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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Annual Report of The Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1952]

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Annual Report of
The Social Welfare Branch
of the Department  of
Health and Welfare
For the Year Ended March 31st
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty
1952  Victoria, B.C., November 28th, 1951.
To His Honour Clarence Wallace, C.B.E.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The Annual Report of the Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and
Welfare for the year ended March 31st, 1951, is herewith respectfully submitted.
Minister of Health and Welfare.
Office of the Minister of Health and Welfare,
Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C. Social Welfare Branch,
Victoria, B.C., November 28th, 1951.
The Honourable A. D. Turnbull,
Minister of Health and Welfare, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Social Welfare Branch
for the year ended March 31st, 1951.
I have the honour to be,
Your obedient servant,
Deputy Minister of Welfare. TABLE OF CONTENTS
Letter of Transmittal  3
Letter of Transmittal  4
Letter of Transmittal  7
Assistant Director of Welfare  8
Regional Administration—
Region I  15
Region II  17
Region III  \ g
Region IV  19
Region V „ :  20
Research Consultant  22
Family Division—
Social Allowances  23
Mothers' Allowances  29
Family Service  33
Child Welfare Division  42
Old-age Pension Board  58
Medical Services Division  75
Industrial School for Boys  78
Industrial School for Girls  85
Provincial Home  90
Welfare Institutions Board  93
Social Service Department, Division of Tuberculosis Control  100
Social Service Department, Division of Venereal Disease Control  101
Psychiatric Division—Social Services, Provincial Mental Health Services  102  REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
E. W. Griffith, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Welfare.
Sir,—I have pleasure in submitting the Annual Report of the Social Welfare Branch
of the Department of Health and Welfare for the year ended March 31st, 1951.
Within the ensuing pages will be found not only statistics relevant to financial
expenditures and people served by the staff of this Branch, but also statements which
bring those statistics to life, and interpret their meaning and significance. A careful
perusal of the many sections of this Report will leave the reader, as it has me, with the
justified impression that the social services of this Province are being carried out by a
staff—administrators, supervisors, and social workers—who are loyal in every respect
to this Branch and devoted to the cause of bettering the lot of those of our citizens who
suffer social disorganization or physical or mental infirmity. Prevention and rehabilitation
might be said to be the theme of this document.
This year the several sections of this Report have been kept to essential minimum
facts, and, except for the interpretation of figures, illustrative examples of our work
have been included in only two sections. Anyone, however, who might desire further
information about the nature of the professional services given by our Branch may at
any time call upon us to give that interpretation. Of inestimable value in depicting our
services is the National Film Board's documentary film "A Friend at the Door," which has
been given wide acclaim by both the profession of social work and by film critics in
Canada and abroad. Our staff are shown in that film performing their everyday work
in many parts of this rugged and beautiful Province. It is with a good deal of pride that
I commend this film as the best medium we have yet found of revealing the true nature
of our generalized social welfare programme.
To the officials of the Branch who have written this Report, and especially to the
staff in our district and divisional offices, hospitals, and institutions, I extend the gratitude
of this Branch for their faithful services. The co-operation of the municipalities of
the Province, as they have worked with us to achieve higher standards and greater
uniformity in our public welfare services, is also gratefully acknowledged.
Respectfully submitted.
Director of Welfare. S 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA
I beg to submit the following report for the fiscal year 1950-51.
A somewhat different method of statistical reporting on the staff and their over-all
work is utilized this year. It has been considered wiser to leave examination of the
categorical breakdown of case-loads to the divisional reports contained elsewhere in this
Annual Report, and here to refer more exclusively to the staff in relation to the regions
and their total generalized case-loads.
For the first time this Report includes the number of municipally appointed staff
as well as those Provincially employed. In view of the fact that the municipal public
welfare departments are administering Provincial legislation and bringing its benefits to
the people of the Province, it would seem only sensible to account statistically for their
efforts as well as our own. In this way a total picture may be obtained of the staff
available to meet the social problems dealt with by the public welfare departments of
the Province.
Also for the first time this Report includes the number of clerical staff employed in
the Provincial .district offices, although the municipal welfare departments' clerical
personnel is not reported upon. This inclusion gives emphasis to the fact that the work
of this Branch, in both field and division, depends for its business-like efficiency upon
a combination of the professional skills of the social worker and the skills of the clerical
members of the staff. That the latter are called upon to maintain the tone of the district
office in the way they receive people who come to our offices for help, in the way they
respond to emergencies and to the heavy demands that are at times placed on them,
earns the gratitude of the administration, as well as of the professional workers.
Region I
Field Staff
Title Provincial
Administrators   1
Supervisors  3
Social workers  21
Clerical staff  13
Totals  381 342
i Provincial staff. 2 Professional staff.
Provincial district offices     5
Amalgamated municipal offices     2
Total      7
Total case-load for region  8,148
Average case-load per social worker      302 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH S 9
Region II
Title Provincial       Municipal Total
Administrator     16 7
Assistant Administrator     112
Welfare Director  1 1
Supervisors     5 4 9
Social workers  59 30 89
Clerical staff  18
Totals  841 1082
i Provincial staff. 2 Professional staff.
Provincial district offices     6
Amalgamated municipal offices     7
Total   13
Total case-load for region :  26,908
Average case-load per social worker        303
Region III
Title Provincial       Municipal Total
Administrator  1            —              1
Supervisors   3             —              3
Social workers ...... 14              4             18
Clerical staff   15
Totals  331                           222
1 Provincial staff. 2 Professional staff.
Provincial district offices	
Shared municipal offices     4
Total      9
Total case-load for region  4,946
Average case-load per social worker      274 S 10
Region IV
.....   1
Social workers	
.... 15
Clerical staff ...   ...
_ 15
.... 341
l Provincial staff. 2 Professional staff.
Provincial district offices     7
Municipal offices	
Total      7
Total case-load for region :  3,813
Average case-load per social worker      254
Region V
Title Provincial       Municipal Total
Administrator  1 _ 1
Supervisor   1   1
Social workers  10 _ 10
Clerical staff  10
Total   221 122
1 Provincial staff. 2 Professional staff.
Provincial district offices	
Municipal offices	
Total case-load for region  2,392
Average case-load per social worker      239
In view of the inclusion of figures relevant to municipal staff and offices, further
explanation of the functions of these offices would seem necessary.
Almalgamated municipal offices are organized in cities or rural municipalities having
a population of 10,000 or over, this number being based on the 1941 Census. Under
the terms of the " Social Assistance Act " and regulations, such municipalities are required
to set up social welfare departments under an administrator and provide one-half the
staff required to administer the " Social Assistance Act," the " Mothers' Allowances Act," REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH S 11
and the " Old-age Pension Act " within their boundaries, the remainder of the staff being
appointed by the Social Welfare Branch. All other purely administrative costs are
assumed by the municipality.
Except for Vancouver and Victoria, British Columbia's two largest municipalities,
the amalgamated municipal offices extend their services to include administration of all
other Provincial social legislation and services. For example, the Municipality of Surrey
administers child welfare legislation, including juvenile delinquency, in addition to the
Acts noted above, as well as performing the social services entailed in the Province's
T.B. and V.D. control programmes, the Provincial mental-health programme, hospital
insurance, and giving professional service to families suffering problems not specifically
covered by legislation.
In other words, except in Vancouver and Victoria, the municipal social workers
carry out the generalized programme of services of the Social Welfare Branch. The staffs
of these offices are in all instances supervised by Provincially appointed district supervisors, which ensures that the professional work done in the municipalities will be of the
same standard as that in our Provincial offices.
In Vancouver and Victoria the Province's public assistance programme only is
administered by these city departments, although Victoria's City Welfare Department
carries out the work entailed in the Provincial Mental Health Services and in hospital
insurance. The principal reason for giving only this more limited public welfare service is
that under Red Feather community organization in both cities, children's aid societies
administer the Province's child welfare legislation, while family service and other
voluntary agencies provide the basic professional specialized case-work services within
these urban centres. In each of these city departments, supervision of staff—both
Provincially and municipally paid—is carried out by qualified supervisors appointed by
the city departments.
Shared municipal offices are those in which the municipalities in question have preferred to appoint a social worker rather than to partially pay for the services of the
Provincial district offices of this Branch. They are referred to as " shared " because the
Province reimburses the municipality for one-half of the salary granted. In these municipal offices, only the public assistance legislation is administered for citizens who live within
the city's boundaries, although the municipal social workers are frequently utilized by
their Councils in other welfare programmes they have independently established. These
social workers, in all instances, are given supervision in the public assistance aspects of
their work by the Provincial district supervisors in their localities.
Case-loads and offices enumerated above reveal the spread of population within the
Province. The average case-loads in Regions I and II are larger than is preferable, but
in this regard they can be considered as inflated by a preponderance of individuals or
couples who are in the older age segment of the population. Of the total of 26,908 cases
carried in Region II, for example, 15,197 are cases carried by the Vancouver City Social
Service Department, all of whom are receiving some form of public assistance and
attendant case-work services, and the majority of whom are over the age of 60.
Case-loads in the other regions are smaller in relation to distances to be travelled,
as much as in relation to need. Even in these less populated, geographically larger
regions, the case-loads are also inflated by older people whose only means of livelihood
now, and probably for the remainder of their lives, is public assistance. This does not
mean that a professional service is not given these older persons when it is needed. It is
the fact that many of them, being content, happy, and satisfied, do not require more service than the annual visit required by the Old-age Pension Board renders possible.
In spite of boom times our case-load continues to go up. The total case-load for the
Province this year was 46,207, which figure represents the number of families served.
(The number of categorical services given those familites amounted to 50,740, revealing S 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
that 4,533 families had problems involving the use of more than one of the Province's
social Statutes or service programmes.) This total is an increase of 2,708 over the last
fiscal year, Region II accounting for one-half of this increase. Three new social workers
were accordingly added to the staff of this region to absorb the added numbers.
Under decentralization the work of the two major Divisions of the Branch (the
Family Division and Child Welfare Division) has logically decreased to the point where
this year a reasonable degree of stability exists.
Principal attention has therefore been given to institutions which are administered by
the Branch, or for which the Branch provides staff and formulates social-work policy.
These are the Boys' and Girls' Industrial Schools and the Social Service Departments of
the T.B. and V.D. Divisions of the Health Branch, and of the Provincial Mental Health
Services, which are administered by the Provincial Secretary's Department.
Boys' Industrial School
During this year a committee was established by the Deputy Minister, chaired by the
Assistant Director, to study and make recommendations with regard to the development
of a more intensified treatment programme for boys committed to the Boys' Industrial
School. The committee, comprised of the Superintendent of the School and his assistant,
the psychiatrist (a British authority in the corrections field) heading the corrections team
of the Child Guidance Clinic, and a representative of the School of Social Work,
University of British Columbia, first studied the plans for the school to be constructed at
Brannen Lake. The recommendations made led to far-reaching changes in the architectural design of the building, all these changes conforming with modern methods of
In ensuing months the committee dealt with matters related to the appointment of
qualified staff to carry out the proposed intensified treatment, their recommendations
meeting with favourable response. It is obvious that this committee will continue to have
an important function in the next year or more.
Girls' Industrial School
A second committee was established to perform a similar function in relation to the
Girls' Industrial School. Chaired by the Assistant Director, and comprised of the Superintendent of the School and her assistant, the psychiatrist heading the corrections team of
the Child Guidance Clinic, and the Deputy Superintendent of Child Welfare, this committee has turned its attention largely to facilitation of programme and staff. In February,
on the committee's recommendation, a study of the total operation of the School was
started by the Training Supervisor, on whose report, prepared in collaboration with the
Superintendent, the committee will base much of its work in future months.
Provincial Mental Health Services
The opening of the Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine has necessitated the
addition of a considerable number of social workers. Many discussions of a policymaking nature were demanded during the year between the Provincial Supervisor of
Psychiatric Social Work and the Assistant Director for clarification before submission to
the Deputy Minister. The substance of this activity may be found herein in the report
of the Social Service Department of the Mental Health Services.
Matters related to staff and social-work policy in the Child Guidance Clinics and
Provincial Mental Hospital had similar attention by this office.
It is seldom that an Annual Report refers to an individual member of the staff, but
the retirement of Miss Josephine Kilburn in December, 1950, calls for a special word in REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH S 13
acknowledgment of her long, faithful, and productive work. As Provincial Supervisor of
Psychiatric Social Work, Miss Kilburn gave unstintingly of her knowledge and talents
in her field, and her sound opinions were of great value to this Branch at all times.
Other Divisions
Consultation and discussion on innumerable problems related to staff and policy took
place during the year between all other divisional heads and this office.
Planning Council
This Council, comprised of senior executives of division and field, met regularly
during the year, again proving its value as an integrating medium.    Special projects
undertaken included a total revision of the Policy Manual, which resulted in consolidating
of three volumes into one, and a cross-reference with the Office Manual; the evolving of
a simplified method of issuing directives; and a study of the confidentiality of our social
In-service Training
Eight members of staff were provided by means of in-service training in this year,
only one class having to be held. This number follows the trend of the last three years,
in each of which it has been necessary to have only one group recruited for this method of
training. The School of Social Work has, in other words, provided the bulk of our new
staff members in the months of May, June, and July, our in-service training plan being
utilized to take care of vacancies as they have occurred later in the year.
A second in-service training course was given the remainder of the staffs of our Boys'
and Girls' Industrial Schools, with four of the Vancouver Detention Home staff also
participating.   This, like the first course given, proved extremely beneficial.
These staff-training programmes continued to be under the direction of the Training
Library and Publication
The Branch library continues to be of value to the staff, and the circulation of books
increased in this year.
British Columbia's Welfare, our staff journal, was published in ten monthly issues.
This publication's function of staff education continued to earn the appreciation of the
staff, and in its outside circulation was commended by many readers for its interpretation
of public welfare practices.
Both library and journal comprise part of the work of the Training Supervisor.
Valued participation in two conferences of the American Public Welfare Association
was made possible for the Assistant Director during this year. As a result, there is an
increased understanding of the public welfare services between this Branch and the public
welfare departments in our neighbouring States.
In June, 1950, the Canadian National Conference on Social Work convened in Vancouver, many of our staff participating in the planning preceding it and taking part in the
actual proceedings. A total of ninety staff members were delegates to this Conference,
obtaining much benefit from the institutes, special sessions, and the opportunity to meet
and know their colleagues from other parts of Canada. The Training Supervisor chaired
the post-conference Proceedings Committee handling the editing and publishing of the
principal papers read at this Conference.
A uniform filing system and method of office procedure have been established in
twenty-nine district offices and in one municipal office.    Other municipal offices have S 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
adopted the system in part, while others have been given helpful counsel by our Office
Consultant. Associated agencies outside the Branch have been given similar consultation
services at their request.
The Office Manual, a publication of 150 pages, has been placed in all district offices
and in divisions. This Manual contains detailed procedures for the efficient handling of
the case record from its inception until final disposal. Other agencies outside the Branch
and the Province have requested copies of this Manual for their guidance.
The Assistant Director was appointed to represent the Branch on the special
Advisory Committee on the Doukhobors, which was set up by the Federal and Provincial
Governments when new disturbances occurred among the Sons of Freedom.
Two United Nations Fellowship holders were sent to observe British Columbia's
social welfare and health programmes. The visit of Dr. Indarjit Singh, Chief of Maternal
Health and Child Welfare for the Punjab, was planned by the Health Branch, with three
days of her two-week stay devoted to the Social Welfare Branch. Mr. Tsujimura, of
Tokyo's Child Welfare Department, also spent two weeks in British Columbia, his
itinerary being arranged by the Training Supervisor. The visits of these representatives
from other nations is always of mutual value.
In conclusion, this has been a year in which the major developments have occurred
in our institutions and specialized divisions. The total operation of the Branch is thereby
being strengthened, as, like the proverbial chain, a whole organization is only as strong as
its separate parts.
To the staff of the Branch, in field and division, must go special commendation for
their devotion to their work, and for their keen use of all facilities afforded them to
develop in professional competence.
Respectfully submitted.
Amy Leigh,
Assistant Director of Welfare.
S 15
I beg to submit the annual report of the activities of the Social Welfare Branch in
Region I for the fiscal year 1950-51, as follows:—
During the year the geographical boundaries of the region were altered to include
areas in the northern section on the west coast of the Mainland, that is, Ocean Falls, Bella
Bella, Bella Coola, Namu, and Rivers Inlet. With this extra territory, the area of the
region covers Vancouver Island, the Gulf Islands, the Mainland coast north-west from
Sarah Point to Ocean Falls and adjacent islands in the area.
Region 1 now covers approximately 13,300 square miles and has a population of
nearly 205,000 people.
The number of municipalities which, under the provisions of the " Social Assistance
Act," are obligated to contribute to welfare costs was increased in January, 1951, by the
inclusion of a newly formed incorporated area known as " Central Saanich." This newly
formed municipality, for the purposes of welfare services, accepted the per capita plan
whereby our Branch will look after the social welfare work in the municipality on the
basis of 15 cents per capita of the population per annum.
The following table shows the status of areas in the region regarding social welfare
administration, also figures on population and social welfare case-load in each listed
organized area:—
Welfare Services
Village of Campbell River .
City of Cumberland 	
City of Courtenay _	
City of Port Alberni....
City of Alberni.
City of Nanaimo  __
City of Ladysmith _
Municipality of North Cowichan..
City of Duncan _ - 	
Municipality of Esquimalt— —
Municipality of Central Saanich..
Municipality of Saanich	
City of Victoria  	
15,973 =
1 Estimated.
2 Adjusted.
There are twenty-seven social workers and three district supervisors actively engaged
in the carrying-out of the work (an increase of one worker over the number engaged in
1949), and they operate from seven administrative offices which, taking into consideration the distribution of the population, are located geographically so as to meet the needs
of the people in as many areas as possible. A person in distress of any kind usually appeals
to the local authority; therefore, the social workers operating from the field offices are at
all times in constant communication with the municipal authorities in order that alleviation of the need can be attended to where it arises, close to the persons affected and at
once. No great transportation difficulties were experienced in serving the majority of
the welfare cases who reside in the settled areas, but the servicing of the persons living
in outlying isolated or sparsely populated areas was a problem. The Government-owned
motor-launch, with accompanying social worker, travelled over 6,000 nautical miles and
was away from its home port for 105 days. S 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
One of the big problems of the staff in the region the past year has been the placing
of ageing persons who, due to physical infirmities, required nursing or boarding-home
care. In this regard, hospital clearance for elderly persons suffering from chronic illnesses
weighed heavily on the working time of the staff members. Established registered private
hospitals and boarding homes in the region were insufficient to meet the heavy demands,
and as an alternative measure a number of persons were placed singly in private homes.
In other instances, we followed the practice of placing a homemaker-housekeeper in the
home of the person who could not look after himself. Some measure of relief from the
acute shortage of beds in custody homes is expected in the next twelve months because
two municipalities, in co-operation with private organizations, have signified their intention to establish homes for elderly persons; in fact, one of the municipalities, the City of
Courtenay, has completed arrangements, and they now own a site and building which is
undergoing alterations.   When finished, the home will accommodate twenty persons.
In the region there are nineteen approved public hospitals, eleven licensed private
hospitals (nursing homes) with a bed capacity of 189, and twenty-eight boarding homes,
with accommodation for 354 persons, registered under the " Welfare Institutions Licensing Act."
The planning of the Child Guidance Clinic in the fall of 1949, for increased services
for the travelling clinic for the region, was brought to fruition in the year immediately
past, when thirteen trips were made by the Clinic team to the district offices. By this
method, social workers and public health nurses were better served with on-the-spot
guidance being available in dealing with problem and retarded children.
The pressure of probation service on our workers for delinquent children before the
Courts was lessened considerably by the appointment of a second Probation Officer, with
headquarters in Nanaimo. The two Probation Officers and the social workers work on
a co-operative basis for the carrying and handling of the problem cases, with mutual
understanding of the limitations of jurisdiction by the representatives of the two departments.
Nearly all the industries in the region, major and minor, were affected during the year
by the perversities of the weather. The logging and lumbering operations, together with
the allied businesses dependent upon them, were forced to cease operations due to heavy
snowfalls from November to the middle of March. This shut-down resulted in the ranks
of the unemployed being increased considerably. The number of persons receiving unemployment insurance went up. However, there were many employable persons who had
exhausted their insurance benefits. For this group the Federal Government met the situation in part by extending supplementary benefits in the same manner and under the same
conditions which were adopted the previous year. Even so, there were many employable
persons who could not qualify for these benefits, and this fact resulted in an increase in
appeals for public assistance to local welfare authorities.
Despite the ravages of the heavy winter and the dry summer, which caused curtailment in operations in the major industry of lumbering and logging, the economy of the
region was spurred by the millions of dollars spent and commitments made for huge construction plans, including road-building, new schools, the H. R. McMillan sulphate-pulp
mill at Nanaimo, the Elk Falls forty-million-dollar pulp and paper mill at Duncan Bay,
the new Court-house at Courtenay, the new City Hall at Nanaimo, and the Federal Post-
office building at Victoria. These projects, with many other units, big and small, absorbed
and will continue to absorb a big portion of the skilled and unskilled labour force on
Vancouver Island.
In conclusion, I repeat the statement made in a previous Report to the effect that
the co-operation and understanding of the two administrations of welfare, municipal and
Provincial, have been on a very satisfactory level, with each accepting its share under the
division of responsibility to meet the needs of unfortunate persons.
Respectfully submitted. „  x   „
v J E. L. RlMMER,
I beg to submit the annual report of the activities of the Social Welfare Branch in
Region II for the fiscal year 1950-51, as follows: —
During the year under review we have attempted to consolidate and strengthen the
operation of the Branch in this region. Although a slight staff increase has taken place,
it has not been necessary to open any new offices. Thus it has been possible to reorganize
districts, evaluate case-loads, and redistribute work on a more equitable basis.
In view of extraordinarily heavy Old-age Pension case-loads in certain areas, we
made some changes in case-handling in an attempt to stream-line the general procedure.
In two municipal and in two Provincial offices certain social workers were chosen to
handle Old-age Pension case-loads exclusively. These workers were selected as they had
shown ability and interest in this phase of the welfare programme. These individuals have
taken charge of applications and reports in their various offices. This step has proven
successful in these particular areas, but in our experience we feel that this type of
specialization is limited in scope.
Because of various factors we have had to sharply increase our foster-home programme. We are now placing wards and non-wards in areas previously handled by the
Children's Aid Society. This change in policy and responsibility has thrown an added
load upon both the municipal and Provincial offices. To handle the situation, case loads
had to be revised, workers transferred, and, in certain instances, additional workers placed
in the offices involved. We are developing the programme step by step in order that we
may give the maximum care and protection to the children entrusted to us.
We again faced the problem of the unemployed employable migratory worker during
the winter months. This individual and his family drift to the slum areas and to the auto
courts of the Lower Mainland when the seasonal employment in the Fraser Valley and
Interior of the Province comes to a close. Low income, improvidence, and crowded
housing conditions often as not lead to many social problems. As a rule our first contact
with the case is on the basis of financial need. In many instances this is not the only
problem, but too frequently we meet every type of situation from alcoholism to neglect
of the children. Fortunately, however, this situation has not been as acute as in previous
years, due no doubt to improved economic conditions, as well as to the extension of
benefits under the " Unemployment Insurance Act."
This year we faced again the problem of the high rent for, as often as not, poor
accommodation in the metropolitan area. The recipients of assistance have been faced
with spending too large a proportion of their income for housing. This has led to many
social maladjustments, but as yet we can see no improvement in the situation. Because
of a steadily increasing population, pressures in the housing field continue to exist.
In October, 1950, the case-load of approximately sixty-five in the Ocean Falls, Bella
Coola, and Bella Bella areas was transferred to Region I. This decision was reached in
an attempt to give a more efficient service to that part of the Province. The cases are
handled now from the Courtenay office.
The western part of Region V was turned over to Region II for administrative purposes in January. The offices involved are Prince Rupert and Smithers. As this transfer
is of a temporary nature, the area is being handled as a separate entity.
In this region, with six Provincial offices, eight municipal offices plus eighteen per
capita paying municipalities, co-operation in the general operation has been essential.
With this co-operation it has been possible to give a more efficient service to the individual
in the community.    .
Respectfully submitted.
J. A. Sadler,
Regional Administrator. S 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
I beg to submit the following report on the activities of the Social Welfare Branch
in Region III for the fiscal year 1950-51:—
Approximately 10 percent of the population of British Columbia resides within this
region.   It is generally known as the Central Interior.
In the year ended March 31st, 1951, the active case-load showed an increase of
171 over the previous year; approximately four-fifths of the cases carried in March,
1951, were in receipt of one form or another of social assistance, while the rest, one-fifth,
received case-work services only. The total case-load carried by our field staff during any
given month does not in itself give a true picture of the services rendered during the year.
For example, during the fiscal year 1950—51 we gave services to 8,792 cases in this region,
but in no given month, however, did we have more than 5,631. The difference between
these two figures represents the turnover within the case-load during the year, and this
must be taken into account when determining the actual amount of work and services
given by the field staff. This case-load was carried by eighteen social workers. The
staff's work was supervised by three district supervisors.
This region should always be a fairly stable one, inasmuch as it has diversified
resources. We have the gold-mining in the Bridge River area; the cattle-ranching in the
South Cariboo, Nicola, and Kamloops areas; dairying, mixed farming, and lumbering in
the North Okanagan; and ground crop and fruit-growing in the South Okanagan. The
mixed-farming areas and the farmers who continued dairying appear to have done extremely well. The cattle-ranchers have never enjoyed such prosperity. The mining has
remained very steady, and the lumbermen, including labourers, have also received the
highest prices, and wages, in the history of this industry in the Interior. The fruit-growing
areas of this region, with canneries and other by-products, give seasonal employment to
a large number of persons. We lack, however, some industry which would utilize the
class of labour which follows the fruit work.
The fruit-growers and the labourers who customarily earn their livelihood from that
occupation found their incomes or earnings reduced somewhat during the past year due to
the excessive frost condition of the 1950 winter. The ground-crop growers of the South
Okanagan also suffered losses due to the inability of marketing their cantaloupes and
other field crops owing to the railway strike, and the fact their tomato-crop was no earlier
than the northern regions. Under such circumstances they cannot compete against the
growers of the northern areas of this region, who are operating on lower-priced lands
and with cheaper irrigation. There was considerable employment available to fully able-
bodied men in construction work, public highways, and woods operations, which took up
much of the slack. In addition, some of the skilled tradesmen sought employment in other
districts and particularly in the northern areas of British Columbia where large new
projects were under development.
While the major portion of the population of this region is located within the sixteen
municipalities where the giving of services is readily accessible, we do have outlying
districts and communities which necessitate social workers driving out as much as 150
miles from their offices to render our services. For the most part, our clients do not live
on the main highways, and, consequently, due to the terrain of the country and the fact
many dwell in the snow-belt areas, travelling for the social worker is sometimes difficult,
and especially from early fall to late spring. In remote areas which are inaccessible
during the winter months, we must use the mails and the help of whatever resources there
may be within such districts to supplement our services to those clients.
Demands for service and assistance have increased as the public has become more
aware of the services) which our Branch is offering. Years ago the people would ordinarily
have solicited the advice and help of their family and neighbours, but to-day they turn to REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH S  19
the social worker. People are also turning to our field staff for advice and help pertaining
to many matters which are often outside the scope of our Branch. The foregoing factors
and those outlined in the previous paragraph all increase the tasks of our rural social
workers, but we have nevertheless endeavoured to give to the people of this region every
assistance in coping with their social problems.
Respectfully submitted.
F. G. Hassard,
Regional Administrator.
I beg to submit the following report on the activities of the Social Welfare Branch
in Region IV for the year 1950-51:—
There has been no change in the geographical boundaries since our last report. Our
population, however, has increased, but by what numbers cannot be determined until the
figures for the 1951 Census are published.
Our region was fortunate in having the required number of workers throughout the
year, except on the odd occasion when a resignation or some similar happening caused
a temporary shortage.
The quality of work improved during the year, due largely to the supervision provided. Our three supervisors—one located in Nelson, one in Cranbrook, and one in
Trail—were able to give more time to case-work services, and I .think this was largely
responsible for the small increase in the case-load as well as better service all round. As
the workers continue to gain a better understanding of their job, with closer supervision,
we can look forward to a general improvement in every respect.
During this fiscal year of 1950-51 it was decided to experiment by having one worker
do nothing but Old-age Pension work. The plan was put into effect in the East Kootenay,
and a worker stationed in Cranbrook did the majority of Old-age Pension applications
and visits in the Cranbrook and Fernie areas. This worker was given a case-load of
approximately 525 pensioners, thereby reducing the case-loads of five other workers by an
average of 100 cases each. This allowed the generalized workers time for better casework service in the remaining categories and provided also a similar level of service to all
pensioners in the Cranbrook and Fernie districts. Ultimately it brought about a reduction
in the workers stationed at Fernie from two to one. It is felt that the experiment was
worth while, and as a result of its success a request was made that two workers be used in
this capacity in Region IV.
The co-operation between our Branch and the various municipalities throughout the
region remains at a satisfactory level. The cities and the village municipalities have
shown throughout the year an increasing awareness of our aims and regulations, and it
is hoped that this relationship will continue and even improve. During the year the
number of organized villages was increased by Marysville, near Kimberley, becoming
incorporated. There is every indication that other areas, due to industrial activity, are
considering doing the same thing. One or two of our present villages, now treated as
unorganized territory, are slowly but surely reaching the point where they will be
responsible for their share of social welfare costs. Our total now is ten cities, one district
municipality, and eight incorporated villages.
We still do all the work in every municipality on the per capita basis. Trail is now
the only city with over 10,000 population, but as we have a district office located there,
I think it advisable for our Branch to continue doing the work. On top of the ordinary
increase, the City of Trail has taken in some adjacent areas, thus bringing its population
to an estimated 14,000. S 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Throughout the year base-metal prices held at a high level, and this helped the region
greatly. New and old workings are in operation in many areas. The demand for miners,
muckers, etc., has not been filled for some considerable time, and the region will continue
to prosper as long as the base-metal prices stay as high as they are. The Consolidated
Mining and Smelting Company at Trail and Kimberley continues to operate at a high
level. The company is planning considerable expansion, and a high standard of employment can be looked to with confidence.
Coal operations in the Fernie, Michel, and Natal area had a good year, approximately
1,000,000 tons of coal being mined. Wages were equal, throughout the year, to pay
elsewhere for similar work. Progress was made by the Crow's Nest Pass Coal Company
in persuading miners living at Michel and Natal to move to Sparwood, an area set aside
by the company as a residential site. If this becomes general, then the present antiquated
housing situation will be greatly improved.
The lumbering industry during the year was prosperous. Some new operations
opened up, and most of the older and larger ones expanded. Labour was at times a
problem but, on the whole, in fairly good supply throughout the year.
Farming was quite good during the year, and even though the Grand Forks area
did not have as large a seed-crop as previously, it was considered fair. In the Creston
district the fruit-farmers had a promising year and were able to meet most of the labour
demands locally. All farming throughout the region can be said to have had a fairly good
In summary it can be said that economic conditions in the region were at a high
level, and a continuance of this will depend upon the price of base metals. At the
moment there is no indication; of any recession, but even if it should happen, the margin of
operating costs and base-metal prices will determine the issue.
I wish to commend all members of the staff for the way they attended to their duties
throughout the year, and I look forward to better work being done as more experience
is gained.
Our region was fortunate in having Miss Mary King as field consultant. Her experience was of great help to supervisors and workers alike. It was unfortuate for her that
through the tranfer of one district supervisor and a replacement not available at the time,
Miss King's serivces had to used as a district supervisor in addition to that of field consultant.   Her contribution through the year was of very great value to the region.
This report is respectfully submitted.
J. W. Smith,
Regional Administrator.
I beg to submit the following report of the activities of the Branch in Region V for
the fiscal year 1950-51 :—
The year 1950-51 brought a cut in the extent of Region V, largely due to staff
shortages. It was felt that since there was no district supervisor in the eastern part of the
region, the trip to Prince Rupert and Smithers was too great for the Regional Administrator to cover and at the same time give supervision to the other offices. Temporarily,
therefore, from January, 1951, Smithers and Prince Rupert were attached to Region II. It
it expected that the region will again become a single unit when there are sufficient district
supervisors to cover all offices.
There have been the usual number of changes in social worker staff during the year.
One worker was given leave of absence to return to university, one was transferred to
another region, a third left us to go on staff at the Boy's Industrial School, while a fourth REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH S 21
tranferred from the Social Welfare Branch to the Civil Service Commission. In December, 1950, the district supervisor at Prince Rupert was tranferred to Burnaby and was
replaced by a staff member from the Prince George office, who was in turn replaced by
an in-service trained worker from Prince Rupert.
We again had the services of a second social worker in the Peace River District for
the summer months, and it is planned to appoint a full-time worker during the summer
of 1951.
With the exception of the late summer and fall months of 1950 in the Prince George
office, our position regarding clerical staff has been stable. In Prince George, however,
we were short-staffed from early June to late November due to resignations, marriage,
and illness. The latter part of the year, however, brought a greater measure of stability,
which has continued to the present time.
In spite of the great area we cover, there are fewer organized areas in Region V than
anywhere else in the Province. As now constituted, there are only two municipalities
which take responsibility for their own social welfare cases—namely, the City of Prince
George and the Village of Dawson Creek. For one month the Village of Quesnel administered its own Social Allowance cases, but a change in the " Municipal Act " put it back
into the category of unorganized territory for our purposes. This year, however, because
of its continued rapid growth, it is again over the revenue limit, and will begin to administer its own cases as of January, 1952.
The North has continued to boom during .the past year. Work has begun on the
Aluminum Company of Canada's project at Kitimat, and of particular interest to us
is the work being done on the dam-site 60 miles west of Vanderhoof. Here a tunnel
is being constructed to divert the waters of the Nechako River, after which a dam will be
built which will raise the level of the lakes adjoining Tweedsmuir Park by 100 feet.
There are only a few miles of road to be finished on the Hart Highway, after which
a bridge will be thrown across the Parsnip River, and it may be expected then that the
Peace River country will really become part of the Province of British Columbia.
Work has also continued on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway extension from
Quesnel to Prince George, and crews are already at work on the footings of the bridge
across the Cottonwood River. This is the major job of the whole project and should be
completed during the coming year.
During the year 1950-51 the total case-load of the four remaining offices in the
region increased by 6.65 per cent. It is interesting to note, however, that during the same
period Family Service cases decreased from 123 to 113 cases, or 8.13 per cent, and Social
Allowance cases dropped from 506 to 486 cases, a decrease of 4 per cent. The number
of Old-age Pension cases increased from 696 to 757 cases, or 8.76 per cent.
The total number of cases coming under the heading of Child Welfare Division
increased from 247 to 297 cases, an over-all increase of 20.24 per cent. Here the greatest
increase was in the number of children in care; the number of children in adoption homes
homes increased from 35 to 56, or 60 per cent, and the number of children in foster homes
increased from 56 to 74, or 32 per cent. Approved adoption homes increased from 19
to 28, or 47.37 per cent, and approved foster homes increased from 35 to 59, or 68.57
per cent. Protection cases decreased from 27 to 25, or 7 per cent, and " Children of
Unmarried Parents Act" cases from 29 to 22, or 24.14 per cent. It would appear,
therefore, that the increase in the total case-load is weighted to the positive rather than
to the negative side.
Respecfully submitted.
A. A. Shipp,
Regional Administrator. S 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The following report is submitted on the work of the Research Consultant for the
fiscal year 1950-51:—
The major undertaking in the first six months of the year under review was the
revision of the Policy Manual. Previously contained in three volumes of mimeographed
material, the original issue contained not only specific statements of policy, but much
interpretive subject-matter as well. The object of the revision was that of deleting interpretation and of providing, in one volume, only the essential statements.
This work involved many periods of consultation with all divisions of the Branch,
and with the field staff of Region II for testing purposes. Though the bulk of this revision
was completed in August, 1950, subsequent amendments and changes in policy were
routed through this office for numbering and cross-referencing. This additional work on
the Policy Manual took considerable time throughout the year.
At the request of the British Columbia Medical Association, the Research Consultant
prepared a paper entitled " Social Legislation and Growth of Social Programmes in
British Columbia." Obtaining facts for this historic review included consultation with
many officials and the finding and study of old records.
A major study undertaken in October, 1950, was that of the relationship of the cost
of social services between the Province and the municipalities. This study was completed
at the end of this fiscal year.
A history of the " overseas children " sent to British Columbia from the United
Kingdom during the war years was another completed project in this year.
This report of the work of the late Isobel Harvey, Research Consultant, is respectfully submitted.
Martha Moscrop,
S 23
I beg to submit the following report of the Family Division, which is concerned with
those services of the Social Welfare Branch rendered within the provisions of the " Social
Assistance Act," the " Mothers' Allowances Act," and the Family Service Programme.
For the first time in several years the total case-load, as at the end of the fiscal year,
shows a decrease and a greater degree of fluctuation in the totals for each month of the
Prosperity and high employment will always affect our case-load to some extent,
especially in that group whose ability to take employment is affected by their age and by
the degree of their handicap and the availability of employment of a type which they can
do in the area in which they live. Under good employment conditions they may find
employment suitable to their capability, but in any tightening or slackening of employment
they are usually the first to suffer, and in the broad interpretation of our criterion of
unemployability, it has always been considered that they are eligible for Social Allowance.
This is the group that no doubt accounts for any wide variation in the case-load, as there
will always be a substantial fixed proportion who are totally and permanently unemployable in circumstances beyond their control, who must seek and receive assistance from
public sources.
A comparative statement of the case-load in the month ending the fiscal year for the
past three years is as follows:—
Table I.—Case-load
March, 1949
March, 1950
March, 1951
6 878
Totals... -     	
17 374
As stated above, the March, 1951, figures show a decrease over the last year, for
the first time in several years. Compared with an approximate 17-per-cent rise between
1949 and 1950, there was a decrease of slightly over 2 per cent in 1951. It is impossible
to forecast, however, whether this indicates the beginning of any appreciable downward
trend in the case-load or merely that a temporary plateau has been reached.
A month-by-month review of the case-load for the fiscal year 1950-51 shows the
following variations:—
Table II.—Case-load on a Monthly Basis
Heads of
April, 1950	
May, 1950 _	
June, 1950	
July, 1950 	
August, 1950   _
September, 1950 .
October, 1950   . .
November, 1950
December, 1950 .
January, 1951 	
February, 1951 ...
March, 1951	
17,374 S 24
This table indicates that, after a very slow spring which retarded employment, during
the summer months when employment is usually at its highest peak the case-load dropped
by over 1,000 and in September reached the lowest figure since December, 1949, when
the case-load was 15,805. However, with the coming of winter the numbers increased
but did not exceed or even equal the figure at the end of the previous fiscal year.
Taking this case-load of 17,374 as at March 31st, 1951, a breakdown by regions
has been made, as follows:—
Table III.—Individuals in Receipt of Assistance, by Regions,
as at March 31st, 1951
Region I—
Nanaimo ~
Alberni City  	
Campbell River -
Central  Saanich
Esquimalt  :	
North  Cowichan
Oak Bay  	
Port Alberni 	
Saanich   _	
..     140
..       88
_    232
..     761
Region II—
New Westminster
Chilliwack   City   	
Chilliwhack  Township    	
.      194
Delta   .. .             —
Kent -
Maple Ridge	
Mission   Village   	
North  Vancouver	
North Vancouver District .—
......     162
......    284
Surrey   —- -	
......     777
Vancouver   -  .    —
... . 4,843
Westview Village  	
Region III—
Kelowna  _
Penticton .
Salmon Arm
Glenmore _
Kamloops ..
Kelowna —
Salmon Arm City 	
Salmon Arm District
S 25
Table III.—Individuals in Receipt of Assistance, by Regions,
as at March 31st, 1591—Continued
Region IV— Territory Territory
Cranbrook         170 Cranbrook            41
Creston         176 Creston   Village         23
Fernie         134 Fernie          78
Grand Forks          97 Grand Forks         18
Nelson          575 Greenwood     .         7
New Denver  _       260 Kaslo              6
Trail        163 Kimberley       24
Nelson           95
Rossland         32
Trail         80
1,575                                                                               404
■       1,979
Region V—
Pouce Coupe  _    262 Dawson Creek Village         74
Prince George   _.   316 Prince George         95
Prince Rupert    114 Prince Rupert       114
Quesnel  ._ -  105
Smithers     _..  90
Williams Lake    61
948                                                                               283
Totals _  5,204 12,170 17,374
It is to be noted that of the total case-load approximately 30 per cent reside in
unorganized territory and 70 per cent in organized territory. Of the case-load approximately 14 per cent reside in Region I, 54 per cent in Region II, 14 per cent in Region
III, 11 per cent in Region IV, and 7 per cent in Region V. This division of case-load
is to be expected in view of the distribution of population in the Province.
In reviewing the distribution of the case-load in unorganized as against organized
territory again, without reference to legal residence, it is interesting to note that this
has remained practically unchanged from the 70-30 per cent ratio for the past three
years.   The last major shift in proportion was in 1948 when the ration was 62-38 per cent.
When legal residence, as determined by the " Residence and Responsibility Act"
for social-assistance purposes, is taken into account, a somewhat different distribution
is noted.
Table IV.—Legal Residence of Social Assistance Recipients, March, 1951
Municipal responsibilities   10,867
Provincial responsibilities      6,507
Total  :  17,374
Table V.—Comparative Table on Percentage Basis
March, 1949
(Per Cent)
Municipal responsibilities  63.14
Provincial responsibilities  36.86
March, 1950 March, 1951
(Per Cent) (Per Cent)
61.84 62.55
38.16 37.45
These tables indicate a slight increase in the proportion of municipal responsibilities
over the end of the previous fiscal year.
The tables above have given a picture of the volume of cases carried in the Social
Allowance category in municipal as well as Provincial offices, while the following table
will outline the expenditures made by the Province:— S 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VI.—Expenditures by the Province of Social Allowances,
Medical Services, etc., 1950-51
1. Cases who are the responsibility of a      v%i^™ Fi^§at FiM50-5?r
municipality   (80 per cent  paid  by
Province)     $1,509,312.18 $1,874,641.68 $2,082,944.80
2. Cases who are the sole responsibility
of the Province (100 per cent paid
by Province)         981,240.49    1,247,494.64    1,367,185.71
3. Repatriation, transportation v/ithin
the Province, nursing- and boarding-
home care (other than T.B.), special
allowances and grants        394,376.04       586,159.02       730,455.56
4. Emergency payments—such as where
a family may lose its home by fire or
similar circumstances   7,020.97 13,686.25 10,613.71
5. Municipal and Provincial cases—
(a) Tuberculosis, boarding-, nursing-, and private-home cases __       253,865.61       295,701.09       324,354.44
(b) Transportation of tuberculosis
cases r  3,178.40 3,714.67 3,834.63
(c) Comforts allowances for tuberculosis cases  9,659.60 12,153.80 17,071.80
Net Social Allowances  $3,158,653.29 $4,033,551.15 $4,536,460.65
6. Administration, hospitalization, social allowances, re Japanese indigents      $222,497.25     $257,714.37     $207,306.94
Less Dominion Government share ....       109,856.48       125,525.49 40,000.00
$112,640.77     $132,188.88     $167,306.94
7. Hospital insurance premiums*      $435,269.75     $758,260.00 $1,050,421.89
8. Medical services and drugs ......      $466,469.70     $949,248.28 $1,145,982.34
Totals    $4,173,033.51  $5,873,248.31     	
Total cost of Social Allowance to Province, 1950-51  $6,900,171.82
* Hospital insurance effective January 1st, 1949—previous costs for hospitalization of indigents.
Some of the significant changes in the Social Allowance programme during the
past year have been as follows:—
(1) When applications for Blind Pension are received from an applicant who
is in receipt of Social Allowance, and he is unable to meet the cost of
transportation to the nearest ophthalmologist for an eye examination,
provision has been made for meeting such costs from Social Allowance
funds. Such costs will be shareable with the responsible municipality
(if any) on the usual 80-20 per cent basis.
(2) Announcement was made in March, 1951, of an increase in Social
Allowance and Mothers' Allowance rates of $5 per month for a single
person, $10 per month for a couple or mother and one child, and $1 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH S 27
per month for each additional dependent. This increase, however, will
not be effective until April 1st, 1951, the beginning of the next fiscal year.
Above we have given tables showing volume and costs of the Social Allowance
programme, but we cannot overlook the individuals and families covered by these
statistics. They are the people whom this programme was intended to serve—the
unemployable person or head of family who must seek financial help by reason of
illness or physical or mental handicap, the deserted or widowed mother with small
children, all of whom need assistance for a longer or shorter period. For them social
assistance represents a protection against the hazards to security which every individual
or family faces.
In addition to financial assistance, however, there must be something more. There
should no longer be any question that social case-work is an integral part of the administration of public assistance. It presents not only the opportunity but a responsibility
on everyone to see that this is so. There are certain limitations which must be recognized,
it is true, such as the function and purpose of the programme; the inability to select
the case-load, as all who prove eligibility and need within our provisions may receive
help in one way or another, which results in a lack of restriction on the size of the caseload, and, lastly, for a large portion of the recipients our services must be rendered in
areas where community resources are limited.
Within these limitations, however, every effort has been made to do a preventive
and rehabilitative job with individuals and families wherever possible, and some outstanding results have been achieved.
Following are three examples of the service that has been given:—
lack, a young man in his early twenties, is one of four children, who, with their
widowed mother, formerly received Mothers' Allowance. In his late teens he developed
epilepsy. Because of this condition he experienced considerable difficulty in finding steady
employment as no one wished to employ him and Social Allowance became his only resource
in periods of unemployment. He had become dependent and insecure and had lost initiative.
In many ways he had been ostracized by the community and his social contacts were unhappy
With the encouragement and reassurance of the social worker, working in close
co-operation with the attending doctor, lack gradually became less apprehensive and began
to develop confidence and a belief in his own ability.
Vocational guidance and training when first suggested were disturbing to him, and
several months of steady reassurance were required to bring him to consider such a plan.
He was encouraged to accept vocational counselling first, and then in the week before the
suggested course was to begin he expressed his desire for training. It was necessary for him
to reach this decision himself, and until he did so no financial arrangements could be made
in advance. Consequently, because of the immediacy and unusual need, an extraordinary
grant was made from Social Allowance funds on an experimental basis to meet the full cost
of his maintenance and school requirements, and he was enrolled. The responsible municipality shared in these extraordinary costs, as everyone was anxious to give the boy his
lack enrolled in August in motor mechanics, and by November his progress was
reported to be excellent and he was leading his class. Further indications of improvement
were reports that he had had no recent epileptic seizures, that he was broadening his
interests and was taking part in some of the activities at a local recreational centre. There
was considerable change in his attitude, and he was no longer apprehensive about taking
employment. With an increased self-respect and sense of achievement, arising from the
first success he had probably ever known, his whole attitude to life had changed.
With this indication of every hope of success the B.C. Youth Foundation made a grant
in December, 1950, to cover future costs of rehabilitation, and lack was assured of support
until his course was finished.
lack had found the first month away from home quite lonely, but after he became
acquainted he found friends from among his classmates. His progress was steady. There
was a bit of hesitancy near the completion of the course. At first he thought he would
like to take another course instead of obtaining employment. However, when the school
Placement Officer discussed jobs with him, he became very interested in working. The
Placement Officer suggested jobs at three different centres.   Jack chose the city job, even S 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
though the remuneration was not as high as the out-of-town jobs. He felt that he would
rather be in the city until he gained some experience. After he has worked long enough to
qualify as an experienced worker, he might consider going up-country. He will also be near
medical attention here if he needs it.
The final report is a most satisfactory one. Jack completed his course about one month
ahead of schedule, and within two weeks had started employment with a large motor firm
at a salary of $44 per week.
From this summary it will be seen that Jack had been helped from the point where he
did not think he could take any training, through the steps of vocational guidance, enrolment
and training to the point where he managed his job placement entirely by himself. He had
developed independence of spirit as well as financial independence, in that he is now self-
supporting after many years on public assistance.
In another example:—
The family first came to the attention of the welfare office when a young mother
applied for assistance for herself and two children and her husband who was seriously ill.
Their private savings had been exhausted and they had no other resources except the small
home which they owned. Assistance was immediately granted. Within a very short time
the husband's condition became worse, and it was evident that the illness would be fatal.
While the family spirit was good, the situation was complicated by the husband's worry
over the fact that he was becoming a burden to his family and the children were disturbed
because of his illness. Plans were started to have him placed in a nursing home, but within
a few days unfortunately he died. The family relationship had been strong, and the wife
was greatly disturbed by her husband's death and her own poor health.
During this period the worker offered careful advice and understanding, recognizing
that the wife was in reality an independent person and that as soon as she had recovered
from the shock and regained her health she would wish to be self-supporting. Gradually
the mother was helped to adjust to her loss and her new role as head of the family.
The mother was assisted with the cost of extractions of her teeth and the purchase of
dentures, and glasses recommended by the doctor for health reasons, along with other
medical care, and other minor services given.
Within a year of her husband's death the mother was, with the support of the worker,
able to make her own plans for rehabilitation. She had moved in with a close relative,
obtained employment, and was no longer in need of assistance. The children, who are of
school age, are cared for by the relative during the mother's absence at her employment.
Following completion of her plans for independence, the mother wrote to the welfare office
expressing her appreciation of the help given her, stating it was " a comfort and encouragement when I needed both."
One final example:—
Tom, aged 21, is the eldest child with three sisters and a younger brother. His mother
has been a widow since 1945 and the family have been in receipt of public assistance since
that time. The mother is reported as a good, wise mother who has raised her children
successfully since her husband's death. All the children have been interested in furthering
their education, and Tom has shown special tenacity and perseverence in his school studies
and completed high school. This is of particular interest because Tom suffers from
a physical handicap, a partial paralysis which he has had since birth, and, although not a
brilliant student, compensated for this by his perseverence.
As his best subjects were book-keeping and mathematics, and as he expressed a desire
for training as a timekeeper, arrangements were made for a vocational course along these
lines. With the help of a sister who was employed away from home, who offered to find
accommodation for him and even help with expenses, if necessary, although she was making
only a minimum salary, Tom was sent to the Vancouver Vocational Institute. During his
attendance there Social Allowance was granted for his needs.
After he completed his course, a final report on his progress indicated that he was
a good student, applied himself well and made every effort to take full advantage of the
opportunity offered him, and maintained an average of about 80 per cent in his studies.
It was considered that the extra attention required to assist him in his studies was worth
while, and that he showed promise of giving adequate service to any employer. As the year
ended, there appeared a hopeful prospect of his obtaining employment within a very short
while of his return to the community in which he lived.
These are only three examples of special services which are possible within the
framework of the Social Allowance programme; there are many others for which these
funds may be used, such as housekeeping or homemaking services in homes where the REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH S 29
mother is ill or absent, payment for children living with relatives, provision of boarding-
or nursing-home care for those who, because of age or chronic illness, are no longer able
to look after themselves. The programme of co-operation with the Western Society for
Physical Rehabilitation, as reported last year, still continues as well.
It should be repeated here, however, that it is recognized that financial assistance is
not enough in many or most instances. The job of the worker is not only to determine
eligibility and grant assistance where indicated, but to do so in such a way that the
recipient may retain his self-respect and receive every encouragement to be independent
where possible. Such a job cannot be a routine one, but involves an understanding of
the needs of people, coupled with a sense of responsibility to help them with their
emotional and personal problems wherever possible. The social workers are the trustees
of the welfare of the people they serve, as well as of public funds which they administer.
It is hoped this aspect will receive even greater emphasis in the year to come.
General Comments
There is no progress to report on the establishment of a uniform interprovincial
agreement on residence, which would go far to eliminate lengthy negotiations on individual
cases which can be so time-absorbing from the divisional point of view.
There have been no amendments to the " Social Assistance Act" or regulations.
There are now sixty-nine municipalities (cities, districts, and villages) participating
with the Province under the provisions of this Act.
Under Section 13 of the regulations, which grants the right of appeal to the Director
of Welfare to any applicant or recipient of Social Allowance in respect of any decision
which he considers affects him adversely, only one such appeal was made during the year
under review.
In conclusion, it can only be repeated that the success of the public-assistance
programme depends to a great extent on the maintaining of mutual understanding and
agreement between the municipalities and the Province. To the municipal officials and
workers, therefore, as well as to "the officials and social workers of the Provincial field
staff, we wish to express our appreciation of their co-operation.
Although the Mothers' Allowance case-load is a very small one comparatively
speaking, it accounts for a fair portion of the work done in the Division because the
administration of Mothers' Allowances has not been decentralized, and consequently all
applications are reviewed, and grants, adjustments, and cancellations are made in the
divisional office.   The cheques are also issued from the divisional office.
The case-load has again this year continued the downward trend which has been
in evidence since March, 1940.
A comparative statement for the past six years is as follows:—
Table I.—Statement of Case-load
As at March, 1946 .  905 As at March, 1949 .  681
As at March, 1947 ...... 863 As at March, 1950  643
As at March, 1948 ...... 751 As at March, 1951 _...._ 569
This represents a decrease of 36 per cent in six years and 11.5 per cent in the past
year under review.
On a monthly basis the case-load figures for this fiscal year are as follows:— S 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table II.—Monthly Case-load, April 1st, 1950, to March 31st, 1951
Number of
in Pay
Number of Persons
April       _	
July  i	
The number of applications and reapplications also shows a marked decrease this
year, with only 102 being received, as compared with 141 in the previous year. Grants
total 83 in this year, as against 127 last year. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH S 31
Table III.—Statement of Applications Considered and Decisions Made
Applications pending as at April 1st, 1950  14
New applications received during year  82
Reapplications received during year   20
Total   116
Grants   83
Refusals   20
Withdrawn   6
Applications pending as at March 31st, 1951  7
Total   116
Reasons for refusals—
Mother's earnings in excess  2
Unearned income in excess  1
Not a resident in British Columbia three years  2
Deserted outside British Columbia  2
Not legally separated  2
Not deserted two years  1
Personal property in excess  4
Disability arose outside British Columbia  2
Husband not totally disabled one year  3
Social Allowance preferable   1
Total   20
Reasons for applications pending—
Awaiting vital statistical information  3
Awaiting medical information   2
Awaiting verification of citizenship and property information   1
Awaiting completion of investigation report  1
Total   7
Fewer allowances were cancelled this year, a total of 157, which is a decrease of
8 from last year's total of 165. S 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table IV.—Reasons for Cancelling Allowances during the Year under Review
Mother remarried •	
Mother in hospital indefinitely	
Mother deceased	
Mother left British Columbia	
Section 3 (c) (4) of " Mothers' Allowances Act "  1
Whereabouts unknown  3
Mother's earnings in excess  43
Unearned income in excess  10
Husband not totally disabled .  9
Deserting husband returned  1
Husband released from penitentiary  3
Only child removed .  5
Only child 18 years of age  12
Only child under 18 years left school  18
Only child under 16 years left school  10
Only children maintaining  2
Personal property in excess  3
Withdrawn at mother's request  3
Social Allowance preferable form of assistance  2
Of the cancelled cases, the length of time each family had been in receipt of Mothers'
Allowance is as follows:—
Years     1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9 10 11  12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Cases  17 25 16 17 13    4    8 11    9    4 10    7    8    2    3    1    1    1
Total cases, 157.   Average length of time on allowance, 6.11 years.
A detailed study of active case-load for March, 1951, shows the following reasons
for granting of allowances and children benefited.
Table V.—Reasons for Granting Allowance and Children Benefited
Status of Mother in Accordance with Eligibility
Number of Children
Qualifications Set by the Act
Husband in penitentiary .—	
Incapacitated husbands away ..	
Unmarried ...
From these figures further totals show as follows:—
Table VI.—Number of Individuals Benefited
Mothers   569
Husbands   791
Children   1,206
Total   1,854
l This figure applies only to those incapacitated husbands residing in the home, and who are included in the
Mothers' Allowance grant. In addition, there are 36 husbands in hospital or institution, or cared for elsewhere, and
16 husbands who are in receipt of Old-age Pension or Blind Pension (total 52), who are not included in the Mothers'
Allowance grant.
In Table V it will be noted that slightly over 35 per cent of the case-load are one-
child cases, and slightly over 36 per cent are two-child cases. In total they represent
about 72 per cent of the entire case-load and are the subject of the most frequent question
as to why a mother with only one or two children may not maintain herself and child,
or children, independently of public assistance. As has been pointed out before, many
factors enter into the situation, such as age and health of the children, age and health of
the mother, and possibly the presence of an incapacitated husband in the home, any of
which may prevent her from seeking employment. It should be pointed out that the
percentage of these cases in the case-load has remained steady, as it is identical with
last year—namely, 72 per cent. Only 22 one-child cases and 28 two-child cases were
granted during the year under review, out of total grants of 83.
Costs of Mothers' Allowances
As the case-load has decreased during the past year, the following financial statements will show a comparable decrease.
It is necessary to show the costs in two separate statements, as the increase granted
over two years ago is still derived from Social Allowance funds. S 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VII.—Mothers' Allowance Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year
April 1st, 1950, to March 31st, 1951
Advance received from Minister of Finance  $334,450.00
Bank interest  6.06
Allowances paid as follows:—
Month Amount of Allowances
April   $29,234.17
May      29,029.31
June      29,052.11
July     28,333.03
August      27,981.48
September      27,615.98
October     27,639.93
November      27,436.19
December     27,199.00
January      26,819.75
February      26,286.98
March      25,866.09
Unexpended balance of advance refunded
to Minister of Finance, May 22nd,
1951         1,955.98
Bank interest paid to Minister of Finance
May 22nd, 1951  6.06
The books and records of the Mothers' Allowances Fund have been examined under my direction. I hereby
certify that the above statement is a true account of the receipts and disbursements of the Director of Welfare under
authority of the "Mothers' Allowances Act " for twelve months ending March 31st, 1951, according to the information
furnished me, and as disclosed by the books and records submitted for my inspection.
S 35
Table VIII.—Financial Statement of Supplementary Social Allowances Paid to Mothers'
Allowance Recipients for the Fiscal Year April 1st, 1950, to March 31st, 1951
Advance received from Minister of Finance  $64,100.00
Account receivable (additional advance required from
Minister of Finance)       1,085.18
Less refund of allowances paid       1,129.45
Allowances paid as follows :-
Amount of
April   $5,561.76
May  5,518.65
June   5,509.95
July   5,387.00
August  5,323.90
September   5,240.50
October  5,252.35
November   5,219.00
December  5,172.37
Christmas bonus   1,900.80
January   5,126.00
February   5,026.65
March  4,946.25
Less refund of allowances paid       1,129.45
The books and records have been examined under my direction. I hereby certify that the above statement is a true
account of the receipts and disbursements of the Director of Welfare for the twelve months ending March 31st, 1951,
according to the information furnished me, and as disclosed by the books and records submitted for my inspection.
Based on the above financial statement in Table VII, the per capita cost is given for
the present year in comparison with the past six years. It should be noted these figures
are based on expenditures from the Mothers' Allowances Fund only and do not include
the additional expenditure from Social Allowance funds as this supplementation did not
begin until July, 1948, and, therefore, offers no basis of comparison for the first three
years of the period set out.
Table IX.—Statement Showing per Capita Cost
Fiscal Year
at June of
Each Year
Per Capita
Cost to the
Change over
1945^16       ....       	
949,000 (1945)
1,003,000 (1946)
1,044,000 (1947)
1,114,000 (1949)
1,138,000 (1950)
Mothers' Allowance Advisory Board
The Mothers' Allowance Advisory Board has continued under the able chairmanship
of Mrs. W. F. Smelts, and the membership remains unchanged from last year. S 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Two meetings of the Board were held during the year under review. The following
subjects were considered:—
(1) Amalgamation of Mothers' Allowances and Social Assistance Acts.
(2) Distribution of case-load between municipal and Provincial areas.
(3) Recommendation for provision of low-cost housing for recipients of
Mothers' Allowances as made by the North Shore Council of Women.
(4) Schedule of exemptions and deductions relating to earnings and income
of allowance recipients and over-age children living in the home.
(5) Rates of allowances.
General Comments
No amendments or changes were made in the " Mothers' Allowances Act " and
regulations during the year under review, and no procedural changes were made in the
administration of the allowances.
During the year rising costs of living have continued to create hardship for those
living on minimum and fixed incomes, and Mothers' Allowance recipients have been no
exception. This is especially true because the family is always one of young growing
children whose food and clothing needs increase and become more expensive as they grow
up. High rentals in urban areas have also added to their problem of budgeting. The
mother who is able to take part-time work or has older employed children in the home
still manages with difficulty, but she is in a more advantageous position than the mother
who has no means of supplementing the allowance.
For those mothers who do work, it has always been the administration's wish to
encourage them in their efforts, and for some years there has been in effect as general
policy (not determined by the Act or regulations) a schedule of exemptions and deductions relating to earnings and other income of the mother. This schedule permits a set
portion of her earnings to be exempted, and only a percentage of the balance is deducted
from the allowance. During the past year a committee composed of municipal and
Provincial representatives has been studying this schedule with a view to recommending to
the administration a revised schedule which, it was hoped, would bring about a policy
more equitable and in keeping with present-day costs of living. The matter of the
schedule is still under review.
The decreased case-load as shown in previous tables is attributable in large measure
to the provisions under the " Social Assistance Act " which do not set such rigid eligibility
requirements, and in certain circumstances permit more generous supplementation in
individual cases of extraordinary need. For this reason Social Allowance has become the
preferable form of assistance, and, indeed, many mothers express no preference for
Mothers' Allowance. This is especially true in the unorganized areas of the Province,
and the overwhelming majority of applications continue to come from mothers who have
residence or reside in organized areas.   This is well illustrated in the following figures:—
Table X.—Proportion of Applications and Grants in Organized Territory
Total applications and reapplications received  102
Applicants residing in organized territory     93
Applicants having legal residence in organized territory     92
Total grants made during year     83
Recipients residing in organized territory     81
Recipients having legal residence in organized territory     81
Allowances in pay as at March 31st, 1951  569
Recipients having legal residence in unorganized territory     94
Recipients having legal residence in organized territory  475 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH S 37
The figures indicate that of the applications received this year, 90 per cent of the
mothers had legal residence or resided in organized territory, while of the grants made
nearly 98 per cent were to mothers living in or having legal residence in organized areas.
In the case-load as at March 31st, 1951, recipients having residence in unorganized territory represent 16.5 per cent of the total, while the balance of 83.5 per cent have residence
in organized territory.
This situation is the result of two factors which cannot be refuted or minimized under
existing circumstances. The first is, of course, the fact that Mothers' Allowances and the
supplementary Social Allowances are totally chargeable to the Province, and thus
represent a financial saving to municipalities of between $60,000 and $65,000 a year if
computed on the total case-load and expenditures for the month of March, 1951.
The second is that while some municipalities would be willing to assume whatever
costs might accrue to them if there were no " Mothers' Allowances Act," it is pointed out
that as long as there is provision for the payment of Mothers' Allowances the regulations
of the various municipalities require that mothers eligible for this form of assistance must
avail themselves of it.
The " Mothers' Allowances Act " is the oldest piece of assistance legislation, having
been passed in 1920. At that time it was considered a marked advance in welfare
legislation and was to prevent family break-up and provide for a specialized category
of those in need—widowed mothers with dependent children, or mothers whose husbands
were totally incapacitated and unable to provide for their families. Prior to that time
the only resource was often some form of institutional care for the children while the
mother or parents managed as best they could with meagre assistance from relatives,
friends, societies, or some form of relief. While the provisions of the Act have been
broadened with the passage of time, it has now been surpassed in scope and, in the minds
of many, superseded by the provisions of the " Social Assistance Act," which in large
measure accounts for the rapidly falling case-load.
The original purpose still remains, however, that of keeping mothers and children
together, and it is interesting to review some of the cases in which grants were made ten
years ago or more and try to evaluate what Mothers' Allowance has meant for the family.
One family which we watched with interest this past year is a Chinese family living
in a small community in the Province. The allowance was granted to this mother eleven
years ago, when she was a young widow of 36 with five children under the age of 16 years
dependent on her. Her husband had died six years prior to that, leaving her three months'
pregnant and with five children under 10 years of age. Somehow in the intervening years
she had supported her children by help from relatives and friends and by working during
the summers on neighbouring farms. We do know that the Chinese people are very
helpful to one another in times of need, but six years is a long time to be dependent on
relatives and friends, but the mother had never asked for " relief." In 1940 the allowance
was granted for the mother and five children, the oldest boy, then 16, having gone to
another city to work for a relative. The worker reported that although the mother's
English was limited, she was a good mother to her children, and the home, although
sparsely furnished, was well kept. Community references were excellent. As time went
on, the children's school reports showed excellent progress, and the older son began to
contribute some financial assistance to the home, which has always remained of a good,
even though Oriental, standard. The oldest daughter served in the Canadian Women's
Army Corps during the last war. The second oldest girl, who at 16 became ineligible
for Mothers' Allowance under the then existing regulations, continued her education,
which must have entailed considerable sacrifice for the family. Both girls are now
Last year the second boy, now 18, applied for help from the B.C. Youth Foundation
to continue vocational training. His school references given at the time of his application
gave him a high scholastic standing with many interests in school activities and athletics, S 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
indicating his keen participation and ability for leadership. The grant was made from
the Foundation, and the boy attended a vocational-training school in a neighbouring city.
At the end of the term it was with obvious pride that the little local community paper
announced that he had achieved the highest standing in the automotive class and had won
a valuable kit of tools. Immediately on his graduation he obtained employment with
a large motor company.
While the additional resources of the B.C. Youth Foundation helped the boy in the
final achievement of his goal, it is not unreasonable to assume that the assistance granted
to his mother to keep her family together contributed in some measure to his desire and
ability to achieve his goal.
The third boy and second youngest child has only recently become 18, and it is hoped
that it will be possible to obtain assistance for him to continue at school, which he has
expressed a desire to do. Only the youngest child, nearly 16, is now eligible for allowance, and her progress in school to date has also been good. The payment of Mothers'
Allowance to this mother has provided a home life and parental guidance to these children
which they might not have otherwise had if financial assistance had not been granted.
During the past year, however, it has become increasingly apparent that it has not
been possible to render all the services to those in receipt of Mothers' Allowance that
we would like. This is no doubt due to increased pressures in the total case-loads of more
urgent situations. It is hoped in the year to come that this situation will right itself, as
we should not lose sight of the fact that the Mothers' Allowance case-load exists only
because there are families of dependent children—children who, even if a minimum
financial security is assured them, still face all personal and family problems of any child
and whose parents face the added strain of providing for their children on that minimum
security. Financial assistance is not always enough, and we should be ready to help them
with any family problem or difficulty that arises, and all recipients should be encouraged
in the knowledge that such services are available to them, and that the visitor's interest in
them is not only one of eligibility.   This is our hope for the year to come.
Last year in the Annual Report on the Family Service programme an attempt was
made to give in considerable detail an outline of the nature and content of the Family
Service case-load. It will not be necessary, therefore, to repeat such a full account for
this year.
Financial security is a vital factor in family life, but emotional security is equally
important, and this is what family service endeavours to encourage, with a view to the
strengthening and upholding of family life.
Family problems are varied and numerous. They may arise from difficulties between
husband and wife, between parent and child, or with " in-laws," or from serious family
break-up by reason of desertion and non-support. There are others, too, arising from
mental and physical ill-health, emotional and behavior difficulties, delinquency, alcoholism, or adaption to a new way of life for the immigrant.
Many families need this service to help them meet any of these crises that may arise
in any family, and to resolve the difficulties wherever possible so that the family as a group
and the individuals within it may lead satisfying lives. Our concern over the need for
sound family relationships is based on belief that the family is still the primary and most
important social and economic unit of society. The role of the family case-worker,
therefore, has been described as "helping husbands and wives anxious to save a foundering
marriage, to work with parents who are worried about their children's behaviour, with
teen-agers who are at odds with their parents and teachers and the rest of the world, with
people whose family problems are complicated by illness, and with older people who feel
their families no longer need them." REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH S 39
The Family Service case-load has remained fairly constant during the year under
review, with only minor fluctuations. The following totals are taken from the monthly
statistical reports of the district workers:—
Table I.—Monthly Case-load of Family Service Cases
As at April, 1950  1,268
As at May, 1950  .  1,238
As at June, 1950  1,261
As at July, 1950   1,294
As at August, 1950  1,248
As at September, 1950  1,222
As at October, 1950  1,279
As at November, 1950  1,254
As at December, 1950  1,271
As at January, 1951  1,300
As at February, 1951  1,325
As at March, 1951  1,278
This would indicate careful selection at intake and close supervisory practice in
order that no case is carried in which we can no longer be of service to the individual
or family. Even with a case-load of this size it cannot be expected that all cases will
receive concentrated and skilled case-work service. The size of total case-loads, isolation,
and distances of travel rule this out in even a much smaller case-load. For the most part,
wise and sympathetic counselling and easing of environmental factors in the problem are
the most that can be done, but in every workers' case-load there are some problem
situations which lend themselves to a fuller and more skilled service.
One problem area in which Family Service is frequently offered is that of the British
war bride who came to Canada, usually with children, and with such high hopes of
establishing a home in Canada with her Canadian husband. In most cases all her hopes
are fulfilled, but for a few the necessary adjustment to Canadian ways of life, homesickness, accepting an ordinary husband in civilian clothes and no longer glamorous in
a uniform, and different standards of living have created problems too big for the family
to resolve alone.
In many instances they seek the help of the social worker, or are referred to us by
anxious relatives in England who become aware through letters that all is not well with
the Canadian family.
Another example of our service is the help given to immigrants, or preferably " new
Canadians." Somewhere it has been said that these new-comers are not problems in
themselves, but they have problems which are common to many families, and others
peculiar to those who have been transplanted from familiar surroundings, or in some cases,
surroundings where for many years the primary concern was survival.
One persistent problem on which no figures are available at the present time, but
which in every instance causes grave concern to the workers and the Division, is that of
separation and desertion, and frequently non-support. The number of these cases, as
evidenced by the volume of interprovincial inquiries concerning them, is increasing.
Many reasons have been given for this, including hasty marriages, infidelity of either party,
drabness of home life, economic insecurity, or poor training in family living and an
inability to face family responsibilities. Whatever the causes, one cannot avoid being
concerned over the apparent prevalence of the problem. Abnormal home situations with
parents separated or one parent deserting, accompanied by mental, physical, or financial
suffering, cannot help but affect the welfare of the children concerned. It can be a contributing factor to delinquency, financial insecurity, and a lowering of home standards. S 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
It has been said that we cannot legislate human behaviour, and with this everyone
would surely agree, otherwise there would be no inmates in our jails and penitentiaries.
We do have, however, legislation designed to protect the wife and children of the
deserting husband and father. It may be that we do not know how to use this legislation,
but the consensus seems to be that it is ineffective. No one would ask for a rigid application of the letter of the law in all cases and regardless of circumstances, but somewhere
between that extreme and the other—of obvious and total disregard for orders made
under this legislation on the part of many husbands, for whom no mitigating circumstances can be found—there must be some reasonable middle course of implementation
which would serve to provide greater protection for many wives and children than can
apparently be accomplised at the present time. It is a problem that deserves and merits
a great deal more consideration in an earnest attempt to find a reasonable solution to a
most frustrating situation for the district worker.
Family Allowances
The arrangement continues with the Family Allowances Division of the Department
of National Health and Welfare whereby their inquiries regarding family situations in
which the use of or eligibility for Family Allowances is in question are channelled through
the divisional office, and for which we receive reimbursement, and in turn reimburse the
private and voluntary agencies to whom some of the inquiries are directed.
During the year the volume of Family Allowance inquiries was as follows:—
Table II.—Requests Received from Family Allowances Division, April 1st, 1950,
to March 31st, 1951
Pending as at April 1st, 1950     33
Received during fiscal year April 1st, 1950, to March 31st,
1951, by months—
April   24
May  29
June   34
July   18
August   38
September   28
October  28
November   32
December  29
January, 1951   32
February  ,  32
March   34
Total case-load  391
Cases completed within fiscal year  325
Cases pending as at April 1st, 1951     66 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH S 41
Table III.—Requests to District Offices and Other Agencies
Pending as at April 1st, 1950     54
Requests sent out during fiscal year April 1st, 1950, to
March 31st, 1951, by regions—
Region I1      25
Region IF  223
Region III      41
Region IV      38
Region V     31
Total number of requests  412
Requests completed within fiscal year, by regions—
Region I1   20
Region II1   198
Region III   38
Region IV  .____ 29
Region V  40
Requests pending as at April 1st, 1951     87
1 Includes private agencies.
During the past year we have undertaken in a few cases the administration of the
Family Allowances for a family, in order to ensure that the purpose of the allowance is
served and that it is expended for the children's benefit. The number of administration
cases remains small, and it is only considered as a last resort where there is obvious
misuse of the funds by the parents. While administration can be a useful tool in teaching
the mother proper budgeting and how to purchase for her family, it may also disrupt the
relationship between the mother and the worker if the mother resents the arrangements.
For this reason, serious consideration is given to every recommendation for authority to
administer before it is passed to the Family Allowances Division.
To the Regional Administrators, field consultants, district supervisors, and workers
of the municipal and Provincial offices, and to the various private and voluntary agencies
with whom we have corresponded and worked during the past year, we wish to express
thanks and appreciation of their co-operation and help in the work of the Division.
(Miss) J. M. Riddell,
Provincial Supervisor, Family Division. S 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
I beg to present the annual report of the Child Welfare Division for the fiscal year
Our efforts this year have been directed chiefly toward a review of plans for all
children in care. We have tried to see that admissions are made only after due consideration is given to available resources for treatment and care, and that early decisions
are reached—and carried through—as to the period of care required to benefit each
child. As a result, we have to report only a small increase in the number of admissions
during the year, a much shorter stay in care for a greater number of children in non-
ward care, and a marked increase in the number of children for whom we have been
able to make permanent adoptive placement plans. We are also pleased to report a
small but nevertheless helpful growth in our receiving home and temporary placement
facilities in the Fraser Valley areas.
As will be seen in this report, we have a large population of children in care, and
to fulfil our responsibility toward them demands the closest of teamwork between
divisional and district staffs. The added link of the field consultants' service between
us is of inestimable value in this regard, and we start the new year with a far greater
sense of shared responsibility than ever before.
Four hundred and ninety-nine children from 336 families were admitted to care
from Social Welfare Branch areas throughout the year, and an additional 57 children
came to us at the request of another agency or Province, making a total number of 556
admissions since April 1st, 1950. This represents a small increase over last year of 5
children admitted from our own areas and 6 from other agencies. The total population
of children in care during the year was 1,599, and as at March 31st, 1951, 1,190.
Of the 499 children admitted by our own workers, 243 were apprehended under
the "Protection of Children Act," 19 were committed to the Superintendent of Child
Welfare under the "Juvenile Delinquents Act," and 237 were admitted at the request
of a parent or parents.
Nineteen of the 57 children placed at the request of another agency came to us
from the Prince of Wales Fairbridge Farm School, 25 were from a Children's Aid Society,
and 13 were referred from other Provinces for supervision.
The largest number in the group of children admitted as non-wards, or at the
request of parent or parents, continues to be children of unmarried mothers. However,
as will be seen from the following, illness of one or both parents was also a major reason
why a high percentage of children had to be taken into care. A well-developed home-
makers' service would have made possible the more desirable plan of caring for many
of these children in their own homes, and this gap in resources should be given serious
Reasons Why 237 Children Were Admitted to Non-ward Care
Number of Number of
Children Families
Unmarried mothers' children  71 69
Illness of mother or both parents  61 35
Unsatisfactory parent-child relationship  57 39
Parents divorced, parent awarded custody needing
temporary help in planning !____ 17 12
Desertion of one parent, remaining parent needing
help  11 5
Death of one parent, remaining parent needing
help  9 5
Father in gaol, mother needing temporary help in
planning  5 2
Permanent physical handicap of child  3 3
Special psychiatric treatment provided for child 2 2
Unsatisfactory stepparent-child relationship  1 1
•     Totals r  237 173
The majority of the 71 children of unmarried mothers were in care only a short
time and have now been placed in adoption homes, and most of the 61 children whose
parent or parents were ill are also out of care and reunited with their families. Others
of this group, however, who are in care for reasons less easily understood and borne by
them, as the child deserted by his mother or father, or whose parents quarrelled continually and did not see his hurt and bewilderment, or who separated or divorced and
did not protect him from their bitterness toward each other—these children are often
deeply disturbed and confused. Their length of stay in care has frequently to be longer
if they are to regain confidence in themselves and in adults.
The permanently physically handicapped children, too, will require foster-home
care over a long period of time, as will the two children for whom we are providing
special psychiatric treatment.
Substitute care for children apart from their own homes is a costly programme and,
as can be expected with 1,599 children in our care during the year, and a statutory
financial responsibility (totally or in part), for some 1,250 additional children in the
care of the Children's Aid Societies, the Child Welfare Division's expenditures for the
year have been high. S 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The cost of maintaining children in Child Welfare Division foster homes during the
fiscal year ended March 31st, 1951, was carried as follows:—
Gross cost of maintenance to Provincial Government  $241,252.99
Municipal 20-per-cent share for children
with municipal residence  $19,186.90
Parents' contributions       7,355.51
Received from other Provinces       2,241.78
Received from Children's Aid Societies for
their children in care of the Superintendent of Child Welfare     20,990.94
Received from Fairbridge Farm School__      9,661.80
Received from Dominion Government       1,298.67
Miscellaneous collections       1,617.93
Sundry refunds  520.42
Net cost to Provincial Government  $178,379.04
The cost of maintaining children in care of Children's Aid Societies chargeable to
Provincial or municipal governments during the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1951, was
carried as follows:—
Brought forward  $178,379.04
Cost of maintenance of children with Provincial
residence   $266,749.50
Refunds to municipalities, 80 per cent of maintenance of children with municipal residence .._    258,698.02
20 per cent paid by municipalities for Child Welfare Division children
in Children's Aid Societies' care  $11,070.36
Parents' contributions       4,448.65
Paid by Dominion Government   912.69
Paid by other Provinces       4,355.73
Fairbridge Farm School __.    13,409.47
Miscellaneous collections ___ 690.05
Children's Aid Societies for
their wards in care of
the Superintendent of
Child Welfare       1,593.87
Additional expenditure:—
Gross transportation of children       $5,419.14
Less reimbursements from parents and
sundry refunds  378.27
Grants to institutions         1,300.00
Net cost to Province  $673,686.61 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH S 45
Foster homes  $241,252.99
Children's Aid Societies     266,749.50
C.A.S. Wards—municipal cases      258,698.02
Transportation of children          5,419.14
Grants to institutions         1,300.00
Less sundry collections and refunds       99,733.04
Net expenditure per Public Accounts  $673,686.61
As at March 31st, 1951, the number of children in the care of the Superintendent of
Child Welfare and of the three Children's Aid Societies and the distribution of the costs
of their care as between Provincial Government, municipalities, or Community Chest
were as follows:—
Children in Child Welfare Division foster homes as at March
31st, 1951      881
Provincial Government responsible for 100 per
cent of cost •_      375
Provincial Government responsible for 80 per
cent and municipality for 20 per cent of cost     253
Fairbridge Farm School (100 per cent recoverable)         22
Indian Commissioner  3
Other Provinces responsible for 100 per cent  8
Wards in free homes, or who have become wholly or partly
self-supporting       220
Number of children for whom full maintenance was paid as at
March 31 st, 1951      661
Total number of children in care of the Children's Aid Societies during the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1951__ 2,596
Provincial Government responsible for 100 per
cent of cost      462
Provincial Government responsible for 80 per
cent and municipality for 20 per cent of cost       96
Fairbridge Farm School        26
Other Provinces and agencies        11
Wards of the three Children's Aid Societies for
whom the Provincial Government pays 80
per cent of the cost and the responsible
municipality 20 per cent (also three non-
wards whose parents are in a T.B. unit, and
three non-wards whose parents are in receipt
of Social Assistance)      695
Paid for by Community Chest, or in free homes, or who have
become wholly or partially self-supporting  1,306
The Superintendent of Child Welfare assumed responsibility for 1,599 children
during the fiscal year 1950-51, as follows:—
Of Superintendent—
" Protection of Children Act"  592
" Juvenile Delinquents Act"  66
Of Children's Aid Societies  88
Of other Provinces  66
Before Court awaiting committal  210
Of Superintendent  573
Of Children's Aid Societies       3
Of other Provinces :       1
At March 31st, 1951, the Superintendent of Child Welfare had in care:—
Of Superintendent—
" Protection of Children Act"  658
" Juvenile Delinquents Act"     52
Of Children's Aid Societies     68
Of other Provinces     58
Before Court awaiting committal     77
Of Superintendent  275
Of Children's Aid Societies  1
Of other Provinces  1
Altogether our three Children's Aid Societies cared for 2,596 children during the
year, as follows:—
The Vancouver Children's Aid Society „  1,514
The Children's Aid Society of the Catholic Archdiocese of
In addition to the placement and supervision of these children, the Children's Aid
Societies provided service in their respective communities to more than 700 unmarried
mothers, worked with some 1,500 children in their own homes, made 280 adoption placements, and offered the various other family and children's services which go to make a
Children's Aid Society programme.
As a result of the unfavourable publicity given the death, in January, 1951, of a
child in the care of the Catholic Children's Aid Society, surveys have been started to
determine the adequacy of the foster-home programmes of the Children's Aid Societies
and of the Social Welfare Branch. The studies of the two Children's Aid Societies
in Vancouver are being made in close collaboration with the Metropolitan Health Committee, the Vancouver Fire Marshal, and the Building Inspector, and we are sincerely grateful
to them for their helpfulness and understanding throughout every phase of the project.
There may need to be some modifications made in the methods now used in approving
the physical standards of foster homes in the Greater Vancouver area, and when the
studies are completed, there will no doubt be suggestions made whereby responsibility for
maintaining high standards can be more equally shared by all civic and Provincial departments concerned. However, as at March 31st, 1951, a large number of foster homes in
Vancouver have been inspected by the various departments, and there is no serious situation to report. All agencies are endeavouring to provide good care for the children
entrusted to them, and if they can be criticized at all, it is for their failure to publicize
more the need for greater support from the general public.
In one group, the 1,599 children in the care of the Superintendent of Child Welfare
during the year would actually comprise a small " village "—a " village " of children of
all ages, from a few weeks to 21 years, away from their fathers and mothers.
" Why Are They Not in Their Own Homes? "
Our children are with us because of many different circumstances which led to their
parents' inability to care for them. Some have a parent or parents in a hospital for
tuberculosis, or in the Provincial Mental Hospital; some are orphans; others have parents
who never learned to be responsible people and are therefore unable to be responsible
parents. Some of our children have known physical abuse and cruelty in their own
homes, a few were abandoned as babies, and many know the hurt of a parent's complete
rejection. Some are children of unmarried mothers for whom permanent plans have not
yet been finalized. Another group suffers from incurable physical conditions, and others
are with us because they are mixed up in their feelings and need a chance to sort things
out and perhaps find their way.
" What Are We Able to Do for Children in Care? "
We know a great deal about what happened to our children before they came to us,
but it is not always easy to evaluate how things are really working out for them while in
our care. We try to find the best homes possible for them and to give them opportunity
to talk about their problems and wonderings, but sometimes this is not enough. Sometimes the hurt has gone too deep for workers or doctors to help, and the child can do
nothing but turn his unhappiness in on himself. This happened to one of our 20-year-old
wards this year, and her despair became so great she took her own life. We had been
aware of her unhappiness for a long time, and had obtained psychiatric help, but the
cruel things that had happened to her as a little girl had left too many scars. Her tragic
death and our inability to help her were felt keenly by district and divisional workers, and S 48
we look to the opening of the Crease Clinic as a welcome resource for such disturbed
children in the future.
The child who comes into care because a parent or both parents are ill or dead can
usually talk of how he feels about his loss. These are understandable and " acceptable "
reasons why you cannot be in your own home. But many of our children cannot bear to
think about what happened to them and their parents, let alone talk about it, and workers
sometimes have to spend much time and do many unusual things to gain a child's confidence and trust.
One 16-year-old girl, Joan, whose father had left home after too many years of
bitter quarreling with his wife, antagonized a whole community when she fancifully
accused prominent male citizens of irregular conduct toward her. The mother's lack of
love and understanding for her daughter only increased her bizarre behaviour, and Joan
eventually had to be removed from her home and community. The worker was " just
another adult " to Joan until we realized that she owned a horse—" Fireball "—and that
" Fireball " was the only creature Joan could really let herself care for! The placement
slip below (with identifying information deleted) came into the Division and speaks for
To the Child Welfare Division:
Rate:   Special r3o"00Regular □ Rec. Home.
that..„ "^viedtt^g, " —— 4t,^<L**L*t,.&
/JZ, (Nwneof child.) '        CV (Birthdate.)_
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f    s~t s-> (Previous placement.) /~) >T> (Name.)
.g& <Z>w. " -.. ®& /§L A?.**
This is to advise you
was moved
*~ (Add ress. J
Reason:  ^._....<^.....^
Parents' names:   Mother.
This child is a -r?lr**l4LeJ.. of the
(Before Court, Jt&rd or non-ward.)
and v£~-ik^z..&SL.'. - - is responsible for maintenance.
.(Nam^munjcipalityjMUEsreney,) /j a
/W., ■*&.„:   Father....C?JH^..-J.
(Before Court, ward o^pon-ward.) / &       (SCW, CAS, or other Province^}/
IMbkB. (25)-6-19-2432 (16)
#     £k
Misuse of money, paying for a horse? We don't think so. Joan has been in care
now for three months, and she has made an unexpectedly good adjustment so far. She
has returned to school, is doing an after-school job, and is now paying for her beloved
horse's oats herself. We suspect that her respect and trust in the worker started when
she unhesitatingly agreed with Joan that, of course, " Fireball " had to go where she did!
More Older Children Placed with Adoptive Parents
Many more of our children from 3 to 7 years of age have been helped into adoptive
homes. This has been one of our chief objectives this year, and we will continue to
examine our population of children regularly to see that we find for each child who needs
and can use an adoptive home, adoptive parents who can provide him his heart's needs.
Permanently Physically Handicapped Children
The permanently physically handicapped children who come to us present a pathetic
and perplexing problem in foster-home placement. The physical set-up at the Queen
Alexandra Solarium limits the number who can be admitted under present policy to that
institution, and it excludes children suffering from certain conditions which require fairly
constant individual bedside care.   With no other resource available, we have had to place
! ^^—-^—^
a number of these children in foster homes, and while we have made each placement with
some hesitancy, there are some interesting observations which can be made from the
results. One 9-year-old boy, Bobbie, who had spent most of his life in a hospital with
a bladder and anal defect from a spina bifida, has been in a specially chosen home for
nearly a year where the foster mother, a nurse, has taught him to manage the surgical
clamps which had previously narrowed his life to a hospital ward." The men in the
family have given him support in his efforts, too, and, most important of all, Bobbie is
now able to attend school and take at least a small part in the activities of the children
on his street.
Each of the five children now in care because of extreme physical handicap has
responded well. Most of them will never be able to play in a child's world, as Bobbie
is now doing, but they have gained something very tangible in this period of " family
living " which we doubt could be theirs in any institution. When the time comes to
consider increased facilities for the incurably crippled and handicapped children in this
Province, this experiment in foster-home placement should be taken into account.
The increased foster-home rates we have to pay for this type of foster-home care
may, at first glance, look excessive, but compared to what hospital or other institutional
care would cost, it is actually a more economical means of providing for these children
whose care will extend over a long period of time. Foster-home placement also represents
for them a chance to share, in at least a small way, some family living before they know
the closing-in walls of the inevitable institution as they reach adulthood.
Health of Children in Care
The majority of our children have been in good health, but we regret to report the
deaths of five children during the year, in addition to the 20-year-old girl, referred to
previously. One, a 1V2 -year-old boy, died suddenly of a respiratory condition, and a
five months' old baby died in his sleep of enlarged thymus. Both children had been under
constant medical care, but evidently neither of the conditions was detectable previously.
A third child, born to a very disturbed patient in the Provincial Mental Hospital, died at
the age of five months. He had been weak and sickly since birth, and had not responded
well to medical care, but his death, too, was unexpectedly sudden. The fourth fatality
was a girl, aged Wi years, who was killed in an automobile accident. Our child was the
only occupant of either car injured, and in the enquiry no blame was attached to anyone
for her death.
These five fatalities in one year make the incidence of death among our children
higher than it has ever been before. A careful and exhaustive investigation into the
circumstances surrounding each establishes that no neglect of the child existed. Our
medical care for children is good and includes all and every type of prescribed treatment.
We also make broad use of the Public Health Nursing Services in our supervision of
children in foster homes, and particularly in our supervision of small babies. However,
to protect further this latter highly vulnerable group, we are endeavouring to interest
people who have special aptitudes and training in the care of infants to serve as foster-
parents for them. This will mean an expansion of our present system of specially
subsidized homes to include homes restricted to the care of no more than two infants.
An increased expenditure will be involved, but it should result in still another safeguard
to the welfare of the small children entrusted to our care.
" What Age Are Our Children? "
The age-grouping of our children tells something about them too. Table I below
shows the ages of children for whom the Superintendent of Child Welfare has assumed
responsibility, and Table II shows the ages of those children in our care at the request
of another agency. S 50
Table I
11 to 15 years   — 	
19 to 21 years    -	
1 P.C.A. = " Protection of Children Act."
- J.D.A. = " Juvenile Delinquents Act."
3 S.C.W. = Superintendent of Child Welfare.
Table II
68         1              1
1 O.P.=Other Province.
- C.A.S.^Children's Aid Society.
Total in care of Superintendent of Child Welfare as at March 31, 1951, 1,190.
Compared to other years, these figures show a very satisfying decrease in the number
of children under 1 year of age in care. Wherever adoption placement is indicated, we
are finalizing the plans as quickly as possible so that no infant will remain in a temporary
foster home longer than necessary. There is a decrease also in the number of children
between 1 to 5 years, but there is still need for closer scrutiny of this group, as there is
of the 6- to 10-year-old children. Many, of course, will rejoin their own families, but
where this is not possible, permanent plans should be made for them without delay.
Our Adolescents
The 12- to 15-year-old boys and girls comprise our largest age-group and are
perhaps our most challenging problem. Usually these children still have some affectional
ties with their parents and yet, if guardianship has been removed by Court, it is unlikely
they will be returning home. Placement with foster-parents who can understand what
this kind of displacement means to an adolescent and the chance to establish a meaningful
relationship with workers who can help these boys and girls must be our goal for them.
Planning for educational and vocational training is of great importance, too, in the
lives of our boys and girls from 15 to 18 years of age. Many have good ability and can
be helped to real accomplishment, as we have proven with a number of the 18- to 21-year-
old boys and girls who are presently, with some help, taking advanced educational or
vocational training. The majority of these older wards are now self-supporting, but some,
because of limitations, do require help between jobs from time to time, and as their legal
guardian we are obligated to give this assistance.
Working with children is a demanding job, and the workers' available time is a big
factor. The greater stability of staff now apparent throughout the Province, which, in
turn, is making it possible for field consultants to fulfil the role originally planned for REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH S 51
them, should allow for more selectivity in the assignment of cases and, for the workers,
more actual treatment time with individual children.
All children in the care of the Superintendent of Child Welfare or a Children's Aid
Society are included in the over-all Social Welfare Branch medical services plan, which
ensures complete medical care. Some similar plan for the provision of dental care for
children is urgently needed. Dental fees have increased markedly, and attempts to seek
reductions are embarrassing to workers and rarely productive. Many of our children
have had little, if any, dental care prior to coming to us, and some of the estimates submitted for required work are startlingly high. Assuming responsibility for these children
seems to imply the providing of good dental care, and we would welcome, as would the
parents of children in their own homes, an expansion of free, or at cost, dental clinics
throughout the schools system. Some such plan would seem to be the only way in which
this extremely important service for children can be assured.
Our wards, as well as wards of a Children's Aid Society, are covered by B.C. Hospital Insurance and, as of October 1st, 1950, a plan was devised whereby the new-born
baby in hospital for whom we are planning was included in the Social Welfare Branch
plan. Children in care as non-wards, however, continue to present a problem. Their
parents are supposed to register and pay premiums for them, but often they have not the
money, are careless or just irresponsible, and, when in our care and needing hospitalization, the child is not a welcome admission to any hospital. There are not a large number
of children so unprotected, and our responsibility for them would seem to demand their
inclusion in the Social Welfare Branch over-all hospitalization coverage.
Increase in Foster-home Rates Indicated
We have endeavoured to maintain a good standard of foster-home care for our
children and to provide for their needs as economically as possible, but the foster-home
rates now in effect and established in 1948 are so much out of line with the present cost-
of-living index that it is obvious foster-parents are providing many of the necessities for
our children out of their own purses. New applicants who could be interested in caring
for children are discouraged when they learn what they will receive, and it is evident our
foster-home programme is threatened as a result. Studies are currently being made by
the three Children's Aid Societies and this Division in an effort to determine the exact
discrepancy between the amount paid for foster-home care and the actual cost, and an
increase in the foster-home rates of all agencies early in the new year seems certain.
Special Purchases and Opportunities Provided by Family Allowances
We received $29,055.26 in Family Allowances for our children during the year, and
disbursed $23,192.01, leaving a carried-over balance in trust accounts of $19,333.15.
As a means of stimulating a greater interest in the constructive use of these funds, we are
sending monthly statements of each child's account to district offices. The results have
been most satisfactory and, as will be seen from the following, many special purchases
and opportunities were provided children from Family Allowances:— S 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Skates, skis, other sports equipment, bicycles, musical
instruments, Guide and Scout uniforms, camp and
other summer vacations  $2,662.87
Music lessons and rental of a piano  89.79
Gifts, as for Christmas and birthday  227.52
Special clothing  223.23
Balance paid as savings to child on discharge  246.68
Miscellaneous (kindergarten fees, extra spending money,
special toys, suit-cases, bicycle repairs, etc.)  819.25
Special purchases, as watches, brief-cases, etc.  221.79
Paid to foster-mothers over and above regular maintenance  14,654.25
Paid to adopting mother at time of child's placement ___„ 1,341.11
Paid to parent when child discharged *  1,881.76
Paid to a Children's Aid Society when child transferred
to its area  639.52
Refunds to Family Allowance Division  184.24
No report can tell all that happened in a year of 1,599 children. Some made excellent progress in their school and home life, several started or have plans for advanced
education, and others enrolled in various vocational courses. Some received special
tutoring because of a reading or speech disability, others with less ability attended special
classes, and some older boys and girls were helped to find suitable job placements. One
very disturbed boy has been receiving special treatment during the past year at the Ryther
Child Centre, Seattle, Wash., and reports indicate very satisfactory progress.
Not all of our children were we able to help, and some met with dark days. Five
boys and one girl were committed to the Boys' and Girls' Industrial Schools, two boys
were sentenced to the Oakalla Prison Farm, and two to the Penitentiary. These ten boys
and girls are still our concern, and while the prognosis is not hopeful for many of them,
we are keeping in touch while they are in custody and will lend what help we can, in
co-operation with the Probation Officers, to formulate sound rehabilitation plans for them
upon discharge.
Six girls were married this year, and eleven boys and seven girls reached the age of
21 years and were officially "discharged from care." Statistically, this latter group will
no longer be counted as " our children," but what we have been to them and how they
feel about having been with us is important. Our child-welfare services will have reached
a real position of security when more of the children we have had in foster homes can
come back to us as " grown-ups," happily established in their own homes and, as did one
boy, offer to share his home and family life with another child because, as he put it,
" someone shared theirs with me when I needed it."
For the first time in our history the number of children placed in Child Welfare
Division adoptive homes in a year exceeds the number placed by any one of the three
Children's Aid Societies during the same period. The total number of children placed for
adoption by agencies was 489, and of these we placed 209; the Vancouver Children's Aid
Society, 186; the Catholic Children's Aid Society, 46; and the Family and Children's
Service of Victoria, 48. This achievement is not by sheer accident, but rather is the result
of careful planning with the Vancouver Children's Aid Society. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH S 53
For many obvious reasons a high percentage of the children offered for adoption are
born in Vancouver, and the Vancouver Children's Aid Society has always been able to
satisfy its prospective adoptive parents' demands for children much more readily than we
have. Applicants living in our rural areas were waiting three to four years—much longer
than those living in and around Vancouver—and their disappointment and impatience,
though understandable, was becoming difficult for workers to meet. At the same time,
because the Vancouver Children's Aid Society had so many more children available for
adoption, there was a danger that the areas they serve might reach a point where a desirable degree of selectivity in the choice of homes would no longer be possible.
Results of Inter-agency Planning
With these comparisons of supply and demand before us, regular weekly conferences
have been held with the Vancouver Children's Aid Society, and the results are gratifying
from two standpoints: not only are there more well-satisfied adoptive parents throughout
the Province but, by thinking of British Columbia as a whole as a resource, both agencies
have a greater opportunity to select a home to meet each particular child's needs. For
instance, when 3-year-old Teddie, a part-East-Indian child, was discussed at one of the
weekly conferences as needing an adoptive home, our worker was able to tell of a likely
one. Teddie was attractive and lovable, and the Vancouver agency had been concerned
about him and about its failure to meet his needs for a long time. The resource it needed
we were able to offer, and Teddie is now the " son " of extremely proud and happy East
Indian parents in one of our regions.
Catholic Agency Needs More Adoptive Parents
The situation with regard to the Catholic Children's Aid Society is somewhat
different, in that they have a large number of children awaiting placement and still a
shortage of prospective adoptive parents. We, too, have had to plan for a higher number
of Roman Catholic children in rural areas this year, and therefore have not been as much
of a resource to this agency as we would like. However, we have gradually built up a
small back-log of prospective Roman Catholic homes throughout the Province, and plans
are under way for next year to work closely with the Catholic Children's Aid Society and
together try to see that the many small babies now in their Vancouver Baby Home are
helped into permanent adoptive homes.
Available Adoptive Homes in Child Welfare Division Areas
As at March 31st, 1951, we had 301 adoptive parents, 38 of whom were Roman
Catholic, awaiting placement of a child.   They are located throughout our regions in the
following proportions:  Total Number
Approved Roman
Homes Catholic
Region I     37 7
Region II   104 3
Region III     77 9
Region IV     54 15
Region V     29 4
Totals  301 38
Legal Notices and Completions
Nine hundred and ten families, who have given legal notice of their intention to
adopt, were under supervision as at March 31st, 1951—458 by Child Welfare Division
and 452 by Children's Aid Societies. Eight hundred adoptions were completed by order
of the Supreme Court during the year, an increase of sixty-seven over last year. S 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Eighty-five applications to complete adoption were withdrawn after legal notice had
been given. The majority of these involved children who had been placed for adoption
by their parents through private channels or were blood relatives of the adopting parents.
A large number of them moved out of the Province, and the adoptions may be completed
elsewhere. Some postponed their application for financial or other reasons and may
reapply at another time, and one was withdrawn because of the death of the adopting
For the first time since before the last war the number of birth registrations of
children born out of wedlock shows a decrease. The Division of Vital Statistics reports
1,262 registrations in the fiscal year, which is 117 under last year's figure. Hopefully,
this reflects in a measure an improved standard of preventive family and children's work
throughout the Province.
At the same time, the number of unmarried mothers coming to social agencies continues to increase and, as our adoption figures show, a greater number are seeking our
help in planning for their children. When adoption is clearly indicated, placement can
usually be made without undue delay, but if the mother is uncertain about her decision or
for some reason adoption placement is delayed or not indicated, then interim care for the
newly born baby must be provided. Care of small babies is a highly specialized field, and
we believe the plan referred to earlier whereby subsidized receiving homes will be established, to care for not more than two babies each, will ensure the maximum individual
care for each child. With the baby's immediate needs being met, the mother will then
be better able to reach a mature and lasting decision about her own and the baby's future.
Collections under the "Children of Unmarried Parents Act" were $152.19 above
the previous year, with a total collection of $38,664.14 for the year. Deducting the
amount received on five settlements ($1,600), this represents an average yearly payment
of only $118.41 on the total active (313) orders and agreements.
Like all legislation designed to collect money for maintenance of children and families, the financial return in relation to the efforts expended places considerable doubt on
the validity of such measures. However, the administration of the " Children of Unmarried Parents Act" gives us an opportunity in our work with unmarried fathers to help
them toward a more responsible way of life, and it also enables us to establish a family
background for the child, should he in later years want or require to use it. On the other
hand, broadened policies in adoption-placement practice, which place the emphasis more
and more on the suitability of the adoptive parents for parenthood, and less on the adoptability of the child, somewhat alter the use we make of this piece of legislation.
Adoption placement is so closely linked with the administration of unmarried
parents' legislation that the practice in either field must eventually affect practice in the
other. We appear to have reached a point in both where extensive research is indicated
to determine not only the effectiveness of unmarried parents' legislation, but also to learn
what standards of adoptability should be established in order that we may truly protect
and meet the needs of the comparatively large number of children who yearly are born
to unmarried parents.
During the year 743 unmarried parents' cases were handled in the Division; 407
were closed and 336 carried over as active.   Fourteen new orders and thirty-eight new REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH S 55
agreements were received during the year, and five new settlements, amounting to $ 1,600,
At the request of the Supreme Court we submitted fifty-nine custody reports involving eighty-two children during the year. In three of these the children were orphaned,
and relatives from both sides of the family were claiming custody. We believe that in the
course of our investigation each was helped to see the need to protect the child from the
bitterness which too often ensues in such legal disputes. We continue to receive excellent
co-operation from solicitors, and the usefulness of our reports to the presiding Judge
seems evident in the fact that final decisions parallel very closely our submitted
Forty-one requests from the Division of Vital Statistics for help with legitimation
applications were dealt with this year. In these cases the mother of an illegitimate child
has married and the applicants apply for legitimation of the child's birth, claiming the
husband to be the natural father. In some instances we have known the mother previously. In other cases we are able to help the applicants assemble what evidence of
paternity is available. If their claim can be substantiated, a favourable recommendation
is sent to the Division of Vital Statistics, and the child is reregistered as the legitimate
issue of the union. If a favourable recommendation cannot be made because of lack of
sufficient proof of paternity or evidence to the contrary, the applicants are encouraged to
legalize the relationship between child and stepfather by means of adoption. We are able
to report that the majority of the cases referred to us receive favourable recommendation
on the application to legitimize their children.
This year, through our recommendations to the Canadian Immigration Department,
we assisted in the plans to bring fifteen children in other countries to relatives in British
Columbia. In three other instances we were unable to recommend the child's entry
because of the social factors. One of these, an unmarried mother in England, was contemplating sending her child to the alleged father in British Columbia. Our investigation
proved that what this mother needed was help with her problem, and referral to an
English social agency enabled her to keep the child with her. The second unapproved
application was one which proposed bringing a young; boy from what appeared to be his
well-established own family in Yugoslavia, and the third unapproved application was an
unusually complicated situation in which a grandmother was anxious to claim her son's
son of an extra-marital relationship. The child's father seemed not too anxious to assume
the extra responsibility, the mother was unwilling to relinquish him, and we naturally
would support her prior claim.
Four of the children involved in these eighteen immigration applications were in
Italy, two in Greece, three in England, three in Scotland, three in Yugoslavia, one in the
United States, one in Jamaica, and one in France. Nine were Roman Catholic, eight
Protestant, and one Jewish.
Most of the relatives applying to bring these children to British Columbia are
responsible and mature people and capable of giving the child every opportunity for good
and wholesome development. However, the element of risk in these placements is high
when the child is unknown to them, and when, as in so many instances, there are still
some family ties in the homeland to pull the child away from his new environment. One
of the placements has already broken down, and the boy, aged 15 years, who came to his
uncle and aunt in 1950 has been charged under the "Juvenile Delinquents Act" and
committed to the care of the Superintendent of Child Welfare. S 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
At the request of Fairbridge we have now placed all the girls from the school and all
boys under 13 years of age in foster homes and, as at March 31st, 1951, have fifty-one of
their children in care. Plans for their placement were worked out carefully with the
Fairbridge superintendent of child care and, with very few exceptions, the children have
made good adjustments. Twenty-two of them are in Child Welfare Division foster homes,
and twenty-nine in the care of a Children's Aid Society at our request. Fairbridge continues to be financially responsible for the children, and through the principal of the
School we keep the London board informed of each child's progress. There are now only
twenty-five boys, all over 14 years of age, at the School.
Watching the development of these children now in foster homes, and learning what
the years of deprivation of family living has meant to them, confirms our belief that immigration of any children, and the consequent separation of them from their parents, can
never be a good way of planning for children. Our responsibility to the Fairbridge boys
and girls now in our Province is clear, but any further requests to bring additional children
from the United Kingdom under any such scheme should be looked upon with grave
As at March 31st, 1951, only thirty-four of the original forty-six Jewish overseas
children remain in care and at our request are under the supervision of the Vancouver
Children's Aid Society. Of the seven discharged during the year, one went to live in an
eastern city, two boys reached their majority and are now independent members of the
community, and four girls were married. The total group is making a highly satisfactory
adjustment to Canadian life, and many are achieving outstanding success scholastically.
Eighteen of those still under supervision are now wholly self-supporting, ten will require
some financial help but are on their way to full-time work, and only six require full
maintenance to be provided. Three of the boys are at University—one studying law, one
biochemistry, and one is a budding social worker. One of the girls completed a hair-
dressing course and is now a licensed operator, and another is happily launched in her
nursing career. Twenty-eight in all of the original group are working and, as will be seen
from the following, are to be found in many walks of life and in highly typical Canadian
Occupation Number
Meat-packer  5
Lamp-factory   1
Salesman  2
Hairdressing  1
Office clerk  1
Automotive mechanic  3
Logger '.  2
Haberdashery-store operator  1
Merchant marine  1
Clerk, meat department  1
Dental mechanic  1
Aeroplane traffic officer  1
Nurse-in-training  1
Jeweller  1
Shipping clerk (wholesale)  1
Cutter, blouse-factory  1
Seamstress  2
Bookkeeper-stenographer   1
Remembering the bitterly unhappy experiences these boys and girls knew in Europe,
and that most of them have had to learn to live with the memories of Camp Belsen and
other terrors, their accomplishments take on unusual significance. Many already speak
of the day when they can become Canadian citizens, and they have proven themselves to
be a group Canada should proudly welcome.
The health of these children had been good, with a minimum of serious illness. One
boy required a period of treatment in the Provincial Mental Hospital a year ago but, since
discharge, has been functioning well in the community and his prognosis is good. The
Vancouver Children's Aid Society, on our behalf, has done an excellent job of placement
and supervision of these children.
As will be seen from this report, the year brought a number of unusual and difficult
problems, but it was not without many satisfying experiences, also. The responsibility of
caring for other people's children will always carry with it many hazards. We can safeguard against these to a large extent through sound and understanding Departmental
policy, but the real bulwark of protection to us and to our children lies in the development
of a well-informed general public who will concern themselves about what is happening
to children in their communities, whether they be in their own homes or in agency care
in foster homes. Interpretation of the work of social agencies throughout all communities
should be a vital part of every agency's programme.
We owe special thanks this year to the School of Social Work of the University of
British Columbia for the generous help given to us in January when making the study of
foster homes in the City of Vancouver, and also to the various civic departments concerned for the excellent co-operation we received while proceeding with the study.
Responsibility for the welfare of children in British Columbia is shared by many
agencies, all of whom have made a valuable contribution during the past year. Many are
entirely voluntary, providing day care for children of working mothers, summer camps,
informal recreation, and group activities in Neighbourhood Houses and Community
Centres throughout the Province, and to them all we would like to express our gratitude.
Mention should also be made of those organizations, hospitals, and clinics that serve the
children's health needs. Our thanks are given, too, to our own district offices and the
Children's Aid Societies in Vancouver and Victoria for their co-operation in carrying out
the more specific responsibilities for children as required of us by the various Statutes in
this connection. Finally, we want to say a very special and heart-felt " thank you " to the
several hundred foster-parents throughout the Province who so generously share their
lives and love with our children. Surely, these are the people about whom the lines were
" He who gives a child a home
Builds palaces in Kingdom come."
Respectfully submitted.
Ruby McKay,
Superintendent of Child Welfare. S 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
I beg to present the annual report of the Old-age Pension Board for the year ended
March 31st, 1951.
Like other recent years, the fiscal year 1950-51 saw an increase in both the number
of pensioners and expenditures, but the rate of increase was lower. The number of new
applications received for both old-age and blind pensions was only 5,678 as compared
with 6,222 the previous year, and the number of pensions granted was only 5,606 as
compared with 5,803. As at March 31st, there were 32,644 pensioners, including both
old age and blind, on the payroll, compared with 29,617 the previous March. This was
an increase of 10.22 per cent, whereas the increase in 1949-50 over 1948-49 was 12.98
per cent.
The total expenditure on both basic pensions and cost-of-living bonuses for both
old-age and blind pensioners was $17,629,672.55, compared with $15,620,090.10 the
year before, representing an increase of 12.86 per cent, compared with an increase of
35.67 per cent in 1949-50 over 1948-49. This lower rate of increase marks a levelling-
off in the effect of the raising of the maximum pension from $30 a month to $40 as
from May 1st, 1949.
There were no changes in either the Act or the regulations during the past year,
but a Joint Parliamentary Committee made an exhaustive study of old-age security and
submitted a report in June, 1950, which is likely to result in fundamental legislative
changes in the coming year.
The Government of British Columbia continued to pay a cost-of-living bonus of
$ 10 a month to its pensioners during the year, as previously. The cost of this bonus for
the year was $3,523,812.65.
Agreements previously made with Alberta, Saskatchewan, New Brunswick, and
Yukon Territory respecting the payment of cost-of-living bonuses to pensioners continued
throughout the year. As a result, British Columbia pensioners who have transferred to
any of these areas received the British Columbia bonus of $10 a month, just as our
pensioners here did. The costs were, of course, charged back to British Columbia by
the other areas.
Alberta.—As at April 1st, 1950, Alberta increased its cost-of-living bonus from
$7.50 a month to $10. Under the reciprocal agreement with Alberta, British Columbia
pays this latter amount to Alberta pensioners now living in British Columbia and charges
the cost back to Alberta.
Saskatchewan.—The Province of Saskatchewan pays a bonus to its pensioners up
to $2.50 a month, depending on income. Under the reciprocal agreement, British
Columbia pays this bonus to Saskatchewan pensioners now living here and charges the
cost back to Saskatchewan.
New Brunswick.—Although New Brunswick does not pay any bonus to its own
pensioners, it continued to pay our bonus of $10 a month to British Columbia pensioners
living there, as in previous years. The costs were, of course, charged back to British
Yukon Territory.—Like British Columbia and Alberta, the Yukon pays a bonus
of $10 a month to its pensioners. Under reciprocal agreement, therefore, British
Columbia pays this bonus to Yukon pensioners now living in British Columbia and
charges the cost back to the Yukon. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH S 59
During the year 1950-51 the 70-and-up group of pensioners again profited by the
interest and help of the social workers on the field staff of the Social Welfare Branch
who have served them so capably for the past eight years. These older people have
benefited in two distinct but closely related ways. First, they have been given assistance
with the detailed " mechanical" and clerical processes incident to completing their
applications, under present regulations an exceedingly important part of the administration. This implies also a continuing follow-up and the submitting of periodic reports
with information and confirmation of all business transactions in which pensioners are
involved in order to establish continuing eligibility for assistance. Such processes make
demands on old people which often appear unreasonable to them, and which, in many
instances, they are actually incapable of meeting.
Some idea of the number of contacts and the volume of the year's work generally
is indicated by the figures set out in the statistical section of the report, which shows the
number of new applications in 1950-51 as 5,586, the number granted as 5,533, and the
number of adjustments (increases, reductions, and suspensions) as 3,687.
In the second place, social services, equally important if not more vital to the
pensioner's welfare, have been provided by these same case-workers who are understanding of the social needs of the older people, informed as to available resources and
qualified to use these effectively for the benefit of the pensioners, and, finally, who,
because of their location at various strategic points throughout the entire Province, are
at all times reasonably accessible.
Previous reports, notably that of 1949-50, have discussed in some detail the situation of the older people in this Province, the extent to which an attempt was being made
to meet their needs, and how this was being done. Possibilities for further essential
developments have also been outlined.
The year just completed has shown no marked progress toward the attainment of
these particular goals, largely, no doubt, because of the natural focusing of attention on
the anticipated changes in the over-all Federal scheme for old-age security, of which
mention is made elsewhere in the report. Abolishment of the means test and transferring of the 70-up group, to which so much attention has been given during the past
eight years, to Federal administration on the same basis as family allowances would
appear to sever automatically the well-established ties with the Provincial social workers,
to which reference was made in the opening paragraphs. The field staff will, it is
assumed, at the same time be expected to take over the new category of " beginners " of
65 to 69 years. Obviously, the new plan will make important changes in the total
picture, and a realignment of social services, at the Provincial level, is clearly indicated.
Under such circumstances it is natural that the past year (1950-51) should have been
one of questioning, conjecturing, assuming, and waiting, rather than of significant
Meantime there are indications that we are moving forward in established areas
of services to older people. To refer first to the health aspect, in the field of geriatrics a
country-wide study is already in progress under the auspices of the Western Regional
Medical Officer for the Department of Veterans' Affairs, with head office in Vancouver.
The Director of Provincial Mental Health Services, in a recent address irt Vancouver,
referred to the problem of keeping elderly people mentally fit as one of the major problems of public health service.
Under the Food and Nutrition Division of the Vancouver Branch of the Health
League of Canada, a sub-committee of specialists is working on the problem of nutrition
for the older age-group. In the Social Service Department of the City of Vancouver,
plans are under way for a nutritional institute for persons in charge of the licensed board- S 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
ing and nursing homes which care for a goodly number of the older persons requiring
these forms of supervised care.
During the year a large number of new boarding homes were licensed. The total
of those in use as at March 31st, 1951, was ninety-seven, which figure includes non-profit
homes listed as institutions. A definite effort to develop a larger number of small homes
caring for only three or four old folk has met with some success and may eventually lead to
a programme offering more in the nature of foster-home placements in selected cases.
A change in atmosphere and attitudes is noticeable in a number of homes in which the
" hostesses " have come to recognize the need of activities, either purely recreational or
in the nature of occupational therapy, for their guests. It is interesting to note that a new
building for the latter is under construction at the Provincial Infirmary, largely as a result
of the efforts of the Women's Auxiliary to the Infirmary with full co-operation from the
As indicated by its substantial financial contributions, the Provincial Government
has a special interest in the various building projects and institutions for old people
established on a non-profit basis. During the year a sub-committee of the Planning
Council of the Social Welfare Branch was asked to draw up an outline of suggested
standards for those projects receiving assistance from the Government.
Housekeeping Services
There is evidence of an increasing sensitivity to the problem of nursing and housekeeping services for pensioners in their own homes. Both Health and Social Welfare
Branches are vitally concerned in any programme which may be designed to meet this
need.   Consideration is being given to co-operative plans.
Where there are housing projects designed for old couples, a particular problem is
presented in cases where one partner dies and accommodation must be found elsewhere for
the survivor. In two instances at least something has been done about this. The United
Church Homes Association has added a building with comfortable single accommodation,
including dining and common rooms, the first unit of which will take care of about twenty-
five persons. In the Buena Vista Homes the project has been extended to include smaller
cottages suitable for single persons, of which six will shortly be ready for occupancy.
Several of the institutions established by national and philanthropic groups included some
provision for single persons in their original plans. This year saw the erection of two
cottages as an adjunct to the main building of the Swedish Old Folks' Home.
Leisure-time Activities
There is no longer any question that opportunity for social activities of a varied
nature is one of the basic needs of older people, and one to which they will respond most
readily with the right kind of leadership. Witness the case of Mrs. /., whose perennial
black clothes pretty well reflected here general attitude toward old age at the time she
joined one of the active old folks' clubs. Things have happened to Mrs. /./ Just what
or how there is no need to analyse at this point—sufficient to see her bobbing about in
a smart new outfit, bright enough to attract attention and commendation from fellow
members.   It looks as if Mrs. /. is off black for good.
Within the year the Senior Citizens' Club, which utilizes the Vancouver East Community Y.M.C.A. in the afternoons, has grown to proportions which suggest formation
of new groups rather than extension of the present membership to what could too easily
become a large impersonal organization, rather than the present intimate fellowship which
is so much more meaningful. Elsewhere in the Province we have a notable addition in
Nelson—the Nelson Twilight Club—sponsored by the Anglican Church with the close
co-operation of one of our interested social workers. All that is needed to step up this
programme is qualified leadership. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH S 61
Employment for older people is still a relatively unexplored field. It is, however,
encouraging to note that several of our larger industries and labour organizations have
been sufficiently interested to send representatives to gatherings in which the problem of
employment in relation to population trends was under discussion.
One of the targets mentioned in our 1949-50 report was " co-operation with
appropriate voluntary agencies in building up community resources." In keeping with
this principle the Provincial Supervisor has been appointed to act on the executive of the
recently reorganized Committee of the Welfare of the Aged of the Greater Vancouver
Community Chest and Council. This Committee has excellent leadership and promises
to be a vital factor in developing a comprehensive community programme for older people.
As already intimated, under the new legislation for universal pensions contact with
the local social worker will no longer be necessary. In the meantime it has been abundantly proven that old people have many very real needs beyond, or in addition to, that
of a minimum living allowance. If we are to have a healthy society, these needs must
be met, in some instances through the help of professional social workers, in others by
well-organized community effort. To establish these more selective services on a sound
basis will, of course, call for much consideration and study. Altogether, coming to grips
with the problem of the aged would seem to be a major undertaking of the Provincial
department during the coming months.
On page 62 will be found a graphic presentation of the trends in old-age and blind
pensions in British Columbia from the coming into force of the " Old Age Pensions Act "
in 1927 to the end of the fiscal year 1950-51.
The black-line graph shows the trend in cost of pensions, the dotted line shows the
trend in number of persons in receipt of pensions, and the broken line shows the trend in
total population. These graphs may be compared one with another only in general as
they are not based on any common unit of amount. The trend-of-costs graph is based
on 72,000 units to the square, the trend-of-number-of-pensioners graph is based on 2,400
units to the square, and the trend-of-population graph is based on 240,000 units to the
square. The graphs are made up from statistical records of the Old-age Pension Board
and population figures from Federal census records.
It will be seen from the graphs that during the first two years' operation of the Act
there was an initial sharp rise in both the number and cost of pensions and then a
lessening in rate of increase until the middle of 1930. During the depression years a
further increase began and continued fairly steadily until 1939. During the war years
and since the end of the war there have been certain changes in the Act and regulations,
and with each change the cost graph shows a sharp rise. The last three peaks recorded
at March, 1947; November, 1948; and August, 1949, are occasioned by accumulated
retroactive payments of the increase in the cost-of-living bonus and two changes in the
" Old Age Pensions Act " increasing the basic pension, first, from $25 to $30 and, finally,
from $30 to $40 a month.
It will be noted that following each peak the recession in the cost graph does not fall
below the level of the previous peak, but starts from a higher point as a new base. In other
words, these changes in the Act, along with other factors, have consistently led to increasing expenditures on pensions.
When the graph representing the cost of pensions is compared in a general way with
the graph representing the total population of the Province, it is evident that at first the
number of old-age pensioners increased much more quickly than population, which, of
course, was to be expected. This difference in percentage increase, although for some
time becoming less, has in the last several years again shown a marked upward trend.
The sharp increase in the number of pensioners in the last five years is chiefly due to the S 62                                                            BRITISH COLUMBIA
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broadening of the Act and regulations. There are, however, a number of other contributing factors, such as the rising cost of living, a decreased demand among employers for the
services of older people, and the attraction of increasing supplementary social services,
which include hospital services, medical services, and drugs.
1948-49, 1949-1950, AND 1950-51
In the long-term graph already referred to, a general picture is given of the trends
in the number of old-age pensioners and cost of pensions. In the column graph presented
on page 63, more details are given of activities which, from an administrative standpoint,
are of particular importance, and these are shown for the years noted above. Since, in
this column graph, figures for five consecutive years are used, it is possible to compare
one year with another and to note the trend shown in a succession of five years.
Activities for the Years 1946 to 1951
Applications granted  	
The above table serves to emphasize the difference in the activities of the five fiscal
years. Although the extreme differences between the years 1946-47 and 1947-48 must
be attributed to changes in the " Old Age Pensions Act " and regulations, the differences
shown between the succeeding years in the following three years may reasonably be
attributed to influences that are likely to be more or less consistent for some time to come.
In examining the columns showing the number of applications received and the
number granted in the last four years, it will be noted that there is a levelling-off as the
percentage rate of increase in new applications declines.
Table I.—Disposition of Applications
Number of new applications received     5,586
Number of new applications granted     5,533':
Number of new applications not granted        589
* Includes some left over from previous year. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH
S 65
Table II.—Miscellaneous
Number of B.C. pensioners returned to British Columbia  188
Number of new " other Province " pensioners transferred to
British Columbia  449
Number of B.C. pensioners transferred to other Provinces  316
Number of pensioners from other Provinces transferred out
of British Columbia or suspended  457
Number of B.C. reinstatements granted  277
Number of B.C. pensions suspended  492
Number of deaths of B.C. pensioners  2,232
Number of deaths of " other Province " pensioners in British
Columbia  249
Total number of pensioners on payroll at end of fiscal year ...„ 31,983
Table III.—Reasons Why Applications Not Granted
Not 70 years of age      133
Unable to prove age	
Too much income	
Not sufficient residence	
Unable to prove residence	
Transfer of property	
War Veterans' Allowance	
Pension for the Blind __
Indian ,	
Refused information	
Assistance from private sources.
In mental institution	
" Parents' Maintenance Act " or similar Provincial legislation      	
Applications withdrawn  121
Applicants died before grant  106
Whereabouts unknown j  9
Per Cent
Table IV.—Sex of New Pensioners
Males   2,890
Females   2,643
Total  :  5,533
Per Cent
Table V.—Marital Status of New Pensioners
Number Per Cent
Married   2,574 46.52
Single       680 12.29
Widows   1,202 21.72
Widowers  .      534 9.65
Separated       499 9.02
Divorced         44 0.80
Total   5,533 100.00
Table VI.—Birthplace of New Pensioners
Number Per Cent
British Columbia        95 1.71
Other parts of Canada  1,377 24.89
British Isles  2,632 47.57
Other parts of British Empire        39 0.71
United States of America      333 6.02
Other foreign countries  1,057 19.10
Total   5,533 100.00
Table VII.—Ages at Granting of New Pensions
Number Per Cent
Age 70  2,555 46.18
Age 71       709 12.81
Age 72       459 8.30
Age 73       363 6.56
Age 74      284 5.13
Age 75       241 4.36
Age 76 to 80 ,      646 11.67
Age 81 to 90 .      253 4.57
Age 91 and up        23 0.42
Total   5,533 100.00 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH                                S 67
Table VIII.—Ages of Pensioners at Death
Number Per Cent
Age 70  ,   75 3.02
Age 71   133 5.36
Age 72  162 6.53
Age 73   147 5.93
Age 74  157 6.33
Age 75   150 6.05
Age 76  141 5.68
Age 77  103 4.15
Age 78  125 5.04
Age 79  135 5.44
Age 80  133 5.36
Age 81   137 5.52
Age 82  135 5.44
Age 83   128 5.16
Age 84 '. ... 112 4.51
Age 85  102 4.11
Age 86  89 3.59
Age 87  64 2.58
Age 88  •  64 2.58
Age 89   41 1.65
Age 90  34 1.37
Age over 90  114 4.60
Total   2,481 100.00
Table IX.—With Whom New Pensioners Live
Number Per Cent
Living alone   1,402 25.34
Living with spouse   2,215 40.00
Living with spouse and children      325 5.88
Living with children       886 16.01
Living with other relatives      188 3.41
Living with others      373 6.74
Living in public institutions         96 1.74
Living in private institutions        48 0.88
Total   5,533 100.00 S 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table X.—Where New Pensioners Are Living
Number Per Cent
In own house   2,368 42.80
In home of other relatives      183 3.31
In rented house      660 11.92
In children's home      845 15.27
In rented suite      284 5.13
Boarding       274 4.96
In housekeeping room      364 6.58
In boarding home :      127 2.30
In institution      144 2.60
In single room (eating out)      284 5.13
Total  .  5,533 100.00
Table XI.—Economic Status of New Pensioners
(a)  Holding real property of value—                       Number Percent
$0   3,074 55.56
$1 to $250      160 2.89
$251 to $500      363 6.56
$501 to $750 _      477 8.63
$751 to $1,000 ___.      475 8.59
$1,001 to $1,500      460 8.32
$ 1,501 to $2,000      23 3 4.19
$2,001 and up      291 5.26
Total    5,533 100.00
(b)  Holding personal property of value—
$0  2,071 37.43
$1 to $250  1,542 27.87
$251 to $500      675 12.22
$501 to $750 ;      419 7.57
$751 to $1,000      233 4.19
$1,001 and up      593 10.72
S 69
Table XII.—Number of Pensioners Living in Other Provinces Whose Pensions
Were Granted by British Columbia and Are Paid Wholly or Partially by
This Province.
New Brunswick	
Nova Scotia	
Prince Edward Island.
Northwest Territories
Yukon Territory	
Table XIII.—Claims against Estates, Old Age and Blind
Number of cases of death of B.C. pensioners
Number of cases where claims were made	
Number of cases where claims were waived or withdrawn in
favour of beneficiaries	
Number of cases on which collections were made      367
Total amount collected—
Old age  $137,029.32
Blind         1,663.09
Table XIV.—Percentage of Pensioners to Population
over Ten-year Period, 1941-51*
Percentage of all persons over 70 years of age to the total population of
Percentage of pensioners to the population over 70 years of age.	
* Percentages based on population estimated by Dominion Bureau of Statistics. S 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XV.—Distribution of B.C. Pensioners According to the Amount
of Pensions Received (Basic Pension, $40)
Pension Per Cent
$40.00  72.98
$35.00 to $39.99  9.48
$30.00 to $34.99 ,.  5.53
$25.00 to $29.99  3.76
$20.00 to $24.99 '.  2.84
Less than $19.99  5.41
Table I.—Disposition of Applications
Number of new applications received     92
Number of new applications granted     73*
Number of new applications not granted     20
* Includes some left over from previous year.
Table II.—Miscellaneous
Number of B.C. pensioners returned to British Columbia  2
Number of new " other Province " pensioners transferred to
British Columbia  13
Number of B.C. pensioners transferred to other Provinces  6
Number of pensioners from other Provinces transferred out of
British Columbia or suspended  6
Number of B.C. reinstatements granted  12
Number of deaths of B.C. pensioners  39
Number of deaths of " other Province " pensioners in British
Columbia   5
Total number of pensioners on payroll at end of fiscal year  661
Table III.—Reasons Why Applications Not Granted
Number Per Cent
Not blind within the meaning of the Act  10 50.00
Ineligible on account of residence  1 5.00
Income in excess  1 5.00
Application not completed  1 5.00
Property transferred	
Applications withdrawn  6 30,00
Whereabouts unknown  1 5.00
Table IV.—Sex of New Pensioners
Number Per Cent
Males   41 56.16
Females   32 43.84
Total   73 100.00
Table V.—Marital Status of New Pensioners
Number Per Cent
Married .  39 53.42
Single  11 15.07
Widows  12 16.44
Widowers  ,     6 8.22
Separated      5 6.85
Total   73 100.00
Table VI.—Birthplace of New Pensioners
Number Per Cent
British Columbia     9 12.33
Other parts of Canada  17 23.29
British Isles  15 20.55
Other parts of British Empire     6 8.22
United States of America     6 8.22
Other foreign countries  20 27.39
Total  .,  73 100.00
Table VII.—Ages at Granting of New Pensions
Number Per Cent
Age 21   	
Age 22 to 30     3 4.10
Age 31 to 40     6 8.22
Age 41 to 50 :     9 12.33
Age 51 to 60  11 15.07
Age 61 to 70  24 32.88
Age 71 to 80  15 20.55
Age 80 and up     5 6.85
Total  73 100.00 S 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VIII.—Ages of Pensioners at Death
Number Per Cent
Age 21  	
Age 22 to 30  	
Age 31 to 40  	
Age 41 to 50  	
Age 51 to 60     4 9.09
Age 61 to 70  18 40.91
Age 71 to 80  18 40.91
Age 81 and up     4 9.09
Total   44 100.00
Table IX.—With Whom New Pensioners Live
Number Per Cent
Living with parents     4 5.48
Living alone  17 23.29
Living with spouse .  29 39.72
Living with spouse and children  10 13.70
Living with children     3 4.11
Living with others     8 10.96
Living in private institutions     2 2.74
Total   73 100.00
Table X.—Where New Pensioners Are Living
Number Per Cent
In own house  31 42.47
In rented house  10 13.70
In rented suite     5 6.85
In children's home     3 4.11
Boarding      3 4.11
With member of family  10 13.69
In housekeeping room     4 5.48
In boarding home     2 2.74
In institution     2 2.74
In single room     3 4.11
Table XI.—Economic Status of New Pensioners
(a) Holding real property of value-— Number Percent
$0   39 53.41
$1 to $250  4 5.48
$251 to $500  2 2.74
$501 to $750  8 10.96
$751 to $1,000 :  7 9.60
$1,001 to $1,500 _„__.'     6 8.22
$1,501 to $2,000 .     3 4.11
$2,001 and up     4 5.48
Total  73 100.00
(b) Holding personal property of value—                  Number Percent
$0   31 42.47
$1 to $250  20 27.39
$251 to $500     8 10.95
$501 to $750     3 4.11
$751 to $1,000     4 5.48
$1,001 and up     7 9.60
Total   73 100.00
Table XII.—Number of New Pensioners Living in Other Provinces Whose
Pensions Were Granted by British Columbia and Are Paid Wholly or
Partially by This Province.
Saslratp.hp.wan   _    	
Manitoba    _  -  -      —
New Brunswick
Nova Scotia                     _  _         _           _ _       _  _                     ...
Prince Edward Island	
Newfoundland                    .         -
Northwest Territories	
Yukon Territory                   -        -
Table XIII.—Distribution of B.C. Blind Pensioners According to the
Amount of Pensions Received (Basic Pension, $40)
Pension Per Cent
$40.00  85.40
$35.00 to $39.99   4.64
$30.00 to $34.99 -  3.09
$25.00 to $29.99  1.20
$20.00 to $24.99 -  1.37
$19.99 and less r  4.30
Total 1  100.00 S 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table I.—Pensions
Total amount paid pensioners in British
_   .       , . Supplementary
Columbia  Pensions Allowances Total
Old age J  $13,804,090.82 $3,452,414.18 $17,256,505.00
Blind   301,769.08 71,398.47 373,167.55
Totals  $14,105,859.90 $3,523,812.65 $17,629,672.55
Less amount of refunds from pensioners and estates—
From estates of old-age pensioners_       $124,715.92 $772.35       $125,488.27
From estates of blind pensioners  1,590.14     1,590.14
Overpayments refunded by old-age
pensioners   9,306.76 754.18 10,060.94
Overpayments   refunded   by   blind
pensioners   67.95 5.00 72.95
Miscellaneous refunds from old-age
pensioners   1,382.61 97.50 1,480.11
Miscellaneous  refunds  from  blind
Totals         $137,063.38 $1,629.03       $138,692.41
Net   amount  paid  to   pensioners   in
British Columbia—
Old age  $13,668,685.53 $3,450,790.15 $17,119,475.68
Blind   300,110.99 71,393.47 371,504.46
Totals  $13,968,796.52 $3,522,183.62 $17,490,980.14
Add amount paid other Provinces on
account of pensioners for whom
British Columbia is partly responsible—
Old age  $76,125.38       $30,787.41       $106,912.79
Blind   1,311.62 550.00 1,861.62
Totals  $77,437.00       $31,337.41       $108,774.41
Less amount received by British Columbia on account of pensioners
for whom other Provinces are
wholly or partly responsible—
Old age        $496,315.36     $146,093.83       $642,409.19
Blind   12,749.44 2,792.83 15,542.27
Totals         $509,064.80     $148,886.66       $657,951.46 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH S 75
Less amount refunded by the Federal
^                       . Supplementary
LrOVemment                                                            Pensions Allowances                      Total
Old age  $10,252,116.30     $10,252,116.30
Blind   225,083.27     225,083.27
Totals   $10,477,199.57     $10,477,199.57
Total  amount  of  pensions  paid  by
British Columbia—
Old age     $2,996,379.25 $3,335,483.73    $6,331,862.98
Blind   63,589.90 69,150.64 132,740.54
Totals, as per Public Accounts    $3,059,969.15 $3,404,634.37    $6,464,603.52
Table II.—Administration Expense
Salaries and special services  $130,659.88
Office supplies, subscriptions, etc.  13,203.22
Postage, telephone, and telegraph  17,744.48
Bank exchange -  3,143.52
Travelling expenses  189.93
Incidentals and contingencies  425.88
Equipment and furniture  990.77
Rentals   14,437.30
Total  :  $180,794.98
Table III.—Supplementary Allowances
Gross amount of supplementary allowances paid in
British Columbia  $3,522,183.62
Plus supplementary allowances paid to other Provinces on account of B.C. pensioners  31,337.41
Less supplementary allowances refunded by other
Provinces         148,886.66
Net   supplementary   allowances   paid   by
British Columbia   $3,404,634.37
In concluding this report the Board wishes to express its sincere appreciation for
the loyal and efficient work of the staff at our own office during the year and for the
assistance of the field staff and all other branches and divisions of the Department, as
well as the many outside agencies that extended their co-operation so willingly.
Respectfully submitted.
J. H. Creighton,
Chairman. S 76
I have the privilege of presenting the report of the activities during the fiscal year
1950-51 of the Medical Services Division of the Social Welfare Branch, Department of
Health and Welfare.
During the past year there has been an increase from 54,975 to 57,794 of those
registered receiving social assistance from the Government. This increase was chiefly
due to those in the Old-age Pension ranks, of which there were 2,666.
The increase in numbers in no way parallels the increased demands on the medical
services. One can reasonably deduce that either the services were rendered without
our knowledge or they were needed but not asked for.
The following are the figures of expenditure:—
Fiscal Year
Fiscal Year
Fiscal Year
To further explain the above costs: —
Medical Costs.—This is based on a capitation fee for all registered social-assistance
individuals in the Province. The College of Physicians and Surgeons of the Province
of British Columbia was paid $14.50 per individual per year by the Social Welfare
Branch for a complete medical service rendered in home, office, or hospital and including
The extent of the medical services given may be judged by the figures for the last
three months of this fiscal year. Of the average number of recipients of social assistance
in these three months—namely, 57,794—there were 27,000 accounts submitted by 842
doctors. The types of services rendered were principally in general practice, and surgery
and eye, ear, nose, and throat accounting for the remainder.
In general practice, the doctors made one home or hospital call to every two office
visits. In surgery, approximately 35 per cent of the work was genito-urinary. In eye,
ear, nose, and throat, approximately 68 per cent of the services were for eye.
Drug Costs.—This item continues its upward spiral. This has persisted in spite of
all our reasonable attempts to exercise some control. We are in the process of introducing
a new method of recording and accounting which will enable us to obtain on a four-
monthly basis a more vivid picture of the problem. This can be illustrated by the
following analysis of one month's expenditures on drugs:—
B.C. Formulary items—
1 to 49, chiefly sedatives and pain relievers   $9,435.18
50 to 59, iron preparations for anaemia       863.16
60 to 99, heart medicines     6,879.01
100 to 139, medicines for the intestinal
system      2,891.14
140 to 169, eye medicines ,        428.44
170 to 239, hormones, including insulin,
liver, and glandular preparations.^    2,863.97
Carried forward $23,360.90 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH S 77
B.C. Formulary items—Continued
Brought forward $23,360.90
240 to 259, ear, nose, and throat  345.28
260 to 269, obstetrical medicines  33.00
270 to 299, medicines for children (general)  .  503.00
300 to 329, respiratory medicines, cough
mixtures, etc  6,197.08
330 to 369, medicines for skin conditions 1,323.35
370 to 399, medicines for genito-urinary
conditions  693.69
400 to 452, vitamins  6,621.13
1,000, household drugs  967.05
Provincial Pharmacy, 385 prescriptions (not
Social-assistance cases      $782.23
Nursing-home and boarding-home cases       329.87
Vancouver General Hospital, 1,446 prescriptions (not classified)     1,987.65
Grand total  $43,144.23
Dental Costs.—The major portion of our responsibility being in the " senior
citizen " group, this accounts for the high percentage of dentures. Prophylactic care is
still a crying need. This, however, comes in the field of unpredictable costs. It would,
therefore, appear that a most reasonable solution to this problem would be a capitation
fee. We are constantly working in close harmony with the Health Branch of the
Department of Health and Welfare. It is hoped that an adequate solution will be reached
in the very near future.
Hospital Costs.—The reduction here is readily explainable by the introduction of
the B.C. Hospital Insurance Service.
Optical Costs.—Here again the age-group of the majority of the recipients explains
the increasing costs. The need for more frequent eye examinations and changing vision,
the more expensive bifocal glasses, all account for the rise.
Transportation Costs.—This, as the title indicates, covers the cost of transporting
cases requiring diagnostic facilities or treatment facilities at a centre other than their own
place of residence.   There has been no radical change in the yearly costs.
From the above it will be readily seen that the recipients of social assistance are
gradually receiving adequate medical care, though at steadily increasing costs.
Respectfully submitted.
J. C. Moscovich, M.D.
I submit herewith the forty-seventh annual report of the Provincial Industrial School
for Boys, covering the fiscal year 1950-51.
Through the fine co-operation of the Provincial architects and the Advisory Committee to the School, meetings were held regularly throughout the year, and the plans for
the new Brannen Lake School for Boys were finalized. We all look forward to an early
start being made on this important project which, when established, will provide British
Columbia with one of the most modern training-schools in the Dominion. Considerable
time and study have also been given by the Committee to the general administration
of the new school and the blue-print prepared covering such matters as programme,
staff, and housing.
During the year a total of 156 boys was admitted to our School, as against 111
during the previous year.
1.9 per cent or   3 boys were 11 years of age.
6.4 per cent or 10 boys were 12 years of age.
10.2 per cent or 16 boys were 13 years of age.
23.1 per cent or 36 boys were 14 years of age.
30.8 per cent or 48 boys were 15 years of age.
18.6 per cent or 29 boys were 16 years of age.
9.0 per cent or 14 boys were 17 years of age.
Our average daily population was 82 boys, a total of 30,011 inmate-days being
recorded.   Twenty-six boys, or 16.7 per cent of our total admissions, were recidivists.
Forty-three Juvenile Courts were represented by our year's intake and, as in previous
years, offences against property were responsible for the majority of commitments, there
being 126 under this heading. Twelve offences against persons are recorded and eighteen
miscellaneous offences.
A study of our year's admissions shows that the boys were committed from Social
Welfare Branch regions as follows:—
19.2 per cent or 30 boys were committed from Region I.
55.8 per cent or 87 boys were committed from Region II.
11.5 per cent or 18 boys were committed from Region III.
5.8 per cent or   9 boys were committed from Region IV.
6.4 per cent or 10 boys were committed from Region V.
1.3 per cent or   2 boys were committed from the Yukon Territory.
The agencies with which the School maintains constant liaison during the period of
the boys' stay in the School are referred to as " supervising agencies." It is from them
the School obtains social data regarding the boys' background, and it is with them that
our School social workers jointly plan for all boys' after-care. The distribution of
population by supervising agencies is as follows:— Boys Percent
Social Welfare Branch  43 27.6
Vancouver Juvenile Court  41 26.3
Provincial Probation Branch  26 16.6
Victoria Juvenile Court  14 9.0
Vancouver Children's Aid Society  12 7.7
Department of Indian Affairs  11 7.0
Catholic Children's Aid Society     4 2.6
Burnaby Juvenile Court     2 1.3
New Westminster Social Welfare Department     1 0.6 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH S 79
The health of those committed to our care is a matter of major consideration, and
upon admission every boy is given a thorough check-over by the School doctor, followed
by a battery of tests and examinations. Many are found to be in need of medical or
dental care.
A total of 117 boys received dental care, entailing 267 appointments at the
Vancouver General Hospital Dental Clinic.
Hospitalization amounting to 414 days was necessary for a variety of medical and
surgical treatments.
Specialists' services were made available to us at the Crease Clinic for fifty-three
X-rays, four basal metabolism rates, and eight electro-encephalograms. The out-patient
clinics of the Vancouver General Hospital cared for some sixteen cases.
Nine boys received care by an eye specialist, while one required attention by an
ear specialist for threatened mastoid. Two boys required treatment at the Venereal
Disease Clinic.
Our records show that a total of 273 minor ailments were treated at the school or
the doctor's office during the past twelve months.
A total of 137 chest X-rays was taken at the Simon Fraser Health Unit, all of which
were found to be negative.
The year 1950-51 has been a year of transition in which the Social Work Department has gradually evolved into the beginnings of a Treatment Department. It has
been a year of intense activity and has seen many changes, not only in treatment
techniques, but also in attitude. This process of change was one in which all staff
members were encouraged to participate, and which has resulted in a higher standard
of work performance, both in relation to work done with the boys and in interpretive
work done for supervising agencies.
Last fall the beginnings of a group work programme were instituted, in which a
number of supervisors became counsellors for a group of boys. Under the supervision
of one of the Social Work staff, these men counselled the boys under their care, prepared
regular progress reports, attended case conferences, and generally assumed a good deal
of responsibility.
Through the medium of weekly staff meetings and films relating to various phases
of our work, supplemented by an in-service training course arranged by the office of
the Assistant Director of Welfare, a very effective staff training course was provided.
Other desirable changes were instituted in regard to admission procedures and
special programmes for those in the security area, but owing to our inadequate facilities
these changes had to be modified considerably and some dropped for the time being.
During the year the services of the Child Guidance Clinic were utilized more fully
than ever before. Altogether 229 boys were served by the Clinic; 81 were given full
examination, including psychological, psychiatric, and consultative conferences; 127
were interviewed by the psychiatrist; 13 were served through special consulting conferences; 7 were given special testing by the psychologists; and 1 was given diagnostic
reading tests. During the previous year 99 boys were served by the Clinic, and this
year's total shows an increase of 131.3 per cent.
As a result of our year's work, we have a clearer understanding of our own limitations and the limitations of the facilities at our disposal, but we have also become aware
of many strengths, among which is the capacity of our staff members to adjust to new
programmes and approaches, for without the loyal co-operation they have given, little
would have been accomplished. S 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA
A total of 125 boys was registered on the rolls of our academic classes during the
year, but owing to the continual changes necessary on account of new admissions and
releases, it is difficult to record any final statistical data.
Total number on roll as at April 1st, 1950  33
Total number of enrolments during year  92
Total number leaving during year  72
Total number on roll as at March 31st, 1951  53
Average intelligence quotient of total number  90
The promotions to higher grades are sufficient to show that the work of the year
has been well worth while in this particular department, when we take into account the
fact that upon admission the majority of our students are found to be retarded to the
extent of two to three years below normal.
Remedial-reading groups were carried on in addition to the regular classes. Forty-
two students enrolled for this purpose, and after several months' instruction every pupil
was found to have advanced, the greatest gain being 2.6 grades and the least 0.3 grade.
Apart from the satisfaction each boy got from improving his reading grade, there was
the rise in self-esteem .and the greater enjoyment he could get from reading books and
periodicals of his own choice.
As in previous years, summer school was again conducted on a remedial basis.
However, remedial work, while being of great value in some cases, is not the complete
answer to a summer-school programme. In order to meet the needs of our school family,
a much more comprehensive programme will have to be developed when adequate
facilities are made available to us.
Our School library was in the process of transformation at the year's end. The
Public Library Commission made a grant of $1,000 for new books and periodicals.
Many of the old out-of-date books were discarded, and 264 new books have been carefully selected and placed on the shelves. These are designed to fill the special needs of
our boys.
Industrial Arts.—This Department had the following enrolment: —
Number on roll as at April 1st, 1950     81
Number of enrolments during year  123
Number leaving during year  112
Number on roll as at March 31st, 1951 ._    92
The total number of projects completed by all boys was 181 and, in addition, there
were 67 projects in the process of completion.
Motor Mechanics.—Keen interest in this Department continues and, like the
Industrial Arts Department, the facilities are so limited that only a few boys are able
to be enrolled for each class. Nevertheless, a total of sixty-six boys received training
during the year. One of these progressed to the point where he was capable of an
engine overhaul by himself.
Several lads have been able to secure employment upon release through the training
received at the School, particularly that in cooking, garden work, and motor mechanics.
In this regard we have been grateful for the co-operation received through the special
youth division of the National Employment Service.
During the past year recreation and entertainment have consisted of a variety of
interests and activities. Formal classes in physical training were held twice a week, and
emphasis was placed on remedial and building-up exercises. Organized games, such
as lacrosse, basketball, football, volley-ball, and other team games in season, occupied SBs^S
the time allotted to athletics, and many games were played with teams from the surrounding communities. As in the past, swimming continues to be our most popular activity,
and instruction in swimming, diving, and life-saving was given.
Three hobby clubs met regularly four times per week. In these periods the boys
were instructed in handicrafts, such as copperwork, leatherwork, wood-burning, model-
building, etc.
The New Westminster Parks Board has been most generous in allowing our lads
to attend, free of charge, professional hockey and lacrosse games, and also special events
such as ice carnivals and gymkhanas. Service clubs and other organizations have made
it possible for our boys to attend many feature entertainments in the neighbouring
During the year several school picnics at the beaches were held. Hikes, fishing-
trips, and picnics were held as special privileges for small groups. Tours through industrial plants were arranged during the academic term, and weekly picture shows were held
at the school. A most successful Christmas concert was held in the school gymnasium.
Artists from New Westminster and Vancouver contributed their talents to stage a variety
show, which was greatly appreciated by boys, members of their families, and staff.
Our grateful thanks are due to many people for their thoughtfulness in providing
these extras, which have made possible many hours of wholesome fun and entertainment.
Religious services are held each Sunday for both Catholic and Protestant boys,
the Catholic boys attending the parish church at Port Coquitlam, while the New West-V
minster branch of the Salvation Army and the Sapperton Baptist Church alternately
conduct services for the Protestant boys in the recreation-room at the school. Opportunity is also given during the week for boys to meet with representatives of these
denominations for the purpose of discussion and study.
We are grateful for the kindly interest taken by Rev. Father J. P. Kane and the
officers of the Salvation Army, who have given so generously of their time in ministering
to our needs.
Religious training, like other phases of our school programme, must combat the
handicap of inadequate quarters. A quiet room in proper surroundings and a school
chaplain, who could give time to interview boys and share with them their problems,
would be of immeasurable help. S 82                                                          BRITISH COLUMBIA
Graph Showing Admissions over Twenty-year Period 1931-51 lor.          31/3S/33/34/35/36/37/38/39/40/41/42/43/44/45/46/47/40/42/50/
/32 /33 /34 /35 /36 /37 /38 /i9 /K> /4I /4a /43 /44 /4S/46 /47 /4B /43/SO /5/
Number of Admission*.   160
Charges Resulting in Commitment
Offences against property	
Offences against persons
Other offences
Average length of training period before release, 259 days.
Parental Relationships
Number of bovs from normal homes     	
Number of boys from brol
:en homes
Movement of Population, April 1st, 1950, to March 31st, 1951
Number in school, April 1st, 1950     79
Number absent without leave, April 1st, 1950     13
Number of admissions during year : i  156
Number of releases during year  128
Number in Oakalla, March 31 st, 1951       1
Number absent without leave, March 31st, 1951     15
Number in school, March 31st, 1951  104
Expenditure and per Capita Cost
Salaries  $71,535.30
Office and school supplies  1,750.17
Travelling and transportation, etc :  2,291.17
Shoes and clothing, etc  6,001.84
Janitors' supplies and maintenance of grounds, etc  1,808.16
Heat, light, power, and water  4,450.50
Furnishings, equipment, etc  1,474.95
Provisions, etc L_ 29,375.83
Medical, surgical, and dental  4,974.64
Laundry  1,914.52
Vocational and recreational supplies  1,3 31.22
Other hospitalization  4,390.45
Incidentals and contingencies  1,109.41
Automobiles and accessories  3,818.19
Rent collected    $484.77
Proceeds from meal tickets  1,806.00
Maintenance  2,097.50
Public Works expenditure         7,851.17
Increase in inventory :         1,176.98
Cost-of-living bonus :     $18,393.19
Public Works cost-of-living bonus  576.00
Inmate-days 1950-51, 30,011. S 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Per Capita Cost
General operating expense  $4.62
Cost-of-living bonus       .63
Total :  $5.25
Expenditure as per Public Accounts  $150,231.27
Add Public Works expenditure  $7,851.17
Add Public Works cost-of-living bonus        576.00
Less increase in inventory     1,176.98
Expenditure as per above Statement  $157,481.46
In conclusion may I say that the year just closed appears to have been our most
active. Admissions to the School were only two less than the record year of 1947-48,
and for several months our daily population remained at over 100 and reached 114
at times.
Many changes in programme were instituted, with the view to being prepared for
the eventual move to a new school and to keeping abreast with modern trends in policy
and programme. Plans for the new school at Brannen Lake were brought to a successful
conclusion and are now ready for submission. Greater use than ever before has been
made of the services of the Child Guidance Clinic, the Crease Clinic, and other allied
services. The groundwork has been done and plans made to reorganize our School
programme on a group work basis in the coming year when, with the appointment of
a Director of Treatment to our staff, a new approach based on differential treatment
may be anticipated.
May I pay tribute to members of our staff, who, regardless of adverse conditions,
have worked together harmoniously in the interests of those whom we serve and have
given to the administration their loyal support and co-operation. To the many
individuals, departments of Government, and public and private agencies too numerous
to record, who have given so freely of their help during the year, we extend our grateful
Respectfully submitted.
George Ross,
I respectfully submit the thirty-seventh annual report of the Provincial Industrial
School for Girls.
The past year has been one of much change and reorganization, with all aims
directed toward the goal of establishing this institution on a treatment level. These
changes developed gradually from the very apparent need for increased facilities for
screening, segregation, trained staff, supervision, and treatment, as well as a more closely
knit alliance with other agencies, clinics, home, and Court officers. All forward steps
were taken slowly, after consideration and experiment, and the end of the year indicated
that, while slow, definite progress had been made.
Early in the year a long-felt need was supplied by the formation of an advisory
committee composed of representatives of the Social Welfare Branch, Child Welfare
Division, Child Guidance Clinic, and Industrial School for Girls. The function of this
committee is chiefly to determine the best means of serving the girls in our care with
a view to their final rehabilitation. We are well aware and most appreciative of the fine
service rendered by them in this field.
More than half of our admissions this year were from Vancouver Juvenile Court.
This might well be expected, as this is our largest centre of population. It has, however,
posed somewhat of a problem, in that most of these Vancouver cases are in the older
age-group from 16 to 18, and in most cases have been more than once before the Court.
Add to this that nearly all have been part of the same groups in delinquency and come
to us as a last resort. On the other hand, girls from other districts are frequently sent on
first offences, and are more likely to be in the younger age-group, much less sophisticated,
and not yet initiated into the more depraved aspects of delinquency or " gang " companionships. This points up again our endeavour to develop segregation, varied
programme and activities suitable to assist the individual case.
Good physical health is vital to the active, beneficial participation in development
of treatment.
Clinics.—A team of doctor and nurse from the Division of Venereal Disease Control
visits the school once weekly for examination of all admissions and treatment of those
requiring this service.
Medical Clinics.—Medical clinics are held for complete examination of new
admissions and pre-release cases. For those requiring further tests or treatment,
appointments are made for this attention at Out-patient Department, Vancouver General
Dental clinics are held weekly at Capitol Hill School, each girl attending regularly
until dental work is completed.
Chest X-rays were routine in case of all new admissions, and all Indian girls
attended diagnostic X-ray clinic.
It was our earnest endeavour to present each girl at the Child Guidance Clinic as
soon after admission as appointments were available. In the cases of seriously disturbed
girls, especially where the problem stemmed from deeply emotional sources, frequent
psychiatric interviews were arranged. The helpful suggestions put forward have been
of the greatest possible assistance in making suitable plans for these children.   Confer- S 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA
ences on all cases were planned to include representatives from other agencies and
branches interested in working with us to help the individual. Even more might have
been accomplished with a full-time social worker on our staff. A psychiatric nurse would
serve as an important link between school and clinic team. There is need for much
interpretation of prescribed treatment of disturbed children, and of real assistance and
encouragement along this line was the second in-service training class for workers in
this field.
Following along the policy initiated last year, we arranged for training and trial
placements outside the School. One group of girls attended Pro-Rec classes at a near-by
community centre, and not only enjoyed the exercise, but gained a sense of community
spirit and the security of being socially acceptable. Visits from outside social groups
and invitations for girls to visit the homes of friends of the School have stimulated the
girls' efforts to be worthy of such acceptance.
Girls who completed vocational training courses outside the institution were placed
in employment and adjusted satisfactorily.
A good deal of consideration would indicate that the partial courses of high-school
work our girls are taking are leading nowhere. It is only a very exceptional case where
one of our girls continues schooling or makes any use of her school work upon leaving.
Even though a Grade X or XI is completed, this still does not provide training that will
assist in self-support, and few of them are in a position to finance training courses upon
release. Of our Grade X students, four are desirous of having commercial training.
Two have been financed by parents to attend outside schools of commerce. The more
practical aspects of training such as this might well be included in our programme, thus
ensuring a girl's best chance of rehabilitation by providing her with a means of self-
support. Add to this her feeling that she is part of the community in which she finds
herself, by her acceptance and interest in young people's groups, and much will be
Trial placements, in all but one case, were successful. Girls placed in a new setting
before final release find this a transitional period in which to become adjusted to new
surroundings, to establish a sound relationship with a supervising agency or worker, and
to become part of an established and approved way of living.
We appreciate the assistance we have received in these cases from Children's Aid
Societies, Child Guidance Clinic, Probation Service, and the interest of schools and
Seventeen girls were released to care of parents to go to school or continue some
type of training. Six went to foster homes under supervision of the Social Welfare
Branch or Children's Aid Societies, four went directly to work placements, two were
released to other Provinces, one to the Crease Clinic for psychiatric treatment, and two
to the Indian Department. Four of the girls released are married. At least half of the
released girls maintain contact with the School by means of letters or telephone calls.
This year has been a progressive one in broadening our programme, in developing
stronger bonds with other agencies and related departments, and in stimulated interest
of community organizations. To all who have assisted and encouraged us in our work,
we extend our grateful thanks. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH S 87
Population of School, March 31st, 1951
On roll, April 1st, 1950 _  38
Girls admitted during year April 1st, 1950, to March 31st, 1951 _ 29
Released on parole  29
Transferred to other institutions     1
Transferred out of British Columbia     2
— 32
Total unreleased, March 31st, 1951   35
Places of Apprehension
Region I     8
Region II  15
Region III     5
Region IV  __
Region V     1
Total   29
Offences Committed
Offences against property ;     4
Offence of incorrigibility  17
Other offences - ■- —    8
Total   29
Parental Relationships
Normal homes ,     5
Broken homes  21
Adoptive homes     3
Total  :  29
Ages of Girls Admitted
1948-49 1949-50 1950-51
(PerCent)      (PerCent)      (PerCent)
12 years  3.0 3.5
13 years   6.1                   5.0
14 years   21.2 10.7 31.0
15 years  21.2 35.7 17.0
16 years  30.3 28.5 20.0
17 years   18.2 17.8 27.0 S 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Expenses and Revenue Statement of School, March 3 1st, 1951
Total inmate-days from April 1st, 1950, to March 31st, 1951   10,454
Per capita cost, one year     $2,002.39
Per capita cost, one day  $5,486
Operating expenditure by voucher—
Salaries   $25,356.65
Cost-of-living bonus       5,882.49
Office and school supplies, etc.—
Postage, office and school supplies      $241.85
Telephone and telegraph         183.62
Travelling expenses   608.52
Farm operations  460.79
Furnishings, equipment, etc.   537.24
Clothing    $1,171.01
Boots and shoes :...-       329.08
lanitors' supplies ■-  399.76
Fuel, light, and water—
Fuel   $3,429.42
Water          316.75
Light and power      1,017.03
Groceries   $5,332.45
Meat  . :  1,752.03
Fish    278.03
Medical attendance, medical supplies, hospitalization, and dental cost—
Medical attendance       $500.00
Medical supplies         199.98
Hospitalization and surgery     1,033.00
Dental cost         518.50
Eyes examined and glasses provided  6.70
Good Conduct Fund   245.11
Incidentals and contingencies   107.52
Vocational and recreational supplies   394.26
Total expenditure for year by voucher  $50,301.79
Maintenance and repairs (expended through Public Works Department)—
Salaries   $2,280.00
Cost-of-living bonus       576.00
Repairs      5,836.10
Inventory, March 31st,  1950        1,560.85
Less proceeds from sale of meal tickets  $1,240.00
Less rent .,        430.48
Less credit for sale of garden produce         44.15
Less Court order maintenance for inmate  75.00
Less inventory, March 31st, 1951      1,413.06
Total expenditure as per Public Accounts  $48,512.16
Add Public Works expenditure      8,692.10
Add inventory as at March 31st, 1950       1,560.85
Less inventory as at March 31st, 1951        1,413.06
Expenditure (as above)  $57,352.05
Respectfully submitted.
Ayra V. Peck,
Superintendent. S 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA
I beg to submit the annual report of the Provincial Home, Kamloops, for the fiscal
year 1950-51.
During the year the major improvements to the building consisted of the reconstruction of the entrance, entrance hallway, office, and visitors' reception-room. The
entrance doorway was modernized by the installation of full-length glass panels, which
greatly enhanced the lighting of the hallway and the door was modernized to represent
a single-panel door.
The entrance-hallway ceiling was covered with Donnacona and the walls with
Silvaply, and all doors facing the hallway were modernized to match the front door.
The colour scheme embodied white ceilings and the walls a wiped natural finish with
blue-green trim.    Indirect lighting has been installed for illumination.
The office proper was enlarged and finished with similar material to the hallway,
the decoration being pastel-green with new fluorescent light fixtures.
The visitors' reception-room was instituted in place of an old stairway, the walls
of same being covered with three-ply and finished a flat natural.
Certain improvements were made to the grounds, in so far as the entrance driveway
was widened and a certain amount of concrete curbing was installed, together with a
concrete sidewalk for use of pedestrians.
During the year a valued addition to the equipment of the Home, in the form of
a motor-vehicle suitable for the transportation of inmates and general utility, was acquired.
The question of recreational therapy has been explored, but not yet instituted on
account of lack of convenient accommodation and the limited interest exhibited by the
inmates.    This project will be further investigated.
During the year we have again been favoured with entertainment from the various
local organizations, such as Kamloops Junior High School Band, High School Girls'
Choir, the B.P.O.E. Band, culminating with the Elks' concert party during Christmas
week, which is really the highlight of the year.
Regular picture shows are held weekly, and during the year we have obtained the
use of films of the National Film Board on several occasions, chiefly on wild life and
including a showing of "A Friend at the Door," plus travelogue films obtained from
the Greyhound Bus Company. All showings were well patronized and appreciated by
the inmates.
In conclusion, I believe the past fiscal year can again be recorded as one of progress,
not only in the physical aspects of the Provincial Home, but in the moral and physical
well-being of the inmates, stimulated by the improvements in general to the Home, the
up-to-date equipment in the kitchen, dining-room, and sick-ward in particular, plus
minor improvements throughout the whole. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH S 91
TO MARCH 3 1st, 1951
Expenditure for the Fiscal Year Ended March 31st, 1951
Salaries   $53,935.62
Less D.V.A. rebate  94.19
Cost-of-living bonus          15,209.72
Office expenses         $785.43
Less unemployment insurance  104.46
Fuel, water, light, etc.  .  $16,273.78
Charge to Provincial Gaol  $1,744.87
Charge to Public Works     2,080.12
Maintenance      *$ 1,317.85
Repairs to projector  $13.32
Covering dining-room tables         445.28
Furnishings, equipment, etc.      $4,867.06
Repairing radio system        $43.82
Purchase of station wagon :     2,339.31
Provisions, etc.   $32,466.01
Tobacco sales      $457.65
Sale of provisions  91.90
Clothing, etc. 	
Medical and surgical supplies 	
Transportation of inmates         $801.63
Less refunds from municipalities, etc.   127.81
Feed for live stock 	
Burials —..-..	
Other hospitalization 	
Incidentals and contingencies  $2,993.90
Comfort money to non-pensioners   $2,205.00
Rent for pasture land  12.00
Rental for films         360.00
Repairs and service to station wagon       208.81
Furniture and office equipment   184.72
Less board, $1,640, and rent, $590         2,230.00
Total expenditure  .  $129,478.07 S 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Inmates in Home, April 1st, 1950  136
Inmates admitted during the year     62
Inmates discharged      36
Inmates died  _■_     29
Total number of inmates, March 31st, 1951  133
Total number of inmate-days  48,736
Expenditures by Department of Public Works, Maintenance and Repairs
Salaries   $8,760.00
Cost-of-living bonus  2,330.88
Repairs  7,835.50
Grounds   491.45
Total Provincial Home expenditure   $129,478.07
Public Works expenditure       19,417.83
Total expenditure  $148,895.90
Total cost per capita:    $148,895.90-H-48,736=$3.05515.
Moneys Paid to Government Agent, Kamloops
Pensions      $56,617.65
Net expenditure as per Public Accounts     $72,345.98
Add maintenance receipts       63,431.75
Add Public Works expenditure       19,417.83
Less pensioners' comforts         6,299.66
Total expenditure (as above)  $148,895.90
Respectfully submitted.
J. M. Shilland,
I herewith submit the annual report of the administration of the " Welfare Institutions Licensing Act."
As of April 1st, 1950, the administration of the "Welfare Institutions Licensing
Act" was officially transferred from the Department of the Provincial Secretary to the
Department of Health and Welfare. The Director of Welfare was appointed Chairman
of the Welfare Institutions Board and two new Board members were appointed.
Section 2, clause (c), of the Act was amended by striking out the words " nursing "
and " infirmary " from the definition of welfare institution. A welfare institution's
licence is in reality for the boarding-home care of ambulatory persons, and the previous
inclusion of these two words in the definition implied that a welfare institution's licence
covered nursing and infirmary care. Also, in the past, some homes which have been
licensed under this Act have used the term " nursing " in the name of the home. This
practice has often been misleading to the public. The type of care indicated by the
terms " nursing " and " infirmary " is covered by other Provincial legislation.
The total number of applications and inquiries dealt with during the year was 617.
There were 367 licences issued; of these, 292 were renewals and 75 were new licences.
Fifty-one licences were discontinued, leaving at the end of the year a total of 316
licensed institutions, an increase of 24 over the previous year.
The Welfare Institutions Board held nine regular meetings and one special meeting
during the year to approve applications for licence and to attend to other important
business. The Board members also spent much time and thought on revising the regulations to the Act. Fuller and more comprehensive regulations are needed, as the
present regulations are too limited to cover the several amendments which have been
made in the past few years. The new regulations, if accepted, will make for better
A. Full-time Care of Children
There are two types of welfare institutions licensed to give full-time care to
(1) Children's institutions which are under the auspices of a private organization or society. These are administered by a board of management
and give care to a large number of children.
(2) The private family home which is licensed to care for not more than five
1. Institutions for Child-care
In British Columbia, use of the large institutions for the care of children ceased some
years ago. There are, however, eleven institutions licensed for child-care at the present.
Nine of these give specialized care and services, and the child's stay in the institution
is usually of short duration. The other two institutions are for long-term care. By and
large, these institutions are meeting certain community needs, and generally the services
and care given are of a satisfactory nature. There have been some improvements in the
admission and discharge policies of most of these institutions. There has also been
closer co-operation between them and the Child Guidance Clinic and other welfare S 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA
agencies. Institutional programmes are fuller, and there are indications that individual
needs of the children are being considered. It is encouraging to see these things taking
place, but there is still room for improvement.
As the number of inquiries from groups and organizations that wished to establish
children's institutions in this Province seemed to be increasing, the Welfare Institutions
Board felt that there should be some way of controlling this situation. The Welfare
Institutions Board recommended that the " Societies Act" be amended so that any
society applying for incorporation, and having as its object the care of children, must
have the approval of the Superintendent of Child Welfare before incorporation can be
This recommendation was referred to the proper authorities and was dealt with at
the 1951 Session of the Legislature.
Number of child-care institutions licensed in 1950  11
Number of children cared for  664
Number of days' care __.  119,741
2. Private Boarding Homes for Children
Licensing of the private boarding home is a co-operative effort on the part of
Children's Aid Societies, the Health Services, the municipal authorities, and the Welfare
Institutions Licensing Office. All these agencies work together for the purpose of
improving standards so that these licensed homes may be safer and more secure for
children requiring this type of placement. In Vancouver all work pertaining to the home
study, the recommendation for licensing and supervision, is done by the Children's Aid
Societies, while in Victoria the Family and Children's Service has assumed this
responsibility. In all other areas this work is another of the many responsibilities of the
district social workers of the Provincial Social Welfare Branch. Because of the fairly
close supervision by these various health and welfare agencies, private boarding homes
are fairly well controlled and few homes go unlicensed for long. Also, with so many
persons interested in these homes, there is less chance for children to be exploited or
ill-treated. The daily papers in some areas have also been helpful in controlling the
private boarding-home situation, as all advertisements to board children are referred
to the local child-welfare agencies. This means that the person placing the advertisement
can be contacted immediately and in this way many unsatisfactory placements can be
avoided. Generally speaking, few of the homes advertising to board children meet the
required standards for licensing.
While five children is the largest number for which a welfare institution's licence
is issued, by far the greatest majority of the homes are licensed for the care of two
Number of children's boarding homes licensed in 1950  55
Number of children cared for        218
Total days' care 7.' 46,212
B. Day Care of Children
1. Foster Homes for Day Care
Day care for children of working mothers is provided in Vancouver by the Foster
Day Care Association, a member agency of the Community Chest and Council of Greater
Vancouver. The homes used for this type of service are located in all areas throughout
the city, and special effort is made to obtain homes close to the mother's place of
employment. This is done because the mother is responsible for bringing her children
to and from the day-care home. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH S 95
Mothers needing this type of service are required to register with the agency, and
close contact is kept between the mother, the foster home, and the agency as long as the
service is required. The cost of this care is kept moderate, and if the mother is unable
to meet the full charge, the agency will help out financially. A kindergarten service is
provided each home, and toys and other necessary equipment are also supplied by the
agency. The Foster Day Care Association is giving a much needed service and in a great
measure has been the means of keeping many homes together.
In areas where there is no special agency set up to give foster day-care service, the
responsibility for seeing that it is supplied is assumed by some local welfare agency.
Number of foster homes licensed  15
Number of children cared for ,        259
Total days' care......  16,524
2. Kindergartens, Play-schools, etc.
The number of kindergartens and other such centres for pre-school children continues
to increase in all parts of the Province. This, no doubt, is due to the fact that more
parents are realizing the value of pre-school training for their children, and also since
kindergartens are not included in all of our public schools. One outstanding feature
of this pre-school development in our Province is the number of co-operative pre-school
centres that have been established. These centres are organized and administered by the
parents and are in charge of a trained supervisor. In districts where these groups are
functioning, the attitudes built up to meet the needs of the children have been carried
over to the needs of the families and the neighbourhood, and a better community spirit
is being fostered. Each co-operative group has its adult education group, where such
subjects as child development and behaviour are studied and discussed.
The standards of the many private kindergartens show continued improvement—the
accommodation is better, equipment more adequate, and there is more trained staff.
In the congested areas of cities such as Vancouver and Victoria, kindergartens are being
run by various church groups for the children who live in these districts.
Courses in kindergarten and pre-school work are now available at Vancouver Night
School. There are also courses given each year at the Victoria Summer School, Department of Education. The Extension Department of the University of British Columbia
has from time to time given courses in this work and has available, also, much valuable
material for reading and study on pre-school education.
It cannot be stressed too strongly that the important person in any pre-school centre
is a well-trained supervisor, for she knows that the purpose of pre-school education is to
help the child develop physically, mentally, emotionally, and socially—in short, to help
him become a well-adjusted and happy person, able to meet the problems and assume
the responsibilities of living.
Number of pre-school centres licensed in 1950  112
Number of children registered       5,512
Number of days' care given .  405,855
Statistics for the year show a decrease in the number of persons admitted to the
three licensed maternity homes. This may be due to the present practice of some welfare
agencies of placing unmarried mothers in private foster or wage homes. This latter type
of placement is preferred by many girls to-day, who apparently do not like the restrictions
and rules which are necessary in the maternity home where there are so many girls being
cared for.
The three licensed homes are well managed and are giving a valuable and much
needed service to the community.   There is a close working relationship between these S 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA
homes, the Children's Aid Societies, and other welfare agencies.    Case-work services
are available to all girls to help them plan for their own future and that of their babies.
Number of homes licensed in 1950  3
Number of mothers cared for        234
Number of infants cared for        223
Total days' care .  28,983
During the year the new David Lloyd-Jones Home was opened in Kelowna, having
accommodation for twenty-eight senior citizens of that city. An addition of twelve
private rooms was added to the West Canada Danish Old People's Home in Burnaby.
The United Church of Canada, Conference of British Columbia, has under construction,
also in Burnaby, a modern building which will provide a comfortable home for twenty-five
persons. The Women's Auxiliary of the Anglican Church in Victoria has acquired a large
home, and plans are well under way for extensive changes so that homey living-quarters
will be made for about thirty older women. The Salvation Army also has purchased
a fine home at Esquimalt which, when renovated, will comfortably house approximately
thirty elderly women. This Province is indeed fortunate to have so many fine homes for
our senior citizens, made possible through the generosity and interest of church and other
groups. These homes are all of high standards, where the needs and comfort of the
guests come first. The type of care given is kindly and understanding, the physical
standards and accommodation are excellent, and there are always plans for a recreational
programme. The high standards set by these homes have been a means of improving
boarding-home standards generally.
It has been the policy of our Provincial Government to encourage municipalities
and legitimate organizations and groups to establish housing projects and boarding homes
for our senior citizens. A special committee of the Planning Council of this Branch,
which studied housing for the aged, has recommended the following as standards for
homes which, in future, may be sponsored by groups or organizations and where govern-
,  ment support may be requested:—
"(1) Location:  The project should be placed in a suitable location, keeping in
mind (a) the age of the tenants, (b) proximity to facilities—that is, transportation, recreation, etc.
"(2)  All homes should be of one story and of good construction.
"(3)  The initial plans for such a project should include provision for accommodation for a reasonable number of single persons as well as married
"(4) The local municipal and Provincial welfare officials should be in consultation in all such schemes in their areas, to provide and assure an interlocking of facilities such as boarding homes and nursing homes when
these become needed.
"(5)  It would be advisable, whenever possible, for the promoters of a scheme
of this nature to take into consultation representatives from the officially
recognized old-age pension associations in the area.
"(6) The admission policy of the group should meet with the approval of the
Provincial Social Welfare Branch.
"(7) All plans must be on a non-profit basis."
There is need for expansion in the recreational and occupational facilities in the
boarding-home programme.    This aspect of boarding-home care is worthy of careful
attention and further study.    It is an accepted fact that older people, who are kept busy
at some form of creative work, remain alert.   Therefore, the chances of mental deteriora- ^^^^^p
tion are lessened and frequently illness is prevented which requires long and costly treatment and expensive institutional care.
Number of homes licensed during 1950  108
Number of persons cared for       2,364
Total days' care  436,487
There are four homes licensed for unemployed adults, all of which are for girls.
Two of these homes, Sisters of Service Residential Club (Roman Catholic) and Bethel
Home (Mennonite), are located in Vancouver; Rainbow House is in Victoria; and the
Young Women's Lodge in Prince Rupert is under the direction of the Salvation Army.
The purpose of these homes is to provide a comfortable home with supervision and
guidance for young girls and women who have come to the city to look for work.
A valuable and needed service is being given by these four homes, and more homes such
as these are needed in our larger cities.
Number of homes licensed in 1950  4
Number of girls cared for        412
Total days' care -  15,738
Once you have been a camper
Then something has come to stay
Deep in your heart forever
Which nothing can take away.
There were twenty-seven camps licensed this year, all of which were filled to capacity
during the camping season. A holiday at camp is made possible for a great many children
through the generosity of welfare agencies, service clubs, and private citizens. At camp
the youngster's stay is full of unique and new experiences. Here he learns how to live
in a group with others of his own age. Here, also, he has the chance to learn tolerance,
co-operation, self-reliance and independence, and opportunities for creative expression.
In short, camping is educational, invigorating, healthful, and fine training for all youngsters (and for oldsters too), but best of all it is fun with a capital " F."
Through the co-operation of the Provincial Health Department and the B.C. Camping Association, health standards and camping programmes are beginning to show
improvement. Plans are being made to have all summer camps inspected during the
camping season by the Provincial Health Branch.
Number of summer camps licensed in 1950  27
Number of children cared for       7,678
Total days' care  102,314
Sincere appreciation is expressed to all who helped during the year with the administration of this Act. S 98
Table I.—Showing a Comparative Summary of Information Regarding Premises
Licensed under the " Welfare Institutions Licensing Act "
Children—Total Care (Excluding Summer Camps)
Number licensed—
• 1,823
Number of premises—
Number of days' care 	
Number of premises—
Adults—Infirm and Unemployable
1 585
Number of days' care  	
Number of premises—
Number of days' care 	
Number of premises—
Children—Day Care
Number of premises—
Summer Camps
Table II.—Case-load, Showing the Total Number of Separate
Licences, Applications, and Enquiries, 1950
Section A
Brought forward from 1949—
(a) Licensed premises  292
(b) Applications and inquiries  113
Total case-load on January 1st, 1950  405
Section B
Applications received during 1950  212
Gross case-load, 1950  617
Section C
Closed during 1950—
(a) Licensed     51
(b) Inquiries 1  154
Total subtractions  205
Section D
Carried forward into 1951—
(a) Licensed premises—
(1) Children—total care  60
(2) Women—pregnant  3
(3) Adults—infirm and unemployable  98
(4) Adults—employable   4
(5) Children—day care  123
(6) Summer camps  21
Composite licences under (1), (3), and (6) 7
(b) Applications and inquiries     96
Total case-load carried into 1951  412
The following are the members of the Welfare Institutions Board for 1950:—
Chairman:  C. W. Lundy, Director of Welfare.
Members: Dr. G. Elliot, Medical Director, V.D. Control; Miss Isobel Harvey,
Consultant, Research Division;   Miss Ruby McKay, Superintendent of
Child Welfare; Mrs. Edith Pringle, R.N., Inspector of Hospitals.
Chief Inspector:  Mrs. Edna L. Page.
(Mrs.) Edna L. Page,
Chief Inspector of Welfare Institutions. S  100 BRITISH COLUMBIA
I wish to submit the following report on the activities of the Social Service Department, Division of Tuberculosis Control, for the year 1950-51:—
There have been no major changes in policy since our last report. We had hoped
by this time that there would be a change in the method of referral of cases. At the
present time, except for the cases already known to the social workers through their
contact with the Out-patient Department, or those cases referred by outside agencies, all
referrals are made by the doctors. It sometimes happens that the doctors are not aware
of difficulties facing patients until the patients become so disturbed that they wish to sign
themselves out. The case is then referred to the Social Service Department, and it may
be too late at that point to do anything that is really helpful for the patient.
In an effort to demonstrate that some of these problems could be handled at a much
earlier stage, the social workers, with the help of the consultant psychiatrist, studied every
newly diagnosed patient for a short period of time, and it was apparent that many of
these patients who had no financial problem had many other family or emotional problems
facing them. Based on these facts, the recommendation was made at the 1950 annual
meeting of the Division of Tuberculosis Control that the social workers do a routine
review of all newly diagnosed patients. The recommendation has not yet been accepted,
but we hope it will be in the near future.
During the year, under Dominion health-grant auspices, art therapy was instituted
at the Willow Chest Centre and has been working to the great benefit of our patients.
The social workers have found that some of their cases, once they have been given a
creative outlet of this kind, are able to accept their diagnosis and settle down in hospital
much more happily.
During the year the Provincial Supervisor and all the staff members had an opportunity of attending many of the sessions at the Canadian Conference of Social Work held
in Vancouver in June, 1950. Later on in June the Provincial Supervisor was asked to
act as a consultant in the workshop discussions of the " Care of the Chronically 111," held
at the biennial meeting of the Canadian Nurses' Association in Vancouver. This was
a most interesting experience, as it gave her an opportunity to work with Dr. Martin
Cherkasky, of Montefiore Hospital, New York City, who has pioneered in taking the
care of the chronically ill from the hospital back into the homes.
•    During the year we had a student from the School of Social Work at the University.
There have been no additions to the staff, although there have been many changes
in the personnel of the staff. The average monthly case-load for each worker has
remained fairly stable during the year, at 90 for the workers at the Willow Chest Centre,
99 at Jericho Beach unit, 102 in the combined units in Victoria, and 159 at Tranquille
Respectfully submitted.
Helen M. Sutherland,
Provincial Supervisor of Medical Social Work. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH S  101
I beg to submit the following report on the activities of the Social Service Department, Division of Venereal Disease Control, for the fiscal year 1950-51:—
During the year ended March, 1951, case-work service as an integral part of the
treatment for venereal disease continued to be given to patients reporting to the
Vancouver clinic of the Division. Here all newly diagnosed patients were referred
routinely to the Social Service Section for personal counselling, directed at helping the
patients to work through some of the more basic difficulties that were at the root of their
promiscuous behaviour.
Although there had been a general downward trend in the incidence of venereal
disease during the year, a review of the reported cases for 1950 revealed an increase in
the number of infections reported in children 14 years and under. To determine some
of the reasons for this, the Social Service Section made a detailed study of each of the
cases reported in this age-group, and it was found that rather than a true increase in the
incidence of venereal disease among children, doctors throughout the Province were
treating children on suspicion as a precautionary measure.
During the year a closer working relationship was established between the Division
of Venereal Disease Control and the Youth Detail of the Vancouver Police Department,
with information about premises in the city which were facilitating the spread of venereal
disease among juveniles going directly from the Division of Venereal Disease Control to
the special law-enforcement authorities in the city.
In 1949 the Social Service Section had carried out an investigation of the female-
patient group examined by the Division in the Vancouver City Gaol. At that time two-
thirds of the women had a previous police record or were already known to the Division
of Venereal Disease Control. In 1950 a follow-up study was completed, which showed
that the problem of controlling venereal disease in this patient group remained fairly
Because of the over-all decrease in the venereal disease problem in the Province
during the year, it was possible to reduce the Social Service staff at the Division to two
full-time workers.
Respectfully submitted.
Helen M. Sutherland,
Provincial Supervisor of Medical Social Work.
victoria, & a S 102 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The report on the activities of the Social Service Department during the past fiscal
year is presented under the following headings:—
I. The function of the social worker in the Provincial Mental Hospital setting.
II. Review of the past year's work of the Social Service Department.
III. Future plans for improving the quality of social services to patients.
I. The Function of the Social Worker in the Provincial
Mental Hospital
The function of the psychiatric social worker is to contribute his knowledge and
case-work skill in such a way that it is purposefully related to psychiatry, the total treatment programme of the hospital, hospital organization and administration, and to the
contributions of all other professions and departments in the hospital. Through such
co-operation and integration of knowledge and skills, the patient is treated medically,
socially, and vocationally according to his unique individuality and needs. The goal of
this integrated treatment approach is the return of the patient to community life.
In the Provincial Mental Hospital setting, case-work services are made available at
the point of the patient's admission through the intake and reception process. In many
cases, continuity of case-work services is maintained throughout the patient's treatment.
However, as the Social Service Department is presently operating, case-work services are
most frequently brought to the patient just before and following his discharge from
The Social Service Department has always been very active in the educational and
training programme together with all other departments of the hospital.
II. Review of the Past Year's Work of the Social Service Department,
April 1st, 1950, to March 31st, 1951
Number of New Cases Referred to Social Service Department
In Vancouver      745
Out of Vancouver      770
Total number of patient referrals  1,515
Percentage increase over last year's referrals     7.12
Discharged on probation—
In Vancouver      284
Out of Vancouver      298
Total number of probationary discharges      582
Percentage increase over last year's figure     17.3 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH S 103
Report of Social Service Work Carried Out by Members of the
Social Service Department at Essondale
Initial interviews to obtain social histories  4,118
Subsequent case-work interviews with patients, families, doctors, and other social agencies during hospitalization of
patients   1,533
Case-work interviews for the purpose of rehabilitation, including follow-up case-work services for patients discharged
on probation  2,570
Total number of case-work interviews  8,221
Percentage increase of case-work services over last
year's figure ..... 20.54
Out-of-town Supervisory Service by Mail
Letters to the Provincial field-staff requesting social histories
and probation visits and of a general supervisory nature 2,651
Letters to other social agencies in and out of British Columbia     842
Total number of case-work services  3,493
Percentage increase of services over last year's figure    10.2
Social histories, probation and other reports, and letters of a
general consultative nature received from the Provincial
field staff  1,750
Correspondence received from other social agencies in and out
of British Columbia      470
Orientation Periods
Public health nurses .  20
In-service trainees  12
Field service staff  5
Special Assignments
Ward rounds and medical-staff clinics attended by members of
the Social Service Department —.  144
(This indicates an increase of 87 per cent in participation of social services in this area.)
Teaching clinics held at the hospital for Social Service students
from University of British Columbia       5
Applications taken for old-age pension for patients resident in
Provincial Homes for the Aged 1  220
Other special assignments, including conferences with other
social agencies, lectures to nurses, in-service training
groups, and community groups  213
Reports on rehabilitation of special cases in Vancouver   462
Vista Rehabilitation Home—
Special summaries     48
Visits     63 S  104 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Detailed analysis of the Social Service Department's activities during the fiscal year
indicates that 1,515 patients were referred to the Department for services. Patient
referrals show a percentage increase of 7.12 over last year.
One of the initial services to patients and relatives is the intake study and evaluation
of the patient and his illness. This process also involves interpretation of hospital
facilities to patients and their families, as well as assistance to families who have problems
arising out of the patient's admission, such as feelings about having a mentally ill relative
or fear of the hospitalization and the treatment. During the fiscal year 4,118 intake interviews of an assistance nature were given by social workers to relatives.
Social Welfare Branch field service has always extended valuable assistance to the
hospital in providing intake studies of the patients admitted from outside the Greater
Vancouver area, as well as in extending continuing case-work services of a helping and
interpretive nature to relatives. During the fiscal year 2,220 reports of an intake, continuing, and consultative nature were received by the Social Service Department of the
Provincial Mental Hospital from the field services.
During the fiscal year 1,533 interviews were given to patients during hospitalization.
Continuing case-work services during the patient's hospitalization include frequent conferring between the social worker and the patient's psychiatrist. Frequently community
resources, such as family, child, and assistance-giving agencies, are contacted by the social
worker in an effort to assist the patient's family. During the fiscal year 3,493 letters of
a referral and consultative nature were written by the social workers to the end of bringing
these valuable and extensive community resources to the assistance of patients and
For statistical purposes the Social Service Department's activities in the rehabilitation
of patients have been accounted for separately. However, the social worker sees rehabilitation as well as intake study and treatment as a continuing process. During the fiscal
year the social workers gave 2,570 interviews of a helping and service nature to patients
on probation from hospital. Case-work services to patients and families show a percentage increase of 20.54 over the last fiscal year.
In the Provincial Mental Hospital the intake study, diagnosis, formulation of a
treatment plan, continuing treatment, and rehabilitation services involve all hospital
departments and all professional disciplines within the hospital. The social worker
contributes his skill in a " total push relationship " with other professions.
The Vista Rehabilitation Home has continued to give valuable service in the rehabilitation! of women patients who do not have adequate family resources to help at the point of
their discharge from hospital. The Social Service Department works with the Vista
Home, and during the fiscal year made some sixty-three supervisory visits.
The Social Service Department, together with other hospital departments, has been
active in the hospital's teaching and training programme, and during the fiscal year
participated in the nursing training programme within the hospital itself. A lecture course
was given in which the public and voluntary social welfare services of the Province were
described, the skill and function of the psychiatric social worker in the hospital setting was
outlined, and a study of the socio-emotional factors in mental illness undertaken.
The primary educational responsibility of the Social Service Department is toward
social-work students. During the fiscal year ten students from the University of British
Columbia School of Social Work worked with us in the Department, taking their psychiatric social-work sequence. The students and their supervisors have made an outstanding
contribution to the services of the Social Work Department and those of the hospital in
their services to patients and families. The values of such a student-training project
are seen in the general pooling of knowledge and experience, which both enhances quality
and quantity of services to patients and benefits organizational and administrative
Through participation in the hospital ward rounds and teaching clinics, the social
worker makes his contribution to over-all staff development. The sharing of knowledge
in the ward rounds and teaching clinics is a source of valuable learning to the social
worker. During the fiscal year the social workers' participation in ward rounds showed
an increase of 87 per cent over the last fiscal year.
Report of the Psychiatric Social Workers' Participation in the Crease Clinic
of Psychological Medicine, January 1st to March 31st, 1951
The opening of the Crease Clinic of Psychological Medicine on January 1st, 1951,
extended the area of responsibility of the Social Service Department and presented a real
challenge to the Department in assessing the adequacy of its organization, administration,
quality of services, and standard of professional skill.
Number of New Cases Referred to Social Service Department—
In Vancouver  ,    84
Out of Vancouver  102
Report of Social Service Work Carried Out by Members of the Social Service
Department at Essondale
Initial interviews to obtain social histories  684
Subsequent case-work interviews with patients, families, doctors,
and other social agencies during hospitalization of patients 256
Case-work interviews for the purpose of rehabilitation, including
follow-up case-work services for patients discharged on
probation  137
Out-of-town Supervisory Service by Mail
Letters to the Provincial field staff requesting social histories and
of a general supervisory nature  140
Letters to other social agencies in and out of British Columbia.—    23
Social histories, reports, and letters of a general consultative
nature received from the Provincial field staff     58
Correspondence received from other social agencies in and
out of British Columbia     15
Special Assignments
Special assignments, including conferences with other social
agencies T.      4 S  106 BRITISH COLUMBIA
III. Future Plans for Improving the Quality of Social Services
to Patients
These include the development of more adequate case-work services to patients
during the period of hospitalization. In the past the service emphasis of the Department
has been almost entirely focused on out-patient work, such as work with the families
and work with the patients as they were about to be discharged, with continuing services
during the patients' probationary experience. The Department has done excellent work
in the aforementioned areas in the past. The future points to a real necessity for the
development of continuing case-work services to the patient while he is in hospital. As
the Department enters this phase in the development of its services, it is aware of two
necessary essentials: (1) An adequate, well-trained, and experienced staff which is
aware of its function and can bring its skill into a purposeful, productive relationship
with other skills and thus have a place and a contribution to make in the treatment of
the patient: (2) adequate supervision along wth staff-training projects of an in-service
nature must be developed if the skills of the staff are to grow. During the next fiscal
year the Social Service; Department of the Provincial Mental Hospital will begin to develop
more extensive services to patients in hospital, to assess and revise the Department's
organization and administration, and to undertake more vitally staff development.
The fiscal year 1950-51 has been one in which there has been a continuance of the
growth in services offered to the public by the psychiatric social workers as a part of the
clinical team. This increase in services is in response to the demands of the community
resulting from growing awareness of the clinic's work by professional people, parents, and
community groups. It has been possible because of some increase in staff in the Vancouver clinic, which, at the end of the year, had a total of nine social workers. Two social
workers were in the Victoria clinic at that time.
These developments have made it possible to co-ordinate and consolidate our work
to a greater degree. There is also evidence of continuing growth in quality of work as
time and organization, as well as growing professional skill, have made it possible. The
latter is an even more important part of development than increasing number of cases,
and it is linked with the growing emphasis placed upon case-work treatment of children
and parents over the past few years.
Particularly during the latter part of the year the numbers of parents and children
seeking help themselves or being referred by private physicians were so great that some
had to wait for service for as much as several months. While such a wait may be unfortunate, it is necessary if standards of work are to be upheld. With highly disturbed children
it is particularly important that intensive and well-organized case-work services be available over a period of time, and the effectiveness of treatment is lost if it is spread too
thinly. On the whole, people seeking help are able to understand this and, unless the
problem is especially urgent, they are able to wait for a period in order that they can be
given maximum help.
The expansion of other services of the clinic has resulted in some changes in the
organization of the Social Work Department. The more extensive use of travelling clinics
in all the main centres of British Columbia has made it necessary for one social worker to
give full time to the work of this team. Also, with an increase in services to the correction
agencies, including the Juvenile Detention Home, Industrial School for Boys, Industrial
School for Girls, and the young offenders' unit at Oakalla, a psychiatric social worker has
been attached to this team almost exclusively, both in the area of giving diagnostic and
consultative service and in sharing in treatment of individuals referred by these agencies.
The work of the psychiatric social workers has always included participation in diagnostic REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH S 107
and consultative services to social agencies which bring children for clinical examination
and consult with the team around psychiatric and emotional problems in their case-loads.
Considerable thought has been given to the organization of these services by the whole
staff in order to make them as effective as possible.
The Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry, outlining the functions of psychiatric
social workers in Child Guidance Clinics, placed the interpretive and informative job high
on the list of responsibilities. This involves making known the work of the clinic and
Mental Health Services and sharing knowledge and ideas on mental health and social
problems with community and professional groups. Our psychiatric social workers have
participated in this through such varied activities as speaking to parents' groups, taking
part in discussions within community organizations, introducing other professional people
to the work of the clinic, writing material for newspaper articles, and participating in
training programmes for personnel in other services.
During this year two master's degree students of the University of British Columbia
School of Social Work took field-work training within the clinic. This teaching function
is not new, as other students have been trained in the clinic over the years. It is a part of
the clinic's work which takes time and effort, but the students, under careful supervision,
also make a real contribution to our services. More importtant than this is the fact that
the student programme is the source of professionally qualified psychiatric social workers
who will afterwards be available for our own staff as well as for other agency staffs. The
quality of our work is dependent upon well-trained workers, and we are, at present, much
in need of more qualified psychiatric social workers and supervisors if our present standards of services are to be maintained or increased. Because of the difficulty of finding
qualified people, particularly experienced supervisor personnel, some concern is felt about
staff positions which are likely to become vacant very soon. It is therefore hoped that the
student-teaching programme can be expanded in the near future to make available the
kind of staff the clinic and other agencies need now and will always be needing.
The following annual statistics give some indications of the services of the social
workers in the Child Guidance Clinic during 1950-51. Cases carried during the year by
the social workers increased 28 per cent (33 per cent in the Vancouver clinic) over the
previous year. The increase of 12 per cent in case-work interviews (23 per cent in the
Vancouver clinic) is also indicative of increased services. It is impossible to show much
of the quality of work from such statistics, but the great increase in inter-team conferencing
and consulting (71 per cent increase in conferences on private cases) does reflect an
aspect of our work that has importance in growing standards. The 57-per-cent increase
in cases closed also seems to reflect some gain in quality of work, since it indicates a higher
proportion of cases where services were completed in a shorter time.
It is noted that the increase in services has been largely in the Vancouver clinic,
where staff has been increased. Intake of cases in the Victoria clinic has been somewhat
smaller, and while total cases carried have gone up, there was a reduction of about 10 per
cent in case-work interviews. This is, in part, a reflection of a shift of emphasis, since
the travelling clinics on Vancouver Island have been handled this year from Victoria
rather than Vancouver, and much of the work entailed in preparation for and taking part
in these clinics has fallen to the social-work supervisor of that clinic. At the present time
the social workers and public health nurse at the Victoria clinic are the only members of
the team on a full-time basis. It is hoped that staff for a full team can be available soon
in order that the services there may be developed more fully. S 108
Social Services, Provincial Child Guidance Clinics, April 1st, 1950,
to March 31st, 1951
Case-work Services
Cases brought forward from previous fiscal year
Per Cent
Per Cent
Per Cent
New cases 	
Reopened in present fiscal year	
Reopened from previous fiscal year	
Total cases carried (298+198 — 15—481)    	
Cases closed during fiscal year           	
Cases carried over to next fiscal year	
Total case-work interviews with and regarding
— 10
Conferences attended in clinic diagnostic service
Conferences attended on cases carried by clinic
psychiatric social workers.	
Consulations with psychiatrist
Periods of supervision 	
Other interviews and contacts
Travelling clinics—
Total clinics held  	
Respectfully submitted.
(Miss) Alice K. Carroll,
Provincial Supervisor, Psychiatric Social Work.
victoria, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty


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