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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Provincial Department of Fisheries REPORT WITH APPENDICES For the Year Ended… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1952

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Provincial
Department of Fisheries
REPORT
WITH APPENDICES
For the Year Ended December 31st
1950
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty
1951  To His Honour Colonel Clarence Wallace, C.B.E.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I beg to submit herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial Department of
Fisheries for the year ended December 31st, 1950.
LESLIE HARVEY EYRES,
Minister of Fisheries.
Department of Fisheries,
Minister of Fisheries' Office,
Victoria, B.C. Honourable Leslie H. Eyres,
Minister of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial
Department of Fisheries for the year ended December 31st, 1950.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
GEORGE J. ALEXANDER,
Deputy Minister. TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Value of British Columbia's Fisheries in 1950 Shows an Increase...  7
The Canned-salmon Pack for British Columbia, 1950  7
British Columbia's Canned-salmon Pack by Districts .  8
Review of British Columbia's Salmon-canning Industry, 1950  17
Other Canneries ,  18
Mild-cured Salmon  19
Dry-salt Salmon  19
Dry-salt Herring  19
Pickled Herring  19
Halibut-fishery  20
Fish Oil and Meal .'. ,  21
Net-fishing in Non-tidal Waters .  22
Value of Canadian Fisheries and the Standing of the Provinces, 1949  23
Species and Value of Fish Caught in British Columbia  24
Condition of British Columbia's Salmon-spawning Grounds  24
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon (Paper No. 36) (Digest)—. 25
Herring Investigation  26
Report of the Biologist, 1950  28
APPENDICES
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon (No. 36).   By
D. R. Foskett, M.A., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C  31
Results of the West Coast of Vancouver Island Herring Investigation,
1950-51.    By J. C Stevenson, M.A.;   A. S. Hourston, M.A.;   and J. A.
Lanigan, B.Sc, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C  51
The Seasonal Growth of the Pacific Oyster (Ostrea Gigas) in Ladysmith
Harbour, by D. B. Quayle, Provincial Shell-fish Laboratory, Ladysmith, B.C. 85
Report of the International Fisheries Commission, 1950  91
Report on the Investigations of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries
Commission for 1950  93
Salmon-spawning Report, British Columbia, 1950  96
Statistical Tables  105  Report of the Provincial Department
of Fisheries for 1950
VALUE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S FISHERIES IN 1950
SHOWS AN INCREASE
The total marketed value of the fisheries products of British Columbia for 1950
amounted to $68,821,358. This was an increase over the year previous of $12,701,208,
or approximately 21.6 per cent more than the marketed value of fisheries products
in 1949.
The principal species, as marketed in 1950, were salmon, with a value of
$48,701,583; herring, with a value of $9,313,447; and halibut, with a marketed value
of $5,551,539. The salmon production in 1950 was $12,803,851 more than the production in 1949. The value of herring production in 1950 showed a decrease from the
year previous of $99,339, and the value of the 1950 halibut-catch was increased by
$1,195,229.
In 1950 the total fish and shell-fish landed amounted to 6,341,788 hundredweight.
The total value of vessels, boats, premises, gear, and other equipment employed in
catching and landing fish in British Columbia in 1950 amounted to $36,581,621. This
figure is compared with $30,747,565 for capital similarly employed in 1949.
In 1950 there was a total of 12,159 persons employed in catching and landing the
fish in British Columbia. These employment figures are compared with a total of 12,235
persons similarly employed in 1949. The number of persons engaged in processing
plants, canneries, etc., in 1950 was not available at the time of going to press.
The above figures were supplied by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, and
are hereby gratefully acknowledged.
THE CANNED-SALMON PACK FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1950
The total canned-salmon pack for British Columbia in 1950 amounted to 1,498,184
cases, according to annual returns submitted to the Provincial Department of Fisheries
by those canneries licensed to operate. The 1950 canned-salmon pack was 58,318 cases
greater than the pack in 1949 and was also 67,598 cases above the average annual pack
for the previous five-year period. The 1950 pack consisted of 408,026 cases of sockeye,
9,233 cases of springs, 3,227 cases of steelheads, 123,629 cases of cohoes, 446,456 cases
of pinks, and 507,611 cases of chums. In each instance half-cases have been dropped.
In the above figures there are included 1,071 cases of pinks and 5,078 cases of chums,
or a total of 6,150 cases packed out of cold storage from the 1949 catch.
Notwithstanding the fact that the sockeye-salmon pack for British Columbia in
1950, amounting to 408,026 cases, was 148,205 cases greater than in the year previous
and 56,306 cases above the average annual sockeye-pack for the previous five-year
period, the 1950 pack was disappointing in that the Adams River run failed to materialize.
If this run had appeared in the numbers which we were justified in expecting, the total
pack should have been at least 100,000 cases greater than the present figure. It was
fully anticipated that the sockeye-pack in 1950 would have been at least as great as the
pack in the previous cycle, which was 1946, in which year 543,027 cases were packed.
The preceding cycle-year, 1942, produced a total pack of sockeye in British Columbia
amounting to 666,570 cases. The failure of the Adams River run to appear in quantity
will be discussed more fully in a later section of this Report. L 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The size of the canned spring-salmon pack in British Columbia in any year is no
indication of the size of the run of this species because large quantities of spring salmon
find a ready market in the fresh- and frozen-fish trade. The 1950 pack of spring salmon,
amounting to 9,233 cases, was 11,951 cases less than were packed in 1949 and 3,764
cases below the average annual pack for this species for the previous five years.
Steelheads are not salmon, but a few are canned each year, those which are caught
incidentally while fishing for other species. In 1950 the steelhead-pack amounted to
3,227 cases, compared with 2,373 cases in 1949 and 5,663 cases in 1948. The size of
the steelhead-pack is in no wise indicative of the run of this species.
In 1950 there were 123,629 cases of cohoes packed in British Columbia, compared
with 215,944 cases of this species in 1949. The 1950 pack of cohoe was disappointingly
small compared with the packs of this species in recent past years. The five-year average
for the immediately preceding five-year period was 161,565 cases. The 1950 pack was
37,936 cases less than the average for the previous five-year period.
Pink salmon were canned in 1950 to the extent of 446,456 cases. This is compared
with the year previous when the pack of pink salmon amounted to 709,987 cases. The
average pack of pink salmon for the previous five-year period was 439,132 cases. The
1950 pack was 7,324 cases better than the average for the previous five-year period.
The 1950 pack was also 124,735 cases above the total pack of this species for the
cycle-year 1948.
In 1950 chum salmon were canned to the extent of 507,611 cases. This was
177,055 cases greater than the pack in the year previous. The 1950 pack of chums was
45,147 cases better than the five-year average for this species. The pack of chum
salmon, however, is not necessarily an indication of the size of the runs of this species
to British Columbia waters. Large quantities of chum salmon are frozen each season
for the winter trade and this should be taken into consideration when evaluating the size
of the run of chum salmon. Another factor which should receive due consideration
is that in recent years United States canners have been able to offer higher prices for
chum salmon in the fall of the year and, as a consequence, large quantities of chum
salmon which ordinarily would be canned in Canadian canneries are exported to Puget
Sound for canning in the United States.
In comparing the canned-salmon pack figures of any species of salmon which are
canned in British Columbia, the reader is referred to the text in the next section of this
Report for a breakdown of the figures for each species by district. The reader should
also take into consideration the escapement to the spawning-beds.
There will be found in the Appendix to this Report a report on the spawning-beds
of British Columbia, which was supplied by the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for the
Federal Department of Fisheries and is hereby gratefully acknowledged.
BRITISH COLUMBIA'S CANNED-SALMON PACK BY DISTRICTS
Fraser River
In 1950 the total canned-salmon pack for the Fraser River amounted to 139,721
cases of all species. This was 50,217 cases less than the total pack for this river system
in 1949. The decrease from the year previous was caused almost exclusively by the lack
of a pink run in 1950, whereas pink salmon in 1949 contributed 66,626 cases to the total
pack. Pink salmon run to the Fraser River only in the odd numbered years. The 1950
pack of Fraser River salmon was composed of 108,223 cases of sockeye, 1,818 cases of
springs, 240 cases of steelheads, 6,025 cases of cohoes, 72 cases of pinks, and 23,342
cases of chums.   Half-cases have been dropped in each instance.
Sockeye Salmon.—The total sockeye-salmon pack on the Fraser River in 1950
amounted to 108,223 cases. The 1950 pack was very disappointing in that the year in
question was considered to be the " big " year for the Adams River run.   The 1950 pack REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT L 9
was only 12,064 cases above the comparatively small pack for 1949. The 1950 pack on
the Fraser River was 233,734 cases less than the cycle-year 1946 and 338,148 cases
less than the cycle-year 1942. In both of these cycle-years the run to Adams River was
large. There can be no doubt that a normal run of sockeye to the Adams River in 1950
would have produced a pack very much larger than either of these cycle-years.
The failure of the Adams River sockeye run to materialize in large numbers in 1950
has received a great deal of scientific attention from the biologists of the International
Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, and an explanation is offered in the report of the
Commission for 1950. In the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission's
report for 1950 it is pointed out that water temperatures are very important to the
spawning of sockeye salmon and that the peak of sockeye-salmon spawning tends to
occur about 50° F. The suggestion is made that below-normal temperatures would have
a detrimental effect on the success of a spawning by increasing the mortality, and also the
adverse effect of the low-water temperature at the time of spawning increases the
probability of a lowered viability of the egg caused by prolonged egg retention. The
report goes on to point out that the run in 1946 occurred under adverse conditions.
The Commission summarizes the variations from normal in the character of the 1946
escapement to the Adams River area as follows:—
"(1) The escapement consisted of a large portion of the end of the run.   The
beginning and end of the run, in spite of a limited amount of individual
dispersion during the migration, might be classed as abnormalities, not
properly synchronized with the normal environmental cycles to permit
a maximum rate of reproduction.
"(2)  The peak escapement was delayed approximately fifteen days later than
normal in arriving on the spawning-grounds.   This delay may have had
two effects.   These are:  (a) Spawning in water having a temperature near
or below 45° F. may have increased the mortality prior to hatching;
caused a delayed emergence from the gravel not properly timed for
normal entrance into Lake Shuswap; and may have resulted in a hatch
poorly fitted from a physiological standpoint to meet the competition of
its early life.   Perhaps the normal time of seaward migration and of the
entrance of the migrants into the sea may have been changed, but no
evidence on this point has been obtained,    (b) A lowered viability of
otherwise normal eggs because of prolonged egg retention."
The Commission's report goes on to point out that many observations will have to be
made and much experimentation must be carried on before scientific evidence in sufficient
quantity is available to completely substantiate the logic and philosophy detailed in the
above quotes.    The Commission also points out that in spite of the lack of conclusive
scientific evidence on the effect of the known variations from normal in the character of
the 1946 Adams River spawning escapement, the danger of contributing to these variations through regulation of the fishery is very great.
For a more detailed account of a possible explanation for the failure of the Adams
River run in 1950, the reader is referred to the annual report of the International Pacific
Salmon Fisheries Commission for 1950. This is available from the Commission's office
at New Westminster, B.C.
The Fraser River sockeye-salmon fishery, as pointed out in previous issues of this
Annual Report, is regulated by an International Commission under treaty between Canada
and the United States. The fishery is an international one, because of the fact that the
sockeye salmon comprising this fishery pass through both Canadian and United States
territorial waters before reaching the Fraser River, and hence the nationals of both
countries share in the catch. The Commission is composed of six members, three of
whom are appointed by the United States Government and three appointed by the Cana- L 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
dian Government. According to figures supplied to this office by the International
Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, the total catch of sockeye on the Fraser River in
1950 amounted to 197,968 cases. Of these, United States fishermen took 116,458 cases
and Canadian fishermen 81,510 cases. The percentages are: Canadian gear, 42.3;
American gear, 57.7. There is a slight discrepancy in the figures supplied by the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission and the figures computed from returns
made by the licensed canners to the Provincial Department of Fisheries, due to the fact
that the Canadian figures include the sockeye salmon caught in Johnstone Strait which are
known to be proceeding to the Fraser River. For convenience, the table of percentages
is included in this section from 1934 to 1950, inclusive:—
1934	
American
(Per Cent)
.. .      ....   72.00
Canadian
(PerCent)
28.00
1935	
     47.00
53.00
1936	
  _    25.00
75.00
1937	
  38.00
62.00
1938	
  42.00
58.00
1939	
  44.50
55.50
1940	
37.50
62.50
1941.... 	
39.30
60.70
1942..  	
  37.20
62.80
1943 . 	
37.42
62.58
1944 	
29.77
70.23
1945	
. 39.90
60.10
1946	
    43.90
56.10
1947..    ...
16.60
83.40
1948
59.47
40.53
1949	
  49.98
50.02
1950	
;  57.70
42.30
The reader will find in the Appendix to this Report a table showing the total sockeye-
salmon packs of the Fraser River arranged in accordance with the four-year cycle from
1895 to 1950, inclusive, showing the catches made by British Columbia and Washington
fishermen in the respective years.
Spring Salmon.—In 1950 the pack of spring salmon caught on the Fraser River was
1,818 cases. This pack is compared with the spring-salmon packs of the previous years
as follows: 1949, 9,889 cases; 1948, 2,955 cases; 1947, 1,455 cases; and 1946, 1,096
cases. Except for the pack in 1949, it will be observed that the 1950 canned-salmon pack
of springs on the Fraser River was about normal for this species. The canned-salmon
pack of spring salmon for the Fraser River is in no wise indicative of the size of the run
or the catch of this species, as spring salmon find a large outlet in other than the canned
state.   The fresh- and frozen-fish trade takes large quantities of this species.
Cohoe Salmon.—The total canned-salmon pack of cohoes in 1950 from Fraser River
caught fish amounted to 6,025 cases. This is compared with 10,286 cases in 1949 and
16,102 cases in 1948. In 1947, the cycle-year for this species, the pack was 6,105 cases.
The Fraser River cohoe-pack in 1950 was 3,514 cases less than the average annual pack
of this species for the previous five-year period. The pack figures for springs, cohoes,
pinks, and chums are Canadian figures only. The United States catch of species proceeding to the Fraser River are not included.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon run to the Fraser River only in the odd-numbered years.
There was no pink-salmon run to the Fraser River in 1950. The 72 cases of this species
which were canned in 1950 were caught incidental to fishing for other species or probably
imported from other areas. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT L 11
Chum Salmon.—The Fraser River in 1950 produced a chum-salmon pack amounting to 23,342 cases. This is compared with 6,763 cases in 1949, 20,209 cases in 1948,
16,475 cases in 1947, and 60,713 cases in 1946. While the 1950. pack of Fraser River
chums was somewhat above the pack in the year previous, nevertheless the canned-salmon
pack figures are small in comparison with the run of fish to this river system. It should
be pointed out in this regard that there is a considerable amount of the chum-salmon
catch frozen each year. Another factor which has been prevalent in recent years, and
which has distorted the pack figures for Fraser River chum salmon, is the continued
growing practice of shipping chum salmon to the United States for canning in the State
of Washington. In recent past years United States canners have been able to pay considerably higher prices for chum salmon than Canadian operators and, consequently,
large quantities of chum salmon have been finding a market south of the line.
Any consideration of the canned-salmon pack as a measure of the total runs must
take into account the escapement to the spawning-beds. There will be found in the
Appendix to this Report a detailed report on the escapement to the various spawning-
beds of the different river systems in British Columbia. The reader is referred to this
report, which will be found of immense value in appraising the salmon runs to the different
river systems.
Skeena River
The total canned-salmon pack on the Skeena River in 1950 amounted to 97,889
cases of all varieties. This was 31,138 cases less than were packed on this river for the
year previous. The total pack on the Skeena in 1950 was 3,307 cases less than the
average annual pack for this river system for the previous five-year period. The Skeena
River pack in 1950 was composed of 47,479 cases of sockeye, 1,758 cases of springs,
1,645 cases of steelheads, 9,781 cases of cohoes, 26,256 cases of pinks, and 10,969 cases
of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—-The total canned sockeye-salmon pack on the Skeena River in
1950 was 47,479 cases. This was 18,458 cases less than the pack in the year previous,
when.the pack was considered to be disappointingly small. Skeena River sockeye are
considered four- and five-year-old fish, therefore the cycle-years for the 1950 run were
1946 and 1945. In 1946 the sockeye-pack on the Skeena amounted to 52,928 cases,
while in 1945 the pack was 104,279 cases. It will be noted that in both of these years
the pack was higher than the year under review. Attention has been previously drawn in
the pages of this Department's Reports to.the fact that the Skeena River is apparently in
a period of low sockeye production. The Federal Government has conducted a five-year
survey on the Skeena River with a view to ascertaining, if possible, some of the contributory factors which may be causing the lowered sockeye production. It was hoped
that the remedial measures suggested might be showing some results, but apparently
insufficient time has elapsed since the measures were put into effect to make any noticeable change in the pack. The 1950 Skeena River sockeye-pack was 12,550 cases less
than the average annual pack for this species for the immediately preceding five-year
period.   The 1950 pack was also 3,894 cases below the average previous five cycle-years.
Spring Salmon.—The Skeena River spring-salmon pack, like the pack for this species
on the other river systems of the Province, is never indicative of the size of the run to
that particular river system, because, as mentioned previously, spring salmon find an
outlet in the fresh- and frozen-fish markets. In 1950 the spring-salmon pack on the
Skeena River amounted to 1,758 cases. This is compared with 2,507 cases packed in
1949 and 4,018 cases in 1948. The pack in 1947 was 2,113 cases while in 1946 spring
salmon were canned to the extent of 2,439 cases.
Cohoe Salmon.—The Skeena River is never a large producer of cohoe salmon, but
the 9,781 cases of this species canned on the Skeena in 1950 was most disappointing when
compared with the packs for recent past years.   The cohoe-pack in 1950 was 10,435 L 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
cases less than the average annual pack for this species for the immediately preceding five-
year period, and if cohoes are considered three-year-old fish, the 1950 pack was 11,819
cases less than in the cycle-year 1947.
Pink Salmon.—In 1950 the Skeena River produced a pack of pink salmon amounting to 26,256 cases. This was indeed disappointingly small. The cycle-year 1948
produced a pack of 50,656 cases and, while the 1946 pack was only 10,737 cases, the
pack in 1944, the cycle-year, was 48,837 cases. The 1950 pack was 526 cases less than
the average annual pack for the previous five-year period.
Chum Salmon.—Chum salmon are never canned in large quantities from Skeena
River production and 1950 was no exception. The 10,969 cases of chum salmon canned
in 1950 are compared with 4,896 cases of this species canned in 1949 and 11,863 cases
in 1948. In 1947 the chum-salmon pack on the Skeena River amounted to 8,236 cases,
while 11,161 cases were canned in 1946. The chum-salmon pack on the Skeena River in
1950 was 1,544 cases above the average annual pack for this species for the previous
five-year period.
Nass River
The total canned-salmon pack produced from Nass River caught fish in 1950,
amounting to 57,961 cases, must be considered as reasonably satisfactory. The 1950
pack was 375 cases less than were canned in the year previous and is compared with
38,538 cases canned in 1948 and 29,450 cases in 1947. In 1946 the total pack of Nass
River salmon was 38,313 cases. In 1950 the Nass River salmon-pack was composed of
27,286 cases of sockeye, 798 cases of springs, 236 cases of steelheads, 2,737 cases of
cohoes, 12,582 cases of pinks, and 14,321 cases of chums, half-cases being dropped in
each instance.
Sockeye Salmon.—The total sockeye-salmon pack credited to the Nass River in
1950, amounting to 27,286 cases, was most encouraging and was considerably larger
than the Nass River pack for this species in any year since 1934, when the Nass River
produced a pack of 28,701 cases. Because the runs of sockeye salmon to the Nass River
are four- and five-year-old fish, it is difficult to compare any one year's catch with the
cycle-year, but it is interesting to note that the pack on the Nass River in 1946, which was
the immediately preceding cycle-year for the four-year portion of the run, was 12,511
cases, while the pack in 1945, which is the cycle-year for the five-year portion of the run,
amounted to 9,899 cases. It will be noted that in both of these years these pack figures
are very much below the 1950 production for this river system. The sockeye-pack on the
Nass River in 1950 was 12,667 cases above the average annual pack for this species in
the immediately preceding five-year period. In 1950, the first year since 1942, the Nass
River produced a sockeye-pack in excess of 20,000 cases.
Spring Salmon.—Like most other river systems in British Columbia, the Nass River
is not a large producer of spring salmon and the canned-salmon pack figures for this
species are in no wise indicative of the size of the run. In 1950 there were canned on the
Nass River from Nass River caught fish 798 cases of spring salmon. This is compared
with 174 cases in 1949, 416 cases in 1948, 398 cases in 1947, and 472 cases in 1946.
Cohoe Salmon.—The Nass River in years gone by has produced some fairly substantial packs of cohoe salmon, but in recent years the cohoe-salmon pack on the Nass
River has not been large. In 1950, however, the pack of 2,737 cases was considerably
less than average for this river system. The cohoe-pack in 1949 was 6,665 cases, while
8,954 cases of cohoes were canned on the Nass in 1948. The figures for 1947 were
4,075 cases and for 1946, 4,239 cases. These recent pack figures are compared with
1942, for instance, when 15,487 cases of cohoes were canned on the Nass River and
1949 when 16,648 cases were canned. The 1940 pack amounted to 10,060 cases and in
1938 the pack was 14,159 cases. In 1939, for some reason, the Nass River cohoe-pack
dropped to 1,996 cases. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT L 13
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon canned from Nass River caught fish in 1950 amounted
to 12,582 cases. This figure is compared with the year previous when 34,324 cases were
canned, and with the cycle-year 1948 when the pack was 8,565 cases. A comparison
of the Nass River pink-salmon packs in previous years is rather confusing, in that no
cycle-year can be traced consistently by the size of the packs in the various years. The
1950 pack of pinks on the Nass was 951 cases less than the average annual pack for this
species for the previous five-year period and, while considerably less than the 35,918
cases packed in 1945 and the 31,854 cases packed in 1944, the 1950 pack would seem
to compare fairly well with the average for the immediate past five-year period.
Chum Salmon.—Chum salmon are never a large factor in the Nass River canned-
salmon production. The 14,321 cases of chums packed from Nass River caught fish in
1950, however, were considerably above the chum-salmon packs in the immediately
preceding years, and were 3,885 cases above the average annual pack for the previous
five-year period. Any analyses of the salmon runs to the various river systems based on
the canned-salmon pack must take into consideration conditions prevailing on the
spawning-beds for the years in question.
The reader is again referred to the Appendix of this Report for a report on conditions on the spawning-beds, supplied by the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for British
Columbia.
Rivers Inlet
The total canned-salmon pack on Rivers Inlet in 1950 was 172,107 cases, compared
with 70,210 cases for this inlet in 1949. The 1950 total pack of canned salmon on Rivers
Inlet was 50,772 cases greater than the five-year average. The 1950 Rivers Inlet pack
was composed of 142,710 cases of sockeye, 619 cases of springs, 163 cases of steelheads,
5,736 cases of cohoes, 12,864 cases of pinks, and 10,014 cases of chums, half-cases being
dropped in each instance.
Sockeye Salmon.—Rivers Inlet in 1950 produced a pack of sockeye salmon amounting to 142,710 cases. This is the largest sockeye-pack for Rivers Inlet since 1947, when
140,087 cases were canned. The sockeye comprising the run of 1950 were the progeny
of the runs in 1945 and 1946. In 1945 the pack on Rivers Inlet amounted to .89,735
cases, while the pack in 1946 was 73,320 cases. Apparently the survival rate of either
one or both of these cycle-years' spawnings was particularly good in order to produce a
return of the magnitude that appeared in 1950. The 1950 sockeye-pack in Rivers Inlet
was 56,055 cases above the average annual pack of sockeye in this inlet for the previous
five-year period. Except for the year 1947, Rivers Inlet has not produced a sockeye-pack
over 100,000 cases since 1935.   The 1950 run was most encouraging.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are caught in Rivers Inlet incidental to fishing for
other species. In 1950 the spring-salmon pack was 619 cases, compared with 743 cases
in 1949 and 899 cases in 1948. In 1947 the pack of springs was 475 cases, while in
1946 the catch produced 1,108 cases.
Cohoe Salmon.—Rivers Inlet is never a large producer of canned cohoe salmon, and
the pack in 1950 of 5,736 cases was no exception. This is compared with 5,978 cases
of cohoes canned on the inlet in 1949 and 8,143 cases in 1948. Rivers Inlet produced
5,182 cases of cohoes in 1947 and 9,524 cases in 1946.
Pink Salmon.—The pink-salmon pack is never a large factor in the canned-salmon
production in Rivers Inlet. The year 1950 was no exception in this regard, the pack
amounting to 12,864 cases. In 1949 the pack was 11,937 cases and in 1948, 13,491
cases were canned.
Chum Salmon.—It has been pointed out in this Report in previous years that Rivers
Inlet did not produce chum salmon in any quantity until 1935. In the years previous the
only chums canned in Rivers Inlet were those caught incidental to fishing for sockeye.
However, since 1935 there has been developed a seine-fishery for chum salmon in the fall L 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
of the year and this inlet has been producing consistently since that time. The pack in
1950 amounted to 10,014 cases. In 1949 there were canned 11,819 cases of chum salmon
while the 1948 pack amounted to 11,486 cases. The 1950 chum-salmon pack for Rivers
Inlet was 6,903 cases below the average annual pack of this species for Rivers Inlet for the
previous five-year period.
Smith Inlet
The total canned-salmon pack for Smith Inlet in 1950 was 52,750 cases, composed
of 42,435 cases of sockeye, 71 cases of springs, 39 cases of steelheads, 379 cases of
cohoes, 5,308 cases of pinks, and 4,499 cases of chums.-
Sockeye Salmon.—The canned sockeye-salmon pack from Smith Inlet caught fish,
amounting to 42,435 cases in 1950, was most encouraging and was the largest sockeye-
salmon pack for this inlet ever recorded. The Smith Inlet sockeye-pack in 1950 was
18,995 cases above the average annual pack of this species for the previous five-year
period.
Spring Salmon.—In 1950 there were caught and canned in Smith Inlet sufficient
spring salmon to fill 71 cases. It should be noted that spring salmon are caught only
incidental to fishing for other species. The 1950 pack is compared with 159 cases of
springs in 1949 and 186 cases in 1948. In 1947 the pack was 43 cases while 1946 produced a pack of 45 cases.
Cohoe Salmon.—Cohoes, like spring salmon, are not fished for in Smith Inlet. Here,
too, the pack represents the fish caught incidentally while fishing for other species. In
1950 the cohoe-pack in Smith Inlet amounted to 397 cases compared with 785 cases in
1949 and 929 cases in 1948.   In 1947, 348 cases were canned and 177 cases in 1946.
Pink Salmon.—Smith Inlet is essentially a sockeye-fishing area but other varieties of
salmon are caught incidental to fishing for sockeye. In 1950 the pink salmon caught in
Smith Inlet produced 5,308 cases, while in 1949 the pink-salmon pack was 2,533 cases.
This species also is caught only incidental to fishing for other species.
Chum Salmon.—In recent past years there has been a small chum-salmon fishery in
Smith Inlet, conducted by the seine fleet in the fall of the year. In 1950 reports indicated
that the chum salmon caught in Smith Inlet produced a canned-salmon pack of 4,499
cases compared with 2,361 cases in 1949. The size of the canned-chum pack in Smith
Inlet is not considered indicative of the size of the run of this species.
Queen Charlotte Islands
There are only two species of salmon fished in the Queen Charlotte Islands District
which are used for canning purposes. These are pinks and chums. Chums are taken
every year in the Queen Charlotte Islands but pink salmon are caught only every alternate
year, the runs coinciding with the even-numbered years. In 1950 there was a pink-salmon
run to the Queen Charlotte Islands. Large quantities of springs and cohoes caught by
troll in the vicinity of the Queen Charlotte Islands find an outlet in the fresh- and frozen-
fish trade and, consequently, are not considered in the canned-salmon pack. A few
cohoes caught each year incidentally while fishing for pinks and chums are included in
the canned-salmon pack and are so reported.
In 1950 the Queen Charlotte Islands produced a total pack of 250,828 cases, composed of 89 cases of sockeye, 48 cases of springs, 15 cases of steelheads, 9,021 cases of
cohoes, 92,986 cases of pinks, and 148,669 cases of chums. The total canned-salmon
pack in 1950 for the Queen Charlotte Islands was the largest pack for this district in
recent past years and 1950 was the first year since 1940 in which the total pack exceeded
200,000 cases.   In the latter-mentioned year the pack was 218,852 cases.
Cohoe Salmon.—The 9,021 cases of cohoes canned from Queen Charlotte Islands
caught fish in 1950 are compared with 8,141 cases of this species canned in 1949 and REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT L 15
4,145 cases canned in 1948. The size of the pack of cohoes in the Queen Charlotte
Islands is in no way indicative of the run of cohoes to the local streams, but is rather a
reflection on various conditions prevailing within the industry at the time the fish were
caught. Sometimes it is more convenient to can the few cohoes caught incidental to pink-
and chum-salmon fishing than it is at other times, hence the extreme variation in the size
of the cohoe-pack from year to year.
Pink Salmon.—As pointed out in a previous paragraph, pink salmon are caught in
the Queen Charlotte Islands only in the even-numbered years, and 1950 was one of the
years coinciding with the pink-salmon run. The pack of canned pink salmon from Queen
Charlotte Islands caught fish in 1950 amounted to 92,986 cases. The cycle-year 1948
produced a pack of 51,722 cases. The small pack of 1946, amounting to 8,024 cases,
was due in a large measure to early closure as a conservation measure. In the previous
cycle-year, 1944, the pack of canned pink salmon amounted to 90,993 cases. The 1950
pack of pink salmon in the Queen Charlotte Islands amounted to 27,575 cases more than
the average annual pack for this area for the previous five cycle-years.
Chum Salmon.—In 1950 the Queen Charlotte Islands produced a chum-salmon pack
amounting to 148,669 cases. This was 123,817 cases more than were packed in 1949
and 116,255 cases greater than were canned in the Queen Charlotte Islands in 1946, the
cycle-year for this species. The 1950 chum-pack was 90,405 cases above the average
annual pack of this species for the previous five-year period and was the largest pack of
chums canned from Queen Charlotte Islands caught fish since 1940, when the pack
amounted to 164,911 cases.
Central Area
For the purposes of this Report the Central Area comprises all of the salmon-fishing
areas off the coast of British Columbia between Cape Calvert and the Skeena River,
except Rivers Inlet. The salmon-fishing in this area is conducted on many different runs
of salmon in the various parts of the district and, as a consequence, the size of the pack
in this area is no indication of the magnitude of the different runs to the various streams,
but rather does reflect the size of the runs generally within the geographical limits of
the area.
In 1950 the total canned-salmon pack credited to the Central Area amounted to
372,781 cases. This figure is compared with the pack in the year previous, which
amounted to 351,420 cases. The pack in 1948 was 439,995 cases and the pack in 1947
amounted to 440,951 cases. In 1950 the total pack for the Central Area was composed
of 25,997 cases of sockeye, 776 cases of springs, 762 cases of steelheads, 17,061 cases of
cohoes, 163,301 cases of pinks, and 164,884 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-salmon pack for the Central Area in 1950, amounting to 25,997 cases, was 9,857 cases above the amount canned in this district in 1949.
The 1950 sockeye-pack in the Central Area was 6,930 cases above the average annual
pack of this species in the Central Area for the immediately preceding five-year period.
The sockeye caught in the Central Area are not the product of one individual river system
but rather of a number of streams and, while the pack figures do not necessarily reflect
the condition of any individual stream, they do seem to indicate that the district in general
is maintaining its average production. In other words, the sockeye-salmon runs to the
streams in the district are apparently being maintained.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are caught and canned in the Central Area to some
extent but, as in other areas, the canned spring-salmon pack is made up of fish which are
caught incidentally while fishing for other species and, therefore, the pack is not a measure
of the size of any of the runs in this district. In 1950 the spring-salmon pack was 776
cases, while in 1949 the pack was 1,007 cases. There were 1,195 cases of spring salmon
canned in 1948 and 514 cases in 1947. L 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Cohoe Salmon.—In 1950 there were canned from fish caught in the Central Area a
total of 17,061 cases of cohoes. This was 27,108 cases less than were canned from this
species in 1949 and 12,222 cases less than the average annual pack of cohoes in the
Central Area for the previous five-year period.
Pink Salmon.—The Central Area has always been considered a high producer of
pink salmon and, as pointed out in this Report for 1949, this area has produced as high
as 370,000 cases of pink salmon in a single season. In comparatively recent years, however, the pack figures for pink salmon in this area have been consistently very much less.
It would appear that the runs of pink salmon have, to some extent, stabilized at the lower
level. In 1950 the district produced sufficient pinks to fill 163,301 cases. This was
10,155 cases less than were canned in this district in 1949 and 28,945 cases greater than
the average annual pack for this species for the previous five-year period. Pink salmon
are two-year fish, that is to say, the cycle-year for 1950 was 1948, and in that year the
Central Area produced 152,200 cases of pink salmon, 1946 produced 81,584 cases, and
in 1944 the pack was 162,986 cases. The 1950 pack was 37,400 cases above the annual
pack for the previous five cycle-years. It would appear from this that the runs are being
maintained reasonably well.
Chum Salmon.—In 1950 there were canned in the Central Area a total of 164,884
cases of chum salmon. This was 48,592 cases greater than in the year previous, but
considerably below the quantity packed in recent past years. In 1948 the total chum-
salmon pack in the Central Area was 225,686 cases, while in 1947 the pack was 292,604
cases. In 1946 the chum-salmon pack amounted to 221,958 cases. While chum salmon
find an outlet in the fresh- and frozen-fish trade, as well as in the canneries, the canned
pack in the Central Area is a fairly good indicator of the size of the run. It would appear
that either the late fall runs were not fished as extensively in 1950 as in other years, or
that the run in that year did not produce as heavily as in former years. The 1950 pack
of chum salmon in the Central Area was 40,401 cases less than the average for the
previous five-year period.
Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island in 1950 produced a total canned-salmon pack of 347,996 cases.
This is compared with a pack of 538,370 cases in 1949 and 317,572 cases in 1948.
In 1947 Vancouver Island produced 552,940 cases. The 1950 pack was composed of
13,806 cases of sockeye, 3,343 cases of springs, 127 cases of steelheads, 72,871 cases of
cohoes, 132,016 cases of pinks, and 125,833 cases of chums. Vancouver Island, like the
Central Area, supports numerous races of salmon running to the different watersheds.
In this breakdown no attempt is made to deal with the various races separately, but it
should be mentioned that the sockeye salmon caught in the Sooke traps are not credited
to Vancouver Island but are credited to the Fraser River, where most of them are known
to migrate. Similarly, sockeye salmon caught in Johnstone Strait between Vancouver
Island and the Mainland are also credited to the Fraser River in this Report and not to
Vancouver Island.
Sockeye Salmon.—Except as noted in the immediately preceding paragraph, Vancouver Island produced a total sockeye-salmon pack in 1950 of 13,806 cases, which was
5,680 cases less than were canned in this area in 1949. The 1950 pack of sockeye for
Vancouver Island was 4,833 cases below the average annual pack for this species for the
previous five-year period.
Spring Salmon.—Large quantities of spring salmon are caught each year by trolling
in the waters off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Most of these fish, however, find
a market in the fresh- and frozen-fish trade or as mild-cured salmon. The troll-caught
salmon on the lower west coast of Vancouver Island also find a market principally as
fresh, frozen, or mild-cured.   Because of these outlets, the canned-salmon pack figures REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT L 17
for spring salmon in the Vancouver Island district are in nowise indicative of the catch
of this species. In 1950 the total Vancouver Island canned spring-salmon pack amounted
to 3,343 cases.   This figure is compared with 6,361 cases in 1949 and 6,622 cases in
1948. In 1947 the spring-salmon pack for Vancouver Island was 4,942 cases, while
1946 produced a pack of 2,283 cases.
Cohoe Salmon.—Cohoe, like spring salmon, find a market other than in cans and,
for this reason, the canned-salmon pack is not necessarily indicative of the size of the
catch or of the run. In 1950 Vancouver Island produced a cohoe pack of 72,871 cases.
This figure is compared with the 1949 cohoe-pack, which amounted to 98,958 cases, and
the 1948 pack of 109,939 cases.   In 1947 the pack was 77,684 cases.
Pink Salmon.—In 1950 Vancouver Island was credited with a pack amounting to
132,016 cases of pink salmon. This is compared with the cycle-year 1948 when 43,574
cases were canned. In the preceding cycle-year, 1946, the pack amounted to 6,809 cases,
and in 1944 the pink-salmon pack for Vancouver Island was 49,092 cases. Compared
with the immediately preceding cycle-years, the pink-salmon pack in 1950 must be considered as being very good.
Chum Salmon.—In 1950 Vancouver Island was credited with having produced
sufficient chum salmon to pack 125,833 cases. This is contrasted with 51,629 cases in
1949 and 147,227 cases in 1948. The 1950 pack of chums in the Vancouver Island
district was 2,897 cases above the average annual pack for this species for the previous
five-year period. The 1950 pack, however, was 64,480 cases less than in 1946, the
cycle-year for this species.
REVIEW OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-CANNING
INDUSTRY, 1950
There were twenty-four salmon canneries licensed to operate by the Provincial
Department of Fisheries in 1950. This was the same number as operated in 1949. The
operating canneries in 1950 were located as follows: Skeena River, 6; Central Area, 3;
Rivers Inlet, 1; Vancouver Island, 2; and Fraser River and Lower Mainland, 12.
The distribution of the salmon-canneries operating in 1950 was similar to that of
1949, with slight modification. In 1950 six canneries operated on the Skeena River, the
same as the year previous; three in the Central Area, as in 1949; one on Rivers Inlet,
similar to 1949; and two canneries operated on Vancouver Island in 1950, whereas in
1949 there was only one. In 1950 twelve canneries operated on the Fraser River and
Lower Mainland district, while in 1949 this district had only eleven operations. Again,
in 1950, there were no salmon-canning operations on the Nass River or in the Queen
Charlotte Islands. Smith Inlet also did not have an operating cannery in 1950. All three
of these areas formerly supported operating canneries. The salmon-catch from these
areas is now transported to other areas for canning. This tendency has been pointed out
in previous Reports of this Department and, apparently, the policy to concentrate the
packing of salmon in fewer canneries is continuing. The liberal use of ice during the
salmon-canning season, together with modern, fast packers, has made it possible for the
operators to transport fresh salmon over greater distances. The practice of consolidating
operations is no doubt encouraged by the necessity of lowering production costs, and
in recent years companies have been concentrating their canning operations in fewer
canneries. Other companies have found it beneficial to make agreements amongst themselves to can each other's fish in certain instances, to the mutual benefit of the companies
concerned. Notwithstanding the attempts to reduce packing costs by concentrating canning in fewer canneries, it should again be pointed out that the cost of producing canned
salmon can be only partially reduced by this method. The largest portion of the cost of
a case of salmon is the cost of the raw fish, and until such time as the price of raw fish L 18 . BRITISH COLUMBIA
levels off, production costs will continue to rise, regardless of the concentration of
operating canneries.
Since 1947, after September 1st in each year, there has been a movement of large
quantities of chum salmon to the United States for processing in canneries there. In
so far as the Canadian canned-salmon pack is concerned, the Canadian canneries might
as well have closed on September 1st, as practically all of the chum salmon caught for
canning purposes after that date found a market and were canned in the United States.
This is not to say that all of British Columbia's chum-salmon production after September
1st is exported, because large quantities are frozen by Canadian freezers each year.
It should be pointed out, however, that the export of raw fish which would ordinarily be
canned in British Columbia has had the effect of reducing the canned-salmon pack to
less than what it would have been if all the fish caught in British Columbia had been
canned here. This, also, has had the effect of reducing the number of employees and
the time employed in Canadian canneries. In considering the current pack figures for the
canneries of the Lower Mainland, it should be kept in mind that the export of raw fish
materially affected the canned-salmon pack figures to the extent that the pack was
reduced equivalent to the amount exported. Therefore, due allowance should be made
for these quantities when comparing the canned-salmon pack figures with previous years.
In 1950 it was anticipated that a large run of sockeye salmon would be available for
the fishery from the progeny of the Adams River run of four years previous. It was fully
expected that the late run of sockeye to the Fraser River would have produced quite
a large sockeye-pack and a good deal of money was invested in preparation for the
arrival of the so-called late run to the Adams River. Unfortunately, this run did not
appear and the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, which is responsible
for the conservation of the sockeye of the Fraser River, found it necessary to close the
river to all sockeye-fishing in order to permit sufficient numbers to reach the spawning-
beds. Actually, the Adams River run was a complete failure so far as commercial fishing
was concerned and, as a consequence, the industry no doubt lost considerable sums of
money which were spent in preparation for a large operation. The fishermen, many of
whom came to the Fraser River from other areas anticipating a large run, also were
disappointed.
For a detailed account of the failure of the so-called Adams River run of sockeye
salmon, the reader is referred to the annual report of the International Pacific Salmon
Fisheries Commission for 1950.
OTHER CANNERIES
Pilchard-canneries.—Again, in 1950, the pilchard run off the west coast of Vancouver Island did not materialize and, consequently, no pilchard-cannery licences were
issued. This follows the pattern set in 1949. There has been no pilchard fishery off the
west coast of Vancouver Island for several years.
Herring-canneries.—In 1950 there were two herring-canneries licensed and operated.
This is compared with five canneries licensed to can herring in 1949. In 1950 the two
herring-canneries produced a pack of 56,798 cases, compared with 77,913 cases of
herring canned by the five canneries in 1949. During the war years, and immediately
following the war, the canned-herring business in British Columbia attained quite large
proportions. For instance, in 1947 eighteen herring-canneries produced a pack of
1,283,670 cases. During the war years the herring-canneries operated very largely on
war orders, and in the immediate post-war years, large quantities of canned herring were
produced for U.N.R.R.A. It would appear that the canned-herring industry has again
reached what might be considered as normal production. During the pre-war years,
British Columbia herring were canned to the extent of from 25,000 to 40,000 cases
annually. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT L 19
Tuna-fish Canneries.—The first commercial tuna-fish canning operations in British
Columbia were in 1948. Tuna were-caught off the coast of British Columbia previous
to this date but the catch was largely frozen and shipped to United States canneries.
In 1950 three tuna-fish canneries were licensed to operate in British Columbia, one less
than operated in 1949. The three operating tuna-fish canneries in 1950 produced a total
pack of 77,328 cases of tuna, compared with the pack in 1949 of 48,507 cases.
Shell-fish Canneries.—Under this heading those plants which are concerned with the
canning of various species of shell-fish are reviewed. In 1950 there were seven shell-fish
canneries licensed to operate. This was one more than operated in 1949. In 1950 these
seven plants produced packs, as follows:—
Clams: 2,352 cases of 48/Vi's; 10,144 cases 24/1's; 6,776 cases of 48/6 oz.;
778 cases of gallons 6/10's.
Crabs:  8,418 cases of 48/1/2's.
Oysters:  3,442 cases of 48/^'s.
Abalone:  76 cases of 48/1's.
The above figures for 1950 are compared with 6,409 cases of clams, 8,877 cases of
crabs, 4,906 cases of oysters, and 120 cases of abalone canned by the shell-fish canneries
in 1949.
MILD-CURED SALMON
In 1950 there were five plants licensed to operate on mild-cured salmon, all of which
operated. The five plants produced a total of 886 tierces, composed of 7,536 hundredweight of tierced salmon. In 1949 there were seven plants operated and the seven plants
produced a pack of 1,212 tierces of mild-cured salmon.
DRY-SALT SALMON
Previous to 1939 quite large amounts of chum salmon were dry-salted in British
Columbia for shipment to the Orient. In some years the production of dry-salt salmon
reached quite large proportions. During the war years the Provincial Government
declined to issue licences for salmon dry-salteries in order to divert as much of the
salmon-catch as possible to the salmon canners and freezers. Since the war, in 1947, two
licences have been issued for salmon dry-salteries, although no operation was conducted
at either plant.   No salmon dry-saltery licences have been issued since that time.
DRY-SALT HERRING
In British Columbia, previous to World War II, herring were dry-salted in quite
large quantities, the salted product being shipped to China. Since the outbreak of the
war the bulk of British Columbia's herring catch has been canned or reduced to meal and
oil. In order to divert as much as possible of the herring-catch to the canneries during
the war years, no herring dry-salteries were permitted to operate in British Columbia.
In 1945 U.N.R.R.A. requested a certain amount of dry-salted herring for relief feeding in
China and herring dry-salting was again permitted in British Columbia. In 1947 five
herring dry-salteries were licensed to operate. One herring dry-saltery operated in 1948,
while four licences were issued in 1949, three of which operated. In 1950 six herring
dry-saltery licences were issued, all of which operated. The six operating plants
produced a total of 4,418 tons of dry-salt herring, all of which was shipped to the Orient.
This is compared with 3,858 tons produced by three operating plants in 1949.
PICKLED HERRING
There was no activity under this heading in 1950. L 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
HALIBUT-FISHERY
The halibut-fishery on the Pacific Coast of North America is regulated by the
International Fisheries Commission under treaty between Canada and the United States.
The fishery is a deep-sea fishery and is shared in by the nationals of the two countries.
The Commission regulates the fishery on a quota basis and, on that account, there is very
little fluctuation in the total amount of halibut landed from year to year, except when
the quotas are changed for any reason.
For the purpose of regulation, the coast has been divided into a number of areas, the
principal areas, from the standpoint of production, being Areas 2 and 3. Area 2
comprises the waters off the coasts of Washington and British Columbia from the
approximate vicinity of Willapa Harbour in the south to Cape Spencer in the north.
Area 3 comprises the waters from the northern boundary of Area 2 to the Aleutian
Islands. For administrative purposes some of the areas have been divided into sub-areas,
but for the purpose of this review reference will be made to Areas 1, 2, 3, and 4—Areas
2 and 3, as mentioned above; Area 1, comprising the waters south of Area 2; and
Area 4, the waters north of the northern boundary of Area 3. For a more detailed
breakdown of the areas, the reader is referred to the Pacific Halibut Fishery Regulations
for 1951.
In 1950 the catch-limits imposed by the International Fisheries Commission were
as follows: For Area 1, none; Area 2, 25,500,000 pounds; Area 3, 28,000,000 pounds;
and for Area 4, 500,000 pounds. These quantities cover saleable halibut and the quotas
are exclusive of the halibut caught incidentally while fishing for other species with
set-lines in areas which are closed to halibut-fishing. The quotas for 1950 were
unchanged from the 1949 quotas.
The total landings of halibut by all vessels in all ports on the Pacific Coast in 1950
amounted to 57,287,133 pounds. This figure is compared with the total landings in
1949 of 54,995,000 pounds. Of this total 359,022 pounds were produced in Area 1.
Area 2, one of the principal areas, and the area adjacent to the British Columbia coast,
produced 26,742,496 pounds. Area 3, the other important producing area, produced
30,185,615 pounds, while there was no halibut reported taken in Area 4. The production
in 1949 from the principal producing areas was: Area 2, 26,064,000 pounds, and
Area 3, 28,479,000 pounds. The total production for Area 1 in 1949 was 452,000
pounds. In 1950 the total landings of halibut by all vessels in Canadian ports amounted
to 22,498,072 pounds. Of this amount Area 2 produced 14,376,462 pounds, while
Area 3 contributed 8,121,610 pounds. The total landings of halibut in Canadian ports
by Canadian vessels only in 1950 was 14,101,691 pounds from Area 2 and 4,712,695
pounds from Area 3, making a total of 18,814,386 pounds. In 1949 Canadian vessels
landed in Canadian ports 18,063,000 pounds, of which 13,529,000 pounds were caught
in Area 2 and 4,534,000 pounds were taken from Area 3. It will be observed that the
total Canadian landings in Canadian ports in 1950 were very similar to the total
Canadian landings by Canadian vessels in the year previous.
In addition to the total landings by Canadian vessels in Canadian ports, Canadian
vessels also landed in United States ports a total of 69,968 pounds of halibut in 1950
compared with 787,000 pounds in 1949. Of the Canadian halibut which was landed
in United States ports in 1950, Area 2 produced 13,351 pounds and Area 3, 56,617
pounds. In 1950 the United States halibut-fleet landed a total of 3,683,686 pounds of
halibut in Canadian ports. This was somewhat below the United States halibut landings
in Canadian ports for the year previous, in which year the landings amounted to
4,205,000 pounds.
The average open-market price paid for Canadian halibut in Prince Rupert in 1950
was 24.3 cents per pound and the average open price for Canadian halibut in all Canadian
ports in 1950 was 23.8 cents per pound.   These prices are compared with the open- REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT L 21
market prices paid for Canadian halibut in Prince Rupert in 1949 of 17.05 cents per
pound and 17.17 cents per pound for Canadian landings in all British Columbia ports.
Halibut-livers, because of their high vitamin content, have been a source of revenue
to halibut-fishermen for a number of years. The value of halibut-livers to United States
and Canadian fishermen in 1950 was $593,000. Canadian fishermen received $115,000
for .halibut-livers, while United States fishermen received $478,000. The total value of
halibut-livers to Canadian and United States fishermen in 1949 was $753,000, of which
Canadian fishermen received $164,000 and United States fishermen $589,000.
In addition to the money received by halibut-fishermen for halibut-livers, halibut-
viscera is now marketed, and in 1950 the value of this product to Canadian and United
States fishermen was $131,000, Canadian fishermen receiving $24,000 and United States
fishermen $107,000.
The above dollar values for livers and viscera are computed on the basis of the
approximate price paid by the Fishermen's Co-operatives, who handled most of the
production of livers and viscera in both countries.
The statistical information quoted above in connection with the Pacific halibut-
fishery was supplied by the International Fisheries Commission and is hereby gratefully
acknowledged.
FISH OIL AND MEAL
The production of fish-oil and edible fish-meal has been an important branch of
British Columbia's fisheries for a number of years. Previous to the war, pilchards and
herring were the principal species used for the production of oil and meal. The products
of the reduction plants found a ready market, the meal being used as a supplementary
food product for animal-feeding and the oil found a ready market for use in manufacturing processes of various kinds. The demand for natural sources of vitamins stimulated
the production of vitamin oils from fish products, and since the outbreak of World War
II, the demand for natural sources of vitamins has greatly increased the production of
fish-oils of high vitamin content in British Columbia. This increased demand for high-
vitamin oils brought into use other fish besides herring and pilchards, and during the
war years and the years immediately after the war, dogfish and shark livers were in high
demand. In the last two years, however, the increased production of synthetic Vitamin A
has lessened the demand for fish-liver oils as a natural source of this vitamin, and if the
price of synthetic Vitamin A falls much lower, the market for livers containing this
vitamin may soon disappear.
Fish-livers, cannery waste, and viscera are all utilized for the production of fish-oil,
much of which finds a market in the pharmaceutical trade. In addition to the production
of high-vitamin oils from British Columbia's various fish and fish-livers, in recent years
there has developed considerable activity in the use of cannery waste and viscera for the
production of other pharmaceutical products. In addition to the high-vitamin content
oils used in the medicinal field, British Columbia's fish oils of lower-vitamin potency find
an outlet in many manufacturing processes, while some of the vitamin-bearing oils
produced in British Columbia are sold in quite large quantities for feeding poultry and
live stock.
Fish-liver Oil.—As mentioned in the previous paragraph, fish-livers and fish-viscera
are an important source of high-vitamin oils. In 1950 five plants were licensed by the
Provincial Department of Fisheries to produce fish-liver oils, four of which operated.
These four plants processed 834,376 pounds of livers and produced 3,396,110 million
U.S.P. units of Vitamin A. These figures are compared with the year previous when six
plants processed 3,990,956 pounds of livers and produced 12,079,015 million U.S.P.
units of Vitamin A. The lowered production in 1950 no doubt is a reflection on the
effect that the low price for synthetic Vitamin A is having on the production of fish-liver
oil as a natural source of this vitamin.    It probably should be again mentioned that, L 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
previous to 1947, the production of vitamin oils has been reported in imperial gallons.
This was contrary to the usual means of measuring the production of high-vitamin oils
and, commencing with the Report of this Department for 1947, the production has been
reported in million U.S.P. units.
Pilchard-reduction.—The year 1950 was the sixth consecutive year in which the
pilchard runs to British Columbia have been a complete failure from a commercial standpoint. Biologists charged with the investigation of this fishery are still not optimistic
that this condition will materially improve in the near future. There was no run of
pilchards in 1950. Pilchards are not native to British Columbia waters but migrate to
the waters off our coast from California, where they are spawned in the ocean. There is
a large pilchard-fishery in California conducted on the same body of fish that formerly
migrated to British Columbia. This fishery is fished very heavily in California and it is
thought that the heavy fishing there has had some bearing on the migration habits of this
species.
Herring-reduction.—The winter herring-fishery in British Columbia has developed
into a very important branch of British Columbia's fishing industry. The season runs
through from late September or early October until March in the following year and,
although a few herring are caught previous to October, the season actually gets in full
swing by the middle of November. During the war most of the herring-catch was utilized
in the herring-canneries, but since the war the catch is principally reduced to meal and oil.
This fact should be kept in mind when figures are being compared with similar figures
during the war years, in connection with the herring-fishery and the production of
herring-reduction plants.
In 1950 there were sixteen herring-reduction plants licensed to operate. Fourteen
of these actually operated. In the year previous there were seventeen herring-reduction
plants licensed to operate but sixteen actually got into production. The fourteen operating
herring-reduction plants in 1950 produced a total of 31,913 tons of meal and 3,385,685
imperial gallons of oil. These figures are contrasted with the production figures for 1949
when 30,081 tons of meal and 3,823,643 imperial gallons of oil were produced.
Whale-reduction.—In 1948 the hunting of whales off the coast of British Columbia
for reduction purposes was again resumed after a period of inactivity. In 1950 one plant
operated and during the season this plant reduced to meal, oil, bone, and other products
the equivalent of 314 whales.
Miscellaneous Reduction.—Dogfish and fish-offal reduction plants are licensed by
the Provincial Department of Fisheries under miscellaneous reduction licences. These
plants operate on cannery-waste and the carcasses of dogfish and produce meal and oil
for various purposes. The oil produced from the carcasses of dogfish is not to be
confused with the oil produced from dogfish-livers, the latter being a high-potency oil
which is reported in another section of this Report.
In 1950 there were twelve plants licensed to operate under this category. These
twelve plants produced 1,717 tons of meal and 166,989 imperial gallons of oil, contrasted
with the production of fifteen operating plants in 1949 amounting to 1,622 tons of meal
and 174,431 imperial gallons of oil.
NET-FISHING IN NON-TIDAL WATERS
Under section 24 of the Special Fishery Regulations for British Columbia, fishing
with nets in certain specified non-tidal waters within the Province is permissible under
licence from the Provincial Minister of Fisheries. This fishery is confined almost
exclusively to the residents living within reasonable distance of the lakes mentioned.
In the Appendix to this Report there again appears a table showing the name and
number of lakes in which net-fishing has been permitted, together with the number
and approximate weight of the various species of fish taken from each lake. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
L 23
It will be noted that there are three different kinds of fishing licences issued for
net-fishing in non-tidal waters of the Province, namely, fur-farm, ordinary, and sturgeon.
The fur-farm licences are issued to licensed fur-farmers and the coarse fish taken under
these licences are used as food for feeding fur-bearing animals held in captivity. Ordinary
fishing licences are issued for the capture of fish other than trout, salmon, or sturgeon,
while licences issued for sturgeon-fishing are exclusively for that fishery.
For a detailed account of the fish taken by licensed nets in the different waters of the
Province, the reader is referred to the table appearing in the Appendix to this Report.
VALUE OF CANADIAN FISHERIES AND THE STANDING
OF THE PROVINCES, 1949
The value of the fisheries products of Canada for the year 1949 totalled
$130,945,633. During that year British Columbia produced fisheries products to the
value of $56,120,154, or 42 per cent of Canada's total. British Columbia in 1949 led
all of the Provinces in the Dominion in respect to the production of fisheries wealth.
Her output exceeded that of Nova Scotia, second in rank, by $21,080,350.
The market value of the fisheries products of British Columbia in 1949 was
$2,247,543 less than in the year previous. There was a decrease in the value of salmon
amounting to $773,408.
The capital employed in 1949 in the primary fishing industry was $69,542,709.
The number of persons engaged in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1949 was
15,690, or 19.4 per cent of Canada's total fishery workers. Of those engaged in British
Columbia, 12,235 were employed in catching and handling the catches and 3,455 in
packing, curing, and fish-reduction plants. The total number engaged in the fisheries of
British Columbia in 1949 was 716 less than in the preceding year.
The following statement gives the value of fishery products of the Provinces of
Canada for the years 1945 to 1949, inclusive:—
Province
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
$44,531,858
30,706,900
13,270,376
7,727,222
7,261,661
4,263,670
3,076,811
1,450,502
1,286,361
112,131
3,138
$43,817,147
34,270,761
16,419,983
7,927,022
6,296,658
4,871,037
4,470,877
1,399,083
1,148,886
558,264
5,014
$58,764,950
26,658,915
17,131,690
5,316,999
5,403,662
5,329,448
2,897,284
856,609
1,170,930
530,948
7,474
$58,703,803
36,090,820
20,122,378
6,393,635
5,942,723
5,414,583
3,634,376
1,527,834
1,282,437
636,352
$56,120,154
35 039 804
17 428,127
5,111,878
5,728,389
4,800,387
2,704,444
652,545
1,025,896
2,334,009
C1)
Totals	
$113,690,630
$121,124,732
$124,068,909
$139,748,941
$130,945,633
1 Not available. L 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
SPECIES AND VALUE OF FISH CAUGHT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
The total marketed value of each of the principal species of fish taken in British
Columbia for the years 1945 to 1949, inclusive, is given in the following table:—
Corrected to date.
Species
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
$25,424,954
3,042,390
275,825
8,423,136
1,439,145
$24,346,483
3,708,819
300,303
9,574,643
213,753
$35,692,625
5,296,942
647,002
12,094,582
41,750
$36,671,140
4,120,003
527,868
10,485,090
$35,897,732
Halibut 	
4,023,110
333,200
9,412,786
Pilchard	
1,296,639
206,045
368,408
77,958
438,219
108,130
596,886
369,788
268,165
297,533
515,148
55
48,538
239,099
7,101
10,629
78,435
8,070
11,328
10,142
514
3,861
36,732
134,494
878,972
107,546
564,888
326,263
1,170,890
84,910
214,495
4,838
15,661
131,910
5,731
10,053
5,502
2,199
5,208
30,224
204,855
1,319,501
349,804
446,008
217,792
848,004
40,431
258,964
150
25,765
214,882
15,970
10,326
6,070
3,705
4,486
11,337
180
870,513
209,379
631,850
443,339
580,238
24,025
105,596
6,370
90,786
284,759
16,174
5,076
6,521
5,802
4,685
24,091
50
89,447
282,616
2,811
17,112
140,830
Perch      	
4,636
18,421
13,418
6,172
Skate  	
4,683
29,609
Trout
Grayfish, etc.—
Fresh  '	
10,634
2,337,267
12,258
1,098,569
43,121
1,439,861
11,057
1,634,388
6,659
1,539,951
	
2,822
Whales..    ...
987
450,405
620
296
720
Hair-seals	
82,545
319,404
6,548
187,866
2,679
18,531
615,106
122,892
4,375
37,625
1,199
7,127
537,787
233,096
21,147
23,160
2,657
80,079
88,305
990,424
2,822
23,435
242
454,949
37 283
708 004
195
8,464
148,216
Totals 	
$44,531,858
$43,817,147
$58,764,950
$58,703,803
$56,120,154!
The above figures were supplied by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, and
are hereby gratefully acknowledged.
CONDITION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-SPAWNING GROUNDS
We are again indebted to the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for the Federal Government and the officers of his Department who conducted the investigations for furnishing
us with a copy of the Department's report on the salmon-spawning grounds of British
Columbia and in permitting the same .to be published in the Appendix to this Report.
The Chief Supervisor's courtesy in supplying us with this information is gratefully
acknowledged. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT L 25
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON
(PAPER No. 36)
(Digest)
Paper No. 36 of this series is contributed by D. R. Foskett, M.A., of the staff of the
Pacific Biological Station at Nanaimo, B.C. As pointed out in the pages of this Report
for 1949, the work of analysing the commercial salmon-catch in British Columbia's
principal sockeye-fishing rivers has heretofore been done with funds supplied by the
Provincial Department of Fisheries. Latterly, the extended salmon work being conducted
by the Fisheries Research Board of Canada made it possible to have the material for
catch analyses collected simultaneously while other field work was in progress and
arrangements have now been made to have this investigation continued, but the work will
now be financed and carried forward by the Fisheries Research Board of Canada. The
Provincial Department of Fisheries will continue to contribute to the series by publishing
the papers relating to this investigation. These papers will appear in the Appendix to the
Annual Report of the Provincial Department of Fisheries.
In Paper No. 36 the author points out that the outstanding feature of the 1950
sockeye-salmon runs was the large packs in Rivers Inlet, Nass River, and Smith Inlet. In
Rivers Inlet the pack of 142,710 cases was the second heaviest pack recorded in this area.
The Nass River pack of 27,286 cases was the highest since 1936. The Smith Inlet pack
of 42,435 cases was the highest recorded pack in statistics going back to 1925. The
Skeena River pack of 47,479 cases was well below the average of 68,623 cases for the
past ten years.
The author comments that there was a heavy escapement of large sockeye to Rivers
Inlet and the escapement to Smith Inlet was composed of predominantly small fish. The
Nass River had a satisfactory escapement, but the escapement to the Skeena River was
only moderate in the upper reaches and light in the lower areas.
In dealing with the runs to the specific areas, the author points out that in Rivers
Inlet in 1950 the pack of sockeye salmon was 142,710 cases and the catch was composed
chiefly of 52 age-class fish, thus it is evident that the escapement of 1945 was chiefly
responsible for the very large run in 1950. The escapement in 1950 was reported to be
mainly large fish. These would also be of the 52 age-class. The sampling revealed that
in 1950 the run was composed of 86.9 per cent of 52 fish and, while this was not unprecedented, it is, nevertheless, a very high percentage of this age-class for this area.
On the Skeena River the sockeye-pack was composed chiefly of 42 and 52 fish, the
52 age-class predominating. The pack of 47,479 cases was low and, in addition, spawning
was reported as moderate or light in all districts. The escapement to the Babine area was
543,000 sockeye, of which approximately 35 per cent were jacks. This is compared with
the Babine counts of previous years, as follows: 1946, 475,700; 1947, 522,500; 1948,
560,000; and 1949, 509,100.
The author draws attention to the fact that in the 1949 Report the figure quoted for
the Skeena escapement, namely, 509,000, was actually only the escapement to the Babine
area. The escapement to the whole Skeena watershed in 1949 was about average with
moderately heavy seedings occurring in the upper river and light to medium seedings in
the lower river.
In referring to the Nass River sockeye run of 1950, the pack on this river system,
amounting to 27,286 cases, was the largest since 1936 and was composed chiefly of the
53 age-class with the 52 and 63 age-classes being the only other groups present in significant numbers; therefore the large pack in 1950 was due to the return from the 1945
seeding.   The escapement on the Nass River was reported to have been satisfactory.
The Nass River catch, according to the sampling, was composed of 71.2 per cent of
the 53 age-class, 19.3 per cent from the 52 age-class, and 6.1 per cent were from the 63 L 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
age-group. Only 3 per cent were from the 42 age-class and 0.3 per cent from the Ax
age-class. It is evident that, at least in 1950, the older fish made the heaviest contribution
to the pack of that year.
The Smith Inlet sockeye runs have been sampled since 1945 and the results of these
samplings have not previously been included in this series. From the information available the run since 1945 has been predominantly either 42 or 52 age-class fish, percentages
varying from 5 per cent to over 90 per cent for both of these groups. The Smith Inlet
pack has varied from a low of 3,165 in 1944 to a high of 42,435 cases for 1950. The
very low pack in 1944 was due to conservation measures taken by the Dominion Fisheries
Department, and therefore it is not an indication of the size of the run in that year.
For a more thorough analyses of the sockeye-salmon runs to these river systems the
reader is referred to the paper which is published in full in the Appendix to this Report.
HERRING INVESTIGATION
Investigation of the herring populations of British Columbia was continued in
1950-51 by the Fisheries Research Board of Canada at the Pacific Biological Station,
Nanaimo.   The studies are supervised by J. C. Stevenson.
The basic aim of the long-term research programme is to obtain information on
fundamental fisheries problems with a view to enabling a closer approach to maximum
sustained yield of herring resources. A large portion of the work is devoted to intensive
study of the west coast of Vancouver Island population. The purpose of this study might
be considered to be twofold: (1) To investigate the principles involved in the supply of
fish to the fishery, and (2) to study the changes which occur in the west coast population
while catch is not restricted by quota. The latter study is carried out in conjunction with
similar work done on the lower east coast of Vancouver Island, where catch quotas are
enforced, in an effort to decide whether quota restrictions on catch are effective in stabilizing herring populations.
In addition, certain data on catch statistics, amount of spawn deposition, age composition, and extent of movement between populations are collected from all other British
Columbia herring populations, so that the results obtained from the more intensive studies
previously mentioned may be broadly applied.
The detailed results of the fifth year of the west coast of Vancouver Island study are
given in the Appendix to this Report.
West Coast of Vancouver Island Studies
The west coast catch in 1950-51 amounted to 25,200 tons, the smallest fishery of
the five-year period since quota restrictions were removed. However, catch per unit of
effort was similar to that of the previous year, suggesting that population abundance did
not differ greatly in the two years. From tag-recovery and catch data it was calculated
that the initial population abundance in 1950-51 was 0.94 that of the previous year, giving
further evidence that population abundance on the west coast was similar in both seasons.
The small catch was considered to have resulted from the late inshore movement of
the Area 25 (Esperanza Inlet) runs. On February 5th, the fishery closing date, fishing
was stopped while catch per unit of effort was the highest noted for the entire season on
the west coast. There was also evidence that fishing effort had been somewhat curtailed
in Area 23 (Barkley Sound) in December when fishing-vessels were transferred to more
productive fishing-grounds in northern waters. Calculation of the ratio of the exploitation
rate in 1950-51 over that of 1949-50 (0.71) from tagging data suggested that a smaller
proportion of the total population was caught in 1950-51 than in the previous year.
High population abundance was maintained on the west coast by the large contribution of the 1947 year-class (IV-year fish) to the stocks.   This year-class constituted about REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT L 27
45 per cent of the herring caught. On the other hand, Ill-year fish which usually dominate west coast catches were poorly represented in the catches, indicating poor recruitment from the 1948 year-class. The remarkable productivity of the 1947 year-class was
predicted from analysis of data in each year since the year-class was initiated: (1) In
the summers of 1947 and 1948, reports on relative abundance of juvenile herring
suggested that the 1947 year-class was much more abundant than the 1948 year-class;
(2) in the 1947-48 fishing season unusually large numbers of I-year fish appeared on the
fishing-grounds; (3) in the spring of 1949 H-year fish formed a larger proportion of the
spawning runs than fish of that age had ever done before; and (4) the year-class strongly
entered the fishing and spawning runs of 1949-50 as Ill-year fish.
Spawn deposition in 1950 on the west coast was greater than in any other year of the
present study. As might be expected, the area in which exploitation was considered to
be relatively light (Area 25) showed a tremendous increase in spawn deposition over that
of the previous year. In the other major fishing area of the west coast (Area 23), spawning decreased. In this area it appeared that the runs had been adversely affected by the
weak 1948 year-class, and that exploitation had been relatively greater than in Area 25.
Tag-recovery indicated that about 15 per cent of the west coast population emigrated
to other populations. Most of the movement was to the central coast and to the lower
east coast of Vancouver Island, with a small movement to the middle east coast of Vancouver Island. The movement to the lower east coast was smaller than in the previous
year. The significant movement to the central coast will be further investigated in the
second season of intensive tag-recovery in Northern British Columbia waters next year.
Immigration of lower east coast fish into the west coast population was similar to
that of 1949-50. The central and middle east coast populations also contributed fish to
west coast catches.
It was calculated that about 4,700 tons of lower east coast fish were taken from west
coast catches and that about 900 tons of west coast fish were caught on the lower east
coast. On the other hand, approximately the same amount of central coast herring was
taken in the west coast catches as west coast herring taken in central coast catches (1,000
tons and 1,400 tons, respectively).
In addition to these results relating to adult herring, studies are being undertaken
on various early life-history phases. Research on the survival of herring spawn in 1951
showed that on one of the main spawning-beaches in Area 23 (Barkley Sound) mortality
due to bird predation was about 30 per cent, a considerably smaller estimate than that
obtained in 1950. A large number of other factors also account for appreciable spawn
mortality. Dessication of eggs on certain substrates appears to be an important factor,
and also heavy wave action can destroy large amounts of spawn. Progress is being made
in analysing large amounts of larval data taken in recent years. In addition, studies of
juvenile herring are being carried on to determine whether abundance of juvenile herring
can be used to predict eventual recruitment to the fishing stocks.
The Quota Problem
In 1950-51 it appeared that population abundance increased over that of the previous year on the lower east coast of Vancouver Island, where a fixed quota of 40,000
tons is enforced. Evidence for the increase was shown by an increase in catch per unit
of effort and a more extensive spawn deposition. The 1947 year-class (IV-year fish) was
apparently less productive than on the west coast, but the 1948 year-class (Ill's) was
much stronger.
Results of five years of study indicate that population abundance in both populations
has remained at a generally high level throughout the period. Although certain year-
classes have differed greatly in the extent of their recruitment to these two populations,
the average year-class recruitment has been about the same in each sub-district. L 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The strong evidence indicating that in the past two years availability of herring to
the fishing fleet has been unusually low in one fishing area of the west coast (Area 25)
suggests that natural limitations to catch have essentially the same effect as if catch quotas
were applied. To a certain extent these natural restrictions complicate the experimental
basis of the present study. It appears desirable to have information on their effect over
a period of generally low abundance.
Other Herring Studies
The total herring-catch in British Columbia in 1950-51 amounted to 187,300 tons,
about 1,900 tons less than the record catch taken in 1948-49. Intensive fisheries
developed in the northern and central sub-districts. The northern sub-district catch was
the largest ever taken, and the catch per unit of effort was-remarkably high—250 tons
per seine per day's fishing. Quota extensions were granted (20,000 tons in addition to
the 30,000-ton northern quota, and 10,000 tons in addition to the 40,000-ton central
quota), and these were readily taken. For the first time in nine years a fishery developed
in the Queen Charlotte Island sub-district; the fishery (not under quota restrictions)
yielded 3,150 tons. In each of these sub-districts, the extent of spawning in 1951 showed
a decrease over that in 1950, but the reduction in each case was not great.
The upper east coast of Vancouver Island catch amounted to only 3,900 tons, well
below the 10,000-ton quota. The quota on the middle east coast of Vancouver Island
(10,000 tons) was reached, but only half of the 4,000-ton extension was taken. Catch
per unit of effort on the middle east coast was considerably smaller than that of the
previous year, suggesting that population abundance was lower. The extent of spawning
was less than last year on the upper east coast, and about the same as last year on the
middle east coast.
The prominence of the 1947 year-class (IV-year fish) in the 1950-51 herring
fisheries is noteworthy. It dominated all major populations except those of the lower
east coast and the upper east coast. As mentioned previously, the 1948 year-class
(Ill's) entered the fishing stocks of the former sub-district strongly, and population
abundance was increased over that of the previous year. In the latter sub-district, in
which Il-year fish generally form an appreciable proportion of the fishable population,
the 1949 year-class was poorly recruited and population abundance decreased greatly.
In addition to the information pertaining to herring movements between the west
coast and other sub-districts, previously described, estimates of movements between and
within other herring populations were derived from tag-recovery data in 1950-51.
Prediction of population abundance in the 1950-51 season was again attempted,
and the forecasts of the success of the various fisheries was reasonably accurate.
REPORT OF THE BIOLOGIST, 1950
By D. B. Quayle
During the year 1950 the organization of the biological section of the Provincial
Department of Fisheries was completed. Of major importance was the acquisition of the
35-foot power-boat Saxidomus, from which may be carried out most inshore operations
connected with shell-fish investigations. With the facilities now available the shell-fish
laboratory is equipped to handle most biological problems which may arise in connection
with shell-fish and to prosecute investigations essential to the maintenance and development of the industry.
Lectures, both of a technical and general nature, were given to various organizations
throughout the year. Many inquiries were received for information on various aspects
of shell-fish culture. Growing areas were visited whenever possible, and again members
of the industry brought their problems to the laboratory.   A series of bulletins covering REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT L 29
the activities of the laboratory and reports of published work of interest to the industry
was issued.
Co-operation with the Provincial Department of Health and Welfare and the Provincial Department of Lands was maintained in connection with the issuance of shell-fish
leases. Problems on regulatory measures and shell-fish statistics were worked out with
the Dominion Department of Fisheries.
Japanese-oyster seed imported in April was inspected for pests.
Biological Investigations
Oysters
1. A study of the seasonal growth in Pacific oysters, begun in 1949, has been completed and will be reported in detail elsewhere.
2. Material has been gathered for an histological study of the seasonal reproductive
changes in the Pacific oyster.
3. The culture of Pacific oysters from Japanese oyster-seed was continued, and time
and method studies were made on the breaking of clusters.
4. Pacific-oyster breeding was followed closely and reported by bulletins. A minimum commercial set occurred in Ladysmith Harbour.
5. In an effort to supplement local natural breeding, a preliminary attempt was made
to utilize a salt lagoon located on the north side of Cortes Island at Carrington Bay. The
lagoon was dammed at the entrance and a supply of adult ripe oysters placed inside.
These were stimulated to spawn. Damming assisted in raising the water temperature in
the lagoon.   Limited spatting indicated possibilities worthy of further investigation.
6. Previous information indicated that a natural breeding of Pacific oysters had
taken place somewhere in the north-east corner of the Strait of Georgia region in 1949.
A search located this breeding area in Pendrell Sound, which penetrates deep into the
lesser Redonda Island which lies at the entrance to Toba Inlet. A heavy set had occurred
in 1949 and there was evidence of a smaller set in 1948 with possibly one in 1947 also.
High water temperatures (22.0° C.) were maintained throughout July and August.
Oyster larvae occurred in the plankton at all times between July 25th and September 8th.
Pacific-oyster shell-strings exposed on the shore between July 24th and August 24th
caught an average of forty-four spat per Pacific-oyster shell of average size. Because of
its potential value as a breeding area, Pendrell Sound has been reserved for public use
and no leases are being granted.
7. Oyster-shell is the cultch material in general use in British Columbia. This is
unsatisfactory because of the floating power required to suspend the heavy weight of
shell-strings. Also, cluster-breaking is costly, both in labour and in the mortality of
the seed. Cement-dipped collapsible cardboard egg-trays have been used extensively in
other oyster-growing areas but there are certain disadvantages. The recently developed
moulded papier-mache Keyes-type egg-trays appear to offer possibilities as oyster cultch
and experiments are presently under way to test their suitability.
8. Native-oyster seed was collected to implement the stock on the experimental area.
Clams
Clam investigations at the present time are secondary to the oyster work and no
major research is being conducted. Contact with the fishery is being maintained and
routine observations are being made to preserve continuity of records.
Razor Clams.—The razor-clam beach on the north end of Graham Island (Queen
Charlotte Islands) was examined early in May. Sampling indicated that 1948 breeding
was not particularly successful. The 1950 razor-clam production totalled 352,358
pounds from 6,204 man-tides, giving a return of 56.8 pounds per man-tide. L 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Hard-shell Clams.—Statistics on the catch per man-tide were collected only up to
June, 1950, due to lack of funds and to the fact the Dominion Department of Fisheries
was arranging to take over the collection of clam statistics in 1951. Samples of the
commercial catch, chiefly from the Alert Bay area, were collected.
Seal Island.—Seal Island was opened to commercial digging without restrictions
during the period February 15th and May 31st, 1950. A total of 77,229 pounds of
butter-clams was dug. Sampling in August, 1950, indicated a remaining stock of
approximately 100 tons. Of the clam population on Seal Island, 18.4 per cent were under
the legal size of 2Vi inches in length, 70 per cent of which were of the 1947 year-class.
The clams of legal size are still mainly of the original large year-classes of 1934 and 1935.
Paralytic Shell-fish Poisoning   .
In connection with the work of the Pacific Coast Shell-fish Committee and in cooperation with the Pacific Oceanographic Group at the Pacific Biological Station at
Nanaimo and the Dominion Department of Fisheries, an attempt was made to correlate
the occurrence of paralytic shell-fish poison in butter-clams in Barkley Sound with inshore
or offshore (oceanic) water types based on salinity stratification. A study of the seasonal
change in the abundance of dinoflagellates, which are presumed to be the causative organisms, was also carried out.
Acknowledgments
Sincere appreciation is hereby expressed for the assistance and co-operation given
by the-Dominion Department of Fisheries, the Pacific Biological Station at Nanaimo, the
Pacific Oceanographic Group at Nanaimo, the Provincial Department of Lands and
Forests, the Provincial Department of Health and Welfare, and the shell-fish industry of
British Columbia. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT L 31
APPENDICES
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE
SOCKEYE SALMON (No. 36)
By D. R. Foskett, M.A., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
INTRODUCTION
The outstanding feature of the 1950 sockeye runs was the large packs in Rivers
Inlet, Nass River, and Smith Inlet. Rivers Inlet pack of 142,710 cases was the second
heaviest pack recorded for this area. The Nass River pack of 27,286 cases is the highest
since 1936. The Smith Inlet pack of 42,435 cases is the highest recorded pack in
statistics going back to 1925 (Table XIX). The Skeena pack of 47,479 cases was well
below the average of 68,623 cases for the past ten years.
There was a heavy escapement of large sockeye to Rivers Inlet and of predominantly
small fish to Smith Inlet. The Nass had a satisfactory escapement, but that to the Skeena
was moderate in the upper reaches and light in the lower areas.
DESIGNATION OF AGE-GROUPS
Two outstanding features in the life-history of the fish have been selected in designating the age-groups—namely, the age at maturity and the year of its life in which the
fish migrated from fresh water. These are expressed symbolically by two numbers—one
in large type, which indicates the age of maturity, and the other in small type, placed to
the right and below, which signifies the year of life in which the fish left fresh water. The
age-groups which are met most commonly are:—
31; 4X—the " sea-types " or fish which migrate seaward in their first year and
mature in their third and fourth year respectively.
32—" the grilse," usually males, which migrate seaward in their second
year and mature in their third year.
42, 52—fish which migrate seaward in their second year and mature in their
fourth and fifth years respectively.
53, 63—fish which migrate seaward in their third year and mature in their fifth
and sixth years respectively.
64, 74—fish which migrate seaward in their fourth year and mature in their
sixth and seventh years respectively.
1. THE RIVERS INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1950
(1) General Characteristics
The pack of sockeye salmon at Rivers Inlet in 1950 was 142,710 cases. The catch
was composed chiefly of 52 fish (Table I). Thus it is evident that the escapement of
1945 was chiefly responsible for the very large run of 1950. The escapement in 1950,
reported to be mainly large fish, would also be of the 52 age-class.
(2) Age-groups
Just over 2,000 sockeye from Rivers Inlet were sampled in 1950, and of these, 86.9
per cent were 52 fish. While not unprecedented, this is a very high percentage of this
age-class for this area.   The 42 age-class was represented by 261 sockeye or 12.8 per cent L 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
of the catch.   These two age-groups formed 99.7 per cent of the catch.   Small numbers
of 4X and 53 age-class sockeye were present (Table I).
(3) Lengths and Weights
The average lengths of the males and females of the 42 age-group were 21.1 and 20.8
inches respectively; of the 52 age-group, 25.2 and 24.2 inches respectively. The average
weights of the males and females of the 42 age-group were 4.2 and 3.9 pounds; respectively;
of the 52 age-group, 7.5 and 6.4 pounds respectively. Data on the 4t and 53 age-groups
may be found in Tables II and III.
(4) Distribution of Sexes
There were 841 males and 1,199 females in the sample, giving percentages of 41
and 59 respectively. However, 75.1 per cent of the 261 42 fish were males and only 24.9
per cent females. In the 52 age-group 641 sockeye or 36.2 per cent of the 1,773 fish
were males; 1,132 sockeye or 63.8 per cent were females (Table VI). These percentages
are not unusual in the sockeye-catch in this area.
2. THE SKEENA RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1950
(1) General Characteristics
The Skeena River sockeye-pack was composed chiefly of 42 and 52 age-class fish, the
latter predominating (Table VII). Smaller numbers of 53 and 63 age-class fish were
present. The pack of 47,479 cases was low and, in addition, spawning was reported as
moderate or light in all districts. The escapement to the Babine area was 543,000 sockeye, of which approximately 35 per cent were jacks. This may be compared with the
Babine counts of previous years: 1946, 475,700; 1947, 522,500 (approximately 48 per
cent jacks); 1948,560,000;* 1949, 509,100 (approximately 9.5 per cent jacks). It is
necessary to note that in the 1949 Report the figure quoted for the Skeena escapement
(509,000) was actually only the escapement to the Babine area. The escapement to the
whole Skeena watershed in 1949 was about average, with moderately heavy seedings
occurring in the upper river and light to medium seedings in the lower river. The
estimate quoted for the 1948 escapement in the 1949 Report is considered to be low,
although the actual spawning escapement estimates since 1948 are not available. The
Fisheries Research Board of Canada has not included such surveys of the whole Skeena
watershed in its general programme, and records obtained by Fisheries Department
Inspectors have not yet been adequately analysed.
(2) Age-groups
The Skeena sockeye sample in 1950 consisted of 1,511 fish, of which the 42 and 52
age-classes made up 93.5 per cent, the latter predominating with 1,092 fish or 72.3 per
cent. The 53 and 63 age-groups were represented by 53 and 42 sockeye respectively or
percentages of 3.5 and 2.8 (Table VII). The 41; 32, and 62 age-classes were each represented by one fish. The Ax sockeye, a female, was 23.5 inches long and weighed 5.1
pounds; the 32 fish was a male 14 inches long and weighed 1.2 pounds; and the 62 sockeye, also a male, was 26.5 inches long and weighed 8.3 pounds.
(3) Lengths and Weights
Though the Skeena sockeye were not numerous in 1950, their average length was
close to the maximum recorded for the area. The males and females of the 42 age-class
had average lengths of 22.8 and 22.3 inches respectively; those of the 52 age-group were
25.7 and 24.4 inches respectively; and the 53 age-group had average lengths of 23.9 and
* This figure is an estimate, as the Babine fence was not operating in 1948. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT L 33
23.4 inches respectively for the males and females. The 63 age-class, however, was
nearer the normal length for that group, with the males averaging 25.5 inches and the
females 24.3 inches. The 42 age-class, males and females, had low average weights in
comparison with past years, being respectively 4.8 and 4.3 pounds. In the 52 age-group,
however, the males, with an average of 7.2 pounds, were relatively heavy, while the
females, averaging 5.9 pounds, were relatively light. In the 53 age-class both the males
and females, with averages of 5.8 pounds and 5.1 pounds, were comparatively heavy.
However, fish in the 63 age-class were comparatively light, the males and females averaging 6.8 and 5.6 pounds respectively (Tables VIII, IX, X, and XI).
(4) Distribution of Sexes
Of the 1,511 sockeye in the Skeena sample, 664 or 43.9 per cent were males and
847 or 56.1 per cent were females. These percentages were reversed for the 42 age-
group, 56 per cent being males and 44 per cent females. In the 52 age-class 40 per cent
were males and 60 per cent females. The 53 age-class sex ratio was similar to the 42
age-class, with 53 per cent males and 47 per cent females, while the percentages of
males and females in the 63 age-class were 40 per cent and 60 per cent respectively; that
is, the same as the 52 age-group (Table XII).
3. THE NASS RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1950
(1) General Characteristics
The Nass River sockeye-pack of 27,286 cases was the largest since 1936. It was
composed chiefly of 53 age-class salmon, with the 52 and 63 age-classes being the only
other groups present in significant numbers. Thus it is seen that the large pack was due
to the return from the 1945 seeding.
The escapement was reported as satisfactory on the Nass River in 1950.
(2) Age-groups
Of the 2,280 sockeye in the Nass River sample, 1,624 or 71.2 per cent were from
the 53 age-class; 441 or 19.3 per cent were from the 52 age-class; 139 or 6.1 per cent
were from the 63 age-group; and 69 or 3.0 per cent were from the 42 age-class (Table
XIII).   The 4X age-class was represented by 7 fish or 0.3 per cent of the run.
(3) Lengths and Weights
The lengths and weights of the Nass River sockeye as shown in the tables are not
unusual for this run. The 53 age-group had average lengths of 24.5 and 23.7 inches
respectively for the males and females, and the 52 age-class 26.0 and 24.7 inches respectively. The lengths for the 63, 42, and 4X age-classes, males and females, were 26.7 and
25.6, 23.6 and 23.1, and 25.0 and 23.3 inches respectively (Tables XIV and XVI).
The weights of the different age-classes, males and females, were as follows: 42 age-
group, 5.9 and 5.2 pounds; 52 age-group, 7.9 and 6.6 pounds; 53 age-group, 6.4 and
5.5 pounds; and the 63 age-class, 8.2 and 7.1 pounds)respectively (Tables XV and XVII).
There is nothing out of the ordinary about these weights.
(4) Distribution of Sexes
Of the 2,280 sockeye in the sample, 993 or 43.6 per cent were males and 1,287 or
56.4 per cent were females. This ratio held for all the main age-groups except the 63
class, where it was reversed, 58 per cent being males and 42 per cent females (Table
XVIII). L 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
4. THE SMITH INLET SOCKEYE RUN FOR 1950
(1) General Characteristics
Though the Smith Inlet sockeye have been sampled since 1945, the results have not
previously been included in this series. Most of the previous work on these fish has been
done by J. G. Robertson, of this station, and A. Andrekson, formerly of this station.
Results of their studies appeared in the Progress Reports of the Pacific Coast Stations,
Fisheries Research Board of Canada, No. 75, July, 1948, and No. 82, April, 1950. The
arrangements for sampling the run have been made by the Dominion Fisheries Department Inspector for the Rivers Inlet-Smith Inlet area.
From Table XIX it is seen that the run since 1945 has been predominantly either
42 or 52 age-class fish, percentages varying from 5 per cent to over 90 per cent for both
these groups. The pack has varied from a low of 3,165 in 1944 to a high of 42,435
cases for 1950. However, the former pack was low due to protective measures taken by
the Dominion Fisheries Department and thus is not an indication of the size of the run
in that year.
(2) Age-groups
As mentioned above, the Smith Inlet sockeye, at least since 1945, consisted chiefly
of 42 and 52 age-classes (Table XIX). In none of these years have all other age-classes
combined amounted to as much as 5 per cent of the total sample. In 1950 the 52 age-
class was represented by 406 fish or 82.9 per cent of the sample and the 42 age-class by
83 fish or 16.9 per cent of the sample. One 53 fish was present in the sample of 490
sockeye.
(3) Lengths and Weights
The average length and weight of the Smith Inlet sockeye sample was 23.9 inches
and 6.5 pounds. The 52 age-class averaged 24.3 inches and 6.9 pounds. The males in
the 52 age-class averaged 24.8 inches and 7.4 pounds and the females 24.0 inches and
6.6 pounds. The 42 age-class, males and females, averaged 21.6 inches and 4.9 pounds
and 21.7 inches and 5.0 pounds respectively and with the sexes combined averaged 21.6
inches and 4.9 pounds (Tables XX and XXI). A peculiarity, noticed in three out of the
six years in which sampling has been done in this area, is the tendency of the female fish
of the 42 age-class to be both longer and heavier than the males (Tables XXII and
XXIII).
(4) Distribution of Sexes
The sex ratio of the Smith Inlet sockeye sample has, during the past six years, varied
from 77 to 41 per cent males and from 23 to 59 per cent females. The 49:51 ratio of
males to females in 1950 is the closest to equality of sexes recorded in the sampling
(Table XXIV). It is not known to what extent, if any, gill-net selectivity affects the sex
ratio in the catch for this area. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
L 35
Table I.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs
Year
Percentage of Individuals
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
(87,874 cases)...
(64,652 cases)—.
(89,027 cases)....
(126,921 cases)-.
(88,763 cases)-
(112,884 cases)..
(61,745 cases)-.
(89,890 cases)—
(130,350 cases)-
(44,936 cases)—.
(61,195 cases)....
(53,401 cases)....
(56,258 cases)....
(121,254 cases)..
(46,300 cases)-
(60,700 cases)-.
(107,174 cases)-.
(94,891 cases)....
(159,554 cases)..
(65,581 cases).-.
(64,461 cases)—.
(60,044 cases)....
(70,260 cases)....
(119,170 cases)..
(76,428 cases)....
(69,732 cases)....
(83,507 cases)....
(76,923 cases)....
(135,038 cases)..
(46,351 cases)—.
(84,832 cases)-
(87,942 cases)-.
(54,143 cases)—.
(63,469 cases)-.
(93,378 cases) —
(79,199 cases)....
(47,602 cases)....
(36,852 cases)....
(89,735 cases)....
(73,320 cases)....
(140,087 cases)..
(37,665 cases)-...
(39,495 cases) —
(142,710 cases)..
21
80
35
13
26
39
57
46
5
49
81
74
43
23-
59
81
55
77
49
53
67
44
77
57
53
60
27
67
69
59
76
57
37
3
55
84
13
79
20
65
87
74
61
43
54
95
51
18
24
54
77
38
16
40
18
48
44
27
55
20
41
46
37
70
32
28
40
91
91
23
41
63
97
44
14
87
1
1
1 Age-class represented but less than 0.5 per cent. L 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table II.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1950, Grouped by Age, Sex, Length,
and by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Length in Inches
4i
42
52
5
3
i
3
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
17
1
1
z:
1
4
2
9
1
11
6
16
9
15
7
25
11
8
6
29
5
7
4
6
1
6
1
3
2
1
3
2
4
3
7
3
5
7
14
2
1
6
4
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
8
3
10
6
27
6
21
8
49
14
44
24
83
30
55
34
78
19
39
20
34
4
10
4
4
1
1
1
1
5
1
11
4
39
13
37
18
106
29
70
43
171
55
122
60
165
37
62
24
42
4
7
4
1
1
1
1
1
......
1
—
—
1
1714    	
171*
17%	
18
4
1814	
I8V2	
18%
2
19	
12
1914 -
19 Vi       ...   -
3
15
19%        	
9
20
24
2014- —
12
20
20% 	
14
21       	
2114 —	
45
16
21%   	
21%--	
22	
2214  	
vv?
20
11
83
26
55
22%	
23    -          —                 	
28
142
23 'A
36
23%         —
97
23%        	
24   .   .—	
53
224
2414 -	
24%
69
168
24%                   	
84
25..	
25 V*   	
25%                    	
249
68
117
25%..  -	
26   	
26V*.....	
26% -	
26%     	
58
120
23
47
24
27                                   	
35
2714 -	
27%                            —.
4
11
27%. - 	
28                                      	
4
4
2814 --	
78%
1
1
28%                               	
1
Totals          	
1    1        1
196    |      65
641    | 1,132
3
1
—
—
2,040
Average lengths.	
26.5
23.0
21.1
20.8
25.2
24.2
22.4
25.0
—
—
24.1 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
L 37
Table III.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1950, Grouped by Age, Sex, Weight,
and by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Weight in Pounds
41
A
2
52
i
3
63
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
2 -	
......
1
1
2
1
1
3
21
14
17
16
26
19
21
13
13
10
9
3
3
2
1
1
2
6
10
5
10
10
8
5
4
3
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
3
7
14
13
17
20
35
29
29
32
59
41
50
30
55
38
31
26
36
17
13
6
14
11
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
3
5
17
12
25
21
47
53
88
76
133
93
107
63
111
77
69
39
42
15
15
8
6
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
—
—
2
2% 	
1
2%-   -   .
1
2%                ...
6
3
27
314  -
26
3%	
27
4	
33
54
414  -
42
4%-	
54
4%    	
43
5
77
514     --
78
5%-   -      .   ,	
5% 	
114
100
6  -
171
614	
124
6% -   	
138
6%	
95
7	
171
714  	
118
7% 	
120
7% - -.    	
8  -
69
97
8%	
8%-	
8%                 -     ..
53
47
34
9
42
914 -    	
914..	
9% -	
10  	
10>4
20
14
6
15
11
lO'/i    	
3
10%
2
11
im
1
11%
iim
1
12
1
Totals
1    |        1    |    196
65
641    11,132
3
1
—
     |   2,040
Average weights—
8.5
5.3
4.2
3.9
7.5
6.4
4.6
7.5
—
—-
6.4 L 38
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table IV.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of the
42 and 52 Groups, 1912 to 1950
Year
A
2
i
2
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41                                                     	
22.4
21.6
21.9
20.5
21.1
20.9
20.6
20.6
21.4
20.9
21.1
22.4
21.6
21.3
21.1
21.0
21.2
21.1
20.7
21.3
21.4
20.8
25.4
24.6
25.0
24.3
'    23.5
24.2
25.1
24.0
25.2
23.8
25.2
24.7
23.9
1942  	
23.8
1943          .   .      	
1944        —                        -. ,.
23.7
23.3
1945	
1946
23.9
24.1
1947 	
1948                                    	
23.5
24.2
1949    	
1950                                                                       —
22.8
24.2
Table V.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of the
42 and 52 Groups, 1914 to 1950
Year
42
52
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41                                     	
4.9
5.1
4.1
4.6
4.3
3.9
4.1
4.7
4.4
4.2
4.8
4.6
4.4
4.4
4.4
3.9
3.9
4.6
4.3
3.9
7.0
7.2
6.8
6.2
6.6
7.2
6.4
7.9
5.9
7.5
6.5
1942                                                                        	
6.4
1943	
6.3
1944 —.	
1945 -	
1946    	
1947	
1948
6.0
6.4
6.2
5.9
7.0
1949                                                                        	
5.9
1950                                                              	
6.4
Table VI.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1950
Year
41
A
2
52
Per Cent
Total
Males
Per Cent
Total
Females
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
36
50
64
50
63
61
62
67
70
79
72
50
70
75
37
39
38
33
30
21
28
50
30
25
34
35
34
33
39
37
35
38
22
36
66
65
66
67
61
63
65
62
78
64
50
38
36
59
57
53
36
45
63
41
50
1942 	
62
1943  	
1944   -    -.
1945	
64
41
43
1946   	
1947        -	
47
64
1948   	
1949
55
37
1950 	
59 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
L 39
Table VII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs
Year
Percentage of Individuals
1907 (108,413 cases)-
1908 (139,846 cases)-
1909 (87,901 cases) —
1910 (187,246 cases)-
1911 (131,066 cases)..
1912 (92,498 cases) _
1913 (52,927 cases) —
1914 (130,166 cases)-
1915 (116,553 cases)-
1916 (60,923 cases)-
1917 (65,760 cases)--
1918 (123,322 cases)..
1919 (184,945 cases)..
1920 (90,869 cases) —
1921 (41,018 cases) —
1922 (96,277 cases) —
1923 (131,731 cases)..
1924 (144,747 cases)-
1925 (77,784 cases) —
1926 (82,360 cases) —
1927 (83,996 cases) —
1928 (34,559 cases) —
1929 (78,017 cases) —
1930 (132,372 cases)..
1931 (93,023 cases)-.
1932 (59,916 cases) —
1933 (30,506 cases) -
1934 (54,558 cases)-.
1935 (52,879 cases) —
1936 (81,973 cases)....
1937 (42,491 cases)-
1938 (47,257 cases) —
1939 (68,485 cases)-.
1940 (116,507 cases)..
1941 (81,767 cases) —
1942 (34,544 cases).-
1943 (28,268 cases)....
1944 (68,197 cases) —
1945 (104,279 cases)..
1946 (52,928 cases)-
1947 (32,534 cases) —
1948 (101,267 cases)..
1949 (65,937 cases) —
1950 (47,479 cases) —
57
50
25
36
34
57
51
27
15
69
70
56
23
51
62
62
51
62
39
40
44
57
58
49
67
45
64
50
80
39
36
39
37
20
13
14
80
17
21
43
50
75
64
38
29
34
60
71
22
16
29
69
45
26
28
39
30
52
30
37
36
34
31
20
40
15
35
15
52
54
39
52
63
70
82
13
76
72
13
9
9
9
6
6
12
8
7
3
9
9
7
6
8
28
7
5
7
18
11
11
16
11
4
8
7
16
7
12
8
3
6
4
4
18
5
6
4
8
3
2
7
1
1
3
1
3
2
1
2
12
2
1
2
2
4
5
'4
1
1
3
6
4
5
9
1
1
3
3 L 40
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VIII.—
Skeena River Sockeyes, 1950, Grouped by Age, Sex, Length,
and by Their Early History
Length in Inches
Number of Individuals
Total
A
2
52
h
h
Other Age-classes
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Age
M.
F.
14	
32
1
1
18% -	
1
1
19	
1914	
19%	
1
	
	
	
—
	
	
1
.
.
19%     	
20 	
2014	
1
1
	
	
	
	
	
1
1
4
_.-.
~ 1
20%	
2
1
1
4
20% -	
1
1
21      -   -
5
4
1
1
11
2114-.	
4
6
10
21%  .
4
16
20
21%	
2
17
1
20
22 .   - - .
14
21
4
1
40
2214 -     .
17
17
2
5
41
22%	
16
16
1
10
2
3
48
22%	
15
7
2
7
1
1
.
1
_
.
34
23- .  	
23
15
3
26
2
4
1
74
23%	
15
6
2
20
1
1
45
23% 	
21
8
5
54
2
1
	
4
4i
1
96
23%-  	
8
3
8
56
1
3
1
80
24
8
2
17
88
4
3
1
4
127
2414 . 	
7
1
14
49
1
2
1
2
77
24% 	
5
15
68
2
1
2
2
.
95
24%	
2
10
58
2
4
.
76
25        	
2
46
68
3
1
3
5
128
25%   -	
1
1
32
28
46
58
3
1
1
1
2
1
	
	
85
90
25% 	
25%               	
28
17
45
26          	
1
65
18
1
4
89
26% -	
	
39
6
	
2
_
.
47
26%                   -   -
38
2
62
1
41
26%.     	
25
2
1
28
27	
22
1
23
?TA
8
1
9
27%   -	
11
1
12
27%  	
3
3
->8
9
9
28%  - .
3
3
?R%
	
	
1
	
	
	
.—
	
	
1
Totals 	
180
141
437    |    655
28    |      25    |      17    |      25
	
2
1
1,511
Average lengths
22.8
22.3
25.7
24.4
23.9
23.4
25.5    |   24.3
1
	
	
	
24.4
• REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
L 41
Table IX.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1950, Grouped by Age, Sex, Weight,
and by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Weight in Pounds
4
2
5
2
h
€
3
Other Age-classes
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
U.
F.
M.
F.
Age
M.
F.
1% —
32
1
1
1% -
1%-- 	
2  	
2% 	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
	
1
1
2% 	
1
	
	
	
	
	
1
?.%
1
1
3 	
1
1
2
3%   	
2
2
.
.
1
	
5
3% 	
10
10
15
21
	
1
	
	
—
26
3% -	
31
4 	
22
26
10
1
2
61
4%  	
15
14
14
1
2
	
46
4% -  — ,
24
24
2
26
2
2
1
81
4%	
13
16
6
30
1
2
1
69
5	
23
11
9
69
1
2
5
4i
1
121
514- 	
11
2
7
51
2
1
1
2
77
5%...	
13
4
14
84
3
2
2
122
5%	
7
3
11
42
2
2
4
71
6     - _ .
13
2
31
81
2
4
3
6
142
6%	
3
1
27
36
2
2
2
3
76
6%	
2
35
59
2
2
100
6%     ........
5
34
48
2
2
	
91
7 	
3
53
36
3
2
1
98
7%	
1
24
22
.„
1
.
48
7% 	
40
22
3
1
66
7% 	
25
27
17
20
11
9
2
1
	
2
1
62
1
38
8   	
36
8%    	
21
8%	
21
8% — -	
14
1
_
15
9	
14
1
1
16
9%   	
10
5
	
10
9% 	
5
9%	
1
1
10	
7
	
	
7
10%. -- ..
	
	
2
	
	
	
2
10% 	
	
	
	
	
10%-
	
	
2
	
	
	
2
Tntals
180
141
437
655
28    |      25
17
25
2    |         1    |1,511
Average weights
4.8
4.3
7.2
5.9
5.8         5.1
6.8
5.6
......    |    —    |     6.0
1               1 L 42                                                      BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table X.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1950
Year
42
52
53
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41   	
23.7
23.1
25.8
24.9
24.2
23.4
25.8
24.8
1912-41 (conversion)    ..
23.0
22.4
25.1
24.2
23.5
22.7
25.1
24.1
1942 	
22.6
22.3
25.2
24.3
24.1
23.7
26.3
24.9
1943  ...
21.9
21.9
25.1
23.9
23.3
22.6
25.8
24.7
1944
22.4
22.6
21.7
22.3
24.8
24.9
23.9
24.1
22.5
23.3
21.7
22.6
25.0
25.0
23.7
24.3
1945   -
1946 - -
22.7
22.0
25.4
24.3
23.9
23.2
25.5
24.4
1947   —
22.3
22.0
25.1
23.8
23.0
22.4
26.3
25.8
1948-     	
23.0
22.3
25.3
24.1
23.0.
22.1
26.0
24.5
1949	
22.5
22.2
25.3
24.5
23.2
22.3
24.8
23.9
1950   -	
22.8
22.3
25.7
24.4
23.9
23.4
25.5
24.3
Table XI.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1950
Year
42
52
53
63
M.
F.
M.
F.   ■
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41 - 	
5.4
5.0
6.8
6.1
5.7
5.1
6.8
6.0
1942   	
4.9
4.7
6.7
6.0
5.8
5.4
7.2
6.6
1943 	
4.7
4.6
6.8
5.9
5.5
4.9
7.3
6.1
1944
5.1
5.2
4.6
4.9
7.0
6.7
6.1
6.1
5.3
5.6
4.6
5.0
7.1
6.7
5.8
6.2
1945-       -	
1946 	
4.7
4.2
6.9
5.8
5.8
5.1
7.0
6.1
1947 	
4.9
4.7
6.9
5.9
5.3
5.0
7.7
6.8
1948— 	
5.5
4.9
7.3
6.1
5.4
4.7
7.7
6.4
1949 _ ,
5.0
4.7
7.1
6.3
5.3
4.8
6.6
5.7
1950   	
4.8
4.3
7.2
5.9
5.8
5.1
6.8
5.6
Table XII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females, 1915 to 1950
Year
42
52
Per Cent
Total
Per Cent
M.
F.
M.
F.
Males
Females
48
52
43
57
46
54
1942 - -   .
42
58
25
75
33
67
1943 	
50
50
'  31
69
43
57
1944  	
54
46
34
66
43
57
1945  	
41
59
35
65
38
62
1946  	
50
50
32
68
38
62
1947	
50
50
29
71
33
67
1948-  	
50
50
29
71
47
53
1949      —
54
46
30
70
36
64
1950
56
44
40
60
44
56 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
L 43
Table XIII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Principal Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs
Year
Percentage of Individuals
1912 (36,037 cases)..
1913 (23,574 cases)-
1914 (31,327 cases)-
1915 (39,349 cases)..
1916 (31,411 cases)..
1917 (22,188 cases)..
1918 (21,816 cases)..
1919 (28,259 cases)..
1920 (16,740 cases)..
1921 (9,364 cases)....
1922 (31,277 cases )..
1923 (17,821 cases)..
1924 (33,590 cases)..
1925 (18,945 cases)..
1926 (15,929 cases)..
1927 (12,026 cases)..
1928 (5,540 cases)-.
1929 (16,077 cases)..
1930 (26,405 cases)-
1931 (16,929 cases)-
1932 (14,154 cases)-
1933 (9,757 cases) -
1934 (36,242 cases)-
1935 (12,712 cases)-
1936 (28,562 cases) ..
1937 (17,567 cases)-
1938 (21,462 cases)..
1939 (24,357 cases)..
1940 (13,809 cases)-
1941 (24,876 cases)-
1942 (21,085 cases)..
1943 (13,412 cases)-
1944 (13,083 cases)..
1945 (9,899 cases) —
1946 (12,511 cases)..
1947 (10,849 cases)..
1948 (13,181 cases)-
1949 (9,268 cases) -
1950 (27,286 cases)..
15
4
19
9
10
30
7
8
10
6
11
4
23
12
8
30
25
28
10
28
35
13
11
16
22
21
14
23
37
22
5
15
46
13
15
12
39
3
27
12
41
14
17
15
16
22
14
7
2
6
3
8
12
7
6
9
15
17
4
7
9
10
7
4
4
13
8
7
7
13
15
11
12
12
16
6
19
63
71
45
59
66
71
45
65
72
75
91
77
91
67
63
81
61
60
54
67
61
55
74
73
67
68
70
66
59
52
66
67
32
37
72
56
60
48
71
2
2
10
4
9
6
6
8
1
6
2
2
13
4
3
6
3
6
7
3
4
6
10
6
5
7
10
4
5
15
38
6
3
17
12
7
6 L 44
Table XIV.
BRITISH COLUMBIA
—Nass River Sockeyes, 1950, Grouped by Age, Sex, Length,
and by Their Early History
Length in Inches
Number of Individuals
Total
4i
42
52
h
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
19%        	
1
1
20-     -
1
1
20%--
	
2014     .
?m
1
1
21	
1
1
21%.. .
1
1
2
21V,
1
2
3
21%          .
2
2
6
10
22	
1
3
23
27
2214
4
3
1
5
20
33
22%
3
1
5
3
	
1
2
9
8
56
60
	
	
74
74
27%
23...   -
1
5
6
1
7
22
105
147
2314 --
2
1
4
1
12
33
81
1
136
23%
1
2
4
2
18
54
98
_
180
23%
2
2
12
43
90
149
24	
1
3
1
28
81
105
7
227
24%	
	
_
3
5
13
61
64
2
2
150
24%	
4
1
9
29
83
71
3
201
24?4.
2
	
3
20
60
40
4
130
25.	
3
1
1
13
37
57
46
2
2
162
25%—.
1
7
15
45
20
2
5
95
75%
1
19
27
51
15
6
5
119
25%.—
	
1
 ,
13
7
17
8
3
5
54
26. .   .
	
22
7
23
10
3
7
72
26%.—
	
	
	
20
8
12
4
4
4
57
26% —
	
	
19
6
11
2
7
1
46
26%
9
3
11
5
1
27.
11
1
4
10
4
30
27%—
	
	
10
2
7
2
71
27%.  .
	
	
6
1
_
5
17
27% —
	
	
9
5
4
18
28 —
	
3
1
4
1
9
2814	
   .
	
1
_
„
4
5
28% ...
	
1
2
3   .
28% —
	
	
i
2
3
29- -
	
	
	
_
2
2
29%
Totals	
Average lengths _
	
	
	
	
1
	
1
3
4    |      28
41
186    |    255    |    695    |    929
81
58
2,280
25.0
23.3
23.6
23.1
26.0    |   24.7    |   24.5
1              1
23.7
26.7
25.6
24.4 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
L 45
Table XV.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1950, Grouped by Age, Sex, Weight,
and by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Weight in Pounds
4i
4
2
52
h
63
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
3	
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
4
3
1
5
3
3
1
3
1
1
1
1
2
3
2
6
5
8
2
7
2
1
1
2
1
1
5
3
10
3
16
13
23
12
15
10
24
14
9
4
7
4
4
2
3
1
1
i
4
1
10
5
23
10
26
19
34
27
27
17
18
8
12
5
1
1
1
1
1
1
~~2
9
10
10
22
24
61
56
87
75
99
53
55
34
48
17
15
6
8
3
1
1
1
8
6
22
21
66
64
108
101
159
76
109
45
69
29
25
7
5
4
3
1
1
1
1
4
2
3
4
6
3
11
4
6
10
5
2
10
4
3
~1
2
1
1
5
5
6
5
6
3
4
4
1
5
3
4
1
1
1
3%	
2
3%	
10
3%	
8
4	
26
4%. —    _
36
4%	
85
4%—	
76
5— 	
149
5%--	
143
5% 	
258
5%  -
148
6	
246
6% _	
150
6% 	
227
6%	
121
7 	
137
7%     -   .
78
7%-	
105
7%.	
48
R	
58
8%	
30
8%  .
8%	
41
29
9 -	
19
9%	
9%	
9%      .
8
19
8
10 	
10%   	
4
3
10%.- -	
7
Totals 	
3    |       4    |      28
41
186    |    255    |    695    |    929
81
58'
2,280
Average weights—
7.3    |     5.7    |     5.9
1              1
5.2
7.9    |     6.6    |     6.4
1             1
5.5
8.2
7.1
6.2
Table XVI.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1950
42
52
h
63
Year
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41            -
24.5
23.8
23.9
22.8
23.5
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.3
23.8
23.6
23.7
23.0
23.2
22.2
22.7
22.8
22.4
22.9
22.6
22.8
23.1
26.3
25.6
26.1
26.1
25.7
25.0
26.3
25.9
26.2
26.2
26.0
25.2
24.5
24.9
24.8
24.6
24.4
24.9
24.1
25.3
23.8
24.7
26.1
25.4
24.9
24.1
24.8
24.7
24.9
24.5
25.0
24.7
24.5
23.3
24.6
24.3
23.5
23.8
24.0
23.9
23.6
24.1
23.7
23.7
27.7
27.0
26.9
27.1
26.8
25.1
28.1
27.0
27.7
26.1
26.7
26.4
25.7
1942
26.0
1943 	
1944
25.8
25.8
1Q15
25.5
1946                   	
26.0
1°47
25.6
1948                    	
26.7
1949     -    -   -
1950                  . - 	
25.5
25.6 L 46
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XVII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1950
Year
42
52
h
«3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41	
6.0
5.8
5.2
5.7
5.7
5.6
5.8
5.8
5.9
5.9
5.4
5.1
4.7
5.0
5.3
4.9
5.3
5.3
5.1
5.2
7.3
7.1
7.6
7.7
7.0
8.1
7.7
8.1
7.9
7.9
6.4
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.4
6.7
6.2
7.1
5.8
6.6
6.9
6.2
5.9
6.7
6.5
6.5
6.3
7.0
6.5
6.4
6.2
5.6
5.3
5.7
5.9
5.4
5.6
6.0
5.4
5.5
8.0
7.5
7.9
8.2
7.2
8.9
8.1
9.1
7.7
8.2
7.0
1942       	
6.7
1943 	
6.9
1944        	
7.1
1945 -	
1946
7.1
7.0
6.9
1947
1948-     -
7.9
1949 - -
6.8
1950	
7 1
Table XVIII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1950
Year
4
2
5
2
5
°>
6
}
Per Cent
Total
Males
Per Cent
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Total
Females
49
42
51
53
37
62
50
45
57
41
51
58
49
47
63
38
50
55
43
59
47
48
67
45
37
59
52
54
56
42
53
52
33
55
63
41
48
46
44
58
45
44
47
39
38
45
51
52
51
43
55
56
53
61
62
55
49
48
49
57
63
70
74
60
53
75
81
66
50
58
37
30
26
40
47
25
19
34
50'
42
47
45
54
50
38
50
56
53
53
44
53
1942
55
1943 . . - 	
1944 	
46
50
1945
62
1946
50
1947- .    	
1948   	
1949
44
47
47
1950
56 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
L 47
Table XIX.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs
Year
Percentage of Individuals
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1937
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1947
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
(33,764 cases)..
(17,921 cases)..
(77,687 cases)-
(33,442 cases)-
(9,683 cases)....
(32,057 cases)..
(12,867 cases)..
(75,488 cases)-
(37,369 cases)..
(14,607 cases)-
(31,648 cases)-
(17,788 cases)..
(75,758 cases) ..
(33,894 cases)..
(17,833 cases)..
(75,947 cases)-
(71,495 cases)..
(15,939 cases)..
(15,010 cases)..
(3,165 cases) —
(15,014 cases)..
(14,318 cases)..
(36,800 cases)-
(10,456 cases)_
(13,189 cases)-
(47,435 cases)-
50
50
11
89
5
95
7
90
97
5
17
83
C1)
1 This age-class was represented by less than 0.5 per cent of the number of fish in the sample. L 48
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XX.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, 1950, Grouped by Age, Sex, Length,
and by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Length in Inches
4
2
52
53
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
19%	
3
5
4
5
10
7
9
13
6
4
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
4
2
5
7
17
10
19
11
26
17
16
7
7
6
6
1
1
1
1
1
2
4
8
19
19
25
18
24
29
30
19
20
6
7
2
1
1
1
3
20     	
1
20%	
20%- -	
6
20% 	
5
21    	
6
21%                  	
13
21%	
12
71%-	
10
22      ...
15
27%   .   _
11
22%	
11
22%	
10
23                 	
25
23%	
22
23%. -  	
30
23%         	
24      .                	
25
42
7414  -             —                       	
39
24%    .
24%               	
49
31
25       _
25%	
46
23
25%                       	
23
25%    ..
26	
26%                —   -
9
8
6
26%                        	
6
26% 	
27      	
1
2
Totals                      ...  .
71
12
169
237
1                              490
21.6
21.7
24.8
24.0
20.5
23 9 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
L 49
Table XXI.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, 1950, Grouped by Age, Sex, Weight,
and by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Weight in Pounds
4
2
52
h
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
3 %   	
1
2
6
11
20
14
9
3
1
2
1
1
1
3
3
2
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
8
7
7
5
13
24
19
12
15
15
7
13
6
7
2
1
1
1
1
5
8
15
17
26
26
21
27-
34
18
21
11
4
1
1
1
—
2
4	
3
4%   	
4%    	
7
16
4%  	
26
5  	
21
5% 	
5%    	
19
20
5%    	
27
6           -
35
6%     -
6%   —
34
26
6% —	
7        	
41
59
7%	
37
33
7%  	
8        	
26
19
8%	
8
8%  	
8 %    	
13
7
9        	
7
9%      -
9%       .   -
2
9% 	
10_   	
10%  	
10% _	
1
1
Totals  	
71
12
169            237
1                -           490
Average weights	
4.9
5.0
7.4
6.6
4.0
6.5 L 50                                                      BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XXII.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Age-groups,
1945 to 1950
4i
42
52
62
h
Year
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1945 —    	
22.2
22.0
25.1
24.4
1946 	
21.3
22.7
24.7
24.0
1947 	
23.2
23.4
25.2
24.3
1948  	
21.9
21.7
25.0
24.3
26.7
25.0
1949   .
25.4
23.5
21.4
21.7
24.6
24.3
25.5
1950 	
21.6
21.7
24.8
24.0
20.5
	
Table XXIII.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Age-groups,
1945 to 1950
4i
42
h
62
h
Year
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1945 	
4.9
4.7
7.1
6.5
1946  	
4.6
5.8
7.3
6.6
1947   	
5.7
5.5
6.9
6.0
1948 	
5.1
5.4
7.6
6.9
10.3
7.5
1949    - ,
7.9
6.1
5.0
5.1
7.2
6.7
7.3
1950     	
4.9
5.0
7.4
6.6
4.0
	
Table XXIV.—Smith Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1945 to 1950
Year
41
42
52
V
53
Per Cent
Total
Males
Per Cent
Total
Females
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1945 	
73
27
49
51
61
39
1946 	
76
24
37
63
41
59
1947 —        -	
38
62
47
53
46
54
1948 	
79
21
42
58
11
89
43
57
1949— - 	
36
64
80
20
40
60
100
77
23
1950- -	
86
14
42
58
100
49
51 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT L 51
RESULTS OF THE WEST COAST OF VANCOUVER ISLAND
HERRING INVESTIGATION,  1950-51
By J. C. Stevenson, M.A.; A. S. Hourston, M.A.; and
J. A. Lanigan, B.Sc,
Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
CONTENTS
Page
Introduction  51
The 1950-51 Fishery  54
Tagging and Tag-recovery  56
Recoveries by Tag-detectors  • 58
Movement Between Populations  59
Movement Within Populations  61
Recovery of Tags by Plant Crews  62
Population Statistics from Tag-recoveries :  64
Tagging during the 1951 Spawning Season  65
Sampling of the Catches and the Spawning Runs  66
Age Composition  66
Sex Ratio and Stage of Development  68
Average Length and Weight i  69
Extent and Intensity of Spawning  71
Discussion  73
Summary  74
Acknowledgments '.  77
References  78
INTRODUCTION
In 1946-47 and in subsequent seasons the west coast of Vancouver Island herring
population has been subjected, in so far as possible, to unrestricted fishing, except for a
closure date prior to spawning. During the same period, another herring population, that
of the lower east coast of Vancouver Island, has been fished under identical regulations,
except that the catch has not been allowed to exceed 40,000 tons annually. The practical
object of the plan was to permit scientific investigation of the two populations in order to
determine whether catch quotas are effective in stabilizing herring populations or
whether they are unnecessarily restrictive in view of the large natural fluctuations known
to occur in population abundance.
In the early years of the study a broad and intensive research programme was
developed, and its continuance is planned for a period of years through various levels of
population abundance. The annual programme aims specifically at accurate collection
of catch statistics, determination of the relative strengths of year-classes supplying the
fishery, investigation of extent of movement between the two populations and relative
amount of interchange with other herring populations of the British Columbia coast, and
estimation of the relative size of the spawning runs. Also, certain population statistics
are calculated on the west coast stocks. In addition to these studies on the adult fishable
populations, a study of factors influencing survival during the early life-history is being L 52
BRITISH COLUMBIA
LEGEND
O KtOUCTIM    PLANTS
— DISTRICT    (OIMUIIICS
  JUS-DISTRICT    lOONDMIES
  UU     •OUNOARIIS
Fig. 1. Map showing the division of the British Columbia coast into districts, sub-districts, and areas. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
L 53
VANCOUVER      ISLAND
O     Tagging    Localities
Fig. 2. Map of Southern British Columbia showing the location of places mentioned in the text. L 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
undertaken. All these fines of research bear directly on the central problem of understanding the principles involved in the supply of fish to the fishery.
The ultimate aim of the research is to gain vital information on fundamental fisheries
problems with a view to enabling a closer approach to maximum sustained yield of herring
resources. There is a need for greater knowledge of the general relationship between
spawning potential and recruitment. Specific information is required on how much the
spawning stock can be reduced without decreasing eventual recruitment, on what natural
limitations are imposed on the exploitation of herring, and on what factors operating prior
to time of recruitment determine the productivity of the various year-classes. Furthermore, potential benefit to the fishing industry is seen in the development of a sound basis
for prediction of population abundance, and in the investigation of factors influencing the
availability of herring to the fishing fleet. At the end of five years of study there are
indications that progress is being made towards the fulfilment of the basic aims.
In this report, the fifth in an annual series, results of adult studies carried out in
1950-51 are presented. Emphasis is placed on data referring specifically to the west
coast adult stocks, but a comparison of conditions in each of the two populations under
investigation is given in a final section of the report. In this, as in the previous report,
results of studies carried out on early phases of the life-history are not included.
Results obtained in other years of the investigation have been previously published
(Tester and Stevenson, 1947, 1948; Stevenson, 1950; and Stevenson and Lanigan,
1950).
The districts, sub-districts, and statistical areas into which British Columbia coastal
waters are divided are shown in Fig. 1. It will be noted that minor changes occurred in
the numbering of areas in 1950. Place-names along the coast of Vancouver Island and
adjacent Mainland, which are mentioned in the text, are given in Fig. 2.
THE 1950-51 FISHERY
Scouting for herring in the west coast sub-district was undertaken in the week of
November 12th to 18th by one or two seine-boats from each of the fishing companies.
Strong winds during that week restricted scouting activities to Area 23, and although a
few small schools were located the weather did not permit setting the seines.
After the completion of the lower east coast quota on November 19th, most of the
seine-boats moved to the west coast. A fairly large concentration of fish was located just
inside Effingham Inlet (Area 23) on November 20th, but adverse weather conditions
hampered fishing activities and only 130 tons were caught. When on the following day
the weather had moderated, the fish were found to have been widely scattered. After a
few days of unsuccessful scouting in this sub-district, many of the seine-boats left for the
central sub-district (Area 7), where a large body of herring was reported. Up until
December 1st, the vessels remaining on the west coast thoroughly scouted all the fishing
areas, but fishing was poor. Except for a few small catches in Imperial Eagle (Middle)
Channel and in Effingham Inlet (Area 23), and 365 tons of small herring taken in Sydney
Inlet (Area 24), no catches were made. However, herring were located in quantity in
Effingham Inlet and in Imperial Eagle Channel on December 1st, and during the next
two days over 2,000 tons were taken in those localities. Moderately good fishing continued for several days in spite of unfavourable weather conditions. The catch decreased
considerably during the week preceding the date of the Christmas closure (December
15th), partly because of the decreased fishing effort which resulted when most of the west
coast fishing-vessels were moved to the northern sub-district to take part in the large
Ogden Channel fishery (Area 5). The pre-Christmas west coast catch totalled approximately 9,250 tons, less than half that obtained for the corresponding period in the
previous season. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
L 55
125
I
co
u.
u_
O
CO
Z
o
loo h
75
50
25
A
1950       1949
1948        1947        1946 1945 1944        1943       1942
YEAR      CLASSES
bU
B
40
y>v
^
AREA
23
COMPOSITION
oj                ro
OOO
^
1
_
mm
-
60
M
-
UJ
o
AREA
24
*   40
-
UJ
CO
<   20
-
z
o      0
EC
UJ
°-   40
<>ss>
m
4
AREA
25
-
20
Ill
IV
VI
VII
VIII
IX
IN   YEAR    OF     AGE
Fig. 3. Diagrams showing the total number of herring in each year-class caught by the commercial
fishery in 1950-51 (A), and the average percentage age composition of samples from the commercial
catches in Areas 23, 24, and 25 (B). L 56
BRITISH COLUMBIA
When fishing operations were resumed on January 4th following the Christmas
closure, about half of the seining fleet went to the west coast and half to the northern and
central sub-districts. For the first two weeks excellent fishing, with high catch per unit of
effort, took place in Area 23. As the Area 23 catches began to decrease about the middle
of January, an intensive fishery developed in Area 25, particularly in Esperanza Inlet,
and continued until the close of the season (February 5th). In Area 25 the catch per
unit of effort was the highest recorded for any west coast area during the 1950-51 season.
From January 11th to 19th, two seine-boats investigated a report of herring in
Ououkinsh Inlet (Area 26).   A total of 250 tons was caught in a series of small sets.
Data on catch, fishing effort, and catch per unit of effort are given for each area and
for the sub-district as a whole in Table I. The area catches were estimated from landing
records supplied by the plants and from information provided by the Department of
Fisheries. Seine-boat captains submitted information on the number of days spent in
scouting and catching fish, and these data permitted determination of catch per unit of
effort. The records of the seine-boat captains represented 89 per cent of the catch in the
1950-51 season, the highest percentage return of any year since the present study was
initiated. Total fishing effort was determined by adjusting the number of recorded fishing-
days to account for the total catch.
In the following tabulation, catch, fishing effort, and catch per unit of effort on the
west coast of Vancouver Island are presented for the 1950-51 season, with corresponding
data for previous seasons given for comparison:—
1946-47 I   1947-48 I   1948-49
. 1                   1
1949-50
1950-51
59,000
777
76
45,200
948
48
55,000
686
80
37,300
790
47
25,200
528
Effort (seine-days)    __	
Catch per unit of effort (tons per seine per day)	
48
The 1950-51 west coast fishery yielded the smallest catch in the five-year period.
However, it seems unlikely that the decrease in catch in the past season reflected a
decrease in population abundance. Average catch per seine per day was about the same
as in the previous year. The marked decrease in fishing effort strongly suggested that the
smaller catch was directly caused by restricted fishing effort. The removal of vessels from
Area 23 to the northern sub-district before the Christmas closure undoubtedly affected
the size of the pre-Christmas catch. Also the main inshore migration into Area 25 did
not begin until mid-January, and the fishery did not reach its greatest intensity until just
before the closure on February 5th. Thus fishing effort in 1950-51 was apparently curtailed because of the lateness of the fishing runs in Area 25. In a later section of this
report, data will be given which suggest that population abundance in 1950-51 was
similar to that in 1949-50.
TAGGING AND TAG-RECOVERY
Tagging and tag-recovery provides information on the extent of movement between
herring populations and of intermixture between runs of the same population. Also in
recent years these studies have enabled rough calculations to be made of changes in
exploitation rate from one season to the next.
The present tagging and tag-recovery programme, initiated in 1946-47, has concentrated on investigating the movements of herring of the west coast of Vancouer Island,
and, to a lesser degree, the movements of herring of the middle and lower east coasts of
Vancouver Island. In 1950 the scope of the programme was expanded to include study
of herring movements on the central and northern coasts of British Columbia. So far,
estimations of changes in exploitation rates have been made on only the west coast of
Vancouver Island population. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
L 57
Methods used in tagging herring and in recovering tags in 1950-51 were the same
as those employed in the previous year.
Tags recovered during the 1950-51 fishery* were derived from the 1950 tagging
(14-series) and from taggings of previous years. The fishing-grounds that yielded
catches which contained or might have contained tags included the following: (Area
2b (E)—Huxley Island, Sedgewick Bay: Area 4—Edye Pass; Area 5—Ogden Channel,
Kitkatla; Area 6—Laredo Inlet, Helmcken Inlet, Surf Inlet, Gardner Canal; Area 7—
Kwakshua Passage, Bella Bella, Spider Island, Kildidt Sound, Nalau Passage; Area 8—
David Bay; Area 9—Moses Inlet; Area 12—Bones Bay, Belleisle Sound, Kingcome
Inlet, Port Harvey, Bond Sound; Area 13—Deepwater Bay; Area 17a—Nanoose Bay;
Area 17b—Trincomali Channel, Walker Rock; Area 18—Swanson Channel, Satellite
Channel, Captain Passage; Area 23—Imperial Eagle Channel, Louden Channel, Trevor
Channel, Peacock Channel, Mayne Bay, Effingham Inlet; Area 24—Sydney Inlet; Area
25a—Herring Bay; Area 25b—Port Eliza, Esperanza Inlet, Espinosa Inlet; Area 26—
Ououkinsh Inlet.
In 1950-51, tags were recovered by three tag-detectors installed in plant unloading
systems and by magnets and plant-machinery in the meal-lines of all reduction plants.
Tag-detectors were operated at the Imperial plant, Steveston; at the Gulf of Georgia
plant, Steveston; and at the plant at Kildonan. The percentage efficiency of each
tag-detector in recovering tags during pre-Christmas and post-Christmas operations is
given in the following tabulation, with comparable data on the 1949-50 efficiencies in
parentheses:—
Detector Installation
Type of Detector
Operation on Catches
Pre-Christmas
Post-Christmas
Imperial  ...	
Gulf of Georgia _   	
Kildonan 	
Old-type
New-type
Old-type
90 (60)
25 (86)
68 (....)
71 (78)
94 (50)
36 (_)
The decrease in the efficiency of the Imperial detector during the post-Christmas
operations was the result of a faulty relay, which diminished detector sensitivity. The low
efficiency of the Gulf of Georgia installation during the pre-Christmas period was attributed mainly to inexperienced operators. The average percentage efficiencies of the
Imperial and Gulf of Georgia tag-detectors during the 1950-51 season did not differ
greatly from those of the previous year. The performance of the Kildonan detector was
considerably better than in 1949-50, its first season of operation. The reduced efficiency
of this detector during the post-Christmas fisheries was due to increased vibration of the
pick-up coil in the conveyor system, resulting from a general weakening of the conveyor
supports.
The testing of the efficiency of the various plants in recovering and submitting tags
found on magnets and in plant-machinery (Tester and Stevenson, 1948) was continued
in 1950-51, and the programme was considerably expanded. Twelve plants were tested
as compared to seven in the previous year, and the total number of individual tests made
was almost twice that of the preceding season. Because of the recent resumption of tagging in northern waters, one plant in the northern sub-district and one in the central sub-
district were tested. A comparison of percentage efficiency of recovery in the various
plants is shown in the following tabulation, with results for 1949-50 in parentheses:—
* A list of the places and dates of the individual taggings which produced recoveries during 1950-51 will be supplied
on request. L 58
BRITISH COLUMBIA
West Coast Plants
Kildonan __
Ecoole	
Port Albion.
Nootka 	
Ceepeecee _
Average of west coast plants.
Number of
Tests
(1)
(1)
(2)
(2)
(-)
Average Percentage
Recovery
88.0
90.0
91.0
88.0
68.0
(92.0)
(98.0)
(93.0)
(68.0)
(__)
85.0 (87.8)
Steveston Plants
Number of
Tests
Imperial   3 (2)
Gulf of Georgia  3 (2)
Colonial   3 (2)
Phoenix   1 (_)
Average of Steveston plants
Other Plants
Average Percentage
Recovery
82.0 (79.6)
50.4 (58.2)
73.7 (74.0)
86.0 (___.)
73.0 (70.6)
Number of
Tests
North Shore (North Vancouver)  1  (_)
Namu (central coast)   1  (_)
Port Edward (northern coast)  1  (_)
Average of other plants
Grand average	
Average Percentage
Recovery
54.0 (__)
78.0 (__)
78.0 (___)
70.0  ( )
77.3  (80.4)
Percentage efficiency of recovery was remarkably, similar in the two seasons. Only
one plant, Nootka, showed an appreciable change. The increase in efficiency of this plant
was largely the result of improvements made to the rectifier which supplied direct current
to the electromagnet. As in previous years most of the tags used in the tests were
recovered during the first five days after the tests were conducted. Five tags were
recovered from tests made in the previous season: One at Imperial, one at Colonial, and
three at Nootka.
The ways in which knowledge of detector-efficiency and plant-efficiency aid in
analysis of the tag-returns were outlined in the previous report of this series (Stevenson
and Lanigan, 1950, p. 47).
Recoveries by Tag-detectors
During the 1950-51 herring fishery, 259 tags were recovered by the tag-detectors,
as follows: Imperial, 146; Gulf of Georgia, 103; and Kildonan, 10. Two tags were
taken from the northern sub-district catch, 111 from that of the central sub-district, 2
from the upper east coast, 26 from the lower east coast, 30 from the middle east coast,
and 88 from the west coast. The number of detector-returns was 89 per cent greater
than in the previous season. The increase was chiefly a result of the large tag-recovery
in the central sub-district. Recoveries from the 1950 tagging in the central area comprised
42 per cent of the total detector-returns.
Another factor which contributed to the large recovery of tags was the apparently
greater concentration of tags in the west coast population in 1950-51. It was calculated
that in 1950-51 there were 0.0531 tags per ton of fish caught, whereas in the previous
year there were 0.0205 tags per ton.   Thus even though the west coast catch decreased REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT                         L 59
in the past season, the number of tags recovered was similar in each year.   The increased
concentration of tags in the west coast catches was partly attributed to the large west coast
tagging in 1950, which resulted in the tagging of 22 per cent more fish than in the previous
year (Stevenson and Lanigan, 1950).
Movement between Populations
The probable number of tags in the various catches was calculated from the actual
number of tags recovered, by considering detector-efficiency and by correcting for the fact
that only part of the catches was examined by tag-detectors.   The actual numbers of tags
recovered by detectors in 1950-51 and the calculated probable numbers of tags in the
catches are given in Table II according to area of tagging, tagging code, and area of
recovery.   This table is summarized in the following tabulation, according to sub-districts,
to provide pertinent data for the analysis of herring movements; the probable number of
tags in the various catches are given, actual numbers of tags on which calculations are
based are shown in parentheses, and additional information is given on probable concentrations of tags in the sub-district catches:—
Sub-district of Tagging
Sub-district of Recovery
Northern
Central
Upper
East
Coast
Middle
East
Coast
Lower
East
Coast
West
Coast
Total
Northern "  	
Central  	
77 (2)
23(2)
77 (2)
859 (98)
	
17(1)
876 (99)
3(1)
257 (21)
60(8)
23 (2)
161 (22)
8(2)
20(2)
17 m
181 f241
31 (2s           29fi C251
West coast  —	
152 (13)
1,273 (84)
1,505 (107)
Totals	
Catch (in tons) 	
Probable number tags per ton
77 (2)
50,650
0.0015
1,011 (111)
51,300
0.0197
23(2)
3,900
0.0059
189 (26)
12,050
0.0157
320 (30)
41,050
0.0078
1,338 (88)
25,200
0.0531
2,958 (259)
A large proportion of the tags (probable numbers) was recovered from the sub-
district in which they were originally used.   All of the northern and upper east coast tags
which were recovered in 1950-51 came from catches made in their respective tagging
sub-districts, and 98.1 per cent (85%to) of the central sub-district tags were taken from
central catches.   On the other hand, only 84.5 per cent (127%50o) °f the west coast tags
were derived from west coast catches.   Since the concentration of tags varied greatly in
the various populations (probable number of tags per ton are given in above tabulation),
it is obvious that the relative strength of the " homing " tendency in the different populations cannot be readily compared.   The low concentration of tags in the northern and
upper east coast sub-districts would be less liable to show extensive movement of tags
from those regions than the higher concentration of tags in the central and west coast
populations.    Unknown differences in exploitation of the various populations further
complicate the analysis.   However, the data suggest that the proportion of the central
herring which returned to the central sub-district in 1950-51 was appreciably greater
than the proportion of west coast fish which returned to the west coast.   In the previous
season a similar percentage of west coast tags was recovered in west coast catches (88 per
cent—Stevenson and Lanigan, 1950).
On the basis of detector-returns, the only sub-district to which central herring were
known to have moved in 1950-51 was the west coast of Vancouver Island, the calculated
extent of emigration amounting to 1.9 per cent (1%7s).    The percentage of west coast
fish moving to the central sub-district was found to be 10.1 per cent (15%5os)-    From
these calculations and the total sub-district catches, it was further computed that about
1,000 tons of central fish were caught on the west coast, and about 2,700 tons of west L 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
coast fish were taken in central catches. If allowance was made for the fact that the
more northerly section of the west coast population (Areas 25, 26, and 27) contributed
all the west coast tags which were taken in the central catches (Table II), and for the
fact that the more northerly part of the west coast population was more intensively tagged
than the southern west coast runs, the amount of west coast fish taken in central catches
was about 1,400 tons instead of 2,700 tons. Thus the amounts of herring which each
population contributed to the catch of the other appeared to be similar. Many assumptions are involved in the above calculations, most important of which is that the tags
are randomly distributed throughout the populations.
On the basis of tag-returns, it appears that most of the interchange of west coast
and central herring took place in those portions of the populations which are geographically nearest each other. Area 7, where the major southern runs of the central sub-district
are fished, contributed or received all tags involved in the interchange. Areas 25, 26,
and 27, the most northerly west coast areas, contributed all the west coast tags which
were returned from central catches. However, the single central tag taken on the west
coast was taken in Area 23, the southernmost area of the sub-district. The latter exception to the generalization was considered the result of only one tag-return being involved.
The percentage movement of the west coast tags to the lower east coast (4.0 per
cent—6%5os) was considerably smaller than in 1949-50, and similar to that calculated
for the other seasons of the present study (Stevenson and Lanigan, 1950, p. 48). On
the other hand, the movement of lower east coast tags to the west coast (10.5 per cent—
3^96) was similar to that of the previous year. It was determined that about 900 tons
of west coast fish were taken in lower east coast catches, and that about 4,700 tons of
lower east coast fish were caught on the west coast. Most of the west coast tags which
were recovered on the lower east coast were from Area 23, and all of the lower east coast
tags taken on the west coast were caught in Area 23 (Table II). It has also been
observed in data of previous years that the interchange of lower east coast and west coast
fish involved the more southerly west coast runs to a greater extent than the northern
runs of the west coast population.
The tag-recovery data demonstrated movement of fish between the west coast and
middle east coast in both directions, but the number of returns was too small to warrant
detailed analysis. However, it is noteworthy that 1 of the 2 west coast tags recovered
in middle east coast catches came from a fish tagged in Area 25 (Table II). Since all
of the 8 west coast tags taken from lower east coast catches originated in Area 23, this
suggests that in 1950-51 more herring might have migrated from the northerly west coast
runs to the middle east coast than to the lower east coast. Although a differential
emigration of Area 25 fish to the various Strait of Georgia runs has been suspected for
several years, the 1950-51 data were the first to provide evidence of its existence from
tag-recovery. Failure to obtain the pertinent data in previous years was probably due,
in part, to the exceptionally small number of tags returned from the middle east coast
fishery. The single middle east coast tag recovered in the west coast catch in 1950-51
was taken in Area 23.
The interchange of herring between the middle east coast and lower east coast was
smaller in 1950-51 than in any season since the present tagging programme was initiated.
The movement of lower east coast fish to the middle east coast was calculated to be
2.7 per cent (%g6), and the migration in the opposite direction amounted to 1.7 per cent
(%8i)- In the previous season, the former movement was 22 per cent and the latter
was presumed, from the scanty data, to have been considerable (Stevenson and Lanigan,
1950). Although caution must again be used in dealing with few tag-returns, it appears
reasonable to conclude that the smaller observed movement in 1950-51 was an indirect
result of the location of the middle east coast fishery in that season. The fish were heavily
exploited in Area 13 near the northern border of the sub-district, where the bulk of the REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
L 61
population enters the sub-district in the fall. As a consequence, there was apparently
little movement of herring to the southern fishing area of the sub-district (Area 14),
and no catches were made in the latter area. Since presumably most of the mixing
between middle east coast herring and lower east coast herring occurs in the vicinity
of Area 14, the failure of the middle east coast fish to move there in 1950-51 might
have resulted in the small intermixture between the two populations.
Movement Within Populations
The probable number of 13-series (1949 taggings) and 14-series (1950 taggings)
tags in the various west coast catches are summarized from Table II in the following
tabulation, according to area of tagging (actual numbers of tags from which probable
numbers were derived are given in parentheses):—
Area of
Tagging
Area of Recovery 13-series
Area of Recovery 14-series
23        |     24
1
25             26            All
1   Areas
1             1
23
24             25
1
1
26     1      All
I   Areas
1
23 	
129 (12)  |
17(1)    |    	
     |	
1
129 ri21     226 (341
1
-     I   	
59 (1)
237 (4)
     1 297 (5)
—
226 (34)
24...	
17(1)
118 (2)
38 (7)
26(3)
5(1)
97 (8)
25      	
118 (2)
263 (7)
26 	
.    1
302 (6)
Totals 	
146 (13)  |              | 118 (2)
1              1
264 (15)
295 (45)
593 (10)
888 (55)
The small catches taken from Areas 24 and 26 yielded no tag-returns in 1950-51.
It is also noteworthy that the Area 27 taggings carried out in 1950 (14-series) produced
no returns in any west coast area catches in 1950-51, although a considerable number
of Area 27 tags was recovered from outside the west coast sub-district (8 tags were
returned from Area 7—Table II). This information might tend to corroborate past
evidence that Area 27 herring are more or less distinct from other west coast runs
(Stevenson, 1950, p. 46), but allowance should be made for the fact that catches in the
more northerly west coast areas were small in 1950-51, exploitation was apparently low,
and a relatively small proportion of the northern west coast catch was searched by
tag-detectors. These factors indicate that limited opportunity was given for Area 27
tags to be recovered in the northern west coast areas.
All but one tag of the 13-series (1949 tagging) were recovered in the original tagging
areas. Hence the current data suggest that there was considerably less wandering of the
13-series tags from the area of tagging than evidenced by the 14-series tags (1950
taggings). This is in direct contrast to results of previous years, which generally showed
greater wandering of tagged fish which were longer at liberty. No adequate explanation
can at present be given to account for this situation.
The average dispersal from tagging areas for the 14-series tags amounted to 48 per
cent (42%88)> the greatest dispersal for tags out less than one year ever calculated
(Stevenson and Lanigan, 1950, p. 49). The exceptionally large probable number of
Area 26 tags in the Area 25 catch mostly accounted for the apparently great dispersal.
Considerable doubt is thrown on the accuracy of the estimated dispersal of Area 26 tags
to Area 25 since only 2.4 per cent of Area 25 catch was searched for tags by tag-
detectors.
As in most previous years, there was a tendency for herring to move south-easterly
along the west coast rather than north-westerly. No Area 23 tags (14-series) were
caught in the more northerly west coast areas in 1950-51, whereas it was calculated that
9.9 per cent (2%0s) of the Area 25 tags (probable numbers) were taken in the Area
23 catch. L 62
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Data relating to movement of herring within the central sub-district, summarized
from Table II, are tabulated as follows (actual numbers of tags on which probable
numbers are based are shown in parentheses):—
Area of Tagging
Area of Recovery
6
7
Both Areas
6   	
51 (10)
17(2)
713 (79)
78 (7)
68 (12)
713 (79)
78 (7)
7  	
10     ... .
Totals.
51 (10)
«n» r ss.    I    b*o . as.
The movement of herring from Area 6 to Area 7 (southerly movement) was calculated to be about 25 per cent (1%s), whereas no movement was shown in the reverse
direction. Area 10 tags were recovered only in Area 7, suggesting a northerly movement.
Thus, in 1950-51 it appears that considerable quantities of Area 6 and Area 10 herring
were taken in the large Area 7 catch. To determine whether or not such movements
of central herring consistently occur will require further study in future years.
Recovery of Tags by Plant Crews
In 1950-51 a total of 2,058 tags was recovered by plant crews from the magnets
and plant-machinery of 15 reduction plants. A greater number of tags was recovered
in only one previous year, 1948-49, when 2,940 tags were obtained. As mentioned
previously in connection with tag-detector returns, the increased recovery of tags in
1950-51 over 1949-50 was primarily due to the extension of tagging and tag-recovery
into Northern British Columbia waters. The number of tags submitted by each plant
was as follows:—
Plant
Code
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
H.
I.
Plant Name
Number
of Tags
Imperial  231
Namu   230
Port Albion  212
Kildonan  101
Ceepeecee  181
Nootka  204
Butedale  244
Port Edward ______ 105
Plant
Code
K.
L.
N.
P.
Q.
R.
S.
Plant Name
Number
of Tags
Alert Bay  86
Gulf of Georgia ___ 86
Ecoole   60
Phoenix   53
Colonial  161
North Shore  64
Shingle Bay  40
Plant tag-returns are of more limited value than tag-detector recoveries in studying
herring movements, since doubt is sometimes attached to the place in which the fish
bearing the tags were caught (Tester and Stevenson, 1948). However, the fact that the
number of plant-returns is much greater than the number of detector-recoveries is often
a distinct advantage in investigating the general movements of British Columbia herring.
The distribution of the tags according to area of tagging and probable or certain area of
recovery is given in Table III. Methods used to determine or assign the most probable
areas of recovery were the same as in previous years (Tester and Stevenson, 1948). For
306 tags (15 per cent) the data were too inadequate to ascertain the general area of
recovery. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
L 63
To facilitate the analysis of the movement of fish between the various sub-districts,
Table III is summarized as follows:—
Sub-district of Recovery
Sub-district of Tagging
Northern
or Central
Upper,
Middle,
or Lower
East Coast
West
Coast
Indeterminate
Total
Northern     	
Central   	
42
675
2
8
3
56
55
1
89
111
60
6
2
13
629
5
123
9
14
155
47
859
3
108
141
900
Totals  .. ...	
786
316
650
306
2,058
On the basis of plant-returns, the movement of west coast fish to other sub-districts
amounted to 15.6 per cent (u%45), comprising a movement of 7.5 per cent (5%4s) to
the northern and central sub-districts and a migration of 8.1 per cent (6%45) to the east
coast of Vancouver Island sub-districts. In the former migration, only 1 out of 40 tags
to which specific sub-district of recovery could be assigned was considered to have come
from northern catches (Table III). Thus, it appeared that the 7.5-per-cent movement
was almost wholly to the central sub-district, giving an estimate of this movement slightly
lower than that obtained from detector-returns (10.1 per cent). Likewise, most of the
calculated movement of west coast fish to east coast sub-districts (8.1 per cent) was
apparently to the lower east coast, since the numbers of tags considered to have been
unquestionably derived from either the upper or middle east coast catches were relatively
small. Thus the plant returns indicated a somewhat larger movement of west coast
tags to the lower east coast than the 4.0 per cent migration calculated on the basis of
detector-returns.
The emigration of lower east coast tags to sub-districts other than those of the east
coast of Vancouver Island, as determined by plant-recoveries, amounted to 12.6 per cent
(16/i2i), 2.4 per cent of the tags (%2i) being taken from northern or central catches and
10.2 per cent (is/i27) coming from west coast catches. Movement to the north from the
lower east coast was not shown by the sparse tag-detector returns, but movement to the
west coast as derived from detector-recoveries (10.5 per cent) closely resembled that
obtained from plant-recoveries, as given above. In addition, movement of lower east
coast fish to the middle east coast sub-district was shown by plant-returns; although the
data were not sufficiently precise to permit an estimate of the movement, the movement
was apparently small and probably close to the calculation made from detector-returns
(2.7 per cent).
The movement of middle east coast tags to sub-districts other than those of the east
coast was calculated to be 10.1 per cent (1%o), with movement to the northern or central
sub-districts amounting to 8.1 per cent (%o) and migration to the west coast being 2.0
per cent (%g). The extent of the movements of middle east coast herring, as given here,
differs greatly from that calculated on the basis of detector-recoveries. The latter indicated no movement of middle east coast herring to northern waters, and suggested that
about 9 per cent of the middle east coast fish moved to the west coast. In view of the
small number of detector returns on which the detector calculations were based, it was
considered that the extent of the movements as determined from plant-returns were the
more reliable. The data pertaining to place of recovery were not sufficiently precise to
permit estimation of the movement of middle east coast fish to the lower east coast, but it
appeared that the plant-returns indicated a greater movement than the detector-returns
(detector-recoveries indicated a movement of 1.7 per cent). L 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Plant-recovery of central tags suggested that central herring move much more
extensively than would be interpreted from detector-results. The migration of central
tags outside the central or northern sub-districts (calculated from plant-returns) was 8.3
per cent (6%36). with 7.5 per cent (5%36) going to east coast of Vancouver Island sub-
districts and 0.8 per cent (%36) moving to the west coast. In addition, by using only
data on which place of recovery was fairly specific, it was estimated that about 8.4 per
cent of the recovered central tags moved to the northern sub-district (Table III).
Detector-returns indicated that no movement occurred to east coast sub-districts, 1.9-
per-cent movement to the west coast, and no movement to the northern sub-district. It
appears significant that the two estimates of migration to the west coast did not differ
greatly. Assessment of the relative accuracy of the two methods in indicating the other
movements will require further investigation.
Both plant-recoveries and detector-recoveries indicated a complete lack of movement
of northern fish outside the northern and central sub-districts. However, plant-returns
suggested that about 11.5 per cent of the northern tags moved to the central sub-district
(Table III), whereas detector-tag returns, presumably because they were too few, failed
to show any such migration. Although only limited reliability can be placed on the
estimated 11.5-per-cent movement of northern fish to the central sub-district, and the
previously mentioned 8.4-per-cent movement in the other direction, they suggest that in
the interchange of northern and central herring, the central sub-district gained more fish
than it lost in 1950-51. Obviously, the accuracy of this statement depends on the populations being of approximately equal size and the tags being well distributed throughout
each population. The fact that the catches in the two sub-districts were similar (northern
50,650 tons, and central 51,314 tons) provides some evidence suggesting that the population abundance in 1950-51 did not differ greatly in these sub-districts.
Population Statistics from Tag-recoveries
On the assumption that the herring-fishery conforms reasonably well to one of the
theoretical types of fishery (Type Ia) proposed by Ricker (1944), changes in exploitation rate and in initial abundance have been calculated for the west coast population in
previous years. The value and the limitations of these statistics derived from tag-recovery
and catch data have been discussed in preceding reports of this series. It should be
pointed out that the methods used and the data available do not permit direct determination of the actual exploitation rate in any season, but rather they allow calculation of the
ratio of the exploitation rates in two successive years. Making the assumption that tags
are randomly distributed throughout the fishing stocks, the ratio of the exploitation rates
in two consecutive fishing seasons should be approximately equal to the ratio of the
probable percentages of first-year tags in the catches of the same two seasons. First-year
tags are those tags which are derived from the tagging which took place in the spring
immediately preceding the fishery—that is, tags which were out less than one year.
Probable percentage of first-year tags (13-series) in the 1949-50 catches was given
in Table VII of the previous report (Stevenson and Lanigan, 1950), while the probable
percentage of first-year tags (14-series) in the 1950-51 catches is presented in Table IV
of this report. Since the probable percentage for each season is calculated on the basis
of both detector-returns and magnet-returns, two possible estimates of the ratio of the
exploitation rates are possible. However, considerable doubt was placed on the calculation derived from detector-recoveries in 1950-51, since only a very small proportion of
the northerly west coast catch was searched for tags by detectors. In view of this, the
ratio of the exploitation rates as derived from plant-returns was considered the more
accurate.   This ratio was calculated to be 0.71 (2.40/3.37).
As the exploitation rate decreased in 1950-51 over that in 1949-50, fishing effort
also decreased.    The fishing effort in 1950-51 was 0.67 that of the previous season. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
L 65
These changes are in conformity with the theoretical relationship between fishing effort
and exploitation rate in fisheries of this type (Ricker, 1940, Formula 19).
Previous calculations made on changes in rate of exploitation (Tester and Stevenson,
1948; Stevenson, 1950; Stevenson and Lanigan, 1950) suggest that the exploitation
rate has decreased in the west coast populations for three successive years, in one of
which (1949-50) the decrease was especially great, to 0.34 that of the preceding year.
Evidently the rate of exploitation in 1949-50 and 1950-51 must have reached a low
level absolutely. The small 1949-50 catch in Area 25 was apparently the result of low
exploitation rather than reduced abundance (Stevenson and Lanigan, 1950), and further
evidence suggests that the low Area 25 catch in 1950-51 resulted from the same cause
(discussed later in this report). Since the exploitation rate has been small (in absolute
terms) in the past two seasons, it might be reasoned that average population during each
season should not differ greatly from the initial population, and hence catch per unit of
effort should be approximately proportional to initial population (Ricker, 1940; pp. 50,
51). Comparison of catch per unit of effort in each year (47 tons per seine per day in
1949-50 and 48 tons per seine per day in 1950-51) indicates that the initial population
was similar in each season. The initial population abundance in 1950-51 was calculated
to be 0.94 that of the previous year (Ricker, 1940, Formula 20). Apparently the heavy
recruitment of IV-year fish from the 1947 year-class maintained the population abundance
in spite of the obvious weakness of the 1948 year-class (relative year-class strength is
discussed in a later section of this report).
Tagging during the 1951 Spawning Season
Three seine-boats were again loaned by the fishing companies in the spring of 1951
to carry out the tagging programme. Two vessels operated in the lower and middle east
coast sub-districts, one between mid-February and the first week of March, and the other
from the last week in February to the second week in March. The third vessel operated
alone in the west coast sub-district during the last week in February, and in early March
it was joined by one of the boats from the east coast. The two boats then operated in the
west coast sub-district for approximately three weeks in March. Subsequently, they were
moved to central and northern waters, where tagging operations were carried on during
the last week of March and the first week of April.
The large commercial-type purse-seine (Stevenson and Lanigan, 1950, p. 53),
employed for the first time in the spring of 1949—50, again proved helpful in catching
herring in deeper waters. Its use tended to increase efficiency in carrying out the tagging
programme.
The following tabulation gives the number of fish tagged in the various areas in 1950
and 1951:—
Sub-district and Area of Tagging
Year
Northern
Central
Middle East
Coast
Lower East
Coast
West Coast
4
5
6
7
10
14        15
17a
17b
18
23
24
25
26
27
1950 	
1951	
5,091
2,548
6,578
5,092
4,404
7,507
1,012
3,027
2,019 1 4,046
1 4,070
6,090
5,129
3,082
2,058
4,069
8,025
8,583
2,011
4,077
10,081
8,109
4,510
2,029
A total of 56,812 herring* was tagged in 1951, as compared with 56,435 in 1950.
Taggings in the northern, central, and lower east coast sub-districts were increased,
* A list of all taggings made in 1951, including information on the date and place of each tagging and the identifying
code letters of each lot of tags, will be supplied on request.
3 L 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA
whereas fewer fish were tagged on the middle east coast and west coast. The decreased
tagging on the west coast (20,769 fish tagged as compared to 26,656 in the previous year)
resulted chiefly from failure to locate herring in Areas 26 and 27. In 1949, efforts to
carry out taggings in these areas failed for the same reason.
As in past years, taggings were again made in Area 15 (middle east coast sub-
district), but difficulties were again encountered in efforts to tag in Area 13. The
decrease in the middle east coast tagging was attributable to misfortune in visiting Area
14 at times when spawning herring were not available.
Tagging in Area 18 was chiefly responsible for the increased number of fish tagged
in the lower east coast sub-district in 1951.
Tagging of northern and central herring was resumed in 1950 after a lapse of five
years. In 1951 more fish were tagged in both the northern and central sub-districts than
in the previous year. The combined number of fish tagged in these two sub-districts in
1951 (20,717) represented the largest tagging programme ever carried out in Northern
British Columbia waters.
SAMPLING OF THE CATCHES AND THE SPAWNING RUNS
Studies of year-class strength, rate of growth, sex ratio, and sexual development of
the west coast herring population are being carried out through sampling the fishing and
spawning runs. Age determination from scales gives the age composition of the catch,
and thus provides information on relative year-class strength. A comparison of length
and weight measurements from year to year shows growth differences, and data on sex
ratio and maturity provide a link between the adult and spawn studies.
During the 1950-51 season a total of 52 samples* was taken in the west coast of
Vancouver Island sub-district. The distribution of west coast sampling according to area
is shown in the following tabulation (with comparable numbers for 1949-50 in parentheses) :—
Area
23	
24	
Number of Samples
Fishery Spawning Runs
  38(65)
     2(2)
25     2(4)
26 (10)
27 (___.)
4(4)
2(1)
4(4)
-- (2)
_■(!)
Age Composition
The average percentage age composition of the west coast fishing samples, weighted
to numbers of fish caught in each individual area, is tabulated below for each season since
quota restrictions were lifted in that sub-district:—
Year
In Year of Age
I
11
III
IV
V         VI
1
VII
VIII
IX-XI
1946-47   	
4-
+
+
+
+
5.0
2.4
7.4
4.4
9.8
53.0
58.2
45.2
68.8
35.3
32.1
27.8
32.9
20.5
44.5
6.0    |    2.5
8.5 |    2.1
9.6 3.4
5.3    |    0.8
8.0    |    1.9
0.9
0.5
1.0
0.2
0.5
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.1
+
0.1
0.1
0.1
+
1947-48
1948-49   	
1949-50 ._ _ 	
1950-51 -	
In 1950-51, fish of Age IV (1947 year-class) dominated the west coast catch for the
first time since 1942-43.   Moreover, the proportion of IV's in 1950-51 (44.5 per cent)
*A list of all fishing and spawning samples taken in 1950-51, including places and dates of sampling, numbers of
fish of each age, numbers of fish of each sex, and data on maturity, will be supplied on request. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
L 67
was larger than that found in the other two instances where IV-year fish dominated the
catch. (In 1942-43 the IV-year fish formed 39.1 per cent of the catch and in 1931-32
they formed 36.9 per cent of the catch (Tester, 1948).)
This condition apparently resulted from (1) the great abundance of the 1947 year-
class, which was strongly recruited as Ill's in 1949-50 and which entered the 1950-51
fishery stocks in large numbers, and (2) the relatively poor recruitment of the 1948 year-
class as Ill's in 1950-51. The reduced recruitment of the 1948 year-class was predicted
in 1950 from its contribution to the previous year's catch; indeed, as far back as 1948
there were indications of a relatively poor survival of the 1948 brood from reports on
relative numbers of juvenile herring in Area 23 in 1947 and 1948 (Stevenson and Lanigan, 1950). Prospects for an abundant 1947 year-class were also noted in previous
years. During the 1947-48 fishery, large numbers of I-year fish (1947 year-class) were
present in inshore waters (Tester and Stevenson, 1948, p. 54). Although the significance
of such an occurrence was not known, the possibility that the 1947 year-class would be of
above-average strength was mentioned. Also this year-class entered the spawning runs of
1949 as Il-year fish in tremendous numbers (Stevenson, 1950), and its strong representation in the fishing and spawning runs of 1949-50 indicated unusually great abundance
(Stevenson and Lanigan, 1950).
Considering the number of fish of the various age-groups in the catches of recent
years (tabulated below as millions of fish), the small number of Ill-year fish in the
1950-51 catch shows the poor recruitment of the 1948 year-class. The striking difference in the numbers of III- and IV-year fish in 1950-51 (Fig. 3a) compared with that
of previous years emphasizes the strength of the 1947 year-class in relation to that of the
1948 year-class.
Fishing Season
Age
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX+
Total
1946-47  	
1947-48         	
0.13
0.13
0.30
0.13
0.08
27.02
10.03
36.83
14.89
22.27
288.72
240.18
224.02
233.67
80.17
174.70
114.60
163.00
69.68
100.93
32.53
35.16
47.52
17.86
18.05
13.65
8.76
16.84
2.69
4.36
4.88
2.24
5.05
0.65
1.04
2.49
1.10
1.66-
0.20
0.04
0.47
0.56
0.45
0.04
544.79
412.76
1948-49 	
1949-50  	
1950-51* 	
495.67
339.77
226.98
* The number of fish of each age in the catches of each individual west coast area will be supplied on request.
It will be noted that the number of fish in the more abundant age-groups did not
differ markedly from year to year, with the exception of Ill-year fish in 1950-51 (mentioned above) and IV-year fish in 1949-50. Considering the general uniformity of
numbers of fish caught in most individual age-groups and the evidence indicating that
population abundance has not varied greatly during the five-year period (discussed in a
later section), the decrease in total numbers of fish caught in the past two seasons strongly
suggests that a smaller proportion of the total population has been available to the fishery.
Although the catch in 1947-48 was also less than in either 1946-47 or 1948-49, there is
no suggestion in the data that it was caused by failure to locate as large a portion of the
total population as in the other years. It was considered that the reduced 1947-48 catch
was a result of a decrease in population abundance (Tester and Stevenson, 1948).
In view of the sharp decrease in the numbers of older fish in the past two seasons
(shown in the previous tabulation), it might be reasoned that the large 1948-49 fishery
exploited the population so heavily that the fishing stocks were greatly reduced. Although
such a possibility exists and has been discussed in a previous report (Stevenson, 1950,
p. 51), certain population statistics derived from other data have indicated not only that
population abundance was maintained in the following year (1949-50) but that it had
actually increased over that of the 1948-49 season (Stevenson and Lanigan, 1950, p. 52). L 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The 1947 year-class (IV-year fish) constituted a larger proportion of the Area 25
fishery than the Area 23 fishery (Table V and Fig. 3b), showing the tendency noted in
past years for older fish to be better represented in runs of the more northerly west coast
areas. On the other hand, the 1948 year-class (Ill's) formed a larger percentage of the
Area 23 catch than of the Area 25 catch. In spite of this, it is considered that the weakness of the 1948 year-class was more instrumental in depressing the Area 23 catch than
it was in reducing the size of the Area 25 fishery, which usually depends less on the
recruitment of Ill-year fish than does the Area 23 fishery. The remarkably strong entry
of the 1947 year-class in the latter area appeared to have more or less offset the effect of
poor recruitment from the 1948 year-class, and the abundance of northern west coast
stocks were maintained and probably increased. The major factor in the decreased Area
25 catch appeared to have been the delay in inshore migration of the runs and the subsequent intervention of the fishing closure date, which curtailed the potential catch.
Because of the large contribution of the 1947 year-class as Ill's in 1949-50 (68 per
cent), a large influx of IV's was expected in the northerly west coast areas in 1950-51
and, along with it, a good fishery in Area 25 (Stevenson and Lanigan, 1950, p. 56). The
1950-51 catch was larger but not to the extent expected on the basis of age-composition
studies, provided that the usual proportion of the population were available to the fishery.
As will be discussed later, data from 1951 spawning surveys tend to substantiate the
reasons given here for the small west coast catch in 1950-51.
Whereas the dominance of IV-year fish on the west coast prevailed in the two main
fishing areas (Area 23 and Area 25), Il-year fish dominated the samples from Area 24.
The fishery in this area was small, however, and it is possible that the two schools from
which samples were taken represented fish which had not yet been recruited to the main
adult stocks. Nevertheless, the data show that even where the 1947 year-class failed to
predominate, the Ill-year fish did not dominate the catch, suggesting that the weakness of
the 1948 year-class was more or less universal on the west coast.
The age composition of the spawning samples was remarkably similar to that of the
commercial catch. The marked increase in the number of H-year fish in the spawning
samples, which was noted in the past three years, was absent this year, indicating little
change in the constitution of the inshore herring stocks between the close of the fishery
and the spawning-time.
The abundance of fish in 1951-52 will largely depend on the recruitment of the
1949 year-class as Ill's. Considering the entry of this year-class into the 1950-51 fishery
as II's (9.8 per cent), it would seem that the 1949 year-class will be somewhat larger
than that of 1948 and should produce " average " recruitment. The comparative failure
of the 1948 year-class will probably result in a poor contribution of IV's to the 1951-52
fishery. Thus if the results of the age-composition studies were to be considered indicative, the Area 23 catch should be somewhat larger in 1951-52, while that in Area 25 will
probably be smaller. However, if a larger portion of the stocks become available to the
fishery in 1951-52 than in 1950-51, next season's catch might be larger in Area 25. The
catch for the sub-district as a whole should probably be slightly larger than in 1950-51.
Sex Ratio and Stage of Development
The sex ratio (number of females divided by number of males) and sexual development in samples of herring from the 1950-51 commercial fishery and 1951 spawning runs
are given in Table VI. It was noted that the sex ratios in 1950-51 took the opposite
trend from that displayed during the previous four seasons. Since the west coast experiment was begun in 1946, males and females have tended to be equally abundant in the
commercial catches, except in 1947-48, when females were more abundant. In the
samples from the spawning runs, however, males have predominated.   These differences REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT L 69
in sex ratio of fish in the fishing and spawning runs were considered to exist because
(1) spawning fish were mostly younger than fish in the catch and (2) females tend to live
longer than males (Stevenson and Lanigan, 1950).
With the increase in the average ages of both fishery and spawning samples over
those for the previous year, an increase in the percentage of females would be expected
if the above two principles held and if their effect was cumulative over the years. The
proportion of females in the spawning samples did increase so that for the first time in
the period under study females dominated the spawning samples. However, the percentage of females in the fishing samples decreased, in spite of the increase in average
age, so that males were more numerous than females. If then, as previously maintained,
the effects producing this relationship between sex ratio and average age are considered
cumulative (that is, assuming that an increase in average age from one year to the next
would increase the proportion of females in it regardless of changes in mean population
age), it is apparent that the relationship does not hold for the 1950-51 data from
fishing samples.
There is the possibility that a reversal in sex ratio, such as that noted in 1950-51,
might have resulted from the radical increase in average age of the population, if the
effect of the principles previously mentioned were not cumulative from year to year.
However, it appears that more information relating to the problem is required before
further analysis is warranted.
Immature fish formed a larger portion of the commercial catch than at any time over
the previous four seasons, but the proportion involved (7.0 per cent) was still relatively
small. For the first time in this period immature fish were taken in the spawning-run
samples. This occurred in Area 25, where three immature fish were found in four
samples. Two of these were well on the way to sexual maturity, but presumably development was checked by some factor such as disease, injury, or excessive parasitism. The
third was presumably an immature female which had strayed into the spawning school.
It is the first immature fish taken in a spawning sample in five years of intensive study.
About one-quarter of the fish in the spawning samples were spent. This proportion
is comparable with that found for samples of the preceding four years, with the exception
of 1948-49, when spent fish were more numerous (Stevenson, 1950).
Average Length and Weight
Annual variations in the average length and weight of fish of any particular age
probably reflect the effect of environmental factors (feeding conditions, disease, etc.)
which influence growth. The average weights of the various age-groups are also used,
along with percentage age composition, to calculate the number of fish of each age in the
commercial catches. The average lengths and weights of herring in the samples from the
1950-51 commercial catches are given in Table VII, and the average lengths of fish in
samples from the 1951 spawning runs are given in Table VIII. Weights are not taken
from the spawning-run samples, since differences in the percentage of spent fish in the
sample would have a considerable effect on the average weight. L 70
BRITISH COLUMBIA
A comparison of average length and average weight for herring from each year of
the investigation is given below:—
Year
1946-47	
Length in Millimetres
1947-48...	
1948-49	
1949-50   	
1950-51. 	
1946-47..	
Weight in Grams
1947-48 	
1948-49	
1949-50  	
1950-51..	
In Year of Age
166
161
159
164
159
57
53
50
56
50
III
187
188
188
190
188
86
90
87
94
IV.
203
201
201
202
203
113
110
111
117
114
213
210
213
212
213
133
129
138
137
135
VI
222
220
222
220
220
151
150
158
152
148
Only minor changes in average length or weight have been evident in the west coast
herring during the present investigation. Fish of all age-groups in the 1950-51 catch
were lighter than those of the preceding year, suggesting that poorer feeding conditions
existed in 1950 than in 1949. However, in 1949-50 the younger, newly recruited herring
(II- and Ill-year fish) tended to be larger and heavier, and the IV-year fish tended to be
heavier than in other years. Thus the factors influencing growth were probably slightly
more favourable in the 1949 feeding season than in other recent years. The only other
noteworthy differences were the longer and heavier Il-year fish in 1946-47 (possibly due
to better than average growth in the juvenile stage) and the heavy Vl-year fish in 1948-49
(possibly due to sampling error). Consequently, it may be concluded that environmental
conditions affecting the growth of the west coast herring have not changed appreciably
during the period under study, although it seems probable that they were slightly more
favourable in 1949 than in other years.
No difference in length and weight was evident in the herring sampled from the two
major fishing areas (Area 23 and Area 25) during 1950-51, but herring from the fishing
samples of Area 24 were considerably shorter and lighter than those from the other two
areas (Tables VII and VIII). However, there were only two fishing samples and two
spawning samples taken from Area 24, so they may not have been truly indicative of the
size of the fish in that area. In the spawning samples, Area 23 fish tended to be larger
than those of comparable age from Area 25. The results are similar to those of 1947-48
and 1948-49 but contrary to those of 1949-50. These relationships might indicate better
feeding or other environmental conditions for Area 23 fish than for Area 25 fish, except
in 1949-50, when the situation was reversed, possibly as a result of some change in
oceanographic conditions.
A comparison by age-groups of fish from the catch and spawning samples shows that
in all age-groups where over twenty fish were measured the fish from the spawning runs
were longer than those from the commercial catch. Four alternatives are suggested:
(1) Slight growth occurred in the interval between the fishery and spawning-time; (2) the
samples were not representative of fish from the fishing and spawning runs; (3) the
fishing and spawning runs formed two distinguishable groups or populations; and (4) that
opposite extremes in the size range of the population were sampled in the fishing and the
spawning samples. Evidence from previous sampling programmes and from scale studies
indicates that the first alternative is unlikely. Also, since feeding does not resume until
after spawning, no growth would be expected between the period of the fishery and the
time of spawning.   The second alternative is also improbable since the samples should be REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT L 71
as representative of the population in 1950-51 as in previous years, when the difference
failed to show up. Fishing methods have remained relatively unchanged over the past
five years, and, consequently, any selectivity introduced by this means would be more or
less constant over the entire period. Sampling and age determinations were carried out
by experienced technicians (and, to a large extent, by the same individuals) following
standard procedures. Results of tagging and age-composition studies appear to preclude
the third possibility.
An examination of the fishing samples shows a tendency for fish taken later to be
longer than those captured at an earlier date, thus supporting the fourth alternative.
However, none of the fishing samples had average lengths comparable to the spawning
samples, so the process of increase in average length must have continued after the fishery
stopped. This could be accounted for by the development of better feeding conditions
toward the end of the summer feeding season. Thus those fish migrating earlier would
be exposed to these more favourable conditions for a proportionately much shorter period
than those migrating later. The more or less continuous movement involved in the
inshore migration should produce a more or less gradual gradation in size. This latter
condition was found in the 1950-51 samples, and, consequently, the hypothesis of a
gradation in size within the population during 1950-51 seems the most likely explanation.
EXTENT AND INTENSITY OF SPAWNING
Studies of the extent and intensity of herring spawnings are carried out to assess the
relative abundance of spawning stock from year to year and to provide basic data on the
year-class produced by that spawning. Since 1947, members of the herring-investigation
staff have surveyed the major west coast spawning-grounds, and their reports, along with
the reports of independent surveys by fisheries officers, are used to compare the amount
of spawn deposited from year to year. Methods employed in the 1951 survey were
similar to those used in previous years (Tester and Stevenson, 1948).
The 1951 west coast spawning followed a similar pattern to previous years (Stevenson and Lanigan, 1950; Stevenson, 1950; Tester and Stevenson, 1947, 1949). The
main spawning-grounds* were:—
Area 23: Toquart Bay and Village, Macoah Passage, and Useless Inlet.
Area 24: Cypress Bay, Mosquito Harbour, Quait Bay, and Whitepine Cove.
Area 25:  Nuchatlitz Village, Kendrick Inlet, Double Island, and Spanish Pilot
Group.
Area 26: Union Island.
Area 27: Leeson Harbour, Hazard Point, and Klaskino Inlet.
The most striking features of the 1951 spawnings were: (1) The immense spawning
(21.6 miles) in the Nuchatlitz Village vicinity in Area 25, which accounted for nearly
half of the total west coast deposition and was the major factor in the record spawning
which occurred in Area 25; (2) the lack of spawning around the Stopper Islands and in
Sunshine Bay in Area 23; (3) the small spawnings in Mayne Bay and in the Banfield
Inlet-Grappler Inlet vicinity (Area 23); (4) the spawning on Forbes Island (Area 23)
noted this year for the first time; (5) the general increase in the number of spawning-
grounds in Area 24; (6) the almost complete lack of spawning in the Port Eliza-Queen
Cove locality (Area 25) for the second successive year; and (7) the lack of spawning in
Ououkinsh Inlet (Area 26).
The extent of spawning on the west coast of Vancouver Island was greater than that
at any time during the last five years. The increase in extent over last year was only
slightly larger than the increase in the Nuchatlitz spawning alone.    Due to this large
* A list of the individual spawning localities with dates, intensity, and extent of spawn deposition will be supplied
on request. L 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA
spawning, the extent of spawn deposited in Area 25 amounted to over half that deposited
on the west coast. The Area 24 spawning extent was also a record for the past five years,
more than doubling the previous year's total for the area. This was mainly a result of
unusually large spawnings in Cypress Bay and Mosquito Harbour. The Area 23 spawning of 1951 was considerably reduced from that of 1950, and was the lowest recorded in
the five years of the investigation. The decrease was apparently due largely to reduced
spawning in Macoah Passage, in Mayne Bay, and in Banfield Inlet vicinity, as well as the.
complete failure of several other spawnings. As in Area 23, the extent of spawning in
Area 26 reached a record low. All spawnings in this area were either markedly reduced
or failed completely. The Area 27 spawnings did not differ appreciably in either location
or extent from those of the previous year.
The extent of spawn (in statutory miles) is tabulated below by area for 1950 and
1951-	
Extent in Miles
Area 1950 1951
23  13.4 '           8.8
24  4.2 11.4
25  18.2 28.3
26  3.2 1.5
27  4.5 4.9
All areas  43.5 54.9
The average spawning intensity for 1951 on the west coast was virtually unchanged
from the 1950 level. Some variation within the individual areas occurred, as may be seen
in the following tabulation. Average intensities of the spawn deposition were calculated
by weighting the various intensities of the individual spawnings—very light, light,
medium, heavy, and very heavy—in the ratio of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively, and by
correcting for extent of the individual depositions. Average Spawning Intensity
Area 1950 1951
23  2.4 2.9
24  2.8 1.3
25  3.2 3.4
26 :  3.3 3.4
27 _  3.0 3.1
All areas  2.9 2.9
Since the intensity of spawning did not change appreciably from 1950 to 1951, the
increase noted in the extent of spawn deposition apparently represented an increase in the
actual amount of spawn deposited. It would thus seem that a relatively large number of
fish escaped the fishery and that the low west coast catch in 1951 probably reflected,
in part, a failure of the fishing fleet to locate fish rather than a decrease in population
abundance. This was especially true in Area 25, where the spawning extent was much
larger and the intensity the same as in the previous year. The drop in extent of spawn in
Area 23 in 1951 was partly balanced by an increase in intensity. The extent of spawn
in Area 24 was more than double that of 1950, but its intensity was less than half that
of the previous year. Intensities in Area 26 and 27 remained similar to those of the
previous year.
Thus considering both intensity and extent of spawning, the slight decrease in the
amount of spawn deposited in Areas 23 and 26 was more than compensated for by the
record spawning in Area 25. The amount of spawn deposition in the other areas did not
vary appreciably from that deposited in 1950. It would therefore seem that removal of
the quota on the west coast herring-catch in 1946-47 has not been followed by reduction REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT L 73
in the spawning stocks below the level necessary to maintain the population (Stevenson
and Lanigan, 1950). On the contrary, it appears that lack of availability of herring to
the fishing fleet in Area 25 has become a significant factor in reducing catch and increasing spawn deposition to a level which is possibly unnecessarily large for maintenance of
the stocks.
DISCUSSION
In the foregoing sections of the report, various changes which occurred in the
1950-51 west coast of Vancouver Island population have been analysed in a manner
similar to that employed in previous years of the study. It was pointed out that the
1950-51 catch, unrestricted by quota, was the smallest of the five-year period, but that
the spawning stock had reached a record high. Evidence from tag-recovery indicated
that initial population abundance in 1950-51 was about the same as in the previous year.
The maintenance of population abundance was attributed to the remarkable productivity
of the 1947 year-class, which as IV-year fish overshadowed the poorly recruited 1948
year-class. The increase in population abundance in 1949-50 over 1948-49 resulted
from the exceptionally high recruitment of the 1947 year-class as Ill-year fish (Stevenson
and Lanigan, 1950).
The 1947 year-class was also heavily recruited to the lower east coast stocks in
1949-50, but the year-class was apparently somewhat less productive than on the west
coast. The 1946 year-class (IV-year fish) made only a small contribution to the lower
east coast stocks in that season, and, as a result, population abundance on the lower east
coast declined ih 1949-50. The 1948 year-class entered the 1950-51 fishing population
strongly and population abundance increased; catch per unit of effort was greater than
in the previous season; and spawn deposition was more intensive.
In reviewing these results along with those of the previous years, it can be concluded
that population abundance has remained at a generally high level in both populations
throughout the period. However, certain year-classes have differed greatly in the extent of
their recruitment to these two populations. Although the populations under investigation
are more closely related with regard to geographical location and extent of intermixture
than any other British Columbia populations of comparable size, some year-classes have
been highly productive in one and relatively poor in the other. The main reason for the
continued high abundance in each has arisen from the fact that average year-class production during the period has been about the same in each sub-district.
These conclusions bear directly upon the practical object of determining the utility
of the quota system of management. If population abundance can be maintained without
catch quotas, as on the west coast, then it appears that the fixed quota on the lower east
coast population has not aided in stabilizing population abundance. Indeed, the striking
increase and subsequent decrease noted in the lower east coast population in previous
years (Stevenson and Lanigan, 1950, pp. 59, 60) might possibly indicate that the quota
has unduly restricted catch. In this regard the extent of recruitment from the large 1949
lower east coast spawning in the coming season will be of special significance. Present
evidence indicates that 1949 year-class will be less abundant than the 1948 year-class,
which was derived from a smaller spawning. If this prediction is accurate, the large 1949
escapement permitted through application of a fixed quota will therefore suggest wastage
of the stocks. Moreover, past data have failed to show that the population under quota
regulations tended to receive greater year-class recruitment (on the average), since, as
indicated previously, average year-class strength during the past five years has been similar
in both populations. Thus, in so far as population abundance is concerned, there has
been no evidence of benefit from restricting catch by quota, at least while average year-
class strength is high. L 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Results of the present study indicate that catch can be restricted even when catch
quotas are not applied. There is evidence that fishing effort was sometimes limited by the
industry in one population for the purpose of concentrating effort on other stocks. Also
availability of herring to the fishing fleet is at times unusually low in certain populations.
For both reasons, catch has apparently been limited on the west coast of Vancouver
Island, but such limitations have not been noted on the lower east coast.
An incident of transference of the fishing fleet occurred in Area 23 in December,
1950. At the time, moderately good catches were being made, then practically the entire
fleet was sent to the northern sub-district to take part in the exceptionally heavy fishery
which had developed. In this case the potential catch in Area 23 was undoubtedly
reduced, but generally this type of catch curtailment, arising wholly from attempts of
the fishing industry to deploy the fleet with maximum efficiency, is a minor factor
influencing catch.
A much more significant factor in determining eventual catch is variation in the
availability of the herring runs to the fishing fleet. In 1949-50 and 1950-51 there was
evidence that herring of the more northerly section of the west coast (particularly herring
which spawn in Area 25) were subjected to relatively light exploitation. It appeared that
in 1949-50 the main inshore migration into Area 25 did not occur until after the fishing
closure date of February 5th. In the 1950-51 season the Area 25 runs were heavily
fished as they began moving inshore in late January, but the closure date abruptly curtailed the potential catch. There has never been any obvious indication that the lower
east coast population has similarly suffered from lack of availability or lateness of inshore
migration.
Although natural limitations on catch differ in type from quota restrictions, their
effect is essentially the same. In 1950-51, reduced availability in a portion of the west
coast stocks led to greatly increased spawn deposition, and hence to possible wastage of
fish—a situation similar to that which occurred on the lower east coast in 1948-49,
apparently as a result of the application of quota regulations. Possibly other methods of
fishing to increase exploitation might be practical when and where natural limitations to
fishing prevail. Postponement of the closure date would not seem advisable, because of
the danger of extremely heavy exploitation when the herring become densely schooled
prior to spawning. At any rate, it is obvious that curtailment of the west coast catch has
considerably complicated the experimental aspect of the study. Should such conditions
continue in future years, a longer period of investigation might be required to draw definite conclusions on the most effective type of herring management.
Unfortunately, little is known about the factors that influence availability of herring
beyond the possibility that water temperature might be involved (Stevenson and Lanigan,
1950, p. 44).   Further research along this line appears to be highly desirable.
As pointed out in the previous report, there is need to continue the present investigation during a period of generally low recruitment to the populations. Information gained
from study during relatively high abundance will not necessarily apply when population
abundance is low. In particular, it appears desirable to obtain knowledge on the significance of natural limitations to catch under such conditions of abundance.
SUMMARY
This is the fifth in a series of annual reports on the results of an intensive study on
a herring population (that of the west coast of Vancouver Island) which is not subjected
to quota restrictions on catch. Comparative data on another major herring population
on which fixed quota regulations are applied (the lower east coast of Vancouver Island
population) are also discussed, the object being to determine ultimately whether or not
catch quotas are effective in stabilizing herring populations.   In striving for a solution to REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT L 75
this practical problem, it is anticipated that information relating to various fundamental
fisheries problems will be obtained.
The west coast catch in 1950-51 (25,200 tons) was the smallest of the five-year
period. However, catch per unit of effort showed no decrease from that of the previous
year, suggesting that population abundance did not differ greatly in the two years. The
decrease in fishing effort (528 seine-days as compared to 790 in the previous year) and
the resultant small catch were considered to have been caused, at least in part, by the
late inshore movement of the Area 25 runs, and, to a lesser degree, by removal of fishing
vessels from Area 23 to more productive fishing-grounds in the northern sub-district.
On the basis of tag-returns and catch data, it was calculated that the ratio of initial
population abundance in 1950-51 and the previous year was 0.94, giving further evidence
that population abundance on the west coast was similar in both seasons. Calculation of
the ratio of the exploitation rates in the two years from tagging data (0.71) suggested
that a smaller proportion of the total population was caught in 1950-51 than in the
previous year.
The 1947 year-class (IV-year fish) dominated the west coast catch as a whole, as
well as the commercial runs of each of the two major fishing areas (Areas 23 and 25), and
the 1948 year-class (Ill-year fish) was poorly represented in all west coast catches.
Apparently the unusual abundance of the 1947 year-class maintained population abundance in spite of the poor recruitment of the 1948 year-class. The remarkable productivity of the 1947 year-class was predicted by various data of previous years: (1) Its
strong entry into the fishing and spawning runs in 1949-50 as Ill-year fish; (2) the
tremendous influx of the year-class in the spawning runs of 1949 as H-year fish; (3) its
unusual abundance as I-year fish on the fishing-grounds in the 1947-48 season; and
(4) reports received in the summers of 1947 and 1948 indicating that juvenile herring
were more abundant in 1947 than in 1948.
The 1947 year-class was relatively more abundant in Area 25 than in Area 23 in
1950-51. This is in conformity with a tendency, noted in previous years, for recruitment
of a strong year-class to be greater in Area 25 than in Area 23. As a result of this
tendency, it is considered that the herring abundance in more northerly areas of the west
coast was probably greater than in more southerly areas. Thus it appears that if the
Area 25 herring had come inshore earlier in the fishing season, the catch would have been
much greater than it was. Data obtained from spawning surveys (assuming spawn
deposition to be proportional to escapement) tended to confirm this view. The Area 25
spawn deposition reached a record extent, whereas in Area 23, where herring were less
abundant and where the runs were more thoroughly exploited, spawning was greatly
reduced.
Because of the extremely large spawning in Area 25, spawn deposition on the west
coast as a whole in 1950 increased over that of the previous year, and constituted the
largest spawning of the five-year period.
Although the 1947 year-class was abundant in the lower east coast population, it
was apparently less so than on the west coast. However, the 1948 year-class was much
more productive than on the west coast. Thus population abundance on the lower east
coast increased in 1950-51 over that of the previous year. Evidence for the increase was
shown by an increase in catch per unit of effort and a more extensive spawn deposition.
Results of five years of study indicate that population abundance in both populations
has remained at a generally high level throughout the period. Although certain year-
classes have differed greatly in the extent of their recruitment to these two populations,
the average year-class recruitment has been about the same in each sub-district. Thus,
since population abundance can apparently be maintained without catch quotas, as on
the west coast, it appears that there has been no benefit derived from restricting catch by
quota on the lower east coast.   Indeed, data obtained during one season might be con- L 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA
sidered to indicate that the quota has, on at least one occasion, unduly restricted the lower
east coast catch. This interpretation is based on the assumption that the two populations
are in most respects comparable. However, the possibility exists that the lower east coast
population may react differently from the west coast population if the quota were removed.
Hence further study is essential before the above indications can be considered conclusive.
The strong evidence indicating that in the past two years availability of herring to
the fishing fleet has been unusually low in Area 25 suggests that natural limitations of this
type to catch have essentially the same effect as if catch quotas were applied. To a certain
extent, these natural limitations complicate the experimental basis of the present study.
It appears desirable to have information on their effect over a period of generally low
abundance.
In addition to the results discussed above, the present report includes an analysis of
tag-recovery data from the standpoint of herring movements, an interpretation of the
1950-51 sex ratio data, and a discussion on growth data obtained in 1950-51 and in
previous seasons.
Although herring movements between all major herring populations and within
certain populations are discussed, emphasis is placed on the data dealing with movements
which concern the west coast and lower east coast populations. As in past years, tag-
returns showed that a considerable portion of west coast fish moved to other sub-districts
(both tag-detector returns and plant-recoveries suggested about 15 per cent). Plant-
returns indicated that 8 per cent of the west coast fish moved to the east coast of Vancouver Island sub-districts (mainly the lower east coast), and over 7 per cent moved to the
central or northern sub-districts (mainly the central sub-district). Detector-returns
indicated that 10 per cent moved to the central sub-district, 1 per cent to the middle east
coast, and 4 per cent to the lower east coast. The percentage of west coast tags which
were taken from the central catches was considerable, and this implied movement will be
further investigated in the second season of intensive tag-recovery in Northern British
Columbia waters. The percentage movement of west coast fish to the- lower east coast
in 1950-51 was smaller than in the previous season (11 per cent) but similar to that
in earlier years.
Lower east coast fish moved mainly to the west coast, and the extent of movement
was similar in each of the past two years (about 10 per cent). Plant-returns showed a
movement of lower east coast tags to the central and northern sub-districts amounting to
more than 2 per cent, but detector-returns failed to show such a migration.
Central tags were recovered on both the east coast and the west coast of Vancouver
Island. The former movement (about 7 per cent) was shown only by plant-returns, but
both methods of recovery indicated that central fish were taken on the west coast (1 per
cent for plant-returns and 2 per cent for detector-returns).
Further analysis of the data suggested that a greater quantity of lower east coast fish
was taken in west coast catches than vice versa (4,700 tons and 900 tons respectively).
On the other hand, approximately the same amount of central herring were taken in
west coast catches as west coast herring taken in central catches (1,000 tons and 1,400
tons respectively).
Considering the movement of herring within the west coast sub-district, it was
found that, as in previous years, there was a distinct tendency for herring to move southeasterly along the west coast rather than northwesterly. However, the small catch in
Area 25 and the small amount of the Area 25 catch searched for tags by tag-detectors
might have partly accounted for the lack of Area 23 tags recovered in the more northerly
west coast areas. The average dispersal of tags from tagging areas amounted to 48 per
cent, the greatest dispersal ever noted. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT L 77
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
During the 1950-51 season the herring investigation again received the wholehearted support of numerous organizations and individuals. To them we express our
sincere appreciation.
The assistance which the fishing companies provided in various ways is gratefully
acknowledged. British Columbia Packers, Limited, again permitted tag-detector installations in two of their reduction plants, located at Steveston and Kildonan, and the
Canadian Fishing Company, Limited, provided similar facilities for the operation of a
tag-detector at their Steveston plant. The pleasant relations which existed between the
managers of these plants and personnel of the investigation were deeply appreciated.
In addition, the companies supplied the vessels which were used to carry out various
parts of the herring-research programme. Nelson Brothers Fisheries, Limited, loaned
the Percy W. for general contact work during the period of the fishery and for scouting
herring and the Ribac for tagging in the spring. British Columbia Packers, Limited, made
available the Dominion No. 1 for the tagging programme, and the Canadian Fishing
Company, Limited, loaned the Pacific Sunset for tagging and for spawn studies. The
help and personal interest shown by the captains and crews of these vessels in the various
research programmes were sincerely appreciated.
The investigation was assisted in many ways by the employees of the reduction
plants. Plant crews again searched magnets and plant machinery for tags, and submitted
them with the required information concerning place and date of recovery. Plant
personnel assisted in collecting samples from herring-catches at certain plants. Prior
to January 1st, 1951 (before the Marketing and Economics Service of the Federal Department of Fisheries undertook coastwise compilation of catch statistics) the plant bookkeepers directly provided records of individual plant landings, which permitted estimates
of catch by area.
The captains of herring seine-boats submitted catch records, which allowed computation of catch per unit of effort.
In addition to providing specific catch statistics for all fisheries after January 1st,
1951, and over-all catch totals throughout the season, the Federal Department of Fisheries, through the efforts of their fisheries officers, again undertook surveys of the extent
and intensity of herring-spawn in all coastal areas. For these services, and for numerous
other courtesies shown by the Chief Supervisor, A. J. Whitmore, and by the Regional
Supervisors, J. F. Tait and G. S. Reade, the investigation is deeply indebted.
Sincere appreciation is extended to the staff members of the investigation for the
conscientious efforts they have put forth in the interests of the research and for the cooperative spirit they have consistently shown. Mrs. Anne Lazareff Herlinveaux, junior
scientist, and R. S. Isaacson, senior laboratory technician, made age determinations and
supervised the compilation of age and growth data. Mr. Isaacson also compiled and
analysed the catch statistics derived from various sources. A. G. Paul, senior field technician, undertook major responsibilities in the tagging and tag-recovery programmes and
in the maintenance of non-electrical equipment. J. H. Larkman, field technician, serviced
and overhauled tag-detectors and other electrical equipment, carried out various other
duties in connection with tag-recovery, and undertook responsibility in tagging operations.
Other members of the technical staff, B. Wildman, K. A. Herlinveaux, J. A. Saker, and
D. McDermott, assisted at one time or another in the various phases of the field work
and aided in the preliminary analysis of the data. Miss Alice Nyquist ably carried out the
stenographic and clerical work of the investigation.
K. J. Jackson and D. N. Outram, junior scientists, devoted much of their time to
studies of survival of herring-spawn. In addition, they undertook responsibility in connection with various field programmes. L 78
BRITISH COLUMBIA
During most of the past year, while the senior author was on educational leave, the
plans of the research were carried out jointly by the junior authors. A. S. Hourston,
assistant scientist, supervised the studies relating to early life-history and took over various
administrative duties; J. A. Lanigan, junior scientist, had charge of the field studies
dealing with the adult herring. In the present report, Mr. Lanigan was responsible for
the preliminary analysis of most of the tagging and tag-recovery data and for the final
analysis of some of them, and Mr. Hourston was responsible for the analysis of the
sampling and spawning data. For other sections of the report, and for the general
interpretation of the results of the 1950-51 studies which are reported herein, the senior
author assumes chief responsibility.
For a number of years this series of annual reports has been published by the Provincial Fisheries Department of British Columbia. To G. J. Alexander, Deputy Minister
of Fisheries, we extend deep appreciation for his continued interest in the herring studies.
Lastly, it is a sincere pleasure to acknowledge the stimulation, encouragement, and
valuable advice which have been offered by Dr. J. L. Hart, Director of the Pacific
Biological Station, throughout the past year.
REFERENCES
Ricker, W. E. (1940).: Relation of " catch per unit effort " to abundance and rate of
exploitation.   Journ. Fish. Res. Bd., Canada, Vol. V, No. 1, pp. 43-70.
  (1944): Further notes on fishing mortality and effort.   Copeia, No. 1, April 21,
1944,pp. 23-44.
Stevenson, J. C. (1950): Results of the west coast of Vancouver Island herring investigation, 1948-49.   Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept, 1948, pp. 37-85.
Stevenson, J. C. and Lanigan, J. A. (1950) *: Results of the west coast of Vancouver
Island herring investigation, 1949-50. Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1949,
pp. 41-80.
Tester, A. L. (1948): The efficacy of catch limitations in regulating the British
Columbia herring fishery. Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., Vol. XLII, Section V, pp. 135-
163.
Tester, A. L. and Stevenson, J. C. (1947): Results of the West coast of Vancouver
Island herring investigation, 1946-47. Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1946,
pp. 42-71.
  (1948) f:  Results of the west coast of Vancouver Island herring investigation,
1947-48.   Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1947, pp. 41-86.
* Reprints were published in 1951.
f Reprints were published in 1949.
Table I.—Catch (Tons), Fishing Effort (Total Number of Active Fishing-days Expended
by All Seine-boats), and Catch per Unit of Effort (Average Catch per Seine per
Day's Active Fishing) for West Coast Areas during the 1950-51 Fishing Season.
Area
Estimated
Catch
Fishing
Effort*
Catch per
Unit of
Effort
23                      _    -	
17,800
400
6,750
250
406
24
85
9
4
43.8
25                          	
17.0
79.3
26                           .   -       -   	
28.8
27                               —       .   —  	
Totals            -     —
. 25,200
528
47.7
* The total number of active fishing-days is calculated to the nearest whole number from catch per unit of effort
based on incomplete data and from estimated catch. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
L 79
Table II.—Probable Number of Tags in the Catches during the 1950-51 Season, Based
on Detector Returns, with Actual Number of Recoveries Shown in Parentheses
Tag-
Tagging Code
and Year
Area of Recovery
Total
Area
5
6
7
12
13           17a
17b
18
23
25b
5
14CC (1950)...
14AA (1950)-
14BB (1950) -
14HH (1950) -
14KK (1950)...
14EE (1950)...
91 (1945)	
10H (1946)	
14A (1950)
13A (1949).	
14B (1950)    -
14C (1950)	
14E (1950)
14F (1950)
14G (1950)
14H (1950)
13E (1949)
13F (1949)
11F (1947)
11H (1947).	
12G (1948)
12H (1948)	
121 (1948)	
12K (1948)
13G (1949)—.
13H (1949).-
131 (1949)
141 (1950)	
14K (1950)
14L (1950)
14M (1950)	
10L (1946)
12L (1948)
12M (1948) —
13L (1949)
14N (1950)
13M (1949) —
13P (1949)
13Q (1949) ....
14Q (1950)
14R (1950)
14S (1950)
14T (1950)
12T (1948)
12U (1948) —
14V (1950)
14W (1950)
12X (1948)
14X (1950).	
Totals -
77(2)
77 (2)
6
15(3)
36(7)
17(2)
260 (27)
453 (52)
78 (7)
15(3)
53 (9)
7
260 (27)
17(1)
470 (53)
78(7)
13(1)
10(1)
68 (8)
4 (1)
10
13(1)
10(1)
12
14
48(6)
4(1)
52(7)
57(8)
4(1)
3d)
17(1)
-     -
15
	
	
14(2)
52 (7)
4(1)
4(1)
13(1)
4(1)
13(1)
20(3)
7(2)
57 (8)
17a
24(1)
13(2)
13(2)
118 (5)
24(1)
52 (6)
"(3)
40(5)
129 (8)
17b
4(1)
18
17(2)
24(1)
17(1)
5(1)
27(4)
15 (1)
23
	
13(1)
17(1)
5(1)
14(3)
15(1)
5(1)
6(1)
5(1)
54(4)
70(7)
73 (12)
42(6)
76 (12)
35(4)
17 (1)
5(1)
6(1)
17(1)
38 (7)
	
To)
- -
5 (1)
—
6 (1)
5(1)
58(5)
94(8)
76 (13)
24(1)
3(1)
4(1)
4(1)
—
42(6)
86 (14)
	
"" 	
6(1)
3(1)
42 (6)
24
	
17 (1)
5(1)
6 (1)
	
	
~59W
59(1)
59(1)
~~59Tl)
59 (1)
17 (1)
16(1)
97 (8)
25a
	
7(1)
	
3(1)
66 (2)
59 (1)
—
12(2)
19 (2)
71 (3)
59 (1)
5(1)
9(2)
5 (1)
25b
26
	
119 (2)
59(1)
178 (3)
108 (2)
128 (4)
	
9(1)
9 (1)
5(1)
59 (1)
	
	
46(3)
229 (7)
	
108 (2)
27
	
9(1)
81(7)
9 (1)
	
81 (7)
77 (2)
51 (10)
960 (101)
23 (2)
189 (26)
59(8)
222 (13) 1 39 (9)
579 (75)
759 (13)
2,958 (259)
PROVINCIAL LIBRA®,
VICTORIA, B. C. L 80
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table III.—Number of Tags Recovered by Plant Crews, According to Area of Tagging
and Probable Sub-district of Recovery, for the 1950-51 Fishing Season
Probable Sub-district of Recovery
u
u
< ■
CO
c
'oo
c*
rt
h
Tagging Code
s
a
hS
u
O
Z
u
a
is
u
"a.
£U
°c
Z cs
CS
H
a) ijj
o.d
c-o
rOU
ca
d
ui
ti
'O oa
"O rt
f-3
cs
«       .
•H _h
*s
o o
1
kH   kH
a. tu
DhJ
1
•a «J
•a S
S o
o
U
to
"rt
O
H
5
9P  	
9Q	
14CC 	
2
21
2
1
1
15
_ 5
3
2
42
6
9N _ -	
90	
1
1
1
2
1
14AA 	
14
6
16
2
7
45
14BB 	
17
15
33
1
12
78
14DD	
1
8
1
1
6
1
1
4
19
7
9L    	
2
9M _ 	
2
14HH —	
1
130
70
7
3
7
3
38
259
14KK
2
2
225
3
16
92
1
11
1
3
2
1
1
6
1
12
1
1
2
2
5
1
53
1
8
402
10
9K	
8
14EE           	
41
12
9H	
2
10H 	
1
1
14
12A	
2
2
13B...            	
1
1
4
4
7
2
1
2
14A	
17
15
8D 	
1
13A 	
1
3
1
1
6
14B. ....
2
1
1
3
4
8
2
5
4
9
11
22
1
3
4
27
14C	
52
16
10F- ,..,
1
17a
11D —	
1
1
2
13C	
1
1
14D_.-_-	
1
2
4
1
8
14E	
9
1
3
1
14
14F —
	
11
1
6
	
2
20
17b
14G     -
1
20
2
4
5
32
14H -
1
1
22
6
2
1
11
1
7
6
1
4
1
44
18
13E	
8
13F 	
12
23
11F 	
1
1
11H 	
6
6
111	
1
1
UK   _
1
1
2
11M	
1
3
1
3
UN	
2
12G      	
10
2
12
12H	
1
1
2
1
5
121	
1
	
	
2
3
12J —	
	
	
3
1
4
12K	
	
1
1
2
13G	
.-.    1    —    1    —
	
16
8
24
13H  _
1
2
1
5
1
1
18
9
38
131. 	
6
4
26
11
47
141 	
3
1
2
56
11
73
14K  	
1
17
3
21
14L.
1
1
6
1
1
59
12
14M-	
1
30
3
34
24
IIP 	
1
2
3
12L  	
1
3
4
12M	
	
	
	
4
1
5
13K 	
	
	
	
1
1
5
3
10
13L	
	
	
	
8
2
10
14N	
1
32
5
38 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
L 81
Table III.—Number of Tags Recovered by Plant Crews, According to Area of Tagging
and Probable Sub-district of Recovery, for the 1950-51 Fishing Season—Continued
Tagging Code
Probable Sub-district of Recovery
4)
I-i
<
bo
5
'So
DO
rt
H
a
0J
.C
Ih
O
z
0
o
U
C c
<u v
ll
4. rt
to
CS
n
kH h-
4> tfl
J?0
SO
CS
a
■u
^ tfl
•a cs
B o
rt
W
Ih ^_
P tfl
& rt
0 O
►4U
L
Cj <u
CIS:
ShH1
is
•D ■*
s2
cs
o
O
e~
lis
0
H
25a
11U	
—
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
i
i
1
1
2
13
2
7
5
1
28
5
7
1
2
3
1
1
1
3
5
4
12N..	
12P	
12Q.     .
13M	
2
1
5
19
13N  	
13P.  _     . _
13Q	
14P	
4
9
6
2
14Q	
14R	
14S 	
31
11
14
25b
11W-.	
	
2
	
1
	
i
1
1
1
4
6
23
39
17
1
2
7
9
3
2
11X	
12R-
12S —
4
13R	
13S  	
14T 	
14U.	
8
33
49
20
26
IOR	
12T 	
1
5
2
1
—
1
	
1
3
3
66
71
1
12
8
1
3
12U  	
14B	
14W.	
5
84
82
27
12W	
12X	
14X 	
1
2
23
2
8
1
4
i
1
4
13
2
11
1
11
61
Totals	
62
452
272
13
22
131
53
97
650
306
2 058 L 82
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table IV.—Number of West Coast Tags Used, and Probable Number and Percentage in
the 1950-51 West Coast Catch, According to Calculations Based on Recoveries by
Both Detectors and Plant Crews.
Tag
Tagging Code
Number
Used
Probable Number
in Catches
Probable Percentage in Catches
ging
Area
Detector
Returns
Plant
Returns
Detector
Returns
Plant
Returns
23
23
Tagged in 1948; Present in 1950-51 Catches
12G	
12H  	
1,511
1,053
2,082
2,025
2,548
3,063
2,516
1,986
2,019
1,503
1,985
1,524
2,043
1,515
1,381
3,193
14
15
5
6
5
6
59
19
4
4
5
4
5
7
2
1
2
2
5
4
• 5
1
5
0.93
1.42
0.24
0.24
0.16
0.24
3.89
1.26
0.38
23
121	
0.19
23
12J              	
0.25
23
24
12K   ...   	
12L 	
0.16
0.16
24
12M                 	
0.28
25
12N	
0.10
25
12P.   .   .._                               	
0.05
25
12Q                      	
0.13
25
12R „ 	
0.10
25
12S  ..     .. .                      	
0.33
26
26
12T    	
12U      	
0.20
0.33
27
12W :                       .  	
0.07
27
12X	
0.16
31,947
110
75
0.34
0.23
Tagged in 1949; Present in 1950-51 Catches
13G 	
23
1,517
3,062
3,071
1,004
2,032
2,024
.    2,022
2,039
1,025
2,028
2,032
5
54
70
17
59
59
34
36
52
8
12
17
2
11
7
7
30
0.33
1.76
2.28
0.84
2.92
2.89
2.24
23
13H                        .   ..
1.18
23
24
131—      -         	
13K                       	
1.69
0.80
24
13L.	
0.59
25
13M	
0.84
25
25
13N	
13P                        	
0.10
0.54
25
13Q                              _   ..
0.68
25
25
13R   —	
13S                 	
0.35
1.48
21,856
264
216
1.21
0.99
Tagged in 1950; Present in 1950-51 Catches
141	
23
2,016
2,003
1,994
2,012
2,011
505
1,511
2,015
1,017
2,543
2,490
2,019
2,491
2,029
73
42
76
35
97
71
59
5
128
182
108
98
33
110
47
55
2
41
7
12
65
22
97
105
19
3.62
2.10
3.81
1.74
4.82
4770
2.93
4.92
5.03
9.01
4.34
4.86
23
23
14K        _	
14L _   	
1.65
5.52
23
24
25
25
25
14M  .  	
14N       ._ 	
14P         .   ._	
14Q  	
14R -               	
2.34
2.73
0.40
2.71
0.35
25
25
25
14S         ..... 	
14T   	
14U   . .                                                        	
1.18
2.56
0.88
26
26
27
14V—    ._   	
14W  	
14X      -    	
4.80
4.22
0.94
Totals  - -  - 	
29,656
876
713
2.95
2.40 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
L 83
Table V.—Average Percentage Age Composition of Samples from Commercial Catches
and from Spawning Runs during the 1950-51 Season
COMMERCIAL CATCHES
Area
Number
of
Samples
In Year of Age
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
23	
24	
38
2
2
0.03
0.51
9.45
85.98
1.54
39.49
9.84
26.99
42.57
3.67
54.63
6.74
12.23
1.39
3.59
0.27
1.03
0.03
0.03
25 	
All  _   .
42
0.04
9.81
35.32
44.47
7.95
1.92
0.46
0.02
0.02
SPAWNING RUNS
23 _	
24      .  -
25—	
4
2
4
7.59
22.24
10.62
27.13
35.70
26.28
50.88
34.05
45.86
12.85
6.38
11.20
0.50
0.55
4.47
0.77
1.08
1.31
0.27    1
0.27    1    	
All 	
10
11.73
28.65
45.35
10.89
2.11
1.05
0.21
Table VI.—Average Sex Ratio (Females/Males) and Stage of Development for Samples
of Commercial Catches and Spawning Runs during the 1950-51 Season
COMMERCIAL CATCHES
Sex Ratio
Percentage
Area
Immature
Mature,
Unspent
Mature,
Spent
23            	
0.90
1.00
1.13
5.2
46.5
0.5
94.8
53.5
99.5
24                                       	
25              - -	
All                                                  	
0.91
7.0
93.0
SPAWNING RUNS
23
0.97
0.96
1.16        j
0.8
73.2
74.5
80.5
26.8
94
25.5
25                       	
18.8
All
1.04
1
0.3
76.4
23.3 • L 84
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VII.—Average Length (Millimetres) and Average Weight (Grams) for Each Age
in Samples from Commercial Catches, with Numbers of Fish on Which Averages Are
Based in Parentheses.
AVERAGE LENGTH
In Year of Age
Area 23
Area 24
Area 25
All Areas
I  	
(1)  142.0
(343) 161.0
(1,443)  188.2
(1,705) 203.8
(247) 213.4
(51) 221.0
(9) 226.8
(1) 242.0
(1) 247.0
(137)  198.3
(1)  105.0
(166)  152.7
(19)  165.2
(7)  186.7
(2)  123.5
(512)  158.4
(1,515)  188.0
(1,819) 203.6
(269) 215.0
(58) 220.1
(11) 226.3
II              	
(3) 163.7
(53)  189.8
(107) 200.7
(24) 213.7
(7) 213.1
(2) 224.0
Ill       	
IV  	
V _             	
VI    	
VII
VIII     -	
(1) 242.0
IX :         _ .
(1) 247.0
f
(7)  158.8
(4) 201.0
(148)  196.6
AVERAGE WEIGHT
I      .	
(1)    33.0
(343)    51.4
(1,443)    88.3
(1,705)  114.8
(247)  133.9
(51)  151.6
(9)  158.8
(1) 205.0
(1)  196.0
(137)  106.1
(1)
(166)
(19)
(7)
12.0
47.7
62.5
95.3
(2)    22.5
11 	
(3)    56.0
(53)    90.2
(107)  109.8
(24)  135.3
(7)  129.4
(2)  158.5
(512)    50.3
III                                          	
(1,515)    88.0
IV            	
(1,819)  114.4
V                                                       _
(269)  135.0
VI                                   -   -
(58)  148.9
VII	
(11)  158.7
VIII                               	
(1) 205.0
IX   	
(1)  196.0
?.                                     _	
(7)
54.1
(4)  119.8
(148)  104.7
Table VIII.—Average Length (Millimetres) in Samples from Spawning Runs, with
Numbers of Fish on Which Averages Are Based Indicated in Parentheses
In Year of Age
Area 23
Area 24
Area 25
All Areas
II  	
(29) 167.7
(103) 192.3
(190) 208.0
(48) 218.5
(2) 221.0
(3) 221.3
(1) 237.0
(24) 201.3
(42)  159.4
(68)  187.7
(64)  197.3
(12) 211.4
(1) 225.0
(2) 213.5
(40)  161.7
(100)  186.2
(175) 206.9
(43) 219.2
(17) 224.2
(5) 222.4
(1) 236.0
(19)  187.9
(111)  162.4
in 	
(271)  188.9
IV                       	
(429) 205.9
v 	
(103) 218.0
VI
(20) 224.0
VII                                                                                                        -
(10) 220.3
VIII                                         ....
(2) 236.5
9
(11)  192.7
(54)  194.8 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT L 85
THE SEASONAL GROWTH OF THE PACIFIC OYSTER
(OSTREA GIG AS) IN LADYSMITH HARBOUR
By D. B. Quayle, Provincial Shell-fish Laboratory, Ladysmith, B.C.
This is one of a number of investigations designed to provide basic information on
the Pacific oyster in British Columbia waters. The rate of growth of the Pacific oyster
in British Columbia is known only in a very general way and no definite data are available.
Orton (1928) gives details of the seasonal growth in the European flat oyster (Ostrea
edulis). Seki (1937), reported by Cahn (1950), investigated the monthly growth rate of
Ostrea gigas in three areas in Japan. More recently Loosanoff and Nomejko (1949)
investigated the monthly growth-rate of the eastern oyster (Ostrea virginica) at Milford
Harbour and reviewed previous work on that species. Otherwise little direct information
is available on this phase of the biology of oysters, one which would appear to be of
considerable importance in their culture.
METHOD
For this study, 222 single oysters of nearly equal length (about 2Vh2 inches) from
the beach at the 8-foot tide-level, near the Shell-fish Laboratory at Ladysmith Harbour,
were used for this study. Because of the high level at which they were growing, they
were somewhat stunted and the age was estimated to be between 6 and 8 years. Serial
numbers were drilled into the right valves, and the grooves so formed were filled with red
lacquer to make the figures stand out. The shell-edges were notched with a file to provide
a permanent reference mark. The oysters were placed on the Shell-fish Laboratory
experimental area at Dunsmuir Island in Ladysmith Harbour at the 2-foot tide level on
a medium-hard mud bottom. To prevent spreading, they were held in three trays of
1-inch mesh galvanized chicken wire. The mortality during the period of the experiment
was 5 per cent.
A measuring-board was used for linear movements. Because of the irregular shape
of the Pacific oyster and the high degree of shell-fluting, consistently accurate linear
measurements are difficult to make. Length was measured as the greatest antero-posterior
distance, width as the greatest dorso-ventral distance, and thickness as the greatest distance between the outside of the right and left valves. Especially when measuring width
and thickness, the flat end of the measuring-board held each oyster in nearly the same
relative position during successive measurements. Length, width, and thickness were
measured to the nearest 0.5 mm. Volume was measured by weighing the oyster with
a triple-beam balance, first in air and then in water, the difference in weight in grams
being equivalent to the volume in cubic centimetres. The oysters were kept as closely as
possible at a standard level of dampness before weighing. The weighing method was
considered better than the displacement method because of surface tension difficulties in
the latter.   Weights were measured to the nearest 0.1 gram.
The experiment was begun in August, 1949, and concluded in December, 1950.
For the purpose of this report, only the period November, 1949, to November, 1950,
will be considered, as this completes an annual cycle. Measurements were made at
monthly intervals, on or near the twentieth of the month. Increments', if any, are considered as being added during the month in which the measurement was made. Temperature was measured with a thermograph placed on a float about 200 yards from the location
of the oysters with the bulb 3 feet below the surface. L 86
BRITISH COLUMBIA
RESULTS
Means of the four variates for each month were calculated, and these are presented
in Table I and graphed with the mean monthly temperature in Fig. I. The monthly percentage increments are given in Table II and graphed with the temperature in Fig. II.
Examination of the summarized information reveals that (1) growth in length and width
took place from April to October, inclusive; (2) growth in thickness took place from
May to September, inclusive; (3) growth in volume took place from May to October,
inclusive; (4) the major part of the shell-growth was added during the period when the
water-temperature was above 9.0° C.
90
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LENGTH
THICKNESS
20
22
MARCH      APRIL
MAY
JUNE
JULY
AUG.
SEPT.
OCT.
NOV.
Fig. I. Monthly growth in length, width, thickness, and volume of Pacific oysters in
Ladysmith Harbour. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
L 87
Table I.—Mean Monthly Dimensions of Pacific Oysters fOstrea gigasj in
Ladysmith Harbour, 1949-50
Month
Length
in Mm.
Standard
Deviation
Width
in Mm.
Standard
Deviation
Thickness
in Mm.
Standard
Deviation
Volume
in CC.
Standard
Deviation
Temperature (° C.)
69.0
68.2
69.0
67.8
68.6
70.3
72.8
75.1
79.1
81.9
86.5
87.5
87.7
8.17
7.95
8.02
7.80
8.10
8.70
8.90
9.05
9.40
9.20
10.65
10.21
12.49
47.4
46.6
46.4
46.5
46.2
47.2
50.0
52.2
55.1
56.1
57.8
59.0
59.4
6.04
5.70
5.58
5.36
5.40
6.10
6.75
6.90
7.55
7.35
7.55
7.30
7.58
28.9
29.6
29.2
29.0
28.7
29.0
29.7
30.7
32.3
33.3
34.7
34.8
35.0
3.67
3.69
3.78
3.54
3.94
3.20
3.88
3.72
3.88
3.80
3.98
4.02
4.06
29.2
29.3
29.8
29.5
30.3
30.8
32.4
35.4
38.5
44.4
48.3
51.3
51.6
8.57
8.37
8.50
7.82
8.55
7.15
8.95
9.55
10.55
12.25
13.40
14.41
13.77
9.0
December	
January. _
5.9
3.4
4.8
6.3
April—    .
May... 	
June. __	
July 	
8.8
12.9
17.2
19.7
August...	
September 	
18.5
16.0
10.4
8.3
During the period from November to April water temperatures, as recorded by the
thermograph, were below 9.0° C, and it is during this period that little or no growth in
any dimension occurred. With the onset of higher temperatures in April-May, growth
began, rather slowly at first, and during the first three months length, thickness, and
volume increased less than 40 per cent of the total annual growth. Width, however,
increased nearly 60 per cent during this period. Length, thickness, and volume increased
most rapidly during July, August, and September, thereby accumulating nearly 60 per
cent of the total growth in the three warmest months of the year. Growth, in most
instances, ceased quite abruptly, although the water temperatures declined gradually.
A striking feature is the marked drop in the increment for length, width, and thickness
during August, the month in which the volume increment was greatest. It would be
expected that volume increases would be closely correlated with the increases in thickness.
That this is not so is readily evident in Fig. II, and it may be due to the irregular growth
pattern in this species. BRITISH COLUMBIA
40
LENGTH
O
40
WIDTH
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40
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THICKNESS
Id
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40
VOLUME          /
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y
***-,%
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20
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M
N
Fig. II. Monthly percentage increment in growth in length, width, thickness, and volume of
Pacific oysters in Ladysmith Harbour. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
L 89
An important point brought out by an examination of individual rates of growth is
the extreme variability. Not all specimens began growth in the same month nor did
they all stop at the same time. The amount of growth also varied considerably; some
grew little while others nearly doubled their size.
TABLE II.-
-Percentage Increase in Dimensions of Pacific Oysters (Ostrea gigas)
in Ladysmith Harbour, 1950
Month
Length
Width
Thickness
(Percentage
(Percentage
(Percentage
Increment)
Increment)
Increment)
9.0
7.8
13.2
21.9
12.3
12.2
17.2
17.6
21.2
22.7
28.1
14.8
7.8
17.5
24.3
13.3
24.5
5.3
9.3
Volume
(Percentage
Increment)
April.
May...
June..
July_
August	
September..
October	
7.8
14.7
15.1
28.8
19.0
14.6
DISCUSSION
The annual period of growth in Ostrea gigas, as recorded here, is quite similar to
that found for Ostrea virginica by Loosanoff and Nomejko (1949) in New England.
The essential difference lies in the fact that Ostrea virginica adds the major part of its
growth in length during the early part of the growing period, while Ostrea gigas adds it
in the second half. A significant feature is the sharp drop in growth-rate during August.
It is tempting to ascribe this to the spawning or post-spawning period. Although the
discharge of gametes was not observed in this group of oysters, certain other lamelli-
branchs, such as the scallop (Pecten irradians) (Belding, 1910) and the Pismo clam
(Tivela stultorum) (Coe, 1947), show a decreased rate of growth during the spawning
season. Orton (1928) found that growth in the European oyster (Ostrea edulis) is also
inhibited during the spawning season. Loosanoff and Nomejko (1949) found no evidence
of this with Ostrea virginica. Seki (1937) showed that Ostrea gigas in three areas in
Japan grew during the months from April to August and that rapid growth occurred
during the spawning period. However, in common with most lamellibranchs, Ostrea
gigas grew rapidly during the period of gametogenesis in the spring and early summer and
later during the " fattening " period in September and October. In the Atlantic oyster
(Loosanoff and Nomejko, 1949) the rate of increase diminishes somewhat during this
period.
The significance of the fact that a temperature of about 9.0° C. appears to be the
lower limit at which shell-growth occurs cannot be determined at this time. Hopkins
(1933) has shown that Ostrea gigas may pump water at temperatures as low as 2° to
3° C, although this appears to be the absolute lower limit. Elsey (1936) found that
Ostrea gigas was able to create a current at a temperature of 1.1 ° C, although the amount
of water pumped was only one-fifth of the amount pumped at the optimum temperature.
Of possible significance is the fact that temperature influences the rate at which calcium
carbonate can be precipitated by animals in the formation of shells (Sverdrup, Johnson,
and Fleming, 1942).
SUMMARY
1. Growth in the Pacific oyster (Ostrea gigas) is shown to take place mainly during
the period from April to October, inclusive.
2. A temperature of about 9° C. appears to be the minimum temperature at which
shell-growth occurs, although changes in the body tissues may be made below this level. L 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA
3. Individual oysters showed considerable variability in the amount of growth and
in the time at which growth started and stopped.
4. The monthly percentage increase in length, width, and thickness showed a sharp
drop in August.
REFERENCES
Belding, D. L. (1910): A report on the scallop fishery in Massachusetts. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts Dept. of Fisheries and Game.   1-150.
Coe, W. R. (1947): Nutrition growth and sexuality of the Pismo clam (Tivela stultorum).
Journ. Exp. Zool, 104, 1-24.
Elsey, C. R. (1936): The feeding rate of Pacific oysters. Progress Report of the Pacific
Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C., No. 27.
Orton, J. H. (1928): On rhythmic periods in shell growth in Ostrea edulis with a note
on fattening.   Journ. Mar. Biol. Assoc, 15, 365-427.
Loosanoff, V. L., and Nomejko, Chas. A. (1949): Growth of oysters, O. virginica,
during different months.   Biol. Bull., 97, No. 1, 89-91.
Seki, H. (1937): On the difference between Ostrea gigas from Hiroshima and Sendai
Bay. Fish. Invest. Imp. Fish. Exp. Sta. Suppl. Rept., No. 4, pp. 45-50 (in Japanese).
Reported in Cahn, A. R. (1950): Oyster culture in Japan. Fishery Leaflet 383,
Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior.
Sverdrup,H. U.; Johnson, M. W.; and Fleming, R. H. (1942): The Oceans. Prentice-
Hall, Inc., New York. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT L 91
REPORT OF THE INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES
COMMISSION, 1950
The International Fisheries Commission, under authority of the treaty of January
29th, 1937, between Canada and the United States, continued the regulation and investigation of the Pacific halibut-fishery.
The members of the Commission in 1950 were George R. Clark, Ottawa; Edward
W. Allen, Seattle; George W. Nickerson, Prince Rupert; and Milton C. James, Washington, D.C.   Mr. Allen served as chairman and Mr. Clark as secretary.
The regular annual meetings of the Commission were held at Seattle on January
18th, 19th, and 20th. The Commission reviewed with its investigational staff the effects
of regulation upon the fishery and upon the stocks of halibut. It conferred with representatives of the fishing fleets regarding the current condition of the halibut-stocks and
regarding the regulation of the fishery in 1950. It adopted regulatory changes for 1950
and approved a programme of investigations for the ensuing season.
During the conference with representatives of the fishing fleets, consideration was
given to a proposal that two underfished sections of Area 2 be closed during the regular
fishing season and opened later in the summer with a view to increasing the catch from
them. On account of administrative and regulatory problems from the standpoint of the
Commission and operational problems from the standpoint of the fleets, it was decided
to defer final consideration of the proposal until 19.51.
The Pacific Halibut Fishery Regulations for 1950 were approved by the President
of the United States on April 10th and by the Governor-General in Council on April 20th
and became effective on the latter date. They were substantially the same as those for
1949, except for some technical changes recommended by the enforcement agencies to
facilitate their task.
All areas were opened to halibut-fishing on May 1st. Areas 2 and Ib, lying between
Cape Blanco in Southern Oregon and Cape Spencer in South-eastern Alaska, were closed
at midnight on June 1st upon attainment of the Area 2 catch-limit of 25,500,000 pounds.
Areas 3, 4, and 1a, including the remainder of the convention waters, were closed at midnight on July 5th, with the attainment of the Area 3 catch-limit of 28,000,000 pounds.
Small landings of halibut continued to midnight on November 15th, under the regulatory
provision which allows set-line boats to secure permits to retain and land a small proportion of incidentally caught halibut.
Landings of halibut reported on the Pacific Coast in 1950 amounted to 57,287,000
pounds—about 2,000,000 pounds greater than in 1949. The landings from the different
areas were as follows: Area 1a, south of Cape Blanco, Oregon, 211,000 pounds; Area
Ib, between Cape Blanco and Willapa Harbor, Washington, 148,000 pounds; Area 2,
between Willapa Harbor and Cape Spencer, Alaska, 26,789,000 pounds; Area 3, between
Cape Spencer and the Aleutian Islands, 30,179,000 pounds. No halibut were reported
from Area 4, in Bering Sea.
The larger than normal excess over the catch-limit in Area 3 was attributable to
unusually favourable weather after the date of closure was announced. The area 2 total
included 320,000 pounds of incidentally caught halibut, landed under permit after closure
of the area.
Landings by Canadian vessels in 1950 amounted to 18,884,000 pounds—14,115,000
pounds from Area 2 and 4,769,000 pounds from Area 3. They constituted 53 and 16
per cent of the catches from Areas 2 and 3 respectively. Landings of United States vessels
at Canadian ports amounted to 3,684,000 pounds.
Investigations which guide the regulation of the fishery were continued by the Commission's staff.   Statistical and biological data were collected and analysed to determine L 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA
the current condition of the stocks of halibut. Special studies of the origin of catches
were undertaken, and new marking experiments were initiated to ascertain the extent to
which the stocks on the different banks were being utilized.
The abundance of halibut as indicated by the catch per standardized unit of fishing
effort increased about 5 per cent in both Areas 2 and 3. When allowances were made
for changes in the season and the fleets and in grounds fished, the 1950 catch per unit of
effort was about 176 per cent greater in Area 2 and 115 per cent greater in Area 3 than
in 1930.
Observations of the changes occurring in the size and age composition of the stocks
were carried forward. They involved sampling the landings at Prince Rupert and at
Seattle from grounds in Areas 2 and 3.
Analysis of samples from Area 2 showed that the numbers of young halibut entering
the fishery were well below average for the third consecutive year. The comparative
scarcity of young fish of marketable size did not presage any early increase in the size of
the fishable stock.
The Area three samples showed wide variation from place to place and from sample
to sample. Their composition appeared to depend upon the mixing of at least two
relatively independent stock components, possibly matures and immatures or males and
females, or even all four. Identification of these components, which must be understood
if changes in the stocks are to be explained, may be secured through analysis of the
samples of dead fish which cannot be tagged during marking operations. Both sex and
maturity data are secured from the dead fish.
The programme of marking experiments, begun in 1949 to study the utilization of
the halibut on the different banks, was continued. The halibut-vessel Havana was chartered from the middle of July to late in October. A total of 142,000 pounds of halibut was
caught on the Area 3 grounds west of Kodiak Island, and 63,000 pounds, consisting of
3,730 fish, were marked with numbered metal tags and released. A small amount of
marking was also done on the late stocks in southern Hecate Straits and in the Cape
Flattery region. The 4,338 halibut marked during the year were next to the largest
number tagged in any year since the Commission's investigations began in 1925.
Recoveries of tags during the year numbered 242, mostly from recent experiments,
although one tag was recovered from a 1935 experiment. Very low recoveries from the
late summer tagging on Portlock Bank in 1949 indicated that, as in the case of Hecate
Straits in Area 2, the late stocks in the region do not contribute much to the present May-
June fishery. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT L 93
REPORT ON THE INVESTIGATIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL
PACIFIC SALMON FISHERIES COMMISSION FOR 1950
The International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, created in 1937 in accordance with the terms of a convention between Canada and the United States, is charged
with the rehabilitation and preservation of the Fraser River sockeye salmon. It is now
engaged in the study and regulation of the fishery according to the provisions of the treaty.
The Commission held five meetings during the year 1950. At a meeting in Vancouver, B.C., on February 7th the recommended regulatory provisions for the 1950
season were presented to the Advisory Committee. Agreement on the recommendations
was reached by the Commissioners, including a decision to close the waters of the high
seas embraced in the treaty, but details of weekly closures in Canadian waters of the
Strait of Juan de Fuca and in United States waters were delayed until July 20th. At
Washington, D.C, on June 19th, the Commission made and adopted a regulation closing
the waters of the high seas to the taking of sockeye salmon from July 1st, 1950, through
to August 31st, 1950. Recommendations for regulations in Canadian waters were transmitted to Ottawa and accepted by an Order in Council adopted on July 12th, 1950.
Those for United States waters were transmitted to the Director of the Washington State
Department of Fisheries, who accepted them in an order promulgated June 13th, 1950.
The 1950 sockeye-fishing season commenced in territorial waters of Canada and the
United States at 8 a.m. on July 31st, 1950. Between July 1st and July 31st fishing for
salmon was restricted to gill-nets having not less than 8-inch mesh. Weekly closed
periods were established in all waters, varying for specific fishing areas. Canadian waters
of District 1 and Areas 17 and 18 of District 3 were subject to a seventy-two-hour weekly
closed period until September 15th and a ninety-six-hour period until September 26th.
Canadian waters of Areas 19 and 20 of District 3 were subject to a weekly closure of
forty-eight hours' duration on Friday and Saturday of each week until August 12th, after
which date the forty-eight hours were made up of twenty-four hours on each Tuesday and
Saturday until September 12th. Canadian waters of Areas 21, 23, and 24, in so far as
they are included in Article 1 of the convention, were closed at the same time and for the
same duration as the waters of the high seas. Territorial waters of the United States
embraced in the convention were subject to similar weekly closures as Areas 19 and 20
of Canadian waters.
Certain additional recommendations were agreed upon and became effective during
the fishing season. On August 18th Areas 19 arirl 20 of District 3 in Canada were closed
an additional twenty-four hours. Areas 17 and 18 and District 1 were closed an
additional twenty-four hours on the week-end of August 18th, 19th, and 20th by
delaying the normal reopening hour by twenty-four hours. The waters of the United
States were also closed an additional twenty-four hours on August 18th. On August 30th
all United States waters were closed until September 6th, after which date those waters
north of a line from Birch Point to Patos Island remained closed until September 15th,
and those waters west of a line from Patos Island to Point Roberts Lighthouse were closed
until September 30th. All Canadian waters lying in Area 17 and District 1 were closed
commencing on Thursday, September 7; Area 18 was closed commencing Sunday,
September 10th. During this closure 8-inch mesh nets were permitted until September
18th when all waters of Areas 17 and 18 and District 1 were closed to salmon-fishing on
September 18th. On September 22nd an adequate escapement had been obtained, and
the Commission relinquished all control of fishing in Canadian waters effective midnight
September 23rd.
The continued increase of the fishing effort in United States waters and the expansion
of Canadian fishing effort to the waters of the Strait of Juan de Fuca and westward would L 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA
have, in the opinion of the Commission, endangered the whole programme of management. Accordingly, the Commission felt justified in establishing the offshore closure for
the 1950 sockeye run. If the 1950 South Thompson run of sockeye had been normal,
the fishery in the offshore waters and the adjoining waters of the Strait of Juan de Fuca
would have produced a large catch. Fishermen of either country operating in the inside
territorial waters can take more than the allowable share of the sockeye-catch. The
closure itself did not result in any economic loss to either country.
The effect of a fully developed fishery north and west of Bonilla Point will have to
be assessed. Such assessment can better be made during the off-years, when many races
of sockeye are present but in such numbers as to not attract a large fleet of fishing-boats.
The Commission intends only to control the expansion of fishing in this area within the
needs of good management.
The 1950 run of sockeye in United States waters was comparable in time of appearance with that of 1938. Prior to August 10th the total production was greater than for
the same periods in 1938, 1942, or 1946. Collectively the populations fished before
August 15th appeared in strength and were responsible for the good catches recorded.
The main body of South Thompson sockeye started showing on August 17th and continued until August 26th. By August 27th it was apparent that a substantial decline in
the size of the 1950 South Thompson sockeye run had occurred, and the emergency
closures detailed were set up in United States waters and later in Canadian waters.
The failure of the Adams River run was such that the usual concentration of fishing
effort by Canadian boats of both types of gear in Area 17 and District 1 did not develop.
Both countries combined to produce a total of 2,115,404 sockeye, of which
1,220,935 were taken by United States fishermen and 894,469 by Canadian fishermen.
Total catch by Indians in practically every fishing area increased over 1946. The
catch for the whole Indian fishery increased considerably over 1946, thus continuing the
increases noted in every year since 1945. Some Indian fishermen are enjoying sockeye-
catches not equalled since 1913.
Except for certain specific spawning areas, there were generally increased or equivalent spawning populations compared with those of 1946.
The large run in the Stellako River of 1946 had to spawn in an area where 21,000
spawners in 1945 were enjoying an extremely high survival rate. This was shown by the
return of 1949, which was estimated a.t 500,000 adults. The result of this situation was
that the survival rate for the offspring of the 1946 population was low. Intense fishing
effort upon the adult population in 19*0 resulted in a reduced escapement of 145,000
spawners. The Nadina River showed a substantial increase. This latter race apparently
spends its lake life in Francois Lake, while the Stellako River race lives in Fraser Lake.
The rate of reproduction of this year's cycle at Chilko Lake has never been high, and
it is not surprising that an escapement of only 21,123 adult spawners was counted in
contrast to the 1946 count of 59,000 adults, the latter figure representing the entire run.
The run to Lower Adams River and Little Shuswap River showed a serious decline.
Recommended regulations for 1950 implemented by several emergency closures during
the season, even at the expense of an anticipated equal division of the catch between the
two countries, permitted a well-timed escapement of 1,298,000 spawners, which is considered to be adequate.
A programme of rehabilitation by transplantation is being carried out. A field
station on Horsefly Lake is the centre for this work. The winter of 1949-50 imposed
some very severe tests on the equipment, with air temperatures at lower than —50° F.
A plant of 94,000 fingerlings from 1949 Horsefly sockeye-eggs was made in November,
1950, in Quesnel Lake at the mouth of the Horsefly River. This experiment is to serve as
a control on transplantations using the field-station facilities.   Also in November, 1950, REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT L 95
84,000 fingerlings reared from eggs of the 1949 run taken in Seymour River were planted
in the outlet of Upper Adams River at the head of Adams Lake.
In addition to this transplantation via the field station, 667,000 eggs from the 1950
run to the Seymour River were " eyed " at a temporary station on the parent stream and
planted in Upper Adams River. Approximately 300,000 eggs were taken from Lower
Adams River and passed through a temporary eyeing station at that point for transfer to
Portage Creek in the Seton-Anderson watershed, now barren of sockeye. The transfer
and planting was accomplished in January, 1951. Another group of 400,000 green eggs
was taken from Lower Adams River to the Quesnel field station for hatching and rearing
and eventual transfer to the Seton-Anderson system.
An attempt to rehabilitate a late run of normal sockeye in Little Horsefly River is
being made, using the eggs of a run of kokanee which spawn at the mouth of this river.
Through the co-operation of the Provincial Department of Fisheries and the Provincial
Game Commission a total of 177,000 kokanee-eggs were secured for hatching and controlled rearing in an attempt to stimulate a desire on the part of the year-old fingerlings
to migrate to the sea.
Prediction of the size of surviving populations in advance of their entrance into the
fishery is essential if an equal division of the allowable catch is to be guaranteed. The
degree of possible success in dividing the catch was illustrated in 1949, and the effect
of a serious decline in any major population on equal division of catch is shown in 1950.
The Commission is following many lines of research designed to assist in the solution of
this problem. The relationship between fishing effort and catch and escapement, scale
readings with particular reference to the fresh-water growth, and the relationship between
the number of 3-year-old jacks and the normal 4-year-old adults in the following year are
several of the projects. In addition, any tendency of regulation to change the character
of the escapement and possibly affect the productive capacity of that escapement is being
observed.
Close integration of greatly increased engineering investigations with biological
investigations has been arranged so that physical requirements for successful reproduction
may be measured. Such measurement is essential to planning and development of water-
use projects.
Water-levels at Hells Gate were above the upper operating level of the fishways
from June 6th to July 21st. This extended period of non-operation of the left-bank
fishway was sufficient to demonstrate an interference to the passage of early runs of
sockeye at these higher levels. Construction of a high-level fishway on the left bank was
begun in August. Factors involving the times when the structure will be needed and
hydraulic and engineering considerations have caused the new structure to be built
separately from the existing fishway structures and to be considerably smaller in size.
It will extend the operating range on the left bank to Elevation 70 on the Hells Gate gauge.
All fishway structures at the three locations in the watershed were cleared of debris
and bed-load accumulated during the year.
The Commission and its staff of engineers and biologists collaborated with the
Department of Fisheries of Canada and the Fisheries Research Board of Canada in the
preparation of the Report on the Fisheries Problems Created by the Development of
Power in the Nechako-Kemano-Nanika River Systems, being released by the Department
of Fisheries of Canada.
Members of the Commission during 1950 were as follows:—
Canadian Commissioners:  Senator Thomas Reid, chairman; A. J. Whitmore,
member; Olof Hanson, member.
United States Commissioners: Robert J. Schoettler, secretary; Albert M. Day,
member; Edward W. Allen, member. L 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA
SALMON-SPAWNING REPORT, BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1950
By A. J. Whitmore, Chief Supervisor of Fisheries.
GENERAL SUMMARY
Sockeye.—Measures applied in 1950 in the interests of securing essential stocks of
sockeye on the spawning-grounds for reproduction purposes appear to have been generally satisfactory.
All spawning-grounds of the Rivers and Smith Inlet areas experienced an excellent
seeding. Sockeye runs of unexpected proportions to these areas enabled a commercial
catch of approximately 2,000,000 fish to be taken, in addition to providing abundant
supplies for the spawning-grounds.
In the Fraser system the large Adams River sockeye run experienced for several
cycles failed to materialize in usual volume, but due to conservation measures quickly
applied in commercial fishing operations by the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries
Commission, a satisfactory escapement estimated at 800,000 fish was secured for reproduction. This number is greater than the spawning in the Adams River section in 1938,
but is substantially less than those of either 1942 or 1946. The return to Little River at
the outlet of Shuswap Lake was substantial and almost as large as that of 1946. At
Chilko and Stellako Rivers the sockeye runs were satisfactory, although somewhat below
brood-year levels. Of particular note is the large number of jacks observed on the Chilko
spawning-beds. In all other sockeye-spawning areas in the Fraser watershed increases
were noted. The fishways constructed by the Commission several years ago at Hells
Gate Canyon, Bridge River Rapids, and at Farwell Canyon in the Chilcotin River again
functioned satisfactorily at the water-levels they were designed to serve in facilitating
passage of salmon on their way to their up-stream spawning areas.
The sockeye escapement in the Skeena system falls in the category "light to
medium." At the counting-fence in Babine River, just below the outlet of Babine Lake,
543,000 sockeye were passed through, approximately 35 per cent being jacks. Moderate
supplies reached the Morice-Nanika area on the Bulkley watershed. Returns to Kispiox,
Kitsumgallum, and Lakelse Rivers were light and disappointing. The entire escapement
to the Lakelse Lake area was 2,000 sockeye, being the lightest on record.
Moderate supplies of sockeye spawned in the Nass system. The escapement to the
Bella Coola area was heavy.
On Vancouver Island the Nimpkish and Anderson Lake watersheds were well
stocked. The quantity reaching the headwaters of the Clayoquot area was satisfactory,
while numbers in the Somass area at the head of Alberni Canal were somewhat below
average.
Springs.—Spring-salmon supplies in the Fraser River watershed were satisfactory,
with the exception of Harrison River, where a light seeding is indicated. In District 2
there was a moderate to heavy escapement to all the major spawning areas. The larger
streams along the east coast of Vancouver Island were again generally well stocked.
Cohoes.—The escapement of this variety to the Fraser system was fairly satisfactory.
With the exception of the Skeena system, which was moderately seeded with this species,
spawning in all areas in the northern district was light. There was a moderate to heavy
seeding in all sections of District 3, with the exception of the Quathiaski, Kyuquot, and
Quatsino sub-districts, where supplies were light.
Pinks.—There was a heavy escapement of this species to the Bella Coola River
system, resulting from the exceptionally large run which materialized there. Good supplies were also in evidence in Naden Harbour, Lower Skeena, and in the northern portion
of the Grenville-Principe area. Returns to the Butedale area, in some years one of
the predominant producers, were disappointingly light.   Elsewhere in the northern area REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT L 97
stocks ranged from light to moderate. In District 3 there was a notably heavy escapement
to streams in the Alert Bay and Quathiaski sub-districts. In the Quatsino sub-district
and pink-streams of the Comox sub-district the supplies were from medium to heavy;
elsewhere spawning was light. As this was an off-year for pink salmon in the Fraser
system, only odd individuals were observed.
Chums.—A moderate seeding of chums is reported for streams along the east coast
of Moresby Island, Q.C.I., and for the Bella Bella and Bella Coola areas. Elsewhere in
the northern area the runs are classified generally as from medium to light. This rating
also applies to the chum seeding on the west coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands, where
fishing was reopened after a four-year closure. While fairly heavy runs developed to this
area, the volume of stocks intended for spawning purposes was severely diminished in
some instances by illegal fishing in reserved areas at the mouths of streams, despite special
preventive efforts by the Department. Most of the chum-streams in the east coast sub-
district of District 3 were well seeded, with the exception of those flowing into Johnstone
Strait. The supplies to the west coast of Vancouver Island were satisfactory. The chum
run to Lower Fraser streams showed improvement over the brood-year, particularly the
early portion. Moderate escapement occurred at Squamish and other streams at the head
of Howe Sound.
IN DETAIL
Masset Inlet and North Coast of Graham Island Area
Cohoe spawners reached the streams in approximately the same fight numbers as in
the brood-year. Pink salmon were less in evidence than in 1948, particularly so in the
Masset Inlet area. The escapement to Naden River and Lignite Creek in Naden Harbour
was heavy. In the Masset Inlet area, although appreciable numbers were observed in
such rivers as the Yakoun, Mammin, and Ain, the seeding generally could only be termed
comparatively light. The chum spawning was light to medium on the limited grounds
in Masset Inlet.   Supplies observed in Naden River were light.
Skidegate Inlet and West Coast of Graham-Moresby Island Area
Cohoe-supplies arrived noticeably late. Over-all stocks were generally light, particularly so in the larger streams, while in the majority of the small streams an increase in
spawning was noted. Tlell River, the main producer of this species, showed the greatest
decline. Supplies of pinks were generally satisfactory. Kaisun River was heavily seeded,
while a medium spawning occurred in Security Cove, Boom Chain, Security Trail, Browns
Cabin, Otard Bay, and Copper River. Reilly Creek was a failure; vulnerable to illegal
fishing and lacking constant protection, the estimated run of 40,000 pinks was almost
entirely removed. Medium supplies of chums were observed in the Skidegate Inlet and
Skidegate Narrows area. On the west coast chum spawning was light to moderate. The
escapement was continuous over the month of September, and was heavy to Kootenay
and Port Channel areas, medium to Englefield Bay, Tasoo, Kano, and Port Louis areas,
and light to other sections.
East Coast of Moresby Island and South Queen Charlotte Islands Area
Cohoe-supplies were moderate. Favourable seedings were observed in Pallant
River, Chadsey Creek, Tar Island Creek, Skaat Harbour, and Lagoon Bay creeks. There
was a moderate to heavy escapement of pinks—heavy to Pallant River and Winay Bay
creek, medium to Skedans Bay creek, Mathers Creek, Salmon River, and Big and Little
Goose Bay creeks. Spawning was light in a few other small streams not usually frequented by this species. Chum-stocks generally were moderate, with the exception of
very light seedings at Sewell Inlet, Flamingo Inlet, and Bag Harbour. Illegal fishing at
the two latter places entirely accounts for the light seeding.   Supplies ranged from heavy L 98 BRITISH COLUMBIA
at Salmon River, Werner Bay, Huston Inlet, Skaat Harbour, George Bay, Tangle Cove,
and Lagoon Bay to medium in the majority of the other streams.
Nass Area
There was a satisfactory escapement of sockeye to the Meziaden Lake area, the
principal spawning-ground for this variety in the Nass system. Medium supplies of spring
salmon were present in the Meziaden River. Elsewhere throughout the area supplies were
light. Generally, moderate stocks of cohoe were observed. A light to medium spawning
of pinks occurred—medium to heavy in Warke Channel, Khutsemateen Inlet, and Quinni-
mass River, and light in the lower tributary streams of the Nass River. The escapement
of chums was generally of moderate proportions.
Skeena Area
Babine-Morice Area. — A total of 543,000 sockeye passed through the counting-
fence maintained in the Babine River by the Fisheries Research Board. Due to the large
percentage of jacks, approximately 35 per cent, the number of effective spawners would
aggregate close to 350,000. The first sockeye passed through the fence on July 10th,
peak was reached on August 27th, and by October 5th the run had declined to negligible
numbers. The escapement of this variety to the Bulkley system (Morice-Nanika) was
of medium proportion. Moderate supplies were noted in the Bear Lake area. The spring-
salmon count at Babine was 6,791, the lowest in four years' operation of the fence. This
species spawns almost exclusively in Babine River, both above and below the fence, and
a moderate over-all seeding is reported to have occurred there. In the Bulkley system,
escapement of springs was heavy. Approximately 25,000 spring-salmon spawners were
observed in Bear River. A total of 10,820 cohoe passed through the fence at Babine
River, or in numbers about equal to the three previous years the fence has been in operation. Cohoe continued to pass up-stream after the fence was removed. The over-all
seeding of this variety was reported to be of medium intensity. Moderate stocks of this
species were observed in the Bulkley system. The escapement of pinks was reported as
light, with a total of 38,728 fish of this species counted at the Babine fence. Elsewhere
over this area pink-supplies were generally light.
Lakelse Area.—Sockeye-spawning was satisfactory in the Allistair Lake grounds,
but light and disappointing in the Kispiox, Lakelse, and Kitsumgallum systems. The total
run of approximately 2,000 sockeye to the Lakelse Lake area is the lightest on record.
Numerous uncounted jacks were in evidence. Spring-salmon supplies were also light,
with best spawning taking place in Kitsumgallum and Zymoetz Rivers. The pink-seeding
throughout the area was better than in 1948, very heavy in Lakelse and Kitwanga Rivers,
and quite heavy in the main Skeena River, Kitsumgallum River, Zymoetz River, and
Kispiox River. Cohoe-supplies were lighter than in the brood-year, the exception being
Lakelse River. Light supplies of chums were present in the few streams frequented by
this variety, the exception being Kitwanga, where some 6,000 spawners were observed.
Lower Skeena Area
A moderate spawning of sockeye occurred in the Shawatlan and Kloyia Creek
systems, as well as in the limited spawning areas of the Ecstall watershed. Spring-salmon
stocks were also moderate. A heavy escapement of pinks occurred to the streams in this
area. The run of cohoe salmon was light and does not compare favourably with the
escapement in the brood-year. The limited chum run to this area was good—better than
in the brood-year.
Grenville-Principe Area
The sockeye-seeding in this area was generally lighter than in the brood-year. Good
runs occurred to the Minktrap Bay, Bonila Arm, Bear Creek, Quinstonsta, and End Hill REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT' L 99
streams. Supplies were light in Gale Bay, Deer Point, Cridge Inlet, and Lowe Inlet. The
pink-spawning was medium to heavy, similar to that of the brood-year. All creeks in
Kitkatla Inlet and its north arm, as well as Kumealon Creek, were heavily seeded. Heavy
runs again occurred to Deer, Gale, and Bare Creeks, on Banks Island. A medium to
heavy run of pinks appeared in Skull Creek, and moderate supplies were present in Bonila
Arm and Quinstonsta. A light seeding occurred at Salmon River, Alpha Bay, False
Stuart, Turn, Stewart, and Uksetteryearts Creeks. Cohoe-supplies were light throughout
the area. Chum-salmon streams were well seeded, particularly Turn Creek, Hevenor
Inlet creek, Wilson Inlet creek, Skull Creek, Kenzuwash and Bare Creeks.
Butedale Area
Generally the escapement of sockeye was heavy and showed improvement over the
brood-year, particularly so in the larger streams, with the exception of the Kitimat River,
where the escapement was on a par with that of the brood-year. Kwakwa Creek and the
Laredo Inlet streams were well seeded, while decreases were evident in Talamosa and
the small streams on Aristazabal Island. Cohoe-supplies were light, best spawnings
occurring in Kiskosh and in several streams in Laredo Inlet and on the west coast of
Aristazabal Island. Pink-salmon spawning was light, particularly so in Douglas and
Devastation Channels, Kitimat Arm, and Gardner Canal, and slightly better in Sheep
Passage and Poison Cove. Laredo Inlet received a fairly good seeding. Special conservation measures were enforced to protect the pink-salmon run. Chum-supplies were
medium to light and somewhat less than in 1946, with the exception of several of the
larger streams. Green Inlet and Bear River in Poison Cove showed definite increases,
while good spawnings occurred in several streams in Laredo Inlet.
Bella Bella Area
Sockeye-supplies were average in the limited areas in which they spawn in this sub-
district. Cohoe-stocks were light, the exception being the very favourable seeding of
Kajudis and Nootka Creeks. The pink-salmon spawning was moderate. Heavy supplies
were noted in Kainet River, while Salmon Bay and Klatse River were well seeded. There
was generally a moderate escapement of chums. The larger streams were favourably
seeded, with the possible exception of Neekas River.   Gullchuck was heavily seeded.
Bella Coola Area
The movement of the gill-net fleet from this area to Rivers Inlet at an earlier date
than usual resulted in a heavy escapement of sockeye to the Bella Coola-Atnarko system.
Moderate supplies reached Kimsquit, Namu, Koeye, and Kisemete systems, while a light
spawning occurred in Dean and Port John Rivers. There was a heavy escapement of
spring salmon to the Bella Coola River system, the principal spawning area of this species.
Over-all supplies of cohoe were moderately good; the escapement to the Bella Coola
River was the best in many years. Cascade and Elcho Rivers were also well seeded with
this variety, while supplies in other streams in the district ranged from light to medium.
The supply of pink spawners was excellent. The escapement to the Bella Coola River
was heavy, and pinks were observed as far up-stream as the Stillwater, some 58 miles from
salt water. Koeye River was also heavily seeded. Supplies in other small producers over
the area were light. There was a moderate spawning of chums. Escapement was good to
the Bella Coola, Elcho, Koeye, Kwatna, and Kimsquit Rivers. At Cascade River, as
well as in smaller streams over the area, spawning was light.
Rivers Inlet Area
Inspections of the Owekano Lake spawning areas were again carried out during the
months of August, September, and October. A large escapement of predominantly large
sockeye is reported.   Heavy seedings occurred in Wannock Flats near the outlet, Wauk- L 100 BRITISH COLUMBIA
wash River, Indian River, Shumahault River, Genesee River, Daleck River, and Quap
River, while very good supplies were observed in the Cheo River, Markwell River,
Nookins River, and Asklum River. The cohoe-spawning was average. The escapement
of pinks to Hole in the Wall Creek was heavy, otherwise spawning was light. There was
a moderate seeding of spring salmon in Wannock River, showing increase over the brood-
year. The escapement of chums to Wannock River and Moses Inlet was moderate.
Supplies in Draney Inlet were light.
Smith Inlet
The escapement of sockeye in this area was heavy. The principal sockeye-spawning
streams, the Geluck and Delabah Rivers, were inspected three times during September
and October. The escapement to Geluck River, the more important stream, was very
heavy, all spawning areas below the falls being well covered. The more limited spawning-
grounds contained in the Delabah were also well seeded. Approximately 60 per cent of
the escapement to this area was composed of small fish. Cohoe-supplies were light. The
run of pinks to the Nekite River was late in arriving and heavy in numbers. With the
exception of the Takush River, the runs of chum salmon in all rivers were satisfactory.
Alert Bay Area
The escapement of sockeye was satisfactory to all streams frequented by this variety,
with the exception of the Kliniaklini River. Supplies in the Nimpkish, Mackenzie, Glen-
dale, Kakweeken, Fulmore, Quatse, Shushartie, and Nahwitti systems were good. Spring-
salmon spawning was average. The return of cohoe showed considerable decrease over
1949 but was better than brood-year 1947, exceptions being the Nimpkish and Salmon
Rivers, where better than average seedings occurred. The runs of pinks, particularly to
the Vancouver Island streams, were outstanding in abundance. Of special note was the
heavy seeding of Keogh River. The escapement to Mainland streams also exceeded
expectations, the run to Glendale Cove being unusually heavy. Chum-supplies over the
sub-district were satisfactory and compare favourably with those of the brood-year.
Heavy runs occurred to the Nimpkish, Kliniaklini, Ahwhatti, Viner, and Salmon Rivers.
Again, as in the past two years, the Johnstone Strait streams were lightly seeded, resulting
presumably from the very intensive fishing operation in that area.
Quathiaski Area
The escapement of sockeye to Haydon Bay and Phillips Arm was light, showing
some decrease compared with the brood-year, particularly so in the latter area. The
spring-salmon seeding was generally satisfactory, with the exception of Phillips River and
Orford River. Supplies in Campbell River and Salmon River were almost equal to the
brood-year, while the Homathko and Southgate Rivers received a better than average
seeding. Cohoe-stocks were generally light. There was a definite improvement in the
pink-salmon spawning throughout this area when compared with the brood-year. Exceptions were streams on the east side of Quadra Island, where the seeding was very light
and those streams where it was the off-year cycle for this species. Supplies of chums were
about equal to those of the brood-year, when a heavy escapement took place. Quatum
River was again only lightly seeded. A few of the smaller streams were also below
expectations, notably Forward Harbour creek, Reid Creek, and Granite Bay creek.
Comox Area
The escapement of springs to Puntledge River was very good and above average.
It is estimated that a total of approximately 6,500 spring salmon spawned in this system.
Light runs of this species also spawned in Big Qualicum River, Little Qualicum River,
and Oyster River.   Supplies of cohoe were very satisfactory and above the average of the REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT L 101
past three years. The escapement to French Creek was heavy; to Big Qualicum River
and Kitty Coleman Creek, above average; to Little Qualicum River, Oyster River, Tsolum
River, Black Creek, and Little River, average. Below-average supplies were noted in
Puntledge River and the principal streams flowing into Baynes Sound. Supplies of pinks
were heavier than those of either 1948 or 1949. There was an exceptionally heavy
escapement to Oyster River. Stocks in the Tsolum were also heavy, particularly so in
the Dove Creek tributary. There was a medium run to Puntledge River and Morrison
Creek, a very light run to Nile Creek and Little Qualicum River, and an extremely light
run to Tsable Creek. There was a moderate escapement of chums, lighter than in 1946
or last year. Supplies were medium to heavy in Little Qualicum River, Big Qualicum
River, Waterloo Creek, and Cougar Creek; moderate to Puntledge River and Cook
Creek; light to French Creek, Rosewall Creek, Coal Creek, and Oyster River; and very
light to Tsable and Tsolum Rivers.
Pender Harbour Area
Approximately 2,473 sockeye spawners entered Saginaw Lake, showing considerable
decrease when compared with runs of other years. The escapement of spring salmon was
normal. Cohoe-supplies north of Powell River were above average, particularly so in
Toba and Brem Rivers. In Jervis Inlet there was marked decrease in spawning, especially
so in Skawaka River, the main producer of this variety. Pink-stocks were very light, this
being the off-year for that variety. In general the seeding of chums was well above expectations, particularly so in the major streams in Toba and Jervis Inlets. The one exception was Skawaka Creek, where supplies were extremely light.
Nanaimo-Ladysmith Area
Spring-salmon supplies were well below average. A light seeding of pinks occurred
in Nanaimo River and Englishman River, the only streams frequented by this species.
The escapement of cohoe to the large rivers in the area was good. Fair numbers were
noted in other streams, while in some of the smaller streams spawning was negligible.
The seeding of chums was satisfactory, particularly so in the Nanaimo River, Chemainus
River, Englishman River, and Brunnell Creek.
Cowichan Area
Spring-salmon stocks in the Cowichan River showed some increase over last year.
It is estimated that this season approximately 8,800 spawned in this system. Supplies of
cohoe were slightly below those of last year, the total run, it is estimated, amounted to
approximately 50,000 spawners. The chum run was comparable to that of last year, when
a heavy seeding occurred.
Victoria Area
The cohoe-seeding is reported to be satisfactory in all streams and on a par with that
of the brood-year. Chum-supplies are also reported as good in all streams, Demanuel
Creek being heavily seeded.
Alberni-Nitinat Area
There was a decrease in the escapement of sockeye to the Somass system when compared with that of the brood-year. High-water conditions at both Stamp and Sproat Falls
during the migration period held up the runs for some considerable time, resulting in considerable loss. It is estimated that approximately 30,000 sockeye reached the spawning-
grounds of this watershed. Fairly good supplies, estimated at 15,000, were observed on
the spawning-grounds in Anderson Lake. The escapement to Hobarton Lake was satisfactory and equal to that of the brood-year. The seeding of spring salmon in the Somass,
Nahmint, Sarita, and Toquart Rivers was very good.    Special conservation measures L 102 BRITISH COLUMBIA
were necessary to protect these runs. The escapement of cohoe was very encouraging;
at Stamp Falls it was estimated at 17,076, compared with 11,000 in the brood-year.
Comparable returns were noted in Sproat Lake and the smaller side streams. Other
streams, including Nahmint, Toquart, Sarita, San Juan, and Nitinat Rivers, also had
escapements on a par or higher than in the brood-year. The escapement of chums was
generally very satisfactory, there being considerable increase in numbers over recent years.
Clayoquot Area
Sockeye-supplies in the Kennedy Lake area were satisfactory. Spawning of this
variety in the Megin River was disappointingly light. The escapement of cohoe was good,
showing increase over the brood-year, especially so in the Clayoquot and Upper Kennedy
Rivers. Other streams in which improvement was noted are Bawden Bay, Ice River,
Warn Bay, Watta and Hesquiat Lake area. Chum-stocks were generally very good. With
the exception of Walla Creek, all chum-streams show a yearly increase since 1947.
A fair spawning of pinks occurred.
Nootka Area
Spring-salmon supplies on the limited grounds in this area compare favourably with
those of the brood-years, particularly so in Burman River. Cohoe do not run heavily to
this area, but improvement, when compared with the brood-year 1947, was noted in
Burman and Tahsis Rivers, Deserted Creek, Sou-end Creek, and Big Zeballos River.
Although pinks have not always frequented this area in the past, there was a good escapement of this species to both Gold and Burman Rivers. A few pinks also showed up in
Little Zeballos and Garden Creeks. The escapement of chums showed marked increase
over the brood-year. Improvement was most noticeable in Inner Basin, Port Eliza,
Queens Cove, Garden Creek, Big Zeballos River, Tahsis River, Canal Creek, Gold River,
Burman River, and Camp Bay.
Kyuquot Area
The escapement of spring salmon to the limited ground in this area was reported to
be somewhat less than last year. The seeding of Tahsish River, containing the main
spawning areas of this variety, was below average. Cohoe-stocks are reported as light in
Tahsish River, the main producer, notwithstanding that the fishery boundaries were moved
seaward to give additional protection. Pinks were seen in small numbers in some of the
streams, with fair showings in Tahsish and Cluadaddick Rivers. Chum-supplies were
moderate; heavy in the Chamiss and Malksope Rivers; fair in Tahsish, Narrowget, and
Kaouk Rivers; fairly satisfactory in the smaller streams; and poor in the Artlege.
Quatsino Area
With the exception of Fisherman River, the small runs of sockeye to this area which
are not exploited were a failure. The escapement of spring salmon to Marble Creek, the
main producer of the limited run of this species to this area, was below average. There
was improvement in streams in the Klaskish area. Very few springs entered Main Creek
in Neroutsos Inlet or Spruce River in Holberg Inlet. Cohoe-supplies were only fair. On
the west coast general improvement was noted in practically all streams: Browning Creek
in Browning Inlet showed marked improvement; stocks in the streams flowing into Quatsino Sound were slightly above average. Returns to Holberg Inlet continue light. The
return of pink salmon was above expectations. Outstanding runs occurred to Koprino
River, Rupert River, and Lagoon Creek, Rupert Arm, as well as to the Klaskish Inlet
area. Chum supplies were fairly good: heavy in Brooks Bay and San Josef Bay, the best
in some years in the Winter Harbour area, and good in Rupert Arm. A decline was noted
in the over-all numbers in streams flowing into Quatsino Sound, and spawning was very
light in all streams in Holberg Inlet. report of provincial fisheries department l 103
Fraser River
Prince George Area.—Sockeye ascending the Stuart Lake system were estimated at
55,000, an increase of approximately 45,000 over the brood-year run of 9,600. The
early run, estimated at 54,000 fish, spawned in streams tributary to Middle River and
Takla Lake, while the small late run spawned chiefly in Middle and Tachie Rivers. The
early run commenced to arrive at the outlet of the lake on July 29th, five days later than
in 1946 and fourteen days later than in 1942; it continued until August 23rd. Approximately 149,000 sockeye were observed in the Fraser-Francois watershed, compared with
300,000 in 1946. The early run, estimated at 4,000 spawned in streams flowing into
Fraser and Francois; the late run, estimated at 145,000, spawned in Stellako River.
High temperature of the water in the Stellako caused some mortality. Although a slight
decrease in numbers was reported in the Nechako system, spring-salmon supplies generally
were about equal to those of last year, which was reported to be the best in many years.
Quesnel-Chilko Area.—Although the return of sockeye to the Chilcotin River was
below expectations, a fairly satisfactory seeding occurred on the most productive portions
of the spawning-grounds below the outlet of Chilko Lake. As this was considered an
off-year, sockeye were not expected in the Taseko River system, yet there was evidence
that more spawned there than in previous years. A notable feature of the Chilko run was
the abundance of jacks, estimated as representing over 32 per cent of the total run. In
the Quesnel system an estimated 300 sockeye were observed in the Horsefly River, compared with 60 in 1946. An estimated 16,000 sockeye ascended the Upper Bowron system.
The run, arriving about a week later than usual, crowded up-stream into the lake in heavy
volume from about August 5th. The migration and spawning progressed rapidly compared with previous seasons. Spring-salmon supplies were moderate in numbers, much
the same as last year, in all areas, including the Chilko, Chilcotin, Quesnel, Bowron, and
Cottonwood systems.
Kamloops Area.—Early-run sockeye, estimated at 15,000 compared with 6,000 in
1946, spawned in the Seymour and Raft Rivers. High water temperatures caused some
mortality in Raft River, estimated at 5 per cent. The large late run to Adams River commenced to arrive on the grounds in late September and reached a peak about mid-October.
The run, estimated at 800,000, was similar in numbers to the escapement in 1938, but
was substantially under 1942 or 1946. Approximately 500 sockeye spawned in the Upper
Shuswap River. This stream was barren in the brood-year. There was a decrease in
numbers in Little River and South Thompson River. No lake spawners were observed
in either Little Shuswap Lake or Shuswap Lake. The percentage of jacks was very small.
There was a fair distribution of spring salmon to the different streams, although slightly
less in numbers than in the brood-year. Cohoe-supplies were fairly satisfactory, all
streams showing an increase of this species over brood-year stocks.
Lillooet Area.—An estimated 85,000 to 95,000 sockeye spawned in the Birkenhead
River, which compares favourably with the spawning in 1946. Jacks were plentiful,
composing about 15 per cent of the run. Owing to changes in the channel near Creek-
side, more fish than usual spawned farther up-stream. Some loss of spawn is possible
due to shifting gravel. Supplies of this variety in the Seton-Anderson system were sniall,
similar in numbers to the brood-year. The Fish Culture Development Branch continued
a programme of collecting spring-salmon eggs at a point below the high diversion-dam
in Bridge River. Approximately 390,000 spring-salmon eggs were obtained. Sixty
thousand of these were planted in a green state in the Yalakom River; the remainder were
retained in a small hatchery located in the vicinity of the dam until the eyed stage was
reached, after which they were planted in Gates Creek. No spring salmon were observed
in the Yalakom River. Spring-salmon supplies in the Birkenhead were average. In
Seton Creek supplies were very light.
Yale-Lytton Area.—The rivers in this area are mainly small mountain streams and
do not provide any spawning-ground except for limited areas at their confluence with L 104 BRITISH COLUMBIA
the Fraser.   A few cohoe, not exceeding 300 in number, were observed in the Nahat-
latch River.
Chilliwack Area.—A total of 30,000 sockeye spawned in the Cultus Lake system,
compared with 33,000 in 1946. The usual small numbers of this species were present
in the Chilliwack Lake area. A few large springs spawned in the Chilliwack River.
Cohoe-supplies were fairly satisfactory, a general improvement over the cycle-year.
A fair escapement occurred to the Chilliwack River, while in other streams, such as Elk,
Dumville, Succer, Lorenzetti, and Popcum Creeks, there was marked improvement over
the brood-year. Although this is the off-year for pinks, a few were observed in Jones
Creek and in the lower reaches of the Coquihalla River. Good supplies of chums were
present in Sweltzer Creek and Cultus Lake. The escapement of chums to the Chilliwack
and the Upper Vedder Rivers was of average proportions, and the fish were well distributed over the spawning areas. The seeding of the Lower Vedder was below average,
and the spawning in Jones Creek was light.   Very few were observed in the Coquihalla.
Mission-Harrison Area.—The escapement of sockeye to Weaver Creek equalled the
brood-year run of 36,000. Good supplies, estimated at 15,000, spawned in Harrison
Rapids. The seeding in Hatchery Creek and Douglas Creek, tributary to Harrison Lake,
was light. High-water conditions prevented accurate observation of spring-salmon
spawning stocks at Harrison River; all indications suggested the run was fight and somewhat less than that of last year. Light supplies were present in Big Silver River and
Maria Slough. The cohoe-seeding was an improvement over the brood-year, with best
runs at Hicks Creek, Weaver Creek, and Chehalis River. Supplies in other streams were
very light. A few odd pinks were reported in the Harrison River near Chehalis River.
Generally there was marked improvement in the chum-seeding compared with the brood-
year. Good supplies spawned in the Harrison and Chehalis Rivers. The early run was
above expectations. The main run was late in arriving, and as spawning occurred during
high-water stages, some loss is anticipated in the areas that will dry up during low
water-levels. Inches Creek, flowing into Suicide Creek, was well supplied with chums;
spawning in Suicide Creek and tributaries was average and in streams tributary to Hatzic
Lake disappointingly small.
Lower Fraser Area
The Upper Pitt River system was well seeded with sockeye. Spring-salmon supplies
were light, the main spawning-ground also being the Upper Pitt River. While the escapement of cohoe cannot be termed large, there was improvement over the seeding of the
past five years. Good runs occurred in the Nicomekl and Serpentine Rivers, but the
numbers entering such streams as Salmon River, Beaver River, and others flowing into the
Lower Fraser were very small. A few pinks were observed in Silverdale Creek, as well
as in Boise Creek, tributary to the Upper Pitt River. There was a moderate escapement
of chums to all streams, and the seeding in general was superior to that of the brood-year.
North Vancouver Area
Satisfactory runs of cohoe took place to Capilano and Seymour Rivers. The escapement of chums was only fair, lighter than the moderate run in the brood-year. The
run was generally earlier than in previous years to the main streams, including Indian,
Capilano, and Seymour Rivers.
Squamish Area
. No pinks were observed in the Squamish area, this being the off-year for that species.
Spring-salmon supplies were satisfactory, showing improvement over the previous year.
The escapement of cohoe, estimated at 5,500, was somewhat below average. There was
a moderate escapement of chums, estimated at 30,000, in the Squamish River, 5,000 in
the Cheakamus, and 4,000 in the Mamquam. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
STATISTICAL TABLES
L 105
LICENCES ISSUED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF FISHERIES
FOR THE 1950 SEASON
Number of
Kind of Licence                                                                    Licences Revenue
Salmon-cannery.-^ :.-.:    23 $4,600.00
Herring-cannery      2 200.00
Pilchard-cannery  	
Herring-reduction     15 1,500.00
Pilchard-reduction  	
Tierced salmon      6 600.00
Fish cold-storage     19 1,900.00
Fish-processing    20 20.00
Shell-fish cannery      7 7.00
Tuna-fish cannery      3 3.00
Fish-offal reduction     12 12.00
Fish-liver reduction      5 5.00
Whale-reduction      1 100.00
Herring dry-saltery      6 600.00
Processing aquatic plants       1 10.00
Harvesting aquatic plants       1 10.00
Fish-buyers'  560 14,000.00
Non-tidal fishing  352 355.00
Dogfish-reduction  	
General receipts      6 45.50
Total  $23,967.50
PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON, SEASON 1950, SHOWING THE
ORIGIN OF SALMON CAUGHT IN EACH DISTRICT
District
Sockeyes
Springs
Steelheads
Cohoes
Pinks
Chums
Total
108,223
89
27,2861
47,479.
142,7101
42,435
25,997
13,806
1,8181
48
7981
1,7581
6191
711
776
3,343
240
15
236
1,645
163
39
762
1271
6,0251
9,021
2,737
9,781
5,736
397
17,061
72,871
72
92,986
12,582
26,256
12,864
5,308
163,301
132,016
23,3421
148,669
14,321
10,969
10,0141
4,4991
164,884
125,833
139,7211
250,828
57,961
97,889
172,1071
Smith Inlet    —	
52,750
372,781
Vancouver Island and adjacent
Mainland — —
347,9961
1,0711
5,0781
6,150
Totals	
408,0261
9,2331
3,2271
123,6291
446,4561
507,611
1,498,1841
Note.—7,7231 cases of bluebacks are combined with cohoes in this table for Vancouver Island. L 106
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL SALMON-PACK BY SPECIES
FROM 1942 TO 1950, INCLUSIVE
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
Sockeyes	
Springs  	
408,0261
9,2331
507,611
446,4561
123,6291
3,2271
259,821
21,184
230,5561
709,987
215,944
2,373
261,2301
16,4451
511,404
321,7211
221,804
5,6631
286,497
10,025
486,6151
600,7871
146,293
3,2601
543,027
8,1001
576,1331
116,6071
100,1541
4,1151
329,0011
12,801
350,1881
825,513
218,8861
2,922
247,714
19,362
255,3161
389,692
181,5461
3,9261
164,889
10,658
363,3471
530,189
186,043
3,095
666,570
24,7441
633,834
Pinks _ . .
270,6221
Cohoes.	
211,138
4,649
Totals	
1,498,1841
1,439,866
1,338,271
1,533,4781
1,348,1381
1,739,3121
1,097,5571
1,258,2211
1,811,558
STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL SALMON-PACK OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA BY DISTRICTS
Total Packed by Districts in 1942 to
1950, Inclusive
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
139,7211
97,889
172,107.
52,750
57,961
347,9961
623,609
6,150
189,938
129,027
70,2101
19,083
58,3361
538,3701
431,4981
3,402
104,485
193,4351
72,117
14,675
38,5381
317,572
567,314
30,134
171,3021
79,718
168,9351
46,172
29,450
552,9401
456,639
28,321
413,542
105,9121
123,304
23,177
38,313
264,922
378,968
221,3511
221,4711
135,412
21,682
54,9801
492,2811
592,1331
130,8831
149,9481
59,391
6,1941
61,096
193,459
496,587
126,5411
133,589
79,6971
21,942
52,3331
347,7101
496,407
549,617
Skeena River	
152,4181
105,539
Smith Inlet
23,777
Nass River	
Vancouver Island and
adjacent Mainland-
100,1421
536,8031
343,2601
Cold storage
Grand totals
1,498,1841
1,439,866
1,338,271
1,533,4781
1,348,1381
1,739,3121
1,097,5571
1,258,2211
1,811,558 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
L 107
TABLE SHOWING THE TOTAL SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE FRASER RIVER,
ARRANGED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE FOUR-YEAR CYCLE, 1895-1950
British Columbia .
Washington^	
Total..
1895— 395,984
65,143
461,127
1896— 356,984
72,979
429,963
1897-
860,459
312,048
1,172,507
1898-
256,101
252,000
508,101
British Columbia-
Washington 	
Total-
British Columbia.
Washington	
Total.
British Columbia.
Washington	
Total.
1899-
480,485
499,646
980,131
1903— 204,809
167,211
1907-
372,020
59,815
96,974
156,789
1900— 229,800
228,704
458,504
1904— 72,688
123,419
196,107
1908— 74,574
170,951
245,525
1901— 928,669
1,105,096
2,033,765
1905— 837,489
837,122
1,674,611
1909— 585,435
1,097,904
1,683,339
1902-
1906-
293,477
339,556
633,033
183,007
182,241
365,248
1910— 150,432
248,014
398,446
British Columbia.
Washington __
Total..
1911— 58,487
127,761
186,248
1912-
123,879
184,680
308,559
1913— 719,796
1,673,099
2,392,895
1914— 198,183
335,230
533,413
British Columbia .
Washington 	
Total.
1915—   91,130
64,584
155,714
1916-
32,146
84,637
116,783
1917— 148,164
411,538
559,702
1918-
19,697
50,723
70,420
British Columbia _
Washington	
Total-
British Columbia..
Washington	
Total.
British Columbia-
Washington 	
Total-
British Columbia .
Washington	
Total-
British Columbia-
Washington 	
Total	
British Columbia.
Washington	
Total-
British Columbia .
Washington	
TotaL
1919—   38,854
64,346
1923-
103,200
31,655
47,402
79,057
1927—   61,393
97,594
158,987
1931— 40,947
87,211
128,158
1935— 62,822
54,677
1939-
117,499
54,296
43,512
97,808
1943— 31,974
19,117
51,091
1920— 48,399
62,654
111,053
1924— 39,743
69,369
109,112
1928— 29,299
61,044
90,343
1932— 65,769
81,188
146,957
1936— 184,854
59,505
244,359
1940— 99,009
63,890
162,899
1944— 88,515
37,509
126,024
1921— 39,631
102,967
1925-
142,598
35,385
112,023
147,408
1929— 61,569
111,898
1933-
1937-
173,467
52,465
128,518
180,983
100,272
60,259
160,531
1941— 171,290
110,605
1945-
281,895
79,977
53,055
133,032
1922— 51,832
48,566
100,398
1926— 85,689
44,673
130,362
1930— 103,692
352,194
455,886
1934— 139,238
352,579
1938-
491,817
186,794
135,550
322,344
1942—446,371
263,458
709,829
1946— 341,957
268,561
610,518
British Columbia-
Washington	
1947-
33,952
6,760
1948—   64,8231
90,441
1949-
96,159
80,547
1950— 108,223
116,458
Total-
40,712
155,2641
176,706
224,681 L 108
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES
Fraser River, 1942 to 1950, Inclusive
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
108,223
1,8181
23,3431
72
6,0251
240
96,1591
9,889
6,763
66,626
10,286
2141
64,8231
2,9551
20,209
31
16,102
364
33,9521
1,455
16,4751
113,1361
6,105
178
341,957
1,0961
60,713
429
9,1681
178
79,977
6,1301
27,610
95,7481
11,615
2701
88,515
12,5771
13,8031
130
15,5641
293
31,9731
3,5051
52,149
29,8601
8,809
244
446,371
9,688
82,573
134
Springs  	
Pinks -	
Cohoes 	
10,542
309
Totals	
139,7211
189,938
104,485
171,3021
413,542
221,3511
130,8831
126,5411
549,617
Skeena River, 1942 to 1950, Inclusive
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
Sockeyes 	
47,4791
1,7581
10,969
26,256
9,781
65,937
2,5071
4,896
33,0691
21,3331
2,5071
101,2671
4,0181
11,863
50,656
22,0861
3,544
32,534
2,113
8,236
13,1901
21,6001
2,044
52,928
2,439
11,161
10,737
26,2811
2,366
104,2791
2,382
9,264
69,7831
34,2011
1,561
68,197
1,5001
8,7411
48,837
20,1911
2,481
28,2681
1,783
6,597
54,509
40,4791
1,952
43,544
6,374
11,421
52,767
44,0811
3,231
PinVs
Totals	
97,889
129,027
193,4351
79,718
105,9121
221,4711
149,9481
133,589
152,4181
Rivers Inlet, 1942 to 1950, Inclusive
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
142,7101
6191
10,0141
12,864
5,736
163
39,4941
743
11,819
11,937
5,978
239
37,6651
8991
11,4861
13,491
8,143
4311
140,087
475
13,873
9,025
5,182
2931
73,320
1,1081
37,3951
1,6411
9,5241
314
89,735
1,1911
16,793
9,916
17,5161
260
36,5821
805
2,705
5,2891
13,921
88
47,6021
765
11,448
8,347
11,466
69
79,199
985
15,874
954
Cohoes 	
8,467
60
Totals 	
172,1071
70,2101
72,117
168,9351
123,304
135,412
59,391
79,6971
105,539
Smith Inlet, 1942 to 1950, Inclusive
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
Sockeyes— —
42,435
711
397
5,308
4,4991
39
13,189
159
785
2,533
2,361
56
10,4561
186}
9291
1,4811
1,5211
991
36,800
43
348
1,054
7,910
21
14,318
45
177
235
8,369
33
15,014
26
560
2,362
3,692
2S
3,165
66
343
4981
2,122
666
15,010
118
541
556
5,693
24
15,939
8
1,813
527
5,490
Totals 	
52,750
19,083
14,675
46,172
23,177
21,682
6,1941
21,942
23,777 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
L 109
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES—Continued
Na
ss River, 1942
to 1950, Inclusive
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
Sockeyes	
Springs	
Chums	
Pinks	
Cohoes 	
27,2861
7981
14,321
12,582
2,737
236
9,268
1741
7,854
34,324
6,665
51
13,1811
416
7,2721
8,565
8,9541
149
10,849
398
8,925
5,047
4,075
156
12,511
472
13,810
7,147
4,239
134
9,899
202
4,9811
35,9181
3,895
841
13,083
6811
9,143
31,854
6,102
2321
13,4121
1,0021
10,1461
17,669
9,768
335
21,085
1,515
12,518
49,0031
15,487
534
Totals	
57,961
58,3361
38,5381
29,450
38,313
54,9801
61,096
52,3331
100,1421
Vancouver Island District and Adjacent Mainland, 1942 to 1950, Inclusive
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
Sockeyes..—	
Springs.  	
Chums    	
Pinks	
13,806
3,343
125,833
132,016
72,871
1271
19,4861
6,3611
51,629
361,7831
98,9581
1511
9,9811
6,622
147,2271
43,5741
109,9391
227
14,543
4,9421
99,6791
355,992
77,6841
99
35,3811
2,2831
190,313
6,8091
29,983
1511
5,988
2,323
136,724
242,5901
104,528
128
5,2881
3,0681
56,0291
49,092
79,8131
165
7,185
2,937
132,843
130,825
73,8461
74
51,961
5,407
383,005
14,474
Cohoes*  	
Steelheads	
81,8371
119
Totals	
347,9961
538,3701
317,572
552,9401
264,922
492,2811
193,459
347,7101
536,8031
* Since 1940, bluebacks have been included with the cohoe-pack for Vancouver Island.
Queen Charlotte Islands, 1942 to 1950, Inclusive
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
89
48
148,669
92,986
9,021
15
20
145
71,287
51,722
4,145
157
20
81,916
90,993
19,615
1
53
1
4
12,132
4,809
1,108
38
24,8521
1,550
8,1411
14,096
1,200
392
32,414
8,024
1,192
5
35,370
313
14,488
43,801
Pinks	
83,329
Cohoes j.	
Steelheads 	
16,935
41
Totals -	
250,828
34,544
127,319
15,688
41,635
18,053
192,702
50,224
144,145
Central Area, 1942 to 1950, Inclusive
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
Sockeyes  -
25,997
776
164,884
163,301
17,061
762
16,1401
1,007
116,2921
173,456
44,169
355
23,2461
1,1951
225,686
152,2001
36,816
8501
17,3431
5141
292,6041
101,2411
28,778
469
12,6111
656
221,958
81,5841
19,589
934
24,109
542
138,992
364,385
45,4621
590
32,715
643
80,793
162,986
25,823
666
21,101
547
109,101
288,1091
26,645
397
17,470
7231
79,152
Pinks 	
69,434
Cohoes 	
Steelheads - 	
31,274
355
Totals	
372,781
351,420
439,995
440,951
337,333
574,0801
303,626
445,9001
198,4081 L 110
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF PILCHARD PRODUCTS
PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1930 TO 1950
Season
Canned
Meal
Oil
1Qln-3i
Cases
55,166
17,336
4,622
2,946
35,437
27,184
35,007
40,975
69,473
7,300
59,166
72,498
42,008
94,512
78,772
79,536
4,359
2,656
Tons
13,934
14,200
8,842
1,108
7,628
8,666
8,715
8,483
8,891
906
4,853
11,437
11,003
15,209
8,435
5,812
699
67
Gal.
3,204,058
2,551,914
1,315,864
275,879
1,635,123
1,634,592
1,217,087
1031-3?
1932-33      -.   .            	
1QH_^4
1Q14-35
1935-36
1936-37
1QT7-3R
1,707,276
2,195,850
178,305
890,296
1938-39
1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1,916,191
1,560,269
2,238,987
1,675,090
1047^3
1943-44
iq44-45
1945-46
1,273,329
81,831
1046-47
1047-48
12,833
1948^19
1949-50
	
1950-51    	
	
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF HERRING PRODUCTS
PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1935 TO 1950
Season
Canned
Dry-salted
Pickled
Meal
Oil
1935-36-
1936-37-
1937-38-
1938-39-
1939-40-
1940-41-
1941-42-
1942-43-
1943-44..
1944-^.5-
1945^16-
1946-47-
1947^t8-
1948-49-
1949-50..
1950-51..
Cases
26,143
20,914
27,365
23,353
418,021
640,252
1,527,350
1,253,978
1,198,632
1,190,762
1,307,514
1,634,286
1,283,670
92,719
77,913
56,798
Tons
14,983
16,454
10,230
7,600
7,596
5,039
302
5,807
3,084*
412
3,858
4,418
Tons
892
779
502
591
26
100
1291
1
Tons
Gal.
5,313
328,639
10,340
786,742
14,643
1,333,245
18,028
1,526,117
22,870
1,677,736
10,886
923,137
8,780
594,684
4,633
323,379
7,662
512,516
9,539
717,655
5,525
521,649
7,223
484,937
18,948
1,526.826
31,340
2,614,925
30,081
3,823,464
31,913
3,385,685
* Previously reported as 2,988 tons.
The above figures are for the season October to March 31st, annually. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
L 111
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF MEAL, OIL, AND FERTILIZER
PRODUCED FROM SOURCES OTHER THAN HERRING AND PILCHARD, 1941 TO 1950.
Season
From Whales
Whalebone
and Meal
Fertilizer
Oil
From Fish-
livers
Oil
From Other Sources
Meal and
Fertilizer
Oil
1941-42..
1942-43..
1943-44..
1944-45..
1945-46..
1946-47..
1947-48-
1948-49-
1949-50..
1950-51..
Tons
270
130
62
119
921
1,098
Tons
561
205
90
Gal.
619,025
255,555
134,553
324
21
186,424
312,055
393,176t
Gal.
916,723
822,250
545,736
445,858
211,914
11,109,063»
10,121,374*
12,079,015*
3,578,905$
Tons
5,410
4,768
4,332
2,721
4,560
4,208
3,929
1,172
1,635
1,717
Gal.
405,340
338,502
60,000
301,048
513,442
453,003
519,802
141,098
175,202
166,898
* Fish-liver oil, formerly reported in gallons, is now reported in million U.S.P. units Vitamin A.
t Includes oil from whales.
t Includes Vitamin A production from whales. L 112
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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