pack of 61,694 cases was equal to the average pack of 61,720 cases for
the past ten years.   The escapement was reported to be light.   The Babine area spawning REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M 37
population suffered tremendous losses due to a slide in a canyon about 40 miles below
Babine Lake.
(2) Age-groups
The Skeena River sockeye sample of 1951 was composed chiefly of 52 fish (61.5
per cent), and the bulk of the remainder (32.5 per cent) was of 42 fish (Table VII).
The 53 age-class was represented by 130 sockeye and the 63 age-class by 38 sockeye,
giving percentages of 4.4 and 1.3 respectively (Tables VIII and IX). Jacks were of
minor importance in the catch, though figures from up-river investigations* indicate that
they were more numerous in the run than was shown by the catch.
The presence of one or two individuals in several additional age-classes is to be
expected in a large sample and does not of necessity indicate anything unusual in the
population.
(3) Lengths and Weights
The Skeena River sockeye were large in 1951 (Tables VIII and IX). The 42 age-
class males at 22.7 inches were not unusual, though the females at 22.6 inches were the
largest since 1941 (Table X). Both the 52 males at 25.9 inches and the females at 24.8
inches were the largest in the past ten years (Table X). Neither the 53 nor 63 fish were
unusual in either length or weight. The 42 males, in weight as in length, were within the
limits of variation of the past ten years (Tables X and XI). However, the 42 females
and both sexes of the 52 age-class had the highest average weight recorded since 1940
(Table XI).
(4) Distribution of Sexes
The over-all sex ratio of 39 males to 61 females reflects the condition in the two
most prevalent age-classes, the 42 group having 41 per cent males and the 52 group
37 per cent males (Table XII). In the 53 and 63 groups the ratio was 53 males to 47
females.
3. THE RIVERS INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1951
(1) General Characteristics
The Rivers Inlet sockeye run of 1951 produced a very satisfactory pack of 102,565
cases (Table XIII). The escapement, classed as moderate to heavy, was, in the opinion
of the writer, adequate in most of the streams in the area.
(2) Age-groups
The catch was largely 52 fish (59.7 per cent), of large size, the average weight of
the age-class being 7.8 pounds (Tables XV and XVII). The 42 age-class fish, which
comprised 38.0 per cent of the run, were also of large size, the average weight being 5.2
pounds (Table XV). The 53 class was represented by 17 fish (1.2 per cent). The 63
age-class was represented by 9 fish (0.6 per cent), and the 32 age-class or jacks were
represented by 4 fish (0.3 per cent). As will be shown later, the percentage of jacks in
the commercial catch does not represent the percentage of jacks in the run. One fish was
present in each of the following age-classes: 4i, 62, and 54.
(3) Lengths and Weights
The average length and weight of the Rivers Inlet sockeye in 1951 was high. In the
42 age-class the average length of 21.9 inches for both males and females (Table XVI)
has not been exceeded since 1938. The 52 age-class averages of 25.8 inches for males and
24.8 inches for females are high, the former having been exceeded only in 1950 and the
latter equalled only in 1940 (Table XVI).
* See Aro, "The Babine River Salmon Escapement in 1951," and Foskett, "The Effect of the Babine Slide on the
1951 Sockeye Run," in No. 90, Progress Reports of the Pacific Coast Stations of the Fisheries Research Board of
Canada, March, 1952. M 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Though high, the 5.2-pound average for 42 age-class males and the 5.0-pound
average for females of this group have been exceeded several times in the past. The
average weight of the 52 age-class males, 8.6 pounds (Table XVII), has never been
exceeded in this area, though the average for the females in the same group, 7.4 pounds
(Table XVI), is the second highest, having been exceeded in 1927, when an average of
7.6 pounds was recorded.
(4) Distribution of Sexes
The over-all sex ratio of 43.9 per cent males and 56.1 per cent females (Table
XVIII) in the 1,420 samples does not reveal the peculiarities of the sex distribution.
The 42 age-class is largely males (65.7 per cent), while the 52 age-class is predominantly
females (69.8 per cent).   The 53 and 63 age-classes are also largely female.
(5) Spawning-ground Samples
Through the courtesy of the Dominion Fisheries Department and especially Inspector
M. P. Houghton, the author was able to examine the Rivers Inlet spawning-grounds and
obtain samples of the spawned sockeye. Due to the advanced state of absorption of the
scales of these fish, age determinations were not possible by this means. However, comparison of the lengths of these fish with those sampled at Goose Bay is enlightening.
As may be seen from Table XXV, the male sockeye were present in the sample in
three main length-groups. Those between 13 and 16Vi inches may be presumed to be
the 32 age-group, the jacks, which were so sparsely represented in the commercial catch.
The next group, between 18Vi and 20Vi inches, may be presumed to represent the 42
fish. The third group, from 24 to 29 inches, presumably would be predominantly 52
age-class fish.
The female fish do not separate as readily into groups as the male fish. There is
a range from 20Vi to 24Vi inches which has a few samples throughout its length with no
main concentration. Then there is a concentration of fish in the range from 25 to 26
inches. In comparing these figures with Table II, it is seen that these lengths coincide
with the range of the 42 fish and the smaller 52 fish in the first case and with the larger
52 fish in the second case.
Thus we see that the spawning-ground samples do not reflect the catch samples but
rather complement them. This is not only so in the length frequencies, but also may
show up in the sex ratios, as evidenced by the following excerpt from Inspector Houghton's report on the Asclum River: "The sex ratio of the 4 and 5 year-classes favoured
females in the younger fish and males in the older class." Similar remarks were made
with regard to the four other streams in the area in which sex ratios were given separately
for the larger and smaller fish. This is opposite to the situation in the commercial catch,
as shown previously.
(6) Predation
The situation with regard to predators in this region warrants a few words. Both
seals and bears are numerous. The former enter the lake and hang about off the mouths
of the streams. Here they have a very high potential for damaging the sockeye which
frequent these areas in large schools while ripening preparatory to entering the stream
and spawning. It is possible that some type of weir could be placed in the lower part of
Owikeno Lake to exclude seals from the spawning areas of the system.
Grizzly bears are found on the redds, and until it is known whether they take
spawned or unspawned salmon, their effect is not known. Their habit at times of entering
the river in huge bounds might be presumed to frighten off fresh fish and leave the more
nearly spent fish to be captured. The effect of their fishing when wading in the stream
may be quite different. However, an investigation might well be undertaken, preferably
as a joint enterprise with the British Columbia Game Commission, in order to settle this
controversial question. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M 39
Nothing is known at present with regard to the indigenous fish population of
Owikeno Lake, either as predators on, or competitors with, the sockeye.
(7) Discussion
From an examination of Tables XIV and XXV it is evident that either the sampling
on the spawning-grounds was not adequate or the gill-net fishery selects the catch from
the medium-size fish or probably both. Unfortunately, samples were obtained at only
one period during the run, and though the distribution covered most of the spawning
areas, it did not cover the early runs nor the latest runs.
However, it is felt that the results do show that the escapement is predominantly
of the smaller and larger sockeye and that this situation is especially true of the males.
Unfortunately, the author knows of no experiments upon the inheritance of various characters in the sockeye which have been taken beyond the first generation. Thus it is
impossible to say what effect such a continued selection is apt to have on the stock.
Many factors could have an influence on size at maturity. Prediction can never be completely satisfactory until we know the factors controlling growth and maturity.
«
(8) Summary
The Rivers Inlet sockeye run of 1951 was very satisfactory both from the catch and
escapement angles. The bulk of the escapement appears to come from the extreme ends
of the size range, though relatively more females than males in the middle sizes are found
on the spawning-grounds. While predators are numerous in the Owikeno Lake area, the
greatest amount of damage is probably done by seals off the mouths of the creeks. That
gill-net selection takes place is evident from the catch and escapement samples, but at
present no definite statements can be made regarding long-term effects on the population.
4. THE SMITH INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1951
(1) General Characteristics
The Smith Inlet pack of 49,473 cases, the highest recorded, was more than double
the twenty-six-year average of 22,100 cases. The excellent condition of the fish was
shown in their average weight.   There was a heavy escapement to the spawning-grounds.
(2) Age-groups
Of the 673 sockeye in the sample, 521 (77.4 per cent) were in the 52 age-class and
147 (21.8 per cent) were in the 42 age-class (Table XIX). Both the 62 and 53 age-
classes were represented by 2 fish and the 32 or jack class was represented by 1 fish.
(3) Lengths and Weights
The 42 age-class had average lengths of 22.8 inches for the males and 22.0 inches
for the females (Table XX). The 52 age-class had average lengths of 25.6 inches and
24.8 inches respectively for the males and females. The 52 lengths are greater than the
averages recorded since 1945, when length records commence in this area. The average
weights of the fish in the two main age-classes were 6.0 and 5.2 pounds respectively for
the males and females in the 42 age-class and 8.2 and 7.3 pounds in the 52 .group (Table
XXI).   Records in the other age-classes are too sparse to justify comparisons.
(4) Distribution of Sexes
The peculiar sex ratios shown in the Smith Inlet sockeye records point to some
connection between sex and age of maturity, in this population at least. As has been
normal in the past, the 42 age-class again showed an excess of males (72 per cent), while
the 52 age-class showed more females (58.5 per cent) (Table XXIV). M 40
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table I.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Principal Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs
Year
Percentage of Individuals
4o
1912 (36
1913 (23
1914 (31.
1915 (39.
1916 (31,
1917 (22,
1918 (21.
1919 (28,
1920 (16,
1921 (9,
1922 (31,
1923 (17,
1924 (33
1925 (18,
1926 (15,
1927 H2.
1928 (5
1929 (16
1930 (26
1931 (16
1932 (14.
1933 (9
1934 (36
1935 (12
1936 (28
1937 (17
1938 (21,
1939 (24
1940 (13
1941 (24
1942 (21
1943 (13
1944 (13
1945 (9
1946 (12
1947 (10.
1948 (13.
1949 (9
1950 (27
1951 (24
,037 cases)-
,574 cases)..
,327 cases)..
,349 cases)..
,411 cases )..
188 cases)..
816 cases) ..
,259 cases)..
,740 cases )-
,364 cases)-
,277 cases )..
,821 cases)-
,590 cases)..
,945 cases)..
,929 cases)..
,026 cases) _
,540cases)~
,077 cases)..
,405 cases)..
,929 cases)-
,154 cases )-
,757 cases)..
,242 cases )-.
,712 cases)..
,562 cases)..
,567 cases)-
,462 cases )-
,357 cases)..
,809 cases) ..
,876 cases )-
,085 cases )-
,412 cases)..
,083 cases)..
',899 cases)..
,511 cases) ..
849 cases)-
181 cases)-
,268 cases)..
,286 cases)..
,405 cases) .
15
4
19
9
10
30
7
8
10
6
11
4
23
12
8
30
25
28
10
28
35
13
11
16
22
21
14
23
37
22
5
15
46
13
15
12
39
3
41
27
12
41
14
17
15
16
22
14
7
2
6
3
8
12
7
6
9
15
17
4
7
9
10
7
4
4
13
8
7
7
13
15
11
12
12
16
6
19
9
63
71
45
59
66
71
45
65
72
75
91
77
91
67
63
81
61
60
54
67
61
55
74
73
67
68
70
66
59
52
66
67
32
37
72
56
60
48
71
31
2
2
10
4
9
6
6
8
1
6
2
2
13
4
3
6
3
6
7
3
4
6
10
6
5
7
10
4
5
15
38
6
3
17
12
7
6
13 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
M 41
Table II.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1951, Grouped by Age, Sex, Length,
and by Their Early History
Length in Inches
Number of Individuals
M. I F.
I
4i
M.
M. 1 F.
I
M. I F.
M. I F.
I
6,
M.
M.
M. I F.
M. 1 F.
I
14	
14%..
141/2-
1434..
15.	
15%_
15V4-
15%..
16 ...
16%-
I6V2..
16%..
17	
17%..
17V2-
17%-
18.	
18%.-
I8I/2..
18%..
19 —
19V4-
191/2-
19%_
20 --
201/4-
201/2-
20y4-
21 .—
211/4..
211/2..
21%-
22	
221/4-
22.1/2-
2234-
23
231/4-
231/2-
23?4-
24 —
24%-
24^2-
24?4-
25	
251/4-
25W-
25?4-
26 ..-.
26%..
261/2..
2634-
27.	
27%..
271/2-
27?4-
28 ..-
28%-
281/2-
2834-
29	
29%-
291/2-
29?4 ...
30
Totals J_
Average lengths.
I
2
4
1
2
3
12
5
9
3
7 I
8
4
1
1
2
2
1
2
I
      I
- I
2
....
3
8
18
13
28
30
40
31
41
	
59
1
53
33
3
36
1
27
1
18
1
12
3
9
10
1
14
1
20
15
27
	
22
	
26
	
20
29
19
20
_.
6
14
3
—
3
2
__
1 1
3  I 71  I 80
527 |613  |113 |126
391  [464 |261  |111
22.01 22.8| 25.6[ 23.5
I        I        I
24.0123.1126.2124.(
25.1| 24.1| 27.4| 26.4
2
1
3
2
1
3
2
2
2
2
_.
1
11 -1
29.0| .... |25.8
1
2
1
3
6
11
14
37
67
119
103
167
148
215
169
188
184
174
135
177
128
106
75
93
68
62
43
60
37
48
29
42
22
25
6
15
3
3
2
1
15
25.1
1  I    1  12,793
26.5125.3!   24.5
I        I M 42                                                     BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table III.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1951, Grouped by Age, Sex, Weight,
and by Their Early History
Weight in Pounds
Number of Individuals
0
H
3i
41
42
52
53
63
73
64
74
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
I
M. ! F.
I
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1  -
1
1%.	
-
-
--
—
-
—
-
-
—
—
	
11/2     -
1% 	
2	
-
--
-
—
~
-
-
--
-
—
-
-
—
—
—
	
2%-  	
1
1
2%-	
234- —	
3	
1
1
3%	
3V4	
2
2
33/4	
1
1
2
4	
1
3
11
2
17
4%  	
1
2
1
18
5
27
4W
1
4
13
67
2
1
19
107
434	
1
3
11
100
4
27
.... | -
146
5 	
2
1
7
29
122
1
2
7
41
_ | -
212
5%	
—
—
2
11
14
34
65
86
99
1
4
9
5
21
49
73
—
1
2
—
—
—
~
190
288
51/2	
1
1
5% -- 	
1
2
12
70
55
13
29
59
2
2
245
6 _
14
84
30
4
10
35
61
1
3
2
244
6% 	
1
1
1
3
46
16
3
11
37
39
1
3
1
1
1
165
61/2	
—
8
8
5
70
39
3
3
5
4
14
1?
47
44
36
3
3
7
10
2
1
3
?
—
~
203
150
634 - —
7	
5
73
1
8
10
43
14
5
8
1
1
119
7%.- —.-
6
22
10
10
26
13
9
8
2
106
71/2      -
8
?.
10
1
8
11
40
4
13
11
1
109
734	
6
2
9
10
17
19 |    7
1
71
8     .
4
1
2
11
4
20
13
14
1
70
S%	
5
10
5
18
5
43
8I/2  	
6
13 1    1
7
30
11
68
8 ?4 - .
5
5
3
1
77
7
48
9    	
2
6
1
7?
4
1
36
9%.       	
5
1
24
3
33
91/2 -
5
^0
4
29
934—     -	
1
?
16
1
20
10    . .
—
—
—
3
10
15
7
1
—
—
....
—
13
16
7
10% 	
10W
1034 	
11	
-
-
-
—
—
-
3
1
-
—
-
~
3
1
1114
11%-  .
1134	
12        - .   —
-
_..
—
-
—
—
-
—
1
—
-
1
12%	
1-»/7
123/4	
.„.
—
....
—
—
—
--
—
—
—
—
—
	
13- 	
13% 	
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
	
13%    .        ... -
I
13?4            	
.... 1 —
i
1
- 1 -     - -
__ | _
	
Totals	
Average weights-
7 |    3  | 71  | 80
527  I613  |113  |126
391  |464 |261  |111
1  | - |    8 | 15
1  |    1  12,793
4.5|   5.5|   7.4|   5.6
1        1        1
6.0|   5.2I   7.9|   6.6
I        I        I
6.7|   5.71   8.8|   7.6
1        1        1
10.3| — |   6.9|   6.5
1        1        1
7.9|   6.3|     6.3
1        1
- REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
M 43
Table IV.—-Nass River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1951
Year
42
52
h
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1917^11
24.5
23.8
23.9
22.8
23.5
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.3
23.8
23.6
24.0
23.7
23.0
23.2
22.2
22.7
22.8
22.4
22.9
22.6
22.8
23.1
23.1
26.3
25.6
26.1
26.1
25.7
25.0
26.3
25.9
26.2
26.2
26.0
26.2
25.2.
24.5
24.9
24.8
24.6
24.4
24.9
24.1
25.3
23.8
24.7
24.8
26.1
25.4
24.9
24.1
24.8
24.7
24.9
24.5
25.0
24.7
24.5
25.1
25.3
24.6
24.3
23.5
23.8
24.0
23.9
23.6
24.1
23.7
23.7
24.1
27.7
27.0
26.9
27.1
26.8
25.1
28.1
27.0
27.7
26.1
26.7
27.4
26.4
1912-41 (conversion)      .. .
1942      	
25.7
26.0
1943 	
25.8
1944
25.8
1945
25.5
1946 —	
1947
26.0
25.6
1948	
26.7
1949	
25.5
1950  .. .
25.6
1951	
26.4
Table V.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1951
Year
42
52
53
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41 .._
6.0
5.8
5.2
5.7
5.7
5.6
5.8
5.8
5.9
5.9
6.0
5.4
5.1
4.7
5.0
5.3
4.9
5.3
5.3
5.1
5.2
5.2
7.3
7.1
7.6
7.7
7.0
8.1
7.7
8.1
7.9
7.9
7.9
6.4
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.4
6.7
6.2
7.1
5.8
6.6
6.6
6.9
6.2
5.9
6.7
6.5
6.5
6.3
7.0
6.5
6.4
6.7
6.2
5.6
5.3
5.7
5.9
5.4
5.6
6.0
5.4
5.5
5.7
8.0
7.5
7,9
8.2
7.2
8.9
8.1
9.1
7.7
8.2
8.8
7.0
1947.
6.7
1943
6.9
1944
7.1
1945 - -	
7.1
1946  	
7.0
1947
1948    ..             .
1949
6.9
7.9
6.8
1950 —	
1951 -
7.1
7.6
Table VI.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1951
Year
42
52
h
«3
Per Cent
Total
Males
Per Cent
Total
Females
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
49
42
51
53
37
62
50
45
57
41
46
51
58
49
47
63
38
50
55
43
59
54
47
48
67
45
37
59
52
54
56
42
47
53
52
33
55
63
41
48
46
44
58
53
45
44
47
39
38
45
51
52
51
43
46
55
56
53
61
62
55
49
48
49
57
54
63
70
74
60
53
75
81
66
50
58
70
37
30
26
40
47
25
19
34
50
42
30
47
45
54
50
38
50
56
53
53
44
49
53
1047
55
1943 -	
1944                    	
46
50
1945    _..
62
1946    	
50
1947	
44
1948    _	
47
1Q4Q
47
1950  	
1951	
56
51 M 44
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs
Year
Percentage of Individuals
1907 (108
1908 (139
1909 (87
1910 (187,
1911 (131
1912 (92
1913 (52
1914 (130,
1915 (116
1916 (60.
1917 (65
1918 (123.
1919 (184
1920 (90
1921 (41
1922 (96
1923 (131,
1924 (144,
1925 (77
1926 (82
1927 (83
1928 (34
1929 (78
1930 (132,
1931 (93
1932 (59
1933 (30
1934 (54
1935 (52
1936 (81
1937 (42
1938 (47
1939 (68
1940 (116,
1941 (81
1942 (34
1943 (28
1944 (68
1945 (104
1946 (52
1947 (32
1948 (101
1949 (65
1950 (47
1951 (61
,413 cases)-
,846 cases)-
,901 cases)..
,246 cases )-
,066 cases)-
,498 cases )..
,927 cases)..
.166 cases)-
,553 cases)-
,923 cases)..
,760 cases )-
,322 cases )-
,945 cases )-.
i,869 cases)..
,018 cases)..
,277 cases)..
,731 cases)-
,747 cases)..
,784 cases)..
,360 cases )-
,996 cases)-
,559 cases)-
,017 cases)..
,372 cases )..
,023 cases)-
,916 cases)..
,506 cases )-
1,558 cases)..
:,879 cases)-
,973 cases)..
,491 cases )..
,257 cases)..
,485 cases)..
507 cases )..
,767 cases)-
,544 cases)..
,268 cases)..
,197 cases)..
,279 cases )..
,928 cases)-
,534 cases)-
,267 cases )-
,937 cases)..
,479 cases)-
,694 cases)..
57
50
25
36
34
57
51
27
15
69
70
56
23
51
62
62
51
62
39
40
44
57
58
49
67
45
64
50
80
39
36
39
37
20
13
14
80
17
21
33
43
50
75
64
38
29
34
60
71
22
16
29
69
45
26
28
39
30
52
30
37
36
34
31
20
40
15
35
15
52
54
39
52
63
70
82
13
76
72
61
13
9
9
9
6
6
12
8
7
3
9
9
7
6
8
28
7
5
7
18
11
11
16
11
4
8
7
16
7
12
8
3
6
4
4
4
18
5
6
4
8
3
2
7
1
1
3
1
3
2
1
2
12
2
1
2
2
4
5
4
1
1
3
6
4
5
9
1
1
3
3
1 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
M 45
Table VIII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1951, Grouped by Age, Sex, Length, and
by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Length
in Inches
31
41
32
42
h
62
43
5.3
63
64
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
0
H
14 	
1
	
	
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
3
2
4
4
11
12
27
20
41
56
62
54
96
65
64
42
49
28
15
9
1
6
1
1
1
2
5
7
10
24
43
60
85
130
121
120
165
100
94
60
65
30
13
11
4
2
1
	
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
5
2
5
11
14
7
6
5
4
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
3
6
11
11
7
6
5
3
2
2
1
1
1
3
2
2
i
1
5
3
1
1
1
1
4
3
3
1
2
1
1
i
1
1
14%
14%	
1
3
3
4
9
19
23
20
20
20
27
23
29
49
23
34
12
29
20
11
4
3
4
2
1
__
2
6
12
23
29
65
67
102
83
69
43
39
18
10
1
4
1
1
14?4
15..         .         _
15% 	
15%	
15?4  .
16 	
16%  —
2
16%	
1634	
17-
1
17% 	
1
17%	
17?4	
1
18 -
18%	
18%	
18 ?4  	
19	
19%	
	
19% 	
19?4 	
20-	
20%    	
1
4
3
20%	
4
2034    ,
11
21	
25
21%	
37
21%    . 	
46
213,4           	
52
22 	
22%  	
22%
90
105
149
2234
135
23           	
141
23%	
23%	
23?4	
24             .   	
110
141
104
148
24%	
173
24%.-	
173
24?4        	
145
25	
214
25%	
168
25% 	
162
25?4
117
26 	
163
26%. „     	
26% 	
26%    -
27 	
27% 	
27%  	
273/4 	
28
28%  - -
95
83
56
53
30
15
10
3
6
28%	
2834     	
1
29 	
29%	
Totals	
1
-„-|—|     1
4| | 3931 575
676|1,155| |     1
1|     1|   69|   61
20
18
1|     1|2,978
Average lengths...
20.0
.... -1 123.0
16.9
]22.7|22.6
1       1
25.9| 24.8|       |25.3
I         1       1
16.0[22.3
1
23.6|22.9
1
26.0|24.6|23.5|25.3| 24.3
IIII M 46
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table IX.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1951, Grouped by Age, Sex, Weight, and
by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Weight
in Pounds
h
41
32
42
52
62
43
53
6.3
64
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
0
H
1       „ -  .
—-
1
1
1
1
	
2
4
17
30
32
51
44
32
36
48
31
15
16
12
9
4
3
3
3
1
1
2
14
42
127
105
102
64
65
25
14
7
3
2
1
1
1
2
7
4
14
11
26
18
38
40
61
50
84
70
49
38
55
40
25
10
15
8
4
1
7
.1
1
1
1
2
1
5
4
6
8
16
71
2
5
15
8
12
4
9
1
2
1
1
3
1
4
3
2
1
1
1
2
2
3
5
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1%   _
l!/2    	
1
	
1
134    -
- 1 .--
2
7
1
2
10
16
29
37
87
124
116
114
165
99
92
67
77
39
22
25
25
3
3
1
	
1
2%    	
1
2%    .. .
1
2%    .   .
3
3%
3
3%
4
334
19
4
50
4%
82
4%
209
434
180
5
188
5%
156
5%     	
	
242
534
91     2
204
6
10
3
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
188
6%
161
6%
227
6%
154
7
158
7%     .
121
71/2-	
7%       -	
8
168
118
76
814
63
8%        -
R34
83
43
9        -
28
9%	
11
9V7
15
9?4	
9
10   	
5
10%   . 	
10% -.
1
2
10%   	
—
2|        1
1 .77
3
11
11V4   _     -
\\yz   _	
2
1134
17
12%	
11V,
1734
13      _ -   _
13%    .
m/7
13?4 -   .. .
Totals	
1
-1      -
1
4
393|575
676|1,155
 1     1
1|     1
69|   61
.  20|   18[     1
1|2,978
Average weights-
4.0
5.2
2.1] —
1
5.1| 5.0
1
7.6|    6.5
1
 1 ~~
1.7| 5.2
1
5.6[ 5.0
I
7.6[ 6.4| 5.31 6.0|    6.2
IIII REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
M 47
Table X.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1951
Year
42
52
h
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41—	
1912-41 (conversion)	
1942 	
1943 	
1944      	
1945	
1946      	
23.7
23.0
22.6
21.9
22.4
22.6
22.7
22.3
23.0
22.5
22.8
22.7
23.1
22.4
22.3
21.9
21.7
22.3
22.0
22.0
22.3
22.2
22.3
22.6
25.8
25.1
25.2
25.1
24.8
24.9
25.4
25.1
25.3
25.3
25.7
25.9
24.9
24.2
24.3
23.9
23.9
24.1
24.3
23.8
24.1
24.5
24.4
24.8
24.2
23.5
24.1
23.3
22.5
23.3
23.9
23.0
23.0
23.2
23.9
23.6
23.4
22.7
23.7
22.6
21.7
22.6
23.2
22.4
22.1
22.3
23.4
22.9
25.8
25.1
26.3
25.8
25.0
25.0
25.5
26.3
26.0
24.8
25.5
26.0
24.8
24.1
24.9
24.7
23.7
24.3
24.4
1947-	
1948- -  	
1949 - -	
1950 	
25.8
24.5
23.9
24.3
1951
24.6
Table XI.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1951
Year
4
2
5
2
5
3
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41 	
5.4
4.9
4.7
5.1
5.2
4.7
4.9
5.5
5.0
4.8
5.1
5.0
4.7
4.6
4.6
4.9
4.2
4.7
4.9
4.7
4.3
5.0
6.8
6.7
6.8
7.0
6.7
6.9
6.9
7.3
7.1
7.2
7.6
6.1
6.0
5.9
6.1
6.1
5.8
5.9
6.1
6.3
5.9
6.5
5.7
5.8
5.5
5.3
5.6
5.8
5.3
5.4
5.3
5.8
5.6
5.1
5.4
4.9
4.6
5.0
5.1
5.0
4.7
4.8
5.1
5.0
6.8
7.2
7.3
7.1
6.7
7.0
7.7
7.7
6.6
6.8
7.6
6.0
1942.     	
1943  	
1944
6.6
6.1
5.8
1945 -.—	
1946...   -
1947-   	
1948
6.2
6.1
6.8
6.4
1949  _	
1950
5.7
5.6
1951      	
6.4
Table XII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females, 1915 to 1951
Year
1915-41 (average)..
1942	
1943 	
1944	
1945	
1946 	
1947	
1948	
1949 	
1950	
1951 	
4,
M.
48
42
50
54
41
50
50
50
54
56
41
F.
52
58
50
46
59
50
50
50
46
44
59
M.
43
25
31
34
35
32
29
79
30
40
37
F.
57
75
69
66
65
68
71
71
70
60
63
Per Cent
Total
Males
46
33
43
43
38
38
33
47
36
44
39
Per Cent
Total
Females
54
67
57
57
62
67
67
53
64
56
61 M 48
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XIII.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs
Year
Percentage of Individuals
1907
1908
1909
1910 (
1911
1912 (
1913
1914
1915 (
1916
1917
1918
1919
1970 (
1971
1972
1923 (
1924
1925 (
1976
1977
1978
1929
1930 (
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935 (
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947 (
1948
1949
1950 (
1951 (
87,874
64,652
89,077
76,921
88,763
12,884
61,745
89,890
30,350
44,936
61,195
53,401
56,258
21,254
46,300
60,700
07,174
94,891
59,554
65,581
64,461
60,044
70,260
19,170
76,428
69,732
83,507
76,973
35,038
46,351
84,837
87,947
54,143
63,469
93,378
79,199
47,607
36,857
89,735
73,370
40,087
37,665
39,495
47,710
02,565
cases)	
cases)	
cases)	
cases)	
cases).	
cases)	
cases)	
cases) „-
cases)	
cases)	
cases) 	
cases)	
cases)	
cases)	
cases)	
cases)	
cases)—	
cases)	
cases)—	
cases)	
cases)	
cases)	
cases)	
cases)	
cases)....	
cases)	
cases)	
cases)	
cases)	
cases)	
cases)	
cases)- 	
cases)	
cases)	
cases)	
cases)	
cases)	
cases)	
cases)	
cases)	
cases)	
cases)	
cases)-	
cases)	
cases)	
21
80
35
13
26
39
57
46
5
49
81
74
43
23
59
81
55
77
49
53
67
44
77
57
53
60
27
67
69
59
76
57
37
3
55
84
13
38
79
20
65
87
74
61
43
54
95
51
18
24
54
77
38
16
40
18
48
44
27
55
20
41
46
37
70
32
28
40
91
91
23
41
63
97
44
14
87
60
1
1
O)
1
1 Age-class represented but less than 0.5 per cent. /
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT                        M 49
Table XIV.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1951, Grouped by Age, Sex, Length, and
by Their Early History
Length in Inches
Number of Individuals
Total
41
32
42
52
62
h
6.3
h
M.
F.
M.
F.
M. 1 F.
1
1
M. 1 F.
1
1
M.     F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
14
14%-
14%.
143/4
15 —
	
1
1
1
1
-
1
6
7
13
11
17
16
23
29
22
33
21
17
11
77
1
3
2
9
6
9
22
13
17
16
14
11
11
1
1
1
3
9
6
16
24
19
28
20
36
58
61
67
58
54
42
27
30
19
6
3
1
1
1
:::
77
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
77
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
-
-
-
1
1
1
1
1
6
8
16
13
26
24
32
51
38
51
39
32
25
43
39
54
53
47
52
38
57
74
71
81
72
69
66
55
48
39
26
22    ,
14
12
8
8
1
2
1
2
15%
15%
1534
16
16%
16%
1634
17
17%
17%
1734-
-- 1 ....
18	
-- 1 -
18%
18%
18%
19
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
- | -
1 ....
-- 1 --
—
19%
19%
1934
20
-
1
.... | --
.... [ ....
- | -
.... | ....
- | -
77 [ 77
.... | ....
-- i --
70%   -
.... | -
-- | ....
.... | .-
1
1
1
2
9
8
6
5
7
7
7
6
9
12
12
18
26
17
20
19
19
13
10
7
8
1
2
1
....
20W.     .     	
20?4
21	
21%
21%
21 ?4
22	
-
—
22%
22%.
2234
23
_ | _
.... | ....
1
10 | 19
18 | 10
15 1    6
23%
23%
233/4
24
24%
24%
2434
75
16
9
7
17
7
3
3
7
3
z
-
5
7
2
1
1
i i ._.
- | ....
.- | ....
....
—
-
z
75%
75%
25?4
26
26%
26%
76?4
27
27%
27%
2734-
28	
	
28%..
28%..
28?4
29
29%
29%
	
Totals	
Average lengths	
- 1 ....
2 | —
.... | -
.... | -
.... |    1  |    4 | _
354 |185 |756 |592
- |    1  |    7 | 10
2 |    7 |    1  | — | 1,420
.... | 23.8| 15.9| ....
1        1        1
21.9| 21.91 25.81 24.8
1        1
.... | 26.8| 23.3| 23.4
1        1        1
26.6| 25.7| 24.0| _ |   23.9
IIII
-
- M 50
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XV.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1951, Grouped by Age, Sex, Weight, and
by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Weight in Pounds
41
32
4
2
52
62
53
63
54
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
M. I F.
1
M.
F.
M.
F.
1 	
1% 	
1% ..      	
1% - — 	
2	
2%                          	
z
1
2
1
1
-
1
3
5
5
12
30
34
43
28
37
17
20
16
22
15
20
9
15
6
6
1
8
1
2
2
3
11
13
31
21
74
15
23
17
9
4
5
3
2
1
1
2
1
2
3
1
11
9
6
9
4
8
9
13
12
12
23
13
19
15
20
12
8
8
11
6
5
1
5
2
1
1
1
1
3
1
3
4
5
5
19
12
28
24
32
33
58
41
67
42
57
31
43
28
24
10
17
1
1
1
1
1
z
z
--
—
—
z
z
-
7
1
1
2% —
-- | --
1
234   .     -
1
2
i
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
3
3%  -
3%. ..
5
5
7
334        	
18
4—
-
—
45
4%   .   -           .
4%-                 	
48
80
4?4 	
56
5	
67
5%
-  1 -
40
5%          	
534-    	
- I -
1
67
46
6      .
73
6%...	
1
1
1
53
6%.
64
634	
54
7 ..
79
7%	
58
7% 	
734        -  ..
8	
- 1 -
- 1 -
86
56
78
814
-
—
-    1    ..
44
W/,
1
77
1
7
7
z
67
834
43
9 ...
46
914
75
OW
37
9?4.         -
10        	
10%        -.    	
14
8
9
10% 	
1034	
12
7
11 - 	
6
11% - -	
1
11%-  	
5
1134    .      	
7
12  	
1
12%.    .      . .	
1
12%	
1
12?4 -   -
13	
13% ..     _  	
1
13% 	
1334 	
-1 1
4
354
185 |256 |592
- 1   1 1   7 1 10
2 |   7 |    1  [ -- ] 1,420
Average weights	
— I 6.0 | 2.0
1       !
-
5.2
5.0 18.6 | 7.4
— 19.7 ) 5.8 15.7
l     1     1
8.3 j 8.5 | 6.0
1        1
- I     6.7
1 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
M 51
Table XVI.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of the
42 and 52 Groups, 1912 to 1951
Year
4
9
5
2
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41	
22.4
21.6
21.9
20.5
21.1
20.9
20.6
20.6
21.4
20.9
21.1
21.9
22.4
21.6
21.3
21.1
21.0
21.7
21.1
20.7
21.3
21.4
20.8
21.9
25.4
24.6
25.0
24.3
23.5
24.2
25.1
24.0
25.2
23.8
25.2
25.8
24.7
23.9
1942       -	
1943  -	
1944 	
1945                        ,              	
23.8
23.7
23.3
23.9
1946 -  —	
1947   	
1948 ....	
24.1
23.5
24.2
1949  	
1950        '      -
1951	
22.8
24.2
24.8
Table XVII.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of the
42 and 52 Groups, 1914 to 1951
Year
4
2
5
2
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41      - 	
4.9
5.1
4.1
4.6
4.3
3.9
4.1
4.7
4.4
4.2
5.2
4.8
4.6
4.4
4.4
4.4
3.9
3.9
4.6
4.3
3.9
5.0
7.0
7.2
6.8
6.2
6.6
7.2
6.4
7.9
5.9
7.5
8.6
6.5
1942                                        	
6.4
1943                                                  	
6.3
1944
6.0
1945 —	
1946                                    	
6.4
6.2
1947                       —                           	
5.9
1948          	
7.0
1949                                             	
5.9
1950  	
6.4
1951 -.	
7.4
Table XVIII.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1951
Year
41
4
2
52
Per Cent
Total
Males
Per Cent
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Total
Females
36
50
64
50
63
61
62
67
70
79
72
50
70
75
66
37
39
38
33
30
21
28
50
30
25
34
34
35
34
33
39
37
35
38
22
36
30
66
65
66
67
61
63
65
62
78
64
70
50
38
36
59
57
53
36
45
63
41
44
50
1942  	
62
1943	
1944
64
1945     -	
1946
43
47
64
55
37
1947 -	
1948
1949
1950	
1951  	
59
56 M 52
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XIX.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs
Year
Percentage of Individuals
1975
1976
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
(33,764
(17,921
(22,682
(33,442
(9,683
(32,057
(12,867
(25,488
(37,369
(14,607
(31,648
(12,788
(25,258
(33,894
(17,833
(25,947
(21,495
(15,939
(15,010
(3,165
(15,014
(14,318
(36,800
(10,456
(13,189
(42,435
(49,473
cases )-
cases )-
cases)-
cases)-
cases)..
cases)-
cases) ..
cases) ..
cases ) ..
cases) ..
cases)-
cases)-
cases) ..
cases)-
cases ) ..
cases)-
cases) ..
cases )-
cases) ..
cases)..
cases)..
cases ) ..
cases) ..
cases)..
cases) ..
cases)-
cases)-
50
11
5
7
92
17
22
50
89
95
90
5
83
77
3
O)
C1)
O)
C1)
1 This age-class was represented by less than 0.5 per cent of the number of fish in the sample. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
Table XX.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, 1951, Grouped by Age, Sex, Length
by Their Early History
, and
M 53
Number of Individuals
Total
Length in Inches
32
42
52
62
5
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.    1    F.
M.
F.
14
1
—
-
-
1
1
1
4
1
1
2
3
-    j    ....
77
1
1
—
1
1
1
1
5
3
18
17
17
11
15
11
32
12
32
22
30
23
68
36
70
52
63
29
43
15
28
9
9
5
2
1
1
1    	
14t4
1414
-
-
1434                    	
15                             	
15%
15i/7
15?4 _	
16      _	
16%    .             ...               —
16%     .
16?4  - .. _        _ -
-    1    _
-    |    -
_    1    ....
17                                              .   .
3
2
6
6
7
8
12
7
20
8
12
7
2
3
2
1
1
1
2
1
12
5
5
2
2
2
6
1
1
17% 	
'""•
2
17% 	
1734 _	
18                           	
18%   	
18%  	
183/,
19     .    	
19%  	
19%   ..   ._	
19?4    	
70       	
7014
70%            	
7034 -            -	
71                      	
21%   -
21%                     	
2134      _ 	
27        —   .
77%  -	
7714
7734
23    _
23%  	
231/2 -      -     —	
1    |    19
23?4. -	
74
5
3
4
11
7
22
16
29
16
32
14
22
9
9
5
2
1
1
9
24
16
55
28
46
36
34
13
11
1
6
24%    	
24%      _ 	
2434 	
25             	
25% -  _ -	
25% - -	
25?4       	
26      -      	
26% --	
26% -       -	
26?4  „„     	
27    —       _	
27%	
-    |    -
77  1 Z
27%  	
2734- -	
28 _    	
—
28%   _ ...   —
28%. 	
1834
1Q
2Qi/i
1     1    -
106    |    41
216    | 305    |    ....
2
2
-
673
19.5    |    --
1
22.8    |22.0
1
25.6    |24.8    |    ....
1            1
25.1    123.4
1
—    |   24.5
1 M 54
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XXL—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, 1951, Grouped by Age, Sex, Weight, and
by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Weight in Pounds
32
42
52                  6,
53
Total
M.
F.
!
M.    I    F.
1
M.
1             1
F.    (   M.    1    F.
1          !
M.
F.
1                 ...               _
1
-
3
3
11
6
17
13
15
11
10
8
7
2
2
1
1
1
8
5
10
2
7
5
3
1
1
2
2
6
14
10
36
17
43
30
45
28
31
11
18
6
3
2
1
1
—
114    	
li/2                                  	
1?4                                .               -
2    .„	
2%	
2%
2%
3     —
3%             	
3% —                   	
1
334
—
1
1
4
414
414
11
434
2
1
2
1
3
4
6
5
8
8
28
11
29
14
19
10
24
10
9
5
7
4
3
1
2
10
5 	
23
5%    -
10
514
29
534
25
6 _
35
6%         -      ....
26
6%                m.
52
*34
—
30
7	
54
7%-	
41
7%.„ —   	
76
7?4	
40
8  	
61
8%	
25
8%.                          ..	
1
37
834
-
17
9                                    	
27
9%
-      |      12
<*v,
....     1         9
934
-
5
10
7
1014
4
10%                                   	
3
10?4                                      	
11
1
11 %                                 	
—     1       --
11M
-
2
1134
17
1714
17%      .   -            	
1734
13    .
-
1314
13%    -                            	
1334                                  	
Totals
1    1    -
106
41
216    | 305
2
2    |    —    |    673
3.6    1    --
6.0
5.2
8.2    1   7.3
7.2
6.4    1    —    1     7.2 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
M 55
Table XXII.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Age-groups,
1945 to 1951
Year
41
42
52
62
53
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1945   -	
1946	
1947
25.4
23.5
27.7
21.3
23.2
21.9
21.4
21.6
22.8
22.0
22.7
23.4
21.7
21.7
21.7
22.0
25.1
24.7
25.2
25.0
24.6
24.8
25.6
24.4
24.0
24.3
24.3
24.3
24.0
24.8
26.7
25.0
25.5
25.1
20.5
23.4
	
1948 -	
1949  	
1950 - -
1951  	
Table XXIII.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Age-groups,
1945 to 1951
Year
41
42
1     c
52         62
h
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1945	
7.9
6.1
4.9
4.6
5.7
5.1
5.0
4.9
6.0
4.7
5.8
5.5
5.4
5.1
5.0
5.2
7.1
7.3
6.9
7.6
7.2
7.4
8.2
6.5
6.6
6.0
6.9
6.7
6.6
7.3
ioTs
7.5
7.3
7.2
4.0
6.4
1946  	
1947   .
1948 -	
1949 	
1950 	
1951	
	
Table XXIV.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1945 to 1951
Year
4
1
4
2
5
2
6
2
53
Per Cent
Total
Males
Per Cent
Total
Females
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1945 —	
73
27
49
51
61
39
1946 - _	
76
24
37
63
41
59
1947 —	
38
62
47
53
46
54
1948    	
79
71
42
58
11
89
43
57
1949  	
36
64
80
70
40
60
100
77
23
1950 -  	
86
14
42
58
100
49
51
1951 — 	
72
28
41
59
100
100
—
48
52 M 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XXV.—Length Distribution of Spawning-ground Samples, Rivers Inlet Sockeye
Length in Inches
Males
Females
Total
Length in Inches
Males
Females
Total
13    -
1
1
7
7
1
1
2
1
3
1
2
3
4
1
1
3
1
1
7
1
7
1
1
2
1
3
1
2
3
4
2
3
21%
1
1
7
1
1
4
1
3
7
1
9
7
5
7
1
Z
3
1
1
3
3
5
17
1
18
10
2
1
13%                                         	
21%
1
13% -                    	
2134	
1334
22.	
3
14
22%	
1
14%
22%    .
3
14% ....                             ...	
22?4  	
143/i
23	
2
15	
23% 	
1
15%	
23%	
3
15%   „
2334- 	
1534
24	
5
16                                     .   .
24% 	
16%    .
24% 	
2434.-   —
6
16%.                                       	
1
16?4	
25       -
17
17  „   ..
25% -
1
17%
7514
22
17%..	
2534  	
17?4                        	
26  	
26% 	
26%	
26?4 -	
27	
11
18  	
18%	
18%  	
1834
5
2
19.
27%.	
1
19%     	
27%	
2734 	
28	
28%  	
281/2	
28% 	
79	
Totals —
10
19%	
1934	
7
20   . -   	
20%	
5
20%	
20%  - .
2
21  	
76
73
149 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M 57
RESULTS OF THE WEST COAST OF VANCOUVER ISLAND
HERRING INVESTIGATION, 1951-52
By J, C. Stevenson, M.A.; A. S. Hourston, M.A.; K. J. Iackson, B.A.; and
D. N. Outram, B.A., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
CONTENTS
Page
Introduction '.  57
The 1951-52 Fishery  58
Tagging and Tag-recovery  63
Recoveries by Tag-detectors  65
Movement between Populations  65
Movement within Populations  67
Recovery of Tags by Plant Crews  68
Tagging during the 1952 Spawning Season  70
Sampling of the Catches and the Spawning Runs  70
Age Composition  71
Sex Ratio and Stage of Development  73
Average Length and Weight  73
Extent and Intensity of Spawning  74
Discussion ,  76
Summary i  79
Acknowledgments  80
References  81
Tables  82
INTRODUCTION
Since 1946-47 the herring population of the west coast of Vancouver Island has
been fished without any limitations to catch except for a closure date prior to spawning.
During the same period the herring-catch on the lower east coast of Vancouver Island
has been limited to 40,000 tons annually, and a similar closure date has been applied
to fishing. The scientific investigation of these two herring populations over a number
of years aims to determine the comparative merits of these two methods of fisheries
management. More specifically, it seeks to find out whether catch quotas are effective
in stabilizing herring populations in view of the great natural fluctuations which occur
in abundance.
This report, the sixth in an annual series,* outlines the results of studies carried
out on the adult stocks of the west coast of Vancouver Island population during the
1951-52 season, and in it these results are compared with those of previous seasons.
As in previous reports, detailed consideration is given to changes in catch and fishing
effort, to the year-classes which comprise the fishing and spawning runs, and to the
relative amount of fish which escape the fishery.   Also, the extent of movement between
* Previous publications in this  series are Tester and Stevenson,  1947,  1948;   Stevenson,  1950;   Stevenson and
Lanigan, 1950;   and Stevenson, Hourston, and Lanigan, 1951. M 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
all major herring populations, as determined by tag-recovery, is discussed. Finally, the
results of the 1951-52 study are discussed from the point of view of their implications
upon the comparative study of two populations subjected to different management
methods.
Herring research on Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) is undertaken by the Fisheries
Research Board of Canada at the Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C. It includes,
besides the comparative study of two herring populations which forms the basis of this
series of publications, various phases of research applied to all major fishable stocks.
Also, investigation is continuing on certain aspects of the early life-history of the herring
in an effort to understand more completely the principles involved in the supply of fish to
the fishery, and thereby to acquire a sound basis for prediction of population abundance.
Districts, sub-districts, and areas in which British Columbia coastal waters are
divided for purposes of fisheries statistics are shown in Fig. 1. Place-names along the
coast of Vancouver Island and adjacent Mainland, which are mentioned in the text, are
shown in Fig. 2.
THE 1951-52 FISHERY
The British Columbia herring-fishing season opened on November 15th, most boats
seining in the middle east coast and lower east coast sub-districts. No fishing took place
in the west coast of Vancouver Island sub-district until December 1st, when a fairly large
body of herring was located in Effingham Inlet (Area 23). Fair fishing was experienced
during the ensuing days, with from seven to eighteen boats participating, and almost
7,300 tons were caught. By December 8th seining proved unproductive, and most of
the seiners, which had originally come around from the lower east coast, returned there
or moved to the northern sub-district, where excellent catches were being made. From
December 8th until fishing was closed for the Christmas recess on December 17th, fishing
in the west coast sub-district was generally poor, partly because of the smaller fishing
effort, but mainly because of the lack of sizable schools of fish to set on. The few boats
which remained in the sub-district thoroughly scouted the fishing-grounds, and small
bodies of fish were located in Effingham Inlet, in Barkley Sound (Area 23), in Clayoquot
and Sydney Inlets (Area 24), and in Nootka, Tahsis, and Esperanza Inlets (Area 25).
The total pre-Christmas catch on the west coast amounted to 8,900 tons. Barkley Sound
accounted for the entire catch, except for about 300 tons from Nootka Sound taken
during the last week of the fishery and 200 tons from Clayoquot Sound caught on
December 17th.
Fishing recommenced on January 6th, when eleven boats seined in Barkley Sound.
During the first four days approximately 2,200 tons were brailed from this area and 540
tons were taken from Sydney Inlet and Refuge Cove (Area 24). By January 10th the
fish had scattered, and from then until the middle of the month small catches amounting
to approximately 900 tons were made in all west coast areas except Area 27. The west
coast fishery was non-existent after January 15th, when all boats left for the northern
and central sub-districts, but a few of the boats returned after the completion of the
quota extension in the northern sub-district on January 18th. All areas were scouted
again, but without success. A time extension for fishing the more northerly west coast
areas was sought and granted, the closure date being moved from February 5th to February 15th. On February 4th the herring started to move inshore to Esperanza Inlet
(Area 25), and by the time the boats from the central sub-district arrived on February
8th, a vigorous fishery was in progress, reaching its peak on February 12th, when thirty-
two boats seined over 4,000 tons on that day. Heavy fishing with high catch per unit
of effort (101 tons per seine per day) continued until the closure on February 15th.
The total west coast catch in 1951-52 was 30,000 tons (Table I), over one-half of which
was taken during the time extension. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
M 59
/      *      J^
/ 4    °   rO 3
SEAL   COVE
NORTHERN
PORT    EDWARD
SUB-DISTRICT
WEST
COAST
SUB-DISTRICT
SUB-DISTRICT
O    REDUCTION   PLANTS
   DISTRICT  BOUNDARIES
 SUB-DISTRICT  BOUNDARIES
 AREA  BOUNDARIES
DIST. NO.
Fig. 1. Map showing the division of the British Columbia coast into districts, sub-districts, and
areas, and including the locations and codes of taggings made during the fall of 1951 and the spring
of 1952. M 60
BRITISH COLUMBIA
l\\    Swanson   Channel
Satellite   Channel
VANCOUVER
ISLAND
Fig. 2. Map of Southern British Columbia showing the location of some of the places
mentioned in the text. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
M 61
Details of catches, fishing effort, and catch per unit of effort are given for each area
and the whole sub-district in Table I. Captains of seine-boats submitted data on the
number of fishing or scouting days, and from these the catch per unit of effort was
obtained. These records represented 75 per cent of the total catch for the sub-district,
and the total fishing effort was gained by adjusting the number of recorded fishing-days
to account for the whole catch.
Catch, fishing effort, and catch per unit of effort on the west coast of Vancouver
Island are tabulated below for the 1951-52 and previous seasons:—
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49
1949-50
1950-51
1951-52
Catch (tons)
Effort (seine-days)	
Catch per unit of effort (tons per seine per day)_
59,000
777
76
45,200
948
48
55,000
686
80
37,300
790
47
25,200
528
48
30,000
395
76
The 1951-52 west coast fishery produced the second smallest catch of the six-year
period. The high average catch per unit of effort appears to be not comparable with
availability figures of previous seasons, and is principally a result of the high catch per
unit of effort in the Area 23 fishery—70.9 tons per seine per day (Table I), the highest
availability for Area 23 in the six years of the study. Unusually great efficiency in
fleet deployment during the period of fishing in Area 23 was' undoubtedly a major factor
in producing the artificially high availability. When fish were scarce on the fishing-
grounds, the bulk of the fleet was moved promptly to fishing areas where fish were more
plentiful. Spawning and age-composition data have strongly indicated that Area 23
stocks were smaller than at any time since the removal of quota restrictions.
The high availability of fish in Area 25 (Table I) was partly the result of the exploitation of dense herring schools moving toward the spawning-grounds during a ten-day
time extension beyond the usual date of fishing closure. However, it no doubt also
reflected the relatively high abundance of Area 25 herring stocks which in the two
previous years had been largely unfished because of their late inshore movement
(Stevenson, Hourston, and Lanigan, 1951).
TAGGING AND TAG-RECOVERY
The aims of tagging are twofold. Analysis of tag-recovery data permits (1) a
description of the extent of movement between and within populations, and (2) a rough
calculation of the rate of exploitation of the fishery.
In 1952, tagging operations were continued in the middle east coast, lower east
coast, and west coast of Vancouver Island sub-districts, as they have been since 1946-47,
and, as in 1951, fish in the central and northern sub-districts were tagged extensively.
Methods used in tagging herring and in recovering tags were the same as those employed
in previous years.
Tags were recovered during the 1951-52 fishing season* by (1) tag-detectors
operated by herring-investigation personnel and (2) magnets tended by plant crews at
reduction plants. Recovered tags were derived from the 1951 tagging (15-series) and
from taggings of previous years.
Those fishing-grounds which yielded or might have yielded tags during the 1951-52
fishing season were: Area 2b (E)—Burnaby Narrows and Bigsby Inlet; Area 5—Gas-
boat Pass and Kitkatlah Inlet; Area 6—Laredo Inlet and Myers Pass; Area 7—Kildidt
Sound; Area 8—Cousins Inlet and Reid Pass; Area 9—Moses Inlet and Douglas
Channel; Area 12—Sargeaunt Pass, Simoom Sound, Greenway Sound, Thompson Sound,
* A list of the places and dates of individual taggings which produced recoveries during 1951-52 will be supplied on
request (Supplementary Table I). M 62
BRITISH COLUMBIA
and Bones Bay; Area 13—Deepwater Bay; Area 17a—Nanoose Bay; Area 17b—
Dodd Narrows; Area 18—Swanson Channel and Satellite Channel; Area 23—Effingham
Inlet; Area 24—Sydney Inlet; Area 25—Tahsis Canal, Espinosa Inlet, and Port Eliza
Inlet.
During the 1951-52 herring season, tag-detectors recovered tags at three plants.
Two were located in Steveston, B.C., at the Imperial and Gulf of Georgia reduction
plants. The other detector was located at Seal Cove in Prince Rupert. A tabulation
follows, showing the type of detector used at each plant, the percentage efficiency of each
detector during the pre-Christmas and post-Christmas periods, and in parentheses are
shown the comparable efficiencies at which they operated during the 1950-51 season:—
Type of Detector
Efficiency while Operating
Pre-Christmas
Post-Christmas
59 (90)
80 (25)
0 (- )
87 (71)
80 (94)
5 (    )
The Imperial detector operated during the pre-Christmas period at an efficiency
which was considerably lower than that of the previous year over the same period.
While its efficiency was greater in the post-Christmas than in the pre-Christmas period,
it developed serious troubles after two days of post-Christmas operation and could not
be operated for the rest of the season. The induction-type set, operating at the Gulf of
Georgia plant, performed well during the whole pre-Christmas period and the principal
part of the post-Christmas period. Its average mechanical efficiency increased from 60
per cent in 1950-51 to 80 per cent in 1951-52. Tag-detection of the new installation
at Seal Cove was very unsatisfactory. Generally, many problems arise in the first year's
operation of a new detector installation. The speed of the conveyor-belt was insufficient
to permit satisfactory operation of the induction-type set. A Wheatstone bridge set
which was operated at Seal Cove late in the season performed unsatisfactorily because
of a faulty coil mechanism.
The efficiency of recovery of tags taken from the magnets by plant crews depends
upon both the mechanical efficiency of the magnet and the diligence of those individuals
in returning the tags with pertinent information on recovery to the Pacific Biological
Station. To test efficiency, sets of fifty tags differentiable from those taken by the fishery
are inserted from time to time during the season in landed fish. The percentage recovered
by the magnets and returned to the Biological Station is the index of plant or " magnet "
efficiency of recovery. A table of the average 1951-52 efficiency of each plant, with its
average 1950-51 efficiency in parentheses, follows in the table below:—
West Coast
Number of Average Efficiency
Plant Tests of Tests
Kildonan   0 (2) _ (88)
Ecoole  0 (1) -- (90)
Port Albion  0 (2) - (91)
Nootka   1  (3) 82 (88)
Ceepeecee  2 (1) 69 (68)
Hecate  1  (0) 54 (_)
Average  68  (85) REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M 63
Steveston and Vicinity
Number of Average Efficiency
Plant                                                                                              Tests of Tests
Imperial   7 (3) 86 (82)
Colonial   3  (3) 83  (74)
Gulf of Georgia  8  (3) 83  (50)
Phoenix  5 (1) 94 (86)
North Shore ...  3  (1) 97 (54)
Average  89 (69)
Other Localities
Alert Bay  1 (0)
Namu  2 (1)
Butedale  1 (0)
Port Edward  3 (1)
Seal Cove  1 (0)
Average
78
(_)
91
(78)
86
(■-)
94
(78)
63
(--)
82
(78)
Grand average  80 (77)
The efficiency of recovery for those west coast plants which were tested was about
the same in 1951-52 as in 1950-51. Unfortunately, because of the sporadic nature of
the fishery in this sub-district, it was impossible to test Kildonan, Ecoole, or Port Albion
plants. Plants at Steveston, and those listed under " other localities," were tested more
frequently this year (thirty-four tests in 1951-52 as compared with thirteen in 1950-51).
All of them showed increases in efficiency. The principal reason for the increase was
apparently related to the fact that plant personnel this year were paid directly for tag-
recoveries by a herring-investigation contact-man. They were thus saved the inconvenience of sending tags to the Pacific Biological Station for payment. Also, the increased
number of magnet tests in 1951-52 increased the likelihood of reward to the men.
Increased incentive might have prompted greater diligence on the part of plant crews
and tended toward an increase in efficiency of recovery.
Recoveries by Tag-detectors
The number of detector recoveries in 1951—52 showed a decrease compared with
the 1950-51 recovery. A total of 226 tags was recovered from regular spring taggings,
and 20 tags were taken from taggings carried out at Sooke in the fall of 1951 just prior
to the opening of the fishery. The number of tags taken at each detector installation was
as follows: Imperial, 59; Gulf of Georgia, 178; and Seal Cove, 9. Detector recovery
in 1950-51 amounted to 259 tags, all from spring taggings. A comparison of the number
of tags (from spring taggings) obtained from the various sub-district fisheries in the
past tWO Seasons is given in the following tabulation:—     Number of Detector Returns
Sub-district Fishery 1950-51 1951-52
Northern   2 50
Central  111 42
Upper east coast  2 1
Middle east coast  26 34
Lower east coast  30 83
West coast -'_  88 16
Totals  259 226 M 64
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Increased intensity of tagging in the northern sub-district in 1951 and a heavy
1951-52 fishery accounted for the higher number of returns from northern catches,
while the decrease in the number of tags from the central sub-district was largely due to
decreased catch. The increase in the number of tags from lower east coast catches was
at least partly a result of increased intensity of tagging. Recovery of tags from the west
coast of Vancouver Island sub-district showed a sharp decrease in 1951-52. The
decrease was largely due to the fact that while heavy west coast fishing was taking place
at the end of the fishing season, only one tag-detector, operating erratically, searched the
catches for tags. Furthermore, concentration of tags in the west coast catch was somewhat less in 1951-52 (0.0358 tags per ton) than in the previous year (0.0531 tags
per ton).
Because of the small number of tags recovered from west coast catches by tag-
detectors in 1951-52, no attempt will be made to calculate various population statistics
on the west coast stocks, as has been done in previous years. Detector recoveries from
some of the other herring populations, however, appear sufficiently numerous to warrant
calculation of certain population statistics, and discussion of these statistics will be
published later.
Movement between Populations
To study movement between populations, the "probable" number of tags in the
various catches is calculated. Since (1) detectors are never 100 per cent efficient in
operation and (2) only part of each sub-district catch is searched by the detector, corrections must be applied to the actual number of recoveries to provide the probable number
of tags in the catches. The actual numbers of tags recovered by detectors in 1951-52
and the calculated probable numbers of tags in the catches are given in Table II,
according to area of tagging, tagging code, and area of recovery. This table is summarized below, according to sub-districts, to provide data pertinent to the analysis of herring
movements; the probable number of tags in the various catches are given, and actual
numbers of tags on which the calculations were based appear in parentheses:—
Sub-district of Tagging
Sub-district of Recovery
Upper East
Coast
Middle East
Coast
Lower East
Coast
West
Coast
Total
Northern — 	
Central. _	
Upper east coast 	
Middle east coast 	
Lower east coast 	
West coast  „ _
Totals  	
Catch (in tons) _ 	
Probable number tags per
ton 	
619 (43)
98 (7) 2,631 (32)
3(1)
70(1)
13(3)
108 (24)
27(6)
4(1)
7(2)
46(5)
322 (73)
14(3)
32(1)
1,042 (15)
717 (50)
57,300
0.0125
2,701 (33)
39,900
0.0677
3(1)
8,250
0.0004
152 (34)
10,350
0.0147
389 (83)    | 1,074 (16)
41,000
0.0095
30,000
0.0358
658 (46)
2,742 (42)
3(1)
154 (29)
349 (79)
1,130 (20)
5,036 (217)1
1 The difference between these totals and the corresponding totals in Table II is due to the fact that returns from
Sooke taggings are not included.
As in previous years, most of the recoveries were taken from the sub-districts in
which they were originally used. This " homing " tendency was most pronounced in the
central sub-district—96.0 per cent (26S1/2742)—but it was also great in the northern,
lower east coast, and west coast sub-districts—94.1 per cent (G1%58), 92.3 per cent
(32%4o)> and 92.2 per cent (104%i30) respectively. On the other hand, only 70.1 per
cent (10%54) of the middle east coast tags were derived from middle east coast catches.
Only one upper east coast tag was recovered in 1951-52, a result of complete lack of
tagging on the upper east coast since 1946. It will be noted in the above tabulation that
the present concentration of tags in the upper east coast population is very low in relation REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M 65
to tag concentrations in other sub-districts. The heavy concentration of tags in the
central and west coast sub-districts reflects recent intensive tagging programmes in those
areas.
Movement of herring from the west coast of Vancouver Island to other sub-districts
was calculated to be about 8 per cent in 1951-52, somewhat lower than the corresponding
emigration noted in 1949-50 (12 per cent) and in 1950—51 (15 per cent). The data
suggest that most of the west coast emigration was to the central sub-district—6.2 per
cent (7%i3o)—but since the calculation was based upon only one tag return, little confidence can be placed on the calculated extent of this migration. A movement of 1.2 per
cent (14Ai'Ao) was noted to the lower east coast, the smallest such movement calculated
since this type of data has been collected. This extremely small migration is probably
related to the present reduced size of the Area 23 stocks, which generally provide most
of the west coast herring to lower east coast runs. The reverse movement, that of emigration of lower east coast herring to the west coast, was entirely lacking in the 1951-52
detector returns.
A single northern tag was taken from west coast catches by tag-detectors, but no
central tags were recovered on the west coast. Considering the relatively small proportion of the west coast catch that was searched for tags by tag-detectors, these results are
not likely to be representative of the extent of herring movement. Plant returns, which
are discussed later, suggest that migration of central fish to the west coast is greater than
the migration of northern fish to the west coast.
The main movement of central tags was to the northern sub-district—3.6 per cent
(9%742); no reciprocal movement of herring from the northern to the central sub-district
was shown by detector returns. In 1950-51 detector recovery data indicated no movement in either direction.
Lower east coast herring moved only to the middle east coast, a movement amounting to 7.7 per cent (27/s4d) Middle east coast herring, however, showed a large migration to the lower east coast—29.9 per cent (4%r,.%)- A generally great interchange of
fish between these two sub-districts has been noted in all years of the present tagging
programme, except for 1950-51 when a movement of only 2 to 3 per cent occurred in
each direction (Stevenson, Hourston, and Lanigan, 1951).
No lower east coast tags were taken in the northern catches, but a 1.1 per cent
movement (%nS) was noted in the opposite direction.
Detector returns in 1951—52 show a tendency for a southerly movement of herring
along the British Columbia coast. The major exception to this general condition was the
northward movement of central fish to the northern sub-district, which was not accompanied by a corresponding southward movement from the northern to the central
sub-district. The heavy exploitation of the northern stocks in 1951-52 might have accentuated this northerly movement which appeared to be contrary to the general migration
pattern.
Movement within Populations
Because of the small number of detector recoveries from the west coast catches in
1951-52, only a general analysis of herring movement within the sub-district is possible.
Three Area 23 tags of the 15-series (tagged in 1951) were recovered in Area 23, and
none were recovered in other west coast areas. One Area 25 tag of the same series was
recovered in Area 25, and one was taken from Area 23 catches. One Area 24 tag was
returned in Area 23 catches. Thus, even with the limited number of the returns, the
tendency for herring to move in a south-easterly direction along the west coast of Vancouver Island was shown.
The probable numbers of 14-series (1950 Laggings) and 15-series (1951 taggings)
tags in the central sub-district catches are summarized from Table II in the following M 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA
tabulation (actual numbers of tags, on which probable numbers are based, are given in
parentheses):—
Area of Tagging
Area of Recovery—14-series
Area of Recovery—15-series
1
6                           7
1
6                             7
6
1
377 (3)                       -
880 (7)
7
140 (2)
1,094(18)
10
              |              	
140 (2)
1
Returns from neither the 14-series tagging nor the 15-series tagging showed
intermixture of herring between Areas 6 and 7. No Area 6 tags were taken in Area 7.
and no Area 7 tags were taken in Area 6 catches. In the previous year, Area 7 tags were
not recovered from Area 6, and only two Area 6 tags were returned from the Area 7
fishery (Stevenson, Hourston, and Lanigan, 1951), These data strongly suggest that the
two main central sub-district stocks should be considered as separate populations.
However, it seems desirable to collect additional data pertaining to this problem before
arriving at a conclusion.
As in the previous year, movement of Area 10 herring to Area 7 was noted. Since
Area 10 tags were also taken in the middle east coast of Vancouver Island sub-district,
it appears that the relatively small Area 10 herring population is subject to wide dispersal.
Movement of herring within the lower east coast sub-district appears to be a different problem than movement of herring within other sub-districts. In the case of most
other sub-districts, the inshore migration routes of the various runs to the different fishing
areas are relatively discrete, whereas herring of the lower east coast population move
from offshore summer feeding-grounds through the Strait of luan de Fuca to the southern
entrance of the Strait of Georgia, from where they follow along the general contour of the
Vancouver Island coast through each of the three main fishing areas (Areas 18, 17b,
and 17a). Thus movement within populations, as considered with respect to most
herring populations, is not applicable to the lower east coast runs, since whether tags
are caught in their area of tagging or in another area depends almost wholly on the
particular area in which the fishing fleet contacts the main bodies of fish along the
migration route within the sub-district. In 1951-52 Area 18 contributed about two-
thirds of the sub-district catch, and although the 1951 taggings were fairly evenly distributed between all areas of the sub-district, a preponderance of the tag returns (about
80 per cent, in terms of probable numbers of tags in the catches) was taken from the
Area 18 fishery.
In the fall of 1951, 991 herring were tagged at Sooke in the Strait of Juan de Fuca
with a view to obtaining further evidence of the inshore migration of lower east coast
stocks through the Strait of Juan de Fuca. A total of twenty of these tags was recovered
by tag-detectors (Table II), and all of them were from the lower east coast fishery, which
took place about two months after tagging. Plant returns accounted for thirty-six
recoveries (Table III); thirty of these were considered to have come from lower east coast
catches, two from west coast catches, and too much doubt surrounded the exact sub-
district of recovery of the other four tags to permit assignment. A similar tagging was
conducted in the fall of 1944, when 1,409 fish were tagged at Sooke. In the 1944-45
fishery, seventy-four tags were recovered by tag-detectors, all of which were from lower
east coast catches (Tester, 1945); in 1945-46 only one tag was returned, and it came
from the lower east coast (Tester, 1946), while in 1946-47 three tags were recovered-
two from lower east coast catches and one from Area 23 on the west coast of Vancouver
Island (Tester and Stevenson, 1947).
Both Sooke taggings strongly indicated that the main inshore migration route of the
lower east coast population is through the Strait of Juan de Fuca.   The single west coast REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
M 67
recovery obtained more than two years after the 1944 tagging could have resulted from
the limited intermingling known to exist between west coast and lower east coast fish.
The two plant returns from the 1951 tagging which were considered to have come from
the west coast fishery suggest that a small proportion (about 6 per cent) of the fish at
Sooke went back offshore and then moved inshore to west coast fishing-grounds.
Recovery of Tags by Plant Crews
In 1951-52, 4,512 decipherable tags were recovered by plant crews from magnets
and plant machinery of sixteen reduction plants. This record recovery constitutes an
increase of 119 per cent over that of the previous year. The increase was due primarily
to (1) the record large 1950 and 1951 taggings, (2) heavy exploitation of all herring
populations, and (3) a system of direct payment of tag rewards to plant crews:—
Number of
Plant Name Tags Recovered
Port Edward   525
Number of
lags Recovered
Plant Name
Imperial 497
Colonial 449
Gulf of Georgia 235
Phoenix _               370
North Shore .... 317
Alert Bay 56
Namu   683
Butedale  756
Seal Cove  94
Kildonan _..       43
Port Albion   42
Nootka   131
Ceepeecee   239
Hecate  33
Shingle Bay  42
The distribution of tags according to area of tagging and probable sub-district of
recovery is given in Table III. While the area of recovery of detector returns is always
specific, it is often difficult to determine specifically the area or even the sub-district from
which a plant recovery originated. Certain methods (Tester and Stevenson, 1948) are'
employed to assign as accurately as possible the most probable area of recovery to each
tag. It is seen from Table III that 592 tags, or 13.1 per cent, were unclassifiable as to
location of recovery. In general, less trouble was occasioned in assigning plant recoveries
in 1951—52 than in previous years, since, for the most part, landings from only one fishery
entered each plant during any particular part of the season. In the following tabulation,
data from Table III have been summarized to show numbers of recoveries according to
the sub-district of tagging and the most likely sub-district of recovery:—
Probable Sub-district of Recovery
Sub-district
of Tagging
Northern
Central
Upper
East
Coast
Middle
East
Coast
Lower
East
Coast
West
Coast
Indeterminate
Total
382
112
1
5
24
2,143
2
1
9
--
	
6
132
-
1
8
1
11
948
44
425
1
25
31
66
451
3      1          5
4
2               77
1          7
       I      	
2,696
6
113
182
West Coast                              	
1,028
Totals. -	
500
2,179
9              89
138
969
592
4.4761
1 The difference between this total and the total number of plant recoveries obtained previously is due to the fact
(hat returns from Sooke taggings are not included in this tabulation.
The great tendency for tags to be recovered in the sub-district of tagging, noted
previously in the analysis of detector returns, was also shown by the plant returns. In
both sources of recovery, central herring showed greatest " homing," while middle east
coast herring showed the smallest " homing " tendency.
On the basis of plant returns, emigration of west coast fish was unusually small—1.5
per cent (1%(i2).   All west coast emigration was to the central and northern sub-districts. M 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA
In 1950-51 considerably larger movement of west coast fish to the central and northern
populations was calculated (7.5 per cent). Most of this movement in 1950-51 was
found to be tags used in the most northerly west coast areas (Areas 26 and 27), and the
complete lack of tagging in those areas in 1951 is part of the reason for the apparently
reduced west coast emigration in the past season.
Plant returns showed that eight central tags were taken on the west coast, while only
one northern tag was recovered from west coast catches, suggesting movements of 0.4 per
cent (%27i) and 0.2 per cent (%ot) respectively. Thus both plant returns and detector
recoveries indicated an almost negligible quantity of northern and central tags in west
coast runs. In view of the intensive tagging in the northern and central sub-districts in
1950 and 1951, the results appear to indicate strongly that west coast stocks are not
appreciably supplemented by northern and central herring.
There was no indication of movement of west coast fish to the lower east coast from
plant returns for the first time since the beginning of the present tagging programme; the
movement in the reverse direction was 7.3 per cent ("Asi); which is large in view of the
lack of evidence of such a movement from detector returns, but about average when
compared with data from past years.
The main movement of central fish was to the northern sub-district (4.9 per cent
(11%27i))> closely resembling the 3.6-per-cent movement determined from detector
returns. An appreciable emigration of northern fish to the central sub-district (5.9 per
cent (2%ot) ) was shown. The lack of such a movement, on the basis of detector returns,
was probably largely a result of the relatively small tonnage of central fish examined for
tags by tag-detectors.
The movement of lower east coast fish to the middle east coast amounted to 4.6 per
cent (%-,i) on the basis of plant returns. The corresponding movement, calculated from
• detector recoveries, was 7.7 per cent. The reverse movement, from the middle east coast
to the lower east coast—6.8 per cent (%g)—was much smaller than that computed from
detector returns (29.9 per cent). Considering the small numbers of tags indicating
emigration of middle east coast fish to the central and northern sub-districts and the
complete absence of supporting data from detector returns, there is much doubt
concerning the extent of the northward movement of middle east coast fish.
Tag returns from both main sources of recovery give no support to the contention
frequently expressed by fishermen and others that the changes in the west coast stocks
are appreciably affected by emigration of fish away from the west coast or by immigration
to the west coast. It was calculated that in 1951-52 about 1,000 tons of west coast fish
were caught in other sub-districts, and about 2,000 tons of fish from other sub-districts
were taken in west coast catches.
Tagging during the 1952 Spawning Season
The 1952 tagging programme was carried out with the assistance of three seine-
boats loaned by fishing companies. Two vessels began tagging operations on February
25th, one operating in the lower and middle east coast sub-districts until March 24th,
the other being used on the west coast until March 21st and in the central sub-district
from then until April 7th. The third vessel commenced tagging about March 6th on
the west coast, moved to the central sub-district by March 24th, and carried out tagging
operations in central, northern, and Queen Charlotte Islands waters until April 10th. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
M 69
The numbers of herring tagged in the various areas in 1951 and 1952 are given in
the following tabulation:—
Sub-district and Area of Tagging
Year
Queen
Charlotte
Islands
Northern
Central
Middle
East
Coast
Lower East Coast
West Coast
1
2b(E) I      4
1
6
7
10
14
15
17a
17b
18
20
23
24
25
26
1951	
1952 ....
4,114
5,091
8,089
5,092
7,507
8,837
3,027
3,013
4,087
5,129
5,034
2,058
5,540
4,074
99U
8,583
10,058
4,077
5,071
1
8,109|	
8.05813.073
1 Tagged in the fall of 1951 after the previous report in this series had been presented for publication.
A total of 60,887 fish* was tagged in 1952, as compared to 57,825 in 1951. More
herring were tagged in the west coast sub-district than in the previous year (26,260 as
compared to 20,769).   Taggings were carried out in all west coast areas except Area 27.
Herring were tagged on the east coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands in 1952—
the first tagging made in that sub-district since 400 fish were tagged in the spring of 1940
(Hart and Tester, 1940). Tagging in the northern sub-district was also more intensive
than in 1951, but fewer fish were tagged in the central, middle east coast, and lower east
coast sub-districts. The 1952 herring-tagging programme was the largest ever carried
out in British Columbia.
SAMPLING OF THE CATCHES AND THE SPAWNING RUNS
Knowledge of the relative strength of the various year-classes is basic to a comprehensive understanding of a fish population. Information on relative year-class strength
is provided by the determination of the ages of fish taken in random samples from the
fishery and spawning runs. In addition, these samples provide data on growth rates,
which may reflect changes in feeding conditions. Furthermore, data obtained on sex
ratio and development tie together certain aspects of the adult and spawn studies.
A total of sixty-three samples f was taken from the west coast of Vancouver Island
sub-district during the 1951-52 season. The distribution of this sampling according to
area is given below (comparable numbers for 1950-51 are given in parentheses):—
Area
23-
24.
25-
Number of Samples
Fishery Spawning Runs
  16 (38) 5 (4)
     1(2) 2 (2)
  37  ( 2) 1 (4)
26     0(0) 1 (0)
No samples have been obtained from Area 27 since the 1949-50 season.
* A list of all taggings made in 1952, including information on the date and place of each tagging, will be supplied
on request (Supplementary Table II).
f A list of all fishing and spawning samples taken in 1951-52, including places and dates of sampling, numbers of fish
of each age, numbers of fish of each sex, and data on maturity, will be supplied on request (Supplementary Table III). M 70
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Age Composition
The average percentage age composition (weighted to numbers of fish caught in
each area) of the west coast fishing samples is given below for each season since the
removal of the quota restrictions in that sub-district:—
Fishing Season
In Year of Age
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX-XI
1946-47      	
+ 1
+
+
+
+
+
5.0
2.4
7.4
4.4
9.8
2.6
53.0
58.2
45.2
68.8
35.3
36.2
32.1
27.8
32.9
20.5
44.5
23.9
6.0
8.5
9.6
5.3
8.0
31.6
2.5
2.1
3.4
0.8
1.9
4.3
0.9
0.5
1.0
0.2
0.5
1.2
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.1
+
0.2
0.1
1947-48
0.1
1948-49	
0.1
1949-50
0.0
1950-5L. _
+
+
19S1-57
1 The plus signs indicate percentages of less than 0.05.
The striking feature of the age composition in 1951-52 is the large proportion of the
V-year fish (1947 year-class), forming nearly a third of the catch. This is the largest
contribution of V-year fish to the fishing stock since detailed age-composition data were
first recorded (1929-30), and is four times the average percentage contribution of V-year
fish during the last five years. Since it entered the fishery in 1949-50, this year-class
has made a higher contribution to the percentage age composition of the herring stocks
than any other year-class in the last nine years.
The great strength of the 1947 year-class has been evident since its first summer,
when large numbers of I-year fish were seen in inshore waters (Tester and Stevenson,
1948). In the spring of 1949 it entered the spawning runs in tremendous numbers as
Il-year fish (Stevenson, 1950); as III- and IV-year fish, it dominated the catch (Stevenson and Lanigan, 1950; Stevenson, Hourston, and Lanigan, 1951). During the 1951-52
season it formed about the same proportion of the catch as the newly recruited 1949
year-class (Ill's). Since negligible recruitment occurs after the fifth year, it is unlikely
that the 1947 year-class will form an important part of the fishing stocks in future fishing
seasons.
The relative weakness of the 1948 year-class was again evident in the 1951-52
stocks. Its contribution to the catch as IV-year fish was one of the smallest in recent
years. The newly recruited 1949 year-class also showed indications of relatively low
abundance. It failed to form a significantly higher proportion of the population than
did the weak 1948 year-class in the previous year.
On the basis of the number of fish contributed by each year-class to the fishery
(tabulated below as millions of fish), the relative weakness of both the 1948 and 1949
year-classes is particularly striking (Fig. 3 (A)). As Ill-year fish, each supplied only
a little over one-third of the contribution made by the immediately preceding year-classes.
Fishing Season
Age
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX+
Total
1946-47  -
1Q/17_4S
0.13
0.13
0.30
0.13
0.08
0.06
27.02
10.03
36.83
14.89
22.27
6.08
288.72
240.18
224.02
233.67
80.17
86.39
174.70
114.60
163.00
69.68
100.93
56.99
32.53
35.16
47.52
17.86
18.05
75.55
1
13.65
8.76
16.84
2.69
4.36
10.20
4.88
2.24
5.05
0.65
1.04
2.89
2.49
1.10
1.66
0.20
0.04
0.53
0.47
0.56
0.45
0.00
0.04
0.06
1
j 544.79
| 412 76
1948-49 - -
1949-50.	
1950-51— _.
1951-521 -
[ 495.67
1 339.77
I 226.98
1 238.76
1
1 The number of fish of each age in the catches of each individual west coast area will be supplied on request
(Supplementary Table IV). REPORT OF
PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT                        M 71
100
"■      75
o
50
|      25
-I
2        0
80
60
z
2      40
cn
2     20
o
u         0
UJ
< 40
UJ
< 20
H-
z
w
o        0
rr
UJ
40
20
0
Fig. 3. Di
mercial fisher)
catches in Are
A
1
1951       1950     1949    1948    1947    1946     1945     1944    1943
YEAR    CLASSES
-
B
AREA    23
m
—
AREA    24
^
><^-
AREA    29
*/^
■-_
1         II       III       IV        V        VI      VII     VIM       IX
IN   YEAR   OF AGE
agrams showing (A) the total number of herring in each year-class caught by the con
in 1951-52, and (B) the average age composition of samples from the commerci,
as 23, 24, and 25.
i-
il M 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The 1950 year-class (as II-year fish) and the 1951 year-class (as I-year fish) both
made the lowest contribution to the fishery that has been made by fish of their age since
the present study of the west coast population was begun in 1946. This may be the forerunner of two particularly weak year-classes in the fishery. The decrease in 1951-52 in
the number of the younger herring in the catch has been more or less balanced by an
increase in the number of fish of all ages over IV years, with the result that the total catch
was approximately the same as in 1950-51.
A pronounced difference in age composition was noted between the two main fishing
areas—Area 23 (Barkley Sound) and Area 25 (Esperanza Inlet). In Area 23, Ill-
year fish made up two-thirds of the catch, with relatively large proportions of II- and
I-year fish (Table IV and Fig. 3 (B)). In Area 25, however, V-year fish dominated the
catch, with relatively strong contributions by VI- to IX-year fish. The proportion of
Ill-year fish in Area 25 was only one-sixth of that in Area 23, while the amount of V-year
fish in Area 23 was less than one-sixth of that in Area 25. Thus in 1951-52 the tendency
noted previously (Stevenson, Hourston, and Lanigan, 1951) for older fish to be better
represented in runs of the more northerly west coast areas was distinctly shown.
Because of the relative weakness of the 1948 year-class, the catch in Area 25 was
expected to be lower in 1951-52 than in 1950-51, provided the exploitation was similar
(Stevenson, Hourston, and Lanigan, 1951). The 1948 year-class did contribute relatively few fish to the fishery, but the contribution of the 1947 year-class was maintained
at a high level even as V-year fish. Consequently, population abundance in Area 25
was relatively well maintained in 1951-52. The 1951-52 catch was about three times
that of the previous year, but part of the increase is undoubtedly due to higher exploitation
resulting from an extended fishing season in 1952.
On the basis of the good showing of the 1949 year-class in the 1950-51 catch in
Area 23, it was predicted that the 1951-52 catch in that area would be larger. Although
a slightly greater number of Ill-year fish (1949 year-class) was caught in 1951-52 than
in the previous year, the large reduction in numbers of II- and IV-year fish (1950 and
1948 year-classes respectively) resulted in a decreased total catch for the area (compare
Supplementary Table IV, Stevenson, Hourston, and Lanigan, 1951, and Supplementary
Table IV of this report).
The age composition in Area 24 was similar to that in Area 23—a possible indication
of relatively free mixing between the two areas.
The strength of the incoming 1950 year-class will be the major factor governing the
abundance of herring on the west coast in 1952-53. As in the past, newly recruited
Ill-year fish are generally of relatively greater importance in the Area 23 fishery than in
the Area 25 fishery. Considering its contribution (as II's) in the 1951-52 fishing and
spawning samples, the 1950 year-class appears to be of about the same strength as the
1949 and 1948 year-classes in Area 23, but much weaker than either of these year-classes
in Area 25. On the basis of this information, it appears unlikely that the 1952-53 catch
in Area 23 will exceed that in 1951-52, providing that the fishing effort is similar to that
of the previous year.
Since the 1947 year-class, which heavily supported the Area 25 population in the
past three years, is not expected to contribute appreciably to the 1952-53 catch, reduced
abundance in Area 25 in the coming season is anticipated. It is most unlikely that the
loss of the 1947 year-class will be made up by the contributions of the 1948 and 1949
year-classes. Providing exploitation is no greater than in the 1951-52 season, a decrease
in catch is expected.
Considering the west coast as a whole, the 1952-53 catch is expected to be lower
than in the previous season if fishing effort is similar, and with greater dependence on
younger year-classes, the average size of the fish will be smaller. report of provincial fisheries department m 73
Sex Ratio and Stage of Development
The sex ratio (number of females divided by number of males) and sexual development of the herring in samples taken from the 1951-52 commercial fishery and the 1952
spawning runs are given in Table V. The sex ratio for the sub-district was typical of the
general trend noted in most recent years; namely, that males and females were about
equally abundant in the commercial catch (with a slight tendency for the females to predominate), whereas the males were more numerous than females in the spawning runs.
The difference in sex ratio between samples from the fishery and those from the spawning
runs was attributed to the fact that the average age of fish in the spawning runs was less
than that of the fishing schools (Table IV). It has been previously noted that the proportion of males to females is generally greater in samples of younger fish (Stevenson
and Lanigan, 1950). In Area 25, where the spawning population was made up of
relatively old fish, the females dominated, as they did in the commercial catch. The
average age of the spawning fish decreased from Area 25 to Area 24 to Area 23 to Area
26, and with this decrease, the sex ratio diminished from 1.17 to 0.80 to 0.64 to 0.47.
This phenomenon could be produced by generally slower maturity of females or higher
mortality in males.
Immature fish were found in spawning runs for the second successive year. In
1951-52 they were found only in Area 23, where they made up 1.4 per cent of the catch.
On the other hand, the percentage of immature fish in the commercial runs was the lowest
(2.5 per cent) during the six years of the study. This situation could result from a later-
than-usual inshore movement of the immature fish.
Spent fish were taken in the commercial catch in 1951-52 for the first time since
1946-47, but in very small numbers (less than 1 per cent). They were taken in
Esperanza Inlet, where the date of closure for the fishery was extended for ten days after
February 5th. Early spawnings were beginning when the fishery was closed, and consequently some of the fish could have either spawned before they were caught, or on the
seine while being caught.
Average Length and Weight
Differences in average length and weight between two comparable populations are
probably mainly due to differences in the environmental conditions (food-supply, temperature, etc.) which influence growth. Consequently, annual variations in the average
size of fish from a given region may be used as indicators of changes in these environmental
conditions. Average weights of the various age-groups are also used, in conjunction
with percentage age composition, to calculate the number of fish of each age in the annual
catch. The average lengths and weights of herring from the commercial catch in 1951-52
are given in Table VI for each age-group; comparable lengths for fish from the spawning
runs are given in Table VII. Weights are not taken for the spawning fish mainly because
of the variation in weight involved in spent and unspent fish. M 74
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The average lengths and weights of herring from the major age-groups in the fishery
are given below:—
Year
In Year of Age
II
III
IV
V
VI
Length in millimetres—
1946-47   —  -	
166
161
159
164
158
159
57
53
50
56
50
53
187
188
188
190
188
187
86
90
87
94
88
90
203
201
201
202
204
205
113
110
111
117
114
114
213
210
213
212
215
217
133
129
138
137
135     '
139
222
1947-48
220
1948—49                                     	
222
1949-50 - - .   .    	
1950-51-     .   _  -	
1951-52                	
220
220
226
Weight in grams—-
1946-47  _ 	
151
1947-48
150
1948-49
158
1949-50              - -               	
152
1950-51-                     	
149
1951-5?
157
Fish of IV years and over were longer in 1951-52 than in any other season during
the current study and tended to be heavier. The younger fish were about average size.
Since, as a whole, the west coast fish were larger than average in 1951-52, better than
average feeding conditions during the 1951 growth season might be indicated. Variations
in preceding seasons have been discussed previously (Stevenson, Hourston, and Lanigan,
1951).
There was no difference in the average weights of the two major west coast populations (Area 23 and Area 25), so their 1951 feeding conditions were presumed to be
similar. However, the Area 25 fish might have had better environmental conditions
during their earlier years, for they were consistently longer than those from Area 23.
Area 24 fish resembled the herring from Area 23 both in size and weight.
The length differential between fish sampled from the fishery and those from the
spawning runs, which was noted in 1950-51 (Stevenson, Hourston, and Lanigan, 1951),
was not evident in the 1951—52 samples. Only relatively small differences were noted
in the data for Area 23 and Area 25. Differences shown in Area 24 were greater than
those in either Area 23 or Area 25, but since only one sample was taken from the Area
24 fishery and two from spawning runs, they may not represent any real dissimilarity
between the growth of the spawning and fishing stocks.
EXTENT AND INTENSITY OF SPAWNING
For the sixth consecutive year, members of the herring-investigation staff surveyed
the west coast of Vancouver Island spawning-grounds. The main purpose of this phase
of the research is to estimate the amount of spawn (in statutory miles) deposited in this
sub-district during successive years. This information is used to assess from year to year
the relative abundance of the spawning stock, that portion of the population which
escapes the preceding winter fishery. This information also provides basic data for early
life-history studies. Methods used in this survey were similar to those of previous years
(Tester and Stevenson, 1948). As in the past, the spawning-grounds in each area were
independently surveyed by fisheries officers.
West coast spawnings in 1952* resembled the general spawning pattern of previous
years (Stevenson and Lanigan, 1950; Stevenson, 1950; and Tester and Stevenson,
1947, 1948).   The main spawning-grounds were:—
Area 23: Toquart Bay and Macoah Passage.
* A list of the individual spawning localities, with dates, intensity, and extent of spawn depositions, will be supplied
on request (Supplementary Table V). REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M 75
Area 24: Cypress Bay, Mosquito Harbour, Big Whitepine Cove, and Riley's
Cove.
Area 25: Port Langford and Nuchatlitz Village vicinity.
Area 26:  Gay Passage and Union Island.
Area 27:  Leeson Harbour and Greenwood Point.
Early spawnings, in February, took place at Port Langford (Area 25), Macoah
Passage and Useless Inlet (Area 23), Mosquito Harbour (Area 24), and Winter Harbour
(Area 27).   These were followed by general spawnings on customary grounds during
March.   Late spawnings, in April, occurred at Toquart Bay (Area 23), Kendrick Inlet
(Area 25), and Leeson Harbour (Area 27).
The most striking features of the 1952 spawnings were:—
(1) The lack of spawning at Mayne Bay, Stopper Islands, and the Sunshine
Bay region (Area 23).
(2) The small, deep, and very heavy spawn deposition recorded at Riley's
Cove and in Millar Channel (Area 24) for the first time in the six-year
period of the investigation.
(3) A large spawning at Nuchatlitz Village for the second consecutive year
(Area 25).
(4) The complete lack of spawning in the Port Eliza-Queen Cove (Area 25)
vicinity for the third successive year.
(5) A general decrease in the number of spawnings in Area 25.
(6) The absence of spawnings in Nasparti and Malksope Inlets (Area 26)
for the first time, and the lack of spawnings in Ououkinsh Inlet (Area 26)
for the second successive year.
The extent of spawn deposition on the west coast of Vancouver Island was less in
1952 than in any year since 1947, and about 35 per cent less than in 1951. The data
for the 1951 and 1952 spawnings are tabulated below (in statutory miles) according to
area:-
Area
23_	
Extent in
1951
       8.8
Miles
1952
6.2
24
-   11.4
5.6
25-	
  28.3
21.4
26    __
 '     1.5
1.4
27
     4.9
l.l1
All areas	
  54.9
35.7
The decrease in spawning extent was reflected in all areas of the sub-district, except
in Area 26, where the total extent was similar in each of the past two years. The reduction in the extent of spawn deposition in Area 24 was the greatest of any west coast area,
the 1952 total amounting to only about half that of 1951. Small spawnings at Mosquito
Harbour and Cypress Bay were responsible for the reduced spawn deposition in Area 24.
The extent of spawning in Area 23 was the lowest in the past six years. This decrease
resulted mainly from the absence of a spawning in Mayne Bay and from reduced spawnings in Useless Inlet and Toquart Bay. Spawnings in Area 25 were reduced in extent by
about 25 per cent, but the recurrence of a large spawning (17.5 miles of spawn) in the
vicinity of Nuchatlitz kept the spawning at a generally high level; for the second consecutive year this area comprised more than half of the total west coast spawning.
1 Adverse weather conditions prevented surveys of spawnings in Klaskish and Klaskino Inlets.    It is doubtful, therefore, that the actual decrease in Area 27 spawning was as great as that recorded. M 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The average spawning intensity on the west coast this year was slightly greater than
that of the 1951 spawnings. A comparison of the average spawning intensity in 1951
and 1952 is summarized below:— .        „ T .   ..
Average Spawning Intensity
Area 1951 1952
23  2.9 2.6
24  1.3 2.3
25 s  3.4 3.7
26  3.4 2.8
27  3.1 3.2
All areas  2.9 3.3
Average intensities of spawn deposition are calculated by weighting the various
intensities of the individual spawnings—very light, light, medium, heavy, and very heavy
—in the ratio of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively, and by correcting for extent of the individual depositions.
The increase in average spawning intensity compensated in some measure for the
great decrease in spawning extent, but, in spite of this, an actual decrease in the amount
of spawn deposited on the west coast was considered to have occurred. The pronounced
reduction in extent of spawning in Area 24 was largely balanced by a tremendous increase
in spawning intensity. Also, the reduction in spawning extent in Area 25 was apparently
offset, in part, by increased intensity of deposition. In Areas 23 and 26, however, the
decrease in extent of spawn was accompanied by a decrease in intensity.
The decreased west coast spawning in 1952 appears to be a direct result of reduced
population abundance, caused by entrance of the relatively weak 1948 and 1949 year-
classes into the fishing stocks. There is no evidence that the 1952 spawn deposition is
below that necessary to maintain the population. A spawning even smaller than that of
1952 produced the extremely abundant 1947 year-class (Tester and Stevenson, 1948).
Data on spawn deposition have shown that Area 23 stocks have decreased in the
past three years, while the Area 25 fishing population has maintained a generally high
level during this period, despite the decrease noted in 1952. The reduced Area 23 population is a consequence of the poorly recruited 1948 and 1949 year-classes, while the
Area 25 stocks from the 1949-50 to the 1951-52 season were sustained by the abundant
1947 year-class. Light exploitation in Area 25 in 1949-50 and 1950-51 resulting from
late inshore migration of the fish apparently assisted in maintaining the stocks of that
area at a high level (Stevenson, Hourston, and Lanigan, 1951). Increased exploitation
in the past season, resulting from a time extension of the fishery-closure date (from February 5th to February 15th), probably accounted for part of the spawn reduction in
1952, but low recruitment from the 1948 and 1949 year-classes undoubtedly had some
effect on abundance of the Area 25 spawning stocks.
DISCUSSION
An analysis of the data accumulated in 1951-52 on catch statistics, age composition,
and spawning deposition of the west coast of Vancouver Island population has been given
in the foregoing sections of this report, as well as an analysis of the movement of herring
between all major herring populations. The purpose of the present section is to assemble
these results and discuss them in terms of the comparative management study being
carried out on the west coast and lower east coast herring stocks.
For the first time since the present study began, there was a definite indication of
a decrease in population abundance on the west coast. The slight increase in the west
coast catch in 1951-52 over that of the previous year occurred in spite of a pronounced
reduction in the abundance of the southerly west coast stocks (Area 23), and only
because of a greater exploitation of the runs in the more northerly section of the sub- REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M 77
district (Area 25). The increased exploitation in Area 25 was effected through a time
extension of the fishery.
The extent of spawn deposition, an index of the size of the escapement from the
fishery, reached the lowest level since 1947 for the west coast as a whole. In Area 23
the spawning extent was the smallest of the entire period of the present study. The extent
of spawning in Area 25 in 1952 showed the first downward trend since before the present
study was initiated. Although the decrease in the Area 25 spawning was probably largely
a result of the high catch (which was double that of the two preceding seasons combined),
it is known that larger catches (as, for instance, that of 1948-49) were followed by
greatly increased extent of spawn deposition (Stevenson, 1950). This suggests that the
Area 25 stocks, as well as those of Area 23, were not maintained at their former high
level by recruitment in the past year.
Analysis of the relative contribution of various year-classes in the fishery provides
a logical explanation of the reduced population abundance on the west coast. The
1951-52 catch contained an unusually high proportion of V-year fish (1947 year-class).
This is the third consecutive season that the 1947 year-class comprised a considerable
portion of the west coast catches (Stevenson, Hourston, and Lanigan, 1951), a fact
that indicates not only the great strength of the year-class, but also the relatively poor
recruitment of the 1948 and 1949 year-classes. The recruitment of the 1947 year-class
in 1951-52, as V-year fish, would be expected to be considerably less than the recruitment of this year-class in either of the two previous seasons (at ages III and IV). Even
so, the contribution of this year-class to the 1951-52 stocks was large in comparison to
that of either the 1948 or 1949 year-class (IV- and Ill-year fish respectively), which
were in their first and second years of major recruitment—striking evidence of the weakness of the latter two year-classes. Unfortunately, an estimate of the relative size of the
west coast population in 1951-52 as compared to that in the previous season is not
available because of the small number of tag-detector recoveries obtained from the
1951-52 west coast fishery.
When the age composition of the individual area fisheries on the west coast is considered, it is seen that the Area 23 fishery was mainly dependent upon the relatively poor
1949 year-class (Ill's), thereby resulting in greatly reduced population abundance. In
Area 25, population abundance was maintained near to the level of the previous year,
principally due to the large contribution of the 1947 year-class.
In contrast to the decrease in population abundance on the west coast, the lower
east coast herring population showed an increase in abundance in 1951—52. Following
the taking of the fixed catch quota of 40,000 tons, a record high spawn deposition
occurred, exceeding by 56 per cent the spawning extent of the previous year. Heavy
recruitment of the 1949 year-class (Ill-year fish) and an appreciable contribution from
the 1948 year-class (IV-year fish) appear to have been largely responsible for the
increased abundance. The 1947 year-class, which was prominent in the more northerly
west coast fishery, was of only minor importance in the lower east coast stocks. In view
of the evidence indicating increased abundance of lower east coast stocks, the significant
reduction in catch per unit of effort (110.7 tons per seine per day in 1950-51 against
66.9 tons per seine per day in 1951-52) is difficult to explain. Possibly the availability
of the fish to the fishing fleet was influenced by the extremely late commencement of the
fishery (November 15th), the interruption of the fishery by transference of seining-vessels
to more productive fishing-grounds, or by a later-than-usual inshore movement of the
fishing runs.
By the end of the fifth year of the comparative study of these two populations, it
was noted that abundance had remained generally high during the five-year period, both
in the population with quota restrictions on catch and in the population on which no
catch restriction by quota was imposed (Stevenson, Hourston, and Lanigan, 1951).
Although it appeared that natural limitations on catch in Area 25 had assisted in main- M 78
BRITISH COLUMBIA
taining population abundance on the west coast, the results of the study could be interpreted as indicating that the fixed quota on the lower east coast had not aided in stabilizing population abundance. In the light of results of the sixth year's investigation, what
conclusions can be drawn? Is the decrease in west coast abundance directly attributable
to fishing without quota limitation or is the decrease a result of reduced recruitment
occurring through the operation of factors other than fishing?
In the following tabulation, catch and extent of spawn deposition in the two sub-
districts are shown for the first three years of the present study:—
Sub-district
Catch,'
1946-47
Spawn
Deposition,
1947
Catch,
1947-48
Spawn
Deposition,
1948
Catch,
1948-49
Spawn
Deposition,
1949
Tons
59,000
Miles
32.5
Tons
45,200
39,900
Miles
44.0
17.4
Tons
55,900
40,100
Miles
41.1
Lower east coast of Vancouver Island
36,5001
9.9
20.9
1 Because of a change in sub-district boundary, the entire quota allotment was not taken within the present lower
east coast boundaries in 1946-47.
The 1947, 1948, and 1949 year-classes on the lower east coast have proven to be
above the average strength of year-classes of the past fifteen years. The amounts of
spawn deposition from which they were derived was indicative of their order of strength
(the 1949 year-class being the strongest and the 1947 year-class the weakest), but not
of the absolute amount of their recruitment.
On the other hand, the amount of spawn deposited on the west coast has given no
indication of the resultant year-class strength. The 1947 year-class, derived from the
smallest spawning, has been one of the most productive year-classes of recent years,
whereas the 1948 and 1949 year-classes, originating from somewhat greater spawnings,
were amongst the least productive. Restriction of the record west coast catches of the
1946-47 to 1948-49 period by fixed quota would have tended to increase the unusually
large spawnings of that period. Because of the lack of direct connection between spawn
deposition and year-class strength, it appears unlikely that still greater spawnings than
those which occurred from 1947 to 1949 would have given rise to more productive year-
classes and to increased west coast population abundance in 1951-52.
From spawning and catch data a rough indication of the survival from spawn to
maturity can be obtained in each of the two populations. The average west coast spawn
deposition of 39.2 miles for the 1947 to 1949 period was followed by an average catch
of 30,800 tons from 1949-50 to 1951-52, the seasons in which the catch was largely
comprised of fish originating from the 1947 to 1949 spawnings. Comparable figures
for the lower east coast show that an average of 16.1 miles of spawn preceded an average
catch of 40,800 tons. The striking difference in spawn survival in the two populations
suggests a basic difference in the conditions which influence survival in the two stocks.
Recently, data were obtained which indicated that poor year-classes on the west coast
were formed when certain current conditions off the west coast of Vancouver Island
existed during the presumably critical period of larval life in the herring life-history
(Stevenson, 1950). If such conditions are not present, at least to the same extent, in
the waters of the Gulf of Georgia, higher survival of lower east coast spawn would be
expected, and large fluctuations in year-class strength and population abundance, such
as are found on the west coast, would not occur.
If it is assumed that such a fundamental difference exists in the two populations
under investigation, a comparative study may not be strictly possible. The rough correlation that was previously suggested between spawn deposition and year-class strength
on the lower east coast may signify that the spawning stock is being kept close to the
critical minimum, below which a close relationship between spawning and resultant
year-class strength would be anticipated (Tester and Stevenson, 1947).    If this is so, REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M 79
removal of catch restrictions on the lower east coast may endanger the spawning population. On the other hand, in view of the great fluctuation in survival of west coast
spawn, and the natural limitations on catch imposed by late inshore migration, as noted
in 1949-50 and 1950-51 (Stevenson, Hourston, and Lanigan, 1951), restriction of
catch by fixed quota may serve no useful purpose in maintaining west coast abundance.
Investigations being carried out on early life-history phases should shed light on these
possibilities.
Continuance of the study is expected to provide results on the effect of non-quota
fishing on the diminished west coast population. In previous reports, the necessity of
carrying out the present investigation during a period of generally low recruitment was
pointed out. Little is known at present on the role that natural limitations to catch will
play on the exploitation of the stocks under such condition of abundance. Present indications of the west coast recruitment which will take place in the coming year suggest
that population abundance will remain relatively low on the west coast in 1952-53.
SUMMARY
This is the sixth in a series of annual reports on the comparative study of changes
occurring in two major herring populations, one of which (that of the west coast of
Vancouver Island) is not subjected to quota restrictions on catch, while the other (that
of the lower east coast of Vancouver Island) is held to an annual fixed quota of 40,000
tons.
The west coast fishery in 1951-52 (30,000 tons) produced the second smallest
catch of the six-year period. Average catch per unit of effort was almost as high as in
the years of greatest catch, a result considered to be due to exceptionally efficient fleet
deployment rather than great population abundance. Extent of spawn deposition on
the west coast in 1952 suggested that the amount of fish that escaped the fishery was
less than in any year since 1947. Thus it appeared that population abundance was
considerably reduced from that of 1950-51. Spawning data indicated that the main
southern west coast stocks (Area 23) suffered relatively greater reduction than the more
northerly west coast runs (Area 25). More intensive exploitation of the Area 25 runs
occurred in 1951-52 than in the two previous years, principally because of the ten-day
extension of fishing past the regular closure date of February 5th.
The decrease in population abundance on the west coast was considered to be largely
a result of the recent entrance of two year-classes of generally low production (1948 and
1949 year-classes). These year-classes (as III- and IV-year fish) were the main contributors to the Area 23 fishery. The 1947 year-class, which supplied the main bulk of
the 1949-50 and 1950-51 west coast fisheries, was still abundant in the Area 25 stocks
as V-year fish in 1951-52 and, as a result, prevented a decrease in population abundance
of the magnitude of that which occurred in Area 23.
In contrast to the decrease in west coast abundance, population abundance on the
lower coast of Vancouver Island showed a substantial increase in 1951-52. The spawning population, as evidenced from extent of spawn records, showed a phenomenal increase
over that of the previous year (56 per cent). The 1947 year-class was of negligible
importance on the lower east coast in 1951-52, but the 1949 year-class (as Ill's) was
recruited in large numbers and the 1948 year-class (IV's) made an appreciable contribution to the stocks.
The present difference in the abundance of the two populations under investigation
is not considered to be a result of the effect of quota restrictions on the lower east coast
fishery. The difference is obviously a direct consequence of dissimilarity in the recruitment of the individual year-classes to the two populations. In recent years the year-
classes entering the lower east coast stocks have been generally more uniformly productive
than those recruited to the west coast population.    There is a strong suggestion from M 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA
early life-history studies that oceanographic conditions on the west coast may tend to
cause greater variation in year-class strength than conditions on the lower east coast of
Vancouver Island. This indication of a fundamental difference between the two populations is strengthened by data which show a major difference in the rates of survival
between spawning and recruitment. In view of this apparently fundamental difference,
the present comparative study may be considerably complicated. It appears possible
that quota restrictions may serve a useful purpose when applied to the lower east coast
population but not when applied to the west coast fishery. Further investigation is
required before results can be conclusive.
Analysis of tag returns showed a pronounced " homing " in all major populations,
as noted in previous years. Tag-recovery data suggested that smaller than usual quantities of fish emigrated from and immigrated to the west coast in 1951-52. Tag-detector
returns showed a general southerly migration pattern over the British Columbia coast.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The herring investigation is sincerely appreciative of the various types of assistance
provided during the 1951-52 season by fishing companies, herring fishermen, and government fisheries departments.
Special thanks are extended to the fishing companies for the continuance of their
support to herring research, without which the present intensive investigation of the
herring-fisheries could not be maintained. British Columbia Packers Limited loaned
the Bessie Mac for general contact work during the fishing season and for tagging in the
spring of 1952, permitted installation of tag-detectors at their Steveston (Imperial) and
Prince Rupert (Seal Cove) plants, and provided facilities for sampling the catches. The
Canadian Fishing Company, Limited, loaned the Pacific Queen for tagging work, and
made space available at their Steveston (Gulf of Georgia) plant for tag-detection and
sampling. A third tagging-vessel (the B.C. Pride) was loaned by Nelson Brothers
Fisheries, Limited. Anglo-British Columbia Packing Company provided scout-boats
and other equipment which were used in connection with the tagging survey. Acknowledgment must also be given to the staff members of various plants for their valuable work
in collecting herring samples from the plant landings. In addition to the foregoing
assistance, the interest shown by the companies and their plant managers and staffs in
herring research was greatly appreciated.
The captains of most seiners of the fishing fleet again provided various statistics on
catch through filling out and submitting pilot-house records. The sincere efforts and
goodwill of the captains and crews of the tagging vessels constituted an important factor
in the successful completion of the large 1952 tagging programme. For this assistance
and for the general concern of all herring fishermen in herring research, the herring
investigation is truly thankful.
The herring investigation is also grateful for the considerable assistance rendered by
the Federal Department of Fisheries through the Chief Supervisor, A. J. Whitmore, and
the regional supervisors in Nanaimo and Prince Rupert. Final catch records of all fishing
areas were provided, and tentative catch totals were made available during the progress
of each fishery. In addition, surveys of the extent and intensity of herring-spawning in
all coastal areas were again undertaken. In consideration of the tremendous amount of
effort required to carry out these surveys, special thanks are extended to the fisheries
officers who participated.
The interest of the Provincial Department of Fisheries and its Deputy Minister, G. J.
Alexander, in continuing the publication of this series of reports is gratefully acknowledged.   The present annual report is the sixteenth of the series.
The conscientious endeavours of the staff members of the herring investigation were
sincerely appreciated during the past year.   A. S. Hourston, assistant scientist, undertook REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M 81
the analysis of the sampling data included in this report, and, in addition, he was responsible for the studies carried out on juvenile herring and for a special study of the herring
of the northern sub-district. The compilation and analysis of the tagging data were the
chipf responsibility of K. J. lackson, junior scientist. D. N. Outram, junior scientist,
undertook the supervision of the spawning studies, which included those reported here
and others concerned with spawn mortality.
The administrative assistant of the investigation, G. T. Taylor, assumed chief responsibility for the compilation and analysis of the catch statistics of all herring-fisheries,
and gave considerable assistance in the assembling of the various sections of this report.
R. S. Isaacson and M. Bakich, laboratory technicians, were responsible for making
age determinations on all fish sampled in the various fisheries and spawning runs, and for
making preliminary analysis of sampling data from all populations except that of the west
coast. The former staff member also supervised the compilation of the age and growth
data, and the latter undertook studies on structure and types of scales.
Most staff members at one time or another assisted in the field work connected with
sampling, tag-recovery, spawn studies, and juvenile studies. A. G. Paul, senior field
technician, undertook major responsibilities in the tagging and tag-recovery programmes
and in the maintenance of non-electrical equipment. J. H. Larkman, field technician,
serviced and overhauled tag-detectors and other electrical equipment, and also carried
out various other duties connected with tag-recovery and tagging. Other members of the
technical staff, B. Wildman, K. A. Herlinveaux, J. A. Saker, R. D. Thicke, J. A. Bond,
J. S. Rees, and E. W. Stolzenberg, assisted in field programmes and in preliminary
analysis of field data. Stenographic and clerical duties were efficiently carried out by
Miss Alice Nyquist and Miss Mary Cairns.
The senior author assumes responsibility for the general interpretation of the results
of the 1951-52 studies which are presented in this report.
The counsel and encouragement offered by Dr. J. L. Hart, Director of the Pacific
Biological Station, during the past year is acknowledged with sincere thanks.
REFERENCES
Hart, J. L., and Tester, A. L. (1940): The tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in
British Columbia: insertions and recoveries during 1939-40. Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept, 1939, pp. 42-66.
Stevenson, J. C. (1950): Results of the west coast of Vancouver Island herring investigation, 1948-49.   Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1948, pp. 37-85.
Stevenson, J. C, and Lanigan, J. A. (1950) :.* Results of the west coast of Vancouver
Island herring investigation, 1949-50. Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1949,
pp. 41-80.
Stevenson, J. C; Hourston, A. S.; and Lanigan, J. A. (1951) :* Results of the west
coast of Vancouver Island herring investigation, 1950-51. Rept. British Columbia
Fish. Dept., 1950, pp. 51-84.
Tester, A. L. (1945): Tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in British Columbia: insertions and recoveries during 1944-45. Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1944,
pp. 45-63.
  (1946):  Tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in British Columbia:   insertions
and recoveries during 1945-46. Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1945, pp.
43-66.
Tester, A. L., and Stevenson, J. C. (1947): Results of the west coast of Vancouver
Island herring investigation, 1946-47. Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1946,
pp. 42-71.
 (1948):* Results of the west coast of Vancouver Island herring investigation, 1947-48.   Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1947, pp. 41-86.
* Reprints were published in year following the date of publication of report. M 82
BRITISH COLUMBIA
TABLES
Table I.—Catch (Tons), Fishing Effort (Total Number of Active Fishing-days Expended
by All Seine-boats), and Catch per Unit of Effort (Average Catch per Seine per
Day's Active Fishing) for West Coast Areas during the 1951-52 Fishing Season.
Area
Estimated
Catch
Fishing
Effort!
Catch per
Unit of Effort
23                                                                                              	
11,200
660
18,100
40
158.0
18.0
211.0
0.5
3.0
70.9
24  _	
35.6
25 ...                                                         	
85.9
26   . —
80.0
27    -              _                          	
Totals  -     -
30,000
395.5
75.8
1 The total number of active fishing-days is calculated to the nearest whole number from catch per unit of effort
based on incomplete data and from estimated catch. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
M 83
Table II.—Probable Number of Tags in the Catches during the 1951—52 Season, Based on
Detector Returns, with Actual Number of Recoveries Shown in Parentheses1
Tag
Tagging Code
and Year
Area of Recovery
Total
ging
Area
5
1
6
7
12
13
17a
17b
18
23
25
4
15T (1951)
15U(1951)
14CC (1950)
14AA (1950)
14BB (1950)
15V(1951)
15W(1951)
14HH (1950)
323 (23)
208 (14)
88 (6)
1
	
323 (23)
7(2)
32(1)
	
247 (17)
5
88 (6)
6
126 (1)
251 (2)
754 (6)
126 (1)
126 (1)
14(1)
28 (2)
56(4)
265 (3)
782 (8)
  -
182 (5)
7
140 (2)
155 (3)
538 (9)
401 (6)
140 (2)
140 (2)
15X (1951)
15AA (1951)—
15BB (1951)
15CC (1951) _
155 (3)
538 (9)
401 (6)
10
13(3)
153 (5)
12
10H (1946)
14A(1950)
13A (1949)
14B (1950) _
3(1)
3(1)
13(3)
4(1)
5 (1)
14
13(3)
4(1)
15
5(1)
14C (1950) 	
	
20 (4)
26(1)
46 (5)
15A(1951)
15B (1951)
11D (1947)
14D (1950)
14E (1950)
15C(1951)
15D (1951)	
14G (1950)
14H (1950)
15E (1951)
10A (1946)	
23 (SI
5 m
28(6)
58 (13)
4(1)
9 (2)
48(11)|      6(1)
1
4 m
4(1)
17a
5(1)
4(1)
10(2)
22(6)
17(4)
8 (2)
12(3)
22(6)
4(1)
4(1)
129 (32)
29 (8)
39 (9)
11 (3)
10(2)
46 (11)
	
	
18(4)
6(1)
5(1)
26(1)
48(6)
8(2)
12(3)
22(6)
4(1)
9(2)
142 (34)
35(9)
63 (13)
56(7)
32(1)
4(1)
32(1)
96(3)
5(1)
32(1)
70(1)
36(2)
5(1)
102 (1)
307 (3)
307 (3)
102 (1)
17b
	
18
5(1)
13(2)
6(1)
24(4)
19(3)
	
13F (1949)	
	
	
15F (1951)	
15G(1951)	
15DD (1951)
15EE (1951)
13H (1949).
20
26~(T)
32(1)
23
14L (1950)   	
14M (1950)
15H (1951)
4(1)
32(1)
96(3)
24
15M (1951)
15N (1951)
13M (1949)
15Q (1951)
15R(1951)
15S(1951)	
14V (1950)
14W (1950)	
14X (1950)
Totals _
	
	
5(1)
32(1)
25
70(1)
	
4(1)
5(1)
32(1)
	
102 (1)
307 (3)
307 (3)
102 (1)
26
	
|
	
	
27
	
717 (50)
1,257 (10)
1,444 (23)
3(1)
152 (34)
94 (16)
78(3)
336 (84)
256 (8)
818 (8)
5,155 (237)
i Nine tags recovered at Seal Cove are not included in table.    Seven Area 6 tags (one 14AA, one 14BB, and five 15V) and
one Area 7 tag (15AA) were recovered from Area 6;   one Area 10 tag (14EE) was recovered from Area 7. M 84
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table III.—Number of Tags Recovered by Plant Crews, According to Area of Tagging
and Probable Sub-district of Recovery, for the 1951—52 Fishing Season
Tagging
Area
Tagging Code
Probable Sub-district of Recovery
Northern
Central
Upper
East
Coast
Middle
East
Coast
Lower
East
Coast
West
Coast
Total
10
12
15
17a
17b
18
20
23
I
| 15T (1951)...
| 15U (1951)-
I
| 9P (1945)	
9Q (1945)	
14CC (1950).
9N (1945)	
14AA (1950)
14BB (1950).
14DD (1950)
15V (1951)-
15W (1951)-
8M (1944) —
9M (1945) —
14HH (1950)
14KK (1950)
15X(1951)_
15AA (1951)
15BB (1951).
9K (1945) —
14EE (1950).
15CC (1951).
9G (1945)	
9H (1945)	
9J (1945)	
10H (1946)-
13A (1949)-
14B (1950).-
14C (1950)-.
15A (1951)-
15B (1951) —
9C (1945)	
13C (1949)....
14A (1950)-
14D (1950)...
14E (1950) —
14F (1950) —
15C (1951).-
15D (1951)-
15L (1951) —
9B (1945)	
14G (1950)-
14H (1950)-
15E (1951)-.
13E (1949)-
13F (1949).-
15F (1951).-
15G (1951)-
15DD (1951)
15EE (1951).
11F (1947)
11H (1947)-
11J (1947)..
11K (1947)-
11M (1947)-
12G (1948)...
12H (1948) _
121 (1948)-
12J   (1948) _
219
136
1
26
1
19
7
28
38
16
4
94
180
50
572
209
1
51
91
220
346
272
2
11
44
1 1
-   I   _
1
5
9
9
15
39
1
4
1
27
11
3
5
42
17
20
10
19
21
2
11
7
207
13
1
1
1
10
32
121
9
4
5
4
12
	
4
2
1
2
3
2
1
1
2
3
-
255
161
1
1
33
1
105
210
64
808
262
1
2
54
104
256
473
281
2
12
61
1
1
1
3
6
13
17
22
55
1
2
5
1
5
1
35
14
1
1
6
14
10
5
7
54
20
24
12
1
2
1
3
2
1
1
2
3 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
Table III.—Number of Tags Recovered by Plant Crews, According to A
and Probable Sub-district of Recovery, for the 1951—52 Fishing Season
M 85
rea of Tagging
—Continued
Tagging Code
Probable Sub-district of Recovery
Total
Tagging
Area
Northern
Central
Upper
East
Coast
Middle
East
Coast
Lower
East
Coast
West
Coast
?
23
12K (1948)          	
	
3
3
11
9
9
4
14
6
59
5
1
2
8
4
- 16
10
10
45
1
1
1
6
1
5
6
2
6
21
5
8
7
39
1
23
7
7
45
22
43
89
52
77
1
11
1
101
86
2
9
28
l
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
6
5
2
3
1
1
9
10
1
7
3
3
12
9
11
4
14
8
60
5
1
1
2
9
4
17
11
11
47
1
1
2
6
1
5
6
2
7
21
5
8
8
40
1
23
9
9
46
24
49
94
54
80
1
12
3
111
97
2
10
42
13G (1949)                   	
1
13H (1949)
131   (1949)                	
141   (1950)                 	
14K (1950)       	
14L  (1950)            -   	
14M (1950)
15H (1951)           	
15K (1951)       -	
15L  (1951)           -
24
IIP  (1947)                	
12L (1948)             -.
12M (1948)            	
13K (1949)       	
13L (1949)	
14N (1950)     	
15M (1951)      -	
15N (1951)    	
.....      1      —
—      I      -	
       1      ......
25
10P   (1946)            	
11F  (1947)
11R (1947)       	
1
11W(1947)    	
1IX (1947)        	
12N (1948)      	
12Q (1948)          -	
12R (1948)       -	
12S   (1948)    	
13M (1949)              	
13P   (1949) -	
13Q (1949)               	
13R (1949)                   	
13S   (1949)             	
14P  (1950)          	
14Q (1950)        	
'
14R (1950)
1      1      ......
14S   (1950)
1
1
14T  (1950)           	
14U (1950)      -
15P   (1951)  	
15Q (1951)         	
15R (1951)	
15S   (1951)  	
26
10Q (1946)            	
12T  (1948)  —.
12U (1948)
14V (1950).. _
1
14W (1950)	
1
7
27
12W(1948)      ..	
12X (1948)	
14X (1950) . 	
Tnfals
500      |   2,179
1
9
89
168
971      |
1
596
4,512
5 M 86
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table IV.—Average Percentage Age Composition of Samples from Commercial Catches
and from Spawning Runs during the 1951-52 Season
COMMERCIAL CATCHES
Area
Number
of
Samples
In Year of Age
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
2,3
16
1
37
0.06
5.29
4.00
0.19
66.06
60.00
10.11
19.83
24.00
27.23
7.88
9.00
52.54
0.75
2.00
7.32
0.13
1.00
2.12
0.42
24
75
0.05
All	
54
0.03
2.55
36.18
23.87
31.64
4.27
1.21
0.22
0.03
SPAWNING RUNS
23_
24_
25_
26..
All..
16.48
70.20
9.60
2.27
1.02
0.42
9.91
63.97
18.27
5.74
1.58
0.52
2.06
27.84
21.65
39.18
4.12
5.15
28.42
57.89
9.47
4.21
14.74
62.74
12.85
7.36
1.38
0.92
Table V.—Average Sex Ratio (Females—Males) and Stage of Development for Samples
of Commercial Catches and Spawning Runs during the 1951-52 Season
COMMERCIAL CATCHES
Sex Ratio
Percentage
Area
Immature
Mature,
Unspent
Mature,
Spent
73
1.10
0.47
1.02
7.6
4.0
92.4
96.0
99.3
74
95
0.7
All
1.03
2.5
97.0
0.5
SPAWNING RUNS
73
0.64
0.80
1.17
0.47
1.4
44.8
85.5
72.0
100.0
53.8
?4
14.5
75
28.0
76
All ..   	
0.70
0.8
51.9
47.3 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
M 87
Table VI.—Average Length (Millimetres) and Average Weight (Grams) for Each Age
in Samples from Commercial Catches, with Numbers of Fish on Which Averages Are
Based in Parentheses.
AVERAGE LENGTH
In Year of Age
Area 23
Area 24
Area 25
All Areas
I                                               	
(1) 131.0
(84)  158.5
(1,047)  186.3
(315)  198.4
(125) 212.7
(12) 221.1
(2) 220.0
(1) 131.0
II  	
(4) 156.8
(60)  184.2
(24)  198.5
(9) 205.6
(2) 221.5
(1) 237.0
(7)  167.1
(329)  191.2
(891) 207.4
(1,693) 217.5
(230) 226.0
(70) 231.8
(15) 236.5
(2) 240.0
(76) 216.4
(95)  159.1
Ill                                           	
(1,436)  187.3
IV                                                   	
V .	
(1,230) 204.9
(1,827) 217.1
VI  .       _                                     -	
(244) 225.7
VII                                              	
(73) 231.6
VIII
(15) 236.5
IX                                                 -    -
(2) 240.0
9
(14)  192.5
(90) 212.7
AVERAGE WEIGHT
I	
II-
III-
IV	
V	
VI ....
VII...
VIII.
IX	
(1)
(84)
(1,047)
(315)
(125)
30.0
52.6
89.6
108.7
139.3
(12)  161.3
(2)  161.0
(14)    94.1
(4)
(60)
51.2
89.5
(24) 109.3
(9) 132.0
(2) 150.0
(1) 188.0
(7)
57.0
(255)
89.5
(683)
117.1
(1,251)
138.5
(168)
156.5
(50)
169.7
(14)
179.5
(2)
190.0
(60)
131.7
(1)
(95)
(1,362)
(1,022)
(1,385)
(182)
(53)
(14)
(2)
(74)
30.0
52.9
89.6
114.4
138.5
156.7
169.7
179.5
190.0
124.6
Table VII.—Average Length (Millimetres) in Samples from Spawning Runs, with
Numbers of Fish on Which Averages Are Based Indicated in Parentheses
In Year of Age
Area 23
Area 24
Area 25
Area 26
All Areas
H                                       	
(77) 166.1
(332)  186.0
(46) 201.4
(11) 215.4
(5) 222.2
(2) 229.5
(27)  181.0
(19)  161.4
(123)  187.8
(35) 202.9
(11) 216.3
(3) 214.7
(1) 230.0
(8)  194.1
(2) 171.5
(27)  187.8
(21) 207.7
(38) 220.0
(4) 228.3
(5) 231.4
(3) 210.3
(27)  166.6
(55)  190.8
(9) 204.2
(4) 218.7
(125)  165.6
(537)  187.0
(111) 203.3
(64) 218.5
(12) 222.3
Ill  	
IV  ...	
V   ..         .   .              	
VI  -
VII 	
(8) 230.8
(43)  186.9
1
(5)  193.0 M 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA
THE LARVA OF BANKIA SET ACE A  TRYON
By D. B. Quayle, Provincial Shell-fish Laboratory, Ladysmith, B.C.
The larva? of several species of Teredinida? have been described by various authors
who are listed by J0rgensen (1946). Later Sullivan (1948) described the larva of
Teredo navalis L. The larva of Bankia setacea, although well known to a number of
workers, has not been figured, and because of the present interest in this species in British
Columbia, the description is given here.
Details of the methods of identification of lamellibranch larva; are given by Werner
(1939) andbyRees (1950).
As far as is known, Bankia setacea is the only species of the Teredinida? found in
British Columbia waters. Its range on the Pacific Coast, as given by Keen (1937), is
between 23° and 61° north latitude.
Bankia setacea has a planktotrophic larva with a long pelagic life, and while the
length of the free-swimming period is not definitely known, limited data on the occurrence
of the size-groups in successive plankton samples indicates a duration of about four
weeks at the temperature of 12° to 15° C. in Ladysmith Harbour. The extent to which
the normal pelagic life may be prolonged, if at all, by the lack of suitable settlement area
is also not known, but a number of larger than normal larva? have been found in plankton
samples, although none of these had developed dissoconch.
As with most lamellibranch species, the straight hinge or veliger stage of the larva of
Bankia setacea is distinguished only with difficulty. Very early, however, the characteristic dark rim forms around the outer edge of the shell (Fig. 1). The length of Prod. I
(the first prodissoconch of Werner, 1939) varies between 100 p and 130 p. Soon after
the umbones begin to protrude and at the same time a clearly defined line appears inside
of and parallel to the edge of each of the valves (Fig. 2). This line persists throughout
the larval life, and although it occurs in other larva?, it is very pronounced in Bankia
setacea. The significance of the line is not known, but it appears to mark the inner edge
of the mantle musculature. At a length of about 200 p the larva is spherical in shape and
the internal organs have become more readily visible, although at no time are the anatomical details clear because of the thickness of the valves, which by now have acquired
a definite yellow colour. The foot is well developed and the otocyst and two gill filaments
are present.   The digestive gland appears as a compact mass of globules.
The well-developed provinculum conforms to Rees's (1950) Type b for the Ades-
macea, with two strong teeth on the left valve and three on the right (Figs. 7 and 8).
The ligament has not been observed.
At setting size the veliconcha is broader than long, yellowish-green in colour, and
nearly opaque with highly vaulted valves. The small nipple-like umbones are centrally
placed, and the larva has become so thick through it can no longer lie flat on its side.
The surface of the larva is sculptured with strongly but not sharply delineated concentric
markings. Measurements of the prodissoconch (Prod. II) of newly settled spat averaged
245 fx. long, 256 p broad, and 200 /x thick.
Fig. 6 shows the first cutting-teth on the anterior edge of the left valve of a spat taken
from a test-block exposed for forty-eight hours. The teeth are fourteen in number, and
the largest are 14 p in length. The development of the apophyses has proceeded rapidly,
and the growth of the ventral articular connection has caused the valves to gape markedly
at both ends.
The only larva? that might be confused with Bankia setacea are those of the Phola-
dida?.   However, both the hinge-teeth and the valve outlines differ slightly. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
M 89
VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE LARVAE
In 1951 a regular weekly series of pumped plankton samples was taken from three
levels at a single station in Ladysmith Harbour where the depth at mean low water is 20
feet (6.1 m.). The larva? of Bankia setacea were counted, and 4 per cent of the total
number taken during the year were found in the samples from the 3-foot (0.91-m.) level,
32 per cent were found in the 10-foot (3.05-m.) samples, and 64 per cent in the 20-foot
(6.1-m.) samples. Johnson and Miller (1935), Black and Elsey (1948), and Neave
(unpublished), using test-blocks, found the heaviest attack on the blocks at the lowest
levels.
Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 1. Bankia setacea.   Photograph of early veliger; length, 100 /n.
Fig. 2. Photograph of larva showing development of inner line; length, 145 im.
Fig. 3. Photograph of single valve, external view; length, 175 p.
Fig. 4. Photograph of single valve, external view; length, 220 /*.
Fig. 5. Photograph of larva; length, 220 /*.
Fig. 6. Photograph of left valve, external view, of newly settled spat with cutting-teeth on the
anterior edge and articular area on the ventral edge; length, 245 /i.
Fig. 7. Photograph of provinculum of left valve (x 150).
Fig. 8. Photograph of provinculum of right valve ( x 150). M 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA
During an investigation of the vertical distribution of oyster larva? in Pendrell Sound
in 1952, Bankia setacea larva; were found to occur in some numbers. Samples of 3 cubic
feet (85 litres) were taken by means of a pump from depths of 3 feet (0.91 m.), 10 feet
(3.05 m.), 20 feet (6.10 m.), and 40 feet (12.2 m.). The depth at mean low water was
80 feet (24.4 m.).   Samples were taken at consecutive slack-water periods.
In a group of twelve samples taken on August 14th and 15th, 1952, no Bankia
setacea larva? were found in the samples from 3 feet (0.91 m.) and 10 feet (3.05 m.). Of
the larva? taken, 75 per cent were in the 40-foot (12.2-m.) samples, where the temperature remained near the 14° C. level. The temperature at the 3-foot level (0.91 m.) was
just over 22° C.
Another series of fifty-four samples was taken during the period August 23rd to
August 26th, when the temperature was quite uniform between the surface and 40 feet
(12.2 m.) at about 17° C. At this time 15 per cent of the Bankia setacea larvae were
found at 3 feet (0.91 m.), 21 per cent at 10 feet (3.05 m.), 25 per cent at 20 feet (6.10m.),
and 39 per cent at 40 feet (12.2 m.). No diurnal movements were observed, and the
stage of the tide appeared to have no effect on the distribution of the larvae.
Two series of samples, using the Clarke-Bumpus plankton sampler, were taken in
the same area at about the same time. These samples showed a concentration of Bankia
setacea larva? at the 50-foot (15.25-m.) level, where the temperature at the time was
about 15° C. Larva? were found in reduced numbers down to 90 feet (27.43 m.). Test-
blocks placed at the 50-foot (15.25-m.) level caught a number of Bankia setacea spat
within forty-eight hours.
Salinity data from Pendrell Sound for 1952 are not yet available, but the normal
range is from 19 per thousand at the surface to 28 per thousand at 40 feet (12.2 m.).
Information on the breeding periods of Bankia setacea in British Columbia waters
has been derived entirely from test-block experiments. In all cases the blocks were
exposed in comparatively shallow water. It is also possible for spawning to occur without settlement. The preliminary data presented here on vertical distribution, particularly
in the Pendrell Sound area where summer water temperatures are high, suggest that
Bankia setacea may breed more regularly throughout the year than has been previously
supposed and that the larval distribution may be influenced by temperature. Neave
(1943) stated that for the coastal waters of the south-east part of Vancouver Island there
are no well-defined periods of immunity from attack by Bankia setacea. This contention
is further supported by the results of the 1951 series of plankton samples from Ladysmith
Harbour, where larva? were found in each month of the year. Adult Bankia setacea are
known to occur down to a depth of 25 fathoms (Fraser, 1923), and it may be that populations at different depths spawn at different times. A study of the occurrence of larva?
may assist in defining more accurately the breeding season.
Thanks are due to Dr. F. Neave for his comments on these observations.
REFERENCES
Black, E. C, and Elsey, C. R. (1948): Incidence of wood-borers in British Columbia
waters.   Fish. Res. Bd. Can., Bull. No. LXXX.
Fraser, C. M. (1923): Marine wood-borers in British Columbia waters.   Trans. Roy.
Soc. Can., 17, Sect. 5, 21-28.
Johnson, M. W., and Miller, R. C.  (1935):   Seasonal settlement of shipworms,
barnacles and other wharf-pile organisms at Friday Harbour, Wash.    Univ. Wash.
Pub. Oceanog., 2, 1-18.
J0rgensen, C. B. (1946):   Reproduction and larval development of Danish marine
bottom invertebrates.   9.   Lamellibranchia. Medd. Komm. Danmarks Fisk. Havun-
ders., Ser. Plankton, IV (1), 277-311. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M 91
Keen, A. M.  (1937):   An abridged check list and bibliography of West American
marine Mollusca.   Stanford University Press, Stanford.
Neave, F. (1943):  Fish. Res. Bd. Can. Prog. Rep. Pac, 54, 12-14.
Rees, C. B. (1950): The identification and classification of lamellibranch larva?.   Hull
Bull. Mar. Ecol. Ill, 73-104.
Sullivan, C. M. (1948): Bivalve larva? of Malpeque Bay, P.E.I.   Fish. Res. Bd. Can.
Bull. LXXVII, 1-36.
Werner, B. (1939): Uber die Entwicklung und Artunterscheidung von Muschellarven
des Nordseeplanktons, unter besonderer Berucksichtigung der Schalentwicklung.
Zool. Jahr., Abt. Anat, LXVI, Heft 1, 1-54. M 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES
COMMISSION, 1951
In 1951 the International Fisheries Commission completed its twentieth year of
regulation of the Pacific halibut-fishery, under authority of the Halibut Treaty of 1937
between Canada and the United States. It also carried forward the statistical and
biological observations which guide regulation.
The members of the Commission during the year were George R. Clark, Ottawa;
Edward W. Allen, Seattle; George W. Nickerson, Prince Rupert; and Milton C. James,
Washington, D.C. Mr. Allen and Mr. Clark completed the second year of their terms
of office as chairman and secretary respectively.
The annual meetings of the Commission were held at Seattle, Wash., on January
25th, 26th, and 27th. t During this period, conferences were held with representative
wholesale halibut-dealers from Canada and the United States, with the Conference Board
composed of delegates from the fishermen's and vessel-owners' organizations in the major
halibut ports, and with a delegate of the Alaska salmon-trollers.
At a meeting with the above-mentioned representatives of the halibut industry, the
Commission reviewed the results of investigations and accumulated evidence which
indicated that fishing in Area 2 during the single month of May was resulting in the
underutilization of some sections of the stocks and probably in the overutilization of other
sections. It informed the meeting that, in view of the delay of the conclusion of a new
treaty, with more flexible powers such as it had recommended in 1946, it was considering
modification of the regulations under the present treaty to secure better utilization of the
stocks.
The terms of the 1937 treaty allowed only one fishing period in each regulatory area
during each year. This made only two types of measures available for spreading fishing
over more of the year; namely, a gradual rotation of the fishing season during a period
of years and (or) a subdivision of the present large areas into smaller ones which might
each be opened at the most appropriate time of year.
It appeared probable that a moderate rotation of fishing seasons applied to the
present large areas over a period of years would bring about a more even exploitation
of the stocks appearing on the grounds at different times of year. The division of the
present large areas into smaller areas, and the opening of the latter at their most productive season, seemed less generally applicable. However, two recently underfished
sections of Area 2 suggested themselves as suitable for separation from the remainder
of Area 2 and for opening about August 1st. One of these sections lies in southern
Hecate Strait off British Columbia; the other in the Forrester Island region off Southeastern Alaska.
The merits, limitations, and disadvantages of the above two methods were subsequently discussed at separate meetings with the wholesale halibut-dealers and with the
representatives of the vessel-owners and fishermen. During the latter meeting, the
vessel-owners and fishermen presented recommendations dealing with regulation and
other matters.
At its final session the Commission considered the regulatory proposals of the
industry, adopted regulations for the 1951 fishing season, and agreed upon a programme
of investigations for the ensuing year.
The halibut-fishing regulations for 1951, which became effective upon approval of
the Governor-General of Canada and of the President of the United States, were substantially the same as those for 1950, but contained a few major changes.
Convention waters were divided into seven regulatory areas, two more than in 1950,
by subdividing former Area 2 into Areas 2a, 2b, and 2c. The seven areas were as
follows:   Area 1a, south of Cape Blanco, Oregon; Area 1b, between Cape Blanco and REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M 93
Willapa Bay, Washington; Area 2a, between Willapa Bay and Cape Spencer, Alaska,
exclusive of Areas 2b and 2c; Area 2b, off the east coast of Moresby Island in lower
Hecate Strait, British Columbia; Area 2c, off the west coast of Dall Island in the Forrester Island region of South-eastern Alaska; Area 3, between Cape Spencer and Cape
Sarichef, in Unimak Pass; and Area 4, the portion of Bering Sea north of Cape Sarichef.
Catch-limits of 25,500,000 pounds, 28,000,000 pounds, and 500,000 pounds were
assigned to Areas 2a, 3, and 4 respectively, involving no changes except that Area 2a
was given the entire previous catch-limit of former Area 2. Areas 1a and 1b were
continued without catch-limits. New Areas 2b and 2c also had no catch-limits assigned
to them.
The opening of the fishing season was again set for May 1st in all areas, except 2b
and 2c, which were given a ten-day open period between July 26th and August 4th,
inclusive.
Areas 2a and 1b were closed to halibut-fishing at midnight of May 28th when the
Area 2 catch-limit was attained, and Areas 3, 4, and 1a were closed at midnight, June
25th, when the Area 3 catch-limit was taken. Small landings of halibut continued until
midnight, November 15th, under the long-standing regulatory provision which allowed
set-line vessels to retain and land under permit a small proportion of halibut caught
incidentally in closed areas.
Landings of halibut on the Pacific Coast in 1951 amounted to 56,904,000 pounds,
slightly less than in 1950. The landings from the different areas were 472,000 pounds
from Areas 1a and 1b combined, 26,664,000 pounds from Area 2a, 2,468,000 pounds
from Area 2b, 1,213,000 pounds from Area 2c, and 26,087,000 pounds from Area 3.
No halibut-catches were reported from Area 4. Landings of incidentally caught halibut,
amounting to 951,000 pounds and taken mostly in Area 2a, are included in the above
figures.
The catch of 3,681,000 pounds from Areas 2b and 2c during the ten-day season at
the end of July and the beginning of August was approximately 2,500,000 pounds greater
than the catch on the same grounds during the May fishing season of 1950. This gain
was offset by a loss of approximately 2,000,000 pounds in Area 3, due to the occurrence
of very bad weather during the last week of the season, too late for change of the date of
closure. This deficit balanced a corresponding excess over the catch-limit in 1950, when
unusually favourable weather occurred after the date of closure was announced.
Landings of halibut by Canadian vessels in 1951 amounted to 21,466,000 pounds,
of which 16,346,000 pounds were from Areas 2a, 2b, and 2c, and 5,120,000 pounds
from Area 3. Canadian landings constituted 54 per cent of the landings from Areas 2a,
2b, and 2c and 20 per cent of the landings from Area 3. Landings of the United States
vessels in Canadian ports amounted to 4,391,000 pounds.
The observations and investigations which guide the regulation of the fishery were
continued by the Commission's staff. Statistical and biological data were collected and
analysed to ascertain the current condition of the stocks. The marking programme,
undertaken to ascertain the extent to which the stocks and banks were being utilized,
was carried forward by the initiation of new tagging experiments.
Preliminary analysis of fishing records for the 1951 fishing season in Area 2a
indicated that the catch per unit of effort for the area as a whole was unchanged from
1950. However, as had been noted in immediately earlier years, different sections of
Area 2a showed variations in the trend of catch per unit of effort. The most heavily
fished sections failed to show improvement and in some instances showed some decline.
The less heavily fished sections, on the other hand, showed some improvement.
Preliminary analysis of similar data from Area 3 indicated that the catch per
unit of effort was approximately 8 per cent above the level of 1950. For the second
consecutive year the downward trend of abundance of the late 1940's in this area was
reversed. M 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The catch per unit of effort in Area 2b during the ten-day fishing period in late July
and early August was much higher than during the May fishing season of other recent
years. No reliable comparative data were available for Area 2c, due to the limited
amount of fishing there in the relatively unproductive May season in recent previous years.
The catch per unit of effort declined sharply in these areas during the ten-day season and
raised the question as to whether or not the stocks in such small areas could withstand,
year after year, an extremely intense fishery during such a short season. It was apparent
that this question could be answered only by further trial of the method.
Studies of the changes occurring in the size and age composition of the stocks were
continued. More than 46,000 halibut were measured at Prince Rupert, Vancouver, and
Seattle from grounds in Areas 2a, 2b, 2c, and 3. Materials for the determination of age
composition were taken from 8,500 of the fish measured.
The size and age samples from Area 2a showed, for the fourth consecutive year,
that the numbers of young halibut entering the fishery were below average. The July-
August samples from Area 2b contained a much higher proportion of large fish than
did the May samples of recent earlier years and supported previous statements of the
fishermen and of the Commission that the stock in this region could not be fully exploited
by a fishery in May alone. Since most of the fishing in Area 2c was conducted in the
northern portion of the area, adjacent to the Timbered Islet nursery grounds, where there
was a concentration of smaller-size fish, no conclusion could be reached as to differences
in the size composition of the May stock and the July-August stock.
Comparison of 1951 size-composition data from Area 3 with similar data for 1949
and 1950 demonstrated clearly for the first time the existence of consistent differences in
the nature of these stocks in four major sections of the area. It provided bases for the
comparison of past, present, and future data, which should make the changes in those
stocks understandable.
Age-composition studies of the stocks in Area 3 were begun, using the materials
available from 1935 to 1951. Scattered results from this time-consuming work demonstrated clearly the existence of natural fluctuations in the production of young fish from
one year to another, similar to those previously found in Area 2. They suggested that
the decline in abundance in Area 3 during the late 1940's. was caused by successful
spawning in the late 1920's, which made the abundance of adults abnormally high in the
early 1940's, and by unsuccessful spawnings in the early 1930's, which made the resultant
adult stocks abnormally low in the late 1940's.
The marking programme, begun in 1949 to ascertain the extent to which different
sections of the stocks were being utilized, received special attention. During five months
of vessel operations, a total of 11,130 halibut was tagged and released on seven important
fishing-grounds between Kodiak Island and the north end of Vancouver Island. The
year's operations virtually completed the summer phase of the marking programme and
will permit a beginning on the spring phase of the programme during the fishing season in
1952. Comparison of tag-recoveries from the summer experiments with recoveries from
spring experiments will show to what degree the sections of the stocks on important banks
in summer are available to the spring fishery and what changes in the fishing season will
be required to reach underfished sections of the summer stocks.
Some 340 tagged halibut were recovered in 1951 from experiments of previous years.
These corroborated and strengthened earlier evidence of the unequal exploitation of the
stocks on the different banks during the short fishing season and of unequal availability
of halibut on the same bank at different times of the year to the fishery during the short
season. They made more evident the need for the distribution of fishing throughout a
greater part of the year to permit the fishery to exploit the stocks and their different
sections more uniformly.
Two reports, " Regulation and Investigation of the Pacific Halibut Fishery in 1949 "
and " Regulation and Investigation of the Pacific Halibut Fishery in 1950," were published
during the year. Three other reports were in advanced stages of preparation as the
year ended. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M 95
REPORT ON THE INVESTIGATIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL
PACIFIC SALMON FISHERIES COMMISSION FOR 1951
The Sockeye Salmon Fisheries Convention, ratified by Canada and the United States
in 1937, established the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission to protect,
preserve, and extend the greatly reduced sockeye-salmon fisheries of the Fraser River
system. The Commission is now engaged in the direct management of the Fraser River
sockeye-salmon resources in order to restore them to their former productiveness.
The Commission held four meetings in 1951. At a meeting in Vancouver, B.C., on
February 2nd tentative recommendations for regulatory control over the 1951 fishing
season were presented and were discussed with the Advisory Committee. Agreement on
the regulatory recommendations was reached by the Commissioners, with the exception
of that pertaining to weekly closed periods in Convention waters. A regulation was
unanimously approved by the Commission with the majority approval of the Advisory
Committee providing a weekly closed period of forty-eight hours duration for the taking
of sockeye on the high seas between July 2nd and August 26th. At a meeting in New
Westminster, B.C., on April 7th the recommendations with respect to weekly closed
periods for the taking of sockeye in Convention waters were presented to the Advisory
Committee for discussion and were thereafter approved by the Commission. Recommendations for regulations in Canadian waters were transmitted to Ottawa and accepted
by an Order in Council adopted on June 7th, 1951. Those for the United States were
sent to the Director of the Washington State Department of Fisheries, who accepted them
in an order promulgated May 7th, 1951.
The 1951 sockeye-fishing season commenced in the territorial waters of Canada at
8 a.m. and the United States at 4 a.m. on July 2nd, 1951. Canadian waters of District 1
and Areas 17 and 18 were subject to a seventy-two-hour weekly closed period. Canadian
waters of Areas 19 and 20 of District 3 were subject to a weekly closed period of forty-
eight hours' duration until and including August 26th, 1951. Other Canadian waters
embraced in the Convention were subject to a weekly forty-eight-hour closure until
August 26th, 1951. Territorial waters of the United States embraced in the Convention
were subject to the same forty-eight-hour weekly closures.
Certain adjustments to these regulations were agreed upon, recommended, and
became effective during the fishing season. In United States waters an adjustment was
made in the Puget Sound fishing season on the week-end of August 11th and 12th, when
an additional twenty-four-hour closure was applied by commencing the weekly closure
at 6 p.m. on August 9th for gill-nets and at 12.01 a.m. on August 10th for other gear.
In the high-seas area the weekly closed season was abrogated August 13th and became
effective August 18th instead of August 26th, the terminal date originally specified. In
District 1 of Canadian waters the seventy-two-hour week-end closure was terminated at
a Commission meeting held on September 26th at Horsefly, B.C. This action was taken
by a resolution relinquishing control of sockeye-fishing on September 27th, 1951. Fishing
had been further restricted by the Department of Fisheries by extending the regular
weekly closure beginning September 21st in District 1 by twenty-four hours to commence
on September 20th. This ninety-six-hour weekly closure was applied also the following
week-end, beginning on September 27th. Further Departmental orders set up five-day
closures commencing on October 3rd and 10th. Weekly closed periods following October
15th to the end of the fishing season were of seventy-two hours' duration.
The 1951 catch and escapement showed a tremendous increase over the cycle-year
1947. The 1951 cycle has tended to be the lowest producer of the four quadrennial runs
since the early days of the fishery. In 1947 severe restrictions were placed on the commercial fishery in order to allow certain runs spawning above Hells Gate to receive the
full benefits offered by the Hells Gate fishways.    As a result, in 1951 not only were M 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA
substantial increases noted in the escapements to these areas, but also a total catch of
sockeye was taken which exceeded that of any other cyclic catch since the year 1903,
a period of forty-eight years.
The United States fishery in Puget Sound commenced on July 2nd, with all types of
gear operating in large numbers. Production was at an efficient level on the first day of
the season and was maintained thereafter until the last half of August. In Canadian
waters, sockeye appeared in large numbers during the last week of June and the first week
of July. Gill-nets having a minimum mesh size of 6*/i inches and traps caught an
important number of sockeye in June, 1951, prior to the official opening of the sockeye-
control season on July 2nd. This successful fishery continued through July and August.
When purse-seines began to operate in Area 20 on July 19th, they, too, produced good
catches. Production of sockeye in each part of the 1951 season in Canadian waters was
superior to recent years of the cycle, except for the late season fishing in September and
October.
Both countries combined to produce a total catch of 2,424,953 sockeyes, of which
1,136,791 were taken by United States fishermen and 1,288,162 by Canadian fishermen.
The Indian catch on the Fraser River and its tributaries in 1951 totalled 78,000
sockeyes, as compared with 42,000 in 1947 and 27,000 in 1943. The Indian catch has
increased continuously since the fishways were completed.
The escapement of sockeyes to most of the up-river spawning-grounds increased
greatly in spite of a forty-eight-year record catch on this particular cycle. The combined
escapement to the Seymour River, Raft River, Chilko River, Nechako River, Stuart
River, and Bowron River was 334,300 sockeyes, as compared with 166,847 in 1947,
36,149 in 1943, and 8,447 in 1939. Also, three once barren or practically barren areas
now appear to have native spawners on this cycle; namely, the Barriere River with 108
sockeyes, Taseko Lake with 500 sockeyes, and the Horsefly River with 51 sockeyes
originating mainly from marked fingerlings transplanted from Bowron to Horsefly.
A 25-per-cent decline in the Adams River run, which was composed to a large extent of
5-year-old sockeye produced from the preceding and dominant cycle, can be related to
the Adams River failure of 1950.
Escapements to the lower-river spawning areas were normal or above normal for
this cycle, with the exception of the Birkenhead River, which showed a substantial decline
from the unfished escapement of 1947.
The programme of rehabilitation of barren spawning-grounds by transplantation was
intensified in 1951. Operational experiments consisted of (1) planting 193,000 sockeye
fingerlings, which were raised at the Quesnel station from eggs of Lower Adams River
origin, into Anderson Lake near its Portage Creek outlet; (2) planting 15,000 sockeye
fingerlings in Lac la Hache from the same lot as in item (1); (3) planting 120,000
kokanee fingerlings (non-migratory sockeye), which were taken as eggs from the Little
Horsefly River and raised at the Quesnel station, into Horsefly Lake near its outlet to
determine whether increased growth will stimulate the urge to migrate to sea and return
as normal adults; (4) planting 72,000 sockeye fingerlings of Stellako River origin in
Horsefly Lake near its outlet; (5) taking 625,000 sockeye eggs from the Lower Adams
River for raising at the Quesnel station and eventual planting as fingerlings in Anderson
Lake; and (6) taking 325,000 eggs from the Seymour River to be raised at the Quesnel
station and ultimately to be planted in Gates Creek at the head of Anderson Lake.
Historical records on the origin and size of individual runs of sockeye in the Fraser
River system over the past 140 years are being obtained from the Hudson's Bay Company in London, England. In addition, detailed historical information has been acquired
from the files of the Departments of Fisheries of British Columbia and Canada. These
voluminous data are proving of great aid in the study of cyclic dominance, which was
evidently present long before the days of commercial fishing. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M 97
An analysis of the early commercial-catch records kept by various government
agencies and fishing companies is enabling the Commission to determine which races of
sockeye contributed most to the annual catches of past years. The identification of
certain races in the present-day fishery through extensive research on characteristic scale
patterns aided by the development of new techniques is showing promise of success.
Studies of the day-by-day intensity and effectiveness of the fishery when combined
with data on the availability by time of particular races progressing through the fishery
gave promise of estimating the population abundance and its division into catch and
escapement for these races. Studies of the fishing intensity and its related catch in
United States waters have given a close approximation of the escapement to date. An
analysis of the gill-net catch for specific areas before and after the weekly closed periods
may provide another method of estimating current escapements.
Other projects being studied by the Commission include the evaluation of fry production from a given number of spawners; fishing-gear selectivity with respect to timing
of the escapement, sex ratio, and average size of the sockeyes of various races; the
physical requirements necessary for reproduction of sockeyes on various spawning areas;
the relationship of the abundance of 3-year-old jack sockeyes to the abundance of
4-year-old sockeyes; the effect of a high power-dam on the survival rate of down-stream
migrants; and the effect of proposed water-use projects of many types and sizes on the
maintenance of sockeye populations.
Extensive field and office studies on the possible effects of the Aluminum Company
of Canada's Nechako project were carried out in collaboration with the Department of
Fisheries of Canada. This project will divert the flow of the Nechako watershed above
the Grand Canyon from its present course and carry it directly to tide-water via a tunnel
through the Coast Range from Tahtsa Lake. The greatly reduced flow of the residual
Nechako will pose major access problems for the large sockeye runs which pass through
that river en route to the spawning-grounds of the Stellako and Stuart basins. A report
was prepared on the complex temperature problem expected in the residual river and the
anticipated need for cold-tempering water to prevent a serious mortality in the migrating
sockeye populations.
In December, 1951, the Commission completed the construction of a high-level
fishway on the left bank of Hells Gate for extending the operating range to a river-level
of 70 feet on the Hells Gate gauge. Delays in the early runs of sockeyes passing Hells
Gate in July when gauge heights above 54 feet have persisted will now be eliminated.
Routine maintenance was carried on at the Hells Gate, Bridge River Rapids, and Farwell
Canyon fishways by the Commission's field crew. There was no extensive damage at any
of the fishways.
Members of the Commission during 1951 were as follows:—
Canadian Commissioners:  Senator Thomas Reid, chairman; A. J. Whitmore,
member; Olof Hanson, member.
United States Commissioners: Robert J. Schoettler, secretary; Albert M. Day,
member; Edward W. Allen, member (January to December); Elton B.
Jones, member (December). M 98 BRITISH COLUMBIA
SALMON-SPAWNING REPORT, BRITISH COLUMBIA,  1951
By A. J. Whitmore, Chief Supervisor of Fisheries
GENERAL SUMMARY
Sockeyes.—Sockeye-salmon spawning reports for 1951 show with one exception
that satisfactory numbers of sockeyes reached their spawning-grounds for maintenance
of the resource.
The exception, the Skeena, is a misfortune of serious proportion. A large rock-slide
in a remote canyon of the Babine River, some 40 miles north of Hazelton, occurred just
prior to the commencement of the 1951 sockeye migration. Preliminary estimates show
that at least two-thirds of the important Babine run, the equivalent of 50 per cent of the
entire Skeena run, perished at the block formed by this slide. Further loss may be
expected; that is, ineffective spawning by the fish which eventually succeeded in passing
the obstruction through damage to spawn by physical injury or resulting from the long
delay at the block. Steps immediately authorized for relieving the block give assurance
that before next year's run occurs adequate passage-way will have been created, but it is
inevitable that the return from the 1951 spawning will be substantially below that which
would be normally expected.
Rivers Inlet spawning-grounds received good sockeye-seeding, judged as medium
to heavy. The Smith Inlet sockeye-spawning escapement was very good. Bella Coola,
Nimpkish, Somass, and Anderson spawning-grounds received heavy seedings, while the
Nass sockeye escapement is classed as satisfactory.
Further definite progress in the rehabilitation programme for the Fraser sockeyes
under the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission is again indicated. Resulting from drastic regulatory controls applied to commercial fishing in the cycle-year 1947,
it is highly gratifying that not only was a substantial catch realized from the returning
progeny this year, but the spawning escapement was doubled to the upper spawning-
grounds. Hells Gate fishways assured ready passage through the difficult canyon stretch,
and the fish reached these distant areas in good shape. These upper areas include Seymour River, Raft River, Chilko Lake system, Nechako River system, Stuart River and
Lake system, and Bowron River; they received some 335,000 spawners, compared with
166,000 in 1947.
Springs.—Spring-salmon supplies to the Fraser River watershed were again satisfactory; escapement to the Skeena spawning-grounds was reduced by the Babine slide,
but otherwise spring-salmon seeding of District 2 spawning-grounds was reasonably good.
This also applies to Vancouver Island and the streams of the Mainland opposite, the
exception being lesser returns to Campbell River and Cowichan River.
Cohoes.—Supplies of cohoes reaching the spawning-grounds generally are judged to
be adequate; indeed, several areas experienced substantially greater supplies than in
recent years. The coast-wide cohoe run, in which there was extensive participation by
both commercial and sport fishermen, was the largest for many years. It is gratifying that
spawning reports indicate that with assistance of conservation measures the spawning-
grounds shared correspondingly in this year's larger run.
Pinks.—The over-all coast-wide return of pinks showed improvement over the
brood-year. Despite a large commercial operation, excellent spawning escapements were
realized at Fitzhugh-Bella Coola, Alert Bay, Comox, and Nass areas. Good returns were
experienced in Butedate, Quathiaski, and Lower Skeena sections.
For the third cycle-year in succession a further deterioration in the volume of the
over-all pink run to the Fraser system seems to be indicated. The combined catch of the
United States and Canadian fishermen again shows a drop for 1951. Because of dual
participation by the two countries, this run is not subject to the undivided control for REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M 99
conservation purposes that otherwise would exist. The difficulty in this respect has been
referred to in spawning-report summaries for 1947 and 1949. Notwithstanding that the
1951 return was definitely less than in 1949, by special conservation measures applied on
the Fraser, requiring a four-day fishing closure each week for two weeks and a five-day
fishing closure in each of the next two weeks at the height of the run, an escapement for
spawning purposes about equal to that of the brood-year was secured.
Of significant importance is the fact that several thousands of pinks succeeded in
passing through Hells Gate Canyon, beyond which there had been no appreciable migration by this species for many years. This development no doubt stems from the existence
of the newly constructed fishways. The fish successfully spawned at such points as
Nicola River, South Thompson River, and Seton Creek.
Chums.—Supplies of chums on the spawning-grounds of northern areas generally
are classed as light to moderate. There was heavy seeding of the Nass area, and fairly
good at Butedale and Fitzhugh-Bella Coola. The escapement to the South Queen Charlotte Island streams was only fair, with a medium to heavy spawning indicated in the
north and central section of the Queen Charlottes. Satisfactory seeding occurred in the
streams along the east coast of Vancouver Island and the Mainland opposite. On the
west coast of Vancouver Island this cycle continues to be light, and with the exception of
Quatsino Sound, despite a sharply restricted fishing season, the escapements are classed
not better than in the light-medium category. Chum-seeding of the Quatsino area was
excellent.
SALMON-SPAWNING PROTECTION AND AIDS
1. This compilation is derived from detailed spawning reports of 1,681 salmon-
streams covered by experienced fishery officers to determine the volume of spawning
stocks, spawning-ground conditions, obstructions, et cetera.
2. Resulting from periodic stream inspections, fishery-officer personnel is continuously engaged in stream-improvement work. During 1951, log-jams and accumulations
of forest debris, or other conditions detrimental to salmon runs, were cleared away or
received attention by or under supervision of Departmental personnel in 125 streams.
This class of work is a continuing part of fishery-officer duties.
3. All new industrial projects located on or near salmon-streams are investigated,
and action taken to assure the interest of the salmon-fisheries is properly safeguarded.
4. The following major aids to salmon in their spawning migration were completed
or extended in 1951:—
(a) High-level fish-ladder at Hells Gate on Fraser River, by the International
Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission.
(b) Steel and concrete fish-ladder at Moricetown Falls on the Bulkley River
(Skeena watershed) by Fish Culture Branch, Department of Fisheries.
(c) Steel and concrete fish-ladder at Sproat Falls on the Sproat River by Fish
Culture Branch, Department of Fisheries.
(d) Concrete fish-ladder and mechanical screen at Kloiya River dam by the
Columbia Cellulose Company.
(e) Special extended closure of commercial net-fishing was required in a large
section of the coast last fall for protection of spawning stocks temporarily
hampered in their spawning migrations due to prolonged drought.
IN DETAIL
Masset Inlet and North Coast of Graham Island Area
Cohoe-supplies were light to moderate, showing some increase over the brood-year
in most streams. Being the off-year for this species, no pinks were observed in any of the
streams of Masset Inlet or Naden Harbour.   There was a moderately heavy escapement M 100 BRITISH COLUMBIA
of chums to the spawning-grounds over the area, particularly so in Masset Inlet, where it
was better than in any recent year.
Skidegate Inlet and West Coast of Graham-Moresby Island Area
There was a medium spawning of cohoes over the entire area, with noteworthy
increase in Tlell River. This was the off-year for pinks; fair supplies, however, were
present in Reilly Creek, Tlell River, and Copper River. Generally, there was a moderate
seeding of chums—heavy in Port Chanal, Peel Inlet, and South Kootenay; light but
showing some improvement in the Rennell Sound streams. The spawning-grounds in
Skidegate Inlet were well stocked with chums.
East Coast of Moresby Island and South Queen Charlotte Islands Area
The escapement of cohoes to the streams frequented by this species was light to
medium, the exceptions being Mathers Creek and Pallant Creek, which were fairly well
supplied. This was the off-year for pinks. Chum-supplies were only fair, somewhat
lighter than the brood-year, particularly so in Juan Perez Sound area. Due to lack of
rainfall, levels in all the streams were extremely low from June until the latter part of
September. Mass migration commenced in all streams on October 18th, following heavy
rainfalls. The spawning period was short and intense. Substantial numbers of chums
were present in Cumshewa Inlet streams, Lagoon and Sewell Inlets, Powrico Inlet
streams, Salmon River, Tangle Cove, Oyster Cove, Harriett Harbour, and Ikeda Cove
streams.
Nass Area
Although somewhat less than the spawning of the brood-years, the number of sockeyes reaching Meziaden Lake area, the principal spawning-grounds for this variety in the
Nass system, appears to be adequate. There was a light to moderate escapement of spring
salmon over the area, the exception being the Meziaden Lake area, where moderately
heavy seeding occurred. Supplies of cohoes were fairly satisfactory in all streams in the
area. The escapement of pink salmon to the Nass River system was heavy, while stocks
in other creeks and rivers were generally moderately heavy. Chum-supplies were strong
over the area, showing improvement over the brood-year, and the escapement to Wark
Channel streams was exceptionally good.
Skeena Area
Babine-Morice Area.—A large rock-slide occurred in a narrow canyon of the Babine
River at a point some 12 miles above its confluence with the Skeena. It created a block
to the main run of sockeye going to the Babine watershed, where at least 60 per cent of
the important Skeena River sockeye run normally spawns. At least two-thirds of the
sockeye run to the Babine area, or about 50 per cent of the Skeena River run, was
affected, as also, in varying proportion, were runs of other salmon species to this system.
Due to the inaccessible character of the terrain and distance from existing roads, nothing
could be done to assist or salvage this year's run at the obstruction. Steps were taken at
once looking to earliest feasible action. Work on an access road was commenced and
has progressed favourably. It is hoped that before spring high water of 1952 it will have
been possible to have essential heavy equipment on the ground to undertake remedial
action to assure passage of the 1952 run. In all, some 152,457 sockeyes passed the
obstruction and through the counting-fence maintained in the Babine River by the Fisheries Research Board. Of these, 27.4 per cent were damaged and 7.2 per cent were
jacks. It is estimated that 20,000 of this number died before spawning. There is some
doubt as to the productive efficiency of spawn deposited by the remainder. Supplies of
sockeye to the early streams flowing into Babine Lake were comparable to other years. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M  101
The larger tributaries of the lake, such as Grizzley Creek, Fifteen Mile Creek, Hatchery
Creek, and Fulton River, showed diminished supplies, largely composed of damaged and
poorer-class fish and many jacks. The number of spring salmon passing the block v/as
very small, while the escapement of pinks was practically nil. Cohoe-supplies were just
fair. These arrived during the fall high water. Unrevised final figures of salmon passed
and counted through the Fisheries Research Board fence are as follows: Sockeyes,
152,457; pinks, 50; springs, 2,778; and cohoes, 2,122.
On the Bulkley River, the other principal branch of the Skeena system, the fishways
constructed at Moricetown Falls during the winter and spring months of 1950-51 were
in operation when the migration commenced, and eliminated difficulty previously
experienced at certain water-levels there. There was a moderately good escapement of
medium- and large-sized sockeye to the Bulkley system. Very few jacks were in evidence.
Spring-salmon stocks were medium to light; the exception was the Bulkley River above
Houston, where numbers observed were much greater than usual. Small numbers of
pinks succeeded, with the help of fishways, in passing above Moricetown Falls. This is
the first time in the memory of Departmental officers that this species, other than the odd
fish, has been noted in any numbers above this obstacle. The cohoe-seeding is the best
in many years.
The run of spring salmon to Bear Lake system was light and disappointing, as were
the supplies of sockeyes and pinks. Cohoe stocks were just appearing on the grounds at
the time of inspection.
Lakelse Area.—Good supplies of sockeyes were observed in the Allistair Lake,
Kitsumgallum River, and Kispiox River systems. The Lakelse spawning-grounds were
lightly seeded in comparison with the cycle-year. The spring-salmon run was somewhat
below normal. Cohoe-supplies were satisfactory and compared favourably with the
cycle-year. The pink escapement is the best for an odd-year for a long time. The
escapement of this species on the odd-year cycle has been improving since 1947, and this
year it was nearly as good as the heavy escapement in 1950, particularly so in the Lakelse
River, Kitwanga River, and Kispiox River. Light supplies of chums were present in the
few streams frequented by this variety, the exception being Kitwanga and Lakelse Rivers,
where stocks were fairly good.
Lower Skeena Area
The escapement of sockeyes to Shawatlans Creek and Johnson Creek was satisfactory and showed improvement over the runs of cycle-years. Diana Creek in the
Kloyia River system was well seeded with 6,000 sockeye spawners. The fishway incorporated in the dam of the Columbia Cellulose Company, completed last spring in Kloyia
River, was in operation, and the several varieties of salmon frequenting the system negotiated the fishway without difficulty. The controlled spill during the long dry spell permitted continuous escapement; this would not have been the case under natural flow
conditions this season. Spring-salmon stocks were heavy in Johnson Creek, but light in the
Kloyia River. The escapement of pink salmon, although somewhat less than the exceptionally heavy escapement of 1949, is considered satisfactory. The chum-salmon seeding
of the limited spawning areas of this species in this area, although somewhat less than the
escapement of 1947, is considered adequate.    Cohoe stocks were fairly good.
Grenville-Principe Area
Generally, the escapement of sockeyes to this area was light, heaviest seedings
occurring in early-run streams such as Minktrap Bay, Curtis Inlet, and Bare Bay lake
systems. The cohoe-spawning was moderate in all streams. Notwithstanding, the pink
escapement generally was below brood-year proportions, adequate seedings occurred in
Mainland streams of Kumealon Inlet and Seven Mile Creek, also End Hill Bay, Bare Bay,
PROVINCIAL LIBRARY
VICTORIA, B. C. M 102 BRITISH COLUMBIA
and Gale Bay in the Principe Channel area. Streams in Kitkatla Inlet were adequately
seeded, with the exception of Billy Creek and Kitkatla Creek, where supplies were light.
Other streams in the North Grenville Channel area, as well as Ogden Channel, Petrel
Channel, Beaver Pass, and the southern portion of the area embracing Turtle and Turn
Creeks, were lightly seeded. Chum-supplies were generally light throughout the area,
with the exception of Rawlinson Anchorage, Skull Creek, and Bonilla Arm, where good
seedings occurred.
Butedale Area
There was a moderate escapement of sockeyes slightly below brood-year level to
the various sockeye-streams. The Kitlope River, chief producer, was fairly well supplied.
There was a medium seeding of cohoes with slight increase over the brood-year, most
streams being fairly well stocked. The pink escapement in the area was generally satisfactory, but not quite up to brood-year strength. The Douglas Channel streams were
well seeded. Escapement to Kitimat River and streams in Devastation Channel was somewhat less than in 1949. Gardner Canal streams experienced pink-spawning generally
greater than in 1949, including Kemano River, where pink spawners numbered 30,000
fish. Generally, in other streams in the area the seeding was fairly good, the outstanding
exception being Laredo Inlet, which showed slight increase over the brood-year, but was
still disappointingly light. There was a fairly good seeding of chums over the area, best
seedings occurring in the northern part of the area, where returns exceeded expectations.
Spring-salmon supplies were above normal.
Bella Bella Area
There was a normal escapement of sockeyes to the limited spawning-grounds frequented by this species. Cohoe-supplies were fair and above the level of previous years
at time inspection was made. The moderate seeding of pinks was in line with that of
1950, but somewhat less than that of 1949. Supplies in Klatse River, Kainet River, and
Kynoch River were heavy, although spawners were not present at the two latter points
in the same abundance as in 1949. Chum-supplies were light and below brood-year
proportion.
Bella Coola Area
The Bella Coola-Atnarko system, which produces about 90 per cent of the sockeyes
in the area, received heavy seeding, some 30 per cent of the run being jacks. Moderate
supplies reached the Kimsquit system, Kisemete and Port John Rivers. The escapement
to Dean and Koeye Rivers was light. The cohoe run to the Bella Coola-Atnarko system
was one of the best on record. Moderate supplies reached the Kimsquit, Koeye, and
Dean Rivers, while the smaller rivers received from light to medium seedings. The
quantity of pinks to this area was heavy. Pink stocks in the Bella Coola-Atnarko system
were heavy, although not as abundant as last year. Koeye River was also heavily seeded.
Kwatna River received the best seeding in some time. In the smaller streams, supplies
ranged from moderate to light. In the main pink-salmon streams the fish strove far
up-stream. The chum escapement was generally moderate. The seeding of the Bella
Coola-Atnarko system, Kwatna and Nootum Rivers was heavy. Moderate supplies were
noted in Kimsquit River, Dean River, and rivers in South Bentinck Arm. Cascade River
was lightly seeded, as were some of the smaller streams. Generally, there was a considerable increase in chum spawners in comparison with the brood-year. There was
a heavy run of spring salmon to the Bella Coola-Atnarko system, medium to Kimsquit,
and light to the Dean River.
Rivers Inlet Area
Inspections of the Owekano Lake spawning areas were again carried out during the
months of September, October, and November.   There was a medium to heavy escape- REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M  103
ment of sockeyes to this system. Heavy seedings occurred in the Waukwash River,
Dalleck River, Nookins River, and Asklum River. Moderately strong supplies were
present in Indian River, Shumahault River, and Quap River, while moderate numbers
were noted in the Cheo River and Wannock River flats near the outlet. The seeding of
spring salmon was light. Pink stocks in the streams frequented by this variety were heavy,
showing an increase over the brood-year. The escapement of chums to the rivers at the
head of Rivers Inlet was on a par with the brood-year, but the supplies to Moses Inlet and
Drainey Inlet showed sharp decline. Cohoe stocks, although on the light side, show
improvement over the brood-year.
Smith Inlet Area
The heavy supplies of sockeyes reaching the spawning-grounds of this area compares
with the escapement in 1950 and 1947, and shows some improvement over 1946.
A notable feature was that the majority of spawners were a very large size, averaging
well over 7 pounds. The principal sockeye spawning-streams, the Geluck and Delabah
Rivers, were inspected twice in 1951—once in September and again in October. Supplies
in the Geluck River, the more important stream, were heavy, all spawning areas being
well covered. The more limited spawning-grounds in the Delabah were also well seeded.
The number of jacks present was negligible. Cohoe-supplies were light. Pink stocks in
the streams frequented by this variety were also light, showing a decrease from the brood-
year.   The chum-supplies, although not intensively fished, were also light.
Alert Bay Area
Generally, the escapement of sockeyes to all streams frequented by this variety was
satisfactory. The return to the Nimpkish River, the principal producer, was heavy, in
line with the excellent seeding in the cycle-year. Fish en route to upper spawning areas
met with serious obstruction at Karmutsen Falls, due to unfavourable seasonal water-
levels. The escapement of spring salmon was satisfactory. Noteworthy were the above-
average runs to the Klinaklini and Franklin Rivers. Indications are that the spring-
salmon run to Nimpkish River is continuing to build up. There was an unexpectedly
abundant return of cohoes to the various spawning-grounds of this sub-district, outstanding
runs occurring to the Nimpkish, Glendale, Koegh, and Quatse Rivers. Supplies of pink
salmon were again remarkably good, not quite as extensive as the exceptional run of
1950, but still in unusual abundance. As was expected, Mainland streams received the
larger seedings, but those on Vancouver Island were very well seeded also. The runs to
Glendale, Ahnuhatti, and Kakweiken Rivers were particularly good. Noteworthy also
was the showing in Tsitika River on Vancouver Island. The fish individually were
generally large in size. Chum stocks are considered adequate, although slightly less than
1947. The run to Viner River, while satisfactory, did not reach the proportions expected.
In Glendale River an outstanding heavy return materialized. The Nimpkish River showed
a slight decline from the past three years. There was no improvement in the light returns
of,recent years to the Johnstone Strait streams. There was a very satisfactory seeding of
the Kakweiken River. In the Seymour and Belize Inlets there were satisfactory numbers
on the spawning-grounds; Quashela and Village Bay Creeks and Salmon River were
also well seeded.
QUATHIASKA AREA
Sockeye-supplies in the Phillips River were fairly good—better than the past few
years—and in Heydon Bay fair, showing slight increase over the brood-year. The
escapement of spring salmon to Campbell River showed a decrease over the past several
years. The Homathko and Southgate Rivers had their usual good supplies; the seeding
of Orford River was very light; Phillips River spawning by spring salmon was about equal
to the brood-year, with slight improvement as compared to last year; and Salmon River M 104 BRITISH COLUMBIA
supplies were heavier than the last three years. Cohoes were present in moderate abundance. Several streams showed an increase over last year and compared favourably with
the brood-year. In the larger streams, escapement was generally light. This was an
off-year for pink salmon in the Vancouver Island streams. The Apple River and Fraser
Creek were well stocked. Phillips River had a very good seeding, as had Quatum River
and Ramsay Arm. In Bute Inlet, the Homathko, Southgate, and Orford Rivers were all
well stocked. The escapement to the smaller streams on Quadra-Senora Islands was
moderately light. Chum-streams on the Vancouver Island shore were moderately seeded.
Topaz Harbour, Forward Harbour, and Loughborough Inlet streams were well stocked.
The Phillips and Quatum Rivers were also well supplied, as were those on the east side of
Quadra Island.   Bute Inlet streams were moderately seeded.
Comox Area
The run of spring salmon to the Puntledge River was very good. It is estimated
that a total of 6,000 spring salmon spawned in this system. There were also runs to
various streams which, although light, were good in comparison with previous years,
such as the Big Qualicum, the Little Qualicum, and Oyster Rivers. There was a good
escapement of cohoes to practically all streams frequented by this variety. Stocks were
particularly good to the Tsolum River, Big Qualicum River, Oyster River, French Creek,
Cougar Creek, and Millard Creek, and average to the remainder of the streams, with the
exception of Kitty Coleman and Royston Creeks, which were below average. There was
an exceptionally heavy run of pink salmon to the Courtenay-Puntledge system. Due to
prolonged summer drought, the Tsolum River was dry over several stretches, and to
prevent heavy mortality of fish becoming trapped in pools left by the receding tides,
a barrier was placed below the mouth of the stream in order to divert the fish to Puntledge
branch. As a result, most of the early run ascended the Puntledge River. The barrier
fence was removed on September 29th, following rise in the stream-levels. The run to
Oyster River was lighter than the brood-year. Tsable River was moderately stocked, and
light runs were present in Big Qualicum River, Little Qualicum River, Millard Creek,
Cougar Creek, and Nile Creek. Chum-supplies were also very satisfactory. There was
strong escapement to Puntledge River, Little Qualicum River, Tsable River, Cook Creek,
McNaughton Creek, Cougar Creek, and Waterloo Creek. Average or better runs
occurred to all other streams, with the exception of Nile Creek, where supplies were light.
The run as a whole was above average and an improvement over the brood-year.
Pender Harbour Area
Some 3,451 sockeyes spawned in Sauch-en-auch Lake, which is comparable to the
escapement of the past five years. Spring-salmon supplies in the Toba River system were
normal; in Jervis Inlet the escapement was below average. The early run of cohoes to
Jervis Inlet and Toba Inlet was below normal. The late cohoe run to Toba Inlet and
Brem River was much heavier than the brood-year, while the late run to Jervis Inlet was
somewhat below average. The run of pinks in Toba River and Brem River was below
brood-year proportions. In some of the smaller creeks the run was far heavier than that
which occurred in the brood-year; in Jervis Inlet, the Deserted River run was normal; in
the Skwawaka River the run was double that of the brood-year. The over-all chum-
spawning was satisfactory. The streams in Toba Inlet area all had average runs; the
Jervis Inlet run to Skwawaka River was light, and in the remaining streams, normal. The
run to Tzoonie River was very satisfactory.
Nanaimo-Ladysmith Area
Spring-salmon supplies in the Nanaimo River were better than usual. The early
cohoe escapement to the larger rivers was average.   Early runs to the small creeks, how- REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M  105
ever, were definitely off. Late runs to all streams were good, and, as a result, escapement
this year is better than average in numbers. The usual light run of pinks occurred in the
Nanaimo River and Englishman River, the only streams frequented by this species.
Although late in arriving, the escapement of chums will compare favourably with average
seedings of the past four years.
Cowichan Area
The spring-salmon run to the Cowichan system was below average. It is estimated
this season that approximately 7,000 spawned in the system this year, compared with
5,000 in 1947 and 12,000 to 15,000 in 1946. The escapement of cohoe to this area
was about the same as in the brood-year. An estimated 47,000 spawners were present
in the system, compared to an estimated 45,000 in 1948. The seeding of the area below
Skutz Falls was, however, fighter than in the brood-year.   Chum-supplies were heavy.
Victoria Area
Stocks of cohoes and chums in Demaniel, Sooke, and Goldstream Rivers, the three
principal producers of these varieties, were satisfactory. Escapement to the other streams
was only fair.
Alberni-Nitinat Area
Supplies of sockeyes in the Somass River system were highly satisfactory and equal
to those of the brood-year. An excellent escapement also occurred to Anderson Lake
spawning-grounds, the best in recent years. Supplies in the Hobarton Lake grounds
showed slight decrease from the average runs of the past few years. An excellent seeding of spring salmon occurred, particularly in the Somass, Nahmint, Sarita, Toquart,
and Nitinat systems. The escapement of cohoes to practically all streams was better
than the past three years, although the count at Stamp Falls ladder was slightly less
than the brood-year. Particularly good spawning of cohoes occurred in Toquart, Nitinat,
and Sarita Rivers. Although the early run of chum salmon to this area was very light,
the escapement from the late run was fairly good for this cycle. Special fishing controls
assisted in making this possible. The escapement to Toquart, Sarita, and Nahmint Rivers
was quite good; Nitinat and Effingham Rivers were lightly seeded. A concrete fish-
ladder of vertical-baffle type was constructed at the falls in Sproat River, tributary to
the Somass River, last fall. Needs for improving conditions for the passage of salmon
at this point had been under study for some years. The falls, particularly during the
lower-water stages, prevented salmon from ascending, resulting at times in serious loss
or damage to the run. The new fishway is designed to eliminate entirely any such block
at this point in future.
Clayoquot Area
There was a good escapement of sockeyes to Kennedy Lake area. Supplies in the
Megin River system were fair. Spring-salmon stocks were average. Escapement of
cohoes was particularly satisfactory, all streams being well seeded by this species. The
chum-salmon seeding was light over the area, with the exception of Tranquil River and
Kennedy Lake river systems, which were well stocked.
Nootka Area
The small early runs of sockeyes to the various streams in this area were again in
evidence; they are not of sufficient strength to warrant commercial exploitation. There
was an increase in the supplies of spring salmon. Cohoe stocks were light and late in
arriving. Although the early run of chum salmon did not materialize in strength, a fairly
good seeding of the late run of this species occurred in most of the streams. M  106 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Kyuquot Area
A medium escapement of spring salmon took place at the Tahsis, Artlish, and Kaouk
Rivers, the main spawning-streams for this species. Cohoe-supplies were good; heavy
in Jansen-Power Lakes, and Tahsis, Artlish, Malksope, Kaouk, and Kaooinch Rivers;
medium heavy in the numerous other streams in the area. The chum-seeding was generally light to medium, with heavy showings in Malksope River, Chamiss River, and
McKay Cove Creek. As in the case of other areas on the west coast, south of Kyuquot,
the early run of this species was weak.
Quatsino Area
There was improvement in the numbers of small " creek " sockeyes frequenting
streams in this area. Spring-salmon supplies were particularly good in the Marble Creek
system, which is the main producer of this species; elsewhere the seeding was average.
All streams in this area received more cohoes than for some years. This was an off-year
for pinks in this area; a few were observed in the Johnstone, Ingersoll, and Koprino
Rivers. Chum-supplies were excellent in practically all streams flowing into Quatsino
Sound waters. The upper portion of the coast from Winter Harbour to Cape Scott does
not produce chums in any numbers. Lower down, in the Brooks Bay area, there was
marked improvement, excellent escapement occurring to East Creek, Klashish River,
and Buck Creek.
Fraser River
Prince George Area.—A total of 63,500 sockeyes is estimated to have spawned in
the Stuart Lake system, an increase of approximately 55,000 over the brood-year of
1947. The early run, estimated at 61,000, spawned in streams tributary to Takla River
and Middle River, while the late run spawned chiefly in the Middle and Tachie Rivers.
The early run commenced to arrive at the outlet of Stuart Lake on July 16th and continued until September 10th. Approximately 97,000 sockeyes were observed in the
Fraser-Francois watershed, an increase of some 40,000 over 1947. The early run, estimated at between 700 and 800 sockeyes, spawned in the streams tributary to the Fraser
and Francois Lake, while the late run, estimated at 96,200 sockeyes, spawned in the
Stellako River. There was some decrease in the supplies of spring salmon in the Upper
Nechako system, where between 2,000 and 3,000 spawners were present. The main
bars of the Fraser River at Tete Jaune carried an exceptionally good run, estimated at
between 5,000 and 10,000.   Elsewhere, supplies of springs were average.
Quesnel-Chilko Area.—Sockeye-supplies in the Chilko River exceeded by far the
brood-year returns; an estimated 125,000, 16.9 per cent of which were jacks, were
observed in this area, compared with 50,000 estimated by the local guardian in 1947,
25 per cent of which were jacks. Approximately 750 sockeyes were observed spawning
•on the beaches of Taseko Lake. In the Quesnel system this was a barren year for the
Horsefly area, but a total of 30 sockeyes returned from plantings made in 1948 by the
International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission. The grounds in Mitchell River
were barren of sockeyes, as in the brood-year. An estimated 23,000 sockeyes ascended
the Bowron system, the bulk of the run arriving in the middle of August in good shape.
This is about the same number as appeared on the grounds in the brood-year 1947.
Spring-salmon supplies were average in the Chilcotin and Bowron systems. There was
an increase of about 100 per cent in the return of spring salmon, estimated at 1,200 fish,
to the Quesnel River system, and spawning occurred in areas not previously seeded by
this variety. The Narrows area had a larger concentration than has been seen for many
years. About 100 springs ascended the North Fork of Quesnel River, some of these
entering Spanish Creek, a small tributary.
Kamloops Area.—Early-run sockeye, estimated at 30,000 by the local Fishery
Inspector, compared with 15,000 in 1947, spawned in Seymour and Raft Rivers.   Late- REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M 107
run sockeye, estimated at 160,000, spawned in Adams River, and 20,000 were estimated
at Little River. Sockeye-supplies in the South Thompson River were estimated at 2,000.
Spring-salmon stocks were fair, showing improvement generally over the brood-year.
Cohoe-supplies were considered satisfactory. Pink salmon were reported in the Thompson River at Walhachin during late September. This is the first time pink salmon have
been observed in this area for many years.
Lillooet Area.—The return of sockeyes to the Birkenhead River was somewhat
less than in 1947. As in the past several years, jacks again composed about 15 per cent
of the run. The channel of the river at Creekside, in which important spawning-grounds,
are located, is more stable this season, although some shift of gravel occurred, which
possibly had some effect on spawn there. Supplies of sockeye in the Seton-Anderson
system were small and similar in numbers to the brood-year. The spring-salmon run
to the Birkenhead River was about average, estimated to be about 700; about 50 springs
were present in Seton Creek. No spring salmon were observed in the Yalakom River
this season. Cohoe-supplies were normal over the area, with the exception of the Bir-
kenhead-Upper Lillooet River system, where spawning, although below the brood-year
levels, was still substantial, estimated at 27,000 fish. Salvage of the spring-salmon run
to Bridge River at a point below the diversion-dam was continued by the Fish Culture
Branch, and a total of 278,300 spring-salmon eggs were secured; 4,000 were planted in
Portage Creek and the remainder in Gates Creek.
Yale-Merritt Area.—This area, formerly listed as the Yale-Lytton area, was extended
to include that portion of the Thompson River between Lytton and Spences Bridge, as
well as Nicola River watershed. Spring-salmon supplies in the Nicola system were very
good, estimated at 9,000 fish, 8,000 of which spawned in the Nicola River, and the
remainder in tributaries; that is, Spius Creek and Coldwater River. Several thousand
pink salmon were observed spawning in the Nicola River, and large numbers of pink
salmon were observed in the Thompson River in the vicinity of Shaw Springs and the
Big Horn. This is the first time this species has been observed in these localities in any
volume for many years. Small stocks of approximately 500 pinks migrated up the
Nahatlatch River. This cycle of cohoes is building up and again shows an increase over
the brood-year, particularly so in Spius Creek and Coldwater River, tributaries of the
Nicola River.
Chilliwack Area.—A total of 13,000 sockeyes spawned in the Cultus Lake system,
compared with 8,500 in 1947. Usual numbers of this species were observed in the
Chilliwack Lake area. Approximately 600 spring salmon were present in the Chilliwack-
Vedder River. There was marked improvement in the cohoe run to the Chilliwack-
Vedder River where some 20,000 of this species spawned, as compared with up to 5,000
in the brood-year of 1948. Local anglers report better fishing than they have experienced in the past fifteen years. Other streams in this area received good average seedings
of cohoes. The main pink spawning-streams supported heavy runs of this species;
100,000 to 120,000 pinks were present in the Chilliwack-Vedder River, compared with
60,000 in 1949. Supplies in Sweltzer Creek, estimated at between 60,000 and 70,000,
were triple the numbers of the brood-year. In Jones Creek, stocks of 10,000 were
comparable with the brood-year. Succer Creek was well seeded. Spawning of this
species was below brood-year levels in the Coquihalla River and in the smaller streams,
such as Silver, Lorenzetti, and Popcum Creeks. Chum-supplies were satisfactory,
although perhaps smaller than those of the brood-year, exceptions being the Chilliwack-
Vedder River and Sweltzer Creek, which were heavily stocked.
Mission-Harrison Area.—Satisfactory supplies of sockeyes, estimated at 10,000,
spawned in Weaver Creek. Harrison Rapids received only a light seeding by this species,
estimated at not more than 3,000; elsewhere, stocks were light. The escapement of
soring salmon to the Harrison River, amounting to 10,000, was the best in some years.
The pink-salmon run was very good and above brood-year levels, being estimated at M 108 BRITISH COLUMBIA
110,000, compared with 85,000 to 100,000 in 1949. The main run occurred to Harrison
Rapids, where some 85,000 spawners were present. Chehalis River pink-spawning, on
the other hand, was considerably less than two years ago. Chum stocks were satisfactory;
approximately 80,000 spawned in the various streams in the area. The early run to the
Chehalis, estimated at 5,000, was the largest in many years. Total stocks in this stream
were placed at between 25,000 to 50,000 chums. Approximately 20,000 chums were
noted in the Harrison River area and sloughs adjacent, while 5,000 were noted in
Nicomen Slough.
Lower Fraser Area
Approximately 38,000 sockeyes spawned in the Upper Pitt River system, or more
than double the number in the brood-year. Supplies of spring salmon in the Upper Pitt
River, the only area frequented by this species, amounted to between 500 and 1,000.
Better than average numbers of cohoes were observed in most of the streams at time of
inspection, but the spawning run extends well into January and February. The run of
pinks was disappointing, amounting to approximately one-half to two-thirds of the
brood-year escapement. Supplies were late reaching the Coquitlam River, Alouette
River, Kanaka Creek, and other small streams in the area, compared to other years.
There was a fair showing in Stave River. The early run of chums to the small streams
on the north bank of the Fraser River was above average and commenced to arrive on
the grounds early in October. No early-run chums reached the lower streams on the
south bank of the Fraser, but there was a plentiful supply of the late run of this species.
North Vancouver Area
The escapement of cohoes to the Capilano and Seymour Rivers was satisfactory,
about equal to the brood-year. There was a considerable increase in the number of this
species observed in Indian River. The escapement of pinks to the Capilano and Seymour
Rivers was light and far below brood-year levels. This was more or less expected owing
to the severe damage by flash floods in the fall of 1949. Indian River received adequate
pink-seeding. The escapement of chum salmon was very good in all streams frequented
by this species, Indian River in particular.
Squamish Area
The spring-salmon seeding, much in line with that of the brood-year, was considered
fairly adequate, there being some 16,000 spawners throughout the system. An excellent
escapement of cohoes occurred, showing increase on all spawning areas, particularly
those located in the Mamquam River. Pink-supplies were heavy, although somewhat
less than the brood-year of 1949. Chum-supplies over the watershed were moderately
good. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
M  109
STATISTICAL TABLES
LICENCES ISSUED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF FISHERIES
FOR THE 1951 SEASON
Number of
Licences
_    23
Kind of Licence
Salmon-cannery 	
Herring-cannery   3
Pilchard-cannery   	
Herring-reduction   15
Pilchard-reduction 	
Tierced salmon   3
Fish cold-storage  22
Fish-processing   21
Shell-fish cannery   10
Tuna-fish cannery  5
Fish-offal reduction  15
  4
  1
  1
  5
Fish-liver reduction	
Whale-reduction 	
Pickled herring	
Herring dry-saltery 	
Processing aquatic plants 	
Harvesting aquatic plants	
Fish-buyers'   574
Non-tidal fishing   382
Dogfish-reduction 	
General receipts       6
Total	
Revenue
$4,600.00
300.00
1,500.00
300.00
2,200.00
21.00
10.00
5.00
15.00
4.00
100.00
100.00
500.00
14,350.00
385.00
45.25
$24,435.25
PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON, SEASON 1951, SHOWING THE
ORIGIN OF SALMON CAUGHT IN EACH DISTRICT
(48-pound cases.)
District
Sockeyes
Springs
Steelheads
Cohoes
Pinks
Chums
Total
145,2311
510
24,4051
61,6941
102,5651
49,473
22,312
22,107
5,719
2301
14,8481
22,579
18,711
19,9771
12,146
3,259
61,4231
151,3251
8,305
829
66,673
3,455
70,880
30,3561
20,960
2,482
237,559
303,1021
625
35,5301
61,6961
37,742
14,778
11,8421
2,530
190,8431
105,458
1,385
295
268,233
88,2401
152,7421
130,681
5961
2,0551
9371
1741
1,082
3,133
4071
1,819
2741
1031
7061
114
148,996
58,022
513,9261
585,240
10,315
1 124
Smith Tnlpf
Vancouver Island and adjacent
Totals	
428,299
13,698
3,6551
313,674
736,093
462,101
1,957,5201
Note.—13,237 cases of bluebacks are combined with cohoes in this table for Vancouver Island. M  110
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL SALMON-PACK BY SPECIES
FROM 1943 TO 1951, INCLUSIVE
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
Sockeyes-
Springs —
Chums	
Pinks	
Cohoes	
Steelheads	
Totals-
428,299
13,698
462,101
736,093
313,674
3,6551
408,0261
9,233»
507,611
446,4561
123,6291
3,2271
259,821
21,184
230,556i
709,987
215,944
2,373
261,2301
16,4451
511,404
321,7211
221,804
5,6631
286,497
10,025
486,6151
600,7871
146,293
3,2601
543,027
8,1001
576,1331
116,6071
100,1541
4,115*
329,001*
12,801
350,188*
825,513
218,8861
2,922
247,714
19,362
255,3161
389,692
181,5461
3,9261
1,957,5201
1,498,1841
1,439,866
1,338,271
1,533,4781
1,348,1381
1,739,3121
1,097,557}
164,889
10,658
363,3471
530,189
186,043
3,095
1,258,221}
STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL SALMON-PACK OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA BY DISTRICTS
Total Packed by Districts in 1943 to
1951, Inclusive
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
268,233
130,681
148,996
58,022
152,742}
585,240
612,482
,1,124
139,721}
97,889
172,107}
52,750
57,961
347,9961
623,609
6,150
189,938
129,027
70,210}
19,083
58,336}
538,370}
431,498}
3,402
104,485
193,4351
72,117
14,675
38,538}
317,572
567,314
30,134
171,302}
79,718
168,935}
46,172
29,450
552,940}
456,639
28,321
413,542
105,912}
123,304
23,177
38,313
264,922
378,968
221,351}
221,471}
135,412
21,682
54,980}
492,2811
592,133}
130,883}
149,948}
59,391
6,194}
61,096
193,459
496,587
126,541}
133,589
79,697}
21,942
52,333}
Vancouver Island and
adjacent Mainland-
Other districts	
347,710}
496,407
Grand totals	
1,957,520}
1,498,184}
1,439,866
1,338,271
1,533,478}
1,348,138}
1,739,312}
1,097,557}
1,258,221 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT M  111
TABLE SHOWING THE TOTAL SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE FRASER RIVER,
ARRANGED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE FOUR-YEAR CYCLE, 1895-1951
British Columbia  _ _ 1895—395,984 1896—356,984 1897—860,459 1898—256,101
Washington  - 65,143 72,97.9                        312,048 252,000
Total  461,127 429,963                     1,172,507 508,101
British Columbia   1899—480,485 1900—229,800 1901—928,669 1902—293,477
Washington  499,646 228,704                     1,105,096 339,556
Total     980,131 458,504                    2,033,765 633,033
British Columbia .   1903—204,809 1904—   72,688 1905—837,489 1906—183,007
Washington     167,211 123,419                        837,122 182,241
Total._  372,020 196,107                     1,674,611 365,248
British Columbia  1907—   59,815 1908—   74,574 1909— 585,435 1910— 150,432
Washington  96,974 170,951                     1,097,904 248,014
TotaU..  156,789 245,525                     1,683,339 398,446
British Columbia   1911—   58,487 1912—123,879 1913—719,796 1914—198,183
Washington.  127,761 184,680                     1,673,099 335,230
Total   186,248 308,559                    2,392,895 533,413
British Columbia   1915—   91,130 1916—   32,146 1917—148,164 1918—    19,697
Washington. ,  64,584 84,637                       411,538 50,723
Total _ 155,714 116,783                        559,702 70,420
British Columbia  1919—   38,854 1920—   48,399 1921—   39,631 1922—   51,832
Washington   64,346 62,654                       102,967 48,566
Total   103,200 111,053                        142,598 100,398
British Columbia   1923—   31,655 1924—   39,743 1925—   35,385 1926—   85,689
Washington   47,402 69,369                        112,023 44,673
Total   79,057 109,112                        147,408 130,362
British Columbia  1927—   61,393 1928—   29,299 1929—   61,569 1930— 103,692
Washington...... _  97,594 61,044                        111,898 352,194
Total   158,987 90,343                        173,467 455,886
British Columbia   1931—   40,947 1932—   65,769 1933—   52,465 1934— 139,238
Washington   87,211 81,188                        128,518 352,579
Total   128,158 146.957                        180,983 491,817
British Columbia  _   1935—    62,822 1936— 184,854 1937— 100,272 1938— 186,794
Washington   54,677 59,505                         60,259 135,550
Total   117,499 244,359                        160,531 322,344
British Columbia    1939—   54,296 1940—   99,009 1941— 171,290 1942—446,371
Washington  43,512 63,890                        110,605 263,458
Total   97.808 162,899                        281,895 709,829
British Columbia _  1943—   31,974 1944—   88,515 1945—   79,977 1946— 341,957
Washington   19,117 37,509                         53,055 268,561
Total _   51,091 126,024                       133,032 610,518
British Columbia   1947—   33,952 1948—   64,823} 1949—   96,159 1950— 108,223
Washington  _ 6,760 90,441                          80,547 116,458
TotaL _. 40,712 155,264}                      176,706 224,681
British Columbia _   1951— 145,321
Washington _ 118,151
Total... _ 263,472 M 112
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES
Fraser River, 1943 to 1951, Inclusive
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
145,231}
5,719
35,530}
66,673
14,848}
230}
108,223
1,818}
23,343}
72
6,025}
240
96,159}
9,889
6,763
66,626
10,286
214}
64,823}
2,955}
20,209
31
16,102
364
33,952}
1,455
16,4751
113,136}
6,105
178
341,957
1,096}
60,713
429
9,1685
178
79,977
6,130}
27,610
95,748}
11,615
2701
88,515
12,577}
13,803}
130
15,564}
293
31,973}
3,505}
52,149
29,860}
8,809
244
Pinks
Totals	
268,233
139,721}
189,938
104,485
171,302}
413,542
221,351}
130,883}
126,541}
Skeena River, 1943 to 1951, Inclusive
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
61,694}
2,055}
14,778
30,356}
19,9771
1,819
47,479}
1,758}
10,969
26,256
9,781
65,937
2,507}
4,896
33,069}
21,333}
2,507}
101,2671
4,018}
11,863
50,656
22,086}
3,544
32,534
2,113
8,236
13,190}
21,600}
2,044
52,928
2,439
11,161
10,737
26,281}
2,366
104,279}
2,382
9,264
69,783}
34,201}
1,561
68,197
1,5001
8,741}
48,837
20,191}
2,481
28,268}
1,783
6,597
Pinks
54,509
40,479}
1,952
Totals  . . .
130,681
97,889
129,027
193,435}
79,718
105,912}
221,471}
149,9481
133,589
Rivers Inlet, 1943 to 1951, Inclusive
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
102,565}
937}
11,842}
20,960
12,146
274}
142,710}
619}
10,014}
12,864
5,736
163
39,494}
743
11,819
11,937
5,978
239
37,665}
899}
11,486}
13,491
8,143
431}
140,087
475
13,873
9,025
5,182
293}
73,320
1,108}
37,395}
1,641}
9,5241
314
89,735
1,191}
16,793
9,916
17,516}
260
36,582}
805
2,705
5,289}
13,921
88
47,602}
765
11,448
8,347
11,466
69
Totals.    - ..
148,996
172,107}
70,210}
72,117
168,935}
123,304
135,412
59,391
79,697}
Smith Inlet, 1943 to 1951, Inclusive
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
49,473
174}
3,259
2,482
2,530
103}
42,435
71}
397
5,308
4,499}
39
13,189
159
785
2,533
2,361
56
10,456}
186}
929}
1,481}
1,521}
99}
36,800
43
348
1,054
7,910
21
14,318
45
177
235
8,369
33
15,014
26
560
2,362
3,692
28
3,165
66
343
498}
2,122
666
15,010
118
541
Pinks
556
5,693
24
Totals 	
58,022
52,750
19,083
14,675
46,172
23,177
21,682
6,194}
21,942 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
M  113
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES—Continued
Nass River, 1943 to 1951, Inclusive
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
Sockeyes  	
24,405}
596}
37,742
70,880
18,711
407}
27,286}
798}
14,321
12,582
2,737
236
9,268
1741
7,854
34,324
6,665
51
13,181}
416
7,272}
8,565
8,954}
149
10,849
398
8,925
5,047
4,075
156
12,511
472
13,810
7,147
4,239
134
9,899
202
4,981}
35,9181
3,895
84}
13,083
681}
9,143
31,854
6,102
232}
13,412}
1,0021
10,146}
Pinks	
17,669
9,768
335
Totals	
152,742}
57,961
58,336}
38,538}
29,450
38,313
54,980}
61,096
52,333}
Vancouver Island District and Adjacent Mainland, 1943 to 1951, Inclusive
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
22,107
3,133
105,458
303,1021
151,325}
114
13,806
3,343
125,833
132,016
72,871
127}
19,4861
6,361}
51,629
361,783}
98,958}
151}
9,981}
6,622
147,227}.
43,574}
109,939}
227
14,543
4,942}
99,6791
355,992
77,684}
99
35,381}
2,283}
190,313
6,809}
29,983
151}
5,988
2,323
136,724
242,590}
104,528
128
5,288}
3,068}
56,029}
49,092
79,813}
165
7,185
2,937
132,843
Pinks  	
130,825
73,8461
74
Totals	
585,240
347,996}
538,370}
317,572
552,940}
264,922
492,281}
193,459
347,710}
' Since 1940, bluebacks have been included with the cohoe-pack for Vancouver Island.
Queen Charlotte Islands, 1943 to 1951, Inclusive
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
510
89
48
148,669
92,986
9,021
15
24,852}
1,550
8,141}
20
145
71,287
51,722
4,145
157
20
81,916
90,993
19,615
1
53
T4T696
1,200
392
4
12,132
4,809
1,108
Chums 	
Pinks	
61,696}
3,455
22,579
32,414
8,024
1,192
5
35,370
313
14,488
Totals
88,240}
250,828
34,544
127,319
15,688
41,635
18,053
192,702
50,224
Central Area, 1943 to 1951, Inclusive
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
22,312
1,082
190,843}
237,559
61,423}
706}
25,997
776
164,884
163,301
17,061
762
16,140}
1,007
116,292}
173,456
44,169
355
23,2461
1,195}
225,686
152,200}
36,816
850}
17,343}
514}
292,604}
101,241}
28,778
469
12,611}
656
221,958
81,584}
19,589
934
24,109
542
138,992
364,385
45,462}
590
32,715
643
80,793
162,986
25,823
666
21,101
547
109,101
Pinks	
288,109}
Cohoes..   	
Steelheads 	
26,645
397
Totals
513,926}
372,781
351,420
439,995
440,951
337,333
574,080}
303,626
445,900} M  114
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF PILCHARD PRODUCTS
PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1930 TO 1951
Season
Canned
Meal
Oil
1930-31  :	
Cases
55,166
17,336
4,622
2,946
35,437
27,184
35,007
40,975
69,473
7,300
59,166
72,498
42,008
94,512
78,772
79,536
4,359
2,656
Tons
13,934
14,200
8,842
1,108
7,628
8,666
8,715
8,483
8,891
906
4,853
11,437
11,003
15,209
8,435
5,812
699
67
Gal.
3,204,058
1031-37
2,551,914
1037-33
1,315,864
iq33_34
275,879
1034-35
1,635,123
1035-36
1,634,592
1036-37
1,217,087
1017-38
1,707,276
1038-30
2,195,850
1939-40
178,305
890,296
1040-41
1041-47
1,916,191
1942-43     	
1,560,269
1943^(4
2,238,987
1,675,090
1044-45
1045-46
1,273,329
104fi_d7
81,831
1947-48
12,833
IO4R-40
1040-50
1050-51
1951-52.      	
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF HERRING PRODUCTS
PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1935 TO 1951
Season
Canned
Dry-salted
Pickled
Meal
Oil
1935-36.
1936-37-.
1937-38-
1938-39-
1939-40.
1940-41-
1941-42-
1942^13--
1943^14-
1944-45-
1945-46-
1946-47-
1947-48-
1948-49-
1949-50-
1950-51..
1951-52..
Cases
26,143
20,914
27,365
23,353
418,021
640,252
1,527,350
1,253,978
1,198,632
1,190,762
1,307,514
1,634,286
1,283,670
92,719
77,913
56,798
103,928
Tons
14,983
16,454
10,230
7,600
7,596
5,039
302
5,807
3,084*
412
3,858
4,418
4,331
Tons
892
779
502
591
26
100
129}
1
Tons
Gal.
5,313
328,639
10,340
786,742
14,643
1,333,245
18,028
1,526,117
22,870
1,677,736
10,886
923,137
8,780
594,684
4,633
323,379
7,662
512,516
9,539
717,655
5,525
521,649
7,223
484,937
18,948
1,526,826
31,340
2,614,925
30,081
3,823,464
31,913
3,385,685
32,777
3,832,301
* Previously reported as 2,988 tons.
The above figures are for the season October to March 31st, annually. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
M  115
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF MEAL, OIL, AND FERTILIZER
PRODUCED FROM SOURCES OTHER THAN HERRING AND PILCHARD, 1941 TO 1951.
Season
From Whales
Whalebone
and Meal
Fertilizer
Oil
From Fish-
livers
Oil
From Other Sources
Meal and
Fertilizer
Oil
1941^12..
1942-43-
1943-44-
1944-45..
1945^16..
1946-47..
1947-48..
1948-19-
1949-50-
1950-51-
1951-52-
Tons
270
130
62
Tons
561
205
90
119
921
1,098
1,981
324
21
Gal.
619,025
255,555
134,553
186,424
312,055
393,176t
680,129
Gal.
916,723
822,250
545,736
445,858
211,914
11,109,063*
10,121,374*
12,079,015*
3,578,905t
5,250,4411:
Tons
5,410
4,768
4,332
2,721
4,560
4,208
3,929
1,172
1,635
1,717
3,593
Gal.
405,340
338,502
60,000
301,048
513,442
453,003
519,802
141,098
175,202
166,898
250,777
* Fish-liver oil, formerly reporled in gallons, is now reported in million U.S.P. units Vitamin A.
t Includes oil from whales.
t Includes Vitamin A production from whales. M  116
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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