Open Collections

BC Sessional Papers

PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS HON. E. T. KENNEY, Minister G. P. MELROSE,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1952

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcsessional-1.0343346.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcsessional-1.0343346.json
JSON-LD: bcsessional-1.0343346-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcsessional-1.0343346-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcsessional-1.0343346-rdf.json
Turtle: bcsessional-1.0343346-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcsessional-1.0343346-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcsessional-1.0343346-source.json
Full Text
bcsessional-1.0343346-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcsessional-1.0343346.ris

Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Hon. E. T. Kenney, Minister G. P. Melrose, Deputy Minister of Lands
Report of the Lands Service
containing the reports of the
Lands Branch, Surveys and Mapping Branch,
and Water Rights Branch
together with the
Dyking Commissioner, Southern Okanagan
Lands Project, University Endowment Lands,
and the Coal, Petroleum and Natural Gas
Branch
Year Ended December 31st
1951
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1952
PROVINCIAL LIBRA,
VICTORIA B. C.  a* i^ ^
•ts -5 > s
^   rO >* ^1
cq O ^ ^
<
l J 5 | 8.1
s ? « *. ■; s
.2" .E   3 E  c ^
O o < "~  *  Victoria, B.C., January 30th, 1952.
To His Honour Clarence Wallace, C.B.E.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of British Columbia Lands
Service of the Department of Lands and Forests for the year ended December 31st, 1951.
E. T. KENNEY,
Minister of Lands and Forests.
Victoria, B.C., January 30th, 1952.
The Honourable E. T. Kenney,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia Lands
Service of the Department of Lands and Forests for the twelve months ended December
31st, 1951.
GEO. P. MELROSE,
Deputy Minister of Lands.  1. Introduction by the Deputy Minister of Lands  9
2. Lands Branch—
(a) Lands Branch  13
(b) Land Utilization Research and Survey Division  30
(c) Land Inspection Division  39
(d) Land Surveyor  51
3. Surveys and Mapping Branch  55
(a) Legal Surveys Division .  56
(b) Topographic Division  67
Surveys—
(1) Pavilion-Churn Creek Area  69
(2) Bowser Lake-Telegraph Creek Area  72
(3) Williams Lake Area  76
(4) Tweedsmuir Park Area  81
(5) Houston Area  86
(6) Salmo Area  91
(7) North Thompson Area  94
(8) Gulf Islands  98
(c) Geographic Division  99
(d) Air Survey Division  109
(e) External Boundary Surveys  121
4. Water Rights Branch  131
5. Coal, Petroleum and Natural Gas Branch  147
6. Dyking Commissioner  161
7. Southern Okanagan Lands Project  167
8. University Endowment Lands - .  175
9. Land Settlement Board  181
10. Mail and File Room : 1  185  MINISTER OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(Hon. E. T. Kenney)
ORGANIZATION
BRITISH COLUMBIA LANDS SERVICE
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Victoria, B.C.
December, 1951
LANDS SERVICE
Deputy Minister of Lands
(Geo. P. Melrose)
FOREST SERVICE
Deputy Minister & Chief Forester
(CD. Orchard)
Asst. Pep. Min. of Lands
(C.E. Hopper)
Recorder(a)
(H.A. Tomalin)
Mail and File Room (a' Property Room (a'
(J.A. Grant)      (S. Smith)
University Endowment Lands
Manager
(M.E. Ferguson)
Land Sales Fire Dept.  Maintenance
Dyking Commissioner
(G.B. Dixon)
I
Asst. Commissioner
(J.L. MacDonald)
1
Accounting Division
Chief Accountant
(R.L. Poyntz)
I
Asst. Accountant
(S.G. Wilson)
Director of Conservation
(D.B. Turner)
Research Assistant
(D. Borthwick)
Land Settlement Board
I
Chairman
(G.P. Melrose)
I
Director
(C.E. Hopper)
I
Secretary
(Miss C.   Stephenson)
Inspector
(I.  Spielmans-Nelson)
Southern Okanagan. Lands Pro.iect
Project Manager
(D.W. Hodsdon)
Land Sales
Irrigation
Maintenance
BRANCHES
LANDS BRANCH
Superintendent of Lands
(R.E.  Burns)
Asst.  Supt.  of Lands
(R.  Torrance)
Land Inspection Division
I
Chief Inspector
(H.E. Whyte)
Land Inspectors
(L.D. Fraser —Kamloops)
(D. Havard —Smithers)
(F.M. Cunningham—Nelson)
Lands Surveyor
(P.M. Moncton)
(H.L. Huff
(D.E. Goodwin
(C.T.W. Hyslop
(W.R. Redel
(A.F. Smith
(J.A. Esler
-New Westminster)
—Pouce Coupe)
—Prince George)
—Quesnel)
—Williams Lake)
—Williams Lake)
 1
Land Utilization
Research & Survey
Division
Director
Sutherland)
I
Asst. Director
(N.T. Drewry)
CD.
Chief Clerk
(E.A. Walls)
+
Land Leases    Land Purchases    Crown Grants
(W.J.  Holman)     (C.P. Axhorn)   (S.C.  Hawkins)
SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Director of Surveys and Mapping
and
Surveyor General
(G.S. Andrews)
I
Asst. Dir. of Surveys & Mapping
 |	
Legal Surveys Div. Air Surveys Div. Topographic Div. Geographic Div.
I I I I
Chief of Div. Chief Engineer Chief of Div. Chief of Div.
(D. Pearmain) (W. Hall) (A.G. Slocomb) (W.H. Hutchinson)
I I I I
Ch. Draughtsman Asst.  Ch. Engineer Asst.  Chief Asst.  Chief
(H.P.  Rutter) (A.C.   Kinnear) (W.R.  Young) (A.H. Ralfs)
COAL, PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS BRANCH
I
Controller
(T.B. Williams)
i '      i
Asst. Pet. & Nat. Gas Contr.
(J.D. Lineham)
I
Chief, Sample Laboratory,
and Asst. Pet. Eng.
(S.S. Cosburn)
Chief Chemist
(K.G. Gilbart)
Asst.. Chemist
(R.R. McLeod)
Asst. Coal Contr.
(N.D. McKechnie)
WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
Comptroller of Water Rights
(E.M. Tredcroft)
r-
Ch. Hydraulic Engineer Pro.iect Engineer
(T.A.J. Leach)      (j.f. Miles)
Chief Engineer
(A.F. Paget)
Solicitor
(A.K. Sutherland)
District Engineers
(a) Also functions for Forest Service.
(M.I. Zuril —Kamloops)
(R. Pollard —Nelson)
(W.A. Ker   —Kelowna)
(C. Errington—Victoria)
Administrative Assistant
(K.R.F. Denniston)
I ' 1
Ch. Draughtsman Ch. Clerk
(G.R. Ford)  (A. Sargent) REPORT OF THE BRITISH COLUMBIA
LANDS SERVICE
Geo. P. Melrose, Deputy Minister of Lands
History will record that, in the race to develop the natural resources of the Provinces
of Canada, British Columbia got away to a flying start in the second half of the twentieth
century. The year 1951 will go into the Provincial and National chronicles as a period of
tremendous capital expenditures by industrial firms, notably in the fields of forestry, water
power, and metals.
Explanations pertinent to the vast outlay of money in British Columbia will reveal the
great growth in the many associated phases that attend the investment of capital in construction projects. For instance, the rapid population increase will be noted, the facts that
the Province has gained 335,000 people in ten years, a 41-per-cent increase in population
from 1941 to 1951, and that the present population, as a census preliminary return, is set
at 1,153,059. The total values of primary production, too, will show substantial to
remarkable advances in the fields of forestry, mining, agriculture, fisheries, and in
the generation of hydro power. The figures for transportation, highway construction,
secondary industry, and the many other businesses and concerns that make up the varied
economy of British Columbia also will reflect the startling industrial development which,
in 1951, may have approached the total of all such resource-use activity during the past
fifty years.
Natural resources are a result of the interplay of four factors—air, sunshine, land,
and water. In British Columbia, the Lands Service is charged with the administration of
the two of those factors—land and water—that man has under his control. It is evident,
therefore, that the close attention of the branches and divisions of the Lands Service is
required whenever a plan or a proposal is submitted to make use of land or water, or of the
resources which exist because of them. During 1951, projects of magnitude were placed
before the Government of British Columbia for consideration. As a result of the decisions
made with respect to them, involving the administration and alienation of land and water
for a wide range of purposes from domestic to industrial, there arose the need for intensive
research studies and survey examinations, and for careful consideration of the methods
of disposing of land and water to the end that beneficial use of these heritages would be
assured.
The record of the efforts of the Lands Service in 1951 to gather and make available
the essential information that is required for sound planning for use of the natural resources
of British Columbia is in the pages of this volume. Here are chronicled the activities of
the Lands Branch, the Surveys and Mapping Branch, the Water Rights Branch, and the
Coal, Petroleum and Natural Gas Branch. In the accounts of these branches and their
divisions, and in the tables which accompany the reports, there can be read the fact that
the year 1951 goes down as a year of unprecedented transaction of business for the Lands
Service, a year without parallel in total research and survey accomplished and in total
assignments of land and water for domestic, municipal, and business use.    LANDS BRANCH BB 13
LANDS BRANCH
R. E. Burns, Superintendent of Lands
The year 1951 showed an unprecedented industrial development in the Province and
the activities created thereby resulted in a substantial increase in the operations of the
Lands Branch. In this connection, reference is particularly made to the Aluminum
Company's project at Kitimat, the Elk Falls Company's plant at Menzies Bay, Vancouver
Island, for the manufacture of newsprint, and the proposed celanese plant at Castlegar by
the Celgar Development Company Limited.
These projects have resulted in numerous applications and inquiries being made for
lands in the localities mentioned, and, with respect to the Aluminum Company's project,
has resulted in increased activity in the area along the Canadian National Railway from
Prince George to Prince Rupert, also in the Terrace and Kitimat localities.
The statistical tables submitted herewith show continued activity in the disposition of
Crown lands in addition to increased collections for the year 1951.
Two highlights of the year were the discovery of oil in the Peace River District and
the right granted the Trans-Mountain Oil Pipe Line Company to proceed with the construction of a pipe-line from Edmonton and extending through the Province to Vancouver.
The projection of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway from Quesnel to Prince George
has resulted in a demand for lands in that portion of the Province. Extensive settlement
still continues in the Peace River District. Following surveys and reconnaissance work in
this district by the Land Utilization Research and Survey Division, it has been deemed
advisable to take steps in the matter of restricting settlement for agricultural purposes in
the northerly part of the district in view of lack of transportation facilities. In particular
areas within the Peace River District, the aforementioned surveys disclose that the best
economical use is for general farming purposes, and steps have been taken to make
available certain lands for community pasture purposes.
During the year, the Lands Branch in co-operation with the Parks Division of the
Forest Service has reserved various parcels of land considered as having potential value as
park and recreational sites or public camping-grounds.
In continuing the assistance in the rehabilitation of war veterans, considerable parcels
of land are still being conveyed by the Province under the " Veterans' Land Settlement
Act," pursuant to the Dominion-Provincial Agreement.
At the request of certain ranchers to consolidate their holdings in the Kamloops
Division of Yale and Cariboo Districts, the Department has approved the amalgamation of
several grazing leases, comprising in most cases large areas.
With a view to better administration of the foreshore lands, and lands covered
with water vested in the Province, situated within the boundaries of the North Fraser
Harbour, an agreement was entered into between the Province and the North Fraser Harbour Commissioners whereby such lands were placed under the administration of the
Commissioners.
In connection with the resubdivision of various lands which was carried out in
different portions of the Province, certain areas affected included lands which were
reserved for national defence purposes. Reference is made in this regard to Port Edward
Townsite, near Prince Rupert, where, in connection with defence operations, roads and
other works constructed did not conform to the plan of subdivision. This necessitated
cancellation of the existing plan and a resubdivision of the property, involving in some
cases the protection of the rights of certain registered owners of land within the former
subdivision.
A survey of a resubdivision was also made at Emory Townsite, near Hope,
necessitated because all survey posts and marks of the subdivision had disappeared or
become obliterated, the official plan of the townsite having been made around the year BB  14 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
1880. Considerable work was entailed in this connection in order to assure that protection and adjustment was made with the registered owners of lands in the old subdivision.
In order to meet the demand for home-sites in the Prince George area, it has been
necessary to proceed with the cancellation of plans of subdivision of certain lands and
create new resubdivisions owing to survey posts and markings having disappeared or
become obliterated.
Particular reference in this regard is made to a resubdivision of Lot 777, Cariboo
District, situated south of Prince George. Here it was also necessary to provide for the
protection of the rights of the registered owners of certain lands comprised in the former
subdivision.
In making additional suitable lands available for home-sites in the Prince George
area, negotiations are being carried on with the Department of National Defence for the
return of certain lands reserved for defence purposes during World War II.
The records of the Department show special activity in connection with mining,
clearances for reverted mineral claims having increased from 312 in 1950 to 916 in 1951.
In connection with the extension of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway, twenty Crown
grants were issued to the railway company during the year.
Applications to purchase, both town lots and acreage, have increased from 1,891 in
1950 to 2,478 in 1951. The general centres of settlement were the Burns Lake, Prince
George, Prince Rupert, Smithers, Quesnel, and Peace River Districts.
Thirty-one auction sales were held during the year of town and acreage lots in
various parts of the Province, including the Southern Okanagan Lands Project. The sum
of $54,759.25 was realized from these sales.
The reports of the nine Land Inspectors, submitted under the report of the Chief
Land Inspector, show an increase in the work of this important division of the Lands
Branch.
The demand for home-sites, owing to industrial expansion in their respective districts,
is referred to in the reports of the Land Inspectors at Nelson, Prince George, Quesnel, and
Smithers.
The consolidation of the holdings of many ranchers has necessitated examination by
the Land Inspectors at Kamloops and Williams Lake of large areas held under lease. The
increased tourist travel has resulted in many applications for summer-home sites on lakes.
The report of the Land Inspector, Pouce Coupe, emphasizes the continued settlement
in the Peace River District, chiefly for agricultural purposes, and the annual inspections
carried out on pre-emptions in conjunction with the Inspector responsible for this work.
The report of the Inspector, New Westminster, shows the steady demand for lands
for residential purposes in the lower coastal areas of the Province. Inspections were also
carried out on foreshore areas required for booming and log-storage purposes.
The report of the Director of the Land Utilization Research and Survey Division
shows completion of land classification, land-use mapping and Crown land farm-unit
selection of a major portion of the agricultural soil areas in the main settlement regions
in the central and northern parts of the Province.
Detailed field studies of all the surveyed lands south of the Peace River, and also
reconnaissance surveys of the adjoining unsurveyed areas offering agricultural settlement
possibilities, have been completed. Reports and maps have been completed or are in
course of being completed of the agricultural soils of the Terrace district, the area around
Vanderhoof, and also the lands bordering the Hart Highway and Pacific Great Eastern
Railway from Summit Lake south to Quesnel. During the year, surveys of the Squamish
and Pemberton Valleys have been made and detailed studies have been undertaken of
special projects involving some form of land reclamation.
Surveys of areas for home-sites were carried out by the Land Surveyor of this Branch
in various parts of the Province comprising areas from 1 acre to 40 acres, details of which LANDS BRANCH BB  15
are given in his report.    Surveys of various water-front summer-home sites were also
completed in addition to the re-establishment of survey-posts in old subdivisions.
The year's activities of the Land Settlement Board are set out in the report of the
secretary. A substantial increase in the value of the land sales over 1950 is reported.
A number of purchasers obtained title to their lands. Total collections for the year show
an increase.
BEHIND THE STATISTICS
R. Torrance, Assistant Superintendent of Lands
After decades of steady but slow development, British Columbia has been
" discovered " by big business and it has been proclaimed by some leading industrialists
that this Province contains the continent's last great store of undeveloped natural
resources. Be that as it may, new industry, backed by a seemingly unlimited supply of
capital, has moved in to give British Columbia its most startling push since the gold-
rush days of the 1860's. The pace has been set by such tremendous enterprises as the
$550,000,000 aluminium and hydro-electric project of the Aluminum Company of Canada
Limited, the $27,000,000 plant of the Columbia Cellulose Company at Port Edward,
and the current $100,000,000 expansion programme in the pulp and paper industry.
Secondary industries, it should be noted, have been quick to follow these primary expansions and developments, and it would appear that the gates to British Columbia's almost
untapped hinterland have been swung wide open.
It is inevitable that such large-scale development of natural resources as British
Columbia is now experiencing will be reflected in the reports of all Departments in our
Governmental structure, and that the Lands Service, charged with the responsibility of
administering the surface of Canada's third largest Province, will occupy a unique position
in the current " boom." Only the part played by the Lands Branch in this Province-wide
development can be described here, of course, but the co-operation of the many divisions
in the Lands Service is recognized fully.
In the building of British Columbia the Lands Branch plays an important role. It is
through this agency that all applications to acquire Crown lands are submitted, and these,
being diverse in nature, require that the operations of the Lands Branch extend far beyond
the more commonly known phases of activity such as the selling, leasing, and pre-empting
of Crown lands for purposes of home-sites, agriculture, business, commercial, and industrial sites. A few specific items might be noted. The Lands Branch, for example, prepares
all Crown grants to mining claims; grants rights-of-way easements for power, telephone,
and pipe lines; reserves suitable Crown lands and foreshore for national defence, public
use, forestry experimentation, fisheries research work, highways, etc.; grants railway
rights-of-way under various Statutes; protects historic sites from alienation; attends
to the reservation and conveying of Crown lands for school-sites, cemeteries, and
fair-grounds; leases land and foreshore for such varied purposes as wharf-sites, booming-
grounds, canneries, oysters and other mollusc fishery, and for boat-houses, quarry-sites,
cattle ranching, trappers' cabins, ship-building, and aircraft bases. To perform these and
other functions efficiently, the Lands Branch must, of course, work in close co-operation
with a great number of other agencies such as those of the various municipalities, Town
Planning Divisions, the British Columbia Forest Service, the Veterans' Land Settlement
Act Administration, and the Public Works Departments of both the Federal and
Provincial Governments.
With duties so varied in nature, it will be appreciated that statistical tables and
graphs, however impressive, cannot be regarded as a fair gauge of activities. Statistical
tables cannot adequately record the service rendered, neither can they reveal that the
current feverish business growth in British Columbia has demonstrated clearly that BB  16 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
the Lands Branch is more of a service organization than it is a producer of revenue. By
reason of the specified and detailed nature of its operations and the fact that it is the sole
repository for particular records covering the land and foreshore of the entire Province,
the Lands Branch is required to devote a major portion of its staff-hours to the public and
to interdepartmental service.
During 1951, in addition to dealing with 32,131 items of correspondence, holding
interviews with senior officers, and rendering daily assistance to officials of other
Departments, approximately 4,700 persons were given personal attention in the general
office of the Lands Branch. To meet such a vast number of people and their requests for
information and assistance, a high degree of staff efficiency must be maintained, and those
employees meeting the public must have a background of experience and be capable of
handling every conceivable problem in land administration.
In compiling statistical tables, a purchase or lease can be shown only as one
transaction. Many transactions are consummated, however, only after hours of staff
attention and considerable correspondence. For instance, to handle effectually one
inquiry with respect to a site for the possible establishment of an industry or other
enterprise, clerks may be required to spend many hours in status search and in the
compilation of numerous land and foreshore availability charts, in addition to rendering
advice on procedure and giving invaluable information from field examination reports.
Similarly, by reason of changing conditions and the effect of time upon ground-surveys,
many sales are completed only after long and complicated proceedings involving plan
cancellations and subdivision resurveys. As the Province becomes more populated, land
ownership complications naturally increase, and so it is understandable that, despite the
constant application of greater efficiency in methods of record maintenance and administration, the demands upon the staff keep increasing year by year.
British Columbia comprises some 234,403,000 acres, about 95 per cent of which is
still Crown held. As the primary channel for the disposition of this vast area is through
the Lands Branch, this office has become one of Canada's largest dealers in real estate.
Unlike a private real-estate agency, however, interested mainly in sales and profit, Crown
administration requires the assessment of land for its use to the greatest public advantage,
present and future. Every transaction that is successfully concluded, whether by sale,
lease, reserve, or otherwise, is accomplished not only after courteous attention to the
requirements of those interested, but also after painstaking investigation has been made
to insure that public rights and resources are fully protected. Efficient administration of
Crown land means protection for our soil, water, forests, mining, wild life, fisheries, and
public recreation. Inefficient administration of such vital matters could be disastrous to
the future economy of British Columbia.
Viewed in the light of the position of the Lands Branch in the functioning of
Government, as above briefly outlined, it will be understood more fully perhaps why the
public service which the Lands Branch is required to render, and the far-reaching effects
of its administration in the present and future economy of the Province, make the
statistical tables a very subordinate and incomplete story of this Branch's activities and
accomplishments.
STATISTICAL TABLES
Total Collections
Total collections for the year show an increase over 1950 of $532,748.99, well above
the ten-year average.
The increase of collections under the " Land Act " is approximately 45 per cent.
Sundry revenue, as well as miscellaneous collections, show a substantial increase
over 1950. An increase is shown of $501,947.93 in collections under the "Petroleum
and Natural Gas Act," being approximately 370 per cent over 1950.
Collections under the " University Endowment Lands Administration Act" also
show an increase. LANDS BRANCH
BB  17
Table 1.—Summary of Recorded Collections for the Year Ended
December 31st, 1951*
" Land Act "—
Land sales  $375,536.56
Sundry revenue     916,338.98
Sundry fees, maps, air photos, etc       43,066.18
"Soldiers'Land Act"-    $1,334,941.72
Southern Okanagan Lands Project  $102,262.74
Houses, South Vancouver  360.00
  102,622.74
  242,047.91
  13,125.48
Total collections  $1,692,737.85
" University Endowment Lands Administration Act "_.
Refunds and votes	
; Collections for the month of December are estimated.
CHART 1.   SOURCES OF COLLECTIONS 1951 B3  18
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 2.—Summary of Total Collections for Ten-year Period
1942-51, Inclusive
1942 UHUMH $768,710.98
1943 wmmBmmmBm 576,228.02
1944 _____M-_a___B___m 595,117.61
1945 Bmammmaaammmmm 846,456.33
1946 __anmnunn 992,201.70
1947 ____c_fHnm»_HHnH__»__a:^ h;;.:,
1948 __H_H-i«_mK 975,772.41
1949 -_-_n-HMH_-aH_--___-_-MH 1,045,969.03
1950 _________________■_____■--__________■___________■ 1,159,988.86
1951 ^HHHIH^HaHH|^HHHaHH^HHHl 1,692,737.85*
Total
Ten-year average, $1,042,359.62
$10,423,596.28
* Collections for the, month of December are estimated.
Table 3.—Sundry Revenue for the Year Ended December 31st, 1951*
Collections under " Land Act "—
Leases, land-use permits, fees, etc  $221,397.74
Crown-grant fees       19,905.00
Occupational rentals	
Improvements 	
Royalty 	
Reverted mineral claims
Sundry 	
Collections under " Coal and Petroleum Act "—
Leases and fees	
Sundry 	
3,687.36
170.00
4,276.64
8,022.04
13,867.44
$6,125.55
105.00
Collections under " Coal Act," 1944—Licences, leases, and fees	
Collections under " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act "—
Leases, permits, and fees  $636,028.16
Sundry   540.55
Total
$271,326.22
6,230.55
2,213.50
636,568.71
$916,338.98
Collections for the month of December are estimated. LANDS BRANCH BB  19
Table 4.—Summary of Sundry Revenue Collections for Ten-year Period
1942-51, Inclusive
$156,863.76
173,251.99
182,782.73
199,042.61
207,696.63
262,760.93
288,901.91
322,683.92
387,435.19
mmaammimm^amaam 916,338.98*
Total  $3,097,758.65
Ten-year average, $309,775.86
* Collections for the month of December are estimated.
Table 5.—Miscellaneous Collections 1951*
Collections under " Houses, South Vancouver "—
Principal	
Interest      $360.00
Administration  	
Taxes 	
Insurance   	
Refunds—
Advances   $3,317.55
Votes     9,807.93
$360.00
13,125.48
Total   $ 13,48 5.48
* Collections for the month of December are estimated.
Land Sales
While the total number and value of new land sales is slightly less than 1950, the
value of town lots sold and the number of sales under the " Mineral Act " both show an
increase. BB 20
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
0\cnoescNmoOo.o.ina\
en
u
o\movcnmo\int--oinoovD
vo
2
r.'-|o6o\'a'd,tm'p.inTf\d
._,'
a
v©incso\vDvcir-.a\vov_vom
VO
cd
t-^ vo cn r-; vo o_ o\_ oo Tf r- o ••-<
«n
o
H
>
i-H rH rH Q m x> sD «<t o~ m" a" in
00
HHlTHOvOfS       *-h in cs cn cn
CT\
*a
«■
cn
a
cd
se
0
6
2
cocnmcnvo-^j-OcScowOTf
ats
*
*"*
0\
o o m
"n    i       m m o
o
t
3
00  VO   rH
r* vd cs
CN     !        (SO;in
CO       !       i   OO  rn'  in
m
o
**H
u^>
Tj- rt ^
m    !      inn-o\
o\
■O
T_<
cd
>
VO (N CN
V3-
CS     !        CS CS Tf
cn
CN
I_
3d
w-
•>»1
<_ s
<*.
II
_.
9lg
CS »n O cn
<u
6
1 m n'rt    j<-    ;    |*h *h cs    1
(N
<n O cs vo
S
"
!                         Ill
1—1
00 Q* O* *H
o o in vo
* S. "1 "1
<u
-'too cs CO
t>
ov m cs Ov
cn cn ^ cn
OOOOOOOOOOOOO
OOOOC\CJOOOOOnO
00
00
O o  ai" ai*
3
•-H<nw-)OinOOQ'OOtNin
o'
3   3  3  3
o
cn^r-r-cNvovcor-r-cnvo
rt rt cd cd
> > > >
O
cd
>
rn i> oo^ in t- cn cn ih t> cn oo^ vo
in
-K_
"d" CS CN VO a" m rH VO cn VO cn r-T
-«f
|1
«■         i-i         CS                        t—          t-h  ri
>!
CS t-h VO ov
fe cd
o»
H
W3-
1,45
1,18
1,29
1,12
k
a
l—oc-d-vcr-coi-ivO'-Hinooin
O
o
trH^roi^Mi-ifsiootat
CN
U   4>   U   V
55
«n
cd cd  cd  cd
s
in « n to
1
cd cd  cd cd
O O  O  0
S
0
o\mor-'d-OOOTj''»t-no\   in
HHHH
3
a-.r-cnr-.mr-int--oovo'<tvo ,cs
rHoor-r-cncNTj-cnoor*.\orH
o
QOOvOh
,s
midOxttHO\Ntmt--
VO
■* -rj- «n >n
*+»»
cd
Tf CN tS Ov O^ "n VO t-; Tt  CN t> Tf
VO
Ov Oi 0\ Ov
,-H
>
r- oo oo m" m" >-h in" oo* vo* oT ■* m*
"M'-"-1
o
«-      cn m cn cn            cn>-icNfN
CO
cs
C
H
«■
*0
ft.
d
cNOOvoov>no.vovoinoo\
r-
1
■5
cncnoni—r-t      »-iv£)cNinm
Os
£
in
W
OOOOinOOOOOmoo
00
£
Jh
_
inmr^i-<cnf-»nr-mvco.O   g^
a
cd
3
vor-^fv.di>aV)dintif)   o
"«
CO
r-oooo-_-.t-~-0'oa\m>-H'^-oo   rsi
■a
a
cd
>
oor-r)0\Oc-_e*-)Tt-m'£>Occ'*T
oo
vo "•_ "*:«
a
t*__
□
cn cn cs Tf^"t-*^tcncNOr-"cn
cd
o
t«-        CS CN CS •-<               cNhwih
VO
sll§
S
3
U
150,3
$213
$327
$834
Oc?sOO(N<nur.inoot~--rtvovo
m
O
0
rH         Tf VOlC.  ro                mi-HtNCN
cn
w « _ _
■g
0
Z
m
o33 3
K
3 c. n rt
a
13 > > >
6_
-S2
a)
o\cnor-ONOOO'^--^-OrH '|>
^tcsvoOi-HOOo-nomvo   cs
\C w-i \D
13
3
in ri rs f-i rn in ici d ai od i-i vo   o*
O^  ^H  rH  rH
C<3
in r— Mmr-ro'JOovrNOvco ■ en
T)
"cd
incccNa^incSi-^'d^r-^cNoo o\
00
c/T cfl   w" &T
"«
j2
>
mt inO\o\"^r ri m m" oC ra o"
Os
U   U    V   U
W          rH  CS                                   rH           rH
cd cd cd cd
>
«■
cd  cd  cd cd
i-l
Ch"
O 0 O  0
S
N-irN^ioO-jxOvr-tfn
Tt
HHHH
0
z
>---HTj-ln(N<-H                           r)-_,Cv)rn
VO
'u
CN
t m \or-
=7
■* 'd- -rf >*
s-^.    os as as os
M
cd
H
vo
>
cd
-3.
£
2
a
£
a
o
a
K
O
0
E
0
u
£
4)
■a
<u
ed
J
H
cd
3
B •
«  r
»   -
T
c
>
••a
u   _>
a a
3   3
_:
CJ
3
IH
s
D
a>
■u
o
t
I-
a
E
s
>
0
1.
ft)
E
o
u
H
GO
* LANDS BRANCH BB 21
Table 7.—Country Land Sales, 1951
Acre-
Surveyed—
First class     5,273.12
Second class  23,417.51
Third class  13,071.26
 41,761.89
Unsurveyed  17,134.00
Total   58,895.89
Table 8.—Certificates of Purchase Issued, 1951
Land Recording District Number of Sales
Alberni  17
Atlin  7
Cranbrook  32
Fernie  21
Fort Fraser  70
Fort George  129
Golden  22
Kamloops  49
Kaslo  26
Lillooet   51
Nanaimo   54
Nelson  55
New .Westminster  28
Osoyoos   13
Peace River  139
Prince Rupert  100
Quesnel  80
Revelstoke  12
Similkameen  43
Smithers   99
Telegraph Creek    	
Vancouver  67
Victoria  15
Total   1,129
Table 9.—Town Lots Sold, 1951
Ainsworth
Alberni __
Athalmer ..
Atlin	
Barriere   _.
Bastion Bay	
Beaton	
Beaverdam Lake
Beaverdell 	
Bella Coola	
Celista 	
Christina	
5
$55.00
6
3,810.00
22
220.00
8
465.00
4
100.00
2
50.00
2
100.00
9
900.00
2
45.00
2
225.00
2
50.00
25
990.00 BB 22 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 9.—Town Lots Sold, 1951—Continued
Cowichan Lake  6 $120.00
Cranberry Lake  8 595.00
Cranbrook  5 215.00
Elko  64 800.00
Engen  5 125.00
Fernie  31 1,925.00
Fort Fraser  3 575.00
Golden   73 365.00
Hansen Lake  2 240.00
Hazelton  17 145.00
Hope   6 1,360.00
Hosmer   4 75.00
Houston   52 1,380.00
Huntingdon  4 225.00
Invermere  10 100.00
Kimberley  8 1,100.00
Kitchener   10 125.00
Lakelse Lake  29 7,375.00
Lardeau  9 90.00
McBride   13 1,340.00
Masset  14 645.00
Midway  '.  19 885.00
Moyie  4 100.00
Myrtle Point  2 850.00
Naramata   2 50.00
Nelson  19 3,070.00
New Denver  42 420.00
New Hazelton  51 330.00
Nootka   2 545.00
Port Clements  3 60.00
Port Edward  40 7,436.00
Prince George  197 17,080.00
Prince Rupert  9 2,690.00
Princeton  3 75.00
Queen Charlotte City  4 95.00
Quesnel   66 4,780.00
Retallack  10 100.00
Revelstoke  4 125.00
Rock Creek  3 155.00
Salmo .' 2 100.00
Silverton  31 310.00
Skidegate  7 145.00
Smithers    285 8,630.00
Squamish  2 350.00
Stewart  3 100.00
Telkwa   23 345.00
Terrace  2 300.00
Topley  25 380.00
Trail  11 4,301.00
Tulameen   5 230.00
Tupper  3 75.00 LANDS BRANCH
Table 9.—Town Lots Sold, 1951—Continued
Vananda          4                    $160.00
Vancouver 	
Vanderhoof	
2
____     161
22,501.00
5,564.98
Wasa 	
4
100.00
Wellington	
6
440.00
Westview 	
15
2,550.00
Willow River	
6
150.00
Wilmer 	
18
220.00
Yale     ___
2
200.00
Ymir 	
22
735.00
Miscellaneous	
54
1,847.90
University Endowment Lands	
12
58,086.79
Totals '	
____ 1,647
$172,597.67
BB 23 BB 24
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
CHART 2.   SOURCES OF LAND-SALES COLLECTIONS 1951
SEE TABLE  10 FOR DETAILS.
Table 10.—Land-sales Collections, 1951 (Collections under
"Land Act " (Principal and Interest) ) *
Country lands—
Reverted  $125,635.11
Crown -     148,502.25
Pre-empted lands.
Town lots	
Special regulations
Surface rights of mineral claims_
Former Dominion	
Indian reserve cut-off	
$274,137.36
158.61
98,608.75
200.00
2,390.50
41.34
Total
* Collections for the month of December are estimated.
$375,536.56 LANDS BRANCH BB 25
Table 11.—Summary of Land Sales for Ten-year Period
1942-51, Inclusive
1942 mmmm $151,752.83
1943 HaBOl 202,458.04
1944 Hnn 215,409.40
1945 wmmsmmmam 294,034.56
1946 —llllinilill mill! 368,088.19
1947 ■iiiii mi iiiiii H ii i .■■Willi ii iiiinimmi mm mi 811,752.23
1948  1MHHIIIIMII 379,650.48
1949 imiw ■ hi i  375,254.88
1950 ■M-m-Hfi1 T-ii^iM.1 366,458.62
Total   $3,540,395.79
Ten-year average, $354,039.57.
* Estimated revenue for December, 1951, $31,294.71.
Leases
Leases, land-use permits, etc., issued, acreage leased, and revenue all show an
increase over 1950.
Table 12.—Leases Issued, 1951*
Number Acreage
Hay and grazing  167 115,660.55
.   Agriculture     16 3,157.30
Quarrying—sand, gravel, etc       8 115.09
Home-site     11 129.65
Booming and log storage     35 586.43
Oyster, clam, and shell-fish       7 76.42
Cannery      17 8,154.79
Foreshore—miscellaneous      28 170.23
Miscellaneous     71 727.99
Totals  360 128,778.45
Land-use permits     18 47.75
Licences of occupation, easements, etc     32 1,457.54
* December estimated.
Table 13.—Sundry Lease Collections ("Land Act ")*
Leases, land-use permits, fees, etc  $221,397.74
Occupational rentals        3,687.36
Royalty          4,276.64
Total   $229,361.74
* Collections for the month of December are estimated. BB 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 14.—Summary of Home-site Leases Collections for
Ten-year Period 1942—51, Inclusive*
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
$1,924.23
1,921,75
2,162.11
2,751.67
2,109.86
2,932.25
2,265.74
1,926.99
2,040.33
2,123.65
Total   $22,158.58
Ten-year average, $2,215.85.
* Collections for the month of December are estimated.
Pre-emptions
Pre-emptions allowed and certificates of improvement issued are considerably less
than 1950.   Fewer pre-emption records were cancelled than in 1950.
Table 15.—Pre-emption Records, 1951
Land Recording District
Pre-emption
Records
Allowed
Pre-emption
Records
Cancelled
Certificates of
Improvements
Issued
Number      ^n-ye^r
N"^er      £™J
Number
Ten-year
Average
2
9
1
10
1
43
0.3
1
1
10
26
3
9
22
2
1
7
2
48
0.8
0.2
2.9
0.3
12.7
24.5
4.7
9.1
0.4
19.5
3.1
1.0
7.2
1.8
57.R
3
10
6
9
7
9
35
2
6
.....
1
3
1
0 1
Atlin           ,  	
0.1
Cranbrook '       ___	
0.9
0.2
9.3
15.1
3.7
5.5
0.7
0 1
7 8
14 1
1 8
7.5
0.1
19.9
1.3
0.3
3.0
2.1
79.9
06
10 7
1.5
0 6
4 6
3 2
55 8
..    .       1            1.6
22              24.4
2.0
5                5.0
2 3.6
0.1
3 3.2
1          04
06
Quesnel _  	
14      |        22.7
...  .      1          1.0
14.5
2 7
2
3
2.7
2.5
2 9
1 7
Telegraph Creek   	
1.1
1 8
0 3
186.3
Totals .„   .    _	
85       1       172.1
164
Q?         1         133 ■> lands branch bb 27
Crown Grants
Crown grants issued show an increase over 1950 and over the ten-year period.   Total
area deeded also shows an increase.
Table 16.—Crown Grants Issued, 1951*
Purchases (other than town lots)  665
Town lots  541
Pre-emptions  83
Mineral claims (other than reverted)  186
Reverted mineral claims  125
University Endowment Lands  19
" Public Schools Act "  19
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act "  18
Home-site leases  15
"Dyking Assessments Act"  8
Dominion homesteads  2
Supplementary timber grants  10
Pacific Great Eastern Railway  20
Miscellaneous  29
Total  1,740
' December estimated.
Table 17.—Crown Grants Issued for Past Ten Years
1942 ■_____h__mhm 1,134
1943 mmmtmmmmmmmmmmmmmm 1,421
1944 ______■_-______________■_______________■■_____■_■ 1,528
1945 -nH___»____n___HMn 1,817
1946 wmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmammmmm 2,203
1947 jBHBnmmmBmmKmK^mmammmmMmBmmmammmm 2,577
1948 wmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmammmm 2,063
1949 mmmmmmmmmmtmmammmmmm 1,602
1950 ■HMMHHiMH 1,580
1951 wmmmmmmmmammmmmmmmmmaBmmmm 1,740
Total   17,665
Ten-year average, 1,766.
Table 18.—Total Area Deeded by Crown Grant, 1951*
Acres
Purchases of surveyed Crown lands (other than town lots) 46,151.89
Pre-emptions  11,387.48
Mineral claims (other than reverted)  6,809.18
Reverted mineral claims  5,054.62
" Public Schools Act "  24.16
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act "  2,569.10
Home-site leases  211.80
Dominion homesteads  323.00
Supplementary timber grants  990.72
Pacific Great Eastern Railway  3,984.23
Total   77,516.18
* December estimated. BB 28
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
t- o
«l-!
OO
VO
cn cs ■**■ _
cn vo cs cn
■<. »«.<-.
r- in t— cn
oo m n cs
Vo"cN
OS "<t
VO O
o cs
oo cn
n<6
cs t>
oo
CO
cn
vo
n»li   _
in On vo CS
t— m r- cn
«V« (S
&e i-
&e
*H ri rH HVO
r- cs in rn Tj-
cs r- oo cn cs
«ij t^ i *■*
■* cn cs in
as r-^cn cs
■*t cs
cn as
cn vo
rH m^O
■*_"       m On oo
rn      •->. cs m
oo -h m r- oo
r- cn ■■*
Bert „;
rlrt rn rn tn
t> o vo cs r-
oo oo cs r-
oo_ o\ cn cn
cs" on"
On «n
t-  rH
in     gv rn cs
■^       O oo O
,_,        ,_, ,_h no
rH rH SO i-l <
r- rn cs o o\
in vo tj-
oo cs cn cs vo
MHOhH
cn VO r-  .
cn o\ cn cs
o"m"
cn if
t- o
to-
oo cs cn
238
p
CO
w
z
m
O
™d
o
VO
cn
1-1
cs rn oo m
C- "* O rn
on r- cs r-
cs t> cn cs
oCin
oo r*
VO Os
VO VO
oc
o os r-
o
CN
Hf>V.
».r4
O On m ON
m Tt on nO
«n cn "*, H,
cs --; m on
O tj- m cs
*/_-&■_-
rn      in in
CS       H^rN       ,_;
rH*CN ON
cn o m oo
cn r- o r-
O rn' ©. cn
CS O rH VO
©_(N en cs
in cs"
O Os
VO ON
«3- «_-
m      r- vo r-
rH          f-  in  rH
l-H               I-H   O   OO
CN
cn
in cs
rH  rH cn
, "t oo
00 vo
' *""' cn
oo
in
rn
tt en vo en
r- cn '* .-h
«-« ■* CS CS
&-»&<_-
en vo
m
cN cn
nhin
*<N
Ti
CT.
i i
«n  rH  NO  00
O VO TJ- rH
O  rH  O  t^
VOHfNH
vo*"m"
ON
cn cS O t-
rH O CS CN
VO CS O vo
00 CN CN rn
vo O
«V
in
l-
m
cn
CS 00 On O
r- On cn in
add^.
CS rH oo in
Wt^H   TH
cs"oo"
in vo
cn f-
«&■_-
K J)
•O  P.
u g o
??   t_)    jrf    U
G .22 H o t; u
2 «
D.TJ   __   O &
22 aj <u oo _2
ill
Z > g    I < g
0 0
SJ
ea
^  4!
§ S
So
x 5
•a «
tj -a"
uc___:
">   ™ On
!  *Tr0
!< I
z
'    00   £    fl
ti S-H<C
3
o „-
U u
-  <l
Q d
T3  O
1-1
t5<
< -o
1-1 :..'
-    c/T
n g
m « a 3 u
o\ B 2 » Sf
-1 s I g.
z<_s
i3h|
3   O
3?
8 S'2'2
'-'5
L_ £
J-J      o     P-
U     i   -_   w
*- S^ a u
C    OT    U
JO.
I &T
.a I a
►2
o
*
o
3
Q
0
o
o
Ot-St-5 LANDS BRANCH
BB 29
Land Utilization Research and Survey
Prince George
" Dugout " on the experimental unit. Typical water-supply for stock and domestic use in
Prince George area.
Experimental work in land-clearing, Prince
George. The drag, built out of discarded Caterpillar tracks, does a good job at levelling and
pulling out roots in one operation.
Pemberton
<s_____S_
Section of new dyke near Pemberton Station.
Mount Curry in the background.
Land Utilization forage-crop experimental plot
in reclaimed river-channel, Pemberton.
Peace River
Severe gully erosion on Class II land
in the Rolla district.
Burnt-over area in Township 81, Range 17.
Recommended for community pasture. BB 30 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
LAND UTILIZATION RESEARCH AND SURVEY DIVISION
D. Sutherland, B.S.A., Director
Returns obtained for the funds and effort expended on the work programme
continued to increase in 1951 due to the benefits made possible through cumulative experience. The policy of having individual staff members return to areas under continuous
study has resulted in the development of a group of specialists, each one intimately
acquainted with a particular region, and having a general knowledge of the others obtained
through group discussions and organized field trips. The quality and quantity of work
accomplished by the field parties showed steady improvement, and was also reflected in
the volume of reports and maps completed and made available to interested Governmental
and private agencies and individuals.
The close of the fifth season in the field saw the completion of land classification,
land-use mapping, and Crown land farm-unit selection covering a major portion of the
agricultural soil areas in the main settlement regions in the central and northern parts of
the Province.
The Peace River survey has now completed detailed field studies of all the surveyed
lands south of the Peace River and reconnaissance surveys of the adjoining unsurveyed
areas offering agricultural settlement possibilities. In the Central Interior, a report and
map of the agricultural soils of the Terrace district has been printed, and final maps and
reports are being compiled covering the extensive agricultural area around Vanderhoof,
extending from Finmoore west to Fraser Lake, and for the lands bordering the Hart Highway and Pacific Great Eastern Railway from Summit Lake south to Quesnel. In the
Southern Interior, a detailed study has been undertaken of Doukhobor community lands
in the West Kootenay, which will be completed in 1952. Work on the Lower Mainland
has been confined, up to the present time, to surveys of the Squamish and Pemberton
Valleys. A mimeographed summary of the Pemberton report and a generalized land-use
mao are now available. In addition to the main surveys, detailed studies have been
undertaken of special projects involving some form of land reclamation in almost every
region, each study contributing to the experience and knowledge of the staff members
concerned and adding to the fund of data being brought together.
During the summer, R. E. Gordon, who was appointed this year as a Land Inspector,
was transferred from a survey in progress in the Vanderhoof area to Ootsa Lake. He was
assigned the task of providing settlement information to residents at Ootsa Lake who were
looking for other locations as a result of the Alcan programme. Mr. Gordon made an
earnest effort to contact all the settlers who will be affected by the raising of the lake's
water-level and undertook to transport any who desired to locate on land in other communities in the Central Interior. He remained in the area until snow and cold weather
rendered land inspections impracticable.
Broadened experience and specialized knowledge of regions has made it possible to
undertake research work on particular aspects of settlement and land development.
Emphasis at the present time is being placed on studying methods and costs of clearing
forested land, this being accepted as the main factor limiting agricultural development in
the northern and central parts of the Province. These same advantages are also being
utilized in the realistic interpretation of the land class separations and other data secured
in the field surveys and making it possible to put forward general land-use recommendations covering important areas of land. The main benefit consists in the description and
segregation of lands not suited for agricultural settlement at the present time, with
consequent savings in human effort and Governmental expenditures which might otherwise
have been invested in land that at this stage will not support agricultural settlement.
The reports which follow furnish summaries of field work completed this year by the
staff members. LANDS BRANCH BB 31
SURVEY OF DOUKHOBOR COMMUNITY LANDS
Neil T. Drewry, B.S.A., Assistant Director
This Division was instructed in 1951 to co-operate with the Doukhobor Research
Group of the Consultative Committee on Doukhobor problems in a survey of the former
community lands. The Consultative Committee is an advisory body set up outside the
Government to inquire into the causes of the friction which has arisen in the Kootenay as
a result of the presence of this sect. The Doukhobor Research Group is a fact-finding
body set up under the Consultative Committee to undertake reseach projects essential to
the broader study. It was in co-operation with this latter group that a small land-
utilization party operated out of Nelson during the summer season, following completion
of a survey of the Lardeau Valley in May and early June.
The lands in question are located in the Kootenay and Similkameen Land Districts in
the vicinity of Nelson and Grand Forks. Their total area amounts to approximately
20,000 acres, comprising some fifteen separate colonies. About three-quarters of the area
lies in the Slocan, Kootenay, and Columbia Valleys in districts tributary to Nelson. In
size the colonies range widely from about 200 to several thousand acres.
Three distinct operations were entailed in the survey, which is only partly completed.
The field work for soil and land-utilization surveys, as well as an appraisal of land and
buildings in the communities adjacent to Nelson, were completed. The results of these
studies are now being compiled at headquarters in Victoria. No field work has as yet
been done in the Grand Forks area, and an over-all water study of all the irrigation systems
is still to be undertaken. It is expected that all field work will be completed and reported
upon by the end of 1952.
The field work was first attempted using older small-scale vertical photographs to
provide the details for field mapping, but it was found that it was impossible to interpret
the intricate pattern of land-use from the small-scale prints. As no large-scale base maps
were available, a request was made to the Air Survey Division for low-altitude photography which could be printed to a scale of 400 feet to 1 inch. The prints were supplied
within a month of the request and greatly facilitated the field work. The community
boundaries were located on the photographs as accurately as possible and these were used
as field-sheets. In the final compilation, the photos are joined together in mosaics so that
the land-utilization and soil maps of each community can be shown as single pictures,
regardless of the area involved. A reduction of a sample mosaic shows the way in which
the information is being recorded.
As it is the responsibility of the Consultative Committee to draw the conclusions from
the results of several independent researches, and as this division is in possession only of
the facts gathered on this particular survey, only general impressions can be recorded here.
The community lands appear to comprise a fair proportion of the better and poorer lands
in the respective districts. The reason that the communities did not prosper is not for
want of good soil and favourable growing conditions. Many of the communities occupy
choice locations as far as transportation and other services are concerned. The communities have water rights on some excellent sources of irrigation-water, so this again is
not a limitation in all cases. The fact remains, however, that the lands are not being used
as intensively as they might be, buildings are not being cared for, and irrigation systems
are in a bad state of disrepair. While little is being harvested from the land, even less is
being returned by way of soil and other improvements. The value of buildings and works
has depreciated almost to nothing.
It is in an attempt to determine why these conditions exist and to suggest possible
remedies that these investigations are being conducted. It is certain that no satisfactory
solution to the broader problems will be found without some agreement as to tenure
and ownership of these lands. The Doukhobors are land-minded and, although they are
not presently using all the land to advantage, they resent any suggestion that they would BB 32
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
"-   CD
f_£
C   CD
.2 E
o
Uo
7_: ro
_. *
H
*■ 9-
°8
s-
£ £
=>   "
£   O
O   cl)
O   -1
U
■S =
_° ro
■5*
CJ)T_i
C  c
o £
u J5
ra {_.
(A   >
0 __
£ ro
9-"o
o 2
9--o LANDS BRANCH BB 33
be better off to move to urban communities where essential services are available or could
be provided more cheaply. The entire social problem is inextricably involved with the
land, and the study now under way promises to make a valuable contribution of needed
factual information to the over-all study.
LARDEAU SURVEY
Neil T. Drewry, B.S.A., Assistant Director
The relocation of the Sons of Freedom sect of the Doukhobors has been considered
off and on for many years. At the insistence of this group and with the approval of the
Consultative Committee, it was decided to examine all areas in the Province which offered
possibilities for resettlement. Among others which received preliminary consideration
was the valley of the Lardeau River, which empties into the north end of Kootenay Lake.
This being considered one of the better sites, it was decided to examine it in somewhat
more detail than some of the less favoured sites, which were rejected one by one for
various reasons.
The factors which favour the Lardeau Valley as a relocation site are its relative
isolation and the opportunity for off-farm employment in the woods and mines. In
addition, it is not far distant from the lands which the Sons of Freedom now occupy in the
West Kootenay.
The area surveyed consists of the valley of the Lardeau River extending 33 miles
northward from the head of Kootenay Lake to the outlet of Trout Lake, the valley of the
Duncan River from Duncan Lake to the confluence of the Duncan and Lardeau Rivers,
and the valley of Meadow Creek, which enters the Lardeau River from the west. The
lower valley, below the entrance of Duncan River and Meadow Creek, is 1 to 2 miles wide,
while, in general, the valleys above this point narrow down to one-half mile or less. The
valley walls consist of steep, rocky slopes which rise abruptly from the flood plains to
mountain peaks of 10,000 feet elevation.
The area covered by the survey totals approximately 13,000 acres. Soil and land-
utilization surveys of this area were conducted concurrently by the writer and an employee
of the Doukhobor research group.
While the Lardeau area is geographically very close to Nelson, it nevertheless is very
difficult to reach, especially for the stranger who has not previously acquainted himself
with transportation schedules. It was found necessary to transport a vehicle from Kaslo
on a barge which operates weekly between Procter and Lardeau.
A map of present land-use was compiled to show the distribution and extent of
clearing, cultivation, and the native cover. Forestry ranks by far the most important
land-use at the present time, and most of those who might in any sense be termed farmers
spend part of their time in logging operations. There are perhaps half a dozen who could
be termed full-time farmers. No definite pattern is followed in their operations. Two or
three are primarily concerned with beef production, each running some six to thirty head
of cattle. One farm concentrates on dairy production and manufactures cheese. This
operation was suspended when fire destroyed the factory, but reconstruction was undertaken immediately. One farmer, located near Bosworth, raises bulbs for wholesale trade.
The operation is not commercially important, but appears to open a new possibility in
agriculture in the Kootenay. Fruit-growing is not pursued as a commercial undertaking,
but many farmers produce sufficient hardy fruits for home consumption. Apples grow
satisfactorily on well-drained sites in the southern portion of the valley, while cherries and
pears appear to thrive in very favoured locations. Ground-crops do well where moisture
relations are satisfactory.
Cereals are grown only to a limited extent but are reported to yield very well on those
bottoms having intermediate drainage.   The most important agricultural crops are hay BB 34 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
and pasture, much of which grow wild on the natural meadows and better-drained portions
of the peat-bogs.
Land-clearing would be an expensive undertaking on the better-drained soils, which
are heavily forested. Forest-growth is inhibited on the low-lying, poorly drained soils,
but many of these would require extensive drainage to fit them for cultivation. In any
case, some reclamation is likely to be required in preparing these bottom-lands for
cropping.
The following summary of land utilization indicates the extent and nature of present
farm operations:—
Improved
Acres
Pasture and hay crops  250
Field crops  25
Orchard  17
Other horticultural crops (garden)  20
New clearings  65
Unimproved
Open meadow  650
Scrub cover (easily cleared)  650
Timbered (all classes) approximately  11,000
The open areas, which occur in the lower part of the valley near the head of Kootenay
Lake, provide valuable grazing for live stock in the summer months.
The soils of the area were classified but were not named. Three parent materials
were recognized in mapping. These are recent alluvium, stream-fan deposits, and glacial-
river terraces.   In addition, two fairly large deposits of peat were encountered.
Soils developed on recent alluvium, that is, on the flood plains of the present streams,
are the only soils of great value for agricultural development. The total area of soils
developed on these materials is about 7,800 acres, of which about 6,000 are potentially
arable, although, as mentioned above, much of the area requires costly reclamation in the
way of land-clearing or drainage. Four distinct profiles were mapped on this material,
with an additional textural type of one profile.
Stream-fan deposits consist of the debris unloaded at the mouths of fast-flowing
tributary streams, which enter the valley at frequent intervals along the entire drainage.
Each of these streams has spilled a cone-shaped deposit on to the valley floor. The deposit
consists of fine materials mixed with alluvial sediments around the margin where the fan
is gently sloping and coarser materials toward the steeper apex of the fan. Five hundred
acres were considered potentially arable out of the 2,600 acres which were mapped. Two
profiles and a stony phase of each were recognized and mapped.
The glacial-river terraces consist of the discontinuous remnants of former stream-
beds which line the valley walls at elevations of 100 to 300 feet above present drainage-
level. For the most part these terraces are excessively drained and frequently stony or
gravelly. Only one soil type, with a stony variation, was described and mapped. The
stony phase comprises 2,000 of the 2,200 acres of the type. Only 200 acres, plus small
areas which it was impossible to differentiate, are of any value for cultivation.
The zonal soil devlonment bears a rather striking resemblance to soil development
in the coastal areas. These soils are in the forest region and the brown podsolic zone.
They could be placed tentatively in the mountain sub-zone. The most important soils
agriculturally are the immature soils on the recent alluvial deposits. These show little
profile development and most of them are poorly drained with a high water-table. They
are usually less than 20 feet above present drainage-levels.
The peat-deposits occur in basin areas where deposits from the main streams have
partially dammed larger tributaries.   About 60 acres of this type in the Meadow Creek LANDS BRANCH BB 35
basin have been ditched and cultivated for many years. It is probable that many more
acres could be drained by simple surface-ditching and used with success for the production
of forage crops. The quality, of the feed grown on these meadows, however, is not high,
and live-stock rations should contain some imported feeding stuffs or forages grown on
better-drained soils. The draining of a portion of the meadow has been achieved, which
indicates that the 400 acres of this type might have some future value for agricultural
development.
The foregoing incomplete picture of the soils and land utilization of the Lardeau
Valley will serve to indicate in a general way the potentialities of this area for future
development. Whether or not all or any portion of these lands are required for Doukhobor resettlement, the study has made a contribution to agricultural knowledge of an area
with some possibilities for further settlement.
FARM-UNIT SELECTION AND CLEARING INVESTIGATION,
VANDERHOOF DISTRICT
J. H. Neufeld, B.S.A., Land Inspector
The 1950 survey of the Vanderhoof area showed that there were some 25,000 acres
of arable Crown land available for settlement in that area. The object of the 1951 survey
was to select and map in detail farm units suitable for immediate development out of the
above-mentioned acreage.
It was established that the units should consist of 320 acres with at least 200 acres of
arable land with light to moderate cover. The units should be located on existing roads
or situated so that access could be easily provided. With the above factors in mind, and
with the aid of cover-maps, land-capability maps, and air photos, the arable Crown land
was reinspected and thirty-four half-section units were selected and mapped in detail.
Reports of these units are available upon request to the Director, and a copy will be filed
with the Land Inspector at Prince George.
In addition to selecting farm units, a study of the cost of land-clearing in the area was
undertaken. With the co-operation of the District Agriculturist, twenty fields that were
to be cleared by Government machines were cruised and measured. Costs of subsequent
clearing were obtained from the machine operators. In addition to establishing a method
of estimating clearing costs, the data also showed that the cost of cutting and piling ranged
from $27 to $50 per acre. The average cost for the Vanderhoof area proved to be $35
per acre, and it was found that it cost between $27 and $33 an acre to go over the ground
with a machine no matter how light the cover. These results seem to indicate that higher
operating speeds, in the light cover, are necessary to reduce the clearing costs. This
information is valuable in the preparation of farm-unit reports and in advising prospective
settlers on clearing costs and methods.
VANDERHOOF SURVEY
G. A. Macdonald, B.A.
Following up on work done in 1949 and 1950, a reconnaissance survey was completed in 1951 of the Nechako Valley from Fort Fraser to Finmoore. The limits of the
area surveyed are those of the former " glacial lake " which occupied the Vanderhoof
district. Four major classes of arable land and three of non-arable land were recognized.
In addition to mapping of the land capability, the present cover was mapped and an
economic survey completed.
On the basis of the mapping done this year, it will be possible to carry out intensive
work in the breaking down of suitable land parcels in the area into economic " farm units "
and to show settlement possibilities for the valley as a whole. BB 36 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
More arable land was found and mapped than was expected. However, the present
forest-cover is a major drawback to utilization of many of the arable areas. The lack of
use of many of the meadows and drainable swamps in the valley was noted. Those that
are in use form parts of the few successful ranching enterprises in the district. While agriculture and ranching are very well suited to the valley as a whole, the slow development of
the district and the presence of large undeveloped arable acreages are due to the large
capital investment needed for land-clearing, stock, machinery, and other needed
improvements.
The survey made of occupied farms showed that only a small percentage of the total
number of farmers and ranchers work full time on their land. The high price of lumber
and the current Alcan construction activities in the area offer much more attractive returns
while farms are in the process of being developed to economic size, and many settlers are
taking advantage of employment opportunities.
PEMBERTON SURVEY
C. V. Faulknor, B.S.A., Land Inspector
The impending completion of the P.F.R.A. dyking and drainage programme in the
Pemberton Valley, with the expected release of some 12,000 acres of land to agriculture,
has aroused considerable interest in that area. Actual acreage within the newly formed
Pemberton Valley, Dyking District involved in the changeover from marsh to crop land
will not be definitely known until new water-table levels have become established.
Located on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway, about 100 miles north-east of
Vancouver, Pemberton Valley is a closed seed-potato growing area that has won international renown for the quality of its product. Above Lillooet Lake the level, mile-wide
valley extends for about 30 miles in a general north-westerly direction between precipitous
mountains to Pemberton Meadows. Throughout its length the sediment-laden Lillooet
River has spread a deep wall-to-wall carpet of silty alluvium.
Available records fail to give a complete picture of valley weather conditions, due to
the fact that recordings were made at Pemberton Meadows, where it is estimated to be
20° F. cooler in winter than the sector immediately above Lillooet Lake. In general, the
climate is mild, with a long growing season extending from mid-May to October 1st.
Most of the 35-inch average annual rainfall occurs from September to April, only about
6 inches falling during the growing season. Although this figure appears too low for
optimum crop-growth, no actual shortage occurs due to the high water-table that
sub-irrigates most valley lands.
Soil deposition in the Pemberton Valley is characteristic of levee formations, the
levees consisting of high ground along the river composed of coarse and fine sands. Texture becomes finer toward the inward slope of the levee, grading into a fine silt or light clay
in the inner marshes. Although lacking in both humus content and profile development,
this raw alluvial material displays a high native fertility, as evidenced by the lush
cover-growth on well-drained portions of the valley.
The cover climax on bottom-land is cedar, with cottonwood, alder, birch, white pine,
maple, and willow. This situation is rarely attained due to the prevalent high water-table
that frustrates tree-growth, but huge cedar, cottonwood, and white pine were located
during the survey that had reached optimum size for their species. Clearing costs have
been known to exceed $200 per acre in extreme cases, but this situation is counterbalanced by large areas of open sedge-meadow that could be plowed as soon as drained.
Most of the undeveloped arable land in Pemberton Valley is in private hands, and
will only become available for purchase if the present owners decide to subdivide and sell.
It is expected, however, that many of the older residents now holding 150 to 180 acres
apiece will decide to subdivide rather than attempt to develop the whole. Two factors
will serve to implement this decision:   (1) the dyking tax required for maintenance pur- LANDS BRANCH BB 37
poses will make it unprofitable to hold non-producing land; and (2) the phenomenal
annual tree-growth will see newly reclaimed land rapidly turning to forest, with mounting
clearing costs lengthening the odds against eventual development.
Local growing conditions indicate that from 60 to 80 acres would comprise an
economic farm unit for this area, but the size of the available units of Crown land has been
dictated by the size of the district lots containing them. It is estimated there are about
eighteen units of arable Crown land within the Pemberton Valley Dyking District that can
be considered for settlement at the present time. Of these, twelve are accessible while six
require construction of bridges and roads.
Although these units vary considerably in over-all size, on the average each contains
from 40 to 50 acres suitable for cropping now, the remainder being recommended for
pasture until the soil can be built up.
Crown or reverted land in the Pemberton Valley Dyking
District  Acres
Arable  1,254
Potentially arable  703
Non-arable  5,885
Privately owned land in  the  Pemberton Valley Dyking
District—
Arable  7,342
Non-arable  1,332
Indian reserves (bottom-land only)  2,326
Total area surveyed  (including river and river-
channels )   18,842
Settlers coming into Pemberton Valley to take up land should be equipped and able
to practise up-to-date farm-management methods. An influx of settlers of this type and
completion of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway into Vancouver should enable the valley
to develop a sound economy along mixed-farming lines.
PEACE RIVER DISTRICT SURVEY
J. S. Gilmore, B.S.A., Land Inspector
The field party operated for the fourth successive season in the southern portion of
the former Peace River Block, where some 248,000 acres of land were classified. Thfs
saw the completion of the survey of the accessible and what was considered to be the
potentially arable lands of the district south of the Peace River.
This season a party of nine operated out of Pouce Coupe and surveyed land in the
Tupper Creek district and in the area between the Peace and Kiskatinaw Rivers. Field
work was held up considerably this year because of the particularly inclement weather.
The results this year revealed that although fairly large areas of arable Crown land
remain they are so severely restricted by soil, stoniness, topography, or drainage that they
are suited only for limited cultivation. These marginal arable lands could best be utilized
by inclusion in existing farmsteads for the production of forage-crops either for seed or for
feed for live stock. BB 38
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Summary of 1951 Field Work
Total
Area
Total
Arable
Arable
Crown
Improved
Township 21—East Halt          —	
Acres
11,520
7,680
23,040
23,040
23,820
23,820
23,040
23,040
23,040
23,040
6,197
7,560
12,408
16,516
Acres
1,022
2,122
13,386
9,707
18,396
15,490
10,151
11,927
17,221
6,451
2,172
1,270
7,202
4,295
Acres
1,022
1,989
8,946
9,588
1,575
4,136
8,684
8,995
17,221
6,451
2,172
1,270
5,793
4,295
Acres
Township 23 _  _ _ 	
931
21
Township 25—  	
6,822
Township 26      ..  _	
Township 80, Range 18 _ ..               _	
2,492
384
Township 81, Range 15.....    	
1,598
Township 81, Range 16  	
Township 81, Range IS       _ 	
Township 82, Range 15 	
Township 82, Range 16 	
Township 82, Range 17   _	
270
Township 82, Range 18	
Totals.	
247,761
120,812
82,137
12,518
The following is a summary of the findings of the four survey seasons spent in the
southern portion of the Peace River Block:—
Total area surveyed..
Total of Crown land.
Total arable	
Total cultivated	
Arable uncultivated.
Arable Crown	
Acres
935,858
470,009
530,398
167,074
363,324
175,284
Arable owned and uncultivated  188,040
The above figures show that in the area surveyed, where over half the area is held by
the Crown, the major portion of the arable land is owned and uncultivated. This is even
more significant when it is pointed out that 85 per cent of the arable Crown land falls into
the limited arable group.
From the above it should be apparent that very little of this remaining Crown land
is suitable for intensive cropping and that most of the future development of the agricultural lands of the southern portion of the district will be and should be the enlarging
and extending of existing farm units.
Twenty farm units, comprising 320 acres each, were selected on Crown lands where
it was felt that the land class, costs of clearing, distance from markets, etc., were such that
a prospective settler could receive reasonable returns on his labour and investment by
employing sound farming practices.
One map, covering approximately one-fifth of the total area, has been completed and
distributed to interested public and private agencies. There are also available at the
Government Office at Pouce Coupe duplicate field-sheets giving pertinent information
about individual quarter sections of Crown and reverted lands in the area surveyed.
In addition to the above, it was recommended that some 750,000 acres of Crown
land be reserved from settlement to be utilized only for grazing, forestry, or wild life. Two
areas were reserved as possible sites for community pastures, one on the sandy soils west
of Groundbirch and the other on the extensive area of burned-over lands between the
Peace and Kiskatinaw Rivers, east of the Alaska Highway.
Considerable time was spent this fall in helping to revise the Land Settlement Bulletin
for the British Columbia Peace River District, and it will soon be ready for distribution.
Programme for 1952
It is anticipated that surveys will be continued in 1952 leading towards the eventual
completion of all the present and potentially agricultural soil areas in the Peace River 1
LANDS BRANCH BB 39
District and along the northern line of the Canadian National Railways west of Tete Jaune
to Prince Rupert. The study of the Doukhobor community lands will be continued and
should be completed next year. Soil and land-use studies will be combined with an irrigation survey by an engineer of the Water Rights Branch. The completed work should
furnish much valuable basic data to the over-all study being undertaken by the Committee
investigating Doukhobor problems under Dr. N. A. M. MacKenzie, of the University of
British Columbia. It is hoped also to undertake studies of irrigable lands along the North
and South Thompson Rivers and of lands along the Upper Fraser River east of Prince
George.
LAND INSPECTION DIVISION
H. E. Whyte, B.Sc, D.L.S., B.C.L.S., Chief Land Inspector
The development in the Northern Interior of the Province this year has been an
outstanding feature, and I would refer to the reports of A. F. Smith, C. T. W. Hyslop,
and W. R. Redel in this connection. This development has been caused through the
operations of the Columbia Cellulose Company, the Aluminum Company of Canada,
Limited, the extension of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway, and the near completion of
the Hart Highway. There has been considerable industrial activity in the Kootenay area
also and information as to this is contained in the report of F. M. Cunningham.
It is to be noted that this year has been an exceptionally dry one, causing forest
closures for long periods over large areas, seriously delaying inspection work where there
was forest-cover.
The establishment of a car-ferry from Horseshoe Bay to Gibsons Landing has been
a great improvement to the transportation service in the Howe Sound area.
Two Land Inspectors, F. M. Cunningham and L. D. Fraser, were loaned to the
Doukhobor Research Committee, and information is contained in their reports regarding
their work in this connection.
The amendment to the " Land Act" in 1951, giving the Land Inspectors power to
administer oaths and take affidavits required under the " Land Act," has been of valuable
assistance. It has allowed the Inspectors to assist pre-emptors in obtaining certificates of
improvement and Crown grants, and also enabled them to assist in filling out the report
forms properly.
The following table shows the number and type of inspections I made during the
year:—
Purchases—
Agriculture     1
Home-sites      2
Leases—
Land—Industrial and commercial     1
Foreshore—
Booming and storage  \ \
Industrial and commercial     5
Oyster and shell-fish    2
Miscellaneous      g
Total
28
Areas for the use and recreation of the public were selected along the Hart Highway
from Prince George to Dawson Creek by Inspectors D. E. Goodwin and C. T. W. Hyslop BB 40 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The following table indicates the number and type of inspections made by the whole
of the Land Inspection Division during the year:—
Purchases—
Agricultural  359
Home-sites   9 8
Industrial and commercial  39
Camp-sites and resorts  28
Wood-lots  6
Miscellaneous  31
Grazing   6
Leases—
Land—
Agricultural  52
Home-sites   15
Industrial and commercial  14
Quarrying, sand, gravel, limestone, etc  9
Fur-farming  1
Grazing (including hay-cutting)  102
Miscellaneous  3
Foreshore—
Booming and log storage  41
Industrial and commercial  17
Oyster and shell-fish  2
Miscellaneous  11
Land-use permits, licences of occupation, easements, etc  26
Pre-emptions—
Applications  56
Annual inspections  181
Subdivisions—
Valuations  12
Selection Crown's quarter-interest  7
Survey inspections  2
Plans cancellation  1
Reserves  25
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act "  16
Land Settlement Board—
Land classification  8
Valuations  15
Miscellaneous inspections  134
Total   1,317
F. M. CUNNINGHAM, B.S.A., LAND INSPECTOR, NELSON
This report precedes an outline of the variety and number of inspections which I
have done from the end of December, 1950, to the end of December, 1951. The figures
represent all inspections made and not only those coming through the regular channels of
the British Columbia Forest Service.
I spent the month of April of this year in Victoria working in co-operation with the
Doukhobor Research Committee and trust I was able to give them the assistance and
information needed.
The increase in the number of requests received in this district indicates the increase
in industrial expansion in the district, and it should be noted that there is now under way LANDS BRANCH BB 41
a $65,000,000 industrial expansion programme in various parts of the Kootenay, being
in part a power dam at Waneta, power-line from Bonnington Falls to Kimberley, and
numerous small mines opening up through the entire district. In addition, it seems quite
probable that we can expect $75,000,000 to be spent in this district in the near future on
a pulp and paper industry. This industrial expansion will undoubtedly result in an
increased population which in turn will result in an increasing demand for land, both
privately held land and Crown land. A road is now under construction which will link
Kaslo and the Lardeau Valley, which will mean that for the first time people will be able
to drive into the Lardeau Valley with its great potential of mining, logging, and farming.
The road is now nearly complete and should be open for traffic by June of next year. We
can certainly expect considerable activity in this district in the coming year.
Purchases—
Agricultural     3 0
Home-sites      2 3
Industrial and commercial     14
Camp-sites and resorts     10
Wood-lots       2
Miscellaneous     14
Leases—
Land—
Agricultural       3
Grazing (including hay-cutting)       1
Foreshore—Industrial and commercial       1
Land-use permits, licences of occupation, easements, etc       1
Pre-emptions—
Applications        1
Annual inspections       4
Subdivisions—
Valuations _       6
Selection Crown's quarter-interest       2
Reserves       2
Land Settlement Board—Land classification       1
Miscellaneous inspections     15
Total  . :  130
J. A. ESLER, B.S.A., LAND INSPECTOR, WILLIAMS LAKE
Field work commenced on April 10th but the snow remained on the higher levels
until quite a late date. The summer proved to be one of the driest on record in the
Cariboo, resulting in a hay-crop of slightly over half the normal. The weather changed
in the last week of September and a great deal of rain and snow fell throughout October
with fairly heavy snow on November 15th.
Of the forty-one inspections made of applications to purchase, twenty-three were for
agriculture and sixteen for home-sites. In many cases the ranchers are purchasing some
of their leased land to consolidate their holdings. The increased logging and milling
activity in the Cariboo has resulted in a large influx of people, many of whom make
home-site applications. The increased tourist travel in this area also brings many applications for summer-home sites on the lakes. Thirteen of the eighteen inspections of leases
were for hay and grazing.
The writer is attempting to do the inspection work in the Williams Lake and One
Hundred Mile Forest Ranger Districts, but this has proved too much with the result that
there are fifty-seven outstanding inspections plus thirty-six annual pre-emption inspections
out of a total of seventy-one pre-emptions. BB 42 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The increased amount of office work cuts deeply into the time spent in the field; this
results in fewer inspections.
Owing to the increased tourist trade in the Cariboo and the appreciation of our fine
lakes and streams by the local people, more time should be given to the inspection of
suitable reserves for the use and enjoyment of the public.
Purchases—
Agricultural  23
Home-sites   16
Industrial and commercial  2
Leases—
Land—
Agricultural  3
Home-sites   1
Industrial and commercial  1
Grazing (including hay-cutting)  13
Land-use permits, licences of occupation, easements, etc  2
Pre-emptions—
Applications  7
Annual inspections  34
Reserves _- 5
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act "  4
Land Settlement Board—Valuations  2
Miscellaneous inspections  10
Total   123
L. D. FRASER, B.S.A., LAND INSPECTOR, KAMLOOPS
Land-inspection work done was divided in the first seven months, which this report
covers, November 1st, 1950, to October 31st, 1951, between D. Borthwick and the writer.
During the season 149 land inspections were made from this office, of which
Mr. Borthwick is credited with fifty-one. The work was concentrated primarily in the
southern half of the Kamloops Forest District, whereas the northern half, generally
referred to as the Cariboo, was handled from the Williams Lake office.
It is interesting to note that there was an increase of 17 per cent this year in the
number of requests for land examinations in the Kamloops Forest District. The majority
of these requests were for land in the Cariboo, where industrial and agricultural development is at a high pace. The increase in land-examination requests, together with limited
personnel to cope with the situation, has resulted in 235 outstanding inspections.
The fact that readily accessible agricultural lands in the Southern Interior are well
nigh dissipated leads to the conclusion that this is the chief reason for relatively little
settlement in this area.
The majority of the 166 pre-emptions recorded in the Kamloops Forest District are
located in the Cariboo and 134 of these remain to be inspected.
In addition to the regular land-inspection work, a preliminary survey of the Adams
Lake and Seymour Arm areas was made as a possible site for the relocation of approximately 500 families of the Doukhobor Sons of Freedom sect. This work was done in
co-operation with Dr. Rowles, Professor of Soils, University of British Columbia. There
was estimated to be about 2,500 acres of arable land in the Seymour Arm area with soil
and climate suitable for growing small fruits, vegetables, and general crops. Another
2,500 acres could be developed for pasture purposes. In the Adams Lake area it was
suggested that a figure of 2,500 acres might be used. The soils and climate would be very
suitable for vegetables, small fruits, and general crop production. LANDS BRANCH BB 43
Due to the rather sandy nature of the soils in both these areas, in association with
their low organic-matter content and moderate potential fertility, careful management and
crop-rotation would be necessary if they were intensively cultivated. Irrigation would be
beneficial, in which case the sprinkler system would be preferable.
The forest-cover in the vicinity of both the Adams Lake and Seymour Arm areas
has been logged and burned, but there still remains a substantial stand of cedar poles and
fir sawlogs as a source of ready cash for the settler.
The drawback of the settlement of these two areas to date is the lack of accessibility.
Both areas are reached at present by approximately 40 miles of water transportation.   It is
quite possible that this isolation might be eliminated in the not too distant future through
the construction of roads.
Purchases—
Agricultural and grazing _     28
Home-sites  - J     18
Industrial and commercial .      2
Camp-sites and resorts       3
Miscellaneous (buildings)       2
Leases-
Land—
Home-sites  .      7
Industrial and commercial       2
Quarrying, sand, gravel, limestone, etc       1
Grazing (including hay-cutting)     41
Foreshore—
Booming and log storage       2
Industrial and commercial       1
Pre-emptions—
Applications       4
Annual inspections     20
Subdivisions—Selection Crown's quarter-interest       1
Reserves       7
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act "       3
Land Settlement Board—
Land classification      4
Valuations       1
Miscellaneous inspections—Land settlement projects      2
Total   149
D. E. GOODWIN, B.S.A., LAND INSPECTOR, POUCE COUPE
During 1951 all land-inspection work in the Peace River District has been handled
by D. L. Cornock, Pre-emption Inspector, and myself.
Annual pre-emption inspections have been held in abeyance, except where a
complaint has been received that a pre-emption is not held in good standing or where the
pre-emptor has applied for the Crown grant. This procedure has been necessary because
of the large number of applications awaiting inspection. Pre-emptions in good standing
in this district total 480.
At the present time there are 180 new applications awaiting inspection. This,
compared with 150 of one year ago and 125 of two years ago, indicates that the number
of new applications each year is exceeding the number of inspections completed. During
the latter part of September it was thought that we were catching up on the work, but since
October 1st there have been seventy-five new requests for inspections. BB 44 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The weather has not been particularly favourable to field work. A late spring held
up field work until mid-May. Precipitation during the summer months has been considerably higher than usual. Snow that fell the latter part of September has remained and
has been a hardship on the farmers, as a large percentage of them have been unable to
harvest their crops. All indications are that the crops in the fields will remain there this
winter, and, it is hoped, harvested next spring.
The majority of Crown land acquired south of the Peace River has been for the
purpose of expanding present farm holdings. One exception has been Lone Prairie, an
isolated valley, where the amount of arable land is limited, hence, no large settlement
could be expected. By and large new settlement has taken place north of the Peace River.
Large areas north and east of Cecil Lake have been acquired from the Crown. This
applies also to the Blueberry and Cache Creek areas.
I wish to emphasize the excellent co-operation between the Land Utilization Research
and Survey Division and this office. Detailed maps and field-sheets were supplied this
office of a portion of the area covered by the Land Utilization Division. These, in conjunction with the status maps, which are kept up-to-date in this office, have proved to be
of considerable help to prospective settlers.
The following is a summary of the number and type of inspections completed during
1951:—
Purchases—
Agricultural     64
Grazing        7
Leases—
Agricultural     16
Grazing     16
Home-site and residential       2
Business        2
Pre-emptions—
Applications       9
Annual inspections     32
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act "      2
Miscellaneous inspections — Evaluation of lots on Alaska
Highway, section 53 of the " Land Act," improvements on
cancellations     72
Total   224
D. L. CORNOCK, PRE-EMPTION INSPECTOR, POUCE COUPE
The following is a summary of the number and type of inspections completed during
1951:—
Purchases—
Agricultural  55
Grazing   6
Business   1
Leases—
Agricultural  16
Grazing   14
Fur-farming   1
Pre-emptions—
Applications  7
Annual inspections  19
Veterans' free grant  1
Miscellaneous _. 7
Total   127 LANDS BRANCH BB 45
D. G. HAVARD, B.S.A., LAND INSPECTOR, SMITHERS
Since arrival in September, inspections completed by myself total twelve. Some time
was spend accompanying Land Inspector A. F. Smith on other inspections in an effort to
become familiar with this area in the limited time available before winter.
Work has been commenced on the revision of status maps in accordance with recent
changes in alienation of Crown lands.
The inspections carried out since September are as follows:—
Purchases—
Agricultural       7
Home-sites        2
Miscellaneous       1
Pre-emptions—Annual inspections       2
Total      12
H. L. HUFF, B.S.A., LAND INSPECTOR, NEW WESTMINSTER
The most important occurrence in this area during the past year was the unprecedented dry spell during the greater part of the growing season.
Precipitation readings compiled at the Vancouver Airport, New Westminster,
Abbotsford, and Agassiz meteorological stations reveal that last April had only 44 per cent
of the long-time average precipitation expected for the Lower Fraser Valley area.
Recordable precipitation in this same area from June through August was only some 28
per cent of normal. During this period, no measurable precipitation fell for one stretch
of sixty days. Rainfall during September and October was normal as far as total fall was
concerned, but it fell within relatively short periods with long spells of dry weather
intervening. May was the only " normal" month of the entire growing season. Thus
drought and higher than normal temperatures from April through to mid-October had a
profound effect on this district.
The forest-fire season had to be officially opened before its normal date due to the
dry, hot April. During the mid-summer drought, forests were twice closed for long
periods and extended well into the hunting season.
Because of the long summer and early fall forest closures, field work for the summer
period was severely disrupted, hampered, and restricted. Field work could only be
carried out in the adjuncts of the metropolitan Vancouver area. The result is a decrease
in the total number of field inspections made during the year and an increased carry-over
of inspections to be made, especially in two of the Forest Ranger districts.
An occurrence worthy of note was the establishment of a car-ferry service across
Howe Sound, connecting Vancouver with the lower coastal (Gibsons to Pender Harbour)
area. This service runs between Horseshoe Bay and Gibsons. Residents of the lower
coast have been demanding this service for years.
There has been an increase in demand for Crown lands in the lower coastal areas
this year. The majority of the lands in that part were privately owned prior to the
depression of the thirties. I am of the opinion that the ferry service might be having some
influence in this present demand for land.
Two new forest reserves were established in the Lower Fraser Valley area this year—
the Skagit Forest Reserve and the Chilliwack River Valley Forest Reserve. It is getting
increasingly difficult for this office, the Commissioner of Lands at Vancouver and
particularly at New Westminster, to advise potential purchasers where Crown lands, other
than mountain-sides, can be found in the lower coastal area, especially in the Fraser
Valley.   A large and increasing proportion of this area is being, or has been, lost through BB 46 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
the establishment of numerous forest reserves, etc. Except for a relatively narrow fringe
of land along the Fraser River, all of the lands in or abutting the Fraser Valley on the
north side of the Fraser River east of the Pitt River and on the south side of the river
easterly from the Cultus Lake watershed have been so " lost " through the establishment
of three large forest reserves and two Provincial parks. To this total should be added the
areas reserved as municipal or metropolitan watersheds.
Purchases—
Agricultural  7
Home-sites   14
Industrial and commercial  4
Camp-sites and resorts  4
Wood-lots  j  2
Miscellaneous  4
Leases—
Land—
Agricultural  1
Home-sites   5
Industrial and commercial  2
Quarrying, sand, gravel, limestone, etc  2
Foreshore—
Booming and log storage  9
Industrial and commercial  10
Miscellaneous  5
Land-use permits, licences of occupation, easements, etc  5
Pre-emptions—Annual inspections .  15
Subdivisions—
Valuations  2
Selection Crown's quarter-interest  3
Reserves  1
Miscellaneous inspections  9
Total .  104
C. T. W. HYSLOP, B.S.A., LAND INSPECTOR, PRINCE GEORGE
The demand for Crown lands in the Prince George district has increased during 1951.
This demand is directly related to the growth of the lumber industry in this area, which has
resulted in increased prosperity throughout the district. Several new planer-mills have
been established in Prince George and these have tended to stabilize the industry. This,
coupled with the fact that the Pacific Great Eastern Railway extension and the Hart
Highway are nearing completion, has resulted in increased growth in the city and surrounding territory and much interest is being shown in subdivisions which have been
dormant since the boom period prior to World War I.
An increase in applications for country lots was also noted throughout the district.
Although many applications are from established farmers increasing their holdings,
a considerable number are made by operators of small sawmills for areas containing
merchantable timber or by employees wanting home-sites adjacent to sawmills.
Somewhat similar conditions apply in the Vanderhoof area, which is also experiencing
a boom as the result of the development of the Aluminum Company of Canada power
project on the Nechako River.
The following is a summary of the number and type of inspections made during the
year:— LANDS BRANCH
BB 47
Land Inspection Division
Hart Highway
Summit, 3,060 feet,
130  miles from
Prince George.
Azouzetta Lake,
136 miles from Prince
George. BB 48 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Purchases—
Agricultural ;  60
Home-sites  .  9
Industrial and commercial  7
Camp-sites and resorts  4
Wood-lots  2
Miscellaneous  5
Leases—
Land—
Agricultural  1
Home-sites   3
Industrial and commercial  5
Quarrying, sand, gravel, limestone, etc  4
Grazing (including hay-cutting)  5
Foreshore—Booming and log storage  17
Land-use permits, licences of occupation, easements, etc  14
Pre-emptions—
Applications  11
Annual inspections  15
Subdivisions—
Valuations  3
Survey inspections  2
Plans cancellation  1
Reserves  7
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act "  1
Land Settlement Board—
Land classification  3
Valuations  5
Miscellaneous inspections  16
Total   188
A. F. SMITH, B.S.A., LAND INSPECTOR, WILLIAMS LAKE
A year ago the industrial expansion of the north began to step up with a steady
growth in the lumber industry, renewed interest in several mines in the district, and the
final construction phases of the Columbia Cellulose Company plant.
When the Columbia Cellulose Company plant at Watson Island began operations in
March, their logging operations, headquartered at Terrace, were speeded up. In the
spring, sub-contractors for the Aluminum Company of Canada, Limited, started construction work on the huge Nechako Dam project, which will harness power for an aluminium
plant at Kitimat. During the year, initial development work commenced at ten mines in
the district.
This increase in industrial activity brought with it many new workers to the towns
and created a demand for new services. Better transportation was required and, in June,
Central B.C. Airways, Limited, started a service between Prince George, Vanderhoof,
Smithers, and Terrace, and, in the fall, the Canadian National Railways began a daily
passenger train schedule.
The newcomers, who were entering industry even if primarily interested in farming,
required homes and there was a great demand for lots in the various towns. The most
interesting feature of land sales during the past year has been this demand for town lots.
All Crown land has now been sold in the Villages of Terrace and Burns Lake. In Terrace,
private subdivisions are providing home-site lots and the Lands Service has added a LANDS BRANCH BB 49
twenty-one lot subdivision just outside the municipality, but these lots have not been
offered as yet at auction. Burns Lake is expanding, also by private subdivision, and
reaching westward towards Decker Lake. In the late summer and early fall there was a
particularly heavy demand for Crown lots in Smithers.
An air of permanence has been given to all this activity in the towns by a paving
programme through the main streets, the cost being shared by both the Department of
Public Works and the municipalities concerned. The project has been carried out in
Terrace, Smithers, and Vanderhoof, and the work in Burns Lake will be completed next
spring.
In September, D. G. Havard, B.S.A., a recently appointed Land Inspector, was
assigned to the Smithers office. After two months of instruction in both field and office,
Mr. Havard took over the Smithers district, and the writer was transferred to Williams
Lake.
The following is a summary of inspections made during the year:—
Purchases—
Agricultural     2 6
Home-sites      12
Industrial and commercial       7
Camp-sites and resorts       6
Miscellaneous       5
Leases—
Land—
Agricultural       2
Home-sites        1
Quarrying, sand, gravel, limestone, etc       3
Grazing (including hay-cutting)       6
Miscellaneous       3
Foreshore—Booming and log storage       1
Pre-emptions—
Applications       6
Annual inspections       6
Reserves       1
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act "       1
Land Settlement Board—Valuations       1
Miscellaneous inspections       6
Total  ,     93
W. R. REDEL, B.A.Sc, LAND INSPECTOR, QUESNEL
The first part of this year was spent drafting two composite maps of Quesnel and
adjoining subdivided areas. One map embodied Quesnel proper and the subdivided
industrialized area lying north of the village, while the other map comprised the subdivided
area lying south of the Quesnel River and east of the Fraser River. Both of these maps
were printed and have attracted considerable local interest. This winter I expect to bring
these maps up to date and have additional copies printed.
A review of the year's work shows a sharp up-swing in the number of land
applications handled in this district. To date there have been 115 examinations made as
compared with seventy-six examinations of the previous year, or an increase of 51
per cent. This increased land activity can be largely attributed to three important developments in the district:—
(1)  The extension of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway to Prince George has
opened up considerable country which heretofore was inaccessible.   Many BB 50 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
tote-roads have been pushed into the rail-line from the main highway and
these roads have provided the necessary access to new agricultural areas.
(2) The establishment of a plywood plant in this area has had a stabilizing
influence on the economy of the whole district. This company employs
approximately 145 men in the plant and this monthly payroll has done
much to encourage new investment in the town and the district as a whole.
(3) In recent months the pulpwood industry has shown considerable interest
in this area. At present they are buying logs for shipment to their Coast
plants.
All these factors have stimulated interest in the district, with the result that more
people have moved into this area and more land has been alienated.
This year it was particularly noticeable that many land applications were filed over
timbered areas. Several reasons can be advanced for this trend, the main one being the
high timber prices offered, the increased stumpage rates in this district, and the long delay
in actually acquiring a timber sale once it has been applied for. Applicants, with these
things in mind, have applied for forested areas in the hope that they would only pay for
the land and thus avoid the stumpage charges. Several examinations were made on areas
which contained timber stands running from 40,000 to 1,000,000 board-feet. Each of
these applications necessitated a cruise as well as a land examination. Cases such as
these often require two days of field work as well as considerably more office time
reporting on the area. In this district I have generally followed the policy of cruising the
timber and making the suggestion that said timber be sold at the stumpage rates.
The amendment to the " Land Act" authorizing Land Inspectors to administer all
oaths and take all affidavits required under the " Land Act" has assisted me in getting
several pre-emptors to apply for their long-overdue certificates of improvement and Crown
grant. I carry the necessary forms, and when I notice that a pre-emptor has sufficient
improvements I assist him in filling out the forms and completing same. Often it is
necessary to drive 2 or 3 miles to locate witness, but this is far more economical than
returning year after year to check his improvements until such time as he finally decides
to apply for a certificate of improvement on his own. In most cases, I have found that the
applicant does not know how to fill out the forms and this has held him back from applying
for his title.
During August, I spent approximately three weeks in the Williams Lake district
assisting Land Inspector J. A. Esler. We worked individually on the smaller areas and
collectively on the larger applications. Most of our work centred around Bridge Lake,
Peavine Valley, and Horsefly Lake.
The following table classifies the inspections made during the year:—
Purchases—
Agricultural     58
Home-sites        2
Industrial and commercial       2
Camp-sites and resorts       1
Leases—
Land—
Agricultural       3
Home-sites        1
Industrial and commercial       2
Grazing (including hay-cutting)       6
Foreshore—Booming and log storage       1
Land-use permits, licences of occupation, easements, etc       4
Pre-emptions—
Applications 1     11
Annual inspections     34 LANDS BRANCH
BB 51
Subdivisions—
Valuations	
Selection Crown's quarter-interest-
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act "	
Land Settlement Board—Valuations	
  1
  1
  4
  6
Miscellaneous inspections ..  12
Total
149
LAND SURVEYOR
Philip Monckton, B.C.L.S.
In the spring, in answer to a demand for acreage near Powell River, seventeen lots
of from 2 to 6 acres were surveyed adjoining the paved highway, about 3 miles south of
Westview. When the ferry across Jervis Inlet is operating shortly, providing road connection with Vancouver, the value of these lots should increase.
Two preliminary surveys were made in the Alberni Valley—the first, with the idea of
creating a convenient block of small holdings for Veterans' Land Act settlers, adjoining
the city limits of Port Alberni on the south, and is good alder-bottom land, cut by a small
creek; and the second, a large area of logged-off land, about 3 miles north of Alberni,
which will be cut in much larger blocks in order that each many contain some good soil.
Later in the summer, a subdivision of twenty-four lots, of an acre each, was laid out
along Highway No. 16, 3 miles east of Terrace, a community which is growing rapidly
under the influence of the Aluminum Company development at Kitimat and of the
Columbia Cellulose Company of Port Edward, which obtains most of its logs in the
Terrace vicinity.
■&"£? .I.--  ...■■fr.jaW;J-,.j*6gB&B HI
The Columbia Cellulose Company plant at Port Edward,
for employees have been laid out here.
Townsite lots BB 52
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
At Port Edward, twenty-three building lots were surveyed, to create sites for
employees of the Columbia Cellulose mill to construct their own houses.
At Lakelse Lake, near Terrace, some relocation of old posts was made in a
subdivision forty years old, and where doubt existed as to the location of corners.
Two miles from Remo, 7 miles west of Terrace, four forty-acre blocks were staked
out in Lot 1716, which when cleared should make fine productive farms.
Near South Hazelton, Lot 780 was resurveyed, and in the old Two-Mile Townsite,
near Hazelton, some old posts were renewed.
The new Anlaw bridge over the Skeena, 4 miles north of Hazelton,
giving access to the Kispiox Valley.
In the fall, further surveys were undertaken in the Kootenay District. A right-of-way
was surveyed for the Forest Service through Lot 3037 up Wild Horse River, and another
right-of-way for a pipe-line at the new Forest Service Nursery site at Perry Creek.
Also, eighteen water-front summer-home sites were laid out on Hansen (Wasa)
Lake, where a demand has been created by the opening of the Estella mine.
In addition to the above surveys, many inspections were made, both on Vancouver
Island and on the Mainland, which fully occupied our time; in fact so much so that
several of the jobs on the programme for 1951 have had to be postponed till the following
season.   SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 55
SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
G. S. Andrews, M.B.E., B.Sc.F., P.Eng., B.C.R.F., F.R.G.S.,
Director and Surveyor-General
In reporting on the year 1951, I have the unusual duty to record the retirement, on
superannuation, of two Directors of this Branch—N. C. Stewart and F. O. Morris.
At the end of January, Norman C. Stewart, B.A.Sc, B.C.L.S., D.L.S., P.Eng., retired
from the position of Director after twenty-six years' service in the Branch, during which
time he was, in turn, Topographic Surveyor, Surveyor-General, and Director. Before
entering Government service in 1925, he had already practised as a British Columbia
Land Surveyor for; some fifteen years. Mr. Stewart will be remembered for his progressive
and persistent espousal of modern survey techniques. He is credited with initiating in this
Province the application of air-survey photography to mapping, in connection with the
Pacific Great Eastern Railway Resources Survey in 1929, and in the following years
shared, with other early members of the Topographic Division, the achievement of
originating ingenious and effective methods of combining air and terrestrial survey
photography for contouring the rugged British Columbia terrain.
During Mr. Stewart's regime as head of the Branch, through the significant post-war
period 1946-51, phenomenal progress was made, not only in setting up the splendid
facilities we now have for taking survey photography in the air but also for compiling it
by modern methods in the office. It was under Mr. Stewart's aegis that the motor-vessel
" B.C. Surveyor " was acquired in 1947. At an early stage he foresaw the potentialities
of helicopters for transporting surveyors with equipment to their mountain aeries, difficult
or impossible of access by other means, and he initiated practical helicopter operations
with the Emerson party near Chilliwack in 1948. With the fourth successful helicopter
season completed this year, our Province has achieved leadership in Canada in pioneering
this revolutionary method of field transport for surveying.
In his retirement, Mr. Stewart retains his appointment as Commissioner for
Boundaries, on the east with Alberta and on the north with the Yukon and Northwest
Territories, the surveys of which are currently being prosecuted vigorously due to
potentialities in North-eastern British Columbia arising from petroleum exploration.
Frank Ormond Morris, who succeeded Mr. Stewart as Director of Surveys and
Mapping, retaining concurrently his earlier appointment as Surveyor-General, was, in his
turn, retired on statutory superannuation at the end of May, with the enviable record of
forty-four years' distinguished service in the Department, unbroken by a single day's
absence on account of sickness (not to imply that Mr. Morris was never ill). His long
experience with, and his intimate knowledge of, survey applications of the Land, Land
Registry, Forest, Mining, and other Acts, with innumerable cases, precedents, and rulings
at the instant summons of his facile memory, have made Mr. Morris a widely acknowledged authority in matters pertaining to cadastral surveys—his advice being sought by
Government Departments, the surveying profession, industry, and the public generally.
As Assistant Surveyor-General for sixteen years, 1930-46, then as Chief of the Legal
Surveys Division, 1946-50, Mr. Morris was a veritable "power behind the throne " in
the sphere of legal surveys. It was with wide acclaim that he succeeded to the title of
Surveyor-General in 1950 and to that of Director in 1951.
Companion to the aforementioned attributes of Mr. Morris is his record for prompt
and courteous service. Be inquiries addressed to him by word of mouth or in writing, by
timid " juniors " or by top executives, his response has invariably been prompt, kindly,
and effective. Few can appreciate the great amount of work which goes into preparation
of the right answer, clearly and concisely expressed. The enviable reputation for service
enjoyed by our Branch generally, and by the Legal Surveys Division in particular, has in
large measure been engendered by Mr. Morris' exemplary personal inflence in this respect.
May this fine tradition of service be upheld by us who remain to carry on. BB 56 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
By the happy circumstance that Mr. Morris still enjoys his physical and mental
faculties unimpaired, and by the enabling authority of a special Order in Council, his
services are being retained in an advisory capacity, but relieved of the burden of responsibility, so that his succeeding incumbent in office and the service generally may continue to
benefit by his counsel, we hope, for such time and to such extent as he may feel disposed
to act.
The year's activities and accomplishments are ably reported in the pages that follow,
by Chiefs of the four Divisions—Legal Surveys, Topographic, Geographic, and Air
Surveys—with which are included or appended sectional reports by surveyors, other
senior officers, and by the Boundary Commissioner.
The main theme for 1951, recurrent almost monotonously throughout, is the
pronounced increase in all phases of the work, resulting in part from accumulated training,
experience, and facilities, but also from the sharp increase in demand for the various
surveys and mapping services which we are set up to provide. In preparation of this
report we have indeed been hard put to find alternatives for the word " increase," having
long since exhausted Roget's store of synonyms.
A year ago we thought, almost hopefully, that our curve of post-war expansion was
about to flatten off, that we could direct some effort to consolidation and, perhaps, to a bit
of polishing up. However, surveys and maps being so integrated with development, in fact
being the very " blue-prints " for it, we find ourselves carried along involuntarily with the
phenomenal tide of industrial expansion now sweeping this Province, witnessed by such
names as Columbia Cellulose, Hart Highway, Pacific Great Eastern Extension, Alcan,
Duncan Bay Pulp, Celgar Pulp, Peace River Oil, and Trans-Mountain Pipeline. So, we
must stretch out a bit more. Accommodation comes first (we are already cramped for
space) and then equipment and personnel. If the whole Lands Service, including our
Branch, could be consolidated in one of the larger existing buildings, grouped around a
central records vault, it might go a long way toward solving the space problem as well as
toward better efficiency. Our present sporadic distribution of offices in four different
buildings, diluted among unrelated units of other departments, is to some extend chaotic
and wasteful.
LEGAL SURVEYS DIVISION
D. Pearmain, Chief of Legal Surveys Division
On February 1st of this year, F. O. Morris relinquished the position of Chief of the
Legal Surveys Division to assume the duties of Surveyor-General and Director of the
Surveys and Mapping Branch, and the writer was promoted to the position of Chief of
the Legal Surveys Division.
The staff of the Legal Surveys Division wishes to pay its respects to Mr. Morris.
Having worked under the direction of Mr. Morris for thirty-one years, I feel that I am
qualified to say that during his years of service, dating back to 1907, he has given un-
stintingly of his talents, and in the course of his duties added greatly to the groundwork on
which this Province is developing its vast domain. When Mr. Morris finally severs his
connection with this Branch, we shall all lose the privilege of calling on him for information
from his very great store of knowledge accumulated over the past forty-four years.
J. R. Stone, of this Division, was superannuated on January 31st, 1951, after a tour
of duty dating from April, 1914.
H. P. Rutter, Chief Draughtsman, was superannuated on December 31 st of this year.
He had served since 1920, first in the Forest Service and then in the Legal Surveys
Division. Mr. Rutter has been our leading authority on the " Mineral Act " and surveys
made thereunder. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 57
During the past year, this Division has functioned under the handicap of a shortage
of draughtsmen and an increase in certain services rendered to other Branches and
Departments of Government.
A synopsis of the main duties of this Division, as performed during the year, are as
follows:—
The checking and plotting of field notes of the surveys of Crown lands and the
preparation therefrom of official plans. Three hundred and eighty-six sets were received
in this office and duly checked and indexed. These were received from fifty-seven British
Columbia land surveyors and covered two hundred and seventy surveys made under the
" Land Act " and one hundred and seventy-nine surveys made under the " Mineral Act."
Ninety plans were also received in this Division and checked and indexed; these cover
surveys made under the " Land Registry Act."
Prior to the above surveys being made, it was necessary that the surveyor doing the
work receive instructions from the Surveyor-General, and the preparation of these instructions entails a somewhat exhaustive search so that complete survey data of adjoining or
nearby surveys can be presented to the surveyor.
The total number of field notes now on record in the Legal Surveys Division is
approximately 90,769. These cover all the surveys of Crown land dating back to the days
of the Royal Engineers.
In order to keep a proper graphic record of all alienations of both surveyed and
unsurveyed Crown lands and foreshore, a set of 206 departmental reference maps is maintained, generally on a scale of 1 inch to 1 mile, and covering the whole of the Province.
These maps are drawn on tracing-linen and prints of same are procurable by anyone.
The work of keeping these reference maps up to date, by adding new information as
it becomes available, and the recompiling and tracing of them when they become worn
through daily use, and the handling of them in the blue-printing machines, forms a
considerable portion of the work of this Division. During the year ten reference maps
were recompiled and traced.
There are also eighty-two mineral reference maps on record in this Division. These
are on the scale of 1 inch to 1,500 feet, and cover the known highly mineralized areas of
the Province.
All applications to purchase or lease Crown lands or foreshore, which are received
by the Lands Branch, are passed on to this Division for clearance. The task of clearing
and statusing these applications is a very particular and exacting duty. The orderly
processing of these applications requires that an exhaustive status be made from the
reference maps, official plans, and Land Registry Office plans, and in some instances these
can be very time-consuming.
From the facilities at hand in this Division, an up-to-the-minute status can be given
of any particular piece of Crown land anywhere in the Province.
During the past year a great number of man-hours have been required in statusing
and preparing metes and bounds descriptions of the large volume of application for
permits under the " Petroleum Act."
The sale of Crown Timber by the Forest Service, either through timber sale or forest
management licence, is made only after a clearance is obtained from this Division.
The co-operation which this Division supplies to other Departments of Government
in the preparation and checking of descriptions remains at the same high level.
The ozalid and blue-printing establishment which is maintained by this Division has
been running at full capacity during the past year. Not only are prints made for all the
Divisions of the Surveys and Mapping Branch, but this same service is extended to all
other Departments that wish to avail themselves of it. All the latest innovations in this
type of printing process are available, and include not only paper and linen prints but also
paper and linen tracings from which further reproductions can be made.   During the year, BB 58 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
94,325 individual prints were made, with a total value of $41,270. In preparing the above
prints, 78,480 yards of paper and linen were used.
A further service is rendered to other Departments and the public by the photostat
room of this Division. With this equipment, all plans or documents which cannot be
copied by the blue-print machine are satisfactorily handled. By this process, maps or
documents can be enlarged or reduced to any desired scale, commensurate with the
maximum size of the photostat sheet of 18 by 24 inches. During the year, a new photostat
machine, with all the latest improvements was installed.
The Composite Map Section of this Division has now completed nine maps, covering
the following areas: Bamfield, Shuswap Lake, Prince George, Ashcroft, Squamish, Boston
Bar, North Bend, Quesnel, and Terrace. These maps are on a scale of 1 inch to 500 feet
and show all subdivisions on record in this Department and the Land Registry Offices.
The compilation and accuracy of these composite maps are of the highest order.
They are subject to revision every six months, thus insuring that they are up to date as
far as subdivisions are concerned. Prints of these maps are procurable by the public at
cost, on application to this Division.
During the year, over 500 plans were obtained from the Land Registry Offices, prints
were prepared of them, and they have now been indexed and filed, and thus have become
part of our records.
Sources of Collections, 1951—Survey Fees, Sale of Maps, etc.*
Collections under " Land Act " Total Collections
Survey fees  $6,985.34
Blue-prints   17,774.49
Lithographed maps  5,799.60
Photostats  1,653.49
Air photographs  7,891.72
Miscellaneous  2,961.54
Totals  $43,066.1 i
* Collections for the month of December are estimated.
Attached hereto are Tables A, B, and C. Table A summarizes the main items of
work carried out by the general staff, while Tables B and C give a list of present reference
maps. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 59
Table A.—Summary of Office Work for the Years 1950 and 1951,
Surveys Division
1950 1951
Number of field-books received  383 386
lots surveyed  411 449
lots plotted  433 421
lots gazetted  377 408
„          lots cancelled  30 28
„          mineral-claim field-books prepared  160 121
„          reference maps compiled  13 10
„          applications for purchase cleared  1,076 1,451
„          applications for pre-emption cleared- 264 166
„          applications for lease cleared  1,081 1,058
„          coal licences cleared  2 6
„          water licences cleared  18 30
„          timber sales cleared  4,625 4,983
„          free-use permits cleared  492 337
„          hand-loggers' licences cleared  3 8
„          Crown-grant applications cleared  1,678 1,718
„ Petroleum and Natural Gas permits
cleared   Nil 190
„          reverted-land clearances  1,665 1,249
„          cancellations made  1,022 724
„          inquiries cleared  1,181 1,237
,,          placer-mining leases plotted on maps- 191 183
letters received  10,514 11,716
„          letters sent out  6,476, 7,751
„          Crown-grant and lease tracings made- 1,431 1,836
,,          miscellaneous tracings made  38 42
„          Government Agents' tracings made  361 293
„          photostats made  3,835 5,448
Sale value of photostats     $3,118.84*      $4,934.81*
Number of blue-prints made  86,114 94,325
Sale value of blue-printing  $36,229.14*    $41,268.79*
Number of documents consulted and filed in vaulL. 51,843 53,131
» Total value. BB 60 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
a a     c-
3 O        T3
O u       £
S ^ -       ~        3
fi     AS 3     .S„j2      JIM'S     «     s.m     o§S*!
^ .    .   f _M   'K    ni    SO    CO
c«2«     .„rt        «|     »B*     .22 u-o E„m So 8        C"w_.e     e^-s
2 .* £     •3»o*j      ■2.2.o^rjjji5r9i«gu'g   .-   fC I a'2>fl?'gJ g-.'S     feu
b   IlllP   ll ifilrlllllfPllllSfe.i5* PI
i eiii"i?5 iiii«isiiil iiifMmln hi
5   ill IfplIli!iiyilllIII|IH!Si|p2lS«
fN CN fS
w. oo oo oo oo oo oo oo      ooooaNO\ONa\C\osasO\ooooooooooor^mf^rom      mcim
f5      .HhHhhhH     l-< t+h< f-h* b« h* b< f-< l~ b* b* {-< h* H l-< b< h !-<!-* f-< h* b« l-« l-< b*     HHH
»—'      Om-^-'o^Dr-.ooO       HMHMm-!fvi«^0'HNm,^"n\oh.xcftO'HM-,Nm'^      vi vo h
H
Z
M
H
«
c
7 o u _>- "a
(I, O   <U O C
O e n . m ^
O
£2 ^2 a
cd
2 s     «! g • -s        2
w " -ss g?   | *-      -si s«°
NfNNN(NNMMr^NMNvNNNNrNinfN)NN^NMMrlNfNjN
.HhhHhhhhhhHHhhhhhHhhhhhhhHHNhHhhhhhhhh
Oo^CNr^^^^OO^ort^^^^^^M^O^^M^^-HrNln^\0^000\ONrnHN
Zw ^^HHHHrtHrHwMlNfSOUNN ^   r-H   rH SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
BB 61
£
o
M
u
o
o
3
O
E
X
a
Pi
=3 h4
^ o >
cSS 2
2 S?
° 2
ID
M
T3
3
J3
ft
E
ca
O
E
E
3
7 O
£2  ^
CO    &
•a
h
a
03
T3
C
M
«
CJ
0
U
C3
JJ
U
0
3   u
a Pi
* a
&8»!
a>   a>   +J
fflNMn
CN CN    OO 00 00
n n  *t ^ ^
cn co   co co cn
. P [_ , ^ ^ [_,
O  00 O    ^H CN CO
Z -H
I fl
3.
CJ
CO
'&
CJ
-J
o
ft
ft
-a
a
3 pi .5
jo .S
g °2
00 00 00
t Tf t
cn rn rn
H H H
tj- in vo BB 62 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
w
■a
o °5
<o     5
SB ~     H
j    -a
,cs     "     *
gS£     >■    > * g-    o        °
i s n •« ^ j2 .a   .s   ■  ^ 2 „; a       o
>* £°        i—5 .4-1 i>|i>in.flj k5ro^ C
».2§S      ? ^ fe =3 ^ ^      ^«=a-5Cxi>«c3ttxi>>»<cj r«SAgTJ      i-l
^2   o   3 «     c Q_.  tj '-1 ^ .cl   3   !T        ^». ^     (ii      .   ^   ra T1 .. r/i   w   flJ   j   n.   ^ y £ co
gflilllii g»j3   IlliliilliiililfijS|ilf.|
l dliii^jBsiiii»iiki^£S^aiii-siiy-8|i
3    lllllll^tefejai|8ll^ifepte.|il^la§i,Sls3
3 oSSooo£5z5pS £3£3££^££5£:iaa£z££3s£Q£3
b o' ■ . ■«   . < A   ■ < A   . < A . < A   .   . < A   . < A £ A A   . < A d   . < A   . <   ■   . <
<J .Tfln»nVO\D^t^h.r.COMCO CJ\C7\a\O^^HHCNCNCNCNCNCNcOCOCOCOTt-^-TriO»o^r^r^
W Ohhhhhhthhhhh-hmhhhh^-h i-iT-HrtCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNCNcNCNCNCNCNCN
%
H
PS
<
a.
w
P
O
|C5)C QO S IS Ih
•     Si "fc      & > (2 19
3
<! ^A   2        "§ "E 3        J2 K ^ >hh K « ?>■        '_■ H-o
J=
■n
3
3
CJ
cd
r/i
2
OJ
0
3
3
0
J3
c
3
O
0
1/1
a
cd   cs   cd   cdg   „^J3   cs   S—tj^Sri"^^^^?   - >C   t   3^   o d   SO   cdO«VT37d*J'3^.2(3
^^fflOO^^fflhH'     iofficgoiiZ<;ft ZpioOSSpn     QQ^pJmQW
.<A..<A6a.<A.<      A6o.<A6.<A....<       . < A   .   . < A
rHrHrtoimcncnnm't-t't'o'n       •n'o'n^o^^iOh.r^t^»cj\0«^       cncncnco'^-^'^- SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 63
s "§
cd g
S* M
00 CJ
a
cd
J3
ca
o
<S --s
« J3       A. . E
.«_> cd
S .5      ■ a     6
C3
3
8.1 I   ~^S.g.3      -   3-   "S-g S    ^3 |H II
u;i<     3.     co-3    ^acflS 3^0.>:     t'E-a°     2£fc ii ^
.j.(h       ->- (3 j" j3    _, 11  - 2    ■g S'S
ag  ^
ss-sgiss  g.g.nail's    i*sS| |ii«|  28l      *.§,
8-agfSgcg     £* BOSS'S,   . a   .£-g g ^ 3.S3™   .SCfl*.        ~-« g
:^ls3leftgc?.5>.ei^&Bi°|^«j»y2Ep<'ssi3 ~il*i~
%^^^!a^£:|-g||-gl|l|a^r5^^^ll|Jjil«.I°i|
c
S ff a "g 3 ° b ■ 15 3 § ^ ■§ 11 s a k ™ S u § .1a ~ J £ * IA -a -a a g M .5 -a
^cdgcd^o3«^-gn!r!2rtE„^^--c^°Q^^<:3cdfi,tlH3«o
S-s 3-s^ftl ||j %* g lit* o^s-sk* ga-a sli's^al-g §^
^J2'ftS^SS.E^23»|||||,g^£^g|S^3g°||'o|32|^.E
d   . 4 •.	
■ n^^,'o^ot^coa\0^tScn^'n\ot^ooo\0'^(Nrn'!f      tovj3r^ooasOHHCNco,cfv-ivor-^oo
CJ
3=
E TS
II  &
3.S
•a3
S
CJ
d .3 £J, H 3' .?
cj        cd w > p .       ,— '.^ *n
>        33 >i VI 60 h, cd W Ph
2   £ £ a   2      a 3      ,a«    . a   a •§ ^;.hh   «
f--1 Sligl   |i^ |i3i.i i     ill ti 2
'S.'si ail §r:os -8 s ^ag 8*5^ HI'S-a 13  ■§ loog^tsS'B
> > ti S .5 caMM u^^ cdp^^: o .>;   „*!
5!
33,?s3 c2 a.!3>j;>feT)r5'33ffir«£
S&j3tfSoj2oSdu15   .^k5-„Sl5>iSg«W^fluflHga'o'S o
Il^I-S^^aalia'lljs11 ^f&'a-sl^l g *|8s,l'g-||§,s|
PHpHZcoZOOOffiOmOOHffi(L,H-lZDffiZS[ijO 0 ?WHt30iZOOfc«B,
do   .<«    . < b u   .   .<   .■ h( «   .   .   .   . <    .    .^co cj .«i   .   .   . < A 6   . < A
r^r^xooooo\o>o\0\o — ^MncNc^^-io\o^Dt-.»ooM oo ono>o-^cncncncncococo
CNCNcNCNcNCNCNcNCNcococococococococococococococo co coco-Tf'^f*'^"^-TfTr-^--^-'^- BB 64 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
U   h   h   u c;    Cj   CJ
cd   JJ fH   B cj w
a1" 3 S-2 1
T3 =2 >« ? ,° <-
s cd o *- "■ a "3
"•&3 &"Sa "S
7H  Sh
■2$
o a F E 2 -2 41 o J 9 T5
O . 3 — ™   .3 Cj           „ C. .,
«                                .    * 5 "5 g on ft 3 •= j B c «
■a                                  uhh. » S § c 2 ft , , 5 « »
O 3 T3   SJ !J «.   <?   8 S B
-    ~ &"   «    te      I • «-£££ o     lit   B    J
E.E •*£■£.         •         §         o     o   .is        „j g>s»rj — j*75     g a cj
9JI5355    1   I   a Jib ^li-li^l ?!* j IS
§   s a „; 2 a «      > ^   o      •a^>;l<jajE<:'S.^|| -3:: «    ,3 & 3 ^
t iii.|^iii^ilpiii!isii^-ol |i- -s 1 -i
I    ■§-§iiis'glgll|§si-3-&g-illl^l.a|gjssl°.   I
.ZoiZaZoJZcnZoiOco'osrj   osaStJSi'       *t   I
K .«I-MOVO« <N|     I     I     I     I     I     I     I     I     I     I     I     I     IjZcEoftcjHj-SuOJ.
Ot-h—<«-JCNCNCN>niriiy-i\0^0t-~t--|-~.t~-000000H^r~-O ~   O   CJ   CJ   Ih ™30 0
J Z-J-H-H-J«HH-Hr-CHHMHHHHHHHHHHHH«HHr^CNCNCO 2 O      «   1)      « 0       »    j3 ~
<
H
Z
w
S
< O O 33 -S '"J   ■.
ft ■&; 3= 3 c^ cj so
■a £ "nil 2   J* -.3
t^cj                                                                cd ir^^cd ■-        r h cdSoi
^             b                                                                     3 ^O (2               cd •               d^T3^-3 „^Q
h                                                          ^cd^.-^-cjS .3    ■  c       <J 3^w
S J^2 o     .   ?! OJ                 , ij   cd —   «* 3
W .H    .    3 5i    m   h w CJ                 CNr3raVDCD cd         -CJ
i                    i \    *+* ■ ^     *            ^      ^    ot    y-»    i*      .             uj ■   '   . ~-            -*j    oj ^v            i^j
r;         ' \m jj   . «MabSshi,«      s w3..-°3m j3 » c
U          3 cd .* <u ^j^ EfiJ 5oS.-o    .J HJ4pq« a£a
■a j •            cdo. 5dS30¥i^       coO                 , ^       a »hcj
"3             v!l» AJ               M 2 .l-„l-lcn•SI-1.„Pi„'dcJ(-, ^-.Tlll;-S23 S° ^ * T1
CS
OJ
Cfl
3m^3 s^o » gp ^ --31 Sfl2^B> g-flSiS-g S-a.S'lT) « -°
Ss^3 *w£ ^^|5.^§u02l6|a>;0>1l^-g||g1|g3^-
^^BC&|^^gmo°*«|gS^3"c|3:3la^H3oaZ|s|-Hp|o
2^S"ftr°n-2fe;?i/i«g'fS3J-3&7.gJJldalp!j a cdSo§t3§^ cd§£ jj-SId"
rtCecciKo§^«CaBa«rtBcjSgMcauuB«gsBoifioo2^C'CS
On^Km^fc^3<Wc?K<«BOSza^S>c?O^KZwWSjo£w
Z
c^OHHcNco^v^vor^oocj>OH-cNcoTr>ovor^ooa\O^HCNcoTj->o\ot^ooo\0-HCNco'^->n
r-.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOONO\asC3NCJ>ONONCJ\a\C3NOOOOOOOOOO-HT-.HHvHHHHH SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 65
FIELD SURVEYS
F. O. Morris, Special Assistant to Surveyor-General
The legal surveys carried out at the expense of, and under instructions of, the
Department during the year have been somewhat extensive, and include acreage-surveys
and subdivision-surveys of Crown lands for disposition under the provisions of the " Land
Act," re-establishment and reposting surveys, and highway rights-of-way surveys, etc.
A synopsis of the work done is outlined in the following:—
Duncan Cran, B.C.L.S., surveyed some fifty-eight sections of Crown lands in the
Blueberry area of Peace River District. These are reported to be all suitable for agricultural purposes and practically all are now taken up by lease or purchase under the " Land
Act."
J. R. Mackenzie, B.C.L.S., of Dawson Creek, surveyed some nineteen sections of
Crown land in the Peace River District, mainly in the Clayhurst area.
John Davidson, B.C.L.S., surveyed some twenty district lots, mostly covered by
home-site leases, in the vicinty of Middle Point, south of Pender Harbour.
J. A. F. Campbell, B.C.L.S., carried out a reposting survey of a part of the
subdivision of Lots 937 and 938, Central Prince George.
Alaska Highway
Control survey of the right-of-way of the Alaska Highway was continued this year by
W. N. Papove, B.C.L.S. Eighty miles of the highway between Miles 65 and 300 were
surveyed and posted with permanent survey monuments. In addition, twenty lots
were surveyed at various points along the highway for the Department and for the
Northwest Highway System. As the Alaska Highway survey is designed to act as control
for future surveys adjacent to it, the instructions issued for this work call for a precise
order of survey, in which all distances are checked and directions controlled by frequent
astronomic observations. Furthermore, the survey is well marked on the ground by
standard survey posts and mounds, with concrete monuments at frequent intervals.
Right-of-way Surveys
In accordance with the continued Departmental policy of providing control for future
cadastral surveys along and adjacent to the highways of the Province, two such surveys
were carried out by J. H. Drewry, B.C.L.S., and D. W. Carrier, B.C.L.S. The survey by
Mr. Drewry consisted of a survey of some 25 miles of the Cariboo Highway, in the
vicinity of Lac la Hache and Clinton. D. M. Carrier, who is a member of the staff,
carried out a combined control and right-of-way survey on the new Hope-Princeton
Highway. It extended from Mile 15 near Tashme to Mile 32. The instructions for these
surveys, made in conjunction with the Department of Public Works, included the
requirements of a highway right-of-way plan (for deposit in the Land Registry Office),
with added instructions for obtaining information desired by this Branch.
Miscellaneous Surveys
A number of miscellaneous surveys were undertaken by P. M. Monckton, B.C.L.S.,
who is on the staff of the Superintendent of Lands. These surveys included subdivisions
near Powell River and Wasa and a number of Crown-land surveys at various points,
including Terrace, Port Edward, and Sechelt.
R. E. Chapman, B.C.L.S., a member of the staff, in addition to examining and
checking survey returns, attended to a number of surveys in the field, consisting of several
district lots near Yale; Lockhart Creek on Kootenay Lake and at Stone Creek; subdivision-surveys at Williams Lake and Tabor Creek; and several re-establishment surveys
at Keremeos, Hope, Wilson Creek, and Prince George. BB 66 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
W. A. Taylor, B.C.L.S., also on the staff, surveyed several district lots at Morehead
Lake, Polley Lake, Bute Inlet, and near Quesnel Forks; a subdivision-survey south of
Nanaimo and another at Campbell River; several lots for the Forest Service and a
number of boundary re-establishments in the Cariboo and Kootenay Districts.
R. W. Thorpe, B.C.L.S., also a member of the staff, surveyed a number of district
lots at Bella Bella,' Canim Lake, and McNeil Lake, and a number of boundary re-establishments on Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland.
Renewal of Survey Monuments
In the Regulations Regarding Permanent Survey Monuments, which was issued this
year, authority was given private surveyors to replace a limited number of old survey-posts
with permanent monuments at the expense of the Surveys and Mapping Branch. In
addition, a large number of corners were re-established and permanently posted by private,
as well as Departmental, surveyors in connection with their surveys of adjoining lands.
The total number of monuments renewed this year was 356.
PEACE RIVER DISTRICT SURVEYS
Duncan Cran, B.C.L.S.
Surveys were carried out principally in three valleys tributary to Blueberry River—
namely, Snyder Creek, Buick Creek, and Umbach Creek. Following the practice of three
previous years, these surveys were to cover applications in the area named—Township
111, nineteen and three-quarter sections were surveyed; Township 110 (north of Township 111), twenty sections were surveyed; Township 113, three sections were surveyed;
Township 112 (north of Township 113), ten sections were surveyed; about two sections
were surveyed in Township 88, Ranges 19 and 20, and three and one-half sections in
Township 87, Range 19, almost all of which had been applied for. In all, about fifty-eight
sections were surveyed, and although this fell short of the previous year's accomplishment
by about four sections, the mileage was greater by twenty, due to the fact that most of the
sections were divided with a post in the centre.
System of Survey
The survey north of the Block boundary was a continuation of the system
commenced in 1911, the same year the Block was surveyed. Some of the old monuments
were found, and where these included a trench and mound location was clear and positive.
Speaking of the permanence or otherwise of survey monuments, the operation of bulldozer
and brush-cutter presents a serious problem. In many cases the 30-inch pipe post is bent
or pulled out and the mound and pits obliterated or nearly so. With this menace always
roaming about the country, accuracy of survey becomes more important in order to
accurately re-establish corners which, it was thought, were permanently marked. In
practically all cases a degree of accuracy was attained whereby this can be done within
three links.
Soil and Climate
Very good soil was found in the valleys mentioned with almost invariably a good
clay sub-soil. It was noticed especially in Umbach Creek valley (also in Prespatou Creek
valley) that the clay sub-soil was dark. Although this clay is almost impervious to water,
fine roots penetrate to a considerable depth. Most of the higher ground in between the
valleys is arable, although the soil on the low ridges is of a lighter nature than that on
the lower slopes and in the bottom. Considerable breaking has been done and some crops
planted. The latter are evidence of the fertility of the land. Unfortunately, frost in
August and September resulted in great damage.   These damaging frosts were, however, SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 67
general throughout the older settlements this year.   The valley of Snyder Creek contains
several quite large springs.
Access
At the time the survey commenced, June 4th, an oil-exploration company had
commenced bulldozing roads, and while we were surveying in Township 110 the valleys
were being criss-crossed with these temporary roads, one of which went across Prespatou
Creek (east of Umbach Creek) and then followed this valley down, crossing Blueberry
River between the mouth of the former and the latter's confluence with Beatton River.
These roads proved of considerable use in going to and from work, but, as they are
merely wide ditches, down to the gumbo, they will probably be of little use in the spring.
In few cases do they follow survey-lines. Settlers had built rough roads from the graded
road which serves the Beatton River Intermediate Aerodrome and which crosses the
Blueberry River at the Block boundary 11 miles from the Alaska Highway (Mile 73
from Dawson Creek, 26 miles from Fort St. John).
TOPOGRAPHIC DIVISION
A. G. Slocomb, B.C.L.S., Chief, Topographic Division
The demand and need for topographic maps has increased so much that time and
progress are combining to force a more permanent organization, both as regards personnel and equipment. The former is fast becoming a serious problem; trained personnel,
both senior and junior, are leaving to take up more lucrative positions outside the service.
Two Chiefs of parties, two senior instrument-men, the launch captain, and one junior
were the toll over the past twelve months. Two others who left to join the services might
also be included. To counteract this we must either make our salary range comparable
to that of industry or increase our staff sufficiently to take care of the annual drain. The
first appears the better solution, because the loss of key personnel always cripples our
efficiency and slows production.
Most of the large map-making organizations in North America, both private and
within the Government service, use the Multiplex almost exclusively. It is recommended
that this Division commence reorganizing as soon as possible to use of the Multiplex,
either as a whole or in part. It is realized that this change-over cannot take place overnight, and the training programme necessary to obtain operators would have to fit into
the Air Survey Division organization. It is felt that a permanent Multiplex section in this
Division would greatly assist production and enable us to more nearly meet the demands
for topographic maps.
This year a total of nineteen and one-half map-sheets, with a controlled area of 6,500
square miles, was the combined result of five field parties, one of which was only of a
month's duration and done after the regular parties had returned. This represents an
increase of 35 per cent over the previous year. In addition, three triangulation parties
completed approximately 290 miles of main triangulation, comprising twenty quadrilaterals. They closed two gaps in the main net which will allow several circuits to be
recomputed and balanced.
A. C. Pollard, B.C.L.S., a private surveyor, completed the triangulation he
commenced in 1950, which had as its objective a tie to the geodetic stations in the vicinity
of Adams Lake. This survey was undertaken at the request of the Fraser River Basin
Board.
The weather this year was again very favourable in all areas and, consequently, most
of the parties completed their work early in September. The helicopter party, with more
hours available, used more instrument crews and doubled its output.   We have used the BB 68
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Triangulation Survey
Pavilion-Churn Creek Area
•  : ' ,'      ■   •' .■:;   .                                                                     •    /:...	
:' :       ■   '■'■..    ■'.''.       '!"■ : ■'■■'■■:-: ■■ ■■ ■:' '■ ■■■:■■■ :■:■:■ i-::-:"'; .■   ';  I''.'!' "'■ ': '   ■' '    :''   ':         .:-'       ::   ■■.■■.■■' ^   ■     '.'■'':'. .  ': .    '     :'■';■''■   ■   ::   :   ''   :.■: :: ■■: V .:..'. ::":|.':|..|:'.:|   ','■'■:■'.    ■'.... .* .■.■'■ ■■■. ■'■ '!' ■   . '"'■      ''   '" '■■> ■■■■■.■::■:■.■■ ■.■■■■ ■:■.':. *.S i.
"*-«*' ....^7*7.
■  ■       ■■..    * ".'/   :"::'
777/  ■•■...'■". ^
' -\7.... .  ■ '■
■■^K .      t.'. 7 :■■'.-.•■■ ■■/■ ".    ■
' .'. .-7"7-:;-- :J- :■ ;:':   "': '■■;:   :..: 7 -,-7.-. ;   : ;
^^flHBB^i '              ■■.-..■> *              :; .<„* k ^'v.7'^
^;ks^&s*Mff
.■■■■•"jdKiflWlilHl
*ȣ*.^
S2&
Site of proposed Moran Dam, looking down-stream.
The " Organ Pipes " from west side of Fraser River. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 69
helicopter for four years as a medium of transport, and this year is the first that we have
had any major mechanical troubles. Although one machine was wrecked sufficiently to
force its replacement, no one was injured and only a few days were lost. However, the
incident once again places emphasis on the desirability of using two helicopters. Actually
we tried to charter two for this operation, but the company could not supply us due to its
many commitments. Again, as last year, I would recommend that our helicopters be
Government-owned. This year the charter company supplied us with two pilots. This
enabled us to fly the maximum hours, due to the elimination of pilot-fatigue. It must be
noted that the surveyor in charge reported the company men lacked the interest and
enthusiasm of our own personnel, another point in favour of using our own flying crews
and machines, and emphasizing the fact that the larger the operation the more difficult
the administration.
All the triangulation parties this year were equipped with a topographic camera and
took photographs from every station occupied. Great stress was laid on station identification on the air photos, and low-level views were taken of each signal or cairn to aid in this
very important phase of making every station occupied a first-class control-point. The
party in the vicinity of Tweedsmuir Park used seaplanes exclusively for major transportation and completed three times the normal work at very little extra cost. A Government-
owned Beaver, as recommended last year, would have cut the cost far below a standard
party as operated in the past using horses for transport. This area was ideal for planes,
there being numerous lakes well situated to make this the perfect test area for such an
operation.
Our draughting office reports fifty-eight complete and four part half-sheet manuscripts
inked, with eighteen of this total ready for shipment to Ottawa to be lithographed. The
remainder need only a day or two to complete when the Geographic Division check has
been made. This year has seen the completion of many of the backlog of manuscripts
built up over the previous two or three years when neither the field section nor draughting
office was able to complete the year's quota due to the training of personnel. The
disappearance of this backlog is proof that both sections are now functioning near to
capacity.
In April, C. R. W. Leak obtained his commission as a British Columbia Land
Surveyor. V. C. Goudal passed his preliminary and became an articled pupil. We will
have candidates in both examinations next year.
A detailed report from each chief of party follows.
TRIANGULATION-CONTROL SURVEY OF PAVILION-CHURN CREEK AREA
W. R. Young, B.C.L.S.
I undertook a triangulation survey of part of the Fraser River, from approximately
latitude 50° 52' in the vicinity of Pavilion to latitude 51° 28' near Churn Creek a few
miles south of the mouth of the Chilcotin River.
The purpose was to establish control by means of permanently marked fixed points
on both sides of the river for the Water Rights Branch, who are conducting a mapping
programme in connection with a proposed dam to be built at Moran, just north of
Pavilion.
The Water Rights survey is of a detailed nature and it was proposed, metaphorically,
to hang their work on the skeleton as fixed by this triangulation.
This control network was extended over slightly more than 50 miles of the Fraser
River and thirty-eight triangulation stations were occupied, the northerly stations being
tied to two of my own stations established in 1950 and, in addition, several ties to
intermediate stations of former years being made.
It was hoped to be able to establish all control at approximately 1,600 feet elevation,
which would be just above the flood-line behind the proposed dam, and an attempt was BB 70
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
X& Ck
Fig. 1. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 71
made to do this. It was found, however, that it was not possible to follow this plan
without including numerous weak figures in the triangulation system. Consequently, most
stations were established at higher elevations, with one or two of necessity lower, the
average height being approximately 1,850 feet, which is between 800 and 1,000 feet above
the river.
Generally speaking, the Fraser River itself is not navigable within this area; there
are three canyons, the High Bar, the Chisholm, and the French Bar; also at the site of the
proposed dam there is an obstruction known as Moran Rock; and a few miles up-stream
from the dam-site there have been two rock-slides, one on each side of the river and
opposite each other, greatly constricting the flow of water. This year the Water Rights
party had a 30-foot boat with a 22-horsepower outboard and they found it to be
inadequate. They were able to line the boat past Moran Rock but were stopped completely at the rock-slides. The boat was then trucked from Pavilion to Big Bar and run
down-stream to below High Bar and Chisholm Canyons at low water. It was also taken
through the French Bar Canyon at low water but was stopped by the rapids at the upper
end, and while these rapids could probably have been navigated at high water, then at
that time the canyon itself would definitely have been unnavigable.
The lower benches of the river are, for the most part, used under ownership or lease
by the bigger cattle companies as winter range, say about 40 per cent; Indian reserves
comprise roughtly 20 per cent; and the remaining 40 per cent is made up by smaller
ranches and some Crown lands. At present, many of the smaller ranches are either
abandoned or not being brought to full productiveness due to a variety of reasons. The
principal one is without a doubt a lack of water for irrigation, either because water is
scarce or because the cost of maintaining long flumes and ditches is greater than any
possible returns from the property. Once irrigation is discontinued the land soon becomes
arid and desert-like, since the original cover of bunch-grass and wormwood has been
removed. On the west side of the river, many of the abandoned or partly worked ranches
can be accounted for by their inaccessibility. Owners, more particularly the Indians, who
expected their families to stay and take over from them are finding that the attractions of
steady wages and the amenities of the towns are proving too strong; consequently, as the
parents grow older they can no longer maintain their farms in full production without help.
Most of the banks and lower benches of this stretch of the river are composed of fine
river silt with, in some places, an overlay of gravel and clay. With irrigation, this soil can
be made very productive, and with the building of the proposed dam and a power-station
added a very different outlook would be presented to land-holders in the area. In fact,
with water raised close to the level of the benches and cheap power available for pumping,
the situation could arise whereby all the land would be considered too valuable for
cattle-raising.
The amount of erosion taking place at present is alarming; flash floods and annual
spring freshets take a heavy toll irt the areas of silt and clay soil, large gullies become larger
with resultant caving of their banks, and new gullies are continually being formed. It is
doubtful though if this situation would be remedied by the building of a dam, in fact it
might be worsened. As the water behind a dam rose there would be a tendency as the
clay and silt banks became saturated for them to slough badly, and previous years of
extreme high water have shown that such sloughing could reach land-slide proportions.
This particular section of the Fraser Valley has considerable scenic attraction; the
river lies in a deep trench with, as has been mentioned, three canyons. The valley is
steep-sided and sparsely timbered to within approximately 2,000 feet of the water,
relieved in places by some spectacular rock bluffs and cliffs and cut by deep gorges of
tributary streams. From the water up to the beginning of the timber the general
impression is of open terraces covered in part by bunch-grass, ideal for grazing, and partly
by wormwood, sage-brush, and other rough growth. Vine maple, Saskatoon bushes,
choke-cherries, and brier roses grow near the springs and close to the water with a BB 72
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
scattering of poplar and cottonwood here and there, and in the early summer flowering
cactus and mariposa lilies make a: splash of colour to relieve the general Dry Belt sameness.
Due to varying densities in the underlying formations, where erosion has been most
active it has resulted in cliffs and battlements of fantastic irregularity, and occasionally
vari-coloured pigments increase to realistic proportions the illusion of a miniature Grand
Canyon of the Colorado.
TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY OF BOWSER LAKE TO TELEGRAPH CREEK
G. C. Emerson, B.C.L.S., D.L.S.
Instructions were to continue the survey north from my 1950 area in the general
direction of Telegraph Creek, comprising Map-sheets 104 A/11 (WVi), 104 A/12,
104 A/13 (W*4), 104 B/16, 104 G/l, 104 G/8, 104 G/9, 104 G/14, 104 G/15,
104 G/16, 104 H/12 (W1^), and 104 H/13 (WV4).
13130'
130°3o'
130oo'     129 45'
58 oo'
5745
WESTERN
HIGHWAY
ROUTE
jBcnvserLake   57 is
to
Telegraph
Creek,
56°45'
130%o'
5645'
56ao'
56°30'
Fig. 2.
B0'»'to*5^9W       J2SS-' SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 73
We completed 10 map-sheets covering approximately 3,200 square miles.
In order to accomplish this momentous task, we operated eight instrument-crews
using a helicopter for mountain transportation. During the season, of ninety-three days'
duration, we occupied 325 stations, including sixteen triangulation quadrilaterals. Each
map-sheet therefore had at least twenty-five stations within its perimeter, giving ideal
control for our slotted-templet photographic plot.
The same system of operation was used this year as in 1950, except that twice as
many crews were employed. Our main camp was moved seven times from lake to lake
at about ten-day intervals, the time depending on the weather. These transfers were done
by a Queen Charlotte Airlines Norseman and conveyance involved about 8,000 pounds of
food, equipment, and personnel. The helicopter was again chartered from Okanagan Air
Services with two pilots and one engineer. Although this contract was successful, their
personnel lacked the personal interest and enthusiasm of our own men. From this year's
experience, four conclusions have been reached, namely: When operating more than 50
miles from civilization, one helicopter is insufficient from a standpoint of personnel
safety; helicopters should be Government-owned; 300-hour checks should not be
undertaken during a field season utilizing one machine only; the float-service plane should
be owned and operated by the Provincial Government.
Historical
Telegraph Creek, on the Stikine River, is the largest white settlement in this area and
consists of two Indian sections and the business or white area. Fifty years ago all the
white people lived at the then thriving village of Glenora, 16 miles down river. In 1898,
Glenora, a thirty-five-saloon town (the way of expressing size in those days), was a
jumping-off place for prospectors, but to-day there are only two houses left of this village.
Telegraph Creek, as the name implies, was the centre for the Dominion Government
telegraph-line which ran between Hazelton and Telegraph Creek. The history of this
line is included in the 1949 Annual Report.
Physical Features and Access
The area includes the majority of the Bell-Irving and Iskut Rivers and portions of
the Stikine River and tributary streams.
Proceeding northerly from Bowser Lake along the Bell-Irving River, the valley floor
is level and narrow with large tributary streams entering at right angles. The slopes on
either side of the valley are very steep and terminate in jagged glacial peaks at 7,500 to
8,000 feet elevation. Progressing northerly over the Ningunsaw River summit to the
Iskut River, the valley broadens to 10 or 15 miles with an undulating floor and numerous
creeks, each running in deep canyons. The adjoining mountains are very rugged with
razor ridges, each mountain range being capped with at least one glacier. From Kinaskan
Lake north the eastern and central portions of the area are flat or evenly sloped peaks
which apparently were leveled off by glacial action. These plateaux are about 7,000 feet
in elevation and provide an excellent grazing area for wild sheep. On the westerly side
of the valley the rugged mountains continue to the Stikine River. Mount Edziza, about 30
miles south-east of Telegraph Creek, is an extinct volcano with many satellite cones.
This area is very isolated, and without a seaplane it would be extremely difficult to
visit. Several large lakes, such as Bowser, Tiegen, Bobquinn, Kinaskan, Eddontenajon,
Nuttlude, and Buckley, are excellent landing-places for such planes. It is possible to
navigate the Stikine, Iskut, and Bell-Irving Rivers, but in recent years very few have made
any attempt to do so. The great canyon of the Stikine and a waterfall near the Iskut
source limit navigation. Below the Stikine canyon, large river-boats ply the waters from
the mouth as far as Telegraph Creek, which is the only settlement in the area mapped this
season. BB 74
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Topographic Survey
Bowser Lake-Telegraph Creek Area
Telegraph Creek.
Iskut Valley, Bob Quinn Lake in centre. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 75
The summer route to Telegraph Creek is by way of Wrangell, Alaska, and the Stikine
River. Wrangell, near the mouth of the Stikine, is reached in two and one-half days by
steamship from Vancouver. Well-equipped river-boats maintained by Ritchie Transportation Company make weekly trips from Wrangell to Telegraph Creek, a distance of
146 miles. The trip up-stream is made in two or three days depending on the stage of the
river; down-stream usually is a one-day trip. Boat service on the river is maintained
from about the middle of May until October.
Geology
No important mineral deposits have been found in the area and few prospects are
known. The ultimate possibilities are difficult to assess. The lava effectively masks any
mineral deposits that might be in the underlying rocks, and it itself will be devoid of
metallic mineral deposits.
Partial Bibliography
Bostock, H. S.: Geological Survey of Canada, Memoir 247, 1948.
Kerr, F. A.: Geological Survey of Canada, Memoir 246, 1948.
Buckham, A. F.:  Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 16, 1950.
(See Dr. S. S. Holland, Department of Mines)
Climate and Vegetation
Although this area has been inhabited by white settlers for three-quarters of a
century, there is very little recorded data on'annual precipitation. The information contained herein has been obtained from Indians who trap this area and telegraph linemen,
some of whom spent thirty-five years plodding up and down this route. These meagre
facts pertain to the valley-floor rather than the mountains, as the latter slopes receive at
least twice as much moisture as the trough throughout the whole of this area.
At Bowser Lake a reasonable estimate is 100 inches annual precipitation and this
decreases to 13 inches at Telegraph Creek. The wipter snowfall follows the same pattern,
and at the summit, near Nuttlude Lake, 2 feet is a maximum fall of snow.
Frosts occur until early in June and begin again any time after the first of September.
Temperatures reach 85 degrees in the summer and 60 degrees below zero in winter.
About 40 per cent of this area is covered with trees and shrubs while the remaining
60 per cent, being above timber-line (4,800 feet), is barren. Spruce, pine, and cottonwood comprise the majority of this growth with birch and aspen-poplar in lesser quantities.
The underbrush is dense and consists mostly of berry-bushes. Huckleberries, blueberries,
soapalallies, raspberries, strawberries, black and red currents, high-bush cranberries, and
gooseberries are plentiful.   Wild flowers are plentiful throughout the whole area.
Wild Life
This is one of the few areas in British Columbia that abounds in game. One species,
grizzly bear, was definitely in excess.
Numerous game birds were seen throughout the whole area. These included ducks,
geese, grouse (Franklin, willow, and blue), spruce-partridge (fool-hen), and ptarmigan
(white-tail, rock, and willow). During August the bald eagles make their appearance to
feast on the migrating salmon.
Proceeding northerly from Bowser Lake a few goats and grizzly bears roam the
mountain-tops. Approaching Tiegen Lake area the bears become more plentiful and
continue in abundance to Kinaskan Lake. From here northerly, mountain-sheep (Dall
and Stone intermixed) are seen for the first time. Moose become more plentiful here also.
Further north, beyond Eddontenajon Lake, caribou were seen in small numbers. Westerly
to Telegraph Creek there are a few goat, sheep, and moose, but owing to the proximity to
habitation will never be plentiful. BB 76 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Bobquinn, Kinaskan, and Eddontenajon Lakes and adjacent areas are indeed a
hunter's paradise. These three lakes are teeming with rainbow, cut-throat, and Kamloops
trout reaching a maximum of 1714 inches and two pounds.
In addition to the animals mentioned, wolves, black bear, coyotes, mule deer, porcupine, lemming, mice, whistlers, marmots, chipmunks, and squirrels (red and Columbia
ground) were in evidence. Several years ago, trapping was a very important industry in
this area but at present it is on the decline.
Development
As the purpose of this survey is to map a proposed highway route, our work is the
most important development in recent years. Should this road become a reality, it will
improve the accessibility greatly and would possibly open up this valley to mining activities. This area has been prospected since 1873, primarily for gold, and a highway may
pave the way for new activity. This would, however, completely eliminate the American-
hunter trade, which is extremely prosperous at the present time. This area is well known
as a hunter's paradise but it will not improve with access; lack of access is the reason
game is so plentiful.   Ranching, farming, and truck-gardening will never be of importance.
Sustained-yield lumbering is a definite possibility, with or without access. This valley
is well covered with timber and water power is available at several places. One waterfall
on the Iskut River, below Kinaskan Lake, is capable of producing 100,000 horse-power.
TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY OF WILLIAMS LAKE AREA
D. J. Roy, B.C.L.S., D.L.S., B.Sc.C.E.
The survey work this season is sufficient to enable compilation of the three Map-
sheets, 92 0/9, 92 0/16, and 93 B/l.
The area is one of moderate relief, not ordinarily adapted to the photo-topographic
approach. However, the large open areas of bunch-grass and scattered fir-trees were very
photogenic from even low hills. The requirements of horizontal control were largely filled
through the medium of triangulation. Dependent on a main quadrilateral of four points,
some seventy-five secondary stations were propagated throughout the area, which encompassed approximately 1,100 square miles. The number of positions permanently marked
with either standard pipe or rock posts was twenty-two. Several miles of third-order
traverse for horizontal control was run with ties to triangulation points.
Vertical control will be obtained from terrestrial photographs and barometric elevations. Of the latter, there are approximately 900 points identified on vertical photographs
and integrated as to form a veritable web of control. Datum for vertical control is
provided by connection with four previously fixed main and geodetic stations.
Cadastral surveys in the area, which are in a fair state of preservation, were strengthened by connection of seven corners to our triangulation scheme. Six of the corners were
marked by standard pipe posts.
Following instructions, we placed several rock posts along the banks of the Fraser
River to be available for future surveys by the Water Rights Branch. The weakest of our
triangulation conforms to the requirements of good mapping at required scale.
Physical Features and Access
The area is divided from north to south by the valley of the Fraser River, to which all
drainage flows. The trench of the river is relatively narrow and precipitous. It is entered
on either side by valleys equally narrow and precipitous at their mouths, examples of the
latter being Churn Creek, Dog Creek, Chilcotin River, and Chimney Creek. Much of the
area of Sheets 92 0/9 and 92 0/16 is rolling plateau-like, at a general level close to 3,500
feet, characterized by open areas of bunch-grass and scattered fir.   The plateau gives way SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
BB 77
5215'
5130'
122 oo'
Fig. 3. BB 78 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
to ridges of limestone, such as the Springhouse Hills and Dog Creek Dome, which rise to
a height between 4,500 and 5,000 feet. The growth of solid timber which covers the
ridges extends well down onto the plateau as a general rule. To the east of the area a
broad gently rolling area of jack-pine extends.
The upper parts of the banks of the Fraser River are in general very steep; however,
much of the lower portions are characterized by uniformly sloping river benches. The
benches are deeply cut by erosion but are nevertheless useful as grazing areas and for the
growing of feed. Many of the creek-bottoms are likewise tillable and irrigable, becoming
sufficiently broad and smooth as they leave the Fraser. Typical examples are Chimney
Creek, Dog Creek, and Alkali Creek.
Access to the area is provided by several routes. Williams Lake Village, on the main
highway to the north, is the radiating-point for many local roads. Of the latter, there are
two main routes. One leads south to Dog Creek, from where a very spectacular road
proceeds to the Gang Ranch Bridge, which crosses the Fraser, giving access to the ranch
and Empire Valley to the South. Dog Creek is directly connected to Clinton via Canoe
Creek or Dog Creek itself. The first-mentioned alternative is strictly a jeep-road. The
other main route crosses the Fraser near Chimney Creek and proceeds west to Riske
Creek and beyond.
Multitudes of old wagon-roads criss-cross the area, and by jeep one may penetrate
to almost any point.
The general rolling plateau continues on into Sheet 93 B/l, being broken by
Meldrum Creek, Williams Lake Creek, and Chimney Creek. A typical limestone ridge is
Bull Mountain. Areas of open bunch-grass cover give way to solid timber. East of the
Fraser are many local roads as well as the Pacific Great Eastern Railway. West of the
Fraser, settlement is less dense and the chief road runs north to Meldrum Creek post-office,
thence along the west side of the river to Soda Creek ferry.
Two airports serve this region. Regular calls are made by Canadian Pacific Airlines
to handle mail and passenger traffic at Williams Lake. Dog Creek has an auxiliary field,
with Range and Meteorology Stations maintained by the Department of Transport. Aircraft of the various charter companies serving the remote backwoods frequently come in
to Williams Lake seaplane berth.   Williams Lake is served by regular rail and bus service.
Climate and Vegetation
The climate of the Interior plateau is described as continental. The Coast Mountains
act as a' barrier to eastward movement of maritime influences, leaving the plateau both cold
and dry. Protection from occasional thrusts westward of continental air from the Great
Plains is provided by the Columbia Mountains to the east. No such protection exists to
the north and frequent invasions of cold polar air from the Yukon high-pressure centre are
felt.
The altitude, 3,500 to 4,000 feet, brings danger of unseasonable frost, so cultivation
is confined to the lowlands where frost-free periods are much longer; even so, temperature
inversions will occur due to topographic irregularities.
Temperature and precipitation records are not very comprehensive. July temperatures through the Cariboo-Chilcotin uplands average 58 to 64 degrees. Daily ranges are
high and may go to 90° F. at 3,000 feet. January averages for the Williams Lake station
have been 21° F., in severe winter conditions the mercury registering —50° F. Precipitation for the area is from 13 to 14 inches; somewhat less than 50 per cent occurs in the
form of snow. The maximum summer precipitation is in June, the critical time for growth
of range grasses and for crops.
Vegetation on open areas and river-benches is chiefly bunch-grass, wormwood, and
scattered fir. Poplar groves are of frequent occurrence, while the ubiquitous lodgepole
pine is much in evidence. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
BB 79
Topographic Survey
..........................
Williams Lake Area
Williams
Lake.
Slotted-templet assembly. BB 80 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Game
The immediate area is of little interest to hunters, although it verges on big-game
country. Coyotes are plentiful, while more to the north bear are commonly seen. Of
interest are the many beautiful pheasants in Alkali Valley. They were established there
by a former rancher. Pelicans in large numbers were seen on Alkali Lake, although they
did not appear to be nesting there.
Historical and Development
" The Cariboo " designates in the minds of most British Columbians an ill-defined
portion of the Province once replete with cowboys, gold-miners, and other adjuncts of
romantic adventure. The history of the Cariboo is studded with stories, which date from
the gold-rush and subsequent years when the horse-packer and wagon-freighter were the
chief means of communication and transport. To-day the Cariboo retains, as a legacy of
the past, much of the spirit of the frontier.
The story of the impetus to development of the interior of British Columbia by the
discovery of gold is well known. Much of the traffic into the country was of a transient
nature, but many people were quick to see possibilities in the vast stretches of open range
country south of Williams Lake. Thus, in the late eighties the Harper brothers entered
commercial beef production. Their exploits are a part of the Cariboo story and their old
Gang Ranch is one of the largest in the Province. Many individuals whose names appear
on early water and land records took up the easily irrigable bottom-lands, running cattle
on the open bunch-grass country. Names of many original settlers have been given to
watercourses and their descendants are still living in the area.
Most of the grazing land is now consolidated in the hands of the larger ranching
concerns; cattle is big business. The area is well adapted to the raising of cattle and in
this respect the resources are being most efficiently used. The natural range provides the
great source of feed in spring and summer while lower benches of the Fraser provide late
fall and some winter feed. The hay-crop, so necessary, is dependent on availability of
irrigation water. Barely a creek flows from which water is not tapped for irrigation
purposes, reserves being built up behind small dams.
Early surveyors reported lush bunch-grass growing knee-deep over large tracts; today this is not commonplace. The natural ability of the land to produce feed is bem**
taxed, and it is the opinion of the writer that future generations will be obliged to recognize
the necessity for conservation measures if sustained yield is to be maintained.
The northern portion of the area runs to solid timber and small sawmills are located
throughout the region, prices being high and the industry profitable. Most of the timber
cut is fir of export quality. Located in the town of Williams Lake are several planer-mills.
Here again the problem of the future is likely to be that of sustained yield. Much of the
lodgepole pine of the Interior plateau will likely find its place in the pulp-wood industry
in time to come.
Williams Lake serves as the central distribution and collection point for the surrounding area. There are several garages, wholesale houses, and equipment and oil-
supply firms servicing the lumber and cattle industries, both of which are very much
mechanized.
Several lesser points of supply are of historic interest as examples of the older Interior
settlements. One is Dog Creek, a stopping-place on the old river trail north to the gold
areas and site of one of the earliest flour-mills to supply the demands of the miners.
It should be mentioned that there are very few successful dry farmers in the area;
one establishment on Chimney Creek produces potatoes on a commercial scale. Given
water an amazing array of garden produce and fruit could be grown, but there are few
if any commercial operations in this direction. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
BB 81
TRIANGULATION-CONTROL SURVEY OF TWEEDSMUIR PARK AREA
A. F. Swannell, B.C.L.S.
This summer's field work makes a sound connection between the geodetic triangulation net in the vicinity of Houston and triangulation station Baldface and Downton, the
two northerly stations of A. C. Pollard's 1946 net, which was extended from geodetic
positions Narcosli and Dome in the vicinity of Williams Lake.
Fig. 4.
A triangulation tie was made to link up the Tunnel survey of the Alcan project at
Tahtsa Lake.
In all, this comprises some 200 miles of triangulation, composed of fifteen quadrilaterals inclusive of the actual tie-in to the geodetic stations Grouse and Morice, which was
accomplished by E. R. McMinn.
At each station occupied a complete horizon round of photographs was taken. On
these pictures, all stations visible are identified for future reference. Also, where possible,
the position of stations was marked on air photographs. For identification purposes, low-
altitude stereoscopic pairs of pictures were taken from a plane with a K-20 camera.   With BB 82 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
this information available any future mapping or expansion from the net will have a good
skeleton of data from which to work.
The method of travel used to cover this vast country was novel, at least to this
department; seaplanes being used entirely for obtaining proximity to the stations. The
country lends itself most satisfactorily to seaplane operation, with its myriads of lakes both
large and small.
Our base camp and supply-point was at Burns Lake, at which centre the Central B.C.
Airways had an operation base where a Beaver and Junkers aircraft were stationed, and
towards the end of our season a second Beaver aircraft.
Typically, one of the three-man crews would leave headquarters with the necessary
paraphernalia for a fly trip—bedrolls, clothing, instruments, two weeks' supply of provisions, and a Forestry portable radio—landing on some lake, large or small, which was
handy to the station to be occupied. On the plane's departure, a cache was made of excess
food and the radio, and the men would back-pack into position, the average distance being
6 miles, the longest 12.
On completing the station the party would return to their cache, and by radio contact
the Forestry station at Burns Lake, through which the plane was notified.
History
Alexander Mackenzie, in his exploratory venture of 1793, was the first white man
to see this country. On his trek across country from the Fraser River to Bella Coola, he
followed up the West Road River trail and on July 14th, 1793, was camped at Eliguk
Lake.
Next mention of the white man is in the early 1870's. It comprised a location survey
party of the Canadian Pacific Railway which camped at Qualcho Lake. Dr. Dawson, in
his travels of 1876, also visited this lake. In 1875, another Canadian Pacific Railway
engineer, Charles Horetsky, investigated the Kemano Pass as a possible route to the coast.
These ventures touched only the perimeter of the park. Apart, perhaps, from some
Hudson's Bay Company men, it was not until September, 1895, that Father Morice
explored and mapped the Great Circle route. Considering his crude equipment—a
chronometer, telemeter, a compass, and barometer—his map is remarkable. F. C.
Swannell, in 1910, was the next known to circumnavigate the route. Later, in the 1920's,
he more accurately mapped the area.
Tweedsmuir Park was gazetted on May 21st, 1938, and contains 3,456,000 acres.
The first settlement in the vicinity was about 1904 on the north shore of Ootsa Lake.
Topography
The drainage pattern of Tweedsmuir Park converges into the Nechako River and
flows to the east. To the west, from this low point within the Great Circle route, the
country is undulating and rises to an alpine plateau. The profile of this incline is linear in
its evenness. Fifty miles west of the Nechako it reaches its apex at the Quanchus Range,
a maximum elevation of 7,500 feet. This range lies north and south, consisting of five
main peaks—namely, Wells, Tweedsmuir, Michel, Wells Gray, and Eutsuk. The trend
of the land then declines over open country, then through timber to the Whitesail River
and Lake and Eutsuk Lake.
This area within the Great Circle route contains approximately 1,300 square miles.
Generally it is pine country and is sprinkled with numerous small lakes and swamps;
within the Quanchus Range are lakes up to 10 miles in length.
From Whitesail and Eutsuk Lakes and to the extreme west of the park the country
enters the Coast Range, which is spurred to the east of the main range by the Chikamin
and Whitesail Ranges and the Sibola Mountains. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Triangulation Survey
Tweedsmuir Park Area
BB 83
Tesla Lake and
Rhine Crag. BB 84 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
This mountainous country attains an even-appearing sky-line of approximately 7,000
feet elevation, with an occasional mountain-mass rising to 9,000 feet, exemplified by
Tsaydaychuz and Mount Atna.
On the east the park is bounded by the Fawnie Range. The country within the park
is rolling and pine-covered as far south as the Rainbow Range and Ilgachuz and Itcha
Mountains, which are of volcanic origin.
Glaciation has a pronounced effect on the topography of the country, evidenced by
the rounding of projecting rocks and the polished surfaces on even the highest slopes,
which are rounded and planed off. Alpine glaciers on the mountains are still active and
glacial deposits and erosion were noticed in the valleys.
Ootsa, Nalalkluz, Entiako, Euchu, and Tetachuck Lakes of the main water-system
lay outside the mountainous area, Eutsuk and Whitesail Lakes partially outside, while
Tesla, Troitsa, and Tahtsa Lakes are entirely within the Coast Mountains.
Accessibility
Burns Lake, on the northern line of the Canadian National Railway, is the " Gateway
to Tweedsmuir Park." Passing through Burns Lake also is Provincial Highway No. 16,
connecting Prince George and Prince Rupert.
South from Burns Lake a good gravel road runs to Francois Lake then follows
westerly along the north shore of the lake. This year, in connection with the Alcan project, this road was produced to Tahtsa Lake, via Nadina and Twinkle Lakes, to enable the
construction company to transport into Tahtsa Lake the heavy machinery and equipment
to be used in driving the tunnel through to Kemano.
A Government ferry gives hourly service during the summer months across Francois
Lake to Southbank on the southern shore of the lake. From here a road runs southerly
to Ootsa Lake then follows its northern shore westerly and circles back to Francois Lake
at its western end.
At Ootsa Lake, facilities such as pack-trains and boats are available for the tourist,
hunter, or fisherman.
Formerly accessibility into the park was confined to the waterways and trails. From
Ootsa Lake, Whitesail and Eutsuk Lakes are readily entered by boat by way of Sinclair
Lake and Whitesail River. There is a portage of 1 mile between Whitesail Lake and
Eutsuk Lake. Alternately, Eutsuk Lake may be entered by way of Tetachuck, Euchu,
and Natalkluz Lakes, a stretch of river, Intata Lake, and again a short stretch of river
flowing from Ootsa Lake. The obstruction to this route is the Tetachuck cascades and
rapids.   In all, this gives the unique Great Circle route 200 miles of waterways.
The flat southern reaches of Tweedsmuir Park may be entered by trail from Bella
Coola. A cattle-trail from Anahim Lake following up Corkscrew Creek thence between
Ilgachuz and Itcha Mountains connecting with the West Road River trail.
Access may be gained to within a few miles of any place within the park by seaplane.
The Central B. C. Airways Ltd. have modern aircraft based at Prince George, Burns Lake,
Terrace, and Kemano, with direct connection to Vancouver.
Forest Cover
In the drier plateau lands the predominant species of timber are pine and spruce.
Near the countless meadows, swamps, and lakes which dot the terrain, cottonwood,
poplar, and willow are found.
Numerous fires in the past have scarred the pine forests and left a mass of burn and
windfall in their wake. In the regions untouched by fires, travelling is good as there is no
underbrush; here no berries are found.
With the wetter climate of the mountains, coastal species such as hemlock, Engleman
spruce, balsam, alder, and cottonwood take over. Among these trees, in places, heavy
underbrush is encountered—alder, salmonberry, high-bush cranberry, and devil's-club. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 85
Mining
Activity dates back to 1914, when a number of small quartz veins were discovered on
Sibola Mountain.   Lead and zinc claims were staked here in 1915.
Showings of zinc at the foot of Chikamin Mountain were found in 1916 and two years
later, higher up on Chikamin Mountain, silver-lead showings were discovered. Further
discoveries of silver-lead and zinc were made on Swing Peak at Tahtsa Lake in 1927.
The Emerald group on Sweeney Mountain, optioned on two occasions, this year
again started operations and shipments of high-grade ore were made. I understand the
values of this ore ranged from $250 to $900 a ton.
This area, in the past, has been remote from transportation facilities but with the
construction of the road into East Tahtsa Lake presumably more activity will take place.
References: Geological Survey Summary Report, Parts A, 1920, 1924, 1925, and
the Annual Report, Minister of Mines, 1945.
Game
This is a big-game country and fish too are a lure for the sportsman. Moose and
grizzly bear are the attractions for the big-game hunter. Moose infiltrated into the country
in numbers since the turn of the century. Cariboo once grazed in countless numbers on
the high plateau. These were unmercifully slaughtered to near extinction by the Indians.
This year we encountered a band of thirty-four cariboo—nine cows each with a calf and
the remainder bulls—the most seen in the area for some time.
Goat were seen twice only, a herd of some three dozen being observed on Nadina
Mountain. Strangely, while watching this herd a wolverine attacked one of the goat.
There are no sheep.
Deer seem confined to the high reaches of the Fawnie Range. In the winter, snow
drives them lower into the valleys.
Other animals seen were squirrels, hoary marmots, chipmunks, and a few rabbits;
the latter once thrived in the vicinity. Beaver, as can be imagined because of the many
lakes and sloughs, were once plentiful but none were seen and no fresh cutting was
observed; apparently they are trapped out.
Wolves and coyotes are on the increase from reports. Throughout the area many
birds were noticed—pippets. chickadees, swifts, Clarke's nutcrackers, Canada jays, hawks,
ravens, owls, and whisky jacks to mention a few.
Grouse were fairly plentiful, mostly Franklin and Ruffed. A few Blue grouse were
flushed.   Ptarmisan confined themselves to above timberline as is their habit.
On every lake-shore were eagles and sandpipers. Each lake had loons as habitues
and early fall saw the arrival of ducks and geese.
Nearly every lake and river is well stocked with fish—rainbow trout, Dolly Varden,
and char, and, as less desirable catches, sucker and squawfish.
Weather
The Coast Mountains barrier to the west causes the moisture to drop and as the
Interior plateau is reached precipitation is much lighter. Wistaria, on Ootsa Lake, has an
annual precipitation of only 18.02 inches.
Snowfall on the flats within the mountains is reported to be 12 to 14 feet, at the
eastern end of Whitesail Lake 7 feet, and on the plateau only 3 to 4 feet.
The prevailing westerly wind causes heavy seas on the large lakes which run in a
west-east direction. These winds responsible for bringing in the moisture-laden clouds
from the Pacific, which, after leaving the Coast Mountains, tend to rise and just catch the
peaks of the Quanchus Range after which they disperse entirely.
This year, from June 1 st to mid-September, we had twenty-seven days on which rain
fell. Numerous thunder-storms were experienced, one in mid-August being more or less
continuous for four days. BB 86 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
There are few summer frosts. Only once, on the night of July 24th, did we have
frost, but we were camped at 6,900 feet.
Weather records at Wistaria: Average precipitation, twenty-five-year period, 18.02
inches; average temperature, twenty-five-year period, 37° F.; extreme temperatures in
1950, 47° below zero in January, 85° above in June.
Industry and the Alcan Project
This country in the past was dependent on fur, and to the north of Ootsa Lake mixed
farming, ranching, and tie-cutting. In the summer, guiding for tourists and hunting
parties proved a source of income for many inhabitants.
Within the last few years, because of the high price of lumber, numerous small sawmills have operated, and at Burns Lake planer-mills now give employment to many.
This year, with the commencement of construction of the Alcan project and the
building of the access road to Tahtsa Lake, Burns Lake, the distributing point, was really
booming. Accommodation was impossible to obtain and many men bivouacked in the
woods around the town.
The Alcan project will affect the country greatly. With the completion of the dam
at Nechako River a dozen of the larger lakes and many small ones will combine to form
one huge reservoir. Ootsa Lake will be raised 130 to 140 feet. This vast reservoir of
water, which now flows out via the Nechako River to the Fraser, will be partially diverted
and spilled through a twenty-five-foot-diameter tunnel, 10 miles to Kemano River, thence
to salt water.
In addition to the waters of the Great Circle route, Kidprice Lake will be backed up
to Nanika Lake, and this water will be conducted through a tunnel to Tahtsa Lake to
augment the already vast reservoir.
The power-house at Kemano will be a huge underground plant ultimately producing
1,600,000 horse-power. This power will be carried over a 49-mile transmission-line to
an aluminium smelter to be built at Kitimat.
Unfortunately, the project will mean a shift of the small settlements at Ootsa Lake.
Fish in the lakes, an attraction for the tourist, may be affected adversely.
TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY OF HOUSTON AREA
E. R. McMinn, B.A., B.A.Sc.
This season's work in the Bulkley Valley was to establish ground control for Map-
sheets 93 L/10 (EVi), 93 L/9, 93 L/8, 93 L/7; in July further instructions were received to control Map-sheet 93 L/2, a total area of 1,600 square miles. These sheets are
to be plotted at a scale of one-half mile to 1 inch with 100-foot contours. We were also
instructed to occupy stations connecting with A. F. Swannell's triangulation net.
Field Work
Planning of the season's work began in May. On the air pictures every prominent
feature was marked, and from these a sufficient number of pictures and (or) control
points were selected to give a templet-control point ratio of 7 to 1—a mean decided from
the Saddle Lake tests and Trorey's formula. These points were to be cut in as triangles
from our triangulation or geodetic stations. Mountain trips which required a food-drop
or which could be done by a party landed at a near-by lake were discussed. Routes and
travel-times were noted for each station and every station was named. We were thus able
to identify stations by name when we first arrived in the area.
Within the first week the main cairns and beacons on Grouse, Morice, Caesar, China,
Black, and Boo were erected. The successive days were spent doing camera stations in
fine weather, exploring roads, finding lot corners, or running barometer trips on dull days. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
BB 87
Fig. 5.
Elevations were taken from four Canadian National Railway bench-marks from Barrett
to Rose Lake. Six assigned lot corners plus four additional corners were tied to our
triangulation and replaced by concreted pipe posts. In about ninety climbs, seventy-four
stations were occupied; thirty-six of the new stations were marked by brass bolts. Four
stations of A. F. Swannell's 1951 triangulation were occupied and positions of ten stations
were supplied to M. E. Nidd, of the Dominion Topographic Survey, who was working in
the Endako-Decker Lake area. Along all the roads and trails 300 barometer points were
read.
By the end of July, after seven' weeks of good weather, the three and a half map-sheets
were completed, when orders were received to control Map-sheet 93 L/2, which borders BB 88 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
on Francois Lake and Nadina River. Three parties, each with a four-wheel-drive vehicle
and three weeks' food, left camp on August 16th; one took the old Telegraph Trail, the
second the Owen Lake Trail, and the third went in west from Francois Lake.
The remaining jobs—the re-occupation of Grouse, Caesar, Morice, China, and
Nadina for our own purposes and for the Swannell triangulation, and various lot-corner
traverses—took the rest of August. We returned to Victoria on September 6th, having
covered 16,000 miles by jeep during the season.
This 1951 summer will surely be referred to as the year of the good weather for many
to come. Only one small forest fire occurred in the area and, having infra-red film, we
were not troubled by the usual summer haze.
Access
The area is served by Highway 16, an all-weather gravel road, and by the Canadian
National Railway,
All of the trails and logging-roads, old and new, were more usable this summer, but
in rainy periods they are impassable. The Babine Road from Topley is extremely rough
but passable. The Owen Lake and Telegraph Trail Roads south of Houston are dry-
weather or sleigh roads only. In the south, following the old Nadina Trail from Francois
Lake, is the new Tahtsa Lake Road, built as part of the Alcan development.
Plane service is available at Burns Lake, at less than taxi rates, to the back country.
There are also mining roads to Black, McCrea, Dome, Grouse, and Telkwa Mountains;
these and other trails are passable by jeep or pack-horse. The Morice River is navigable
up to the lake, but this route will be supplanted by a logging-road now under consideration.
Logging-trucks in winter have a 100-mile highway over the Babine Lake ice, the spring
closure of which is signified by a truck breaking through.
Physical Features
The area lies in the eastern fringe or foothills of the Coast Mountains. The bulk of
the Telkwa Mountains slopes into the wide Bulkley-Morice Valley and, apart from Morice
and Nadina Mountains, which stand alone, the hills to the east are under 5,000 feet and
merge into the rolling country of Burns Lake. To the north, Station Dome overlooks the
area from the edge of the isolated Babine Range. The Bulkley Valley, wide and beautiful,
has its imperceptible divide with the Fraser system west of Decker Lake. The Morice
River, the main stream entering the Bulkley, has a tributary, Owen Creek, which drains
Owen Lake, at the divide with the Nadina River-Francois Lake country. The Houston
area has steep hills on either side of a wide valley; the Owen Lake country is open and
rolling with two high mountains; south of Babine Lake the area is flat and covered with
new forest; around Topley are many low hills and small lakes; and toward Rose Lake the
country becomes featureless and tree-covered.
Climate
This region has the typical Northern Interior climate, with low precipitation and
extremes of temperature, temporized somewhat by proximity to the Coast Mountains.
Precipitation is about 16 inches but half of this falls in the growing season. Winter snows
of about 2 feet begin in November and last till April. Summer temperatures average
55° F. with a high of 90° F.; the winter extreme is —25° F. The summer is frost-free
for ninety days. Most weather systems, except the locally developed thunder-storms,
come in from the south-east, from which direction the wind can reach gale proportions.
Forest Cover and Industry
The trees of commercial value are pine, which grow on the gravel benches, and
spruce on the bottom-lands.   Cottonwood grows along the creeks, balsam on the higher SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
Topographic Survey
Houston Area
BB 89
Bulkley Valley farm in front of Hudson Bay Mountain.
*- -    fc %--.'7-fc7
'"-   ••'■■"*'■-\   ••    •   .f ,' '•• • ^'~*VV>        • ^   -^W1?   v*
. --   ■:•■•.■ :UiV.OtV '-S7-,'.  '■:. v i&> VSiVi  .  ".' ': :JSS'i    Si)
Goats on Telkwa Mountain. BB 90 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
slopes, and poplar on the open rolling country. Underbrush is scanty and mainly weeds,
berries, or thorns.
North of Topley the country is flat and is restocked with willow and jack-pine over
the old 1922 fire area. Along the 110-mile Babine Lake are good logging stands. The
Morice forest, one of the best mature stands, is under application for a management
licence.
Logging is carried on by small operators, who buy a stand of timber, haul the logs
to their portable mill with horses, and saw the logs to 2-inch lumber. There are about
twenty such small outfits in the area, who sell their output to planer-mills at Houston,
Topley, or Burns Lake. There is also a good deal of tie-cutting, often done by the farmers.
Mining
The mountains appeared to be volcanic in origin, the exceptions being granite
intrusions seen near Topley, where also the only sedimentary rock was seen. The only
fossil evidence was petrified wood, although north of Rose Lake the creeks have cut weird
ravines through limestone. At several places in the area, from Francois Lake to the
Bulkley Valley, are great cliffs of either vesicular lava or Columnar basalt; of these the
1,500-foot China Nose is the most remarkable.
Near Topley, on McCrea and Tacheck (Black) Mountains, is the abandoned Richfield group of claims on which considerable work was done. In the north the gold mine
on Dome Mountain has been re-opened. The Copper Ridge mine on Grouse Mountain
has been re-opened and drilling tests are being made with a view to putting in a mill. In
the Telkwas the coal deposits are being worked, while above timber-line, in a region of
brilliantly coloured rock, is an abandoned copper mine. Near Nadina Mountain and
Owen Lake are several claims, and on Boo Mountain at Decker Lake are some copper
claims. In 1948 the perlite deposit at Francois Lake was found to be a commercial
proposition.
Agriculture
Farming in this part of the Bulkley Valley was a pioneer proposition, but now that
land-use is Government sponsored, land clearing and breaking being available at cost,
and expert advice on marketable crops given, it appears that some types of farms can be
successful.
Milk and beef sold locally form a large part of the farm income and most of the land
is used as pasture or to grow hay for the cattle. Timothy is a good crop because it grows
on hillsides and can be cut for hay or kept for seed. Grain-crops cannot compete with
the Prairies when, the cost of land-clearing is considered. There is an experimental station
and a creamery at Telkwa.
New settlers, mainly Dutch, Swiss, or displaced persons, are coming into the area
under Canadian National Railway sponsorship and these people are good farmers. It is,
however, the farmer with capital, working his farm as a commercial enterprise and who
has better methods and markets, who will be more successful in the valley.
Wild Life
The Bulkley Valley offers some of the best and most accessible hunting in the
Province. Seven guides operate in the area. Moose are in abundance in the valleys, and
goats are plentiful in the mountains. On Nadina Mountain the party saw thirty-three
goats and one grizzly bear; smaller herds of goats were seen on the other high mountains;
they are reported to be found on the lower hills in winter. Black bear were plentiful and
a nuisance. Coyotes likewise frequent the outskirts of civilization. Deer-sign was
common and the deer's companion-enemy, the cougar, was also reported. A protected
herd of eight caribou is being kept in the Telkwa mountains. Extreme measures by the
Government predator hunter have kept the wolves to reasonable numbers. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
BB 91
In this region of innumerable lakes the fishing is literally untouched. Large rainbow,
cut-throat, and Dolly Varden trout are taken in Francois and Babine Lakes. In the
smaller lakes the trout are small, perhaps because these lakes are overstocked.
TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY OF SALMO AREA
J. C. M. Wade, B.C.L.S.
The field work carried out this year was at the request of the Department of Mines.
The area is in the shape of a reverse " L," comprising a strip 5 miles wide adjoining the
International Boundary, from the Columbia River to the 117° 05' meridian, and a strip
running north bounded on the west by the Nelway-Nelson Highway, and on the east by
the 117° 05' meridian, the north boundary being the 49° 20' parallel, an area of approximately 285 square miles. The field work entailed obtaining ground control necessary to
enable the area to be mapped by Multiplex plotter at a scale of 1,000 feet to the inch with
a 50-foot contour interval. In addition to the above, instructions were to obtain sufficient
control to revise the Salmo Map-sheet 82 F/3, to be drawn at a scale of 2 inches to the
mile with 100-foot contours.
U7 3o'
117 oo'
49 Is'-
4900'
49is'
-49oo'
317 30'
Fig. 6.
Field Methods
U7oo'
Methods were geared to obtain a slightly different density and type of control than
is normal for our standard topographic series map-sheets. Much more stress must be
placed on the location of the horizontal and vertical control in relation to the flight lines
of the air photographs.
During the summer, sixty-seven stations were occupied.
Historical
The history of the area is directly related to the whims and progress of the mining
industry. Previous to the several gold strikes, the only interest in the area was held by
fur trappers and traders. BB 92 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The earliest settlement in the vicinity of Salmo was a Hudson's Bay Company trading-
post erected at the confluence of the Columbia and Pend d'Oreille Rivers. This fort,
originally called Fort Pend d'Oreille and later renamed Fort Shepherd in honour of John
Shepherd, then Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company, was built in 1856. There was
a formal ceremony this year dedicating an historical monument on the site of this fort
that burned down in 1872.
Salmo, as a community, was in the embryo stage in the year 1897; the first building
was erected in November 1896. Previous to this there had been several gold strikes along
the Pend d'Oreille River, but as gold was discovered along the Salmo River, Sheep Creek,
and the North Fork of the Salmo River, now known as Erie Creek, Salmo came into being
as the supply-base.
Physical Features and Accessibility
The eastern section of the area is covered by the Nelson Range, from which small
creeks drain into the Salmo River. The Salmo River flows south through the east half of
the map area into the Pend d'Oreille River, which in turn flows westerly into the Columbia
River. The area to the west of the Salmo River and north of the Pend d'Oreille River is
broken up with low mountains and a valley running east and west, containing Erie Lake,
which drains into the Salmo River, and Beaver Creek, which flows westerly into the
Columbia River.
The country is well covered with roads and in the next year or so will have a
first-class highway running from Trail through Salmo to Nelson. There are two ports of
entry from the United States—Nelway, 17 miles due south of Salmo, and Waneta on the
east bank of the Columbia River. There is also a highway project under consideration to
link up the Trail-Salmo Road with Creston, thus eliminating a long loop up through
Nelson and across Kootenay Lake. There are also many mining and logging roads leading
from the main roads into the valleys; in some cases these roads lead to the very tops of
the mountains.
Mining
Salmo area has long been recognized as a leading producer of metals. The earliest
recorded discovery of placer gold was made at the mouth of the Pend d'Oreille River in
1855. The Sheep Creek mining camp used to rank fifth in the Province in total production
of gold. In addition to gold and silver, lead, zinc, and copper have been produced from
mines of the Salmo area, either as an adjunct of silver and gold mining, or as the principal
metals from su.ch mines as the H.B., Emerald, Reeves Macdonald, and others. Of the
other metals, only tungsten and iron oxides have been shipped.
Between 1934 and the early years of World War II, the gold-producing mines within
the Salmo area were active, but since then the rising costs have forced nearly all the gold
mines to close. Now there are extensive development projects being carried out by the
large mining companies, such as the Consolidated Mining and Smelting, and Canadian
Exploration, which are interested primarily in lead, zinc, and tungsten ores.
Forest Cover
There are parts of the Salmo area that stand out as a prime example of what forest
fires can do. Thousands of acres that must have had beautiful timber stands are now bleak
and covered with old snags and windfalls. There have been no major fires in the past
couple of years, but the reminders of past conflagrations are to be seen everywhere. There
is a considerable amount of logging going on in the valleys where there is merchantable
timber, keeping four sawmills in operation. There is considerable trade in finished
lumber, fence-posts, and poles.
Wild Life
The most notable form of wild life around Salmo was mule deer. There are a few
bears; two were seen during the summer.   They are almost all black bears, no grizzlies SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
BB 93
Topographic Survey
Salmo Area
Stagsleap Creek—route of proposed highway from Salmo to Creston. BB 94 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
having been reported for many years. We often heard the haunting howls of coyotes at
night, but there seems to be very few wolves in the area, if any. Porcupines are in
abundance and in fields in the valleys there are colonies of gophers. Enough fur-bearing
animals are in the hills and creek valleys that a few of the people in the district still run
small trap-lines during the winter.
There are many and varied types of wild birds in the area, but of the game birds,
willow grouse and ducks are the only ones in abundance.
The fishing is excellent in the small streams and lakes. The commonest type caught
are rainbow and Dolly Varden. In some of the higher lakes the trout are quite small.
Many adult fish were caught in one lake, the largest of which was 9 inches long. Lower
down, the streams and rivers provided quite a few about 2 pounds in weight.
Climate
Salmo is generally hot and dry during the summer, the temperature hovering around
the nineties most of the time at the middle of the day. During the winter, snow lies to an
average depth of 3 or 4 feet, and the temperature ranges close to zero, seldom dropping
much lower than ten degrees below.
Summary
The future of Salmo district appears to be assured—base metals are in demand, and
the mines are in full operation and have large expansion programmes. Although the
other industries, logging and farming, contribute materially to the welfare of the area,
any expansion will be due to the accelerated production of lead, zinc, and tungsten.
Farming in the district is not very extensive. There are quite a number of small
farms, but relatively few of them are self-supporting, most of them being owned by men
who work full time for the mining companies.
TRIANGULATION SURVEY OF NORTH THOMPSON AREA
A. C. Pollard, B.C.L.S.
The following is a continuation of last year's report on triangulation-control surveys
as given on page 161 of the Report of the Lands Service, 1950, to which reference may
be made for information as to general locality and detail.
Last year's survey covered the northerly portion of the area to be controlled and our
primary object this year was to complete the quadrilateral system and tie to the geodetic
stations on Tod and Mobley Mountains north of Shuswap Lake.
With this in view, these two stations were visited early in June in order to erect targets
and to obtain some idea of possible points to the north which might be sighted therefrom.
As stated in last year's report the intervening country from the line Tod-Mobley to
the Dunn Peak range is a jumble of broken and rounded hills with deep creek valleys
between and having heavy timber coverage everywhere. Only a few of the more outstanding of these—Fraser, Samatosum, Saskum, and one we named Leonie—were climbed and
explored for a suitable spot. Leonie was the only one which was of any use, and this to a
limited extent, as it was impossible to get a point where views could be cleared for all
required directions to fit into a quad system. Later in the season, Gannett Mountain, at
the head of Adams Lake, was also climbed but this, too, proved futile.
These topographichal conditions forced us, therefore, to accept a short based quad
expanding from Dunn Peak-Harp Mountain to Tod-Mobley with sights close to 40 miles
in length.
Having finished this exploration of the southerly area, it was next necessary to repair
the target signals erected last year, which had been damaged by weather, etc., and for this
purpose we visited stations Nord, Vavenby, Grizzly, and Mahood. While at Mahood
Lake the tie from station Sylvia to the lake triangulation at the easterly end of the lake was
completed. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 95
Following this we returned to our last year's area of Murtle Lake to improve the
target on McRae Mountain and to reread some of the angles to it from Kilpil and Battle
Mountains.
To complete the stations for the necessary quad system, Harp Mountain and Dunn
Peak were next climbed and cairns erected. It might be noted that Dunn Peak is the most
prominent peak in the area, rising to about 9,000 feet above sea-level from the centre of a
very rugged range of mountains some 6 miles long, lying east and west, and commanding
a magnificent view for over 100 miles in every direction.
A steady programme of climbing and reading stations was now followed and all the
main stations were read by the end of August. In addition, a further tie for elevation was
obtained through use of the stations Leonie and Tod, and tying to a target on a bare hill
on the west side of the North Thompson River south-west of Barriere. From this point
we were able to complete a connection for elevation and position of B.M. No. 95J, on the
Canadian National Railway about 2 miles north of Barriere Station.
A second visit was made to Mahood Lake and a tie made to the west end of the lake
and from here by road traverse to Mile-post No. 8 on the Lillooet-Kamloops District
Boundary line.
Most of September was occupied in making ties to cadastral surveys. Besides the
traverse at Mahood Lake it was necessary, in order to tie posts found at the easterly end
of East Barriere Lake to triangulate down the lake to the westerly end where further posts
were found, and then traverse the road to Barriere and along the Canadian National
Railway to our target near Barriere Station. This road traverse should be of use in
controlling the air pictures of this section.
An attempt was made to get ties to lots at the north end of Adams Lake, and Gannett
Mountain—the highest spot near there—was climbed with the hope of resecting from the
main quad system; however, this proved impossible. Lot corners and triangulation posts
were located along the lake-shore and some of these which had rotted badly were replaced
by standard pipe posts.
Road and Trail Access
From the North Thompson Valley main highway, several minor roads reach out into
the valleys to the eastward, as follows:—
(a) From Heffley Creek a good country road runs easterly about 15 miles to
the junction with another road, which starts at the settlement of Louis
Creek and goes first south-easterly and then southerly along Louis Creek.
A cattle trail from Henderson's ranch near the junction of these roads leads
directly to the open alpine slopes of Tod Mountain.
(b) From the same Louis Creek Road another road continues easterly to
Skwaam (Agate) Bay on Adams Lake. Off this again a logging-road
follows up the steep hillsides alongside Johnson Creek to near Johnson
Lake, and gives access to Samatosum Mountain. Fraser Mountain was
also climbed from this same main road.
(c) From Barriere a good road follows the Barriere River valley to East
Barriere Lake, and a branch road goes to North Barriere Lake. About
Wa miles from the highway at Barriere, a logging-road climbs the hills to
Leonie Lake.
(d) From Barriere also a road runs northerly on the east side of the North
Thompson River to Chu Chua and to near Dunn Lake, but unfortunately
travel beyond Dunn Creek was restricted because a bridge was broken
down. From the north end of Dunn Lake the road continues to Black Pool,
crossing the North Thompson by ferry. A road also connects Dunn Lake
with Little Fort, again crossing the North Thompson by ferry. A Forestry
road—suitable for jeeps only—has been constructed up to near the old BB 96
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Triangulation Survey
North Thompson Area
Looking south-easterly across North Thompson Valley.    Star Lake in foreground. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 97
Windpass mine on the westerly slopes of Baldy Mountain, and from there
a trail leads up to Baldy Lookout, and this, with fairly open country
beyond, gives access to Dunn Peak. Viewed from neighbouring hills the
approaches to Dunn Peak appear very rugged and difficult but luckily we
found a route which was quite reasonable and were able to take pack-
horses close to the base of the main peak, whence it required only a
three-hour hike and climb to reach the peak. It was interesting to find
that we were not the first to climb this peak, as some members of the
Kamloops Outdoor Club had been there a few years ago and had left the
initials K.O.C. marked by small rocks and tagged it with a lucky dime
which one of our party found on a rock.
(e) An old mining-trail, starting near Birch Island, gives direct connection to
the open slopes of Granite Mountain.
(/) From the road at Jones Creek, about 4 miles west of Vavenby, a sheep trail
leads to the high alpine country of Harp Mountain.
(g) Mahood Lake is reached by the road which connects Little Fort with Lone
Butte on the Cariboo Highway as far as Bridge Lake and then following
the north shore of this lake and branching northerly to Deka, Hathaway,
and Drewry Lakes and so to Canim Lake at McNeil's ranch and thence to
the head of Mahood Lake.
(h) Mobley Mountain may be reached from the road at Celista and Magna Bay
on the north shore of Shuswap Lake.   From Celista a cattle and sheep trail
leads to open range land on Crowfoot Mountain and then to Mobley.   We
took a shorter route by driving up a logging-road to Mattey's logging camp
west of Ross Creek, situated at about 4,500 feet elevation, and then
climbing through the timber for two hours to the open slopes of Crowfoot
Mountain.
These various logging-roads and others which we had no occasion to use form a most
useful network for getting into what would otherwise be almost inaccessible areas, but as
they are not shown on ordinary maps it is necessary to make inquiries regarding them to
the Forest Service.
Flora and Fauna
The general timber coverage has been described in last year's report, and the same
remarks apply, to a large extent, to the southerly area covered this year.
Above the 6,000 feet elevation are often found large alpine meadows which afford
good summer pasture for cattle and sheep, and Trophy and Raft Mountains on the north
side and Foghorn, Granite, and Harp Mountains on the south side of the North Thompson
River are extensively grazed. Further south, large numbers of cattle were seen on Tod
Mountain and flocks of sheep were being tended on Crowfoot and Mobley Mountains.
These high alpine meadows afford a beautiful sight with acres of lovely wild flowers
of all colours, masses of white and purple heather, and dotted with clumps of alpine balsam
on the rolling slopes mirrored in clear little lakes and ponds nestling in the stream valleys.
Here one frequently comes across more of the fauna of the district, the meadows being
favourite haunts of deer, which were plentiful this year, while bear—black and grizzly—
are to be found on many of the mountain slopes. Of the smaller animals, whistlers or
marmots, ground-squirrels, and gophers gave out their shrill cries all over the place.
In the larger lakes in the deep valleys are found excellent trout, and nearly all the
main lakes have lodges which cater to fishermen and hunters.
The Wells Gray Park section was again the scene of a wild-life survey by Ralph
Ricey, and he reported seeing a large herd of caribou on Battle Mountain, proving that
these animals are returning to their former haunts. Moose remain plentiful and grouse of
all species were seen in large numbers. BB 98
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Statistics
The area controlled by this triangulation covers roughly 1 Vi degrees of latitude and
a degree of longitude, or approximately 100 miles by 60 miles.
During the past summer, over 4,000 miles were covered by truck in getting about
from station to station.
The main stations are situated on mountains ranging from about 5,500 to 9,000 feet
elevation, and thirty-five climbs to such elevations—mostly about 7,000 feet—were made
during the season.
In addition, about 20 miles of road traverse were run to tie in cadastral work and
various small triangulation nets laid out, and read, on the larger lakes for the same
purpose.
This year a surveying camera was carried and pictures were taken from most of the
main stations to augment the aerial views of the area.
CONTROL SURVEY OF THE GULF ISLANDS
J. W. P. Matthews
A control survey was carried out for Map-sheet 92 B/14—namely, Mayne, Saturna,
North Pender, the southern half of Galiano, and the eastern part of Saltspring Islands.
Ganges, the largest community near the area, is approximately 27 air-miles south-west
from Sea Island Airport.
123 30'
49 oo'
G-arig-
48 45
48 45'
123 30
123 os' m
TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS
MANUSCRIPTS
B.C. Provincial Government Surveys
Photo-topographic  manuscripts  with   Air
Photo cover.
Scale:   2 inchest 1 mile (1/31,680).
Provincial   Government  field  work  completed with Air Photo cover.
Scale:   2 inches= 1 mile.
Photo-topographic manuscripts.
Scale:   1/40,000.
A. Sheets on North End of Vancouver Island completed with Air
Photo cover.
B. Sheets on Mainland not compiled from Air Photo cover, nor
numbered on National Topographic System.
Dominion Government Surveys
(Manuscripts not available).
Scale:   2 inches = 1 mile.
WHEN ORDERING MANUSCRIPTS,  SHOW:
Index No.  ...   92
Alphabet letter      B
Sheet No.       6
E.g., VICTORIA, 92 B/6
INDEX  SHOWING   NUMBERING   SYSTEM   OF   MAP  SHEETS
OF  THE   NATIONAL  TOPOGRAPHIC  SERIES
BagaCgjj   b* Geographic  Div.. Dept.of Lands and Forests
December 31 st, 1951 TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS
LITHOGRAPHED MAPS
B.C. Provincial Government Surveys
Lithographed Maps.
Scale:    1   inch=l  mile.
(NOTE.—Portion of 92 G/6 also covered
by Provincial Government, 2 inches= 1 mile,
lithographed map.)
Dominion Government Surveys
Lithographed Maps.
Scale:    1  inch—1  mile.
Above maps are obtainable at 25^ per copy.
B.C. Provincial Government Surveys
Lithographed Maps.
Scale:   1/50,000 (two sheets).
Dominion Government Surveys
Lithographed Maps.
Scale:    1/50,000 (two sheets).
Above maps are obtainable at 50^ per copy
(two sheets).
WHEN ORDERING MAPS, SHOW:
Index No.   92
Alphabet letter      B
Sheet No     6
E.g., VICTORIA, 92 B/6
Apply to:—
Director of Surveys and Mapping,
Department of Lands and Forests,
Victoria, B.C.
{
INDEX  SHOWING   NUMBERING   SYSTEM  OF   MAP  SHEETS
OF  THE   NATIONAL TOPOGRAPHIC  SERIES
Prepared   by Geographic  Div.. Dept.pf Lands and Forests
December 31 st, 1951 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 99
The project was undertaken after the regular season. We left Victoria on October
3rd, and the party disbanded on November 2nd. Transportation was by the " B.C. Surveyor " and a Land Rover, both invaluable in their own locale.
During the season, ten identification stations and six main triangulation stations were
occupied. Two ties were made to 1951 hydrographic stations. All stations and ties
occupied were identified on the air photographs. Also, low-level air photographs were
flown over all triangulation stations at such a height that the signals were visible.
Access
Travel around the Gulf Islands is mainly by water. The Canadian Pacific Coast
Steamships operate from Vancouver, giving the five islands freight and passenger service.
The auto-ferry M.V. " Cy Peck " makes regular trips between Fulford Harbour and Swartz
Bay.
The Associated Air Taxi maintains daily service to Ganges and also charter trips to
any desired locality in the Gulf Islands.
Automobile travel is possible on every island. Saltspring Island has a good paved
road from Ganges to Fulford Harbour, the remainder being gravel.
Settlement and Industry
Logging, farming, fishing, and the tourist trade are the more important industries.
Small operators are systematically logging the Gulf Islands, constituting the major
industry and source of revenue.
After the loggers, the backbone of the community is the farmers. Saltspring has a
number of good mixed farms, most of them situated along the main highway between
Ganges and Fulford. The remaining islands, being partly barren, have few farms, sheep-
raising being their permanent industry.
Although commercial fishing is not a big industry in the Islands, it is carried on in
and around the straits and channels. Sport-fishing is very popular, especially around
Saltspring Island and also at St. Mary's Lake.
Tourist trade in the Gulf Islands is of major importance. The area, lying close to
Vancouver and Victoria, has a moderate summer climate and its scenic beauty attracts
many tourists each year.
While the Gulf Islands in general are sparsely settled, each island has a good
Government wharf, store, and gas-station with a small community surrounding it.
Saltspring Island has two larger settlements, Ganges and Fulford Harbour, the rest of the
population being scattered.
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION
W. H. Hutchinson, Chief, and Provincial Representative,
Canadian Board on Geographical Names
The principal function of this Division is the production and distribution of
lithographed maps of the Province compiled from the best available survey information.
In this regard, it is of noteworthy significance that annual map distribution since 1939
has more than quadrupled, and since 1945—the beginning of the post-war period—it has
more than doubled. Despite the increased work of merely replenishing our stocks of
standard maps, necessitated by this manifestation of the general growing development of
the resources of the Province, we believe that undoubtedly the highlight of the past year's
activities has been the publication of the first three sheets of the new National Topographic
Series, on approximately 4-miles-to-l-inch scale.   These are the first tangible results of BB  100 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
the programme as announced in 1949 destined to change our prevailing system of mapping
as to scales and areas. Already in hand are seven more of similar type, two of which will
be published early in 1952. This important series will eventually replace the 3-miles-to-
1-inch Pre-emptors' Series Maps.
Another leading accomplishment this year is the fact that four important gaps in
the triangulation picture of the Province have been bridged as the result of new survey
information. Our Computing Section is now completing the necessary mathematical
adjustments, and the balanced results will provide strong control in these areas for the
first time.
The various functions of the Division are better dealt with under the following
separate headings:—
ADMINISTRATION
The Division is now completing its second full year of operation since moving to the
Superior Street quarters. A big improvement to this arrangement, which has been effected
in the past year, has been the institution of a new filing system in the Division to accommodate its correspondence and other records. Our inconvenient location to the Lands
vault has in this way been nullified because, although the file room continues to maintain
records of our correspondence, we have practically eliminated the use of the Lands files
and vault—with a great saving in time previously spent in file-searching.
As before, the personnel were contained in four offices, each office primarily
concerned with one of the following items constituting the main work of the Division:
Computations, Geographical Naming and Map-checking, Map Compilation and Production, and Map Distribution. Alterations completed in December have resulted in the
enlargement of the Map Compilation and Production office, and a new location for the
Geographical Naming and Map-checking and Map Distribution offices. This will enable
us to enter the new year with better and more centralized draughting facilities, and a more
efficient working arrangement between the Geographical Naming and Map Distribution
offices.
C. F. Mansfield, an experienced map-writer, joined the staff in May as a senior
draughtsman.
M. G. West and I. L. Sutherland joined the staff in October as junior draughtsmen,
Grade A. The former is attached to the Computing Section, and the latter to the Map
Distribution office.
A. E. Stone, draughtsman, Grade 2, resigned from the staff at the end of June.
The establishment at present includes six vacancies, which we are most anxious to
have filled in order to cope with increased work. Three of the vacancies are for draughtsmen with some experience, and these are proving very difficult, if not impossible, to
obtain at the present time.
COMPUTATIONS
Before the details which follow, the work of the Computing Section may first be
summarized under four headings:—
(1) Calculations of positions and elevation of new triangulation stations from
surveyors' field work.
(2) Adjustment of triangulation network between fixed control points, and
adjoining nets with one another.
(3) Collection and indexing of all triangulation data covering the whole
Province.
(4) Dissemination of triangulation control data, in response to requests.
Final returns covering six triangulation surveys, the field work for which was
undertaken in 1950, were completed.
Geographic positions (latitudes and longitudes), bearings and distances between
stations, and elevations were determined for each station. The results were recorded in
the card index, later described. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
BB 101
Geographic Division
Computing Section
office.
Lithographic plate for map being sensitized in " whirler " at plant of the King's
Printer. A separate plate is prepared for
each colour printing on map.
VICTORIA, B. C. BB  102 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Following the close of the 1951 field season, elevations and preliminary co-ordinates
were determined for all stations set by topographic surveyors in the following areas:—
Fraser River and Moran dam-site by W. R. Young, B.C.L.S.
Telkwa-Houston by E. R. McMinn, B.Sc.
Empire Valley-Williams Lake by D. J. Roy, B.C.L.S.
Salmo River by J. M. C. Wade, B.C.L.S.
Tweedsmuir Park by A. F. Swannell, B.C.L.S.
Bowser Lake-Telegraph Creek by G. C. Emerson, B.C.L.S. (not complete).
In  all,  preliminary  co-ordinates  for  565   stations  and  439   station  elevations
were determined, the latter involving the adjustment of 3,493 difference-of-elevation
calculations.
An important contribution to the Province's mapping control has been provided
as the result of certain main triangulation nets made during the past year. In each of four
cases, the triangulation provided was sufficient to close a gap and thus provide a connection back to geodetic control. When the computations are completed, therefore, the effect
will be to solidify a great amount of existing control in or adjacent to these areas, which
may be itemized as follows:—
Tweedsmuir Park area, in which a triangulation gap of 160 miles was closed,
thus permitting final adjustment over a 300-mile stretch.    Preliminary
calculations now completed.
Clearwater-Shuswap area, in which a triangulation gap of 40 miles was closed,
thus permitting final adjustment over a 95-mile stretch.   Calculations are
not yet in hand.
Bowser Lake-Telegraph Creek area, in which a triangulation gap of 120 miles
was closed, thus permitting final adjustment over a loop of 400 miles.
Preliminary calculations now completed.
Lillooet-Williams Lake area, in which a triangulation gap of 50 miles was
closed, thus permitting final adjustment over approximately 100 miles.
Final calculations in this area have now been completed, and the results
follow:  Error in position, 14 feet; ratio of error in length on closing line,
1:66,000; error in azimuth on closing line, 5 seconds.   After individual
quadrilaterals had been adjusted, the largest correction to any one angle
in order to exactly take up the discrepancies was 1.3 seconds.
All triangulation data relating to the Province are indexed under an alphabetical
card-index system, also under a quadrant index system.   In the alphabetical system, a card
is written for each station, on which are recorded the following details, where available:
Names of surveyors occupying the station, with dates of occupation; numbers of the field
books and plans relating to same; description of mark; description of access; air-photo
number; latitude and longitude; elevation; distances and bearings to adjoining stations;
grid rectangular co-ordinates;  ties to cadastral survey posts.    More than 18,000 such
cards are on file at this date.
Under the quadrant system, a register, with pages for each quadrant of 30-minute
extent, lists all the stations and cadastral-survey connections contained in each individual
quadrant. In this manner, inquiries relating to triangulation in the Province can be
attended to promptly.
Requests for triangulation control have been received from many sources, both
Provincial and Dominion, as well as from private land surveyors, corporations, and
individuals. A total of 225 inquiries were received and attended to, which is an increase
over the previous year.
A five-year comparative table, and one which deals with least-square adjustments of
triangulation networks made, are included in the statistical tables. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 103
GEOGRAPHICAL NAMING AND MAP-CHECKING
The preparation of the manuscript for the new Geographical Gazetteer of the
Province has been completed with the use of mechanical tabulation. Considerable time
in this project has been lost due to shortcomings in the equipment used. The most
troublesome features were lack of lower-case letters and lack of punctuation, necessitating
much extra hand-work. The final printing will be undertaken by the Canadian Board on
Geographical Names at Ottawa. The Gazetteer preface is now being assembled to include
two maps showing land districts and mountain nomenclature, which will add to the value
of the publication.
The checking and recording of the names on some forty-nine map-sheets and charts
was also completed in conjunction with the Board at Ottawa. The time of this section
is being taken up to an increasing extent in checking and revising the work of the various
Topographic Survey establishments, including our own Topographic Division, and in
general liaison work with Ottawa preparatory to the printing of the map-sheets concerned.
In this connection, in addition to our own maps, five map-sheets of our Topographic
Division and twenty-one Dominion Government maps were checked or revised prior to
printing here or in Ottawa.
With the quickening demand for up-to-date maps, some thought must be given to
the procuring, on the ground, of the local culture (all man-made improvements), which is
an important part of the legend, especially in the larger-scale printed maps. It can be
realized that, once the initial topographic survey of one of these areas is made, generally
a new edition of that area merely involves the application of the newer culture.
Heretofore, this has had to be obtained by correspondence and has not been found too
satisfactory a method. With the new National Topographic 2-mile mapping programme
to be started in 1952, we feel that the quickest, cheapest, and most accurate method of
obtaining the necessary culture is by an on-the-ground check with the aid of the latest.
vertical air photos.
MAP COMPILATION AND PRODUCTION
In the production of maps during the past year, this Division has not only kept
pace with last year's output but has more maps in hand than in former years. Nine
Provincial maps have been published and ten are in hand, two of which will be published
early in 1952. The most satisfying progress, mentioned previously, is the production
during the past year of the first three of the new 1/250,000 map series in accordance with
the agreement made to change from the old 4-miles-to-l-inch series and conform to the
Dominion Government's National Topographic mapping system. These are five-colour
printings showing, among other detail, drainage compiled from air photographs, roads,
railroads, power-lines, mountain features, parks, administrative boundaries, and surveyed
lots with the status of same. Contours are not shown on this scale, as the series is intended
to gradually replace the Pre-emptors' Series, which caters to the land-seeker. Naturally,
the existing pre-emptors' maps must be maintained by reprints during this transition
period, so only a portion of our efforts can go toward extending the new series. At the
same time, we are also responsible for conducting the necessary searches to obtain
the status information used on many of our maps.
In a similar manner, the old 1-mile-to-l-inch series has also been changed to a
1/50,000 scale in two sheets, to conform to that used by the Dominion Government. At
the present time, this is somewhat awkward as we have the two scales to contend with
during the transition period. During the year, we have received from Ottawa stocks of
three maps on the 1-mile scale, four (comprising eight half-sheets) on the newer 1/50,000
scale, and one on the scale of 2 miles to 1 inch. The last mentioned is 82 L/S.W.
(Vernon), the manuscript of which was compiled in this Division. There are also nine
of our Topographic Division's manuscripts at Ottawa awaiting publication as part of the
1/50,000 series. BB  104 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Details of all the map-sheets referred to above, and in the course of preparation,
appear in the statistical tables.
The original drawings of the cadastral overprint plates for Sheets 93 P/9, 93 P/15,
and 93 P/16 (scale, 1/50,000), and Sheet 94g (scale, 1/250,000) were prepared by
this Division, to be sent to Ottawa to be incorporated in the final printing of the sheets
in question by the Department of National Defence.
During the year, we have collaborated with the King's Printer in procuring a complete
set of type-faces to be used as soon as practicable as a time-saver in the 4-mile and other
mapping.
Assistance has again been given to the Director of Conservation in assembling,
editing, producing, and distributing the Annual Report of the Deputy Minister of Lands.
A considerable amount of draughting and special work continues to be accomplished
by the Division, including the writing and outlining of descriptions in the case of school
district boundaries, and in the special hand-drawing of electoral and other administrative
boundaries on the wall-map of the Province. In this work, during the past year, 1,074
man-hours of work were consumed. The value of this and other work is shown in the
statistical tables.
MAP DISTRIBUTION—PUBLIC RELATIONS
Some 45,000 maps were distributed during the past year which, as mentioned
previously, is a record, and an increase of 25 per cent over the previous year. It is
interesting to note that we now have on record over 1,000 maps and reports covering
British Columbia and adjoining areas, prepared by many mapping agencies as well as our
own. Stocks of most of these are maintained here, and in the last year the stock-room has
been expanded to accommodate the growing demand.
The auto-positive and Kodalith processes of reproduction, in co-operation with the
Air Survey and Legal Surveys Divisions, were used successfully to supply a limited
number of prints, for special purposes, of maps which had gone out of stock and also to
produce prints of British Columbia lithographed maps showing administrative boundaries.
The availability of these processes is good insurance in times like these when there is an
increasing demand for maps, which makes it accordingly more difficult to predict stocks
required in many areas.
A point of interest, which may be noted, is that to date the 8-miles-to-l-inch
National Topographic Series is the only complete lithograph coverage of the Province on
any one scale, but good progress can be reported on the 1/250,000 mapping, in which
fifty-eight of the total of eighty sheets are in hand by our Division or the Dominion
Government. It is pointed out that good co-operation is maintained with the Army
Survey Establishment in Ottawa, which results in an exchange of each other's publications
in suitable quantities. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
STATISTICAL
Maps
Published
BB 105
Name
Map No.
Scale
Date of Issue
Remarks
British Columbia (small), showing roads 	
British Columbia National Topographic system.
Central British Columbia  	
Alberni-Powell River 	
Vancouver  .	
Pemberton  	
Bella Coola (preliminary)..
Fort George   	
Tete Jaune _  	
Provincial Government Topographic Surveys
Reproduced and Printed in Ottawa
Vernon.
Sooke —
Shawnigan..
Nimpkish-
Vanderhoof, east half...
Vanderhoof, west half..
Lakelse, east half	
Lakelse, west half.	
Terrace, west half	
Terrace, east half	
Rossland-Trail, east half—
Rossland-Trail, west half...
1l
92f
92g
92j
2e
3a
3h
82 L/S.W.   .
92B/5
92 B/12
92L/7
92 K/l, E. Vi
93K/1.W. Vi
103 1/7, E. 1/2
103 1/7, W. Vi
103 1/10, W. «/2
103 1/10, E. 1/2
82 F/4, E. 1/2
82 F/4, W. 1/4
40 mi. to 1 in.
27 mi. to 1 in.
1/1,000,000
1/250,000
1/250,000
1/250,000
4 mi. to 1 in.
3 mi. to 1 in.
3 mi. to 1 in.
2 mi. to 1 in.
1 mi. to 1 in.
1 mi. to 1 in.
1 mi. to 1 in.
1/50,000
1/50,000
1/50,000
1/50,000
1/50,000
1/50,000
1/50,000
1/50,000
July, 1951
Apr., 1951
June, 1951
Feb., 1951
Apr., 1951
June, 1951
July, 1951
Apr., 1951
Nov., 1951
Dec, 1951
Sept., 1951
May, 1951
Dec, 1951
Oct., 1951
Oct., 1951
Oct., 1951
Oct., 1951
Nov., 1951
Nov., 1951
Dec, 1951
Dec, 1951
Reprint.
New edition.
Reprint.
New edition.
New edition.
New edition.
Reprint.
Reprint.
Reprint.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
Second edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
In Course of Compilation
Terrace         	
1031
103j
103h
103a
93d
92m
92k
82 E/N.W.
82 E/S.W.
IE
93 A/5
93 A/6
93K/2
93 G/14
92E/9
92 E/16
92 0/2
92H/3
92H/4
1/250,000
1/250,000
1/250,000
1/250,000
1/250,000
1/250,000
1/250,000
2 mi. to 1 in.
2 mi. to 1 in.
10 mi. to 1 in.
1 mi. to 1 in.
1 mi. to 1 in.
1/50,000
1/50,000
i      1 mi. to 1 in.
1 mi. to 1 in.
1/50,000
1/50,000
1 mi. to 1 in.
New edition.
Bella Coola          . _	
Bute Inlet                       _ -         -          	
Provincial Government Topographic Surveys
Being Reproduced and Printed in Ottawa BB  106
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Computations
Least-square Triangulation Adjustments Completed
Net
Locality
Type of
Bearings
Number of
Triangles
Involved
True
True
True
True
True
True
True
True
True
True
True
Local grid
Local grid
Local grid
Local grid
Local grid
Local grid
Local grid
Local grid
Local grid
Local grid
Local grid
43
39
17
8
11
Prince George-British Columbia/Alberta Bound-
12
10
4
16
8
Provincial Main    	
32
79
Provincial Coast  	
112
Provincial Coast   	
Nowells Channel-Wells Passage, Sutley Channel,
70
Provincial Coast   	
20
Provincial Coast 	
39
Sunderland Channel, Topaz Harbour, and Well-
45
Provincial Coast    	
8
Squally Channel-Union Passage 	
51
Provincial Secondary 	
16
Canadian Hydrographic Survey.	
50
Canadian Hydrographic Survey.—	
6
The following tables give comparisons with the previous five-year period:-
Computations
1946       1
!
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1
456 |
1
583
j
218
599
221
517
714
296
12,151
74
480
806
231
205
1,214
419
13,365
115
686
826
224
606
1,120
469
14,485
146
512
1,137
326
528
1,888
924
16,373
212
696
Stations calculated from rectangular co-ordi-
1,431
248
Elevations of stations determined 	
  1
439
Index cards—
1
685 |
229 |
11,437  |
50 |
1,676
586
18,049
225
Canadian Board on Geographical Names—Naming and Recording
Number of map-sheets or charts checked..
Number of names checked.....	
Number of new names recorded	
50
4,107
602
57
7,297
446
63
7,060
401
62 |
4,671  j
375 |
63
5,457
831
49
3,686
298
Geographical Work for Other Departments and Public
Map Stock and Distribution
Map issues to departments and public.
Maps received into stock-
Total value of printed maps issued..
29,052
11,425
$10,848.45
28,755
19,942
$10,207.89
28,673
24,228
$9,935.33
31,789
33,251
$11,512.90
34,244
36,021
511,794.00
41,581
45,369
$14,205.55
Letters
Letters received and attended to-
3,030
3,202
3,985 surveys and mapping branch
List of Lithographed Maps
BB  107
Map
No.
Year of
Issue
Title of Map
Scale,
Miles, etc.
Per
Copy
Per
Dozen
1a
lex
MD
RM
tlE
IH
1J
1JCA
1JC
1JD
1JE
1JF
1JG
1JH
1JL
1JS
IK
lL
82L/SW
92f
92o
92J
t92K
tl03H
tl03l
tl03j
t2A
2c
2e
2f
3a
3b
3c
3d
3e
3f
3g
3h
3j
3k
3p
4a
4b
4c
4d
4e
4f
4o
4H
4k
4m
4n
4p
4q
5b
5c
5d
MKMl
MRM2
MRM3
MRM4
mrm5
mrm6
mrm7
mrm8
1945
1950
1951
1951
1952
1943
1948
1923
1948
1948
1937
1948
1948
1951
1951
1945
1925
1940
1951
1950
1951
1951
1952
1952
1952
1952
1952
1948
1950
1927
1949
1942
1949
1937
1945
1950
1949
1947
1942
1938
1924
1927
1946
1936
1949
1925
1947
1943
1926
1923
1927
1930
1946
1939
1929
1929
1929
1941
1927
1928
1928
1929
1929
1932
1934
1935
1930
Geographic Series—
Wall Map of British Columbia.    In four sheets.    Roads, trails
railways, etc 	
British Columbia—Land Recording Districts	
Ditto —Mining Divisions  	
Ditto —Road map...   	
South-eastern British Columbia  	
Northern British Columbia, Special Mineralogical Data 	
British  Columbia.    In  one  sheet.    Showing  post  offices,  rail
ways, main roads, trails, parks, distance charts, etc 	
Ditto ditto and precipitation  	
Ditto ditto and Land Recording Districts	
Ditto ditto and Mining Divisions 	
Ditto ditto and Assessment and Collection Districts	
Ditto ditto and Electoral Districts, Redistribution 1938
Ditto ditto and Counties   	
Ditto ditto and School Districts (prints only) 	
Ditto ditto and Land Registration Dists. (prints only)...
Ditto ditto and Census Divisions	
South Western Districts of B.C 	
Central British Columbia (contoured 1,000-ft. interval)	
National Topographic Series—
Vernon (contoured)	
Alberni-Powell River 	
Vancouver..
Pemberton..
Bute Inlet.
Douglas Channel	
Terrace 	
Prince Rupert	
Land Series—
Southerly Vancouver Island ..
Northerly Vancouver Island .
Bella Coola
Queen Charlotte Islands ..
Pre-emptors' Series—
Fort George 	
Nechako (contoured)	
Stuart Lake (contoured)..
Bulkley
Peace River (contoured) .
Chilcotin .
Quesnel (contoured)..
Tete Jaune
North Thompson (contc-
Lilfooet.
;d)..
Grenville Channel (prints only)..
Degree Series—
Rossland (contoured) _	
Nelson (contoured)	
Cranbrook 	
Fernie   	
Upper Elk River	
Lardeau
Windermere 	
Arrowhead	
Kettle Valley (contoured)..
Nicola Lake (contoured) ..
Penticton (contoured)	
Lower Fraser Valley-
Hope-Princeton (contoured)  	
Topographical Series—
Howe Sound-Burrard Inlet (contoured), South sheet (special)..
,, ,, ,, North sheet (special)..
Stikine River (contoured)-
Revelstoke-Golden (Big Bend-Columbia River) (contoured)..
Mineral Reference Maps (Printed)—
Slocan, Slocan City, Ainsworth, and Nelson	
Trout Lake, Lardeau, and Ainsworth 	
Ainsworth, Trout Lake, and Slocan	
Nelson and Trail Creek (Ymir)	
Trail Creek and Nelson (Rossland)..
Grand Forks, Greenwood, and Trail Creek-
Greenwood and Osoyoos„
Barkerville and Lightning Creek-
Geographical Gazetteer of British Columbia..
1: 1,000,000
15.78 m. to 1 in.
55 m. to 1 in.
55 m. to 1 in.
40 m. to 1 in.
10 m. to 1 in.
15.78 m. to 1 in.
27 m.
31.56 m.
27 m.
27 m.
27 m.
27 m.
27 m.
27 m.
27 m.
27 m.
7.89 m.
15.78 m.
to 1 in.
to 1 in.
to 1 in.
to 1 in.
to 1 in.
to 1 in.
to 1 in.
to 1 in-
to 1 in.
to 1 in.
to 1 in.
to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
1: 250.000
or 3.95 m. to 1 in.
Ditto
Ditto
Ditto
Ditto
Ditto
Ditto
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
5 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
i/2 m. to 1 in.
i/2 m. to 1 in.
5 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in,
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
$1.50
Free
Free
Free
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.50
.50
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.50
.50
.50
.50
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.50
.50
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
1.00
$14.00
1.50
On ap.
On ap.
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
8.00
* Out of print. t In course of compilation.
Provincial sales tax, 3 per cent extra.
Note.—To avoid misunderstanding, applicants for maps are requested to state the
Maps listed above can be mounted to order.    Prices upon application.
We   can  supply  information  concerning  maps   of  British   Columbia  printed   and   published   at
Department of Mines and Technical Surveys.
Unless otherwise requested, maps will be sent folded.
Inquiries for printed maps—Address: —
Chief Geographer, Department of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.    December 31st, 1951
Map Number " of map desired.
Ottawa  by  the BB  108
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Index of Lithographed Maps TRIANGULATION CONTROL
Geodetic Survey of Canada (Basic Control)    solid line   Purple
Dominion Geological, Topographical,
Public Works Surveys and Department
of National Defence     - - dotted line Purple
"Provincial Standard.   ----- Red
Provincial—Other than Standard
Green
* The standard type of Provincial triangulation meets the following
requirements:—
Network of quadrilaterals or polygons with all angles read.
All angles read to the nearest second of arc.
Maximum closing error for each triangle, 10 seconds. .
All stations marked by brass bolts or iron posts.
Distance and azimuth derived from Geodetic Survey Basic
Control wherever available.
Only the main framework of triangulation is shown on this map;
numerous additional stations have been established, many of which are
marked by brass bolts, iron posts, or cairns.
Details concerning each station are recorded in a card-index, giving
marking, geographical position, elevation, distances and directions to
adjacent stations, etc.
There were more than eighteen thousand cards on file at the end
of 1951
Triangulation surveys of all the principal coastal waterways have
been made, either by Provincial or Canadian Hydrographic surveys.
These are not shown on this map on account of its small scale.
INDEX   SHOWING   NUMBERING   SYSTEM   OF   MAP  SHEETS
OF  THE   NATIONAL TOPOGRAPHIC  SERIES
PrgPgr9tf   fry 9fgqrffphin   Div..  Dent.nf lands and  For..ts SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB  109
AIR SURVEY DIVISION
W. Hall, M.C., B.A.Sc, B.C.R.F., Chief Engineer
A year ago, it was felt that the Air Survey Division had reached a stage where, with a
certain amount of internal reorganization plus additions to the staff on a gradual basis, it
would be possible to deal with normal current requirements.
This has not proved possible. The rapidly expanding economy of British Columbia
has resulted in greatly increased demands for photos and maps, beyond our capacity to
cope with satisfactorily. As a result, it has been necessary for this Division to expand,
both in personnel and equipment, beyond our expectations at that time.
The increase in the use of air photos by the British Columbia Forest Service district
offices and other Government departments, as well as by private companies, with the
resulting augmented demand for prints; the expansion of the forest-inventory programme
to cover 20,000 square miles, as against the previous 10,000 square miles, a year; the
need for base maps for timber-sale cruises and for large-scale engineering maps done by
multiplex for the Water Rights Branch and the Department of Mines, were the main
factors responsible for the significantly enlarged programme.
Items of special interest in the year's activities:—
(1) Photo identification of all triangulation stations on the Mainland coast
from the 49th parallel to Portland Canal was obtained.
(2) Special low-level air photos for identification of the cairns marking the
ground-stations of the triangulation net from Knight Inlet to Kleena Kleene
were made. These photos have been examined and, out of a total of
thirty-one cairns photographed, only four, in the vicinity of Kleena Kleene,
can be positively identified. It is thought that this is because of the small
size of the cairns, records of which are not available, which makes them
indistinguishable from the casual natural detail of bushes and mounds of
rock and debris. It would appear that it will be necessary to visit each
station on foot, a laborious and costly project, or by helicopter in order to
accurately identify the actual cairns.
The four stations identified will be invaluable in tying in the tri-
camera control being extended from the coast triangulation, and will be
sufficient to control the entire area of 5,000 square miles between Knight
Inlet and the Klinaklini River on the east, and the Mainland coast on the
west to within the accuracy required for the interim map stage without any
further recourse to field work.
(3) An attempt was made to obtain vertical photos from a height of 35,000
feet above sea-level to cover the area from Anderson Lake to Anahim
Lake. Two strips of photos would have included a width of 12 miles and,
by a total of 230 photographs, an area of 2,400 square miles would have
been completely covered. The main reason for these special photos was
to establish a belt of control along the inside edge of the Coast Range so
that the tri-camera control, presently in hand, could be " tied in."
Unfortunately, weather conditions were unfavourable and the project had
to be abandoned.
(4) Special photos for timber interpretation were taken this year covering
twenty separate areas totalling 975 square miles. As the mapping requirement, in this case, was secondary to the timber analysis, it was decided to
narrow the angular cover of the camera lens (designed primarily for topographic mapping) and so decrease parallax. It was this feature in
wide-angle photos which previously has proved troublesome in stereo
observation for timber analysis. BB  110 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The centre 3V4 inches only of the 5-inch negatives was utilized, and
the strip widths and the for and aft overlaps correspondingly decreased
while the degree of enlargement from the negative was increased from
1.8 X to 2.8 X- In effect, a 9-inch print with an equivalent focal length
of 9 inches was achieved. The prints were at a 20-chain scale to conform
with that of the required maps.
The results of this approach to obtaining special-type photos were
excellent and go a long way to prove the versatility of the Eagle V cameras
in use by the Division. Much credit goes to the processing section, which
has developed a processing and enlarging technique that leaves little to be
desired.
(5) Other special projects were done as requirements arose and are reported
on by senior members of the staff in charge of the various sections.
INTERIM MAPPING PROGRAMME
It was necessary during the year to effect a change in the interim mapping programme.   Several factors contributed:—
(1) The expansion of personnel to a total of sixty-seven, authorized in the
budget, was forestalled by the revised Government policy preventing
additions to the staff.
(2) A full month of the year was occupied in producing 20-chains-to-one-inch
compilations of photo centres for British Columbia Forest Service timber-
sale cruises.
(3) The augmented anticipated requirements of the British Columbia Forest
Service for the spring of 1952 resulted in considerable effort in the latter
part of this year being diverted from completing the 1951 programme to
preparing the basic compilations ready for 1952.
As a result, instead of completing 14,000 square miles during the year as estimated,
only 9,800 square miles were actually traced to linen. However, compilation of 107
sheets and part-sheets, covering a total area of some 30,000 square miles, has been started
and is well in hand.
It is intended to complete the photo laydown, by the slotted-templet method, over
this area by the spring of 1952 in time to be of use to the Forest Surveys Division field
parties.
The work of adding the planimetric detail will hence be delayed, and the production
of the final finished tracings will depend entirely on availability of personnel.
REMARKS
The average cost figure of $1.19 a square mile for photography this year is explained
partly by the fact that it was necessary, in the middle of the flying season, to change a
complete wing assembly on aircraft EZI when it was discovered that incipient deterioration
had developed in the plywood in the main spar and by the high proportion of dead-head
flying to the areas of Telegraph Creek and Rivers Inlet and in the high ground actually
photographed. The Telegraph Creek and Rivers Inlet areas are actually outside the
economic and safe range of wheeled aircraft and were only done through sheer necessity.
In this connection it is hoped the Division will have a Beaver aircraft on floats for future
operation in areas remote from suitable landing-strips.
It is gratifying to note the greatly increased use of photos and maps produced by this
Division over the years. The total volume of traffic in loans and reprints for the public,
handled by the Air Photo Library, more than doubled since 1950; the two-fold expansion
of the interim map requirements for the British Columbia Forest Service; the increasing
number of requests for special large-scale maps compiled by multiplex;  the increased SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB 111
demand on the Processing Laboratory, are all indicative of thei usefulness of the Air Survey
Division in particular and the Surveys and Mapping Branch in general in the economic
development of British Columbia.
At this time there is no sign of the demands decreasing. Rather, there is every
indication that further increases may be expected. With this in mind, and to obtain
maximum efficiency, every effort is being made to train more personnel in various phases
of the work.
AIR-SURVEY FLYING OPERATIONS
A. D. Wight, Supervisor, Air Operations
The completion of the basic photographic cover of the Province last year did not
subdue the flying activities of the Air Survey Division. This season the cameras of both
air-survey detachments were focused on areas previously photographed but now considered inadequately covered for the current mapping programme, due to obsolescence or
substandard photo quality. An area of 31,010 square miles of basic vertical cover, plus
3,980 square miles of miscellaneous special projects and 510 lineal miles of high-altitude
tricamera photography, was photographed during the flying season. This will add 20,899
photographs to the files of the Provincial Air Photo Library. For details of areas and
costs covering this year's operations, reference may be made to the Appendices.
Basic Vertical Cover
This season's achievement of 31,010 square miles of standard vertical cover represents the largest volume ever recorded by the Air Survey Division during a single year.
Approximately 40 per cent of this area lies beyond the efficient operating radius of our
present aircraft and suitable airfields. Two-thirds of the total area flown this year covered
exceedingly high terrain, which necessitated approximately 20 per cent more flying than
was required last year when photographing the Interior Plateau. These factors increased
the cost to $1.19 per square mile over last year's average of $0.89 per square mile.
Repeat photography to rectify defects in photo quality, courses made good, or cloud
interference covered an additional 540 square miles, a marked reduction from past years
as the initial flying now approaches closer to perfection.
Basic Tricamera Photography
The scope of tricamera activity was subordinated to high-priority vertical cover.
The 510 lineal miles photographed was centralized along the West Coast from Dean
Channel and the Bella Coola River south to Bute Inlet and east to the 125th meridian.
Multiplex Projects
Precision flying required for multiplex plotting followed the same basic procedure as
originated last year.
A combination of high relief and a low flying altitude presented difficulty while
photographing the Moran dam-site. The rapidly changing ground elevation necessitated
covering the area from three altitudes to accommodate the limited depth of focus on the
multiplex.
Operations such as this are very hazardous and it is physically impossible to produce
the desired accuracy when pin-pointing photo centres with the Anson V aircraft at an
elevation of 1,500 feet above rough ground.
Miscellaneous Projects
The demands for special projects consumed approximately 25 per cent of the total
flying time. BB 112 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
They varied from single, low-altitude stereo pairs, covering triangulation stations, to
a 275-square-mile area from 11,000 feet above sea-level in the Wells-Barkerville area.
Twenty areas, totalling 975 square miles, were flown covering timber sales for the British
Columbia Forest Service.
Aircraft and Equipment
The British Columbia Government Anson Vs, CF-EZN and CF-EZI, last winter
underwent repairs consisting of rewiring the electrical systems, replacing floor-boards, and
the tail plane on CF-EZI. This, along with many smaller repairs, completed the
preparation for another season's activities.
Aircraft CF-EZI was unserviceable during the month of August. Airworthiness
Directive No. 51-7 from the Department of Transport necessitated inspecting all glued
joints for failure. Incipient separation of the plywood facing from the main spar of the
main plane on CF-EZI was discovered and the aircraft grounded. At the peak of the
photographic season, this was a serious blow. The entire detachment was immediately set
to work under the supervision of the aircraft mechanic and succeeded in changing the wing
in twenty-seven days, a remarkably short period for such an undertaking. This was
accomplished by working ten hours a day and seven days a week (a condition of
employment).
Some progress has been made in setting up an overhaul shop capable of handling
major overhauls on airframe, engines, instruments, and accessories. It will be housed in
the hangar at Patricia Bay and operated jointly by the Department of Public Works and
the Air Survey Division.
General Comments on 1951 Flying Operations
The high-light of this season's operations was the favourable photographic weather,
comparable to the 1946 season. Some smoke interference in the vicinity of large forest
fires was encountered, preventing full use of the good photographic weather.
Operations requiring exceedingly large-scale photographs would be more efficiently
carried out by using a helicopter for transporting the camera to the prescribed air stations,
especially over rough terrain.
Four hand-operated K20 cameras were purchased for scenic and reconnaissance
photography. These cameras do not require any special installation, being hand held and
therefore may be used from any vantage-point within the aircraft.
The acquisition of two jeep station-wagons favoured the preservation of our equipment by keeping it out of the weather and free from dust while in transit. These vehicles
were also well liked for their comfort and dependability.
PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESSING LABORATORY
T. H. Bell, Air-photo Analyst
Demands for photographic prints continued to tax the resources of the Processing
Laboratory beyond the limits of capacity.
Despite the fact that the new quarters occupied during 1950 were designed to cope
with anticipated future demands, they have already proved to be inadequate.
Autopositive Prints
The reflex method of copying manuscript maps, mentioned in last year's report, has
proved very successful. A Ruthurstat printer with a vacuum blanket capable of handling
manuscripts up to 28 by 42 inches in size, has been obtained from the United Kingdom
to handle this work. Some modifications of the lighting system have been necessary to cut
down exposure-time and give a more-even illumination. —
SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
BB  113
At the present time, production of copies of large-size maps and manuscripts is
limited by the lack of large sinks for developing and washing, but it is hoped that a rearrangement can be made in the laboratory layout so larger sinks can be installed for this
process.
The same facilities will be used for developing and washing the 30- by 30-inch
enlargements which are presently being done by hand methods.
Standard 9- by 9-inch Enlargements
It will be noted in the table of production that 100,000 standard 9- by 9-inch prints
were produced this year as against 88,437 for 1950. This increase is due to improved
facilities and to the new fixed-focus enlarger manufactured by our branch workshops at
Patricia Bay. This piece of equipment has proved highly satisfactory and a second is now
being made.
Contact Printing
With improved facilities for washing and drying, it was decided to eliminate the rush
printing of contact prints, which were made to check the photography during 1949 and
1950, and concentrate on producing standard 9- by 9-inch enlargements of the season's
photography as the negatives were received from the field. This proved to be quite feasible and resulted in library copies of photos being available shortly after the actual flying
was completed.
Remarks
Despite the improved facilities and overtime work on the part of the staff, there is
still a chronic back-log of 25,000 prints on requisitions, mainly for district Government
offices where complete libraries are being built up to fill local needs. These orders have
had to take second place to the demands for photos to be used in the current mapping
programme, but it is expected that with another fixed-focus enlarger and augmented facilities for developing and washing autopositive film and outsize enlargements that this
back-log can be materially reduced and rush orders more readily handled.
Production Record
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
Grand
Totals
Processing completed—
Air films (Eagle V rolls, 60 feet)	
Air films (K20 rolls, 20 feet)	
Mountain-station films (No. 118 rolls) 	
Calibration and other glass plates  	
Printing completed—
Standard prints, 9 by 9 inches	
Contact prints, 5 by 5 inches _ 	
Enlargements, various sizes to 30 by 30 inches	
Mountain-station enlargements, 11 by 14 inches	
Forest Service lookout enlargements, 11 by 14 inches
Diapositive plates for multiplex, 64 by 64 millimetres
Lantern-slides, 2 by 2 inches 	
Autopositive films, various sizes ._. 	
Autopositive film, cleared feet 	
Miscellaneous photographs and copies	
Air photo mosaics  _	
Requisitions completed 	
84
Nil
Nil
Nil
t
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
220
Nil
Nil
Nil    |
190
Nil
Nil
288
Nil
Nil
20,160
1
54,475
Nil
Nil
162
421
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
1
Nil
Nil
100
392
767  |    1,290
75,795
28,002
1,863
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
65
3
838
228
Nil
542
68
88,437
11,368
633
3,297
16
677
96
88
Nil
98
Nil
1,121
I
190«
2
822f
64
100,000§
921
1,650§
3,708
681
850§
48
130
76
55-
1
1,250§
1,200
2
1,364
2,189
338,867
40,291
4,729
7,005
697
1,527
144
218
76
219
4
3,701
* Rolls averaging 115 negatives.
t For Topographic Survey Division.
X Not recorded.
§ Figures for 1951 production are estimated.   Figures of previous years have been amended to correct figures. BB  114 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
AIR-PHOTO LIBRARY
A. C. Kinnear, B.C.R.F., Assistant Chief Engineer
The sustained use of the Library by Government departments, private companies,
and individuals is again evident this year by the increased traffic in both loans and reprints.
The total volume of traffic in loans and reprints through the Air-photo Library
increased from 218,871 photos in 1950 to 252,935 photos in 1951. The extra work of
sorting, checking, and carding these photos has made it necessary to maintain two
members of the staff permanently on this phase of the Library service.
It is interesting and gratifying to note the expanding use by the general public of the
Library service. While, in 1950, 9,259 photos were loaned and 5,325 sold to the public,
these figures rose in 1951 to 22,200 photos loaned and 16,070 sold to the public.
The co-operation received from the public in assisting us to maintain an efficient
Air-photo Library service has been very good with only isolated exceptions, and this
co-operation is appreciated.
Following is a detailed summary of loan and reprint traffic through the Library.
Reprints from British Columbia Air-photo Negatives Supplied, 1951
(Figures are approximate; 9- by 9-inch prints.)
Government departments— Requisi.ion?umberRePnnts
Provincial—
Forest Service, Victoria  107 8,442
Forest Service, districts  49 6,563
Lands      ;.
Library copies  23 25,754*
Surveys and mapping  292 28,489
Others   36 2,282
Finance   52 3,558
Miscellaneous (other departments,
schools, cities, boards, commissions, etc.)  91 2,138
Federal Government—
Mines and technical surveys  20 5,872
Miscellaneous  42 832
Totals      712 83,930
Private—
Private individuals  439 4,121
Forest industries  166 5,005
Mining industries  47 2,200
Oil industries  7 2,712
Private companies and miscellaneous organizations   101 2,032
Totals      760 16,070
Grand totals   1,472 100,000f
* Includes duplicate sets.
f This total contains estimate for the last 2 months of 1951. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
BB  115
Loan Traffic, Library Copies of Air Photos
Issued
Out on loan, December 31st, 1950     54,067
Loaned out during 1951     92,026 *
Returned during 1951  	
Totals, December 31st, 1951  146,093
Net photos out on loan, December 31st, 1951
(to balance)  	
Totals   146,093
Returned
60,909
60,909
85,184*
146,093
* Includes those photos which have been used for mapping projects and have not, as yet, been replaced in the airphoto library.
Loan Traffic, 1951
Provincial Government agencies—
Surveys and Mapping Service	
Lands, general	
Forest surveys	
Forest Service (Victoria and districts) .
Parks	
Forest management	
Finance 	
Mines 	
Miscellaneous	
Federal Government agencies—
Department of Public Works	
Army	
Others 	
36,492*
22,507
3,942
3,141
2,249
331
2,068
1,816
900
658
5,516
1,760
4,416
2,095
2,302
2,102
6,545
5,352
1,777
523
2,412
762
707
631
Totals
69,326
Private—
Forest industries	
Mining industries 	
Private companies and organizations .
Private individuals'	
Schools and universities-
Totals
Grand totals
22,700
92,026
41,678
8,243
6,745
413
411
5,783
5,573
6,748
5,148
1,513
1,354
19,231
60,909
* Includes photos for 1952 mapping programme.
Library Copies, Air Photographs of British Columbia
Federal
Provincial
Total
In hand December 31st, 1950	
185,394
20,544
205,938
121,926
25,754
147,680
307,320
46 298
Total photos of British Columbia in hand December 31st, 1951
353,618 BB  116
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Air-photo Index Map
The project of reindexing all air photographs, including R.C.A.F., as mentioned in
the 1950 Report, is now complete.
Ozalid prints of these index bases may be ordered by referring to the numbering
system based on the National Topographic Service.
The quantity of index bases available are as follows:— Map-sheets
Scale of 4 miles to 1 inch (small-scale photos)  131
Scale of 1 mile to 1 inch (large-scale photos)  230
Scale of 16 miles to 1 inch (tricamera photos)       6
MULTIPLEX SECTION
W. K. MacDonald, D.L.S., Air-photo Analyst
The acquisition of additional multiplex equipment and increased personnel allotment
highlighted our activities during the past year.
The section is now equipped with two ten-projector bars, two three-projector bars,
with a total of twenty projectors manned by six operators. This expansion has increased
our flexibility to the point where we are now in a position to simultaneously process two
projects, " bridging " up to nine overlaps in each. Our potential now stands at 4.6
medium-scale overlaps per day, it having been found that an average production rate of
1.3 man-days per overlap for medium-scale mapping can be expected, six months'
training being required to attain this rate.
The efforts of the multiplex crew were diverted for a period of one month to the
preparation of principal-point compilations covering timber-sale areas. The following
table, therefore, represents the results of eleven months' work:—
Square
Miles
Photos
Name
Authority
Scale
Vert. Int.
State of
Completion
40.0
40.0
21.0
69.4
31.2
1
275
32
36
31
62
52
66
111
Earle Creek..
Squamish	
Fort George Canyon.
Lawless Creek	
Aleza Lake	
Moran Dam-site..
Sheep Creek _
Forest Economics .
Director of Surveys and Mapping..
Water Rights Branch	
Forest Economics _ 	
Forestry Experimental Station.
Water Rights Branch _
Mines Department	
lOch./in.
50 ft.
10 ch./in.
20 ft.
7.7 ch./in.
20 and 10 ft.
10 ch./in.
50 ft.
8 ch./in.
20 ft.
1.6 ch./in.
5 ft.
16 ch./in.
50 ft.
Per Cent
100
100
100
100
60
100
1
The Moran project (100 feet to 1 inch, 5-foot contour) was the most interesting and
exacting processed to date by this section, models being fitted to control within tolerances
of 1 foot in elevation and 2 feet in plan. The photographic altitude for this project was
1,420 feet above mean ground elevation. Pin-point photography at this altitude from
Anson V aircraft proved to be extremely difficult and hazardous, involving steep climbing
turns to clear the valley sides, and it is suggested that a helicopter be tested as a possible
camera platform for these low-altitude photographic tasks.
We are constantly seeking ways and means of improving the quality of our
diapositives, as their quality is one of the fundamental factors governing the accuracy of
multiplex mapping. Continuing the modifications made in 1950, we have installed an
auto-timer and a voltage regulator in parallel with the diapositive-reduction-printer. We
propose taking a further step this year by comparing the relative merits of the existing
reflected, diffused light source, and a pin-point arc, condenser lighting system. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB  117
TRICAMERA CONTROL
E. A. Rothery, F.R.I.C.S., Air-photo Analyst
Horizontal control for the 2,500-square-mile area between Bute Channel, South
Bentinck Arm, and Owikeno Lake was established for the interim mapping programme.
A total of forty-four points were located by graphic intersection from the oblique photos,
which were tied to the coast triangulation, and the slotted-templet laydown of the vertical
photos fitted to these points. No problems were encountered and it would appear that
this method of establishing control is very satisfactory. For details of this work the 1950
Report of the Lands Service should be consulted.
During the summer months, all the triangulation stations along the British Columbia
Mainland coast, in areas that have not been previously mapped or charted, were visited,
and where permanent monuments were found, the stations were identified on existing
vertical air photos. The " B.C. Surveyor " was made available for this project, and with
two men, apart from the boat crew, 640 points, extending from Knight Inlet to the
Portland Canal and including the Queen Charlotte Islands, were visited and identified.
These photos are on file with this Division and are available for any future mapping
projects in this area.
Control for the area between Bute Inlet and Owikeno Lake is presently in hand and
will be available for the slotted-templet laydown for the Forest Surveys Division early in
the coming year.
Owing to pressure of work, no attempt has been made as yet to propagate vertical
control using the tricamera photos. This project will be started as soon as time and staff
become available.
INSTRUMENT SHOP
E. A. Rothery, F.R.I.C.S., Air-photo Analyst
Activities in the instrument shop covered a wide range of projects catering to various
Government departments.
The precision fixed-focus enlarger mentioned in last year's Report was put into
operation and is proving highly successful. The film-holder, made so that individual
frames may be readily centred, and the positive controls for centring and adjusting the
position of the pin-point light source, the condenser unit, and the lens permit rapid and
meticulous settings for critical focus and scale. (See cut.) A second unit is practically
completed and will be in operation shortly.
Two new drift sights were manufactured for the photographic aircraft.
A new calibration range for air-survey and topographic-survey cameras was set up
in No. 1 Hangar at Patricia Bay. This has not yet been thoroughly tested but promises
to be suitable. Being indoors, its use will not be restricted by weather conditions as is the
case with the outdoor range.
Many repairs and adaptions were carried out on technical equipment in use by the
Surveys and Mapping Service. BB  118 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
APPENDICES
Appendix 1.—Summary of Air-survey Operations, 1946 to 1951, Inclusive
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950 1951 1946-51
Vertical basic cover—
17,500 to 20,000 ft./m.s.l. (square miles)
Average cost per square mile   _
Improvement flying—
17,500 to 20,000 ft./m.s.l. (square miles)
Average cost per square mile 	
Tricamera photography—
17,500 to 20,000 ft./m.s.l. (lineal miles)..
Average cost per lineal mile  	
Multiplex projects—
Square miles .
Average cost per square mile ...
Vertical special projects—
Square miles.
Average cost per square mile ...
Tricamera special projects—
Lineal miles _
Average cost per lineal mile	
Total number of photos exposed —
Weather—number of days utilized .
Cost distribution—
Organization
Flying (aircraft operation).
Salaries* ....
Salaries, air crew..
Insurance __	
Field expenses
Depreciation (equipment)	
Film developing and annotation..
Prints, one set (9 by 9 inches).....
19,500
$1.40
175
$2.88
9,500
29
10.3%
49.0%
100.0%
26,400
$1.36
6,440
43.36
147
$12.93
25,000
23
6.6%
51.2%
15.0%
7.1%
2.5%
2.8%
2.4%
6.4%
7.3%
8.0%
6.6%
8.8%
6.9%
9.1%
21,400
$1.52
2,586
$1.91
3,472
$4.05
101
$10.17
533
$7.12
20,882
20
4.2%
49.7%
10.7%
4.0%
7.2%
9.4%
7.9%
6.9%
29,520
$1.17
5,375
$1.26
890
$3.50
1,956
$5.75
1,729
$5.93
33,395
30
4.4%
32.6%*
14.6%
5.0%
9.9%
11.3%
12.1%
10.1%
100.0%    | 100.0%    | 100.0%
22,195
3,015
$2.03
932
$5.11
325
$6.26
4,705
$5.19
524
$9.49
25,342
37
5.8%
25.2%
12.7%
14.2%
5.0%
10.7%
6.8%
11.5%
8.1%
31,010
$1.19
540
$1.90
510
$5.55
743
$6.40
2,698
$5.50
20,899
27
6.5%
32.0% )
11.3% )
14.1%
4.9%
11.1%
6.0%
7.4%
6.7%
150,025
$1.25
11,516
$1.78
12,244
$4.31
1,068
$6.36
9,782
$7.07
2,786
$6.83
135,018
166
5.8%
43.0%
12.5%
4.2%
8.6%
8.3%
9.4%
8.2%
100.(
100.0%
100.(
Includes pilots' and mechanics' salaries.
Standardized Equipment, 1947-51
Aircraft: Anson V.
Number used: Two, 1949-51, Government-owned
Undercarriage: Wheels.
Air speed (miles per hour): 150.
Range (hours): Seven.
Camera make: Eagle V.
Lens, focal length: Ross, 3Va inches.
Negative size:  5 by 5 inches.
Print size (routine): 9 by 9 inches. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
BB  119
Appendix 2.—Summary by Projects, 1951 Air-survey Photographic
Flying Operations
Number of
Photos
Area
Cost
A. Basic vertical cover, 17,500 to 20,000 ft./m.s.l...
1. Okanagan-Kootenay  	
Bute Block    	
Vancouver Island.
Prince George	
Fort St. John	
Telegraph Creek-
Totals .
Average cost per photo..
Average cost per square mile..
2. Improvement flying    	
Average cost per photo .
Average cost per square mile .
Basic tricamera control, 20,000 ft./m.s.l	
Average cost per photo 	
Average cost per lineal mile 	
Multiplex projects—
Sinclair Mills to Ryder... 	
Sheep Creek (Salmo )..	
Moran dam-site   	
West Road River dam-site 	
Fraser River (Chilcotin River to Moran)..
Totals ___■ __.  	
Average cost per photo	
Average cost per square mile..
D. Special projects-
Timber sales   —
Beacon Hill Park . 	
U.B.C. Land Endowment..
Victoria scenics	
Nanaimo dam-site — „	
Gulf Islands straits	
Campbell River burn — 	
Composite mapping (townsites)-
Elk River valley .	
Horsethief Creek 	
Doukhobor farms — -
Adams Lake area	
Okanagan low-level (improvement)..
Wells-B arkerville 	
Watson Bar Creek  	
Remo-Lakelse River.—.	
Alaska Highway  	
Columbia River 	
Sheep Creek extension -
Obliques, Nanaimo fire	
Nanaimo Dock and Pulp mill-
Totals ,
Average cost per photo	
Average cost per square mile..
Triangulation stations 	
Average cost per station .
F. Forestry supply drop.— 	
G. Reconnaissance- — 	
Grand totals.
7,634
2,215
544
239
308
1,414
20,899
sq. mi.
16,300
5,750
1,750
880
1,130
5,200
$21,648.22
6,197.33
1,645.80
768.84
1,076.70
5,629.68
12,354
31,010
$36,966.57
2.99
1.19
251
540
$1,028.10
$4.10
1.90
1,661
510*
2,829.53
1.70
5.55
.
170
150
$590.00
210
400
897.21
144
1
813.05
331
2
715.78
400
190
1,740.38
1,255
743
$4,756.42
3.79
6.40
1,857
975
$7,124.64
38
1
138.33
64
20
170.36
27
3
114.48
11
20
52.53
97
40
389.63
172
70
464.19
596
125
1,358.67
135
140
586.38
61
30
141.77
467
157
1,235.42
140
200
364.55
432
172
374.69
253
275
549.59
20
15
82.97
10
6
88.19
137
100
. 351.41
440
163
975.96
78
185
155.89
5
16
52.16
94.84
f,056
2,697
$14,866.65
	
2.94
5.51
322
71t
$1,342.32
|
$18.91
142.85
■'•
$774.62
34,990
$62,707.06
* Lineal miles.
t Stations. BB  120
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Air Survey Division
Jacking new main-
plane into position —
wing change, CF-EZI. APPENDIX   4
AIR SURVEY DIVISION
SPECIAL AIR-PHOTO COVER
LOW   ALTITUDE   (Under 10,000/m.s.l.)
B.C.  GOVERNMENT
Block Vertical
Urban Areas
Tricamera
Block Vertical (1951)
Urban Areas (1951)
Detail index maps, 1 mile to 1 inch, showing the location of
actual air-photo centres, are available on application. Order by
block number, sheet letter, and grid number, e.g., Prince
George:   93G/15.
For reprints of low-altitude photographs or inquiries regarding
low-altitude photography within the Province, write to:
Air Survey Division,
Survey and Mapping Branch,
Department of Lands and Forests,
Victoria.
DEPARTMENT of LANDS  and  FORESTS
Honourable E. T. Kenney, Minister
INDEX  SHOWING   NUMBERING   SYSTEM   OF   MAP  SHEETS
OF  THE   NATIONAL TOPOGRAPHIC  SERIES
Pr?P9"-?ci   by Gqpqrgphic  Div, P?pt.9f Land? 9nd Fc^^s
December 31 st, 1951
/ APPENDIX  3
1
AIR SURVEY DIVISION
HIGH ALTITUDE
AIR-PHOTO COVER
(10,000'-20,000'/m.s.l.)
Vertical Photography:
Dominion Government
B.C. Government
B.C. Government
Tricamera Photography:
Dominion Government
B.C. Government
B.C. Government
1926-
-45
i"
i
1936
-40
i
"i
1946-50
•    •    •    •
.   1951
+—•—•—•-
»     •     •     «
Detail index maps, 4 miles to 1 inch, showing the location of actual
air-photo centres, are available on application. Order by block number
and sheet letter, e.g., Prince George 93G.
For reprints of Dominion Government air photographs write
direct to:
Topographical Survey,
National Air Photo Library,
Department of Mines and Technical Surveys,
Ottawa
For   reprints   of   B.C.   Government   air   photographs   or   inquiries
regarding air photography within the Province write to:
Air Survey Division,
Surveys and Mapping Service,
Department of Lands and Forests,
Victoria
INDEX  SHOWING   NUMBERING  SYSTEM   OF  MAP  SHEETS
OF  THE   NATIONAL TOPOGRAPHIC  SERIES
Prepared   by Geographic  Div..  Dept.of Lands and Forests
December 31 st, 1951 APPENDIX    5
>
AIR SURVEY DIVISION
INTERIM MAPS
(Planimetry only)
Completed maps.
Scale:  4inches=l mile.
Completed maps.
Scale:   2 inches=l mile.
Completed maps.
Scale:   1 inch=l mile.
Maps in course of preparation.
Scale:   2inches=l mile.
Prints from these maps are available
upon application to:—
Director of Surveys and Mapping,
Department of Lands and Forests,
Victoria, B.C.
WHEN ORDERING MAPS,  SHOW:
Index No.    -    -    -    -    -    -    92
Alphabet letter -----       B
Sheet No.    ------       6
E.g., VICTORIA, 92B/6
INDEX  SHOWING   NUMBERING   SYSTEM   OF   MAP  SHEETS
OF  THE   NATIONAL  TOPOGRAPHIC  SERIES
Prepared   bv Geographic  Div.. Deot.of Lands and Forests
December 31 st, 1951 SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB  121
EXTERNAL BOUNDARY SURVEYS
N. C Stewart, B.A.Sc, D.L.S., B.C.L.S., P.Eng.; Commissioner, British Columbia-
Yukon-Northwest Territories Boundary; Commissioner, British
Columbia-Alberta Boundary
BRITISH COLUMBIA-YUKON-NORTHWEST TERRITORIES BOUNDARY
The British Columbia-Yukon-Northwest Territories Boundary Commission, consisting of B. W. Waugh, Surveyor-General of Dominion Lands for the Federal Government,
and N. C Stewart, Commissioner for British Columbia, held two meetings in 1951, the
first on February 6th in Ottawa and the second in Edmonton on August 21st.
At the February meeting, field notes and reports of the inspection and restoration
survey of the boundary between Teslin Lake and the Haines Road, which had been marked
out about fifty years ago, were received from A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S., D.L.S., who had
charge of that work in 1950. Mr. Campbell's report was published in the 1950 Report of
the Lands Service, Department of Lands and Forests.
Based on a study of these returns the Commission came to the conclusion that a
partial retracement of this old boundary is necessary before the boundary is confirmed by
Parliament. However, it was decided that this retracement should be postponed for two
reasons—first, that due to the staking of oil-prospecting permits adjacent to the north-east
corner of British Columbia, the demarcation of the boundary there was urgently required;
and, secondly, on account of the Federal Preparedness Programme, it was unlikely that
funds would be allotted for an additional party on this type of survey at this time.
At the February meeting the Commission received the Report of C. H. Ney, D.L.S.,
of the Geodetic Survey, who, during the summer of 1950, established three precise latitude
points on the 60th parallel, one near the Liard River crossing and two on the Petitot River
(Mr. Ney's report also was published in the Report of the Lands Service for 1950).
At the August meeting the Commission decided to ask for sufficient funds to place
both summer and winter parties in the field in 1952-53.
ALBERTA-BRITISH COLUMBIA BOUNDARY
The Alberta-British Columbia Boundary Commission consists of three members—
B. W. Wauoh, Surveyor-General of Dominion Lands, Chairman and Federal representative; J. H. Holloway, formerly Director of Surveys for Alberta, now Chairman of the Civil
Service Commission for that Province; and N. C. Stewart, D.L.S., B.C.L.S., representing
British Columbia.
The meetings of this Commission coincided with the meetings of the British
Columbia-Yukon-Northwest Territories Boundary Commission on February 6th in
Ottawa and August 20th in Edmonton.
At the time of the meeting in Ottawa on February 6th, a winter survey of the Alberta-
British Columbia Boundary, in charge of R. Thistlethwaite, A.L.S., B.C.L.S., D.L.S., was
proceeding.
The story of this winter survey is ably told by Mr. Thistlethwaite in his report.
At the meeting held in Edmonton on August 20th, field notes, plans, and report of
combined operation, both summer and winter surveys, were received from Mr. Thistlethwaite and accepted by the Commission.   In all, 92 miles of the boundary were run.
Also at this meeting it was decided to proceed with the survey of the boundary during
the coming winter. It was learned with regret that Mr. Thistlethwaite would not be available for this work. It was decided to offer the position to W. N. Papove, D.L.S., B.C.L.S.,
A.L.S., presently engaged by the Surveys and Mapping Branch on the survey of the Alaska
Highway.
Mr. Papove accepted the position of surveyor-in-charge. BB 122
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
During the week-end of September 22nd, at the request of the other members of the
Commission, N. C. Stewart met Mr. Papove in Fort St. John, to discuss with him the
organization of the survey, the methods to be used, and the transportation problem.
WINTER SURVEY OF ALBERTA-BRITISH COLUMBIA BOUNDARY
R. Thistlethwaite, A.L.S., B.C.L.S., D.L.S.
Upon receipt of instructions of November 28th, 1950, I took steps to investigate the
possibility of continuing the boundary survey during the winter season. Some favour had
been expressed in different quarters for the idea of employing bulldozers to clear the
survey-line and to provide the necessary transportation in the field for a winter survey.
New West Construction Company provided the mechanical equipment for the
purposes of line-clearing and transport.
a;": V::;	
International tractor drawing kitchen and two sleeping-cabooses mounted on logging-sleighs.
Line Production
The normal, basic methods of alignment described for the summer operation were
continued during the winter season.
The alignment operations were at times hampered by bad visibility due to snow. At
such times and generally it was expedient to use a second transit, working ahead of the
final alignment, to carry on approximate line for the bulldozers working on the line-
clearing.
Azimuth Observations
The matter of astronomic observations was equally troublesome. In the beginning,
it was found that natural lighting was unsatisfactory for reading the horizontal circle and
electric lighting was resorted to. The winterization of the micrometers was also
unsatisfactory and they had to be disassembled in the field to correct the condition. SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH BB  123
In general, great difficulty was experienced in securing consistent agreement between
the alignment and the astronomic controls. This led to excessive realignment and undue
repetition of observations, which, in turn, limited the over-all progress of the survey to an
appreciable extent. Eleven acceptable observations were made during the season in
controlling the 25 miles of boundary which were surveyed.
One of the final azimuth observations of the season was made in warmer weather,
allowing the use of the Wild instrument. After having used the base-line instrument
throughout the season, the facility with which the observation programme was carried out
with the Wild was notable. The results obtained, in this case which permits comparison,
were almost identical.
Line-clearing
The line-clearing function for the survey was carried out almost entirely by bulldozers. The area traversed during the winter season is wooded in some degree throughout.
The growth, while generally not large, is in parts extremely dense. The line was cleared
out to a minimum 6 feet width at the skyline, as on previous work.
In the dense woods, many passes were required to make the required clearing and
the two tractors working together often could not clear more than one-half to three-
quarters of a mile of line in a day. At the other extreme, in sparsely wooded muskeg
country, one tractor alone could clear several miles per day, since the operation amounted
to a little more than ploughing snow to make trail for the mobile equipment and the survey
groups. Due to heavy snowfall, the muskeg areas were but lightly frozen and it was,
therefore, not possible to blade the ground surface without incurring the risk of breaking
the crust and allowing the heavy machines to break through and be mired.
Measurements
The system of horizontal measurement which had been used during the preceding
summer season was modified somewhat for the winter season.
The average discrepancy between respective measures of each chainage bay, for the
winter season, amounts to 1 part in 44,000 or 0.18 links per mile. Some repeat measures
were required to achieve the specified tolerance of 0.60 links per mile. Twenty-four miles
and 64 chains of accepted boundary measure were recorded during the effective survey
season of twenty-nine days. One lateral connection, 26 chains in length, was made to tie
in an existing traverse survey.
MONUMENTING
The monuments constructed to mark the boundary during the winter season were
all of the standard form prescribed for the previous summer.
Twenty-three monuments were constructed during the course of the survey, at an
average spacing of 86 chains. It should be pointed out that the present supply of iron
posts is not quite sufficient to allow average 80-chain spacing over the remainder of the
boundary. For this reason, the average spacing was deliberately kept slightly higher than
the specified 1 mile during the winter season.
Due to the non-availability of gravel, none of the monument posts was set in concrete.
As an alternative, at four chosen sites, the standard post was imbedded in one bag of dry
Portland cement placed around the foot and lower part of the post. Ground moisture,
after spring break-up, will set up the cement so placed and form an effective enhancement
of the permanency of the monument.
Bearing trees were made wherever suitable trees offered.
Levelling
Differential levels were carried over the entire length of the boundary run. Forty-six
closed and checked circuits were run, involving the creation of forty-four new bench- BB 124 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
marks.   In some cases, where suitable five trees did not exist, the standard posts forming
monuments were used as bench-marks.
Magnetic Observations
On attempting to carry out the prescribed observations for the determination of the
magnetic declination, it was found that the Wild compass provided for that purpose had
not been properly winterized and would not function at low temperatures. For this reason,
only one observation was obtained, on a mild day at the termination of the season.
Photography
As before, considerable use was made of aerial photography in planning the day-today operations of the party and also for reconnaissance purposes. The Air Survey
Division of the British Columbia Survey and Mapping Branch had made a photographic
flight exactly along the projected boundary during the summer of 1950. These photographs were found to be superior for the purpose in hand to those taken by the R.C.A.F.,
and they were therefore used during the winter season.
Ground photography was used principally for the purpose of recording views of the
monuments. Atmospheric conditions were not always suitable for photography and the
quality of some of the photographs taken is deficient for this reason. A number of views
were recorded for illustrative purposes.
Ties to Existing Surveys
No cadastral or legal surveys exist along the route of the winter survey. A lateral
connection, 26 chains in length, was made to Topographic Station 1452. This station is
the terminal point of a traverse along the northern bend of the Hay River, run by field
officers of the Topographical Survey Division of the Surveys and Mapping Branch, Mines
and Technical Surveys Department.
Transport and Camping Equipment
The transport and camping equipment used for the survey are very closely correlated
to the line-clearing equipment.
While the use of mobile sleeping and dining cabooses for the housing of the party
personnel offers very distinct advantages in respect of mobility, there are certain peculiar
disadvantages. The width must be restricted to about 8 feet and a length in the neighbourhood of 20 feet is about all that can be conveniently manoeuvered in a sleigh-train. It was
found that in cold weather the floors and lower beds are cold indeed, while the men in the
upper beds cannot sleep for the heat. When eight men and their personal equipment are
crowded into a caboose of this size, activity is restricted to lying on one's bed. Office work
is almost impossible. The comfort of such cabooses would be greatly increased by the
provision of insulation for the floor.
It would be very difficult in sparsely wooded or muskeg terrain to secure enough fuel
for wood-burning heaters, especially under conditions requiring extended movements of
the tractor trains. As it was, the task of keeping the cooking-range supplied kept one man
fairly busy and at times became almost impossible.
The radio transceiver used during the summer again served for communication
purposes. In view of the increasing distance from Fort St. John, a companion set was
installed at the Hudson's Bay Post at Hay Lake. A. K. Black, the post manager, was most
co-operative and maintained a daily schedule with the field party.
A portable, all-wave battery receiver was also carried. It served the purpose of
receiving radio time-signals, which facilitated the astronomic work, and also to provide
news of the outer world and a little entertainment.
■
I surveys and mapping branch bb 125
Summary of Progress
During the twenty-nine days available for survey operations, 24.7 miles of boundary
were run. Twenty-three monuments and forty-four bench-marks were established. As a
result of the winter operation, entry trail for a succeeding survey now exists, and
convenient deposits have been made of necessary hardware, cement, and food.
General Description of Country
The area traversed by the survey carried out in 1950 and 1951 encompasses only
two noteworthy topographical features.   These are the Fontas and Hay Rivers.
Fontas River is unimposing at the boundary crossing. It crosses near the centre of
Township 103 in a general north-westerly direction. The valley at this point is some 40
feet deep. Within the confines of the valley the stream-bed, here only 50 feet wide,
follows a tortuous course through innumerable meander loops.
At the time of crossing—August 1st—the flow of water was practically negligible.
No attempt was made to estimate the amount of water flowing. At more normal stages,
judging by the appearance of the banks, the river would have a depth of 4 or 5 feet. The
current velocity would not be high for the river appears to be of rather placid nature at this
point.
The immediate vicinity of the river-valley is quite pleasant in nature. The ground
is clayey and firm underfoot. The aspen growth forms welcome relief from the spruce
found everywhere else. The valley-bottom is in parts wooded with heavy growths of
spruce ranging up to 24-inch diameter.
Hay River, at its southern crossing of the boundary, is a much larger stream than the
Fontas. It flows westerly across the central part of Township 108, turns north, and re-
crosses the boundary flowing easterly some 25 miles to the north. Thence it finds its way
north-easterly to Great Slave Lake. It flows in a very well-defined valley which is, at
the boundary crossing, one-half mile wide and 110 feet deep. The banks of the valley are
quite steep. The river-channel proper is 120 feet wide. Apart from its size, it is distinguished from the Chinchaga and Fontas Rivers to the south by its older character.
Meandering is much less pronounced—in fact there are stretches of a mile or more in
length which show but little bending.
The flow at September 19th was inconsequential. The water present consisted of
trickles running from pool to pool through the gravel and boulders of the stream-bed. No
attempt was made to estimate the flow. Mid-channel depth at normal stages would be of
the order of 6 to 8 feet with numerous shallows.
Hay River, like all the other streams encountered this season, presents firm ground
along the limits of its valley. As one proceeds inland from the river, swampy ground or
muskeg is encountered. The valley itself is quite attractive by reason of the varied
character of the growth. Spruce, jack-pine, aspen, balm, and willow all flourish on the
bottom-land.   Pleasant sandbars and beaches are revealed at low water.
A number of minor streams and watercourses were crossed during the season. All
except for the most southerly few of these flow in a westerly direction and, in 1950, carried
very small amounts of water. Almost all show evidence of beaver activity. In some
cases, particularly in the region lying just south of the Hay River, we find that the drainage
of the country is strongly affected by the work of these little animals and some streams
appear to have been diverted from one channel to another.
The boundary crosses the divide which separates the Hay and Slave River systems
from that t>f the Fort Nelson River. The divide coincides with a very pronounced height
of land situated near the south boundary of Township 100. It is the highest ground encountered in 1950 and reaches elevation 3,360 feet on the line. It is crossed again somewhere between Fontas and Hay Rivers at elevation about 2,200 feet. However, at the
northern crossing its character is so indefinite that it cannot be located precisely from BB  126 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
present information. It apparently does not coincide with the highest point of the
boundary profile between the two rivers.
The terrain traversed ranges from hilly land of prominent relief to flat swamp and
muskeg. In the first 14 miles, from Township 97, the general level of the ground rises.
The surface undulates in a series of ridges whose crests rise as much as 200 to 350 feet
above the valleys between until the height of land, at elevation 3,360, is reached in the
southern part of Township 100. The general attitude of the ridges is north-westerly. The
drainage here is well defined and flows to the south-east. The surface varies from firm
clay soils on the slopes and crests to moss and muskegs in the troughs. Thick moss cover
is found on some broad, gently sloping summits. The surface is wooded throughout. On
the higher ground are heavy stands of spruce, accompanied by aspen and jack-pines. The
lower areas support small spruce, with occasional jack-pine and aspen ridges.
From the southerly height of land mentioned the general level of the ground falls
continuously to the north until the valley of the Fontas River system is reached. The
descent is abrupt at first—the ground recedes some 600 feet in the first mile. For the
next 12 miles, to the southern part of Township 102, the general ground-level falls at the
rate of about 20 feet per mile, with some crests rising 100 to 200 feet above the general
gradient. This area of moderate relief extends to both east and west. The drainage
pattern is clear-cut and all watercourses drain to the west. Muskegs are local in extent
and confined to the vicinities of the respective streams and watercourses. The surface is
wooded throughout but badly scarred by burns of different ages. Dense clumps of spruce,
up to 24-inch diameter, are encountered. Deciduous growth, consisting of aspen, balm,
willow, birch, and alder, is fairly extensive in this section. There is much scrub spruce
and jack-pine second-growth.
In Townships 102, 103, and 104 the boundary traverses the valley of the Fontas
River system. The ground elevation decreases gradually 300 feet to Fontas River valley
banks and then rises slowly about 70 feet to a secondary height of land in Township 104.
The terrain is almost devoid of relief along the boundary but ridges of moderate height
lie to the westward. This area is predominantly one of swamp and muskeg, varying from
open bog and grassy swamp south of Fontas River to deep moss, mainly wet, to the north
of the river. Low, dry ridges are encountered here and there. Forest-cover varies from
spruce up to 24-inch diameter, found along watercourses and on the higher ridges lying
to the west, down to scrub spruce and tamarack in the muskeg and swamp areas. Jack-
pine and aspen of moderate size are found on the higher ground. There is also extensive
willow-growth in the wetter areas.
From the height of land in Township 104 north to Hay River in Township 108 the
terrain descends in a regular manner and the only outstanding relief encountered is that
marking the valleys of two creeks and Hay River. The total drop to the banks of Hay
River valley is 780 feet.
The chief characteristics of this area are the lack of conspicuous relief and the diffuse
drainage system. Beaver dams and ponds are found in the central areas betv/een the
principal drainage channels, and it would seem that beaver activity has contributed to the
swampy nature of some of the terrain.
The area is wooded throughout. However, it appears that the character of the
growth changes as we go north, from predominantly coniferous to deciduous woods.
Mossy or muskeg areas generally support only scrub spruce with the odd tamarack. Occasional small stands of heavy spruce are found, with diameter up to 24 inches. Jack-pine
ridges are more numerous. In Townships 107 and 108 there are extensive stands of aspen
and balm with some birch. The swampy drainage areas support prolific growths of
willow and alder.
By good fortune, the season of 1950 was extremely dry. Had it been wet, it is
doubtful that the pack-horses would have been able to carry out the necessary transportation for the survey party.   As it was, the establishment of transport routes in the Fontas SURVEYS AND MAPPING BRANCH
BB  127
River area was of considerable difficulty. There are pack-trails along the Fontas and Hay
Rivers and one or two of the larger streams which do not show signs of extensive recent
use. While it is generally conceded that it is relatively easy to find suitable footing for
horses along the banks of streams and watercourses, it is quite a different matter to traverse
the country lying between streams, since this is usually swampy ground or muskeg. In
view of the fact that the boundary crosses the drainage of the country more or less at
right angles, it is clear that the most unfavourable conditions were imposed upon the task
of transportation. Had the season been wet, it is quite probable that the only passable
routes of transport would have been so circuitous as to make the operations of the party
impractical.
Animal life cannot be said to be prolific in the area. While there are signs of moose
and black bear almost everywhere, very few specimens were seen. Locally, the scarcity of
big game is attributed to the ascendancy of timber-wolves.
Hay River at Alberta-British Columbia Boundary crossing.
The natural resources of the area would seem to be restricted to fur, trap-lines being
encountered all through it. Beaver, muskrat, marten, and squirrel were the only
fur-bearers seen.
The search for oil has extended to the area, and during the season two exploration
parties were contacted.
Timber resources are restricted to random stands of good spruce, whose continued
existence is subject to the unchecked vagaries of fire.
Forest fires have been active throughout the area during the past. Burns of different
ages were encountered everywhere. The most extensive single area of recent activity lies
in Townships 99 and 100. Here the boundary traverses an almost uninterrupted expanse
of standing brule for 5 miles. During the season of 1950, there were active fires visible
from the survey camp at all times. It is very probable that some of the boundary surveyed
this year was burned over after the passage of the party. BB 128 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Between the south and north bends of the Hay River, the terrain traversed by the
boundary is almost featureless. After crossing a secondary height of land contiguous to
the Hay River valley, at elevation of 1,540 feet, the terrain descends northward in a very
uniform manner. The, only notable relief is that provided by the valley of the Burnt River,
a flat notch dropping some 70 feet below the general-descending plain. The gradual
descent continues northward to the north bend of the Hay River in Township 112. Here
the river-channel has no well-marked valley, in contrast with the south bend. It exhibits
an apparently younger nature here and flows in large meander loops. The river proper
is somewhat larger at the north bend and is some 243 feet wide at the boundary crossing.
It falls 256 feet in its semi-circular loop to the west of the boundary. The general drainage
of the area contained by the loop is toward the north-east and is concentrated chiefly in
the Burnt and Little Hay Rivers, which join the Hay some distance east of the boundary.
Little Hay River is an almost insignificant stream with no notable valley.
There is a minor settlement in the area. Kahntah Post, situated at the confluence of
the Kahntah and Fontas Rivers, is some 32 miles due west of the boundary. It consists of
an outpost of the Hudson's Bay Company and a few dwellings. Its main route of communication is via the Fontas and Fort Nelson Rivers to Fort Nelson. These rivers are
often not navigable except on spring high water. An alternative route of transport is by
air to Kewan Lake, some 12 miles to the north-east, and thence by pack-animal to the
settlement.
Conclusion
In concluding, it is appropriate to point out some of the factors which will bear upon
future continuance of the boundary survey. Referring to the use of bulldozer tractors,
rejection of the method for future work is not justified altogether by the past season's
performance. Progress during the 29 net days available for survey work was only about
50 per cent of what had been expected. This was due to a combination of causes. Among
these was the unexpected difficulty in maintaining the alignment. This factor could well
be eliminated in future work. Another factor was the continued fouling of the radiators of
the tractors by debris from the woods, which caused a shutdown for cleaning about every
hour of working-time. This could be avoided by appropriate screening of the radiators.
Personnel morale was again poor during the winter season, particularly among the
mechanical crew. Further, payment for tractor services on a rental basis, without direct
incentive for high output, does not seem to be the best possible arrangement, although it
is customary on such work. Length of working-season is also an important factor. The
expense of moving a heavy outfit of machinery so far across country is not justified for a
short working-season. While custom favours beginning tractor work about mid-January,
in order to obtain maximum ground-frost penetration, local opinion considers that conditions are as good soon after freeze-up as ever. Much depends upon the depth of snow
lying upon the ground—however it is said that the frost does not penetrate much after
the first heavy snowfall. Certainly a local appraisal, backed by actual test of frost-
penetration in the district, should be obtained before a tractor-train takes the field. This
would be of particular importance in planning the continuation of the boundary northward
over the muskeg terrain known to Me north of the Hay River.
As mentioned before, the use of bulldozers and a mobile camp offers a flexibility
which should be of definite advantage in lightly or moderately wooded terrain. Attention
should be given to achieving a rate of surveying operations which is consistent with the
advance allowed by the line-clearing operations.   WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
BB  131
WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
E. H. Tredcroft, P.Eng., Comptroller
The use and control of water is a Provincial right under the " British North America
Act " and legislation governing the licensing of water in British Columbia is provided for
in the "Water Act," being chapter 361 of the "Revised Statutes of British Columbia,
1948."
The basic doctrine is simple: water is vested in the Crown in the right of the
Province and can only be obtained on licence; priority of right is based on priority of
application, and retention of right is dependent upon beneficial use, payment of rentals,
and observance of any orders of the Comptroller under the " Water Act."
The granting of a water right does not give a guarantee of water, but in streams with
numerous licences care is exercised not to " overrecord " it, or issue more licences than the
run of the stream will supply.
When the unregulated flow is " fully recorded," limited licences may still be issued for
the high spring flows, and if a suitable storage-site can be found, storage licences may be
issued, enabling a licensee to store water during the spring run-off for later use.
District Offices
To assist the Comptroller in the administration of the " Water Act," District
Engineers and their staffs are located at Victoria, Kamloops, Kelowna, and Nelson. These
engineers are in daily contact with the public, advising them on licensing procedure, availability of water within a stream, and existing rights. The local knowledge they acquire in
their districts is invaluable in settling disagreements between licensees concerning priorities
or amounts of water.
The processing of an application for a water licence involves a check with Water
Rights maps to see if the stream is fully recorded, a report from the District Engineer in
the particular area and in some cases where objections are raised it may involve a public
hearing. The decision then has to be made as to whether the licence can be issued or not
and if so on what terms and conditions.
Eventually a " conditional water licence " may be granted, in which a time-limit is
set forth for the completion of the works necessary to put the water to beneficial use. The
licence is conditional only in so far as the actual amount of water is concerned. In due
course, if the works are completed and approved, a final licence will be issued for the
amount of water actually used.
Application for Water Licences and Proceedings
1949
1950
1951
Applications for licences	
Applications for apportionments	
Applications for change of appurtenancy..
Applications for change of works	
Applications for extension of time	
Changes of ownership .
Cancellations and abandonments.
Right-of-way over Crown lands	
Totals 	
623
622
673
19
28
24
26
15
16
20
53
19
472
423
424
314
577
625
238
238
224
155
136
119
1,867
2,092
2,124
Licences Issued
457
377
530
520
519
Final                                                  	
374
834
1,050
893 BB  132
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
-LiJ.
1   I   I   '   I   '  '
I   I  I   I   i   I   I   I   I  i   I   ■  t   t  I   I   I  i   I   I  I
in
<s;
<6
CM
Q
O
o:
u
a
a
LJ   U
§?
h
Q
Z
LJ
a
x
uj
<
DO
h
ID
z
<
UJ
Id
ID >
Z
o
X
in
in
I
a.
<
cc
g 5
Q
"t
7
*    "£
UJ
<J
tf)      £
UJ
J
■* ?!
<D     X
rx nj
|  "I   l|  M   II  |
in
o
i—
cn
in
fO
v»
2
=C
0
d
n
<
2
2.
ID
?
lf>
in
n
22
s
Id
o
d
in
it*
<
aJ
>
in
J
s
<
0
in
o
L
^r
0">
cn
O
o> WATER RIGHTS BRANCH BB 133
DAM INSPECTIONS
(See Photos 3 and 4, Plate 2)
All plans of dams must be approved by the Comptroller before construction starts
and in most instances the applicant is required to obtain the services of a Registered
Professional Engineer. To safeguard against dam failures, especially during the spring
freshet, an inspection service is maintained by the Water Rights Branch to insure that
these dams are kept in a proper state of repair.
A total of ninety-seven dams were inspected throughout the Province, varying from
low earth dams to ones of considerable size and, in addition, twenty-one dam designs for
proposed new structures were reviewed.
IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS
In unorganized areas where considerable water is used and there are a number of
water licences the users may combine, and if only a few are involved may form a water
users' community; if there are a large number of users they can form an improvement
district under the " Water Act." The former is merely a co-operative operation; improvement districts, however, have all the power of a municipality for the limited purpose for
which they are formed and are operated through elected trustees. Improvement districts
can be formed for other purposes than the use of water, such as fire-protection, street-
lighting, and hospitals to illustrate some of the additional purposes.
They are brought into being by the Water Rights Branch, which helps them through
their organizational period, and generally administers, guides, and assists them thereafter.
Their by-laws must be registered with the Comptroller. There are now 147 improvement
districts in the Province.
The increasing demands on the administrative staff are reflected in the work of the
draughting room, which is listed below:—
Water applications cleared and plotted on water-rights maps  673
Conditional licence plats compiled and drawn  519
Final licence plats compiled and drawn  374
Water-rights maps compiled and drawn :     33
Improvement-district plans compiled and drawn     11
Water Clearances—
Changes of ownership ]
Cancellations   \ Approximately 1,062
Extensions of time J
Land Clearances—
Purchases	
Leases	
Reversions __.
Crown grants
Approximately 5,000
WATER RESOURCES SECTION
In addition to the administration of the " Water Act," the other important function
carried out by the Water Rights Branch is the investigation and obtaining of basic data
on our water resources. Much of this information is made up into reports, which are
available to the public on the payment of a small charge covering the cost of assembling
only.
The work of the Water Resources Section dates back to 1912, when the first power
investigations were made. To-day the field has broadened to include irrigation, ground
and surface water-supplies, dyking and drainage, and snow and sedimentation surveys. BB 134
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Snow Surveys and Dam Inspection
1.  Snow surveyors, Tatlayoko
Lake.
4.  Gaspard Lake dam.
Plate 2. ■ipppppp
WATER RIGHTS BRANCH BB 135
While in some instances field work includes the measurement of stream-discharges,
this is generally the function of the Dominion Water Resources Division of the Department
of Resources and Development. This Dominion Government agency is assisted by the
Provincial Government through an annual grant of $10,000.
Other hydrometric data obtained by Dominion Government departments working
within the Province include water-depth measurements and the determination of maximum
flood-levels.   Such information is of particular importance in flood-control and navigation.
The formation of the Dominion-Provincial Fraser River Basin Board in 1949 has
increased the work of the Water Resources Section considerably, and to-day about half its
investigations are carried out within the basin. One of the main objectives of the Board
is to co-ordinate the work of the various Government agencies so that an over-all development plan of the valley can be obtained.
The Water Rights Branch contribution to this end has included the survey of three
hydro-electric power-sites and flood-control basins in the Upper Fraser and the inauguration of a sedimentation-sampling programme.
I. Hydro-electric and Flood-control Surveys on the Fraser River Basin
(See Photos 5 to 10, Plates 3 and 4.)
1. Sinclair Mills Site.—The most northerly investigation on the Fraser River was
carried out east of Prince George near Sinclair Mills. A dam-site at Grand Canyon was
surveyed and storage traced back some 20 miles. Bathometric surveys to determine
water-depths were also run in the vicinity of the dam-site location. It is planned to
continue this project during the coming year.
2. West Road River.—The survey of the West Road River this year completes the
Water Rights investigations of the Fraser between Quesnel and Prince George.
The West Road River itself offers certain possibilities for a small hydro-electric
power-development. Two dam-sites were investigated in this river and the pondage
was surveyed up-stream for a distance of 12 miles from its mouth. Some discharge-
measurements were made during the summer and future plans are to install a gauge near
the mouth of the river.
3. Moran Dam-site.—Further down-stream, just north of Lillooet, a start was made
on a survey of the Moran dam-site and the resulting pondage. This is the location of the
largest proposed dam in the Fraser River valley with a maximum height of over 700 feet.
The narrow lake which would be contained between the river-banks would be more than
160 miles long.
The actual mapping for this project is being carried out by the Air Surveys Division,
using the multiplex, in conjunction with control obtained by Water Rights Branch field
parties.
4. Sedimentation.—Closely tied to the creation of up-stream storage in the Fraser
is the effects of sedimentation, and to determine the sediment-load carried by the river a
programme of sampling was introduced in 1950.
The first permanent suspended sediment-sampling station was established at Hope
and this year the programme was expanded to include Quesnel. Miscellaneous samplings
were also made, when time permitted, at Hansard, Marguerite, Chimney Creek, Big Bar,
and Boston Bar, while additional samplings were also taken on the Thompson River at
Lytton.
The results of the 1950 survey show extreme variations in the sediment-load of the
Fraser at Hope, ranging from a low of 6,600 cubic yards per day in December to a high of
848,000 cubic yards a day at the peak of the discharge on June 20th. BB  136
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Hydro-electric and Flood-control
8.   Black Canyon, West Road River.
Plate 3. ——
WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
BB 137
Fraser River Power
9.  Moran Dam-site, looking up-stream.
mmm
10.  Fort George Canyon, looking up-stream.
Plate 4. BB  138 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
II. Snow Surveys
(See Photos 1 and 2, Plates 2 and 5.)
The forecasting of the annual run-off to be expected from the main drainage-basins
of British Columbia through the media of snow surveys has become an established
function of the Water Rights Branch.
The Snow Bulletins published on February 1st, March 1st, April 1st, May 1st,
May 15th, and June 1st are available to the public and give advance run-off information
not only for the larger rivers, such as the Columbia and Fraser, but also for many of
the small tributaries, such as the North Thompson, Kootenay, Elk, Capilano, Stave,
Okanagan, and Lardeau Rivers.
During the past summer an active programme of inspection and relocation of
existing snow courses, together with the establishment of certain new courses, was carried
out. A new snow course at Fernie will satisfy the demand for a higher ^elevation course
in the East Kootenays, and the gradual expansion of the Fraser River network was
continued with the placing of seven new courses in the Coast Mountains. Six of these
courses were established, with the co-operation of the Aluminum Company of Canada
Ltd., within the Nechako River Basin, while the remaining course was placed on Bridge
River.
It is planned that gradual expansion of the Fraser network will continue, with possible
limited expansion into other important watersheds, as the demand for snow-survey data
increases.
This year we were fortunate to be able to act as host to the meeting of the Western
Snow Conference, held in Victoria last April 19th and 20th, at which many interesting
papers concerning snow surveying and hydrology were presented.
III. Other Hydro-electric Power Surveys
Two other hydro-electric power investigations were carried out in areas not within
the Fraser River Basin. These included Horsethief Creek, a tributary of the Columbia
near Wilmer, and the Copper (Zymoetz) River, a tributary of the Skeena near Terrace.
1. Horsethief Creek.—The possibilities of a storage-dam on Horsethief Creek, with
a diversion by penstock through a power-house near Lake Lillian, was investigated.
Further surveys between Lake Lillian and Toby Creek for a second development were
also carried out. The ultimate development indicated at these sites might run to 20,000
horse-power.
2. Zymoetz River (see Photo 13, Plate 6).—During the months of May to October
a hydro-electric power investigation of the Copper River and its tributaries was carried
out. A dam-site was surveyed at the canyon located 2J/i miles above the highway
suspension-bridge and the resulting pondage traced back. Up-stream storage in the
north and south forks of the river were also surveyed, including a dam-site at the west end
of McDonnel Lake. Discharge-measurements during the summer indicate an approximate
potential of about 15,000 horse-power.
IV. Water-supply Investigations
1. Invermere.—A total of four domestic water systems were investigated. One of
these was the appraisal of the existing waterworks system within the Village of Invermere,
while the other three include proposals for a water-supply for Salmo, South Slocan, and a
penitentiary-site near Maple Ridge.
2. Salmo Water-supply.—The possibilities of a ground water-supply for the Village
of Salmo was considered. Investigations included the testing of existing sand points and
wells in the village and a topographical survey of the immediate area. Spirit 0
River
\
PLATE 5
SNOW  SURVEYS
WATER    RIGHTS    BRANCH
DEPARTMENT   OF    LANDS    AND    FORESTS
BRITISH    COLUMBIA
Scale.
30
r-
too
=1
LEGEND
Established B.C. Snow Courses
Co-related U.S.A	
Co-related Stream Gauging Stations
Main Watershed Boundaries
N Sub
Name
Course
No.
1 1     Glacier
12A Field
15 Revelstoke
1 5A Revelstoke
Mountain
16 Ferguson
17 Farron
18 Sandon
19 Nelson
20B New Kimberley
20A Sullivan Mine
22 Blue River
23 Powell River
23A Powell River
24 Powell River
24A Powell River
24B Powell River
25 Kinbasket Lake
Course
No. Name
25A Middle River
26A New Tashme
27 Brookmere
28 Burwell Lake
28A Hollyburn
29 Palisade Lake
29A Dog Mountain
30 Loch Lomond
31 Bouleau Creek
32 Marble Canyon
33 Kicking Horse
34 Quartet Lake
35B Klesilkwa
41 Upper Elk River
42 Old Glory
Mountain
43 Gray Creek
Name
Course
No.
46 Copper
Mountain
47 Nickel Plate
Mountain
48A Monashee Pass
49 Porcupine
Ridge
50 Mount Cook
51 Trophy
Mountain
52 Yellowhead
53 Mount Albreda
54 McBride
55 Postill Lake
56 Tranquille Lake
57 Pass Lake
58 Freda Lake
59 Barkerville
60 Tatlayoko Lake
61 Wells Mountain
62 Kidprice Lake
63 Tahtsa Lake
64 Whitesail Lake
65 Pondosy Lake
66 Nechako
67 McGillvary Pass
68 Fernie Ridge WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
BB  139
Surface- and Ground-water Supplies
1 1.  Cawston bench—veterans' land project in foreground.
12.   Fish-ladder, Kloiya Dam, near
Prince Rupert.
13.  McDonnel Lake, at headwaters of
Copper River.
14.  Main hot springs at Lakelse.
Plate 6. BB 140 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
3. South Slocan Waterworks District.—In the case of the South Slocan Waterworks
District the study included an examination of the present gravity supply, and investigations
were made to improve the present system, utilizing the same sources of supply. Pumping
from the Kootenay River was also looked into as an alternative.
4. Penitentiary-site, Maple Ridge.—At the request of the Provincial Department of
Public Works, a field investigation was made of a proposed water-supply from Kanaka
Creek for a penitentiary located near Maple Ridge.
V. Ground-water Supplies
(See Photos 11, 12, and 14, Plate 6.)
With the increasing population and specialized industries, such as the production
of pulp, the demand for relatively pure water has grown considerably.
In some cases surface-water is not available or is of fair quality only and, as a result,
the consumer has tapped underground sources of supply.
Wells are not generally required to be licensed under the " Water Act," as it has
been the policy that the use of well-water for domestic or farm-yard purposes is a basic
right of the owner of the land. However, in a few cases where well licences have been
applied for they have been granted.
Last year the Water Rights Branch, working in co-operation with the Provincial
Department of Mines, made a start in the collection of basic data in areas where groundwater has been used fairly extensively. The particular areas covered by an hydraulic
engineer and geologist, working as a team, included the country around Surrey on the
Mainland and the vicinity of Cassidy on Vancouver Island.
The latter area is of particular interest, because it is here that the Nanaimo Sulphate
Pulp Company derives its water for plant purposes from underground sources. Their
pumping records have been made available for study by the Water Rights Branch.
Cawston Benches.—This year a study of the Cawston benches was made in
connection with the shallow wells which supply water for irrigation purposes there. The
elevations of well-collars were established, from which the level of the ground-water will
be obtained at certain periods of the year.
VI. Dyking and Drainage
The two requests for engineering assistance in dyking and drainage both originated
from the Lower Fraser Valley.
1. Sumas Area.—The first request came from the Dyking Commissioner following
(he February flood in the Sumas area.
Soon after, a Water Rights Branch engineer made an investigation of the works of
the Sumas Dyking, Drainage, and Development District. This investigation extended
across the border to include part of the Nooksack River watershed in the United States.
A preliminary report has already been completed and further investigations are now in
progress.
2. Kent Municipality.—Later in the year a request from the Municipality of Kent
was made for engineering assistance to improve the existing drainage and dyking systems
within that area. The surveys carried out included the layout of certain drainage-ditches
and an investigation for dyke improvement.
VII. Irrigation
1. Okanagan Falls Irrigation District.—One party was employed during the summer
in the investigations of improvements to the Okanagan Falls Irrigation District. This
survey included the possible extension of the irrigable area and improvements to the
village water-supply. PLATE  7
GEOGRAPHIC  DIVISION.  DEPARTMENT OF  LANDS  IND  FORESTS.  VICTORIA.   B.C. PLATE 8
DEVELOPED
(Or Under Development)
1. Jordan River.
2. Nanaimo River.
3. Buntzen Lake.
4. Stave Lake.
5. Wahleach (Jones)
Lake.
6. Britannia Creek.
7. Woodfibre Creek.
8. Seechelt Creek.
9. Lois River.
10. Powell River.
1 1. Campbell River.
1 2. Victoria Lake.
13. Hurley River.
14. Bridge River.
15. Shuswap River.
16. Whatshan Lake.
17. Nelson.
18. Corra Linn.
UNDEVELOPED
40. Nass River.
41. „
42. „
43. „
44. Bulkley River.
45.
46.
47. Omineca River.
48. Peace River.
49. Nation River.
81. Nimpkish River.
82. Kokish River.
83. Stafford River.
84. Fraser River.
85. „
86. Seton Creek.
87. Adams Lake.
88. Beaver River.
89. Columbia River.
90. Mabel Lake.
58°
51. Skeena River.
52. Nechako River.
53. Big Falls Creek.
54. Foch Creek.
55. Crab Creek.
56. Fraser River.
57. „
58. Cariboo River.
1 9. Upper Bonnington. 59. Quesnel River.
20.   Lower Bonnington.     60. „
50.   Kitsumgallum River.    91.  Horsethief Creek.
92. Fry Creek.
93. Sheep Creek.
94. Fording River.
95. Nahatlatch River.
96. Fraser River.
97. Chilliwack River.
98. Chehalis River.
99. Indian River.
100. Cheakamus River.
101.
102. Elaho River.
103. Stamp River.
1 04. Ash River.
105. Nahmint River.
BRITISH
A   FEW   OF   THE   MAJOR   WATER   POWERS
OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA
1951
GEOGRAPHIC  DIVISION.  DEPARTMENT OF  LANDS AND  FORESTS,  VICTORIA.  B.C. WATER RIGHTS BRANCH BB  141
The existing water for this project is obtained from the Okanagan River, just below
Skaha Lake.
In the same area, work went forward on the plans covering the Okanagan Flood-
control Project, which are being prepared by the Water Rights Branch. During the past
year the design and specifications for the Skaha Lake control dam and the South Okanagan
land project diversion weir were drawn up.
2. Saanich Irrigation.—Last year a report was made on the possibilities of irrigating
the Saanich Peninsula through the Greater Victoria Water Board supply.
This year a further study has been made to determine if any water is available in Elk
Lake for small-scale irrigation.
VIII. Special Hydraulic Studies and Investigations
1. Columbia River.—One of the more important hydraulic studies being undertaken
is on the Columbia River, where south of the border development has gone ahead rapidly.
Early in 1944 the necessity of co-operation between the Canadian and American Governments was recognized and, as a result, the International Columbia River Engineering
Board was established, which is assisted by a committee. The committee in turn is
assisted by a working-group from the various Government agencies concerned, including
the Water Rights Branch.
To alleviate the growing shortage of power in the Pacific Northwest, the United States
Army Engineers have proposed a large dam at Libby, Montana, which would back water
up the Kootenay River into Canada. This and the proposal of a second dam at the Bull
River site, just north of Wardner in British Columbia, have been the subject of an intensive
study by the Board and committee.
2. Vancouver Island Power.—The British Columbia Power Commission's application for storage in Buttle Lake has involved numerous studies and investigations of
Vancouver Island power. In accordance with the " Water Act," this and several other
applications were heard by the Comptroller during the year.
3. Power Report.—A start was made in the revision of the publication, dated 1924,
on " Water Powers of British Columbia," which it is planned to make available during the
coming year. This has involved a considerable amount of office work in bringing up to
date power reports made some twenty to thirty years ago when hydrometric data for
many of the streams was scant or non-existent.
4. Other Investigations.—Many small investigations have been carried out which
have not yet been mentioned.   These are listed below:—
(1) Grandview Flats Irrigation.
(2) Flooding of the Chehalis River.
(3) The Removal of Barrier Lake Dam.
(4) Power at Wildwood Heights.
(5) Alouette Lake Power.
(6) Flooding on the Coquitlam River.
•    (7) Lakelse Fish-fence.
(8) Harrison Lake Storage.
(9) Ultimate Power Development—Skagit River.
(10) University Endowment Lands Sewers.
(11) Rock Dumping Between Martel and Oregon Jack Creeks on the Fraser
River.
(12) Flooding of Bloomer Creek at Castlegar.
A list is also given below of reports prepared by the Branch during the year:—
(1) Spius Creek Power.
(2) Spillimacheen River Power.
(3) Sloko Lake-Taku River Power.
(4) Cuisson Creek Storage. BB  142
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
INSTALLED  H.P.   IN THOUSANDS
O
M
o
o
ITS
o
t~
itn
o
o
o
O
o
o
O
■*  .
CS
UN
CI   .
5>
 F"
at
Id 0
•o
-2 5 2
h m •
o a o
UJ D O
J   h   ON
LI    __IL
'   Q
O Id
or -\
-r*
h-
m
o
o
o
CM
o
o
in —
0!
2
y
<
<r
Z 5
S \n
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
ITS
INSTALLED H.P.  IN THOUSANDS WATER RIGHTS BRANCH BB 143
(5) Invermere Townsite Water-supply.
(6) Maple Ridge Water-supply.
(7) Vernon Commonage Irrigation.
(8) Albion Dyke and Drainage.
(9) Seepage on the Grey Canal of the Vernon Irrigation District.
(10) Lakelse Hot Springs.
(11) Saanich Irrigation.
(12) The Gorge Canal.
A number of the Water Rights Branch reports have served as guides to companies in
search of power or water supplies. Instances which come to mind are the $500,000,000
project of the Aluminum Company of Canada at Kitimat, which was originally surveyed
by the Water Rights Branch in the thirties, and the British Columbia Power Commission
Whatshan plant on Lower Arrow Lake, which was envisioned by the Water Rights Branch
engineers in 1944.  PLATE  10
Courtesy of Morrison-Knutson Company of Canada
and Aluminum Company of Canada Ltd.
,j-%•'■• .'*• • * > ^g7^^*"
From Surveys by Water Rights Branch, 1928-38 BB  150
W29 ..
W30 _
W30a.
W31 ...
W32...
W33 ...
W34 _
W35 .
W36 ..
W37 ...
W38 ...
W39 ...
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
III.  Willow Creek Area
Hole
Depth
Casing
Footage
in Rock
Footage
in Coal
Remarks
Wl ......
WlA —
W2 .....
W3	
W4 .	
W5	
W6 __
W7 	
W8	
W9 	
W10 ...
Wll ...
W12 _
W13 ....
W14 ....
W15 ...
W16 .
W17 ....
W18 _
W19 ._
W20 .....
W21	
W22 ....
W23   ...
W24	
W?5 ....
W26	
W27 __
W28 ....
Totals.
253.0
696.0
354.0
206.0
197.0
239.0
223.0
303.0
501.0
368.0
648.0
957.0
716.5
543.0
641.0
750.0
921.0
794.0
983.0
549.0
902.5
836.0
847.0
742.0
775.0
160.0
647.0
770.0
,072.0
600.0
70.0
785.0
750.0
544.0
708.0
523.0
721.0
683.0
653.0
1,030.0
786.0
25,447.0
26.0
264.0
50.0
70.0
20.0
15.0
136.0
10.0
22.0
75.0
60.0
53.0
30.0
12.0
7.0
10.0
85.0
30.0
82.0
140.0
70.0
20.0
20.0
15.0
25.0
140.0
15.0
135.0
18.0
53.0
70.0
72.0
162.0
15.0
10.0
15.0
139.0
80.0
17.0
82.0
7.0
226.0
661.0
329.0
186.0
177.0
228.0
112.0
297.0
479.0
293.0
588.0
904.5
686.5
531.0
634.0
740.0
891.0
764.0
930.0
409.0
834.5
818.0
827.0
723.0
760.0
Nil
632.0
636.0
1,055.0
547.0
Nil
713.0
600.0
529.0
708.0
507.0
585.5
602.0
636.0
1,013.0
779.0
15.4
12.6
6.9
3.1
8.7
3.5
19.9
2.0
16.4
To 303 feet in 1947.
2,367.0
23,571.0
29.2
8.0
10.0
12.7
32.0
4.7
6.8
25.2
10.1
26.9
9.0
35.8
35.0
36.0
12.6
Nil
13.0
39.4
37.5
12.5
Nil
6.0
18.0
25.5
37.4
18.2
13.6
21.0
24.5
47.5
61.5
758.1
To 750 feet in 1948.
To 611 feet in 1949,
17.5 feet coal.
To 785 feet in 1950.
To 786 feet in 1951.
IV. Crassier-Noman Area
PRl                 	
177.0
828.0
1,038.0
468.0
803.0
1,195.0
171.0
1,073.0
471.0
182.0
868.0
263.0
544.0
788.0
838.0
521.0
861.0
692.0
472.0
640.0
255.0
597.0
642.0
206.0
481.0
761.0
170.0
105.0
10.0
110.0
11.0
16.0
100.0
13.0
111.0
132.0
10.0
30.0
26.0
10.0
30.0
10.0
33.0
5.0
20.0
30.0
22.0
30.0
51.0
72.0
162.0
30.0
Nil
723.0
1,028.0
358.0
792.0
1,179.0
71.0
1,060.0
360.0
Nil
858.0
233.0
523.0
778.0
808.0
511.0
828.0
687.0
470.0
610.0
233.0
567.0
594.0
134.0
401.0
731.0
Nil
20.7
12.0
Nil
7.0
9.6
Nil
19.5
17.3
Nil
18.9
30.2
39.7
23.6
21.4
1.5
18.0
6.7
28.0
17.4
21.3
9.8
11.6
19.0
9.5
4.4
PRlA
PR2    .-	
'
PR3       .-
PR4      -     	
To 502 feet in 1947
PR5                 	
PR6	
PR7       -	
PR8                    -.  	
PR9                       	
PR10
PRl 1                               	
PR12                _                	
PR13                         ...   	
PR14                                                 _	
To 624 feet in 1948.
PR 15                                        	
PR16                   ...   - -   -   -
PR17            	
PRl 8                     - -
PR19                        	
PR20                                 	
PR21                                        	
PR22         -     	
PR23                 - -
PR23A  - - 	
PR24                         	
To 761 feet in 1949.
Totals  	
15,835.0
1,349.0
14,547.0
427.1 COAL, PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS BRANCH
BB  149
An interim estimate of coal tonnage, indicated by the work completed to the end of
the 1950 season, was 42,000,000 short tons in seams of 4 feet or over.
The field party disbanded on October 15th, 1951.
Summary of Diamond-drilling, Pine River Coalfield
(Coal intersections of less than 1 foot are not included in the coal footages.)
I. Hosier Mine Area
Hole
Depth
Casing
Footage
in Rock
Footage
in Coal
Remarks
HI  „      	
H2      	
H3   	
481.5
353.0
397.5
851.0
593.0
541.0
242.5
634.0
1,148.0
35.0
20.0
95.0
120.0
25.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
460.5
330.0
392.0
731.0
568.0
521.0
222.5
614.0
27.1
19.5
11.2
44.0
14.7
Nil
Nil
4.4
Nil
H4 	
H5           	
H6       '     ......         	
H6a              	
H7       	
H8
To 790 feet in 1946.
Hole in Moosebar.
Hole in Moosebar.
Not drilled.
H9        	
30.0
1,118.0
Hole in Moosebar.
Totals 	
5,241.5
385.0
4.957.0
120.9
II. Johnson Creek Area
J1       	
543.0
600.0
30.0
50.0
513.0
552.0
21.3
29.5
48.1
17           ..             ....      ..                       .    ...
J3    .
Totals—       	
Not drilled.
J4
987.0
10.0
978.0
Gas at 155 feet; drill
burned.
2,130.0
90.0
2,043.0
98.9 BB  148
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Sundry Revenue of the Branch for the Year Ended December 31st, 1951
As in past years the chief expense of the Branch is with respect to coal; the chief
income from petroleum and natural gas.
Collections under " Coal and Petroleum
Act "—Leases, fees, and sundry       $6,230.55
Collections under " Coal Act "—
Licences, leases, and fees         2,213.50
 $8,444.05
Collections under " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act,"  1947,  1950,
and 1951—
Permit and licence fees and rentals.. $636,028.16
Sundry  540.65
636,568.81
Total  $645,012.86
COAL DIVISION
N. D. McKechnie, M.A.Sc., P.Eng., Assistant Controller
Office Activities
Licences under the " Coal Act "
Number
Licences issued  19
Licences renewed     6
Licences subsisting  2.5
Leases under the " Coal and Petroleum Act "
Acres
9,324.2
1,837
11,161.2
Type of Lease
Renewed
Subsisting
No.
Acres
No.
Acres
13
Nil
10
7,842
Nil
5,706
22
2
14
12,453
112
Petroleum and natural gas. ,  	
Totals       „
23
13,548
38                20,689
Over-all Licences and Leases.—Sixty-three, covering 31,850 acres.
Field Operations
This season, beginning on June 8th, 1951, saw the completion of the investigation,
started by the Control in 1946, of the Pine River coalfield in the Peace River District.
The final work was confined chiefly to the ground underlain by the north-east limb of the
Pine River anticline, south of the Pine River and east of Willow Creek.
The work, as heretofore, consisted of diamond-drilling, trenching, and geological
mapping. Nine diamond-drill holes, totalling 6,398 feet, were put down, and of this,
267.2 feet were in coal-beds of 1 foot or over in thickness. Trenching, to supplement the
information derived from the drilling and from the mapping of natural rock outcrops, was
done at intervals along the structure.
The total diamond-drilling done by the Control on this project is eighty-one holes,
amounting to 48,653 feet, of which 1,405 feet were in coal-beds of 1 foot or over in
thickness. COAL, PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS BRANCH BB 147
COAL, PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS BRANCH
T. B. Williams, M.Sc, Ph.D., P.Eng., Controller
GENERAL AND SUMMARY
During the year the activities of the Branch continued to grow. The number of
full-time staff increased to ten.
The coalfield investigation was carried on by one party, under the supervision of
the Assistant Coal Controller. The Pine River area field investigation was completed and
is now being reported upon.
A trial shipment of coal was sent to the Federal laboratories in Ottawa to be used
for special investigations, including those under the supervision of the Department of
Mechanical Engineering of McGill University.
The Branch endeavoured to co-operate with every activity which seeks to advance
the interests of the British Columbia coal industry.
The oil and gas activity of the Province continue to be normal until mid-year, when
the number of applications for permits began to increase.
Greater amounts of geological work as well as geophysical work, the latter including
that accomplished by air-borne equipment, were done during the year. On the last day
of October the Peace River Allied Fort St. John No. 1 well encountered oil and gas.
During the month of November and the early part of December the Branch's office
struggled with a land-rush. It is to the credit of the staff that it worked overtime and, with
help from the Lands Branch, managed to keep going and hopes to catch up in 1952.
The magnitude of the oil and gas strike is not yet apparent. The event is, however,
a guide for future development and is important as the first strike in the Province.
The year ended with one well awaiting completion and testing, three wells drilling,
and one ready to spud.
The " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act " was again amended.
Owing to clashes in dates, two important meetings could not be attended, but the
Branch was represented at three such meetings.
The Chemical Laboratory analysed coal, oil, gas, air, and water samples. It also
continued its investigation into the identification of coals. All the work of this laboratory
on coal is at research level.
The Sample Laboratory examined and reported on the well cuttings and cores.
The Branch's engineers inspected various petroleum operations and superintended
the plugging of one well.   Two general-inspection trips were made.
Close contact is maintained with both the coal and the petroleum industries.
A very encouraging feature of 1951 was the effort of big interests to get permission
to build, from Alberta to Vancouver, a gas and also an oil pipe-line. Preliminary surveys
for both have been made and location surveys for the latter are under way. These lines,
when completed, should facilitate the marketing of British Columbia gas and oil when
they may have been brought into production.
PERSONNEL
In the early summer the assistant chemist, then on leave of absence, resigned.
R. R. McLeod was appointed in his place.
In November, R. M. Milke joined the staff as general assistant.
The temporary summer staff of the Coal Control consisted of an assistant geologist,
three assistants, the bulldozer driver and swamper, and one diamond-drill crew with a
cook.  COAL, PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS
BRANCH
PROVIl i    UBRAHK, COAL, PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS BRANCH BB 151
PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS DIVISION
J. D. Lineham, B.Sc, Petroleum Eng., Assistant Controller
Operations and Progress
Interest in all phases of exploration for petroleum and natural gas increased steadily
during the year but more particularly within the last three months.
An announcement by Peace River Natural Gas Company Limited on November 1st
that a considerable recovery of oil had been made during a drill-stem test on Peace River
Allied Fort St. John No. 1 Well initiated a demand for potential oil lands in the Peace
River District which exceeded that of any other period in the past. As a result of this
event, and no doubt influenced by the continued success and advancement northwest of
the oil industry in the neighbouring Province of Alberta, companies and individuals alike
soon blanketed the entire area east of the Alaska Highway and south of the 59th parallel
of latitude. In addition, application for land extended from approximately 70 miles south
of Pouce Coupe, thence north-west following, generally, the boundary between the foothills and the plains. Other applications were scattered north of the 59th parallel extending
as far as 50 miles west of Nelson Forks.
During the year, considerable interest developed on the west coast of Vancouver
Island and in the Lillooet District, while activity diminished somewhat in the Queen
Charlotte, Cariboo, and New Westminster Districts.
Operations in the Flathead Valley of the Kootenay District were augmented by the
commencement of a well on Lot 7335. In view of the fact that practically all workable
acreage is under permit or licence in this area, little increase of total acreage was recorded.
As could be expected, most of the exploratory work conducted during the year
consisted of surface geological examination, although a marked increase was noted with
respect to seismograph surveys and other methods of sub-surface investigation, including
that done by air-borne equipment. In addition, the number of wells operated and footage
drilled showed an increase over that of last year.
The marked encouragement experienced during the past twelve-month period would
indicate that considerable progress may be expected in 1952.
Permits
The acreage held, or applied for, under permits more than doubled during 1951. Of
the total area of 20,744,280 acres, 97 per cent is situated in the Peace River District, with
less than 1 per cent situated in each of the other district being explored.
During the year, forty-seven exploration permits, covering 3,975,608 acres, were
issued to seventeen individuals and twelve companies. In the same period, twenty-nine
permits, involving 2,063,511 acres, were terminated, and 186, including 12,699,904 acres,
were applied for. At the end of the year, 20,744,280 acres were held, under 121 permits
and 142 applications, by sixty-two individuals and forty-three companies.
Nine permits originally issued under the 1947 Act and forty-seven permits under the
1950 Act were reissued under the provisions of the "Petroleum and Natural Gas Act
Amendment Act, 1951."
One hundred and nine permit extensions and sixty-four renewals, involving ninety
permits, were approved.
A total of eighteen permits were assigned. BB  152 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The following table indicates the acreage being explored in the respective areas:—
Subsisting Permits
Permit Applications
Total
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
99
4
5
6
7
11,457,876
152,068
143,079
92,509
85,332
133
1
4
1
3
8,680,306
232
4
6
10
8
3
20,138,182
152,068
Cariboo   	
Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island
Kootenay 	
10,000
43,762
9,524
69,824
153,079
136,271
94,856
69,824
Totals.  	
121
11,930,864
142      1    8.813.416
263
20,744,280
Increase of interest in exploration for petroleum and natural gas in British Columbia
is represented by the following table.   The figures include outstanding applications: —
Permit Type
1949
1950
1951
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Geological, 1947.. 	
20
2
1,945,940
432,000
52
2
52
4,633,102
467,200
5,390,901
20
1
12
230
1,222,424
Geological and geophysical, 1947	
Amended Act, 1950	
251,520
360,828
18,909,508
Totals    	
22
2,377,940
106
10,521,203
263
20,744,280
a
z
<
z
o
1
PETROLEUM
AND
NATURAL
GAS
PERMIT
PROGRESS
,*
i
20
i
i
19
?{
18
o«
5-'
16
0.1
<r
15
14
a
1
i
13
y<A
i—
y
J*
>
12
i>
0*
-,<■
S
11
^
V
,
#*
■i
»*
f
^
I
10
,*
>j
Zi
Or
9
\?4
(-■
8
■S
a.
i
i
i
6
i
N
CL
•<«.
„•
r
5
rX
W
r'
:
v i
4
3
2
1
™r-
ND
'47
J  FMAMJ  JASOND
1948
J  F MAM J  JASOND
1949
J  F MAM J   JASOND
1950
J  F MAM J  JASOND
1951
260
240 n
220 H
200 3
180 c£
160 ™
140 m
120 O
100 ot
Ui
80 .
60 2
40 =
20 Z COAL, PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS BRANCH
BB  153
Geophysical Subsurface Licences
Two licences to conduct geophysical exploration were issued during 1951 in respect
of seismograph surveys being carried out on five permits in the Peace River District.
These surveys cover an area of approximately one and one-quarter millions of acres.
Licences
Activity with regard to Crown petroleum and natural-gas licences increased
appreciably over that recorded last year.
A total of forty-eight applications for licences, involving 359,391 acres, were
submitted during the year and forty-seven, including 354,271 acres, were issued.
In the same period, thirty-nine licences, covering 49,835 acres, were terminated.
None were assigned.
Thirty-four licences, involving 337,631 acres, were in good standing at the end of
the year.   These licences and approved applications are situated as follows:—
District
Subsisting Licences
Licence Applications
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
28
6
270,720
66,911
1
5,120
Kootenay   	
Totals                            	
34
337,631
1
5,120
Leases
No leases were applied for or issued under the provisions of the " Petroleum and
Natural Gas Act."
The only existing leases are those issued under the " Coal and Petroleum Act, 1936."
These number twenty-four and include 12,565 acres, as follows:—
District Number Acres
Peace River  10 6,400
Kootenay  8 4,131
Yale   2 642
Kamloops  1 640
New Westminster  3 752
Totals
24
12,565
Summary of Petroleum and Natural-gas Permits, Licences,
and Leases, December, 31st, 1951
District
Permits
Number
Permit
Applications
Number
Acres
Licences
Number
Acres
Licence
Applications
Number
Leases
Number
Acres
Total
Acreage
Peace River	
Queen Charlotte __
Cariboo  	
Lower j Mainland    and
Vancouver Island...
Kootenay 	
Lillooet  	
Yale 	
Kamloops.
Totals..
99
4
5
6
7
121
11,457,876
152,068
143,079
92,509
85,332
11,930,864
133
1
8,680,306
10,000
4 |       43,762
1  | 9,524
3  |       69,824
I
142 | 8,813,416
I	
28
34
270,720
66,911
337,631
1  | 5,120
-- I   	
.... |   ........
1  | 5,120
10
6,400 | 20,420,422
--  I       152,068
  I       153,079
3 752
8       4,131
2 I
1
642
640
137,023
165,898
69,824
642
640
24     12,565 | 21,099,596
I	 BB  154                                DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Drilling
(a) Permits to Operate Drilling Equipment.—Six were issued, one
application is
pending issue, and seven expired.   Eleven remain in good standing.
(b) Drilling Licences.—Fourteen were issued and one application is
pending issue.
(c)  Wells.—Twenty wells commenced drilling or were completed during the year,
an increase of six over 1950.
The footage drilled to December 31st was 66,478 feet.
In addition, fifty-one shallow stratigraphic test-wells drilled 38,752 feet of hole.
Therefore, the total footage drilled was 105,230 feet.
At the end of the year, three wells were drilling, one was testing, one was rigging, and
one location was being prepared.
The following is a summary of wells drilled in 1951:—
Well Name
Company
District
Date
Spudded
Date
Completed
Elevation
Total
Depth
Results
Pacific   Sunrise
Peace River Natu
Peace River
Jan.  4
Feb. 10
2,359
3,503
Suspended.
No. 2
ral Gas Co. Ltd.
Pacific   Sunrise
Peace River Natu
Peace River
Mar.  1
Apr. 11
2,743
3,232
Standing capped.
No. 3
ral Gas Co. Ltd.
Pacific   Sunrise
Peace River Natu
Peace River
Apr. 14
May 29
2,649
3,170
Standing capped.
No. 4
ral Gas Co. Ltd.
Pacific   Sunrise
Peace River Natu
Peace River
Apr. 3
May 1
2,601
3,059
Abandoned.
No. 5
ral Gas Co. Ltd.
Pacific   Sunrise
Peace River Natu
Peace River
Apr. 14
Apr. 20
2,741
924
Abandoned.
No. 6
ral Gas Co. Ltd.
Pacific   Sunrise
Peace River Natu
Peace River
Apr. 19
May 21
2,741
3,313
Standing capped.
No. 6a
ral Gas Co. Ltd.
Pacific   Sunrise
Peace River Natu
Peace River.
May 5
May 31
2,671
3,198
Abandoned.
No. 7
ral Gas Co. Ltd.
Pacific   Sunrise
Peace River Natu
Peace River
May 28
June 25
2,546
3,229
Abandoned.
No. 8
ral Gas Co. Ltd.
Peace   River
Peace River Natu
Peace River-
July  5
1,348
5,667
Testing.
Allied Fort St.
ral Gas Co. Ltd.
John No. 1
Peace   River
Peace River Natu
Peace River..
Sept. 29
Nov. 23
2,119
4,033
Abandoned.
Allied Fort St.
ral Gas Co. Ltd.
John No. 2
Pacific Fort St.
Peace River Natu
Peace River
2,365
Rigging.
John No. 3
ral Gas Co. Ltd.
Pacific Fort St.
John No. 4
Peace River Natural Gas Co. Ltd.
Peace River
(*)
Location.
Pacific Atlantic
Pacific Petroleums
Kootenay	
Sept. 5
4,337
2,962
Drilling.
Flathead No.
1
Sunset   Prairie
Ltd.
Phillips Petroleum
Peace River
Dec. 5, 1950
Feb. 9
2,500 ±
2,612
Abandoned.
No. 4
Co.
Daiber "A" No.
1
Tenaka No. 1....
Phillips Petroleum
Co.
Phillips Petroleum
Peace River
Oct. 26, 1950
Oct. 20
3,113
11,504
Abandoned.
Peace River-
Dec.  3
1,822
2,148
Drilling.
Pacific Act Kis
Co.
Act Oils Ltd.
Peace River..
July 24
Sept. 11
2,142
4,703
Abandoned.
katinaw No. 1
Allenbee  South
Allenbee  Petrole
New West
June 21,1950
Feb. 16
235
4,673
Abandoned.
Brazeau B.C.
ums Ltd.
minster
No. 1
Kersley No. 1	
Kersley Oil & Gas
Co. Ltd.
Cariboo	
Oct. 12, 1950
July 30
1,700
3,552
Suspended.
Red Willow No.
B.C. Oil and Gas
Peace River-
Dec. 14
3.400-t-
996
Drilling.
1
Development
Syndicate
* Not yet re
ported. COAL, PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS BRANCH
BB  155
Coal, Petroleum and Natural Gas
The well-head of Peace River Natura.
Gas No. 1, located on Legal Subdivision
6, Section 30, Township 80, Range 13,
west of the 6th meridian, Peace River
District.
The discovery well, Peace River
Allied Fort St. John No. 1, located
on Legal Subdivision 1, Section
9, Township 83, Range 18, west
of the 6th meridian, Peace River
District. bb 156 department of lands and forests
General
The series of permit location maps begun last year was completed and distributed
during the year. These maps and the monthly report concerning all changes were
favourably received by the purchasers.
A definite need for a single map covering the Peace River District became evident
during the latter part of the year. Therefore, a map on a scale of 1 inch to 8 miles was
prepared, maintained, and distributed by the Surveys and Mapping Service. The information contained thereon is supplied and checked by the Petroleum and Natural Gas Branch.
Subsisting Petroleum and Natural-gas Leases under the " Coal and Petroleum
Act, 1936," and Permits and Licences under the " Petroleum and Natural
Gas Act."
Type of Holding Number Acres
Leases, " Coal and Petroleum Act, 1936 "  24 12,565
Geological permits, 1947 Act  20 1,222,424
Geological and geophysical permits, 1947 Act 1 251,520
Permits under Amended Act, 1950  12 360,828
Permits under Amended Act, 1951  88 10,096,092
Licences, 1947 Act  2 2,560
Licences, 1951 Act 1  32 335,071
Totals  179        12,281,060
Applications for permits pending  142 8,813,416
Applications for licences pending       1 5,120
Total area issued and applied for __. 322        21,099,596
COAL AND PETROLEUM CHEMICAL LABORATORIES
K. C. Gilbart, M.Sc, P.Eng., Chief Chemist
The Chemical Laboratory of the Branch carried on, as in previous years, with the
analysis of coal samples from the Peace River coal investigation, but with a notable swing
to testing in the petroleum field during the latter part of the year.
Work during the first part of the year was curtailed due to staff shortage as the
Assistant Chemist was still on leave of absence attending University. With the appointment of a new Assistant Chemist in July, work proceeded at full capacity. The only large
item of equipment added during the year was an Orsat gas-analysis apparatus.
A total of 118 samples were tested and reported on during the year, of which 56
were coal, 13 petroleum, 9 gas, 38 water, and 2 rock.
Coal testing during the first part of the year consisted of finishing up the last of the
1950 diamond-drill samples. The current year's coal samples started to arrive in August.
At the close of 1951 thirty of these samples remained to be tested.
A special laboratory study was conducted on a set of twelve coal samples from the
Carbon River field in the Peace River Vallev, submitted by the P. Burns Foundation.
As in previous years, most of the oil samples were from seepages submitted bv
individuals who believed they might have oil on their land. These samples were all
carefully tested and recorded, as the information may prove valuable at a later date.
One notable sample submitted was of " Northwind oil," said to be found in solidified
form during cold weather on the beach at Bute Inlet. Work on this interesting material
is proceeding in this laboratory as well as in various laboratories of the Federal
Government.
The close of the year saw the first sample of British Columbia crude oil obtained by
drilling since the renewal of oil interest in 1947. It was from the Peace River Allied Fort
St. John No. 1 well.   It is a light green oil with a gravity of 38.6° A.P.I. COAL, PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS BRANCH BB 157
Coupled with crude-oil testing is gas analysis. Most of the samples were submitted
by individuals who found evidence of gas-seepage on their land.
Linked with petroleum and gas testing is the analysis of formation water found
during the normal drilling of oil and gas wells. Companies drilling in the Province are
required to send in samples from all water horizons tested during drilling. These samples
are all analysed in the laboratory and reports are sent to the company concerned. A study
of these water analyses is valuable to the petroleum engineer and to the geologist.
The volume of laboratory testing of oil, gas, and water is expected to increase during
the coming year.
COAL AND PETROLEUM GEOLOGICAL LABORATORY
S. S. Cosburn, B.Sc, P.Eng., Chief Sample Examiner
The laboratory work consists mainly of washing, examining, logging, and bottling
of 10-foot well samples.   Some core was logged.
Well Samples
During the year 2,990 samples were handled and logged from the following wells:
Allenbee South Brazeau No. 1, Kersley No. 1, Pacific Sunrise Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6a, 7,
and 8, Peace River Allied Fort St. John No. 1, Peace River Natural Gas No. 2, and
Phillips Sifnset Prairie No. 4.
The well-sample library has now on file samples from twenty-eight British Columbia
wells. The samples, bottled and systematically filed and card-indexed, now number
over 9,000.
A portion of each bagged sample is being sent to the Canadian Department of Mines
and Technical Surveys at Calgary.
In addition to the well-sample library, a museum cabinet has been set up in the
hallway between the Geological and Chemical Laboratories for coal, petroleum, and rock
specimens.
Core
Six hundred and eighty feet of core were logged from the following wells: Allenbee
South Brazeau No. 1, Kersley No. 1, Pacific Act Kiskatinaw No. 1, Pacific Sunrise No. 3,
Peace River Allied Fort St. John Nos. 1 and 2, Phillips Daiber "A" No. 1, and Phillips
Sunset Prairie Nos. 2, 3, and 4.
All the core was logged in the field, except that from Kersley No. 1, which is stored
in the laboratory.
Certain samples and logs from wells drilled by companies still active have been
released for study. Those from most abandoned holes may be studied. Space at the
sample laboratory is available for those interested in sample examination.
Interim and summary reports on the stratigraphy of a well are made as a service to a
company drilling in the Province and sending in samples, core and electrical logs.  DYKING COMMISSIONER  DYKING COMMISSIONER BB 161
DYKING COMMISSIONER
G. Bruce Dixon, B.Sc, M.E.I.C, P.Eng., Dyking Commissioner and
Inspector of Dykes
The report of the Lands Service has, in recent years, contained information from
this Branch which was thought, perhaps, of public interest. If one is interested in
historical fact, or in legal or legislative matters pertaining to this particular field, reference
may be had to the reports for 1946, brought up to date in 1947 and 1948. For practical
or physical information, the reports of 1948, supplemented by those of 1949 and 1950,
are available. These remarks are made, at the expense of appearing presumptuous, to
avoid repetition and for the sake of brevity.
The year 1950-51 experienced no material changes from either above standpoint.
It was, in many respects, an average year. The River (Fraser) peaked at Mission on
May 22nd at 18.41 feet—14 days earlier than the average for the fifty-six years of record
and 0.1 feet above the average gauge height. The mean discharge at Hope in second-feet
for the combined months of May and June was 108 per cent of the long-term median.
Climatically, the year was freakish. Precipitation was above normal in October,
November, and December, 1950, and January, 1951, while February experienced a record
rainfall of 13.08 inches from the 7th to the 11th, inclusive (4.22 inches was recorded on
the 10th, and 4.18 inches on the 11th), with attendant flash floods. March, April, and
May were normal but June, July, August, and September established an all-time low
record for precipitation.
As might be expected, operations for the year were not out of the ordinary. Flash
floods in the winter were responsible for considerable inconvenience in low-lying areas,
and added materially to operational costs, particularly as regards pumping services. The
Sumas and Dewdney Districts were particularly hard hit, and remedial measures in the
former will have cost in the neighbourhood of $25,000 with the remedy by no means
complete. This situation has been the subject of an extensive investigation by engineers
of the Water Rights Branch through the year.
As formerly, this office administers the dyking affairs of the following districts under
the provisions of the " Dyking Assessments Adjustment Act, 1905," with amendements:
Coquitlam, Pitt Meadows No. 1 and No. 2, Maple Ridge (Dyking and Drainage), and
Matsqui (Dyking and Drainage). In addition, it serves the following districts under the
provisions of the " Drainage, Dyking, and Development Act ": Sumas, West Nicomen,
Dewdney, and South Westminster. Lately we became receiver of the East Nicomen
District, organized under the provisions of the " Water Act," and also under that Act we
serve as one of the trustees of the South Dewdney and of the Mission Dyking Districts.
The operational costs of the year are apportioned against the acreage in each district,
and the following tabulation supplies pertinent physical and financial information:— BB  162
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PHYSICAL INVENTORY OF DISTRICTS
5 o
S.Z
S o
o o
si
o
Area (acres) 	
Number of owners	
Miles of main dyke 	
Miles of secondary dyke	
Miles of interception ditches..
Number of flood-boxes	
Available section area (square feet)..
Pumping plants 	
Number of units 	
Maximum total capacity (i.g.p.m.)..
Connected horse-power .	
3,050
8,198
1,175
176
379
5
8.41
14.39
6.08
3.75
1.5
	
3.75
1.5
3
4
1
318
392
72
5
4
1
5
6
1
90,000
113,000
18,000
375
480
75
I
1,0601 10,039
521       420
5.461      7.21
1| 2
721. 264
2| 2
3| 5
40,0001115,000
180) 680
I
3,355
154
7.35
28,029
4,138
1,514
104
15.35
13.62
12.31
16.20
9
7
516
50
2
2
6
2
: 1;    ! i   1,401 60,445
867 3,671
4.62 82.49
_  17.56
1.20 22.65
1    9    7    6 34
144        516          50        175 2,003
1 2            2            3 22
2 6            2            3 33
80,000 450,000| 14,000|  15,000|935,000
7001    3,5901         50|         35| 6,165
I I I 1
Matsqui Drainage District No. 1:  9.8 miles of main and 16.2 miles of secondary drainage-ways.
Maple Ridge Drainage District No. 2:  41.66 miles of secondary drainage-ways.
Sumas Drainage Development District:   18.65 miles of main and 54.95 miles of secondary drainage-ways.
FINANCIAL
The tables which follow attempt to present detail which may be of interest:
District
Rate per Acre
Proceeds
Accrued
Renewal
Maintenance
Capital
Reserve,
Nov. 30, 1951
$3.00
2.00
3.50
2.00
.40
.20
.10
.50
.50
.50
4.50
4.50
4.50
4.50
1.00
3.50
2.10
1.05
.525
.525
.525
1.00
.76
.39
.20
$0.70
.60
.75
.50
.28
.14
.07
.40
.20
.10
1.02
.765
.41
.255
1.19
.60
1.15
.81
.64
.32
.16
4.37
3.3245
1.71
.87
$11,267.90
21,306.24
4,505.79
25,157.97
)-    2,551.41
J
1
j-    3,322.14
1   17,264.00
r
J
8,826.35
1
1
1
f  85,745.43
1
J
1
J     5,933.78
r
J
$6,460 26
Maple Ridge       ■	
Pitt Meadows No. 2  	
12,925.13
2,151.80
11,305 52
Maple Ridge Drainage—
" A "      	
" B "                                                        _~
1,614.91
" C " 	
Matsqui Drainage—
" A "         	
" B "    	
" C "      	
Dewdney—
" A"                       	
3,230.30
" B "               	
6,460.33
" C "      	
" D " ...  	
Sumas—
" A"                             	
" B " and " C "                   	
" D " to " G "             -    	
" H "         	
48,382.00*
" I »	
" J"                          ...                      	
South Westminster—■
" A " -    .
" B "   	
" C "  - -	
" D "                           -                   	
* $25,000 has been used from this account in purchasing equipment and enlarging Sumas high-level canal.
The current system of recovering the operational costs of districts upon the basis of
acreage only has, for some time, been the subject of criticism. That criticism is decidedly
on the increase, and a decision must soon be made. It is pointed out that villages are
springing up within the confines of improvement districts, with stores, garages, banks, and
other places of business located upon a 50-foot lot and contributing $2.00 per year to
operational costs, and making perhaps more than the average farm business on 40 acres
whose contribution is perhaps $100 per year.   A glaring example is cited in the Village DYKING COMMISSIONER BB 163
of Yarrow: Once a single farm holding and now a business centre with over 100 telephone
connections, it has assessed values of over $1,500,000.
A change in the system of recovering operational costs is being studied.
APPENDIX
Under the provisions of the " Dykes Maintenance Act," the writer was named Dyking
Commissioner. In August, 1950, Order in Council No. 1863 appointed the Dyking Commissioner as the continuing authority to the dissolved Fraser Valley Dyking Board.
Section 3 of that Order in Council reads as follows:—
" That the said Dyking Commissioner shall take over the continuing liabilities of the
Board,'and that the monies paid into the Fraser Valley Dyking Commission Trust Account
No. 1 shall be used for the following purposes:—
"(a) Payment of debts incurred by the said Fraser Valley Dyking Board.
"(b) Payment of claims against the said Board.
"(c) Completion of works commenced by the said Board.
"(d) Such other purposes as may be directed by the Lieutenant-Governor in
Council."
It was hoped that by now the debts and claims referred to above could have been
extinguished; however, right-of-way surveys in two districts—Harrison Mills and
Dewdney—are still incomplete. There are possibly three claims outstanding, and one of
which may involve litigation.
The works commenced by the Board have been completed.
In the spring of this year, we were directed to construct the necessary works to
prevent flooding at the Village of Harrison Hot Springs in co-operation with the village
authorities. Time was short before the approaching river freshet, and plans had to be
prepared capable of overcoming the objections of all concerned. Weather hindered for
three weeks, and night-work and overtime had to be resorted to. Temporary pumping
arrangements had also to be made, but everything was ready in good time. A contract
was let with the City Electric (Mission) Limited in October for the construction of a
transmission-line, a suitable oil circuit-breaker, and other electrical work to replace the
temporary arrangement, and very shortly this job should be entirely completed.
Activities coming directly under the provisions of the " Dykes Maintenance Act "
have necessarily been curtailed throughout the year. The vagaries of nature were not too
exacting, and, besides that, the newer districts had certain initial expenses to meet, such
as right-of-way purchases, etc., which seemed to indicate that a rigid enforcement of the
Act should be gradual and progressive.
A good start has been made in the matter of establishing permanent bench-marks,
while profiles of all the Fraser Valley dykes are now in shape to permit checking upon the
ground without too much loss of time. Some 31 miles of embankment was checked for
settlement throughout the year, and it is hoped to make this service fairly continuous.  SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT BB  166
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Southern Okanagan Lands Project
Oliver area—flood,
May,  195
Weeds on bad canal-bottom,
October, 1951 (now being
replaced).
Canal-bottom showing results of alkaline and other
actions on concrete. Solid
section in central foreground
was not affected. SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT BB  167
SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT
D. W. Hodsdon, B.C.L.S., P.Eng., Project Manager
SALIENT FEATURES OF 1951
No new projects were started in 1951, but all of the lots under Southern Okanagan
Lands Project No. 2 have been sold to veterans and many new houses have been erected.
One new subdivision—Lot 446, on the shore of Osoyoos Lake—was put on the
market.   A total of 232.16 acres of farm lands and ten urban lots were sold.
The weather, as in the past two years, was unpredictable, and on March 11th the
coldest day of the winter 1950-51 was experienced—namely, 2 degrees below zero—when
a little damage was done to trees. On March 14th, a very sudden thaw, following the
freeze-up, caused a quick local run-off, and water running down the Camp McKinney
Road broke two panels in the main concrete canal. On March 15th a similar situation
occurred, and a run-off from Richter Pass Road plugged culverts and filled the ditch with
debris. On April 20th, 9 degrees of frost occurred which caused extensive damage to
blossoms.
Two events, one of which caused concern and one of which could have been serious,
happened during the year:—
(1) In May, the Okanagan River started rising, and by May 12th the situation
was very serious. Strong representations had been made to the Dominion
Government to curtail the discharge from Okanagan Lake prior to May
12th. On that date, M. P. Finnerty, M.L.A., came here with reference to
the situation and, after viewing it, checked with the Dominion Government.
Northern interests had registered some opposition to the Project's request
that the discharge from the lake be reduced. On May 13th, while the
discharge from the lake had been curtailed, the flood-stage at Oliver was
within three-tenths of a foot of the flood-level of 1948. Photograph shows
the peak of the flood in the Oliver area.
(2) On July 31st, No. 23 flume, one of the highest in the system, built upon
what appears to be a shifting clay foundation, settled some 3 inches on one
side due to the slipping of the saturated clay. Word of this, from the
assistant ditch-rider, brought the crew out in time to save the situation,
although there was only an inch of freeboard on the low side when the
tilting was checked. Had a washout occurred at this time, the height of
the irrigation season, the crop-damage would have been heavy. Other
than this near disaster, there was no serious trouble and there were no
washouts or serious disruptions to service during the season. Power shut-
off disrupted rotation of flow in July, but no damage to orchards resulted.
On May 16th, the Project was honoured by having a visit from the Honourable Mr.
E. T. Kenney, Minister of Lands and Forests, and Mr. M. P. Finnerty, M.L.A., at which
time many administrative problems were discussed.
In August, Mr. Burns, Superintendent of Lands; Mr. Walls, Chief Clerk; and Don
Sutherland, Director of Land Utilization and Surveys, all of the British Columbia Department of Lands, visited the Project, and they were accompanied by R. W. Gyles, Manitoba;
V. A. Wood, Alberta; and A. N. Thomson, Saskatchewan. The latter three gentlemen
are Directors of Lands for their respective Provinces. Their interest was in the administration and technical aspects of this Project.
On November 16th, B. N. Mengi, Divisional Engineer of Irrigation, from Jammu,
Kashmir, paid this Project a visit and remained until Sunday, November 18th. He stated
that this Project was very comparable to his own and was therefore greatly interested.
Incidentally, considerable knowledge as to the conditions in his country was learned. BB  168 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
In July a bad electric storm caused serious trouble and knocked out all irrigation
pumps, making it necessary to call out a crew at midnight to handle extra water to prevent
possible ditch-flooding with probably resultant washouts. It was also necessary to call
out an electrician to repair damage to the motor operating the spillway-gates at the head
of the main syphon.   Service was restored in time to prevent orchard-damage.
On August 6th, a blowout occurred in the domestic waterline just north-west of the
Project warehouse. This line feeds the industrial area, that is to say, the Oliver Cooperative Growers' Exchange, the B.C. Fruit Processors Ltd., the Canadian Canners
(Western) Ltd., and the Southern Co-operative Exchange, all of which were in operation
and two of which had fires under their boilers, making the situation dangerous. The
Project has an agreement with the Oliver Sawmills by which the latter will start their
pumps (supplied from the Okanagan River) and feed back into the Project's lines in case
of an emergency. These pumps were immediately put into service and the industries were
kept in full operation. Repairs to the domestic line were made the same day and the use
of the sawmill pumps discontinued.
On August 28th, at 3.50 a.m., a power failure occurred and caused the west lateral
to flood, due to all pumps ceasing to operate. The power failure was caused by an electrical storm accompanied by heavy rainfall and a high wind. The precipitation was 1.64
inches in less than thirty hours, which is very heavy for this area. The sudden shutting off
of power resulted in the water-level in all open canals and flumes becoming dangerously
high and, in the case of the west lateral, debris washed into a flume from the steep hillside
above caused it to plug and overflow. The main canal was lowered three-tenths of a foot
for safety's sake and the west lateral temporarily shut down.
To restore power, the West Kootenay Power and Light Company synchronized their
system with that of the B.C. Power Commission at Kelowna until the afternoon of August
29th, when normal service was again made available.
In spite of all that nature did, there was no serious trouble during the 1951 season,
although several times the situation gave rise to apprehension.
A plan of the area east of Oliver on the east side of the Okanagan River, showing
land subdivisions, water-mains, valves, hydrants, and house water-connections, has been
completed. The area is served by the Oliver domestic water system. A plan of the
Village of Osoyoos, covering similar features, has been compiled and made available.
LAND SALES AND NEW SUBDIVISIONS
A total of 232.16 acres of farm land was sold during the year to date (November
30th, 1951); 160 acres of this was in the Myers Flat area. The sale price totalled
$6,941.10.
Eight town lots were sold in Oliver realizing $3,680.
Two town lots were sold in Osoyoos realizing $775.
One new subdivision—namely Lot 446, on the west shore of Osoyoos Lake—was
placed on the market by auction sale and sixteen of the seventeen lots in the subdivision
were sold, netting $4,470.
WEATHER
The snowfall totaled 21 Vl inches, all of which fell in the Spring; rainfall was 9.12
inches. Temperature record of 2 degrees below zero on March 2nd was the lowest and
101 degrees on August 2nd the highest, with the hot spell from June 13th to September
21st being longer than normal. A hail-storm on July 6th was experienced in some parts
of the Project.
EFFECT OF WEATHER ON LOCAL AGRICULTURE
Fruit-crops showed the results of the last two severe winters. Cherries, due to the
April, 1951 frost, suffered badly and the crop was very small.   Peaches and apricots also SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT BB  169
had a lower than average yield. Pears held up well. One section of the valley had extensive hail-damage. Due to the heavy tree-loss in the Osoyoos area, growers there went in
-heavily for ground crops and in general had an excellent yield with a fair market price.
The July 6th hail-storm approached the Project area and travelled in a south-easterly
direction in a fairly wide swath. It caught some ripe tomatoes on Project No. 2 but the
heaviest damage was in the apple-orchards where the fruit was badly pitted. The
apple-crop was below normal.
WORK DONE 1951
Long sections of the west lateral flume trestles were rebuilt in entirety. The main
irrigation flume, No. 21, was rebuilt in part and the balance was brought to grade and
banks cribbed.   A goodly section of No. 19 flume was rebuilt.
The Project bulldozer was again busy all season filling trenches and rough-grading
roads. The road to the subdivision of Lot 446 was constructed and considerable work
done on the road on the east side of the Okanagan River leading to Project No. 2. Work
was done with the assistance of the bulldozer on Lot 634. This lot is cut by a deep gully
and has been giving trouble for years. Portions of adjacent orchards have been sloughing
in, necessitating some major revetment work. Bank-shaping, drainage-pipes, and a
rock-fill at the toe of the slope now appears to be satisfactory protection.
In order to prevent a recurrence of the McKinney Road flood-waters destroying canal
panels, a ditch and bank have been constructed to divert flood-waters. Work done on the
road to Project No. 2 includes some construction. A bridge across the main canal on the
Indian reserve was constructed, together with a culvert at the approach.
Culverts were also installed at other points on this road and 1,700 feet of fence was
moved. A small bridge across the west lateral on a gazetted road was replaced after an
oil-truck went through it. Growers on the west side of the lateral were, to some extent,
marooned for vehicular traffic until the bridge was replaced.
The usual pitching, cleaning, and timber repairs were carried out. Immediately after
the water was turned out of the ditch, the replacing of many sections of the main canal-
bottom was started. To facilitate matters a compressor and a paving-breaker were rented.
This enabled a much greater area to be broken up than was possible by hand, resulting
obviously in a greater volume of concrete being replaced in a given time than has hitherto
been possible. New distribution-boxes were constructed or raised when necessary to
assist growers installing sprinkler systems.   These boxes were installed at owners' expense.
PROPOSED WORK, 1952-53
Extend domestic water system to serve Blocks 38, 39, 40, and 42, Oliver Townsite,
when subdivided.
Replace 600 feet of 4-inch wood-stave domestic water-line in Earle Crescent with
600 feet of 6-inch wood-stave pipe (part of annual replacement).
Install one new 60,000-gallon wood-stave domestic water-storage tank to be erected
on prepared foundations.
Extend domestic water-mains to Oliver High School and install three hydrants for
fire protection. The full cost of this extension and installation will be borne by School
District No. 14.
Replacement of a portion of the west lateral syphon.
General maintenance of trucks and street-lighting, and pump repairs.
Replacement of 100 feet of 14-inch pipe from No. 4 pump.
Repairs to concrete canal-bottom.
Repairs to all flumes, which includes trestles and timber repairs.
It is automatic that all canals are cleaned, that sides of canals have brush removed,
and that a certain amount of pitching is necessary. This year No. 26 flume will be rebuilt
in its entirety and a portion of No. 25 flume will be replaced. BB 170 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Install circulatory pump in hot-water system heating the Government Building and
reshingle roof.
OLIVER DOMESTIC WATER SYSTEM
July 2nd saw the completion of the installation of an automatic control of the Oliver
domestic water system. This installation controls power-use, decreases the labour costs
of operation, and makes for a safer operation.
Approximately one-quarter mile of new 6-inch line was laid to serve the Oliver
Co-operative Growers' Exchange and the B.C. Fruit Processors. Three hydrants were
installed at strategic points for fire protection and meters were installed to check the water
used by both plants. Some 700 feet of 4-inch wood-stave pipe was replaced on Sixth
Street from First Avenue to Fourth Avenue West, a much-needed replacement, as the old
line blew out on January 21st, 1950, near First Avenue, causing some damage to
basements in the business section.
Many old wooden boxes were replaced by concrete boxes with metal lids and minor
repairs and replacements made. The weather was not severe enough to cause any
appreciable amount of service pipe freezing.
Water was turned into the main canal at 5.15 a.m. on April 22nd and reached the
border on April 24th. Irrigation Pumps Nos. 1 to 7, inclusive, were started on May
7th. No. 8 pump, serving Project No. 2, was started on April 26th and ran until
May 6th. It was shut down until May 17th, then restarted, and operated for the
balance of the season. The official closing of all pumps was on September 8th, but as
some growers requested extra water Pumps Nos. 1 to 7 were run from two to seven days
beyond the official closing date and Booster Pumps Nos. 1 to 4 ran independently up to
four days. No. 8 pump ran for two days, commencing September 24th, and was then
shut down for the year. The growers are assessed any power charges should the pumps
be run over 120 days. Pumps Nos. 1 to 7 were started on October 15th to allow growers
to fill cisterns.   All water was turned out of the system on October 20th.
The Okanagan Flood Control informed the Project that the United States Department
of the Interior intended to put a revolving screen in the main canal to make sure that no
salmon fingerlings would be lost and consequently some extra water to handle the screen
would be necessary. The proposed screen was to be automatic and self-cleaning and a
rack was to be installed ahead of this screen. Plans of the works were received, studied
and the idea was not considered feasible in the location suggested. For one thing, the
main canal was designed to have a freeboard of 1 foot with a discharge of 164 second-feet
but in practise this is never achieved. The canal will carry 145 second-feet, but the
freeboard is only between five- and six-tenths of a foot. Admittedly, it might be possible
to add additional water near the intake, as this water would be turned out after passing
the screen without any danger, but the screen itself and the addition of the water would
make it extremely difficult, if not impossible, to control the level of the water in the canal.
It is essential for operating purposes that the level be kept constant.
In order to test the idea, the Project installed a rack near the intake and 6 feet downstream a half-inch mesh screen. It was immediately found that the rack, particularly
during high water, plugged with moss, weeds, and other debris and within a very few hours
lowered the head in the canal to such an extent that the level could not be properly maintained. | The Project sent a plan suggesting that if a screen were deemed advisable it should
be located in the river just ahead of the intake. Such an installation, irrespective of the
fact that fingerlings would be kept out of the canal, would also be very beneficial, inasmuch
as debris, etc., would not be carried through the diversion-gates. It should be noted that
no provision was made by the United States Department of the Interior for cleaning the
rack in front of their revolving screen. The Project's experience with its rack in the canal
indicated that it would be a twenty-four-hour job to keep it clean. The screen plugged
solidly and had to be removed, as did the rack.   As a result of these experiments the SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT BB 171
alternative design was suggested. It might be here noted that a rack in front of the canal
intake-gates is a good idea, and it was the intention of the Project to make such construction prior to the advent of the United States Department of the Interior into the picture.
The usual alga? growth occurred, but moss and other debris were heavier than usual
due to the extremely high water in May.
MARKET CONDITIONS, 1951
The vegetable and soft-fruit market was good, prices being higher than last year.
The apple-crop was down in volume, down in grade, but higher in price. However, it is
probable that the apple-grower will receive less money this year than last year.
SUNDRY COLLECTIONS, 1951
Collections under the " Soldier's Land Act" — Southern Okanagan Lands
Project:—*
Principal     $21,496.59
Interest         2,377.45
Lease rentals         1,370.00
Realizations         4,668.51
Water rates—
Oliver domestic  $15,757.53
Irrigation ..    56,592.66
 72,350.19
Total   $ 102,262.74
* Collections for the month of December are estimated.   BB  174
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
University Endowment Lands
■ ■:;:w?V-i#
View looking down Newton Wynd in Unit 2.    West Vancouver in background.
Typical modern home in Unit 2. UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS BB  175
UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS
M. E. Ferguson, Manager
The record-breaking tempo of the past few years has been the vogue during 1951.
In spite of the fact we had few vacant lots left to build on, the building activity has shown
an increase over all previous records with the public interest and demand continuing to
grow.
LOT SALES
Lot sales were naturally fewer during 1951 due to the fact we had less than twenty
lots left to sell. This was reduced to a mere six lots that are suitable for building on during
the year. The public interest in lots would appear to indicate that if we have our proposed
new subdivision on the market during 1952, we should again start setting new records in
lot sales.
BUILDING
All previous records were surpassed in the amount of building during 1951, which
brought many problems in trying to cope with this tremendous activity with a staff and
policy which was designed to handle only 20 to 30 per cent of the amount of building.
With the indications pointing towards at least a comparable amount of building for
the ensuing year (apart from any possible new subdivision), it is quite evident our method
of handling plans and covering inspections will have to be revised to cope with this
increased activity.
SEWERS
Although extra work was done in the fall of 1950 to guard against sewer trouble by
cleaning all trunk sewers with our newly purchased equipment, we again encountered a
very unpleasant experience due to surcharging of the Acadia Road sanitary sewer, which
flooded many basements.
The Vancouver and District Joint Sewerage and Drainage Board made a careful
study, and on their recommendation a relief sewer is being installed and should be ready
before the end of 1951.
A very careful study will have to be made shortly to solve the problem of tree-roots
in trunk sewers, particularly regarding roots from boulevard trees.
WATERWORKS
Due to the unusually dry summer, we were forced to restrict the use of water for
sprinkling similar to all the other surrounding districts.
Permits have been obtained to purchase steel pipe, and the new water-main was
commenced during 1951 which would be in service in the Spring of 1952 and should
remove most of the water-supply problems for some time.
Contract for a new 150,000-gallon water-tank was let to replace the 100,000-gallon
storage-tank, which had deteriorated too far to warrant any further expense.
TAXATION
The total mill rate for 1951 increased just over 1 mill to bring the combined rate to
36.3 mills. The school rate for the next few years will probably increase to provide funds
for a new high school, but it is hoped the increase in the assessed values will be sufficient
to keep the mill rate from increasing.
GENERAL
During 1951, arrangements were made with the Land Clearing Branch of the
Department of Agriculture to clear and burn some 300 acres in preparation for a new
subdivision.   The clearing and burning will be completed by early January, 1952, which BB  176
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
will then permit the planning and surveying to proceed.   At present Mr. Doughty-Davies
of the Regional Planning Board, is working on the proposed plans.
An early decision will have to be made regarding a new high school site and church
sites, both of which are contingent on the over-all plan now under consideration.
CONCLUSION
In conclusion it might be stated that 1952 augurs well for another year of activity,
which could again surpass all previous years, barring any serious international
complications.
STATISTICAL
Table A.—Lot Sales
1949
1950
1951
No.
Value
No.
Value
No.
Value
Unit 1  	
1
22              $46,039.97
2                  8,735.25
23
5
$56,423.86
31,854.38
2
10
$7,200.19
Unit 2 ..
50,886.60
Totals.
24               S54.775.27.
28
$88,278.24
12
$58,086.79
Table B.—Number and Value of Building Permits Issued during the
Years Ended December 31st, 1949, 1950, and 1951
1949
1950
1951
No.
Value
No.
Value
No.
Value
28
1
$414,700
56
1
4
1
5
$688,500
60,000
13,700
6,000
4,000
61
2
8
7
$954,600
240,000
1,100
8,300
 	
2,700
Totals  	
29
$415,800
67
$772,200
78
$1,205,600 UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS
BB  177
in
On
Pi
W
«
2
w
o
w
0
o
H
<
W
><
z
w
H
H
1/5
<c
o
z
2
p
Q
D
W
>
w
o
w
Pi
W
z
w
>
ft
o
><
<c
co
U
w
CQ
<
(N "-J
-rt
r
r-
■**
rr
o
■«*
_
—H
r; (N V) tN Tf « h t_ h a
Xt"
*-*s6inT^Os^sc'so'cir^
'T
tsooc^cnt~~sOinT~-cn*t
CS
rt
Ttr-vo^Oi-Ht^t-ysr-o
o
mTHovCNr^\OTfH(N
o
H
ooccr~cNt-Tfr-'-H-^-
-*
i-HtH          rH  r)  rH  H  H  CS  (S
sO^
oe-
t>e-
Or-^vOVOTfCC^ON
m
VOO\rHO\C';lC?\rHr-"*m
as
oovioomrHcnr-mr-oo
00
HmoMciTtHa^n
as
H«T!)-TfinaccoN*oo3
B a
r-vooot-v-i^Or-ir-ci-JON
in
W-                          rHtScNVOTl-O
cn
inOO*OinOiriMViH
(N
&°s
vo>n"^in'-H^tcnco>n«ri
O
\0 in rn h r«i Tf od d M ir|
00
*rj w w
coi-HOVit—OV^tNtNON
cn
(0^
mooHT|-OMC)\0\mh
00
o\cothmh*^min
m
&S-                                                           rH  1-1
oo
Tf"*rtmm'tinin^fri
Os
Cfl
cofjm»h*mHifirf)
o
s§
o\ ri en d cri --i d wi m a
Tf
a\sor—vDC\OOr-<N>-H
cd 0
0'-iMirivoo><niD^
O
*l
OsOSC?\0\0^r-\CiOv,'t   rH
■*
«■                HMHnrlm
i2
V*
H«itOMO\Mnmr>i
r-
8s3
omTtooooir-Mmcrj
CN
HtSmdmiNrnTr^^
n't'twmHiflri'-o
inHODOnr-HXco
m
m
^
n^wmrlMHtSHrH
m
«■
r^i
N CJ\ t> ■* "* 00 t> ■* fl\ Pi    rH
*-
t^*Di»m'-'rHCMq,t
<o
qS
\DO'-<cccc(niri,*'-'C5
Os
<h
0OCN^Hin«»\D'Crr-
u
Hn      mOiriooHH«
O
cn
q
w               ricnrH m m rH
««■
Id
CO
■a
e
cd
^~
ooOm(S'Oir)0\r-r-cN
\o vo 0\ 0_ rn r- tN t-_ © o
m
tA
cnWr^ON-^^n'odyJcK
■^t
vcd-'d,'d,r-h-cSMOin
r-
o
Mr<a\\DvO'*Ms-MN
V40
•9
in ^ O in m» «* m m *o
w
"l-l
Ph
&q-      HMcnhtinOin
00
«■
r-r-fsoN-^-r-ivDooo^o
as
+j
oocN^conO(N>aJH
00
"* vo th f<i ov d <*i't ri d
\D
lT)tN'-H\£)O4O\TrTj"r-IQ0
4>
C\l/*)CO»/-)VO'1-OOOrH>—
£
avO\r-r-vo>o*nm^f^]-
Tf
«■
VO
W
*y5-
cd
O
oOTj-oouiasr-^Tto
0
'cd
coinn^vin^'Or'jCf;
00
mV,*'th*dddho\
rH
mmcMninObOhcc
(j
vOrn^-<t'**ovO'*M'H
#C
avoHrtrHChnochm
«n
Ih
WHrHNcN            CS^-H             <-H
■<t
Ph
«■
r-m'or-oot^mvirHt—
^5
o\commq\ocNcMoor-
f-;
ij
co
(NdifirirHcc'o\iOtN'H
rH
a
in^om'HfN'd-r-Or^N
00
<u
JB
intNHH               <s h ra
OO
g
S
tN
cn
<D
<&
«■
■^-i-ir-'-H'^fOO"r)'£>m
,_,
13
T-iincoooooor-'Occ
>r>
o
^o © f- cn Os i~- <z> co so cn
tt
Hir)mtm"tnmO\o
CO
'o
m^to\ra^,*(Nr-os»n
(N
■5
hJ
*oco\D*otSin^r-\c\o
m
m
Ph
t/j
te
infOHMOOOOOOHOh
rn
■w
r-\OTtooo«*na\rH»cin
<n
•a
CQ
U
u
O
ir'^^v!«3Nd*Htri^
■«t
<u
^t-c^ONQo^osOor-
tN
<n
Hr-tSMHO«fOrtH
r-;
<D
s
^rntSrHHrt
a «
&0-
*»
Owoo'd-voo'dT-Wm
,_,
Ph
«ninoOHCOHCor*;C7;m
rH
iHHdtnTt'^^^mo
so
cn
rtHriwmmoaao
rs
1>
.g
Os"nt^ffi»(N,tMO
m
cd
r-mcNmr-sOoorH      rH
CO
Ih
Ph
(N CN i-H rH
0
&e^
y>
2
3
H
0
cd
H
>*
(V
c-
^
v) \d r»
a
ON c
Tt
•rr
*
•^ •■* *t -^
re m in
a
o
a
a
a
Os
a
a
o
CA BB 178 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Summary of Collections, 1951*
Collections under the " University Endowment Lands Administration Act ":
Land sales—
Principal and interest  $56,259.92
Interest       1,610.43
     $57,870.35
Lease rentals—
Principal     $1,793.86
Interest  10.96
Loan repayments—
Principal  $13,189.90
Interest       4,180.16
Local improvement taxes—
Principal     $6,563.83
Interest  221.77
1,804.82
17,370.06
6,785.60
Repossessed houses—
Principal     $1,000.35
Interest  174.57
         1,174.92
Domestic water       31,418.33
Sundry collections       15,795.51
Expenditure refunds     109,828.32
Total  :  $242,047.91
* Estimated revenue tor December, 1951, $10,000.   LAND SETTLEMENT BOARD BB  181
LAND  SETTLEMENT BOARD
Clara Stephenson, Secretary
The Land Settlement Board was formed in the year 1917 under the provisions of the
" Land Settlement and Development Act." It was empowered to advance money by way
of loans secured by mortgage, to purchase, develop, and colonize lands considered suitable
for settlement, and to declare settlement areas, having for its main purpose the promotion
of increased agricultural production.
The Board took over the administration of the mortgages of the Agricultural Credit
Commission. Its loaning operations continued until the formation of the Canadian Farm
Loan Board in 1929.
Settlement areas were established in Central British Columbia—namely in the
Bulkley Valley, Nechako Valley, Francois Lake District, and the Upper Fraser River
Valley, where land had been taken up as a speculation by non-resident owners, which was
retarding the settlement and development of these districts. Establishing settlement areas
throughout these districts on those unoccupied alienated lands helped to relieve this
situation and to bring the land within reach of the actual settler at reasonable prices.
Development areas were established at Merville, in the Comox District, Vancouver
Island; at Camp Lister, Fernie, and Kelowna, the Board having been given authority to
purchase certain acreages of logged-off lands in various parts of the Province with the
object of subdividing them into suitable farm units and of developing such units into what
practically amounted to ready-made farms. At Kelowna, on account of difficulty in
securing water for irrigation, the tract of land purchased for development purposes has
been leased to a tenant for a number of years.
The Board acquired a large tract of land at Cawston in 1934. A large area of range
lands in that district was sold this year.
The Board has under its jurisdiction the administration of the former Doukhobor
lands, which were acquired by the Government under authority of the " Doukhobor Lands
Acquisition Act " of 1939. These lands are largely occupied by Doukhobors on a rental
basis.   They are reserved from sale at the present time.
The Board also holds approximately 10,000 acres scattered through the various parts
of the Province, representing properties on which it held mortgage and to which it
obtained title through tax-sale proceedings.
The Board's balance-sheets will appear in the Public Accounts of the Province, as in
the past. The following is a brief summary of the Board's activities and collections for
1951.   It will be noted that collections and land sales show an increase over 1950:—
During the year the sales made by the Board amounted to $23,830.57. Fifty-one
purchasers completed payment and received title deeds, and eight borrowers paid up in
full and received release of mortgage.
Collections
Loans  $11,559.40
Land sales  48,916.57
Dyking loan refunds, etc  31,084.30
Foreclosed properties—stumpage, rentals, etc  9,097.62
Doukhobor lands—
Rentals  8,671.85
Sales  439.87
Total   $109,769.61
Total proceeds received from the sale and rental of Doukhobor lands to December
31st, 1951, amounted to approximately $125,059.64. BB 182 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
REPORT BY I. SPIELMANS, INSPECTOR
As in previous years, the collection of rentals from occupants of Land Settlement
Board lands has constituted the main part of my duties. In addition to rentals submitted
direct to Victoria, the total collections through this office for the year ended December
31st, 1951, amounted to $8,091.45.
The amounts collected by localities are tabled hereunder:—
Crescent Valley  $55.00
Perry Siding  90.00
Slocan Park  100.00
Brilliant  924.50
Pass Creek  260.00
Winlaw  485.00
Kamminae  120.00
Oteshenie   520.60
Shoreacres  441.55
Glade   149.80
Krestova  170.00
Ostrov  63.00
Raspberry   900.00
Grand Forks  3,812.00
Total  $8,091.45
It will be noted that the collections from the various localities are comparable in
most cases to previous years. The outstanding difference is Perry Siding, the collections
this year totalling $90 as compared with $255 last year. This was due to the fact that
last year four- and five-year back rentals were collected in some cases from delinquents.
As in past years, I have given assistance to the local and district R.C.M.P. and
other Government offices, as well as to members of the special Doukhobor Commission
and to the Land Utilization Research Survey Division in their summer work in this
district. I have also, on occasion, assisted Mr. Cunningham, local Land Inspector, when
required, in running lines, etc. One week was spent in Vancouver, on the instruction of
Mr. Melrose, in assisting Dr. Jamieson, Chairman of the Research Committee.   MAIL AND FILE ROOM
BB  185
MAIL AND FILE ROOM
John A. Grant
The number of letters received in the Department in 1951 totalled 124,062, an
increase of 8,656 or IV2 per cent.
In addition, 33,000 reports and over 125,000 statements, vouchers, bills, etc., were
handled.
It will be noted that copies of letters outward to the File-room showed a decrease.
This was the result of negotiations by this office. As the number of letters outward had
doubled since 1942, there seemed no hope of giving the same satisfactory service, except
by an increase in staff. It was thought better to seek the elimination of the recording of
form letters, acknowledgements, and some other types of purely routine letters. The
various divisions were approached, and as a result of arrangements the recording of
letters outward has shown a drop.
The collections of the Department received through the File-room approximated
$17,500,000, an increase of $4,500,000 over 1950.
The number of new files created amounted to 13,078, adding to the already-crowded
conditions in the Vault.
It is pointed out that the entire incoming mail for the Department of Lands and
Forests is handled by the six members of the File-room staff. Every letter is numbered,
dated, and posted in its appropriate ledger, so that reference may be made at any time in
the future. Likewise, all recorded copies of letters outward are indexed. In addition,
subject card-indexes are maintained for the Forest Service and for Lands, Surveys and
Mapping, and Water Rights Branches, providing quick access to necessary information.
The Vault staff, composed of six members, delivered an average of 10,000 files per
month to all Branches and Divisions of the Department. In addition, it is estimated that
another 3,500 files were taken out by other members of the Department. The combined
total was returned to the file boxes by the Vault staff each month.
It is estimated that a total of 5,000 files each week is kept on the desks of the clerical
staff. Lists of these are forwarded to the Vault and are charged each week to the
individuals concerned.
Letters Inward
Branch
1951
1950
10-year Average,
1942-51
32,131
70,498
9,454
11,979
32,382
61,860
10,415
10,749
27,624
50,973
8,276
7,735
Totals - 	
124,062
115,406
94,608
Letters Outward (Recorded)
Branch
1951
1950
10-year Average,
1942-51
Lands Branch...
Forest Service
Water Rights Branch-
Surveys and Mapping Service-
Totals	
25,724
19,741
7,160
7,040
59,665
27,057
19,783
8,427
6,453
61,720
23,237
14,864
6,522
4,839
49,462 BB  186
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Miscellaneous Reports Received
Designation
1951
1950
10-year Average,
1942-51
Forest-fire reports..
Slash-disposal..
Logging inspections. _	
Classifications and inspections..
Totals..
1,937
254
16,009
1,934
20,134
1,515
1,114
14,814
1,829
19,272
1,342
936
12,959
1,891
17,128
New Files Created
Designation
1951
1950
10-year Average,
1942-51
" O " files       .       	
Timber marks.     _	
5,901
2,283
3,214
1,680
5,235
1,524
3,432
3,087
4,054
1,104
2,183
3,991
Totals                      	
13,078
13,278
11,332
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1952
1,500-1251-2388  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/cdm.bcsessional.1-0343346/manifest

Comment

Related Items