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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Department of Agriculture FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 1951 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1952

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Department of Agriculture
.FORTY-SIXTH-
ANNUAL REPORT
1951
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty
1952  To His Honour Colonel Clarence Wallace, C.B.E.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit herewith for your consideration the Annual Report of
the Department of Agriculture for the year 1951.
H. R. BOWMAN,
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., February 4th, 1952.  BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
DEPARTMENTAL STAFF,  1951
Minister of Agriculture:
*Honourable H. R. Bowman.
Minister's Secretary:
Miss P. Hetherington.
Deputy Minister:
*W. H. Robertson, B.S.A.
Administrative:
Miss A. E. Hill, Departmental Secretary, Victoria, B.C.
N. L. Camsusa, Chief Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
J. S. Wells, Assistant Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
T. T. Vaulkhard, Clerk, Accounts Branch, Victoria, B.C.
A. J. Hourston, General Assistant, Victoria, B.C.
J. A. McDiarmid, Clerk, Publications Branch, Victoria, B.C.
Statistics:
G. H. Stewart, Statistician, Victoria, B.C.
Markets:
*M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Markets Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
Horticulture:
*Ben Hoy, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
*E. W. White, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
*G. E. W. Clarke, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
*R. P. Murray, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Kelowna, B.C.
*W. D. Christie, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
*R. M. Wilson, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Kamloops, B.C.
*I. C. Carne, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.
W. T. Baverstock, District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
*J. A. Smith, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Kelowna, B.C.
*A. W. Watt, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, West Summerland, B.C.
*D. A. Allan, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Oliver, B.C.
*M. P. D. Trumpour, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Penticton, B.C.
*J. E. Swales, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Nelson, B.C.
*G. R. Thorpe, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Creston, B.C.
*W. F. Morton, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Kelowna, B.C.
*M. G. Oswell, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
A. C. Carter, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Penticton, B.C.
*J. L. Webster, B.S.A., Horticulturist, 635 Burrard Street, Vancouver, B.C.
*Alan E. Littler, B.S.A., Secretary, Horticultural Branch, Victoria, B.C.
Apiary:
J. Corner, Provincial Apiarist, Court-house, Vernon, B.C.
V. E. Thorgeirson, Apiary Inspector, R.R. 6, New Westminster, B.C.
Plant Pathology:
*W. R. Foster, M.Sc, Plant Pathologist, Victoria, B.C.
*I. C. MacSwan, B.S.A., Assistant Plant Pathologist, Vancouver, B.C.
Entomology:
C. L. Neilson, B.S.A., Provincial Entomologist, Vernon, B.C.
' Member of the British Columbia Institute of Agrologists. Y 6 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Live Stock:
*W. R. Gunn, B.S.A., B.V.Sc, VS., Live Stock Commissioner and Chief Veterinary Inspector,
Victoria, B.C.
*F. C. Clark, M.S.A., Live Stock Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
*U. J. G. Guichon, M.S.A., Live Stock Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
Thomas Moore, Recorder of Brands, Victoria, B.C.
A. J. Duck, Brand Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
T. J. Batten, Brand Inspector, Nicola, B.C.
J. M. G. Smith, Brand Inspector, Williams Lake, B.C.
A. McNeill, Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
R. J. Weir, Clerk, Live Stock Branch, Victoria, B.C.
S. S. White, Inspector of Brands, Victoria, B.C.
John C. Bankier, B.V.Sc, Veterinary Inspector and Animal Pathologist, Vancouver, B.C.
J. J. Carney, M.R.S.L., Veterinary Inspector, Nelson, B.C.
G. M. Clark, B.V.Sc, V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
I. D. C. Clark, D.V.M., Veterinary Inspector, Penticton, B.C.
A. Kidd, D.V.M., D.V.P.H., Veterinary Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
C. F. Morris, D.V.M., Veterinary Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
R. L. Lancaster, V.S., D.V.M., Veterinary Inspector, Nelson, B.C.
A. Robertson, V.S., D.V.M., Veterinary Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
John G. Fowler, D.V.M., V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Prince George, B.C.
G. H. Thornbery, Superintendent, Cow-testing Associations, Victoria, B.C.
J. A. Mace, Inspector, Cow-testing Associations, Victoria, B.C.
Dairy:
*F. C. Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
*G. Patchett, Dairy Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
*N. H. Ingledew, B.S.A., M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Nelson, B.C.
*G. D. Johnson, Dairy Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
*H. Riehl, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
*K. G. Savage, M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
Poultry:
*G. L. Landon, B.S.A., Poultry Commissioner, New Westminster, B.C.
*W. H. Pope, Poultry Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
*R. H. McMillan, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
*H. C. Gasperdone, B.S.A., Poultry Inspector, Court-house, Vernon, B.C.
Field Crops:
*N. F. Putnam, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
*C. H. Nelson, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
*E. C. Hughes, B.S.A., Assistant in Field Crops, New Westminster, B.C.
Farmers' Institutes:
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, Victoria, B.C.
Women's Institutes:
Mrs. Stella E. Gummow, Superintendent of Women's Institutes, Victoria, B.C.
Soil Survey:
*C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
*R. G. Garry, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
*J. D. Lindsay, Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
*P. N. Sprout, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
Agricultural Development and Extension:
*William MacGillivray, Director, Victoria, B.C.
*G. A. Luyat, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
*S. G. Preston, M.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Prince George, B.C.
*J. S. Allin, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Victoria, B.C.-
*J. D. Hazlette, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Duncan, B.C.
*R. L. Wilkinson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Courtenay, B.C.
*A. E. Donald, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, New Westminster, B.C.
! Member of the British Columbia Institute of Agrologists. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951 Y 7
Agricultural Development and Extension—Continued
*A. J. Allan, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Box 498, Mission, B.C.
*G. Cruickshank, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Drawer 250, Abbotsford, B.C.
*R. S. Berry, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, 19 Nowell Street, Chilliwack, B.C.
•J. L. Gray, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
*G. A. Muirhead, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.
*J. F. Caplette, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Vernon, B.C.
*M. J. Walsh, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, B.C.
*G. W. Hayes, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Prince George, B.C.
*A. R. Tarves, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Quesnel, B.C.
*K. R. Jameson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Smithers, B.C.
*R. W. Brown, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Fort St. John, B.C.
*A. M. Johnson, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Dawson Creek, B.C.
*J. F. Carmichael, M.Sc, District Agriculturist, Grand Forks, B.C.
*H. R. Anderson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Nelson, B.C.
*J. W. Awmack, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cranbrook, B.C.
*S. B. Peterson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Creston, B.C.
J. A. Pelter, B.S.A., Associate District Agriculturist, Vanderhoof, B.C.
*D. M. Hamilton, B.S.A., Associate District Agriculturist, New Westminster, B.C.
K. V. Ellison, B.S.A., Assistant District Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
*T. S. Crack, Associate District Agriculturist, Courtenay, B.C.
*G. L. Calver, B.E.(Agr.), Agricultural Extension Engineer, Victoria, B.C.
J. R. Caverhill, Engineer Assistant, Victoria, B.C.
H. Barber, Clerk, Land-clearing Division, Vancouver, B.C.
*Miss E. L. R. Lidster, B.S.A., Supervisor, 4-H Clubs, Victoria, B.C.
W. G. Reed, Mechanical Superintendent, Vancouver B.C.
* Member of the British Columbia Institute of Agrologists.  TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Report of Deputy Minister  11
Report of Statistician i  14
Report of Markets Branch  20
Report of Horticultural Branch   24
Report of Apiary Branch  45
Report of Plant Pathology Branch ;  49
Report of Provincial Entomologist  53
Report of Dairy Branch  61
Report of Poultry Branch  68
Report of Live Stock Branch  74
Report of Field Crops Branch  121
Report of Farmers' Institutes  132
Report of Women's Institutes  137
Report of Soil Survey Branch  144
Report of Agricultural Development and Extension Branch  155
Appendices—
No. 1. Honey-crop Report 1 ,  183
No. 2. Lime Products Used for Soil-amendment Purposes  183
No. 3. Inspected Slaughtering of Live Stock  184
No. 4. Grading of Beef Carcasses  185
No. 5. Average Prices for Cattle  186
No. 6. Average Prices for Lambs  186
No. 7. Average Prices for Hogs  187
No. 8. Dairy Herds and Premises Inspected and Graded  188
No. 9. List of Licensees  189
No. 10. Record of Cattle and Hide Shipments .  192
No. 11. Threshermen's Report    193
No. 12. Movement of Grain Screenings  .193  ■■:       --,..-4,:.       ,.,^-.,,,,■,-..
Report of the Department of Agriculture
REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE
The Honourable H. R. Bowman, B.S.A.,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
•    Sir,—I have the honour to herewith submit the Forty-sixth Report of the Department of Agriculture for the year ended December 31st, 1951.
The Report, as submitted, contains detailed reports of the various branches which
constitute your Department. Items not dealt with in the reports as mentioned are as
follows:—
PUBLICATIONS
In the past year the Publications Branch received 4,445 letters requesting agricultural
literature, distributed 44,108 publications, and mimeographed 115,055 copies of stencils
for the Department.
The following is a list of new and revised publications printed in 1951:—
Reports:
Forty-fifth Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture.
Climate of British Columbia, 1950.
Agricultural Statistics Report, 1949.
Bulletins:
Goat-raising in British Columbia.   B. 64.
Soils, Peat and Muck.   F.C.C. 5.
Charts:
Control of Tree-fruit Pests and Diseases, 1952.
Fertilizer recommendations for the following districts: Vancouver Island,
Lower Mainland, Kootenay and Boundary, North Central Interior,
and Peace River District.
STAFF CHANGES
Appointments.—M. G. Oswell, January 1st; Miss W. M. Dagg, January 1st; Mrs.
G. M. Murray, January 1st; J. R. Caverhill, January 12th; Miss L. A. Jarvis, March 1st;
S. S. White, May 3rd; Miss J. J. Baillie, May 1st; D. M. Hamilton, April 1st; Mrs. M. W.
Mackay, June 1st; J. G. Fowler, June 1st; J. D. Lindsay, May 1st; C. B. Allan, July 1st;
Miss E. M. I. Hodgson, June 13th; H. C. Gasperdone, July 1st; Mrs. R. M. Dyke, June
22nd; Miss E. Mulligan, June 18th; K. G. Savage, July 4th; B. M. Heineson, July 1st;
Mrs. L. A. Irving, July 9th; Mrs. B. H. F. Pready, July 1st; Mrs. J. I. Sowter, August
16th; Miss E. F. Hodges, August 21st; P. N. Sprout, November 1st; J. Corner, October
1st; Miss M. E. Laughlin, October 22nd; J. A. Pelter, December 1st; Miss D. G. Lee,
November 14th; Miss S. Ukrainetz, November 21st; A. C. Carter, December 19th.
Transfers.—M. G. Hanna, May 13th.
Resignations.-—Miss E. W. Foster, March 14th; W. S. Fletcher, March 8th; Miss
I. N. McGarva, May 17th; G. H. Comly, July 1st; Miss L. R. Crane, July 1st; Miss
F. J. Mutrie, July 1st; Miss I. C. Brown, June 12th; Miss M. L. Dawson, July 19th; Mrs.
G. M. Murray, July 13th; Miss E. V. Johnson, July 13th; Miss D. Price, August 16th;
J. S. D. Smith, October 1st; S. M. Coburn, September 1st; R. R. Owen, September 16th;
C. M. Williams, November 21st; Mrs. E. W. Baardsen, November 1st; K. V. Ellison,
December 31st.
Superannuations.—E. C. Hunt, February 1st; W. H. Turnbull, October 1st.
11 Y 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
INDIA-PAKISTAN AGRICULTURAL MISSION
Early in the past fall the Province was visited by a group known as the India-Pakistan
Agricultural Mission. This group came to Canada under the auspices of the Colombo
plan and contacted most agricultural sections in Canada. In British Columbia an itinerary
was arranged which gave them an opportunity of seeing agriculture in the Coast sections,
as well as in the Okanagan.   The members of this Mission were as follows:—
Dr. Khan Abdul Rahman, Director of Agriculture, Punjab.
Dr. J. K. Dubey, Director of Agriculture for the State of Bhopal.
M. Kanti Raj, Deputy Director of Agriculture for the State of Madras.
Dr. S. R. Barocah, Director of Agriculture for the Government of Assam.
Dr. K. G. Joshi, Deputy Director of Agriculture, Madhya Pradesh.
S. A. Hamid, Principal, Central Co-operative Training Institute, Pusa (Bihar).
G. M. Butt, Director of Agriculture, Jammu and Kashmir, Government.
CONFERENCE OF PROVINCIAL MINISTERS AND
DEPUTY MINISTERS
The first conference of Provincial Ministers of Agriculture and their Deputy Ministers and staff was held in Toronto on August 28th and 29th, 1950.
The second conference was held in Victoria, B.C., on August 27th, 28th, and 29th,
1951.   Those in attendance at the conference were:—
The Honourable A. W. Mackenzie, Minister of Agriculture, Nova Scotia.
F. W. Walsh, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Nova Scotia.
The Honourable A. C. Baker, Minister of Agriculture, Prince Edward Island.
W. R. Shaw, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Prince Edward Island.
The Honourable A. C. Taylor, Minister of Agriculture, New Brunswick.
J. K. King, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, New Brunswick.
Rene Trepanier, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Quebec.
The Honourable Thomas L. Kennedy, Minister of Agriculture, Ontario.
C. D. Graham, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Ontario.
The Honourable F. C. Bell, Minister of Agriculture, Manitoba.
J. R. Bell, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Manitoba.
The Honourable I. C. Nollet, Minister of Agriculture, Saskatchewan.
Maurice E. Hartnett, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Saskatchewan.
The Honourable D. A. Ure, Minister of Agriculture, Alberta.
O. S. Longman, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Alberta.
The Honourable H. R. Bowman, Minister of Agriculture, British Columbia.
W. H. Robertson, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, British Columbia.
Unfortunately there was no representative from Newfoundland, and the Honourable
Laurent Barre, Minister of Agriculture for Quebec, was unable to attend.
The first two days were devoted to meetings held in Victoria, at which time matters
of agricultural importance from a Provincial standpoint were discussed. The principal
items taken up were:—
Continuation of Freight Assistance Policy on Feed-grains.
Soil-conservation.
Marketing Legislation.
Veterinary Education.
Hog-grading.
Newcastle Disease.
Uniform Provincial Legislation.
Uniformity of Milk-control Regulations.
Grading and Inspection of Agricultural Products. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1951 Y 13
How Can the Farmer Compete in the Labour Market?
Administrative Scope of a Provincial Department of Agriculture.
A report on the matters discussed has been forwarded to all of those attending.
On August 29th the group attending the conference moved to Vancouver, and
August 30th was spent at the Pacific National Exhibition, where they were the guests of
the Exhibition Association.
LEGISLATION
New legislation dealing with agriculture as passed at the Second Session of the
Twenty-second Parliament of British Columbia consisted of an Act to amend the " Stock-
brands Act," an Act to amend the " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act," an Act to
amend the " Natural Products Marketing (British Columbia) Act," and an Act to amend
the " Pharmacy Act." Another Act was amended which indirectly affects agriculture.
This was the " Public Utilities Act," which was amended with a view to making possible
the appointment of further members to the Provincial Milk Board.
FREIGHT ASSISTANCE ON FEED-GRAIN SHIPMENTS
Shipments of feed-grains into British Columbia from Prairie points under terms of
the Federal Freight Assistance Policy continued at high levels throughout 1951. Since
inception of this Policy on November 18th, 1941, close to 2,500,000 tons of feed-grains
have been imported into this Province, for which well over $15,000,000 has been paid
in freight charges.
These freight charges increased during the latter half of the year, following the cancellation on June 30th of Canadian Freight Association Tariff No. 145, under which
feed-grains had enjoyed special reduced rates.
Final adjustments for 1951 are not yet available,,but figures for the last eight months
of the calendar year up to December 19th, 1951, reveal that assistance payments amounting to $917,054.09 were disbursed on shipments totalling 136,915 tons. This represents
an average freight cost of $6.70 per ton, as compared to the previous average of $6.42
since inception of the Policy.
Tonnage totals for this same period indicate an increase in feed-grain consumption
over the preceding year, when 134,558 tons were imported between December 1st, 1949,
and November 30th, 1950.
Respectfully submitted.
W. H. ROBERTSON,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture.
REPORT OF AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS
G. H. Stewart, Agricultural Statistician
SYNOPSIS OF AGRICULTURAL CONDITIONS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA,
YEAR 1950
Preliminary estimates for 1950 indicate that the total gross value of agricultural
production in British Columbia amounted to $136,690,368, as compared with the revised
estimate of $140,525,763 for 1949, which represents a decrease of $3,835,395 or 2.7
per cent.   This decrease in production may be attributed to the following factors:—
(1) Due to extremely low temperatures in all the fruit-growing districts during
the winter of 1949—50 there was a considerable reduction in the 1950 Y 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
fruit tonnage. This was particularly noticeable in the Okanagan and
applies especially to the stone-fruit crop. There was a heavy tree-loss
in the northern section of the valley and in the extreme south.
(2) The poultry industry suffered a very severe set-back in 1950 due to Newcastle disease, and the poultry population was reduced both by slaughter
of infected flocks and voluntary sale of flocks by producers afraid of the
disease. A total of 533,000 birds was destroyed during the year and, as
a result, both egg and poultry-meat production were greatly curtailed.
(3) The Peace River had one of the most disappointing crops in its history.
A late spring season coupled with a dry June gave a poor start to the
grain. A heavy frost on August 16th caught most of the grain at a critical
stage, and quality was seriously affected. Hail also did unusually large
damage throughout the district.
The estimated 1950 cash income to British Columbia farmers from the sale of farm
products was $101,709,000, as compared with $101,222,000 in 1949.
The estimated total value of imports is placed at $84,821,842, as compared with
$79,360,956 in 1949, an increase of $5,460,886 or 6.8 per cent.
The total value of exports is placed at $33,907,096. The 1950 values are the
highest ever recorded and exceed the total of the previous year by $2,219,313.
HORTICULTURAL CONDITIONS
The winter of 1949-50 was considered the coldest in fifty years. All of our main
fruit-growing areas in the Interior suffered sub-zero temperatures during the month of
January, ranging from a low of —37° F. at the North Kamloops meteorological office
to —18° F. recorded at the Southern Okanagan Lands Project office at Oliver. The
lowest temperature recorded at the Summerland Exp;ri-rental Station was —22° F.
Unofficial recordings varied according to location, elevation, distance from lake, and
exposure, from —16° F. at Peachland to as low as —40° F. in some of the northern
fruit-growing areas. The coldest day in the Interior was on January 24th. The minimum mean temperature for January in Kelowna was —4.29° F. and at Salmon Arm
-13.45° F.
Other sections of the Province recorded low temperatures for the same period. The
area from Edgewood to Nakusp reported temperatures ranging from 35 to 40 degrees
below zero, Nelson —20° F., Creston —20° F., and at Boswell on the main Kootenay
Lake the highest minimum of —8° F.
Reports from the Fraser Valley and Gulf Islands also indicated record low temperatures for the month of January.    In Abbotsford district a low of —6° F. was recorded.
The weather moderated in. all areas about February 5th, and normal temperatures
prevailed for the balance of the month.
Snowfall was heavier than normal in all sections of the Province and in the Interior
sections; though tree damage was heavy from top-killing, the snow covering gave adequate protection to the roots in most areas.
In the Cawston and Osoyoos areas, owing to the wind, the snow drifted and left
the ground exposed in many orchards. In these areas, losses from root-killing was
heavy.
Cool weather and higher precipitation than normal was experienced in the months
of March and April, and growth in all areas commenced later than in 1949.
Growing conditions throughout the summer in the irrigated districts were generally
satisfactory. Crops in non-irrigated areas depending on a minimum of rainfall suffered
from lack of moisture. This was particularly noticeable in small-fruit, field, and vegetable crops. '■-■■•:-" /;.-.-.
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1951 Y 15
Apple-harvesting conditions were good at the start of the Mcintosh harvest, but
before this crop was off, frequent showers and rains interfered with picking operations.
This condition prevailed throughout the harvesting of Jonathan, Delicious, and later
varieties.
Hail was reported in Salmon Arm, Kelowna, Naramata, Penticton, and Cawston.
In the Salmon Arm and Kelowna areas, damage was very slight. In the hailed area of
Naramata and Penticton, damage ranged from a few apples on the exposed side of the
tree to almost complete loss. This was the third successive year that hail had damaged
the crop in this area. However, this year's damage was considerably less than last year,
and most growers were covered with hail insurance.
In the Cawston area practically all of the damage was confined to onion-seed crops
and tomatoes. Onion-seed yields were reduced by almost 50 per cent, and the tomato-
crop set back ten days to two weeks.
Tree and Small Fruits
Owing to the severe damage and losses of fruit-trees of all kinds, it was predicted
early in the year that all tree-fruit crops would be very fight, but as the season advanced
and the trees came into bloom, it was evident that production would be heavier than
anticipated. With favourable growing weather throughout the tree-fruit area, freedom
from disease and insect pests, these areas produced a crop of apples larger than in 1949.
Had there been no winter-killing, an all-time record crop would have been harvested.
Due to winter-killing of buds and injury of bearing wood in many districts, the
Bartlett pear tonnage was very much reduced. Anjou and Flemish Beauty were not
injured to the same degree and in many orchards produced a normal crop. The pear-
crop over the Province was considerably lower than last year.
Cherries.—The cherry-crop in the Okanagan was light. In the heavy-producing
orchards around Kelowna and north it was practically nil. South of Kelowna, in orchards
where top-killing and bud injury was not so severe, a partial crop was harvested. The
size and quality of the fruit were good.
Peaches and Apricots.—Throughout the Okanagan, winter-injury was severe and
thousands of trees were heavily damaged, bud injury being general in the trees that survived.   The quantity of peaches and apricots harvested was very small.
Prunes and Plums. —■ The prune-crop was considerably reduced from last year
because of winter-injury. Plums suffered more than prunes. Old trees were more
severely damaged than the younger and more vigorous ones. The fruit harvested was of
good quality and marketed at a satisfactory price.
Small Fruits.—The production of small fruits in the Salmon Arm area was reduced
owing to blossom damage in the spring and drought conditions previous to and during
harvest. At Creston the strawberries yielded well, but the raspberry-crop was light.
Though the spring was late in the Fraser Valley, good growing and harvesting weather
followed, and crops of strawberries and raspberries were satisfactory. On Vancouver
Island the tonnage of strawberries was somewhat reduced, but better prices prevailed
than last year. Though winter-injured in some degree, the loganberry-crop was an improvement over last year. Boysenberries and blackberries, because of winter damage,
produced a light crop.
The total production of all fruits in 1950 amounted to 447,368,000 pounds, valued
at $21,472,296, as compared with 501,026,000 pounds, valued at $23,638,029, in 1949,
indicating a decrease of 53,658,000 pounds or 10.7 per cent in volume and $2,165,733
or 9.1 per cent in value.
The total production of commercial apples for 1950 is estimated at 368,864,000
pounds, as compared with 362,568,000 pounds in 1949, an increase of 6,296,000 pounds. Y 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Production of peaches for the current year is estimated at 4,126,000 pounds, as
compared with 1949 production of 38,666,000 pounds, a decrease of 34,540,000 pounds
or 89.3 per cent.
Production of apricots in 1950 amounted to 918,000 pounds, as against 9,066,000
pounds in 1949, representing a decrease of 8,148,000 pounds.
The 1950 pear-crop, estimated at 17,872,000 pounds, was 9,068,000 pounds less
than the 1949 production.
Production of strawberries in 1950 is estimated at 16,572,000 pounds, as compared
with 14,814,000 pounds in 1949, an increase of 1,758,000 pounds.
The 1950 raspberry-crop is estimated at 10,404,000 pounds, as compared with
9,338,000 pounds in 1949, an increase of 1,066,000 pounds.
Of the other principal fruits, the estimated commercial production and value for
1950, with corresponding figures for 1949 placed within parentheses, are as follows:
Plums, 2,050,000 pounds, $121,005 (3,048,000, $186,964); prunes, 12,432,000 pounds,
$730,419 (17,614,000, $751,865); cherries, 4,180,000 pounds, $800,200 (11,032,000,
$1,749,509); blackberries, 516,000 pounds, $61,806 (1,062,000, $103,419); loganberries, 1,198,000 pounds, $177,389 (878,000, $123,785).
Vegetables
The Okanagan experienced a good growing season for vegetables, and the quality
and yields of all of the main crops, such as onions, tomatoes, carrots, celery, beets, etc.,
were good. Owing to more and better spraying and dusting equipment, insect pests and
plant diseases were controlled better than in previous years. Cannery beans and tomatoes were both above normal in quality and yield.
Besides supplying the local canneries and fresh-vegetable market, large quantities
of vegetables are shipped to the Prairie Provinces and Coast markets.
There was an excellent crop of Christmas cauliflower harvested on Vancouver Island
in November and early December of 1949. However, harvesting was practically cut
short on December 18th with a snowfall of 8 inches and 10 degrees of frost on December
19th. Continuing low temperatures in December and in January destroyed a large proportion of the early broccoli-crop. However, some plantings of April-May broccoli
survived the winter and there was a fair cut. Prices were somewhat depressed on the
Christmas cauliflower-crop. Spring and summer vegetable-crops were in good supply
throughout the season.
Vegetable production in the Fraser Valley is of major importance, as it represents
approximately $5,000,000 to the growers.
In addition to the acreage required for supplying the fresh-vegetable trade, a considerable amount is contracted for annually by the various canneries. Peas, beans, and
corn are the principal crops grown on contract, with a few smaller contracts for such
crops as spinach, beets, and carrots.
The frozen-vegetable pack is increasing in importance, and indications are that
a wider range of vegetables will be required than has been handled in any quantity up
to the present.
On account of the cold, wet spring, most growers were unable to commence field
operations as early as usual. In some particularly favoured locations some early transplanting was done in March, but on most places transplanting and seeding were not done
until well into April.
The production of hothouse tomatoes in 1950 amounted to 1,860 tons, valued at
$680,382, as compared with 1,958 tons, valued at $766,397, in 1949.
Field tomatoes produced amounted to 18,027 tons, as against 20,481 tons in 1949,
a decrease of 2,454 tons. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951 Y 17
The quantity of field cucumbers produced in 1950 is estimated at 3,307 tons, as
compared with 2,859 tons for the previous year, an increase of 448 tons or 15.6 per cent.
Hothouse cucumbers produced in 1950 amounted to 323 tons, up 11 tons over the
1949 production.
The following vegetable-crops showed an increase in volume of production over the
previous year: Beets, green beans, carrots, celery, onions, parsnips, green peas, peppers,
rhubarb, and spinach. On the other hand, such crops as asparagus, cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, and turnips recorded decreases.
The aggregate of all vegetable-crops for the year 1950 was 84,902 tons, of a value
of $6,912,352, as compared with 86,327 tons, valued at $7,090,997 in 1949.
Field Crops
The past season has not been too satisfactory as far as field crops are concerned.
A rather severe winter was experienced, with a cold, late spring which delayed farm operations and growth. Dry weather in most areas during June and July took a further toll,
and early fall frosts in the Peace River severely damaged yields and quality of the grain.
In general, cereal-crops throughout the Province were poor. The oat-crop in the
Fraser Valley and on Vancouver Island suffered from a late spring and severe drought.
A late, dry spring in the North Okanagan seriously reduced yields of spring-seeded cereals.
Fall wheat was somewhat better in this area, and normal average of 1 ton per acre was
harvested under favourable conditions. There was, however, an increase in smutty grain
this year. Yields in the Boundary District were very low, particularly throughout Brides-
ville and Rock Creek. In the major grain-growing area of the Kootenays, on the Creston
Flats, although crops looked promising, yields in general were disappointingly light.
Wheat averaged 25 bushels per acre; oats, 50 bushels per acre; and barley, approximately
40 bushels per acre. In the Central Interior grain was spotty. Early plantings of spring
cereals in the Prince George area were very good, with wheat averaging 25 to 30 bushels
per acre. Spring grain in the Vanderhoof area was very light, but fall wheat came through
well and yielded about normal. West of Vanderhoof in the Bulkley Valley the extremely
dry summer reduced yields of all cereals, and the crop was light. The Peace River had
one of the most disappointing crops in its history. A late spring season coupled with a
dry June gave a poor start to the grain. A heavy frost on August 16th caught much of the
grain at a critical stage, and quality was severely affected. Hail did unusually large
damage throughout the district, and a few farms were burned out in serious forest fires.
Yields of wheat are estimated to have yielded 6 to 7 bushels per acre; barley, 12 bushels;
and oats, 14 bushels, with most wheat grading No. 5 or 6.
Hay-crops throughout the Province were generally light. The continuing drought
seriously reduced yields in the Lower Fraser Valley and North Okanagan, although quality
was generally good. The Camp Lister area harvested a fairly good crop of alfalfa hay,
but there is increasing damage to their fields from the alfalfa wilt disease. Hay-crops
throughout the Central Interior, except around Prince George, were light. Because of
the poor hay year in the North Okanagan, many alfalfa-fields around Armstrong had no
production of a second crop of hay, and in many instances these were left for seed crops.
Alsike production in the Central Interior was generally light. Good yields of 300 to
400 pounds per acre were obtained from a few fields in the outlying areas around Prince
George. Timothy yields, particularly in the Bulkley Valley, were very light. Peas for
the canning trade in the Lower Fraser Valley are down in yield. The pea-crop in the
North Okanagan and Creston areas also was affected adversely by the unfavourable
season.
The total value of all field crops produced on farms in British Columbia in 1950
is now estimated at $28,518,000, as compared with $34,780,000 in 1949, a decrease of
$6,262,000 or 18 per cent. Y 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Wheat production in 1950 is estimated at 2,418,000 bushels from 157,000 acres,
a yield per acre of 15.4 bushels, as compared with 3,889,000 bushels from 149,000 acres
or 26.1 bushels per acre in 1949. Oats yielded 2,703,000 bushels from 89,200 acres,
as compared with 4,195,000 bushels from 83,400 acres in 1949, yields per acre of 30.3
bushels and 50.3 bushels respectively. The yield of barley is estimated at 372,000 bushels
from 18,900 acres, as compared with 494,000 bushels from 13,700 acres in 1949, the
average yields per acre being 19.7 bushels and 36.1 bushels. Rye is estimated to have
yielded 16,000 bushels from 800 acres, as compared with 14,000 bushels from 700 acres
in 1949, yields per acre of 20 bushels and 20.3 bushels respectively. The production of
mixed grains is estimated at 398,000 bushels from 10,000 acres or 39.8 bushels per acre,
as compared with 346,000 bushels from 8,000 acres or 43.2 bushels per acre in 1949.
The production of all grains amounted to 5,994,000 bushels, valued at $6,640,000,
as compared with a production of 9,057,000 bushels, valued at $11,310,000, in 1949.
The total yield of hay and clover in 1950 amounted to 398,000 tons from 215,000
acres or 1.85 tons per acre, as compared with 422,000 tons from 211,000 acres or 2 tons
per acre in 1949. Alfalfa yielded 232,000 tons from 96,800 acres or 2.40 tons per acre,
as compared with 261,000 tons from 94,900 acres or 2.75 tons per acre in 1949. Fodder-
corn yielded 36,000 tons from 3,400 acres or 10.50 tons per acre, as compared with
46,000 tons from 4,100 acres or 11.20 tons per acre in 1949.
Grain-hay is estimated to have yielded 85,000 tons from 44,500 acres, as compared
with 74,000 tons from 40,000 acres in 1949, yields per acre of 1.90 tons and 1.85 tons
respectively.
The production of all fodder-crops amounted to 751,000 tons, valued at $16,547,000,
as compared with 803,000 tons, valued at $16,144,000, in 1949.
The total yield of potatoes was 113,400 tons from 16,200 acres, as against 117,300
tons from 17,000 acres in 1949, the yields per acre being 7 tons and 6.90 tons respectively.
The total area of field crops in 1950 is estimated at 660,300 acres, as compared
with 629,900 acres in 1949, an increase of 30,400 acres.
DAIRYING
The total milk production in British Columbia in 1950 amounted to 668,102,000
pounds, an increase of 17,168,000 pounds or 2.6 per cent compared with 1949. Of
this amount, approximately 50 per cent was used as fluid sales, 16 per cent in the manufacture of creamery butter, 12 per cent in the manufacture of evaporated whole milk,
and the remaining 22 per cent in the manufacture of cheddar cheese, ice-cream, dairy
butter, and cottage cheese, and includes milk consumed on the farm and fed to live stock.
Creamery butter manufactured amounted to 4,666,000 pounds. This is an increase
of 55,000 pounds from the previous year. The average price for the year was 58 cents
per pound, compared with 61.48 cents in 1949.
Cheddar cheese production in 1950 is estimated at 564,000 pounds, as compared
with 498,000 pounds in 1949, an increase of 66,000 pounds or 13.2 per cent. The
average price of cheddar cheese was 34 cents per pound, compared with 30.88 cents
in 1949.
The make of ice-cream was greater than that of the previous year. The 1950 production is estimated at 2,451,000 gallons, valued at $3,676,000, as compared with
2,416,000 gallons, valued at $3,600,000, in 1949, indicating an increase of 35,000
gallons in the volume of production.
Sales of fluid milk and cream, the latter expressed as milk, are estimated at
334,577,000 pounds, as compared with 327,502,000 pounds in 1949, an increase of
7,075,000 pounds.
The production of evaporated whole milk in 1950 reached an all-time high. The
output of the condenseries in 1950 was 35,287,000 pounds, as compared with 31,796,000
pounds in 1949, an increase of 3,491,000 pounds or 10.9 per cent. wu
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951 Y 19
Less milk was utilized for dairy butter, but this was offset by an increase in quantities
fed to live stock and used in farm homes.
The production of cottage cheese in 1950 is estimated at 2,581,000 pounds, up
17,000 pounds from the total for the previous year.
The total farm value of milk production in 1950 amounted to $21,601,000, a
decrease of $347,000 from the previous year. The total value of dairy products, including manufactured products and fluid sales valued at the factory, plus the value of products
made and used on farms, amounted to $30,821,000, as compared with $30,676,000
in 1949.
LIVE STOCK AND POULTRY
The winter of 1949-50 was one of the most severe in many years, and many new
record low temperatures were recorded. Feed was plentiful, and in spite of the severe
cold, losses as a whole were not above normal. Range conditions were favourable early
in the season, and although the summer was very dry, cattle came to market in good flesh.
Those retained on the ranches went into the winter in good condition. Up to the year-
end, conditions have been very favourable for wintering live stock. At our major sales
this year it was encouraging to observe a lot of the better female stock going back to
ranches as foundation stock.
Live-stock prices have risen in line with other prices. Beef and veal prices at the
end of 1950 were, approximately, half as much again as in December, 1949. Lamb
prices are about .a third more than in 1949. These comparisons have been applicable,
in a general way, over the latter part of the year. Hog prices are about the same as in
1949. British Columbia marketings of cattle and hogs were higher in 1950 than in
1949, while sheep marketings were slightly below those of the previous year.
The number of horses on farms in the Province has continued to decline. Estimated
at 45,900 at June 1st, the total decrease amounted to 6.3 per cent from the 49,000 at
June 1st, 1949.
Estimated at 357,300, total cattle and calves increased approximately 3 per cent,
from 348,400 at June 1st, 1949.
The June 1st survey indicated 95,000 sheep and lambs on farms, as compared with
92,000 on June 1st, 1949, an increase of 2,200.
Estimated at 64,000, the number of swine on farms at June 1st, 1950, was 16.3
per cent above the estimate of 55,000 at June 1st, 1949.
There were 3,370,000 hens, cocks, and chickens on farms in British Columbia at
June 1st, 1950, as compared with 3,814,000 on the same date in 1949, a decrease of
444,000 or 11.6 per cent.
Turkey numbers at June 1st, 1950, reached an all-time high. Estimated at 260,000,
this represented an increase of 35,000 over the total on the corresponding date in 1949.
Total egg production for 1950 is estimated at 26,304,000 dozen, of a value of
$11,754,000, as compared with 29,824,000 dozen, value $13,888,000 in 1949, indicating a decrease in quantity production of 3,520,000 dozen.
Poultry-meat production in the Province was 13,968,000 pounds during 1950,
a decline of 954,000 pounds from the 1949 production of 14,922,000 pounds.
MISCELLANEOUS
The season was generally favourable in so far as hops are concerned. Production
for 1950 is placed at 2,260,000 pounds from 1,472 acres, as compared with 1,803,000
pounds from 1,520 acres in 1949—yields per acre of 1,535 pounds and 1,186 pounds
respectively. The average price per pound was 75 cents, as compared with 72 cents
in 1949. Y 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The yield of tobacco in 1950 was estimated at 132,000 pounds from 120 acres, or
1,100 pounds per acre, as compared with 87,000 pounds from 81 acres, or 1,074 pounds
per acre, in 1949. The average price of 41.6 cents per pound was about 8 cents per
pound higher than in the previous year.
The total value of flower, vegetable, and field-crop seed production for 1950 is
estimated at $1,388,970, as compared with $1,287,737 in 1949, an increase of $101,233
or 7.8 per cent.
Total honey production for 1950 is estimated at 1,321,000 pounds, as compared
with the 1949 production of 1,647,000 pounds, a decrease of 326,000 pounds or 19.8
per cent.
Due to a slight increase in sheep numbers, the 1950 wool-clip exceeded that of the
previous year. Production for the year is estimated at 371,000 pounds, as compared
with 355,000 pounds in 1949.
The total value of bulb production for 1950 is estimated at $262,250, a decrease
from the previous year of $33,550.
The revenue derived from fur-farming decreased from $602,000 in 1949 to $515,000
in 1950.
REPORT OF MARKETS BRANCH
M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Acting Markets Commissioner
GENERAL
Further general increases in the agricultural price index were a predominant feature
of this year's markets for most British Columbia commodities. The gain in value of
agricultural production for the year has been placed at about 9 per cent in preliminary
estimates. Cash income received by farmers for the first half of 1951 was 13.45 per
cent higher than in 1950, closely paralleling the price index gain of 12.2 per cent.
During the same period the cost index of things farmers buy rose by 13 points.
A primary contributory factor in this up-swing was the 12-per-cent interim freight rates
increase granted to the railroads in July. While the full effect of this increase has not
yet made itself felt, costs of many such items as machinery and equipment have begun
to reflect the higher transport charges. In addition, the costs of moving produce have
tended to reduce net returns in numerous instances. As an example, the freight charges
on car-lot potatoes, Vancouver to Calgary, rose from 67 cents per 100 pounds to 75 cents.
GRAIN MOVEMENTS
While rail freight tariffs increased during the year on most items, western grains
were again exempted. As a result, imports of feed-grains into British Columbia were
maintained at a high level. In June the Canadian Freight Association Tariff 145, allowing a further concession on grains shipped from Calgary or Edmonton to coastal points
in this Province, was cancelled. This brought the rail-haul rate to Vancouver up to
$7.30 per ton from $6. However, the Federal Freight Assistance Policy has been
retained, wherein freight charges are assumed by the Federal Government.
Total tonnages imported under the Policy in 1951 are not yet available, but a comparison of shipments in two seven-month periods in 1950 and 1951 reveals totals of
113,863 tons and 114,849 tons respectively, for an average monthly movement of over
16,000 tons. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1951 Y 21
FEED PRICES
During the year live-stock feed prices in Vancouver rose an average of 14 per cent.
Bran showed the greatest price increase, rising 21 per cent to $63 per ton on a pick-up
basis. Poultry laying-mash at $88 rose only 6 per cent, but dairy mash went up 17
per cent to $78 per ton.
Despite a sizeable carry-over of feed grades from the 1950 Prairie crop and a
bumper crop this year, prices have remained firm with no apparent easing. Much of
the current crop remains unharvested in the fields, and thus should yield a high percentage of feed grades. However, the bulk of this potential supply will not become
available before the late spring of 1952. Meanwhile, demand has continued heavy
in the live-stock feeding industry.
Hay yields were down in the major live-stock areas this year, due mainly to summer
drought conditions. As a result, there were increased shipments into the Lower Fraser
Valley and Vancouver Island dairying sections, including alfalfa from the North
Okanagan and from Washington State. Much of these, from the latter area in particular, were hauled direct by truck, often from field to barn. Prices ranged between
$40 and $50 per ton delivered.
FRUIT-MARKETING *
Despite unfavourable weather conditions in many growing areas, the fruit industry
this year continued its role as a major segment in British Columbia's economy. Although
this has been a " short crop " year in apples, with less than 5,000,000 boxes produced
in the principal tree-fruits districts, marketings have been maintained at satisfactory
levels, and at prices generally higher than those of 1950.
In the face of renewed " austerity " in the United Kingdom and the severe competition from subsidized American apples, over half a million boxes were sold in that
traditional market. About half of this total had been moved by the first of December.
By the same date 626,865 boxes had been shipped to United States points, 4,158 to the
British West Indies, 5,096 to Hong Kong, 3,700 to Venezuela, and 22,750 to British
Malaya.
The United States has developed in recent years to top place among the export
markets for British Columbia apples. Led by the Red Delicious variety, apples from
this Province this autumn found favour among buyers in thirty-one of the forty-eight
States.
During the autumn months difficulty was experienced in the Central Canada and
Eastern Prairie markets, owing to heavy production in Ontario and Quebec. However,
the British Columbia product held its own, with good prospects for increased movements later in the season. A total of 1,400,000 boxes was sold in Western Canada by
the first of December.
The growing apple-juice industry this year saw a total of 371,000 cases of the
apple by-product produced. Of this amount, over 50,000 cases were exported to the
United States.
The small-fruits industry was hampered this year by sharply lowered yields and
a comparatively short harvest season in the Lower Fraser Valley and Vancouver Island
growing districts. Prices generally were little changed from those realized on the
1950 crop, however.
FIELD CROPS AND VEGETABLES
In general, marketings of the major field crops and vegetables were satisfactory.
Yields were down somewhat in some instances, due to decreased acreages and unfavourable weather conditions. With no apparent surplus, potatoes climbed to as
high as $90 per ton wholesale in Vancouver. While a number of growers stored much
of their crop in the hope of increased returns, both the British Columbia Coast and Y 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Interior Vegetable Marketing Boards handled substantial tonnages up to the first of
December. The former marketed 15,673 tons, a gain of nearly 700 tons over the
output in the same period of 1950.   The Interior Board handled nearly 4,500 tons.
Movements of peppers were up substantially at 223 tons on the fresh market and
close to 53 tons processed. Tomatoes were down slightly at 334,165 lugs, but green
tomatoes were nearly double the 1950 figure at 11,350 boxes. Tomatoes to the process
market totalled 11,138 tons, off 11 per cent. Silver-skins were also off at 206 tons, as
were cantaloupes at 22,796 crates. Cucumbers, however, were up at 201,501 boxes,
and lettuce at 22,679 crates. The process market absorbed 85 tons of asparagus and
1,503 tons of beans, the latter being the highest figure in recent years. Prices ranged
as high as $115 per ton for beans.
The canning pea-crop was off this year from 1950, yields being somewhat less
than 2 tons on the average. Prices were up on Fancy and Choice grades by about
10 per cent at $80 per ton. Peas for the quick-freeze trade brought as high as $130.
Unfavourable weather conditions resulted in a disappointing canning corn-crop also.
Again, higher prices tended to offset losses.
The trend toward pre-packaging of vegetables continued this year, as the domestic
market reacted favourably to the attractive smaller units. Polyethylene bags again
found ready acceptance, particularly in potato, carrot, and parsnip sales. Several car-
lots of potatoes packaged in these containers were successfully marketed in West Coast
American centres.
LIVE STOCK
The market for beef and veal continued strong throughout the year. By late
autumn good steers up to 1,000 pounds fetched over $30, calves averaging around $33.
Grade B 1 hogs and good handy-weight lambs hovered about the $30 mark. Volumes
marketed remained high in the Province, but a sharp drop was noted in exports to the
United States. To the end of November a total of 34,086 head of beef cattle was
moved across the International Boundary, a decrease of 31 per cent as compared with
the same period of 1950.
Similar decreases occurred in calf, sheep, and lamb exports, but hog movements
were up over 300 per cent at 3,336 head. These decreases were offset somewhat by
heavier exports of dressed beef, veal, mutton, and lamb. A recent development in the
dressed-beef export business has been the shipment of car-lots of certain cuts, such
as steaks, in place of whole carcasses.
Exports of dairy cattle totalled slightly over 1,000 head, about on a par with last
year's figure. Despite unsettled conditions in the dairy industry, prices for dairy cattle
maintained high levels throughout the year.
CEREAL GRAINS
Returns to grain-growers in the Peace River District were reduced this year by
unfavourable weather conditions at harvest-time. A large percentage of Peace River
wheat graded No. 5 Tough, bringing the average initial price received down to about
90 cents per bushel. Returns on oats and barley averaged 43 and 65 cents per bushel
respectively, while flax netted growers an average of $3.50.
FORAGE-CROPS
Prices received for forage-crops showed little change from last year, although
increases were apparent in a few instances. The Peace River sweet-clover seed yield
averaged 4 cents per pound, brome 8 cents. Alfalfa averaged 40 cents, with altaswede
and alsike netting 23 and 28 cents respectively. Creeping red fescue, rapidly gaining
in popularity among growers, this year brought 45 cents. 	
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1951 Y 23
Timothy seed in Central British Columbia remained steady at 7 to 8 cents per
pound. Red clover showed some variability, ranging between 35 and 45 cents
wholesale.
POULTRY AND EGGS
The poultry industry showed only slight changes, this year, with chick hatchings
up 4 per cent, and a net gain in numbers of 12 per cent. Turkey poults hatched
showed a drop of 23 per cent, with a net population drop of about 13 per cent.
Egg prices were maintained at reasonable levels, with Grade A Large reaching a
high of 76 cents wholesale during the summer. A sharp drop of 11 cents took place
early in December to bring the Grade A Large price to 50 cents wholesale. Egg-
marketings were at satisfactory levels, with an annual output estimated in excess of
400,000 cases through registered grading-stations.
The broiler and fryer industry, growing in importance annually, again exceeded
2,000,000 pounds marketed. Prices generally ranged from 28 to 35 cents to the producer. Turkey prices for the Thanksgiving and early Christmas trade were up about
10 cents from 1950, with toms averaging 55 cents and hens 62 cents to the producer.
Breeders marketed during the late spring and early summer were also higher than
the 1950 Christmas crop.
MISCELLANEOUS
Prices realized for ranch furs were better than anticipated this fall, being generally
equal to 1950 returns. The first auction of the 1951 season at Vancouver saw Pastel
mink males bring up to $45. Silver Blus varied between $30 and $40 and Standard
males went as high as $29.25.   A total of 20,000 pelts was offered at this sale.
Honey production entered a new phase this year, with the introduction in August
of regulations pursuant to the " Fruit, Vegetables, and Honey Grades Act." Honey is
now for the first time graded for sale in this Province.
ASSOCIATED ACTIVITIES
This Branch was again associated with the Economics Division of the Federal
Department of Agriculture in a programme of exhaustive economic surveys in this
Province. A survey of the West Kootenay region, including the Boundary District
around Grand Forks, was conducted this year. Published results are expected early
in 1952.
For the third consecutive year this Branch was able, by means of a cash grant, to
assist in the setting-up of a display of British Columbia apples at the Royal Winter
Fair in Toronto.
Also, for the third time the Markets Branch took part in the planned-farming
exhibit sponsored by this Department for showings at Lower Fraser Valley points.
BRITISH COLUMBIA MARKETING BOARD
The personnel of the British Columbia Marketing Board was changed during the
year. Appointed to the Board by Order in Council were J. E. Lane, chairman; Ernest
MacGinnis, secretary; and M. M. Gilchrist.
PUBLICATIONS
The weekly Markets Bulletin, published by this Branch, now has a circulation
of 290 copies. During the year a number of requests to be placed on the mailing list for
this publication were received from various quarters. All but a few were refused, since
it is intended that this shall remain a source of information primarily for Departmental
personnel and not for the general public. Y 24
BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF HORTICULTURAL BRANCH
Ben Hoy, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist
CLIMATIC CONDITIONS
The winter of 1950-51 was milder than that of 1949-50, but colder than the longtime average. Below-zero temperatures ranging from —21° F. in Kamloops to —2° F.
at Summerland were recorded on January 28th. At Summerland the temperature
dropped from 40° F. on January 25th to —2° F. by midnight January 26th. Corresponding sudden drops in temperature were registered in other fruit-growing sections of
the Province. On the Lower Mainland on January 25th the thermometer rose to 50° F.
and dropped to 11 ° F. on the 26th. This sudden change in temperature was responsible
for some damage to apricot, cherry, and peach buds in the Interior and to strawberry
plantations in Coast areas.
Following the cold snap in January the weather moderated until early in March,
when in many Interior fruit-growing areas below-zero temperatures were recorded. A low
of —13.2° F. was reported from Kamloops, —2° F. at Oliver, and 6° F. at Creston.
After the cold weather in March, better than average spring weather was experienced
until the middle of April. On April 18th and 19th damaging frosts were experienced at
many Interior and Coast points. A few of the low temperatures reported were as follows:
14° F. at Robson, 19° F. at Creston, and 17° F. at Salmon Arm, Vernon, and Oliver.
Growth in all areas commenced earlier than last year. The comparison of the blossom dates for the leading kinds of fruit for the past five years, as reported by J. A. Smith,
District Horticulturist at Kelowna, gives a good indication of the earliness of the season:—
Fruit
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
Apr. 16
Apr. 22
Apr. 26
May 5
Apr. 22
May 5
May 10
May 20
Apr. 23
Apr. 29
May 4
May 8
May 2
May 13
May 17
May 22
Apr. 26
May 3
May 8
May 13
The spring was drier than normal in all areas. No rainfall occurred from March
26th to April 27th at Abbotsford. During May and early June precipitation was normal,
followed by five months of exceptionally dry weather. At Salmon Arm the precipitation
for the five months May 1st to September 30th was 4.5 inches, compared with the
forty-year average of 6.88 inches. Similar conditions are reported from the Kootenay
and Creston areas.
Hail-storms were experienced at Creston, Kelowna, and Penticton. At Creston
a storm early in July caused considerable loss to some growers. In Kelowna hail fell on
July 2nd and July 3rd in a small area of the East Kelowna section, but damage was not
severe. Heavier damage was sustained in the Glenmore area, where some growers are
said to have lost as high as 15 per cent of the crop. Little damage was done in the
Penticton area.
An open fall followed the dry summer, with rains commencing in October. These
rains in many instances interfered with the harvesting of winter apples, late vegetables,
and were responsible for heavy losses in the bean-seed crop.
The fruit-crop, not being as heavy as in previous years, was all harvested in good
time, and trees are going into the winter in good condition with a satisfactory supply of
soil-moisture. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1951
Y 25
HORTICULTURAL CROPS
Tree and Small Fruits
Apricots and peaches, though larger than 1950, produced a very light crop. All
other tree-fruit crops, except pears, were the smallest in many years. Damage to buds
in January and April, coupled with damaged trees of low vitality that produced heavily
last year, undoubtedly had an adverse effect on this year's crop. It was a difficult crop
to estimate, and as the season advanced each estimate was lower than the preceding one.
This was particularly so with the apple-crop.
The pear-crop was one of the largest ever harvested. Owing to trees damaged by
winter-injury in 1949-50 and the large crop, the size of fruit was smaller than normal.
Peaches and Apricots.—There was considerable increase in the tonnage harvested
over last year, but crops were far below those previous to 1950. Zero weather in January
and killing frosts in April were the main reasons for the small crop this year. With
favourable weather this winter and spring and a good growing season next summer,
normal crops can be expected in 1952.
Plums and Prunes.—The plum-crop exceeded that of last year but was 20 to 25
per cent below crops previous to 1950.
Prune-trees showed little increased mortality over what was obvious last year and
the set of fruit was heavy this spring. As the season advanced, it was noted that sizing
was not good. The early prune-crop was harvested and shipped without loss, but a few
days after commencement of harvesting the main crop the fruit started to shrivel and as
the season progressed the shrivelling increased. Some growers did not harvest their
crop. This shrivelling caused concern in the packing-houses because of the high cost of
sorting. There is much speculation as to the cause of this trouble, but it is probably due
to a number of factors. Trees were generally low in vitality, spur damage from spring
frosts is possible, and the summer was one of the hottest in several years.
The strawberry yield was considerably below that of last year in all districts. The
low yield on the Lower Mainland is attributed chiefly to crown and root damage caused
by the cold weather in January and the very dry summer. On Vancouver Island the
plants came through the winter in good condition but, as in the Interior, suffered from
spring frosts at blossoming-time and, in many instances, drought during the growing
season.
Though the crop was not as large this year, the price, though a satisfactory one,
was slightly lower than last year.   There was no difficulty in marketing the crop.
Raspberries came through better than strawberries, and yields were slightly higher
than last year.
The loganberry-crop for the third successive year was low. Canes suffered from
winter and spring frosts, and this year's crop is considerably below that of last year.
Blackberries, currants, and gooseberries showed an increase over last year.
The following table indicates the actual production of tree and small fruits in 1950
and estimated production for 1951:—
Kind
Year
Production
Kind
Year
Production
Apples — _. —
1950
1951
1950
1951
1950
1951
1950
1951
Boxes
8,782,455
5,103,000
168,688
87,200
425,516
714,400
Crates
136,685
152,400
Prunes  _ 	
1950
1951
1950
1951
1950
1951
1950
1951
Crates
828,780
785,000
206,309
1,044,300
45,902
Plums    	
Cherries  -	
123,200
208,967
200,750 Y 26
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Kind
Year
Production
Kind
Year
Production
1950
1951
1950
1951
1950
1951
1950
1951
Crates
920,704
517,200
578,019
580,600
66,512
49,300
28,690
44,400
1950
1951
1950
1951
1950
1951
1950
1951
Crates
3,696
4,150
9,323
Loganberries  	
Blackberries—         	
Gooseberries— -	
10,400
3,434
3,700
Lb.
1,458,776
1,595,000
Vegetables
The acreage of vegetables in the Province does not vary a great deal from year to
year. This year there was a noticeable decrease in onion acreage and a slight increase in
carrots and tomatoes. This has generally been a good year for the vegetable-grower;
the quality and demand was on the whole satisfactory.
The production situation in the three main producing areas is outlined in the reports
of G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist for the Fraser Valley; E. W. White, Supervising Horticulturist for Vancouver Island; and R. P. Murray, Supervising Horticulturist
for the Okanagan.
G. E. W. Clarke, Fraser Valley:—
" Practically no transplanting and seeding of early vegetables was made until late
March and early April. On account of the warm, dry weather (except for the cool
nights and frost during the middle of the month) most growers found it necessary
to irrigate. This was much earlier in the season than is usually necessary. It was
rather interesting to note that in the Cloverdale section a spinach-crop which was nearly
ready to harvest in mid-April was saved from frost damage by the use of sprinklers
during the night and early morning. Spinach in adjoining fields where the sprinkling
was not done was practically entirely lost.
" In spite of the hot, dry season, vegetable-supplies for the most part have been
ample for the market requirements. Production in some instances has not been up to
expectations, but the over-all production might have been considerably less.
" Contracted canning pea-crops were generally fair to good and in some instances
much better than anticipated. Bean-crops in some areas, and particularly where no
irrigating was done, were a light crop. Corn production was fair to good, depending on
the situation, and a large proportion of the acreage was irrigated at least once during the
season. Harvesting conditions were ideal for handling the crop and continued until
about the end of October.
" This past season was one of the best in this district for the growing of tomatoes,
and a few growers obtained excellent returns on a very receptive and favourable market.
" Potato-crop yields vary, and the total production is expected to be a little below
market requirements. Prices this year are high, particularly in comparison with returns
to growers in 1950.
" The asparagus acreage was reduced during the war years to a marked degree,
and while a few growers are making small plantings, the present planting trend is not
sufficient to meet fresh-market requirements. In addition, there is a cannery and
frozen-pack trade. New plantings of more than a hundred acres should have no
difficulty in finding a ready market.
" Broccoli and brussels sprouts are two vegetables that can be grown in the fall
and well into the late part of the year. These crops have been grown on a somewhat
limited commercial scale in the district surrounding Abbotsford for the past two or
three years. There seems to be an increasing demand for these crops for the frozen-
pack in addition to the fresh-market trade." ——
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951
Y 27
E. W. White, Vancouver Island:—
"Growers had a fairly good cut of Christmas cauliflower during November and
December, 1950. The spring (overwintered) cauliflower also gave a good cut. Some
damage occurred in early March from low temperatures and snow.
" Spring and summer vegetables have been in good supply throughout the season,
warm-weather crops, such as tomatoes, corn, melons, squash, cucumbers, etc., have
done particularly well.
" Potatoes were not a heavy crop due to the drought, but prices have risen during
the past month to a very high level and will help to make up for the lower yields.
" There has been a relatively good cut of Christmas cauliflower during the past
month, and plantings of spring (overwintered) cauliflower are in good condition at
present. Favourable weather during December, January, and February should result
in a good crop next spring.   Acreage appears to be greater than a year ago."
R. P. Murray, Okanagan:—
" There was a sharp decline in the vegetable acreage this year, 2,584 acres less than
last year when 10,635 acres were grown, as compared to 8,051 this season.
"The biggest drop was in potatoes, both early and late—1,048V4 acres last year
as against 761V4 acres this year for the early crop, or a difference of roughly 24 per
cent. The difference was even greater with late potatoes—l,589Vi acres last year,
as compared to 833% acres, or approximately 50 per cent of last year's acreage.
" The onion acreage was also down by about 35 per cent, or 1,072V£ acres in 1950
as compared to 650V4 acres in 1951.
" Other vegetable acreages showed small differences, except tomatoes, which
showed an increase of 372 acres over last year.
" The quality of all vegetable-crops has been generally good, and prices much
higher than last year. In fact, the demand has been so keen that at the present time
the entire vegetable-crop, with the exception of some late potatoes the growers are
holding for higher prices and some late celery, has been sold at good prices.
" The highlights of the vegetable deal this year have been the general good quality
and prices received for potatoes, onions, and tomatoes shipped as ' mature greens.'
" Because of the keen demand for ' mature greens,' quite a proportion of the
tonnage that would have ordinarily gone to the cannery was shipped to the fresh-fruit
market, with a consequent cut in the canned tonnage.
" The onion-crop was harvested under almost ideal conditions and from all reports
is standing up well in storage. A large percentage of this year's crop graded No. 1 and
No. 2, with only a small percentage of ' boilers.'
" The early asparagus-crop was damaged by frost, but a good cutting season
followed. Yields in all sections are reported good and prices satisfactory. The acreage
of this crop is increasing, and there is an increasing demand from the canners for
this crop."
The following table gives the estimated acreage and production for 1951:—
Estimated Acreage and Production of Vegetable-crops in British Columbia,
Year 1951 (as at November 1st) .
Crop
Planted
Area
Average
Yield
per Acre
Total
Production
Asparagus __
Beans, green.
Beets	
Cabbage 	
Carrots _	
Cauliflower _
Acres
Lb.
180
2,200
1,180
8,100
380
11,700
760
9,800
1,070
14,400
440
6,100
Lb.
396,000
9,558,000
4,446,000
7,448,000
15,408,000
2,684,000 Y 28
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Estimated Acreage and Production of Vegetable-crops in British Columbia,
Year 1951 (as at November 1st)—Continued
Crop
Planted
Area
Average
Yield
per Acre
Total
Production
Celery   	
Acres
650
2,430
850
760
120
4,040
460
2,770
210
Lb.
8,200
6,000
12,300
22,600
11,200
2,500
5,900
14,000
17,800
Lb.
5,330,000
14 580,000
10,455,000
17,176,000
1,344,000
Peas, green 	
10,100,000
2,714,000
Spinach    	
Tomatoes, field.   	
38,780,000
3,738,000
Flower and Bulb Production
The biennial survey which was undertaken during the past summer to determine the
total acreage of bulbs grown in the Province has been completed. The following table
shows the acreage for 1951 as well as for the period from 1929, when the first survey was
made. In addition, there is also shown the total number of bulb-growers in the Province
and the distribution by districts:—
Bulb Acreages, 1929-51
Year
Number
of Acres
1929  159.33
1931  200.00
1933  203.50
1935  209.62
1937  249.50
1939  257.62
Number
of Acres
315.50
Year
1941	
1943  360.62
1945  482.75
1947  559.62
1949  451.70
1951  421.79
Number of Growers, 1951
Fraser Valley	
Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands	
Okanagan 	
Kootenay	
Total for British Columbia .
108
12
12
220
As the above table indicates, almost all of the bulb production is centred in the
Fraser Valley and on Vancouver Island. It has been definitely demonstrated that the
highest-quality bulbs can be produced in these areas. Through the educational efforts of
the British Columbia Bulb Growers' Federation and Canadian and Provincial Departments of Agriculture, there is improvement in production methods, grading, and insect-
control.
More growers sprayed for bulb-fly than in previous years, and the control of this
insect, which was once a serious threat to narcissus-growers, was very much improved.
The oil sprays as developed by H. Andison, of the Canadian Entomological Service, were
used with generally satisfactory results.
The following table gives an excellent idea of the value of bulk production in British
Columbia:—
Estimated Value of Marketable Bulb Production in British Columbia in 1951
Narcissus—
185 acresX 100,000=18,500,000 planted.
Marketable output—15% =2,775,000 @ $30 per M= $83,250 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1951 Y 29
Estimated Value of Marketable Bulb Production in British Columbia
in 1951—Continued
Tulips—
79 acres X 100,000=7,900,000 planted.
Marketable output—25% = 1,975,000 @ $25 per M= $49,375
Iris (bulbous)—
35 acres X 150,000=5,250,000 planted.
Marketable output—30% = 1,575,000 @ $30 per M=    47,250
Gladiolus—
90 acres X 100,000=9,000,000 planted.
Marketable output—30% =2,700,000 @ $20 per M=    54,000
Miscellaneous—3 3 acres X $ 1,000 per acre =    3 3,000
Total (422 acres)   $266,875
Blueberries
The area planted to blueberries in the Fraser Valley is at the present time over 350
acres and is becoming of greater commercial importance each year. It is a new industry
and there is considerable to learn about the most suitable varieties for commercial planting, production methods, and disease and insect control best adapted to our soil and
climatic conditions. The following remarks are extracts from the report of G. E. W.
Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist in the Fraser Valley:—
" In recent years there has been a marked increase in the plantings of high-bush
blueberries, particularly on the peat soils of Lulu Island and Pitt Meadows. Production
is increasing rapidly as the plantings are coming into production. Up to the present the
greater part of the crop has been sold on the local and Prairie markets, and prices have
been well maintained. Limited quantities have been frozen and canned. Prospects for
this market seem very promising as production increases.
"The winter of 1949 resulted in rather serious winter-injury in a number of
plantings, and, in addition, a dying-back and killing of branches is causing concern. In
conjunction with the Dominion and Provincial plant pathologists this situation is being
investigated. Two types of diseases have been noted—namely, godronia and a crown-gall
type of canker. Some varieties apparently are more susceptible than others, and this is
likely to have a bearing on the varieties recommended for planting. A series of sprays is
being applied during the fall and spring, and results of these trials will be noted in 1952."
Tobacco
The commercial production of this crop is confined at the present time to the Fraser
Valley area. G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist at Abbotsford, reports on
tobacco production in that area as follows:—
"In 1949 the Sumas Co-operative Tobacco Growers' Association crop of flue-cured
tobacco was very small, with only about 30 acres being planted. The prices were fairly
good in 1949, and in 1950 the acreage was increased to 82 acres. Again a good-quality
crop was harvested, with both yield and price being satisfactory. This has resulted in a
further increase in plantings, and this year's crop consists of 141 acres.
" Several growers are now using the recently developed Delcrest variety in place of
the standard variety, White Mammoth. This new variety has so far shown up well, giving
a good yield of high-quality leaf. It is also somewhat easier to harvest than the White
Mammoth.
" The weather was excellent for the harvesting and handling of the crop, and this
association expects to ship about 150,600 pounds of good-quality leaf to Eastern Canada." Y 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Hops
Until this year, hop production has been centred chiefly in the Fraser Valley and the
Kamloops area. This spring two new plantings were made in the Interior of the Province.
R. M. Wilson, District Horticulturist at Kamloops, and Gordon R. Thorpe, District
Horticulturist at Creston, report on these new plantings as follows:—
R. M. Wilson, Kamloops:—
" The new 80-acre planting at Lillooet, owned by the John I. Haas Hop Company
Limited, made good growth in its first season. Sprinkler irrigation and the latest in harvesting and drying equipment facilitated operations."
G. R. Thorpe, Creston:—
" This spring saw the first hops planted for commercial production on the Creston
reclaimed lands. Last year 440 acres were taken over for this purpose, of which 11.4
acres were planted to the variety Golden Cluster Seedless. This small acreage was
planted as an experimental plot to determine its suitability to the district. Early reports
on the development of this trial were not satisfactory; however, by the end of August the
growth and development were considered entirely satisfactory.
" Further plantings of hops are planned for the spring of 1952.
" The two-spot mite and green aphis infestations were noted in the new hop plantation.   There is little doubt that sprays will be required to control these pests.
" In diseases, mildew was in evidence, and in all probability fungicide sprays will be
necessary to keep this disease in hand."
Seed Production
Because of adverse marketing conditions, seed production, with the exception of
garden-pea seed and a few other items, shows a further decline from the peak years during
the war. The seed work of the Province comes under the direction of J. L. Webster, of
the Horticultural Branch.   The following extracts are taken from Mr. Webster's report:—
"The Acute Vegetable-seed Marketing Problem.—It has now been impossible to
export seed to the United Kingdom for three years, and it is likewise almost impossible
to ship to other European countries.
" The chief reason, of course, is the devaluated sterling and other currencies, which
makes it impossible to meet European price quotations. Also, as most countries, and
particularly the United Kingdom, are short of dollars, their governments will not allow
the purchase of vegetable seed from dollar areas.
" It appears that this condition has become even more acute, as the new British
Government has just reduced dollar spending in Canada by many more millions. It will,
therefore, be some time before Canada can again export her competitive vegetable-seed
items.
" In vegetable seeds, the dry weather in July and August in the Okanagan reduced
pea-seed yields, but the Creston area experienced more rainfall and pea-crops were above
average. The heavy rainfall throughout the Province in October adversely affected the
harvesting of beans in the Interior Dry Belt, with some 100,000 to 150,000 pounds not
threshed, some remaining in the windrow and a portion affected by frost and not harvested. The drought in the Fraser Valley lowered the prospects of turnip and sugar-beet
seed yields, and on the fall-sown turnip and sugar-beet crop for 1952, no germination of
seed drilled in the ground was in evidence until after the drought was broken by rain on
August 27th. Naturally, the acreage of market turnips was at a minimum in the Fraser
Valley because of the growers' inability to secure a stand during the drought.
"The following data shows the 1949 and 1950 yields of vegetable seed, together
with the recent November estimate for the current year (1951):— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1951
Y 31
Kind
1949
1950
1951
(Estimated)
Asparagus.-
Beans—
Broad-
Pole and dwarf-
Beet^..	
Brussels sproutS-
Cabbage	
Carrot	
Cauliflower-.
Corn, sweet-
Cucumber—
Leek	
Lettuce	
Muskmelon.-
Onion 	
Onion-sets..
Parsnip	
Peas	
Pepper	
Pumpkin....
Radish	
Spinach-
Squash-
Swiss chard-
Tomato	
Turnip, Swede	
Vegetable marrow-
Watermelon	
Lb.
60
14,526
327,474
15,500
48
1,939
48,873
826
17,534
16,105
660
22,800
50
61,574
21,000
2,950
,210,185
36
2,175
16,850
7,218
2,243
1,619
41,922
450
Lb.
59
15,000
308,500
21,900
536
1,200
41,200
375
31,000
1,000
500
23,434
400
99,725
14,000
7,626
1,573,393
180
1,000
9,350
8,500
370
220
1,040
34,882
250
290
Lb.
275
10,000
115,000
11,950
750
7,900
500
10,000
1,500
750
4,750
50
15,300
40,000
1,340
2,010,000
80
400
9,400
1,800
700
~100
32,000
1,200
Totals.-
1,834,617 2,195,930
2,275,745
"Owing to the shortage of vegetable-seed contracts and the general unfavourable
marketing conditions, the acreage planted to vegetable seed was considerably lower than
in 1950. In fact, this is the lowest year since 1948 for total vegetable-seed production.
Seed-peas are the only item which show a gain, and the biggest single acreage of peas was
grown at Creston under favourable conditions. It will be noted that almost all individual
items of vegetable seed are lower, due principally to less acreage being planted but in
some cases, as with beans, to loss due to heavy rainfall at harvest.
" In onion seed, only a small acreage was set out, but it should be noted that some
extremely high individual yields of onion seed were obtained, principally in the Grand
Forks district. The total value of vegetable seed will be much lower than for the
previous year.
"Flower Seed.—While flower-seed acreage is up somewhat from that of 1950, it is
doubtful if total production will be up appreciably.
" On Vancouver Island dry weather has affected yields, and in both the Grand Forks
and Island districts heavy October rainfall has caused some losses in harvesting. However, it can be stated that the flower-seed business remains on a sound basis and should
now show a gradual increase in future years.
" In 1950 flower seed was valued at $51,500. It is anticipated that production may
approach $55,000, but it is extremely difficult to be sure of this figure at this date."
HORTICULTURAL SURVEYS AND FIELD INSPECTIONS
Tree-fruit Survey.—It has been the policy of the Horticultural Branch since 1920
to conduct a survey of all the orchards in the tree-fruit growing areas every five years.
A survey was completed in 1945 and another in 1950. Owing to the sub-zero temperatures in January and February, 1950, so many trees were so severely damaged that
subsequent removal was necessary, it was thought advisable to conduct a new survey this
year. This survey commenced this month, and when completed we shall have a more
accurate knowledge of the productive possibilities of Okanagan orchards.
Greenhouse Survey.—The following table shows briefly the results of the greenhouse
survey as conducted by the Horticultural staff in 1951:— Y 32
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Greenhouse Survey, 1951
District
Number of
Growers
Number of
Houses
Area
Lower Mainland	
Vancouver Island -
Okanagan	
Kootenay	
Totals ._
263
218
60
14
I
733
864
194
31
Sq. Ft.
1,758,357
2,432,505
363,442
41,994
555
1,822 4,596,298
The recorded number of growers in 1947 was 552 and the square feet of glass
5,066,950.   In 1949 there were 551 growers and 4,798,067 square feet of glass.
Nursery Inspection
To comply with the "Plant Protection Act," 125 licences were issued to nurseries
and nursery agents at a cost of $5 each.
Inspection of all nurseries in the Province was carried out by the staff of the Horticultural Branch either at the time of digging or previous to shipping. The following table
summarizes the work for 1951:—
Nursery Inspection Report, 1951
Trees
Number
Inspected
Number
Passed
Number
Condemned
Apples and crabs:.
Pears	
Plums and prunes...
Cherries  —
Apricots and peaches-
Miscellaneous	
Totals.
66,440
36,002
7,743
20,546
31,542
5,280
65,914
35,711
7,677
20,337
31,261
5,280
526
291
66
209
281
167,553
166,180
1,373
Forty-six inspections made; 0.82 per cent of stock condemned.
Fire-blight Inspection
Reports indicate a general improvement in the fire-blight situation over the last two
years. Severely infected orchards were not so common as in 1949 and 1950. Experimental work is being continued on control of fire-blight with sprays, but to date, in British
Columbia, growers generally depend on cutting out infected parts and disinfecting.
The Horticultural Branch staff carries on annual inspections of orchards and a
continuous educational campaign among growers in order to acquaint the grower with
the best methods of combating this disease.
The following table indicates the number of acres inspected in 1951:—
Fire-blight Inspection, 1951
District
Total
Inspected
Inspected
and Passed
Not Passed
Acres
214
59
10
705
5,250
6,500
368
500
450
Acres
207
5834
10
705
5,225
6,500
368
500
445
Acres
7
Vi
25
5
Totals	
14,056
14,018%
37J4 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1951 Y 33
HORTICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
Pruning Demonstrations
Pruning demonstrations are held throughout the Province annually. Orchards are
continually changing hands and new inexperienced growers coming to the fruit-growing
areas to take up this branch of agriculture. These new growers, as well as many of the
experienced growers, attend these demonstrations annually.
The following table indicates the districts, number of demonstrations held, and the
attendance for 1951:— xt   .     '        XT   .     ,
Number of Number of
District Demonstrations Pupils
Vancouver Island  21 644
Lower Mainland '.  8 97
Okanagan  4 78
Kootenay  17 83
Totals  50 902
Irrigation Trials with Cantaloupes
Sprinkler irrigation during the last few years has been replacing the old furrow
system. It has been found very satisfactory for irrigating orchards and most ground crops,
but there is some uncertainty as to the best system for certain vegetable-crops grown in
the Interior Dry Belt areas.
The following is a report on the effect of sprinkler irrigation on cantaloupes by R. P.
Murray, Supervising Horticulturist at Kelowna:—
" Due to the very poor quality of the cantaloupe-crop in 1950 a committee was set
up at the request of the South Okanagan growers, consisting of members of the Experimental Station, Provincial Department of Agriculture, Vegetable Marketing Board, and
one Tree-fruit Board Inspector, to try to determine the cause of breakdown in the cantaloupe-crop.   Two meetings were held in the early spring to try to determine the cause.
It was felt by many that sprinkler irrigation was the cause, for the following reasons:—
"(a) By keeping the whole soil area moist, all fertilizer applied would be available to the plants.
"(b) Where trees under furrow irrigation had been removed and sprinklers
installed, extra fertilizer was available.
"(c)  Where cantaloupes were grown as an intercrop between young trees, they
received too much water, since the young trees needed more water than
the cantaloupes.
" In order to keep a close check on the growing, packing, and condition on arrival
of cantaloupes from the two methods of irrigation, the Interior Vegetable Marketing
Board appointed J. H. Ritchie, of Keremeos, a thoroughly experienced man in this field,
to manage the cantaloupe deal at Osoyoos this season.    The committee, under the
guidance of Mr. Ritchie, examined several cantaloupe-fields during harvest time, and it
was generally accepted that sprinkler irrigation was not a suitable method for watering
cantaloupes.   It was found that:—
"(a) Breakdown was more prevalent under sprinklers than furrow irrigation:
"(b) Sprinkler irrigation delayed maturity of the crop:
"(c)  Cantaloupes under sprinklers had a flatter, more open netting that showed
up in sorting:
"(d) Cantaloupes under sprinklers had a tendency to hold their green skin
colouring on maturity, and not the desirable golden-yellow colour usually
associated with a ripe cantaloupe." Y 34 ' BRITISH COLUMBIA
Verticillium Wilt of Tomatoes
The following is an extract from the report of R. P. Murray, Supervising Horticulturist at Kelowna:—
" The cool, backward spring was apparently very favourable for the development
of this disease, since it was quite severe in all parts of the valley, particularly on lands
that have been growing tomatoes for some time and where no proper rotations are
followed.
" The Osoyoos district has probably suffered heavier losses from this disease than
any other district because of poor farming practices. However, it was interesting to note
that on those lands that had been in orchard for some years with cover-crops, and where
the trees had been removed because of winter-injury, no verticillium was present.
" Whether or not the growers will profit by this demonstration remains to be seen.
If only the lessons of better farming could be brought home to the growers, losses from
verticillium would be negligible, quality and tonnage improved, and the tomato-grower
would find himself in a much better position than he is at present."
Deweeding Asparagus with Aero Cyanamid
R. M. Wilson, District Horticulturist at Kamloops, reports on deweeding asparagus
as follows:—
" To test the effectiveness of Aero Cyanamid Special grade as a weedicide for
asparagus-crops in the Kamloops area, the asparagus-field of Sher Singh, Brocklehurst,
was selected as a trial ground. The material was applied with a hand-duster to four plots
at the following rates:—
" Plot 1 at the proportionate rate of 850 pounds per acre.
" Plot 2 at the proportionate rate of 425 pounds per acre.
" Plot 3 at the proportionate rate of 284 pounds per acre.
" Plot 4 at the proportionate rate of 142 pounds per acre.
"Applications were made on the evening of May 20th, when the weeds, predominantly lamb's-quarters, were 2 to 3 inches tall. Cutting of asparagus had been in progress
for ten days.
"Results.—When plots were examined on May 25th, only a fair kill of weeds was
evident on Plot 1, the highest concentration. Plots 2 and 3 showed a kill of weeds nearly
as effective as Plot 1, and Plot 4, the weakest concentration, displayed the poorest weed-
control.   No burning was found on asparagus-tips.
" For best results, Aero Cyanamid Special grade requires moisture, as a dew on the
foliage of weeds. As it happened, there was a slight dew in the Brocklehurst area on the
night of May 20th, but generally there is no such condensation of moisture.
" In addition, winds at this season of the year often make dust applications difficult
or impossible. Therefore, owing to the climatic conditions in Kamloops, it is unlikely
that Aero Cyanamid will serve as a weedicide for asparagus-crops in this vicinity?"
Selective Herbicides on Strawberries
The following extracts are taken from the reports of Gordon R. Thorpe, District
Horticulturist at Creston, and G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist at Abbotsford:—
G. R. Thorpe, Creston:—
" The selective herbicide demonstration on British Sovereign strawberries was set
up in co-operation with O. Steiner, of Wynndel.
" The following data refers to this demonstration:—
"(1) Sprayer: Hand pressure-sprayer.
"(2) Plot size:   Two rows, 25 feet in length (approximate area, 150 square
feet). DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951
Y 35
'(3) Applications:  One.
'(4) Dated applied:  May 11th, 1951.
'(5) Soil conditions:  Cultivated, moderately moist.
'(6) Weeds: Common chickweed, lamb's-quarters, dandelion, redroot pigweed, couch-grass, and crane's-bill.
'(7) Weather: Within one hour following the application, heavy rains were
experienced, followed by cool weather.
'(8) The following table indicates the data on herbicide demonstration on
strawberries:—
Rates of
Application
Herbicides
Effect on
Strawberry Plants
Eight Days Later
Weed-
control
2 lb. per acre .
2 lb. per acre -
3 lb. per acre -
2 lb. per acre.
1 lb. per acre.
21b. per acre..
2,4-D (acid equivalent)..
I.P.C wettable dust	
I.P.C wettable dust	
2,4-D	
I.P.C 	
Crag Herbicide 1 -	
Check  	
Heavy wilting1-
No wilting	
No wilting	
] Heavy wilting
No wilting	
No wilting	
Very good.
Fair.
Fair.
Good.
Fair.
Ground covered.
1 Results.—The heavy wilting of the strawberry plants commenced three days after the application.    Two weeks
later there was no evidence of this wilting and the plants appeared normal the rest of the year.
"All weeds mentioned were checked by 2,4-D. All weeds mentioned, except
crane's-bill, were checked by I.P.C.
" Since the strawberries were planted this spring, no yields were available. Observations will be made in the spring of 1952 to determine the effect of these herbicides on
yields."
G. E. W. Clarke, Abbotsford:—
" Demonstrations carried out during the 1949-50 winter showed that very effective
control of winter weed-growth, especially chickweed and seedling grasses, can be obtained
by using a dinitro-oil weed-killer at the rate of 1 quart dinitro to 25 gallons of diesel oil
made up to 100 gallons with water and applied at the rate of 150 gallons per acre.
"A further demonstration was carried out during the 1950-51 winter on the William
Schultz farm, Sumas, in order to determine the effectiveness of this material under adverse
conditions. The spray was applied during very cool weather, with day-time temperature
at time of application being 38° F. Although fairly heavy rain fell within twelve hours
of making the treatment, control of chickweed was very good.
" It would seem that the dinitro-oil sprays can be used effectively under a wide range
of conditions, and although the treatments are fairly expensive, cost of materials at present
amounting to $16 per acre, the spray should be fairly useful during a mild winter when
weed-growth is heavy and particularly on fields where early cultivation is impossible."
Mulches
In view of the increase in the use of shavings and sawdust as mulches, the following
reports from G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist at Abbotsford; E. W. White,
Supervising Horticulturist for Vancouver Island; and G. R. Thorpe, District Horticulturist
at Creston, should be of interest:—
G. E. W. Clarke, Abbotsford:—
" During the past several seasons, sawdust-mulch demonstration-plots have been
under observation in various parts of the district. During the 1951 season no demonstration-plots were laid out, but the use of sawdust as a mulching material is now becoming
fairly common, and observations of results obtained on various crops are being made
throughout the valley. One nurseryman has used rotted sawdust from an old mill pile as
a mulch in beds of rooted evergreen cuttings and on small plants of rhododendrons and Y 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA
azaleas. Very good results have been obtained from the use of this material, and a very
definite difference in growth was noticeable between the mulched and unmulched beds of
evergreen cuttings. Growth was also improved in the rhododendron and azalea beds.
The nurseryman in question also considers that there is an over-all saving in cultivation
costs, even though application of the material is fairly expensive.
" Everett Brothers, bulb-growers at Port Kells, have used a sawdust mulch on tulips
and daffodils, and growth under the mulch was very good. Several side effects which are
worth mentioning, however, and which may be serious have been noted. A late spring
frost which damaged some bulb plantings caused more damage on sawdust-mulched plots
than on similar stock under clean cultivation. Bulb-fly infestation on bulbs under the
sawdust mulch was also much heavier, in spite of the fact that same spray applications
were applied as those given the clean-cultivated planting.
" One grower who applied a 2-inch mulch on a new strawberry planting last year
estimates that he has taken off almost double the crop that he would have harvested under
clean cultivation. Older plots on this same farm which were mulched showed a slight
yellowish tinge, but the growth and the crop have been good. The yellowish tinge is
attributed to a slight nitrogen deficiency, and in all cases additional nitrogen applications
are recommended when sawdust is used."
E. W. White, Vancouver Island:—
" The use of sawdust is a mulching material is being extended from year to year.
Sawdust is used most widely on small-fruit plantings—namely, strawberries, raspberries,
loganberries, blackberries, currants, and gooseberries. The results appear to be satisfactory, and no adverse results have been observed. In a dry year, such as was experienced during the past growing season, there is no doubt that a sawdust mulch was of great
value in conserving moisture.
" By no means have all growers swung to the use of sawdust. In many plantings the
conventional practice of cultivation and hoeing is still carried on. With strawberries, the
application of a straw mulch applied just before picking is still common practice."
G. R. Thorpe, Creston:—
" The following table indicates the raspberry mulching demonstration set up on Mr.
Sherstobetoff's farm at Lister:—
Plot
Mulch
Rate per Acre
Fertilizer
Rate per Acre
1
2
Straw	
Straw — —	
Sawdust- -	
Sawdust 	
8 tons — . 	
Ammonium sulphate - -	
4-10-10   -	
Ammonium sulphate- - -
4-10-10  _	
200 lb.
500 lb.
3
4
5
2 inches   	
2 inches  - -	
200 lb.
500 lb.
200 lb.
6
4-10-10	
500 lb.
7
Manure— 	
Check     ...
10 tons —	
8
Check    	
" Time of application: Early spring.
" Plot size:  Three rows, 25 feet in length, 7 feet apart; area, 525 square feet.
"Results.—The raspberry mulching demonstration was commenced in the spring of
1951 and is planned to be carried on for a three-year period. No significant results were
recorded this season."
Fertilizers
Information on fertilizers is continually being sought after by fruit and vegetable
growers. For this reason, fertilizer trials are conducted in general horticultural areas in
the Province. The summary of the work in the Okanagan, taken from the report of R. P.
Murray, Supervising Horticulturist at Kelowna, will give a good idea of the type of work
carried on by this Department in this phase of horticultural practice:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951 Y 37
" Fertilizer trials with apples are being conducted at Kelowna and Kamloops. The
test-plots at Kamloops were only set up a year ago, so no results are available. However,
the plots at Kelowna set up in 1928 in the Butler orchard have contributed a great deal
of sound information for our fertilizer policy of tree-fruits in the Okanagan.
" These test-plots have been in existence for a long time and are possibly the oldest
tests with tree-fruits being conducted in the Pacific Northwest.
" Tests with prunes at Naramata, Penticton, and Keremeos have been under way
three seasons, and the results are rather interesting. Nitrogen again seems to be the
limiting factor. It will be interesting to follow the use of sawdust as a supply of humus
on these plots.
"A well laid out series of fertilizer plots with tomatoes at Kelowna was negative.
During the growing season, frequent visits were made to note any differences, but the
check-plots were as good as the fertilized plots in so far as growth and yield were
concerned.
" Since these plots were on land that has been under vegetable-crops for some time,
the limiting factor could have been humus."
Tests of New Vineland Strains of Greenhouse Tomatoes
Producers of tomatoes under glass are interested in trying out new strains of this
important crop from the standpoint of disease resistance and improvement of quality and
yields. E. W. White, in his 1951 report, makes the following observations on new strains
being tried out:—
E. W. White, Vancouver Island:—
"The Horticultural Experiment Station at Vineland Station, Ont., released a new
strain of mould-resistant greenhouse tomato in the spring of 1950, No. V-4804, and have
named it " Vulcan." This was a sister strain of V-4803 which was tried out in 1949. It
has proved an excellent variety for the fall crop but is too vigorous for the spring crop.
" On November 13th, 1950, a letter was written to O. J. Robb, Assistant in Research,
Horticultural Experiment Station, Vineland Station, Ont., re new strains of mould-
resistant greenhouse tomatoes. Mr. Robb replied on November 15th and forwarded a
liberal supply of Vulcan seed and also seed of six new strains—namely, V-501, 2, 3, 4,
7, 8. This seed was divided into three lots and placed with Riddle Bros., 800 Seymour
Avenue, Victoria; H. F. Atkin, Box 2240, R.R. 5, Victoria; and Young Bros., Box 2432,
R.R. 5, Victoria.   Plants of these varieties were grown for the spring crop of 1951.
"As mentioned above, Vulcan (V-4804) is a good variety for the fall crop. It is a
vigorous grower but does not set well on the bottom trusses when grown as a spring crop.
The fruit is a good size but shows considerable roughness. It is mould-resistant. The
following notes on the new strains were made at Riddle Bros.:—
" V-501 gave a poor set on the bottom trusses and not so good on the top.   The
fruit was smooth but small.
"V-502 was one of the best of the new strains.    It set well, the fruit was
smooth, good size, uniform, and early maturing.
" V-503 produced fruit larger than V-501, but it was not so smooth.   The set
was average.
" V-504 produced a good-sized smooth fruit.   The set was not too good on the
bottom trusses, but gave the best set on the upper trusses.
" V-507 produced very uniform fruit, which was smooth but tended to be on
the small side.
" V-508 gave a small, smooth fruit but did not produce the yield of some of the
other strains.
"All of the above strains were highly resistant to mould infection. Y 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
" Riddle Bros, were of the opinion that none of the six strains were superior to
V-121, so they plan to stay with V-121 for commercial purposes.
" H. F. Atkin reported that Vulcan grew very rank, but that the fruit was a fair size
and fairly smooth. Of the new strains, he was most impressed with the performance of
V-504, V-507, and V-508, and has saved seed of these three strains for trial next year.
"At Young Bros., all the strains, including Vulcan, did not size up as far as fruit
production was concerned. This may have been due to poor soil conditions. They plan
to again grow V-121 for their spring crop."
Observations on Strawberry Varieties in the Fraser Valley and on
Vancouver Island
G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist at Abbotsford, and E. W. White, Supervising Horticulturist for Vancouver Island, make the following observations on strawberry varieties:—
G. E. W. Clarke, Abbotsford:—
" In the past few years the importance of selecting and growing healthy vigorous
stock has been responsible for maintaining the British Sovereign strawberry as the most
suitable and productive variety up to the present time. In view of the virus situation,
growers have not been encouraged to plant other varieties in close proximity to the commercial plantings of British Sovereign.
" The Marshall is the leading variety in Washington and Oregon for manufacturing
purposes and has been successfully grown in some sections of this district. In recent
years, due to disease factors, good stock has been difficult to obtain and, as a result, there
are very few commercial plantings. Recent reports state that virus-free stock is now
being propagated and may be available in another year.
"A variety now known as Northwest, originating at Puyallup Experimental Station,
Washington, is under observation, as this variety appears to be equal in quality to the
British Sovereign.
" Pathfinder is suitable as an early variety in some parts of the district for the early
fresh-fruit market, but it is not suitable as a main-crop variety."
E. W. White, Vancouver Island:—
" The Temple variety has continued to show resistance to the red-stele disease in the
1948 planting on the farm of Herb. F. Young, Keating. During the past season the fruit
had a tendency to be small. There has, however, been no rush on the part of the growers
to plant Temple extensively. Emphasis has rather been placed on the planting of certified
stock of British Sovereign and on areas where good drainage conditions prevail.
" R. E. C. Stephens, of Goldstream, has this fall placed on the market a new everbearing strawberry of his own selection, which he has named ' Goldstream.' This variety
has been thoroughly tested and so far appears to be free of red-stele disease. It is an
excellent berry for size, quality, and yield. It also is a fairly prolific producer of runners.
Mr. Stephens grows it on the matted-row system, but he has a good supply of water for
irrigation."
Hardy Seedling Apricot
R. M. Wilson, District Horticulturist, Kamloops, reported on this seedling in his
1950 report because of its apparent resistance to the extremely cold weather during the
record-breaking cold weather of 1950.   He reports again this year, as follows:—
" The hardy seedling apricot-trees growing in home gardens at Ashcroft and Savona
were described in the 1950 Annual Report. While the 1950-51 winter was less severe
than the one preceding it, there seemed to be considerable bud-injury. Cuttings were
taken in March and sent to A. J. Mann and F. W. Keane, horticulturists at the Summer-
land station. Mr. Keane reported that the fruit-buds had been injured. This season
little or no fruit could be found on the trees, a sharp contrast with their productivity of
last year." DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951 Y 39
Hardy Intermediate Apple Stocks
The severity of the winter of 1950 was an excellent test of the possibilities of growing
the less frost-resistant varieties where low winter temperatures are a limiting factor in
apple production. I. C. Came, District Horticulturist at Salmon Arm, and R. M. Wilson,
District Horticulturist at Kamloops, make the following observations in their 1951
report:—
I. C. Carne, Salmon Arm:—
"Observations were continued regarding the trial plantings of hardy intermediate
apple stocks set out in this area by C. R. Barlow, former District Field Inspector at
Salmon Arm, and A. J. Mann, of the Experimental Station at Summerland. In all locations except one the hardy intermediate stocks are progressing satisfactorily, and very
little winter-injury has been noted either to the stocks or to the top-worked variety. The
blocks of hardy stocks set out in the R. Turner & Sons orchard adjacent to McGuire Lake
suffered considerable winter-injury to both the hardy stock and to the top-worked variety.
It should be pointed out that this particular location is very low and is a natural frost
pocket."
R. M. Wilson, Kamloops:—
"Hardy Tree Frameworks.—Under this section of the 1950 Annual Report full
reference is made to the double-worked hardy apple and crab-apple trees on the Loerke
and Skelly orchards. The 1949-50 winter served to place the trees under severe test for
winter hardiness.
" On both orchards trees are top-worked to the Delicious variety. The most noteworthy feature this year is that the Delicious variety, whether grown on a hardy framework or on its own trunk, is still much too tender for the Kamloops district. All trees
show some injury to the Delicious scion-wood to a greater or lesser degree. Only a series
of mild winters could restore these trees to more normal appearance. It is evident that
growers here are well advised to plant no Delicious, frameworked or otherwise."
Colour-set Sprays
There has been considerable interest in sprays to improve the colour of apples. This
year, at Vernon, Kelowna, and Penticton, plots were sprayed to determine the effect of a
spray containing a salt of a (2,4,5-trichloro phenoxy) propionic acid. The following
is a report of the work at Vernon as submitted by W. T. Baverstock, District Horticulturist in that area:—
" This experiment was carried out in the Vernon area in the orchard of the Vernon
Orchards Limited, Vernon.
" The above material was applied to a block of mature Mcintosh trees carrying a
fairly heavy crop—approximately twenty to thirty boxes per tree. A block of some
twelve trees was used for this experiment; same was divided into three plots of four trees
each.   The Department gun machine was used in above test.
"Plot 1 received the first spray on August 24th, approximately twenty-four days
before harvest.
"Plot 2 was sprayed on September 10th, approximately seven days before harvest.
" Plot 3 received no sprays at all.
" Colour-set 1004 was applied at the recommended strength of twenty parts per
million.
"Application dates: Weather on August 24th was hot and dry; weather on September 10th was cloudy and cool, with light showers.
"Results.—Plot 1: Possibly a little better colour than the check-plot. Naturally
a little more advanced.   No drop at all.
" Plot 2: No difference in colour from check-plot.   No drop at all.
" Plot 3: Apples had commenced to drop considerably. Y 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
" Pressure tests were taken of the fruit from above plots, at harvest, with the following results (pounds pressure): Plot 1,13 average; Plot 2, 15 average; Plot 3,15 average.
"As a stop-drop spray the above material was excellent, but under this year's conditions the very slight improvement in colour was more than offset by its effect on maturity.
"(Note.—Plot 1, the early-sprayed plot, showed advancement of maturity over
Plots 2 and 3.)"
Stop-drop Sprays
Blossom-thinning with chemical sprays has become a standard orchard practice, but
because of the variations in results with different types of spray equipment and variations
in weather conditions, work with these sprays was extended this year in an attempt to
determine the reasons for the wide variation in results from year to year. Below is a
summary of the work taken from the 1951 report of R. P. Murray, Supervising Horticulturist for the Okanagan:—
" Officers in charge of district offices carried out quite an extensive programme of
demonstration work. This season stress was laid on the importance of more information
on blossom sprays, with particular stress on the use of concentrate or semi-concentrate
sprayers for this work. Both hydraulic- and steam-type equipment was used, and where
possible a comparison was made with a hand-machine.
" Conditions were not too favourable for this work, since in many cases the trees had
been rather badly winter-injured and the frost in April had removed most of the ' king '
blossoms on apples and only the weaker side buds remained.
" Tests were made of the materials used, at various weights per acre, and the following is a short summary of results:—
"(a) For apple-thinning, Elgetol at IVi to 1% pints per 100 gallons, when
used in a hand-machine, gave reasonably good results on the varieties
under trial.
"(b) Elgetol at 20 pints per acre in concentrate-machines overthinned the
bottoms and left the tops underthinned.
"(c)   Parmone was not satisfactory in either hand or concentrate machines.
It not only did not thin, but in some cases made hand-thinning more
difficult, caused wilting of foliage and seemed to check the growth of tree
and fruit.
"(d) Trials on peaches, using both Elgetol and hormones, with and without oil,
were not satisfactory.    In the presence of high humidity, overthinning
resulted.
"(e)   The addition of oil apparently did not influence one way or the other
the effectiveness of the spray.
"(/)   No results were obtained in trials with pears.
"(g) Where no apparent burning of the foliage occurred, apparently some
thinning took place, since owners report a saving of about 50 per cent
in time over unsprayed trees.    This may be due to blossoms already
weakened by frost.
" From the various trials made, it would appear at this time that relative humidity
at the time, or very shortly after spraying, plays a most important part in the effectiveness
of the dinitro sprays.   In some instances when a shower occurred shortly after spraying,
overthinning resulted.    If a record of relative humidity could be obtained at time of
spraying, data could be obtained to show what strength of material should be used under
certain degrees of humidity.
" Since this year is the first time concentrate-machines have been used to any
extent, it is very apparent that changes in their method of use must be made. It might
be done by cutting off the bottom nozzles entirely and using three or four larger sizes on
the top to get a greater volume of spray into the tops of the trees.   It may be necessary DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1951 Y 41
to change the direction of the spray boom, and keep in the tree row rather than close into
the trees.
" Because of labour conditions and higher production costs, blossom-spraying is
here to stay as a general orchard practice, and every effort should be made to find the
answers. Although the results obtained this season are quite variable, still some information has been obtained, and if at all possible this work should be extended."
Mineral Deficiencies
For several years growers have applied boron to their soils as a regular orchard
practice. In recent years zinc-deficiency symptoms have appeared in many orchards,
and a number of growers are now dormant spraying with zinc sulphate as the symptoms
appear. Trees showing leaf symptoms indicating other mineral deficiencies are found
in various parts of the Okanagan. For this reason field plots are selected where such
symptoms occur, and the trees are treated with whatever minerals the symptoms indicate
may be lacking. The following extracts from the report of A. W. Watt, District Horticulturist, Summerland, indicate the type of work that is carried on in an attempt to find
controls for these deficiency diseases: —
" Manganese-deficiency Disorders
" In 1950 a pilot experiment conducted by Dr. C. G. Woodbridge, Division of
Chemistry, Science Service, Dominion Department of Agriculture, Summerland, at the
Gartrell orchard, Trout Creek Point, had shown that a type of chlorosis in peaches was
due to manganese deficiency. Later in the fall of that year, Dr. Woodbridge had recognized similar symptoms in apple-trees of the Thornber orchard, and in the spring of 1951
he treated these trees with manganese sprays and brought about improvement in them.
From observations in Trout Creek in the spring of 1951 it became apparent that the
symptoms of manganese deficiency were quite widespread in the localized area of the
point.
" 1. Brown Orchard, Westbank.—Purpose of Work and Workers: For several years
the Brown orchard on Gellatly Point at Westbank has been under observation. The
peaches in this orchard were persistently chlorotic, with the apples and cherries also showing the same tendency. Lack of available iron, due to high water-table and excessive
irrigation-water was the suspected cause, but the trees did not respond to iron-sulphate
sprays or soil injections of iron-sulphate solution. Reduction of summer irrigation was
also tried, but this did not appear to help much.
" However, during the spring of 1951, the possibility of manganese being the trouble
suggested itself when it was observed that the symptoms of the Brown trees were the
same as those of the trees in the Trout Creek orchard which had responded to manganese
the year before.
"Accordingly, it was decided to apply manganese to these trees to see whether or
not an improvement could be effected and to test the accuracy of a diagnosis from leaf
symptoms alone. Your assistant carried out this work in co-operation with Dr. Wood-
bridge, the Division of Chemistry, Science Service, Dominion Department of Agriculture,
Summerland.
" Materials and Methods: A block of two rows of mature Valiant trees, ten trees
per row, was singled out near the north-west boundary of the peach block. On June 29th
a solution containing 1 pound of Tech Mangam (67 per cent actual manganese sulphate)
per 100 gallons was applied to the trees with a Hardy gun sprayer, at the rate of approximately 8 gallons per tree. This solution was also applied to three large Mcintosh trees
growing in another part of the orchard. All the trees so sprayed were affected with inter-
veinal chlorosis similar to the type cured by manganese at Trout Creek. Surrounding
unsprayed trees acted as checks. Y 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
"Results: The trees were inspected on July 13th, approximately two weeks after
spraying, and no sign of recovery could be seen. However, on July 26th another inspection was made, and this time a striking response could be seen, with the sprayed trees
standing out a darker green against the yellow checks. This effect applied both to peaches
and apples. Further spray was applied to ten of the original trees on July 6th at the rate
of 2 pounds to 100 gallons, and to ten trees on August 9th at the same rate, so that some
trees received two sprays, others three, and still others only the one. All the trees
continued green throughout the summer and showed no sign of returning to their former
state. At the end of the season there was no apparent difference between the trees
receiving three sprays and those receiving only one.
"At harvest a check was made of the fruit size and quality. Vigour of tree and
degree of thinning were not uniform throughout the block, making it difficult to show
consistent differences. Nevertheless, there was a decided trend toward larger peaches
in the manganese-sprayed plots.
" 2. Sharpe Orchard and Landry Orchard.—Experiments similar to the one outlined above were carried out in both the Sharpe orchard and the Landry orchard at Trout
Creek during the summer of 1950. In both cases the materials used were the same as
in the Brown experiment, and in both cases improvement in leaf colour was seen in three
to four weeks after spraying.
"Other Deficiency Disorders
"Gogel Orchard, Westbank.—The Gogel orchard at Westbank is located on a very
sandy soil at Boucherie Point. It, too, like the Brown orchard, was subject to high water-
table conditions during the summers of flood years.
" The symptoms of unavailable iron and manganese were present in a block of Red
Delicious, along with quite severe zinc-deficiency symptoms. Quite often, though not
always, all three symptoms were present in the same tree. Near by, a block of mature
Bartlett pears was very yellow and showed severe zinc-deficiency symptoms.
" The object of the work was to apply manganese, iron, and zinc in dilute sprays
and in such combinations that responses could be singled out to one element if necessary.
The symptoms of manganese deficiency were not recognized in pear, and it was hoped
that by a comparison with the Delicious near by, which definitely had slight manganese
deficiency, a clue could be found to the manifestation of manganese deficiency in pear.
" The work was undertaken by your assistant in collaboration with Mr. Gogel and
sons, with Dr. Woodbridge supplying the materials.
"Materials and methods:—
" Iron was supplied as ferrous sulphate.
"Lime was builders' hydrate.
" Zinc was in the form of zinc oxide.
" Manganese in the form of manganese sulphate (67 per cent technical grade).
" On July 11th the sprays were applied under very hot, dry conditions.   Treatment
and detail of plots was as follows:—
"Plot No. 1:   Zinc oxide, 1 pound;  manganese sulphate, 1 pound;  ferrous
sulphate, 1 pound; lime, 1 pound (applied to four Delicious and three
Bartletts).
"Plot No. 2: Ferrous sulphate, 1 pound; lime, 1 pound; manganese sulphate,
1 pound (applied to three Delicious and four Bartletts).
" Plot No. 3:  Zinc oxide, 1 pound; manganese sulphate, 1 pound (applied to
three Delicious and four Bartletts).
"Plot No. 4:  Ferrous sulphate, 1 pound; lime, 1 pound; zinc oxide, 1 pound
(applied to four Delicious and four Bartletts).
" Lime was added as a safener for ferrous sulphate.   Plots were intermingled with
each other, and each individual tree tagged with its treatment, as well as symptoms. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951
Y 43
This avoided the possibility of all the zinc sprays being put on trees that did not have
zinc-deficiency symptoms, a hypothetical case which could have occurred owing to the
irregular nature of the symptoms and the fact that we were dealing with three elements
at once.
" Results: By the end of the season no improvement could be seen in zinc-deficiency
symptoms or iron deficiency (chlorosis) in either apples or pears. What slight manganese-deficiency symptoms there were in the apples had cleared up.
"Although the mixture applied to Plot No. 1—namely, zinc, iron, manganese, and
lime—caused a very heavy rust-coloured deposit, no russet or burn was seen on the fruit,
and although the deposit affected the development of colour for a time, the final crop was
without noticeable marks.
"Conclusion: Evidence produced by earlier work to the effect that summer sprays
of zinc oxide will not improve zinc deficiency once it is apparent was strengthened.
Evidence that summer sprays of ferrous sulphate and lime will not appreciably improve
iron-type chlorosis is also strengthened. That summer sprays of manganese sulphate will
improve manganese-deficiency symptoms was again confirmed."
Control of Apple-scab with Concentrate-sprayers
Concentrate-sprayers are now in general use for insect-control throughout the
Okanagan area and in trials in the West Kootenay area since 1949 have proved to be
effective in the control of apple-scab. This year a trial plot was arranged at Salmon Arm
as well as in the Kootenay area, but owing to the dry season the development of scab was
practically nil, and no comparative results were obtained at Salmon Arm.
The following is a summary of the results obtained in the West Kootenay area, as
submitted by J. E. Swales:—
" Experimental plots were located in orchards at Willow Point and Sunshine Bay.
Trees in all plots were of medium size. Five sprays were applied to all plots—that is,
pink, calyx, and three cover-sprays.
Plot No.
Fungicide Applied
Average Number
of Gallons
Applied per Tree
per Application
Slater Orchard
(Spray dates: May 9th, 22nd; June 4th, 18th; July 3rd.)
Lime-sulphur 10-100 (in pink and calyx sprays);   8-100 (in three cover-sprays)..
Same as Plot 1, plus Nugreen 4 lb. per 15 gal. of spray..  	
SR406 Wi lb. per 12 gal. water _   	
" CRAG " 341CA Wz qt. plus % lb. hydrated lime per 20 gal. water.. 	
Same as Plot 1       	
None (check—unsprayed).... ~	
Fransen Orchard
(Spray dates: May 10th, 23rd; June 5th, 19th; July 5th.)
[Lime-sulphur 10-100 (in pink and calyx sprays);   8-100 (in three cover-sprays) 	
Same as Plot 1, plus dinitrocresol (40 per cent) 1 lb. and hydrated lime 2 lb. per 25 gal.
of spray.
None (check—unsprayed)-.
Sewell Orchard
(Spray dates: May 10th, 23rd; June 5th, 19th; July 5th.)
Bordeaux 25-25-100 (in pink spray);  magnetic sulphur paste 15 lb. per 35 gal. water (in
calyx and first cover-sprays);  Bordeaux 15-30-100 (in second and third cover-sprays)
Lime-sulphur 10-100 (in pink and calyx sprays);  8-100 (in three cover-sprays)	
Same as Plot 2, plus glycerol 1 pt. per 20 gal. of spray 	
None (check—unsprayed)    	
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.4
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.4 Y 44
BRITISH COLUMBIA
: Results of Fruit-counts Made at Harvest-time
Plot No.
Material
Apples     Scabby
Counted   Apples
Clean
Apples
Clean
Boxes
Av. No.
Apples
per Box
Slater Orchard
Mcintosh
Lime-sulphur (pruned)  _
Lime-sulphur and Nugreen	
SR406  -	
" CRAG " 341CA- —
Lime-sulphur (not pruned)..
Check (not sprayed).	
Fransen Orchard
Mcintosh
Lime-sulphur  .—	
Lime-sulphur and dinitrocresol..
Check (not sprayed)....	
Delicious
Lime-sulphur...
Lime-sulphur and dinitrocresol..
Spy
Lime-sulphur  	
Lime-sulphur and dinitrocresol..
Check (not sprayed)	
Rome Beauty
Lime-sulphur    	
Lime-sulphur and dinitrocresol 	
Sewell Orchard
Mcintosh
Bordeaux-magnetic sulphur paste schedule1
Lime-sulphur     	
Lime-sulphur and glycerol _ 	
Check (not sprayed) : ~	
Spy
Bordeaux-magnetic sulphur paste schedule..
Lime-sulphur..
| Lime-sulphur and glycerol.
No.
712
1,128
599
781
732
339
717
733
421
862
655
877
1,123
1,590
960
1,007
722
565
647
660
660
737
591
No.
43
25
14
37
64
279
39
27
412
50
15
11
16
1,271
23
45
9
3
67
649
18
25
12
No.
669
1,103
585
744
668
60
678
706
9
812
640
866
1,107
319
937
962
713
562
580
11
642
712
579
Per Cent
94.0
97.8
97.7
95.3
91.3
17.7
94.6
96.3
2.1
94.3
97.7
98.8
98.6
20.0
97.6
95.5
98.8
99.5
89.7
1.7
97.3
97.6
98.0
No.
3%
5
6
2
71/2
6</2
8V2
11
10
10^4
12'/2
6
7
51/2
119
141
163
156
122
169
102
91
140
115
100
103
102
159
89
80
144
113
129
132
110
105
107
1 Plot 1:   Bordeaux-magnetic sulphur paste schedule—average number of apples per box, 283.   Apples (39.2 per
cent) russeted in this plot.
"From the above table it can be seen that fairly good control of apple-scab was
obtained in all sprayed plots. However, it was relatively easy to obtain control this year,
as weather during the growing season was not so favourable for the development of scab.
Although some rain fell during the spraying season, weather during July, August, and the
first part of September was unusually dry, and this tended to hold the disease in check.
Rain began to fall toward the end of September, and it rained quite frequently throughout
the picking season. This promoted the development of a small amount of late infection
of apple-scab. However, most of the scab encountered in the experimental plots was not
of this type, but had infected the fruit earlier in the season."
PUBLICATIONS, CROP ESTIMATES, REPORTS, AND MEETINGS
No new publications were issued by this Branch this year. Publications in use were
revised and reissued as required.
Information dealing with spraying was issued from the Kelowna office and broadcast
by T. Leach over the C.B.C. on the noon broadcast. B.C. Tree Fruits Limited gave
excellent co-operation by transmitting this information to the C.B.C. at Vancouver and DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1951 Y 45
also allowing us time for any special messages on their weekly Thursday noon radio programme over CKOV.
The Horticultural News Letter, covering a period from May to September (ten
issues), was assembled and mailed from the Kelowna office under the supervision of R. P.
Murray, Supervising Horticulturist for the Okanagan and Main Line areas. General
horticultural conditions, vegetable acreages, and crop estimates are dealt with in this
publication by district officials from all parts of the Province.
Fruit- and vegetable-crop estimates, in co-operation with the Statistics Branch, were
issued as required during the year. Final production figures were compiled and forwarded to the Statistics Branch.
Many meetings throughout the Province were addressed by members of this Branch.
The series of meetings held annually in the Okanagan to discuss horticultural problems
was well attended. Soils, fertilizers, marketing, variety recommendations, as well as
spraying problems were discussed. In arranging these meetings, excellent co-operation
was received from the British Columbia Fruit Growers' Association, B.C. Tree Fruits
Limited, and officials of the Dominion departments working in the interests of agriculture.
CHANGES IN STAFF
After forty years in the service of this Branch, E. C. Hunt, Supervising Horticulturist
at Nelson, was superannuated. This vacancy will not be filled. J. E. Swales will continue
as District Horticulturist for the West Kootenay, Grand Forks, and Arrow Lakes area.
In the Okanagan, G. H. Comly, Assistant District Horticulturist at Penticton, was
moved to the Vernon office, and the position at Penticton was filled by M. G. Oswell. In
June, Mr. Comly resigned from the Vernon office, and since then Mr. Oswell has been
moved from Penticton to Vernon. A. C. Carter has been appointed as Assistant District
Horticulturist to fill the vacancy at Penticton.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Your Horticulturist wishes to acknowledge the co-operation he and members of this
Branch have received from the members of the various branches of this Department, from
members of the Federal services, and the University of British Columbia in carrying
out the work of the Horticultural Branch. The good relations that exist are much
appreciated.
REPORT OF APIARY BRANCH
W. H. Turnbull, Senior Apiarist, and J. Corner, Provincial
Apiarist, Vernon
The season of 1950 closed with a long cool fall, and conditions were such that most
apiarists were able to put their bees in winter quarters in the best possible shape. This
meant that the biggest majority of bees were put away for winter with some winter protection. Many of the older bee-keepers who have had Kootenay or some like case in
the past used these, while most of the newer bee-keepers have adopted the comparatively
new system of wrapping the hive with cardboard or newspaper and covering the whole
with a good quality of tarred paper, well fastened, as a weather protection. Practically
all bee-keepers are using some type of top packing, with provisions made to take care
of the surplus moisture developed in the hive during the winter months. The natural
result of this extra care was that many bee-keepers reported close to 100 per cent
wintering and most colonies coming through in excellent shape. Y 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The early part of the season was normal, but a very sharp cold snap in late February
and March took a heavy toll of bees that were not prepared with better than an average
supply of stores.
The loss from starvation in the early spring was above average. This was noted
more among newer bee-keepers. Commercial bee-keepers, however, reported a loss of
between 5 and 6 per cent, which was about the average over a term of years.
No protection, but top packing seems to be the main method followed on the Lower
Mainland and on Vancouver Island, and results seem to be excellent.
Some protection, either a Kootenay or similar case or tar-paper wrapping, is needed
in the Southern Interior valleys, while Central and Northern British Columbia need every
care that can be taken in using well-packed cases around the colony.
Very little wintering is practised in the Peace River section, as most bee-keepers
report a heavy mortality even in well-protected colonies. The spring importation of
package bees to replace the colonies " gassed " in the fall seems to be the best method
in this district, and it seems that the same method could be followed in the northern
central section.
The winter of 1950-51 saw a very heavy snowfall in most sections, and this going
off very slowly meant that all the moisture went into the ground instead of running off
over a frozen surface. As sweet clover and other leguminous plants seeded well and got
a good start in the late fall of 1950, the extra supply of moisture brought them to perfection in the early summer, when they all yielded nectar very freely. Spring plants
(willows, fruit blooms, and dandelions) all gave an excellent flow of nectar, and as the
weather was such that the bees could get out in the field and gather it, the resulting buildup was very satisfactory.
This office recommended that, in so far as possible, all bees be fed a syrup made of
granulated sugar and water, to which should be added one 7.5-grain tablet of sulpha-
thiazole to each gallon of syrup. This is fed as a preventive of American foul-brood.
This practice is being almost universally adopted and is paying, off well in so far as
freedom from the ravages of American foul-brood are concerned, as well as supplying
a steady flow of feed during inclement weather, which results in the colony being built
up very rapidly and reaching storing strength by the time the early clovers are in bloom.
The numbers of package bees being imported from California was heavier than
usual by almost 10 per cent, which, after replacing winter losses, would seem to mean a
net gain of 3 or 4 per cent in number of colonies over 1950.
The fact that almost all imported colonies were fed medicated syrup also helps to
keep them free from foul-brood and builds them up very rapidly to storing strength by
the time the clovers and other nectar-producing plants are ready. This means that more
bee-keepers each year are following the practice of gassing their bees in the early fall,
cleaning out and storing the hives, and having them ready for early package bees in the
spring, the practice that is being almost altogether followed in the northern sections.
Following a winter in which all nectar-producing plants wintered well and had an
excellent supply of stored moisture in the ground, we had a perfect summer in so far as
nectar secretion was concerned, and the season being dry, the bees had a chance to get
out practically every day to gather the abundant nectar. This resulted in one of the
largest honey-crops that we have ever had since records have been kept. Details of the
honey-crop for 1951 are shown as Appendix No. 1.
The quality of the honey harvested was as good as usual, and reports of the judges
at the various fairs in the Province seem to indicate that the same uniformity was noted
over the Province. The density of the honey shown at the Pacific National Exhibition
was, on an average, the highest in the past ten years.
The demand for British Columbia honey is increasing, and the price, although not
as high as for other competing foodstuffs, has, on the whole, been very satisfactory. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1951 Y 47
One item worthy of note is that for the first time in many years a full carload of
honey in tin was shipped from the Okanagan Valley to a Vancouver packer, and the same
shipper had a second car ready in a few days.
FIELD WORK
The plan adopted for the last three years was again followed this year, and no
systematic inspections of entire districts were carried out. Inspectors were on call and
while in any district made as thorough an inspection as possible.
The use of sulphathiazole was stressed by Inspectors at all times, and instructions
as to its use were given in all districts. These instructional visits have proven to be of
real value, and more bee-keepers are taking advantage of the presence of the Inspector in
the district to meet him and discuss their individual problems.
V. E. Thorgeirson has had complete charge of the work on the Lower Mainland and
Vancouver Island and has covered the district very thoroughly. He reports very little
American foul-brood, and where the odd case was found, he has destroyed all infected
material and issued instructions as to the treatment of the remaining colonies. In practically every case no further traces of the disease were found. Any case of reported
infection has been followed up by several repeated visits.
Harvey Boone, of Oliver, has had full charge of the work in the South Okanagan and
Similkameen Districts and has covered the districts thoroughly, destroying all infected
colonies found, as well as infected material, and giving instructions as to the use of
sulphathiazole as a preventive.   Very little disease was found this season.
On April 1st, 1950, John Corner, of Prince George, joined the inspection staff at
Vernon with the idea of getting as complete a knowledge of the work as possible in order to
take over as Provincial Apiarist on October 1st, when the writer's term of office as Senior
Inspector terminated. This meant that not a great deal of actual inspection work could
be carried on, as it was necessary to take Mr. Corner to every part of the Province in
order to get him acquainted with the bee-keepers and with the work expected of him.
He found time, however, to spend a week in the South Okanagan with Mr. Boone, during
which time he gained information as to the district and the system followed in looking
after it. He also spent several days in the Oyama and Winfield districts cleaning up an
outbreak of American foul-brood that had scattered through the area from an apiary that
had been neglected following the death of the owner; there appears to be no trace of the
infection left in the district.
A survey of the bee-keeping possibilities of the Province was carried on this year,
and Mr. Corner is now in a position to advise as to the possibility of honey production
in any given area.
Starting at the Pacific National Exhibition, your Inspectors acted as honey judges at
the major fairs of the Province and as many small ones as it was possible to attend. As
mentioned in the last Annual Report, the contacts made at these fairs are of real value in
future work.
SPRAY POISON
Comparatively very little spray poison was noted or reported among bees this year,
although several cases might have been avoided had the bee-keepers not decided to take
a chance and left their bees in freshly sprayed areas.
"BEE WISE"
The publication of this series of bulletins has begun to bear fruit, and more beekeepers are depending on it as a source of worth-while information which is issued at the
time such information is needed. Bee Wise is used to a great extent to carry seasonal
information, and as nine copies were issued during the season, it covered the whole season Y 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
from February until September. It is interesting and gratifying to note that excerpts from
its pages are published from time to time in the foremost American bee publications.
Upwards of a thousand copies per issue are mailed to bee-keepers in the Province, and the
fact that copies were seen in the homes of settlers in the frontiers, who claim it is their
only source of information as to the keeping of bees, seems to show its value and the
advisability of continuing its publication.
BEE-MASTERS
One new bee-keeper was recommended for examination by the Honey Producers'
Association, and certificate of competency was issued to Kenneth J. Simons, Salmon Arm.
NEW FILMS COMPLETED
Two new films were added to our bee library this past year. One leased for three
years, known as " Honey Land," is a very popular cartoon and fits in with any programme
on agricultural subjects.
" The Beneficent Bee " is a film in three parts, taken by the Department of Agriculture, showing the value of the bee to different agricultural crops as a pollenizing agent,
as well as showing the extent of honey production in the Province and the different
sources of nectar. This film has taken very well, and its use in extension work, together
with " The Bees' Workshop," the first colour film finished and released in 1945, has gone
a long way toward introducing bee-keeping to our farming public, as well as advertising
the use of honey to the consumer.
HONEY-GRADING REGULATIONS
In September the Minister had an Order in Council introduced and passed bringing
into effect the grading regulations in connection with the production and sale of honey in
the Province, also bringing the Province in line with Dominion regulations as to importing
honey from other Provinces.
BRITISH COLUMBIA HONEY PRODUCERS' ASSOCIATION
There are, at this time, fifteen divisions of the British Columbia Honey Producers'
Association. Bee-keepers in the Chilliwack area have formed the Chilliwack Division,
and interest is very keen. The annual meetings of the divisions were held in November,
and attendance ranged from fair to excellent. The value of the British Columbia Honey
Producers' Association to the bee-keeping industry cannot be overestimated.
BULLETINS
At present preparatory work is being undertaken with the intention of revising the
Departmental bulletin on bee-keeping. This bulletin, No. 92, entitled " Bee Culture in
British Columbia," was last revised in 1945, and as some phases of bee-keeping have
changed somewhat, it is time this bulletin was brought up to date. The use of sulphathiazole in the control of American foul-brood is being practised in this Province, but
there is no mention made of this in Bulletin No. 92. There is additional information
available on certain modified types of winter cases, etc., which, together with a large
amount of smaller details on present bee-keeping practices in this Province, will provide
ample material for a bulletin revision.
I would not care to complete this report without paying tribute to the many
employees of the Department of Agriculture who, during my ten years' service, have given
me every assistance in their power. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951 Y 49
The District Agriculturists and the District Horticulturists have all helped in every
way to forward the bee-keeping industry in their own districts, and much of the credit for
the success of the industry in the outlying districts is due to their co-operation. To A. J.
Hourston, General Assistant, my special thanks are due for his untiring and painstaking
work in the making and editing of the two films previously mentioned.
REPORT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY BRANCH
W. R. Foster, M.Sc, and I. C. MacSwan, B.S.A.
The exceptionally dry weather during most of the growing season favoured some of
the plant hazards and hindered others. Physiological disorders were more prevalent than
usual—blossom-end rot, green-back, sun-scald of tomatoes, internal brown-spot, growth-
cracks of potatoes, low yields in many crops from drought, an increasing number of
nutritional deficiency diseases, etc. Some of the fungous diseases that caused less damage
than usual are late blight of potatoes and tomatoes, late blight of celery, yellow rust on
raspberries, shot-hole and Coryneum blight of cherries, brown-rot of stone-fruits, scab of
apples, etc. Some of the fungous and bacterial diseases that caused considerable damage
are verticillium wilt of tomatoes, club-root of crucifers, red-stele of strawberries, Godronia
canker of blueberries, anthracnose of apples, Coryneum blight of peaches, black-knot of
plums, fire-blight of pears, etc. The Province continues to be virtually free of bacterial
ring-rot of potatoes.
There was no apparent change in the situation of the little-cherry disease, which is
still confined to the Kootenays.
A survey and spray programme was started in an attempt to ascertain the relative
importance of diseases in the blueberry plantations.
Wettable sulphur appears to be more effective than either lime-sulphur or ferbam
in the protection of black currants from white-pine blister-rust. An additional application, shortly after harvesting, will be tried out next year.
It is becoming increasingly evident that the concentrate-machines are as effective
as the conventional gun sprayers. The concentrate-machines require less time and labour,
and reduce the cost of spraying considerably.
SCAB OF APPLES
Scab is an important disease of apples in British Columbia. The worst area is the
West Kootenays and Arrow Lakes, followed by Salmon Arm, Creston, the Fraser Valley,
and Vancouver Island. Demonstrations conducted for three years by the District Horticulturists—J. E. Swales, at Nelson, which is the worst area, and by G. R. Thorpe, at
Creston, an area not so badly affected—have given some results that are the same, and
some that are different.
1. The concentrate sprayer (Turbo Mist) appears to be just as efficient as the
average grower using a conventional gun machine.
2. Lime-sulphur, 10 gallons to 100 gallons of water, applied in pink and calyx, and
8-100 in the three cover-sprays with a concentrated sprayer, gave good control of scab
in the worst area, and better control than the 15 pounds of wettable sulphur and 5 pounds
of ferbam per 100 gallons of water.
3. Wettable sulphur, plus ferbam, was about equal in effectiveness with lime-sulphur
in the Creston district, which is not as badly affected as the worst area. On the foliage,
the lime-sulphur gave better control than the wettable sulphur, plus ferbam.    On the Y 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA
fruit, the wettable sulphur, plus ferbam, seemed to give slightly better control than
lime-sulphur. The field-box yield in both varieties under test was greater in the wettable-
sulphur, plus ferbam, plots. The three-year average shows an annual acre yield increase
of 205 boxes of Mcintosh and 145 boxes of Delicious for the wettable-sulphur, plus
ferbam, plots over the lime-sulphur. The leaves appeared to have a better colour and
were greener in the plots and orchards where the wettable sulphur, plus ferbam, had been
used. The beneficial effect of the wettable sulphur, plus ferbam, in this area may be partly
due to the high calcium-carbonate content and lack of enough available iron in the soil.
4. Venturicide, Crag, Orthorix, and SR406 were tested, but further trials will be
essential to determine their worth.
FIRE-BLIGHT OF PEARS
This disease was fairly widespread in the Okanagan. Continued interest was taken
in the use of blossom sprays and dusts, and demonstrations were carried out by D. A.
Allan, District Horticulturist, Oliver, and A. W. Watt, District Horticulturist, West
Summerland. The preliminary evidence, which is far from conclusive, is that, namely,
(1) blossom sprays with Bordeaux and Dithane Z78 appear to offer some promise, and
further work with these fungicides is justified; and (2) ferbam does not appear to be as
effective as Bordeaux or Dithane Z78.
LITTLE-CHERRY INSPECTION IN THE OKANAGAN
The little-cherry survey was not conducted for the second consecutive year because
of the very light crop, and also the fact that many cherry fruits were adversely affected
by winter-injured trees. A few selected orchards, where small bitter cherry has been
previously found, were inspected. There does not appear to be any evidence to suggest
that the little-cherry disease has reached the Okanagan.
CORYNEUM BLIGHT OF PEACHES
In the Creston area, Coryneum blight is frequently a serious disease in orchards
where the recommended spray programme has not been carried out. G. R. Thorpe,
District Horticulturist, reports considerable resistance in the Fisher peach, which had
few fruit and leaf infections. The Rochester and Elberta varieties had 100 per cent of
the fruits infected, and defoliation was virtually complete by the end of the harvest.
BLACK-KNOT OF PLUMS
The black-knot eradication campaign has been continued during the year, mainly
in the Chilliwack and Mission-Hatzic areas, in co-operation with District Horticulturists,
Agriculturists, Horticultural Associations, Farmers' Institutes, Agricultural Associations,
and the Indian Affairs Branch of the Dominion Department of Citizenship and Immigration. Publicity, for a number of years through window displays, talks, press articles,
circulars, and radio, is showing a cumulative effect in increasing the amount of work done
by growers to reduce this disease in the Fraser Valley.
STRAWBERRY-PLANT CERTIFICATION
Thic rv;ject is carried out with the assistance of G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising
Horticulturist, and W. D. Christie, District Horticulturist, of Abbotsford.
There was a considerable increase in the number of strawberry plants certified—
4,895,000 plants were certified in 1951, compared with about 2,000,000 the previous
year. The total number of applications for certification was 109. Seventy-nine passed,
and thirty were rejected. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951 Y 51
Nearly all of the planting stock that was passed suffered, to some extent, from low-
temperature injury during the winter or early spring.
The increasing use of certified plants has been important in restricting the spread
of red-stele root-rot disease. The 1950 result at Wynndel and Creston was confirmed.
The use of certified strawberry plants is the most promising means of rehabilitating the
strawberry industry.
WHITE-PINE BLISTER-RUST ON BLACK CURRANTS
This disease is widespread, both in the Interior and in the coastal districts, and
sometimes causes considerable loss in yield and quality of fruit. Red and white currants
are usually not seriously affected and do not need any protection. A demonstration spray
programme was carried out by G. R. Thorpe, District Horticulturist, Creston, on D.
Taylor's farm at Wynndel. The variety was the Boskoop Giant, which was sprayed
with a conventional gun at the rate of 2 gallons on each bush in a plot of ten bushes.
All of the plots, including check, received lime-sulphur 1-10 in the dormant stage on
April 15th. In the cluster-bud stage, on May 3rd, Plot No. 1 was sprayed with wettable
sulphur, 6 pounds to 100 gallons of water; Plot No. 2, ferbam, 2 pounds per 100 gallons
of water; Plot No. 3, lime-sulphur, 2.5 gallons per 100 gallons of water; and Plot No. 4,
the check, no treatment. The same sprays were also applied to the same plots in the
calyx stage on May 30th. The results shown in the table were taken on September 20th.
There did not appear to be any rust pustules up to one week after harvest.
The Effect of Different Fungicides on Rust in Currants
Fungicides
Percentage of Rust
Heavy
Light
None
Check       	
71
13
30
56
29
37                50
40                30
19        1       25
Wettable sulphur has been more effective, for two years under trial, than either
ferbam or lime-sulphur. It appears that an additional application is necessary shortly
after harvest.
The rust-resistant black currants—varieties Crusader and Coronet—give fair yields
where the variety Baldwin was available as a pollenizer. The yields where Crusader and
Coronet were grown alone were poor. Both of these varieties appear to be susceptible
to powdery mildew.
BLUEBERRY SURVEY
A survey was conducted in the spring in the Fraser Valley and several trips were
made to blueberry plantings, during the growing season, with members of the Horticultural Branch, the Dominion Fruit Entomological Laboratory, and the Dominion
Laboratory of Plant Pathology, to observe and attempt to assess the importance of the
growing conditions, diseases, and pests. This survey, demonstration, and investigation is
being conducted at the request of the Blueberry Growers' Association. Seventeen
growers answered a questionnaire on the pH of the soil, the highest and lowest water-
table in inches, spray and bait programmes, and fertilizer used. The following
diseases were found:—
(1) Cane-blight caused by a fungus called Godronia cassandra is commonly
associated with dark-brown lesions, both on the aerial parts of the canes
at or just below the level of the ground.   Girdling of the stems by these Y 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
lesions occurs frequently, and the disease is suspected to be the cause of
the early-summer wilting and eventual death of the affected canes. The
varieties Pemberton and Atlantic appear to be very susceptible.
(2) Cane-gall probably is caused by the bacterium Agrobacterium rubi. The
varieties Cabot, Dixi, Waymouth, Stanley, Charlotte, and Burlington
appear to be susceptible.
(3) Low-temperature injury.—The varieties Dixi and Jersey are susceptible
to winter-injury.
The above blueberry troubles seem to be restricted, in the main, to those varieties
which have more recently been imported into this area in contrast to such varieties
as Grover, Pioneer, Rancocas, and Rubel, which have been grown here for as long as
twenty-seven years, and which appear to be relatively free of the above troubles.
The growing conditions observed appeared to be far from ideal. The height of
the water-table, for a number of months for most growers, is far too high, being from
6 inches to soil level. The pH of the soil, in all plantations in the Fraser Valley, was
below the optimum of 4.3 to 4.8.
A spray programme was started, but the results will not be known until next year.
BACTERIAL RING-ROT OF POTATOES
The Province continues to be practically free of bacterial ring-rot of potatoes! Six
growers' potatoes were placed under detention because of small amounts of ring-rot—
two in the Fraser Valley, three in the Kamloops area, and one at Houston. It looks like
all of the affected crops will be distributed to safe markets by December 31st, 1951.
The ten farms which grew affected crops in 1950, and the four other farms which
used some of the same machinery, were inspected at harvest-time, and were all found
to be free of this disease.
An inspection of all potato-crops was made throughout the Pemberton Seed-control
Area at digging-time—the easiest for detecting trace amounts—and no ring-rot was found.
This inspection took four weeks and was carried out with the assistance, for one week
each, of the Dominion Seed Potato Certification Service, and the District Agriculturist.
Three carloads of imported commercial potatoes have been found to be affected
this fall—two from Alberta and one from Ontario.
The same directive was issued in September, 1951, that has functioned so well
since October, 1948.
Arrangements were made with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police to assist the
movement of potatoes from Alberta over the Natal-Fernie Road. The following luminous sign has been placed about one-quarter mile west of the Crowsnest Station, reading:
"All vehicles carrying potatoes must report to R.C.M. Police Office at Natal between
hours 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. for inspection. Non-compliance is a breach of Provincial Law.
By Order, Dept. of Agriculture."
SEED-POTATO TEST-PLOTS
Samples of certified-seed stocks were grown in California, for the first time, under
the direction of the Provincial Department of Agriculture in order to get a disease-
percentage forecast before time to plant seed stock.
An inspection was made in February, and a report was presented giving the percentage of diseases such as mosaic, leaf-roll, witches'-broom, etc. The number of
plants that grew out of the 200 planted was also recorded. This disease-percentage
forecast enables growers, sellers, and buyers to know the relative freedom of disease
of the different sources of seed before planting or purchasing. It not only helps to
select the better seed sources in the Province, but it gives the opportunity to compare DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1951 Y 53
with those from Alberta and a number of the Western States.   Most of the plots from
British Columbia were virtually free of virus diseases.
We recommend that increased encouragement be given to growers of foundation
seed to select tuber units, not only for freedom from known virus diseases, but also for
vigour, percentage of marketable tubers, good type, yield, and other good characteristics.
VERTICILLIUM WILT OF TOMATOES
This disease is widespread and causes considerable losses in the field and sometimes in greenhouses. It causes a yellow blotching on the lower leaves, which frequently
die from the bottom up, exposing the fruits to sun-scald. This project is under investigation by the Dominion Plant Pathology Laboratory at Summerland. The most practical
control would be to find or develop a suitable resistant variety.
NEW DISEASES
1. White-rot of garlic, caused by Sclerotium cepivorum, was found at Steveston
in a Chinese settlement. It is a disease of considerable importance in Europe. The
grower has agreed to refrain from growing susceptible crops, such as onions, garlic,
leeks, and shallots, in this particularly small patch for several years.
2. Bacterial wilt of corn, caused by Xanthomonas stewarti, was found in two
growers' crops near Victoria. It was grown from the same source of seed of the
Golden Bantam variety.
3. Blindness in carnations caused by a deficiency of boron. The blossoms failed
to develop and the terminal bud was dead. Boron applied as borax, at the rate of
30 pounds per acre, cured the trouble in a greenhouse near Victoria.
4. Phytophthora crown and root rot of Lawson's cypress, Chamcecyparis law-
soniana, is causing considerable damage in at least one nursery. The species of Phytophthora has not been identified. According to correspondence from D. C. Torgeson,
Oregon State College, Corvallis, Ore., "Most of our nurseries have trouble with this
root-rot."
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL ENTOMOLOGIST
C. L. Neilson, M.S., Entomologist, Vernon
There has been no Provincial Entomologist since the death of I. J. Ward in 1947
until the appointment of the writer on November 6th, 1950. During the lapse there have
been many entomological advances and changes in British Columbia, due mainly to the
officers of the various Dominion Entomological Laboratories and in co-operation with
the Provincial Horticulture and Extension Branches.   A few of these include:-—
(a) Enlargement of staff of the Dominion Fruit Insect Laboratory at Victoria.
(b) Establishment of a Dominion Biological Control Insect Laboratory at the
University of British Columbia.
(c) Establishment of a Dominion Stored Products Insect Laboratory  at
Vancouver.
(d) Enlargement of staff and facilities at the Dominion Field Crop Insect
Laboratory at Kamloops.
(e) Introduction and large-scale use of speed and concentrate sprayers for
orchard pest-control by the Dominion Fruit Laboratory at Summerland.
(/) Introduction of many of the newer chemicals which are affording better
and more efficient means of insect-control. Y 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
(g) Revival of a committee of Dominion and Provincial officers to revise the
chart " Control of Vegetable and Field Crop Pests and Diseases."
During the year there were several outbreaks of insects.   The unusually long dry
period was favourable for insects, and consequently increased damage occurred.
The past year has in many respects been one of familiarization with the many and
varied insect problems throughout British Columbia. Excellent co-operation of the
District Agriculturists and Horticulturists was always evident. All areas were visited,
except the Prince George and Peace River Districts.
FIELD-CROP INSECTS
Colorado Potato-beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata)
(a) East Kootenay District.—C. N. Barnhardt was in charge of potato-beetle
control in the East Kootenay District for the period June 11th to July 31st.
The infestation throughout the district was generally light or non-existent, with the
heaviest infestation at Cranbrook. The only other infestations were at Creston, West
Newgate district, Grasmere-Roosville district, and the Jaffray-Sand Creek district. In all,
seven dusters were on loan by the Department to growers, and approximately 1,300
pounds of 3 per cent DDT was distributed free of charge. Of this amount, 600 pounds
went to Grasmere-Newgate, 150 pounds to Jaffray, and 510 pounds to Cranbrook.
(b) West Kootenay District.—Work in this area was carried out by T. Swales,
District Horticulturist, Nelson. Mr. Swales says, " The Colorado potato-beetle was
found in fields in the area from Shoreacres, near the junction of the Kootenay and Slocan
Rivers, to Genelle, a small village about 11 miles north of Trail. Heaviest infestations
again occurred in the Doukhobor settlement at Shoreacres, Glade, and China Creek.
Approximately 1,000 pounds of 3 per cent DDT dust were used in this work during
the 1951 season."
(c) South Okanagan and Similkameen Valley.—The work in this area was done by
M. G. Oswell, Assistant District Horticulturist, Penticton. Mr. Oswell reports: " Some
175 acres of potatoes were inspected three times, and only four minor outbreaks were
found. All were in the Osoyoos area, and after one treatment with 3 per cent DDT
the infestations were eliminated. Approximately 80 pounds of 3 per cent DDT were
distributed to growers."
(d) Co-operative Parasite Study.—During the year a preliminary co-operative
study of the parasites of Colorado potato-beetle was initiated between this Department
and the Dominion Biological Control Laboratory at Vancouver. Some twenty collections, each of approximately fifty mature Colorado potato-beetle larvae, were made in the
East and West Kootenay Districts. These are to be examined for possible native parasites. The ultimate aim of the project is to introduce parasites to control the Colorado
potato-beetle in British Columbia.
Grasshoppers
Grasshoppers have been on the increase in much of British Columbia during the
past two years, and during the past year they reached outbreak numbers in several
districts. Observations listed below are a composite appraisal by the writer and R. H.
Handford, of the Dominion Insect Laboratory at Kamloops.
(a) East Kootenay District.—The main infestations were located at Rooseville and
St. Mary's Prairie districts. The dominant species were Melanoplus mexicanus and
Camnula pellucida, although M. infantalis and A. deorum were also present in numbers.
(b) Boundary Area.—In the Rock Creek area some damage occurred to gardens
when grasshoppers moved in from the dry ranges. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951 Y 55
(c) South Okanagan.—Spotty damage occurred from Kelowna south. From
Summerland south the species was mainly Melanoplus femur rubrum. Elsewhere the
species were M. mexicanus and C. pellucida. Spray measures of aldrin and chlordane
were applied in many cases with good results.
(d) North Okanagan.—Infestations were general from Winfield to Salmon Arm
and damaged both vegetables and young fruit-trees. Minor damage occurred to forage-
seed crops at Vernon and to cereals at Enderby and Salmon Arm. M. mexicanus was
dominant.
(e) Kamloops District.—Local infestations were reported from Aspen Grove,
Rayleigh, and the Lac du Bois area. At Lac du Bois both C. pellucida and M. mexicanus
were present in outbreak numbers, and also in the Nicola Control Zone.
(/) Princeton-Similkameen.—Reports of damage to range land were received from
both Keremeos and Princeton.
(g) Cariboo District.—The 1950 outbreak of M. bivitattus in the Kersley and Deep
Creek areas did not materialize during 1951. Light damage occurred on ranches across
the Fraser River from Pavilion, but the infestation was less than in 1950. In the
Chilcotin a heavy local concentration of C. pellucida was found between Springhouse
and Alkali Lake. At Riske Creek C. pellucida did some damage to ranges, and damage
was reported from Dog Creek.
(h) Central British Columbia.—From Quesnel north to Prince George and also in
the Peace River area, infestations were only very light.
(i) Fraser Valley.—The Lower Fraser Valley generally experienced an unusual
outbreak of grasshoppers (Melanoplus femur rubrum). Injury occurred to many garden
crops when the grasshoppers moved in from the drought-burned forage and grain crops.
R. Glendenning reports that in some cases approximately 5 per cent damage to grain
and 25 per cent to oats occurred.
(;') Vancouver Island.—An unusual number of local outbreaks occurred on
Vancouver Island. These were at Saanich, Duncan, and Ladysmith, with populations
near outbreak proportions in the Courtenay district. At Duncan and Ladysmith,
M. mexicanus was dominant, but both M. bivitattus and C. pellucida were present.
Grasshopper Forecast for 1952.—Increased grasshopper activity is expected
throughout the Province in areas where they were in numbers in 1951. The possible
exception is the Lower Fraser Valley and Vancouver Island, where a reduction is likely
if there is no reoccurrence of the 1951 drought.
Cutworms
The cutworm outbreak of 1951 was widespread, and severe and much damage
occurred throughout practically every section of the Province. Extensive control
measures in the form of insecticide dusts and sprays and bait were applied. Five per cent
DDT dust and 5 per cent Chlordane dust were most commonly used. Results varied
somewhat with the materials used, and in many cases the populations were so large that
despite 90 to 95 per cent kills there were still sufficient worms to do considerable damage.
The situation was aggravated by the drought, which tended to keep cutworms below the
surface and consequently control was more difficult.
The main species was the red-backed cutworm (Euxoa ochrogastuer), but Handford,
of Kamloops, reports damage by the Bertha army worm (Mamestra configurata), and
Fulton, of Agassiz, reports severe damage to sugar-beet seedlings in the Ladner area by
Peridroma margaritosa (?). Y 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Carrot Rust-fly (Psila rosce)
The carrot rust-fly is one of the limiting factors of carrot production in the Fraser
Valley and since 1950 in the Armstrong and Salmon Arm districts. In the Fraser Valley
a control programme using B.H.C. has been developed by the Dominion Entomology
Laboratory of Agassiz which is very effective, especially against first-generation damage.
However, control is often not satisfactory for late carrots, and this phase is being further
investigated. In the Armstrong and Salmon Arm areas, first work on life-history was
undertaken in 1951, but this has not proceeded sufficiently far as yet to be sure of the
number of generations, and the emergence dates of the adults of these generations.
Flea-beetles
A number of species of flea-beetles were present in numbers on various crops.
Amongst these were the cabbage flea-beetle on crucifers and the western potato flea-beetle
(Epitrix subcrinata) on potatoes. The latter was particularly numerous in the Soda
Creek district.
Potato Tuber Flea-beetle (Epitrix tuberis).—During the past four years this insect
has become the No. 1 insect of potatoes in the Okanagan, Nicola, and Kamloops districts.
It is also a major pest in the Fraser Valley. In general, the growers who applied their
sprays and dusts as recommended, mainly DDT, obtained good control. Tests to
control the larva; by means of a soil insecticide prior to planting were carried out at
Salmon River, Vernon, and Lavington. At these locations 5 per cent Chlordane at 200
and 300 pounds per acre was applied to the ploughed soil surface. This was immediately
thoroughly disked. Tubers were planted subsequently. Examination of the tubers at
harvest showed the following:—
Salmon River:  5 per cent Chlordane dust at 200 pounds per acre, nil damage;
check-plot, approximately 30 per cent infested, but not heavily marked.
Vernon:   5 per cent Chlordane dust at 200 pounds per acre, nil damage;
5 per cent Chlordane dust at 300 pounds per acre, nil damage; check-plot,
30 per cent infestation (moderately marked).
Lavington:  Some 45 acres were grower-treated with 5 per cent Chlordane dust
at 200 pounds per acre.   Examination of spot samples from field margins
prior to digging varied from 5 to 35 per cent infestation.   However, when
the crop was dug, further samples were examined,  and the general
infestation was extremely light and all of the crop could be sold as
commercial Grade No. 2.
Additional experimental work on this problem by soil insecticides was conducted
by the Dominion Entomology Laboratories at Kamloops and Agassiz.   Some excellent
progress is being made.
Cabbage-maggot (Hylemia brassica)
Cabbage-maggot continues to be a primary pest of crucifers throughout the Province,
and especially so in the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island. An excellent control
has been worked out during the past two or three years, but at present it is a matter of
extension to acquaint more growers with this Chlordane treatment.
Cabbage Seed-pod Weevil (Ceutorhynchus assimilis)
This weevil is a serious pest of the cabbage seed in the acreages of the Fraser Valley,
centring on Abbotsford. In general the B.H.C. control is working satisfactory, but some
growers have experienced poor control due mainly to improper timing of insecticide
applications. Five native parasites of the weevil are reported by the Dominion Biological
Insect Laboratory of Vancouver. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1951 Y 57
Cabbage-worm (Pieris rapx)
Cabbage-worms were present throughout the Province but never reached outbreak
proportions, as they are so readily controlled with D D T or derris.
Onion-maggot (Hylemia antiqua)
Onion-maggot infestation was widespread throughout the Interior of British
Columbia. "Approximately 50 per cent of the acreage not treated was infested," says
D. G. Finlayson, of the Kamloops Laboratory, who is conducting research on the
problem.
Lesser Bulb-fly (Paragopsis tuberculatus)
" Infestation of onions approached 50 per cent in the Interior of British Columbia.
The infestation is secondary and occurs after the presence of onion-maggots in the bulbs,"
says D. G. Finlayson, of Kamloops.
Onion-thrips
Thrip-control on onions is an ever-present problem, but during the past two or
three years growers have been getting excellent control with either 5 per cent DDT dust
at approximately 50 to 60 pounds or D D T spray at 2 to 3 pounds of- 50 per cent
wettable per 100 gallons of water.
White Grubs
White grubs continue to be one of the major pests of several crops in the Province.
During 1951 they were particularly destructive to strawberries in the vicinity of Victoria,
and two cases of similar damage were investigated at Enderby. Control of white grubs
is now possible with ethylene dibromide or Chlordane or DDT or B.H.C, but in
general the soil has to be treated prior to planting the crop. Failure to do this is usually
the cause of to-day's white-grub losses.
Wireworms
Wireworms continue to be one of the most important pests throughout the main
agricultural area of British Columbia. A wide variety of crops is attacked, ranging from
grasses and grains to root crops, bulbs, small fruits, and ornamentals. Excellent progress
with control methods has been made by the Dominion Vegetable Insect Laboratory of
Victoria and other workers. Control is now possible with ethylene dibromide, DDT,
and Chlordane, and with B.H.C. as a seed treatment for grains. The major species of
economic importance are as follows: —
Peace River:   Ludius aeripennis destructor and Dalopius sp.
Okanagan:  Lamonius infuscatus (Vernon area) and Lamonius canus (general).
Kettle Valley:   Ctenicera gloucus and Dalopius sp.
Keremeos-Cawston:   Ctenicera aeripennis.
Fraser Valley and Vancouver Island: Lamonius canus (tobacco); Ctenicera
aeripennis (upland crops); Agriotes sparsus (lowland crops).
Wheat-midge
Only one report of damage by wheat-midge was received during 1951. This was
from R. Dodding, Merritt, and loss was very light.
Aphides
Aphides were generally present in outbreak numbers on a variety of crops. In the
Fraser Valley excellent control of aphides was secured on cabbage and cauliflower with
both T.E.P.P. dusts and sprays.   Growers seemed to favour the T.E.P.P. dusts to sprays.
A minor local infestation of aphis on wheat occurred at Vernon. At Armstrong,
oats and barley were damaged by a species (?) of root-aphis. Y 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Blister-beetles
Minor outbreaks of blister-beetles occurred near Keremeos, Kamloops, and Cherry
Creek (near Kamloops).
Pea-moth (Laspeyresia nigricana)
"After being absent for the past several years, up to 7 per cent of the pods in the
Chilliwack area were infested," reports H. G. Fulton, of the Dominion Insect Laboratory
at Agassiz.   The infestation is being held in check by introduced parasites.
Pea-weevil (Bruchus pisorum)
Pea-weevil damage in the Armstrong district was light during 1951, but with an
increase over 1950.   Practically no damage has occurred since the severe 1948 winter.
ORCHARD INSECTS
This phase of insect work is covered by the various Provincial Horticulturists and
will be reported elsewhere in detail. In general, it can be stated that orchard insects are
fairly well in hand. There was an increase in codling-moth damage this year, due to
insufficient sprays being applied. Various species of mites continue to be the major
insect concern. Other localized outbreaks included (1) oblique banded leaf-roller, (2)
apple leaf-miner, (3) woolly aphis, (4) black cherry-aphis, (5) pear-slug, (6) cherry
fruit-fly on Vancouver Island, (7) black-banded cherry fruit-fly near Kelowna, and
(8) yellow-necked caterpillar. In addition to these in the Okanagan, an unknown
Pyralid larvae was found in prunes at Oliver and a larvae damaging apples at East
Kelowna.   These will be investigated further in 1952.
GREENHOUSE INSECTS
The work on greenhouse insects during the past year was done largely by the
Dominion Fruit insect Laboratory at Victoria and considerable extension by the Provincial Horticulturists of Abbotsford and Victoria. The main source of trouble has been
from (1) two spotted mites at the Coast and on tomatoes at Sorrento, (2) chrysanthemum
midge at the Coast, and (3) aphis generally.
HOUSEHOLD AND STORED PRODUCTS
Black Carpet-beetles
Black carpet-beetles have been unusually abundant in the vicinity of Vancouver
this year, with approximately 200 inquiries being received by the University of British
Columbia.   Only a few inquiries were received from the Interior of British Columbia.
Box-elder Bug (Leptocoris trivittatus)
There was the normal influx of adults into houses in the fall as the bugs began
searching for hibernation quarters. Control with either D D T or Chlordane was
recommended.
Crickets (Gryllus assimilis)
In the Vernon area there was a mass migration of these field crickets from hillside
grain-fields after harvest into adjacent domestic dwellings. Several hundred were seen
in a basement of one such home. Liberal use of 5 per cent Chlordane dust was an
effective control.
Earwigs
Earwig populations were apparently on the increase throughout the Interior, as
many inquiries were received from householders regarding control measures. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951 Y 59
Fleas (Ctenocephalides felis)
Only one report of household annoyance, and this came from Vancouver.
Indian Meal-moth (Plodia interpunctella)
A severe infestation was reported and investigated from Vernon. The moths
were breeding in dried apple waste being stored for strawberry-weevil bait.
Spider-beetles (Ptinus ocellus and Ptinus fur.)
These are the two most common pests of mills and elevators in British Columbia
and were, according to J. Follwell, of the Dominion Stored Products Laboratory at
Vancouver, found in many of these establishments on Vancouver Island and in the
Fraser Valley during 1951.   Control measures were recommended to those concerned.
Sawtooth Grain-beetles (Oryzazphilus surinamensis)
A bad infestation was investigated at Courtenay, as they were reported from
potatoes. However, the source of the infestation was from a granary located above the
stored potatoes.   Sanitation and DDT sprays have since eliminated the menace.
Black Widow Spiders (Latrodectes mactans)
There have been numerous requests for information and identification of black
widow spiders during 1951. There were no reports of attack by the spiders, and the
inquiries covered most of the North and South Okanagan.
Clover-mites (Bryobia praztiosa)
Inquiries regarding brown clover-mites were received from Nakusp and several
points in the Okanagan. These were regarded as household pests, as, in addition, they
were a pest of orchards.
Miscellaneous Inquiries
These included bedbugs, bats, horsehair worms, snails, mice, pocket gophers,
lizards, wasps, roundworms in pork, cockroaches, woodpecker damage, sphinx moths,
silkworm moths, clothes moths, and ticks on humans.
OTHER INSECTS IN OUTBREAK NUMBERS
Tent-caterpillars
" The eastern tent-caterpillar was common on rose and willow in the Peace River,
and apparently some had died from a virus," reports D. S. Smith, of Lethbridge Insect
Laboratory.
" The infestation of the tent-caterpillars Malacosoma disstria and M. pluviale in
the Fraser Valley increased during 1951 over 1950," reports J. H. MacLeod, Biological
Control Investigations Laboratory, Vancouver. The outbreak was not widespread
and was confined to shade, roadside, and fruit trees, roughly between Maillardville,
Pitt Meadows, Fraser River, Point Grey, Lulu Island, and Burnaby to Delta and Surrey.
Fall Webworm (Hyphantria textor)
This insect was fairly common on shrubs and trees, other than fruit, throughout
the Okanagan Valley, which were not sprayed.
Grape Leaf-hoppers (Erythroneura sp.)
These leaf-hoppers were exceptionally abundant in the Kamloops and Vernon districts.   This is not a new pest to Kamloops, but such an infestation has not previously Y 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
been known in Vernon. Practically all Virginia creeper in Vernon was prematurely
browned, and many lost their leaves due to the attack. Grapes in back yards also
suffered. In general, 5 per cent DDT dusts and sprays were successful when applied
early enough.
Rose Leaf-hoppers
These were a common pest on roses throughout the Okanagan and caused much
concern to gardeners due to foliage-burn and leaf-drop.
Cicadas
Cicadas were more numerous from Kamloops southward to at least Kelowna
than they have been for some time. Some damage to young fruit-trees by ovipositing
females occurred in the Winfield district.
SMALL-FRUIT INSECTS
Strawberries
Root-weevil, white grub, and crown-moth were the three main pests of strawberries, the first two being general throughout the Province and the latter reported
mainly from Vancouver Island and one case at Salmon Arm. Mites were a major pest in
the Magna Bay district, and despite sulphur dusting, control was not good and a loss
of crop resulted. At Salmon Arm several insecticides were tried for control of two-
spotted mites. Only one application was made, and it was not sufficient to effect a
control.
Currants
The Pacific mite infested a 10-acre field of red currants at Armstrong during 1950
and substantially reduced the yield. In 1951, shortly after the mites appeared, the field
was dusted with 1 per cent Parathion dust, with excellent results. However, priop
to harvest the infestation had again built up and some damage to leaves resulted, with
a subsequent light loss in yield.   A second treatment likely would have saved this loss.
Raspberries
There were no major outbreaks of insects on raspberries. In the Abbotsford area,
raspberry fruit-worm infestation was not over 5 per cent. Local infestations were
also reported from Salmon Arm, Vernon, and Kamloops. Raspberry sawfly was present
in numbers in many of the acreages in the North Okanagan.
LIVE-STOCK INSECTS
Warbles
During the annual warble campaign conducted by the Live Stock Branch, some
minor assistance was given by identifying submitted larval samples. These were from
the Nicola and Kamloops districts, and all proved to be Hypoderma lineatum, the most
common warble in British Columbia.
Ticks (Dermacentor andersoni)
J. D. Gregson, of the Dominion Livestock Insect Laboratory, reports that attacks
by ticks to cattle and sheep, which resulted in paralysis and in some cases death, were
more numerous in 1951 than for several years previous. The infestations were largely
confined to the Kamloops Forest District. Good control of ticks resulted when ranchers
sprayed with B.H.C. at 6 ounces of 50 per cent wettable B.H.C. (7 per cent gamma
isomer) per gallon of water prior to turning their animals out on the ranges in the spring. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951 Y 61
GENERAL
1. Teaching at University of British Columbia: During January, February, and
March a course in agricultural entomology was taught at the University of British
Columbia. This was designed to meet the needs of agriculture and horticulture students
with no previous training in entomology.
2. Control pamphlets were distributed as needed.
3. A joint paper, " Some Aspects of the Biology of Tuber Flea Beetle," was
prepared for publication.
4. Articles were prepared for both local and Province-wide newspapers. One
address was given over radio station CJIB (Vernon) on " Cutworm Control," and
an interview on C.B.C. Farm Broadcast on " Grasshopper Situation in B.C."
5. Revision of the Department of Agriculture Circular No. 17, "Diseases and
Pests of Cereals, Fibre, Forage and Root Crops," was partially completed.
6. Some assistance in the annual revision of Tree Fruit Insect Pests and Diseases
calendar.
7. Participation in planned-farming demonstrations in the Fraser Valley.
8. An exhibit, "Insects and Controls," was placed and staffed at the Armstrong
Fall Fair.
REPORT OF DAIRY BRANCH
F. C. Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Commissioner
The summer of 1951 was considered one of the driest on record in our chief
milkshed, the Lower Fraser Valley, and on Vancouver Island. Consequently, it is
estimated that the total milk production for the Province will be reduced by 7 to 8 per
cent in comparison with the 668,102,000 pounds produced in 1950. Creamery butter
and Cheddar cheese production are down considerably; ice-cream and evaporated milk
show an increase over 1950. Considerable development of the dairy industry is taking
place in Central British Columbia.
VALUE OF DAIRY PRODUCTS
The total value of all dairy products produced in British Columbia during 1950
has been given as $30,821,000. The 1951 value will probably reach about the same
figure, for while production has decreased, prices have increased.
UTILIZATION OF MILK IN PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL MILK
PRODUCTION, 1950 (DOMINION BUREAU OF STATISTICS)
Per Cent
Fluid sales, milk and cream  50.08
Creamery butter  16.36
Factory cheese  1.27
Concentrated milk and ice-cream  18.23
Dairy butter  3.63
Used on farms and for other purposes  10.43
100.00
Preliminary figures show 58.93 per cent of August, 1951, total production entering
fluid sales. Y 62
BRITISH COLUMBIA
NUMBERS OF DAIRY CATTLE ON FARMS
The Dominion Bureau of Statistics' June survey shows the following number of
dairy cattle in all of Canada and in British Columbia, 1950 and 1951:—
Dairy Cows1
Change
Dairy Heifers2
Change
Calves3
Change
Canada—
No.
Per Cent
No.
Per Cent
No.
Per Cent
1950- 	
3,609,000
	
848,000
2,309,000
	
1951 	
3,541,000
— 1.9
868,000
+2.4
2,463,000
+6.7
British Columbia—
1950 	
100,000
	
18,000
75,000
	
1951	
96,000
—4.0
16,000
— 11.1
77,000
+2.7
1 Dairy cows are of all breeds kept mainly for milk purposes.
2 Heifers are of all breeds being raised mainly for milking purposes.
3 Includes calves being raised for both beef and dairy purposes.
It is noticeable that while the decrease in the number of dairy cows for all of Canada
is only 1.9 per cent, British Columbia is shown as having a decrease of 4 per cent, which
is the greatest for any Province, with the exception of Alberta, which is shown as having
a decrease of 5.2 per cent.
DAIRY PLANTS
There are at present 19 creameries, 3 cheese-factories, 2 powdered-milk plants,
1 evaporated-milk plant, and around 100 large and small milk-pasteurizing plants,
31 ice-cream plants (mostly included in creameries and milk plants), only 6 operating
as strictly ice-cream factories, around 230 counter-freezers, and 650 to 700 producer-
vendors of raw milk in the Province.
Out of 110 licensed dairy plants, forty-seven, or 43 per cent, are located around
Vancouver and the Lower Mainland. Nineteen, or 17 per cent (including one on Salt-
spring Island), are located on Vancouver Island, and the remaining forty-four, or 40 per
cent, are located in the Interior of the Province, including the Okanagan, East and West
Kootenays, Columbia Valley, Central British Columbia, and the Peace River Block.
CREAMERIES
Of the nineteen creameries licensed this year, two have discontinued making butter
during the last half of the year. The indications are that creamery-butter production will
be down to 54 per cent of the 4,666,000 pounds produced in 1950, or around 2,500,000
pounds, which will be the lowest production figure for creamery butter in this Province
for the last thirty years. This decrease has been brought about chiefly by a greater
demand for fluid milk and ice-cream, higher prices for milk, and a decrease in the
over-all milk production. An abundant supply of oleomargarine at a much lower price
than butter has also played a part. Dairy-butter production is down to 91 per cent of
the 1,036,000 pounds made in 1950.
CHEESE-FACTORIES
Cheddar cheese has been made at three factories this year. These plants are located
at Armstrong in the North Okanagan, at Edgewood on the Arrow Lakes, and at Salmon
Arm on Shuswap Lake. The Salmon Arm factory started making cheese in May of this
year, and made history inasmuch as it is the first time that Cheddar cheese has been
made in that particular district. The total make of Cheddar cheese in 1951 will be
between 550,000 and 600,000 pounds, or much the same as for 1950, when 564,000
pounds were made. Around 45,000 pounds of farm cheeses are made annually, and
close to 3,000,000 pounds of cottage cheese are produced each year, the greater
percentage of cottage cheese being made by one company. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951 Y 63
CONCENTRATED-MILK PRODUCTS
There is only one evaporated-milk plant operating in the Province and two milk-
powder plants. The production of evaporated milk is up about 11 per cent over 1950,
while spray and roller powder show over a 50-per-cent decrease. There is approximately
a 30-per-cent increase in whey-powder production. Prices for concentrated-milk
products were higher than in 1950, and the demand remained firm.
ICE-CREAM
Thirty-one large and small operators will produce approximately 2,800,000 gallons
of ice-cream during 1951, or roughly a 15-per-cent increase over the 2,451,000 gallons
made in 1950. Ice-cream will use between 6 and 8 per cent of our total milk production
in 1951. Wholesale or factory-sale prices per gallon for ice-cream, according to figures
received by this Branch during the year, have ranged all the way from $1.10 to $1.70
per gallon. Unfortunately, there appears to be a great lack of continuity in prices charged
for ice-cream throughout the Province. Latest figures available indicate around 230
counter-freezers operating in British Columbia.
MILK-PASTEURIZING PLANTS
There were 110 large and small milk- and cream-pasteurizing plants in operation
during the year. Most of these plants are quite modern and up to date. A few are still
lagging behind in complying with the regulations under the " Creameries and Dairies
Regulation Act" as amended in 1948. As stated in last year's Report, excellent work
is being done by fieldmen of some of the larger dairies in the Province. In addition,
Provincial Veterinary Inspectors of the Live Stock Branch, Sanitary Inspectors of the
Provincial Health Department, and Dairy Inspectors of this Branch, also producers and
plant operators, are all co-operating in a combined effort to supply a high-quality milk
to the consumer.
SHORT COURSE IN DAIRYING
The fifth annual short course in dairying offered jointly by the Department of
Dairying, University of British Columbia, and the Dairy Branch, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, was given at the University of British Columbia, October 29th to
December 1st of this year. Twenty-nine students, representing practically every section
of the Province where dairying is carried on (with the exception of the Peace River
Block), were in attendance, eighteen taking the general course, three instruction in
cow-testing (herd improvement) work, and eight training in ice-cream making for one
week. Subjects covered briefly in the four weeks' general course were as follows:
Pasteurization of milk, quality tests for milk, milk-plant practices, principles of engineering and refrigeration, dairy bacteriology, dairy arithmetic, dairy chemistry, and Babcock
testing.   During the fifth week, special instruction was given in ice-cream making.
George Patchett, Senior Dairy Inspector, was in charge of the course and was ably
assisted by the other Dairy Inspectors—G. D. Johnson, of Kelowna; Norman Ingledew,
of Nelson; Herbert Riehl and Kenneth Savage, of Vancouver. Mr. Riehl was in charge
of the ice-cream course.
G. H. Thornbery, Superintendent of Cow-testing Associations, and his assistant,
J. Mace, instructed in cow-testing work, Mr. Patchett teaching Babcock testing.
Instructors from the Faculty of Agriculture, University of British Columbia, were
Dean Blythe Eagles, Dr. J. Campbell, Miss Nora Neilson, Miss Jean Campbell, Dr. J.
Berry, and Professor Leroux of the Engineering Department.
Grateful acknowledgment is herewith extended to the personnel of different dairy
plants and dairy supply-houses who helped with the course, and particularly to the Y 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA
management of certain dairies who so generously extended to us the use of their
buildings and equipment.
Following is a list of the names and addresses of the students attending the short
course, October 29th to December 1st, 1951:—
General (October 29th to November 24th): Benjamin H. V. Wells, Dover, Kent,
England; Randolph Williamson, Langley Prairie; Dennis R. Long, Victoria; Edward
Kay, Victoria; Donald S. Mclnnes, Vancouver; Owen N. Inglis, Lumby; Roy Peters,
Victoria; John T. Sparkes, Prince Rupert; Mrs. Phyllis Milum, Golden; Mrs. Charlotte
Wood, Creston; Miss Bernice Heighton, Armstrong; W. M. Walker, Prince George;
Patrick J. Murphy, Courtenay; Sidney Atkinson, Princeton; J. E. Wingrove, Vancouver;
Ian Mclnnes, Vancouver; Cleveland Crowley, Vancouver; and Andrew J. Horvath,
Vancouver.
Cow-testing (November 12th to 24th): William M. Gardner, Murrayville; Frank
Dempster, Merritt; and John R. Hannam, Port Coquitlam.
Ice-cream Making (November 26th to December 1st): C. Hendrickson, Vernon;
R. Cull, Vernon; A. A. Ness, Vancouver; Marshall M. Bell, Vancouver; A. J. Horvath,
Vancouver; W. M. Walker, Prince George; and Randolph Williamson, Langley Prairie.
DAIRY LICENCES AND CERTIFICATES
The following licences were issued during 1951: 110 Creamery or Dairy Licences,
136 Milk-testers' Licences, 44 Combined Milk-testers' and Cream-graders' Licences,
3 Single Cream Graders' Licences, and 15 Certificates of Proficiency were issued to
ice-cream makers, butter-makers, and pasteurizer operators. Twenty-seven examinations
were given for Milk-testers' Licences.
OLEOMARGARINE LICENCES
The following firms, five in all, were issued licences to manufacture oleomargarine
in the Province during 1951: Canada Packers Ltd., Consolidated Enterprises Ltd.,
Kraft Foods Limited, Nova Margarine Ltd., and Wentworth Canning Company of B.C.
Twenty-three licences were issued to wholesalers of margarine.
Oleomargarine production: 1949, 3,459,725 pounds; 1950, 5,095,873 pounds;
1951, 9,250,000 pounds (estimated), approximately 45 per cent increase over 1950.
INSPECTION AND INSTRUCTION SERVICES
There are at present five Dairy Inspectors located in different parts of the Province,
working under the direction of this Branch, as follows: George Patchett, Senior
Inspector, Victoria; G. D. Johnson, Kelowna; Herbert Riehl and K. G. Savage,
Vancouver; and Norman Ingledew, Nelson. A new inspectorate was established at
Nelson this year, and Mr. Ingledew took over the new location on June 1st, giving
additional help to dairymen and dairy establishments in the East and West Kootenays.
On July 1st, K. G. Savage was engaged to fill the vacancy created in Vancouver when
Mr. Ingledew was moved to Nelson.
Following are excerpts taken from the Inspectors' annual reports:-—
George Patchett, Vancouver and Gulf Islands:—
" This has been a year in which the dairy industry has been fraught with many
vicissitudes due to very dry conditions and inflationary trends in all fields. Despite the
dry weather throughout the late spring and summer, a very fair hay-crop was harvested
in excellent condition. No aftermath was evident and pastures dried up badly and, except
where irrigation was practised, it was necessary to feed much of this winter's hay-supply
throughout the summer. High prices for beef, high costs for dairy-feed, and soaring
wages have caused some farmers to sell their herds, others to veal their calves, and still DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951 Y 65
others to go in for beef. Retail prices of milk and cream have risen to a point where
consumers are cutting down on purchases. Distributers are complaining of too narrow
a margin. All things considered, the lot of anyone presently engaged in the dairy
business is not a happy one.
" The programme to improve the quality of milk is continuing, with more interest
being shown by some distributers. Results of bacteria counts made by the Health
Department Laboratories show a steady improvement in plant technique. Dairy-farmers
are becoming more quality-conscious as a result of close co-operation of Inspectors of
the Live Stock Branch, the Dairy Branch, and the Health Department. There are still
some instances of adulteration, but those individuals who stoop to this practice are being
watched, and frequent checks are made on their milk."
G. D. Johnson, Interior:—
"Inspections.—The areas covered by inspection during 1951 included the Okanagan
Valley, Cariboo, Peace River, Columbia Valley, and Edgewood. In all areas, efforts
were concentrated to meet the trend of the dairy industry—namely, the development
of the fluid-milk industry.
" Inspections were made of twenty-two milk-pasteurizing plants, three cheese-
factories, eight creameries, seven ice-cream plants, six counter-freezers, and three
producer-vendors' premises. Inspections included butter-fat and qualitative tests on raw
and finished products, chemical tests on plant operations, and instruction in plant housekeeping and manufacturing. In respect to fluid-milk inspections, complete reports of
butter-fat and qualitative tests were sent to all producers showing causes of unsatisfactory
products, together with suggested remedies. Copies of all combined reports on milk
plants were sent to (1) appropriate Provincial Veterinarian, (2) appropriate health
unit, (3) receiving dairy, (4) Dairy Branch and, in many instances, directly to the Live
Stock Branch. Reports on bacterial counts of milk samples were received from all
the health units in the territory, and these were found very useful on inspections. With
the advent of more fluid-milk plants coming into being, it has been found necessary to
devote the majority of time on this phase of the dairy industry, and the results obtained
in improving raw-milk supplies and improved conditions at the plants have been
encouraging.
" The following new plants are in operation in the Interior since the commencement
of 1951: Sunshine Valley Dairy, Grand Forks (milk-pasteurizing); Milum's Dairy,
Golden (milk-pasteurizing); Shuswap Okanagan Dairy Industries Co-operative Association, Salmon Arm (butter and cheese); Shuswap Okanagan Dairy Industries Cooperative Association, Kelowna (milk-pasteurizing); and Atkinson's Dairy, Princeton
(milk-pasteurizing).
"The following businesses have been closed during 1951: Campbell's Dairy,
Vernon (milk-pasteurizing); and Interior Creameries, Prince George (butter).
" There have been the following changes in ownership: Lakeview Dairy, Kelowna,
now owned by Shuswap Okanagan Dairy Industries Co-operative Association; Valley
Dairy, Penticton, by the Armstrong Cheese Co-operative Association; Penticton Dairy
and Ice Cream Co. Ltd., Penticton, by M. Parker; Cariboo Dairy, Prince George,
by Northern Dairies; and Rose's Ice Cream Ltd., Prince George, by H. Fawcett and
W. Walker.
"A great deal of work is still necessary in many plants to improve working conditions and efficiency. In this regard it will probably be necessary to take more positive
action to bring certain plants up to the standards required by the regulations under
the ' Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act.' "
H. Riehl and K. G. Savage, Greater Vancouver:—
"Milk-quality Control.—The milk-quality control programme for the Vancouver
milkshed. which started January 1st, has been carried on for nearly a year with con- Y 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA
siderable success. As mentioned in previous Reports, the Inspectors in this area are not
carrying out Resazurin tests, but are supervising the running of the tests by dairy
operators.   This method has proved reasonably satisfactory.
" The Vancouver City Health Department has established a class system for milk
based on the opinion and experience of Dr. J. Campbell, University of British
Columbia; City Health Inspectors; and Inspectors of the Dairy Branch. In addition,
an eight months' survey was carried out in the Vancouver milkshed in order to
ascertain in which class the great bulk of milk would fall. The broad standards arrived
at after due discussion by the groups concerned were as follows: Class 1, under 200,000
bacteria in 1 c.c; Class 2, 200,000 to 500,000 bacteria in 1 ex.; Class 3, over 500,000
bacteria in 1 c.c.
" In order to provide reasonable leeway for the dairies because the programme
was essentially a voluntary one, it was also decided to have an alternative method of
determining quality of milk by those dairies interested in carrying out the Resazurin
test. Using the Resazurin method, the following classes were agreed upon: Class 1,
not pink in three hours (PRP %); Class 2, reduced to pink in three hours (PRP
%); Class 3, reduced to pink in two hours (PRP % ).
" The above standards have been accepted in this area and are working out
satisfactorily."
N. H. Ingledew, East and West Kootenays:—
" The East and West Kootenays is an area of small plants, most of them previous
producer-vendors who have installed pasteurizing equipment and have begun buying
milk from their neighbours. As no testing equipment is available, this milk, of
necessity, is purchased on a gallonage basis. This has resulted in a great variety of
prices paid to farmers, and in many cases a differential price far out of line with
market values. Also, as no standardizing of finished products is practised, it has
resulted in a market fluctuation in the quality of milk delivered to the public.
" The East and West Kootenays is also an area of rapidly expanding industrial
development. Already in progress is a new fertilizer division at Kimberley, a cellulose
plant at Castlegar, and a townsite development at Riondel. These, together with the
smaller mining developments taking place, are rapidly increasing the potential markets
for fluid milk. In contrast to this, the milk production is at an extremely low ebb, with
many producers selling their herds. There are only two districts—Grand Forks and
Creston—in the entire area where transportation is available, and where it is possible to
produce quantities of milk at a reasonable price. Much promotional work will have
to be done in these sections and, coupled with this, the dairy-plant operators will have
to be educated to take best advantage of possible markets, to manage their plants in
such a way as to return as much of the dollar as possible to the producer, and to instil
confidence in the farmer so that he will not only stay in business, but will increase the
size of his herds and the production from these herds.
" There is golden opportunity here for a combined effort of the District Agriculturists, Cow-testing Association Supervisors, and Live Stock Branch Inspectors to make
these two districts the milkshed for the East and West Kootenays."
SUMMARY OF TESTS, VISITS, AND MEETINGS CARRIED OUT
AND ATTENDED BY INSPECTORS IN 1951
Butter-fat check tests r  5,019
Resazurin check tests and temperature tests  2,578
Sediment tests  2,390
Milk samples tested for added water-      936
Warned for adulteration        99
Tests on oleomargarine        49 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951 Y 67
Visits to oleomargarine plants        28
Dairy-plant inspections       638
Farm visits      194
Meetings attended  ,      105
Reports and test-cards sent to milk and cream producers  2,906
BRITISH COLUMBIA DAIRYMEN'S ASSOCIATION
The British Columbia Dairymen's Association, which was revised and reincorporated under the "Societies Act" of the Province on September 8th, 1949, after
having been dormant for over ten years, held its second annual convention at Vernon
on March 20th and 21st of this year. The present officers and directors are as
follows: President, J. Mullen, Armstrong; vice-president, S. D. Dougan, Cobble Hill;
secretary-treasurer, Everard Clarke, Vernon; directors—Acton Kilby, Room 11, 1490
West Broadway, Vancouver; H. W. German, Camp River, R.R. 2, Chilliwack; S. E.
Halksworth, Grindrod; H. G. Shepherd, 1645 Fort Street, Victoria; F. Hopcott, Pitt
Meadows; S. Drake, 1902 Eighth Avenue, New Westminster; P. T. Wilson, Winfield;
G. E. Malcolm, Quesnel; and G. D. Christie, Trail.
The 1952 convention will be held in the Plaza Hotel, Nanaimo, Tuesday and
Wednesday, January 29th and 30th. Programmes for this convention have already
been distributed, featuring speakers from the Prairies and Eastern Canada.
MILK BOARD PRICES, 1951
Milk Board prices to the producer and consumer on Vancouver Island and the
Lower Fraser Valley during the year were as follows: Orders Nos. 29, 30, and 31,
dated January 12th, effective January 18th, including Victoria, Duncan, and Nanaimo
areas, raised the price to the producer from $4.65 per 100 pounds for 3.5 per cent
milk to $5 per 100 pounds, changed the differential from 6V2 cents to 5Vi cents, and
increased the price to the consumer from 19 cents to 21 cents per quart for Standard
milk and from 21 cents to 23 cents per quart for Special milk, with the exception
of the Nanaimo area, where the price per quart was only raised 1 cent; September 10th,
Milk Board Order No. 35 and Orders Nos. 29, 30, 32, 33, and 34 covering Greater
Victoria, Duncan, Nanaimo, and Courtenay-Campbell River areas, effective September
18th, again raised the price to the producer from $5 per 100 pounds for 3.5 per
cent milk to $5.90 per 100 pounds, changed the differential from 5>Vi to 7 cents, and
the price to the consumer was raised to 24 cents per quart for Standard milk, and
26 cents per quart for Special milk.
The price of milk in the Vancouver area, November 1st, 1950, to October 16th,
1951, according to Milk Board Order No. 28, was $4.13 per 100 pounds to the producer
for 3.5 per cent milk, with a differential of 5V2 cents; price to consumer, 19 cents
per quart for Standard milk and 21 cents for Special milk. Interim Order No. 1,
dated October 12th, effective October 16th, 1951, raised the price to the producer
from $4.13 to $5.03 per 100 pounds for 3.5 per cent milk and the differential from
5V2 cents to 7 cents. The price to the consumer was raised from 19 cents to 22 cents
per quart for Standard milk and from 21 cents to 24 cents for Special milk.
SUMMARY
An exceptionally dry summer in the Lower Fraser Valley and on Vancouver
Island has reduced milk production between 7 and 8 per cent during 1951, in comparison
with the 668,102,000 pounds produced in 1950. Higher prices for milk and milk
products will probably result in an over-all value of dairy production similar to 1950,
which amounted to $30,821,000.
; Y 68
BRITISH COLUMBIA
The great industrial development at present taking place in British Columbia,
and the consequent increase in population, assures an ever-increasing demand for
milk and milk products.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The helpful co-operation of all members of the staff in carrying out the many and
sometimes arduous duties of the Dairy Branch and in preparing this annual report is
gratefully acknowledged.
REPORT OF POULTRY BRANCH
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., Poultry Commissioner
Owing to the fact that monthly reports have been submitted during 1951, details
of all projects are not included in this report.
The year 1951 was a more satisfactory one than 1950, as prices for poultry products
were generally better.
HATCHERY OPERATIONS
The hatchery season was more satisfactory than 1950, and the following table gives
the statistical data on the production and distribution of baby chicks for the past six years.
Table No. 1.—Production and Distribution of Chicks
Year
Chicks
Hatched
Chicks
Exported
Chicks
Imported
Chicks
Destroyed
Balance Left
in Province
1946 .       	
7,940,477
8,523,781
5,610,212
6,306,342
4,770,978
6,234,426
1,643,430
1,947,733
1,171,079
1,598,215
642,949
750,991
607,902
1,411,406
1,196,154
896,450
962,468
'595,950
6,297,047
5,328,985
3,292,166
3,889,762
3,259,376
5,005,169
1947  	
1948  	
1949    	
1950   	
1951-..    	
164,343
39,087
78,085
93,815
117,684
The export of baby chicks and hatching-eggs to the Prairie Provinces was affected
by the outbreak of Newcastle disease in 1950 and 1951. Unfavourable publicity led to
reduction in orders for export.
MARKETING
Marketing conditions were comparatively good for eggs during most of the year, and
consumption has been very heavy of eggs and poultry-meats, particularly broilers.
Table No. 2 gives the data on receipts at registered egg-grading stations and registered
poultry-grading stations for the years 1949 to 1951.
Table No. 2.—Receipts at Registered Egg-grading and Poultry-grading Stations
Year
1949.
1950.
1951.
Receipts at
Registered
Egg-grading
Stations
(Cases)
515,944
410,752
404,552
Receipts at
Registered
Poultry-packing
Stations
(Lb.)
8,332,158
9,027,541
8,619,525 f
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1951
Table No. 3.—Imports and Exports of Eggs and Poultry
Y 69
Year
Imports
of
Eggs
Exports
of
Eggs
Imports
of
Poultry
Exports
of
Poultry
1949      	
1950      ...
Cases
66,143
146,893
80,100
Cases
39,172
8,834
13,122
Lb.
1,137,161
855,765
785,759
Lb.
604,573
48,007
1951    	
28,133
During 1951 to October 31st we exported 26,616 pounds of turkeys to Great
Britain, 1,404 pounds of fowl to Alaska, and 1,517 pounds of chicken to Alaska. We
imported chicken, fowl, ducks, and turkeys from the United States, Australia, and other
Provinces.
POULTRY-FLOCK APPROVAL
This project continues to be the major project of the Poultry Branch and requires
a great deal of supervision on the part of your Commissioner, together with much of the
time of two secretaries in the New Westminster office.
Inspectors W. H. Pope, R. H. McMillan, H. Gasperdone, Allan Mufford, Fred
Wilkinson, H. K. Arnould, and H. E. Upton were employed in this project. Assisting
them were Testers Lloyd North, H. E. McDaniel, William Brookes, Stuart McAninch,
and C. W. Wood. Mr. Wood, formerly poultry Commissioner for Saskatchewan, now
living in Kelowna, did the testing in the Interior.
Dr. J. C. Bankier, Animal Pathologist, supervised the technical aspects of the
programme, while the schedules and clerical work are done in the office of the Poultry
Commissioner.
Table No. 4.—Statistical Data on Flock Approval, 1935-51
Year
Number
of Flocks
Approved
Number
of Birds
Pullorum-
tested
Percentage
of Reactors
to Pullorum
1935                 	
117
127
143
149
194
194
244
331
572
512
631
715
561
538
508
474
398
43,074
77,493
93,008
92,178
115,543
121,954
158,867
197,127
362,414
371,655
433,724
477,724
430,439
334,667
347,268
253,848
326,046
6.09
1936   . 	
2,42
1937  	
3.47
1938     . .   - -	
2.00
1939	
1.84
1940 _	
2.65
1941	
2.59
1942   -   ... 	
2.66
1943 	
2.79
1944	
1.30
1945     -      -  	
1.00
1946            —       	
0.72
1947
0.25
1948    .	
0.07
1949   -  	
0.13
1950   -  _   	
0.046
1951  	
0.22
THE TURKEY INDUSTRY
The turkey industry in 1951 was in a better position than 1950 owing to comparatively little loss from Newcastle disease and a good market demand for turkey-meat.
The export of poults was affected by the Newcastle-disease publicity. Y 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table No. 5.—Production and Distribution of Approved Poults
Year
Poillts
Hatched
Poults
Exported
Poults
Imported
Balance in
Province
1947     	
1948-.  	
1949   	
1950     ._ _      	
1951	
346,141
257,438
387,234
441,121
356,069
37,963
93,206
128,975
96,185
50,237
264
2,035
2,694
308,442
164,232
260,294
347,630
305,832
Table No. 6.—Turkey Flocks Approved, 1946-51
Year
1946.
1947_.
1948..
1949-
1950.
1951.
Number of Turkey
Flocks Approved
.     73
.     80
.  100
  100
     67
.     53
Number of Turkeys
Pullorum-tested
21,313
24,757
36,479
45,364
25,667
28,220
POULTRY DISEASES
The usual losses were experienced from poultry diseases, and Newcastle disease was
prominent again in the Fraser Valley, with no cases reported on Vancouver Island.
Pullorum Disease
The incidence of Pullorum disease is very low, as shown in Table No. 4. In order
to determine the extent of the disease in commercial flocks, a survey was undertaken in
poultry-killing plants in Vancouver, the Fraser Valley, and on Vancouver Island. Similar
surveys were made in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba.
The survey was made on 2,170 birds from February to May, and the results are
shown below:—
Number of Birds     Number of
Breeds Pullorum-tested        Reactors
New Hampshires  852 5
Crosses  548 Nil
S.C.W. Leghorns  582 1
White Rocks  106 Nil
Rhode Island Reds  82 Nil
Totals  2,170 6
As a result of this survey and the data shown in Table No. 4, a request was made
to modify the Pullorum-testing programme, but opposition from other Provinces is
holding this in abeyance for the time being.
Newcastle Disease
The outbreak of Newcastle disease continues to be the No. 1 disease problem
affecting the poultry industry, although mortality is very low, except in young chicks
under 8 weeks of age.
The British Columbia Newcastle Disease Committee, with Dean Eagles as chairman
and E. A. Lloyd, J. Biely, Dr. S. N. Wood, Dr. F. W. B. Smith, Dr. John Hoey, Dr. I. W.
Moynihan, Dr. J. C. Bankier, D. L. Browne, James Darbey, G. L. Landon, S. J. Sanders,
and J. C. MacKenzie, held ten meetings during the year and submitted recommendations
to the British Columbia Poultry Industries Council. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.  1951
Y 71
A special meeting was held on November 22nd, attended by Dr. J. G. Taggart,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Ottawa, at which a brief was presented regarding the
vaccination programme.
The situation in 1951 as compared with 1950 is shown in the following table:—
Table No. 7.—Flocks and Eggs Destroyed, 1950-51
1950
1951
Month
Flocks
Destroyed
Birds
Destroyed
Eggs
Destroyed
Flocks
Destroyed
Birds
Destroyed
Eggs
Destroyed
1
2
22
136
76
59
22
14
8
3
2
3
3
20
47
37
15
8
7
3
1
5
l1
22,456
1,815
45,610
30,366
56,149
17,028
18,008
9,057
11,481
5,100
9,877
?
9,412
738
18,098
45,603
201,520
103,794
98,163
29,932
14,834
11,898
8,076
391
768
March  	
April...     	
15,161
28,743
129,397
81,280
30,702
17,172
15,958
12,443
4,128
74
61,451
47,432
13,746
2,108
July	
1,868
780
1 To December 11th.
VACCINATION
In connection with the vaccination for Newcastle disease, two types of vaccine were
tried out at the request of the industry in British Columbia. The first was the Doyle-
Wright vaccine, originated in Great Britain and developed at the Animal Diseases
Research Institute, Hull, Que. This was tried out in the Fraser Valley in January, and
a programme undertaken. Trouble developed with this vaccine, and about April 1st it
was modified or formalized and used during the next few months.
Outbreaks of Newcastle disease occurred in flocks vaccinated with the modified
vaccine, and in November the Health of Animals Division, Canada Department of
Agriculture, discontinued all vaccination.
Reports from the Department of Agriculture at Ottawa indicate that the newest
type of vaccine, ADRI, developed at the Animal Diseases Research Institute, had given
satisfactory results on experimental tests with several thousand birds in Ontario. Also,
that it had been used on approved flocks in Nova Scotia and on some approved flocks
in Ontario.
The brief submitted by the Newcastle Disease Committee asked that the ADRI
vaccine be tested out in British Columbia, but so far no response has been received from
Ottawa.
Approximately 1,300 flocks have been vaccinated in the Fraser Valley.
POULTRY LABORATORY FACILITIES
With the opening of the Provincial Animal Pathology Laboratory at the University
of British Columbia, under the supervision of Dr. J. C. Bankier, greater facilities were
provided for post-mortem diagnosis of poultry specimens. This laboratory, coupled with
the facilities provided by the Science Service Laboratory at the University of British
Columbia, has provided much better service to the poultry industry.
ADDITIONAL INSPECTOR
H. Gasperdone was appointed an Inspector on July 1st with the Poultry Branch and
located at Vernon. This has enabled the Department to give much better service to the
poultry industry in the Interior. Inspector Gasperdone has been able to do all the flock-
approval work in the Okanagan and Kootenay areas. Y 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA
POULTRY CONFERENCES
Conferences attended by your Commissioner during the year included the Washington State Hatcherymen's and Breeders' Conference at Puyallup in July, the Western
Canada Produce Convention in Edmonton in February, the semi-annual meeting of
Western Canada Produce Association in Vancouver in June, the Canadian Hatchery
Federation at Saskatoon in October, the Chicken and Turkey Breeders' Round Table at
Puyallup in November, and the British Columbia Baby-chick Co-operative Association
Convention in Vancouver in December.
Inspectors Pope and McMillan attended the Oregon State Nutrition Conference at
Corvallis in February, the Western Canada Produce Association meetings in June, and
the Washington State Hatcherymen's Convention at Bellingham in October.
MEETINGS
A series of meetings was held with turkey-breeders on Vancouver Island by
Inspector W. H. Pope. Meetings in various parts of the Province were held by members
of the Poultry Branch during the year with Poultry Associations, Farmers' Institutes, etc.
PLANNED AGRICULTURAL FEATURE
The Third Agricultural Feature was held in February and March at Haney, Chilliwack, and Mission. The Poultry Section was jointly staffed by members of the British
Columbia Poultry Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture, and the University of
British Columbia.
The attendance was good at Haney but disappointing at Chilliwack, and the stormy
weather kept down attendance at Mission.
POULTRY SHORT COURSES
Poultry short courses were held during the year, attended by members of the Poultry
Branch staff, as follows:—
February 26th to March 2nd: Nelson, Fruitvale, and Creston.
March 14th to 16th: Prince George, Chief Lake, and Vanderhoof.
April 30th to May 3rd: Malakwa, Grindrod, Salmon Arm, and White Valley.
November 29th to December 1st: Fort St. John and Dawson Creek.
This short course in the Peace River was the first one held in that area and was
attended by Inspector W. H. Pope.   In order to stimulate interest in the area, a weekly
radio programme has been suggested.
TOUR OF WASHINGTON AND OREGON
Inspectors W. H. Pope and R. H. McMillan visited poultry-farms in Oregon and
Washington States during February, as well as experimental stations, securing information on poultry and turkey housing problems, feeding and management problems, etc.
The information secured is being used in the preparation of our housing plans and
bulletins.
BRITISH COLUMBIA POULTRY INDUSTRIES COUNCIL
The Council has been very active during the year in connection with egg prices,
Newcastle disease, etc.
The annual meeting was featured by the presentation of an illuminated scroll on
behalf of the Council by the Honourable H. R. Bowman, Minister of Agriculture, to Jesse
Throssell, of Aldergrove, as an honour to him for his contribution toward the development of the broad-breasted bronze turkey industry. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951 Y 73
The Council has been very active over a period of years in promoting the poultry
industry and assisting the Provincial and Canada Departments of Agriculture to solve
problems involved.
WATER-FOWL
Interest in the production of ducks and geese is very keen in the Province, and it
is estimated our population of ducks this year will be 20,000, as compared with 8,000
in 1949, and geese will be 35,000, as compared with 14,000 in 1949.
The high price of red meats has undoubtedly stimulated the increased production
of ducks and geese in the Province.
There are now five approved hatcheries hatching goslings on Vancouver Island and
in the Fraser Valley, and two hatcheries hatching ducklings.
Of special interest is the use of geese in orchards of the Okanagan to consume the
quack and couch grass.
PACIFIC NATIONAL EXHIBITION
Your Commissioner continued to act as chairman of the Junior Farmer Committee
of the Pacific National Exhibition, vice-chairman of the Poultry Committee, and a
member of several other committees.
This continues to take up considerable time, but is well worth while as the 4-H
Club Programme of the Department of Agriculture ties in with this work.
The Junior Farmer Show at the Pacific National Exhibition has become the outstanding one in North America, and was featured this year by the visit of the Provincial
Ministers and Deputy Ministers of Agriculture from the other Provinces.
PROVINCIAL TOURS
Visits were made to Vancouver Island areas, the Okanagan and Kootenay areas as
far as Nelson during the year. Producers, egg-grading and poultry-grading stations, etc.,
were contacted.
POULTRY SHOWS, TURKEY SHOWS, FALL FAIRS, ETC.
Assistance was given the Agricultural Associations in various parts of the Province
in judging their poultry shows. Assistance was also given to the turkey shows in Victoria
in November and at New Westminster in December.
The two turkey shows this year were outstanding in quality, and probably the best
yet held in this Province.
BRITISH COLUMBIA LIME COMMITTEE
Your Poultry Commissioner continued as secretary of the British Columbia Lime
Committee during the year, and the work has increased so tremendously that it requires
the work of one secretary most of the time preparing vouchers, etc.
A report is attached hereto showing the lime products used for soil amendment
purposes since 1935 (Appendix No. 2).
BULLETIN SERVICE AND PUBLICATIONS
The Poultry Branch has prepared pedigree forms for rabbit-breeders, plans of
community nests, central roosting-racks, roll-away types of nests, etc. New bulletins on
poultry-housing are in the course of being prepared.
A series of articles on poultry matters was prepared for the Markets Bulletin by
the following authors: Poultry-flock Approval, G. L. Landon;- Modern Poultry Housing
Trends, W. H. Pope; Production of Broilers, R. H. McMillan; Marketing B.C. Poultry Y 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Products, D. L. Browne; and Feed Utilization or What's in the Feed Sack?, Professor
J. Biely.
In addition, a paper entitled " Poultry in British Columbia " was prepared by your
Poultry Commissioner and published in the American Egg and Poultry Review.
The Poultry Branch is working in co-operation with the Agricultural Engineering
Branch Extension Department in the preparation of the housing plans, etc.
Plans and recommendations were prepared on poultry-house units for Central and
Northern British Columbia and sent up to Prince George for the meeting of the Coordinating Committee, November 14th and 15th.
The Department of Agriculture officials in Central British Columbia and the Peace
River area have requested radio recordings for use in weekly broadcasts, and this is
being looked into.
Members of the Poultry Branch staff also prepared several talks for C.B.C. Farm
Broadcasts in Vancouver.
WORLD'S POULTRY SCIENCE ASSOCIATION
The Ninth World's Poultry Congress was held in Paris, France, in August, and at
the annual meeting of the World's Poultry Science Association held during the Congress
your Commissioner was elected a member of the executive council, representing Canada
until 1957. There are two representatives from Canada, Professor J. R. Cavers, Ontario
Agricultural College, and your Commissioner.
CONCLUSION
In conclusion, I would like to express my appreciation of the staff of the Poultry
Branch for the efficient way in which they have performed their duties during 1951.
Inspectors W. H. Pope, R. H. McMillan, and H. Gasperdone, on the permanent staff,
are doing very good work. Mr. Gasperdone commenced work on July 1 st and is giving
good service on behalf of the Department in the Interior.
The office secretaries—Miss Bertha Voegtlin, Miss Doreen Woolfrey, and Mrs.
McAloney—are handling an increasing volume of work. Part-time assistance is given
by Miss Alberta Kelly and Mrs. Kathleen Kemp in order to keep up with the volume
of work.
I would also like to express my appreciation to the other divisions of the British
Columbia Department of Agriculture, University of British Columbia, Canada Department of Agriculture, and other agencies for the very fine co-operation received during
the year.
REPORT OF THE LIVE STOCK BRANCH
Wallace R. Gunn, B.V.Sc, B.S.A., V.S., Live Stock Commissioner
and Chief Veterinary Inspector
HORSES
Light-horse breeding continues to be the chief interest in the field of horse production.
Stallion enrolments for the vear were as follows:—
1951: A, 5; B, 2; C,'l; D, 7; E, 12; F, 9.
1950: A, 7; B, 2; C, 1; D, 3; E, 12; F, 8. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1951
BEEF CATTLE
Y 75
For inspected slaughterings of cattle and calves see Appendix No. 3. For beef
carcasses graded in British Columbia see Appendix No. 4. For average prices of cattle
see Appendix No. 5.
ELWOOD SUSIE QUE (259207)
First prize female, 2 years or over, and reserve senior champion.
Len W. Wood, Armstrong, owner.
The summarized reports of sales in British Columbia during the year 1951 are as
follows:—
Provincial Bull Sale and Fat Stock Show, Kamloops, March 14th, 1951
Number and Kind
Highest
Price
per Cwt.
Lowest
Price
per Cwt.
1951
Average
1950
Average
$38.70
37.70
35.25
60.00
$35.90
31.10
32.75
34.00
$36.95
36.15
33.96
38.71
$27.94
28.06
26.62
29.91
Total head, 177.
Car-lot of fifteen steers, heavy class:  A.C.T. Ranch, Kelowna.
Champion car-lot: A.C.T. Ranch, Kelowna.
Reserve champion car-lot:  Guichon Cattle Company, Quilchena.
Group of five steers, heavy class: J. W. Lauder, Quilchena.
Group of five steers, light class:  E. M. Hall, Barnhart Vale.
Champion group of five:  J. W. Lauder, Quilchena. Y 76
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Oak.
Reserve champion group of five: J. O. Bulman, Westwold.
Single steer or heifer, 1,110 to 1,230 pounds:  J. W. Lauder, Quilchena.
Single steer or heifer, 1,050 to 1,100 pounds: Daniel L. Lee, Hanceville.
Single steer or heifer, 960 to 1,020 pounds: Karl B. Freding, Princeton.
Single steer or heifer, 860 to 940 pounds:  Alex. Gardner, Penticton.
Single steer or heifer, 630 to 810 pounds: Rickey Hook, Kamloops.
Champion animal of the open singles:  J. W. Lauder, Quilchena.
Reserve champion animal of the open singles: V. E. Ellison, Oyama.
Boys' and girls' competition, steer or heifer, heavy class:  Glen Shannon, Knutsford.
Boys' and girls' competition, steer or heifer, light class:  Helene Turner, Royal Oak.
New exhibitors, drawn from above two classes: Rita Abel, Westwold.
Champion animal of boys' and girls' competition:   Glen Shannon, Knutsford.
Reserve champion animal of the boys' and girls' competition:  Helene Turner, Royal
Grand champion animal of the show:  Glen Shannon, Knutsford.
Reserve grand champion of the show:  J. W. Lauder, Quilchena.
Southern Interior Stockmen's Association Ninth Annual Cattle and Bull Sale,
September 12th, 1951
Kind
Number
Highest
Price per
Cwt.
Lowest
Price per
Cwt.
Average
Price per
Cwt.
Total
116
73
217
6
33
$29.00
35.00
34.00
28.35
36.50
$14.25
26.00
26.25
28.35
32.00
$24.98
29.84
32.08
28.35
34.87
$28,557.18
Heifers    	
Steers  —■	
Bulls   !. 	
Calves..    	
17,038.70
62,115.48
2,168.77
4,080.26
Totals _          -    -    	
445
$113,960.39
Tenth Annual Waldo Stock Breeders' Association Sale, October 12th,
1951
Kind
Number
Highest
Price per
Cwt.
Lowest
Price per
Cwt.
Average
Price per
Cwt.
Total
Cows     —	
Bulls  _ -  ...
Heifers  	
Steers •  	
86
11
28
219
209
1
$27.80              $14.50
30.25                22.70
31.50      |        26.75
33.10      |        24.50
37.00      1        25.50
$23.40
24.65
28.71
31.21
33.59
$20,783.25
3,131.12
6,001.85
57,033.60
27,913.39
Totals	
553
	
$114,863.21
Eighth Annual Quesnel Cattle Sale, October 23rd, 1951
Kind
Number
Highest
Price per
Cwt.
Lowest
Price per
Cwt.
Average
Price per
Cwt.
Total
Steers ...   	
358
260
91
17
35
221
46
1
$32.80      j      $22.70
25.50               17.80
36.00              23.50
28.75              23.00
27.50      1       24.50
33.00      1        15.00
35.00      |        10.00
$30.11
22.27
27.60
27.95
26.86
31.07
27.65
$95,902.95
57,947.55
17 305 84
Heiferettes	
Bulls 	
Calves	
Miscellaneous	
4,025.09
10,800.20
26,016.59
7,136.32
Totals.
1.028      1              1        _.
$219,134.54 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1951 Y 77
Fourteenth Annual Cariboo Feeder and Fat Stock Sale, October 11th, 1951
Kind
Number
Highest
Price per
Cwt.
Lowest
Price per
Cwt.
Average
Price per
Cwt.
Total
Steers 	
Cows   	
Heiferettes...  	
729
260
29
289
191
22
31
$33.75
27.90
28.00
38.50
45.00
27.35
45.00
$25.00
18.00
27.25
26.50
30.00
27.35
35.00
$31.10
24.12
27.52
33.35
38.30
27.35
36.90
$206,055.48
63,204.62
8,064.35
60,678.61
21,257.53
Bulls 	
8,516.79
Singles	
10,482.08
Totals
1,551
$378,259.46
Kamloops Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale, December 6th, 1951
Kind
Number
Highest
Price per
Cwt.
Lowest
Price per
Cwt.
Average
Price per
Cwt.
1950
Average
Total
Car-lots... 	
Groups of five -
Spares.
Open singles and boys' and girls' entries
Lambs  	
Registered stock	
Totals	
45
$39.00
$36.60
$37.76
$27.80
55
39.00
35.50
38.06
28.53
2
38.00
38.00
38.00   ■
25.80
112
70.00
36.00
39.82
31.40
21
6
75.00
33.00
37.00
63.00
241
$18,022.19
20,942.62
1,876.44
43,886.60
765.11
2,020.00
$87,512.96
BULL-CONTROL AREAS
The following bull-control areas have been established under the "Animals Act":
Columbia Bull-control Area, Waldo Bull-control Area, Newgate-Grasmere Bull-control
Area, and Sand Creek Bull-control Area.
Within the last short time widely distributed groups of cattlemen have been seeking
help to deal with their range bull problems.
DAIRY CATTLE
Total for the year 1951 is 617,994,350 pounds, as compared to 668,102,000
pounds for the year 1950.
Dairying is to-day passing through one of the most difficult periods in its history.
It is hard to predict what may be the final result.
DAIRY-HERD IMPROVEMENT
The measuring-stick which Cow-testing Associations have provided for the dairymen of this Province, enabling them to eliminate their low producers, is one of the most
potent factors responsible for keeping large numbers of dairymen in business at this time.
That extra 100 pounds of butter-fat per cow over the Canadian average which British
Columbia dairymen can boast is one of the most powerful arguments in favour of cow-
testing and more cow-testing.
The following extract is taken from the annual report of G. H. Thornbery, Superintendent of Cow-testing Associations:—
" There are now fourteen associations, employing nineteen supervisors, who are
testing over 10,000 cows in 440 herds. A list giving names of secretaries and supervisors follows:—
I Y 78
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Cow-testing Association
Secretary
Supervisor
Chilliwack—
Route 1—
Route 2._.
Route 3—
Route 4_
Comox Valley.	
Delta-
Route 1	
Route 2	
Route 3	
Dewdney-Deroche-
Langley 	
Matsqui—
Route 1	
Route 2.	
Okanagan..
Salmon Arm-North Okanagan.—	
Pitt Meadows-Maple Ridge and Delta (Route 1)..
Richmond—
Route 1 	
Route 2 	
Sumas—
Route 1 	
Route 2_ 	
Surrey-
Vancouver Island (Centre).
Vancouver Island (South)...
H. C. Clark—
H. C. Clark.	
H. C. Clark	
H. C. Clark	
J. A. Marriott-
Dave Blair..	
Dave Blair	
Dave Blair	
A. McDonald .
H. L. Davis	
Fred Philps—
Fred Philps	
J. J. Conroy—
D. Jones	
Gordon Park -
G. P. Crosby...
G. P. Crosby...
J. E. Dayton-
J. E. Dayton-
Edmund Molyneux..
T. C. Tryon-	
John Pendray	
Fred Nagel.
Fred Wiffen.
S. A. Blabey.
R. E. Chapman.
H. de Blieck.
R. Macgregor.
G. H. Bailey.
L. Craig MacNair.
Harry Johnson.
Arne Colly.
V. A. Gill.
A. H. Maddocks.
D. R. Johnson.
D. R. Johnson.
R. Macgregor.
D. S. Heelas.
L. Craig MacNair.
C. S. Lillies.
Philip Harvey.
W. D. Kitzel.
W. T. Calbick.
T. G. M. Clarke.
" With the exception of the route in the Okanagan, all associations have a full
complement of active members.
" The average production of all completed milking periods again shows a very
impressive increase for 1950. (Annual statistics are not available for several months,
until all reports are received.) It now stands at 9,088 pounds of milk and 393 pounds
of fat for 7,309 milking periods, which is an increase of 18 pounds of fat above the figure
for 1949.   A complete report follows:—
" Summarized Report of Provincial Cow-testing Associations for 1950
Average Production of All C.T.A. Milking Periods
Milk (Lb.)
Fat
Per Cent
Lb.
7,309 milking periods for 1950	
9,088
8,606
8,265
4.32
4.34
4.38
393
Year—
1945    -	
374
1940   .                       	
362
" The above figures indicate a very satisfactory improvement in the production of
the average cow in Provincial Cow-testing Associations.
"AVERAGE PRODUCTION BY BREEDS
Breed
Percentage
of Total
Milk (Lb.)
Fat
Per Cent
Lb.
Ayrshires	
Guernseys.	
Holsteins	
Jerseys	
Unclassified.
3.9
26.1
36.5
32.7
0.8
8,401
8,132
11,164
7,635
8,214
4.11
4.75
3.68
5.02
4.07
345
386
411
383
334 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951 Y 79
" In the Eleventh Annual List of Long Distance Production Records, there were
reports on 541 cows, each having 1 ton or more of butter-fat to their credit.
"The number of breed representatives was as follows: Ayrshires, 11; Guernseys,
125; Holsteins, 221;  Jerseys, 141;  cross-breds, 43.
"Field Routine.—Close contact has been maintained with Cow-testing Association
supervisors in the various districts.
" In this regard, J. A. Mace, Assistant, Dairy-herd Improvement Work, has been of
great help in frequently calling on these men. It is resulting in more complete reports, so
that greater use can be made of the information on file.
"A new route was organized in the Matsqui district, and Mr. Mace had much to do
with getting this started.
" Following a request for more information about forming a Cow-testing Association
in the West Kootenay, Mr. Mace visited the area in April and called on many dairymen.
Mr. Mace reports as follows:—
" ' During April, in compliance with growing demands for cow-testing work to start
in the West Kootenay District, a trip was made to Nelson, Trail, Rossland, etc., to give
information to interested dairymen regarding Cow-testing services, costs, etc. The enthusiastic help and co-operation of Dr. J. J. Carney, Provincial Veterinary Inspector, in that
area was much appreciated and contributed greatly to the number of contacts made.
While no Cow-testing Association has developed as yet from this effort, it is felt that seed
has been planted that will later bear fruit.'
"Owner-Sampler Project.—This scheme has been in operation about eighteen
months and provides an opportunity for owners of small herds to obtain production
records on each of their cows. There are approximately thirty herds being tested under
this plan, the majority of them being located in the Chilliwack area. As these records
are compiled from the weights of milk and samples taken by the owners, they are not
reported as Cow-testing Association records or used in compiling information.
" R.O.P.-C.T.A. Combined Service.—The arrangement between the Provincial and
Federal Departments of Agriculture, whereby British Columbia Cow-testing Association
supervisors prepare production reports of cows on R.O.P., is now commencing its fifth
year of operation. There are thirty-six herds taking advantage of this service, and the
average number of reports sent to Ottawa each month is 250.
" The remuneration of $2 per visit, received for this work, is inadequate, especially
when it is realized that the net savings to the Federal Department are the wages and
expenses of one man's services, or about $3,500 per annum.
" Certificates of Production.—During 1950 there were 7,309 milking periods completed, of which 3,657 qualified for certification. This is an increase of 575 above the
previous year.
" Identification of Calves.—For many years it has been possible for Cow-testing
Association members to preserve the identity of heifer calves having pure-bred sires and
dams on test. These young tagged animals, when they have milked a year, provide the
necessary information so that a report can be prepared for their respective sires, indicating whether or not the daughters are better producers than their dams.
"During the year under review, 1,950 D.O.T. tags have been forwarded to Cow-
testing Associations for the identification of heifer calves.
"Departmental Subsidies.—A total of $25,441 has been disbursed to Cow-testing
Associations during the past year to assist in their costs of operation, which include
supervisors' wages and transportation allowances.
"Publications and Reports.—Following is a list of the various publications that
have been compiled and are available in stencil form:—
" The Nineteenth List of Jersey Sires—Dairy Circular No. 64, containing new
accounts in respect to 142 sires. Y 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA
" The Nineteenth List of Holstein Sires—Dairy Circular No. 64, containing
new accounts in respect to 99 sires.
" An Alphabetical List of Jersey Sires, reports of which appear in the Fourteenth to Nineteenth Annual Lists of Jersey Sires—Dairy Circular No. 66.
" The Twentieth List of Ayrshire Sires—Herd Improvement Circular No. 67,
containing new accounts in respect to 40 sires.
" The Twentieth List of Guernsey Sires—Herd Improvement Circular No. 67,
containing new accounts in respect to 70 sires.
" The Twelfth Annual List of Long Distance Production Records—Herd
Improvement Circular No. 68, with particulars of cumulative milk and
butter-fat records for 588 cows.
" Farming Practices and Feeding Methods in Leading C.T.A. Herds—Herd
Improvement Circular No. 69."
SUMMARY OF TRANSACTIONS UNDER PURE-BRED SIRES FOR
FARMERS' INSTITUTES POLICY
Figures in parentheses are those for 1950. A total of 9 (11) pure-bred sires was
purchased during the year 1951 at a total cost of $4,800 ($2,490) with a total freight
charge to this Department of $497.01 ($585.58). The highest price paid was $1,025,
for an Aberdeen Angus purchased at the Lacombe Sale of the Central Alberta Cattle
Breeders.
Sires purchased, with Institutes to which they were shipped, were as follows:
Holsteins 1 (2), Nanaimo-Cedar; Ayrshires 1 (1), Nelson; Aberdeen Angus 1 (2),
Kersley; Hereford 3 (2), Grand Forks, Pemberton, Cranbrook; Shorthorn 3 (4),
Wistaria, Black Pool, Pemberton.
Payments received on the above animals totalled $1,612.08, with the balance payable over the next two years. In addition, payments on previous purchases were received
through Farmers' Institutes in the amount of $1,402.57, making a total of $3,014.65
($2,398.52).   Four accounts are also now due, amounting to $282.50.
Final payments were received on eleven sires, including two Ayrshires, one Jersey,
two Guernsey, two Holsteins, one Aberdeen Angus, two Shorthorns, and one Red Poll,
and the pedigrees transferred by the Live Stock Commissioner to the new owners.
REPORT OF THE ROYAL AGRICULTURAL WINTER FAIR,
TORONTO, NOVEMBER 13th TO 21st, 1951
This great Canadian institution has just completed its thirty-first year, and Twenty-
fourth Royal Fair, with another great record. To those who are desirous of keeping
fully informed and up to date on types and trends in live-stock production, this event
must be considered as the most important educational event of the year.
British Columbia Hereford Exhibit
British Columbia Hereford breeders offered one carload of breeding stock. Every
entry shown by our exhibitors received a placing in its respective class. The judge for
the Hereford classes was James G. Sanders, Phoenix, Ariz., U.S.A. His placings seemed
uniform, and he appeared to select cattle of reasonable scale and fair fleshing. He definitely adopted a particular character of head as his standard.
As you examine our several wins in the many classes, certain things should be
observed. The win made by Len W. Wood of first in the class for females 2 years old
or over, with a home-bred entry, which went through to take the reserve female championship, clearly indicates that many of our smaller British Columbia breeders can
compete at this show and may expect to win their fair share of prizes.   The other point DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1951 Y 81
which warrants attention is the very excellent standing made in the group classes by
Earlscourt Farms Limited. It is one thing to buy individuals and show them to win the
classes for singles, but it takes a real breeder to breed winners in the group classes and
especially to repeat this type of win year after year.
Earlscourt Farms Limited, Lytton, and Len W. Wood, Armstrong, were the only
British Columbia exhibitors. y
%«Bl§*1gS«;
—
British Columbia Hereford Exhibit at the 1951 Royal Agricultural Winter Fair, Toronto.
A brief review of the classes in which British Columbia Herefords competed
follows.
Bull, 2 Years or Over: Court Tone 14th, 235865, owned by Earlscourt Farms
Limited, placed second.
Bull, Senior Yearling: Court Lionheart Tone 64d, 280932, owned by Earlscourt
Farms Limited, placed second.
Bull, Summer Yearling: Baca Royal Domino 8th, 292512, owned by Len W.
Wood, placed fifth, and Court Lionheart 38e, 288093, owned by Earlscourt Farms
Limited, placed ninth.
Bull, Junior Calf: Court Tone Junior 9f, 306767, owned by Earlscourt Farms
Limited, placed second.
Female, 2 Years or Over: Elwood Susie Que, 259207, owned by Len W. Wood,
placed first and went on to win the reserve senior championship, and Court Domineta
Lionheart, 258407, owned by Earlscourt Farms Limited, placed third in this class.
Female, Senior Yearling: Court Miss Tone 66d, 280934, owned by Earlscourt
Farms Limited, placed third, and Court Agnes Lionheart 61d, 280929, owned by Earlscourt Farms Limited, placed fourth. Y 82
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Female, Junior Yearling: Court Miss Lionheart 1e, 288060, owned by Earlscourt
Farms Limited, placed seventh, and Court Miss Tone 28e, owned by Earlscourt Farms
Limited, placed eighth.
Female, Senior Calf: Elwood Pretty, 201995, owned by Len W. Wood, placed fifth.
Female, Junior Calf: Court Miss Lionheart 3f, 306761, owned by Earlscourt Farms
Limited, placed seventh, and Court Miss Lionheart 4f, 306762, owned by Earlscourt
Farms Limited, placed ninth.
Get of Sire: Earlscourt Farms Limited placed third and fourth (ten entries shown).
Breeder's Herd: Earlscourt Farms Limited placed second (five entries shown).
Two Bulls, Any Age: Earlscourt Farms Limited, placed fourth (ten entries shown).
Three Calves from Senior or Junior Calf Classes: Earlscourt Farms Limited placed
second (five entries shown).
SHEEP
Prices for breeding stock, meat, and wool have been very satisfactory. More flocks
have been established, as predicted. Everything said in the last Report relative to the
problem of predators and sheep-killing by dogs still obtains.
See Appendix No. 6 for averages prices of lambs from December 1st, 1950, to
November 30th, 1951, and Appendix No. 3 for inspected slaughtering of sheep.
Following is a summary of live stock killed by dogs and compensation paid under
the "Sheep Protection Act." It should be borne in mind that this only accounts for
reported losses in unorganized areas. Many municipalities in the Province collect their
own dog taxes and adjust their own claims.
Year
Goats
Sheep
Poultry
Number
Compensation
Number
Compensation
Number
Compensation
1947  	
1948         	
1949-  	
1950      	
1951 ..                 -        	
4
4
11
8
1
$80.00
97.50
145.00
135.00
18.00
159
86
191
123
114
$1,920.50
1,110.50
2,836.50
1,721.00
1,728.00
1,042
704
861
1,371
401
$1,310.50
2,151.91
1,230.25
1,996.58
673.80
SWINE
The industry is in much the same position as last year. British Columbia is not a
grain-raising Province. Its land is, generally speaking, higher priced than in most other
Provinces. Specialized farming makes up a great part of our agricultural pursuits, with
special farming such as dairying for the whole-milk market. Swine-raising cannot always
be easily fitted into the over-all agricultural production picture. This type of farming
furnishes very little in the way of by-products, as milk and grain for the production of
swine.
For inspected slaughterings of hogs, see Appendix No. 3, and for average prices for
hogs, see Appendix No. 7.
DISEASE
Hemorrhagic Septicemia.—This disease, in its complex form, is generally known
as " shipping fever."   It is universally distributed and constitutes a permanent problem.
Coccidiosis.—This disease, once one of our worst winter problems, is gradually
being reduced.
Necrotic Stomatitis.—This disease is widely distributed, but general distribution of
a special circular has resulted in the disease being brought under very satisfactory control.
Blackleg and Malignant GZdema.—Blackleg is widely distributed, and the high
resistance of the organism insures it always remaining on any farm or ranch whenever it
once appears.   A special circular on this disease is available. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1951 Y 83
Associated with blackleg is another quite similar infection known as "malignant
oedema," which in the past is believed to have been responsible for many losses even in
blackleg-vaccinated herds.
Equine Encephalomyelitis.—Scattered reports received in this office indicated some
step-up in the incidence of the disease this year.
Caseous Lymphadenitis.—Throughout the years excellent progress has been made
toward the eradication of this disease. It is a slow chronic insidious disease. The
increase in importations of old breeding ewes from the Prairies this fall calls for a closer
check on flocks next spring, preferably at shearing-time. A few flocks remain under
quarantine, but even in these flocks the incidence is low.
Keratitis (Pink-eye).—Beef-cattle ranchers are becoming much more conscious of
the disease and are giving more prompt attention to outbreaks, following out the general
recommendations suggested by this Branch.
Carcinoma of the Eye.—This condition seems to be extending, and it is now felt that
there is a genetical weakness, if not a definite inheritance factor. This, along with the
part played by irritants such as keratitis, dust, strong sun's rays, and insects, completes
the chain of contributions.
Foot-rot in Sheep.—Continued steady improvement can be reported, but the step-up
in importations of old ewes calls for closer flock inspections next spring.
Foot-rot in Cattle.—A different infection from the sheep condition. Our work in
the field is showing results, especially within our disease-control areas.
Liver Abscess.—This condition is more often found in herds where foot-rot is
prevalent. The dominant infective organism in both conditions is the same. Here again
our regular field visits to ranches can pay off.
Actinomycosis and Actinobacillosis.—These conditions appear singly or as mixed
infection. A personally conducted campaign against actinomycosis commenced over
fifteen years ago to rid large sections of the country of this disease. However, it has
gradually been making its way back again.
Swine Erysipelas.—This is a very difficult disease to bring under control or to clean
up, since it may remain quiescent for years in some herd only to suddenly come out in
acute or sub-acute breaks. It appears in several forms, from the so-called " diamond
skin disease " to the arthritic form.
Swine Rhinitis.—Another member of the complex swine-disease group. Breeders
are becoming conscious of this condition and are trying to remove it from their herds, but
it is a long way from being eradicated.
Other Complex Swine Troubles. — These include the different enteric (scours)
troubles, pulmonary (lung) infections such as 'flu, etc. These conditions are associated
with mixed infections, some specific and others non-specific.
Non-infectious Abortion in Range Cattle.—Again no outbreaks have been reported.
There, no doubt, were scattered cases which were not recognized and, of course, not
reported.
Infectious Abortion Other than Brucella Infection.—A few cases of abortion found
to be caused by the Trichamoniasis foetus were uncovered. A few cases also were
uncovered with which the causal organism was Vibrio foetus.
Mastitis.—One of the truly great problems, important from the standpoint of the
dairy cattlemen in that the disease, when established, reduces the production in the
affected herd from 20 to 25 per cent, and important from the point of public health.
We are attempting to deal with the problem in a practical manner. Our farm and
herd dairy inspections made by Veterinary Inspectors of the Branch furnish the basis of
our campaign. Y 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA
More detailed information may be obtained from the reports of the Veterinary
Inspectors.
BRUCELLOSIS-CONTROL
Calf hood vaccination with Strain 19 Brucella Vaccine is the first step in the control
and eradication of brucellosis. Very fortunately British Columbia has, I believe, only the
bovine type, caused by the Brucella abortus.
Circular No. 40, on brucellosis and its control, is in great demand and is helping to
spread the story.   A statement of the work accomplished to date follows.
Commencing in 1941, immediately following approval of the import and use of
Brucella abortus vaccine (strain 19), this Division sponsored a programme of calf hood
vaccination in co-operation with private-practising veterinarians, which resulted in 3,098
calves being vaccinated in the first year ending July 31st, 1942. The number of calves
vaccinated annually increased, until 17,083 were done in the ninth year ending July 14th,
1950, the date on which the present Federal-Provincial Brucellosis-control Programme
commenced. A grand total of 83,730 was vaccinated during the nine years. (For annual
record of vaccinations see Annual Report for 1950.)
Under this joint policy, which is administered by this Division, with the vaccine being
supplied free of charge by the Federal Department of Agriculture, this work has gone
ahead.   The work accomplished to date is as follows:—
July 15th, 1950, to November 30th, 1950     7,239
December 1st, 1950, to November 30th, 1951  21,438
Total to date L 28,677
Of this total, 13,114 head or 45.7 per cent were vaccinated by Provincial Veterinarians under our disease-free area plan.
In last year's Report the table showed the end of the ninth year of organized vaccination as July 14th, 1950, instead of July 31st. This came about as a result of it being the
end of the strictly Provincial policy. On July 15th, 1950, we began the new Federal-
Provincial policy. Under this policy the Federal Health of Animals Division began to
supply free to the Provincial Department of Agriculture all Brucella vaccine to be used
in this Province. It is the duty of the Provincial Department to take full charge of the
administration of the policy. This plan is working out satisfactorily. A change in date
of the beginning of the so-called " vaccination year " may have to be made, but all figures
given will be complete.
The grand total of vaccinations under the strictly Provincial policy for the period of
nine years ending July 14th, 1950, amounted to 83,730, which includes 14,121 head
vaccinated under our area policy and done by our own staff during the period since area
work began unofficially during the autumn of 1946. The first area was gazetted by
Order in Council on May 18th, 1949. This means that during the nine years, from a
simple beginning without pressure, but simply by educational work, British Columbia
cattle-owners located almost entirely on the dairy-farms of the Fraser Valley voluntarily
vaccinated with the help of their veterinary practitioners 69,609 calves.
Area Programmes
We are now well along into our fifth year of area work. Calf vaccination is the basis
of the programme in most of the areas.
We hope to shortly have gazetted that territory from and including Anahim Lake
through the Chilcotin to link up with the No. 5 Area (Greater Horsefly) on the northeast and the No. 4 Area (Alkali Lake-Dog Creek) to the south-west down to a point in
the neighbourhood of the 100-Mile House and extending east to meet up with the No. 7
Area (Nehalliston).   This territory will fully include the areas which were listed in last DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1951 Y 85
year's Report tentatively as Areas Nos. .13 and 14.   The work of vaccinating over this
territory for this year is quite well advanced at this date.
The area temporarily listed in last year's Report as Area No. 15 (Galiano Island)
has been finally gazetted as Area No. 13, and includes the following group of islands:
Galiano, Mayne, Saturna, North Pender, South Pender, Prevost, and Moresby.
The material which makes up the reports on the disease-control areas includes a very
good deal of the work done by several members of the staff—namely, Dr. G. M. Clark
and Urban Guichon, Kamloops; Dr. I. D. C. Clark, Penticton; and Dr. J. G. Fowler,
Prince George. Mr. Guichon spent a good part of his available time during the summer
months on organization within the different areas, especially in the newer areas, such as
those in the Greater Cariboo territory.
Both Dr. G. M. Clark and Dr. I. D. C. Clark do a very considerable amount of this
type of work as they are busy at the other work in the areas. Dr. I. D. C. Clark has taken
care of such work in the Princeton area. Mr. Guichon spent considerable time with the
organizing of a new area, just now ready for gazetting. This area will link up our Princeton Area No. 9 with our South-west Kootenay Area No. 8.
Dr. J. G. Fowler worked in the South-west Kootenay Area No. 8 from June 19th to
August 4th, assisting Dr. J. J. Carney and Dr. R. L. Lancaster in their regular area
programme. Early in November Dr. Fowler joined the other members of the staff in the
great area drive, chiefly working in the Greater Cariboo territory.
The following is a summarized report of the different areas: —
Area No. 1 (Inonoaklin Disease-free Area).—Over 600 head of cattle, a brucellosis-
free area, as shown by blood test.   Last area test completed September 15th, 1951.
Area No. 2 (Nicola Disease-free Area).—About 25,000 head of cattle. First
annual vaccinations on a complete area basis in autumn of 1947, and completed early
in 1948.
Dr. G. M. Clark, Veterinary Inspector, and Mr. Guichon, Live Stock Inspector for
the Branch, report a check made of this area shows almost all breeding females will now
be vaccinated. Approximately 14,000 head have been vaccinated in Area No. 2 since
our work began four years ago.
Area No. 3 (Cherryville Disease-free Area).—With some 200 head of cattle, all
blood-tested and tuberculin-tested. No vaccinating has been done in the area, at the
special request of the cattlemen. It is now some four years since this work was done,
and a retest is due this next year.
Area No. 4 (Alkali Lake-Dog Creek Disease-free Area).—One of the most compact
and intimately organized areas we have to work with. Roughly some 3,000 head of
cattle, with five ranches in all, but mostly under two owners. Over 2,000 vaccinations
have been done in the area.
Area No. 5 (Greater Horsefly Disease-free Area).—The work in this area is proceeding according to plan.
Area No. 6 (Savona Disease-free Area).—With some 5,000 head of cattle, this area
is coming up for the fourth complete annual vaccination.
Area No. 7 (Nehalliston Disease-free Area).—This area has just had the third
annual vaccination completed (November, 1951). The area supports some 500 head
of cattle, with about 400 vaccinations having been done to date.
Considerable blood-testing has been done in this area by Dr. G. M. Clark. This
work and the work of Mr. Guichon in live-stock production are showing encouraging
results.
Area No. 8 (South-west Kootenay Disease-free Area).—This mixed-farming area,
with a cattle population of mostly dairy cows in its extended form, has had somewhat
over 3,000 more cattle blood-tested this year on approximately 1,450 premises.   Dr. J. G
. Y 86
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Fowler, during his short stay in the area, blood-tested some 307 cattle on 135 premises,
with Dr. Lancaster doing 1,353 cattle on 611 premises after his return on May 1st from
five months assisting the Federal Health of Animals Division with tuberculin-testing.
The balance of the blood-testing of some 1,463 head of cattle was done by Dr. J. J.
Carney.
This area has now been fully completed, except for the territory lying between a
point 5 miles east of Syringa Creek and extending for some 10 miles to the Slocan River
at Shoreacres.
Area No. 9 (Princeton Disease-free Area).—With about 2,500 head of cattle, this
area is primarily a beef range district, with a few dairy herds located in the vicinity of
the town of Princeton to supply milk to the town and the other small communities. This
area was gazetted on May 10th, 1950. The first general vaccination programme was
started in the autumn of 1949. All the work in this area has been done by Dr. I. D. C.
Clark.
Area No. 10 (Powell River Disease-free Area).—This is a small valley made up of
some 46 cattle-owners with approximately 326 head of cattle listed on the original
petition. The area was gazetted on May 31st, 1950. The first blood test of the area
was completed in October, 1951. The work was done by Dr. C. F. Morris. In his
report on the work, he shows 47 cattle-owners with 235 cattle bled, and 195 head or
83.1 per cent of the cattle negative and 35 head or 14.8 per cent of them positive and
5 head or 2.1 per cent suspicious.   Disease was found on eight premises.
Dr. Morris reports some 90 cattle slaughtered since the area was gazetted. In this
area 11 head of calves have been vaccinated.
The following statements from the report of Dr. Morris offer some additional
thoughts:—
Comparison of Reactions between Breeds
Holstein
Guernsey
Jersey
Ayrshire
Cross-breeds
Goats
Totals
Blood-test Result
Head
Per
Cent
Head
Per
Cent
Head
Per
Cent
Head
Per
Cent
Head
Per
Cent
Head
Per
Cent
47
12
70.6
20.4
45
11
1
78.9
19.3
1.8
37
10
1
77.1
20.8
2.1
14
2
87.5
12.5
24
3
88.8
11.2
28
195
38
2
82.9
Positive 	
Suspicious 	
16.1
1.0
Totals —	
59
57
48
16
27
28
235
Comparison of Reactions between Age-groups
Blood-test
Result
Under 1 Year
1 to 2 Years
2 to 3 Years
3 to 5 Years
5 to 8 Years
Over 8 Years
Goats
Totals
Head
Per
Cent
Head
Per
Cent
Head
Per
Cent
Head
Per
Cent
Head
Per
Cent
Head
Per
Cent
Head
Per
Cent
Negative	
Positive -	
Suspicious .	
16
1
94.1
5.9
32
100.0
21
3
87.5
12.5
35
9
1
77.7
20.0
2.3
47
12
1
78.3
20.0
1.7
16
13
55.2
44.8
28
1
195    ] 82.9
38       16.1
2    1    1.0
Totals
17
32
24
45
60
I    29
1
28
235
Area No. 11 (Burton Disease-free Area).—This area adjoins the Inonoaklin Area
No. 1 and the South-west Kootenay Area No. 8. It is a mixed-farming district and at
the time of gazetting, June 16th, 1950, was reported to have some 57 cattle-owners with
about 280 head of cattle. A few herds within the area have been tested where exports
were to be made, but it was felt advisable to complete the work in Area No. 8 and then
proceed to do the Burton area. Work in this area is now under way. It should be
possible to get the work completed very soon, weather permitting. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951 Y 87
Area No. 12 (Squamish Disease-free Area).—This small valley at the top of Howe
Sound, when gazetted June 21st, 1950, listed some 46 cattle-owners with 325 cattle.
The blood test completed earlier this year by Dr. A. Kidd shows 215 head of cattle on
twenty-five premises with 27 head positive and 6 head suspicious, which indicates an
over-all of 18.16 per cent infected if all positive and suspicious are included. Dr. Kidd
reports 39 calves vaccinated.   All reactors have been removed.
A check made on the difference in cattle numbers of 325 recorded and only 215
tested was found to be due to slaughterings from these herds for several reasons, not
reported when the first test was made.
Area No. 13 (Gulf Islands Disease-free Area).—This group of islands includes
Galiano, Mayne, Saturna, North Pender, South Pender, Prevost, and Moresby.
A very thorough job has been done in this area by Dr. A. Kidd. All cattle on the
islands have been tested, with the exception of Prevost Island. These could not be
assembled at the time of Dr. Kidd's visit, but they will be rounded up in March, when
the regular retest is being made, on premises where reactors were found in the previous
tests.
In all, 214 cattle on forty premises have been tested. The area as constituted was
gazetted July 25th, 1951. Due to the emergency of the situation, some tests were made
prior to gazetting.   The summary of work to date is as follows:—
Galiano Island (eleven premises in all were done, with 88 cattle bled, and all
reactors found on one premises):
September 20th, 1950—25 head bled, 11 positive and 2 suspicious.
November 9th, 1950—10 head bled, 1  previous reactor again positive
and 1 suspicious previously negative.
April 9th, 1951—10 head bled, 1 positive, which had been negative to
two previous tests.
August 23rd, 1951—17 head, all negative.
October 18th, 1951—13 head, all negative.
(Note.—Difference in herd numbers due to new animals being
added.)
Saturna Island:  November 16th, 1951—31 head bled, all negative;  11 head
calves vaccinated.
South Pender:   November 13th, 1951—12 head bled, all negative;   1 calf
vaccinated.
North Pender:   November 14th, 1951—51 head bled, all negative;  4 calves
vaccinated.
Mayne Island:
October 10th, 1951—68 head bled (fifteen premises), 1 positive, 1 suspicious, both slaughtered.
November 26th, 1951—7 head rebled, no reactors found.
Moresby Island:  No cattle on island.
Prevost Island: Cattle not available, but the work to be done early in new year.
All reactors in this area have been slaughtered.
Area No. 14 (Saltspring Island Disease-free Area).—The work in this area was
done by Dr. A. Robertson, Veterinary Inspector, Victoria, and is presented in his annual
report.
The summary of work done in this area follows: Ninety-two premises with 568
cattle bled, 521 found negative, 40 head positive, and 7 head suspicious. This test was
completed on August 20th, 1951. Retest of the area was made on October 26th, 1951,
on nine premises, with 44 cattle bled, 38 negative, 6 head positive.
All reactors on the retest were found in one herd. Work of clean-up and complete
removal of all reactors will be completed shortly in the new year. The percentage of
reactors for this area to date is 8.1 per cent. Y 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PROVINCIAL WARBLE-FLY AND TICK CONTROL
British Columbia was the first Province in Canada to establish an organized campaign
against the warble-fly. This work commenced in the spring of 1930. In general, it can
be said that we are making progress.   In some areas we are making very distinct progress.
Briefly, our problems can be listed as follows:—
(1) The size of the job—to be entirely successful every cattle beast in every
herd over the entire Province would have to be treated. This calls for
a very large staff of outside workers for that period. It calls for a great
deal of intimate organization.
(2) Lack of interest on the part of the stockmen, once the incidence of
infestation gets down low.
(3) Reinfestation due to new cattle coming into clean districts and herds,
especially at seasons of the year when no means of checking is possible.
Extracts from the annual reports of our two Live Stock Inspectors follow. Urban
Guichon reports as follows:—
"This programme proceeded in the spring of 1951 much the same as in previous
years. Approximately the same amount of derris-powder was distributed from this office
as in previous years. The practice is now quite widespread in the Nicola area to treat
cattle for ticks with the benzine-hexachloride solution at the same time as the warble
spray is applied."
The following extracts are from the report of F. C. Clark, Live Stock Inspector, New
Westminster. This report definitely shows progress. The intimate pains taken in the
organization and conduct of this work can scarcely be appreciated even from this complete
report.   It must be borne in mind that this is a voluntary policy.
" Powder for the eradication of warble-grubs in cattle was again made available to
cattle-owners free of charge at seventy-eight distributing centres in the Fraser Valley by
the end of February.
"As usual, considerable publicity was given to our campaign by the local newspapers, periodicals, and radio stations.
" Smaller packages of half-pound size were again the favoured size for distribution,
tending to less waste of the material.
" Data on the amount of powder distributed in the various municipalities is given
belOW: Number ot Distribution
Municipality Centres Pounds of Powder
Chilliwack     7 163
Coquitlam      2 8
Delta      2 46 Vz
Dewdney      3 34
Kent      2 32
Langley   19 249
Maple Ridge     3 19J/2
Matsqui   10 132
Mission  l_    5 96V2
New Westminster     1 10
Nicomen      2 16
Pitt Meadows     1 90
Richmond and Sea Island     5 89
Sumas      4 99
Surrey   12 118
78 l,202i/2
Distributed to 14 stock-owners  22Vi
Total distributed  1,225 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1951 Y 89
" Warble Incidence.—Although warble-grubs appeared on a few herds in late January and early in February, the greater number were noted from mid-March until the
end of April.
" During a survey of herds a record was kept of the number of cattle found free of
warbles and of varying degrees of infestation as shown in a following table.
" Warble incidence has been reduced this year, and it was found that approximately
80 per cent of all stock examined were free of warbles.
"A marked lessening of warble incidence was noted this year in cows and in young
stock as compared to 1950. Bulls showed an increase in warble incidence over 1950,
but the number examined was rather too small to be conclusive. It may be noted from
the following table that 18.2 per cent of the bulls examined had 82.7 per cent of the
warbles found on bulls.
" Table following lists the warble incidence on cattle in the Fraser Valley during
the past four years.
"Average warble incidence shows a marked reduction this year compared to the
past three years. Herd-owners are appreciative of our control programme and wish to
have it continued. Many express themselves as very definitely in favour of compulsory
control. Y 90
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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U
>H DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1951
Y 91
R. L. Wilkinson, District Agriculturist, Courtenay, reports he found many cattlemen non-co-operative, not even turning in a report. He reports the Coombs district
to have done a good job of work and of reporting, with 240 cattle treated and a total
of 128 warbles found.   Such an area could easily be cleaned up if the work is continued.
He reports Cherry Creek district, Alberni area, also did a good job, with 164 head
treated and 168 warbles found.
Reports received from J. D. Hazlette, District Agriculturist, Duncan, are summarized as follows:—
Class of Stock
Head
Warbles
Average
Bulls  -  	
13
243
39
99
29
919
403
377
2.2
3.8
10.3
Yearlings	
3.8
394
1,728
4.3
J. W. Awmack, District Agriculturist, Cranbrook, reports:—
" Heel-flies have been reported in all areas by observers.   However, the numbers
have been reduced quite noticeably during the past few seasons.    In the area from
Brisco to Golden it is difficult to get treatments continued as warbles are so few in
number.   Young stock continue to be the most affected class of cattle."
Report received from M. J. Walsh, District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, follows:—
" The warble-fly control programme was again successfully carried out by this
office, with approximately 22,000 head of cattle being treated.    The following is a
breakdown of materials used in 1950 and 1951, and an analysis of reports on warble-
fly incidence.
" Programme Details
1950 1951
Cattle treated  13,000 22,000
Material distributed—
Dry insecticide   2861b. 2501b.
Power spray mix  6701b. 1,5001b.
" Incidence of Warbles by Areas
Area
Bulls
Cows
2-year-olds
Yearlings
2
3
2
10
2
3
2
4
3
6
5
5
4
1
6
20
8
150-Mile House	
8
Alexis Creek-Hanceville  .,.„	
5
2
8
30
"It is worth noting that the average number of warbles per animal in an area
is closely related to the proportion of cattle treated in that area during the past several
years."
Report from J. F. Caplette, District Agriculturist, Vernon, follows. The summary
shows forty-seven farms treating 1,913 head of cattle in all, made up of 65 bulls, 1,714
mature cows, and 134 head of young stock, and 133^ pounds of warble powder used.
" Plans were laid early in January whereby local dairies would distribute a mimeographed pamphlet prepared by this office to each of their shippers. Included in this
area were S.O.D.I.C.A. plants at Vernon and Enderby, Armstrong Cheese Co-op.,
Kelowna Creameries, Lakeview Dairies, and Kalamalka Dairy.    These include over Y 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA
95 per cent of the milk and cream producers in the North Okanagan. In addition to
this, two news articles were prepared for the four local newspapers in co-operation with
C. L. Neilson.
" An article written by U. Guichon, Live Stock Branch in Kamloops, was also used.
The newspapers co-operated in every way to give this adequate coverage at the
proper time.
" Infestation of warble-fly is now mainly restricted to dairy-farms located on the
fringe of the valley-bottoms adjacent to range lands and mountains.
" The farms and ranches located in the central sections of the valley have very
small numbers of warbles appearing on the cattle. It is the practice in a considerable
number of cases to move young stock out to range and rough pasture during the
summer months. Here they come in contact with infected areas and take the warbles
back to the home farms.
" Degree of infestation is light, with few cattle having more than ten or twenty
warbles in the spring. It is also restricted to only 20 per cent of the cattle in any one
herd. (Note by Live Stock Commissioner.—This would seem to be a high infestation
in many parts of the country.)
" Of the larger ranches, Coldstream Ranch is the only one which has maintained
a thorough programme for the past five years. However, the majority of the purebred-
beef breeders came in for powder and instructions for spraying. These represent a
fair percentage of beef-breeders but not a large majority of the beef-cattle population.
" Approximately 865 head were treated at the Coldstream Ranch again this year.
An examination of the cattle before spraying showed only occasional warbles on heifers.
The five-year programme has virtually eliminated the pest."
Report received from S. B. Peterson, District Agriculturist, Creston, states that
this district is very compact and admits of doing an intimate job. To summarize, 752
head of cattle were treated on forty-five premises, using 75 pounds of warble powder.
There were 54 bulls in all, but 30 per cent of those were on one farm, the only cattle
on the farm. The average infestation was quite low, being from two to five warbles per
animal, except in four herds, which showed averages from eight to fourteen warbles.
Reports from J. F. Carmichael, District Agriculturist, Grand Forks, state in
summary:—
" There were only 26Vi pounds of warble powder distributed from this office,
and according to the stockmen taking the powder, it was to be used on approximately
550 head of cattle. This is not a very big usage for powder for a district this size.
I am afraid that cattlemen are neglecting the control programme much more this year
than they have done in the past, in spite of all warnings issued to them. This may be
due to the feeling that they had the warble-fly pretty well under control during the
past few years. The big majority of herds have very few warbles showing up. However, there are a few of the more important herds where control has not been carried
on for the past few years, and the warble infestation is quite severe in those cattle."
Central British Columbia and the Peace River Block can be almost considered a
warble-free area, due to years of concentrated work. Of course, additions to the herd
and the odd warble remaining will have to be watched.
" MILK ACT " ADMINISTRATION, DAIRY-HERD INSPECTION,
AND DAIRY-FARM GRADING
This work is of first importance to the dairy industry as well as to public health.
Our Veterinary Inspectors render a very great service to the dairymen by advising them
regarding their methods, equipment, and the health of their cattle.
The work of the last few years shows a rapidly changing attitude on the part of
more and more dairymen.    The visits of our Inspectors are being welcomed;   many DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951 Y 93
dairymen are asking for return visits from our Veterinary Inspectors. Public Health
authorities report a marked improvement in the quality of the milk reaching the
consumer.
Appendix No. 8, a summary of premises and herds graded by our Veterinary
Inspectors, furnishes information which could very well be carefully examined.
A study of the grades given to dairy-farmers this year shows that in some districts
real progress has been made, while in other districts the progress is unnecessarily slow.
In the Fraser Valley, in 1950, in the gradings recorded, 11 received an A Grade, 239
a B Grade, and 147 were given Ungraded certificates. In 1951, in gradings made,
15 were given an A Grade, 402 a B Grade, and 68 an Ungraded certificate. A lot
of intimate work by our Inspectors, with the help of the officers of the Health Department, Vancouver City, and some of the smaller distributers, has materially reduced
the number of ungraded premises.
In the Greater Vancouver Island area, in 1950, out of 639 dairy-farms graded,
146 were given Grade A certificates, 376 Grade B certificates, and 117 Ungraded
certificates. In 1951, 390 premises and herds were graded, and 85 received a Grade A
certificate, 139 a Grade B certificate, and 30 an Ungraded certificate, with 134 premises
graded where milk was to be used for home consumption.
The Cariboo-Kamloops-Lillooet-Quesnel district, much of which work was done
by Dr. G. M. Clark, shows progress, but there are still too many ungraded premises
to contend with. The indifference of either or both the dairies that receive the milk
or the municipal authorities for not co-operating with our effort has prevented our
getting producers up to grade or out of business.
Central British Columbia and Northern British Columbia are showing improvement. The work of Dr. C. F. Morris, done during the last two years, laid a good foundation. With a full-time Inspector, Dr. J. G. Fowler, located at Prince George, who
arrived in early August to take up his duties, further progress can be again reported.
A great deal of good systematic basic work was started this fall by Dr. Fowler. Personal
visits to dairymen to discuss improvements in methods and to encourage particularly
the construction of simple, practical milk-houses and reasonable stable improvements
are giving evidence of big returns.
In the Greater Okanagan, where Dr. I. D. C. Clark and Dr. G. M. Clark work,
progress has been slow for the last number of years, largely due to the lack of cooperation we have received from some of the dairies. But with the very excellent
support we have been receiving from the local health units, the picture is changing
quite noticeably.
In the Kootenays, East and West, where Drs. J. J. Carney and R. L. Lancaster
have been working for a few years, the whole situation has been markedly improved.
Records show 19 Grade A herds and premises, 58 Grade B, and 55 with Ungraded
certificates. There are 13 Grade C premises which are being followed out closely and
will either be ungraded or advanced in grade and left eligible to sell milk. The programme of bleeding many herds under our area brucellosis programme permitted our
Inspectors at the same time to give every cattle-owner an official grading, thus leaving
the onus on the producer to get a regrade before offering milk for sale. The 844
grouped as ungraded under the list of cattle-owners using the milk for home use are
thus disposed of and can be considered as finished business.
General quotations from reports of Inspectors as they apply to dairy-farm and
herd gradings follow.   To begin with that of Dr. Robertson:— Y 94
BRITISH COLUMBIA
" Table 1.—Summary of Dairy Inspections
Number
of
Premises
Total
Cattle
Number
of Milk
Cows
Number
Milking at
Time of
Inspection
Grade of Premises
District
A
B
C
U
16
34
23
83
10
99
90
35
246
532
290
1,066
95
2,432
420
350
159
316
151
676
52
1,548
218
200
117
247
115
513
41
1,271
190
151
5
7
4
11
1
49
3
9
8
19
12
40
3
33
4
15
1
2
3
2
2
Comox	
5
6
Nanaimo....   -	
Newcastle.—:   -	
Saanich   	
19
6
14
83
11
Totals 	
390
5,431
3,320
2,645
89
134
8
146
"(This table may not seem to exactly coincide with summarized total appendix,
but apparent differences can be attributed to such things as revisits, etc.)
" Table 2.—Summary of Mastitis Examinations
District
Number
Examined
Number
Clinical
Number to
Eliminate
Number of Infected Quarters
R.F.
L.F.    1   R.H.
L.H.
105
209
105
448
41
1,231
183
112
12
20
15
50
1
157
14
12
2
1
6
1
1
4
6
29
46
7
4
5
8
6
27
1
51
3
2
1
3
3
13
51
5
4
6
5
Cowichan   '	
Nanaimo    	
Newcastle— - 	
Saanich  	
3
6
50
4
4
Totals _ 	
2,434
281
10
97       1     103       1       80       1       78
" Twenty-five visits were made in response to requests for advice regarding location
and construction of dairy-barns, milk-houses, and loafing-sheds.
" Fourteen special visits were made where serious sanitation problems existed.
" The cattle on Saltspring Island (Disease-control Area No. 14) were bled for the
brucellosis agglutination test and were examined for mastitis and warble-fly larvae.
"A Court action against an offender of the ' Milk Act,' which was unnecessarily prolonged and handled in a very unsatisfactory manner by the Court, caused considerable
disruption in the work over a period of several months."
Dr. A. Kidd reports as follows:—
" Summary of Dairy-farm Inspections
District
Number
of
Premises
Total
Cattle
Total
Milk
Cows
Number
Milking at
Time of
Inspection
Grade
A
B              C
U
Richmond..  _	
5
3
10
138
2
9
15
119
3
10
33
58
1
25
40
181
51
285
2,036
75
327
480
2,459
196
288
773
1,810
36
354
261
110
28
163
1,208
37
214
296
1,310
111
189
445
973
21
74
105
90
26
129
976
34
172
241
1,088
86
165
393
805
15
45
63
2
1
1
2
3
1
3
5
1
9
82
2
6
13
101
1
10
31
54
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
53
2
2
14
Mission    	
Nicomen 	
Kent  	
Matsqui 	
Langley  	
Surrey  	
Squamish -
2
1
21
35
Totals -  ■
471
9,612
5,284
4,328
13
321               4
133 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1951 Y 95
"A Grade, 2.76 per cent of premises graded; B Grade, 68.15 per cent of premises
graded; C Grade, 0.85 per cent of premises graded; Ungraded, 28.24 per cent of
premises graded.
" The following list sets out additional work accomplished because of the ' Milk
Act ':—
"(1) Twenty-eight farm visits because of barn or milk-house construction,
or because of a live-stock problem.
"(2) Seven visits to Brooksbank Farms Limited (certified milk plant).
"(3) Four farm visits because of the possibility of being raw-milk producer-
vendors.
"(4)  Two meetings with the Sanitary Inspectors in the Fraser Valley on
matters pertaining to milk.
"(5) One meeting with Medical Health Officer of Mission re the farm of
Chester Chaplin at Kent.
"(6) Two evening lectures—one at Matsqui and the other at Chilliwack—on
' Clean Milk Production for Greater Profit.'
"Mastitis Examinations.—The  following table gives  a resume of the mastitis
examinations made during the year:—
" Number of premises inspected  119
Number of cows milking at time of inspection  920
Number of cows with clinical signs of mastitis  153
Number of quarters with clinical signs of mastitis  259
Number of cows with a blind quarter     13
" One hundred and fifty-three cases of mastitis represent 16.63 per cent of the total
number (920) cows milking at the time of the inspection.
" Two hundred and fifty-nine quarters with mastitis represent 7.06 per cent of the
total number (3,667) quarters milking at the time of the inspection. The twelve blind
quarters are not included.
"Thirteen cows with one blind quarter represent 1.41 per cent of the 920 cows
milking at the time of the inspection."
Dr. G. M. Clark reports:—
"Dairy Inspections.—Premises where milk is being sold for human consumption
in this district were visited this year and are tabulated below. The pasteurization plants
have been giving better co-operation than previously.
" Summary of Premises Graded
District
Number of
Premises
Total Cattle
Number of
Milk Cows
Number of
Cows Milking
at Time of
Inspection
Kamloops (local) 	
Kamloops (North Thompson)..
Chase 	
Shuswap.
Lillooet-Lytton-Ashcrof t...
Revelstoke-  	
Salmon Arm _	
Westwold— -—	
Falkland-. 	
Merritt-Nicola	
Armstrong 	
Enderby.  	
Vernon  	
Totals-
28
24
4
3
8
36
46
6
6
3
59
19
2
~24F
582
491
100
55
147
293
755
217
25
95
974
480
27
4,241
366
343
80
31
103
290
611
169
23
77
749
256
18
3,116
219
216
29
44
87
224
323
65
16
32
426
188
10
1,879 Y 96
BRITISH COLUMBIA
" Grade of Premises
District
A
B
C
U
2
3
2
10
6
1
1
5
1
22
3
1
54
13
2
5
1
6
1
16
Kamloops (North Thompson)  	
Chase  	
Shuswap • ■	
13
3
2
3
Revelstoke   	
31
18
1
Falkland-.   __	
6
2
Armstrong  _  	
4
Enderby 	
Vernon  	
5
	
Totals 	
7
1
119
13
104
"A total of 243 premises was graded.
" Mastitis is still a problem but has improved considerably with repeated advice,
instruction, and better facilities.   Summary of results is as follows:—
" Number of cows affected with mastitis  69
Number of cows sold     9
Number of quarters affected—
Right front   26
Right hind  23
Left front  27
Left hind  32 "
Dr. I. D. C. Clark reports as follows:—
" Dairy Inspections.—There has been a slight decline in the number of dairy cows
in the Okanagan in the past year.
" In the Grand Forks area there has been an increased interest in fluid-milk
production with a pasteurizing plant now in operation there.
" Since early summer pasteurized milk has been distributed in the town of Keremeos.
The two large raw-milk vendors in that area were induced to combine in transporting
their raw milk to Penticton and return with pasteurized milk for distribution.
"A new pasteurization plant is now under construction at Princeton and will serve
the Princeton, Copper Mountain, and Allenby areas.
" The following list is of inspections made and premises graded during 1951. The
Salmon Arm, Enderby, Grindrod, and Armstrong districts are not complete in this table,
since a good deal of work was done in these areas by Dr. G. M. Clark, Kamloops.
Number of
Premises
Total
Cattle
Number of
Milk Cows
Number
Milking
Grade of Premises
Number
of Rein-
spections
A
B
C
U
85
42
41
27
15
12
25
7
4
4
2
2
2
1
1
1,065
343
310
375
155
173
415
46
88
96
18
89
47
6
32
683
216
193
211
61
114
233
30
56
52
13
52
28
5
21
565
183
171
165
54
69
184
26
45
45
6
42
22
3
16
3
1
1
57
24
28
17
2
5
11
4
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
2
4
1
1
5
5
3
3
5
9
3
3
1
2
1
1
1
18
Armstrong 	
11
10
4
3
Princeton	
Grand Forks-Greenwood
3
6
2
Oliver  	
Summerland 	
Grindrod	
Enderby  	
Penticton   	
1
Totals  ..
270
3,258
1,968
1,596
5    |    157    |      13
37
58 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951 Y 97
" Mastitis.—In many cases the cattle were out on pasture at the time of inspection
and a routine check for mastitis could not always be made. However, following the
grading of raw milk by the Dairy Inspector at each of the pasteurizing plants, whenever
mastitis was suspected in a herd or when the quality of milk was poor, a check for the
incidence of mastitis was carried out on these herds. Six hundred and seventeen cows
were examined, with forty-five showing some evidence of infection in one or more
quarters.   This 7 per cent is considerably lower than previous years."
Dr. J. J. Carney reports:—
" Dairy-farm gradings were carried out using two procedures: (1) Grading dairy-
farms in the course of other work, such as in the blood-testing of areas; and (2) Inspecting farms when called upon by Medical Health Officers, or in the case of high bacterial
counts in milk or inspecting new farms commencing shipping or retailing, or change of
ownership.
" Gradings were carried out mainly in South-west Kootenay Disease-control Area,
and some gradings were done in No. 1, the Inonoaklin Disease-control Area. Some
improvement was noted in the latter disease-control area in getting farms up to a grade
to ship milk, but no one actually qualified for a certificate as in the past, barring two
raw-milk vendors—one at Needles and the other at Edgewood—who retained their
grades.
" Very few new shippers entered the producing field. The reverse was the tendency
with a few shippers at Rossland and Fruitvale, selling off herds. Nelson district shippers
held fast, and the number of shippers remained pretty well stationary in numbers.
" Mastitis-control.—More mastitis, as is expected, is found in dairy herds. Family
cows and smaller herds in rather secluded or isolated areas are more clear of mastitis.
In course of bleeding an area, all cows in milk are checked for mastitis by using blotter
method, recommending treatment or ' beefing,' as indicated; again, on regrading after
certain periods we recheck dairy herds for mastitis, more especially in raw-milk dairies
or where new shippers are starting up in production. A recheck is carried out where
Medical Health Officers or Sanitary Inspectors complain of high bacterial counts in
a shipper's milk.
" Out of a total of 3,429 cattle, 1,848 were milk cows; 1,232 cows were milking,
and of these, 812 were checked for mastitis, 146 were clinical, and 31 were marked for
' beefing,' leaving 111 to treat.
1951 1950
Total milk cows  1,848 1,652
Total milking  1,132 1,255
Total checked for mastitis ..     812 (43.93% ) 740 (59.20% )
Total clinical      146(17.98%) 116(15.67%)
Total to eliminate         31 (21.23%) 34 (29.31%)
Total to treat      115 (78.87% ) 82 (70.68%)
" It will be noted from the foregoing comparison of mastitis figures for the years
1951 and 1950 that the incidence of mastitis appeared higher in total number of cows
checked—namely, 146 clinical cases out of 812 cows checked, or 17.98 per cent positive
in 1951, as against 116 clinical cases out of a total of 740 cows checked for mastitis
in 1950. There were fewer chronic cases found in 1951; that is, in 1951, 31 cows or
21.23 per cent of all clinical cases or 29.31 per cent of clinical cases in 1950. This
improvement may be due to more removal of three-teators and old chronic cases from
herds, or getting rid of the ' passengers ' for slaughter. There, however, appears to be an
increase in the percentage of treatable or acute cases in 1951 over 1950, in herds mastitis-
checked. This might be explained by the fact that these checks cover large dairy herds,
where mastitis appears to be more prevalent than in the small herds and in family cows.
4 Y 98
BRITISH COLUMBIA
" The City of Kaslo at long last has what would appear to be an adequate satisfactory fresh raw-milk supply, produced on a re-established dairy some miles out, and
reopened by an experienced dairyman, who recently purchased a herd of 14 milk cows
in the Slocan Valley.   This is a Bang's and T.B. free herd."
Dr. R. L. Lancaster reports:—
"Dairy-farm Gradings.—Six hundred and forty-four premises have been graded,
six of this number being Grade A, 31 Grade B, 9 Grade C, and 594 issued Ungraded
certificates. All premises where blood-testing was done were graded routinely. Due
to the large number of family-cow premises which do not possess milk-houses, the
number of ungraded premises runs high. Many of these premises have very ramshackle
barns—dark, damp, and most unwholesome. Fortunately, few of these family-cow
people have the urge to ship milk, and, for the most part, if they did, new barns would
be the first essential. This grading of such premises establishes a permanent grade
(Ungraded) for them.    No return is necessary unless they decide to ship milk.
" Not as much grading has been done as is desirable. However, with area work
approaching completion, probably more time will be available to concentrate on the
shippers.
" Mastitis checks were carried out on all premises where testing for brucellosis was
done, and on other premises outside the area wherever the cattle were available. In all,
892 animals were checked, with 66 showing evidence of mastitis. Of the 66, elimination
was suggested in 9 cases. The percentage of mastitic cows (7.4 per cent) is considerably
lower than in previous years."
Dr. C. F. Morris reports:—
"As required by the Provincial' Milk Act,' the inspection and grading of dairy-farm
premises has been carried out, and a summary of the work accomplished is listed in the
following table:—
Number of
Premises
Total
Cattle
Total
Milk
Cows
Number
Milking at
Time of
Inspection
Grade
Not
A
B
C
u
Graded
Richmond — -
Surrey _ •	
Delta — ,	
Greater Vancouver	
61
49
35
25
30
50
54
6
9
6
2
2
1
2
2,643
1,043
1,456
962
1,401
1,234
476
178
128
228
95
90
35
44
1,285
575
795
530
763
673
345
58
81
158
75
65
29
20
1,070
496
636
291
709
583
272
50
71
135
68
58
25
18
4
2
8
7
57
24
30
9
22
32
4
1
1
7
4
1
3
~
Chilliwack  -	
43
Langley.   	
5
9
Maple Ridge —	
Dewdney	
6
2
2
1
Kent 	
2
Totals	
332
10,013
5,452
4,482
21
179
1
15
70
" Total number of visits made during year, 679.
" Clinical examinations for mastitis are carried out during the winter months while
the cattle are in the stable, and the cows milking at the time of inspection are examined.
All cases were diagnosed through the use of Geneva blotters and digital manipulation of
the udders. The following table shows a summary of these examinations for the year,
as well as showing the relationship between hand and machine milking in conjunction
with the clinical examinations for mastitis:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951
Y 99
Type of Milking
Number
of Cows
Examined
Cows with
Mastitis
Number of
Quarters
Examined
Quarters with
Mastitis
Blind Quarters
Number
Per Cent
Number
Per Cent
Number
Per Cent
Hand 	
Machine — 	
185
555
10
61
5.4
10.9
738
2,214
11
76
1.5
3.4
2
6
0.27
0.27
Totals	
740
71
9.6
2,952
87
2.9
8
0.26
" Of the 87 quarters affected, 22 right-front quarters represent 25.5 per cent,
21 left-front quarters 24.2 per cent, 23 right-hind quarters 26.4 per cent, and 21 left-
hind quarters 24.2 per cent.
"Comparison of Mastitis Examinations for 1948, 1949, 1950, and 1951
Year
Number
of Cows
Examined
Cows with Mastitis
Number of
Quarters
Examined
Quarters with Mastitis
Blind Quarters
Number
Per Cent
Number
Per Cent
Number
Per Cent
Hand-milking
1948. _ 	
1949  __	
1950   -.
73
556
732
185
8
73
46
10
10.9
13.1
6.4
5.4
288
2,218
2,911
738
15
116
65
11
5.2
5.2
2.2
1.5
4
6
17
2
1.30
0.27
0.58
1951    ...
0.27
Totals	
1,546
137
8.8
6,155
207
3.3
29
0.47
Machine-milking
1948 	
1949  	
1950  '	
1951  _	
236
386
866
555
67
53
115
61
28.4
13.7
13.2
10.9
934
1,542
3,436
2,214
123
91
165
76
13.2
5.9
4.8
3.4
10
2
28
6
1.07
0.13
0.81
0.27
2,043
296
14.4
8,126
455
5.5
46
0.56
Grand Totals and
Percentages- 	
3,589
433
12.06
14,281
662
4.6
75
0.52 "
Dr. J. G. Fowler reports:—
"In all, 381 premises were graded under the 'Milk Act.' Of this number, 2 were
given Grade A, 10 Grade B, 43 Grade C, and 326 Ungraded certificates. Seventeen of
the Grade C premises have informed me of definite improvements and by this time could
be classed as Grade B.
District
A
B
C
U
Total
2
1
5
I          5
17
4
22
1
204
87
35
1
204
109
4
Fort George     	
64
2
1      io
43
1
[     326
381
1
" The dairy premises in No. 8 Disease-control Area were practically non-existent—
no milk-houses and very few barns. However, a good percentage of the farmers in the
northern districts are showing renewed interest in the dairy business. Because of this
interest, the grading has gone slowly. The farmers have many and varied problems and
questions in regard to milk production. In the Peace River the dairy industry is just
getting started, so it is hoped they can be started in the right way and have only top-
quality milk produced. This is also true for the main part of the Fort Fraser area. The
Fort George area has been established longer and has some old premises, and the majority
of these old premises are unsatisfactory under the terms of the ' Milk Act,' and, fortunately, unsatisfactory in the eyes of the farmer, so they will be replaced.   Eight premises Y 100
BRITISH COLUMBIA
were revisited because of dirty milk, and only two of these had to be stopped from shipping any more milk.
"The general picture in these areas shows a definite desire on the part of most
farmers to produce more and better milk.
" Mastitis does not seem to be too much of a problem in the Fort Fraser, Peace
River, and Fort George Districts. Of the total of 310 cattle that were examined in these
areas, only 11 clinical cases were found—4 cases so bad that the cows were sent for
slaughter.
District
Number
Examined
Number
Clinical
Number
Eliminated
L.H.
L.F.
R.H.
R.F.
225
193
9
108
14
3
8
2
32
2
7
2
7
3
10
1
5
6
2
3
Totals 	
535
25
6
9
10
16
11"
DAIRY-STOCK PLACEMENT PROGRAMME
This programme began last year as a specific piece of work and is extending and
expanding in a very satisfactory manner. We undertake to see that all animals are
checked for health standards and are officially blood-tested for brucellosis. Regardless
of age we insist upon blood-testing every animal.
Dr. C. F. Morris reports:—
"Our calf-placement programme, begun last year to locate suitable dairy heifer
calves in the Fraser Valley for placement in the Interior, was increased and extended this
year. The work has been done in conjunction with F. C. Clark, Live Stock Inspector,
New Westminster. We were kept quite busy during the spring and summer months
following up all leads toward locating suitable calves, obtaining a history on each one,
blood-testing them all, and making the detailed arrangements for placing and shipping
each calf.
" To avoid repetition with Mr. Clark's report, I will only attempt to show here the
findings as a result of the blood test on the calves.
"Brucellosis Blood-test Results of Cattle Shipped from Fraser Valley—Comparison
of Reactions by Breeds
Blood-test Result
Holstein
Guernsey
Jersey
Ayrshire
Totals
Head
Per
Cent
Head
Per
Cent
Head
Per
Cent
Head
Per
Cent
Head
Per
Cent
Negative	
Positive 	
Suspicious	
I                   1
32      1      68.1             34
11             23.4              3
4              8.5
91.8
8.2
1                 1
46      1      90.2              8
2 |        3.9
3 |        5.9             ....
100.0
120
12
7
83.9
11.2
4.9
Totals	
47
—
37
51      |       ...._
1
8
143 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1951
Y 101
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PROVINCIAL LWHAHX,
VICTORIA, B. C
176672 Y  102                                                       BRITISH COLUMBIA
" In the first of the preceding tables it will be noted that of the 79 calves tested
within the first month of age, 13 or 16 per cent showed positive or suspicious.   Also the
8 positive or suspicious animals over 2 years of age represent 33.3 per cent of the
24 tested."
Comparison of Brucellosis Reactions between Age-groups
100%
90
80
70
60
50
40
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20
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0%
and
this
of tl
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Positive   —
Suspicious
■ ______
Under           1 to 6           6 Mos.              1 to                  2 to                  3 to                5 to              Ove
1 Mo.            Mos.                to                 2 Yrs.             3 Yrs.             5 Yrs.          8 Yrs.        8 Yr
1 Yr.
Generally speaking, Dr. Morris assisted in this work by doing the bleeding of cab
heifers being purchased.   Where calves had reached the proper age for vaccinatic
was done by Dr. Morris before they were shipped.    Last year Dr. Kidd did soi
lis work.
When orders were secured for stock, F. C. Clark, Live Stock Inspector, underto
ake the selection.    He and Dr. Morris teamed up to make a very efficient machi
e one end.
The work of contacting prospective buyers in the Interior evolved on Urban Guich
certain other members of the Departmental staff scattered over the Province.   Seve
■ict Agriculturists put a great deal of time on the programme.
F. C. Clark, in his report which follows, has presented much very useful data whi
licely into the report presented by Dr. Morris.
" Our programme begun last year to locate suitable dairy heifer calves in the Fras
;y for placement in the Interior was increased and extended this year.
"A number of tables have been prepared to summarize various aspects of t
ramme.
" Fig. 1 represents the North Thompson-Kamloops-Okanagan area, where 173 he
airy heifers have been placed during 1950 and 1951, amounting to slightly mc
83 per cent of the total shipped.
" The first table lists municipalities in the Fraser Valley in which cattle were locate
ay be noted that seventy-three Fraser Valley dairy-farmers sold 207 head of dai
: to areas outside the valley under our programme for a total of $12,223.50.   It
terest that five of the men who sold stock under our programme in 1950 contact
1951 to again place their surplus stock for them.
" The second table lists general areas to which cattle were sent.   There were sixt
buyers.    Six of those who purchased cattle under our programme in 1950 boug
i again this year, using our services.
" The next three tables show how the factors of age and breed affected prices pa
le dairy stock shipped in 1950 and 1951 and for the two years combined.
" It will be noted that prices for young calves were higher in 1951 than in 195
11 breeds.    In both years, prices for Holsteins were highest, followed by Guernse DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951
Y 103
and then Jerseys. Not enough Ayrshires were shipped for forming any basis for
comparison.
"A total of 97 head of calves under 1 month of age was shipped. Calves under
6 months of age when shipped totalled 174 head or 84 per cent of the total shipped.
" The last table presents data on cattle shipped under our programme which were
sired by artificial insemination. Of the total of 207 head shipped, 71 head or approximately 35 per cent were sired artificially.
" Dairy-cattle Placement Programme
"Fig. 1.—North Thompson-Kamloops-Okanagan Areas, 1950—51
Each black dot represents one dairy heifer shipped from the Fraser Valley under our placement programme.
CLEARWATER
BUCK POOL
DARFIELD   -i-x
LITTLE FORT   x
SALMON ARM
: ENDERBY
x\\:  ARMSTRONG
::'. VERNON
KELOWNA
Note.—Not included on this chart:   Pemberton, 10 head;   Quesnel, 1 head;   Salmo, 10 head;   Vancouver Island,
9 head;   Vanderhoof, 1 head;   Williams Lake, 3 head. Y 104
BRITISH COLUMBIA
: Fraser Valley Cattle Sold from Various Municipalities
Municipality
1950
1951
Totals
Sellers
Head
Price
Sellers
Head
Price
Sellers
Head
Price
Barnston Island	
1
9
1
4
4
4
2
5
2
1
3
3
4
5
16
3
6
10
9
3
12
3
4
7
8
11
$190.00
1
2
6
1
3
1
1
3
2
2
5
1
1
4
2
3
7
13
4
11
10
2
5
6
7
9
1
4
24
4
$135.00
657.50
585.00
340.00
1,730.00
820.00
90.00
280.00
340.00
220.00
320.00
100.00
160.00
1
2
15
2
7
1
1
7
6
4
9
3
1
3
7
4
8
7
29
7
17
10
2
15
15
10
21
4
8
7
32
15
$325.00
657.50   .
605.00
105.00
215.00
1,190.00
445.00
Delta    	
1,945.00
820 00
765.00
895.00
80.00
414.00
75.00
135.00
270.00
305.00
375.00
90 00
Kent	
1,045.00
1,235.00
300.00
734 00
Maple Ridge	
175.00
295 00
270 00
1,847.00
170.00
2,152.00
545.00
Surrey 	
Totals 	
43
97
$4,429.00
35
110
$7,794.50
73
207
$12,223.50
" Fraser Valley Cattle Placed
in Various Outside Areas
Area
1950
1951
Totals
Buyers
Head
Price
Buyers
Head
Price
Buyers
Head
Price
25
7
2
1
67
21
6
3
27
9                $290.00
1
46
2
1
1
12
3
1
1
1
9
115
10
1
10
41
9
1
8
3
$290 00
Kamloops	
$2,750.00
48
10
1
10
20
3
1
8
2,512.00
955.00
100.00
820.00
1,742.50
950.00
80.00
345.00
5,262.00
955 00
100.00
Salmo 	
674.00
780.00
820.00
2,416.50
1,730.00
Vancouver Island-
Vernon	
345 00
Williams Lake	
225.00
225.00
Totals 	
35
97
$4,429.00
40
110
$7,794.50
69
207
$12,223.50 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,
1951
Y 105
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1 to 2 m
2 to 3 m
3 to 4 m
4 to 5 m
5 to 6 m
6 month
1 to 2 ye
2 to 3 ye
Over 3 y
Tot
Per cent DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1951 Y 107
" Number of Cattle Shipped Which Were Sired by Artificial Insemination
Breed
Sires
Offspring Shipped
1950
1951
Total
4
9
6
11
1
14
9
13
4
9
5
16
5
23
14
29
30
37
34
71
"All cattle shipped were sired by pure-bred bulls.
"Number of Cattle Shipped from Cow-testing Association Herds
Breed
Number
Number
Completed
Records
Average of Records
12
37
62
37
4
34
54
32
7,176
9,507
10,870
8,679
1                       1
1        4.58        1
|        4.62        |
1        3.73        |
|        5.26        |
329
440
Holstein _   	
402
456
148
124
9,812
1        4.32        |
1                         1
424
" This last table lists the number of cattle of each breed which had dams or
grandams entered on Cow-testing Association records. It is seen that 148 head or 71.5
per cent of the total shipped had a Cow-testing Association background. There was a
completed Cow-testing Association record behind 124 of the heifers shipped. These
records were grouped according to breed and averaged."
TUBERCULOSIS
The following report from the Federal Health of Animals Division gives the record
of tuberculin tests made in the Province in the current test up to December 1st, 1951.
The Fraser Valley area's seventh general test was completed in 1947, and that area has
been accredited to June 1st, 1954.
The low incidence of tuberculosis can be attributed to the many years of work done
by our Department.   Reactors have only been found where we did no work in the past.
District
Number of
Herds
Number of
Head
Number of
Reactors
Vancouver Island, third general.
Greater Okanagan, first general...
Kamloops, first general	
Kootenay, first general  _
Prince George, first general _	
Cariboo, first general — -
Vancouver, first general..—	
Prince Rupert, first general. __.
2,225
3,344
359
1,708
242
95
170
205
16,698
33,509
11,071
10,529
2,507
1,557
772
2,517
34
6
2
1
50
14
FUR-FARMING AND "FUR-FARM ACT" ADMINISTRATION
What was said in last year's Report might be fully repeated again this year.
As the industry stands to-day, speaking generally, the producers are very accurate
and keen operators.
This young industry in its very few years of operation can boast the following record,
compiled from information released in July, 1951, by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics Y 108 BRITISH COLUMBIA
covering fur production in British Columbia for the 1949-50 season, which showed
56,677 (14,627) pelts valued at $700,728 ($638,612) marketed. Breeding stock at
December 31st, 1951, was valued at $1,277,560, and live-animal sales were placed at
$95,310. (Figures in parentheses indicate previous year's statistics.)
The "Fur-farm Act" came into being in 1947, and the regulations under this Act
were gazetted on January 15th, 1948. This transferred the administration of fur-farms
from the Game Branch to the Department of Agriculture.
The regulations as set out under our Act offered a different approach in administration to what is generally adopted. It might even be considered an experiment. The three
years just completed indicate that the machinery of administration is sound and effective.
Under the authority of our regulations we have been able to restrict outbreaks of
distemper to fourteen since taking over, and to bring them under immediate control. The
very strict ruling which requires official health certificates for entry to all live-animal
shows has given us our third year of such events without a single record of any distemper
occurring following a show.
Our record for distemper outbreaks for the four years is as follows: 1948, five;
1949, four; 1950, one; 1951, four. We took over the administration of this work with
one particularly bad centre of infection which resulted from the arrival of uninspected
mink from the outside which came along just prior to our taking over.
We believe that we have this trouble-spot quite well under control, although distemper did recur again this year in the same general area as in 1949 and 1950.
During the year five fur-farms were placed under quarantine for distemper, making
a total of six under quarantine during the year. One premises, however, was quarantined
only because of its proximity to a diseased farm, and no evidence of distemper showed
at any time, nor were there any unusual deaths among the mink. Actual losses from
distemper were very light, vaccination having been carried out immediately in each case,
the Department bearing the cost of the initial vaccine purchase. Quarantine has been
lifted on four premises. Two remain under quarantine at this time—one in the Fraser
Valley and one on Vancouver Island.
The very fine work done by Dr. A. Kidd in the organizing of the industry in the
Lower Mainland has not only resulted in the development of the effective control of
disease, but it has also brought about a marked improvement in the general situation on
a number of ranches were fur quality was poor and obscure losses were occurring. It is
very evident that such problems, if they are to be effectively dealt with, must not be left
to inexperienced persons.
We have carefully avoided being drawn into the position where we would be expected
to furnish free veterinary service to the industry. This would be a most unnecessary and
undesirable situation. We have been successful in getting built up an adequate private
veterinary practitioner service to serve the industry. Our work is restricted to the
administration of the Act and to acting in an advisory capacity and as consultants to the
industry and to their veterinarians.
All Veterinary Inspectors on the staff throughout the Province regularly assist with
the administration of the Act and as general consultants. I wish to give credit to R. J.
Weir, of our Victoria office, who acts as an Inspector, and to especially record appreciation for the very complete and accurate records prepared, so necessary in the administration of the Act, and for help rendered Dr. Kidd in the successful handling of the
Annual Live Animal Show in Vancouver. Dr. C. F. Morris did a very fine job with
the show at Maple Rdige.
" K " Licences
In July, after several years of negotiations, British Columbia fur-farmers, with the
assistance of this Division, succeeded in securing an amendment to regulations under the
" Motor Carrier Act," thereby winning recognition as bona fide farmers.   They are now DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951
Y 109
able to obtain a Class III private freight-vehicle licence free of charge, providing they are
full-time fur-farmers and use their truck as a freight-vehicle only in connection with their
fur-farming activities.
This Division is working very closely with the Superintendent of Motor-vehicles on
the issuance of these " K " licences, and twenty-seven have been issued to date.
During the year 1951, 373 licences (Nos. 1372-C to 1744-C) were issued to operate
fur-farms, as against 371 licences in 1950. A number of smaller farmers ceased operation prior to the new licensing-year and several changed hands, in addition to a number
of new farms being established, resulting in 47 new licences being issued during 1951—
22 to raise mink, 24 for chinchilla, and 1 for nutria.
The following table indicates the number of ranches raising each species of animal
and the numbers of each species of fur-bearers on the farms at January 1st each year:—
Species
Number of Farms
Number of Animals
1951
1950
1949
1951
1950
1949
297
78
11
9
2
1
1
305
57
14
17
3
1
1
346
72
19
16
4
4
1
1
1
36,319
1,495
226
105
14
2
16
36,319
1,345
326
136
22
2
18
29,778
1,181
378
Chinchilla 	
Fox            '     _	
Marten  	
258
48
Fisher    	
Racoon       	
Skunk    	
20
19
3
Fitch .  	
6
Totals	
m          m
C1)
38,177
33,028
31,691
1 These do not total to the number of licences issued, owing to the fact that some licensees keep more than one
species of animals.
The following table indicates the distribution of the Fur-farm Transportation Permits
issued during the period December 1st, 1950, to November 30th, 1951 (figures for 1950
shown in parentheses):—
Kind and Number of Permits
Mink
Chinchilla
Fox
Marten
Export, 169—
428
55
247
78
15
483(706)|    325(622)|      ....
15 (13)
Import, 20—
128
112
1
1
Totals   	
240(312)|         1(2)
1(17)
646 C2321I       23 C201
1
In addition to the above, 20 permits were issued for animals entering various shows,
as follows:—
First Annual Chinchilla Show, British Columbia (8 permits (4 not used)):
1 United States, 18 animals;   2 Vancouver Island, 6 animals;   and 1
British Columbia (outside Fraser Valley), 10 animals.
Portland Chinchilla Show:   1 permit covering three chinchilla.
Western International Mink Show, Salt Lake City: 4 permits covering 32 mink.
British Columbia Live Animal Fur Exposition (7 permits):   5 United States,
54 mink; 1 Vancouver Island, 12 mink; and 1 British Columbia (outside
Fraser Valley), 4 mink. Y 110 BRITISH COLUMBIA
First Annual Chinchilla Show
This show, sponsored by the British Columbia Mainland Branch of the National
Chinchilla Breeders of Canada, was held in the auction-room of Little Brothers Fur Sales
Agency in Vancouver on March 7th and 8th, 1951, and was attended by Dr. A. Kidd
and R. J. Weir on behalf of the Division.
Owing to the very inclement weather, outside entries were held to a minimum; however, 4 transportation permits were issued—2 for Vancouver Island breeders covering
6 animals, 1 for the Okanagan for 6 animals, and 1 to a California breeder for 18 animals.
In all, 87 animals were exhibited in the six classes, each class being divided into light,
medium, and dark.
Mr. Heard, of Seattle, undertook the judging, owing to the sudden illness of Willard
George on his way north from California. Both Mr. Heard and Raymon Somavia, the
California exhibitor among whose entries were top prize winners in the largest United
States shows, were unstinting in their praise of Canadian chinchilla, particularly those in
the show, and stated that there was no evidence of that 10 or 20 per cent of undesirables
that are found in all United States shows. This is no doubt due to the system of grading
and elimination carried out by the Canadian National Chinchilla Breeders under the
Canadian National Live Stock Records.
Principal winners were as follows:—
Champion male and show champion (LF-2D), owned by T. R. Chettleburgh,
Campbell River, V.I.
Champion female  and reserve  show champion   (QS-T41),  owned  by  R.
Somavia, Hollister, Calif.
Reserve champion male (LH-2E), owned by W. H. Harrison, Vancouver.
Reserve champion female (VA-4D), owned by R. R. McHarg, New Westminster.
Junior champion (female) (RWH-3E), owned by R. W. Hunter, New Westminster.
Pacific National Exhibition Mink Show
Twenty-one Lower Mainland mink-breeders exhibited approximately 200 mink at
this show, held in conjunction with the Pacific National Exhibition at Vancouver from
August 22nd to September 3rd. Dr. A. Kidd represented the Division and checked on
all entries.
Maple Ridge Fall Fair Mink Show
At the Maple Ridge Fall Fair a regular mink-shed was set up, with uprights bolted
into position and huge canvas covers forming a roof.    Twenty Fraser Valley breeders
exhibited 231 mink, which were all checked by Dr. C. F. Morris.
Principal winners were as follows:—
Standard mink:   Male adult, A. R. Straker; female adult, P. L. Klein;  male
kit, A. R. Straker; female kit, J. G. Brander.
Aleutian mink: Male dark, N. Branding (Silvertone); female dark, A. R.
Straker; male medium, O. E. Nesbitt; female medium, O. E. Nesbitt;
male light, O. E. Nesbitt; female light, O. E. Nesbitt.
Silver Blu mink: Male dark, C. Lien; female dark, A. R. Straker; male
medium, J. W. Grant; female medium, J. Wren; male light, C. Lien;
female light, C. Lien.
Pastel mink: Male dark, N. Branding (Silvertone); female dark, A. E. Combs;
male medium, Charles Combs; female medium, A. R. Straker; male light,
J. G. Brander; female light, N. Branding (Silvertone). DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951 Y 111
Sapphire mink: Male medium, Charles Combs; female medium, A. R. Goodrich; male light, O. E. Nesbitt; female light, C. Lien.
Breath of Spring mink: Male medium, C. Lien; female medium, Mrs. J. G.
Bull; male light, O. E. Nesbitt; female fight, C. Lien.
Snow White mink: Male, D. L. Makinson; female, D. L. Makinson.
White Recessive mink:  Male, A. R. Goodrich; female, A. E. Combs.
Best mink in show:   Medium Sapphire male, Charles Combs.
Western International Fur Animal Show
Four British Columbia mink-breeders attended this show, held in Salt Lake City,
Utah, from November 28th to 30th, 1951, and entered a total of 30 mink, winning the
following places:—
Standard mink:  Females (66 entries), M. Combs, of Royal Oak, V.I., placed
eighth, ninth, and twelfth; males (67 entries), M. Combs, of Royal Oak,
V.I., placed twelfth.
Royal Pastel mink:  Males (76 entries), A. E. Combs, of White Rock, placed
sixth.
Sapphire mink:  Males medium, Charles Combs, of Surrey, placed fourth.
British Columbia Live Animal Fur Exposition
The Seventh Annual Mink Show, sponsored by the Lower Mainland Fur Breeders'
Association, was held in the Garden Building, Exhibition Park, Vancouver, on December
2nd, 3rd, and 4th, 1951.
The judges were Herb Mezzer, of New York, show judge, and Norman Boyd, of
Little Brothers Fur Sales Agency, Vancouver, score judge. Dr. J. C. Lomas was again
show veterinarian, and Dr. A. Kidd and R. J. Weir attended on behalf of the Division.
There were a few more entries this year, mostly from the Fraser Valley, where
previously the presence of one or two distemper ranches in that area had acted as a
deterrent on the distemper-conscious neighbours. The soundness of our control policy,
however, appears to have overcome this. Fur-farm Transportation Permits were required
only for those animals entering the show from points outside the Fraser Valley area.
The show committee did an excellent job of publicizing the requirements of this
Department and are to be commended.
Mink exhibits by points of origin were as follows:—
Fraser Valley -  393
Vancouver Island ..       8
Other British Columbia points  	
Washington      35
Oregon  :.    14
Total  450
Six of the new Amber Gold mink were entered also, for exhibit only. Competition
was keen and the championships in each class were as follows:—
Standard mink: Grand champion, V. R. Nesbitt, Surrey; reserve grand champion, F. Oleson, Sumas, Wash.
Platinum mink: Grand champion, C. Lien, Haney; reserve grand champion,
A. E. Combs, White Rock.
White Albino mink: Grand champion, A. E. Combs, White Rock; reserve
grand champion, A. E. Combs, White Rock.
Snow White mink: Grand champion, A. E. Combs, White Rock; reserve grand
champion, D. R. Makinson, Port Hammond. Y 112
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Pastel mink:   Grand champion, G. M. Chandler, East Stanwood, Wash.;
reserve grand champion, A. E. Combs, White Rock.
Aleutian mink:  Grand champion, O. S. Witham & Son, Marblemount, Wash.;
reserve grand champion, O. S. Witham & Son, Marblemount, Wash.
Breath of Spring Platinum mink:   Grand champion, R. L. Maddock, Ruskin;
reserve grand champion, M. J. Nicols, White Rock.
Breath of Spring Sapphire mink:   Grand champion, O. E. Nesbitt, Surrey;
reserve grand champion, O. E. Nesbitt, Surrey.
Sapphire mink:  Grand champion, Silver Tone Mink Ranch Ltd., Cloverdale;
reserve grand champion, C. Lien, Haney.
Two-tone Standard mink:   Grand champion, G. Ternan, New Westminster;
reserve grand champion, G. Ternan, New Westminster.
Show sweepstake winner:   V. R. Nesbitt, Surrey (Standard male kit).
Show reserve sweepstake winner:   G. M. Chandler, East Stanwood, Wash.
(Pastel male kit).
ANIMAL PATHOLOGY LABORATORIES
There are two animal pathology laboratories maintained to serve the needs of the
live-stock industry—one located on the grounds of the Parliament Buildings in Victoria
and the other on the campus of the University of British Columbia in Vancouver.
The Victoria laboratory is kept open at all times. Dr. E. A. Bruce assists by spending two days a week in the laboratory, and in cases of emergency, additional time. Dr. A.
Robertson, Veterinary Inspector for Vancouver Island, also a capable animal pathologist,
supports the work being done by Dr. Bruce by assisting in the laboratory so that prompt
service is provided.
A summary of laboratory work done in the Victoria laboratory during the year
follows.
Specimens Examined in Victoria Laboratory, December 1st, 1950,
to November 30th, 1951
Diseases Due to—
S.2
3e
II
Remarks
Total
A. Bacteria
Abscess	
Actinobacillosis.
Brucellosis	
Cystitis	
Encephalitis.
Enteritis _.	
Erysipelas.
Fowl-cholera	
Infectious necrotic
enteritis	
Malignant cedema...
Mastitis 	
Metritis	
Omphalitis 	
Peritonitis 	
Pleurisy	
Pneumonia —
Pyaemia	
Salmonellosis-
Saprsemia	
2
1
5,615
75
I    I
28
9
27
32
23
Negative, 5,277; suspi
cious, 89; positive, 249
goats, negative
Turkeys	
Turkeys -	
Mink  „_	
Turkey, mink (3), chinchilla (4), rabbit
Mink  _	
Turkeys, mink	
Mink  	
t±M
3
1
5,690
1
1
38
11
27
2
1
27
1
32
23
3
9
7
38
1
Note.—It will be noted that a large part of the blood tests for brucellosis was done at this laboratory.  This arrangement was necessary in order to fit into the administrative side of the work of brucellosis-control. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1951
Y 113
Specimens Examined in Victoria Laboratory, December 1st, 1950,
to November 30th, 1951—Continued
Diseases Due to—-
w
O
a
o
o
o
03
VI
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0
|
1Z)
3
O
P.
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3  <D
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bo
o
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Remarks
Total
A. Bacteria—■
Continued
Septicaemia.„	
-----
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
4
48
1
1
2
1
—
- -
1
1
	
1
1
15
165
2
1
2
42
9
3
3
45
2
15
-----
1
2
1
3
1
1
20
7
2
1
5
5
1
1
15
1
2
6
......
3
2
2
1
6
1
2
3
3
1
......
-----
1
2
......
......
	
--
......
i
18
1
Chinchilla 	
3
1
1
1
B. Protozoa
15
Coccidiosis 	
Rabbits — 	
171
2
1
C. Metazoa
4
Rabbits	
44
D. Virus
Distemper	
Erythroleucosis	
Fowl-pox	
Lary ngotr acheiti s	
3
9
3
3
45
E. Miscellaneous
1
Mink.. 	
3
Ducks 	
2
1
15
Mink-  	
2
1
Chilling 	
Eclampsia...-	
2
2
1
Mink (stifle joint)	
1
Bat(l)   --..
7
Fatty degeneration
1
Abnormal  	
3
4
1
Mink (2), chinchilla
3
1
Rabbits (31    	
24
Internal haemorrhage-
Intussusception 	
7
2
1
Malocelu sion	
Rabbit - -	
1
1
Overheating ,,,
5
5
Plants 	
Poisoning	
Prolapse	
18
Cienta,    saponin,    mercury, arsenic
10
1
1
Stiff lamb.
1
48
16
1
1
5
5,707 |      5
1 	
75
13
524
75
63 |      4
10 | ......
i
19
6,416
85
Grand totals    -   -
<;  i s im  I      <; 1    7^ 1    n
449
53   1       4  1       1
1    19
6,331
'
Note.—It will be noted that a large part of the blood tests for brucellosis was done at this laboratory.  This arrangement was necessary in order to fit into the administrative side of the work of brucellosis-control. Y 114
BRITISH COLUMBIA
A summary of the work conducted at the Mainland laboratory appears below as
extracts from the report of Dr. J. C. Bankier, animal pathologist.
Specimen Report, Diagnostic Service, to November 30th, 1951
Diseases Due to-
w
3
a
PU,
Uh£>
0 a
ou
£2
Remarks
Total
J. Bacteria
Blackleg	
B otulism	
Broncho-pneumonia.	
Brucellosis 	
Coryza .
Enteritis -	
Erysipelas	
Fowl-cholera __
Johne's disease.
Mastitis	
Metritis	
Nephritis	
Pericarditis	
Peritonitis	
Pneumonia	
Pullorum   	
Salmonellosis.....
Septicaemia.	
Toxaemia	
Tuberculosis	
Vibriosis	
2. Protozoa
Coccidiosis	
Enterohepatitis..
Trichomoniasis...
3. Metazoa
Ascaridas.-
CEstridae	
Taenidae
Strongylidae	
4. Virus
Bronchitis (non-specific)-.
Distemper 	
Fowl-pox _
Infectious anaemia _
Leucosis	
Newcastle 	
Tracheitis (non-specific)	
J. Miscellaneous
Abortion (non-specific)	
Abscess 	
Avitaminosis A	
Cervical mucus 	
Chilling 	
Cirrhosis (liver) 	
Congenital weakness	
Coronitis (chronic)	
Cystic calculi  	
Cystic thyroid „	
Degeneration	
Dislo cation	
Faeces -
Faulty management..
Fermentation.
Fibrilla muscle rupture -
Gastritis -
Gizzard erosion._
Grain  -	
Impaction	
Infertility .
Internal haemorrhage-
Leukaemia 	
Mycosis	
P ar aly s is	
i i .... i i
2
1
2
1
3
Negative, 36; questionable, 2
Positive, 4; negative, 5-
Chinchilla-	
Mink	
Wild ducks (3)	
Negative, 23; positive, 3..
Wild duck (1).
Rabbits (6).
Peacocks (2)-.
Mink (2)	
Muskrat (1)..
Negative .
Rabbit (1)..
Moose (1)~
Cervical...
Negative..
Meat..
Mink-.
Ergot —
Rabbit-
Mink..
2
6
2
38
1
25
4
25
1
9
3
1
6
27
49
26
1
3
61
6
2
48
8
18
2
3
10
5
24
13
4
58
24
7
1
4
20
2
5
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
2
61
1
2
2
8
1
3
2
8
1
1
21 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951
Y 115
Specimen Report, Diagnost
ic Service,
to November 30th, 1951—Continued
Diseases Due to—
0
a
(D
3
'S
3
O
t; nj
3 <u
oci2
0 nj
CU
2U
1!
Remarks
Total
5. Miscellaneous—Continued
2
4
3
1
1
1
1
6
5
7
4
1
1
1
—
4
1
3
6
Skin scrapings.— 	
Negative  	
Negative	
Beaver  	
Pheasant (1), cat (1), 	
1
1
Tumour 	
Unsuitable for detailed examination
6
16
Totals 	
16  ]  83
5
22
510 | 72 |    7 |    7 |    1
723
Dr. Bankier reports as follows on work done for the British Columbia Artificial
Insemination Association, Milner, B.C. Dr. Bankier assisted at this centre during three
half-days a week. The table which follows gives a record of cows inseminated from the
central station and from the several branch depots.
At the Milner centre there are 29 bulls maintained, and at the Chilliwack centre
there are 10 bulls maintained. The Chilliwack centre is conducted as a separate unit,
wholly under the direction of the Chilliwack Artificial Insemination Association. Bulls
for both these stations have been provided by the Federal Department of Agriculture.
The British Columbia Department of Agriculture has over the years given very liberal
financial support and direction to this work. The policy is now well established as a
going business.
Cows Inseminated during the Period January 1st to November 30th, 1951,
Compared with the Figures for All of 1950
District or Unit
Period
1951
Number of Cows
Inseminated
during 11
Months or Less
1950
Number of Cows
Inseminated
during
12 Months
98
105
698
609
81
84
52
O)
2,835
14,139
March 1 to June 10 and October 28 to November 30 ...
576
537
From May 21  	
3,106
B.C.A.I, centre, Milner	
Eleven months  	
14,661
Totals
18,701
18,880
1 No report yet.
Tabulation of Disease Investigations
These tabulations can at best only give an indication of the nature and type of work
being done by the field staff. If every interview in the office and field were recorded, it
would show several times this volume, but such a procedure would be too time-consuming.
The staff promptly reports on a prescribed form on all conditions uncovered in the
field, especially where the particular condition is one of a contagious or infectious nature.
Prompt action can then be taken.
Cattle
Contagious or Infectious Disease
Actinomycosis and actinobacillosis _  29
Enteritis (water scours) in calves .
Foot-rot  	
Blackleg 	
Coccidiosis .
Encephalitis
16
7
1
Hasmorrhagic septicaemia (shipping fever)
Johne's disease  	
Keratitis     	
Liver flukes  	
Malignant oedema  - 	
28
16
31
1
26
6
17 Y  116
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Necrotic stomatitis       3
Ringworm      71
Stomach-worms           4
Trichamoniasis     3
Tuberculosis    ■■    1
Vaginitis     3 8
Variola          4
Vibrio       5
Warts      11
White scours (calves)       9
Sporadic Disease
Acetonemia —-   14
Bloat   -    11
Breeding problems   67
Calculi  (renal)         9
Dystokia        7
Founder   -      2
Goitre         7
Hernia        3
Impactions  -    - 28
Imports and investigations   38
Injuries    -   21
Lung abscess        2
Meat inspection    29
Metritis    _ 21
Milk fever    16
Nitrite  poisoning    _    3
Nutritional  abortion  - _   12
Nutritional deficiencies     46
Pneumonia     18
Plant poisoning (weeds, etc.)— — 12
Pleurisy   -      1
Poisoning   (metallic, etc.).      5
Pyaemia      11
Red water         3
Special investigations   42
Surgery        18
Toxaemia        8
Traumatic pericarditis        8
Horses
Contagious or Infectious Disease
Encephalomyelitis      1
Infectious anaemia  (swamp fever)   2
Internal parasites    _ 12
Malignant oedema      8
Strangles      6
Sporadic Disease
Azoturia    —. 3
Colic      4
Food poisoning   15
Grease heel -     7
Heaves     5
Horsetail poisoning   __ 15
Impaction     .  8
Injuries  _~    9
Lameness    7
Laryngitis    :. !   3
Nutritional deficiencies      20
Skin troubles    —   14
Stomatitis       7
Surgery       _..  8
Sheep
Contagious or Infectious Disease
Blackleg   __      _~   2
Caseous lymphadenitis     -   .           3
Haemorrhagic septicaemia (shipping fever) - 12
External parasites       12
Internal parasites (intestinal)    30
Liver flukes     18
Lung-worm     _   _ 10
Malignant oedema —         3
Tick paralysis         3
Sporadic Disease
Bloat         8
Enteritis   —   3
Metritis       6
Nutritional deficiencies   2
Peritonitis   1
Plant poisoning   5
Tick paralysis       3
Twin Lamb pregnancy disease      8
Poultry
Contagious or Infectious Disease
Blackhead  	
Cholera	
Coccidiosis  —
Laryngotracheitis
Pullorum  	
Tuberculosis 	
11
1
42
5
10
Bumble-foot
Leukosis 	
Sporadic Disease
Lymphomatosis 	
Nutritional deficiencies
Pneumonia .— 	
Posterior paralysis
Roup
Swine erysipelas
Swine
Contagious or Infectious Disease
Abortion    _. 	
Haemorrhagic septicaemia (shipping fever).
Internal parasites (intestinal)	
Tuberculosis    	
Swine erysipelas 	
Agalactia
Allergy
Sporadic Disease
Cryptorchism (ridgling)
Dystokia   _.
Enteritis    	
Hernia    -	
Nutritional deficiencies
Pneumonia __ 	
Poisoning    	
Pyaemia 	
Rhinitis   	
Deer
Specimens
Specimens
Specimens
Dogs and Cats
Rabbits
Fur-bearers
Contagious or Infectious Disease
Distemper  (51 visits)	
Parasites   	
Sporadic Disease
Abortion   	
Dystokia __ _   _
Food poisoning     	
Impacted anal glands - 	
Lice   	
Metritis     	
Nursing sickness  	
Nutritional deficiencies _ _
Pleurisy and (or) pneumonia .
Sterility       	
Tail-chewing 	
Toxaemia _  	
Uremia     _
Urinary calculi  	
Yellow fat    	
Miscellaneous
Re fur licences
Re isolations 	
Re quarantines  - 	
Re inoculations  	
Re routine inspection 	
Re " K " licences 	
Re meetings and shows...
15
3
2
16
22
7
10
4
1
6
16
2
17
6
21
4
2
32
3
16
1
3
4
5
26
12
21
6
1
25
5
1
1
5
49
20
18
10
10
.    3
6
.   7
75
18
16
10
65
16
9 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.  1951 Y 117
The staff, both field and office, has been very helpful. They have been industrious
and most co-operative. They have taken a keen personal interest in the work and its
success. The year 1951 has been one of the most successful years in the history of the
service.
BRAND INSPECTION
The work of brand inspection is becoming ever more important. The high price
of live stock makes it more attractive to rustlers than when prices are low. Until recently
we never looked upon cattle-stealing to be other than a range-country problem, but the
picture is rapidly changing. The man with the " running iron " and the " smooth rope "
is being outnumbered and outplayed by a new class of rustlers with trucks. This new
type of rustler is operating not only in the range country, but he is extending into the
dairying sections of the Province, where he finds quiet dairy cattle, especially fat young
stock at pastures, easy to pick up.
Our dairy cattlemen are to-day ready to co-operate and to join forces with the range
cattlemen in an attempt to stop this situation before it becomes strongly entrenched.
Brand inspection is but one link in the great chain of economical live-stock production and marketing. The day of solo effort by little groups, either producer or
departmental, is past.   The job is too big.
I quote in some detail from the report of Thomas Moore, Recorder of Brands:—
" Shipments
" Shipments of cattle in British Columbia in 1951 were 69,763 head, compared to
65,986 head shipped in 1950.   This shows an increase of 3,777 head.
" Cattle shipped from the Interior of British Columbia to the United States in 1951
were 7,330, as compared to 8,007 head in 1950, a decrease of 677 head. This slight
decrease of shipments may have been caused by the market price of beef in Canada
reaching the same level and thereby not allowing a margin for prospective buyers from
the United States for Canadian beef during certain periods of the year.
"At the Williams Lake Annual Cattle Sale, 1,580 head of cattle were sold. As in
1950, there was a strong demand by local buyers for good breeding stock. All stock
offered for sale brought satisfactory prices, with a number being purchased for export.
Prices were higher than in 1950, with packer buyers well represented in the purchase of
finished beef.
" Other large sales were held at Okanagan Falls, Elko, and Kamloops. Excellent
prices were obtained by the contributors in the offerings of cattle at these respective sales.
In most instances, buyers were represented from packing firms in British Columbia,
Alberta, and the United States;  there was also a local demand for good stocker cattle.
" Kamloops Spring and Christmas Fat Stock Sales were well attended, with better
prices paid for stock than in 1950.
" Shipments of cattle from the Cariboo were 20,609, compared with 15,419 in 1950,
an increase of 5,190 head.
" Kamloops-Nicola shipped 25,799 head in 1951, against 24,659, an increase of
1,140 head.
"Shipments of hides were 13,841, as compared to 20,870 in 1950, a decrease of
7,029 hides.
" Horses shipped in 1951 amounted to 5,519, as against 4,063 in 1950, an increase
of 1,519.
" Shipments of cattle to the Prairies were 13,005 head in 1951, compared to 11,020
head in 1950, an increase of 1,985 head.
" Inspection Service
" Brand inspection was carried on by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police at sixty-
four shipping-points in the following districts:— Y 118 BRITISH COLUMBIA
" Cariboo:  Quesnel, Alexis Creek, Bella Coola, Clinton, Lillooet, andBralorne.
" Kamloops-Nicola:    Chase,   Blue  River,  Salmon  Arm,   Ashcroft,   Lytton,
Spences Bridge, Merritt, Hope, Kamloops, Flood, and Boston Bar.
" Okanagan and Similkameen:   Vernon, Lumby, Armstrong, Enderby, Kelowna, Penticton, Summerland, Oliver, Osoyoos, Princeton, Copper Mountain, Keremeos, Hedley, Grand Forks, and Greenwood.
" South-eastern British Columbia:   Rossland, Trail, Fruitvale, Castlegar, Crescent Valley, Nelson, Kaslo, Salmo, Creston, New Denver, Cranbrook,
Kimberley,   Fernie,   Natal,   Invermere,   Golden,   Revelstoke,   Nakusp,
Radium Hot Springs, and Field.
" Central British Columbia and Peace River:   Smithers, Hazelton, Terrace,
Burns Lake, Vanderhoof, Prince George, McBride, Red Pass, Pouce
Coupe, Dawson Creek, Fort St. John, and Fort St. James.
" Inspectors paid by the Department attended to the work at seventeen shipping-
points as follows: Bridge Lake, Clinton, Copper Creek, Dawson Creek, Endako, Graham
Siding, Houston, 100-Mile House, Kamloops, Kitwanga, Lac la Hache, Nicola, Pavilion,
Soda Creek, Tupper Creek (Tomslake), Williams Lake, and Lone Butte (93-Mile House).
" Staff
" New appointments during the year were Charles Thorsteinson, Deputy Brand
Inspector at Lone Butte (93-Mile House), and Urban John Gregory Guichon, Deputy
Brand Inspector at Kamloops.
" S. S. White was appointed to the vacancy in the Recorder of Brands office as
Inspector of Brands on May 3rd, 1951, on a probationary period of six months.
" W. S. Fletcher resigned his position with the Department, effective February 28th,
1951.
" Brand Commissioners
"A meeting with the Brand Commissioners was held at Williams Lake on May 20th,
1951. It was recommended that two Brand Inspectors should be used at the Williams
Lake Fall Sale. Arrangements were made to have Gilbert Forbes, Deputy Brand Inspector at Lac la Hache, assist J. M. G. Smith with the inspection work at the Williams Lake
Fall Sale. The inspection work was carried out in a most satisfactory manner this year,
and appreciation was expressed by the stockmen for the extra assistance granted.
" I would like to express my appreciation to the Brand Commissioners for their
co-operation with this Department.
" Lectures to Royal Canadian Mounted Police on ' Stock-brands Act '
" Lectures given by the Recorder of Brands during the year to members of the Royal
Canadian Mounted Police were held at Cranbrook, Penticton, Vernon, Nelson, Kamloops,
Clinton, and Williams Lake.
" Lectures to the police consisted of sections of the ' Stock-brands Act,' mainly
dealing with inspection of stock and hides, and pointing out the importance of good
inspection and how inspections should be carried out. Where available, live stock were
procured and a practical demonstration given of brand-inspection work.
" Branding-irons, a side of leather (courtesy of Leckie & Company, Vancouver)
with brands on same, and enlargements of a negative taken of a brand on a horse showing
a hip brand were all used for demonstration purposes.
" Visits to Stockmen's Meetings, Sales, and Police Detachments
" Stockmen's meetings held by the British Columbia Beef Growers' Association were
attended at Kamloops on March 16th, 1951, and Williams Lake on May 21st, 1951, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951 Y 119
also live-stock sales at Kamloops, Okanagan Falls, and Williams Lake. A large number
of police detachments were visited in regard to the enforcement of the ' Stock-brands Act,'
the ' Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance Act,' and the ' Horned Cattle Purchases Act.'
" Royal Canadian Mounted Police Co-operation
"Appreciation is expressed to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police for their cooperation throughout the Province in the enforcement of the ' Stock-brands Act,' the
' Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance Act,' and the ' Horned Cattle Purchases Act.'
" Interprovincial Meeting
"A meeting of the three Provinces—British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan—
was held at Edmonton on May 10th, 1951. The discussion dealt with the enforcement
and administration of the ' Stock-brands Act,' a mutual understanding being arrived at
on this subject.
" National Livestock Brand Conference
" This conference was held at Billings, Mont., on June 25th and 26th, 1951. There
were representatives from seventeen States in the United States and the three Western
Provinces of Canada—British Columbia, Alberta, and Saskatchewan.
" The main discussions were on the enforcement and administration of the ' Stock-
brands Act,' each representative present giving an outline of the procedure in his respective
State or Province.
" The States of Washington, Idaho, and Montana, adjoining the Province of British
Columbia, have the same problems. These matters were discussed further with those
representatives, and we are assured of working together in co-operation for the protection
of the stockmen's interests in both the United States and Canada. British Columbia is
now a member of this National Livestock Brand Conference, and your Recorder of
Brands is an official member.
" Brand-book
" The annual supplement, No. 2, to the brand-book, showing all brands in 1950,
was published and distributed to ranchers, Stock Associations, police, and Brand
Inspectors, etc.
" The issuance of the annual supplement, No. 3, to the brand-book, showing all
brands issued in 1951, is due at the end of this year. It is hoped to have this brand-book
completed so that it can be in the hands of the printer soon after the first of the new year.
" New Brand Applications
"Approximately 271 new brands were issued this year.
" Brand Renewals
" There were 955 renewal applications sent out from this office in 1951, and there
were 594 cattle brands renewed and 216 horse brands renewed.
" Brand Transfers
" There were 142 transfers of brands made in 1951.
" Brands Reissued
" There were 70 reissues of brands made in 1951. Y 120 BRITISH COLUMBIA
" Licences Issued
1950 1951
Slaughter-house -     90 73
Hide-dealers     96 102
Stock-dealers  122 167
Beef-peddlers      16 11
Horse-slaughterers      20 23
Horsemeat-dealers (animal-food)        4 7
Horsemeat-dealers (human consumption)  18
Permit to transport horses for range purposes     24 35
Permit to transport stallions for breeding purposes       1        	
"A complete list of the licensees is attached (see Appendix No. 9).
"Amendments
" Amendments to the ' Stock-brands Act,' the ' Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance
Act,' and the ' Horned Cattle Purchases Act' have been submitted to the directors of the
British Columbia Beef Growers.   These amendments have all been approved.
" 'Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance Act.'—The proposed amendments to this Act
include two new definitions which define a ' commission firm ' and ' cattle.' Provides for
a commission firm to make the required deductions and returns to the Minister. Reduces
the deduction of 30 cents on a bull, steer, or female of the bovine species other than a
cow going for slaughter and makes a straight deduction of 20 cents on all cattle going
for slaughter; the same applies on all cattle being exported out of the Province. Provides
an exemption for the packer when the commission firm sells the cattle to a packer buyer
making deductions and returns to the Minister.
" 'Horned Cattle Purchases Act.'—The proposed amendments to this Act include
two new definitions which define a ' commission firm ' and a ' packer.' Provides for a
commission firm to make the required deductions and returns to the Minister. Provides
an exemption for the packer when the commission firm sells to a packer buyer from
making deductions and returns to the Minister. Transfer of authority from Provincial
Police to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police for enforcement of this Act.
" 'Stock-brands Act.'—Amends sections 2 and 16: The proposed amendments of
this Act define a single-character brand; transfer of a brand or brands limited when
registered-brand holder holds more than one registered brand. Amends section 20:
Detail shown what memorandum of sale shall contain. Amends section 20 further:
Producing memorandum of sale to a Brand Inspector for proof of other brands on stock
inspected than the registered brand of the owner; when produced and the Inspector is
satisfied of ownership, memorandum of sale is endorsed by him showing cattle sold from
this memorandum of sale. Amends section 27: To include authority to slaughter horses
for human consumption. Amends section 45: To include the appointment of a Chief
Inspector of Brands.
" Enforcement
" The figures shown below are for the year 1951, carried out by the Royal Canadian
Mounted Police at the Flood check-point in the checking of all movements of live stock,
hides, and dressed beef through this point.
Number of cattle  4,266
Number of horses  1,307
Number of hides  1,826
Dressed beef (quarters)        29
Number of trucks checked  1,106 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951 Y  121
" Prosecutions and Convictions
" Dealing in stock without a licence:  Armstrong, 1;  Invermere, 1; Chilliwack, 1.
" Transporting stock without the required inspection: Alexis Creek, 1; Armstrong,
1; Fernie, 1; Invermere, 1; Kamloops, 2.
"Branding stock with unregistered brand:   Courtenay, 1;  Alexis Creek, 1.
" Delivering stock to a carrier without the required twenty-four hours' notice to an
Inspector:  Cranbrook, 5.
" Accepting stock for carriage without obtaining a brand-inspection certificate:
Cranbrook, 5.
" Slaughtering cattle for food in other than a licensed slaughter-house:  Kamloops, 1.
" Theft of cattle:  Clinton, 1; Courtenay, 3; Merritt, 1.
" Theft of beef:  Princeton, 1.
" Cattle-stealing and Missing Stock
" Quite a number of cattle have been reported missing throughout the Province,
with a suspicion of a number having been stolen. When reported immediately to the
Royal Canadian Mounted Police, action has been taken by subsequent investigation,
resulting in a number of convictions.
" In the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island the police do not have the full
assistance of the ' Stock-brands Act' as in the ' prescribed area,' thereby making investigations more difficult.
" It is felt by the stockmen in the Interior that the Flood check-point, operated by
the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, is of extreme value against stock being stolen in
the ' prescribed area,' and they have advised this Department of their appreciation of
this added protection."
REPORT OF FIELD CROPS BRANCH
Norman F. Putnam, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner
Two major influences on field-crop production this past season were the prolonged
drought over the Fraser Valley and Vancouver Island, seriously affecting pasture production and hay-fields, and, secondly, the adverse weather experienced in the Peace River
this fall, which hampered harvest operations.
FIELD-CROP PRODUCTION
Cereals
On Vancouver Island and the Lower Fraser Valley oats is the main cereal crop,
used principally in a rotation for feed. Acreage of oats remained about average, with
approximately 18,000 acres in the Fraser Valley. Yields on the Island are down somewhat this year, but in spite of the prolonged drought, yields throughout the Fraser Valley
were above average and quality was excellent.
In the North Okanagan-Main Line area there was some winter-killing on fall grains.
The dry spring also adversely affected crops, and yields generally are light. Spring-
seeded cereals suffered from spring drought. In a few localities—notably Armstrong
and Salmon Arm—early July rains brought all crops along, improving yields generally.
There were infestations of root-rot in several fields in the Armstrong district, and cutworms also damaged considerable acreage of spring cereals in that area. Yields on dry
land in the Kamloops area were light, particularly the spring seedings. Y 122
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Throughout the Central Interior, cereal-crops were generally light, with yields below
average. With the exception of the Vanderhoof district, all grains are used on the farm.
There is generally surplus wheat for export from the Vanderhoof district. Snow-mould
again caused considerable winter-killing of fall grains in the Vanderhoof area. Ideal
harvest conditions prevailed throughout the area.
The Peace River Block suffered severely from adverse weather conditions this fall.
Cereal-crops were well above average, but early fall snow and frosts hampered harvesting
operations, and many crops remain uncut. On the south side only about 40 per cent of
the crop is threshed, and on the north side about 70 per cent is threshed. There was
considerable incidence of " take-all " root-rot in wheat, particularly where wheat followed
wheat in the rotation.
Cereals in the Boundary area yielded above average.   Total acreage remained about
the same as last year, but there is a trend toward more fall wheat and spring barley at
the expense of spring wheat and oats.    On the Creston Flats, acreages of cereal-crops
remain the same, but average yields are tending to decline.    Grain-crops in the East
Kootenays were generally light.   Table No. 1 gives a brief summary of production by
districts.
Hay and Pasture
Prolonged summer drought seriously affected hay and pasture production on Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland. Supplies are short, and heavier than normal
importations will have to be made to supply the demand. Alfalfa-crops in the North
Okanagan were about average. Production of alfalfa at Camp Lister is down due to a
light second crop and some weather damage to the first cut. Interior ranges dried out
badly this summer, and hay reserves are low. With a mild winter, supplies should be
adequate. Hay yields were very light in the Prince George district. Yields in the
Bulkley Valley, however, were above average, and a larger acreage of timothy was cut
for hay in anticipation of the good local market.
Forage-crop Seed Production
Interest in forage-seed production is definitely increasing, particularly in some of
the better-adapted grass species.
Table No. 1.—Field-crop Production, 1951
District
Wheat
Spring
Av.
Yield
per
Acre
Total
Bushels
Fall
Av.
Yield
per
Acre
Total
Bushels
Oats
Av.
Yield
per
Acre
Total
Bushels
Barley
Av.
Yield
per
Acre
Total
Bushels
Flax
Av.
Yield
per
Acre
Total
Bushels
Vancouver Island-
Lower Mainland ...
Quesnel	
Prince George-
McBride 	
Vanderhoof	
Smithers	
Creston	
Peace River	
25
30
17
22
25
25
35
15
28
35
75
100
50
20
35
80
40
1,800,000
20,000
220,500
45,000
50,000
110,000
1,600,000
7,500
29,500
3,500
4,000
150,000
2,750,000
3,000
16,000
5,000
140,000
3,500
30
20
30
60
40
40,000
8,000
7,500
6,500
800,000
....    |     	
-    I     	
10    j 50,000
I
Alfalfa production in the Peace River Block received a severe set-back again this
year due to a prolonged cool, wet spring, retarding blossoming and then early fall frosts
caught the seed before it was mature. Because of the better price and because of lighter
second-cut stands, more alfalfa was left for seed in the North Okanagan this year. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951 Y 123
Double-cut red-clover seed in the Fraser Valley remains about the same. Although yield
of seed per acre is well above average, many of the stands normally left for seed had to
be cut for hay. Quality of seed was excellent. A dry summer, combined with high prices
and local demand for hay, is responsible for a drop in timothy seed in the Central Interior.
The alsike-crop in the Prince George area was only fair due to poor weather, and in some
districts harvesting conditions were poor, with a resultant loss of seed. Ladino-clover
production was below the 1950 crop. There were good yields of red-top on limited
acreage in the Fraser Valley this year. Sugar-beet seed production remains fairly
constant and yields were above average. Heavy losses in swede turnip seed resulted
because of flooding and upheaval of roots last winter.
The following table gives the estimated production of forage seeds for 1951 compared to the 1950 production:— Estimated
Production, Production,
1950 1951
(Lb.) (Lb.)
Alfalfa  363,000 300,000
Red clover (double-cut)  300,000 280,000
Red clover (single-cut)  80,000 66,000
Alsike   349,000 60,000
Timothy-alsike and alsike-timothy  224,500 150,000
Sweet clover  70,000 300,000
White clover (Ladino)  6,000 5,000
White clover (White Dutch)  1,000
Timothy   241,000 150,000
Brome   80,000 200,000
Creeping red fescue  159,000 150,000
Crested wheat-grass   4,000 5,000
Reed canary-grass  3,500 500
Orchard-grass   2,000 500
Red-top  21,000
Spring vetch  1,500 40,000
Field corn (open-pollinated)  1,000 1,500
Field corn (hybrid)  3,976        	
Field peas   225,000 200,000
Mangels -  13,500 1,840
Sugar-beets  650,000 505,000
Recently the trend has been to develop and encourage production of named varieties
or strains of forage-crops. This is particularly true in the Old Country, and the United
States has recently inaugurated a plan along these lines. This interest is reflected among
Canadian agronomists, and a year ago some action was taken when a meeting was called
in Toronto to discuss the whole phase of forage-seed crop production in Canada. In June
of this year Mr. McKay was out to this Province and explained to those interested the
general outline of the proposed plan. This year, too, a new Seed Production Committee
for British Columbia was appointed by our Minister, including N. F. Putnam, Field Crops
Commissioner; J. L. Webster, Horticultural Specialist; C. Tapp, Plant Products Division;
Dr. M. F. Clarke, Dominion Experimental Farm; Dr. V. C. Brink, University of British
Columbia; Dr. A. F. Barss, University of British Columbia, with the British Columbia
directors of the Canadian Seed Growers' Association as ex-officio members.
At a recent meeting of the Committee on forage-crops, the matter of seed production
was discussed. It was felt that in British Columbia we could make a start in getting some
growers interested in production of certain varieties adapted to our conditions. y 124 british columbia
Potatoes
Potato acreage was considerably reduced in the main potato-growing areas this year.
Yields were reduced in many districts because of drought conditions which persisted
throughout the summer.   Potato prices have advanced rapidly during recent months.
The dry season has been conducive to the production of good-quality stock. There
was little report on blight this year, and little damage from tuber flea-beetle reported.
Production of seed-potatoes continues to hold a prominent position in the agriculture
of British Columbia. A poor market last year, combined with higher prices for commercial stock this year, has resulted in an appreciable reduction in acreage of stock
inspected for seed. Approximately 1,600 acres passed inspection for foundation and
certified seed in 1951. Seven seed-control areas are set up under the Act, and the high
quality of British Columbia seed is finding a steady market in the United States.
The following is a list of the main varieties and acreages as supplied by the
Dominion Seed Potato Certification Service:—
Variety Acreage Variety Acreage
Burbank  4.1 Green Mountain   _       84.37
Canso .        13.5 Katahdin        11.25
Chippewa  4.25 Keswick   6.75
Columbia Russet-       19.18 Netted Gem  1,085.55
Early Epicure        91.9 Sebago  6.0
Early Rose        17.1 Warba       131.75
Gold Coin  5.6 White Rose      125.25
Great Scot  8.3
The main areas of production are also given, with approximate acreages inspected
in 1950: Vancouver Island, 94 acres; Lower Mainland, 492 acres; Pemberton, 137
acres; Okanagan, 278 acres; Cariboo, 189 acres; Central Interior, 39 acres; Boundary,
206 acres; East and West Kootenays, 162 acres.
Oceanside Test-plots
In 1950 the Department took over the supervising of the Oceanside test-plots as a
service to the seed-potato growers. Eighty-seven samples,were planted, representing
seed stock from sixty-six growers in 1950. This year forty-one samples were forwarded
to this Branch from thirty-four growers. These samples were planted at Oceanside under
supervision on November 27th.
Potato Variety Trials
In co-operation with Dr. T. Anstey, Dominion Experimental Farm, Agassiz; E. C.
Hughes; and the District Agriculturists, the potato variety trials were continued this year
at eight stations. Canso and Keswick were included in the trials this year, bringing the
number of varieties tested to sixteen.
Peas
Peas for the frozen-food trade were grown on approximately 250 acres around
Victoria and Duncan. Average yields were 1,500 pounds per acre. Production was
about the same as last year. Canning-peas in the Fraser Valley were extremely variable
in yields, ranging from one-half to ZVi tons per acre. Acreage remained about the same.
The dried-pea acreage in the North Okanagan was down slightly this year, and yields
were light.   At Creston there were 1,480 tons produced on approximately 800 acres.
Threshermen's Returns
Appendix No. 11 tabulates the kind and amount of grain threshed in respective
districts, as submitted to the district agricultural officials. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951
Y 125
PASTURE AND FORAGE-CROP TRIALS
This Branch has continued to stress the importance of well-established and well-
managed hay and pastures for efficient farm production. In addition to many demonstration trials set out during the past few years, which are still under observation, the
following plots were seeded down this year. All plots were established co-operatively
with the District Agriculturists.
(a) One 6-acre pasture of grass-legume mixture in the Duncan area.
(b) Two plots of bird's-foot trefoil and one of strawberry clover in the Fraser
VaUey.
(c) Fourteen plots, including ten legumes and twenty-three grass species in
the Kamloops district.
(d) Four trials on Rhizoma alfalfa and one of Ladino clover in the Vernon
district.
(e) Two plots comprising different grass-legume mixtures, one trial of Rhizoma
alfalfa, and a variety trial of Goldsoy and Flambeau soy-beans in the
Salmon Arm Valley.
(/) The cereal variety rod-row trials were continued this year in the Rock
Creek-Bridesville district, as well as the field trials with cereals. A grass
and legume nursery was also seeded down. A range reseeding trial, using
crested wheat-grass at varying times of seeding, was laid out this summer.
(g) Pasture mixtures were seeded out at Edgewood, Nakusp, and Fruitvale, in
the Nelson district. The Edgewood plot was to observe the response of
the mixture under irrigation.
(h)  A seeding of bird's-foot trefoil and orchard-gass was made at Camp Lister,
and first season's results appear promising.
(i)   In the Peace River a creeping red fescue pasture and several plots of bird's-
foot trefoil have been established.
These plots have been utilized to good advantage in the areas they are laid down.
It is a valuable extension method of interesting farmers in better hay and pasture
production.
SOIL-TREATMENT TRIALS
Fertilizer demonstration-plots and other soil-treatment trials were continued this year
in all areas of the Province in co-operation with District Agriculturists. These trials
provide excellent demonstrations to farmers on the results of fertilizer usage, and in many
instances provide further information on fertilizer response. Most of the trials were laid
down on established stands of hay and pasture, but other crops were also concerned. Five
trials were laid down in the Duncan area and five in the Courtenay area on different soil-
types. In all cases definite response was obtained over check-plots. The complete
fertilizer gave highest yields, but not necessarily the most economically, however. A.
Pelter, Vanderhoof, reports on fertilizer trials on timothy and brome-grass hay in that
area.   Results of yields from clippings are given as follows:—
Ammonium
Sulphate
at 75 Lb. per
Acre
Ammonium
Nitrate
at 50 Lb. per
Acre
16-20-0
at 100 Lb. per
Acre
16-20-0
Plus KCL
at 100 Lb. per
Acre
Check
1.50 T/A
1.58 T/A
1.44 T/A
1.24 T/A
1.28
1.36
1.48
1.58
0.68 T/A
0.68 T/A
A. R. Tarves, District Agriculturist, Quesnel; J. W. Awmack, District Agriculturist,
Cranbrook; and J. F. Carmichael, District Agriculturist, Grand Forks, continued the
fertilizer trials on potatoes in their respective areas.    J. L. Gray, District Agriculturist, Y 126 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Kamloops, laid down five fertilizer trials this year. He reports that superphosphate at
600 pounds per acre on alfalfa gave excellent response. G. A. Muirhead, District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm, reports on seven fertilizer trials at Salmon Arm. Nitrogen and
phosphate gave response, as well as gypsum.
Mr. Hughes, of the New Westminster office, in co-operation with the District Agriculturists and the soil specialist at Agassiz Experimental Farm, established eleven fertilizer
plots consisting of sixteen treatments of NPK at varying formulations and rates. An
additional three plots involving nine treatments were laid down. All treatments were laid
out on established hay-fields on varying soil types. Rates of application, both alone and
in combination, included N at 30 and 60 pounds per acre, P2O5 at 60 and 120 pounds
per acre, and K20 at 30 and 60 pounds per acre.
A complete report is on file, but in summary the results indicate that the treatment
data hold for all locations. In general, the complete fertilizer containing N, P, and K,
and the fertilizer containing N and P, gave significantly lighter yields than all other
treatments.
Yields from plots receiving a nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer were equal to the yields
from plots receiving a complete fertilizer of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash, indicating
that the addition of potash under the conditions of the test gave no additional increase
in hay yields.
Nitrogen alone gave significant yield increase over phosphorus alone and potash
alone.
Phosphate and potash appeared to be of no value without the addition of nitrogen.
Generally the double rate gave significantly higher yields (not necessarily economically, however). Since rates and locations and rates and treatment were significant, the
double rate was not generally affected by either treatment or location.
SEED IMPROVEMENT
Again this year, foundation-stock seed produced by the Agronomy Department of
the University of British Columbia was distributed through this Branch to growers.
Amount of seed produced was down this year, but this seed finds a ready market. In
addition, the Branch has introduced small stock seed of Hercules orchard-grass and
Dollard red clover in an attempt to interest growers in production of these varieties.
The following is a list of stock seed made available from the University of British
Columbia in 1951: Victory oats, 1,150 pounds; Storm fall rye, 850 pounds; Kharkov
wheat, 250 pounds; Olli barley, 340 pounds.
BRITISH COLUMBIA FIELD CROP UNION
During the past season membership in the British Columbia Field Crop Union
increased from 163 in 1950 to 212. Altogether, 205 tests were sent to members. The
list of tests includes a wide range of crops, including peas, grasses, legumes, and grass-
legume mixtures. The pasture mixture tests, the alfalfa variety tests, and Ladino tests
proved most popular. The following gives a more detailed breakdown of the number
of tests forwarded to the following areas: Vancouver Island, 34; Lower Mainland, 10;
North Okanagan, 59; Central Interior, 60; Boundary and Kootenays, 23; Peace
River, 19.
PRODUCTION OF REGISTERED AND CERTIFIED SEED
The inspection and registration of cereal- and forage-crop seeds is carried out by
representatives of the Plant Products Division, Federal Department of Agriculture, under
the regulations of the " Seeds Act." The following table gives in summary the number
of acres and estimated production of varieties inspected in British Columbia in 1951.
The largest acreage is located in the Peace River Block. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951
Y 127
Variety
Barley—
Newal	
Olli     -              	
Acres
          2.5
44.8
Estimated Production
(Bu.)
75
1,850
Plush
2.0
100
Titan   	
          1.5
80
Montcalm -   ._       	
25.5
1,150
Oats—
Ajax 	
Beaver 	
Eagle
        62.5
- ■         94
141
3,400
5,960
11,000
Larain   -
Victory  	
        16
763.5
900
48,640
Wheat—
Ridit*
70
Wasatch* _     __
350
Kharkov
2
80
Sun	
            0.36
18
Cornell   	
          1
40
Saunders*
4,935
Saunders 	
Garnet _        _
          1.7
5
60
30
Regent 	
Thatcher 	
          1.2
___           59
60
2,280
Rye—Storm*   .       	
10
Flax—
Dakota 	
Redwing	
Red clover—Dollard	
        43
      833
800
15,700
(Lb.)
350
Alfalfa-
Grimm*
181
Grimm
2.997
Ladak*
        36
        97
883
Ladak 	
Rhizoma
13,450
Brome*
      130
      122
          6
Creeping red fescue* 	
Creeping red fescue	
Crested wheat-grass*   _     _
7,350
600
                 16
3,200
Sweet clover—
White blossom*
73
Variety unknown
317
224,000
* Denotes certified.
SOIL-ANALYSIS
To the end of November, 1,201 samples of soil were analysed, approximately
the same as last year. However, that number will be increased, as there is still a fairly
large number still to be analysed. Reports of analyses are generally forwarded to
farmers through the District Agriculturist concerned, as the district man can usually
made direct contact with the farmer to more fully assess his problem in the field and
advise on the use of fertilizers and other practices. Y 128 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Soil-analysis is only a guide in making recommendations. The greatest benefit
derived from the present method of analysis is from the interpretation of the pH readings
and the rapid analysis for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium. Soil-reaction
is determined by the potentiometer; the available nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium
are determined by the Spurway method.
District Agriculturists in the Fraser Valley are continuing the systematic sampling
for analysis of soils in the Fraser Valley, and approximately 200 samples will be analysed
this year.
WEED-CONTROL
The two Weed Inspectors were appointed again this year in the Peace River
District, working in co-operation with the District Agriculturists.
Newer weed chemicals were supplied to all district agricultural offices this year for
trial purposes. The Department weed-sprayers, located at Cranbrook, Armstrong,
Vanderhoof, and Dawson Creek, have been used extensively this year again. The
demonstrations in the past year with these machines have encouraged some farmers
to purchase their own equipment for weed-spraying.
Several trials were started in the North Okanagan this year to determine the effectiveness of Polybor Chlorate as a soil-sterilant in control of toad-flax, which is making
serious inroads in that area. Results were not too good, due to the dry season, but
further observations will be made. Work continues on hoary cress and leafy spurge in
the same area.
Several weed trials were continued by Mr. Hughes in the Fraser Valley, and his
results are reported briefly:—
" 1. Corn.—Ester and amine of 2,4-D and dinitro sprays were applied both as
pre- and post-emergent applications, and Ca(CN)2 was applied as pre-emergent dust
at varying rates on varieties Marcross and Golden Cross on a Ladner Clay soil. Due
to the drought, results were very poor. However, general observations were made.
Variety Marcross is extremely sensitive to 2,4-D spray post-emergent. Both 4-ounce
and 8-ounce rates caused considerable stunting and twisting of the plants. Golden
Cross withstood these rates without any detrimental effects, but an additional application
of 8 ounces over a portion previously sprayed with 6 ounces caused distortion and
leaf-twist. Weed-control (smartweed) was poor. Both amine and ester 2,4-D gave
fair weed-control and caused no apparent harm in pre-emergent applications. Ca(CN)2
gave fair pre-emergent weed-control, but the 600-pound rate, though very effective,
seemed to allow corn seedlings to emerge, thus indicating possibly too high an application. An application rate between 300 and 600 pounds per acre seems to be the
best. Dinitros pre-emergent applications gave good to excellent weed-controls. Post-
emergent application gave the same weed-control results, but some corn leaf-burn was
apparent, Marcross again seeming the most sensitive.
" Due to the extended drought, however, secondary weed-growth to a large degree
overtook the corn varieties as they seemed to stand still from lack of moisture.
. " 2. Alfalfa.—A grassy field was treated with IPC sprayed on at varying rates to
see if the grass could be reduced and the alfalfa allowed to establish a better second
cutting. The drought again took over, drying up the grasses, whereas the long-rooted
alfalfa flourished. No difference between treated and untreated grass could be
determined.
" 3. Oats.—In two locations on Ladner Clay, oats were treated with up to 1 pound
of 2,4-D amine and ester to see if damage occurred. No discernible effects could be
seen when oats were sprayed in the early shot-blade stage.
" In one location Phenoxylene 30 and MCP were compared with 2,4-D on oats
infested with corn spurrey. None of the chemicals controlled corn spurrey or injured
the oats up to 1 pound of acid equivalence. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951 Y 129
" 4. Couch-grass.—Couch-grass was treated with NaTCA 90 per cent on tilled
and sod plots on the Sumas flats and with NaTCA 90 per cent, Borascu, Polybor
Chlorate, IPC, and CMU at Haney on sandy loam at varying rates of chemical on tilled
ground. On tilled plots NaTCA 90 per cent, Borascu, and IPC were found relatively
ineffective. Polybor Chlorate at 5 pounds per 100 square feet was quite effective.
CMU was outstanding throughout the plots and merits further work. On untilled ground,
NaTCA 90 per cent seemed slightly less effective at equal rates, but in both cases it is not
outstanding in effectiveness. Of particular note is the fact that low rates of TCA on
oats and red clover removed these plants from fresh seedings infested with couch.
" 5. Canada Thistle.—Canada thistle was treated with varying rates oi 2,4-D
ester and amine at 16 gallons and 80 gallons per acre solution rates. The higher
rate of water at equal concentrations of the chemical gave outstanding better knockdown, thus indicating thorough coverage is necessary; Wi to 2 pounds of acid
equivalence at the higher rate gave effective knock-down, whereas 4 pounds of acid
equivalence at 16-gallon rate did not seem any better than one-half to 1 pound of acid
equivalence at the 80-gallon rate.
" 6. Buttercup.—Considerable testing took place with buttercup using amine and
ester of 2,4-D, ester of 2,4-D, ester of 2,4,5-T, MCP, and Phenoxylene 30. Generally
the same result regarding thorough coverage occurred in buttercup as it did in Canada
Thistle. One and one-half pounds of 2,4-D acid equivalence in 80 gallons of water
per acre seems necessary at least. Preliminary work with MCP indicates this chemical
may be more effective than 2,4-D at equal rates.   2,4,5-T is not as effective.
FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL WEED-SURVEY
During the past season this Branch co-operated with the Division of Botany,
Federal Department of Agriculture, in conducting a weed-survey. Funds allocated by the
Federal Department were sufficient to employ two summer students on the project.
The areas surveyed included the Cariboo and Central Interior and the Okanagan-
Main Line.
The primary object of the survey was to locate, list, map, and collect specimens
of the serious perennial weeds, including hoary cress, leafy spurge, field bindweed, toadflax, Russian knapweed, cow-cockle, bladder-campion, and St. John's wort (Klamath
weed). Special attention was also given to areas of infestation of diffuse knapweed.
At the same time a record was kept of the common weeds of the district.
The following is a general summary of the project survey:—
Total Area
Cariboo and Central Interior  1,600,000
Okanagan-Main Line       325,000
Weed Infestations Locations Acres
Hoary cress  37 350
Leafy spurge  6 55
Cypress spurge   3 (*)
Russian knapweed   15 30
Toad-flax  30 473
Field bindweed  i  15 (2)
White cockle  31 (3)
Bladder-campion  15 (4)
1 In gardens.
2 No estimate of acreage but occurs generally throughout Okanagan, only rarely in Central Interior.
3 No heavy stands reported but occurs in scattered patches or single plants.
4 No large areas infested but rather occurs in scattered patches. Y 130 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Biological Control of Klamath Weed (Hypericum perforatum).—Klamath weed
has invaded small areas of range lands in the Okanagan and Boundary Districts, where its
presence is a severe threat to establishment over many thousands of acres of range lands.
In co-operation with the Forest Service, trials were laid out two years ago on control
by chemicals, and these have been continued this year.
Biological control of this weed has given excellent results in Australia and California,
and this year the Biological Control Division, Science Service, Federal Department of
Agriculture, was interested enough to start preliminary trials on Klamath weed in British
Columbia. The work in British Columbia was under the immediate supervision of
Dr. Smith, of the Belleville, Ont., laboratory.
Two species of the Chrysolina beetles were introduced from California, where they
had proved so effective, under strict quarantine conditions and were released at three
locations. These beetles are very specific in their feeding habits and attack only the
Hypericum plant genus. To date there are no results, and we are waiting to see if
the beetles will survive the winters and adjust life-habits to our conditions.
Control studies on the Chrysolina beetle are also being conducted at the Belleville
laboratory to supplement the work in British Columbia.
FERTILIZER AND AGRICULTURAL POISONS BOARD
Two meetings of the Board were held during the year. In May the Board considered the list of approved fertilizer mixes for British Columbia, and the following
list for 1951-52 was recommended for the Minister's approval: 0-12-20; 2-15-15;
2-16-6;  4-10-10;   6-8-6 (organic);   6-30-15;   8-10-5;   10-20-10.
AGRICULTURAL LIME
During the past year the movement of agricultural lime has shown a further
increase. A high proportion of the lime used for soil-amendment purposes this year
came from the newly opened marl quarry at Cheam Lake. There was no change in
the basis of subsidy payment this year. The following table gives the general increase
in the sales of lime over the past five years:—
Tons
January 1 to December 31, 1947  13,104
January 1 to December 31, 1948  14,555
January 1 to December 31, 1949 '.  20,752
January 1 to December 31, 1950  22,012
January 1 to December 31, 1951  29,529
GRAIN SCREENINGS
Grain screenings are a by-product in the recleaning process of grains and are
graded according to the regulations in accordance with the Grain Act as defined
by the Board of Grain Commissioners for Canada. Grades include oat screenings,
No. 1 feed screenings, No. 2 feed screenings, uncleaned screenings, and refuse screenings.
In compliance with the British Columbia " Noxious Weeds Act " and regulations
thereunder, grain screenings which contain weed seeds in excess of the percentage allowed
by the " Canada Grain Act" for No. 2 feed screenings shall not be removed from any
grain-elevator, mill, or warehouse to any place within the Province, except only by
virtue of permit duly signed by the Minister of Agriculture or by a person authorized by
him.   A permit is not required for mixed feed oats, No. 1 and No. 2 feed screenings.
Permits above referred to consist of two specific forms—one, known as the " Permit
for the Removal of Screenings," which allows removal of low-grade screenings by a
dealer or grain merchant;   the other, known as a " Feeder's Permit," which allows DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951 Y  131
removal of low-grade screenings by a feeder for the feeding of cattle in enclosed feed-lots
conditional to prescribed regulations.
In the handling of these refuse and uncleaned screenings, care is exercised to
prevent their removal to important agricultural areas where the high percentage of
weed seeds contained in such screenings are a menace to the district. In the main,
permits are limited to the Greater Vancouver boundaries, but during the last two years
increased interest in this by-product has arisen. This is directly attributed to cost of
feed. As a result, requests have been received for Feeder's Permit in new areas. District
Agriculturists have co-operated where necessary and have inspected proposed feed-
lots. On the basis of these inspections, applications have been rejected or approved,
provided other requirements under the regulations can be met.
During the first ten months of the year 1951, January 1st to October 31st, thirty-
five Feeders' Permits have been issued, as against twenty-nine such permits during
the same period last year. Of these, twenty-seven were issued in the Greater Vancouver
district, two at Kamloops, and one each at Coquitlam, Ladner, Lytton, Douglas Lake,
Pavilion, and Dog Creek. Rejections for a Feeder's Permit include one from Kamloops,
one from Langley, and one from Chilliwack.
During this same period, eleven permits for removal of screenings were issued.
With one exception, these were all directed to merchants or mills within the Greater
Vancouver boundaries.
This past season, one Permit for Removal of Screenings and four Feeders' Permits
have been directed to Dr. A. J. Wood, Professor of Animal Husbandry, University
of British Columbia, relating to the experimental treatment of refuse screenings with
whale solubles to produce a palatable and nutritive feed. Dr. Wood sought Departmental co-operation in this regard to enlarge his trials to a feed-lot scale.
Comparing the movement of feed screenings this season to that of 1950, for local
consumption, the amount of No. 1 feed screenings handled shows a slight decrease,
No. 2 feed screenings is cut to nearly one-third, whereas uncleaned and refuse screenings
consumption increased considerably.    Mixed feed oat consumption increased slightly.
The movement of export screenings also shows considerable variation. No. 1 feed
screenings export has more than doubled, No. 2 feed screenings export has been cut to
one-third, uncleaned screenings export has been cut to one-third, refuse screenings
export is slightly reduced, and mixed feed oat export is cut in half.
The two years 1950 and 1951 are similar in total annual movement of screenings,
and a levelling-off action of the amount of screenings handled is anticipated. As shown
in the annual movement for the last ten years, considerable increase has taken place.
Only during the last two years, however, have No. 1 and No. 2 feed screenings been
reported as exported from the Province, and only during the past season have exports
of ground mixed feed oats and uncleaned screenings been reported. Variations in grades
of screenings and the manner of treatment are to be expected from time to time.
MOVEMENT OF SCREENINGS
Appendix No. 12 is a summary showing the total movement of all grades for each
month and also the total of each grade of screenings for the period as covered by this
Report, both for local use and export.
PRIZE-WINNERS AT THE CHICAGO INTERNATIONAL HAY AND
GRAIN SHOW AND TORONTO ROYAL WINTER FAIR
In spite of a rather poor growing season, British Columbia had an excellent showing
of field-crop seeds at the Toronto Royal and Chicago International Hay and Grain
Show. Special commendations go to the fine showing of exhibits in the forage-crop
seed and potato entries. Y 132 BRITISH COLUMBIA
British Columbia winners took the first nine placings in the red-clover seed class.
These include, in order of winnings, K. Davie, Ladner; A. C. Gilmore, Lulu Island;
T. Kuhn, Cloverdale; Spetifore & Sons, Ladner; G. H. Keur, Lulu Island; M. Zellwager,
Langley; Ralph McDonald, Lulu Island; H. R. May & Son, Lulu Island; D. W. Chimes,
Ladner.   Ken Davie also took the grand championship award in the forage-seed class.
The University of British Columbia had the first-prize sample of alfalfa with their
Rhizoma.
E. Wedkind, Pouce Coupe, and Walter Turner, Prince George, placed second and
third in the alsike class.
D. W. Johnson, Dawson Creek, was first and Hans Anderson, Groundbirch, fifth
in creeping red fescue.
Frank Pincosy, Salmon Arm, took the major awards for the British Columbia
Potato-growers, with a first for his Netted Gems, third with Katahdin, and fourth with
Warba. He also won the reserve grand championship in the potato class. Other winners
included J. Decker, Pemberton; Ross Brothers, Pemberton; Mrs. Ronayne, Pemberton;
George Windt, Alexandria;  J. Reid, Merville;  and Mrs. Woodward, Grand Forks.
Winners in other classes included Ken Davie, first, and J. Erskine, second, in
swede turnip seed. Bert Young, fourth, in barley, eighth in soft white winter wheat, and
eighth in oats. The University of British Columbia also placed first with Kharkov
wheat and third with Storm rye.
British Columbia growers also won honours with forage seeds at the Chicago
International Hay and Grain Show. Ken Davie took first in the red-clover seed class;
A. C. Gilmore was runner-up; and H. R. May was fourth. D. W. Johnson, Dawson
Creek, was first with creeping red fescue.
REPORT OF FARMERS' INSTITUTES
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent
At the end of the year there were 201 Farmers' Institutes listed by the Registrar of
Companies. Of these, however, some 14 were not in good standing in so far as the
Department is concerned.
The number of Institutes and membership in each of the ten districts for the year
1950 are as follows:—
District Institute Membership
" A "—Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands  21 1,058
" B "—Bulkley and Skeena  19 341
" C "—Nechako Valley :  14 307
" D "—Kamloops and North Thompson  19 308
" E "—Lower Fraser Valley  31 2,526
" F "—West Kootenay  19 655
"G"—Okanagan and Shuswap  15 407
"H"—Cariboo   12 227
" I "—East Kootenay  15 310
" J "—Peace River  22 557
As annual returns from Farmers' Institutes are not received until March of the
following year, figures covering Institute activities are a year behind in this report.
Again, as in 1949, there was a decrease in membership but a considerable increase
in receipts and assets.   Receipts increased over $10,000, while assets increased $40,000.
Figures for 1949 and 1950 are as follows:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1951
Y 133
1949
Receipts   $913,211.32
Expenditures      824,706.68
Assets     308,540.89
1950
$924,625.05
831,209.48
348,457.70
116,017.14
Liabilities      103,288.58
During the year 1950, Farmers' Institutes again purchased a considerable amount
of commodities on behalf of their members, as shown in the following table:—
District and Year
Stumping-
Powder
Feed
Seed
Miscellaneous
District "A"—
1949 	
$13,197.58
13,848.69
868.85
582.63
912.66
2,085.49
1,218.85
1,675.72
60,947.33
54,315.20
814.83
846.27
5,825.75
6,687.91
1,510.64
334.93
193.27
298.57
1,039.83
749.76
$1,959.03
11,501.28
10,516.34
11,982.48
8,836.64
6,522.38
2,596.03
2,806.52
331,808.67
462,483.96
85,433.19
60,672.80
7,408.12
3,136.51
$705.10
4,202.29
1,428.01
945.38
2,993.90
5,380.04
441.51
234.88
1,671.40
1,287.27
1,574.25
4,465.08
4,361.03
6,170.15
1,617.50
747.66
3,311.85
1,537.67
$6,564.67
1950...    	
1,749.76
District " B "—
1949   	
1950 	
District " C "—
1949   -      -
1950    	
22,050.70
22,756.32
13,213.90
1,354.29
District " D "—
1949    - 	
1950 	
4,379.58
6,909.90
District " E "—
1949.....  	
7,399.18
1950 -	
4,492.10
District " F "—
1949 	
72,062.13
1950	
89,386.55
District " G "—
1949 	
3,225.36
1950 	
911.12
District " H "—
1949  	
297.62
1950   	
761.98
14,747.50
13,807.52
162.44
District " I "—
1949  	
1,709.46
1950	
652.89
District " J "—
1949 	
65.89
1950 	
598.45
Totals—
1949- - 	
$86,529.59
81,425.17
$463,305.52
573,675.43
$18,104.55      |      $130,968.49
1950 - -	
24.970.42      1         128.973.82
DISTRICT INSTITUTES
All districts, with the exception of District " E," held annual meetings during the
year which were well attended. Again, as in the past, most districts had a large number
of resolutions for discussion. The place and date of each meeting, together with the
names of the president, secretary, and Advisory Board member elected, are as follows:—
District
Place
Date
Officers Elected
"A"
Nanaimo	
A.   J.   Mason,  Hilliers;    J.   T.   Neen,  R.R.  2,  Nanaimo;
" B "
June 29. 	
A. Mclntyre, R.R. 2, Victoria.
George   Brandon,   Telkwa;    Arthur   Shelford,   Wistaria;
" C "......    	
June 26 and 27
September 12	
May 29	
June 1—	
Arthur Shelford, Wistaria.
J. Andros, Vanderhoof;   R. Johnson, Prince George;   R. S.
" D "	
" F "	
Kamloops	
Robson	
Revelstoke —	
Kersley	
Fells, Dunster.
F. A. Shook, R.R. 1, Clearwater; E. C. Leavitt, Kamloops;
William Harrison, Pritchard.
D. K. Knowler, Fruitvale;   K. Wallace, Boswell;   K. Wal
" G "     -	
" H " 	
lace, Boswell.
W. A. Monk, Grindrod;   M. A. Dangel, Grindrod;   James
Woodburn, Salmon Arm.
H. Trueman, Quesnel;   F. Vernon, Quesnel;   E. Greenlee,
" I "	
Canim Lake.
L. G. Pippin, Cranbrook;   Mrs. H. E. Miard, Fernie;   J. B.
" J " -.     .
Rolla       	
June 21	
Aye, Jaffray.
A. H. Dunn, Sunset Prairie;   John Close, Sunset Prairie;
P. A. Leeland, Clayhurst. Y 134 BRITISH COLUMBIA
ADVISORY BOARD OF FARMERS' INSTITUTES
As reported last year, the annual meeting of the Advisory Board which would have
normally been held in the latter part of February, 1951, was, at the request of the Board,
held from November 27th to 29th, 1950.
. Also, as previously reported, the Board selected ten resolutions for presentation
to the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture during the 1951 Session by the secretary
of the Advisory Board and your Superintendent.
Following our meeting with the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture, the
following report was presented to the Legislative Assembly by Thomas King, Chairman:—
Legislative Committee Room, April 11th, 1951.
Madam Speaker:
Your Select Standing Committee on Agriculture held several meetings and heard representations of the Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes through Department officials of its
organization in the Department of Agriculture, and from the British Columbia Federation of
Agriculture, and had officials of the Department at different meetings to elicit information on
several matters and begs leave to report as follows:—
(1) That larger grants be made to the Department of Agriculture to further the interest
of those in the farming and allied industries and that more may be induced to
engage therein so that our production shall more nearly balance with the Province's
requirements in foodstuffs and create a higher standard of living for the producers:
(2) That, as the burden of educational costs having to be borne by land places a severe
burden on agriculturists, it is urged on the Government that during the coming
year a thorough study be made of this injustice so that the costs be more equitably
distributed:
(3) That a method of automobile insurance, based on gallonage of gasoline used, be
carefully studied and, if found feasible and in the public interest, to take steps to
inaugurate the system at as early a date as possible:
(4) That, because of the higher costs of land-clearing by the Department of Agriculture, land-owners desiring this service on time payments be allowed to have
a greater amount (in money value) done for them than has heretofore prevailed:
(5) That the Department of Public Works and the Department of Agriculture continue
to co-operate in the matter of drainage of farm lands where road-construction may
change the manner of run-off of water, either from rainfall or natural drainage:
(6) That the Department further their work on causes, control, and elimination of
several serious diseases of cattle in British Columbia, such as bovine brucellosis,
mastitis, and bacterial ring-rot in potatoes and Newcastle disease in poultry:
(7) That as daylight saving works a hardship against many activities on a farm, this
Committee urges that in future it may apply only for the months of July and
August:
(8) That, in the interests of the farming industry in general and the specialized
dairyman in particular, the ban on coloration of margarine to make it resemble
butter be continued:
(9) So that the people of the Province may be more assured of a continuous supply
of fluid milk because of stabilization, the Government is urged to continue the
Milk Board but recommends its enlargement from one to three members:
(10) That necessary steps be taken to legalize the making of loans to co-operatives for
the building of potato storage warehouses at strategic points on trackage so that
returns to producers of this commodity may be greater and with much less loss.
This is to be done to take advantage of Dominion Government Order in Council
P.C. 2017 which sets forth terms under which Federal assistance is made:
(11) That, because of the inadequate number of veterinarians in the Interior of the
Province, the Government and municipalities, who now each subsidize one in this
profession at the rate of $600 per year, be urged to increase this subsidy so as to
induce veterinarians to locate in various centres, so that the loss in stock, now so
very valuable, be thereby lessened:
(12) That the matter of Fraser Valley dykes be investigated with a view to learning
whether any rebuilt after the disastrous flood of 1948 were not completed according
to standard:
(13) That the Department of Agriculture work in co-operation with the British
Columbia Federation of Agriculture in endeavouring to resettle farms abandoned
in the years of poor markets and low prices: DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951 Y 135
(14) That the Department of Public Works co-operate with land-owners in the clearing
of obstructions in streams where adjoining soil is in danger of being eroded or
otherwise damaged.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Thomas King, Chairman.
EXHIBITIONS AND FALL FAIRS
One Class A exhibition, two Class B exhibitions, and fifty-seven fall fairs were held
in British Columbia during the year, all of which received grants in aid of their prize lists
and were provided with the services of judges.
The place and date of these exhibitions and fall fairs were as follows:—
Exhibitions
Chilliwack August 15 and 16.
Vancouver (Pacific National) Aug. 22 to Sept. 3.
Armstrong (Interior Provincial) September 10 to 13.
Fairs
Vancouver Island
Mayne Island August 15.
Saturna Island August 29.
Fulford Harbour August 29.
Courtenay : Aug. 31 to Sept. 3.
Saanichton September 1 and 3.
Cobble Hill September 5.
Duncan September 5 to 8.
Coombs September 7 and 8.
Luxton September 8.
Sooke . September 12.
Nanaimo September 13 to 15.
Alberni September 13 to 15.
Ladysmith September 19 and 20.
Fraser Valley
Mission August 16 to 18.
Meridian Heights August 17 and 18.
Gibsons Aug. 31 to Sept. 1.
Squamish _ September 3.
Port Moody September 6 and 7.
Abbotsford September 7 and 8.
Ladner September 8.
North Burnaby September 7 and 8.
Langley.___-_ September 11 and 12.
Haney September 12 and 13.
Agassiz September 14.
Cloverdale - September 14 and 15.
South Burnaby September 21 and 22.
Aldergrove September 26.
Vancouver September 28 and 29.
Okanagan-North Thompson
Louis Creek September 3.
Revelstoke September 3.
Peachland September 6. Y 136
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Cawston September 6.
Westbank September 7.
Rock Creek September 7.
Lillooet September 13 and 14.
Salmon Arm September 20 and 21.
Oliver September 7 and 8.
East and West Kootenays
Invermere Aug. 31 and Sept. 1.
Fruitvale September 1 to 3.
Castlegar September 7 and 8.
Rossland , September 7 and 8.
Arrow Park September 8.
Crawford Bay September 11.
Nelson September 13 to 15.
Creston September 28 and 29.
Central British Columbia and Peace River
Montney August 8.
Progress August 15.
McBride August 29.
Williams Lake August 30 and 31.
Prince George Aug. 31 to Sept. 3.
Bridge Lake September 1.
Fort Fraser September 1.
Woodpecker September 1.
Telkwa September 3.
Quesnel September 7 and 8.
Watch Lake September 8.
Francois Lake September 12.
In addition, the Department gave financial assistance to ten other fairs, as follows:
Potato, one; seed, two; fat stock, one; bull sale, one; handicrafts, one; poultry, one;
fur animals, one; and turkey, two.
JUDGES' REPORTS
A summary of the judges' reports submitted on 1950 fairs was made, and each
individual fair was advised of the recommendations and suggestions made for improvement of future fairs.
During the year the Superintendent attended several Fair Association meetings for
the purpose of discussing fair's work, and officially opened and attended several fairs.
POUND DISTRICTS
During the year six unorganized areas in the Province were constituted as pound
districts, as follows:—
Name of Pound
District
Date
Constituted
Falkland          -       ~-           	
July 10
July 10.
August 4.
August 21.
September 28.
Lakeview Heights Subdivision  	
Okanagan        . DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951 Y 137
Also during the year the boundaries of six existing pound districts were extended
to include additional areas.   These were as follows:—
Name of Pound
District
Date
Extended
Giscome  _	
Central British Columbia- -  	
April 6.
May 26.
Cawston  ___  	
Balmoral-Carlin-Notch Hill	
Okanagan _„     ...
Salmon Arrri-___ 	
June 5.
July 10.
October 10.
In addition to appointing pound-keepers for sixteen pound districts, this Branch
prepared maps and descriptions of pound districts for Government Agents, District
Agriculturists, and a District Forester.
Numerous complaints regarding cattle at large and impounding of cattle were dealt
with and satisfactorily disposed of.
MISCELLANEOUS
During the year 155 licences to keep open shop for the sale of poisons used
exclusively in agriculture by other than registered pharmaceutical chemists were issued,
and several meetings were held with the manager and council of the Pharmaceutical
Association regarding the regulating and sale of poisons.
Several disputes regarding boundary fences were dealt with, and new fence-viewers
were appointed in two unorganized districts.
REPORT OF WOMEN'S INSTITUTES
Stella E. Gummow, Superintendent
Women's Institutes continue to grow and expand with steady and sure progress.
Excellent leadership has been given by the Provincial and District Boards, and well-
organized district meetings have provided a meeting-ground for discussion of rural
problems.
NEW INSTITUTES
New Institutes number 10, bringing the total to 226. These are Hilliers Community
and Dove Creek on Vancouver Island, Chase Creek in the North Okanagan and Salmon
Arm District, Thorne Hill in the North Fraser District near Whonnock, Appledale and
Deer Park in the West Kootenay, Arrow Creek in the East Kootenay, Testalinda in the
South Okanagan, Quesnel View in the Cariboo, and South Dawson in the Peace River.
The Doukhobor community at Hilliers asked to have their own Institute, following
a trip made to them last fall by your Superintendent and Mrs. E. Glover, Director. The
progress made by this group is evidenced by their growing interest in others, and shows
satisfactory signs of the value of the Women's Institute. It can be noted, too, that
wonderful support and co-operation on the part of the neighbouring older-established
Institutes has made this venture into a new phase of our citizenship work a great success.
ANNUAL REPORTS
Annual reports were received from 205 Institutes, and these showed a membership
of 5,436, with their receipts a total of $123,485.20, and the total expenditure $92,155.67.
A grant of $10 was given to each of these Institutes from the Women's Institute vote. Y 138 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PROVINCIAL BOARD
The Provincial Board have attended many of the district meetings along with your
Superintendent. They met at Victoria November 19th and 20th for their annual Board
meeting, and at that time plans for the 1952 Biennial Convention were discussed. This
is to be held at the University of British Columbia, June 4th, 5th, and 6th. Mrs. J. H.
East, of Keremeos, presided, and also present were Mrs. A. A. Shaw, vice-president, of
Vancouver; Mrs. R. Doe, secretary-treasurer, of Salmon Arm; and Mrs. E. Glover
of Lake Hill, Victoria.
Mrs. Doe reported that three children had been helped during the year from the
interest on the $10,000 Othoa Scott Fund. These were recommended by Colwood,
North Shuswap, and Lazo Women's Institutes. The Women's Institute Memorial Fund
now has $11,000 in bonds, sixty-eight Institutes having sent in their $100 to this Fund.
Miss Christine Weir, of Windermere, is the scholarship winner for this year, while the
two former winners, Lora Stowell and Margaret Witham, are continuing to make good
progress in their course of Home Economics at the University of British Columbia.
This scholarship is $250, $50 being paid at the time the award is given, and $25 a month
for the balance of the eight-month term.
TWEEDSMUIR CUP CONTESTS
This Province had the honour of once again winning the Tweedsmuir Silver Cup
for all Canada in the Federated Women's Institute contest. This was won by Summer-
land, Mrs. H. McClarty being the writer of the essay. Pemberton had won this cup
previously, so that one of our Women's Institutes has won the Tweedsmuir Cup twice in
succession.
Provincial winners in the other two contests were of a high standard. The histories
were judged by Willard Ireland, Provincial Archivist, and he gave to Kalamalka, Alexandria, and Palling equal honours, and they were all sent east for the judging. The rugs
were submitted by Kaslo and Summerland. Somenos came second for the essay in the
Province.
PACIFIC NATIONAL EXHIBITION
Your Superintendent has been invited to be a member of the Home Arts Committee,
and attended one meeting. Mrs. A. A. Shaw, vice-president of the Women's Institute,
is also a member, and she took charge of the Women's Institute exhibits and the demonstration booth. A variety of demonstrations included weaving, quilting, rug-making,
leathercraft, soft-toy making, and copperwork. Institute members were on hand to do
this demonstration work. There were 194 entries for the Women's Institute section for
competition, a total of 346 articles with twenty-five Institutes taking part. The Challenge Cup was won by Hazelmere with 47 points, while Point Grey came a close second
with 46 points. Peace Arch was third with 15, while Nicomen Island and Pine Grove
tied for fourth with 14 points each.    Langley had 12 and Agassiz 11 points.
OVERSEAS VISITOR
In March we had the privilege of entertaining Mrs. F. E. Davis, of Derbyshire
Women's Institutes in England, who was sent to Canada for a four months' tour under the
auspices of the British Imperial Relations Trust. During her stay in Victoria she was
entertained at Government House by Mrs. Wallace, patroness of the British Columbia
Women's Institutes, and at the same time Mrs. H. R. Bowman, patroness, and the presidents of the South Vancouver Island Women's Institutes were invited to meet her.
During her stay, visits were paid to such Women's Institute projects as the Kensington
House Home for the Aged, the Crippled Children's Hospital, and the Queen Alexandria DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1951 Y 139
Solarium. Dean Dorothy Mawdsley and Miss Charlotte Black, of the University of
British Columbia, were hostesses at a luncheon held in her honour, after which a tour
of the new Women's Residence Buildings was made. (The Women's Institutes have
raised $500 for the furnishing of a room at these residences.)
RURAL HOUSING ADVISORY COMMITTEE
The last two of a series of six bulletins, the " Principles of Farm House Design "
and " Farm House Plan," will be printed and circulated early in the New Year. Early
bulletins " Repairs to the Farm Home," the " Farm Kitchen," the " Utility Room," and
" Farmstead Planning and Layout" are still in good demand, and a second printing of
the " Farm Kitchen " was made necessary because of its popularity. ,
With the printing of the last of these six bulletins, the Rural Housing Advisory
Committee feel that their immediate projects have now been completed. They therefore
feel that they should discontinue the preparation of bulletins and continue in a purely
advisory capacity, in the interests of rural housing. A recommendation to this effect is
being forwarded to Central Mortgage and Housing at Ottawa and the Department of
Trade and Industry at Victoria, under whose auspices the Committee has functioned
since its inception.
FALL FAIRS AND FLOWER SHOWS
Twenty-one Institutes have reported the holding of successful fall fairs or flower
shows, while forty-six others have assisted Horticultural or Agricultural Societies or
Farmers' Institutes in putting on fairs. Nine others also reported sending Women's
Institute displays to agricultural fairs.
JUNIOR CLUBS, SHORT COURSES
Eleven Institutes have sponsored Home Economics or Girls' Sewing Clubs, while
forty-two clubs of Girl Guides, Brownies, Garden, Calf, Beef Clubs, etc., have been
sponsored.
Ten Institutes reported short courses in sewing, upholstery, etc., by members of the
Extension staff of the University of British Columbia, while fourteen others had afternoon
lectures given by the University of British Columbia Extension staff. Ten others reported
lectures or demonstrations by others, two sponsored swimming classes, and two others
first aid and home-nursing classes.
NEWS-LETTER, HANDBOOK
The monthly News-letter has been sent out to all Institutes, while highlights of
twenty-five Institutes are sent out each month in alphabetical order. From time to time
pamphlets and booklets on health, sewing, handicrafts, and such pertinent subjects are
sent out with the News-letter.
The Handbook has been revised and brought up to date, and another thousand copies
printed. The constant requests for this Handbook have proved its value. A mimeographed booklet to further assist District Boards is being prepared, and will be available
early in the new year.
DISTRICT MEETINGS
Fourteen district meetings were held during the year, all of which were attended by
your Superintendent. These were well attended, with community and Provincial problems discussed. Resolutions protesting the recent raise in rates of hospital insurance
fees were general.   These meetings were held as follows:—
April 3rd, South Fraser at Aldergrove.—Every Institute of the twenty-seven was
represented at this largely attended meeting.    Institutes reported a Mother and Child Y 140 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Week the last week in May, and Upper Sumas reported that its Junior Women's Institute
had recently held its third birthday.
Resolutions were passed asking for the removal of the 3-per-cent security tax on
soap, small children's clothes, and medical supplies; that free hospitalization be given
to wives of veterans receiving allowances, recipients of widows' allowances, recipients of
dependent persons' pensions. They asked that V.O.N, nurses should receive costs of
visits to old-age pensioners and recipients of social assistance from the Hospital Insurance
Fund; that a vote should be taken on daylight saving; that children's allowances be
extended to the age of 18 if attending school; that a definite part of the 3-per-cent social
security tax be set aside for education; that co-insurance should be abolished; that
foster-parents caring for children under the supervision of the Welfare Department have
their allowance increased in view of the high cost of living.
Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. D. McDougall, Fort Langley;
vice-president, Mrs. E. J. Roberts, Livingstone Road, R'.R. 3, Langley Prairie; secretary-
treasurer, Mrs. S. Murchison, Cloverdale; directors, Mrs. F. A. Ferguson, R.R. 1, Aider-
grove, and Mrs. W. B. Treleaven, Cloverdale.
April 5th, North Fraser at Whonnock.—This was a successful well-attended meeting.
Resolutions were passed protesting the raise in hospital insurance rates; asking that applicants for Canadian citizenship should have a knowledge of Canadian history; and that
precautions for mosquito-control should be undertaken.
Officers were elected as follows: President, Mrs. G. K. Gamble, 690 Government
Road, R.R. 8, New Westminster; vice-president, Mrs. J. O. Decker, Pemberton; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. O. E. Leaf, Whonnock; directors, Mrs. K. Merkley, R.R. 1, Haney,
and Mrs. E. C. Burgess, Box 128, Hammond.
May 5th, North Okanagan and Salmon Arm at Lumby.—This was a big meeting
and was well attended. Resolutions were passed protesting co-insurance and asking for
a reduction of the premiums in hospital insurance; that price controls be reinstated
because of the high cost of living; that government pensions be given to all persons
incurable or incapacitated for life or unable to earn a living because of disability; that
wives of veterans receiving allowances, recipients of widows' allowances, and recipients
of dependent persons' pensions receive free hospitalization without having to pay premiums; that the law on pre-marital examinations be enforced as a means of checking
venereal disease; that the family allowance be continued for children up to the age of
18 if attending school; that the Squilax-Salmon Arm Road be improved; that the Greyhound Bus Line be asked to reduce the stop-over period at Salmon Arm because of lack
of waiting-room accommodation; that a guard-rail be set on the