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REPORT of THE FOREST SERVICE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31st 1951 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1953

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
HON. E. T. KENNEY, Minister C. D. ORCHARD, Deputy Minister of Forests
REPORT
of
THE FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31st
1951
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1952  Victoria, B.C.
To His Honour Clarence Wallace, C.B.E.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service of the
Department of Lands and Forests for the calendar year 1951.
E. T. KENNEY,
Minister of Lands and Forests. The Honourable E. T. Kenney,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Forest
Service during the calendar year 1951.
C. D. ORCHARD,
Deputy Minister and Chief Forester. CONTENTS
Item Page
1. Introductory  9
2. Forest Surveys and Inventory  14
Forest Surveys  14
Forest Inventory  18
3. Forest Research _.  29
Forest Experimental Station, Cowichan Lake  29
Experimental Thinning Plots  29
Brush and Weed Control  29
Pruning and Debudding  29
Forest Experimental Station, Aleza Lake  31
Plantation Management  31
Direct-seeding Studies  31
Group Seed-trees Study  32
Cone-maturity Study  3 2
Chemical Germination Studies .  3 2
Cone Production  32
Commercial Thinning Experiments in Douglas Fir  33
Nursery Fertility Studies  3 5
Field Survival of Nursery Stock  37
Soil-moisture Studies  39
Nursery Germination of Western Hemlock  39
Ecological Studies :  39
West Coast of Vancouver Island  39
East Coast of Vancouver Island  44
Kamloops Forest District  44
Mensuration  45
Cutting Methods in Overmature Spruce-Balsam  45
Lodgepole-pine Study in the Central Interior  46
Boys Camps  48
Permanent Study-plots Established and in Use as at December 31st, 1951 48
Research Publications __.  49
4. Reforestation   50
Forest Nurseries  50
Seed Collections  50
Reconnaissance and Survey Work  51
Planting  51
Preparation of Planting Areas  51
Plantations  51
5. Parks and Recreation  53
Administration and Development  53
Maintenance    57
Planning  58
Reconnaissance and Inventory  59
Summary of Parks  60
New Parks  61
Wild-life Management  61
Engineering and Architectural Design  61
5 6 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Item Page
6. Forest Management  64
Sustained-yield Management  65
Forest Management Licences ...  65
Public Working-circles  66
Farm Wood-lots  66
Management Engineering  66
Forest-cover Maps  67
Silvicultural Fund  67
7. Forest Protection  68
Weather  68
Fires  68
Occurrences and Causes  68
Cost of Fighting Fires  69
Damage  69
Fire-control Planning and Research  69
Visibility Mapping, Lookout Photography, and Trail and Road Traverses 70
Modern Aids in Fire-fighting  70
Fire-weather Records and Investigations  71
Fire-suppression Crews  71
Aircraft  72
Roads and Trails  72
Forest Service Marine Station ._  74
Building and Construction  74
Mechanical Equipment  76
Automotive  76
Tankers and Trailers  76
Tractors, Graders, and Gas-shovels  76
Outboard Motors, Pumps, and Chain-saws  77
Miscellaneous Equipment  77
Mechanical Inspection  78
Radio Communication  78
Slash-disposal and Snag-falling  80
Fire-law Enforcement  80
Forest Closures  81
Co-operation—Other Agencies  82
8. Forest-insect Investigations  83
Forest-insect Survey  83
Special Studies  83
9. Forest-disease Investigations  87
Diseases of Mature and Overmature Timber  87
Diseases of Immature Forests  88
Diseases of Forest-nursery Stock  90
10. Forest Ranger School  92
Extra Courses  93
Buildings and Grounds  93
Acknowledgments  94 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 7
Item Page
11. Public Relations and Education  _ 95
Press and Radio  95
Publications and Printing  95
Photography and Motion Pictures  95
Exhibits  96
Signs and Posters  96
Co-operation  97
Library  97
12. Grazing  98
Introduction  98
Administration  98
General Conditions  99
Co-operation  99
Range Improvements  99
Reconnaissance  101
Grazing, Hay, and Special-use Permits  101
Miscellaneous  101
13. Personnel  102
14. Appendix — Tabulated Detailed Statements to Supplement Report of Forest
Service  111  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE
FOREST SURVEYS AND INVENTORY
During the year, Federal financial assistance towards completion of a forest inventory
was initiated. An all-time high of 136 persons were engaged on forest surveys, permitting
completion of 8,710,200 acres. An index map showing the numbering of the regions
which comprise the area reference system for the inventory is included in this Report.
Twenty-three regions have been wholly or partly surveyed. A forest inventory showing
23,259,906 acres of mature timber bearing 74.6 billion cubic feet was evolved by revising
previously available information in the light of standard forest-surveys data compiled
to date.
RESEARCH
A new series of experiments in brush and weed control were initiated at Cowichan
Lake Station. An interim report on pruning and debudding experiment indicates a
significant loss of increment. At Aleza Lake Station good progress was made on the
physical development of the station, notably a trunk road. Training in plantation
management has been instituted. Direct-seeding studies were carried out on an area
treated for rodent control, and also a group seed-tree study, both by arrangement with
industrial concerns.
Cone and seed production was rather indifferent and much below the optimum year
of 1945. The first thinning on a commercial scale, tried out in fifty-year-old Douglas
fir at the Cowichan Lake Station, gave indication that such treatments are economically
feasible. Cost studies indicated logs could be extracted to roadside for $25 per M f.b.m.
Nursery-fertility studies were maintained at all three nurseries, and results showed
a further decline in seedling growth. These fertility studies were followed up by a field
examination of survival ratios of fertilized planting stock.
An experimental nursery in the forest was established to enable studies of germination of western hemlock under natural surroundings. Ecological studies on both the
eastern and western coasts of Vancouver Island—the former in co-operation with the
Department of Biology, University of British Columbia—were carried out. An outline
only is given of the east coast studies, but preliminary results of the work on the west
coast are given in some detail. Another study, in the Kamloops Forest District, is also
detailed.
The work of re-examination of growth-study plots was maintained.
A variety of cutting treatments were embarked upon in the spruce-balsam types of
the Kamloops Forest District to determine the most advantageous silvicultural standards.
A study of the regeneration and conditions governing same, following cuts for
various products, was made in the lodgepole pine sites of the North-central Interior.
REFORESTATION
The objective of 10,000,000 seedlings from the three coast nurseries was maintained,
but frost damage reduced the number satisfactory for distribution. In the East Kootenay
nursery, seed-beds were sown for 1,000,000 seedlings. A bumper crop of Douglas fir
seed was indicated but not fulfilled owing to severe frosts which damaged the flowers.
Twenty-six thousand acres in the lower Fraser Valley were reconnoitred. Spring planting was held up by heavy snow, but it was possible to continue to mid-May. Dry, warm
weather and severe summer drought almost doubled normal mortality in the plantations.
Three fall planting projects were concluded. A total of 6,070 acres was planted during
the year with 5,734,000 seedlings. Industry planted 1,808,000 trees on 2,235 acres.
Snags were cleared on 6,583 acres. 10 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PARKS AND RECREATION
The majority of park-vote moneys expended during the year were again spent on
Mount Seymour Park Road and the Manning Park administrative and concession area.
Nevertheless, it was possible to allocate funds for the initiation of projects in Miracle
Beach, Silver Star, and Cultus Lake Parks. Revised park regulations were established.
The appointment of a wildlife specialist was made.
The personnel of the Division commenced the preparation of long-term plans for
an integrated Province-wide park system.
Extensive use was made of youth-training crews, particularly in the initiation of
a series of camp and picnic sites on the Hope-Princeton and Fraser Valley Roads, in the
Island parks, and the Okanagan.
The engineering and architectural designing section produced plans and estimates
for a variety of projects, including boundary surveys, road surveys, buildings, and dams
and either carried out the projects or supervised construction. The Province now has
sixty-four parks, in four classes, containing 9,015,373 acres.
FOREST MANAGEMENT
Every aspect of this division showed expansion during the year, with all-time records
being established in many cases. Despite adverse spring logging conditions and an all-
time record closure due to fire hazard during the summer, the total cut of all products hit
a record of 4,696,000,000 feet board measure, with an estimated value of $504,807,930.
There was an interesting switch in export markets, the total to the United States being
but 71,000,000 feet as compared to 736,000,000 in 1950, while exports to the United
Kingdom increased from 244,000,000 in 1950 to 703,000,000 in 1951. Fir, with
1,842,000,000 feet (39 per cent of the total), led the cut, followed by hemlock, cedar,
and spruce in that order. The cut in four of the forest districts showed increases, only
the Vancouver Forest District cut dropping by about 225,000,000 feet. First cuts were
made on management licences.
Timber sales during the year numbered 2,962, valued at $24,621,000. A total of
7,009 sales were in force at the year's end. Stumpage prices showed an increase of
52 per cent in weighted average for all species.
A total of 2,100 sawmills and sixty shingle-mills operated. Registered timber marks
issued numbered 5,500.
Two new management licences were issued, bringing the total to ten. Twelve other
applications have been approved. Field work has been completed on eight public
working-circles and a further eighteen areas are under review. By the end of the year,
thirty-four applications for farm wood-lot licences had been received and two of these
granted with six more nearing completion. Two applications have been received for
tree-farm certificates.
Work on four access roads is under way at points in the Interior. The hazard
resulting from timber sales in the Interior districts was reduced by seven large crews
and a number of smaller units operating under the silvicultural fund. Moneys from this
fund were also expended on tree-marking, special studies in spruce-balsam types, thinning
of overstocked lodgepole pine and Christmas-tree plots.
FOREST PROTECTION
The year presented one of the most difficult and hazardous periods in the forest-fire
annals of the Province. Particularly in the Vancouver Forest District, conditions were
extreme and a record eighty days of various degrees of closure was established. Fires
during the year numbered 1,923, well above the average number for the past decade and
only exceeded eight times in the previous forty years.    The three main causes were REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 11
lightning and campers and smokers (responsible for 60 per cent), and railway operations
(11 per cent). Fire-fighting costs broke all records, partially due to high wage-rates
paid by both Forest Service and industry.
The total area burned was 420,950 acres, less than half that of the previous year
owing to high acreage in 1950 in the Peace River Block.
Visibility mapping of lookout points was continued but panoramic lookout photography and trail and road traversing was dropped through staff shortage. Fire-weather
investigations are being continued through the co-operation of the Canadian Department
of Transport. Thirteen suppression crews again provided effective prompt primary
action on many fires.
A total of 1,482 flying hours were logged under the charter with Central B.C.
Airways. All aircraft were radio equipped and proved invaluable in parachuting supplies
to ground crews, dropping markers to indicate direction of fires, flying supervising officers
over fires, providing photographs or maps of fires promptly to ground crews, and other
work.
Road and trail construction totalled 183 miles, and maintenance 1,412 miles.
The marine station was heavily laden with repairs to pumps and outboards but
produced a satisfactory volume of routine maintenance and construction work. Twenty
new boats were built, ranging from dinghies to 34-foot Assistant Ranger craft; seventeen
lookout and twenty-four sectional buildings were constructed, together with office furniture and other items.
Thirty-four major building projects were under way during the year, of which
twenty were completed.
All major items of mechanical equipment required were secured. These included
eighty-two automotive vehicles, three drop-on tankers, fifteen trailers, seven tractors,
two graders, one gasoline-shovel, thirty-one outboard motors, thirty-four fire-pumps,
and eighty-eight power-saws. Lighting plants, pumping plants, air-compressors, and
a special unit for burning sawdust were acquired.
The work of the radio section was also interrupted by the fire situation, but good
progress was nevertheless achieved in the regular programme of development. A total of
sixty-one new units was purchased or built. Experimental work in frequency modulation
continued. Eight of the 6 Vi-pound portable units reported on last year were built by
the section. A total of 514 units of various types is now in use. A total of 39,726
messages was handled during the year.
Slash-disposal was seriously hampered by the dry season. In all, 21,561 acres of
slash were burned in accidental fires. Snag-falling concurrently with logging operations
was very satisfactory, and, in addition, 7,117 acres were snagged by the Forest Service,
including the 6,380 acres by the Reforestation Division. There were seventy-seven
prosecutions, mainly for contraventions of the closure orders or for failure to render
assistance in fire-fighting.
FOREST INSECT AND DISEASE INVESTIGATIONS
The forest-insect and forest-pathology units of Science Service, Canada Department
of Agriculture, have again co-operated in furnishing reports of their activities for inclusion in this Report.
The forest-insect survey secured 6,316 collections throughout the Province, 694 of
them from the Forest Service. Spruce bud-worm, black-headed bud-worm, hemlock
looper, and bark-beetles constituted the more important insect pests during the year.
Special studies included investigation of the one-year-cycle and two-year-cycle
spruce bud-worm; the mortality of timber defoliated by the hemlock looper epidemic
of 1946; use of ground-sprayed insecticides in the control of bark-beetles in lodgepole
pine; control of spruce-bark beetles in the Okanagan area and mountain-pine beetles in 12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
the East Kootenays; and probable results of flooding on insect populations in the
Tweedsmuir Park region.
Research was continued in the forest-seed insect field and preventive measures taken
to control the costly outbreak of strawberry-root weevil at the Duncan nursery of the
Forest Service.
In the forest-disease field, work was reorganized to establish a regular survey of
disease incidence. Activities were also directed toward development of a pathological
tree classification, which has since been adopted by the Forest Surveys Division of the
Forest Service.
Studies were continued in western hemlock in the Big Bend area, in hemlock and
amabilis fir near Terrace, and in alpine fir in the Summit Lake and Bolean Lake areas.
Deterioration studies were made in wind-damaged white spruce at Crescent Spur and
Douglas fir on Vancouver Island.
In immature stands, the pole-blight disease of western white pine, root-rot of
Douglas fir, and dwarf mistletoe on western hemlock were investigated.
RANGER SCHOOL
It is a point of importance and interest that all rangers in the Service who are
eligible for enrolment at the Ranger School have now completed a course of training
there, and hereafter students will be drawn entirely from the assistant ranger ranks as
long as the present policy of restricting training to in-service individuals is maintained.
The fifth class to undergo training, completed the nine-month course in December.
A total of 901 hours' instruction and tests was given during the two terms in the year.
For a fourth time a special course was given to lookout men of the Vancouver Forest
District.
PUBLIC RELATIONS AND EDUCATION
Public education through press advertisements and radio broadcasts was continued,
with some expansion being possible in the latter medium. Publications produced were
at approximately the same level as the previous year, but there was extensive expansion
in the photographic services and in the production of protection and directional signs.
Use of the Service library increased. The school lecture service in co-operation with the
Canadian Forestry Association was continued. Lack of suitable exhibits necessitated
limiting this phase of the work.
GRAZING
The grazing industry constituted an important phase of British Columbia economy
and good range management must be put into effect to maintain the industry at the
highest possible level. Due to current market conditions, demand for grazing range is
high and applications must receive careful attention to avoid excessive use. The severe
fire season had considerable effect on grazing administration and to the load of protection
work in many ranger districts.
Grazing fees under the sliding-scale formulas were approximately 35 per cent higher
than in 1950.
The winter of 1950-51 was relatively mild, but cool, dry weather during the spring
months retarded forage-growth. The Kamloops District also experienced severe summer
drouth but in the Nelson District the drought was brief and later range conditions good.
Grasshopper-damage was higher.
Close contact was maintained with stock associations and other agencies and excellent co-operation received from these organizations. Increased funds made possible an
enlarged and diversified programme. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1951 13
To alleviate labour shortage the Service established a range-improvement crew
in the Kamloops District, which made possible work on projects that could not otherwise
have been handled. Thirteen range-seeding trials, disseminating over two tons of seed
over 800 acres, were made possible amongst other projects.
Control of the goat-weed problem was continued, using chemicals as in earlier
efforts but adding biological measures through the use of imported Chrysolina beetles.
The horse-control programme rounded up eighty-four head and 259 wild animals were
destroyed.    Range reconnaissance covered 602,540 acres.
Grazing permits increased in number and fees billed and collected reached a new
record.
PERSONNEL
Late in the spring, pressure of personnel problems, and the increasing load upon
senior officers of the Service which resulted, made it desirable to appoint a special officer
to deal with this phase of the work. Matters of personnel organization, policies and
procedures, classifications, and individual staff problems are now under the jurisdiction
of the Personnel Officer. 14 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST SURVEYS AND INVENTORY
The new Division of Forest Surveys and Inventory was established January 1st,
1951, with the dissolution of the Forest Economics Division. During the course of the
year, Federal-Provincial agreement for financial assistance for inventory was initiated
and became operative from April 1st, 1951. With this help the new inventory can be
completed in five years.
In the tables presented herein, the breakdown of the forest resources into classes is'
not comprehensive, but compilation work is being undertaken to enable future statements
to show additional classes, such as Management Licence forest, Protection forest, Scenic
forest, Public Working Circle forest, etc.
FOREST SURVEYS
In the 1951 field season a total of 136 persons was employed on forest survey
parties and work was done to provide maps and forest data, when compilations are
complete, of the following areas:— Acres
Lower Coast      966,700
North Coast :      586,000
South-western Interior  3,130,000
South-eastern Interior  1,618,000
Central Interior  1,040,000
North-western Interior  1,015,000
Special cruises       354,500
Total   8,710,200
The above total includes 653,700 acres of the E. & N. Railway land grant (Region
No. 7) to cover additional work done to calculate the mature-timber values which,
together with the surveys of 1946-48, comprise a complete survey of the total area of
2,067,500 acres. The necessity of proceeding with this additional work delayed the
issue of the new information for this region by a year, and it is now expected in 1952.
Included with this report is an index-map showing the numbering of the regions
which comprise the area reference system for the inventory. The work of obtaining
standard forest survey data not previously reported has resulted, to date, in the whole or
partial survey of the following regions: Nos. 7, 12, 13, 17, 18, 22, 25, 27, 28, 29, 30,
32, 34, 35, 36, 54, 59, 60, 65, 66, 67, 68, and 75. The results of the survey of each
region will be reported individually as soon as possible. Accordingly, the results of the
work done in Regions No. 28 (Seechelt), No. 29 (Powell), and No. 59 (Upper Fraser)
are presented below, together with key-maps of each showing the total areas covered and
the compartment numbering system. The following tables give data for the whole of
each of these regions; however, similar data are available for each compartment in any
region reported. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951
15
COMPARTMENT   KEY MAP
REGIONS   28,29 and 32
SEECHELT,   POWELL and TOBA.
Seals: 15.78     Miles   = I
VANCOUVER 16
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Region No. 28 (Seechelt)
(Volumes in thousand cubic feet.)
Species
Crown
Granted
Timber Leases
and Licences
Vacant
Crown Land
Totals
Douglas fir    _	
Western red cedar    _ _...
6,838
7,114
6,430
291
2,429
41
4
112
38,420
90,156
99,351
419
50,682
637
193,525
264,767
351,844
2,129
162,006
3,562
12
43,920
14
516
2,682
238,783
362,037
457,625
2,839
215,117
Western white pine  _    _  	
4,240
16
11,451
16
212
148
55,483
30
1,117
3,763
1,845
Alder                                .                      	
6,593
Totals              	
28,139
291,492
1,024,977
1,344,608
5,160
38,500
151,010
194,670
The classification of areas is as follows:
Productive forest land—
Mature timber
Immature timber—■
1- 5 years ...
6-10 years —
11-20 years ...
21-40 years —
41-60 years
61-80 years
81-100 years	
101 years and over
Selection 	
Acres
194,670
3,600
18,460
22,290
38,040
74,530
45,470
20,490
2,230
770
Total
Not satisfactorily stocked—
Logged
Logged and burned .
Burned 	
Deciduous 	
Coniferous   	
Deciduous, coniferous mixed
Total 	
225,880
17,290
12,590
1,360
4,060
3,360
190
38,850
Total sites of productive quality
Non-productive and non-forest land—
Cultivated and villages
Barren, scrub, and alpine
Swamp and water ___ 	
Total non-productive sites
Total area of region 	
459,400
3,520
484,520
14,080
502,120
961,520
Region No. 29 (Powell)
(Volumes in thousand cubic feet.)
Species
Crown
Granted
Timber Leases
and Licences
Vacant
Crown Land
Totals
Douglas fir	
Western red cedar_
Western hemlock.—
Sitka spruce .
Silver fir (balsam)	
Western white pine	
Yellow cedar (cypress)..
Broad-leaved maple	
Alder. 	
606
702
692
49
5
8,646
29,628
48,222
91
19,458
373
8,490
44
44
82,448
239,436
262,659
2,515
97,469
4,357
43,913
330
535
91,700
269,766
311,573
2,606
116,976
4,735
52,411
374
584
Totals                                          .
2,067
114,996
733,662
850,725
270
12,380
91,550
104,200 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951
17
The classification of areas is as follows:-
Productive forest land—
Mature timber
IVi.lLlUC     LlH-UGl     	
Immature timber—
1- 5 years
6-10 years
11-20 years
21-40 years
41-60 years
61-80 years
81-100 years	
101 years and over .
Selection  	
Acres
104,200
1,730
12,630
18,890
65,210
43,830
11,670
3,230
550
280
Total
Not satisfactorily stocked-
Logged
Logged and burned
Burned 	
Deciduous  	
Coniferous   	
Deciduous, coniferous mixed
158,020
4,760
6,360
1,110
510
20
1,450
Total
14,210
Total sites of productive quality
Non-productive and non-forest land—
Cultivated and villages
Barren, scrub, and alpine —
Swamp and water 	
276,430
2,410
182,590
53,060
Total non-productive sites
Total area of region 	
238,060
514,490
Region No. 59 (Upper Fraser)
(Volumes in thousand cubic feet.)
Species
Crown
Granted
Timber Leases
and Licences
Vacant
Crown Land
Totals
White spruce	
Western hemlock ._.
Silver fir (balsam).
Western red cedar _.
Douglas fir 	
Lodgepole pine	
Aspen (poplar)-	
Birch	
Cottonwood .
Alder	
Totals .
Acres
41,090
2,739
15,299
10,562
2,892
10,842
1,342
1,838
4,960
27
91,591
19,510
75,278
8,733
30,110
14,892
1,468
7,946
2,365
4,300
1,312
146,404
36,119
6,096,943
367,219
2,762,792
1,017,483
183,587
1,141,853
52,385
132,463
126,398
360
11,881,483
2,702,838
6,213,311
378,691
2,808,201
1,042,937
187,947
1,160,641
56,092
138,601
132,670
387
12,119,478
2,758,467
The classification of areas is as follows:—
Productive forest land—
Mature timber	
Immature timber —
Not satisfactorily stocked—
Following cut-over
Following burns, etc.
Acres
2,758,467
995,810
51,016
171,505
Total
Total sites of productive quality
Non-productive and non-forest land—■
Cultivated and villages 	
Barren, scrub, and alpine
Swamp and water 	
222,521
3,976,798
29,465
3,179,915
151,907
Total non-productive sites
Total area of region	
3,361,287
7,338,085 18 . DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The above tables for Region No. 59 are based on a portion completed by standard
surveys and a portion of the previously existing information interpreted by aerial-
photograph reconnaissance, for which details will not be available until covered by
standard survey.
FOREST INVENTORY
Presented with this report is a statement of the forest resources of each of the
regions shown on the index-map of the Province showing the area reference system of
the inventory. The data are the previously available information revised to incorporate
the standard forest surveys compiled to date. From year to year, as more new information is compiled, the statement will be changed accordingly, and when all regions have
been surveyed and revised to an acceptable standard, the resulting inventory will be
maintained by current revision and maintenance surveys.
The work of obtaining new and better information is proceeding on the accelerated
standard forest survey programme, and also on an auxiliary programme of reconnaissance
surveys utilizing the recently available total vertical aerial-photograph cover of the
Province. The reconnaissance survey will not attempt a detailed revision of the existing
cruise data, but will provide, for the first time, a recapitulation based on a distribution and
occurrence of productive forest land recorded by the camera and reliably positioned on
the map.
The following table of the mature timber of the Province shows the distribution
of the forest resources of the inventory statement broken down geographically into Coast
and Interior. 93
j
15
II
COMPARTMENT  KEY MAP
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Mature Volumes of Regions by Species, on Crown-granted Lands1 of British Columbia as at December 31st, 1951
(Volumes in thousand cubic feet.)
Region
Quatsino	
Nimpkish	
Kyuquot	
Sayward_.I	
Clayoquot	
Juan de Fuca	
E. & N. Railway Belt.
Gulf Islands	
North Shore	
Harrison	
Fraser South	
Skagit	
Similkameen	
Okanagan .	
Granby	
Rossland	
Kootenay	
Yahk	
Elk	
Flathead	
Windermere.
Slocan 	
Lower Arrow—
Kettle	
Pennask	
Fraser Canyon
Lillooet	
Seechelt	
Powell	
Coast Islands.—
Loughborough..
Toba	
Bridge	
Nicola .	
Long Lake	
Monte Hills	
Shuswap	
Spallumcheen.
Upper Arrow.
Duncan	
Upper Columbia	
Big Bend Columbia
Momich	
Celista 1	
Niskonlith	
Tranquille	
Cariboo _	
Chilcotin	
Klinaklini	
Kingcome	
Gilford	
Seymour	
Rivers	
Bella Coola_.:	
Westroad	
Quesnel	
Nehalliston	
North Thompson
Upper Fraser	
Nechako	
Kitimat	
Moresby	
Graham	
Lower Skeena.
Upper Skeena.
Babine	
Morice	
Stuart	
Parsnip	
Pine	
Kiskatinaw.
Beatton	
Peace	
Omineca	
Nass	
Stikine	
Finlay	
Sikinni	
Muskwa	
Kechika	
Alsek	
Atlin	
Taku	
Teslin	
Dease	
Liard	
Fort Nelson .
Petitot	
Totals
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70'
71
72
73
74'
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
Acres
36,480
14,110
15,280
3,430
16,060
32,680
665,710
79,222
17,020
280
3,360
240
48,059
57,800
43,289
680
122,066
61,668
48,395
16,923
132,657
1,054
160
2,890
74,852
15,209
5,160
270
12,910
6,564
9,160
15,140
21,515
10,050
50,285
5,945
2,420
19,600
19,695
1,095
880
8,740
4,260
20,345
1,900
2,900
60
960
1,040
2,730
13,540
740
6,078
6,078
15,665
19,510
22,080
4,250
1,220
2,360
49,190
6,330
8,490
9,180
4,520
2,400
2,240
3,900
Fir
3,222
54,020
39,930
13,236
5,850
53,590
2,465,082
96,732
17,724
2,506
2,962
360
40,718
21,510
12,343
5
22,215
12,253
14,000
3,325
83,203
623
58
1,203
27,290
13,160
6,838
606
15,580
4,213
3,615
3,543
11,583
4,488
30,590
2,047
468
2,600
2,695
127
318
8,240
3,783
10,340
190
4,800
28
20,452
72
5,271
5,271
6,488
2,892
3,232
490
180
1,910,969 | 3,168,160
Cedar
Hemlock
Spruce
60,180
8,572
12,040
1,984
44,624
35,004
343,732
9,366
17,794
1,022
1,190
280
695
970
1,713
170
41,978
9,024
9,338
43
248
70
14,740
7,114
702
7,220
170
616
4,938
4,467
7,215
31,000
32,002
100
130
3
2,540
10
1,358
2,444
3,848
10,620
113
113
3,178
10,562
3,789
796
1,252
28,635
1,848
50
1,025
964
783,599
79,964
30,706
34,042
7,446
24,468
51,348
626,240
1,118
26,612
1,382
844
23
73
46,930
1,858
41
470
62
2,320
6,430
692
5,966
5
1,530
6,209
1,438
4,800
4,820
454
643
3,040
100
1,490
514
1,875
3,774
18
18
1,235
2,739
6,888
2,970
5,514
111,473
8,667
50
2,625
16,466
1,138,390
10,116
1,464
986
1,512
5,320
9,040
1,704
82
1,212
42
134
1,701
1,670
600
323
24,115
43,985
88,229
15,110
10,200
158
13
235
1,140
291
610
25
653
1,120
301
314
13,200
13,282
35
320
5
1,313
1,740
40
232
3,551
6,056
304
1,084
1,084
3,160
41,090
7,208
4,868
2,144
4,222
19,022
2,730
2,800
4,350
3,630
2,760
3,130
4,085
369,850
Balsam
White
Pine
Yellow
Pine
Lodgepole
Pine
Yellow
Cedar
39,314
2,970
9,290
2,198
13,382
21,946
111,058
734
14,150
68
196
175
23
23
215
13,515
6,640
8,850
1,860
68
218
2,429
49
294
13
90
490
490
5
720
138
312
78
1,996
1,062
199
199
633
15,299
26
3,730
36,816
2,348
450
850
638
520
497
3,756
321,023
272
438
196
620
414
31,540
400
180
2
6
25
218
8
14,675
7,700
888
173
43
220
41
5
18
28
1,655
1,769
188
980
990
54
130
63,879
15,790
20,265
3,305
5,493
6,750
2,194
9,145
5
23
180
23,220
1,870
3,263
875
3,860
1,528
4,170
80
570
228
200
180
180
1,918
105,292
286
2,619
265
535
1,635
8,255
23,628
5,158
4,375
225
2,393
220
4
33
45
45
3
190
663
663
103
10,842
1,044
1,636
2,475
200
127
340
347
170
68,530
350
326
478
24
88
286
554
1,698
112
8
415
263
56
10
4,091
240
Larch
6,948
9,340
15
21,358
25,713
8,364
1,450
35,313
43
1,625
13,898
419
205
8,999 | 124,691
1
Cottonwood
Maple
Aspen
Alder
Birch
290
6
146
692
80
60
618
280
380
4,960
228
2,045
160
75
800
993
1,202
13,020
6
414
564
1,328
656
1,117
60
4,145
533
93
1,342
1,968
28
894
1,744
2,094
2,432
15
3,763
5
168
27
372
613
240
12,399
54
1,746
1,312
7
43
1,838
204
120
1 Including recent alienations by management licences.
Total
193,156
98,330
97,204
26,630
94,352
173,512
3,579,910
108,432
81,738
10,336
10,424
720
62,338
52,405
28,100
809
191,914
122,178
155,532
26,903
142,352
2,163
256
3,021
53,138
32,080
28,139
2,067
29,916
6,253
6,878
4,418
15,468
7,351
57,914
15,302
9,828
53,115
54,324
775
1,171
9,139
4,016
11,853
380
12,840
248
3,228
3,268
11,688
42,344
376
7,528
7,528
16,845
91,591
11,510
20,138
5,966
10,998
204,535
15,753
5,825
9,125
4,885
4,600
4,967
27,243
5,324 I 6,189,269  Mature Volumes of Regions by Species, on Crown Lands1 of British Columbia as at December 31st, 1951
(Volumes in thousand cubic feet.)
23
Region
No.
Quatsino	
Nimpkish—
Kyuquot	
Sayward	
Clayoquot.
Juan de Fuca	
E. & N. Railway Belt.
Gulf Islands	
North Shore	
Harrison	
Fraser South	
Skagit	
Similkameen	
Okanagan	
Granby.	
Rossland	
Kootenay.	
Yahk	
Elk :	
Flathead...	
Windermere.
Slocan 	
Lower Arrow..
Kettle	
Pennask	
Fraser Canyon
Lillooet	
Seechelt	
Powell	
Coast Islands	
Loughborough.
Toba	
Bridge	
Nicola	
Long Lake-
Monte Hills.
Shuswap
Spallumcheen.
Upper Arrow .
Duncan	
Upper Columbia	
Big Bend Columbia
Momich	
Celista	
Niskonlith	
Tranquille	
Cariboo	
Chilcotin :	
KlinaklinL	
Kingcome	
Gilford	
Seymour	
Rivers .	
Bella Coola
Westroad	
Quesnel.
Nehalliston	
North Thompson
Upper Fraser	
Nechako	
Kitimat	
Moresby	
Graham.-	
Lower Skeena..
Upper Skeena..
Babine	
Morice	
Stuart	
Parsnip	
Pine	
Kiskatinaw	
Beatton	
Peace	
Omineca..
Nass	
Stikine—
Finlay	
Sikinni	
Muskwa.
Kechika .
Alsek	
Atlin	
Taku	
Teslin	
Dease	
Liard	
Fort Nelson.
Petitot	
Totals.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70]
71}
721
73J
74
75%
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
Acres
257,430
145,520
499,050
223,710
374,450
281,140
4,865
13,366
124,660
11,620
35,520
23,314
380,760
370,812
99,526
9,550
142,273
133,053
102,075
58,071
236,153
85,401
50,800
70,460
278,126
14,100
86,511
151,010
91,550
45,476
77,450
60,640
26,976
136,645
81,800
87,490
93,515
169,975
155,575
139,700
202,900
202,930
211,910
77,210
109,450
142,244
355,100
292,528
98,527
45,150
38,510
27,960
188,250
293,670
175,680
487,078
437,588
220,822
:,702,838
638,680
687,880
127,470
137,060
544,660
530,390
613,280
206,030
453,010
584,740
624,360
42,430
,053,660
165,300
176,540
6,930
14,910
35,840
13,440
48,000
71,680
48,000
29,440
83,940
11,680
7,070
Fir
Cedar
12,812
77,730
255,328
411,018
182,768
182,956
12,348
19,248
96,520
68,144
58,546
18,400
216,016
152,108
24,513
700
30,523
32,550
40,769
11,875
75,035
8,583
9,762
17,215
81,710
12,140
70,460
193,525
82,448
59,918
34,915
84,914
25,745
44,063
23,635
65,340
26,821
75,128
44,972
13,250
42,000
42,125
43,645
16,248
80,698
86,388
96,653
128,500
55,626
3,192
1,758
40,340
96,776
101,630
236,070
235,089
37,645
183,587
20,130
1,700
700
90,673
26,870
118,696,883 | 4,622,494
Hemlock
Spruce
Balsam
White
Pine
Yellow
Pine
Lodgepole
Pine
268,248
135,976
533,312
189,256
655,404
504,216
1,052
1,066
338,862
34,930
44,458
14,180
11
8,185
10,370
1,940
44,123
13,355
9,945
3,138
29,440
14,634
1,748
90
8,940
41,340
264,767
239,436
30,610
72,527
93,145
1,465
9,088
33,755
103,240
78,075
142,300
142,305
83,993
27,275
2,235
57,272
59,370
85,372
54,426
292,234
201,824
153,666
139,908
57,855
1,017,483
760
403,511
93,946
105,302
454,549
31,638
2,255
1,170
75,327
7,520,303
691,972
349,468
1,384,568
613,764
766,030
885,916
832
1,042
195,264
38,950
59,934
7,520
46
20
7,868
1,798
54,988
2,495
948
300
33,468
13,373
2,210
6,480
24,640
351,844
262,659
52,634
145,998
85,702
2,785
31,778
105,410
114,775
51,400
51,465
88,394
23,503
370
66,340
89,458
•  48,662
33,490
140,450
162,782
112,100
89,895
17,205
367,219
18,440
813,610
300,446
300,420
1,771,515
498,615
91,510
34,320
1,152,229
209,098
31,200
28,560
50,064
3,446
48,384
1,000
25,614
22,950
3,384
28
10
1,200
290,289
173,750
8,138
3,935
30,605
92,943
154,769
117,758
122,083
58,835
31,379
24,285
12,083
1,340
2,129
2,515
982
9,652
6,310
1,575
500
4,050
54,060
72,570
99,794
106,225
• 142,100
142,225
180,971
59,198
86,908
29,943
4,895
222
25,926
15,528
1,568
4,754
77,539
105,116
75,500
477,807
403,038
173,325
6,096,943
182,124
166,470
220,532
205,186
302,775
265,905
405,950
103,595
352,065
715,733
723,225
23,862
438,190
203,650
207,808
16,155
27,652
38,080
10,800
16,800
25,660
16,800
43,793
154,070
36,928
11,740
12,890,175 |14,657,688
285,148
201,130
703,348
385,728
536,162
382,596
448
236
109,504
19,572
30,966
5,680
55,759
24,168
1,825
933
9,815
17,150
22,880
9,468
37,138
23,583
11,953
2,210
645
3,580
6,920
162,006
97,469
8,062
76,698
50,092
423
8,505
67,920
40,806
25,550
46,900
47,010
71,709
25,535
20,615
5,568
96
20,152
37,542
19,556
16,266
98,930
91,682
6,064
196,778
133,386
60,573
2,762,792
55,830
460,295
600,995
399,783
224,650
94,405
106,745
234,832
174,345
17,403
470,919
47,523
47,952
240
895
2,400
7,040
2,400
768
10,036,650
36
2,410
14,334
18,104
26,744
17,178
90
3,038
1,096
410
463
1,715
1,818
17,595
2,373
174
12,082
4,948
458
465
1,220
3,562
4,357
1,438
1,077
4,288
1,700
21,418
31,862
7,650
7,900
8,082
17,090
3,520
30
140
194
512
53
5,103
246,727
21,187
44,280
4,760
3,888
1,345
3,491
7,405
683
3,530
2,083
34,703
4,903
17,413
963
7,923
4,618
2,795
780
8,940
3,463
20,413
320
794
794
438
101,912
96
180
196
1,780
400,891
75,315
4,493
153
1,040
46,190
58,459
20,923
40,950
3,030
768
20,180
20,708
980
12
120
300
1,143
1,278
775
2,600
2,635
33
6,583
24,730
9,508
25,525
7,490
6,904
43,650
69,684
69,345
200
1,141,853
1,258
25,235
^16,585
429,860
17,175
145,000
92,932
216,060
10,760
16,105
28,320
450
2,940
3,542
6,660
4,800
2,500
4,800
7,640
24,515
1,852
4,573
Yellow
Cedar
Larch
Cottonwood
Maple
Aspen
9,088
48,920
76,234
66,246
49,882
15,862
2
20,540
1,502
140
880
43,920
43,913
40
3,980
6,172
1,540
6,846
2,552
27,069
2,624
42,235
7,260
14,862
64,754
15,455
66
52,183
14,808
2,825
18,490
101,665
12,754
4,000
47,108
4,113
4,823
21,648
2,183
32,060
16,242
4,725
265
3,174,262 | 572,518 I 339,958
176
98
1,024
880
776
1,323
475
22
520
14
1,280
6,960
2,524
100
126,398
1,794
44,509
170
1,280
357
46,
25,017
6,263
49,630
14,257
2,935
2,415
12,640
60
2,040
87
7,067
13,620
2,252
329,009
624
206
514
878
198
516
330
3,274
8
2,431
418
52,385
246
56
55,544
Alder
Birch
Total
658
254
1,018
576
500
17
2,682
535
30
110
360
6,298
5,914
18,958
86
390
262
2
28
135
132,463
717
1,456
764
1,317,470
819,080
3,015,508
1,686,578
2,242,604
2,012,330
14,772
21,592
768,906
166,164
196,316
49,780
987,954
531,778
78,490
14,102
211,067
310,066
304,189
164,024
333,632
173,817
95,192
92,037
150,404
32,020
147,420
1,024,977
733,662
153,842
344,847
330,623
34,111
61,976
24,598
77,613
110,903
338,702
442,326
351,025
435,200
435,847
485,802
156,357
206,379
150,092
131,469
154,663
235,766
212,244
164,274
111,488
676,725
670,232
226,844
1,247,134
1,071,455
352,344
11,881,483
278,542
1,890,332
622,184
625,770
3,272,332
1,212,696
1,156,205
251,022
694,529
1,095,384
1,119,893
52,025
2,224,589
502,848
259,145
21,750
44,729
44,800
42,000
24,000
65,800
24,000
51,520
186,420
52,400
18,565
136,303
54,805,775
1 Including recent alienations by management licences.  Mature Volumes of Regions by Species, on Timber Licences and Leases1 of British Columbia as at December 3 1st, 1951
(Volumes in thousand cubic feet.)
25
Region
No.
Acres
Fir
Cedar
Hemlock
Spruce
Balsam
White
Pine
Yellow
Pine
Lodgepole
Pine
Yellow
Cedar
Larch
Cottonwood
Maple
Aspen
Alder
Birch
Total
Quatsino...
Nimpkish..
Kyuquot...
Sayward	
Clayoquot	
Juan de Fuca	
E. & N. Railway Belt.
Gulf Islands	
North Shore	
Harrison	
Fraser South	
Skagit '.....
Similkameen	
Okanagan	
Granby	
Rossland	
Kootenay.	
Yahk	
Elk	
Flathead	
Windermere—
Slocan 	
Lower Arrow.
Kettle	
Pennask	
Fraser Canyon
Lillooet	
Seechelt	
Powell	
Coast Islands	
Loughborough..
Toba	
Bridge	
Nicola	
Long Lake	
Monte Hills—
Shuswap.
Spallumcheen
Upper Arrow..
Duncan	
Upper Columbia	
Big Bend Columbia..
Momich	
Celista	
Niskonlith	
Tranquille	
Cariboo	
Chilcotin	
Klinaklini.	
Kingcome	
Gilford	
Seymour	
Rivers	
Bella Coola	
Westroad	
Quesnel	
Nehalliston	
North Thompson.
Upper Fraser.	
Nechako	
Kitimat	
Moresby _..
Graham	
Lower Skeena.
Upper Skeena.
Babine	
Morice	
Stuart .	
Parsnip	
Pine	
Kiskatinaw.
Beatton	
Peace	
Omineca	
Nass	
Stikine	
Finlay	
Sikinni	
Muskwa.
Kechika .
Alsek.	
Atlin	
Taku	
Teslin	
Dease	
Liard	
Fort Nelson.
Petitot	
Totals
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
180,920
174,900
112,410
72,390
146,710
240,100
4,560
54,850
40,220
15,080
2,286
5,780
7,320
1,220
23,560
91,674
9,245
9,613
1,405
1,150
17,110
21,984
110,921
38,500
12,380
13,005
83,210
16,630
19,540
15,410
1,980
12,340
37,620
38,520
41,180
88,000
88,200
25,305
13,690
25,280
50,336
18,490
73,180
57,970
48,800
83,750
6,930
25,000
65,811
36,119
1,520
96,330
56,440
85,430
10,900
13,160
5,750
2,652,114
26,732
288,356
191,940
126,930
293,596
429,662
16,480
55,626
131,754
37,206
580
3,963
3,423
5
4,663
36,260
2,388
3,625
245
966
8,290
27,060
161,040
38,420
8,646
26,936
37,009
35,969
14,108
7,225
1,140
8,181
13,978
13,394
8,182
30,400
30,482
8,925
6,445
28,085
26,920
322
4,194
25,600
38,790
3,742
38,063
27,645
1,468
966
2,336,025
180,296
280,440
153,110
129,156
286,266
357,332
60
132,048
108,150
22,528
1,800
953
973
8,915
6,808
2,755
218
759
50
25,140
125,160
90,156
29,628
13,800
192,707
41,431
613
2,373
14,795
35,860
48,535
74,800
74,977
36,734
3,510
6,220
86,220
28,142
206,306
158,446
56,658
68,494
56,188
84,715
14,892
56,621
66,220
86,646
9,919
11,718
2,577
3,482,818
599,558
418,694
282,808
132,038
248,232
813,054
87,386
51,166
23,720
1,360
480
878
11,120
742
61
1,558
883
9,640
109,040
99,351
48,222
18,130
150,325
21,537
460
21,923
36,802
39,587
25,500
25,705
30,518
5,353
2,340
52,740
27,994
124,144
67,038
98,194
45,364
41,688
13,375
8,733
159,786
148,896
183,322
38,614
35,807
27,680
41,970
11,386
30,726
344
9,890
34,264
2,986
6
202
12,278
713
575
29,023
52,180
19,003
4,020
435
963
1,863
1,200
1,360
419
91
152
8,141
1,149
3,613
408
8,743
17,350
10,611
54,000
54,520
7,075
5,398
22,205
15,700
6,936
7,358
11,664
30,615
30,288
6,240
32,623
62,518
75,278
1,780
42,013
120,070
143,976
6,589
5,598
7,669
4,391,546 | 1,056,177
275,894
199,316
102,608
90,896
112,436
303,634
51,820
33,714
10,392
1,020
1,533
5
3,270
8,474
2,300
210
135
465
5,000
80,880
50,682
19,458
3,808
71,212
8,977
2,570
2,158
4,991
3,400
11,400
11,467
2,078
1,565
7,270
24,020
14,666
33,276
36,716
34,065
25,384
12,690
1,428
30,110
117,079
12,752
7,985
4,962
1,840,171
124
5,974
3,048
3,694
10,074
9,970
260
1,762
3,050
440
335
345
378
8,703
2,540
21
15
1,009
250
1,280
8,560
637
373
656
2,903
57
93
248
9,373
11,564
4,487
5,800
5,850
3,755
186
1,080
360
16
1,182
40
8,328
118,820
2,745
605
30
11,643
854
1,055
6,110
200
538
2,531
128
580
488
1,280
2,168
17,645
2,376
420
438
1,300
748
2,300
2,360
1,190
4,000
2,500
7,946
630
566
,27,019
170
10,386
56,726
4,234
4,884
5,008
5,098
7,426
4,044
2,273
68
5,488
86,041
1,008
1,990
340
450
30
2,340
6,360
11,451
8,490
9,940
211
1,400
100
16
198
6,433
6,447
1,645
10
540
555
3,240
2,262
7,162
11,282
7,841
1,510
120
2,839
6,146
8,380
1,417
1,544
1,312
692
708
330
1,654
48,525 | 189,007 | 111,931
106
776
176
212
44
2,365
64
10
102
414
46
148
44
212
330
38
216
26
4,300
71
160
9,134  1,316
2,365
1,135,024
1,260,892
768,474
487,954
965,502
1,953,014
16,800
339,750
333,320
94,736
4,760
21,342
10,072
2,882
73,383
222,333
30,766
11,320
2,811
4,715
11,356
73,060
493,800
291,492
114,996
63,482
472,237
109,331
27,855
7,425
1,678
14,409
77,403
126,408
116,447
204,740
205,916
89,085
22,585
68,970
213,320
80,338
383,622
285,186
252,973
211,374
12,482
181,252
198,009
146,404
3,376
379,036
341,332
422,324
70,848
61,108
45,532
1,376 |    4,811 |13,621,041
Including recent alienations by management licences.  Forest Inventory of British Columbia as at December 3 1st, 1951
(Volumes in thousand cubic feet.)
27
Region
No.
Date of
Survey
Mature
Acres
Other
Acres
Productive
Total
Acres
Productive
Fir
Cedar
Hemlock
Spruce
Balsam
White
Pine
Yellow
Pine
Lodgepole
Pine
Yellow
Cedar
Larch
Cottonwood
Maple
Aspen
Alder
Birch
Total
\
Quatsino	
Nimpkish	
Kyuquot	
Sayward	
Clayoquot	
Juan de Fuca	
E. & N. Railway Belt.
Gulf Islands	
North Shore	
Harrison	
Fraser South	
Skagit I	
Similkameen	
Okanagan	
Granby	
Rossland	
Kootenay-.	
Yahk	
Elk	
Flathead	
Windermere	
Slocan	
Lower Arrow	
Kettle	
Pennask_	
Fraser Canyon	
Lillooet	
Seechelt	
Powell	
Coast Islands	
Loughborough 	
Toba	
Bridge	
Nicola	
Long Lake	
Monte Hills	
Shuswap	
Spallumcheen 	
Upper Arrow	
Duncan	
Upper Columbia 	
Big Bend Columbia.
Momich	
Celista	
Niskonlith	
Tranquille	
Cariboo	
Chilcotin	
Klinaklini	
Kingcome	
Gilford	
Seymour.	
Rivers	
Bella Coola	
Westroad	
Quesnel...	
Nehalliston	
North Thompson	
Upper Fraser	
Nechako .	
Kitimat !	
Moresby.	
Graham	
Lower Skeena	
Upper Skeena ...—
B abine	
Morice	
Stuart	
Parsnip	
Pine	
Kiskatinaw—
Beatton	
Peace	
Omineca	
Nass	
Stikine	
Finlay	
SikannL	
Muskwa	
Kechika	
Alsek	
Atlin	
Taku	
Teslin	
Dease	
Liard.	
Fort Nelson.
Petitot	
Totals
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
1939
1934
1949
1948, 1950
1947
1942,1950
1936, 1937
1939
1941
1940
1942
1937
1937, 1949
1940
1935, 1937
1937
1937
1929, 1937
1931
1930
1937
1942
1936, 1937
1935, 1937
1937
1937
1937
1949, 1950
1950
1937, '39, '48
1932
1934
1937
1932, 1937
1932,1937
1929, 1937
1929,1937
1928
1935
1932, 1937
1937
1937
1932, 1937
1932, 1937
1932, 1937
1931, 1937
1932, 1937
1937
1937
1935, 1937
1932, 1937
1936
1937,1948
1937
1937
1937
1928, 1937
1931, 1937
1937, 1948
1937
1937, 1948
1937
1938
1949
1937
1927
1931, 1937
1937
1937
1937, 1944
1937
1937, 1950
1944
1937
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
1944
474,830
334,530
626,740
299,530
537,220
553,920
670,575
97,148
196,530
52,120
53,960
25,840
434,599
428,612
150,135
11,450
287,899
286,395
159,715
74,994
378,423
87,860
52,110
73,350
370,088
36,084
212,641
194,670
104,200
71,391
160,660
77,270
53,080
145,805
112,350
110,985
115,905
257,880
200,040
183,300
310,500
310,825
238,310
91,780
143,470
146,504
375,445
294,428
151,763
63,700
112,650
86,970
239,780
390,960
183,350
518,156
443,666
302,298
2,758,467
662,280
788,460
185,130
224,850
604,750
549,880
621,770
215,210
457,530
587,140
626,600
42,430
1,063,310
165,300
176,540
6,930
14,910
35,840
13,440
48,000
71,680
48,000
29,440
83,940
11,680
7,070
23,259,966
90,600
64,400
53,020
193,170
40,120
108,980
642,715
10,490
184,740
138,450
195,120
46,780
974,351
879,988
280,888
130,090
667,622
658,031
457,905
95,636
505,385
272,550
275,520
489,200
408,522
30,070
51,050
264,730
172,230
123,144
87,430
52,900
90,723
212,810
104,540
194,305
215,720
375,356
173,330
159,380
304,900
304,667
292,230
156,870
178,905
199,026
1,098,224
3,581,884
501,359
18,750
37,400
37,110
18,730
109,940
2,716,610
955,922
1,030,412
376,920
1,218,331
3,280,330
24,500
77,510
11,310
54,650
449,850
1,299,160
655,610
2,779,280
2,303,640
6,563,830
483,950
286,210
1,417,990
888,220
438,320
968,480
648,180
231,910
164,715
279,370
164,715
386,560
1,848,370
824,120
811,940
565,430
398,930
679,760
492,700
577,340
662,900
1,313,290
107,638
381,270
190,570
249,080
72,620
1,408,950
1,308,600
431,023
141,540
955,521
944,426
617,620
170,630
883,808
360,410
327,630
562,550
778,610
66,454
263,691
459,400
276,430
194,535
248,090
130,170
143,803
358,615
216,890
305,290
331,625
633,236
373,370
342,680
615,400
615,492
530,540
248,650
322,375
345,530
1,473,669
3,876,312
653,122
82,450
150,050
124,080
258,510
500,900
2,899,960
1,474,078
1,474,078
679,218
3,976,798
3,942,610
812,960
262,640
236,160
659,400
999,730
1,920,930
870,820
3,236,810
2,890,780
7,190,430
526,380
1,349,520
1,583,290
1,064,760
445,250
983,390
684,020
245,350
212,715
351,050
212,715
416,000
1,932,310
835,800
819,010
42,766
420,106
487,198
551,184
482.214
666,208
2,477,430
132,460
169.870
202,404
98,714
19,340
260,697
173,618
40,279
710
57,401
81,063
57,157
15,200
161,863
9,451
10,786
18,418
117,290
39,200
244,660
238,783
91,700
102,434
71,924
120,883
44,066
47,678
34,403
78,063
39,490
119,696
60,413
21,900
75,000
75,302
52,697
23,011
117,023
90,171
106,993
128,690
87,346
3,514
5,980
65,940
156,018
105,444
279,404
240,360
71,778
187,947
24,328
1,700
700
91,163
27,050
50,652,901
73,912,867
10,126,679
508,724
424,988
698,462
320,396
986,294
896,552
344,784
10,492
488,704
144,102
68,176
16,260
706
9,155
13,036
3,083
95,016
29,187
22,038
3,181
29,906
15,463
1,748
140
34,080
181,240
362,037
269,766
51,630
265,234
134,576
2,248
12,077
53,488
143,567
133,825
248,100
249,284
120,827
30,915
8,458
146,032
87,522
293,036
215,316
352,740
280,938
209,967
140,021
145,748
1,042,937
760
463,921
160,962
193,200
493,103
45,204
2,305
2,195
78,868
11,786,720
1,371,494
798,868
1,701,418
753,248
1,038,730
1,750,318
627,072
2,160
309,262
91,498
84,498
8,880
46
20
8,371
2,749
113,038
5,095
1,050
300
35,496
14,318
2,210
16,120
136,000
457,625
311,573
76,730
296,323
107,239
3,250
55,231
148,421
155,800
81,700
81,990
119,366
29,499
2,710
122,120
117,552
174,296
101,042
240,519
211,920
153,806
89,913
31,815
378,691
18,440
980,284
452,312
489,256
1,921,602
543,089
91,560
36,945
1,196,375
209,098
31,200
28,560
102,150
16,296
80,096
2,856
40,824
66,254
1,704
82
7,582
76
346
1,200
304,268
175,420
9,451
4,833
83,743
189,108
262,001
132,868
136,303
59,428
32,342
24,298
14,181
1,200
3,840
2,839
2,606
1,744
17,793
7,459
5,188
500
4,075
55,121
82,433
117,445
117,150
209,300
210,027
188,081
64,596
109,433
29,948
6,208
222
43,366
22,464
8,966
16,650
111,705
141,460
82,044
511,514
404,122
239,003
6,213,311
191,112
213,351
342,746
353,384
328,386
274,233
408,750
107,945
355,695
718,493
726,355
23,862
449,944
203,650
207,808
16,155
27,652
38,080
10,800
16,800
25,660
16,800
43,793
; 154,070
36,928
11,740
18,420,111
16083,715
600,356
403,416
815,246
478,822
661,980
708,176
111,506
970
175,474
53,354
41,554
6,700
57,467
24,191
1.848
1,153
26,600
32,264
34,030
11,328
37,416
23,801
12,088
2,210
1,110
8,580
87,800
215,117
116,976
12,164
147,910
59,069
2,993
8,505
70,091
45,887
28,950
58,790
58,967
73,792
27,100
27,888
5,568
96
44,892
52,346
53,144
53,060
134,991
118,128
6,064
209,667
133,585
62,634
2,808,201
55,856
581,104
650,563
410,116
225,100
95,255
107,383
235,352
174,842
17,403
479,637
47,523
47,952
240
895
2,400
7,040
2,400
768
12,197,844
160
8,656
17,820
21,994
37,438
27,562
31,630
660
4,980
4,148
856
823
2,278
2,204
40,973
12,613
1,083
12,270
6,000
458
715
1,280
10,000
4,240
4,735
2,112
3,980
4,345
93
1,976
32,446
45,195
12,325
14,680
14,922
20,899
3,706
1,110
500
210
1,694
40
56
13,561
39,722
64,545
8,670
9,411
19,738
6,539
17,605
688
3,553
2,263
57,923
12,883
20,676
2,038
12,321
8,677
6,965
988
10,090
3,691
20,613
320
974
974
2,356
429,426 | 334,223
102
180
482
1,780
403,998
75,580
6,308
153
4,843
72,090
84,463
26,081
45,745
3,255
768
20,180
23,539
2,500
16
120
748
300
1,176
1,278
775
4,945
5,040
33
7,776
24,730
9,508
25,715
11,490
6,904
46,150
70,347
70,008
303
1,160,641
2,932
27,437
16,585
432,335
17,375
145,127
93,272
216,407
10,760
16,445
28,320
450
2,940
3,542
6,660
4,800
2,500
4,800
7^40
24,515
1,852
4,573
19,824
105,972
80,946
71,154
54,978
21,246
556
29,664
5,546
140
3,220
6,360
55,483
52,411
40
13,920
6,383
4,780
2,262
14,008
13,834
35,325
4,134
45,337
13,462
23,252
70,262
16,025
3,291,317 I 770,524
66
59,131
26,421
2,908
45,336
213,419
22,126
5,450
84,411
4,496
4,823
23,273
2,381
52,391
23,108
6,575
265
576,580
290
632
274
1,716
960
836
1,941
480
22
1,400
900
30
10
540
555
1,400
6,960
4,448
100
132,670
"2,714
47,262
330
1,280
432
46
25,817
7,256
52,486
14,257
2,935
2,415
12,640
60
2,040
87
7,067
13,620
2,252
351,163
632
620
1,184
2,982
1,030
2,964
511
1,845
374
68
56,092
246
56
8,735 | 59,877
74
696
1,148
2,864
3,084
2,978
32
178
2,352
1,600
9
71
6,593
• 584
198
110
135
387
378
7,123
138,601
717
1,731
6,484
1,044
2,645,650
2,178,302
3,881,186
2,201,162
3,302,458
4,138,856
3,594,682
146,824
1,190,394
509,820
301,476
55,260
1,071,634
584,183
116,662
17,793
476,364
654,577
490,487
190,927
487,304
178,791
100,163
95,058
214,898
105,080
673,300
1,344,608
850,725
247,240
817,084
439,954
68,219
68,854
36,441
94,759
132,663
474,019
584,036
477,300
693,055
696,087
575,662
180,113
284,488
154,108
143,322
155,043
461,926
292,830
551,124
399,942
941,386
923,950
239,702
1,435,914
1,078,983
567,198
12,119,478
293,428
2,289,506
969,482
1,059,092
3,547,715
1,289,557
1,162,030
260,147
699,414
1,099,984
1,124,860
52,025
2,297,364
502,848
259,145
21,750
44,729
44,800
42,000
24,000
65,800
24,000
51,520
186,420
52,400
18,565
32,733  146,438 174,616,085 I BRITISH COLUMBIA FOREST SERVICE
Forest Surveys and Inventory
Division
THE FOREST INVENTORY AREA REFERENCE
SYSTEM
NOTE.—Summary'data will be referred to the region outlined
and numbered on the map. Subdivision will be by compartments
within the region. The complete area reference will be Region
Number, Compartment Number.
BRITISH
DEPARTMENT op LANDS and FORESTS
Honourable E. T. Kenney, Minister
136°
134°
132°
130°
128°
126°
124°
122°
120°
118°
116"
■EOGRAPH1C DIVISION,  DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND  FORESTS,  VICTORIA.  B.C.
I REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 29
FOREST RESEARCH
FOREST EXPERIMENTAL STATION, COWICHAN LAKE
Experimental Thinning Plots
. Douglas-fir thinning plots have been under examination for a twenty-year period.
A summary of measurements per acre is listed in the table on page 30 for two typical
plots together with that of an unthinned adjacent stand.
Brush and Weed Control
Experiments at the Cowichan Lake Experimental Station were undertaken twenty
years ago to determine the most efficient chemical means of eradicating herbaceous and
woody vegetation. Chemicals used then were (1) mixture of sodium chloride and
calcium chloride, (2) Atlacide, (3) sodium arsenite, and (4) sodium hydroxide. Of
these four, sodium arsenite was most promising but no treatment resulted in satisfactory
eradication. Top foliage could be killed or reduced effectively but little damage was
suffered by the root systems. Most species received only a temporary set-back and
demonstrated good recovery in the following growing season.
In recent years new herbicides have been promoted as better forms of chemical
brush-control and are rapidly replacing mechanical methods in the eradication of
undesired vegetation along roadsides and transmission-lines and in grazing and forest
areas. The effectiveness of three such chemicals was tested in a preliminary study.
During the growing season all foliage within selected test areas was sprayed with
solutions of Ammate, Esteron 245, and Esteron 44. Treatment assessments in detail and
by species will be made in the following growing season; thus far, consistent and most
immediate "top-kill" of herbaceous and shrub flora has been associated with Ammate
applications.
Pruning and Debudding
Following a small-scale pruning and debudding test on 10-year-old Douglas fir-trees,
some interim results are available. One hundred and twenty trees between 3 and 10 feet
high were pruned of all living branches except those up to 2.5 feet above ground-level.
The lateral buds from the terminal cluster were debudded. An average time of twenty-
five seconds was needed to debud each terminal cluster, making a total time, inclusive of
pruning, of fifty seconds for a tree 3 feet high to four minutes for a 12-foot tree.
Analysis of the variance in a two-series sample of forty treated and forty normal
trees indicated (a) the length of leader one year after treatment was significantly less
(14.3 per cent) on pruned and debudded trees than on normal trees; (b) the mid-
diameter of these leaders was equal, indicating treatment had no effect on their radial
growth; and (c) the mid-diameter increment of the previous year's debudded leader was
significantly less (16.7 per cent) than similar increment on normal trees. The occlusion
of the pruning scars was rapid, and it is expected that callous tissue will have completely
closed over 75 per cent of the branch cuts in two years. On trees over 10 feet and up to
12 feet the upper part of the stem had to be severely bent over in order to debud. In one
growing season it had not recovered its original straightness. The branch habit, of the
top whorl left after pruning, showed a marked tendency to sweep upwards at a point
2 inches from the bole. Current shoots, both lateral and leader, produced larger and
more succulent needles than on normal trees. The denser foliage on the terminals of
treated trees was more heavily infested with Adelges than normal trees, and stripping of
the needles at time of debudding caused insolation injury. 30
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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A.A REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 31
FOREST EXPERIMENTAL STATION, ALEZA LAKE
During the past year, research activities on the Aleza Lake Forest Experimental
Station were secondary in time and effort to basic physical development. A truck-road
giving access to early cutting areas was cleared, and grade-construction and gravelling
were proceeding at the year's end.
Balsam logs cut and sold from the road right-of-way showed 47 per cent defect
when scaled by standards commonly accepted in the Provincial Interior regions.
Final revisions of field work were completed for the development of a contour map
for the reserve. Portions of the map have now been completed by Air Survey Division
and have proven useful in laying out one timber sale.
Two timber sales were advertised for public auction in 1951. One area is now
under contract to an operator, but no bids were received for the timber of the second
sale. Terms of contract in both cases were, for experimental purposes, more exacting
than the usual sales on Crown lands for the district, but not rigorous. Cutting of all
balsam over 9 inches d.b.h. was required, but remuneration was allowed for cutting
smaller sizes and defective trees. All trees to be cut were marked, with the object of
leaving a sound growing stock. A damage clause in each contract aimed to deter
unnecessary damage. Close supervision is being provided. Careful estimates of young
growth and existing mortality have been made for comparisons after logging.
Establishment of section lines and distance marker-posts proceeded during the field
season. Approximately one-half of the Experiment Station reserve is gridded with
ground-defined survey-lines.
A survey of coniferous reproduction on burnt-over lands in the Fort George Forest
District was completed. Main objectives were to determine the time required for
restocking in order that comparisons might be made with second-growth forests
developing from residual stands left at logging. Generally burns did not indicate a
satisfactory level of coniferous restocking under fifty years, although exceptions were
found in small burns on dry or rocky sites.
PLANTATION MANAGEMENT
Some further progress has been made toward laying the foundations for a sound
management plan in regards to the periodic re-examinations and cultural operations
which are a necessary prerequisite on planted areas. A complete examination was made
of those plantations formed between 1930 and 1944 at Green Timbers, and a start has
been made in training personnel who can supervise the cleaning, release cuttings, and
other cultural operations which are essential on such areas.
A further examination was made of the Campbell River Experimental Forest, where
limited planting took place between 1931 and 1934. It is hoped that the whole of this
area will be reforested by artificial and natural means, as it would make and admirable
centre for research. Cleaning and release cutting on the most recently planted areas will
begin this fall under the direct supervision of a foreman who is being trained for this type
of work.
DIRECT-SEEDING STUDIES
In November, 1950, a direct-seeding experiment was started by the H. R. MacMillan
Export Company at Alberni (1950 Annual Report, p. 21) on an area treated with the
rodenticide 1080. Trapping was carried out by the Forest Service to study the rate of
mouse infiltration on to the area. The first trapping carried out in December, one month
after poisoning, resulted in a zero catch. In 1951 trapping was started in April as soon
as the snow cleared and was continued in May. Mice were found on the centre of the
seeded area on May 11th and also on two subsequent trappings. This was during the
period of maximum germination.   Thirty per cent of the total germination occurred after 32 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
this date. Thus, the poisoning did not provide protection during the germination period.
Compound 1080 is known to lose its effectiveness after prolonged exposure in the field.
This may have allowed mice to infiltrate on to the seeded area. On the other hand, the
distribution of the poison may not have been adequate and unpoisoned avenues may have
permitted infiltration.   The first young mouse was caught on May 11th.
Field germination tests were carried out at Alberni on pelletted seed supplied by
the British Columbia Research Council. The pellets were of a peat composition and had
an inhibiting effect on germination. The germination of 800 pelletted seeds, under
cages, was 44.75 per cent and of 800 unpelletted seeds, under cages, was 64.50 per cent.
GROUP SEED-TREE STUDY
By arrangement with Western Forest Industries, Meade Creek Division, an
experiment was started to test the effectiveness of groups of seed-trees left at setting
boundaries. The experiment will measure seedfall at varying distances from the seed
source and seedling establishment. It is possible that some form of rodent-control will
be tried to protect natural seedfall.
CONE-MATURITY STUDY
It had been planned to repeat last year's work on a larger scale. However, the
forest closure prevented this. Cone collections were made from different stands at
irregular intervals whenever conditions allowed. Germination tests are currently in
progress and a report on last year's and this year's work is being prepared.
CHEMICAL GERMINATION STUDIES
Further work is in progress using Grodex as a seed-germination indicator. The
germination value shown by Grodex is being compared with the germination capacity
of stratified and unstratified seed, and with field germination tests. Grodex is also being
tested on fresh seed, as the indications are that it will show up all live and potentially
germinable seed, regardless of whether the seed is dormant or not.
CONE PRODUCTION
In an excellent seed-year, good and excellent crops on individual trees of a species
are general over an extensive area, on young and old trees, and on open-grown and
dominant stand-trees alike. Such a year was 1945, when the largest crop in over
twenty years was produced on Douglas fir. It is the only one of its type sampled by us,
and is therefore used as a standard for measuring other crops of Douglas fir. Balsam
(Abies grandis) also was at a maximum in 1945, but white pine (Pinus monticola),
which rarely has a good crop on more than 50 per cent of the trees, was weak in production that year.
In 1951 fruiting was not strong enough to include all age-classes of Douglas fir,
nor all districts in the fir type on the lower coast. At McCoy Lake in the Alberni
district the crop was a failure on mature trees. On the lower Cameron River it was
light on Douglas fir, nine of twelve trees bearing an average of 350 cones, as against
all trees bearing with 850 cones per tree in 1945. On the east coast of the Island the
old stand at Elk Falls bore 280 cones per tree on thirteen of eighteen trees in 1951.
This compares with an average of 1,200 cones borne by seventeen of the same trees in
1945. Farther south, on the scattered seed-trees at Englishman River, the crop was
360 cones on eleven of twenty-one trees; this was only 4 per cent of the average crop
when all trees were bearing in 1945. At Cowichan Lake as many trees bore good crops
(57 per cent) as in 1945, but the average production per tree of 1,140 cones was only
43 per cent of the number produced by the same trees in 1945, although the mature REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951
33
trees bore 53 per cent. The sample trees comprise four mature, twenty-seven immature
over 50 years old, and forty-nine under 50 years.
The balsam-crop was medium. Eleven of thirteen trees bore fair or better crops
with an average of 425 cones, which was 67 per cent of the average in 1945, when all
trees bore fair or better crops. The white-pine trees are getting fewer as blister-rust
mortality continues, and the crop was again disappointing.
It was definitely a good crop-year for Douglas fir at Cowichan Lake, when it is
considered that a crop-year for this species is one in which 25 per cent or more of the
trees are bearing fair or better crops, based on the number of cones produced relative
to the height- and light-class of each tree.
Age and site affect the occurrence of cone-bearing. There is a tendency for trees
on poor sites to bear early, but this is not an established trend. The greatest proportion
of crops appeared on trees in the lower half of the height range for trees under 45 years
old. In the older age-groups a majority of the crops were in the upper part of the height
range; that is, on the better sites. But, as usual, there are exceptions; the tallest tree,
apparently on Site Index 210, bore its first crop when it was 36 years old and 116 feet
high, and one tree on Site Index 140 failed to produce a crop between 78 and 94 years
of age. However, twelve trees of this latter age all bore consistently on Site Indexes
100 to 125. Also, up to age 45 years the incidence of crops was about 44 per cent on
trees below mean height and 36 per cent on trees above mean height, based on crop
potentials of 83 and 164 in the respective groups.
Hemlock and cedar tend to produce good crops more frequently than the other
conifers. The current crop on cedar was the heaviest since 1945, and there was a
medium crop on hemlock this year, which has also been light since 1945, except for
one other medium crop in 1948.
For the current year the crop results are as follows:—
CONE-CROPS ON SAMPLE TREES AT COWICHAN LAKE
Species
Excellent
Good
Fair
Poor
None
Number of
Per Cent of All Trees
Douglas fir	
Balsam 	
White pine 	
15
10
15
47
31
33
39
62
10
38
81
13
8
COMMERCIAL THINNING EXPERIMENTS IN DOUGLAS FIR
The first thinning experiment carried out on a commercial scale was completed by
the end of this year at Cowichan Lake Forest Experiment Station. Fifty acres of
50-year-old Douglas fir, Site Index 160, were marked for thinning in 1950. Fourteen
half-acre permanent sample plots (seven thinning plots and seven control plots) were
established as a future source of growth and yield data from a thinned stand of this type.
All trees to be removed were marked by means of paint and spray-gun. The thinning
method was comparable—with modification—to a heavy crown thinning, and the following objectives were the basis for the selection procedure:—
(1) To remove as many trees of poor quality and (or) growth as silvicul-
turally possible.
(2) To give the stand a heavy thinning, comprising trees of all crown classes
and merchantable diameter classes (plus a few sub-merchantable trees
when necessary). If two trees are of different size, but of equal quality,
the larger one was generally removed in an attempt to satisfy the condition that the operation must pay its own expenses. The prior requirement, however, was that in all cases the better trees must be favoured.
(3) To ensure an even distribution of trees in the residual stand. 34
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Top:   Left—50-year-old Douglas-fir stand before thinning;   right—after thinning.
Bottom:   Left—Horse-yarding causes the least damage to residuals;   right—winch-yarding.
A turn in the trail is made by means of a side-block (foreground). REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951
35
[-70 %
-eo %
-50  %
-40 %
-30 %
-20  %
^
\
\
VOLUME   REMOVED   IN THINN/NG
\expresseo /n PER CENT
\
\
c
/OLUME   BEFORE
THINNING
/
/
S      8      10     12      14      16    18    20    22    24
/?A4 /V_57"if /? - CLASSES
-1000 cu.Jtr
-800       "
-eoo
-400      "
-200
hO
The lower diagram above illustrates the distribution by 1-inch diameter-classes
of merchantable volumes, 6 inches and over inside bark. The volume before
thinning, volume removed in thinning, and volume after thinning are expressed in
cubic feet per acre for each diameter-class. In the upper diagram the volume
removed in thinning from each diameter-class is expressed in per cent of volume
before thinning. 36 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The diagram in Fig. 1 gives an impression of the method of selection. The heaviest
relative reduction of merchantable growing stock took place among trees under 12 inches
d.b.h. on the one hand, and among trees over 21 inches on the other hand. The lower
group comprises suppressed trees, whips, co-dominants, and some dominants; the upper
group is composed of wolf trees almost exclusively. The bulk of merchantable volume,
in absolute measure, came from the 10-16-inch diameter classes; that is, from the
co-dominant and dominant crown classes. The thinning removed, on the average,
39 per cent of the volume, which corresponded to about 12,000 f.b.m. per acre.
The actual thinning operation started in February, 1951, by hiring an operator with
a crew of four men to do the extraction to roadside at a fixed price per thousand f.b.m.
All material was bucked into sawlogs, 6 inches and over at the small end, and the logs
were sold at the roadside by tender.
The operational data collected during the thinning operation remain to be compiled
and analyzed. A complete report on the experiment will be published as a research note.
However, it is possible now to draw some tentative conclusions on the basis of a rough
analysis carried out after the thinning of about three-quarters of the area was completed.
Five men working as one crew with a team of horses and a small double-drummed
donkey-engine for loading or decking and some yarding could produce 4,250 f.b.m.
per day or 850 f.b.m. per man-day. Labour expenses expressed in man-hours amounted
to 9.5 man-hours per thousand f.b.m. which (based on $2 per hour) is equivalent to
$19 per thousand f.b.m. Operating expenses came to $6 per thousand f.b.m., giving
a total cost of $25 per thousand f.b.m. This total cost of extraction can be broken down
by various phases of operation:— Percent
Felling and bucking   30
Yarding  25
Loading or decking  15
Clearing roads and landings 1  10
Miscellaneous   (repairs,  depreciation,  insurance,  transport  of
crew, etc.)   20
It is of interest to note that wages account for 76 per cent of the total costs and
operating expenses for only 24 per cent.
The main objective of the experiment, which is the forerunner for others now in
the planning stage, is to prove and demonstrate on a commercial scale that good silviculture can be practised in the management of second-growth forests without eliminating
the profit motive.
It is felt that a slightly more mechanized operation could increase the efficiency
without any increased danger of damage to the residual stand. Such modifications and
others indicated by this experiment will be tested in coming experimental operations
under varying stand conditions and cutting intensities.
NURSERY FERTILITY STUDIES
The annual inventory of seedlings (Douglas fir) from the three nurseries at Duncan,
Green Timbers, and Quinsam shows a further decline in growth from last year. It should
be mentioned that the unusally long, dry summer may have had some influence on this
decrease, and that the decline was not general, for at Quinsam Nursery the seedlings
showed a better top-to-root ratio and a small increase in the stem diameter.
At Green Timbers the fertilizer trials were continued, on the basis of the 2-0
Douglas fir seedlings produced. A Latin square layout was used with four fertilizers
and a check. The treatments were applied in the spring of 1950 and the results recorded
the autumn of 1951. Due to an oversight at the nursery this year, two of the rows of
the five treatments received further fertilizer, thus upsetting the Latin square layout. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951
37
However, the undisturbed remainder were analyzed statistically as a randomized block
layout.   The following table records the results:—
Treatment
Number of
Replications
Length of
Tops (Cm.)
Number of
Secondary
Roots
Diameter in
64th Inches
Dry Weight
per Seedling
(Grams)
Top-to-root
Ratio
(Dry Weight)
6-12-0    _ 	
3
3
3
3
3
10.6
9.5
9.7
9.3
9.5
12.1
10.8
10.4
10.6
10.3
2.7
2.87
2.87
2.7
2.5
0.47
0.45
0.44
0.41
0.36
2.24
6-8-6   	
2.32
10-20-10  	
2.35
16-20-0  	
Check	
2.23
2.25
The figures in italics show significant increases over the check at the 5-per-cent level.
The treatment designations refer to available per cent of nitrogen, phosphorous,
and potash as supplied in commercial mixtures.
These same fertilizers, and also Vitalearth, were tried on a green-manure crop.
The 16-20-0 produced the heaviest and most vigorous crop, followed by 6-8-6,
10-20-10 and 6-12-0. There was little difference between these fertilizers. Vitalearth
was the poorest, being little better than the unfertilized check.
At Quinsam a similar fertilizer trial was made. Statistical analysis was based on
the Latin square layout.   The following table records the results:—
Treatment
Number of
Replications
Length of
Tops (Cm.)
Number of
Secondary
Roots
Diameter in
64th Inches
Dry Weight
per Seedling
(Grams)
Top-to-root
Ratio
(Dry Weight)
6-12-0   _. ..           	
5
5
5
5
5
14.3
14.6
15.4
15.1
15.3
10.3
10.6
11.6
10.5
11.3
4.7
4.8
5.7
5.2
5.0
1.06
1.11
1.43
1.27
1.23
2.06
6-8-6 _	
10-20-10. 	
16 9O-0
2.08
1.92
2.06
Check 	
1.90
The figures in italics show significant increases over the check at the 5-per-cent
level. The top-to-root ratio of the 6-12-0, 6-8-6, and 16-20-0 fertilizers does not
exhibit a desirable trend.
Although only the dry weight per seedling of the 10-20-10 shows a significant
increase over the check, there are small increases generally by this fertilizer in all growth
standards but the top-to-root ratio.
FIELD SURVIVAL OF NURSERY STOCK
The subsequent step from the fertilizer trials are survival plots of the fertilized
seedlings. The 2-0 stock of Douglas fir is planted in the field with a view to comparing
the survival of the different fertilized or treated seedlings.
Mud Lake Plot 6—In April, 1951, fertilized seedlings from Green Timbers (five
treatments) and two lots of seedlings from Duncan (one root-pruned in August of the
second year and the other not root-pruned in the second year) were planted according to
the Latin square method in an experimental plantation in the Sayward Forest.
Each sub-plot consisted of seven rows of seven seedlings, or a total of forty-nine
seedlings. There are seven replications of each sub-plot, making a total of 343 seedlings
for each treatment. The plot has a north-east aspect and an elevation of 850 feet.
Planting conditions were poor, as the stony, sandy loam soil was quite dry and remained
that way most of the summer. Below is a record of survival after one growing season,
and also a comparison of the survival to morphological standards of growth as recorded
from the previous autumn's seedling analysis. 38
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Treatment
Mortality
Per Cent
Mortality
Length of
Tops (Cm.)
Number of
Secondary
Roots
Dry Weight
per Seedling
(Grams)
Top-to-root
Ratio (Dry
Weight)
0-12-20 _.	
2-16-6_	
72
78
89
98
100
76
114
21.0
22.8
26.0
28.6
29.2
22.2
33.2
9.2
9.9
10.8
9.7
10.8
12.3
12.0
13.8
11.2
14.5
0.46
0.47
0.64
0.46
0.65
2.0
2.3
7-11-n
2 5
Check.	
8-10-5    __
2.1
2.2
Duncan (root-pruned)
Duncan (not root-pruned)
The figures in italics show significant increases over the check at the 5-per-cent
level.
Both the 0-12-20 and 2-16-6 fertilized seedlings showed significantly better
survival at the 5-per-cent level than the check. An interesting point should be mentioned—the 7-11-0 and 8-10-5 fertilizers have the best growth records in the nursery
but not the lowest mortality when planted out. With the exception of the 8-10-5
seedlings, all fertilized seedlings have a higher survival rate than the check.
The Duncan seedlings root-pruned in August of the second year showed significantly
better survival at the 5-per-cent level than the seedlings not root-pruned in the second
year. This fact is of some importance, as the object of this root-pruning was to induce
hardening off and prevent frost-damage in the nursery.
Lawson Lake Plot 5—In April, 1950, a Latin square layout of nine treatments was
established to compare seedling grown from seed which originated at the upper, middle,
and lower half of the east coast of Vancouver Island, and raised in the nurseries of
Duncan, Quinsam, and Green Timbers. The designations " U," " L," and " S " refer
to the Courtenay and Campbell River, the Nanaimo, Duncan, and Cowichan, and the
Saanich areas respectively.
Each sub-plot consists of five rows of seven seedlings, or a total of thirty-five
seedlings. There are nine replications of each sub-plot, making a total of 315 seedlings
for each treatment.
The table below records the per cent mortality:—
1950
1951
Rating, 1950
Mortality
Per Cent
Mortality
Mortality
Per Cent
Mortality
Rating, 1951
1
2
4
4
6
7
9
9
0.3
0.6
1.3
1.3
1.9
2.2
2.9
2.9
9
9
10
11
11
16
20
24
27
2.9
2.9
3.2
3.5
3.5
5.0
6.3
7.6
8.6
Duncan U2.
Duncan Ll.
Green Timbers SI.
Duncan S2  	
Quinsam L2.
Duncan S2.
Quinsam SI.
Quinsam SI 	
Green Timbers U2.
Green Timbers Ll.
Quinsam U __	
Quinsam U.
Statistical analysis of the results (1951 results in parentheses) shows that at the
5-per-cent level a significance in per cent mortality is one greater than 1.7 (0.88) and at
the 1-per-cent level one greater than 2.5 (1.3).
There is little change in the rating of the nurseries from one year to the next.
Duncan seems the best, with Quinsam and Green Timbers about equal.
There does not seem to be a difference in mortality that can be attributed to seed
source.
The sizeable increase in mortality this year may be due to the very dry summer. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 39
SOIL-MOISTURE STUDIES
In May, 1951, soil-moisture determinations were begun at the Cowichan Lake
Experiment Station.   The following objectives were established:—
(a) To determine the influence of thinning on the availability of soil-moisture.
(b) To determine the utilization of released water as shown by:—
(1) Increased growth of trees:
(2) Changes in ground cover or plant association:
(3) Evaporation through opening of the stand to sun and wind.
The moisture determinations were obtained by the electrical resistance method,
using plaster-of-paris absorption blocks and a portable soil-moisture metre.
The first year has been one of trial in order to learn the best methods for subsequent
years. No definite results were established, but many points arose that may prove helpful
for future work.
NURSERY GERMINATION OF WESTERN HEMLOCK
(TSUGA HETEROPHYLLA)
In May, 1951, a small area in the forest (one-half acre) at the Cowichan Lake
Experiment Station was cleared and a nursery established. The reason for a forest site
was that some of the growing conditions of hemlock could then be duplicated. The
idea was to have the natural surroundings forming some protection. With this done, the
following experiments were initiated:—
(a) Effect of Protective Coverings on Germination.—In November, 1951,
plots were established and seeded with western hemlock. The first objective is to
compare the merits of sawdust, branches, laths, and vermiculite coverings on the
germination of the seed. During the second winter the effects of these coverings against
frost-heave will be studied.
There are five treatments (four coverings and a check) and five replications of each
treatment arranged in a Latin square layout. All the seeds were drilled—five rows of
about 100 seeds for each sub-plot. The sawdust and vermiculite were applied at 1-inch
depths on the seeded soil-surface, while the laths and branches were spread over the
seeded area but not necessarily in contact with it. Temperature readings are being taken
of each treatment in site, which will aid in treatment evaluation.
(b) Effect of Light on Germination.—In November, 1951, three plots were
established at different light intensities—one in the open, one beneath deciduous trees,
and one under dense coniferous cover. Each plot consists of five sub-plots, which were
seeded in the same manner as those in (a), the light factor of each being recorded with
a light-meter.
(c) Effect of Seeding Density and Method on Germination.—In the same area
as (a) a randomized block layout has been established for spring seeding in April, 1952.
The object will be to compare the germination of the different plots under various
intensities of sowing and to compare broadcasting to drilling. There will be nine different
intensities with four replications of each. The drilled plots will have four replications
and the broadcast plots the same.
ECOLOGICAL STUDIES
West Coast of Vancouver Island
Investigations in the forests of the west coast of Vancouver Island indicate that
denuding factors (principally fire), or their absence, have a great significance upon the
development and occurrence of forest associations. 40 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The occurrence of fires (and to a lesser extent rock-slides and other denuding
agents) permits the growth of even-aged stands, provides ideal conditions for the regeneration of Douglas fir, destroys the heavy humus accumulations of podzol soils, promotes better drainage of the soil, and may cause the destruction of podzol soils on a
slope by promoting erosion at higher elevations and burying with eroded material the
soils at lower elevations. The long-continued absence of fire permits plant succession
to proceed, with the result that the light-loving Douglas fir drops out of the picture.
It permits the build-up of raw humus which hastens the podzol action and lowers the
productivity of the soil, seeming to restrict the rooting of trees to the humus and leached
soil layers. It also promotes the growth of uneven-aged stands of tolerant species and
has a bad effect on the drainage of the soil.
This line of thought has led to the separation of the forest associations into two
categories:—
Group A
Those associations which are capable of being maintained only if a denuding factor
(principally fire) recurs every 300 to 500 years.
1. Salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis)-Swordfern (Polystichum munitum) Association
Characteristic Species.—This is the optimum habitat for Picea sitchensis although
Thuja plicata, Tsuga heterophylla, and Abies grandis are also present in minor proportions, seldom occupying the dominant crown canopy when spruce is present. Alnus
rubra and Acer macrophyllum occupy openings in the stand and may become dominant
shortly after denudation. Periodic flooding keeps Pseudotsuga taxifolia out of this association, although it may occur on local mounds which are less subject to floods and in
possession of a deeper water-table. The well-defined shrub layer is dominated by
Rubus spectabilis. Other shrubs present are Thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus) and
Elderberry (Sambucus callicarpa). The luxuriant and complete herb layer is dominated
by Polystichum munitum, with high frequency of Circem alpina, Stachys ciliata, and
Blechnum spicant.
The soil is a brown forest soil of excellent structure with a mull humus. Earthworms are present. The parent material is nearly always alluvial in origin, with
replenishment occurring periodically from floods. A high water-table is present.
Drainage is good above this water-table.
The denuding factor responsible for the maintenance of this association is usually
repeated flooding, and occasionally fire. Sometimes the vegetation on rock-slide supplied with lateral movement of ground-water during the entire growing season will
develop into this association. As yet, this association has not been encountered at
elevations greater than 300 feet above sea-level.
Sitka spruce attains an average height (of dominants and co-dominants) of 160 to
180 feet at 100 years of age on this site.
2. Swordfern (Polystichum munitum) Association
3. Moss Association
4. Salal (Gaultheria shallon) Association
5. Salal (Gaultheria shallon)-Lichen Association
Nos. 2 to 5 are counterparts of the same associations as on the east coast of Vancouver Island, with Douglas fir being the principal commercial tree. At 100 years of
age, Douglas fir will attain the following heights:— Hdght of the Dominant
Association and Co-dominant Trees
Polystichum   165-185 feet
Moss  145-165 feet
Gaultheria   100-130 feet
Gaultheria-lichen       60-80   feet REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 41
Group B
The following associations are capable of being maintained in the long continued
absence of denuding factors.
1. Deerfern (Blechnum spicant)-Three-leaved Collwort (Tiarella trifoliata)-Beechfern
(Dryopteris dilitata) Association
Characteristic Species.—Tsuga heterophylla and Abies amabilis are equally capable
of occupying the dominant canopy. The shrub layer is poorly developed, with tall blue
bilberry (Vaccinium ovalifolium) and red bilberry (Vaccinium parvifolium) always
present even if in low abundance. The herb layer is well developed and may be dominated by either Blechnum spicant, Tiarella trifoliata, or Dryopteris dilitata. Polystichum
munitum is present in small amount.
The moss layer is frequently dense, with Eurhynchium oreganum dominating on
the ground and Rhytidialdelphus loreus dominating on rotting wood. There is usually
evidence (old snags and windfalls) that Pseudotsuga taxifolia formerly occupied this
association, probably when it was a Polystichum association.
The weakly podzolized soil has a humus layer of 1 to 2 inches thick, closely
resembling a mull humus form. The variable A2 layer, which ranges up to 2 inches in
thickness, may be absent. There is no well-developed cementation of the B horizon.
The soil is supplied with ground-water during the growing season. Effective rooting
continues to a depth of 50 to 60 inches, with the zone of maximum rooting occurring
at a depth of 15 to 36 inches.
2. Vaccinium-moss-Deerfern (Blechnum spicant) Association
Characteristic Species.—Tsuga heterophylla, Abies amabilis, and Thuja plicata are
well capable of occuping the dominant canopy. The shrub layer is well developed with
Vaccinium ovalifolium, and Vaccinium parvifolium being interchangeable in dominance.
The herb layer is not usually well defined, but, if so, Blechnum spicant is the dominant
species. The abundant moss cover is represented chiefly by Eurhynchium oreganum
and Rhytidiadelphus loreus. If the raw humus exceeds 6 inches in thickness, the
mosses and herbs tend to drop out, leaving a Vaccinium nudum association. There is
evidence that Douglas fir grew in this association with vigour (up to 200 feet in height).
Podzolization is more advanced than in the previous association. There is a
fibrous raw humus 3 to 7 inches in thickness overlying an A2 layer one-half to 2 inches
thick. The B layer is compacted and occasionally cemented at a depth of 30 inches
or more. Rooting is shallow, sometimes being entirely contained in the humus and
A2 layers. Drainage is generally good if cementation has not affected the B horizon.
Old root channels were encountered in the B horizon, to depths of over 40 inches.
During the growing season the vegetation depends upon precipitation and upon the storage capacity of the soil. Since rooting is often restricted to the humus and leached
layers, the entire moisture-holding capacity of the soil is not available to the trees, and
it is not surprising to find that the tree-heights of the present stand are much lower than
the estimates for a previous Douglas-fir crop.
3. Vaccinium-Bunchberry (Cornus canadensis) Association
Characteristic Species.—Chamcecyparis nootkatensis, Pinus monticola, Thuja plicate,
and Tsuga heterophylla are the important constituents of the dominant trees, although
the occasional Abies amabilis will attain dominance, and even more occasionally a
veteran Pseudotsuga taxifolia, remnant of a previous crop, is encountered among the
dominant trees. Tsuga mertensiana and Taxus brevifolia are present in the lower canopies and shrub layers, as well as the above-mentioned species, with the exception of
Pseudotsuga taxifolia. The well-developed shrub layer is dominated by Vaccinium
ovalifolium and Vaccinium parvifolium. The herb layer is nearly complete, with the
following species always present:   Blechnum spicant, Chimaphila Menziesii, Coptis 42 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
asplenifolia, Rubus pedatus, and Linncta borealis var. americana. There is often a
complete moss cover of Hylocomium splendens and Rhytidiadelphus lorens. Callier-
gonella Schreberi is often present in abundance.
The soil is a mature podzol with a thick fibrous to greasy raw humus 5 to 10
inches deep, an A2 leached layer of 3 to 7 inches, and an ortstein near the surface.
Because of the stony character of these soils, the ortstein itself often occupies more than
a foot of the profile rather than being contained in a narrow band. Rooting is almost
entirely restricted to the humus and leached layer. Drainage is poor and it is quite
probable that stagnant water is available during the early part of the growing season,
but that later on the only available water is precipitation and that stored in the soil,
which cannot be a very good type of moisture, as the main reservoir is the humus.
This moisture, influenced by the thick humus layer, hastens soil degradation.
4. Salal (Gaultheria shallon)-Bunchberry (Cornus canadensis-Sphagnum) Association
Characteristic Species.—Pinus monticola is by far the most important dominant.
Other species in the dominant canopy are Thuja plicata, Chamcecyparis nootkatensis,
and, to a lesser extent, Tsuga heterophylla. Species contained in fhe lower strata are
Tsuga Mertensiana, Abies amabilis, Taxus brevifolia, and often Tsuga heterophylla. The
shrub layer is well developed, with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium ovalifolium, and
Vaccinium parvifolium dominating. Other shrubs are Menziesia ferruginea and Sorbus
occidentalis (occasionally in the lower tree layers). The herb layer is strongly developed,
with Cornus canadensis dominant. Other species present in high abundance are
Blechnum spicant, Coptis asplenifolia, Linncea borealis var. americana, Lycopodium
annotinum, Lysichitum americanum (in local wet spots), Rubus pedatus, and Streptopus
roseus. The well-developed moss cover is dominated by Sphagnum spp. and accompanied by Hylocomium splendens and Rhytidiadelphus loreus.
The highly podzolized soil has a greasy raw humus layer 7 to 12 inches thick overlying 3 to 7 inches of leached soil. The ortstein is always well developed near to the
surface. Stagnant pools of water occupy low spots (even in the driest of summers).
Rooting is restricted to the humus and leached layers, although old root channels were
noted at a depth of 30 inches or more in every soil-pit dug in this association.
The productivity of the first two associations is indicated by the following tree-
neigntS. ^v Ht 0f Dominant and Codominant Trees
Association and Species (Stands Uneven-aged to 500 Years)
Blechnum-Tiarella-Dryopteris—
Tsuga heterophylla   180 (maximum 210)
Abies amabilis   180 (maximum 210)
Vaccinium-moss-Blechnum—
Tsuga heterophylla  161 (maximum 180)
Abies amabilis  161 (maximum 175)
Thuja plicata   147 (maximum 164)
Additional samples are required to establish the productivity of the Vaccinium-
Cornus and the Gaultheria-Cornus-Sphagnum associations (their productivity is considerably less than the above figures).
Although succession has not been studied in sufficient detail, it is quite possible
that, in the absence of fires or of other denuding factors, the associations listed in
Group B will evolve from the associations listed in Group A. It might even be possible
to say that a climax (Pinus monticola-Chamwcyparis nootkatensis-Tsuga Mertensiana-
Gaultheria shallon-Cornus canadensis-Sphagnum association) will be reached, if denuding
factors are absent and if the succession continues to the ultimate stage. But more
important than the arbitrary acceptance of a climax theory is the study of the ecological
characteristics of the individual association in relation to the trees which inhabit it. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 43
It is common to regard the west coast of Vancouver Island as a hemlock climatic
area, thereby inferring that hemlock is able to compete better against other tree species
and produce higher yields than other species, site for site; however, ecological studies
indicate that there are few sites, if any, on the west coast of Vancouver Island which will
grow hemlock quicker and with better quality than other species. Moreover, soil
studies indicate that through its influence in building up raw humus at a more rapid rate
than other species, hemlock has a more deteriorating effect upon soil productivity than
other species.
Observations and measurements indicate that:—
(1) Hemlock cannot compete effectively in growth with Douglas fir in the
Gaultheria shallon association, the Polystichum munitum association, or
the moss association; nor with Douglas fir or lodgepole pine in the
Gaultheria shallon-lichen association; nor with Sitka spruce in the Rubus
spectabilis-Polystichum munitum association.
(2) All other associations up to an elevation of approximately 2,000 feet
appear to be capable of producing higher-value crops of Douglas fir (and
to some extent white pine, yellow cedar, and red cedar) in a shorter time
than hemlock (or Abies amabilis). This statement is based on the following reasons:—
(i) In many stands of hemlock, balsam, red cedar, and yellow cedar,
there are Douglas fir windfalls and snags present, whose size indicates
that Douglas fir was in the past more capable of fully utilizing the productivity of the site than the present stand.
(ii) One would expect to see Douglas fir growing with less vigour
on areas at the edge of its natural range (where other species presumably
become more vigorous) than on areas well within the natural distribution
where Douglas fir holds sway. If height growth can be used to express
the species response to its environment in various parts of its range,
there occurs an anomaly, for a comparison of height growth of Douglas
fir in the Polystichum association on the east and west coast of Vancouver
Island shows the following figures:—
Tallest Stand  WestCoast East Coast
Age   340 500+
Average height   249 241
Maximum height   282 248
Average stand—
Age   345 309
Average height   230 215
Maximum height  1_ 268 233
Even more noteworthy are the facts that the tallest stand on the west
coast is growing on a northern aspect, and, secondly, that Douglas fir
maintains dominance up to elevations of 2,000 feet and over. It is
scarcely to be expected to encounter these conditions at the north-western
limit of a species range.
(iii) There are indications that Douglas fir has a deeper rooting
ability than hemlock, which in effect allows Douglas fir to more fully
utilize the productivity of the soil. This ability to root is in all probability
related to the fact that Douglas fir owes its continued existence to the
occurrence of fires which remove the humus and force the Douglas fir-
trees to root in the mineral soil in order to survive, whereas hemlock can
maintain itself even when it is rooted only in a thick raw humus under
an older stand.    If there is moisture in this raw humus layer, the hem- 44 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
lock-roots need not search in the mineral soil for more.    If the roots are
confined to the humus layer, tree-growth will only reflect the productivity
i of the humus layer, and will show but little the true growth potential on
the site, if the underlying mineral soil is more productive.
A review of the plant associations reveals that there is diversity of vegetation ranging from the dry lichen sites inhabited by " dry climate " vegetation, such as Apocynum
adrosamifolium, Arbutus Menziesii, and Arctostaphyllos Columbiana, to the humid site
inhabited by the moisture-loving Sitka spruce. This has been interpreted as an illustration of a considerable variation of climate, locally accentuated by edaphic, topographic,
and other factors. It is more than probable that within most of this great climatic
variation are climates suitable for the optimum growth of Douglas fir, and that Western
hemlock is more widespread than Douglas fir mainly because there have not been sufficient severe fires in the last 500 years to sustain the Douglas fir. There are less fires on
the west coast because it receives more rain than the east coast. If Douglas fir is
the most promising commercial tree, then its abundance can be increased in the future
when clear-cutting can take the place of fires in maintaining a favourable ecological
environment.
East Coast of Vancouver Island
In co-operation with the Department of Biology, University of British Columbia,
ecological studies on the east coast of Vancouver Island were continued again this year.
As a report is being prepared for publication, only a brief abstract of the past two years'
work will be given.
Starting from pioneer habitats, a succession of associations is described, leading to
the climatic climax association. Some sixteen associations have been identified, of
which seven are forested.
Each of these associations is characterized by a distinctive vegetation which has
been described in detail as to layer (tree, shrub, herb, and moss layers), species, vigour,
etc. The productive capacity, or site quality, has been determined on the basis of total
cubic volume per acre.
The characteristic features of the habitat—that is, the edaphic and microclimatic
factors—have been studied on the basis of soil morphological, chemical, and physical
features.    Diurnal temperatures, humidity, and soil-moisture have also been recorded.
From this data a basic knowledge of the habitat factors has been acquired for each
association, and the changes in factors associated with succession.
In nature these changes occur very slowly and are imperceptible. Man-made
changes through fire, logging, road-construction, and other factors may drastically alter
the natural succession, or accelerate it within a relatively short time. Therefore, a
knowledge of these basic factors and their relationships is essential to a silvicultural
appreciation of forest-management problems.
Kamloops Forest District
A brief ecological study was made on an area near Bolean Lake. The area is an
overmature spruce-balsam plateau type in which an experiment on cutting methods
(described elsewhere in this Report) has been laid out. The purpose of this study was
to identify and map the site-types of the experimental area in order that habitat factors
might be taken into consideration when an analysis is made of the growth and regeneration following various cutting treatments.
The following six associations have been tentatively identified and described:—
1. Vaccinium membranaceum-Rubus pedatus Association
This is probably the climax association and is found on a sub-alpine podzol displaying a well-developed A2 leached horizon and an ortstein layer.    Other species of REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 45
the association include Calliergonella Schreberi, Rhododendron albiflorum, Clintonia
uniflora, Linnwa borealis, Pyrola secunda, Cornus canadensis, Lycopodium annotinum,
and Goodyera decipiens.
2. Vaccinium ovalifolium-Dryopteris Linn&ana-Mnium punctatum Association
The soil is slightly podzolized with an alpha or beta glei layer and a water-table
at 30 to 50 centimeters. There is a raw humus over a duff mull at the surface. Other
species of the association include Mnium punctatum, Veratrum Eschscholtzii, and Strep-
topus amplexifolia.
3. Vaccinium ovalifolium-Dryopteris Linnceana-Sphagnum recurvum
This may be a transitional stage rather than an association in which the water-table
rises close to the surface and is sufficiently acid (pH 5.4) for Sphagnum recurvum to
invade.
4. Menziesea ferruginea-Equisitum palustre-Sphagnum recurvum Association
The soil is an acid (pH 4.4) saturated muck. Other species of the association are
Caltha leptosepala, Carex Bolanderi, Veratrum Eschscholtzii, and Atherium cyclosorum.
5. Dicranum scoparium Association
The soil is a dry podzol, excessively drained.
6. Heracleum lanatum-Thalictrium occidentale Association
Found on alluvial soils with a water-table close to the surface. Other species of the
association are Alnus tenuifolia, Viburnum pauciflorum, and Actea arguta.
All these are forest associations in which the tree cover is composed of Abies
lasciocarpa and Picea Engelmanni.
MENSURATION
The programme of re-examination of permanent growth-study plots was maintained
with the remeasurement of 18 standard plots in the Fraser Valley and Southern Interior;
4 standard plots on Vancouver Island; and 10 standard plots, 5 empirical plots totalling
66 sub-plots, and one series of reproduction plots of 20 sub-plots, all in the Queen
Charlotte Islands, to total 118 plots.
One new empirical series of 30 sub-plots was established in the Nimpkish Valley.
The purpose of this series was to supplement the yield-table data for Douglas fir of older
age-classes (100 to 120 years) on the better sites (140 to 190) found in British Columbia.
Supplementary data of the Fir-Yellow Pine Growth Study (see 1950 Annual
Report) were obtained in the Brookmere area of the Coldwater Valley. The data are
now being analysed and a report prepared.
CUTTING METHODS IN OVERMATURE SPRUCE-BALSAM
Cutting systems involving various diameter limits from 12 to 16 inches and marking
for selection cutting on an approximate 60-40 take-leave basis have been practised since
logging in the various spruce-balsam types started in the Kamloops Forest District about
ten years ago. Post-logging inspections and recruises of a number of sales in 1949
indicated generally unsatisfactory results. Mortality has been excessive, believed due
partly to lack of reliable insect and decay susceptibility ratings in original selections, and
partly from wind. Regeneration, where satisfactory, was mostly of the less-favoured
balsam species. Results of these cutting systems can only be generally interpreted
because of the complexity of sub-types and the lack of permanent experimental plots.
Therefore, an experiment on a commercial-sized scale was started this year in the
spruce-balsam types of the Kamloops District. 46 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The present experiment, initially confined to an overmature, relatively even-aged
spruce-balsam type at Bolean Lake near Kamloops, is designed to test six different cutting
methods with a view to obtaining information on reproduction of commercial species
under all methods and on accelerated net growth, if any, under selection methods of
cutting. In order that basic information may be as comprehensive as possible, an
ecological study was made of the area. In addition, the Dominion Science Service
co-operated in initiating entomological and pathological investigations. It is felt that a
many-sided approach to the management of this spruce-balsam forest will enable a true
appreciation to be gained of the results of different cutting treatments.
Nine blocks were surveyed and marked for the following treatments:—
(1) and (2) Single-tree-selection—marked for a light selection of about 30
per cent merchantable volume—two areas totalling 43 acres.
(3) Salvage group-selection—total of about 40 per cent of the merchantable
volume to be removed on small, clear-cut patches of one-third acre,
supplemented by cutting high-risk trees from separator patches—one area
about 83 acres.
(4) Strip clear-cutting—removal of all merchantable volumes of 11 inches
d.b.h. on strips 6 to 10 chains wide—one area about 70 acres.
(5) Clear-cutting with maximum damage—a bulldozer was used in advance
of this year's seed-crop to break up the duff layer with blade and treads,
to destroy as much of the poor balsam advance growth as possible, to
distribute rotted wood, and to break up windfalls—the area is to be clear-
cut next spring—one area about 25 acres.
(6) Clear-cut with minimum damage—removal of all merchantable volumes—skidding with horses in 16-foot lengths after trees are carefully
felled and bucked to avoid unnecessary damage—area 30 acres.
(7) Clear-cut and burn—clear-cut merchantable values—snags and small
timber to be felled—area to be burned in late September, 1952—area
about 40 acres.
(8) and (9) Reserve areas—two blocks of 66 and 60 acres.
The total area of the experimental blocks was 437 acres.
A total of 110 V^-acre plots and 440 4-milacre quadrats have been established
and tagged on treatments which will have residual stands. Additional quadrats will
be established, where necessary, following actual treatment. The area will be logged
by a private operator under timber-sale contract. No report of the experiment will be
generally available until the area is inspected following logging.
LODGEPOLE-PINE (PINUS CONTORTA DOUGL. VARIETY LATIFOLIA
ENGELM.)  STUDY IN THE CENTRAL INTERIOR
The primary purpose of this study was to review the regeneration and the conditions
governing regeneration in all ages of cutting in the lodgepole-pine types, tributary to the
Canadian National Railways in the Prince Rupert and Fort George Forest Districts.
The main product from these pine forests, up to the beginning of the 1939-45 war,
was hewn ties. Since 1946 there has been a great increase in the number of sawmills, but
ties still form an important part of the cut of both these forest districts.
Tie-cutting necessitates a highly selective form of logging. Only trees within a
narrow diameter range are suitable for hewn ties. A 9-inch d.b.h. tree will yield one tie,
a 14-inch tree five or six ties. Above 14 inches too much hewing and trimming is
necessary to make the method economical.
The result of these cuttings, even after several sales have been made over the same
area, is a partial and patchy opening-up of the canopy, with very little disturbance to the REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951
47
□
SPRUCE
LODGEPOLE
PINE
BALSAM FIR
Moist Herb-Shrub        Moss Site
Site
Drv Dwarf
Shrub And
Lichen Site
Proportion of regeneration by species on different sites following tie-cutting.
ground. This gradual opening-up of the canopy has encouraged considerable growth of
shrubs and herbs.
In the pure, or nearly pure, pine stands there is little regeneration present.
Insufficient light, especially direct overhead light, and lack of exposed mineral soil as a
germination bed appear responsible. It was noted that, where natural stands were sparse
or where cutting had been heavy and where there was not a great growth of shrubs and
herbs, pine regeneration was fairly widespread. This was noted in particular where
fuel-wood, pit-prop, or other special-use sales had resulted in an almost complete clear-
cut. These were often on areas of low productivity, on dry gravels and sands, where the
ground vegetation was not dense.
In the mixed pine-spruce (mainly Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) stands the removal
of a portion of the pine has resulted in considerable release to the spruce. Where the
cut has been light, the canopy has been filled in by the residual spruce; on heavier cuts,
the advance-growth spruce and balsam (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) has filled in
some of the gaps, but there has been little regeneration since. Again, there has been
considerable growth of shrubs and herbs.
The extensive pine forests in this area are due to repeated fires during the last few
centuries. With the exclusion of fire from these stands, they will tend to become spruce
and spruce-balsam stands again. This phase of succession, as witnessed in the uncut
stands, is apparently very slow. On the dry sites, typified by dwarf shrubs such as
Arctostaphylos, by lichens or by grasses, there is very little spruce, and consequently pine
is likely to maintain itself. At the other extreme, on the moist herb-shrub type where
pine-spruce mixtures predominate, spruce and balsam regeneration is to be found.
Where a thick moss carpet predominates, balsam—often dense—is the only regeneration.
Much the same pattern of regeneration is found on the tie-cuttings. In a series of plots
examined on these three sites, the amount of regeneration varied without regard to
density, age, or composition of the stand, but the proportion by species was found to be
fairly constant (Fig. 1). On five plots on the dry Arctostaphylos site the regeneration
based on four 4-milacre quadrats on each plot ranged from 4,000 lodgepole pine and
250 spruce to 250 pine and no spruce. On four of these plots there had been an almost
complete clear-cut with fuel-wood sales following tie-cuttings.   On the fifth plot, which 48 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
had been cut over twice for ties, there was no pine regeneration and only one spruce was
found within the quadrats.
On the moss sites, areas where the moss covered 80 per cent or more of the ground
and was often 3 inches or more thick, the extent and condition of the balsam regeneration
varied greatly. On three plots, each on a north aspect where the original crop was pine-
spruce with occasional balsam, the regeneration was exclusively balsam, varying in density
from 2,500 to 8,000 per acre. Much of this regeneration was present before the area was
cut for ties, and little of it had responded to the cut. On two of these plots, almost all the
regeneration was attacked by the spruce budworm. Three further plots on this site each
showed a predominance of balsam though spruce and a very occasional pine were present.
On the moist herb-shrub sites, characterized by a large number of different species
of plants, the amount of regeneration again varied but was much lower than the two
previous sites. On eight plots, on all of which there had been two cuttings for ties, spruce
was the only species present and restocking did not exceed 60 per acre. On three further
plots, each of which had been cut over three times leaving very open stands, spruce
regeneration varied between 500 and 1,000 per acre, with balsam less than 250 per acre
and pine present only very occasionally.
BOYS CAMPS
About twenty-five high-school boys were employed for the two summer months at
Cowichan and Aleza Lake Experiment Stations under a project to provide useful occupation and training in forest occupations for youths. They were employed in landscaping
and maintenance work around the camps, in trail- and road-improvement work, and in
assisting in research projects. Time was allocated for organized talks and showing of
films on fire-fighting procedures, logging, wood-lot management, methods of reforestation,
tree diseases, and other phases of forest work.
Technical guidance was given to a third group in laying out a demonstration thinning
in lodgepole pine. A 10-acre 20-year-old stand was thinned to three degrees of spacing.
The area selected was between Burns and Babine Lakes.
PERMANENT STUDY-PLOTS ESTABLISHED AND IN USE
AS AT DECEMBER 31st, 1951
Description of Projects Number of Plots
Growth and yield studies—
Coast forest types      561
Southern Interior types      193
Central Interior types       194
      948
Silvicultural studies—
On cut-over land—
Seed dissemination from standing trees :._. 9
Survival of seed-trees   4
Artificial seeding  7
Growth of exotic trees   2
Natural regeneration (Cowichan and Alou-
ette Lakes)   1,100
In young stands—
Thinnings   43
Prunings  8
Christmas-tree cuttings  1
In mature stands—
Selective cutting  5
Slash-disposal methods   6
1,185
Total number of plots  2,133 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1951 49
RESEARCH PUBLICATIONS
Seed production by conifers in the coastal region of British Columbia related to dissemination and regeneration. E. H. Garman, B.C. Forest Service Technical Publication
T. 35, 1951.
Experimental thinning operations on a commercial scale. Chr. loergensen, Forestry
Chronicle 27:64-72, 1951. Reprinted as B.C. Forest Service Technical Publication T. 36, 1951.
Preliminary site class volume tables by logs as an aid to grade cruising Douglas fir,
western hemlock and western red cedar. A. R. Fraser, B.C. Forest Service,
Research Note No. 19, 1951.
Marking of spruce in the Fort George Forest District. L. A. deGrace, E. W. Robinson,
and J. H. G. Smith, B.C. Forest Service, Research Note No. 20, 1951. 50 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
REFORESTATION
FOREST NURSERIES
The objective of raising ten million 2-0 seedlings at the Coast nurseries has been
maintained, but frost-damage in the winter of 1950-51 materially reduced the number
of trees available for distribution. Weather conditions are one of the more important,
and at the same time more variable, factors that nurserymen have to contend with.
Germination, growth, development, hardening-off of seedlings, disease, insects, and
weed infestations are all very much influenced by the weather. However, those conditions that may have an adverse effect on one phase of production may, at the same
time, be beneficial in another way. For example, the abnormally dry summer reduced
germination 20 per cent, but weeding costs were down 50 per cent, and the planting
stock hardened off earlier than usual and was not damaged as much by early fall frosts.
Experimental work on soil-fertility was continued, and details are given by the Research
Division elsewhere in this Report under " Nursery Fertility Studies." The unit of Forest Zoology, Science Service of the Canadian Government, also continued their studies
with damping-off fungus at Duncan and the white-grub problem at Campbell River.
At Green Timbers 2,115,000 trees were shipped to planting projects in the spring
and 470,000 in the fall. The application of commercial fertilizers has increased the
vigour and size of planting stock and reduced the number of culls. The conveyer-belt
used for grading the planting stock has proved very efficient, and production per man-
day has been maintained. For the first time in many years, an influx of birds during
the month of June did considerable damage to the seed-beds by eating the freshly sown
seed. Mechanical devices or scarecrows do not stop their depredations, and the damage can only be slightly alleviated by scattering bird seed between the seed-beds. The
main road to the administration buildings has been relocated to eliminate two right-
angle turns, which should add to the general appearance of the nursery-site.
At Campbell River 2,752,000 trees were shipped in the spring to planting projects
in that vicinity, and an additional 500,000 to one fall project. Electric power was
brought into the nursery by supplying the poles and constructing a pole-line for 1 mile.
The telephone-line was also improved by the installation of duplex wire instead of the
old ground-line. White-grub activity was a little more pronounced, and possibly
another application of benexane 5 will be necessary.
At Duncan 1,227,000 trees were shipped in the spring to planting projects in the
Cowichan area, and a further 1,410,000 seedlings were planted in the fall. The infestation of strawberry root-weevil appears to have been controlled by use of chlordane
dust and ortho-bait. The root-pruning of 2—0 stock in August has continued to give
excellent results in producing better stock that has hardened off before the severe fall
frosts.
In the East Kootenay, seed-beds were sown, for approximately 1,000,000 seedlings, at the nursery-site on Perry Creek. A gravity water-supply system was installed,
and a cement reservoir built to hold 18,000 gallons. Contracts were let for the construction of a four-car garage and accommodation for the nursery superintendent.
Additional area was cleared, and a permanent fence constructed.
SEED COLLECTIONS
In the spring of 1951 all indications pointed to a bumper Douglas-fir cone-crop on
the Coast. Unfortunately, a severe frost killed most of the flowers, and very few cones
developed. Only 1,550 bushels of Douglas-fir cones were collected, yielding 730
pounds of seed. Other species were similarly affected, and very small quantities were
obtained. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 51
In the Interior a good crop of yellow-pine cones yielded 400 pounds of seed from
the 330 bushels* gathered. Sufficient white-spruce seed was obtained to last for several
years, but the Douglas-fir crop was too poor to warrant collections.
RECONNAISSANCE AND SURVEY WORK
Although the extended forest closure on the Coast hampered reconnaissance and
survey work, some 26,000 acres in nine logged-and-burned areas of the Lower Fraser
Valley were checked. The greater part of this acreage has been adequately restocked
naturally. Some 8,000 acres, however, are still too recently burned to pass final judgment and will be re-examined in the future. Only 2,600 acres of detailed mapping for
reforestation projects was completed on the Coast and a further 2,200 acres in the East
Kootenay District.
PLANTING
Heavy snow and a late spring again prevented planting until the latter part of
March, and the work continued into the second week in May. Three weeks of dry,
warm weather during the spring planting, followed by a severe summer drought, has
almost doubled the mortality of planted seedlings. In the fall, three projects were able
to complete their programme before snow closed all camps. During the year 6,070
acres of logged-and-burned land were reforested with 5,734,000 seedlings. Logging
companies planted an additional 2,235 acres with 1,808,000 trees. (See page of
Appendix for statistics of planting over the past ten years.) The extreme drought during the summer months was directly responsible for the loss of 1,010 acres of plantations by fire. This acreage is nearly twice as much as the total area lost by fire over
the last fifteen years.
Experimental planting with 1-1 yellow pine in the East Kootenay was continued,
and 79 acres were planted with 58,400 seedlings. Comparative survival between spring
and fall planting will be observed, as well as machine-planting as compared to the use
of grub-hoes.
'    PREPARATION OF PLANTING AREAS
• Crews were employed on six different projects during the year, but work was curtailed to a great extent due to eleven weeks of the forest closure. One camp was closed
and material salvaged to be used in the construction of twelve three-man huts. This
size of hut can be loaded on to a 3-ton truck and moved without dismantling. New
construction consisted of three huts 20 by 60 feet each, to house sixteen men with two
in each room. These buildings are made of plywood and can readily be dismantled
and moved to other projects. Snag-falling was carried on when weather conditions permitted, and 6,583 acres were cleared of snags. Eleven miles of old logging-railroad
grade were converted for truck use, and 1V2 miles of new road constructed. One hundred and sixty miles of existing roads were graded and maintained.
PLANTATIONS
Final examination of 1,250 plots in the 1948 spring plantations indicate an average
mortality of 19 per cent. The late planting season of 1950 is reflected in the survival
examination in those areas which show a loss of 30 per cent. Mortality in this year's
plantations is expected to be even higher, as the season was late and seedlings received
practically no rain from the time they were planted until the fall.
With the co-operation of the Research Division a start was made in examining
some of the older plantations dating back to 1930. This study has revealed that, in
order to establish a Douglas-fir stand on the best sites, clearing of brush will be necessary before and after the plantations have been established and at considerable cost. 52
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Snagged area near Brewster Lake.
To be effective, this work should commence as soon as brush begins to compete with
the fir and be repeated periodically until the trees have grown beyond possible suppression. In view of the high costs involved, it will probably be necessary to turn to more
tolerant species, such as balsam, hemlock, and cedar, to restock the better sites on the
Lower Coast. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 53
PARKS AND RECREATION
Although most of the work had been completed on the Mount Seymour Park Road
and Manning Park administrative and concession areas, the numerous items necessary
to finish these major projects required a high proportion of park funds. As against
these continuing endeavours was the work commenced in Miracle Beach, Silver Star,
and Cultus Lake Parks.
ADMINISTRATION AND DEVELOPMENT
With key personnel now being firmly established and having several years experience, administrative functions become more of a routine than an exploratory procedure.
Revised park regulations and a park policy statement were formulated and approved.
The Recreational Officer in the Kamloops District has been able to give prompt attention to problems arising in that district. The rapid economic expansion in the Fort
George and Prince Rupert Districts has brought with it an equally increasing number of
recreational inquiries. To meet the need for specialized attention to these problems, a
Recreational Officer assumed duties in the Prince Rupert District.
A Park Attendant was placed at Cultus Lake in view of the high public use given
that area. The Ranger in Wells Gray Park received his instructions from the District
Forester this year, but in future will come under park headquarters direction in order
to more closely consolidate administration of all park areas.
The appointment of a research assistant for wild-life studies, resulting in a more
intensified investigation of pressing problems, has widened administrative activity to
embrace this aspect.
Slight modification of the Divisional organization resulted in the unification of
maintenance and development projects and in co-ordination of -reconnaissance and planning activities. Personnel began studies and examinations aimed at the preparation of
long-term plans for an integrated, Province-wide park system.
Development work on Mount Seymour centred about completing the road and
parking-lots and the construction of ski-tows. In Manning Park, the erection of a staff-
house and extension of basic services were undertaken. These, together with new work
on Miracle Beach, Cultus Lake, and Silver Star Parks, were compact projects utilizing
skilled personnel and special machinery on a rotation basis. The employment of youth-
training crews allowed a start to be made on a Province-wide system of roadside campsites and picnic-sites.
Little Qualicum Falls Park.—A serious fire-hazard, resulting from blow-down
within the park, was reduced and cleaned up by a youth-training crew. The same crew
laid the foundations for a warehouse and headquarters building and reconstructed a
200-foot section of water-line to carry it under the Little Qualicum River. As a component of the Province-wide system of camp-sites, sixteen individual sites, each offering
parking and tent space, standard table and fireplace, with access to toilets and wood
and water supplies, were developed within the park.
MacMillan Park.—A foot-path, 6 feet wide and approximately 1,800 feet long,
was graded and gravelled through a portion of Cathedral Grove. Six massive rustic
signs were erected with information concerning the area.
Cameron Lake Park.—Usable beaches along the east and south shore of Cameron
Lake were cleared of driftwood and debris in initial steps toward the development of
picnic facilities.
Elk Falls Park.—The drainage project, commenced in 1950 to protect the bank
above the swimming-pool, was completed in 1951. Following the installation of buried
drains to collect surface and seepage waters, large quantities of fill material were placed 54
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Bridge under construction at Miracle Beach Park.
Three Brothers Mountain Road, Manning Park. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 55
on banks where erosion was serious and the blanketed areas were graded and landscaped. An overnight camp-site, comprising approximately 1,200 feet of access road,
four toilets, and eight individual camp-sites, was developed along the lower reaches of
the Quinsam River.
Miracle Beach Park.—Development in this area was seriously hampered by the
prolonged forest closure. Nevertheless, VA miles of access road were constructed
between the Island Highway and the park boundary at Black Creek. A timber-truss
bridge of 50-foot span and 15-ton capacity was built across the creek. The road within
the park was rough-graded for an additional 1,500 feet and parking space for fifty cars
was cleared. The construction camp was winterized, and it is anticipated that a continuance of work through the winter months will prepare this park for public use during
the summer of 1952.
Englishman River Falls Park.—Construction of approximately 1,400 feet of
access road and parking spurs, with installation of tables, fireplaces, and toilets combined in the development of six individual campsites.
Mount Seymour Park.—Improvements in Mount Seymour Park consisted of the
extension of the road approximately 1,200 feet; construction of two parking-lots to
accommodate approximately 550 cars; reconstruction and remodelling of the ski-lodge
basement to provide toilet and washroom facilities; provision of a public lunch-room
and an improved heating system; construction of two permanent rope tows, One 800
feet long and the other 400 feet in length; provision of guard-rails on dangerous sections of road; trail-construction to Mystery Lake, Goldie Lake, and on the Alpine Trail
toward the higher elevations. Picnic facilities were improved with the development of
two sites at highway switchbacks and the installation of tables along the ridge adjacent
to the end of the road.
Manning Park.—Facilities at Manning Park were improved by constructing an
addition to the Pine Woods kitchen and providing a personnel building to house the
concessionaire's staff. The former construction was done by Forest Service personnel
and the latter by contract.
A combination workshop and storage building was erected under direction of the
Park Ranger. The Three Brothers mountain jeep-road was extended approximately
2 miles to the 6,000-foot level and the easier terrain of the sub-alpine plateau. The
season's work on this project saw the completion of the main portion of the rock work
involved. The jeep-road to Windy Joe Lookout was improved, and the lookout facilities were reorganized with the construction of a standard pre-fabricated lookout.
A youth-training crew of twelve boys was employed for two months improving
trails and developing four roadside camp-sites within the park. In particular, the Castle
Creek and Monument 83 Trails were cut out, and Skagit, Memaloose, Cambie, and
Mule Deer Camp-sites, furnishing approximately twenty-four individual sites, were
developed.
Wells Gray Park.—A serious fire season tended to curtail work in Wells Gray
Park, and development was limited to a small amount of maintenance and protection
trails.
Silver Star Park.—The year saw the construction of approximately 2.5 miles of
the 5 miles of road required to give access to the base of the winter ski area. The road
was built to good standards, with due consideration for snow-removal and winter driving.
Grades are limited to 8 per cent, and alignment and sight distance have been controlling
factors. Two necessary switchbacks are built to 60-foot radii. Clearing and grubbing
were thorough, and clean burning has resulted in an attractive roadside. 56
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
New road-construction in Silver Star Park.
A corner of the Langford Workshop. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 57
Cultus Lake Park.—Limited provision for picknicking and camping was made
through the installation of temporary toilets, tables, and fireplaces. Devastation in the
popular Maple Bay area by a flooding creek was mitigated through the efforts of the
Park Attendant and his assistant in time to welcome a record number of visitors.
During the fall and early winter, development was begun on improved parking and picnic
facilities and provision of approximately thirty individual camp-sites.
MacDonald Park.—The well at MacDonald Park was cribbed and fenced.
Langford Workshop.—Crowded conditions at the Langford Workshop were
alleviated through a new warehouse, constructed in accordance with slightly modified
standard plans. The new building meets most needs for storage of equipment and frees
the workshop for more constructive operations. Development of roadside camp-sites
put new and heavy demands on the shop facilities and necessitated the installation of
a new tilting arbor table saw and jointer. Replaced equipment was transferred to
Manning Park.
Shop production of standardized park facilities during 1951 consisted principally
of: 30 incised hanging camp-site signs; 120 incised post-mounted signs; 218 massive
6- by 6-foot table and bench units; 190 steel fireplaces; and 20 prefabricated pit-type
toilet buildings. Approximately 80 per cent of the above were shipped for immediate
use. The balance is being increased in preparation for early distribution and installation. Forms were placed and concrete poured to form curbs about buildings and driveways in accordance with approved landscape plans.
MAINTENANCE
The customary maintenance crew of summer Park Attendants completed their
1950-51 winter work on the Island parks by April 30th. They then assumed their
regular duties until October 15th, when they regrouped for the winter's clean-up
projects.
Each year the Island parks cater to an increasing number of visitors. With
improved camping facilities, a jump of over 50 per cent in number of campers from
last year's figures was recorded. It has been shown from day-to-day counts that only
about 40 per cent of the persons visiting the parks sign their names. Therefore, the
total number of visitors to all the Island parks would run well over 100,000.
Name of Park
Little Qualicum Falls   15,543
Elk Falls 	
Englishman River Falls	
Stamp Falls	
John Dean 	
Goldstream 	
Ivy Green 	
Number of
Registered
Number of
Visitors
Campers
15,543
1,161
12,145
1,138
8,475
350
7,019
178
6,948
756
1,207
494
5,885
1,780
Totals  57,222 5,857
The intensive use of Peace Arch Park, with its resulting maintenance problems, is
shown by the following attendance figures from the visitor books:—
Visitors at summer-house  15,195
Visitors at picnic kitchen     4,867
Club and association picnic visitors  10,344
The very dry summer made it difficult to maintain lawns and flower-beds, but no
serious damage was experienced. The service structures were oiled and the administrative buildings painted. 58 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
With the completion of a number of buildings in Manning Park and their landscaping and services, maintenance is becoming a considerable item. The severe winter
caused some damage to roofs and the water system, as well as to roads and trails.
In Mount Seymour the major item was the oiling of the entire highway. This
eliminated the dust nuisance and minimized the constant grading and repair otherwise
required. The ski camp came in for considerable alterations and strengthening through
the replacement of the original foundations.
PLANNING
During the past year considerable progress has been made toward the preparation
of basic master plans for specific recreation areas.
Essential as such work is to the orderly development of a park system, it has been
made difficult by the continuous need to accommodate current uses and to accept and
adapt expedients. In this situation, efforts are being made to concentrate on long-term
basic plans for a number of important areas and to minimize developments elsewhere
until comprehensive plans may be formed.
Cultus Lake Park.—Following the 1950 mapping programme at Cultus Lake Park,
field examinations were carried out and areas allocated to various recreational uses.
Essential components of the basic plan have been designed in considerable detail. Site
plans of a 36-unit camp-site and a picnic area with a 210-car parking-lot and facilities
for 400 to 500 users have been produced.
Mount Seymour Park.—Field examinations and studies were continued, with
particular emphasis on probable summer uses, and their integration with established
and anticipated winter aspects. Further studies during the winter will result in the
early production of a master plan.
Manning Park.—Examinations and studies of Manning Park have enabled the
preparation of a written plan outlining the activities for which the park is best suited,
allocating specific areas for definite purposes and indicating improvements necessary for
the proposed uses.
Ultimate use will require very extensive development of trails and trailside campsites; the institution of intensive fish and wild-life management programmes; provision
of varied classes of accommodation and facilities to enable a wide range of recreational
pursuits. It is anticipated that provision of recommended improvements will occupy
a twelve-year development period.
Stamp Falls Park.—The boundaries of Stamp Falls Park were surveyed and
defined on the ground. Field work necessary for a topographic map was completed.
Other studies were carried out preparatory to the production of a development plan.
Elk Falls Park.—Similar field work was undertaken in Elk Falls Park in preparation
for the production of a long-term development plan.
Quinsam River Picnic-site.—A plan for the development of a part of the Forest
Service reserve, adjacent to Elk Falls Park, to accommodate local picnic use was prepared at the request of the Vancouver District office.
Roadside Camp-sites.—In recognition of the growing popularity of roadside camp
and picnic facilities, first units in a proposed Province-wide system were planned during
the spring of 1951. Fourteen areas offering approximately seventy individual campsites were laid out along the Hope-Princeton and Fraser Canyon Highways and through
the Okanagan Valley. In anticipation of future extension, nine additional areas were
examined and planned along the Southern Trans-Provincial Highway.   ,       ■  .. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1951 59
Highway Facilities.—A preliminary examination of appropriate sites along the
Island Highway was made as the first step in designing a system of roadside picnic-
sites on Vancouver Island. The Department of Public Works co-operated in this
regard by allowing the use of the right-of-way areas.
Landscaping.—Proposals were made for the improvement of the areas around Pine
Woods and the motels in Manning Park, and these areas were planted to native species
of trees and shrubs. Foundation rockeries were constructed at motels, and wild-
flower seeds, gathered within the park, were sown throughout large areas.
Plans were drawn for landscaping two switchbacks on the Mount Seymour Road,
and these, and proposals for the beautification of the administration building, were
implemented by the construction of rockeries and suitable plantings.
A landscape plan was evolved for the Langford Workshop area, and early stages
of its implementation have been carried out.
RECONNAISSANCE AND INVENTORY
In the past year the emphasis again has been on the reconnaissance of proposed
parks and recreational reserves. In a rapidly developing Province the object has been
to establish, where possible, different kinds of areas best suited for " the use and enjoyment of the public." In more heavily settled regions, where a need has arisen for
recreational land, areas are being examined for the best sites still adaptable to such
requirements. In these cases an effort is being made to obtain necessary land through
donation or possible acquisition. An over-all Provincial park and recreation plan now
under way will greatly help in planning future reconnaissance work. However, there
are still very obvious requirements to be met and problems to be studied involving
recreational use of land.
The projects listed indicate some of the work undertaken in 1951:—
(1) Ski reconnaissance of the Forbidden Plateau in late winter was a follow-up on a report on the recreational possibilities of the Strathcona
Park-Forbidden Plateau area. This reconnaissance gave further information concerning conditions under which some of the Forbidden
Plateau might eventually become a park.
(2) A recreational survey of the 2-mile wide temporary reserve for park
purposes around Lakelse Lake was conducted to determine how much,
and which, land should be retained for recreational use.
(3) The proposed park on Hudson Bay Mountain was covered in a thorough
field survey which will allow establishment of a boundary to minimize
land-use conflicts.
(4) A ground appraisal was made of existing public reserves in the Peace
River Block, and additional sites were selected to meet anticipated recreational needs for the populations which centre at Fort St. John, Dawson Creek and Pouce Coupe. An area near Azouzetta Lake, in the Pine
Pass of the Rocky Mountains, was considered as a possible mountain
park for residents of the Block.
(5) A number of highways were studied for roadside camp and picnic site
possibilities in another step toward building up a Provincial system.
(a) Provincial Highway No. 3 through the Southern Okanagan and
east to Nelson via Grand Forks was examined. Many valuable recommendations by the Regional Development Division of the Department of
Trade and Industry were studied in the numerous possibilities that exist.
(b) A similar examination was made of the No. 12 Highway from
Lytton to Clinton via Lillooet. 60
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Winter reconnaissance, Forbidden Plateau.
(c) An attempt was made to add to present highway reserves between Williams Lake and Prince George.
(d) A study was carried out on the John Hart Highway from
Parsnip River Crossing to Dawson Creek. Some sites were chosen, augmenting those already selected within the reserves of lands covering the
route of the highway. These sites will be retained for public use when
the highway reserve is lifted.
(6) Lac la Hache and Williams Lake were singled out for special attention as
points where an attempt should be made to obtain public ground.
(7) Initial reconnaissance was made of the Chilcotin region and the Fort St.
James-Germansen Landing region, areas hitherto unfamiliar to Divisional
personnel. This broad recreational appraisal will aid in planning future
work.   A few reserves were selected.
The bulk of field work was carried out by a party of two. In the Nelson Forest
District the work of this section was attended to by Recreational Officers. This year
saw the departure of the senior officer of the Reconnaissance and Inventory Section to
the Forest Management Division, the addition of a graduate forester to field staff, and
the addition of an office assistant in whose charge is the Parks and Recreation Division
filing system of basic information.
Summary of Parks, as of December 31st, 1951
Class of Park Number Acreage
A  25 299,652.780
B      5 7,055,211.000
C   31 4,054.651
Special       3 1,656,455.000
Totals  64 9,015,373.431 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1951
New Parks
Parks formed during 1951 are as follows:—
61
Name
Created
Acreage
Class
Vicinity
Forest
District
Monck 	
Sept. 28, 1951
Aug. 31, 1951
Feb.  23, 1951
111.000
0.206
5.000
A
C
C
Nicola Lake  	
View Royal   _
Kamloops.
Wild-life Management
This year a biologist joined the Division and has directed wild-life investigations
in Wells Gray and Manning Parks, and in the Sayward Forest. Each of these areas,
in their own way, offer "unusual opportunities for the recreational use of wild life, and,
at the same time, each typifies a larger area for which detailed wild-life knowledge will
enable better land use. A party in Wells Gray Park concentrated their study upon the
dense moose population, but also devoted some time to the vanishing caribou and the
valuable and decreasing marten. In Manning Park there will be an effort to make
beaver and deer more abundant and easily seen by those who wish only to see, study,
or photograph. The Sayward Forest is an excellent area in which to determine interrelations between forestry and wild life on Vancouver Island.
■
■ i i
-—   :"---.-.'»
■ .      >
!_—J_-_
Ik
—               ■ ""tt
|   j
*      ■*-:     *  •    S   ■.....:,.      .   j j
• ■ :"
A mink live-trapped in Wells Gray Park and ear-tagged before being released.
ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
The procuring of basic survey data, design of improvements, and the supervision of
projects undertaken by project or contract made up the year's activities. The following
is a summary of work in this regard:—
Miracle Beach.—A legal boundary survey of this new park provided control for a
contour map of the area slated for immediate development. A 48-foot long, ring-
connected truss bridge was constructed upon wooden crib foundations.
Mount Seymour Park.—Construction plans and quantity estimates were prepared
for the following projects:—
(1) A parking-lot to accommodate 150 cars for users of the "Cabin Area."
(2) The extension of the park road from Station 405+00 to a large turnaround near the Forest Service headquarters building.  This section would DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Wild life is the major attraction in the proposed Bowron Lakes Park.
Wild-life management helps increase beaver populations. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 63
be 40 feet wide, fourteen stations long, and have a grade of from 1 to 2
per cent.
(3) A water-dam and water-distribution system for the development area at
the top of the mountain.
(4) The construction of a dam at the Alpine Meadows for the creation of an
artificial lake to be used for summer recreation.
(5) A transit traverse required in the completion of the Mount Seymour Park
master plan was run along the road from Keith Road to Station 405 -f- 00.
Cultus Lake Park.—Our proposal for relocating a section of road near the popular
Maple Bay area was implemented through a survey by the Department of Public Works.
This allowed some study of a bridge design suitable for crossing Watt Creek.
Manning Park.—A building to provide accommodation for a concession staff of
approximately eighteen persons was designed and built under contract. The basement
of this building can be adapted to a sports-shop. Pine Woods Lodge catering facilities
were improved by the addition of a wing adjacent to the kitchen. This gave much
needed space for a bake-shop, vegetable-preparation room, meat refrigeration, dishwashing, and garbage-space, and considerably improved the traffice pattern in the
kitchen. The design of the wing and supervision of construction were carried out.
A warehouse was planned and constructed to follow the style of the present garage.
Silver Star Park.—The 2V2 miles of constructed road is 16 feet wide in a
thoroughly cleared 66-foot right-of-way. The grade on this section varies from 6 to 8
per cent, and the curves are all under 10 degrees of curvature. It has two through
switchbacks of 60 feet radius, with ample room to enlarge to 100 feet if the traffic
warrants it. Preliminary and final locations were run for another 2V2 miles of road.
This would bring the road to the 5,500-foot level, or at the base of the main ski-slopes
of Silver Star Park. This section of road will have no switchbacks, and the grades will
be from 7 to 8.5 per cent. 64 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST MANAGEMENT
The total estimated value of all forest products for the year 1951 amounted to
$504,807,930. This value, which is an all-time high, is approximately $36,000,000
more than the total for 1950. While the industry as a whole flourished during the
year, the increased value was due largely to the expanded production which took place
in the pulp and paper industry during 1951.
The total cut for the Province was approximately 4,696,000,000 board-feet log-
scale, being an increase of 136,000,000 feet over 1950. While this is an all-time
record volume, it would have been much greater had it not been for adverse logging
conditions in the spring and the long closure during the summer due to the fire-hazard.
Water-borne lumber shipments for 1951 amounted to 1,146,000,000 feet, only
slightly under the 1950 level. However, whereas in 1950, 736,000,000 feet were
shipped to the United States, only 71,000,000 feet went to that market during 1951.
On the other hand, only 244,000,000 feet were delivered to the United Kingdom in
1950, but shipments to that market during 1951 were increased to 703,000,000 feet.
Shipments to all other markets remained fairly stable.
The statistical tables in the Appendix of this Report show the details of Forest
Management activities during the year. In commenting on these tables the following
highlights are considered worthy of special mention.
Of the total production of 4,696,000,000 feet, which includes all products, Douglas
fir again readily maintained its leading position in volume cut by species; namely,
approximately 1,842,000,000 board-feet, or 39 per cent of the total. Other important
species in order of output were hemlock, cedar, and spruce. The cut of these species
amounted to 925,000,000 feet, or 20 per cent, hemlock; 722,000,000 feet, or 15 per
cent, cedar; and 624,000,000 feet, or 13 per cent, spruce, as compared with 20, 18,
and 11 per cent respectively during 1950. The reduction in cedar scale reflects the
slump in the cedar market which occurred in mid-year. Other species in order of
importance were: balsam, larch, lodgepole pine, yellow pine, white pine, miscellaneous
hardwoods, and cypress.
All forest districts, except the Vancouver Forest District, participated in the
increased production. The latter district suffered a loss in scale of approximately
225,000,000 board-feet, due largely to adverse spring and summer weather conditions
which closed down the camps. The cut in Prince Rupert Forest District was increased
by 125,000,000 board-feet; Fort George District by 110,000,000 board-feet; Kamloops
District by 100,000,000 board-feet; and Nelson District by 27,000,000 board-feet.
The increased cut in the Interior is a clear indicator of the greatly expanded sawmilling
industry which has now become established there.
On the basis of origin of cut, 1,815,000,000 board-feet, or 39 per cent, originated
on timber sales, an increase of 239,000,000 board-feet, or 15 per cent, over 1950.
Old Crown Grants are next with 1,041,000,000 board-feet, followed by timber licences
with 685,000,000 board-feet. Both these categories show a loss of 76,000,000 board-
feet and 97,000,000 board-feet respectively over 1950.
For the first time a scale from management licences showed on the records.
During 1951 the volume scaled from these areas amounted to 16,558,664 cubic feet.
The demand for Crown timber reached levels hitherto unheard of, not only in the
number of applications, but also as to acreage and volume of saw-timber species included
in timber sales awarded during 1951. This demand continued throughout the year and
into 1952.
Timber sales, including cash sales, numbered 2,962, in comparison with 2,591
during 1950. The estimated value of sales made amounted to $24,621,000, which is an
all-time record value and is an increase of $15,468,000 over 1950, which up to that time REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 65
had been a record. The increased value was due to the increased volume sold as well
as higher stumpage values of all species and products. Volume of saw-timber sold
amounted to 2,900,000,000 board-feet, in comparison with approximately 1,600,000,000
board-feet during 1950. Total number of sales in force as at December 31st, 1951,
was 7,009. This compares with 6,200 at the end of 1950. The total area held under
timber-sale contract is now 1,775,000 acres, and the guarantee deposits amount to
$4,628,000.
Stumpage prices bid showed a wider variation than usual, as might have been
expected due to keener competition. The weighted average stumpage for each species
without exception showed a marked increase over the 1950 average. This is exemplified
in the weighted average of all species, which increased from $5.19 in 1950 to $7.89 in
1951, or by 52 per cent.
The number of operating sawmills showed an increase over 1950 of 269 mills, or
a total of 2,160 sawmills inclusive of 60 shingle-mills. This expanding development
has largely taken place in the northern and central sections of the Province, where
remote timbered areas up till the present time had been considered marginal or inaccessible. In several of these newly exploited regions, working-circles were set up during
1951 in order to regulate the cut so at to keep it within the ability of the areas to
permanently produce merchantable timber stands.
Total log exports were noticeably downward from 1950 and previous years,
amounting to approximately 82,000,000 feet, which is 60 per cent of the 1950 exported
volume. This was natural, due to the demand for sawlogs exceeding the supply. Of
this volume, only 77,000,000 feet came from Crown grants carrying the export privilege,
leaving only 5,000,000 feet, or 6 per cent, from non-exportable areas.
The value of minor products marketed outside the Province amounted to $7,600,000.
This represents an advance of $1,800,000, or 31 per cent. The United States market
took the larger proportion of shipments, mainly in the form of poles and piling, which
comprised 64 per cent of the total value of minor products exported.
Other major activities of Forest Management which showed increased activity during
1951 include the following:—
Number of timber sales cruised was 2,704, or an increase of 23 per cent. The large
volume of field work was only possible through the assistance of the staff of the Forest
Surveys and Inventory Division, which undertook the field and office work on several
large areas involving complete watersheds.
The volume of logging-inspection work showed a small increase, but did not keep
pace with the increased work-load, so that the standard necessary to maintain adequate
supervision continues unsatisfactory.
As may be expected from the accelerated activity in the lumbering industry, trespass
cases also increased both in number and in volumes cut.
As a matter of record, 5,500 registered timber-marks were issued during 1951. This
compares with a ten-year average of 3,700.
SUSTAINED-YIELD MANAGEMENT
Forest Management Licences
During 1951, contracts for two forest management licences were signed, making
a total of ten licences awarded to date. In addition, twelve licence applications have
now been approved and reserves established over the areas involved preparatory to
finalization of contracts.   Working-plans for four of these are at hand.
The past year has seen a renewed surge of interest on the part of industry, with the
result that there are, in addition to licences granted and applications in the reserve stages,
more than 100 other applications which are considered active. 66 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Public Working-circles
The programme for the establishment of public working-circles, begun in 1950, was
expanded during the past year. Three parties were in the field gathering the necessary
information to prepare initial working-plans for additional management units. Field
work has now bean completed for eight public working-circles; namely, Sayward,
Chilliwack, Sechelt, Barkley Sound, Salmon Arm, Spallumcheen, Niskonlith, and Naver.
In addition, eighteen areas are under review. Additional units will be set up as time
permits.
Ledgers for regulation of cut have been set up for five public working-circles—three
in the Vancouver District and two in the Fort George District.
FARM WOOD-LOTS
At the year's end a total of thirty-four applications for farm wood-lot licences had
been received. Of these, two have been granted and six are nearing completion.
Applications are distributed as follows:—
Vancouver   12
Prince Rupert   	
Fort George     9
Kamloops     7
Nelson     6
Total   34
The Wood-lot Section has also been partly responsible for the preliminary
administration of the new tree-farm land, for which there have been a number of inquiries
and two applications submitted. Of these two, the management plan for one application
was drawn up by the Section. This Section has also endeavoured to provide extension
forestry service and has answered many inquiries and visited a number of wood-lot
owners who have requested advice.
MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING
Road reconnaissance, road surveys, road construction, and general engineering were
carried on in widely dispersed projects.
In the Niskonlith Forest an access road opening up 50,000 acres on the McGillivray-
Cahilty Plateau is under construction. During 1951 a reconnaissance of 15 miles was
completed, of which 12 miles of final location were surveyed and 3 miles of clearing
undertaken. This road will give access from a point on the Trans-Canada Highway near
Chase.
In the Salmon Arm working-circle an access road into the Fly Hills Plateau was
surveyed for final location and construction completed for a distance of 10 miles. In
addition, reconnaissance was made for 8 miles of branch roads, of which 5 miles were
located.
In the Aleza Lake Forest Research Station, construction was commenced on an
access road from the highway near Aleza Lake Station for a distance of 7 miles to Bowron
River. A surveyed location was completed for the entire distance. Construction was
completed for 2 miles and partially completed for another 3 miles.
Construction at Aleza Lake Forest Research Station also included renovation of the
camp and installation of a new water and sewage system.
In addition, reconnaissance was undertaken on 45 miles of access road, commencing
at a point 3 miles west of Houston to McBride Lake in the Morrice Forest. This road
will make accessible extensive areas of overmature stands. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 67
FOREST-COVER MAPS
In the course of the year, 1,436 forest-cover maps were revised as follows: Victoria,
420; district offices, 474; and Rangers' offices, 542. Of the above, 96 are new
replacements. New replacements include 16 new forest-survey editions, and the 48 maps
comprising these were distributed and filed at the offices concerned. Forty-eight were
maps replaced at district offices for wear and tear.
Instructions in forest-cover mapping and the organization of maps and plans,
including an improved system of map indexing, was given to fifty-seven Forest Service
personnel and twenty-six of the Forest Insect Investigations and Laboratory of Forest
Pathology Units of the Science Service, Canada Department of Agriculture, at eleven
headquarters throughout the Province, as follows: Victoria, 26; Ranger School, 20;
Vancouver Forest District, 7; Fort George Forest District, 12; Prince Rupert Forest
District, 6; Kamloops Forest District, 7; and Nelson Forest District, 5.
An improved system of map-colouring by the air-brush method has been on trial
at this office and appears satisfactory. The air brush, which is a small atomizer, is used
for spraying liquid paint by air-compression evenly on both large and small surfaces.
Its use will be a factor in reducing both time and cost of map-colouring, and in this
respect will be an improvement over the present method of hand-colouring with crayons.
SILVICULTURAL FUND
During 1951, under the Silvicultural Fund, work was continued in the four Interior
districts in reducing the hazard created on timber-sale areas. Seven district crews of
eight to twelve men each were employed and, in addition, eight Rangers employed
smaller crews to clean up extremely hazardous areas in their own districts. Work
accomplished was as follows: 3,388 acres on expired timber sales were treated, consisting of lopping and scattering, snag-falling, and piling and burning; 580 abandoned
mill-settings destroyed; 2,492 chains of roadside slash treated, in varying widths from
one-half to 2 chains;  and 64 miles of old roads were opened up and repaired.
• Funds were made available from the Silvicultural Fund for the following other
activities:—
Tree-marking: A total of sixty-three timber sales was marked, covering 14,090
acres.
Special studies in spruce-balsam types in the Kamloops Forest District in co-operation with the Unit of Forest Zoology, Science Service, Canada Department of Agriculture. Object of these studies is to obtain information concerning cutting methods, a
marking classification, and seeding and regeneration of spruce.
Thinning of lodgepole-pine pole stands. A small experimental plot was established in the Prince Rupert Forest District, and the stand was thinned, using three different degrees of thinning: 4 by 4 feet, 5 by 5 feet, and 6 by 6 feet. The age of the
stand was 20 years, and stocking varied from 5,000 to 15,000 trees per acre.
Work on Christmas-tree experimental plots was continued in the East Kootenays
to demonstrate improvement methods to the local Christmas-tree permit-holders.
Planning and reconnaissance work with regard to newly established public working-
circles to determine priority of cutting and broad policies with regard to cutting methods
to be used on future timber sales. 68 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST PROTECTION
WEATHER
A high-pressure zone persisting off the Pacific Coast throughout the early spring
and summer seasons resulted in a long dry period for the coastal area of the Province.
As a result, it was necessary to advance the official fire season in the Vancouver Forest
District from May 1st to April 18th. In the same area, between June 30th and September 30th, the hazard conditions were so severe that forest closures were invoked,
with but two short interruptions, for a record total of eighty days during the summer.
For the same reason and for the first time, closures of the Coast region in the Prince
Rupert Forest District were enforced for two short periods aggregating fourteen days.
In the Interior, during the early part of the fire season, the frequency of the weak
storms moving in from the north brought ideal weather from a fire-fighter's standpoint
until mid-June.
In the Fort George Forest District, the low hazard continued all summer east of
the Rockies, where only two fires occurred in the whole vast area of the Peace River
District. West of the Rockies, in both the Fort George and Prince Rupert Forest Districts, the usual spring flash hazard was non-existent. For the balance of the season in
this area the rainfall was light, and gusty weather, due to unsettled conditions in June
and September, caused more escape permit and mill-burner fires than usual.
In the Kamloops Forest District the hazard weather did not start in earnest until
the last week of June. From then on, except for two minor breaks, one in early July
and the other in mid-August, conditions continued hot and dry until fall rains began on
September 23rd.
In the Nelson Forest District the spring hazard was non-existent, and it was mid-
July before the build-up in fire conditions occurred. The fall rains started on August
23rd, so that the fire season was comparatively short. This was fortunate, as the dry
periods were extreme in both temperature and low humidities, which made it difficult to
control fires once started. Although lightning-storms were no more numerous than in
other years in both the Kamloops and Nelson Forest Districts, the extreme hazard conditions obtaining produced more forest fires from lightning than for any season since
1948.
FIRES
Occurrences and Causes
There were 1,923 fires reported during the 1951 fire season. This was 585 more
fires than the annual average for the past decade and a greater number than for any
single year in that decade. Actually, the 1951 fire occurrence has only been exceeded
eight times in the past forty years, or the lifetime of the Forest Service. These years
were 1922, 1924, 1925, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1938, and 1940. The record number of
fires reported was in 1922, with a total of 2,591 fires.
Shown below, for comparative purposes, are figures of fire occurrence by forest
districts:— Fire Occurrence
during Ten-year Percentage
Forest District Period 1942-51 of All B.C.
Vancouver   4,147 27.50
Prince Rupert   649 4.30
Fort George  1,586 10.52
Kamloops   4,530 30.04
Nelson  4,169 27.64
Totals  15,081 100.00 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 69
It will be noted from Table No. 49 of the Appendix that in 1951 the Vancouver
Forest District's fires were 34.27 per cent of the total for the Province, which, by comparison with the above table, indicates the exceptionally dry weather of the past fire
season for the Coast region. In 1951, 82 per cent of the Provincial fires occurred in
the three southern districts, with the Nelson Forest District's fires lighter than usual,
while Vancouver's were heavier.
The three main causes of fire occurrence were lightning, 30 per cent; campers and
smokers, 30 per cent; and railways operating, 11 per cent. For further details see
Tables Nos. 51 and 52 of the Appendix. The lightning-storms of the Fort George and
Kamloops Forest Districts came down from the north, while those of the Nelson Forest
District originated, as usual, south of the border and travelled north-easterly across that
district.
Cost of Fighting Fires
For details under this heading see Tables Nos. 41 and 57 of the Appendix. The
latter table does not include Forest Service protection overhead as detailed for the
previous year in Table No. 40.
The 1951 costs broke all records for actual fire-fighting expense both to the Forest
Service and to industry. This is more an indication of the effects of high wages rather
than the severity of the fire season. For 1951 the basic Forest Service fire-fighting
wage was raised from 35 cents per hour to 75 cents per hour and, similarly, industry's
basic costs were at an all-time high. It was, of course, the relatively small proportion
of larger fires which ran the cost figure so high. It will be noted from Table No. 55 of
the Appendix that lightning-fires, although only 30 per cent in number, accounted for
$712,230 or 50 per cent of the total Forest Service cost. These are the most inaccessible fires and will remain a major cause of expense in bad fire years until, by increased
expenditures on roads, trails, aeroplanes, and helicopters, the problem of quick access
is solved.
Damage
The total area burned in 1951 is estimated at 420,950 acres, which, as shown by
Table No. 54 (see Appendix), is only 16 per cent greater than the average annual
acreage burned for the past ten years in spite of 39 per cent more fires during the past
fire season. The acreage burned in 1951 was less than half that of the previous year,
but this is due mainly to the freakish weather obtaining both seasons in the Peace River
country. There, in 1950, 795,500 acres were burned, as against only 260 acres in
1951. As shown by Table No. 55, industrial operations (of the Coast regions) are
responsible for starting fires which cost 37 per cent of the damage bill. This damage
was mainly in the form of destruction of property other than standing timber and reproduction. For instance, of the total estimated damage in the Vancouver Forest District
—$1,984,940—the destruction of logging equipment, felled and bucked and cold-
decked timber amounted to $1,063,500.
Excluding this damage to property other than forests, lightning again proved the
greatest destroyer of forest growth for the Province as a whole, and the Kamloops and
Nelson Forest Districts account for 75 per cent of the acreage burned by lightning-fires.
FIRE-CONTROL PLANNING AND RESEARCH
The Provincial fire atlas has been brought up to date, and a total of 1,923 fires has
been plotted for the 1951 fire season. In addition, the fire-analysis ledgers for the
Prince Rupert and Fort George Forest Districts are up to date. 70 department of lands and forests
Visibility Mapping, Lookout Photography, and Trail and
Road Traverses
Two crews of two men each were in the field this year under the over-all direction
of a technical forest assistant. Sixty-nine possible lookout points were examined in
detail, with the panorama photographs and visible area maps completed for each. The
information obtained in the field has been compiled, assembled in book form, and forwarded to the forest districts concerned. Eleven new primary lookouts were recommended, as follows: Vancouver Forest District, 6; Prince Rupert Forest District, 2;
Fort George Forest District, 3.
Milburn Lookout, Quesnel, B.C.    Living-quarters, 40-foot tower, and prefabricated lookout cabin.
As panoramic lookout photography was caught up in 1950, with a total of twenty-
three lookouts photographed in that year, and because of staff shortage, it was decided
to postpone further lookout photography until additional new lookouts had been manned
on a permanent basis.
Owing to the augmented programme of forest inventory, requiring most of the
available University forestry undergraduates, it was necessary to abandon the trail and
road traverse programme, which had proved so beneficial in past years.
Modern Aids in Fire-fighting
Air Photographs.—Air reconnaissance during the heavy fire season of 1951,
particularly in the lightning-infested back areas, demonstrated the necessity of training
the field staff in the use of air photographs and air-photo mosaics. Existing maps of so
much of the Province are neither accurate enough nor detailed enough for fire-fighting
purposes. During the fire season, techniques were worked out which proved invaluable
in locating and mapping fires on air photographs. In addition, these photographs, combined with the use of the stereoscope, proved invaluable in planning fire attack, and
road and fire-line location on the ground. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 71
Mechanical Equipment.—Although men with shovels were still the largest item
of expense in fire-fighting during the 1951 season, modern mechanical equipment proved
its value in areas suitable for bulldozers and four-wheel-drive units. The cost of moving
fire-fighters, and patrol and mop-up of many of the larger fires was appreciably lessened
by using the bulldozed fire-guards as roads for four-wheel-drive units of various sizes.
On one large fire in the Yahk Forest of the Kootenays, several miles of cheap access road
costing from $200 to $500 per mile were built to and within the fire area to facilitate the
moving of fire-fighters and to allow a quick reduction of man-power and the elimination
of the expensive and out-of-date pack-horses. Techniques on the location of these ridge
roads from air photographs, which cut down the amount of time used on field reconnaissance and principles of location plus allowable grades (up to 30 per cent) were
worked out, and steps are being taken to train the field staff in these procedures.
Fire-weather Records and Investigations
The weather study programme was interrupted by the resignation of the Forest
Service meteorologist. Fortunately, through the good offices of the Air Services Branch
of the Department of Transport, a Canadian Government meteorologist has been permanently assigned to the Provincial Forest Service for the purpose of continuing fire-weather
studies in British Columbia and to provide a close liaison with the Meteorological
Service of Canada. Again this season, as for the past few years, it has been necessary
to confine fire-weather studies almost entirely to the Vancouver Forest District.
Detailed reports of fire weather and fuel moisture were received from twenty-seven
lookouts twice daily by radio at Vancouver and Victoria. This information was supplemented by less complete reports from seventeen stations at lower elevations. The geographical distribution of the elements of hazard was then made available at a glance by
plotting the more important elements on small-scale maps of the district as soon as the
information was received.
Sets (315) of fuel-moisture indicator sticks were made up and distributed. Of
these, industry absorbed 194 sets, or a total of 37 more than the previous year.
Investigations were continued into the effects of insolation on the rates of drying
of forest fuels. Special measurements of sunshine, stick temperatures, and black-bulb
temperatures were continued at Langford lookout for this purpose.
A detailed study is being made of the climatic differences within the Vancouver
and Kamloops Forest Districts, with a view to zoning these districts in particular for the
purposes of fire-weather forecasts.
FIRE-SUPPRESSION CREWS
Thirteen suppression crews were in action in the Vancouver, Kamloops, and Nelson
Forest Districts again in 1951. A number of crews were split up as the fire situation
developed, and at times the headquarters were changed during the fire season, but the
main headquarters of the crews were the same as in the last two years.
Once again the crews demonstrated their effectiveness in extinguishing many
potentially disastrous fires without appreciable subsequent spread, due to their training
in taking fast action in arriving at the scene and using the proper fire-fighting technique
on arrival. One crew maintained an average lapsed time of one and one-half minutes
from the time the fire calls were received until the crew was en route to the fire.
In addition to fire-fighting, 28 per cent of their gross time was spent in doing
valuable project work. 72
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Number
of Fires
Subsequent Spread (by Number ot Fires)
Size ot Fire When Attacked
Vi Acre
or Less
Over
Vi Acre to
1 Acre
Over
1 Acre to
5 Acres
Over
5 Acres to
50 Acres
Over
50 Acres
Spot (up to Vi acre)     	
Over Vi acre and up to 1 acre	
123
28
29
6
3
104
11
18
4
7
23
3
2
4
1
3
4
2
3
Over 5 acres and up to 50 acres	
Over 50 acres  	
Totals     	
189
104
29
34
9
13
AIRCRAFT
In 1951 a total of 1,482 accident-free flying-hours was logged by the four float-
equipped aircraft chartered under contract from Central British Columbia Airways
during the period April to October. The aircraft were headquartered at Prince George,
Kamloops, Penticton, and Nelson, as in previous years.
All aircraft were radio-equipped to operate on the Forest Service radio network to
ensure ground-to-air communication. The aircraft at Prince George was again available
on call to the Prince Rupert Forest District, and the Kamloops-based aircraft was
available to the Vancouver Forest District.
One district alone, in a total of 452 flying-hours, dropped 12 tons of supplies by
parachutes, moved 517 fire-fighters and personnel, freighted a total of 28 tons of supplies,
and spent 140 flying-hours on fire patrol.
In addition to improved techniques in parachuting, the aircraft proved invaluable
in guiding fire crews into fires normally difficult to locate on the ground, by dropping
markers; in fighting larger fires, by enabling officers in charge to be flown over these fires;
or, failing this, pictures were taken by land camera and the resultant prints were
immediately dropped to the crews, or fire boundaries were sketched on maps or on
air-photo mosaics and were then dropped to the ground crews.
In addition to the main charter, a limited amount of flying-hours was logged by
locally chartered aircraft where the fire situation required more aircraft than the four
already mentioned.
ROADS AND TRAILS
The road and trail work for fire-protection purposes, including access to lookouts,
was continued in 1951. In spite of the extreme fire season this year, when forest-
protection heavy equipment was employed to a greater extent in fire-fighting, more road
was constructed than in 1950. In the summary below, the road and trail work is
classified into light, medium, and heavy, according to the degree of construction
difficulties.
Light
Medium
Heavy
Total
Miles
27.25
213.00
Miles
24.00
88.25
Miles
37.40
88.00
Miles
88.65
389.25
Total new road construction and maintenance	
240.25
112.25
125.40
477.90
11.50
590.25
45.50
303.00
37.75
130.00
94.75
1,023.25
Total new trail construction and maintenance	
601.75
384.40
167.75
1,118.00 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951
73
I :
Cabin cruiser, 17 feet 9 inches long, powered by 22-horsepower outboard.     Built at Forest Service
Marine Station.
River-boat, 25 feet long.    Built at Forest Service Marine Station. 74 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST SERVICE MARINE STATION
The past hazardous fire season resulted in a marked increase in the volume of work
at the station. This was particularly true of the mid-season and post-season repairs to
fire-fighting pumps and outboard motors. Excellent service was maintained during the
long fire season, due mainly to the back-log of spare units and parts on hand to meet
emergencies.
In the marine repair section it was again possible to reduce the back-log of repair
work on the Forest Service fleet. This included 32 complete overhauls and 12 minor
repairs on boats varying in size from 24 to 84 feet in length. Twenty new boats were
built, the largest being two 34-foot standard Assistant Ranger boats. The balance
included 4 river-boats, 3 outboard cabin boats, and 12 dinghies. In addition, a
miscellany of repair work to heavy-duty marine engines, fighting plants, etc., was
accomplished.
In the woodworking-shop a full programme was carried on, including 17 lookout
buildings and 24 sectional buildings (20 by 24 feet). These were prefabricated, bundled,
and shipped to the forest districts concerned. Similarly, 28 pieces of office furniture, 17
sets of lookout furniture, and a miscellaneous collection of wooden crates, sorting-trays,
and tables were built and shipped throughout the year.
In the machine-shop section, 136 fire-pumps and 64 outboard motors were
overhauled and returned to the forest districts concerned. In addition, 35 Bennett
fire-finders were completed, 100 tool-boxes manufactured, and 16 cut-away models of
mechanical equipment were completed and delivered to the Forest Service Ranger School.
The machine-shop section also broke in 31 new pumps and 23 outboard motors. These
were tested and shipped to the field staff throughout the Province. In addition, a wide
variety of equipment for Forest Service use was manufactured or machined, such as
hose-fittings, lookout brackets, pump refiners and couplings, paper-weights, etc.
BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION
To meet the needs of our expanding Forest Service staff, the heavy building programme was continued in 1951. The slow-down of residential construction due to
credit restrictions and the steel-use order imposed by the Canadian Government was
reflected in the greater number of bids received on advertisements for wooden buildings.
Had such competition not prevailed in these days of rising costs, the Forest Service
building programme, involving, for the most part, construction in areas remote from the
centres of population, would have necessarily been drastically curtailed.
As it was, the programme for 1951 involved 12 fewer major projects than during
1950. Of the 34 major building projects under way this year, 20 have been completed,
as shown in tabular form below. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951
75
Office and stores building and four-car garage, Lake Cowichan Ranger Station.
Major New Building Projects for Forest-protection and
Administration Purposes, 1951
Location
Alberni   	
Alexis Creek	
Barriere	
Blue River 	
Chase1 	
Cowichan Lake1	
Clinton	
Cranbrook	
Cranbrook. 	
Castlegar.- 	
Fort Fraser1	
Harrison Lake1	
Harrison Lake	
Hope 	
Kitwanga	
Kelowna  __	
Kamloops	
Kaslo.  	
Langford 	
Nelson 	
100-Mile House	
Penticton1 	
Pender Harbour	
Pender Harbour	
Pendleton Bay 	
Port Hardy	
Prince George	
Queen Charlotte City.
Quesnel	
Thurston Bay	
Vancouver1	
Vancouver	
Vancouver	
Vernon	
Type of Building
Four-car garage 	
Warehouse 	
Four-car garage	
Ranger residence	
Office and stores building, four-car garage.
Office and stores building, four-car garage.
Four-car garage	
Nursery building 	
Warehouse, four-car garage	
Warehouse, four-car garage 	
Alterations to office and residence	
Fill for building-site	
Office and stores building, two-car garage..
Office and stores building, four-car garage.
Residence, office and stores building	
Warehouse 	
Double warehouse, eight-car garage	
Floating boat-house	
Pipe-line   	
Warehouse  	
Ranger residence  	
Office and stores building, four-car garage.
Pipe-line	
Assistant Ranger residence	
Residence, office and stores building	
Ranger house renovation  __
Warehouse    _
Residence	
Double warehouse, four-car garage	
Ranger office renovation	
Sprinkler system	
Storage-basin	
Pipe-line	
Four-car garage 	
Construction Agency
Contract 	
Contract	
Contract .	
Contract .	
Contract	
Contract  	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract  __
Contract  	
Forest Service project
Contract	
Contract	
Forest Service project-
Contract 	
Contract	
Contract 	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract 	
Forest Service project.
Contract	
Labour contract	
Contract	
Forest Service project.
Contract	
Contract _.
Contract	
Contract	
Progress to Date
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Projects started last year (see page 57 of 1950 Annual Report). 76 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT
Despite reports that the steel shortage would make it difficult to obtain mechanical
equipment, all items requisitioned were acquired without too much trouble. The following equipment was purchased during the year:—
Automotive
Sedans  2
Coupes  10
Suburban carryalls  9
Station wagons—four-wheel drive  3
Land rovers—four-wheel drive  11
V^-ton light deliveries—two-wheel drive   17
1-ton light deliveries—two-wheel drive  2
1-ton light deliveries—four-wheel drive  17
Dodge power-wagons   3
3-ton trucks  7
Heavy-duty trucks—60,000 g.t.w.   1
Total   82
Four-wheel-drive light-weight equipment proved invaluable on the fire-line, as it
was possible to gain ready access and haul men and equipment over tractor-built fireguards and very primitive truck-trails.
Tankers and Trailers
The 100-gallon high-pressure drop-on tankers have proved very successful when
used in conjunction with 1-ton four-wheel-drive vehicles, and three more units of this
type were obtained during the past year for use in the Fort George and Nelson Forest
Districts.
The following trailers were obtained during the year:-—
28-foot cooking-dining type (for nine men)     3
28-foot bunk-house type (for six men)     4
14-foot caravan type (for two men)     4
Conventional box trailers (two-wheel)     3
Heavy-duty machinery trailer (20 tons)     1
Total   15
The bunkhouse type of trailer is an innovation and utilizes a standard 28-foot
caravan trailer-shell partitioned into three sections, each accommodating two men.
These trailers have been in use in sub-zero weather this winter and found to be very
satisfactory.
The 14-foot trailers mentioned in last year's Report, used for grader operators,
have been found to be equally useful for housing tractor operators working singly, and
three units were obtained for this purpose, plus one for the Kamloops Forest District's
range-reconnaissance crew.
Tractors, Graders, and Gas-shovels
Seven tractors were purchased during the year; two Caterpillar D-6 crawlers complete with blade and drum were obtained for use of the Fort George Forest District and
the Headquarters Management Engineering Section respectively. One International
T.D. 18, fitted with blade and drum, was acquired for Management Engineering; four
International T.D. 14 crawler tractors, three fitted with conventional blades and drums REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 77
and one equipped with a Malo loader-dozer and drum were obtained and supplied—
one each to Management Engineering and the Nelson Forest District and two to the
Kamloops Forest District. One Fordson wheel-type tractor was obtained and allocated
to the Cranbrook Nursery by the Reforestation Division.
The Malo combination loader-dozer was an innovation and proved to be very
useful for the variety of jobs to which it was assigned.
As the Management Division is now required to construct access roads, a heavy-
duty Warco grader was purchased. This is equipped with an angle dozer blade in
addition to the conventional grader blade and is capable of being used on light construction work in addition to finish grading. An additional Huber grader with all attachments
was purchased for use of the Reforestation Division. A Vi-yard Unit gasoline-shovel
was acquired to supplement the construction equipment listed above for use of the
Management Engineering Section.
Outboard Motors, Pumps, and Chain-saws
No difficulty was experienced in obtaining outboard motors, and thirty-one units
were purchased. Similarly, thirty-four fire-pumps of various makes and sizes were
acquired. Due to the improvement of design of the commercial chain-saw, particularly
of the one-man type, it has become increasingly difficult to obtain competent hand-fallers.
Consequently, the power-saw has become a standard piece of fire-fighting equipment,
which the Forest Service is acquiring in quantity as rapidly as funds permit. Seventy-
seven one-man and eleven two-man chain-saws were purchased in 1951. One of the
latter was also fitted with a 9-inch earth-boring auger and was used to drill post-holes
by a range-improvement crew.
Miscellaneous Equipment
Four 3,000-watt automatic lighting plants were obtained for use at various new
Ranger stations, and a 1,200-watt portable plant was added for motion-picture projector
work by the Public Relations Division. One unusual generating set acquired was a
Miller combination 2-ampere a.c. welder and 3,000-watt 110-volt lighting set assigned
to the Management Engineering Section. Primarily utilized to repair and maintain the
road-construction equipment, it can also be used for lighting the camp if the usual
power-supply fails.
Five conventional automatic electric water systems in sizes from 250 to 425 gallons
per hour were obtained for the new Ranger stations, plus a gasoline-powered 450-gallon-
per-hour water system for use by the Parks and Recreation Division.
Two 105-cubic-foot air-compressors and the necessary drilling equipment were
purchased for the Kamloops and Nelson Forest Districts, plus a 55-cubic-foot air-
compressor for the Parks and Recreation Division. These were of the two-wheel trailer
type. Also purchased were a Warsop gasoline-powered rock-drill for the Prince Rupert
Forest District and a three-sack cement-mixer for the Nelson Forest District.
A rather unusual mechanism was built up at Victoria for the acceleration of
sawdust-pile burning. This consists of a Sirocco-type blower coupled to a % -horsepower
air-cooled four-cycle gasoline-engine, the whole assembly being mounted on a suitable
angle-iron framework. A dual, telescopic air-duct which can be extended 27 feet is
attached to the outlet of the blower by means of a special manifold equipped with air
controls. Each of the two ducts can be pivoted right or left from centre about 25 degrees.
It is proposed to use this forced-draught device on the remaining fingers of sawdust-piles
ignited during the winter, with a view to consuming all inflammable material prior to
commencement of the fire season. 78 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Mechanical Inspection
The rapid increase in the amount of equipment to be inspected, plus an extremely
active fire season, made it very difficult for our inspectors to complete the round of
inspections desired. The additional inspector mentioned in last year's Report was
requisitioned and obtained, but before his probationary period was completed, one of the
district Mechanical Inspectors resigned and the section was again understaffed. It is very
evident that the mechanical staff will have to be expanded to handle properly the many
mechanical items requiring attention.
RADIO COMMUNICATION
The year saw a steady expansion in radio communication, with the addition of
sixty-one units of all types. Written messages increased in all districts, while the
unusually severe fire season resulted in a much greater use of radio for conversational
traffic.
Unit types (transmitter-receiver) purchased or constructed were as follows:—
Type Number
SPF (portable battery type)  34
PAC 10-watt (stationary, a.c. power)  10
MRT-100 100-watt marine     3
MRT-25 25-watt marine     1
FM 30-watt (very high-frequency)     7
LWP (light-weight portable)     6
Total, all types  61
In the Prince Rupert Forest District, where a communication-improvement plan was
instituted in 1949, communication has been generally reliable. However, several higher-
power units destined for installation in 1951 have not yet been completed due to the
disruption of our construction programme by the extreme fire season.
One remote-control project was completed, and others surveyed with a view to
future development. The main remote-control station on Mount Hayes, at Prince Rupert,
which was instituted with such success three years ago, has now become practically
useless at certain times due to locally generated interference. This trouble was partly
overcome by the purchase of a special type of receiver, and there is hope that the remote
installation can be restored to its former usefulness.
In the Vancouver Forest District, with the hazardous fire season and the continuous
closure, radio communication played an even more vital role than usual. Early in the
fire season it was found that the important relay point at Campbell River was not
sufficiently well equipped to be a useful adjunct to the headquarters station at Vancouver.
A new three-channel receiver was constructed in Victoria and quickly placed in operation,
greatly increasing the over-all efficiency of the medium-frequency network.
Three 100-watt marine transmitters were purchased, leaving only two launches still
equipped with the obsolete 50-watt sets.
Experimental work in frequency modulation was continued during the summer and,
as a result, all Ranger stations from Campbell River to Nanaimo, through a repeater
station on Little Mountain, were connected by frequency modulation to Vancouver,
though this new network cannot yet be said to be operating at full efficiency. It is
expected that of the two points not yet covered by frequency modulation, Alberni and
Lake Cowichan, the latter will be equipped by the end of the current year. When
maximum efficiency is obtained, it is expected that a considerable load will be removed
from the district medium-frequency network. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 79
Although most fires during the past season were well serviced by radio, with a
number of fires occurring simultaneously it was apparent that the number of free sets
ready for fire service was insufficient. This was particularly evident on one fire where
the location happened to be in the middle of two F.M. networks and where both mobile
and extra portable sets were available.
The Kamloops Forest District enjoyed a year of generally satisfactory communication in spite of increased demands on the system due to numerous fires. The increase of
headquarters power instituted two years ago, plus the establishment of remote-control
reception at key points, has definitely increased the reliability of communication. After
some obstacles had been overcome, a remote receiver was installed at Sicamous, and a
number of others have been planned for in the near future.
In the Fort George Forest District, as in all other districts, a general increase in
radio traffic occurred, and during the season two remote-control projects were completed
at Vanderhoof and McBride. Throughout the year, in spite of interference troubles,
communication with Victoria has been surprisingly reliable.
The Nelson Forest District's new remote-site was supplied with a new multi-channel
receiver early in the year. While the site proved unexpectedly superior to the old one,
technical difficulties caused early results to be unsatisfactory. These troubles have been
cleared, and operation is now normal. Power-line noises at one time threatened to close
down completely radio communication with Nelson, and only painstaking investigation
by the district technician disclosed the outside source of interference. Transmission
between Nelson and Victoria has been, on the whole, unsatisfactory. This is not new
and is the result of atmospheric phenomena, but the very difficult problem of finding space
for aerials undoubtedly contributed. In fire-fighting communication, the severity of the
season emphasized more than usual the need for more fire-portables.
Victoria headquarters' constructional and experimental programme was disrupted
due to the emergency demands. It had been planned to carry out extensive F.M. testing
on Vancouver Island and the Mainland, but in the reduced time available this work was
confined to that part of the Island between Campbell River and Nanaimo.
Eight stock models of the new light-weight fire-portable transmitter-receivers,
mentioned in last year's Report, were constructed by the Forest Service and are illustrated
on the opposite page. These 6V2 -pound units were thoroughly field-tested during the
past fire season on several of the larger fires. They are intended for use over short
distances of 5 to 10 miles, where the standard portable weighing 22 pounds is too heavy
and bulky for easy carrying. In practice it was not uncommon to extend their effective
range of use beyond 50 miles. A commercial contract has now been let for the
production of the first fifty of these units prior to the 1952 fire season.
The number of transmitter-receiver sets in use by all divisions of the British
Columbia Forest Service at December 31st, 1951, is as follows:—
Type Number
SPF (portable, battery type)  373
LWP (light-weight portable)  6
PAC (stationary, a.c. power) :  65
S25 (stationary, a.c. power)  5
RS-100-T (stationary, a.c. power)  2
HQT-200-8 (stationary, a.c. power)  5
Marine, 25-, 50-, 100-watt  28
FM Fixed (very high frequency)  11
FM Mobile (very high frequency)  2
Remote receivers—
Headquarters   6
Ranger   11
Total, all types  514 80 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Message totals for all districts to December 31st, 1951, compared with figures for
1950, are as follows:— XT   .     ,_.
' Number of Messages
District 1950 1951
Prince Rupert  3,170 4,641
Fort George   2,831 3,903
Kamloops   2,990 3,354
Manning Park   448 589
Vancouver   10,386 12,687
Nelson   4,308 4,423
Victoria  9,309 10,129
Totals   33,442 39,726
SLASH-DISPOSAL AND SNAG-FALLING
Orderly abatement of logging hazards got away to a good start in April, but the
weather turned hot and dry. Loggers were called upon to fight fire on their operations
while the upper levels were still snow-bound; in spite of this, good progress was being
made until the lower coastal area found itself plagued by uncontrolled fires around the
settlements. A precedent was established when the statutory fire season of May 1st
to October 1st was opened by Order in Council on April 18th; this made permits a
requirement before fires were set out, and also acted as a deterrent to deliberate slash-
disposal. General rains on April 27th, 28th, and 29th extinguished most of the fires,
but the return of dry weather in May and June caused a recurrence of several of the
larger slash-burns, where intensive mopping up became necessary.
The total of 21,561 acres of slash burned in accidental fires during the summer
months is one of the highest on record and included 9,947 acres of pulp slash which
had previously been examined and classified as lands over which no burning was
required.
A series of forest closures during the summer resulted in complete dislocation of
logging plans, so that few loggers were ready to burn slash in the fall. September
remained hot and dry until the last two or three days. Rains on October 1st and thereafter ended all chance of broadcast burning, except in a few isolated places.
For final results of the 1951 slash-disposal see Tables Nos. 44 to 48 of the Appendix. These show that 22,250 acres of slash were disposed of during the season. This
acreage represents 62 per cent of the area slated for disposal, of which 11,614 acres
were burned by accidental fires.
Snag-falling concurrently with logging was very satisfactory, as shown by Table
No. 42 of the Appendix. In addition, a further 737 acres of old snags, occurring in
logging done prior to the implementation of section 113 of the "Forest Act," were
felled under contract in the Brewster Lake area. A further 6,380 acres of snags were
felled by the Reforestation Division in 1951 in advance of planting.
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT
As could be expected during such a protracted fire season as 1951, prosecutions for
violation of the forest-fire law were greatly increased. In all, information was laid in
seventy-seven cases during the season, which, as shown by Table No. 51, was more than
double the last ten-year average.
Because of the record eighty days of forest closure in the Vancouver Forest District,
twenty-nine prosecutions were occasioned by contraventions of the closure orders, and
the other main source of trouble was for failure to render assistance in fire-fighting,
which accounted for twenty-three prosecutions throughout the Province. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951
81
FOREST CLOSURES
In line with the severe season, records of forest closures were also broken in the
coastal regions of the Province.
Starting with the early-morning shift, restricted industrial closure of June 25th
was instituted for the entire Vancouver Forest District; this was further extended to
include all travel in the woods, or general closure, of the Vancouver Forest District on
June 30th.
In the interim, and for the first time, a restricted industrial closure was invoked on
June 29th for that portion of the Prince Rupert Forest District lying west of the Cascades,
including the Queen Charlotte Islands.
These closures were all revoked by July 6th, but with the advent of further hazardous weather by July 12th, a complete closure was necessary for the entire Vancouver
Forest District, which remained in effect until September 10th, and a restricted industrial
closure was reinstated for the coastal regions of the Prince Rupert Forest District, which
remained in effect until July 18th.
Again, the weather relief proved short in the Vancouver Forest District, and by
September 19th the complete closure was again established and remained in effect until
September 30th.
Regional closures throughout the Province were invoked where warranted by existing forest values and hazard conditions as shown in tabular form below. Again, in some
cases, these were enforced by closure gates and Forest Service attendants. In other
less-frequented areas, warnings through the press, radio, and poster advertising sufficed.
Forest Closures. 1951
Area
Sayward Forest-.-   -..   _ 	
Vancouver Forest District1 ____ .- 	
West   of  the   Cascade   Mountains,   including   Queen   Charlotte
Islands1      —
Vancouver Forest District (general closure).
Skeena River watershed1    	
North Bentinck Arm1
Vancouver Forest District (general closure)_
West of the Cascade Mountains1	
Bear Creek  	
Goat River.     —	
Koch Creek __ _	
Granby River
Crawford Creek    	
Tiger, Cambridge, Gorge, and Casino Creeks	
Blueberry,   Poupore,   Sullivan,   Murphy,   McNally,
Topping Creeks _ __.. —
Arrowpark Creek—   —	
Boundary Creek (Greenwood) 	
St. Mary River  —  	
Botanie Creek  ._	
Sheep Creek (Salmo) _   	
Erie Creek     	
Hanna,   and
Lamb Creek	
Upper Kootenay River-
Duck Creek	
Hidden Creek	
Anderson's Five Mile Creek.
Porcupine Creek _
Duhamel-Upper Lemon Creek..
Akokli-Goat Creek	
Sand Creek, East Kootenay   	
Kelley-March-Hudu-Beaverdale Creek, Champion Lakes..
Woodbury Creeks _
Hawkins-Freeman Creeks _
Alexander Creek 	
Upper Elk, Fording River-
Wilson Creek	
Boundary Creek, Creston..
Nelson Forest District1	
Upper Kootenay River Forest Service roads (closed under section
162, subsection (3), of the Act) 	
Vancouver Forest District (general closure) —   	
District
Vancouver.	
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert
Vancouver-
Prince Rupert
Prince Rupert
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson__ 	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson 	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson... 	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Vancouver	
Effective
Date
June 22
June 25
June 29
June 30
July 10
July 10
July 12
July 12
July 17
July 19
July 20
July 27
July 31
Aug. 2
Aug. 2
Aug. 2
Aug. 2
Aug. 3
Aug. 6
Aug. 8
Aug. 8
Aug. 8
Aug. 8
Aug. 8
Aug. 8
Aug. 8
Aug. 8
Aug. 8
Aug. 8
Aug. 8
Aug. 8
Aug. 8
Aug. 8
Aug. 8
Aug. 8
Aug. 8
Aug. 8
Aug. 8
Sept.  18
Sept.  19
Termination
Date
Sept. 10
July     6
July 3
July 6
July 18
July 18
Sept. 10
July 18
Oct. 1
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Aug. 28
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Aug. 14
Nov. 3
Sept. 30
1 Partial closure for sawmilling and industrial operations. 82 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
CO-OPERATION—OTHER AGENCIES
Again, the excellent co-operation from honorary fire wardens must be acknowledged
with thanks and appreciation. In 1951 the honorary fire wardens numbered 887
throughout the Province. These public-spirited citizens voluntarily undertake initial
action on fires in the woods near their communities year after year, thus augmenting the
Forest Service staff and performing a most valuable function in the forest fire-suppression
organization.
In addition, there were 813 fire-prevention officers appointed under authority of
section 123 of the " Forest Act." These men are appointed at the request of their
employers in the forest industry or in municipalities and have the same authority as a
forest officer on the particular operation with which they are concerned.
Acknowledgment must again be made for the excellent co-operation received from
the Royal Canadian Air Force and from commercial air lines and private pilots in
detecting and reporting fires. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 83
FOREST-INSECT INVESTIGATIONS*
FOREST-INSECT SURVEY
The British Columbia Forest Service again contributed extensively to the work of
the insect survey. During this extremely critical fire year, facilities were granted in every
possible way to assist the Insect Rangers in sampling throughout the forest areas. The
Forest Service field staff contributed 694 of the total 6,316 collections from the whole
Province.   These collections were divided as follows:—
Forest District Total Collections
Vancouver  188
Prince Rupert     76
Fort George  180
Kamloops  114
Nelson  136
Total   694
The insect survey covered the accessible parts of all districts of British Columbia
except the Queen Charlotte Islands and the Alaska Highway during the 1951 season.
The forest closure restricted coverage in many areas, but some sampling was carried out
in most parts of the Province.
The more important insects for the year are discussed as follows:—
Spruce Budworm.—This insect occurs in British Columbia as two types of
populations—one on Douglas fir which completes its life-history in one year, and the
other which has a two-year life-cycle on spruce and balsam. In 1951 the latter population was very numerous and widespread both north and south of Prince George and as
far west as Babine Lake. The fact that this insect has a two-year cycle very greatly
reduces its hazard to the forests because damage is severe only in the alternate years.
A strain of one-year life-cycle budworm on Douglas fir was present near Lillooet and
in very low numbers on Southern Vancouver Island, but these are not expected to cause
any damage unless they continue to increase in. 1952.
Black-headed Budworm.—A rise in population of this insect was found in the
northern part of Tweedsmuir Park. Although this budworm is not considered the
potential hazard that spruce budworm is, it nevertheless can inflict forest damage and
frequently causes the appearance of alarming defoliation. This insect is of particular
interest because it was reported in 1951 to be prevalent on the Alaska coast and has been
known previously to precede outbreaks of the hemlock looper on the coast of British
Columbia.
Hemlock Looper.—This insect remained in low population numbers during 1951.
Bark-beetle.—Continued or slightly increased activity of Douglas fir bark-beetle
was reported in British Columbia from all three Interior forest districts. All these attacks
are in relatively small patches.
The mountain-pine beetle appeared to be slightly less active in the Kootenay region,
although mortality in lodgepole pine continued. In white pine this beetle was again
prevalent in the areas of Shuswap Lake and the Big Bend.
Tent-caterpillar.—This insect was prevalent on aspen in parts of the three Interior
forest districts.
SPECIAL STUDIES
Spruce Budworm
During 1951, investigations were begun into the widespread outbreak of the spruce
budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana Clem., in the spruce-balsam stands of the Fort
* Prepared by the Unit of Forest Zoology, Science Service, Canada Department of Agriculture, Victoria and Vernon
laboratories. 84 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
George and Prince Rupert Forest Districts.   This outbreak extends from Babine Lake in
the west to the Parsnip River and Bowron Lake in the east.
In this northern area the budworm requires two years to complete its life-cycle.
During the odd-numbered years the feeding is limited, but in the even-numbered years
more severe defoliation takes place. To date most of the mortality has been confined to
balsam reproduction under 12 feet in height, and the dominant and codominant trees,
although attacked, have shown little evidence of this attack in the alternate year of light
feeding. It is expected that there will be very little tree mortality, and that the trees will
recuperate in these alternate years.
In 1951, long-term studies were initiated at Heart Lake, north of Prince George, to
determine the relationship of budworm attack and mortality to stand type, stand mixture,
site, plant ecology, and bud development. Detailed studies were also initiated on the
biology of two-year budworm and on the incidence of parasites and disease. These subjects have been investigated thoroughly as regards one-year-cycle budworm, but little is
known of them in relation to two-year-cycle budworm.
A study of genetical differences between the two types is being carried out at Bolean
Lake, and it is hoped that from this study and the biological and ecological studies at
Heart Lake to arrive at some conclusions as to the potentialities of the two-year budworm
as a forest hazard.
Spruce Budworm Genetics
At Bolean Lake several strains of spruce budworm both from British Columbia and
Eastern Canada were tested for the effect of tree host and altitudinal differences. It was
intended to determine whether genetic or climatic factors control the two-year-cycle
development and tree-host preferences of some spruce budworm. Preliminary results
indicate that the two-year life-cycle was persistent, and that the two-year cycle could be
induced in the normally one-year strains by the development of the insect during the
previous summer and fall at high altitudes.
Mortality of Hemlock-looper-defoliated Timber
Permanent sample plots established in forests damaged by the hemlock looper,
Lambdina fiscellaria lugubrosa Hist., on Vancouver Island in 1945 and 1946, have provided an excellent record of the trend of mortality following defoliation. The hemlock-
looper infestation died out during 1946 so that no further defoliation was caused thereafter. Secondary bark-mining insects and inherent decadence of all species contributed
toward the continuance of mortality. Assuming that the mortality recorded in 1951 is the
total damage that can be attributed to the hemlock-looper oubreak, the following is the
yearly distribution of mortality for all species, including western hemlock, Douglas fir,
Amabilis fir, and Sitka Spruce:  Per Cent of Total Mortality
By Basal Area
Year ' By No. of Trees or Volume
1946  12 8
1946-47  35 33
1947-48  20 22
1948-49  25 27
1949-50     8 10
Hemlock-looper Epidemic Study
The whole problem of hemlock-looper in British Columbia is being critically studied
from three approaches. First, the old areas of damage both on the Coast and in the
Interior are being examined to reconstruct the conditions of stand, site, and local climate.
This part of the investigation covers damage which occurred as long ago as the late 1920's
in various parts of the Province, and the completed work is designed to describe the areas REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 85
of maximum hazard. The second approach is a study of weather-cycles and local climate.
This already indicates that weather-cycles may possibly be used to predict looper outbreaks. The third phase of this study will be carried out in the laboratory to determine
the critical temperature, light, and humidity requirements during different phases of the
insect's life-history.
Spruce Bark-beetle
Investigation of one area of spruce bark-beetle at Bolean Lake in 1950 pointed up
the need for further studies of the management of spruce. This work developed into a
co-operative study with the British Columbia Forest Service to investigate both silvicultural methods and a marking rule. Most of the 1951 investigation was aimed at developing
a sound marking rule for selective sanitation cutting which would remove the trees most
susceptible to attack by the spruce bark-beetle. The population of bark-beetles is dying
out in this area now, and this study may terminate next year.
Chemical Control of Bark-beetles
Experiments were initiated during the summer of 1951 to study the efficacy of
ground-sprayed insecticides on bark-beetle broods in standing trees, in the vicinity of
Invermere, control experiments were conducted against the mountain-pine beetle,
Dendroctonus monticolce Hopk., which has been successfully attacking lodgepole pine.
The insecticides tested were DDT, lindane, orthodichlorobenzene, chlordane, ethylene
dibromide, aldrin, and dieldrin. At the relatively low concentrations used, chlordane and
lindane gave indications of being the most effective.
Ecological Study of the Mountain-pine Beetle
Studies on the mountain-pine bark-beetle are being carried out in the East Kootenay
District. An ecological approach is proposed in an attempt to determine what climatic
and ecoclimatic factors are present when infestations start and develop, and why certain
stands of apparently susceptible age and condition remain immune while others are
almost completely wiped out.
Some preliminary work of an exploratory nature was done during the 1951 field
season, and it is hoped that, during the 1952 field season, time will permit the establishment of a number of plots sufficient to yield data representative of all conditions in
apparently susceptible stands. Continuous weather records may then be taken on
representative plots in conjunction with weather records of the movement of the larger
air-masses in the region.
Flooding in Tweedsmuir Park
During 1951, investigations were begun in Tweedsmuir Park to study the effects of
the flooding of timber in relation to bark-beetle populations. It is thought that the
bark-beetles may be attracted to flood-weakened trees, as they are to timber weakened
by other causes. If this is the case and the beetle broods are able to survive under such
wet condition, there is a real danger of their eventual spread to the green healthy timber
at the periphery of the flooded area.
During the past summer, plots were established in the lodgepole pine-spruce stands
on the south shore of Ootsa Lake. As the flooding progresses, they will be re-examined
periodically. It was determined from trap trees felled near the plots that an endemic
population of Dendroctonus and Ips beetles is present, and should these potentially
destructive insects increase due to the flooding, they will be capable of causing great
damage to the adjacent green timber. 86 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Forest Tree-seed Insects
A programme of research has been conducted in the field of forest seed insects for
the past two seasons. Considerable reconnaissance work has shown that among the
commercial conifers in the coastal region of British Columbia the seeds of the true firs
and that of Douglas fir are most heavily attacked by insects.
From an economic standpoint the Douglas-fir cone-moth appears to be the most
serious single seed pest in the region. Research has been mainly directed toward the
study of this insect. A comparative yield study for ten samples of Douglas-fir cones,
taken from as many different areas and representing several levels of damage, showed
that the mean yield of clean seed for the ten insect-damaged cone-lots was 58.5 per cent
less than the yield from ten samples of insect-free cones.
It has been established that a portion of the annual cone-moth brood has a two-year
cycle. This ensures that at least a part of the population will survive a complete
cone-crop failure year.
Forest-nursery Insects
Insects were quiescent in the Green Timbers and Campbell River forest nurseries
during 1951. In the Duncan nursery, well over one million 2-0 seedings were destroyed
by the strawberry root-weevil, perhaps one of the heaviest losses on record to a forest
nursery. Preventive insecticidal applications were made to seed-bed and fallow sections
of the nursery, while the 1-0 beds were heavily baited against adults. It is hoped that
with such treatments, repeated annually, losses of the magnitude mentioned will not recur. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1951 87
FOREST-DISEASE INVESTIGATIONS*
The activities of the forest-disease laboratory were reorganized during 1951 to provide for the establishment of a forest-disease survey. Although studies of this nature
have been in progress for several years with respect to decay-producing fungi, the survey
has only recently been extended to include other types of forest loss and deterioration.
During the initial development of studies of this latter nature, major emphasis was
placed on sampling techniques and methods of analysis. Disease-survey activities were
confined for the most part to the Interior region. A total of 2,093 collections was made
during the year, and preliminary analyses have contributed to a better understanding of
the distribution, incidence, and importance of forest disease.
Further activities were directed toward the development of a pathological tree
classification that would permit a reliable interpretation of hidden defect in standing
timber. A field classification was prepared and subsequently adopted by the Forest
Surveys Division of the British Columbia Forest Service. Further studies of this nature
are currently in progress.
An administrative reorganization during 1951 has provided for the co-ordination of
activities with the forest-insect laboratory. This development should provide for a well-
balanced programme of survey and research in relation to the forest disease and insect
problems of British Columbia.
Close co-operation from the British Columbia Forest Service was enjoyed during
1951.    In addition to the submission of survey material and reports on new or unusual
disease conditions, direct co-operation was gained through the assignment of personnel to
assist in decay-survey analyses and in sanitation thinning experiments.
Publications distributed during 1951 included the following:—
Parker, A. K.:  Pole Blight Recorded on the British Columbia Coast.    Forest
Path. Note No. 4, Dom. Lab. of Forest Path.    Multigraphed.    Victoria,
August, 1951.
Foster, R.E., and Foster, A.T.:  Studies in Forest Pathology, VIII.    Decay of
Western Hemlock on the Queen Charlotte Islands, B.C.    C. J. Botany
29:479-521.   October, 1951.
Foster, R. E., and Thomas, R. W.: A Record of the Indian Paint Fungus on
Vancouver Island. Forest Path. Note No. 5, Dom. Lab. of Forest Path.
Multigraphed.    Victoria, October, 1951.
DISEASES OF MATURE AND OVERMATURE TIMBER
The following studies in part have been conducted at the request of, and in
co-operation with, the British Columbia Forest Service and the forest industry:—
1. Inventory analyses of western hemlock were continued in the Big Bend region.
Plots were located in mature timber at Big Mouth and Cranberry Creeks and in second-
growth hemlock at Mount McPherson. Analyses in the former area have provided a
record of extreme decadence, with over 96 per cent of the stand volume contained in
defective wood. Investigations at Cranberry Creek were undertaken following reports of
the relatively low incidence of decay in this area. A defect value of approximately 53
per cent was recorded. Preliminary analyses of the basic data would indicate that
variations of this magnitude could be predicted through the application of a stand
decadence and tree-mortality rating.
The second-growth stand at Mount McPherson consisted of a relatively vigorous
understory. Defect values of approximately 15 and 30 per cent were recorded in the
100- and 150-year-old age-classes respectively.    These values are considerably higher
* Prepared by the Victoria Laboratory of Forest Pathology, Division of Forest Biology, Science Service, Canada
Department of Agriculture. 88 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
than those recorded for hemlock of the same age and site condition in the coastal area,
and indicate the need for further information relative to the probable decadence of young
hemlock in the Interior region.
2. Studies in mature hemlock and amabilis fir were completed in the Terrace region
during 1951. The total sample in this area now consists of 579 hemlock and 473 fir.
Stand-defect values in board-feet were found to vary from 35.8 to 56.9 per cent between
the four areas sampled despite uniform conditions of average age, diameter, and site
index. Variations of this nature have been related to the frequency of occurrence of
trees of maximum decadence. The application of a tree-classification system to this area
would thus serve to provide more reliable estimates of net sound-wood content in forest
inventory and related procedures.
3. Pathological analyses were conducted in alpine fir in the Summit Lake (Prince
George) and Bolean Lake (Kamloops) areas. Both areas were found to contain
appreciable volumes of decay. On the basis of the present sample, it is indicated that
the defect value in board-feet would amount to approximately 30 per cent at Bolean Lake.
In this area, moreover, only twenty-one of the seventy-eight sample trees were free from
defect, and it was evident that selective cutting methods designed to eliminate alpine fir
and encourage the growth of spruce would be desirable. The study at Summit Lake
represents a continuation of the balsam analysis initiated in the Fort George District in
1945.
4. Deterioration studies were continued in wind-damaged white spruce and alpine
fir in the Crescent Spur area (Fort George District). White spruce was found to be
more susceptible to uprooting than fir. In this latter species, many of the trees were
broken off at some distance from the ground, but over 80 per cent remained wind-firm.
Although most of the initial loss through disease appeared to be confined to sap-stain,
a marked increase in the activity of wood-destroying fungi has been noted. Sap-rots have
become more evident and progressive deterioration may now be anticipated.
5. Decay analyses were also conducted in Douglas fir at Harris Creek on Vancouver
Island. Decay was found to be of minor importance with respect to quantitative loss.
Most of the decay, however, was confined to the basal log, thus loss in quality was worthy
of consideration. It is of interest to note that the major fungus involved is believed to
contribute to wind-throw susceptibility.
DISEASES OF IMMATURE FORESTS
1. Investigations relating to the pole-blight disease of western white pine were
continued during 1951. In co-operation with the British Columbia Forest Service, a
further series of permanent sample plots were established in the Arrow Lakes region to
study the progress of the disease and to determine the effects of sanitation thinning.
Inoculation experiments were continued, and a re-examination of 1950 inoculations completed. Lesions and excessive pitch-flow were attributed to a species of Scopularia (?),
but further tests will be required before this fungus can be assigned as the causal
agent of the condition. A first record of pole-blight in the coastal region was made
during 1951. Infected trees were located in the vicinity of Duncan, Bowser, Qualicum
Bay, and Hope. Increment and leader growth analyses have indicated that the disease
has probably been present in this region for at least eight years. A disease very similar in appearance to pole-blight has been recorded on lodgepole pine in the Manning
Park area.
2. Studies on the Poria weirii root-rot of Douglas fir and associated species were
confined to laboratory tests to determine the possible existence of strains. Results to
date indicate that cultures of Poria weirii on cedar and fir may differ appreciably.
Studies of this nature may serve to clarify the varying progress and importance of the
disease in pure vs. mixed stands. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951
89
A severe infection of dwarf mistletoe on western hemlock. 90 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
3. A severe infection of the dwarf mistletoe on western hemlock was reported and
examined in the Alouette Lake region (Vancouver District). An average of 90 per
cent infection was recorded in the 60- to 100-year-old stand. Most of the trees were in
a very weakened or deformed condition. A mortality of 10 per cent was recorded,
and it was evident that the stand would not reach merchantable size or condition within
a normal rotation. Mistletoe problems were also encountered in western larch in the
St. Mary River area (Nelson District). It was evident that mistletoe had been prevalent on larch in this area for a considerable time. Infections ranged from medium to
very heavy, and mortality in all age-classes was noted. The known distribution of the
lodgepole-pine mistletoe was extended to the area between Prince George and Burns
Lake. Deformation of the main bole and losses in increment were general throughout
the region of infection.
4. Atropellis canker of lodgepole-pine was reported during 1951 at Burns Lake,
Fort St. James, Vanderhoof, and Summit Lake. The fungus appeared to be contributing to mortality only in the Summit Lake area. An earlier record of the fungus and
the rust Cronartium stalactiforme A. & K. in the Beaver Lake area, with over 70 per
cent infection, serious stem malformation, and subsequent mortality from secondary
invaders, however, would place some interest on this further distribution of the disease.
DISEASES OF FOREST-NURSERY STOCK
No serious forest-disease losses of coniferous nursery stock were reported during
1951. Appreciable mortality observed at the Duncan nursery was attributed to drought.
Field tests to determine the comparative effects of soil vs. seed treatments in the control
of damping off were abandoned in midsummer owing to the unusual climatic conditions.    Similar tests on a laboratory scale are in progress. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1951
91
Left: Atropellis canker on lodgepole pine.    Right: Canker sectioned to show the associated
dark-brown or black stain. 92 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST RANGER SCHOOL
The fifth group of Rangers and Assistant Rangers to be given a course of training
at the School completed their studies during 1951, after having taken the first term in
the fall of 1950. Following the pattern of the four previous classes, men from all five
forest districts of the Province were selected for the class, and a small group of young
but nevertheless experienced Rangers were included. It is unfortunate that future
classes of the younger and comparatively new Assistant Rangers who will make up their
ranks will not also have the benefit of a few experienced Rangers included with them,
as the younger men acquire appreciable knowledge from close association with them at
the School. All eligible Rangers have now passed through the School, and henceforth
classes will be drawn entirely from the Assistant Ranger grade.
Due to the situation in regards to candidates since the pool of men with long
experience in the Service has been drained, increasing attention has been paid to the
selection of students. Candidates now are largely individuals who have been in the
Service for only a few years and, consequently, district supervisory officers are not too
well acquainted with their capabilities and limitations. In order to get the best possible
composite picture of the material available, it is necessary for the teaching staff of the
School to spend a considerable part of the summer interval between spring and fall
terms touring through the districts interviewing candidates and all supervisory personnel
who have had contacts with them. Final selection of the student-body is still largely
on the basis of the recommendations of the respective District Foresters concerned, but
weight is also given to the reports of the teaching staff and factors such as intelligence
rating, problem-solving ability, general education, and experience. The careful screening now in use may not be the final answer to the problem of candidate selection;
nevertheless, it has already demonstrated values gained, although its validity will not
be measurable without doubt until graduates have had the opportunity of showing their
quality on the job as Rangers.
A revised curriculum for the second and third terms of the course was given to the
fifth class during 1951. As further experience is acquired in preparing courses of study
designed specifically to fit the needs of Rangers, no doubt more changes and minor
modifications will be made. It is believed, however, that the present course is not far
from what is required for maximum results.
CURRICULUM, 1951
Spring Term, 1951
Number of
Hours
(1) Fire suppression, including meteorology, fire behaviour, fire-fighting methods, organization of manpower and equipment for all phases of the fire-fighting
job  100
(2) Operation and care of mechanical equipment—cars,
trucks, tractors, fire-pumps, and outboards     76
(3) Forest mensuration—measurement of trees and stands
of timber, construction and use of simple volume
tables      90
(4) Log-scaling, theory and practice     90
(5) Botany—classification and properties of trees native
to British Columbia  35
(6) Forest entomology (dangerous insects in British
Columbia)  28
(7) Forest pathology (tree-diseases in British Columbia) 16
  435 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 93
Fall Term, 1951 Number of
Hours
(1) General "operation" review  30
(2) Surveying—field exercise, University Forest and interpretation of aerial photographs  40
(3) Forest mensuration—field exercise at University Forest and compilation of cruises  80
(4) Stumpage appraisals  50
(5) Forest management—" Forest Act," policies and procedures   110
(6) Grazing management  40
(7) Silviculture—silvics and application in British Columbia   70
(8) Informative field-trips, tests, etc.  46
  466
Totals for year 1951, including tests  901
EXTRA COURSES
A special one-week course was given to lookout-men appointed to the Vancouver
Forest District. This followed the spring term and is the fourth course of this nature
given at the School.
In addition to the necessary training in the detection and reporting of forest fires,
instruction in the use and maintenance of weather-recording instruments was stressed.
A noticeable point in respect to this short course is that, although the men are for
the most part definitely inexperienced (the majority are still at university or fresh from
high school), reports again indicate that their work during the season has been quite
satisfactory. While this may well be due to the type of men the Service has been fortunate
enough to obtain, there is, nevertheless, much for a " green " man to learn before he
can fulfil his duties adequately on the lookout. Perhaps due to the type of man required
and the nature of the work, there appears to be a large turnover in this position. With
new men coming to the job each year, the course covers an important field.
BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS
Besides the continuing routine maintenance of buildings, lawns, and flower-beds,
a number of major improvements were made during the year. The administration and
classroom building was insulated and acoustic ceiling-tile installed to reduce heat-losses
and the noise-level of the building. This has already proved to be a worth-while
improvement. The sewage-disposal system as originally installed by the contractors
was not adequate, and during the summer shut-down period a new disposal-field was
laid out adjacent to the nursery beds fronting the School buildings. Asphalt tiling on
the floor and plaster walls in the shower-room of the dormitory building also proved
unsatisfactory due to the effects of steam and condensation. The walls and floor were,
therefore, covered with ceramic tile to correct this.
The gift of a 60-foot cedar flag-pole was received from Timber Preservers Limited
and, after seasoning, shaping, and painting, was duly raised on the centre lawn and now
displays the national flag while the School is open.
In co-operation with the Reforestation Division, a new main-entrance driveway to
the Nursery buildings and the School was laid out from the'central gate of the Green
Timbers Station, and work on this project is well under way. It will add materially to
the attractiveness of the Station and the School, besides improving access. 94 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The School again wishes to acknowledge with thanks the assistance received from
the undermentioned organizations, whose aid materially added to the efficiency of the
courses: The Forest Insect Laboratory and the Forest Pathology Laboratory of the
Division of Forest Biology, Science Service, Federal Department of Agriculture, Victoria; St. John Ambulance Society (First Aid); the University of British Columbia for
its co-operation and accommodation at its Loon Lake camp in the Haney Forest (where
the School carried out survey and forest-mensuration exercises). REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1951 95
PUBLIC RELATIONS AND EDUCATION
It was possible, through the allotment of additional moneys, to advantageously
expand the work of the Division during the year. The acquisition of an assistant
photographer and the allocation of increased working-space enabled planning of an
adequate darkroom, a suitable studio, more library space, and a more desirable arrangement of the general office accommodation.
PRESS AND RADIO
The Division produced a series of six forest-protection advertisements, each of
which appeared, during the fire season, in every daily (ten) and weekly (seventy-two)
newspaper published in the Province. Individual advertisements of the series also
were inserted in one or more issues of twenty periodicals, trade journals, and other
special publications. This coverage represents approximately the same as that used
during the previous year, although generally higher space rates increased the aggregate
cost. The layout, copy, and scheduling of the series was handled by the Division staff;
the art work was done by the Government Printing Bureau; and the mechanical work
and insertion instructions by a commercial agency. Prior to the opening of the fire
season, a series of advertisements was placed in weeklies and dailies in some sections of
the Province informing the public of the need for care and fire permits. In addition to
these two series, twenty special layouts were prepared for a like number of publications
reaching special-interest groups—sportsmen, tourists, ranchers, and others.
Radio advertising comprised thirty-six flashes and twelve spot announcements aired
during a twelve-week period in the fire season. Originally worded to inform the public
of Forest Service activities, due to high-hazard conditions they were in the main diverted
to forest-protection messages.
The Division prepared and released numerous news items and special articles
concerning the work of the Service.
PUBLICATIONS AND PRINTING
The Annual Report of the Service for 1950 was edited and distributed. Technical
publications to the number of three were edited, printing supervised, and distribution
handled by the Division. These comprised Publication T. 35 and Research Notes
Nos. 18 and. 19. Assistance was given to other Divisions in the editing or revision of
five other publications, supervision of the printing, and subsequent distribution of same.
The Forest Service calendar, twelve personnel news-letters, one illustrated booklet
for distribution to schools, and minor forest-protection items—decals, warning cards,
posters, etc.—were produced. In co-operation with the Canadian Forestry Association,
a start was made on a series of " Conservation Topics " for school distribution.
PHOTOGRAPHY AND MOTION PICTURES
The work of this section of the Division was somewhat hampered during the early
months of the year by continued lack of studio and darkroom facilities and laboratory
assistance. The acquisition of an assistant photographer at midsummer and the allotment of additional accommodation shortly thereafter opened the way for more efficient
and greater production, although the necessary construction work in connection with
the studio and darkroom had not been completed before the end of the year. The
section completed a large volume of photographic work for other Divisions during the
year, together with several thousand enlargements and contact prints for index records,
outside publications, students, and other interested parties.
Completion of editing and narration for the two films, referred to in the 1950
Report as partially completed, was accomplished.    These films—" Santa's Foresters " 96 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(800 feet) and "Flying Surveyors " (1,150 feet)—have been favourably reviewed and
have already received extensive circulation in other Provinces of Canada, Great Britain,
and the United States, as well as throughout British Columbia. The section secured
additional footage during the year for educational films on water power and erosion,
the work of the Forest Service, care and protection of fire-fighting equipment, and
correct practice in range management.
Film Library
During the year it was necessary to remove eight obsolete films from the library.
To replace these, seven new sound titles were added, resulting in the library ending the
year with a stock of seventy-four subjects. As in the past, the trend on the part of
the public away from silent films was quite evident. Of the seventy-five subjects available for loan, there were five subjects which were not circulated, and seven subjects
which were used for just one loan.    In each case the film was a silent one.
The number of loans for the year was 461, an increase of forty-five over the previous
year, an indication that the popularity of the library is growing. The number of showings was also up, to 2,943, an increase of 1,064 over the previous year. To a large
extent the increase was due to the school-lecture tour.
The total audience for the year set a new record of 304,493, of whom 13,542 were
adults, 264,245 were children, and 26,706 in mixed audiences of children and adults.
Of the 264,245 children viewing the films, 228,119 were reached by the two members
of the school-lecture team.
The members of the Division again previewed many varied film subjects, to determine if they were suitable to be included in the stock of the film library.
A total of 147 showings, to 7,974 persons, was given by headquarters and district
personnel of the Service. With the exception of the headquarters staff, the Nelson Forest
District led in both the number of individual showings, forty-one, and the largest
aggregate audience of any district, with a total of 1,920.
The most widely circulated of the educational films were " Forest Conservation "
(shown 265 times to 39,827 persons), "The Adventures of Jr. Raindrop" (shown
130 times to 34,117 persons), and "The Forest Produces" (shown 283 times to
33,530 persons).
Again our films were used in different parts of Canada and the United States. The
Estates Forestry Office, of Belgrave, Chester, England, was also supplied with a shipment
of forestry film subjects.
During the year the Division's motion-picture projection equipment was used for
seventy-two individual showings by members of other Divisions. The two slide-projector
units were loaned for a total of twenty-three showings. A tabular statement of the-stock
and circulation of the film library appears on page 152 of the Appendix.
EXHIBITS
The Division did not participate in any exhibitions during the year, but provided
an exhibit for brief periods for the Prince Rupert and Fort George Districts and also
loaned it to the Canadian Forestry Association for the balance of the year.
SIGNS AND POSTERS
Additional highway forest-protection signs of Scotchlite material were purchased
from a commercial manufacturer, and the Ranger Station and directional signs on which
construction was commenced in December, 1950, were completed and distributed in
early spring. Additional quantities of these two types of signs were ordered late in the
year for 1952 distribution. No new poster designs were produced, as there was still
a considerable quantity of former designs in stock. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 97
CO-OPERATION
The Service again assisted the Canadian Forestry Association in their training
programme for junior forest wardens. Boys attending each of the four camp periods
were taken on a conducted tour of Forest Service installations at Green Timbers Forest
Nursery, the Ranger School, the Marine Station, and Radio Station XL442, Vancouver.
The co-operation of the staff of the four installations mentioned was largely responsible
for the success of these tours.
A total of 885 honorary fire wardens was appointed by the district offices in the
course of the year, and to each the Division addressed a letter of appreciation over the
Minister's signature. A subscription to the conservation magazine " Forest and Outdoors " was secured for each appointee.
The sustained and extreme hazard period forced cancellation of the press tour of
Forest Service research and recreational projects which had been organized.
Photographs, suggestions, and assistance in editing was extended to numerous individuals, outside of the Forest Service, who were preparing manuscripts on forestry and
forest-industry topics.
The school-lecture programmes, initiated the previous year in collaboration with the
Canadian Forestry Association, were continued after the Christmas vacation and during
the following fall term.
LIBRARY
The library continued to operate under some degree of handicap due to the fact
that the additional space allotted did not become available until after the close of the
year. Nevertheless, this phase of Division work was continued at a high level and the
number of loans and requests for information on forestry and allied subjects continued
to increase. 98 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
GRAZING
INTRODUCTION
The range resource has been a major factor in the settlement and prosperous
development of British Columbia. There can be no doubt that the grazing industry
must continue to play an important role in our economy if future generations are to
enjoy the highest possible standard of living. How well this industry is able to meet
this obligation depends, in large measure, upon the wise use and development of the
range resource.
The early history of the ranching industry was one of rapid expansion. In many
areas, live stock numbers were allowed to increase far beyond the capacity of the range
and, inevitably, widespread range deterioration took place. There were many reasons
for this, but probably the most important was an ignorance of what are now known to
be the fundamentals of range management. Through experience and, more recently,
scientific research, the basic causes and effects of range deterioration, and the practices
necessary for range recovery, have become more widely understood. To put good range-
management practices into effect has required extensive adjustments in the industry.
Stock numbers have to be brought in balance with the sustained forage yield, periods of
use adjusted, more hay provided for longer feeding periods, and many other problems
must be met. The Forest Service endeavours to achieve improved management practices on the Crown range in close co-operation with the stockmen and with a minimum
of disruption to the industry. Considerable progress to this end has been made through
the years, including 1951.
Reductions in stock numbers and shorter grazing periods necessary on many units
are, wherever possible, compensated for by opening up hitherto unused ranges by
extensive trail-cutting and other improvements. Possibilities along this line are now
becoming generally limited, however, and it is evident that if live-stock production is
to be increased to meet our needs, positive measures must be undertaken to increase
forage production. Many measures, such as the establishment of high-producing irrigated pastures to supplement range forage, will be carried out by the rancher on his
own lands. Much can be accomplished on the Crown range, however, by such practices as seeding favoured areas to cultivated varieties of grasses and legumes, wild-
meadow improvement, and the elimination of undesirable plants. A considerable
amount of trial work along these lines was undertaken by the Forest Service in 1951
under an expanded range-improvement programme.
ADMINISTRATION
The volume of routine administrative work continued heavy during 1951. This
was to be expected in view of the buoyant condition of the ranching industry. Changes
in ranch ownership, necessitating the reallocation of grazing privileges, were numerous.
A greater number of land applications were referred to the Grazing Division to ascertain
their effect upon the use of Crown range. Also, each such application requires more
careful attention as the range areas become subjected to more intensive settlement pressure. An enlarged range-improvement programme, combined with the specialized
nature of much of the work undertaken, required much more supervision than in former
years.
A severe fire season in parts of the range country had a considerable impact on
grazing administration. Rangers in these areas had little time to spend on the field work
which they normally handle. As much of this work as possible was carried out by
district office staffs but, unfortunately, much remained undone.
Under the formula for a sliding scale, grazing fees for 1951 were 22 cents per head
per month for cattle, 21 Vi. cents per head per month for horses, and AVa cents per head REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1951 99
per month for sheep.   This represents an increase of approximately 35 per cent over
the fees charged in 1950—the first year the sliding scale was in effect.
Active grazing administration was discontinued on several small units where,
through land alienations, only negligible amounts of Crown range remained. Administration was not extended to any new areas in 1951.
GENERAL CONDITIONS
The winter of 1950-51 was relatively mild throughout the range area. Unfortunately, forage-growth was retarded by cool, dry weather through March and April.
This was particularly true in the East Kootenay Valley, where near-zero temperatures
were recorded on April 18th. In some localities, hay stocks became depleted and turnout was necessary before the range was properly ready for use.
In the Kamloops Forest District, most of the month of May remained dry and the
sparse growth on the lower ranges dried up badly. There were a few good rains in
June, but'these were followed by a severe drought extending to the end of .September.
The summer ranges, particularly those in the more northerly portions of the district,
were adversely affected.    Late fall rains resulted in some recovery on the lower ranges.
Following the late start, range conditions in the Nelson Forest District were excellent throughout the grazing season. The summer drought was relatively short-lived in
this area, forage-growth was heavy, and range water conditions good.
Owing to good fall range conditions and warm, open weather, stock went into the
winter in good condition and winter feeding was delayed. Haying conditions varied
according to the weather. In the drought-stricken areas a somewhat lighter than average
crop was put up in excellent condition. A heavy crop was produced in the areas where
rainfall was more abundant, but quality was not as good and some hay was actually lost.
On the whole, it would appear that hay supplies should be sufficient provided forage-
growth is not abnormally late in the spring of 1952.
Grasshopper damage was somewhat heavier than in recent years and conditions
were such that a severe outbreak in 1952 is indicated.
Machinery and equipment necessary to ranch and range operations, although very
expensive, continued in good supply. Reliable ranch labour, an essential in range
management, continued to be difficult to obtain.
CO-OPERATION
Close contact was maintained throughout the year with forty-four live-stock associations. Forty of these are local range associations, recognized under the " Grazing
Act" and regulations. These organizations continued to be of considerable assistance
in the management of the various ranges. The balance of the associations with which
we are in contact are group or industry-wide organizations which deal with matters of
interest to the industry as a whole. A total of 101 meetings was reported, of which
ninety-one were attended by Forest Officers.
Close co-operation with other Government agencies dealing with various phases
of the live-stock industry continued throughout the year. Technical assistance and general co-operation by the Dominion Range Experiment Station in several trial range-
improvement projects proved very helpful. Co-operation by Indian Agents in the range
areas has resulted in a much more satisfactory degree of control of the use of Crown
range by Indians.
RANGE IMPROVEMENTS
An expanded range-improvement programme was a major feature of Grazing
Division activity in 1951.    Funds available were considerably greater than in previous 100 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
years and, in all, $37,650.37 was spent from the Range Improvement Fund as follows:
2 stock bridges, $450; 3 cattle guards, $608.81; 18 drift fences, $2,846.42; 1 erosion
control, $300; 4 experimental plots, $55.32; 1 gate, $29.38; 6 holding grounds,
$1,680.40; 5 mud-hole fences, $1,455.99; 13 range seedings, $1,503.67; 24 stock
trails, $6,405.70; 8 water developments, $387.71; 1 weed-control measure, $1,270.26;
wild-horse disposal, $2,885.61; mechanical equipment (purchase), $6,020.81; camp
equipment and tools, $1,542.90; supervision and surveys, $7,023.41; operating expenses
of mechanical equipment, $2,843.30; material (not yet assigned to projects), $340.68.
In addition, stockmen were authorized to construct, at their own expense, the
following improvements: 1 cattle guard, 4 breeding pastures, 1 corral, 6 drift fences,
2 holding grounds, 1 water development, and 1 grazing enclosure.
A shortage of labour continued to be a problem and was responsible for many
projects not being completed. It was extremely difficult to get any range-improvement
work done under contract. Stockmen, either individually or through their associations,
undertook to construct a number of projects but their own labour problems made it
impossible for them to complete more than a small part of the necessary work.
In an effort to solve this problem, a range-improvement crew was established in
the Kamloops Forest District early in the year. The main purpose of this crew was to
undertake projects which would not otherwise be done. The crew was equipped with
two trucks, power-saw, work tools, and full camp equipment. Considerable difficulty
was experienced in making economical use of the crew, owing to the fact that the projects
concerned are relatively small and scattered over a wide area. Satisfactory labour was
also difficult to obtain. However, as the season progressed efficiency increased and, at
least under present conditions, such a crew should prove valuable in range development.
More adequate funds made possible the extension of the range-improvement programme into new fields. The thirteen extensive range-seeding trials listed above are an
example. In all, 4,055 pounds of seed were sown on 800 acres. The areas seeded
were distributed throughout the range country and included depleted grassland, logging
and skid roads, and burned-over areas. An aircraft was used in the seeding of 245
acres of newly burned-over forest land. It was found that, provided conditions are
good and sufficient care is taken, a fairly good distribution of seed is obtained and costs
are reasonable when using this method. Some preliminary studies were made on several
mountain meadows to determine the possibility of improving the forage yield on such
areas by control of the water-level and seeding introduced species.
The weed-control project listed above is a continuation of the goatweed project
mentioned in earlier reports. In addition to further chemical treatments, studies in
the.biological control of this weed, using Chrysolina spp. beetles, were commenced in
1951. This represents an entirely new approach in Canada to the problem of controlling undesirable plants. Technical studies are being conducted by Division of Entomology, Science Service, Canada Department of Agriculture, with the Forest Service
co-operating.
The horse-control programme resulted in eighty-four head being rounded up and
259 wild and useless animals being shot. Fifteen horse-roundup permits and twenty-
five horse-shooting licences were issued. In addition, one man was employed directly
by the Service to carry out this work in the Cranbrook Grazing District. Although the
numbers of wild and useless horses on the range have been considerably reduced in
recent years, a continuous effort is required to avoid a recurrence of this problem.
Owing to the increased demand for range-improvement projects, the more technical
nature of many of the projects undertaken, and the establishment of a range improvement crew, the cost of preliminary surveys and supervision increased considerably. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 101
RECONNAISSANCE
The range-reconnaissance programme was continued in 1951. Some refinements
of technique were introduced with more accurate maps resulting.   The following areas
were covered:— Acres
Waldo Stock Range  104,000
Nahun Stock Range  118,250
Westbank Stock Range   126,240
Nicola Stock Range (Promontory Unit)  61,600
Greenstone Stock Range  192,450
Total   602,540
In addition, twelve extensive range examinations were carried out.
GRAZING, HAY, AND SPECIAL-USE PERMITS
In 1951, the number of grazing permits issued and the amount of stock covered
were both somewhat higher than in 1950. The tabulation on page 153 shows the volume
of business for 1951 and the past ten years.
Grazing fees billed and collected in 1951 reached a new record high and are
shown in the tabulation on page 153. This was due largely to the increase in fees referred
to earlier.
Six special-use permits authorizing the fencing of pastures for special purposes in
Provincial forests were issued in 1951.
One hundred and sixty-one hay-cutting permits authorizing the cutting of 1,962
tons of hay and 98 tons of rushes on Crown range were issued. These figures are
approximately the same as for 1950.
MISCELLANEOUS
Live-stock Losses.—Losses of stock on the range appeared to be about average this
year. As is usually the case in a dry season, poisoning by timber milk was very prevalent.
Losses from other poisonous weeds were light. Lower water-levels resulted in more
frequent reports of animals becoming mired, but actual losses do not appear to have been
particularly heavy. Bears appear to have been responsible for the death of more than
the usual number of stock this year but losses to other predatory animals were lighter.
Vehicular traffic, hunting accidents, and thefts were also responsible for some losses.
Markets and Prices.—Shipments of live stock were up slightly this year. The wool-
clip was up approximately 66 per cent over the 1950 figure. Meat prices advanced
considerably during the year as a result of strong domestic and export demand. Wool
prices broke during the latter part of the year and some British Columbia wool remained
unsold.
Prosecutions.—There were no prosecutions for infractions of the " Grazing Act"
and regulations in 1951.
PROVINCIAL LIBRARY
VICTORIA,, B. C. 102 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PERSONNEL
The continued expansion of Forest Service activities and the consequent increase
of personnel during recent years has thrown an increasing load of work dealing with
personnel matters upon the senior officers of the Forest Service. At the same time the
expanding staff and serious turn-over of staff occasioned by British Columbia's tremendous industrial expansion created additional problems of personnel administration
and increased the number of individual problems arising. Consequently, the need was
felt for a Personnel Officer who could devote his time entirely to personnel matters, and
allow senior officers to devote more time to problems of Forest Service policy and forest
administration.
The appointment of a Personnel Officer was made in the late spring of 1951. After
a six-week period of orientation in the offices of the Civil Service Commission, he was
provided with an office and stenographic assistance in the Parliament Buildings. During
the remaining five months of the year, close liaison was established between the Personnel
Office, Civil Service Commission, office of the Departmental (Lands and Forests)
Recorder, and Forest Service District and Division officials. Seven visits were made to
four of the Forest Districts. Visits were also made to the Forest Service Marine Station
and to the Ranger School. Assistance and advice were given wherever possible on
matters of personnel organization, personnel policies and procedures, classifications, and
individual staff problems.
The Personnel Office was called upon to assist in the major classification changes
and salary adjustments in the positions of scalers, rangers, supervisors, assistant foresters,
Victoria senior accounts officers, the Vancouver billing-machine section, and Marine
Station employees. Eighteen individual reclassifications were also approved by the
Civil Service Commission of a total of twenty-two submitted. Numerous interviews and
much correspondence were dealt with concerning applications for employment and
appointment of staff. Special competitive selection tests and procedures were adopted
for the selection of staff to fill certain key positions. Eight essential new positions were
reported on and later approved by order in council. Preliminary work is being done
on other proposed changes in organization, conditions of work, and classifications of
various Forest Service personnel.
Through the medium of personal visits, correspondence, staff meetings, and the
District Foresters' meeting in December, beginnings were made in informing officers
and staff of the services of the newly created Personnel Office and of the continuing
principles of sound, helpful personnel policies which it desires to maintain in the Forest
Service. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951
103
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY, 1952
VICTORIA OFFICE
Orchard, C. D..
Bassett, E. W..
McKinnon, F. S.
.Deputy Minister and Chief Forester.
Assistant Chief Forester (Operation).
..Assistant Chief Forester (Technical Planning).
Hicks, W. V Comptroller.
MacLeod, D. I Assistant to Comptroller.
Higgins, W. C Chief Accountant.
Clough, E.; Livingstone, A.; Lloyd, H. R Field Accountants.
Druce, E..
..Forester i/c Public Relations and Education.
Monk, D. R Public Relations Officer (Administration).
Johnson, P. W. H. G Public Relations Officer (Photography).
Campbell, W. N.; Jones, T. C;
Chisholm, Miss I	
Mills, R. C Technical Forest Assistants.
 Forest Service Library.
Cooper, C.
Forest Counsel.
Williams, J.
Personnel Officer.
Stokes, J. S..
Forester i/c Management.
Foresters.
Marling, S. E.; Hope, L. S	
Abernethy, G. M.; Collins, A. E.; Reid, J. A. K. Assistant Foresters.
Gilchrist, R. (Chief);  Potts, H Draughtsmen.
Henshall, E. H. (Chief, General); Howden,
M. W. (General); Chisholm, A. (Chief, Timber Sale Administration); Casilio, H. C.
(Timber Sale Clearance) Clerks.
Hughes, W. G.
Forester i/c Working Plans.
Carey, D. M.;  Mason, N. V.; Young, V. M Assistant Foresters.
Mellander, C. P Clerk.
Trew, D. M Assistant Forester, Farm Wood-lots.
Judd, P. Forester-in-training.
Owen, J. Technical Forest Assistant.
McKee, R. G Forester i/c Protection.
Gayle, W. B Assistant Forester.
Stringer, A. Chief Clerk.
Kenney, G. A Clerk.
Turner, J. A Meteorologist.
Fielder, R. L.; Lucas, L Technical Forest Assistants.
Bodman, P.; Flanagan, R. T Foresters-in-training.
.Forester i/c Engineering.
Greggor, R. D	
Slaney, F. F. (Chief); Hemphill, P. J.; Thomas,
R. D.  Engineers.
Playfair, G. A Radio Superintendent.
Ferguson, H. E Assistant Radio Superintendent.
Chorlton, D. L; English, G Radio Technicians.
Crowe, A. B Mechanical Superintendent.
Gilbert, H. F Mechanical Inspector.
Foord, M. W Clerk.
Taylor, J. H Superintendent, Marine Structural Section.
Barr, G.; Gower, E.; Paynter, J. W Draughtsmen.
Hill, H. H Superintendent,   Forest   Service   Marine   Station,
Vancouver.
Bennett, M. K.; Edwards, T. T.; Swan, R. C. Foremen. 104 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
VICTORIA OFFICE—Continued
McWilliams, H. G Forester i/c Reforestation.
Bamford, A. H.;  Whiting, E. G Assistant Foresters.
Grainger, W. D Forester-in-training (Cranbrook).
Wharf, N. G Clerk.
Berg, W. E. (Cranbrook); Long, J. R. (Duncan);    Turner,   W.   (Quinsam);    Wells,   T.
(Green Timbers)  Nursery Superintendents.
Spilsbury, R. H Forester i/c Research.
Finnis, J. M.; Fraser, A. R.; Garman, E. H.;
Joergensen, H. C; Orr-Ewing, A. L.; War-
rack, G. C. Assistant Foresters.
Arlidge, W.  C;   Clark,  M.  B.;   Decie, T.  P.
(Aleza Lake); Schmidt, R. (Aleza Lake) Foresters-in-training.
Hellenius,   R.  A.   (Aleza  Lake);    Roberts,   E.
(Cowichan Lake Experiment Station) Foremen.
Knight, H. A. W Agrologist-in-training.
Nutt, J Clerk.
Pendray, W. C Forest Agrologist i/c Grazing.
Assistant Foresters.
Pogue, H. M Forester i/c Forest Surveys and Inventory.
Allison,  G.  W.;   Calder, C.  J.;   Cliff,  H.  N.;
Lyons, E. H.; Macdougall, D.; Silburn, G	
Bradshaw, M. W.;   Breadon, R.;   Darnall, R.;
Fligg, D. M.; Ford, B.; Frey, J. H.; Highsted,
C. L;  Jones, R. C; Vaughan, E. G.; Young,
W. Foresters-in-training.
Rhodes, C. J. T.;   Newton, R. C;   Warwick,
J. H.; Russel, M Draughtsmen.
Conn, J. Expenditure Clerk.
Rhodes, A Chief Clerk.
Bailey, W. M.; Harris, G. H Clerks.
Oldham, E. G Forester i/c Parks and Recreation.
Lyons, C. P Assistant Forester.
Macmurchie, D. L Planning and Reconnaissance.
Bailey, J. M Maintenance and Construction.
Lowrey, R. Recreational Officer.
Ahrens, R. H.;   Macnab, G;   Podmore, D. G.;
Pope, N. M. F.; Rolls, W. E.; Wood, G. A.—Planning and Reconnaissance Section.
McGowan, E. A.; Velay, C. J Engineering Section.
Clarke, A. N.;  Dickinson, H. I.; Stewart, R Draughtsmen.
Boyd,   R.   H.   (Manning);    Davidson,   D.   K.
(Manning); Cook, L. E. (Wells Grey); Fen-
ner,   C.   A.,   and  Johansen,   O.   N.   (Mount
Seymour); Lewis, C. F. (Island Parks);  Mc-
Farland, F. J.  (Cultus Lake);   Kristjanson,
S. J. (Peace Arch) Park Officers.
Edwards, R. Y Wild-life Section.
Park, S. E Administrative Section.
Charlton, E. Accounting Section.
Pedley, J. A Forester i/c Ranger School, New Westminster.
Dixon, A. H Assistant Forester.
Levy, G. L Clerk. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 105
VANCOUVER DISTRICT
Taylor, D. B District Forester.
Cameron, I. T Assistant District Forester.
Pennett,   C.   E.   (Management);    Holmes,   C.
(Slash-disposal Officer)  Assistant Foresters.
Fisher, R. B.; Hubbard, T. R.; Johnston, G. R.;
Tuttle, W. F.; Williams, F. S Foresters-in-training.
Haddon, C. D. S.; McNeill, J.; Morrison, R. H.;
Owen, D. H.; Sweatman, P. E.; Tannock, F... Supervisors.
Armstrong, C. L. (Supervisor); Heard, A. C.
(Assistant Supervisor); Munn, H. A. (Assistant Supervisor)  Scalers.
Templeman, J. H Inspector of Licensed Scalers.
Antle, E. S.; Deans, W. C; Docker, P. M.;
Jones, R. C; McDonald, J. W.; McNary,
E. C; Paterson, F.; Terry, A. N.; Townley,
E. R. Senior Scalers.
Neil, P. R Technical Forest Assistant.
Birkenhead, G. Supervising Draughtsman.
Goertzen, F.  Radio Technician.
Ferguson, A. Radio Operator.
Fox, E. P. (Chief Clerk); Dunn, H. J. (Senior
Clerk); Atkins, J. L. (Operation); Benwell,
S. A. (Scaling); Webster, L. B. (Management);  Bruce, Miss J. (Operations) Clerks.
Armytage, G. G. (Port Moody); Aylett, R. W.
(Lund); Barrett, R. J. (Port Hardy); Barker,
H. (Ganges); Black, W. (Powell River);
Brewis, D. W. (Acting) (Campbell River);
Chamberlin, L. C. (Sechelt); Frost, S. C.
(Squamish); Ginnever, A. F. W. (Lake Cowichan); Glassford, R. J. (Parksville); Greenhouse, J. P. (Langford); Haley, K. (Thurston
Bay East); Henderson, J. E. (Acting) (Duncan); Jansen, W. E. (Nanaimo); Jones, R. W.
(Madeira Park); Little, R. (Harrison Lake);
Lorentsen, L. H. (Chatham Channel); Mc-
Kenzie, K. A. (Thurston Bay West); Mudge,
M. H. (Echo Bay); Rawlins, W. P. (Alert
Bay); Reaney, R. J. C. (Alberni); Robinson,
J. H. (Mission); Silke, S. (Courtenay); Wagner, C. J. (Hope); Wilson, R. S. (Acting)
(Zeballos)  Rangers.
PRINCE RUPERT DISTRICT
Young, P. District Forester.
Boulton, L. B. B Assistant District Forester.
Bruce, J. B. (Management);   MacDonald, J. P.
(Operations);   Selkirk,  D.  R.   (Management
Inventory)   '. Assistant Foresters.
Bancroft, H. G. (Operations); Corregan, R. W.
(Management);   Leesing,  W.   (Management
Plans); Hepper, W. H. (Recreational Officer);
Hlady, E. (Cruising Crew) Foresters-in-training.
Campbell,  W.  H.   (Management);   Dahlie,  C.
(Project Supervisor)  Technical Forest Assistants.
Cooper,   S.   G.   (Terrace);   Scott,   J.   (Prince
Rupert)  - Inspectors of Licensed Scalers.
Couling,H.L. (Interior); Strimbold,S.T. (Coast)..Ranger Supervisors.
Smith,   C.   V.   (Chief   Clerk);    McLeod,   E.;
(Assistant   Chief   Clerk);    Antilla,   Miss   E.
(Records);   Martin, E. (Operations);   Pavili-
kis, N. A. (Cashier); Rivett, Miss E. (Management)  Clerks.
4 106 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PRINCE RUPERT DISTRICT— Continued
Martin, I.  Supervising Draughtsman.
Lee, Y.  Radio Technician.
Longair, F.  Radio Operator.
Antilla, W. A. (Prince Rupert); Benson, R. G.
(Atlin); Brooks, R. L. (Burns Lake);
Botham, C. L. (Smithers); Gibson, C. L.
(Burns Lake); Gilmour, J. R. (Forester-in-
training, Houston); Hammer, H. B. (Ocean
Falls); Kullander, M. O. (Pendleton Bay);
Mould, J. (Kitwanga); Munro, J. F. (Forester-
in-training, Queen Charlotte City); Smith,
D. R. (Terrace); Taft, L. G. (Hazelton);
Tourond, A. L. (Southbank) Rangers.
FORT GEORGE DISTRICT
Phillips, W. C District Forester.
Henning, W. G Assistant District Forester.
Burrows,  I.  R.   (Management);   Glew,  D.  R.
(Silviculture)    Assistant Foresters.
Nelson, F. H.  (Operations);   Willington, L. A.
(Operations)   Supervisors.
Shires, C. M. (Operation); Robbins, R. (Management )    Foresters-in-training.
Hollinger, F. H Mechanical Inspector.
McCabe, A. M Inspector of Scales.
Simpson, R. C Radio Technician.
Carter, R. B. (Chief); Clough, E. (Management);  Heggie, W. R. C. (Operation);  Wie-
land, Miss C. (Records) Clerks.
Angly, R. B. (Prince George);   Barbour, H. T.
(Pouce    Coupe);    French,    C.    L.    (Prince
George); Jones, G. G. (Quesnel); Macalister,
J.  S.   (McBride);   MacAskie, I. B.  (Acting)
(Aleza  Lake);   McKenzie,   R.  A.   (Penny);
McQueen, L. (Fort St. John);  Meents, G. E.
(Quesnel);   O'Meara, A. V. (Fort St. John);
Patterson, R. I. (Fort Fraser);   Specht, A. F.
(Prince George); Threatful, N. (Vanderhoof).—Rangers.
KAMLOOPS DISTRICT
Swannell, L. F : District Forester.
Johnston, J. R Assistant District Forester.
Croner, A.  . Assistant Forester i/c Management Plans.
Robinson, E. W Assistant Forester i/c Management.
Broadland, T. R. (Parks); Kerr, M. L. (Management); Lehrle, L. W. W. (Silviculture);
McRae, N. A. (Management); Neighbor, B. E.
(Grazing); Robinson, J. L. (Management);
Schutz, A. (Operation); Sharpe, D. L. E.
(Silviculture)    Foresters-in-training.
DeBeck, H. K; Pringle, R.; Smith, E.; Wallace,
M. T.  Assistant Forest Agrologists.
Charlesworth, E. A.; Williams, C Inspectors of Licensed Scalers.
Kirk, A. J.;  Noakes, H. S Fires Inspectors.
Bodman,   G.   F.   (Grazing);    Downing,   C.   R.
(Silviculture);  Juffman, C. H. (Marking) Technical Forest Assistants.
Cowan, W. P. (Chief Clerk); Barwell, H.
(Management); MacKay, Miss E. B. (Records); Norberg, A. C. (Operation) Clerks.
Painter, M. F Engineer-in-training.
Lee, C. R Supervising Draughtsman. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 107
KAMLOOPS DISTRICT—Continued
Boyd, R. H. (Manning Park); Boydell, J. (Salmon Arm); Cameron, A. G. (Acting) (Blue
River); Campbell, H. W. (Birch Island);
Cook, L. E. (Wells Gray Park); Dearing,
J. H. (Princeton); Eden, R. B. W. (Kelowna);
Ferguson, H. A. (Kamloops); Fraser, D. P.
(Barriere); Gibbs, T. L. (Alexis Creek);
Hayhurst, J. W. (Vernon); Hewlett, H. C.
(Enderby); Hewlett, R. C. (Merritt); Johnson, M. A. (Vernon); Kettleson, O. J. (Revelstoke); Mayson, H. G. (Chase); Mizon, C.
(Acting) (Sicamous); Paquette, O. (100-Mile
House); Petersen, K. N. (Williams Lake);
Robertson, C. E. (Clinton); Scott, E. L.
(Penticton)    Rangers.
NELSON DISTRICT
Forse, H. B District Forester.
Young, E. L Assistant District Forester.
Payne, J. C. (Management); Waldie, R. A. (Silviculture)    Assistant Foresters.
Milroy, J. E. (in charge);  Smith, E. R Assistant Forest Agrologists.
Bishop, W. G. (Management); Gill, R. G. (Management); Hall, J. G. (Management); Isenor,
M. G. (Operation);  Knight, E. (Operation);
Munro, D. W. (Management); Parlow, A. L.
(Working Plans)  Foresters-in-training.
Applewhaite, J. H. A.; Lepsoe, G Technical Forest Assistants.
Chase, L. A.   (Management);   Christie, R.  O.
(Operation);    Johnson,   I.   B.   (Operation);
Palethorpe, G. C. (Operation) Supervisors.
Rogers, J. C. I. (Supervising); Cone, G. A Draughtsmen.
Simpson, S. S. (Chief Clerk); Koski, V. (Management);   lohnson,  Miss  I.  L.   (Records);
Wicken, W. C. (Operation) Clerks.
Robinson, G. T Inspector of Licensed Scalers.
. Ott, L. S Radio Technician.
Amundson, L. M Radio Operator.
Coles, H. J. (Golden); Connolly, J. E. (Cranbrook   East);   Damstrom,   R.   A.   (Fernie);
Gierl, J.  B.   (Arrowhead);   Haggart, W.  D.
(Edgewood);   Hesketh, F. G.  (Elko);   Hill,
F.  R.   (Cranbrook West);   Hopkins,  H.  V.
(Beaverdell);    Humphrey,    J.    L.    (Kaslo);
Killough,  J.  F.   (Castlegar);   Larsen,  A.  J.
(Nelson);    McGuire,   C.   J.   (Canal   Flats);
Rei4, E. W.-^Jgrand Forks');  Robinson, R. E.
(New Denver); Raven, J. H. (Lardo); Ross,
A. I. (Creston); Snider, J. I. (Spillimacheen);
Stilwell, L. E. (Kettle Valley);  Tippie, C. R.
(Invermere); Wood, H. R. (Nakusp) Rangers.    REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 111
TABULATED DETAILED STATEMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE
CONTENTS
General
Table No. Page
1. Distribution of Personnel, 1951  113
Reforestation
2. Summary of Planting during the Years 1942-51 •  114
Forest Management
3. Estimated Value of Production, Including Loading and Freight within the
Province, 1942-51   115
4. Paper Production (in Tons), 1942-51  115
5. Water-borne Lumber Trade (inMB.M.), 1942-51  116
6. Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during the Years 1950-51
(in F.B.M.) ,  117
7. Species Cut, All Products (in F.B.M.), 1951  118
8. Total Scale (in F.B.M.) Segregated, Showing Land Status, All Products, 1951 119
9. Timber Scaled in British Columbia in 1951 (by Months and Districts)  120
10. Logging Inspection, 1951  122
11. Trespasses, 1951  122
12. Pre-emption Inspection, 1951 __.   123
13. Areas Examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of the "Land Act," 1951  123
14. Classification of Areas Examined, 1951  123
15. Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1951  124
16. Timber-sale Record, 195L   124
17. Timber Sales Awarded by Districts, 1951   125
18. Average Stumpage Prices as Bid per M B.F. Log-scale, by Species and Forest
Districts, on Saw-timber Cruised on Timber Sales in 1951  126
19. Average Stumpage Prices Received per M B.F. Log-scale, by Species and Forest
Districts, on Saw-timber Scaled from Timber Sales in 1951  127
20. Timber Cut from Timber Sales during 1951  128
21. Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1951  129
22. Export of Loes (in F.B.M.), 1951   130
23. Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc., 1951 ... 131
24. Summary for Province, 1951  131
25. Timber Marks Issued  132
26. Forest Service Draughting Office, 1951  132
Forest Finance
27. Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax as Compiled from
Taxation Records      133
28. Acreage of Timber Land by Assessment Districts  133
29. Acreage of Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax as
Compiled from Taxation Records  133
30. Forest Revenue  134
31. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, 1951  135 112 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table No. pAGE
32. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1950-51  136
33. Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1950-51  137
34. Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1950-51 _..__._  138
35. Scaling Fund  138
36. Silviculture Fund  139
37. Forest Reserve Account  139
38. Grazing Range Improvement Fund  140
39. Forest Development Fund  140
40. Forest Protection Fund  141
41. Forest Protection Expenditure for Twelve Months Ended March 31st, 1951,
by the Forest Service  142
42. Reported Approximate Expenditure in Forest Protection Expenditure by Other
Agencies, 1951  143
Forest Protection
43. Summary of Snag-falling, 1951, Vancouver Forest District  143
44. Summary of Logging Slash Created, 1951, Vancouver Forest District  143
45. Acreage Analysis of Slash-disposal Required, 1951, Vancouver Forest District 144
46. Analysis of Progress in Slash-disposal, 1951, Vancouver Forest District  144
47. Summary of Operations, 1951, Vancouver Forest District  145
48. Summary of Slash-burn Damage and Costs, 1951, Vancouver Forest District _. 145
49. Recapitulation of Slash-disposal, 1934-51  146
50. Fire Occurrences by Months, 1951  146
51. Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1951  146
52. Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years  147
53. Fires Classified by Size and Damage, 1951  147
54. Damage to Property Other than Forests, 1951  147
55. Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1951  148
56. Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1951  148
57. Comparison of Damage Caused by Forest Fires in Last Ten Years  149
58. Fires Classified by Forest District, Place of Origin, and Cost per Fire of Fire-
fighting, 1951   149
59. Prosecutions, 1951  150
60. Burning Permits, 1951  151
Ranger School
61. Enrolment at Ranger School, 1951 _.  152
Public Relations
62. Motion-picture Library  152
63. Forest Service Library  153
Grazing
64. Grazing Permits Issued  153
65. Grazing Fees Billed and Collected  153 (1)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951
Distribution of Personnel, 1951
113
Forest District
Personnel
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
Fort
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Victoria
Total
Continuously Employed
Chief Forester, Assistant Chief Forester, and Division
2
5
4
4
27
5
71
3
5
5
71
12
34
20
4
3
1
2
3
5
1
14
2
1
2
1
3
20
14
8
3
2
3
1
2
13
1
2
5
2
15
17
4
2
1
2
5
5
4
2
26
2
1
2
4
4
22
1
30
7
6
3
9
2
2
2
4
5
20
1
3
2
3
17
31
5
1
11
2
24
2
36
1
5
19
8
29
4
18
105
4
24
1
8
18
12
32
11
2
10
42
9
54
14
101
11
Scalers, Official    	
72
1
5
31
25
Nursery, Reforestation, Parks, and Research Assistants
29
4
35
250
Superintendent and Foremen, Forest Service Marine
Station  	
4
25
12
126
Dispatchers    —
Cruisers and Compass-men —   —	
45
19
22
Foremen.   	
18
44
276
79
70
135
98
363
1,021
Seasonally Employed
11
7
34
6
47
1
5
1
4
2
11
2
16
1
5
5
14
17
4
6
5
8
1
21
12
16
27
10
52
4
9
1
28
8
36
13
35
13
36
4
8
41
8
264
1
450
122
18
37
9
137
43
53
124
33
135
Reforestation—Snag-fallers, Planters, etc  	
450
136
43
Student Assistants 	
38
93
32
Miscellaneous 	
464
112
41
81
203
433
774
1,644
388
120
151
338
531
1,137
2,665 114
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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Sg-3 8 ■ REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951
117
Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during the
<6> Years 1950-51 (in F.B.M.)
Forest District
1950
1951
Gain
Loss
Net Gain
3,314,537,513
161,554,917
3,090,658,676
240,896,351
223,878,837
79,341,434
Totals, Coast        	
3,476,092,430
3,331,555,027
79,341,434
223,878,837
124,467,500
321,294,753
355,946,635
282,278,806
169,058,550
429,956,253
456,291,268
309,485,714
44,591,050
108,661,500
100,344,633
27,206,908
1,083,987,694
1,364,791,785
280,804,091
4,560,080,124
4,696,346,812
360,145,525
223,878,837
136,266,688 118
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>fefefe i4Z REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951
Total Scale (in F.B.M.) Segregated, Showing Land Status,
119
(8)
All Products, 1951
Forest District
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
.    Fort
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
650,459,492
122,737,357
112,560,366
18,859,433
7,135,045
38,362
45,377,140
1,694,204
745,382,993
136,316,550
2,252,533
4,993,588
112,031
11,445,106
7,157,765
11,502,699
11,121,649
6,735,069
10,000
685,289,631
140,975,125
112,570,366
5,809,640
60,403,687
289,738
693,722
20,639,067
59,175,409
62,069,764
24,669,073
67,538,732
328,100
4,064,679
2,373,165
140,093,936
3,681,940
358,826,436
12,713,592
4,740,417
10,073,875
198,931,782
67,589,550
38,462,251
312,973,958
1,815,384,514
62,069,764
7,883,958
136,316,550
5,116,252
18,237,655
13,451,644
6,536,803
53,478,845
Crown Grants—
To 1887
1,006,671,400
102,465,019
39,658,562
99,050,220
92,794
601,776
7,129,755
29,940,791
32,093,103
13,302,234
18,052,516
35,043,757
2,184,918
36,889,606
13,966,266
18,295,329
1,041,042,215
1887-1906	
1906-1914 	
1,531,802
11,075,129
9,098,553
602,006
4,549,903
9,378,872
155,392,443
94,432,131
1914 to date   	
200,807,522
Totals 	
3,090,658,676
240,896,351|169,058,550
1
429,956,253
456,291,268
309,485,714
4,696,346,812
Timber from lands in the former Dominion Government Railway Belt which has passed over to the jurisdiction of
this Province is included under the various land-status headings shown above.
Only timber from Indian reserves and other lands still under the jurisdiction of the Dominion Government is shown
under the heading " Dominion Lands."
Cubic Scale Converted to F.B.M. (Included Above), Showing Land Status,
All Products
(Conversion factor: Coast—1 cubic foot=5.7 board-feet; Interior—1 cubic foot=5 board-feet.)
Forest District
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Fort
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
38,639,867
25,701
14,596,075
1,061,762
6,426,579
8,824
533,737
13,908
12,172,407
184,862
16,918,495
1,665,386
130,445
2,773,192
38,639,867
25,701
14,596,075
1,061,762
6,426,579
20,639,067
8,824
37,135,424
2,373,165
3,681,940
9,907,515
13,908
12,172,407
184,862
Crown Grants—
To 1887
  -
16,918,495
1,665,386
1887-1906 _    _
	
1906-1914
	
130,445
2,773,192
1914 to date	
Totals	
95,151,240
20,639,067
2,373,165
3,681,940
9,907,515
131,752,927
	 120
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Logging Inspection, 1951
Type of Tenure Operated
Forest District
Timber
Sales
Hand-
loggers'
Licences
Leases,
Licences,
Crown Grants,
and
Pre-emptions
Totals
Number of
Inspections
1,142
1,182
999
1,353
772
1
5
2,266
480
81
900
1,039
3,409
1,667
1,080
2,253
1,811
7,692
3,372
1,643
2,271
2,776
Totals, 1951.                                ..   .
5,448
6
4,766
10,220
17,754
Totals, 1950 	
5,189
6
3,812
9,007
16,221
Totals, 1949 __	
6,405
7
4,440
10,852
15,483
Totals, 1948         	
4,847
5
3,982
8,834
15,432
Totals, 1947	
4,428
5
3,190
7,623
13,876
Totals, 1946
3,627
6
3,021
6,654
12,974
Totals, 1945  	
3,492
9
2,852
6,353
11,901
Totals, 1944	
3,373
4
2,540
5,917
11,648
Totals, 1943.          	
3,259
11
2,519
5,789
12,110
Totals, 1942	
3,086
18
2,569
5,673
13,753
Ten-year average, 1942-51	
4,315
8
3,369
7,546
14,116
(11)
Trespasses, 1951
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Vancouver    .
115
73
45
125
96
575
437
1,288
2,102
1,597
7,547,959
2,722,529
6,773,989
5,923,171
1,578,127
2,240
103,599
20
1,559
191
5
4
6,000
5,038
7,391
218
2,329
473
14,876
12,772
	
78
500
12,747
24
4
13
$108,461.83
16,477.27
31,261.19
Kamloops	
28,280
24,945
64,343.94
17,043.77
Totals, 1951 .	
454
5,999
24,545,775
159,064
1,779
20,976
28,121
	
13,325
41
$237,588.00
Totals, 1950	
276
3,072
12,753,405
360,190
1,475
1,806
6,312
75,309
7,550
16
$87,589.23
Totals, 1949	
418
4,132
20,419,563
244,655
1,298
3,514
9,022
34,070
8,785
28
$81,923.27
Totals, 1948
312
3,062
11,738,855
470,674
3,569
18,211
3,711
11,135
4,100
8
$59,654.37
Totals, 1947   	
316
5,132
17,234,601
659,621
5,599
5,235
15,416
439,554
17,506
15
$74,761.43
Totals, 1946.
226
2,568
7,084,343
1,760,574
1,469
2,900
10,148
41,377
35,997
8
$27,530.63
Totals, 1945	
267
3,313
24,322,556
516,960
1,910
9,902
2,438
	
10
$37,877.12
Totals, 1944	
210
2,467
12,317,066
179,219
3,369
4,231
3,781
5
$29,193.16
167
3,058
9,744,957
129,409
6,873
552
7,923
	
7
$23,725.29
180
1,159
4,413,906
365,861
4,757
490
1,512
	
15
$14,391.61
Ten-year average,
1942-51
282
3,398
14,457,578
484,623
3,210
6,782
6,839
	
	
15
$67,423.31 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951
123
<12) Pre-emption Inspection, 1951
Vancouver  22
Prince Rupert  	
Fort George ..  42
Kamloops  69
Nelson  11
Total
144
(13)
Areas Examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of the
"Land Act," 1951
Forest District
Applications
for Hay and
Grazing Leases
Applications
for Pre-emption
Records
Applications
to Purchase
Miscellaneous
Total
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
3
3
4
62
4
56
679
506
22,232
934
4
9
17
16
1
175
1,362
2,575
2,282
290
158
49
78
142
101
7,570
4,990
7,686
11,933
9,203
63
21
6
11
2
154
1,806
331
412
228
82
105
231
109
7,955
8,837
11,098
Kamloops _
36,859
10.427
Totals	
76
24,407
48
6,684
528
41,382
103
2,703
755    |    75,176
(14)
Classification of Areas Examined, 1951
Forest District
Total Area
Agricultural
Land
Non-agricultural Land
Merchantable
Timber Land
Estimated
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land
Vancouver   __. 	
Acres
7,955
8,837
11,098
36,859
10,427
Acres
3,237
1,606
7,672
6,191
3,165
Acres
4,718
7,231
3,426
30,668
7,262
Acres
1,290
341
1,859
3,800
415
M F.B.M.
15,038
2,986
13,368
Kamloops     ...
13,152
1,086
75,176
21,871
53,305
7,705
45,630 124
(15)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1951
Forest District
Number
Cruised
Acreage
Saw-
timber
(MB.M.)
Pit-props,
Poles, and
Piles
(Lin. Ft.)
Shingle-
bolts and
Cordwood
(Cords)
Railway-
ties
(No.)
Car-stakes,
Posts,
Shakes,
etc. (No.)
895
405
700
454
250
236,996
74,959
150,235
303,054
169,231
3,187,414
343,936
790,727
1,593,475
661,746
1,603,428
1,804,235
795,530
7,247,518
9,223,569
8,123
5,599
942
6,711
4,255
30,000
47,521
237,254
25,384
6,795
73,550
Nelson. _—...
328,450
Totals, 1951 	
2,704
• 934,475
6,577,298
20,674,280
25,630
316,954
432,000
Totals, 1950-	
2,196
333,435
1,777,025
7,388,875
24,522
123,091
352,440
Totals, 1949	
1,638
269,576
1,355,342
9,599,176
57,002
170,475
738,510
Totals, 1948
1,851
346,648
1,817,737
7,603,641
44,726
180,602
1,947,010
Totals, 1947_..	
1,960
361,834
1,481,715
23,015,436
50,346
299,501
1,064,125
Totals, 1946	
2,059
362,587
1,230,716
40,760,769
90,078
216,892
2,718,706
Totals, 1945  	
1,488
261,150
948,673
48,743,325
95,774
301,276
1,802,468
Totals, 1944
1,476
334,729
1,205,308
8,166,829
137,737
483,363
1,345,439
Totals, 1943	
1,771
590,953
907,768
10,720,729
259,741
454,767
816,544
Totals, 1942
1,469
305,222
794,676
8,562,739
100,232
381,106
743,500
Ten-year average, 1942-51—
1,862
410,060
1,809,625
18,323,581
88,580
292,798
1,176,075
(16)
Timber-sale Record, 1951
District
Sales
Made
Sales
Closed
Total
Existing
Total Area
(Acres)
Acreage Paying Forest
Protection
Tax
Total
10-per-cent
Deposits
Vancouver  	
729
450
601
535
334
479
289
340
484
312
1,870
1,216
1,203
1,708
1,012
404,488
256,823
259,709
509,152
344,791
285,634
227,176
204,993
490,726
322,433
$2,065,969.40
435,936.64
Fort George     -
Kamloops _	
651,730.37
883,933.76
590,306.72
Totals
2,649
313
1,904
7,009'
1,774,963
1,530,962            $4,627,876.89
2,962
	
	 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1951
125
Estimated
Revenue
$10,077,964.89
2,044,251.68
3,053,303.60
4,058,889.20
5,386,845.42
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REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1951
129
Operating
Shut Down
Sawmills
Shingle-mills
Sawmills
Shingle-mills
Forest District
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.M.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
Shingles, M
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.M.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
Shingles, M
Vancouver  	
439
322
551
466
322
9,034
2,055
4,370
3,110
3,129
54
3
3
8,081
46
58
63
23
65
112
31
334
159
411
426
144
7
3
1
5
413
84
Kamloops   	
Nelson  	
49
Totals, 1951 	
2,100
21,748
60
8,185
294
1,474
16
546
Totals, 1950     	
1,826
19,143
65
8,636
234
1,462
11
178
Totals, 1949	
1,671
19,082
61
7,708
314
2,373
17
513
Totals, 1948	
1,671
18,570
68
8,464
179
840
11
360
Totals, 1947. 	
1,634
17,546
73
8,609
143
754
6
100
Totals, 1946  	
1,228
15,256
59
8,656
115
741
8
165
Totals, 1945    . .,
931
13,590
51
7,054
137
808
7
150
Totals, 1944 	
807
14,974
51
6,695
110
702
16
581
Totals, 1943       _
614
13,623
54
7,411
120
646
19
829
Totals, 1942	
551
13,197
70
8,874
149
1,206
11
135
Ten-year average,
1942-51	
1,303
16,672
61
8,029
179
1,101
5
356 130
(22)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1951
Species
Grade No. 1
Grade No. 2
Grade No. 3
Ungraded
Fuel-logs
Total
Fir
2,134,202
2,642,634
2,407
1,121,897
3,081,142
2,278,717
53,837
6,813,464
1,391
1,871,588
679,728
158,452
48,953,225
2,097,915
1,887
9,202
110,217
2,661
2,811
9,184,847
5,602,966
223,898
56,998,803
10,202,844
10,205,505
10,611
20,000
83
1,359
4,559
14,813
20,000
	
83
1,359
608
5,167
Totals, 1951 	
5,901,140
12,229,159
51,699,605
10,202,844
2,224,693
82,257,441!
Totals  1950
8,659,552
21,625,295
88,031,088
19,210,615
137,526,550
Totals 1949
6,392,228
21,382,979
103,550,707
14,228,041
145,553,955
Totals, 1948
9,380,092
31,127,805
106,739,296
16,367,096
163,614,289
Totals 1947
7,156,095
21,100,803
52,368,152
7,552,386
88,177,436
Totals 1946
6,843,046
17,485,065
28,308,163
33,898,926
86,535,200
Totals, 1945
3,852,321
20,696,800
24,903,105
32,624,170
82,076,396
Totals, 1944         	
6,724,297
29,051,958
33,851,519
32,027,805
101,655,579
Totals, 1943
2,809,744
17,720,743
28,863,804
29,261,754
78,656,045
Totals, 1942                   	
2,639,167
18,960,886
27,618,347
106,793,550
	
156,011,950
6,035,768
21,138,150
54,593,377
30,216,719
111,984,014
i Of this total, 76,721,165 F.B.M. were exported from Crown grants carrying the export privilege; 5,536,276 F.B.M.
were exported under permit from other areas. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951
131
(23)
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts,
Railway-ties, etc, 1951
Forest District and Product
Quantity
Exported
Approximate
Value,
F.O.B.
Where Marketed
United
States
Canada
Other
Countries
Vancouver—
Poles..
Piling	
Fence-posts	
Cedar shakes..
Shake blanks..
Pulp-wood.
Christmas trees...
Prince Rupert—
Poles and piling-
Hewn ties	
Posts	
Nelson—
Poles	
Piles..
Orchard-props-
Mine-props	
Cordwood	
Shingle-bolts	
Hewn ties..
Christmas trees-
Fort George—
Poles	
Posts	
Hewn ties	
Kamloops—
Poles and piling..
Hewn ties	
Fence-posts-
Mine-timbers	
Christmas trees-
Total value, 1951-
Total value, 1950-
_lin. ft.
Jin. ft.
..pieces
-pieces
..pieces
—cords
..pieces
-Jin. ft.
...pieces
—cords
..Jin. ft.
...lin. ft.
_lin. ft.
 cords
....cords
 cords
—pieces
...pieces
-Jin. ft.
...cords
...pieces
.Jin. ft.
..pieces
... cords
...lin. ft.
..pieces
3,528,751
586,625
21,878
10,448,924
30,249
3,975
129,259
1,603,230
113,946
78
3,316,910
239,470
95,650
5,947
36
116
54,684
755,156
438,069
917
43,208
7,053,075
8,846
4,476
18,000
844,838
$1,023,337.79
217,051.25
5,469.50
835,913.92
3,327.39
99,375.00
71,092.45
464,936.70
176,616.30
1,950.00
961,903.90
88,603.90
1,195.63
89,205.00
504.00
2,552.00
84,760.20
415,335.80
127,040.01
22,925.00
66,972.40
2,045,391.75
13,711.30
111,900.00
3,420.00
464,660.90
"$77638,352.09
$5,763,579.58
2,698,962
126,834
5,011
10,303,004
30,249
3,975
129,259
765,545
113,946
1,992,933
79,048
84,600
682,734
392,709
4,068,430
32
627,340
828,664
383,145
16,167
840
837,685
78
1,323,977
160,422
11,050
5,947
36
116
54,684
72,422
45,360
917
43,208
2,984,645
8,846
4,444
18,000
217,498
1,125
76,646
700
145,080
I
(24)
Summary for Province, 1951
Product
Volume
Value
Per Cent of
Total Value
     lin. ft.
16,766,130
18,000
95,650
3,975
5,947
36
116
15,039
21,878
220,684
10,448,924
30,249
1,729,253
$4,928,265.30
3,420.00
1,195.63
99,375.00
89,205.00
504.00
2,552.00
375,975.00
5,469.50
342,060.20
835,913.92
3,327.39
951,089.15
64.5200
Mine-timbers  -
Orchard-props
Pulp-wood 	
 -. lin. ft.
lin. ft.
—  cords
0.0448
0.0156
1.3010
1.1679
Cordwood
Shingle-bolts 	
Fence-posts      	
         cords
           cords
    cords
0.0066
0.0334
4.9222
Hewn ties	
  pieces
4.4782
10.9436
0.0436
Christmas trees 	
          .          pieces
12.4515
$7,638,352.09
100.0000
L 132
(25)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Timber Marks Issued
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
Ten-year
Average,
1942-51
160
85
92
250
79
2
9
4
1,709
19
6
2
1
190
98
104
283
72
2
5
11
2,017
9
5
1
4
280
89
81
234
51
1
9
10
1,893
8
6
1
1
329
115
106
337
53
2
3
16
1,898
6
15
2
631
200
176
473
70
3
8
15
2,637
35
738
191
176
489
75
8
9
18
2,469
32
1
791
156
150
439
82
5
4
20
2,612
40
2
548
128
97
352
60
7
18
2,525
26
1
1
549
169
165
505
69
5
8
32
2,591
27
4
4
1,062
269
218
714
108
3
6
41
2,962
73
2
528
Crown grants, 1887-1906-	
Crown grants, 1906-1914 	
150
137
407
71
Pre-emptions under sections 28
and 29, "Land Act"    ~	
3
7
Indian reserves  -	
18
2,332
4
26
1
2
Hand-loggers	
Special marks and rights-of-way-
Pulp leases  	
Totals  	
2,418
2,801
2,664
2,882 .
4,248
4,206
4,301
3,763
4,134
5,458
3,688
Transfers and changes of marks..
224
237
251
327
486
655
745
550
752
1,086
532
(26)
Forest Service Draughting Office, 1951
Month
Number of Drawings Prepared or Tracings Made
Number of Blue-prints
or Ditto-prints Made
from Draughting Office
Drawings
Timber
Sales
Timber
Marks
Examination
Sketches
Miscellaneous
Matters
Constructional
Works, etc.
Total
Blueprints
Ditto-
prints
Total
January	
103
108
85
128
116
139
56
71
47
50
52
53
296
310
229
266
302
346
345
269
94
138
183
418
102
102
87
90
126
124
97
113
119
126
188
62
111
378
209
171
140
117
123
186
84
141
147
84
12
5
4
6
15
13
8
11
5
10
8
9
624
903
614
661
699
739
629
650
349
465
578
626
1,326
1,415
1,435
1,367
1,350
2,135
1,429
1,482
1,279
1,201
1,730
1,392
2,070
2,400
1,785
2,550
2,400
1,362
1,205
1,420
960
1,000
1,180
1,028
3,396
3,815
3,220
3,917
May  —	
3,750
3,497
July       -	
2,634
2,902
September    ~   .
October    -. -
2,239
2,201
2,910
December  —	
2,412
Totals, 1951           	
1,008
3,196
1,336
1,891
106
7,537
17,540
19,360
36,900
Totals, 1950 	
828
2,050
1,108
805
378
5,168
13,759
16,599
30,358
Totals, 1949 	
514
1,547
988
353
80
3,482
10,184
10,344
20,528
Totals, 1948          	
681
2,300
1,247
241
58
4,327
13,625
12,959
26,401
Totals, 1947     -
500
2,223
1,238
290
55
4,306
12,026
9,844
21,870
Totals 1946              	
604
1,931
1,028
525
48
4,136
9,113
7,300
16,413
Totals  1945             	
569
1,193
693
684
75
3,214
6,495
6,701
13,196
Totals, 1944 -	
442
889
459
544
46
2,380
4,159
4,983
9,142
Totals, 1943— -	
356
937
396
293
93
2,075
4,009
3,448
7,457
Totals, 1942 -	
329
868
359
111
73
1,740
0)
O)
O)
Totals for ten-year
period	
5,831
17,134
8,852
5,737
1,012
38,365
90,910=
91,538 =
182,265 =
Average for ten-year
period	
583
1,713
885
574
101
3,837
9,091=
9,154=
18,227=
i No record kept prior to 1943. 2 Average for nine-year period only. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951
133
(27)
Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax
as Compiled from Taxation Records
Year
Acreage
Assessed as
Timber
Land
Coast
Interior
Logged
Timber
Logged
Timber
1936
766,186
766,413
756,328
719,111
549,250
543,633
527,995
543,044
571,308
591,082
601,148
596,900
571,439
597,790
631,967
682,746
Acres
92,892
96,598
106,833
89,209
103,486
105,541
112,834
125,313
134,194
142,504
146,331
153,072
158,120
172,024
207,308
191,435
Acres
352,582
363,693
344,858
338,794
338,419
335,468
322,306
325,996
345,378
357,037
364,556
354,207
326,738
340,200
378,985
410,037
Acres
152,846
153,566
157,508
153,032
24,852
26,016
20,072
20,205
20,816
21,536
23,125
26,591
25,485
30,625
8,635
31,333
Acres
167,866
1937    - .   .                                 ....
152,556
1938   .... -                       	
147,129
1939  .
.   138,075
1940   _
82,493
1941
76,608
1942
72,781
1943    ... 	
71,529
1944        	
70,920
1945
70,005
1946
67,136
1947                                               -   -                             	
63,030
1948          .                              	
61,096
1949
54,941
195(1
37,039
1951       	
49,941
<28> Acreage of Timber Land
District Acres
Alberni  89,774
Comox   148,677
Cowichan   125,550
Fort Steele  9,160
Gulf Islands  160
Kettle River  315
Nanaimo   160,446
Nelson  1,998
by Assessment Districts
District Acres
Omineca        160
Prince George        840
Prince Rupert  22,889
Revelstoke  33,194
Slocan   35,607
Vancouver        553
Victoria  53,423
Acreage of Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax
(29> as Compiled from Taxation Records
Year Area (Acres)
1921  845,111
1922  887,980
1923  883,344
1924  654,668
1925  654,016
1926  688,372
1927-.
1928..
1929..
1930..
1931..
1932..
1933.
1934.
1935.
1936.
690,438
671,131
644,011
629,156
602,086
552,007
567,731
557,481
535,918
515,924
Year Area (Acres)
1937  743,109
1938  754,348
1939  719,112
1940  549,250
1941  543,632
1942  527,995
1943  543,044
1944  571,308
1945  591,082
1946  601,148
1947  596,900
1948  571,439
1949  597,790
1950  631,967
1951  682,746 134
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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z report of forest service, 1951                                137
(33>                           Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1950-51
Ten-year Average
Timber-licence rentals  $372,114.53 $396,808.65
Timber-licence transfer fees   3,110.00 2,064.50
Timber-licence penalty fees  2,077.19 7,810.14
Hand-loggers' licence fees  125.00 192.50
Timber-lease rentals  52,882.25 50,652.58
Timber-lease penalty fees and interest 9.69 66.74
Timber-sale rentals  105,394.63 67,887.35
Timber-sale stumpage  6,780,405.43 2,742,555.22
Timber-sale cruising .  54,108.21 25,553.15
Timber-sale advertising  9,048.00 4,870.84
Timber royalty   2,550,494.34 2,360,477.00
Timber tax ... 20,080.16 29,415.78
Scaling fees (not Scaling Fund)    59.86
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund).. 5,723.85 1,041.51
Trespass stumpage1     30,182.39
Scalers' examination fees2    366.50
Exchange   133.02 108.69
Seizure expenses   698.11 806.81
General miscellaneous   32,393.01 15,710.84
Timber-berth rentals, bonus, and fees 23,498.15 21,258.52
Interest on timber-berth rentals  4.60 54.16
Transfer fees on timber berths  89.67 136.12
Grazing fees and interest  77,494.85 34,542.61
$10,089,884.69      $5,792,622.46
Taxation from Crown-granted timber
lands   440,213.07 291,058.47
Totals  $10,530,097.76      $6,083,680.93
1 Trespass penalties now included in timber-sale stumpage.
2 Scalers' examination fees now included in general miscellaneous. 138
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(34)
Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1950-51
Forest District
Salaries and
Cost-of-living Bonus
Expenses
Total
Forest Service Marine Station.
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert	
Prince George	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Victoria  	
$190
108
95
161
138
355
,687.11
560.59
,125.57
794.18
,347.52
,424.93
Totals-
$1,049,939.90
Canadian Forestry Association.
Forest management	
Forest research	
Reforestation  	
Public relations 	
Provincial parks	
Ranger School-
Forest Development Fund-
Grazing Range Improvement Fund1
Forest Protection Fund1	
Forest Reserve Account1	
Grand total.
$28,911.72
64,627.12
30,816.15
23,986.52
33,571.67
36,197.00
257,701.61
$475,811.79
$28,911.72
255,314.23
139,376.74
119,112.09
195,365.85
174,544.52
613,126.54
$1,525,751.69
4,000.00
59,853.14
29,340.74
377,543.02
57,253.95
331,590.03
56,488.49
35,000.00
38,747.42
2,000,000.00
279,850.39
$4,795,418.87
1 Contributions from Treasury to special funds detailed elsewhere.
(*5) Scaling Fund
Balance forward, April 1st, 1950 (debit):
Collections, fiscal year 1950-51	
$94,470.55
508,040.20
$413,569.65
Expenditures, fiscal year 1950-51     462,263.47
Balance, March 31st, 1951 (debit)     $48,693.82
Collections, nine months, April to December, 1951     386,857.70
$338,163.88
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1951—    387,485.32
Balance, December 31st, 1951 (debit)     $49,321.44 report of forest service, 1951 139
<36> Silviculture Fund
Balance forward, April 1st, 1950      $720,642.43
Collections, fiscal year 1950-51        697,479.95
$1,418,122.38
Expenditures, fiscal year 1950-51        315,283.08
Balance, March 31st, 1951  $1,102,839.30
Balance, April 1st, 1951  $1,102,839.30
Collections, nine months to December 31st, 1951  38,101.32
$1,140,940.62
Expenditures, nine months to December 31st, 1951..       383,412.30
Balance, December 31st, 1951      $757,528.32
<37> Forest Reserve Account
Credit balance as at April 1st, 1950  $592,438.74
Amount received from Treasury, March 31st, 1951
(under subsection (2), section 32, " Forest Act ") 279,850.39
Moneys received under subsection (4), section 32,
" Forest Act"     	
$872,289.13
Expenditures, April 1st, 1950, to March 31st, 1951 299,506.73
Credit balance, March 31st, 1951  $572,782.40
Expenditures, nine months to December 31st, 1951.     348,436.05
$224,346.35
Collections to December 31st, 1951 (under subsection
(4), section 32, " Forest Act ")       30,960.26
Balance, December 31st, 1951 (credit)  $255,306.61 140 department of lands and forests
(38) Grazing Range Improvement Fund
Balance, April 1st, 1950 (credit)  $26,745.71
Government contribution (section 14, " Grazing Act ")    13,424.95
Other collections         452.00
$40,622.66
Expenditures, April 1st, 1950, to March 31st, 1951     27,778.04
Balance, March 31st, 1951 (credit)  $12,844.62
Government contribution (section 14, " Grazing Act ")    38,747.42
Other collections   221.50
$51,813.54
Expenditures, April 1st, 1951, to December 31st, 1951    30,653.03
Balance, December 31st, 1951  $21,160.51
(39) Forest Development Fund
Balance forward, April 1st, 1950.
Amount received from Treasury (authority, " B.C. Forest Development Loan Act, 1948 ")  $35,000.00
$35,000.00
Expenditures, fiscal year 1950-51       7,958.84
Balance as of March 31st, 1951 (credit)  $27,041.16
Balance, April 1st, 1951 (credit)  $27,041.16
Amount received from Treasury (authority, " B.C. Forest Development Loan Act, 1948 ")     45,000.00
$72,041.16
Expenditures, nine months to December 31st, 1951     49,845.16
Balance, December 31st, 1951  $22,196.00 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 141
<40> Forest Protection Fund
Balance, April 1st, 1950  $1,031,947.21
Government contribution   $2,000,000.00
Collections, tax        327,551.44
Collections, slash and snags  $15,648.00
Less refunds        8,502.41
■  7,145.59
 2,334,697.03
$3,366,644.24
Expenditures, 1950-51   $2,482,436.50
Less refunds   30,562.46
     2,451,874.04
(See detailed summary of net expenditure on page 142.)
Balance, March 31st, 1951      $914,770.20
Balance, April 1st, 1951      $914,770.20
Collections, tax, nine months, April to December, 1951..     $262,781.38
Collections, miscellaneous   5,780.15
Refunds of expenditure  24,448.83
Government contribution      1,500,000.00
Special contribution under Special Warrant No. 26     1,103,000.00
• 2,896,010.36
$3,810,780.56
Expenditure, nine months, April to December, 1951  $2,696,768.53
Repayable to votes (approximately)        581,998.11
■ 3,278,766.64
Estimated balance, December 31st, 1951      $532,013.92 142
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951
Reported Approximate Expenditure in Forest Protection
by Other Agencies, 1951
143
Expenditures
Forest District
Patrols and
Fire-
prevention
Tools and
Equipment
Fires
Improvements
Total
$291,956.00
11,600.00
10,000.00
9,500.00
9,255.20
$301,424.00
37,800.00
15,000.00
4,200.00
13,108.00
$724,607.00
95,063.75
12,882.66
8,839.18
26,909.41
$41,509.00
$1,359,496.00
144,463.75
10,000.00
1,800.00
10,576.00
47,882.66
Kamloops   _ 	
24,339.18
59,848.61
Totals
$332,311.20
$371,532.00
$868,302.00
$63,885.00
$1,636,030.20
Ten-year average, 1942-51	
$116,851.38
$162,641.12
$246,373.61
$16,679.84
$542,545.95
(43>      Summary of Snag-falling,  1951, Vancouver Forest District
Total area logged, 1951  71,751
Logged in snag-exempted zone1      734
Logged on small exempted operations1  4,402
  5,136
Assessed for non-compliance, less 29  acres
subsequently felled       495
     5,631
Balance logged acres snagged, 1951  66,120
1 Exemption granted under subsection (3), section 113, "Forest Act."
Summary of Logging Slash Created, 1951, Vancouver
(44> Forest District
Total area logged, 1951  71,751
Area covered by full hazard reports  54,062
Covered by snag reports but exempted from slash-
disposal1         734
Covered by acreage reports only (exempted from
slash and snag disposal1)     4,402
  59,198
Slash created too late to be dealt with in 1951  12,553
•Exemption granted under subsection (3), section 113, "Forest Act." 144 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Acreage Analysis of Slash-disposal Required, 1951,
<4S> Vancouver Forest District
Acres ol Slash Total
Prior to 1951 1951 Acres
Broadcast-burning      8,481 9,689 18,170
Spot-burning      7,592 10,235 17,827
Totals   16,073 19,924 35,997
1951 reports not recommending slash-disposal  34,138
1951 slash examined for snags but exempt from slash-disposal       734
1951 slash in zone completely exempted  2,009
1951 slash on very small operations exempted without
special examination   2,393
     4,402
Total area of slash dealt with, 1951  75,271
Note.—Above table does not include the estimated 12,553 acres (see Table No. 44)  created too late to be dealt
with in 1951.
Analysis of Progress in Slash-disposal, 1951, Vancouver
(46) Forest District
Acres
Total disposal required (see Table No. 45)  35,997
Acres of Slash Total
Type of Disposal Prior to 1951 1951 Acres
Spring broadcast-burning _____ 1,823 1,650 3,473
Fall broadcast-burning       999 474 1,473
Spot-burning   4,192 1,298 5,490
Total burning completed   7,014          3,422 10,436
Burned by accidental fires1  11,614
Lopping, scattering, land-clearing, etc  200
Total  22,250
Balance reported slash not yet abated.  13,747
Slash created prior to 1951—acres assessed     1,956
Slash created 1951—acres assessed    	
     1,956
Remainder waiting final disposition, 1952  11,791
Plus slash created too late to be dealt with,
1951  12,553
Total area of slash carried over to 1952 for disposition   24,3 44
1 Does not include 9,947 acres burned in accidental fires in northern pulp areas and never designated for slash-
disposal. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951 145
<47> Summary of Operations, 1951, Vancouver Forest District
Total operations, Vancouver Forest District  1,539
Intentional slash-burns  104
Operations on which slash was disposed of by lopping,
scattering, land-clearing, etc.  25
Operations on which slash was accidentally burned  64
Operations not required to burn  877
Operations given further time for disposal  49
Operations granted total exemption under subsection (3),
section 113, "Forest Act"  259
Operations where compensation assessed or security deposit posted  39
Operations in snag-felling only area  65
Operations pending decision re assessment or further
time for disposal  57
— 1,539
Note.—All inactive operations omitted from table.
Summary of Slash-burn Damage and Costs, 1951,
<48) . Vancouver Forest District
Total acres of forest-cover burned in slash fires, 1951  63
Net damage to forest-cover  $ 1,125.00
Net damage to cut products	
Net damage to equipment and property     7,500.00
Total damage  $8,625.00
Cost of Slash-burning as Reported by Operators
Total Cost Acres       Cost per M B.M.I
(a) Spring broadcast-burning ____ $49,623.00        3,473        360
(b) Fall broadcast-burning       3,322.00 1,473 5Yz^
(c) Spot-burning   328.00        5,490 Vst.
i(a) and (6) based on volume of 40 MB.M. per acre;   (c) based on volume of 30 M B.M. per acre. 146
(49)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Recapitulation of Slash-disposal, 1934-51
Year
1934..
4,927
1935_____ _ 11,783
1936
1937_
1938.
1939_
1940-
194L
1942..
Acres of Slash Burned
Accidentally Intentionally
  1,340
  3,015
  35,071
  1,930
  2,265
  3,385
  4,504
1943  2,046
1944_.
1945-
1946.
1947-
1948-
1949-
1950.
195L
5,121
3,897
2,174
2,663
2,215
1,468
1,700
11,614
15,935
13,239
7,691
27,516
50,033
51,603
33,034
5,524
80,226
40,013
27,278
46,467
25,498
34,414
30,652
53,543
25,389
10,436
(50)
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1951
Forest District
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
Total
Per
Cent
Vancouver 	
2
5
132
15
13
8
19
28
22
15
27
9
128
26
32
52
17
150
35
50
201
118
168
17
30
215
157
49
29
57
79
16
2
659
144
202
582
336
34.27
7.49
10.50
Kamloops 	
30.27
17.47
Totals. -	
7
187
101
255
554
587
230
2
1,923
100.00
0.36
9.72
5.25
13.26
28.81
30.53
11.96
0.11
100.00
Ten-year average, 1942-51
4
54
188
184
463
418
188
9
1,508
	
0.26
3.58
12.47
12.20
30.70
27.72
12.47
0.60
100.00
(51)
Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1951
Forest District
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Vancouver	
44
21
46
270
193
26
40
43
91
28
160
7
5
27
12
160
28
23
88
55
63
12
22
16
15
8
1
4
1
6
56
16
25
30
6
21
4
3
107
13
22
48
15
14
6
8
11
3
659
144
202
582
336
34.27
7.49
10.50
Kamloops —   -	
30.27
17.47
Totals  -
574
228
211
354
128
20
133
28
205
42
1,923
100.00
29.85
11.86
10.97
18.41
6.66
1.04
6.92
1.45
10.66
2.18
100.00
Ten-year average, 1942-51	
442
196
243
286
68
15
59
13
152
34
1,508
	
29.31
13.00
16.11
18.97
4.51
1.00
3.91
0.86
10.08
2.25
100.00 report of forest service, 1951
(52)       Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years
147
Causes
1951
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
Total
Lightning   -—	
Campers   	
574
228
211
354
128
20
133
28
205,
42
342
251
197
291
77
25
94
7
196
35
487
215
325
281
60
20
87
13
169
44
266
105
113
140
39
5
45
5
58
23
326
193
270
245
51
8
53
13
144
29
515
263
231
326
117
16
38
10
159
32
541
183
426
356
69
5
32
32
155
39
408
203
329
342
51
10
51
13
210
50
256
157
216
304
58
8
20
7
136
23
704
158
114
220
30
31
38
5
90
24
4,419
1,956
2,432
Smokers    	
2,859
680
Road and power- and telephone-line construc-
148
Industrial operations 	
591
133
Miscellaneous (known causes) -
Unknown causes	
1,522
341
Totals   _.
1,923
1,515
1,701
799
1,332
1,707
1,838
1,667
1,185
1,414
15,081
(53)
Fires Classified by Size and Damage, 1951
Total Fires
Under V- Acre
V. to 10 Acres
Over 10 to 500
Acres
Over 500 Acres
in Extent
Damage
Forest District
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Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert
659
144
202
• 582
336
34.27
7.49
10.50
30.27
17.47
371
70
99
251
213
56.30
48.61
49.01
43.00
63.39
36.95
6.97
9.86
25.00
21.22
192
34
67
210
84
29.14
23.61
33.17
36.08
25.00
32.71
5.79
11.41
35.78
14.31
71
34
29
88
25
10.77
23.61
14.36
15.22
7.44
28.74
13.77
11.74
35.63
10.12
25
6
7
33
14
3.79
4.17
3.46
5.70
4.17
29.41
7.06
8.24
38.82
16.47
579
122
177
527
309
30
11
17
27
17
50
11
8
Kamloops 	
Nelson •"
28
10
Totals	
1,923
100.00
1,004
100.00
587
100.00
247
100.00
85
100.00
1,714
102
107
100.00
52.21
30.53
12.84
4.42
89.13
5.30
5 57
Ten-year average, 1942 51
1,508
837
444
178
49
1,395
69
44
100.00
55.51
29.44
11.80
3.25
	
	
92.50
4.58
2.92
<54>                  Damage to
Property Other than Forests, 1951
1
-
Forest District
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture
Buildings
Railway
and
Logging
Equipment
Miscellaneous
Total
Per Cent
of Total
Vancouver  -	
$513,215.00
90,000.00
773.00
1,706.00
2,978.00
$68,860.00
3,200.00
4,075.00
17,725.00
375.00
$661,961.00
76,311.00
13,180.00
7,874.00
$70,341.00
$1,314,377.00
169,511.00
5,198.00
33,961.00
12,078.00
85.62
11.04
350.00
1,350.00
851.00
0.34
Kamloops 	
2.21
0.79
Totals
$608,672.00
$94,235.00
$759,326.00
$72,892.00
$1,535,125.00
100 00
39.65
6.14
49.46
4.75
100.00
Ten-year average, 1942-51	
$157,907.00
$25,513.00
$187,609.00
$36,371.00
$407,400.00
38.76
6.26
46.05
8.93
100.00
i Does not include intentional slash-burns.    (For this item see page 145.) 148 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(55>      Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1951—Part I1
Accessible Merchantable Timber
Inaccessible Merchantable
Timber
Immature Timber
Forest District
aj
H
<"°
ZW
QJ
_, S-d
333
0 PH
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bo
ca
a
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Vancouver	
Acres
7,906
4,875
193
7,325
5,723
MB.M.
188,458
23,668
1,189
26,915
39,458
MB.M.
148,003
11,774
360
11,674
15,424
$
274,440
15,629
4,630
167,234
171,028
Acres
836
1,133
15
3,092
1,007
MB.M.
9,833
4,495
75
95
1,276
$
1,141
3,280
375
8,261
23,170
Acres
24,008
24,190
9,886
34,030
13,259
$
374,164
82,820
23,112
Kamloops 	
Nelson	
108,063
35,970
Totals	
26,022
279,688
187,235
632,961
6,083
15,774
36,227
105,373
624,129
6.18
94.66
66.94
44.64
1.45
5.34
2.55
25.03
44.02
Ten-year average, 1942-51
20,258
114,691
36,625
203,112
1,881
6,253
8,857
58,479
199,656
5.56
94.83
31.93
42.19
0.52
5.17
1.84
16.04
41.47
1 Does not include intentional slash-burns.    (For this item see page 145.)
<55>     Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1951—Part II1
Forest
District
Not Satisfactorily
Restocked
Noncommercial
Cover
Grazing or
Pasture
Land
Nonproductive
Sites
Grand Totals
tj
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ai b
to 5
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Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert	
Acres
21,561
628
800
219
638
Acres
15,672
1,782
245
79
455
Acres
4,973
30,177
1,131
38,072
8,724
$
11,238
13,910
1,782
48,886
9,421
Acres
8,680
43,498
495
14,299
5,702
$
2,656
10,873
124
4,780
3,537
Acres
253
16,307
44
5,933
36
$
90
822
2
400
2
Acres
25,212
28,480
513
2,569
6,299
$
6,835
7,108
126
618
1,448
Acres
109,101
151,070
13,322
105,618
41,843
MB.M.
198,291
28,163
1,264
27,010
40,734
$
670,564
134,442
30,151
Kamloops —	
Nelson  	
338,242
244,576
23,846
18,233
83,077
85,237
72,674
21,970
22,573
1,316
63,073
16,135
420,954
295,462
1,417,975
Per cent	
5.66
4.33
19.74
6.01
17.26
1.55
5.36
0.09
14.99
1.14
100.00
100.00
100.00
Ten-year average,
1942-51	
6,559
4,128
29,865
20,835
115,509
31,042
55,862
3,349
72,028
14,617
364,569
120,944
481,468
1.80
1.13
8.19
4.33
31.68
6.44
15.32
0.69
19.76
3.04
100.00
100.00
100.00
i Does not include intentional slash-burns.    (For this item see page 145.)
(56)
Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost,
and Total Damage, 1951
Causes
Number
Per
Cent
Acres
Per
Cent
Cost
Per
Cent
Damage
Per
Cent
574
228
211
354
128
20
133
28
205
42
29.85
11.86
10.97
18.41
6.66
1.04
6.92
1.45
10.66
2.18
112,874
180,711
2,189
41,893
15,984
348
46,390
2,519
17,154
892
26.81
42.93
0.52
9.95
3.80
0.08
11.02
0.60
4.08
0.21
$712,229.60
72,547.00
6,641.17
260,441.89
33,597.58
388.18
183,723.56
92,710.36
61,795.92
1,856.94
49.95
5.09
0.47
18.26
2.36
0.03
12.88
6.50
4.33
0.13
$876,301.00
66,376.00
3,641.00
711,919.00
56,656.00
4,355.00
1,096,268.00
17,615.00
104,332.00
15,637.00
29.67
2.25
0.12
24.11
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing) _
Road and power- and telephone-line
construction 	
1.92
0.15
37.12
0.60
3 53
0.53
Totals              	
1,923
100.00
420,954
100.00
$1,425,932.20
100.00
$2,953,100.00
100 00 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951
149
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(59)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Prosecutions, 1951
—
0
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41
3
5
3
29
1
36
$1,345.00
3
2
6
3
3
2
50.00
2
2
9
5
1
3
8
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1
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15
3
11
1
14
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6
—
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3
5
150.00
1
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77
14
23
3
29
7
1
65
$2,275.00
7
4
1
Ten-year average,
1942-51	
37
—
—
—
26
$805.60
1
7
2
1 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951
151
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(61)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Enrolment at Ranger School, 1951
Forest District
Rangers
Acting
Rangers
Assistant
Rangers
Clerks
Total
1
2
1
1
1
5
1
2
4
3
—
7
1
Fort George   _   -  —   	
3
5
5
Totals, 1951..	
3
3
15
—
21
Totals, 1950. _   	
3
3
15
21
Totals, 1949  	
3
2
16
--
21
Totals, 1948	
4
2
12
2
20
Totals, 1947                        _   -
8
—
12
—
20
Totals, 1946   ....
2
9
9
-
20
Note.—The total number of students passing through the school does not correspond with the total of yearly
enrolments.   Commencing with the class of 1949-50, each class takes one and one-half years to complete the course.
(62)
Motion-picture Library
Stock Records
Year
19451
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
Films in library at January lst-
Films withdrawn during year—
New films added during year-
Films in library at December 31st-
Films used during year 	
74
4
5
75
(2)
75
2
2
75
61
75
8
7
74
77
74
2
5
77
77
77
3
1
75
74
75
6
9
78
76
75
8
7
74
71
Circulation Records
Number of loans made during year	
56
164
235
436
397
416
461
Number of film loans during year  (one
film loaned one time)       . _    -	
85
328
632
1,122
1,075
1,046
1,057
Number of showings during year	
76
'371
812
1,293
1,505
1,880
2,943
Number in audiences—
Adiuts
2,341
11,940
8,009
21,633
14,568
26,988
13,542
6,676
10,408
25,362
20,455
24,031
95,102s
264,245s
8,730
10,285
24,351
42,930
87,506
43,282
26,706
Totals
17,747
32,633
57,722
85,018
126,105
165,3728
304,493s
2 No record.
3 Including attendances of lecture
i Recording of film circulation only commenced in 1945.
tour of two school lecturers.
Note.—Figures of audience do not include those attending showings at the Forest Service exhibit at the Pacific
National Exhibition, Vancouver. (63)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1951
Forest Service Library
153
Classification
Items Received and Catalogued
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
(Ten-year
1951 lAverage,
1 1942-51
9
120
29
10
85
32
12
49
63
13
80
61
12
126
79
14
231
90
39
123
140
36
100
153
27
62
140
23
109
152
19
Government reports and bulletins
Other reports and bulletins —
108
94
Totals        -
158
127
124
154
217
335
302
289
229
284
222
Periodicals and trade journals —
43
1,962
45
1,170
50
1,175
48
1,294
51
1,523
72
1,798
72
3,543
80
2,074
102
1,960
110
2,650
67
1,915
(64)
Grazing Permits Issued
Number of
Permits
Issued
Number of Stock under Permit
Cattle
Horses
Sheep
1,127
400
34
105,927
8,245
1,232
3,313
965
68
25,525
1,535
98
Totals, 1951                                      	
1,561
115,404
4,346
27,158
Totals, 1950                 	
1,502
107,485
4,607
31,205
Totals 1949
1,496
113,307
4,832
33,999
Totals, 1948   -                      	
1,328
117,133
5,526
31,664
Totals 1947
1,322
105,723
5,513
26,189
Totals, 1946    .               -	
1,379
106,273
5,035
31,274
Totals, 1945	
1,378
109,201
5,064
39,235
Totals, 1944 .              ...               	
1,320
101,696
4,862
40,858
Totals, 1943 	
1,221
93,497
4,844
39,921
Totals, 1947
1,130
84,788
4,797
36,962
1,363
105,457
4,947
33,607
(65)
Grazing Fees Billed and Collected
Year
Fees Billed
Fees Collected
Outstanding
1941	
$23,781.19
25,116.02
24,680.37
28,554.02
30,066.34
30,120.38
28,584.74
28,960.42
27,819.65
80,178.43
108,400.44
$29,348.82
30,802.23
31,148.36
31,000.34
31,465.28
31,412.24
29,203.74
27,089.74
28,299.94
74,305.08
106,161.36
$21,636.87
15 950 56
1942   	
1943 	
9,482.57
7,036.25
5,637.36
4,345.50
3,726.50
5,597.18
1944  _	
1945  	
1946	
1947
1948
1949   	
1950	
10,986.74
13,225.82
1951    	 VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1952
1,420-652-5679    

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