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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS HON. E. T. KENNEY, Minister C. D. ORCHARD,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1951

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
HON. E. T. KENNEY, Minister C. D. ORCHARD, Deputy Minister of Forests
REPORT
of
THE FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 3 1st
1950
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty
1951  .-.   '. ,;,';.-:-.'.'...'.-.
:mm
Beef cattle on open grass land, Nicola Valley.  Victoria, B.C., March 1st, 1951.
To His Honour Clarence Wallace, C.B.E.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service of the
Department of Lands and Forests for the calendar year 1950.
E. T. KENNEY,
Minister of Lands and Forests.
The Honourable E. T. Kenney,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Forest
Service during the calendar year 1950.
C. D. ORCHARD,
Deputy Minister and Chief Forester.  CONTENTS
lTEM Pace
1. Introductory  9
2. Forest Economics         13
Forest Surveys  13
Provincial Forests  13
Forest Research  14
Nursery Fertility Studies  14
Field Survival of Nursery Stock  15
Land-use Survey  16
Ecological Studies  16
Forest Experiment Stations    17
Aleza Lake     17
Cowichan Lake  19
Silvicultural Studies  20
Mensuration .,  24
Volume Tables  24
Yield  28
3. Reforestation ..  31
Forest Nurseries  31
Seed Collections  31
Reconnaissance and Survey Work  31
Planting  31
Preparation of Planting Areas  33
Plantations  33
Publications  33
4. Parks and Recreation  35
Administration and Development  35
Reconnaissance and Inventory  38
Planning _'_  39
Engineering and Architectural Design  40
5. Forest Management      43
Sustained-yield Management  45
Forest-cover Maps  46
Silvicultural Fund  46
6. Forest Accounts	
47
7. Forest Protection  48
Weather  48
Fires  48
Occurrences and Causes  48
Cost of Fire-fighting  49
Damage  49
Fire-control Planning and Research  50
Visibility Mapping  50
Panoramic Lookout Photography  50
Trail and Road Traverses  50
Fire-weather Record and Investigations  51
Miscellaneous Projects  51
Fire-suppression Crews : . 52
Aircraft  52 8 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Item Page
7. Forest Protection—Continued
Mechanical Equipment -*  52
Automotive  5 3
Tankers  53
Trailers, Tractors, and Maintainers   53
Outboard Motors, Pumps, and Chain-saws  53
Miscellaneous Equipment  54
Mechanical Inspection :   54
Forest Service Marine Station  54
Building and Construction  55
Roads and Trails  57
Radio Communication  58
Slash-disposal and Snag-falling  60
Fire-law Enforcement   60
Forest Closures  60
Co-operation—Other Agencies  61
8. Forest-insect Investigations  62
Forest-insect Survey   62
Special Studies   63
9. Forest-disease Investigations  67
Diseases of Mature and Overmature Trees .  67
Diseases of Immature Forests  69
Diseases of Nursery Stock  70
10. Forest Ranger School  71
Extra Courses   72
Building and Grounds   72
Acknowledgments   72
11. Public Relations and Education  73
Press and Radio .  73
Publications  73
Photography and Motion Pictures :  74
Exhibits  75
Signs and Posters .  76
Miscellaneous Media  76
Co-operation :  76
Library  77
12. Grazing  78
Introduction 1  78
Administration  78
General Conditions  78
Range Management  80
Co-operation  80
Range Improvement  81
Range Reconnaissance  81
Grazing, Hay, and Special-use Permits  81
Miscellaneous ;  82
13. Personnel Directory, 1951  84
14. Appendix—Tabulated Detailed Statements to Supplement Report of Forest
Service  93 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE
Despite a late start, favourable weather in the late summer permitted a record area
to be surveyed by standard inventory methods during the year. A total of 4,346,280
acres was surveyed, utilizing a total personnel of eighty-seven on all parties. One new
Provincial forest—Kyuquot—was created, comprising 1,865 square miles.
A continuation of the nursery fertility studies indicated a decline in growth at all
three nurseries, and serious consideration must be given to a fertilizing programme.
Survival studies of nursery stock in the field paralleling fertilizer studies at the nurseries
were carried out.
A land-use survey was conducted in the valley of the Silverhope Creek, Klesilkwa
River, and Lower Skagit River. Previous site-type studies were broadened in their scope
into ecological studies to determine the chief plant associations of a region.
A number of essential buildings were erected at the Aleza Lake Experiment Station,
and the nucleus of a permanent staff established. A preliminary working-plan providing
an annual cut of 3,500,000 F.B.M. was adopted. A similar plan for the Cowichan
Lake Experiment Station was completed.
The results of studies of seed production and dissemination by conifers and in the
control of seed-eating rodents were published as research notes or technical bulletins.
A variety of volume tables was produced during the year by the mensuration section of
the Division.
The severe winter of 1949-50 reduced nursery production by approximately 20 per
cent; frost damage to 1-0 and 2-0 stock at both Duncan and Green Timbers nurseries
was severe. Seed was sown for a production of 10,000,000 trees in 1942. A total of
6,900,000 trees was planted during the year, with 6,300,000 being placed by the Forest
Service on Crown land.   The remainder was planted by private companies.
The Douglas fir cone-crop was only fair and hemlock and Western red cedar was
poor. However, utilizing mainly the services of teen-age boys under the supervision of
a foreman, it was possible to collect 4,600 bushels of fir-cones which should meet nursery
requirements for three years.
The first experimental autumn planting with 1—1 yellow pine seedlings in the East
Kootenay was completed, a total of 28,000 trees being planted.
Fifty miles of abandoned logging grade was converted to truck-trail and 4 miles of
new road constructed.   Snag-falling on 11,440 acres was completed.
The major share of development efforts and funds was again expended in Mount
Seymour and Manning Parks, with the Vancouver Island parks next in line for attention.
As a result, during the year the Mount Seymour Park road has been extended to the
Administrative site, and Pine Woods Lodge and overnight accommodation in Manning
Park has now been completed. At the end of the year the Division had under its
jurisdiction sixty-one Provincial parks comprising over 9,000,000 acres.
The total cut of 4,560,000,000 feet, board-foot log-scale, for all products established
an all-time record for forest-resource harvest and, at the same time, achieved a new peak
in production values—estimated at $468,371,000. Water-borne shipments exceeded
1949 figures by 320,000,000 feet. Forty per cent of the volume cut was Douglas fir, and
over one-third of the whole harvest was obtained from areas under timber sale.
Weighted average bid for stumpage of all species was $5.19 per thousand, an
increase of $1.14 (28 per cent) over 1949.
The number of operating sawmills and shingle-mills reached a new maximum of
1,891—double the number existing in 1945.
Six new forest management licences were completed during the year, bringing the
total in effect to eight;  working-plans for two others are at hand and five other applica- 10 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
tions have been approved and reserves established pending completion of working-plans.
The first cutting permits issued under the forest management licences were granted during
the year. Four public working-circles on Provincial forests have been analysed, with
regulation of cut to be initiated in the coming year. Working-plans have been prepared
for three farm-woodlot licences.
Activity under the Silvicultural Fund occupied seven crews on forty-two different
projects in four of the forest districts.
Revenue collections for the year established a new record at just less than
$9,250,000, slightly over $1,000,000 higher than the previous record in 1949.
The forest-protection picture during the year can best be described as " fortunate."
A number of periods of hazard build-up occurred but generally were relieved by rains
before they became critical. September, which might have proved very bad, had only
a limited number of fires due to the absence of the usual lightning-storms. Only in the
Peace River section of the Fort George District was the fire season disastrous. In that
area, fires, during the third week of September, burned extensive acreages but did little
damage to mature-timber values. Campers and smokers caused 35 per cent of the fires,
and lightning slightly over 22 per cent. A total of 848,246 acres—more than two and
one-half times the average for the past ten years—was burned over. Of this total, nearly
800,000 acres were located in the Peace River section east of the Rockies.
Possible locations for lookouts were examined in 127 cases, and reports, complete
with maps, prepared for each site. Locations for eleven primary and nine secondary
lookouts were recommended. Approximately 310 miles of existing roads and trails were
traversed and mapped.
In view of the complexity of fire-weather studies, work on this phase of fire-
protection has been concentrated in the Vancouver District; the number of weather
stations recording fire-hazard factors was increased to forty-six. Results fully justify the
extensive use of fuel-moisture sticks to determine hazard build-up.
Thirteen primary-action suppression crews were fielded, and these fought a total of
146 fires, holding 131 of them to less than 5 acres in area. Four aeroplanes were
available under charter contract for detection-suppression duties. Considerable success
has been experienced in parachute-dropping food and equipment to Forest Service crews
in inaccessible areas.
The Service was uniformly successful in the acquisition of automotive equipment,
tankers, trailers and tractors, road-maintainers, outboards, pumps, and chain-saws.
Operations of the Marine Station were seriously hampered during the first four months
of the year while the plant was under reconstruction, following the fire of the previous
year. Despite this handicap an important volume of work was accomplished in boat
construction, overhaul, and refits; in fabrication of lookout buildings, and furniture; and
the manufacture of pumps, fire-finders, and other special machined items. Forty-six
major building projects were under way during the year, and thirty-six were completed,
comprising garages, warehouse and office buildings, boat-houses, and Ranger and
Assistant Ranger headquarters.
The Radio Section made steady improvement in the reliability and speed of message-
handling; traffic during the year totalled 33,000 messages. Fifty-one new transmitting
units were added to the network. Experimental work was undertaken with F.M. on 150
megacycles and in the construction of a new-type light-weight portable transmitter-
receiver.   By the year's end, total of all types of sets in use in the network was 448.
It has been possible, through the co-operation of the Forest Insect and Forest
Diseases Investigations units of Science Service, Dominion Department of Agriculture,
to include in this Report an outline of the activities of these two laboratories. The Forest
Service deems itself fortunate in having available for consultation and assistance the
skilled personnel of both organizations and tenders its thanks for the co-operation
received during the year.   In the insect field, the spruce budworm and the bark-beetles REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950 11
at present constitute the more important hazards to forest health; ambrosia-beetle control
in felled timber and forest-nursery insect studies were carried out. The forest-disease
investigations comprised pole blight in Western white pine, progressive deterioration of
wind-thrown spruce, decay in Western hemlock in the Northern Coast and Big Bend
regions, Douglas fir root-rot, infection of lodgepole pine by mistletoe, and a study of
deterioration in looper-killed hemlock jointly with the Insect Investigations personnel.
The fourth class of students to attend the Ranger School completed its course in the
spring of the year. This class was the first to take the expanded nine months' course, and
the advantages of the longer period of studies were demonstrated. The fifth class,
comprising another twenty students, commenced study in mid-September.
Public education through press advertisements was continued at the level of previous
years, but increased funds permitted doubling of the radio-broadcasting programme.
There was an extensive expansion in the number and variety of publications produced
and in the photographic services provided. Three colour-and-sound motion-pictures
were produced for the Forest Service, and work commenced on a film for the Topographic
Survey Division of the Lands Service. A series of school lectures was initiated in
co-operation with the Canadian Forestry Association.
Exhibits were placed in three major exhibitions in the Vancouver area and two rural
fairs. Additional protection-signs for highway display were procured and distributed,
together with a selection of coloured posters. Traffic in the Service library was heavier
than in any previous year.
Grazing administration duties during the year were particularly heavy. Early in the
year a revision and consolidation of Grazing Regulations was accomplished, and fees
placed on a sliding scale governed by the ratio of average live-stock prices for the
immediately preceding year to average prices for 1939.
Despite the severity of the weather during the winter of 1949-50, an adequate supply
of hay reduced the losses of stock to only a little more than an average figure. Forage-
growth in the spring was late, and overly dry conditions militated against good fall
forage, but summer range conditions were excellent. The range-improvement programme
during the year was satisfactory. Altogether 561,472 acres of range were reconnoitred
during the summer.
Reports of the various phases of Forest Service work are embodied in greater detail
in the ensuing pages, together with numerous statistical tables. 12
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Bella Coola River valley.
Nass River valley. 50°
BRITISH     COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT of LANDS and FORESTS
Honourable E. T. Kenney. Minister
<e-y t_r 4 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950
13
FOREST ECONOMICS
FOREST SURVEYS
A satisfactory area was surveyed during the 1950 season, despite the difficulties
encountered during May and early June due to the snow, which remained until an
unusually late date. However, the weather during the latter part of the summer was
especially favourable, and the field parties more than made up for the time lost earlier in
the season. The total personnel of all parties numbered eighty-seven, and standard
inventory surveys were completed on 4,346,280 acres, as follows:—     Acres
Powell survey       903,680
Skeena survey -      988,780
Upper Fraser survey      748,000
Princeton-Merritt survey       880,800
Bella Coola survey      438,500
Saanich Peninsula       121,520
Strathcona Park       265,000
4,346,280
Skeena River valley.
In addition, detailed cruises were made for five separate projects, involving a total
area of 15,670 acres.
Copies of the finished maps are made available to the public as soon as completed
and, for the assistance of those interested, there is included with this Report a key-map
on which is indicated the areas for which prints may be obtained on request, together
with the areas for which tracings are being prepared. In 1950 the equivalent of thirty-two
new maps were draughted.
Timber estimates are being prepared for such major regions as the Upper Fraser,
Skeena, Princeton-Merritt, Sechelt, Powell, and the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway
land grant, and will be published as surveys are completed.
PROVINCIAL FORESTS
■Only one new Provincial forest was created in 1950. The Kyuquot Forest, comprising 1,865 square miles, was added to the forest reserves located throughout the lower
coastal region.   There were no boundary adjustments in any of the other forest reserves, 14
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
but, statistically, it was found that an error was being made in showing the Glacier Scenic
Forest as a separate entity when it had been included with the Upper Arrow Forest years
ago.   The records have been changed accordingly.
The revised summary of the Provincial forests to date is as follows:—
Coast Region
Interior Region
Total
Class of Forest
Number
Area
(Sq. Mi.)
Number
Area
(Sq. Mi.)
Number
Area
(Sq. Mi.)
25
4
18,101
4
1
28                21,411
1                     127
1                       28
53
1
5
59
39,512
Scenic  _ 	
127
32
Totals          	
29        1        18.105
30        1        21.566
39,671
PERMANENT STUDY-PLOTS  ESTABLISHED AND IN USE  AS  AT DECEMBER 31st,  1950
Number of Plots
Description of Project
Growth and yield studies—
Coast forest types .
Southern  Interior   types .
Central Interior types	
Silvicultural studies—
On cut-over land—
Seed dissemination from standing trees..
Survival of seed-trees 	
Artificial  seeding	
Growth of exotic trees  	
Competition between broom and Douglas fir..
In young stands—
Thinnings 	
Prunings      	
Christmas-tree cuttings  	
In mature stands—
Selective cutting 	
Slash-disposal methods   _	
Total  number  of  plots
Regional studies—
Natural regeneration in representative districts—
Alberni,   Vancouver  Island	
Cowichan Lake, Vancouver Island	
Alouette Lake, Fraser Valley..  	
Cumshewa Lake, Queen Charlotte Islands .
Project
559
184
185
4
7
2
1
11
Number of
Plots
  1,200
......     600
      500
80
Gp.
928
Totals.
2,380
52
980
Acres
4.8
6.0
5.0
0.1
15.9
FOREST RESEARCH
Nursery Fertility Studies
The annual inventory of seedlings shows a decline in growth in all three nurseries.
The following table shows data for Douglas fir. At Duncan there are two soils producing
quite distinctive seedlings. The fill soil occupies areas of better drainage in which the
surface soil is underlain by gravel, or under which tile drains have been laid and the
ground levelled by filling with soil from elsewhere on the property. The normal and fill
soil, hence, have been sampled separately. The figures in parentheses are for the last
crop grown in the same field and are for 1947.
Length of top (cm.)—	
Weight per seedling (gm.)..
Top to root ratio ....
Number of secondary roots .
Green Timbers
Quinsam
9.9 (12.9)
0.46 (0.80)
2.40 (1.51)
11.3 (8.9)
14.0 (21.2)
0.98 (1.64)
3.03 (2.43)
11.4 (10.0)
Duncan
Normal
23.6 (27.9)
2.91    (4.341
3.25    (2.46)
18.6 (10.4)
Fill
13.8    (21.1)
1.23    (2.10)
2.72    (2.19)
14.00    (7.3) REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1950
15
A consistent decline in length of top and weight per seedling will be noted in all
three nurseries, and this decline has been found to be statistically significant. This is not
a serious situation at Duncan, for the average seedling is almost too large for easy
planting. This year's fill seedlings are perhaps ideal. At Quinsam the growth is satisfactory, though not quite as robust as at Duncan. Further declines, however, should be
checked. At Green Timbers the situation is critical. The seedlings are now down to
a minimum size for field planting. Serious consideration should be given to a fertilizing
programme.
It will be noted in the preceding table that the ratio of top to root has increased,
although the number of secondary roots has also increased. It must be assumed that the
roots are finer and shorter than in the previous crop. This suggests that with declining
fertility the natural tendency is for the seedling to produce many fine roots to obtain
nutrition, instead of fewer, larger roots when no scarcity prevails. This supposition is
not borne out in fertilizer trials.
At Green Timbers a comprehensive fertilizer trial started in 1949 has been evaluated
on the basis of 2-0 Douglas fir seedlings produced. The experiment was laid out as
a Latin square of four fertilizer mixtures and a check. The following table summarizes
the results:—
Commercial Fertilizer Mixture*
Length of
Top
Weight per
Seedling
Ration of
Top to
Root
Number of
Secondary
Roots
(Cm.)
10.8
9.2
9.9
10.8
9.7
(Gm.)
0.64
0.4G
0.47
0.65
0.40
2.5
2.0
2.3
2.2
2.1
13.S
0-12 20                                       	
12.3
2 16 6                                                   	
12.0
8 10-5                        	
14.5
11.2
♦The numerical designation of commercial fertilizers refers to the percentage of nitrogen  (N), phosphorus (P),
and potash (K).
The bold-face figures show statistically significant increases over the check. It will
be noted that two fertilizer mixtures have shown up well—7-11-0 and 8-10-5.
The same fertilizers were applied to a green manure crop of rye. All fertilizers
produced a better crop than the check, with the 8-10-5 showing up best. The following
figures show the height of the rye before ploughing in: 7—11-0, 20 inches; 2—16-6,
24 inches; 8-10-5, 36 inches; 0-12-20, 26 inches; check, 18 inches.
Other fertilizer trials are in progress at Green Timbers and Quinsam.
Field Survival of Nursery Stock
Paralleling fertilizer trials in the nursery are survival-plots of fertilized seedlings.
The object is to determine if well-developed seedlings maintain their thriftiness when
planted out as 2-0 stock.
The fertilized nursery stock from Green Timbers, reported on in 1948, was set out
in an experimental plantation in the Sayward Forest. After two growing seasons the
following mortality rates were found:—
Mortality
Fertilizer Treatment (Per Cent)
  1.7
    3.4
  4.3
NP2K  5.5
NP	
NK.__
NPK
N2PK
    5.5
2NPK  6.6
PK  6.6
Check 1  7.3
Standard
Error
0.4
0.8
0.9
0.9
1.7
1.3
2.1
1.9 16 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Seedlings from all fertilizer treatments showed a greater survival than the check or
unfertilized seedlings. The NK (nitrogen and potash) fertilizer was the only treatment
showing a significant increase in survival. This was the treatment that produced the best
root-development in the nursery.
Other plantations have been set out in the same area for various experimental purposes.   The results are summarized as follows:—
(1) All seedling stock, regardless of nursery or size of seedling, have a high
survival rate (90 per cent or over) if carefully planted at the right period.
(2) The small Green Timbers seedlings (length of top less than 10 centimetres) have the highest mortality.
(3) Fertilizers will increase the size of the seedlings and their ability to survive.
(4) Frost-killing of terminal and upper buds in the nursery results in a marked
increase in mortality when planted out in the field.
(5) Large stock suffers most from frost-damage in the nursery and also suffers
high mortality when planted out.
(6) Large stock suffers from grouse-damage more than small stock.
This summary is by no means final. It does suggest, however, that care in planting
is by far the most important factor in reforestation. The results also show that extremely
large or small stock are undesirable and that hardening-off in the nursery is important.
i Land-use Survey
A land-use survey was made of the valley occupied by Silverhope Creek, the Kle-
silkwa River, and the Lower Skagit River. This is an area that extends in a southeasterly direction from about 3 miles west of Hope in the Lower Fraser Valley to the
International Boundary—a distance of 35 miles.
The valley varies from a few hundred feet to about a mile in width. The elevation
rises from about 100 feet at the mouth of the Silverhope Creek to 1,900 feet at the divide
between Silverhope Creek and the Klesilkwa River. The Lower Skagit and its tributary,
the Klesilkwa, flow through a comparatively level valley. The elevation at the International Boundary is 1,700 feet. The entire valley is bounded by steep mountains rising
from 5,000 to 7,000 feet in elevation.
The soils of the Silverhope Valley are rough, stony, and of no agricultural value.
In the Klesilkwa Valley there is a limited area of alluvial soils, with perhaps from 700
to 1,000 acres potentially arable. Part of this is swampy and would require drainage.
The whole area is subject to flash floods in spring-time.
In the Skagit Valley there is a large acreage of potentially arable alluvial soil.
This area, however, is to be flooded by a dam across the Skagit River in the State of
Washington.
The conclusions of this survey are that the flooding of the lower part of the Skagit
River eliminates the arable land that would have justified the exploitation of the Silver-
hope, Klesilkwa, and Skagit area for agricultural use. The remaining potentially arable
land in the Klesilkwa Valley is insufficient in area to justify the maintenance of a public
road, schools, etc., necessary for a settlement. It is, therefore, in the public interest that
Crown lands be withheld from sale unless a public road is to be maintained for purposes
other than the settlers' convenience.
Ecological Studies
During the past year the original site-type studies were broadened into regional
ecological studies. This work was undertaken in co-operation with the Faculty of the
University of British Columbia.
The objective was to determine the chief plant associations of a region and describe
them in terms of their tree cover (species, vigour of growth, succession, etc.), and in
terms of the lesser vegetation by which the associations may be recognized.   The rela- REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950 17
tionship between associations was studied by observation and by means of records of
temperature, evaporation, soil-moisture, chemical analysis, etc., from plots selected for
this purpose. In this way the macro-climate of the climax vegetation might be recognized, and the effects of micro-climate estimated in terms of variations found in the
forest-cover.
From such basic information the effects of opening up large tracts by logging and
the effects of fire may be estimated in terms of changes in micro-climate and soil, and
this in turn interpreted in terms of new successions, which may or may not lead to the
original forest associations. At the present time a report on these studies is being
compiled.
FOREST EXPERIMENT STATIONS
Aleza Lake
Development of the Aleza Lake Forest Experiment Statiofi proceeded through the
past year. A modern residence for the forester-in-charge and basic landscaping of the
new building-site were completed. Older buildings were repaired and redecorated. One
new vehicle was added to the establishment, and re-equipment in terms of tools, machinery, and forestry instruments progressed.
Development of a permanent staff was initiated with the employment of a foreman.
Temporary staff for the field season consisted of a forester-in-training, two forestry
students, six to eight high-school students, and a varying number of daily-rate men
engaged in various forestry and building projects. During the months of July and August
an average of twenty-five men was fed daily in the camp cook-house. As in previous
seasons the Upper Fraser Forest Survey party used the station facilities as a base for its
summer operation.
The high-school student summer employment plan, whereby a certain emphasis was
placed on instruction pertaining to forestry as well as on routine work, was successful.
The students had an enjoyable summer, learned something of practical forestry, and
contributed substantially to the progress of nearly all projects.
Based on cruise and sample-tree data taken in the 1949 season, a preliminary
working-plan was outlined for the experiment station. Total merchantable volume for
the area approximates 57,000,000 cubic feet and the annual allowable cut has been set
at 830,000 cubic feet over the first decade. The major problem of management is to
convert a mature and fairly static forest into a growing unit. Overmature elements will
be eliminated. Field tallies in virgin forest indicate a general all-sized stem distribution
with most trees in the lower diameter classes, while residual stands on old logged areas
show good growth characteristics. Marking will precede all cutting in the immediate
future, and emphasis will be placed on retaining a satisfactory reserve stand. Along
main roads, where access is permanent, cutting will be light. Early return will be practical for salvage in these areas if mortality (wind-throw) is excessive, and for relogging
at the end of a short cutting-cycle if growth is reasonably rapid. Less accessible areas,
which constitute the bulk of the forest at present, will be logged more heavily, with no
intent of returning before the end of a 30-60-year period. Minimum satisfactory stocking after logging is considered to be in the vicinity of 100 spruce stems, with 30 to 50
between 6 and 18 inches D.B.H., supported by several hundred balsam stems of varying
size.
Through co-operation of the Air Survey Division of the Lands Service, a multiplex
map with contours to 20-foot intervals was produced for some 1,500 acres of forest in
the north-west corner of the reserve. Ground control had been obtained the previous
season by station personnel. From a series of relatively low-level aerial photographs,
the present map will be extended to cover the whole of the reserve area. Construction
of a contour map from photographs for forestry purposes is experimental.   Certain diffi- 18 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
culties, such as density of crown canopy, provide technical problems, but the new map
has proven useful already in the consideration and planning of logging operations. Local
conditions, in which wet ground and even swamp occur under the forest canopy, limit
its use in road location, but, nevertheless, ground reconnaissance can be considerably
reduced by eliminating routes and areas on the map in which minimum road specifications in per cent of grades cannot be achieved.
Location of the experimental area's main access road, designed to provide the
reserve with 7 miles of main road, was begun in midsummer. The route taps gravel
deposits on the Bowron River. Location was completed in November and right-of-way
clearing commenced immediately. The latter operation, making use of two caterpillar
tractors, is of particular interest in that few forestry projects have been carried out in the
region during the winter season. The equipment was operated successfully, and the
project has proceeded rapidly. A good volume of logs (500,000 F.B.M. at December
31st, 1950) has been decked along a winter road for sale to local industry. Returns
from logs may defray the cost of the operation. Right-of-way clearing extends 50 feet
on either side of the road centre to allow rapid thawing of snow and drying of the road
in spring and summer. Final grading will be commenced in the summer of 1951 and
completed with gravelling the following winter. According to the station working-plan,
the road will be extended annually until some 15 miles of main road with necessary
tributaries are available for logging operation. A permanent road system around which
can be planned various forms of partial-cut management is the ultimate objective.
A report on the effects of tree-length skidding in the spruce-balsam forest type was
based on a study carried out in the autumn of 1949. Heavy damage to the residual
stand was indicated where tree-length skidding was practised under summer conditions.
In general, all of the logging examined was prohibitive to early second cuts, and higher
standards in terms of residual stand are recommended. Further recommendations of the
report were:—
(1) Early definition of silvicultural aims and objectives for the spruce-balsam
forest type.
(2) Determination of specific objectives in terms of the residual stand for
each timber sale based on pre-examination of the stand, and requirement
that the operator fulfil the defined objective.
(3) Elementary operational planning in terms of silvicultural aims on each
logging chance.
(4) Use of an educational approach to further the development of better
woods practice.
During the 1950 field season a series of total stem cruises was made in several of
the forest-type classifications occurring on the reserve area. All trees, of all species,
over 7 inches D.B.H. were tallied and samples taken of the smaller material. The types
examined were:—
(1) Unlogged mature timber, 320 acres.
(2) Recently logged area which had been marked prior to cutting, 160 acres.
(3) Areas logged twenty-five and twenty-nine years previously, 400 acres
approximately.
The unlogged mature timber was cruised in the course of marking for logging. The
recently logged area was examined to supply a basis for future examinations, to determine the early extent of wind-throw, and to assess any reproductive tendencies. In the
older logging, numerous sample trees were analysed to relate past and current growth in
the existing stand, and to develop reasonable bases for growth forecasts in the immediate
future. Various strip- and plot-cruises were made on each area, which will provide comparisons in sampling reliability. Reports are in process of preparation on the above
projects. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950
Cowichan Lake
19
A comprehensive working-plan has been completed, covering past, present, and
future activities (for next ten years) of the Cowichan Lake Experiment Station.
Silvicultural research at the station included work on established studies to determine the best method of Douglas fir stand-improvement.
Cowichan Lake Experimental Station and Ramsay Point Forest from 3,000 feet
on Meade Mountain to north.
A fourth thinning was made on four plots which have been under treatment since
1929 and are now 39 years old.
The case-history of a low-thinning plot in comparison to an untreated plot is
illustrative of present volume production. Thinned and unthinned areas have produced
a gross volume of 7,500 and 7,900 total cubic feet, inside bark, respectively. In terms
of gross mean annual production, this represents 193 and 202 cubic feet per acre per
year. In the control-plot 9.2 per cent of the present net standing volume has been lost
through mortality, and unrecovered, but the net mean annual increment is at 187 cubic
feet per acre per year and is being put on 730 trees averaging 10 cubic feet (inside bark).
In the low-thinned plot the standing volume is 4,500 total cubic feet per acre with a net
mean annual increment of 185 cubic feet (inclusive of all thinning volumes from time
of first thinning). Subsequent to the first thinning at 20 years, 59.5 per cent of the
standing volume has been removed; of this, 87 per cent has been cut in two operations
since 1947. Three years after the 1947 treatment, canopy closure had been restored
sufficiently to permit a further cut of 22 per cent by volume so as to produce a residual 20 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
stand of 312 trees averaging 14.5 cubic feet per tree inside bark. Six per cent of the
present standing volume on the thinned plot has been mortality. Two per cent was
recoverable during thinning operations, and the remaining 4-per-cent loss was due to
suppression of small trees after overly light thinnings which failed to forestall mortality
when the plot was between 20 and 25 years old.
Since 1946 a study has been made of the instrumental measurement of radial
growth. The aim was to develop a sensitive measure with which to compare growth
response to various conditions and to determine features of seasonal growth. The practicability of the method in stands under cultural treatment was also tested. The history
of this experiment, results, and use of the dial indicator were reported in Forest Service
publication T. 33, " Precision Measurement of Radial Growth and Daily Radial Fluctuations in Douglas Fir." Subsequent to this publication a further test of the dial indicator
was undertaken in conjunction with a periodic thinning in crown- and low-thinned plots.
The dial indicator was used to provide a quantitative measurement of the immediate
radial response each day for one week following treatment early in the growing season
and to compare the magnitude of this daily response to the magnitude as measured at
the end of the growing season.
The result of this test indicated that the response, within twenty-four hours, to a
crown-thinning amounted to a 71.3-per-cent increase in the rate of growth of the treated
stand. On the fourth day following treatment, this increase had fallen to 18.9 per cent,
which was followed by a sudden decline on the seventh day to 3.8 per cent. By contrast,
the immediate response in the low-thinned plot was neither so immediate nor so violent.
Within the first twenty-four hours no measurable response was recorded by the dial
indicator. By the fourth day, however, an increase of 19.8 per cent was evident—an
increase which was maintained until the seventh day. Although these readings undoubtedly indicated immediate radial increases, varying in vigour and time of response with
the type of thinning, it was found that the magnitude of this immediate increase was not
correlated to the magnitude of the increase measured over the whole season. Therefore,
on the basis of this small test, reliance cannot be placed on the assumption that the
immediate response from one to seven days after thinning is a measure of the increase
at the end of the growing period. It is suggested that discrepancy in the correlation was
due to decrease in root competition and an increase in transpiration, thereby making it
possible for a greater volume of water to be drawn up the stems of the trees under
observation.
In addition to the re-examination of currently active thinning-plots, two other experiments were commenced. A series of five plots, each of 1 acre, was established to study
the effect of very heavy low thinnings on medium (Site Indices 110-140) sites of Douglas
fir, while a small-scale pruning and debudding experiment was initiated in a 10-year-old
plantation of Douglas fir.
Following a reconnaissance of a 1,200-acre Provincial forest reserve in the Quatsino
Sound region this year, it is intended to extend thinning studies to include pure hemlock
(Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) stands in the near future.
A local volume table for Douglas fir prepared for the experiment station in 1945 was
revised this year to incorporate additional measurements on 140 felled trees.
SILVICULTURAL STUDIES
The factors of seed production by trees and stands of commercial species have been
studied in the Douglas fir region and discussed from time to time in these Annual Reports.
The results of this work, in so far as the dissemination of seed and reproduction from
mature stands is concerned, have now been brought together in Forest Service publication
T. 35, entitled " Seed Production by Conifers in the Coastal Region of British Columbia
Related to Dissemination and Regeneration." REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950
21
Further study of the problem of controlling the loss of Douglas fir seed in the ground
by treatments to protect the seed from the white-footed mouse failed to uncover any
completely effective repellent. Preliminary experiments in control by poisoning are now
being conducted, using the rodenticide sodium fluoroacetate, commonly known as Compound 1080. In Oregon and Washington it has been found very effective against the
white-footed mouse. In the Sayward Forest an area was poisoned according to methods
developed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Representatives of the Provincial Game Department examined the area after poisoning, but no harmful effects to
other wild life were observed at any time. Results were definitely encouraging. Douglas
fir seed sown in the spring, after poisoning, were undisturbed while germinating. The
results of this experiment have been published in Forest Service Research Note No. 17.
In November an area of 32 acres was effectively poisoned and seeded at Alberni, although
there was a snowfall on the second day. The 1080 control eliminated a large mouse
population, and trapping one month later did not catch any mice.
Tests in the spring with pelletted seed showed that the coating delayed germination.
The British Columbia Research Council laboratory has continued to work on this problem,
and seed with an improved coating is now being tested for germination in the field.
Through co-operation of the MacMillan Export Company, one test of germination value
is being made at its A.P.L. Division, near Alberni, on the poisoned area mentioned above.
An ecological study of the rodent concerned has been published in the Forestry Chronicle,
26:115-126, 1950, "The Life History of the Deer Mouse." Previous work on this
problem has been brought together in Forest Service publication T. 31, " Direct Seeding
Experiments in the Southern Coastal Region of British Columbia, 1923-1949."
At Cowichan Lake Experiment Station the cone-crop on coniferous trees was poor
in 1950, following the intermediate-sized crops of 1948 and 1949. The current crops on
these trees, which are examined every year, are shown in the table below:—
TYPE OF
CONE-CROP
Species
Good
Fair
Poor
Nil
Number
of Trees
9
29
2
1
45
11
8
83
Balsam    - 	
White Pine   -	
13
9
Cone production was also measured on seven other plots on Vancouver Island. At
Englishman River and Hillbank the crop on scattered seed-trees was fair to good. On the
scattered trees at Sahtlam, Qualicum Bay, and Elk Falls Park, the crop was poor, while
in closed stands at Cameron Lake and McCoy Lake there was no crop.
Further work was done this year on the cone-maturity study to determine the most
favourable time for the collection of Douglas-fir cones. As reported last year, the specific-
gravity test gave no indication of seed maturity. Details of the method and the results
are given in Forest Service Research Note No. 18. This year, embryo-length was used
as a guide to seed maturity. From July 20th to September 9th cones were collected at
intervals from eight trees in the Hillcrest area where there was a fair to good cone-crop.
Seeds from each tree were examined and embryo-length and seed-length measured. The
ratio of embryo-length to seed-length rose steadily from 17.8 per cent on July 20th to
75 per cent on August 20th and thereafter remained at that level. Germination of the
seed rose from 2.5 per cent to 83.4 per cent over the same period. Germination of the
seed collected on August 10th was 24.3 per cent, indicating a rapid increase in germination between August 10th and 20th, culminating in a capacity of 83.4 per cent at the later
date, which coincides with the attainment of full size by the embryo. This evidence shows
that embryo-length is a reliable and simple guide to seed maturity in Douglas fir. Another
germination test will be made in the spring of 1951 to check these results. 22 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
In the fall of 1949 an examination was made of seventeen trees to test .the bud-
counting method of forecasting cone-crops. Ten trees were near Skutz Falls and seven at
Langford. Unfortunately, the trees selected had few female buds and so gave little data
on which to judge the method. The results did show that the following year's fruiting buds
can be disinguished quite accurately in the previous fall. However, owing to variations
between individual trees and between adjacent areas, a very large sample, entailing a disproportionate amount of work, would be required to get such an early estimate of the next
year's cone-crop.
An experiment was undertaken to test the germination of Douglas fir seed by
chemical methods. During the war, 2-3-5 triphenyl tetrazolium bromide, now manufactured under the trade-name of " Grodex," was developed to test seeds of cereals, peas,
and vetches. It has since proved suitable for testing the seeds of a number of tree species.
The experiment was set up as follows: (1) Grodex test, 1,000 seeds (10x100);
(2) Selenium test, 1,000 seeds (10X100); (3) unstratified seed, 2,000 seeds (20X
100); (4) stratified seed, 1,000 seeds (10x100). Grodex tends to give a high germination value. In this test the figure was 3.1 per cent higher than the real germination of the
stratified and unstratified seed. The method has much to recommend it. The test is
quicker and safer than the Selenium test. (Grodex is non-toxic, whereas sodium biselenite
is poisonous.) Grodex gives very consistent results; however, the indicated germination
value being an overestimate of actual germination, further work is required to find the
necessary conversion factors. An experiment has been started to find the most satisfactory
storage conditions for Douglas-fir seed. Samples will be dried to different moisture contents and stored in sealed containers. Germination tests will be made each year for five
years to determine the conditions under which the seed best retains its viability.
There is increasing appreciation of the need for improving the quality and the
locality-record of seed collected for domestic and export use. Douglas fir is particularly
sensitive to site conditions, and a relatively small difference in elevation between seed-
source and the location of plantations for stock from the seed of that source may have
considerable bearing on the adaptability and productivity of the stock. A project has
been started which aims to select the better young stands for cone collections in order to
regulate both the quality and provenance of seed used for reforestation purposes.
In view of the large and increasing area of cut-over land reforested by the Forest
Service, a study has been initiated to make periodic examinations of the older plantations.
The objective of these examinations is to record the present condition and future needs for
their management.   The working-plan is based on a preliminary survey made this year.
The exotic plantations near Alouette Lake were examined during the summer. Of
the coniferous species planted, Larix leptolepis and Larix dahurica both maintain good
height growth and survival. Average dominant height of L. leptolepis is 38 feet and of
L. dahurica 49 feet (age, 24 years), survival being 83 and 65 per cent of original numbers planted. Sequoia gigantea which, up till the last examination in 1948 was healthy
and growing satisfactorily, has suffered heavily from the severe cold of the last two winters.
The foliage to a height of 15 feet has been killed and only the top few feet remain alive.
The red oak, Quercus borealis, and the sugar maple, Acer saccharum, both maintain good
height growth and vigour, but the American ash, Fraxinus americana, has lost much of its
original vigour and good form, and many trees show heavy insect-attack.
The experimental pruning at Green Timbers was carried a stage further. The plantation is now 21 years old and had been pruned to 13 feet in 1946 (Forest Service Report,
1947, page 20). In 1950 the average D.B.H. of the trees in the pruned plot was 5.7
inches and the average height 42.7 feet. The trees were pruned to 20 feet in this operation, using hand-saws and ladders. The average pruning time per tree, based on 122 trees,
was 4.5 minutes. The ladders were heavy and awkward to move about in the stand and,
on the average, three men pruned 124 trees in an eight-hour day.    Another plot was REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950
23
Wind-thrown second growth following infestation by Poria weirii. 24 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
pruned up to 20 feet in one single operation. The average D.B.H. of the trees in this plot
was 5.77 inches, and the average height was 43 feet. The average time taken to do the
pruning on these trees was 7.5 minutes. From a comparison of these two plots it will be
possible to find out whether it is more economical to prune to 20 feet in one stage or in
three stages and, later, to find out if there is any difference in the quality of the wood as
a result of the two methods of treatment.
The case-histories of restocking on logged and burned coastal types in the Cowichan
Valley and near the Alouette River were brought up to date with examinations to complete
records for a twenty-year period. This study is being analysed, and a report covering the
results is being prepared.
A study was initiated to determine the composition, development, and ecology of
regeneration in the root-rot openings in young Douglas fir stands. Work on this was
carried out in the Cowichan Lake Experiment Forest and in the Alberni district.
MENSURATION
The programme of re-examination of permanent growth-study plots was maintained
with the remeasurement of fifteen standard plots, and five empirical series involving
eighty sub-plots, to total ninety-five plots.
The permanent plots are giving data which cannot be obtained by any other method.
They indicate.that, once a stand has its canopy complete, the productive capacity remains
about constant for many decades. The mortality tends to increase with age, causing a
reduction in net periodic volume. After 90 or 100 years some stands begin to break
down due to wind-throw or some other natural agency. It is difficult to find stands
beyond this age which meet the standards for normal tables. The few well-stocked
stands beyond this age are the survivors of younger well-stocked stands, many of which
have broken down. If the yields are based only on these remaining stands, they will be
regarded with suspicion, especially for the older age-classes.
Volume Tables
Miscellaneous volume tables were prepared during the year. Site-class board-foot
tables for mature Douglas fir, cedar, and hemlock especially adapted to grade-cruising
by seasonally employed cruisers were compiled. These tables give the volumes of each
log in position for trees classified by 6-inch D.B.H. classes and stands in 20-foot site-
index classes as indicated by their average maximum heights. The volumes are given
in British Columbia Rule for 32-foot logs.   A field test this summer was satisfactory.
The following total cubic-foot volume table for black cottonwood has been prepared
from data supplied by the Laboratory of Forest Pathology, Science Service, Dominion
Department of Agriculture. The volumes for trees beyond the range in diameters and
heights blocked out in the table are extensions and should be used with discretion. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950
25
Reclamation of opening made by infection of Poria root-rot and subsequent wind-throw
of 35-year-old Douglas-fir trees. In a few years a luxuriant growth typical of the site covers
the ground while small released cedar, hemlock, and balsam takes possession. 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
TOTAL CUBIC-FOOT VOLUME TABLE—BLACK COTTONWOOD (POPULUS TRICHOCARPA)
(Gross volume of entire tree in cubic feet.)
X
a
a
Total Height
SS
> 3
<x
o
>
>
<
li (fl
o u
IS
X
pa
Q
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
12
13
20
14
23
16
25
36
27
39
70
81
90
9
17
27
4
3
5
8
8
9
10
16
8
10
12
18
14
21
18
27
10
12
24
30
33
12
14
24
27
32
37
40
44
48
53
56
98
40
2
14
16
31
36
46
58
70
81
42
53
65
78
92
48
60
53
66
81
58
72
88
105
125
63
68
73
91
111
132
78
97
118
142
168
104
110
115
120
124
55
72
92
113
140
11
9
5
6
8
16
18
78
95
113
136
85
103
123
147
18
20
73
87
103
20
22
96
114
22
24
157
24
26
120
132
145
158
171
182
195
208
127
167
11
26
28
138
152
167
182
197
210
225
240
130
197
4
28
30
158
178
200
223
174
197
221
247
273
300
191
216
208
224
240
272
305.
340
377
257
290
326
364
274
308
347
387
428
471
552
498
132
133
135
136
136
136
227
259
294
331
367
405
10
2
2
1
4
30
32
235
263
294
325
359
253
283
32
34
242
271
299
330
34
36
317
351
389
36
38
403
38
40
416
444
40
42
330
362
394
430
424
455
' 497
485
530
515
563
545
596
• 136
443
1
42
44
463
44
46
467
503
539
576
611
648
46
48
505
545
585
624
663
703
48
50
545
589
732
674
717
758
50
60
770
830
890
930
1,010
1,070
60
70
1,030
1,120
1,200
1,280
1,360
1,440
70
No.
1
2
2
8
11
16
14
22
11
1 |
1
88
Block indicates extent of basic data. Data collected at Quesnel by Laboratory of Forest Pathology, Science Service, Dominion Department of Agriculture. Volume determined by sectioning logs to base of crown, top cubed as a
paraboloid. Volume calculated for entire tree inside bark. Table prepared by alignment-chart method. Double bark
thickness at D.B.H.=0.13 O.B. Standard deviation of individual trees ± 9.8 per cent. Aggregate deviation of table,
0.224 per cent high.
A study has been made of Girard's form-class principle in preparing log-length
volume tables. The assumption is that trees having the same diameter at the top of the
first log and having the same merchantable height will have similar, though not necessarily
identical, rates of taper in the sawlog portion above the first log, regardless of species.
The form-class is expressed as the relationship between the volume inside the bark at the
top of the first 32-foot log and the diameter outside bark at breast height. The following
equations based on British Columbia Rule and 32-foot logs have been calculated from
Girard's base formula:—
Number of
32-foot Logs
in Tree
Tree Volume in Board-feet,
B.C. Rule,
32-foot Logs
1_        :  1.5232D2— 4.570D + 3
2 ,  2.0716D2— 7.312D+7
V-A  2.6772D2— 9.414D+9
3  3.1183D2—11.101D+10
3V2  3.6888D2— 13.102D + 12
4  4.1607D2— 14.857D+14
4Vi  4.7235D2—16.832D+16
5  5.2037D2—18.609D+17
51/2  5.7496D2—20.545D+19
6  6.2462D2—22.356D+21 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950 27
D=D.I.B. top of first 32-foot log, merchantable top D.I.B.=60 per cent of diameter
at top of first 32-foot log, which is approximately 40 per cent of the D.B.H., O.B.   The
above equation can be used for any species and form-class.
For example: —
Tree 50 inches D.B.H., AVi log, form-class 70.
70
D= X50"=35"
100
Tree volume=4.7235(35)2—16.832(35)+ 16
=5,213 board-feet, B.C. Rule.
The formula for the volume in cubic feet has been calculated for the merchantable
portion of the tree above the first 32-foot log.
Volume cubic feet=0.003732D2 L.
D=Diameter at top of first log.
L=Merchantable length in feet above first log.
Taking the example above:—
D=35", AVz logs=3Vi logs above first log
= 112' volume above first log=.003732(35)2
112=512 cubic feet.
The volume in the first log must be calculated separately to determine the merchantable volume of the tree.   This will depend on the form-class and species.
A base cubic-foot log rule was made available for scaling. It is pleasing to note that
the more progressive operators are leaning toward cubic feet in both their cruising and
scaling. The mill production can be more readily estimated from cubic contents than
British Columbia Log-scale. The following table shows the relationship between cubic
feet and board-feet British Columbia Scale and mill tally.
AVERAGE FOR DOUGLAS FIR 16-FOOT LOGS
Board-feet Mill Tally
Top (B.C. Log-scale) per
D.I.B. per Cu. Ft. Cu. Ft.
9    4.3 7.1
12  5.4 6.8
15  6.2 6.9
18  6.5 7.0
21  6.7 7.1
24  7.0 7.4
Average mill tally, 7.1 board-feet per cubic foot.
(Table courtesy of Dominion Forest Products Laboratory, Vancouver.)
The above mill tallies represent a utilization for lumber of 60 per cent of the contents
of the logs. In some mills up to 70 per cent is utilized for lumber and the remainder for
other purposes such as pulp, etc. The board-feet (British Columbia Scale) per cubic foot
ratio varies greatly with size of log, while the mill tally for an operation may be nearly
constant. For this reason, lumber production can be more accurately estimated for
a group of logs scaled in cubic feet than in board-feet. This also applies to pulp production. The cubic-foot scale is also fairest for logging contractors and logging superintendents particularly where small logs or long lengths are extracted. 28
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Yield
The following yield table is based on vegetative sites as described in previous Reports.
SITE-TYPE YIELD TABLE (WELL-STOCKED DOUGLAS FIR)
(Total volume per acre entire stand in cubic feet.)
Site Type*
No. Plots
Age
P
PG
G
GPa
GU
30                                                	
4,700
7,700
10,300
12,500
14,500
16,400
18,100
19,700
21,000
22,100
22,900
23,400
51
13.4%
4,200
6,300
8,200
10,100
11,700
13,000
14,000
14,900
15,700
16,400
17,000
17,500
58
10.6%
3,100
4,900
6,600
8,100
9,400
10,400 .
11,200
11,800
12,400
12,900
13,400
13,800
71
16.0%
2,000
3,500
4,700
5,700
6,600
7,300
7,800
8,300
8,700
9,100
8,400
9,600
57
16.0%
1,300
2,300
3,300
4,250
4,950
5,400
5,750
6,000
6,150
6,250
6,300
6,350
11
8.8%
28
40	
36
50                                	
50
60	
35
70.
44
80	
12
90	
20
100	
110	
4
3
120  _	
6
130	
8
140 _	
2
248
Average deviation, individual plots	
Average deviation, 13.9 per cent;   aggregate difference, 0.28 per cent.
* P=rPoIystichum;    PG=Polystichum-Gaultheria;    G=Gaultheria;    GPa=Gaultheria-Parmelia;    GU=Gaultheria-
Usnia.
The table is based on 248 well-stocked plots, with Douglas fir forming 70 per cent
or more of the stand. The plots were both permanent and temporary. The data from
the periodic measurements of permanent plots gave the trends in volume increases.
Beyond ninety years there are few plots, and the data must be used with discretion. No
attempt was made to harmonize the volume curves for each site type. There was considerable overlapping of the volume data for the various sites. The average deviation of
the plot volumes from the curved or table volumes was 13.9 per cent, which is not significantly different from tables where the site is based on the height of dominant and
codominant trees and age. One method is no more accurate than the other, but where
trees are tall the vegetative types may be more readily determined than age and height.
The vegetation on cut-over areas has not to date been correlated with the vegetative types
used in this table.
The volumes of stands correlated with average diameter was first used by this
Service in preparing a yield table for Douglas fir shown in the 1924 Annual Report.
The general principle is to eliminate the variable of height and number of trees by dividing the volume on each plot by these factors. The resulting quotient, plotted over average D.B.H. on double log-paper, gives a straight line. The data used in preparing the
vegetative-type yield table gave the following equation:—
V D1.7153
NXH     227.2
V=Total volume per acre in cubic feet.
N=Total number of trees.
H=Height of tree of average D.B.H.
D = Average D.B.H. of stand weighted by basal area.
The average deviation of individual plots from the curve expressed by the above
formula was 3.7 per cent, which is approximately one-quarter that of the vegetative-site REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950
29
table or site-index tables. It is felt that where periodic predictions are based on inventories, the prediction of the yield through average diameter is a superior method.
NHD1715
The base formula in its form V= is useful for cruising one-story second-
227.2
growth Douglas fir. The number of trees can be counted. The average diameter can be
closely approximated by counting the trees in two classes with the upper limit of the lower
class the estimated mean diameter. This is adjusted to get the average diameter. The
height of the tree of average D.B.H. is obtained by measuring trees about the average
D.B.H. These factors applied to the base table will give the total cubic volume per acre.
This value may be cut for any standard of utilization by using average D.B.H. per cent
merchantable tables such as those given in the 1948 Annual Report.
The total number of trees per acre in each plot used in the Douglas fir yield table
was plotted over average D.B.H. on double log-paper. The average deviation in number
of trees for individual plots from the curved values was 14.5 per cent. Although this
value is high, it is less than the variation when age and site are used. Therefore, where
average diameter is used in short-cut methods of cruising, it would be better to count the
number of trees than attempt to correlate the number with average D.B.H.
The height of tree of average D.B.H. and the average height of dominants and
codominants were determined for each plot. The average difference for stands over 40
feet in height was 11.4 feet and the standard deviation of the difference was 4.1 feet.
There was no significant decrease in difference with height. The height of tree of average
diameter can be readily determined from a D.B.H.-total height curve, and using the above
adjustment the average height of dominants and codominants can be closely approximated.
The field party of four men worked for three months making a survey of the residual
stands and rate of growth on the sidehill types of the Okanagan Valley. The data are
being worked up. A preliminary summary of the volume logged and residual stand on
three areas are given below.
TABLE OF LOGGED AND RESIDUAL STANDS IN OKANAGAN VALLEY
Site
Index
D.F.
Number of
Plots
Logged
Residual Stand
Area
Total
Vol.
(Cu. Ft.)
Av.
D.B.H.
Species (%)
Number of
Trees
Av.
D.B.H.
Total
Vol.
(Cu. Ft.)
Species (%)
Py
F
Others
Py
F
Others
A     	
B    	
C   ...
I
109    |    39
101    j    64
104    |    50
I
1,521
739
728
18.7 |    11
25.4    1    42
20.8 1    47
1
76
58
53
13
0
0
1,102    |      5.5    |    2,148
883    |      4.8    1    2,275
562    1      4.6    i    1,570
1
7
18
16
76
66
74
17
16
10
A reproduction survey of the three areas was made on Mooo-acre units and these combined to form larger units.
(T
PER CENT QUADRATS STOCKED
rees up to and including 3-inch D.B.H. class.)
Number of
Viooo-acre
Quadrats
Per Cent Stocked by Size of Unit in Acres
Area
Viooo
%oo
%33
V20O
V125
A
784
1,024
624
IS.9         !         28.3         1         36.7
39.3
48.0
49.3
59.2
B                                          	
26.7         [        37.3
25.6                  36.8
46.1
48.6
69.5
C                            -	
70.5
A unit was considered to be stocked if there was one established seedling.
The above two tables give a picture of the stands.   They are fairly well stocked, now
having a volume from one and one-half to three times that removed in logging, but the 30 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
trees, as shown by the average diameters, are much smaller. The reproduction tends to
establish in groups and the added fire-protection may tend to favour Douglas fir.
The rate of increase in diameter in the last twenty and forty years as indicated by
ring-counts in the four Cardinal directions was tested on 180 trees in the mixed Douglas
fir-yellow pine type of the Okanagan. The aspect was eastern and the slope 10 to 50 per
cent. The average of the four counts on each tree is the most accurate and was used as a
base in determining differences. The average difference, using the average of two borings
at right angles, was more than twice as great as when two opposite borings were used and
their standard deviation of differences was 50 per cent larger. In the current study of
increment two borings were made on opposite sides of ten trees well distributed throughout
the range in diameters on each of the 153 fifth-acre plots. Statistically this is sufficient to
meet our standard of precision.
An analysis of the difference in gross merchantable cubic-foot volume of the Upper
Fraser uneven-aged spruce-balsam type when computed by 2-, 4-, 6-, and 8-inch D.B.H.
classes has been made. The diameter-class to be used for a certain maximum sampling
error will depend on the number of samples making up the average. Assuming a maximum error of 1 per cent for sampling, a minimum of 13-, 26-, and 60-acre tallies for an
average are required when 4-, 6-, and 8-inch classes are used respectively. The averages
have to be corrected by the significant differences associated with the various classes.
Under certain conditions large diameter-classes can be used without much loss in precision, the size depending on various factors, such as range in diameters in type, number of
tallies in type, and allowable error for sampling justified by saving in field and compilation
costs.
The errors in stock-taking may be divided into two major categories:—
(a) Sampling errors due to making a partial inventory.
(b) Non-sampling errors due to failure to obtain accurate information about
each sampling unit, such as area of unit, diameter and heights of trees, etc.
The object is to obtain a specified degree of accuracy at a minimum cost. The
principle is to obtain a sample just large enough to bring the sampling error down to a
satisfactory level and to have sufficient controls to bring the non-sampling or human error
to a minimum. Tallies on 71 acres in the uneven-aged spruce-balsam types of the Upper
Fraser were analysed, and tables prepared to cover range in types commonly found in
British Columbia. The percentage cruise for a given precision in this type depends on
the area in each unit. For example, a 0.1-per-cent cruise on 30,000 acres will give the
same precision as a 30-per-cent cruise on 80 acres. The use of statistics as a tool in
planning inventories has been recognized in most softwood-producing countries of the
world and finally will be adopted by all in reducing costs for a required precision of the
estimate. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950 31
REFORESTATION
FOREST NURSERIES
Nursery production was reduced approximately 20 per cent by one of the worst
winters on record. Frost-damage to both the 1-0 and 2-0 stock was severe at Duncan
and Green Timbers. Although the annual precipitation for 1950 broke all records, rainfall during the crucial growing period for seedlings was very light, and supplementary
watering was necessary.
Seed-beds were sown to produce 10,000,000 trees in the spring of 1952. Experimental work on soil-fertility was continued, and details are given by the Economics
Division in this Report under " Nursery Fertility Studies."
At Green Timbers, due to the small size of the 2-0 planting stock, heavy culling was
necessary, and only 2,384,000 trees were available for shipping to the projects. This
condition may be caused by the severe winters of the past two years and the late spring
growth or the gradual deterioration of the soil from continual cropping. With the reduced
production at this nursery it is now possible to rest the land for two years between crops,
and this condition will be remedied by the introduction of fertilizers. Plantations adjoining the nursery were brushed out and trails sprayed with 2-4-5T Esteron 64 to control
undergrowth, with exceptionally good results.
At Campbell River 3,358,500 trees were shipped to planting projects in that area,
and 3,600,000 trees will be available for planting in the spring of 1951. White-grub
activity was negligible over the entire nursery-site, but it is not known if this is the result
of using Benexane 5 or a normal cycle in the population of the grubs.
From Duncan Nursery 1,335,000 trees were shipped to planting projects in the
Cowichan area. For the second year, root-pruning of 2-0 stock in August, to induce
hardening-off before the fall frosts, was carried out with excellent results. A heavy infestation of strawberry root-weevil did considerable damage to the stock before the presence
of the insect became apparent. However, this pest can be controlled by use of Ortho-bate
before too much damage is done.
In the East Kootenay a few more seed-beds were sown near Elko to yellow pine and
Douglas fir, and 50,000 seedlings were transplanted. Work was started on a new nursery-
site on Perry Creek near Cranbrook, and seed-beds will be sown there in 1951.
SEED COLLECTIONS
The 1950 Douglas-fir cone-crop was only fair, with hemlock and Western red cedar
being very poor. The price paid to collectors for Douglas-fir cones was increased to
$1.50 per bushel, but the response to advertising for collectors was disappointing. Most
of the cones were collected by organizing crews of teen-age boys under the supervision
of a foreman. This method proved very successful and will be continued in the future.
A total of 4,600 bushels of Douglas-fir cones was collected, and extractions to date indicate a yield of 2,500 pounds of seed, which will supply nursery requirements for at least
three years.
RECONNAISSANCE AND SURVEY WORK
Nine separate logged-and-burned areas, comprising 20,000 acres, were examined on
the Coast.   Only one area, of 7,500 acres, required planting, and a detailed map was
prepared for the establishment of a planting project.    In the East Kootenay region an
additional 20,000 acres were explored, primarily to determine suitability for planting by
machine.
PLANTING
For the third successive year because of snow, projects were not able to start until
the latter part of March, and planting continued into the second week of May.   Two fall 32
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
»-
I
f
Nil
I —
DOUGLAS  FIR
TREE LOT U 2
ROOT PRUNED
2-0 STOCK
DUNCAN APRIL 1950 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950 OO 33
planting projects were carried on in areas not accessible in the early spring, but these were
closed a month early, on November 15th, by an 18-inch fall of snow. During the year
6,720 acres of logged-and-burned land were reforested with 6,330,000 seedlings. One
logging company planted an additional 680 acres with 550,000 trees. (See page 96 of
Appendix for statistics of planting over the last ten years.)
Experimental planting with 1-1 yellow pine in the East Kootenay was carried on
in the fall, when 16,000 trees were planted by machine and 12,000 with grub-hoes.
Comparative survival between these two methods and also spring planting will be
observed.
PREPARATION OF PLANTING AREAS
Crews were employed on seven different projects during the year. One new forty-
five-man camp was erected (all sectional buildings) and another moved by barge to the
west end of Great Central Lake.
Fifty miles of abandoned logging-grade was converted to truck-trails and 4 miles
of new road were constructed. The maintenance of existing road systems is an ever-
increasing problem, and in an attempt to keep up with this phase of the work, a new
road-maintainer, complete with front-end loader, bulldozer blade, grader blade, and
snow-plough, was purchased.
Snag-falling was carried on throughout the year, and 11,440 acres were completed,
mostly in the Sayward Forest.
PLANTATIONS
Survival examinations were made in the 1947 and 1949 plantations, and new plots
established in the 1950 planting. Mortality in the 3-0 seedlings planted in 1947 was
34 per cent, as compared to 20 per cent in 2-0 stock planted in 1949.
PUBLICATIONS
In co-operation with the Public Relations Division the Green Timbers Forestry
Nursery Bulletin (First Edition, 1943) was revised and a second edition printed; a new
bulletin entitled " Collecting Seed from Forest Trees " was published. A colour-and-
sound movie, " Planting Prosperity," depicting the nursery and planting techniques used
in the Douglas fir region of the Lower Coast, was produced by the Public Relations
Division under the technical supervision of this Division. OO 34
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950 OO 35
PARKS AND RECREATION
Park-development in British Columbia has reached an important turning-point.
For almost ten years the emphasis has been on reconnaissance, inventory, and planning,
while several large undertakings, such as the Mount Seymour Road and Manning Park
projects, have absorbed the bulk of moneys available for improvement work. Now, with
the Mount Seymour Road completed and the main services and buildings installed at
Manning Park, attention can be turned to phases which will directly welcome the visitor
and give him an opportunity to stay and enjoy various park attractions.
ADMINISTRATION AND DEVELOPMENT
The increased staff required in the greatly expanded operations of this Division
during the past several years has become stabilized to some extent. New personnel have
now had sufficient experience to carry out their particular work with a minimum of
supervision. A Recreational Officer assumed duties in the Kamloops District and thereby
lessened appreciably the problems formerly handled in Victoria.
Since administrative headquarters and services were installed in several of the
larger parks, it has been possible to have the supervisory personnel therein assume more
responsibilities and establish their own individual administrative patterns.
The necessity for basic services in Mount Seymour and Manning Parks to meet the
anticipated influx of visitors required, as in the past few years, the major share of
development work and funds. The purchase of a compressor and a D-6 Caterpillar,
complete with back-hoe, dragline, and bulldozer attachments, gave a great impetus to
road and trail construction, but the intended building programme had to be drastically
curtailed because of lack of funds.
Little Qualicum Falls Park.—Modern restrooms were constructed and placed in
operation for the 1950 season. A stone-and-timber picnic shelter, equipped with tables
and a unit of four brick-lined stone stoves, was opened to the public. Pit toilets and
a water-outlet were provided at a temporary overnight camp area.
MacMillan Park.—A parking area was created at a registration point adjacent to the
" Big Tree " in Cathedral Grove. Approximately 40 cords of firewood and 30,000
F.B.M. of sawlogs were salvaged from wind-thrown trees adjacent to the highway. Four
hundred feet of 12-foot-wide gravelled roadway was constructed to a small picnic area
at the mouth of Cameron River. Parking space for six cars was provided. Four picnic
tables, two fireplaces, and pit toilets for men and women were installed.
Elk Falls Park.—A serious threat to valuable park property and also of concern to
the British Columbia Power Commission were slides occurring in several places through
lack of proper drainage. A co-operative attack on the problem was formulated, and
a proportioning of costs established. The project was carried out in early winter and
resulted in a deep ditch being dug to hard-pan around the periphery of the slide area.
A large drain was placed in this ditch, and the seepage-waters collected and run down the
bank in creosoted wooden piping.
Langford Workshop.—A planer has been installed and cupboards built for the
storing of tools and equipment. The drying-shed was fitted with sliding doors and wired
for lights. Of the eighty picnic tables made, sixty were shipped to various parks. The
purchase of an acetylene welder made it possible to fabricate twenty steel fireplaces.
Various pieces of furniture, signs, and carvings were turned out to fill special requirements.
Peace Arch Park.—The popularity of the park and the extensive use of the picnic
facilities are shown by a registration of 13,503 persons at the summer house, 4,672 at
the kitchen-dining building, and 5,972 attending club and association picnics. Over
a million visitors entered Canada through the attractive landscaped grounds of the park. OO 36
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
><-:*&-
Picnic shelter at Little Qualicum Falls Park.
■:   .: :
If ,      __i-
»*»_-«;
Rest-rooms at Little Qualicum Falls Park. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950 OO 37
Twelve picnic tables set on concrete slabs were placed adjacent to the kitchen-dining
building and proved very popular. Additional drainage was provided at several critical
points. A visual-type gasoline-pump and 500-gallon tank were installed, and the oil-
house placed on a concrete slab, sided, and shaked.
The proposed picnic area on the old Indian reserve was carried forward by the
clearing, burning, ploughing, grading, and seeding to grass of an area of approximately
3 acres.   The water system was extended to provide future requirements.
Mount Seymour Park.—The contract let in May, 1949, for the remaining 4 miles
of mountain road is nearing completion, with the road being officially opened by the
Honourable E. T. Kenney on December 10th, 1950. Access by motor to the ski camp
is now possible, and a bus turn-around has been constructed to accommodate three buses
and a small number of cars. The service area at the base of the mountain was completed
and a gasoline pump and tank installed.
Preparatory clearing and grading were carried out for a ski-tow, and later two
temporary tows were rigged for operation. Buildings occupied by the concessionnaire
and First Aid Ski Patrol were readied for winter use, and the headquarters building was
furnished.
Manning Park.—As in the previous year, all of the building development was carried
out under contract. However, the clearing, excavations, extension of light and water
services, and the installation of sewage-disposal systems for four motel buildings and the
service-station were completed by the Forest Service.
Extensive areas fronting on Pine Woods and the personnel building were brought
to grade, layered with topsoil and seeded to grass. Filling and grading were carried out
preparatory to the paving of the large adjacent parking-lot.
A ski hill, 800 feet long, behind the Ranger station was cleared and the slash completely burned. Two park-entrance signs were erected, and two fire-protection signs
placed in the large burn.
The road and trail systems were greatly expanded with the help of three teen-age
crews. The jeep-road to Three Brothers Mountain was extended 7.V2 miles, and an
additional 1,800 feet of foot-trail constructed. The Windy Joe Lookout was made
accessible by jeep by building the final 2 miles of jeep-trail. A trail, XVz miles long,
branching from this road leads to Frosty Mountain and was one of the projects undertaken by the trail crews. Trail crews made valuable improvements in the vicinity of
Lightning Lakes. Four thousand feet of graded trail now allows pleasant travelling along
Lightning, Flash, and Strike Lakes. The main climb to the Skyline Trail was relocated
to jeep-trail standards, and right-of-way slashing accomplished for 21/i miles.
Wells Gray Park.—With the erection of a new bridge over the Murtle River in 1949,
it was possible to make a crossing this year with road-building machinery and start work
on the jeep-trail to Clearwater Lake. The first 5.3 miles of the 15.5-mile-long route was
completed.
Maintenance.—The winter maintenance crew working in the parks on Vancouver
Island completed their varied programme by the end of April. Park attendants were
then placed in each park, with the exception of Goldstream Park, and the usual intensive
maintenance and supervision was continued throughout the tourist season. Two new
parks, Ivy Green Park and Goldstream Park, were readied for visitor use by a thorough
cleaning and the installation of signs, picnic tables, and fireplaces. The importance of
these services and the intensive maintenance required on the small park areas may be
better appreciated from the following table:— OO 38 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Number of Registered Number of
Name of Park                                                                         Visitors Campers
Little Qualicum Falls  16,066 279
Elk Falls   10,315 894
Englishman River Falls     9,558 213
Stamp Falls      5,681 195
John Dean     4,700 504
Totals  46,320 2,085
The above figures represent only 40 per cent of the total number of persons who actually
visited the parks, since a large proportion do not register. A small crew was employed
on clean-up and repair work during the 1950-51 fall and winter season.
Problems in Peace Arch Park were aggravated by the severe winter of 1949-50
which killed a number of trees and shrubs. Added to the usual maintenance of lawns and
beds of flowering annuals was the care of the recently installed picnic facilities.
In Mount Seymour the completed section of road required continual repair and
improvement. Buildings to house the various concessions were altered, and such facilities
as light, water, and fuel were modernized for more efficient service.
The road to Dawson Falls in Wells Gray Park was further ditched and surfaced,
and the new bridge over the Murtle River was sprayed with wood preservative and all
metal parts given a coat of red lead. As forest-protection projects, four trails were
cleared and made passable for horse traffic.
RECONNAISSANCE AND INVENTORY
The reconnaissance and recording of the recreational assets of this Province are
proving to be a tremendous task which will take many years to complete. The staff
specializing in this work now consists of three men, assisted by the ever-increasing
co-operation of district staffs and other Recreational Foresters in the field. Organization
and classification of the data gathered to date have been the main objective of this past
year, along with an attempt at standardization of reconnaissance methods and descriptive
definitions. The latter phase of this work is complicated by the fact that parks and
recreational values are often intangible in nature, hence difficult to define clearly.
The loss of one assistant and the addition of two new men required that some time
be spent in initiating the new members in the present organization of the section and
familiarizing them with the problems. To this end, both men were on field work for
from one to three months. During the same period a third man was on loan to the
Forest Economics Division for road-survey purposes. The main projects undertaken
this year were:—
(1) A survey and reservation of potential camp-sites on the Fraser Canyon
Highway.
(2) A study of problems in Hamber Park and a review of its recreational assets.
(3) A preliminary regional study of the recreational requirements of Prince
George, Prince Rupert, and Peace River areas.
(4) A reconnaissance of the Bowron Lakes area and its problems in relation
to its eventual park status.
(5) A survey of forest recreation problems at Pendleton Bay and Topley
Landing in the Babine Forest.
Wherever possible, contact was made with the district staff, and forest-recreation problems
were discussed and clarified. The Strathcona Park-Forbidden Plateau report was finally
completed, along with the second part of the Bowron Lakes report.
The inventory of timber values in Strathcona Park is in process of compilation by
the Surveys Section of the Forest Economics Division, which also gave valuable assistance ■    ■ ■■■■ ■ ■-.
—
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950
OO 39
in cruising and preparing estimates of timber volumes within two areas under investigation
as potential parks—namely, the Mount Brenton area, and an entrance and winter sports
unit of the Forbidden Plateau.
Summary of Parks
(As of December 31st, 1950)
Class of Park Number Acreage
A  24 296,318.680
B   5 7,054,891.000
C   29 4,044.445
Special  3 1,656,455.000
Totals  61
New Parks
Parks formed during 1950 are as follows:—
9,011,709.125
Name
Created
Acreage
Class
Vicinity
Forest
District
Cameron Lake 	
Nov. 7, 1950
Oct. 16, 1950
733
142
"A"
"A"
Cameron Lake, V.I.
Oyster River, V.I.
Vancouver.
Increases in Acreage
Manning Park increased from 171,500 acres to 176,080 acres.
Wells Gray Park increased from 1,164,960 acres to 1,165,005 acres.
PLANNING
While it must always be recognized that the objective of park administration is
development enabling greater public enjoyment of recreation areas, increasing emphasis
is being placed on the planning which must guide such development. Parks are
becoming recognized as the outdoor homes of people, and planners are striving to integrate
the various uses and areas involved with much the same nicety that the architect seeks
in designing a home or any other building. Considerable progress has been achieved
toward this end during the past year. The policy is being continued of carrying out the
greater part of park-development in those areas most readily accessible on the Lower
Mainland, Vancouver Island, and to camp-sites and roadside areas adjacent to prominent
highways.
Little Qualicum Falls Park.—The development plan at Little Qualicum Falls Park
was revised to provide improved accommodation for maintenance personnel and to
segregate overnight campers from intensively used picnic areas.
Goldstream Park.—Following the acquisition of Goldstream Park, preliminary
investigations were carried out, and data regarding access, topography, cover, and use
have been added to the registered plan of the area.
Miracle Beach Park.—A basic development plan providing for intensive day and
overnight use of this newly acquired seaside park was produced. Ultimate facilities
anticipated for the area include access and internal roads, parking areas, picnic sites
and shelters, change-houses and toilets, camp-sites, and park attendant's quarters and
service-yard. The plan envisions early installation of a gravity water system, the haulage
of driftwood from the beach, and the construction of some type of permeable groins to
protect and build up the sand beach.
MacMillan Park.—A basic development plan was prepared to allow for the public
enjoyment of this area and to preserve and protect it from improper use. Requisite signs,
guard-rails, pathways, and structures were designed and, in part located on the ground. OO 40 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Cameron Lake Park.—Three small usable areas on the shore of Cameron Lake were
mapped, and tentative plans for their development as picnic-sites were formulated.
Sayward Forest.—Following an extensive study, a recreation plan was evolved for
the Sayward Forest, and recommendations were prepared to facilitate the administration
of recreation potentials.
Peace Arch Park.—Outdoor picnic facilities were laid out in furtherance of the
existing over-all development plan.
Mount Seymour Park.—A landscape plan for the lower Administration Building
was prepared, and the task of gathering data to correlate uses and facilities at the upper
end of the road was continued. A topographic map (2-foot contours) of the upper area
was prepared; data on potential chair-lift locations, rope-tows and parking facilities,
lodges, cafeterias, dormitories, and other installations were gathered; and a plan for the
ultimate development of the park is nearing completion.
Manning Park.—Motel units were sited and early units of the trail system located.
Landscape plans were prepared for Pine Woods Lodge and the service-station. Preliminary surveys and plans were completed for four picnic-and-campsite areas adjacent to
the Hope-Princeton Highway.
Cultus Lake.—Preliminary mapping was completed. Tentative proposals have been
prepared and a tract chosen as the.site of a Department of Agriculture (Dominion)
Insectary. Final plans for this park must await decisions on the relocation of the
Columbia Valley Road.
Wells Gray Park.—While a firm plan for the development of this great area has not
yet been evolved, a large amount of work toward that end was accomplished during the
past year. The possibilities of co-ordinating the requirements of both forest protection
and recreation use in an integrated system of jeep-trails and horse-trails were explored,
and preliminary locations between Dawson Falls, Clearwater Lake, Mahood Lake, and
Murtle Lake were investigated. Camp-sites and picnic areas were located in the vicinity
of Dawson Falls, and potential Ranger station and lodge sites were chosen and mapped.
The first phases in the evolution of a wild-life management plan were completed.
Ranger Station Landscape Plans.—To assist other divisions of the Service, the
Planning Section has provided, as time and opportunity permit, landscape plans for newly
constructed Ranger stations. Such plans were prepared for two stations during the
past year.
Other Parks.—The Board of Park Commissioners, Nanaimo, sought assistance in
planning the development of Bowen Park. Necessary field work has been completed, and
a comprehensive long-term plan is being prepared as other demands upon the services of
Division personnel permit.
ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
In execution of the development plans for the various parks throughout the
Province, the Engineering Section has been concerned with the following: (1) Designs,
(2) surveys, (3) consultation and (or) supervision on Forest Service projects, and (4)
supervision of contracts.
Miracle Beach.—Preliminary engineering reconnaissance only has been carried out
in this newly acquired park area.
Forbidden Plateau.—A three-man crew spent two weeks in this area making a
reconnaissance of the Anderson Lake region where the park entrance might be located
and running a traverse of 2 miles, to serve as a base-line for cruising purposes and as
a road location.
Elk Falls Park.—Surveys were carried out and a drainage plan formulated to alleviate seepage from the John Hart Dam causing the bank to slide above the swimming-pool
area.    Further work has been done in the vicinity of Elk Falls to provide a master REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950 OO 41
drainage plan. This involved the design of culverts, catch-basins, and means of safe
disposal of waste into the river.
Mount Seymour Park.—A topographical survey was completed in the area between
the Administration Building and the Concession Building to allow for study of parking
facilities and the location of the lodge. A transit traverse, 3 miles long, was completed
through the cabin area to Goldie Lake and then on to the Administration Building. The
survey also included the erection of two concrete monuments with calculated azimuth.
The contractor started work at Station 330-J-OO toward the end of June, but
progressed rather slowly at first due to snow at the upper levels. The following work
was completed:—
(1) Clearing, 13.055 acres.
(2) Grubbing, 9.201 acres.
( 3)  Grade excavation:—
(a) Rock, 9,922 cubic yards.
(b) O.M., 29,759 cubic yards.
(4) Foundation excavation: —
(a) Rock, 56 cubic yards.
(b) O.M., 331 cubic yards.
(5) Culverts, 734 lineal feet.
(6) Select subgrade material, 5,863 cubic yards.
(7) Finish material, 203 cubic yards.
(8) Haul (combined), 6,065 cubic yards.
(9) Over-haul, 5,097 cubic yards.
At Mile 4 a drainage system was constructed to divert a portion of the road drainage
into a ditch formed by the old West Side Trail. Two 36-inch culverts were installed, one
128 feet long.
At Mile 4.4 a 500-foot-long section of road, badly damaged in the storm of
November, 1949, was reconstructed, entailing the removal of some 700 cubic yards of
rock and the placing of 300 cubic yards of road gravel. From this point to Mile 5.5 all
ditches were redug and considerable gravel placed on the road.
Manning Park.—Additional construction in the concession area this year necessitated
the supervision of two contracts and the extension of services.
Surveys were limited to location of buildings, line and grade for water, and electrical
transmission-services extensions, layout and grade of driveways, parking areas, lawns, and
sprinkler system.
During the year several development projects were undertaken by Forest Service
crews under supervision of the Park Ranger, and for these projects the Resident Engineer
requisitioned materials and provided consultation as required.   These works included:—
(1) Installation of four 2,000-gallon underground gasoline storage-tanks, the
construction of a pump island, and the mounting of the gasoline pumps
for the service-station.
(2) One thousand six hundred feet of extensions to the water and electrical
transmission systems to supply the service-station and four motel buildings
erected during the year.
(3) Grading driveways, parking areas, lawns, and other areas.
(4) Construction of an additional grease-trap and two disposal-beds at Pine
Woods.
(5) Installation of an underground-sprinkler outlet system in the area around
Pine Woods.
(6) Clearing and grading of jeep-trails to Windy Joe Mountain and those
started to the Three Brothers Mountain area and Skyline Trail summit. OO 42 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The 1949 contracts for the construction of the Forest Service Personnel Building
and Pine Woods were brought to completion by June 1st, and the latter officially opened
for business under a concessionaire.
The 1950 contract for four motel buildings, each containing three rental units, and
the sales wing of a service-station was supervised during the latter half of the year and, by
the year's end, work was almost completed. The electrical installation for these structures
was under a separate contract, but progressed along with the construction and is also near
completion.
Wells Gray Park.—Engineering work centred on the location and partial construction
of a jeep-trail from Dawson Falls to Clearwater Lake.
A party consisting of one graduate civil engineer and two engineering students spent
three months in the park on reconnaissance and location of 15.5 miles of jeep-trail from
the Murtle River Bridge to Clearwater Lake. Location is such that a maximum grade
of IVi per cent, and a minimum radius of turn of 90 feet can be provided. A chain-and-
compass traverse was run over the existing 4 miles of park road, and levels taken over the
route. Detailed topographic maps of the Dawson Falls area and a proposed Ranger
station-site were prepared to a scale of 50 feet to the inch and contour interval of 5 feet.
Under supervision of the Park Ranger, advised by the Resident Engineer, the
approaches to the Murtle River Bridge and 5.3 miles of the Clearwater Lake jeep-trail
were constructed during the year. Present grade of the bridge approach is 17 per cent,
which is satisfactory for present use, but location is such that grade can be reduced to
10 per cent.
Cultus Lake.—An engineer and an assistant prepared topographic maps of five areas
on the easterly and southerly shores of the lake. These will be used in the planning
phase of the park development.
Silver Star Park.—A party of three spent three weeks in October on the Silver Star
Park Road project. A preliminary line was run and a rough estimate of construction
costs was prepared. A road, built to winter standards, 5.2 miles long, will be required
to give access to the ski-ing area, and a total of %Vi miles at a grade of 8 per cent is
needed to reach the top.
Liard River Hot Springs.—A reconnaissance was carried out by one engineer with
the assistance of the nearest Forest Ranger to locate the best access route to these hot
springs, which are less than one-half mile from the Alaska Highway. They are difficult
to reach due to a stretch of sulphurous bog created by the overflow of the springs.
A chain-and-compass fine over the most promising route reached the large pool in \XA
miles, and the smaller and hotter pool one-quarter mile farther. Levels and cross-sections
were taken with an Abney level to facilitate a rough estimate of cost of construction.
Topography in the vicinity of the pools was plotted for development planning. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950 OO 43
FOREST MANAGEMENT
The estimated value of all forest products for the year 1950 reached a total of
$468,371,000. This value far exceeds all previous records and reflects the combination
of high volume of production and inflationary values. Practically all forest products
shared in this increase, but particularly lumber, pulp and paper, shingles, and plywood.
The total cut for the Province amounted to approximately 4,560,000,000 board-feet
log-scale, being an increase of 510,000,000 feet over 1949 and the greatest annual cut
in our history.
Water-borne lumber shipments exceeded those of 1949 by 320,000,000 feet.
Greatly increased shipments to the United States and the Atlantic Coast account entirely
for the increase. At the same time, shipments to the United Kingdom are down from
1949 by approximately 100,000,000 feet. Shipments to other markets remained fairly
constant.
The statistical tables in the Appendix of this Report supply details of forest-
management activities, and the following comments comprise the highlights of the data
enumerated in the detailed tables.
Of the total cut of 4,560,000,000 feet—all products in board-feet—Douglas fir
readily maintains its leading position in volume cut—namely, approximately 1,834,000,000
board-feet, or 40 per cent of the total. This is in excess of the combined total of the next
two species in order of volume cut—namely, hemlock and cedar. The cut of these species
amounts to approximately 920,000,000 board-feet or 20 per cent and 801,000,000 board-
feet or 18 per cent respectively. Spruce and balsam, the next species in importance,
amount to approximately 487,000,000 board-feet or 11 per cent and 239,000,000 board-
feet or 5 per cent respectively. Other species in order of importance are as follows:
Larch, lodgepole pine, yellow pine, and white pine, amounting in all to 256,000,000
board-feet or 5 per cent.   The balance of 1 per cent is made up of deciduous species.
All forest districts participated in the increased cut of 510,000,000 board-feet, of
which 350,000,000 originated in the Vancouver Forest District or the equivalent of an
increase of 12 per cent for that forest district over 1949. The Fort George Forest District
had the largest percentage gain—namely, 22 per cent or 52,000,000 feet.
On the basis of origin of cut, timber sales continue to lead all other categories,
with approximately 1,600,000,000 feet; next follow old Crown grants, with about
1,100,000,000 feet; timber licences are in third place, with 800,000,000 feet. All these
categories show a gain over 1949. Volume production in cubic feet shows a continuing
increase, reflecting the growing tendency toward closer utilization of lower-grade logs
through relogging of salvage values principally for the manufacture of pulp. For the first
time in our history a scale from management licences shows up. In the future the cut
from management licences will assume ever-increasing importance with each successive
year.
Timber sales awarded amount to 2,591, including cash sales, being slightly higher
than 1949; however, the estimated value increased by approximately $3,500,000 to
$9,153,000, reflecting the higher stumpage values which have, taken place generally
throughout the Province, particularly for sawlog species. Total existing sales remain at
approximately the same level—namely, 6,200. The total area under sale contract is
1,500,000 acres, with guarantee deposits amounting to $2,800,000.
Stumpage prices bid show a wide variation for all species due to competitive bidding.
With the exception of balsam, stumpage prices show a higher weighted average for all
species. The weighted average for all species is $5.19 per thousand, inclusive of royalty,
an increase of $1.14 or 28 per cent over 1949.
As 1950 closed, the demand for Crown timber reached its highest level of the year;
in particular, numerous applications are on hand for large individual volumes. OO 44
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Cropped eight years ago, this stem has since produced a " limb " tree which is ready for cutting. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950
OO 45
The number of operating sawmills throughout the Province reached an all-time
high of 1,891, including 65 shingle-mills; conversely the number of shut-downs in both
saw and shingle mills was down. The fact that the number of operating sawmills in
1950 is double those in existence in 1945 clearly indicates the expansive development
of the lumber industry in recent years in all parts of the Province. In so doing it must
also indicate the rapidity of forest-capital depletion now taking place and, as a consequence, the increased urgency for immediate application of sound silvicultural practices
and regulation.
Total log exports continued their downward trend, amounting to 138,000,000 feet
in comparison with 146,000,000 and 164,000,000 feet for the years 1949 and 1948
respectively. Of the 138,000,000 feet exported, 125,000,000 feet or 81 per cent
originated on Crown grants with export privileges. The value of minor products marketed outside the Province of $5,800,000 shows an advance of $300,000 or 6 per cent,
the bulk going to the United States. Poles and piling constituted 68 per cent of the total
value.
Other activities included in the Forest Management Division which show increased
activity over 1949 are as follows: Timber sales cruised numbered 2,196, or an increase
of 34 per cent; number of logging inspections was 16,221, or an increase of 5 per cent.
The frequency of inspections, however, is far below that considered necessary to maintain
adequate supervision. This is due to the inability of an inadequate field staff to cope with
the increased activity generally in logging and milling operations.
Reversing the trend during 1949, the number of trespass cases reported shows
a sharp decline.   The acreage cut over and volume showed a corresponding decline.
In consequence of the increase in total production, it may be noted that timber
marks issued and draughting-office work showed a very marked increase, and greatly in
excess of normal activities in these directions.
Thousands of Christmas trees pass through this sorting-yard in the East Kootenay.
SUSTAINED-YIELD MANAGEMENT
Study of the situation with respect to sustained-yield forestry on specific areas by
private industry and the Forest Service has led to completion of six more contracts for
forest management licences during the year. The total number now in effect is eight.
Working-plans are at hand for two more prospective licences, for which contracts should OO 46 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
be executed shortly.    In five other cases where the application has been approved and
a reserve established, working-plans are in various stages of preparation.
Analysis was completed of four public working-circles consisting of Provincial
forests or parts of them, and regulation of cut will be initiated during the coming year.
Field work leading to complete working-plans for these and other areas is proceeding.
In the field of extension forestry, activity was confined to farm-woodlot licences under
section 19 of the " Forest Act," for three of which working-plans have been prepared.
Field work in connection with other applications has been carried out. A bulletin
dealing with these licences was prepared and published during the year. While the
number of farm-woodlot licences will be limited by the relatively small areas of suitable
Crown land in or near farming communities, they will provide working examples of what
can be accomplished in farm forestry and be a nucleus for extension forestry among
farmers in general.
FOREST-COVER MAPS
In the course of the year 1,308 maps were revised, as follows: Victoria, 397; district
offices, 430; Rangers' offices, 481. Of the above total, 113 are new replacements. New
replacements included 25 new forest-survey editions and the 75 maps comprising these
were distributed to the three offices concerned. Thirty-eight were maps replaced for wear
and tear.
Instruction in forest-cover mapping and the organization of maps and plans was
given to ninety-seven Forest Service personnel and nineteen Land Inspectors and Land
Utilization personnel of the Lands Service at thirty-one points throughout the Province,
as follows: Ranger School, Green Timbers, 21; Vancouver Forest District, 30; Fort
George Forest District, 6; Kamloops Forest District, 8; Nelson Forest District, 32;
Victoria, 19.
An extensive reconnaissance of the Beaverfoot River and Kootenay River watersheds within the Nelson Forest District was made to check the cover-map record.
An approximate area of 214 square miles was mapped and reported upon.
SILVICULTURAL FUND
During 1950, funds were made available from the Silvicultural Fund for silvicultural
work in all four Interior forest districts. Nelson Forest District employed two crews on
eleven projects, Kamloops Forest District employed two crews on sixteen projects, Fort
George employed two crews on ten projects, and Prince Rupert employed one crew on
five projects. Work performed consisted of snag-falling, piling and burning logging slash
adjacent to public highways, reduction of slash-hazard along logging-roads by piling and
burning, piling and burning abandoned mill-waste debris, reduction of slash-hazard by
lopping and piling and burning accumulations of logging slash on timber-sale areas,
construction of fire-guards by utilization of old logging-roads where practicable, and (or)
natural fire-breaks. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1950 OO 47
FOREST ACCOUNTS
In spite of the adverse weather conditions, which hampered operations and resulted
in reduced collections for the first three months of 1950, another new record was set for
revenue collections, the total of $9,229,987.15 being an increase over the previous record
year of 1949 of $1,048,126.18.
Charges against logging operations for the calendar year also increased, by
$1,507,556.52, to a new record high of $10,163,125.26.
The year 1950 saw the first cutting permits issued under management licences, the
record of which is shown on page 101.
Due to the continuing increase in the volume of accounting and recording work, it
has been necessary to modernize some of the accounting procedures. All timber-sale,
timber-licence, and timber-lease records are now kept on a ready-reference card system,
and the Scale and Royalty Accounts Receivable ledgers are now being posted by a
mechanical posting-machine. OO 48 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST PROTECTION
WEATHER
At the start the 1950 fire season was most encouraging from the fire-fighting
standpoint. A late, cold spring, common throughout the Province, precluded the usual
flash-hazard. Both snow and sharp frost were experienced at several points throughout
the Interior on May 22nd. By the end of May the green growth had obliterated the
danger of flash fires. Thereafter, several periods of hazard build-up occurred which
were relieved generally by heavier rains than usual. September would have proved
a disastrous month in the Interior if the usual lightning-storms had developed but,
fortunately, these were comparatively few. A comparison with fires for the past ten
years in Table No. 48 (see Appendix) shows that the 1,515 fires reported were only
slightly over the average for the past ten years.
In the Vancouver Forest District, in spite of the general feeling that last summer
was the driest in many years, precipitation for the area was above the ten-year average
during the fire season. The periodic hazard build-ups of July and August were relieved
by heavier rains than usual. The hazard risk continued into late September and thereby
retarded intentional slash-burning to some extent.
In the Prince Rupert Forest District the fire season was comparatively light, with
only fifty-three fires reported, the most hazardous period being the first week, of July,
when the Perow fire, disastrous to several small mills, occurred.
In the Fort George Forest District, west of the Rockies, no great hazard build-up
was experienced until June 8th. During that month the precipitation was only one-
quarter of the average, but this condition was relieved by July 8th. September was also
an unusually dry month in the Fort George District. East of the Rockies the fire season
was severe. Although May was an easier month than usual, June was more active,
particularly in the northern part of the area where several large fires occurred—mostly in
the perma-frost areas where the scrub timber did not warrant major fire-fighting
expenditures. General rains and cooler weather than usual alleviated the situation until
September 9th. Subsequently, high winds, low humidities, and the total absence of rain
soon raised the fire-hazard to a high level. New fires sprang up, old dormant fires revived,
and settlers' burning-fires got out of control, particularly between September 19th to 25th,
when numerous acreages were burned. These fires burning in the outlying areas, mostly
in scrub-timber types, plus similar fires in Alberta, caused a widespread smoke haze which
received considerable publicity.
In the Kamloops Forest District, due to the late spring, the usual early fires of the
cattle country were missing. June and July were generally hot and dry, with conditions
becoming acute in the latter half of that month. A break in the weather thereafter eased
the situation temporarily, but hazard conditions built up again during August and continued to September 23rd. With 531 of the total fires for the Province, the Kamloops
District had the worst fire season of our five forest districts west of the Rocky Mountains.
During the fire season, weather in the Nelson Forest District was similar to that of
Kamloops, except during the month of September, when the rainfall was double that
of Kamloops. Both districts benefited greatly by the moderate lightning activity as
compared with former years, which accounts for the 10-per-cent decrease in the number
of fires from this cause compared to the past ten years, as shown in Table No. 48 (see
Appendix).
FIRES
Occurrences and Causes
The 1,515 fires of the 1950 season, although less than the number for last year, were
still slightly above the ten-year average (see Table No. 48 of the Appendix).    For REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950 OO 49
monthly fire occurrence by districts see Table No. 46.   Shown below are comparative
figures of fire occurrence, by forest districts for the ten-year period 1941-50:—
Fire Occurrence
during Ten-year Percentage
Forest District Period 1941-50 of All B.C.
Vancouver  3,980 27.04
Prince Rupert  581 3.95
Fort George  1,473 10.01
Kamloops  4,400 29.89
Nelson  4,285 29.11
Totals .  14,719 100.00
Sixty-three per cent of the total fires occurred during July and August, which are
always the worst two fire months, and the higher percentage of these two months—
namely, 11 per cent—is a reflection of the relatively reduced lightning-fires in September.
The three major causes of fire occurrence were campers and smokers, 35.8 per cent;
lightning, 22.6 per cent; and railways, 13 per cent. For reference see Table No. 52 of
the Appendix. Camper and smoker fires are up 6 per cent over the ten-year average and
lightning is down 11 per cent. Railway fires are down 6 per cent below last year and
1 per cent below the ten-year average. In the Vancouver Forest District, last year's figure
of 55 per cent, due to railways operating, dropped to 24 per cent this year. These
decreases in railway fires can be largely attributed to the more general use of diesel-
powered locomotives.
Cost of Fire-fighting
For details under this heading see Tables Nos. 41 and 57 of the Appendix. The
latter table covers only wages, food, and transportation of fire crews and does not include
Forest Service protection overhead as detailed for the previous year in Table No. 40.
Again it will be noted in comparing Tables Nos. 41 and 57 that outside agencies in
the Vancouver Forest District spent more money on direct fire-fighting than the Forest
Service over the whole Province. On two of these industry fires, $13,343 is reported to
have been spent, which was approximately the total expended by the Forest Service in
fighting fire in the Vancouver .Forest District last year. These high costs to industry are
due largely to the payment of prevailing wages to fire-fighters. If statutory fire-fighting
rates of pay were raised to the same level, it is estimated that the 1950 fire-fighting cost to
the Forest Service would have been over $300,000 instead of $141,688.
The two major causes of Forest Service fire-fighting costs are campers and smokers,
43 per cent, and lightning, 33 per cent. The former is up 15 per cent over last year, and
it is a sad commentary that carelessness on their part caused a needless fire-fighting
expenditure of $63,780.
The total cost to the Forest Service of direct fire-fighting in 1950—namely,
$141,688—is up almost 50 per cent over last year and 18.8 per cent above the average
for the past ten years.
Damage
The total area burned in 1950 is estimated at 848,246 acres or more than two and
one-half times the average for the past ten years. Table No. 54 (see Appendix) shows
that the Fort George Forest District accounted for over 95 per cent of the area burned.
In that district over 80 per cent, or 795,500 acres, of the burned acreage was east of the
Rockies in the Peace River country and north of the 60th parallel. There three fires
averaged over 200,000 acres in size and fifteen fires aggregated 780,400 acres, or over
92 per cent of all the acreage burned in the Province during 1950. Table No. 54 also
shows that, although the acreage burned was so large, the damage is estimated at less than 00 50 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
the ten-year average. This is due to the majority of the damage occurring east of the
Rockies in the northern part of the Province. Of the 780,400 acres mentioned, only
1,520 acres were classed as mature timber and 43,800 acres as immature timber, mostly
on low-quality sites. The balance, or 725,000 acres, was classed as non-commercial
cover, grazing land, or non-productive.
As a result of these Peace River fires, it will be noted from Table No. 54 that
78 per cent of the fire damage for the Province is attributed to the Fort George Forest
District.
From Table No. 53 (see Appendix), damage to property other than forests is
reported as $413,200, of which 80.7 per cent occurred in the Vancouver Forest District.
Most of this damage to equipment and felled-and-bucked timber in the Vancouver Forest
District was caused by the desire of some operators to maintain log production at the
risk of fire occurrence in the more hazardous weather, and again some extremely costly
payments were made for errors in judgment.
FIRE-CONTROL PLANNING AND RESEARCH
Visibility Mapping
Three two-man crews were in the field this year under the over-all supervision of
a Technical Forest Assistant. As in previous years, the personnel was recruited from
forestry students at the University of British Columbia, and work was carried out in
the Vancouver, Fort George, Prince Rupert, and Nelson Forest Districts. One hundred
and twenty-seven possible lookout-sites were examined in detail, and visibility maps and
reports completed for each. Of these, eleven primary lookouts and nine secondary
lookouts were finally recommended as follows: Vancouver Forest District, six primary
(five manned in 1950) and one secondary; Fort George Forest District, one primary
and three secondary; Prince Rupert Forest District, two primary and three secondary;
Nelson Forest District, two primary and two secondary.
The information obtained by the crews has been compiled and bound in book form,
and a copy of each report has been forwarded to the district concerned.
Panoramic Lookout Photography
During the past summer the experienced two-man lookout photography crew accomplished an excellent season's work. With efforts confined to the three southern forest
districts, the crew was able to take full advantage of periods of locally good photographing
weather, as the distances to be moved from point to point were comparatively short.
In all twenty-three lookouts were completed.
Lookouts photographed for the first time were located in forest districts as follows:
Vancouver, one; Nelson, one; and Kamloops, three. Lookouts with outdated pictures
were rephotographed as follows: Vancouver, six; Nelson, ten; and Kamloops, two.
A total of 159 sets of photographs was completed. This figure includes multiple sets for
the lookouts done this year and reprints from old negatives for the Forest Service and
industry as they were required. Since 1936, 135 lookouts have been photographed and,
of these, 34 have been retakes.
Trail and Road Traverses
Four traverse crews, as described in last year's Annual Report, were again fielded.
In all, some 310 miles of existing roads and trails were traversed, marked on the ground
at 20-chain intervals, and plotted on maps by these crews in forest districts as follows:
Prince Rupert, 76 miles; Fort George, 100 miles; Kamloops, 76 miles; and Nelson,
58 miles. ,
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950 OO 51
Fire-weather Record and Investigations
As the study of fire weather and factors influencing fire-risk is a very complex one,
it was thought best to concentrate on one district—namely, the Vancouver Forest District—for the present.
With this in view, the number of stations observing and recording fire-hazard factors
was increased to forty-six in that district. Of these, twenty-six stations radioed their
findings twice daily to the Vancouver and Victoria headquarters.
These statistics were used not only for correlation with weather forecasts in determining hazard build-up, as already described in the 1946 Forest Service Annual Report,
but were used by the Forest Service meteorologist for comparison of existing fire-danger
rating systems.
Results indicate that the extensive use of fuel-moisture sticks as one of the principal
and simplest devices for determining hazard build-up is fully justified. During 1950,
217 sets of hazard-sticks were distributed throughout the Forest Service and 157 sets to
operators.   The latter number represents an increase of 17 over last year.
The amount and rate of fuel-moisture loss was found to be directly related to the
amount of moisture present in the sticks. The noon and afternoon moisture can generally
be predicted from the early-morning content on rain-free days of moderate or low relative
humidity. On such days if the 8 a.m. moisture content is down to 9Vi per cent, sticks
may be expected to be above 8 per cent at noon but below 8 per cent before 8 p.m.
If used in this manner, however, careful check must be maintained of the weather
forecasts, as subsequent rain, fog, or high relative humidities would reduce the hazard
and completely alter the situation. Similarly, a strong wind later in the day would
materially increase the rate of spread if an accidental fire occurred.
Investigations were conducted to test the relationship between solar radiation and
fuel moisture. Results indicate that neither the hours of bright sunshine nor the intensity
of same have any appreciable direct effect on the rate of drying of the sticks.
So far investigations indicate that the moisture content of the sticks is controlled
primarily by the moisture content of the air. In the absence of visible moisture, such as
rain or fog, the water-vapour content of the air is indicated by relative humidity.
To summarize, it is felt that, in order to be adequately informed on fire risk, it is
still necessary to keep track of fuel-moisture content as indicated by hazard-sticks plus
relative humidity and weather forecasts. It is also axiomatic that observations used for
determining fire-hazard must be made at the location for which the hazard is to be
determined.
Miscellaneous Projects
The hazardmeter, an Australian device used to replace fuel-moisture indicator sticks,
was made up and tested. This meter consists of a strip of hemlock bonded to a strip
of cedar and mounted vertically. The results obtained from two months of observation
proved it to be too erratic and inconsistent to be of practical value.
A preliminary investigation was made to determine the effect of hanging hazard-sticks
vertically instead of placing them in the customary horizontal position 1 foot above the
ground. The difference did not appear to be of any real significance in the measurement
of fire-hazard. When rain occurs, horizontal sticks usually become heavier than vertical
sticks. This is largely due to water standing on the sticks; hence more water can soak
into the wood. There is also more water on the stick-surface to be weighed with the wood.
However, when dry weather follows the rain, the horizontal sticks dry much faster than
do the vertical sticks. It was found that both sets contained the same amount of moisture before the dangerous degree of dryness is reached. This would indicate that the
present practice of using horizontal sticks to represent haphazardly arranged forest fuels
is justifiable. OO 52
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FIRE-SUPPRESSION CREWS
Thirteen suppression crews were again fielded in 1950 in the Vancouver, Kamloops,
and Nelson Forest Districts in the same locations as described in last year's Annual
Report. In addition, a ten-man crew was located in the vicinity of Hillcrest, near Duncan
on Vancouver Island.
As emphasized in past Reports, these crews again proved their value as a fire-
suppression force, and the summary of their effectiveness is tabulated below. In addition, these crews averaged more than 35 per cent of their gross time on project work such
as roads and trails, and the results of that work are included in the tabulation on page 57.
RECORD OF SUPPRESSION CREW ACTION, 1950
Number
of Fires
Subsequent Spread (by Number of Fires)
Size of Fire When Attacked
Vs Acre
or Less
Over
Vs Acre to
1 Acre
Over
1 Acre to
5 Acres
Over
5 Acres to
50 Acres
Over
50 Acres
Spot (up to '/4 acre)	
Over Va acre and up to 1 acre	
Over 1 acre and up to 5 acres 	
Over 5 acres and up to 50 acres ~ 	
90
20
23
6
7
81
....
8
12
....
1
7
22
1
1
5
1
7
Totals	
146
81          |          20
1
30
7
8
AIRCRAFT
Flying under the contract with Central British Columbia Airways Limited was
continued during the 1950 season, and a total of 1,396 accident-free flying-hours was
logged. By mutual agreement, an additional radio-equipped floatplane was included for
the contract season, and the four aeroplanes were stationed as follows: Fort George,
Kamloops, Penticton, and Nelson.
All aircraft, while based at these points, were again on call in any forest district east
of the Cascades and Coast Mountains. In addition, the Kamloops aeroplane was available to the Vancouver Forest District and the Fort George aeroplane was available to the
Prince Rupert Forest District east of the Cascades. All aircraft were capable of carrying
over 1,000 pounds and were again radio-equipped and fitted with dropping-hatches.
They were used for fire-patrol, spotting fires, and the transport of men, equipment, and
supplies. Considerable skill has now been developed in three forest districts in parachute-
dropping from these aeroplanes. By using war-surplus personnel chutes, loads as heavy
as 250 pounds have been dropped, and fragile items, such as cases of eggs, power-saws,
radios, and fire-fighting pumps, are now parachuted to fire-fighters, when necessary,
without breakage.
To supplement the flying contract, local aircraft were chartered to a limited degree,
particularly in the Prince Rupert Forest District and in the Fort George District east of
the Rocky Mountains.
MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT
The approved complement of mechanical equipment was ordered early in the year
and, as for the past two years, delivery was made with a minimum of delay in most
instances.   The items purchased are as follows:— REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1950 OO 53
Automotive
Sedans  7
Coupes  10
Coaches  2
Suburban carryalls  10
Station wagons (four-wheel drive)  3
V^-ton light deliveries (two-wheel drive)  17
1-ton light deliveries (two-wheel drive)  12
1-ton light deliveries (four-wheel drive)  18
Dodge power-wagons  1
1 Vi -ton trucks  2
2-ton trucks  1
3-ton trucks  4
Total  87
The suburban carryalls listed above are a new type as far as the Forest Service is
concerned and have proved very satisfactory for specialized uses.
Tankers
The three tankers mentioned in last year's Report proved quite satisfactory, and one
additional unit was purchased this year.
Trailers, Tractors, and Maintainers
Six conventional two-wheel box trailers were obtained for hauling boats and general
use.
One innovation this year was the fitting-out of the road-maintainer crews with
conventional two-wheel, 14-foot, caravan trailers to enable the operators to stay out on
the job in preference to coming in to some central headquarters each day. The trailers
were equipped with fuel-storage tanks, which keep the maintainers supplied for a week.
Four units were purchased for this work and proved satisfactory.
A special 28-foot cook-dining trailer was purchased for use of the Prince Rupert
silvicultural crew. A considerable saving was effected by utilizing a standard caravan
shell and under-carriage, furnishing the interior to suit Forest Service needs. The unit
was generally quite satisfactory, although it is planned to make several structural changes
in any future models as under-clearance was found to be insufficient for off-pavement
operation.
Four crawler tractors were purchased—one Cletrac D.D.H. equipped with blade
and drum for use in the Fort George District (Peace River area), one wide-gauge D-6
Caterpillar complete with blade and a Hystaway-backhoe-dragline and crane attachment
for the Parks and Recreation Division, one International T.D. 9 complete with blade and
drum for the Prince Rupert District, and one International T.D. 18 for use of our newly
organized access-road engineering section, with initial operation at Salmon Arm.
Five Huber maintainers complete with attachments were obtained for use of the
Vancouver, Nelson, Fort George, and Prince Rupert Districts, and the Reforestation
Division.
Outboard Motors, Pumps, and Chain-saws
As only a very limited number of outboard motors were needed, little difficulty was
experienced in obtaining eleven units in the following sizes: 5 horse-power, four;
8 horse-power, three;  16 horse-power, two; and 22 horse-power, two.
A total of sixty Bennett-MacDonald fire-pumps were constructed at the Forest
Service Marine Station and, in addition, forty-two medium-weight commercially manufactured units were obtained. OO 54 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
During the year fifty-five chain-saws were obtained, practically all of which were
the one-man type; of this number, four were allocated to silvicultural crews for use in
slash-disposal and forty-four to various Ranger districts for forest-protection work.
Two of these units are electrically operated from a light-weight high-frequency portable
generator and are especially adapted for use in clearing roads and trails.
Miscellaneous Equipment
Five lighting plants were purchased, one of which was for use with the electric
chain-saws mentioned, two for use of the Public Relations and Education Division to
operate motion-picture projectors, and two for lighting Ranger stations; all units were
in the 600-2,000-watt 115-volt category. An additional Warsop gasoline-driven portable rock-drill was purchased for use in the Kamloops Forest District.
Mechanical Inspection
The Mechanical Inspectors were assigned to district and division work as outlined
in the 1949 Report. They were able to complete the inspections of all equipment in
their respective areas and spent the balance of their time supervising maintenance and
repair of the equipment. The allocation of Inspectors worked out very well, except for
the one combined Inspector covering the Fort George and Prince Rupert Forest Service
equipment plus any vehicles of the Lands Service and the Department of Finance in
those areas. Distances are so great and so many units are in out-of-the-way locations
where no garage facilities are available that more servicing is necessary by the Inspectors
than in other forest districts. Ultimately, a separate Inspector will have to be allocated
each district for adequate supervision of maintenance in the northern part of the Province.
FOREST SERVICE MARINE STATION
As reported last year, the Forest Service Marine Station was seriously damaged by
fire and, due mainly to the slow process of getting the complicated electrical wiring
installed, it was not until May 1st, 1950, that the whole plant was in full production.
In December, 1950, a contract was let for a fully automatic sprinkling system throughout
the entire plant, and this, together with the 50-foot spacing between our three main
buildings, has greatly reduced the fire risk at the station.
In the marine-repair section, with three boat-ways available, it was possible to
reduce the backlog of repair work on the Forest Service fleet. This included twenty-
nine complete overhauls, four major rebuilds, and sixteen minor repairs, such as painting,
etc., on launches from 20 to 84 feet in length. In new construction a variety of boats
was built, including two 34-foot Forest Service standard one-man boats, one 20-foot
special inboard motor-boat for the Queen Charlotte Islands, and one 30-foot shallow-
draught lake-and-river launch for the Stuart Lake area. In addition, two pilot-houses
and cabins were fabricated and shipped to Interior lake landing-craft, and a miscellany
of repair work and installation on launch lighting plants and heavy-duty diesel marine
engines was performed.
In the prefabricating-shop a wide variety of work was accomplished. This included
the prefabrication and shipping of twenty-seven knock-down section buildings 20 by 24
feet, sixteen knock-down lookout buildings, and a miscellaneous collection of crates,
tool-boxes, and launch furniture, such as stools, tables, and food-lockers. In addition,
this year a new project was undertaken in the fabrication of certain types of office
furniture for Forest Service offices throughout the Province. By the end of the year,
thirty-eight map-cabinets and thirteen draughting-table tops were built.
In the machine-shop section an increased overhaul programme was necessary because
of the backlog of this work which had accumulated while the plant was being rebuilt. In
all, 148 pumps and 47 outboard motors were received from various parts of the Province, mmmtm
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950
OO 55
and these were overhauled, tested, and returned within the calendar year. In new construction, sixty Bennett-MacDonald portable fire-fighting pumps and their corresponding
tool-boxes and tools were assembled and shipped. A revised model of the Bennett fire-
finder for lookouts (first mentioned in the 1948 Annual Report) was perfected, and 15
units were completed while 100 more were 20 per cent complete by the end of the year.
In addition, a miscellany of items used in the Forest Service were manufactured, such as
fuel-moisture scales, straight-edges, special paper-punches, cubic-scale computers, cutaway models, and various machined items required by the prefabricating-shop or marine
section of the Station.
BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION
The construction programme started in 1947 was again continued this year with
excellent results. The competition among contractors was keen, and the competitive bids
submitted did much to keep our costs of buildings down to a reasonable level while our
standardized building plans kept the designing and engineering costs down to the bare
minimum.
During the first half of the year the increased supply of materials and price stabilization continued in the same manner as the previous six months; however, in the latter half
of the year, world conditions deteriorated, and now the supply and price of the essentials
are in a state of flux.
Ranger station buildings, including sectional huts, 100-Mile House. OO 56
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Standard four-car garage, Williams Lake.
Assistant Ranger headquarters, Arrow Park. -■.-■-^ ,-,-^<.,±
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950
OO 57
Of the forty-six major building projects under way this year, thirty-six have been
completed, as shown in tabular form below:—
MAJOR NEW BUILDING PROJECTS FOR FOREST-PROTECTION AND ADMINISTRATION
PURPOSES, 1950
Type of Building
Construction
Agency
Progress
to Date
Alberni*	
Alberni*	
Alert Bay	
Arrow Park-
Burns Lake...
Canim Lake .
Creston*	
Columbia Crossing*^
Columbia River*	
Chase     	
Cowichan Lake	
Elko* 	
Fort St. James	
Fernie 	
Fort Fraser 	
Grand Forks*	
Hardy Bay 	
Harrison Lake —i	
Horsefly Lake	
Invermere 	
Kettle Valley*—
Kaslo 	
Kitsumgallum	
Langford*.	
Langford*.	
Merritt 	
Mission City	
Nakusp.	
Nelson 	
100-Mile House-
Powell Riyer _
Princeton    	
Pender Harbour .
Port Moody	
Penticton	
Port Clements „_
Prince George._
Queen Charlotte City„
Quesnel 	
Sugar Lake 	
Trout Lake  	
Williams Lake   	
Vancouver	
Vancouver _ 	
Victoria 	
Yahk 	
Warehouse	
Alterations to office.
Renewing float.
Assistant Ranger headquarters -
Warehouse 	
Boat-house    	
Warehouse, four-car garage	
Assistant Ranger headquarters _
Boat-house (at Mile 17)_
Office and stores building, four-car garage _
Office and stores building, four-car garage -
Ranger residence _
Warehouse 	
Four-car garage
Alterations to office and residence .
Four-car garage  	
Assistant Ranger headquarters	
Fill for building-site 	
Boat-house 	
Four-car garage 	
Office and stores building, four-car garage .
Four-car garage   _•—
Boat-house 	
Warehouse - . 	
Alterations to office _ _
Four-car garage  	
Alterations to pump-house 	
Four-car garage -
Enlarged warehouse and office building 	
Office and stores building, four-car garage .
Office and stores building, four-car garage .
Four-car garage 	
Office and stores building, four-car garage .
Office and stores building, four-car garage .
Office and stores building, four-car garage .
Boat-house    -	
Warehouse   	
Contract	
Contract 	
Day-labour _
Contract 	
Contract __ _	
Day-labour	
Contract _ _
Day-labour _..	
Day-labour	
Contract 	
Contract	
Contract _	
Forest Service project
Forest Service project
Forest Service project
Contract 	
Forest Service project
Contract	
Day-labour	
Contract 	
Contract	
Forest Service project
Forest Service project
Contract	
Contract  	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Plans in preparation.
Contract	
Office and stores building .
Wa r eh ouse	
Boat-house	
Assistant Ranger headquarters.
Four-car garage
Storage-basin at Forest Service Marine Station	
Sprinkler system at Forest Service Marine Station .
Storage-floor, warehouse   	
Assistant Ranger headquarters   	
Contract	
Contract 	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Labour contract 	
Plans in preparation.
Contract —
Plans in preparation.
Day-labour -
Forest Service project
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract   	
Forest Service project
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Completed.
* Denotes project started last year (see page 65 of 1949 Annual Report).
ROADS AND TRAILS
The road and trail programme featured for the first time in last year's Annual
Report was continued on a similar scale in 1950. Again, the emphasis was placed on
maintenance rather than on new construction.
In the summary below the work accomplished is segregated into light, medium, and
heavy categories, based on the difficulty encountered.
Light
Medium
Heavy
Total
Miles
20.9
193.5
Miles
18.3
56.6
Miles
29.4
38.3
Miles
68.6
288.4
214.4
74.9
67.7
357.0
24.0
668.0
16.3
330.3
43.8
150.9
84.1
1,149.2
692.0
346.6
194.7
1 233 3 OO 58 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
RADIO COMMUNICATION
During the year 1950-51 expansion in communications added fifty-one transmitting
units to the Forest Service network. A steady improvement in the reliability and speed
of message-handling was reflected in the phenomenal increase in traffic handled by radio
which, during 1950, totalled 33,000 messages.
New units added include nearly all Forest Service types, with the inclusion of F.M.
equipment for the first time.   Various types purchased were as follows:—
SPF portable trans-receiver *  31
PAC 10-watt trans-receiver     2
HQT-200-8 200-watt transmitter, eight channels     3
RS-100-T 100-watt transmitter, four channels     2
MRT-25 25-watt marine transmitter, five channels     2
MRT-100 100-watt marine transmitter, five channels     3
HOC 50-watt transmitter, three channels     1
F.M. 30-watt trans-receiver     6
F.M. 15-watt trans-receiver, mobile     3
Total   53
In the Prince Rupert Forest District, previously isolated from radio contact with
the other districts and Victoria, 1950 brought a marked improvement in communication,
with the installation of new equipment and the reorganization of the network. At headquarters a 200-watt transmitter of eight channels now connects Prince Rupert to Victoria
throughout the daylight hours and puts a strong signal into all parts of the district.
A steel tower supporting a multiple aerial system provides the district headquarters for
the first time with an efficient outlet for its transmissions. Two Ranger stations were
equipped with the new Forest Service development—the type RS-100-T transmitter of
100 watts which replaced the small 10-watt units found to be ineffective in that locality.
Two Ranger stations were also equipped with remote-control receivers.
In the Vancouver Forest District three more Ranger launches were brought up to
date with modern 100-watt five-channel marine transmitters, and Vancouver headquarters station was connected successfully to Ranger stations at Duncan and Langford by
means of 150-megacycle F.M. Changes anticipated in the main transmitting and receiving equipment of the Vancouver station have not yet been carried out, but a new 200-watt
transmitter was constructed and is nearly ready for installation. All Assistant Ranger
launches are now equipped with 25-watt transmitters, and these have proved extremely
successful.
In the Kamloops and Fort George Forest Districts no radical changes were made,
although both districts, particularly the former, showed a marked increase in messages
handled.
Nelson headquarters station was brought up to standard with a 200-watt transmitter,
and it was intended to install a new six-channel remote receiver also, but this project has
not yet been completed. The loss of the remote-control site and the necessity for evacuation of the area immediately forced the selection of a new site and the building of a
new remote-control station during the late summer. In spite of difficulties and delays,
this station was completed before weather conditions could stop construction, and results
so far obtained are a great improvement over those obtained at the old site.
In Victoria, in addition to a continuous programme of construction work on new
equipment, experimental work was carried out with F.M. on 150 megacycles with the
present very useful Victoria-Vancouver circuit as the result. Experimental work was
done also on the design for a new-type light-weight " Fire Portable " transmitter-receiver.
This unit has not been tested in the field, and results will not be known until another fire
season has passed. ■■■■■^■^■Ml
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950 OO 59
The use of F.M. for the first time during 1950 provided a small complete network
which proved extremely practical and efficient in traffic-handling. At the same time,
much useful information was obtained regarding the behaviour of frequencies of 150
megacycles and above in relation to long-distance transmission over rough terrain. In
consideration of the use of F.M. on a large scale to replace medium frequencies, results
obtained so far lead us to the following conclusions:-—
(a) Distances of 100 miles or over can be achieved with a frequency above
150 megacycles.
(b) To cover any distance over 10 miles successfully, a relay or repeater
point between 800 and 1,000 feet high is absolutely essential.
(c) Repeater points, to be practical, must have both road and power facilities
available, and must be below snow-level.
(d) Mobile F.M. transmission will be successful only when a number of
repeater stations are in operation.
(e) F.M. units, when carefully established as a result of experiments by a
technician, definitely solve the noise-level problem and show little tendency to fade as a result of weather conditions.
(/) Expansion on the very high frequencies is possible, but not on a wide
scale until power and road facilities are extended to a large number of
suitable high points.   The other major difficulty is the high cost involved,
which will confine Forest Service installations to the Vancouver Forest
District for the present, unless the Service is denied the use of medium
frequencies.
No changes in Forest Service frequencies were made by the Department of Transport
during the year, but six new frequencies were added, between 152 megacycles and 174
megacycles, for F.M. use only.
At the close of 1950 the number of sets in use, exclusive of those ordered but
undelivered, is as follows:
Type Number
MRT-100, MRT-25,
marine  24
Remote receivers—
Headquarters  6
Ranger  8
F.M  8
F.M. mobile  2
Type
SPF       	
Number
- 331
PAC
.      54
S-25-   -     	
_      5
5-50
...      2
100-watt composite
RS-100-T
1
2
HQT-200-8 	
_      5
Total, all types  448
Messages handled by all forest districts during the year, exclusive of weather reports,
unnumbered notes, and conversations, reached the following totals (the totals for 1949
are shown also for comparison): — Number of Messages
District 1949 1950
Prince Rupert  1,338 3,170
Fort George  2,078 2,831
Kamloops  .  2,023 2,990
Manning Park        448
Vancouver  5,952 10,386
Nelson  2,211 4,308
Victoria „ 5,731 9,309
Totals       .  19,333 33,442
The number of messages for 1950 was nearly double that for 1949, the phenomenal
increase being due, in part, to improved equipment and the addition of the F.M. circuit. 00 60
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
SLASH-DISPOSAL AND SNAG-FALLING
Because of climatic conditions, results of slash-disposal in the Vancouver Forest
District in .1950 were disappointing.
Spring slash-burning was delayed by the late spring and the heavy snow which
remained on many of the slash areas until after the opening of the fire season. The
opportunities for slash-disposal in September were brief because of the protracted fall
hazard and necessitated working the week-end of September 30th by those operators who
secured optimum results. Rain on October 2nd made further broadcast-burning impossible. Due to these factors 45 per cent of the 47,800 acres of slash requiring burning was
not done this year (for reference see Tables Nos. 44 and 45 of the Appendix).
The same tables show the increasing acreage of slash where spot-burning only is
required—16,890 acres in 1950. Since only a small fraction of this acreage is actually
burned, the true area of slash which was not required to be burned is much greater than
the 28,736 acres which Table No. 44 indicates.
Throughout the year, snag-falling in the Vancouver Forest District logging operations
remained at a high level of performance, as indicated in Table No. 42. In addition,
progress was made in snagging selected areas of old snags occurring in logging done prior
to the implementation of section 113 of the " Forest Act." The planning of these firebreaks was co-ordinated with the work of the Reforestation Division and the snag-free
planted areas. In 1950, 1,500 acres were snagged either by contract or by day-labour at
Lower Campbell Lake, Brewster Lake, Robertson River, and Rosewall, and this work was
paid for from the accumulated assessment fund. In addition, the Reforestation Division
snagged 11,440 acres in 1950 in advance of planting (see the section of this Report under
"Reforestation").
The slash and snag tables in the Appendix were increased and rearranged this year
to give a more comprehensive picture of what happened during 1950 in this very
important phase of forestry work.
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT
In an attempt to reduce the number of man-caused fires in 1950, information was
laid in forty-three cases during the year. As will be noted from Table No. 58 (see
Appendix), only one of these cases was dismissed for lack of sufficient evidence, and the
number of cases brought into Court was increased by 38 per cent. Campers and smokers
caused 6 per cent more fires in 1950 than the previous ten-year average (see Table No.
51), hence rigorous prosecutions for infractions will have to be continued next year.
FOREST CLOSURES
Again it was unnecessary to hamper the Coast industry by invoking a general closure.
As in 1949, many operators voluntarily went on early-morning shift or closed "entirely
when local hazard build-ups occurred.
Regional closures were again invoked where warranted by existing forest values and
hazard conditions. In some cases these were enforced by closure gates and Forest Service
attendants. In other less-frequented areas, warnings of the closures through the press,
radio, and poster advertising sufficed.
FOREST CLOSURES, 1950
Area
District
Effective
Date
Termination
Date
Sayward Forest  	
Vancouver
Kamloops
Nelson
Nelson
Nelson
Nelson
July     5
July     7
July   27
Aug.    5
Aug.  11
Sept. 22
Sept. 25
Oct      5
Hartley Creek-Sulphur Creek 	
Oct.     5
Oct      5 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950 OO 61
CO-OPERATION—OTHER AGENCIES
The usual excellent co-operation from honorary fire wardens must be acknowledged
with thanks and appreciation. In 1950 the honorary fire warden organization numbered
837 throughout the Province. These public-spirited citizens voluntarily undertake fire-
fighting duties in their local communities year after year, thus augmenting the Forest
Service staff and performing a most valuable function in the forest fire-suppression
organization.
In addition, there were 694 fire-prevention officers appointed under authority of
section 123 of the "Forest Act." These men are appointed at the request of their
employers in forest industry and have the same authority as a forest officer on the particular operation with which they are concerned.
Acknowledgment must again be made for the excellent co-operation received from
the Royal Canadian Air Force and from commercial air lines and private pilots in
detecting and reporting fires. OO 62
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
FOREST-INSECT INVESTIGATIONS*
FOREST-INSECT SURVEY
The forest-insect survey in British Columbia enjoyed the closest support and cooperation of the British Columbia Forest Service during 1950. Additional to insect
collections, the Forest Service field staff contributed greatly in providing special reports
on insect conditions and through the provision of travel facilities by road, water, and air.
Survey collections for the year totalled 6,317, of which 776 were submitted by Forest
Service personnel as follows: Vancouver District, 245; Prince Rupert District, 108;
Fort George District, 139; Kamloops District, 153; and Nelson District, 131. Of the
many pests investigated during the year, two are of major importance at present—the
spruce bud-worm and bark-beetles.
WBfr
Forest-insect investigations camp occupied during 1950 at Bolean Lake-
tor the spruce bark-beetle.
-the study centre
Spruce Bud-worm.—An extensive outbreak of the spruce bud-worm was discovered
near Burns Lake in the Prince Rupert Forest District. Covering an area of some 380
square miles, it is bordered on the west by a line from Burns Lake to Babine Lake,
extending eastward about 36 miles to an apex at Helen Lake, including Augier, Pinkut,
and Taltapin Lakes. Small infestations occur on the north side of Babine Lake opposite
Donald Landing and on the south side near Topley. Ranger S. T. Strimbold, British
Columbia Forest Service, Burns Lake, reported continuing infestation eastward to Fort
* Prepared by Forest Insect Investigations, Science Service, Dominion Department of Agriculture, Victoria and
Vernon Laboratories. ' :-.-
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950 OO 63
St. lames as observed from the air. Complete defoliation occurred only on the under-
story of balsam, particularly where it occurred below an overstory of pine. General
defoliation on spruce and balsam was about 20 per cent. Evidence was not available to
e'stablish whether or not this outbreak represents a one- or two-year life-cycle, since 1950
was the flight year for moths of both the one- and two-year-cycle bud-worm. In view
of the spruce-balsam forest associated with this outbreak, a two-year-cycle is suggested,
as is typical of bud-worm in British Columbia on these hosts. If such is the case, the
seriousness of this outbreak is lessened, since severe defoliation occurs only at alternate
years, giving the tree an opportunity to recuperate.
Elsewhere in the Province the bud-worm was particularly active, with noticeable
defoliation in the Fort George District as follows: Bowron-Isaac Lake chain north-west
to Narrow Lake, an area approximately 50 miles long by 20 miles wide; between the
Crooked and Parsnip Valleys; headwaters of Torpy River west of Nation River.
In the Kamloops District localized infestations were recorded at Sock and Johnson
Lakes, Cicero Creek, Martin Creek, Monashee Summit, Silver Hills, and Bear Creek.
In the Nelson District there was light to medium infestation at Inonoaklin Crossing and
at Kettle Crossing.
The actual damage to timber by this insect has been minor despite its activity, and
there is little to indicate any timber losses in the immediate future.
Bark-beetles.—Bark-beetles constituted the most serious insect in the Interior forests for 1950. Extensive infestations of the mountain-pine beetle, Dendroctonus mon-
ticolai Hopk., have occurred during the past several years in the lodgepole-pine stands
of the East Kootenays. The largest of these are in the White River valley, between
Forster and Frances Creeks, on Steamboat Mountain, and in the Windermere Creek
valley. The latter infestation mushroomed in the past two years and now covers the
north slope of the valley for a distance of about 6 miles.
The mountain-pine beetle has continued to spread through the white-pine stands of
the Revelstoke and Shuswap Lake areas. Active infestations occur near Miles 42, 47,
and 54 north of Revelstoke, while to the south the beetle is active on Mount Macpherson,
at Greenslide, and near Arrowhead. In the Shuswap Lake area most of the white pine
between Cape Horn and Encounter Point on the west side of Seymour Arm is now under
attack, and other areas of infestation occur on Anstey Arm, south of Cinnemousun
Narrows, and near Celista.
Although there has been no major outbreak of the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus
pseudotsugai Hopk., this species has been taking a steady annual toll of mature and overmature trees throughout the range of Douglas fir in the Interior of the Province.
The importance of the continual loss which may, in the aggregate, amount to as
much as 40 per cent of the merchantable lumber on an area, has not been fully appreciated in the past. This year an appraisal has been made of an endemic infestation near
Quesnel as a preliminary step in an investigation of the problem in relation to forest
management.
SPECIAL STUDIES
Engelmann Spruce Bark-beetle.—An intensive study of the relationship of bark-
beetle increase and forest management was initiated in the spruce-balsam stands at
Bolean Lake in the Kamloops Forest District. This infestation is the first major outbreak
in British Columbia since the disastrous outbreak in Colorado which started in 1939
and resulted in an estimated loss of from three to four billion board-feet of Engelmann
spruce. This project has three objectives: (1) To determine the cause of the population build-up, (2) to assess the influence of the selective-logging method in use in the
Bolean Lake area on this build-up, and (3) to study the life-history and habits of this
species under the conditions of the spruce-balsam forests of the Southern Interior of
British Columbia. OO 64
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
A " brood cage " housing infested spruce logs for studies on the spruce bark-beetle,
Bolean Lake, 1950.
Information on the first two points has been gathered by an intensive cruise of the
area in question and extensive cruises of the adjacent stands to determine the nature,
extent, and distribution of the infestations, and by the intensive examination of a 1-acre
plot in the centre of the original infestation to determine the progressive development of
the population, the optimum breeding areas, and the relationship of stand treatment to
the build-up. In addition, reproduction plots were set up to see whether or not part of
the cost of a bark-beetle control project might not justifiably be charged against reforestation. The bionomics of the species are being studied by the felling of trap-trees and
the construction of brood-cages. With only one season's work completed, conclusions
are indefinite as yet. There should result, however, some very definite information on
bark-beetle population build-up as related to blow-down and slash following selective
logging, and the significance of resultant regeneration as developed from present logging
practices in this forest type.
Deterioration of Hemlock-looper-killed Timber.—The mortality of timber defoliated by the hemlock looper on Vancouver Island has been traced through the study of
sample plots established throughout heavily attacked stands. The initial defoliation,
which occurred during 1945 and 1946, predisposed epidemics of secondary bark-mining
insects that have succeeded in killing many weakened trees. This subsequent mortality
culminated between 1948 and 1949, when secondary insect populations reached a peak.
Further killing between 1949 and 1950 dropped to such a low proportion of the total
damage that the examination of the permanent sample plots will probably be discontinued during 1951. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950
OO 65
Joint studies pertaining to the loss in volume and value of this dead timber were
continued during the summer in co-operation with the Dominion Forest Pathology
Laboratory and Bloedel, Stewart & Welch Limited. Insects have not been primarily
responsible for the loss in either volume or grade of dead Western hemlock. Instead, the
decay organism, Fomes pinicola (Sw.) Cke., has not only caused most of the direct loss,
but has been responsible for considerable loss due to breakage. The reduction in volume-
return from large bodies of dead hemlock has been extensive enough to warrant the
discontinuation of salvage operations in some localities.
New forest-insect  laboratory erected at Vernon  in  conjunction  with  British  Columbia Forest
Service Ranger establishment.    This building will be available for occupancy about April, 1 951.
Chemical Control of Ambrosia-beetles.—A field experiment designed to test the
efficacy of several chemicals in preventing excessive " pinworm " damage in recently
felled timber was carried out at Cowichan Lake. Eight second-growth Douglas-fir logs
were felled and treated in July. When these were examined in October, it was found
that benzine hexachloride, when applied either in a fuel-oil solution or in a water emul- OO 66 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
sion, proved successful in preventing a moderate ambrosia-beetle attack. These results
are encouraging because they indicate that the transportation cost and added fire-hazard
involved in applying an oil spray may be eliminated by using benzine hexachloride in a
water emulsion.   Further work in chemical control of these insects is projected for 1951.
Forest-nursery Insect Studies.—The strawberry root-weevil assumed importance
during 1950 in the Duncan Nursery. At the time of planting, seedlings with roots
attacked were found in a number of beds. Later examination revealed a light but rather
general population in the 2-0 beds. Development of larvae in these beds was kept under
observation and, when young adults were noted, poison-bait barriers were spread about
the nursery boundaries. As a result, hundreds of potential invading beetles from adjoining land were found dead amidst the bait. It is unlikely that populations of any account
became established within the nursery, and protection of the 1952 crop seems to have
been achieved.   Similar measures may be required in 1951.
Evidence of white grubs was found for the first time at the Duncan Nursery in 1950.
Although now present, the insect so far is not important. At the Quinsam Nursery the
insect showed both a decline in attack and activity during 1950. This is no doubt due
to the present crop growing upon land treated in 1949 with benzine hexachloride.
Since soil-insects and nursery-rotations provide rather complicated interrelationships, considerable attention and study were directed to analysing mechanical requirements for chemical control. It appears that present nursery equipment can be inexpensively adapted to provide these facilities and that no interference with ordinary nursery
procedures seems necessary. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1950 OO 67
FOREST-DISEASE INVESTIGATIONS*
The activities of the forest-disease laboratory were expanded during 1950 to provide
for studies of extended duration in forest-disease examination and control. These developments were made possible in large part through the co-operation of the British Columbia
Forest Service by reserving selected areas of representative forest land for continuing
pathological research. Thus a 70-acre experimental forest was reserved in second-growth
Douglas fir and Western hemlock on Vancouver Island and 140 acres were reserved in
the Nelson District for continuing research on the pole-blight disease of Western white
pine. In addition, 25 acres were set aside in the Fort George District to provide for an
analysis of the progressive deterioration of wind-thrown spruce.
Field personnel during 1950 totalled forty-five, of which twenty-one were permanent
members of the forest-disease laboratory and twenty-four were student assistants and
labourers. The further co-operation of the Forest Service in providing six of the latter
personnel is hereby gratefully acknowledged.
Publications distributed during 1950 included the following:—
Browne, J. E.; Foster, A. T.; and Thomas, G. P.: A Preliminary Investigation
into the Decay Losses Sustained in Western Hemlock and Amabilis Fir
in the Upper Kitimat Region. Dom. Lab. of For. Pathology. Mimeographed. May, 1950.
Foster, R. E., and Craig, H. M.: Preliminary Decay Analyses of Western
Hemlock in the Big Bend Region of British Columbia. Dom. Lab. of
For. Pathology, Victoria. Mimeographed. March, 1950.
Thomas, G. P.: Two New Outbreaks of Phomopsis lokoya in British Columbia.   Can. Jour. Res., C, 28:  477-481.   October, 1950.
DISEASES OF MATURE AND OVERMATURE FORESTS
1. Studies of decay in mature and overmature Douglas fir were conducted in the
Nimpkish Lake area, Vancouver Island. Preliminary evaluations of the data accumulated
in other areas of the southern coastal region over the past several years indicate that, under
normal conditions, heart-rot losses are of secondary importance in the utilization of this
species. Over most of the region average losses from decay were found to be less than
10 per cent. At Bella Coola and at Nanoose, however, losses in excess of \ 5 per cent were
record.   Further analyses of the basic data are in progress.
2. Investigations of decay in Western hemlock and amabilis fir were continued in
the Prince Rupert Forest District. A further sample of 8.25 acres was obtained in the
Lakelse and Kitsumgallum areas, bringing the total number of examinations in this region
to 472 hemlock and 406 fir. Present results indicate that the excessive cull losses recorded
during 1949 do not apply over the entire region. Thus current analyses provide cull
deductions of approximately 45 per cent in Western hemlock and 23 per cent in fir, as
compared with the previous reference to 67 and 62 per cent respectively. Continuing
analyses are being undertaken in an effort to define the varying stand conditions and thus
provide a direct measure of hidden defect.
3. The inventory examination of Western hemlock in the Big Bend region received
further consideration during the past year. Plots were examined at Wigwam and between
Miles 30 and 48 on the Columbia River north of Revelstoke. Twenty-eight plots comprising a total of 7 acres and 668 hemlock of merchantable size have now been analysed.
Present analyses indicate that the highly defective condition reported in 1949 extends over
the entire region of mature hemlock. Thus cull factors in excess of 60 per cent appear
to be consistent within sites 80 and 100. Further sampling in younger stands and on
better sites is contemplated.
"This section of the Report has been prepared by the Laboratory of Forest Pathology, Science Service, Dominion
Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C. OO 68
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
4. Four acres in the spruce-balsam type were examined in the vicinity of Summit
Lake in the Fort George Forest District. Sixteen plots were felled, yielding a total of
335 spruce and 67 amabilis fir.   Additional trees were felled to provide an adequate
Trunk symptoms of the pole-blight disease of Western white pine, showing long narrow lesions
adjacent to the inner bark and associated pitch exudation.
sample in the larger diameter-classes. The sample was representative of typical 200-
year-old spruce-balsam stands on site 100 in the region under consideration. Decay
losses amounted to 16 per cent in spruce and 24 per cent in balsam in board-foot measure. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950 OO 69
Butt-rots were the cause of most decay in both species and, in addition, contributed to
excessive wind-fall.
5. Examinations of hemlock-looper-killed stands on Lower Vancouver Island were
continued. It was found that decay and breakage losses in Western hemlock had increased
approximately 20 per cent over the past two years, cumulative defect amounting to 31 per
cent exclusive of normal heart-rot. The probable net recovery of hemlock, excluding
losses subsequent to felling, was estimated at approximately 55 per cent of the total stand
volume of this species.
6. Twenty plots were established in the Crescent Spur area, Fort George District,
to provide for the continuing analysis of deterioration in wind-thrown spruce and amabilis
fir. A total of 1,069 trees, of which 505 were standing and 564 totally or partially
uprooted or broken, were tagged for future study. Of this latter group, 80 per cent were
dead, 20 per cent living. Preliminary analyses indicate that existing losses are confined
to sap stain.
DISEASES OF IMMATURE FORESTS
1. Seventy acres of second-growth Douglas fir and hemlock were placed in reserve
for pathological studies in the Alberni region. It is intended to establish permanent
sample plots in order to study the nature, and to follow the course, of disease in immature
stands. Experimental thinning and related operations will be carried out for purposes of
disease-control.
2. An intensive survey of the Douglas-fir root-rot caused by Poria weirii was undertaken in the coastal region. Present results indicate the existence of different strains of
the fungus and a varying susceptibility of Douglas fir, hemlock, and Western red cedar.
Thus cedar appears to be relatively free from this disease on the Coast, yet Douglas fir
may be subject to considerable loss under similar stand conditions. In the Interior, cedar
and fir appear to be attacked with equal vigour. Further investigations will be undertaken
to determine the silvicultural implications of these findings and the effect of thinning as
a control measure.
3. A detailed examination of the blister-rust control programme in Wisconsin was
undertaken during 1950. It was found that certain of the existing techniques employed
in the isolation and testing of resistant trees may be applicable in British Columbia.
Cuttings of Eastern Ribes sp. were established in an experimental disease-garden on Lower
Vancouver Island to provide for the possible development of geographic races of the
blister-rust organism.
4. A meeting was held in the Arrow Lakes region for the purpose of reviewing
current investigations on the pole-blight disease of Western white pine. Twenty-seven
American and Canadian foresters and pathologists were in attendance. An examination
of 50-year-old pine in the Shawnigan Lake area, Vancouver Island, supported previous
indications that the distribution of pole-blight in British Columbia was confined to the
Interior region. Surveys conducted in the vicinity of Shuswap Lake, north of Sicamous,
extended the known distribution of the disease to this area. Permanent plots were established in the Silverton area to determine the progress of the disease and the effect of pine
mortality on associated species. In addition, sanitation cutting was undertaken to determine the feasibility of protecting healthy pine through the elimination of infected trees.
A total of 255 pines was removed from 8.1 acres. Eighteen permanent sample plots were
established to study the subsequent progress of the disease in the remaining 210 pines.
Inoculation experiments were conducted, using the most frequently occurring organisms
isolated from the inner bark and lesions of infected pine.
5. An investigation of a report of heavy cankering of a 5 3-year-old stand of lodge-
pole pine in the Kelowna area, Kamloops Forest District, revealed an epidemic incidence
of infection by two organisms. Heavy damage was caused by a rust, Cronartium stalacti-
forme, and a canker organism believed to be Atropellis sp.   Combined infection was as OO 70
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
high as 100 per cent in localized areas. It was evident that heavy infection occurred early
in the life of the stand and that the present infection is not spreading appreciably. Infection in adjacent areas was not high.
6. An examination of lodgepole-pine stands in the Cariboo District indicated severe
infection by the mistletoe, Arceuthobium americanum, from Clinton through to Williams
Lake. It appears that this parasite has been active for a number of years and that many
of the'infected trees will eventually be killed or will fail to reach merchantable size within
an economic rotation.
Severe infection of the lodgepole-pine mistletoe, Arceuthobium americanum, north of Clinton.
7. The first authentic record of Douglas-fir mistletoe, Arceuthobium douglassii, in
British Columbia was obtained in the vicinity of Keremeos. Heavy infections were noted
in restricted localities on mature trees and on reproduction. Further records of the disease were obtained at Westbank, Kelowna, and in the Kootenay District from Gray Creek
to Sirdar.
DISEASES OF NURSERY STOCK
Postponement of the research programme of nursery disease was necessitated through
the temporary transfer of personnel to the University of Michigan. Continuing research
is being conducted at this latter location with equipment and facilities not at present available in British Columbia. A general survey of conditions at Duncan, Quinsam, and Green
Timbers Nurseries indicates, however, that mortality losses through disease were at a
minimum during 1950. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950 OO 71
FOREST RANGER SCHOOL
Due to the introduction in 1949 of a three-term course spread over one and a half
years, the fourth class to attend the Ranger School took its third and final term between
January 5th and April 6th, 1950.   This term was devoted to the following subjects:—
Number
of Hours
1. Forest Management  110
(a) Review of the " Forest Act."
(b) Management Policies and Procedures.
2. Grazing Management  40
(a) " Grazing Act," "Animals Act," etc.
(b) Administration of Crown Range.
3. Log-scaling, Theory and Practice  90
4. Stumpage Appraisals  25
5. Silviculture (Silvics and Application in British Columbia)—. 80
6. Forest Pathology (Tree-diseases in British Columbia)  16
7. Botany (Identification of British Columbia Trees and Woods) 35
8. Forest Inventory Mapping  30
9. General Review, " Operation " Subjects  30
Field-trips, Miscellaneous   44
500
It is not possible to accurately assess the value of the extra three months' training
to the graduates in terms of increased proficiency, but some advantages are clear. With
younger and less-experienced candidates to draw from, basic instruction in fundamentals
requires more attention, as a substitute for the knowledge which it was assumed former
classes had gained from experience. The instructional staff has increased time for this
further elaboration of each subject as required. The students themselves are under less
pressure and can be expected to retain more of the knowledge imparted. Finally, with
the course spread over three terms, it is possible to spend more time on reviews and
correcting weaknesses which show up in the summer interval when the students are
engaged in putting their newly acquired knowledge and skills to use.
The fifth, or 1950-51, class reported to the School on September 18th and immediately commenced the three months' course of study outlined below. There are twenty-one
students in the class with representation from all forest districts, as shown in Table No. 60
of the Appendix. These men will continue their studies during 1951 after a three weeks'
break for Christmas and statutory holiday leaves.
First-term Curriculum, September 18th to December 19th, 1950
Operation Number
of Hours
1. Fire Law and General Operation Procedure  70
2. Preliminary Fire Organization  60
3. Construction Techniques   50
4. Office Methods  20
5. Public Speaking   30
  230 OO 72 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
General
1. Mathematics Review     20
2. Surveying (Part 1)   150
3. Forest Inventory Mapping     30
4a. Elementary Botany     40
  240
Tests and Miscellaneous :     30
500
EXTRA COURSES
A special one-week course was given to lookout-men appointed to the Vancouver
Forest District. This followed the spring term and is the third course of this nature given
at the School.
In addition to the necessary training in the detection and reporting of forest fires,
instruction in the use and maintenance of weather-recording instruments was stressed.
A noticeable point in respect to this short course is that, although the men are for
the most part definitely inexperienced (the majority are still at university or fresh from
high school), reports again indicate that their work during the season has been quite
satisfactory. While this may well be due to the type of men the Service has been fortunate
enough to obtain, there is, nevertheless, much for a " green " man to learn before he can
fulfil his duties adequately on the lookout. Perhaps due to the type of man required and
the nature of the work, there appears to be a large turnover in this position. With new
men coming to the job each year, the course covers an important field.
BUILDING AND GROUNDS
A number of improvements to the buildings were made by the staff during the
summer recess. A considerable amount of repainting was found necessary and was
accomplished.
A new building, 16 by 14 feet, was erected by the staff to accommodate material and
equipment used in the maintenance of the grounds. In addition, a small frost-proof
building was put up to house two Bickle-Seagrave pumps, adjoining the 16,000-gallon
water-reservoir constructed last year. The two pumps supply water under adequate
pressure for fire-fighting emergencies to two stand-pipes installed at strategic locations
with respect to the School buildings.
Paving of the entrance-road from the gate on the Nichol Road to the driveways
leading to the main buildings was completed. The road leading to the garage was given
a flush-coat and fine gravel finish.
Landscaping and planting proceeded throughout the summer; the grounds now
compare very favourably with any similar institution. Lawn curbing (cement), where
required to protect flower beds, and lawn edging have been constructed, and the whole is
now well on the way to finished grounds.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The School again wishes to acknowledge with thanks the assistance received from
the undermentioned organizations, whose aid materially added to the efficacy of the
courses: The Division of Plant Pathology, Dominion Department of Agriculture (Forest
Pathology); the Division of Entomology, Dominion Department of Agriculture (Forest
Entomology); ex-Provincial Police (Law Enforcement); St. John Ambulance Society
(First Aid); the University of British Columbia for its co-operation and accommodation
at its Loon Lake camp in the Haney Forest (where the School carried out survey and
forest mensuration exercises); B.C. Forest Products Limited, Youbou, for transportation in connection with field work in the Nitinat Valley; and to the Victoria Lumber
Company for transportation and assistance in slash-disposal and logging-inspection field
work. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950 OO 73
PUBLIC RELATIONS AND EDUCATION
Increasing volume and diversity in all phases of the Division's work during the year
stressed the need for expansion in staff, equipment, and working-space. It is particularly desirable that an additional technician be secured for the Photographic Section if
the present volume and quality of work is to be maintained. Additional working-space
and improved facilities in the form of a proper darkroom, projection-room, general
workroom, and storage-space for publications, exhibits, and the photographic library are
urgently required.
PRESS AND RADIO
The Division produced a series of six forest-protection advertisements, each of
which appeared, during the five-month fire season, in ten daily and seventy-four weekly
newspapers. In addition, the series, in part or "in whole, also appeared in eighteen periodicals and trade journals. This coverage represented a modest increase over the previous year of three weekly newspapers and three periodicals. The layout, copy, and
scheduling of this series was the work of the Division, while the artwork was produced
by the Government Printing Bureau. The issuing of insertion instructions to the various
publications was handled through an agency.
Pre-fire-season advertisements, three in number, were placed in the daily and
weekly press prior to the fire season. These advertisements appeared in seven daily and
thirty-five weekly newspapers in the Vancouver Forest District and in two weeklies in
the Peace River Block, Fort George Forest District. Copy for these advertisements was
the product of the Division, and insertion instructions were issued directly to the publications concerned.
In addition to these two series of forest-protection advertisements, twenty-four
special layouts with copy were prepared for a like number of publications reaching a
wide cross-section of the population.
The Division prepared and released, through the Legislative Press Gallery, a number of special items of interest concerning the activities of the Service.
The forest-protection and educational radio campaign was doubled over that of the
previous year, which enabled the broadcasting of fifty-two fifteen-second flash announcements over each of the eighteen radio stations operating in the Province. Copy for these
broadcasts was produced by the Division, and the scheduling of the standard portion of
the series was handled directly with the stations. Fire-hazard messages were scheduled
by district offices. Special messages were prepared and beamed to particular areas in
response to requests received from district offices.
The Division is again indebted to both press and radio for their generous support
in space and time in assisting our protection and educational programmes, and extend
thanks for this invaluable co-operation.
PUBLICATIONS
The Annual Report of the Service for the calendar year 1949 was edited and distributed by mailing-list and, in response to subsequent requests, to a greater number of
interested persons than ever before. Three technical articles, by members of the
Research Section of the Forest Economics Division, were edited by the Division and
published as Technical Publications T. 33 and T. 34, and Research Note No. 17. The
two technical publications were first published as contributions to the Forestry Chronicle,
the Service subsequently purchasing and distributing reprints. Assistance was given to
other divisions of the Service in the production of one Forest Resources Bulletin (No. 4)
and three popular bulletins. In addition, the Division compiled and issued the first of a
series of illustrated booklets, designed especially for school distribution, entitled " Illustrated Forest Activities." OO 74 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The increasing interest in and demand for literature of all classes on forestry was
demonstrated by the fact that three publications went into their second printing after
only one or two years of distribution, and two older ones were also reprinted. In addition, arrangements were completed to reprint 40,000 copies of the children's booklet
"How the Fir Forest Was Saved"; the first edition was distributed to some 35,000
school-children during the spring of the year. The film catalogue was also revised and
reprinted.
The Division designed and distributed the 1951 Forest Service calendar, and
produced twelve personnel news-letters, one personnel directory, and two lists of
publications.
Two special-event souvenir folders were printed to commemorate the opening of
Pine Woods Lodge, Manning Park, and the Mount Seymour Park Road. One hundred
thousand cards urging car-riders to use the ash-trays were printed and distributed to
drivers being examined for licences, through the co-operation of the Motor-vehicle
Branch.
PHOTOGRAPHY AND MOTION PICTURES
During the year the following photographic prints were supplied to other divisions
of the Service, outside publications, students, and other interested parties requesting this
Service:— Description Number
Enlargements.—
8 by 10 inches  1,403
5 by 7 inches  145
Jumbo prints  .  125
Magna prints   612
4 by 5 inches  141
2,426
Contact prints  1,020
Total prints  3,446
In addition to these, contact index prints were made of the 893 new negatives
entered in the Division files. This volume of work entailed much overtime effort and, in
order to maintain the quality and quantity of photographic work in the future, the acquisition of an assistant to the photographer, and the construction of proper darkroom
facilities are vital.
A large volume of photographic work on new buildings, launches, logging methods,
types and stands, and research projects was completed on behalf of other divisions of
the Service.
Fire and weather charts of the Operation Division, which have been stored for reference in their original large bulky form, are in the process of being photographed and
reduced to 11- by 14-inch size for filing purposes. At the end of the year 75 per cent
of the charts of the Vancouver Forest District had been photographed. The remaining
charts will be photographed as time permits.
Three colour-and-sound motion-picture films were completed during the year.
These films dealt with forest protection ("Havoc," 500 feet), reforestation ("Planting
Prosperity," 800 feet), and the forest industries (" Timber-r-r," 800 feet), and have
proven worth-while additions to the Division library. All but the final sounding has
been completed on a film on the Christmas-tree industry (" Santa's Foresters," 800 feet).
At the request of the Topographic Survey Division, Lands Service, the Division
photographer accompanied a survey party into Northern British Columbia in the vicinity
of Bowser Lake. This resulted in the production of a colour film of 1,200 feet entitled
" Flying Surveyors," which was ready for sounding and final editing by the end of the
year. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950 OO 75
The photographer continued to obtain footage in colour for producing educational
films on water power and erosion, the activities of the Forest Service, care and protection
of fire-fighting equipment, a special project for the Economics Division (Research)
recording in continuous motion the growth of a fir-cone from the bud stage, and proper
range management. In this connection a total of some 3,200 feet of film was recorded
on these subjects.
In carrying out his work during the year, the photographer travelled 12,500 miles
by car, 1,800 miles by commercial air lines, 2,200 miles by boat, and 130 miles by helicopter, for a total of 16,300 miles.
Film Library
With the removal of six obsolete subjects which were felt to be detrimental to the
standing of the library, and the addition of nine new sound films, seven of which were
in colour, the motion-picture library ended the calendar year with a stock of seventy-
eight subjects.
As in the past, a considerable number of films dealing with forestry and allied
sciences, and produced by outside commercial agencies, were previewed by members of
the Division with a view to purchase. The standard of such educational films is being
constantly improved, thus making it possible to purchase several suitable subjects for the
library.
The trend on the part of the public away from silent films continued to be evident
during the year, with circulation on silent subjects below that of the previous year.
However, the addition of the new up-to-date productions toward the end of the year
saved the library from losing many of its contacts, although the number of individual
films loaned was off 2 per cent from the previous year and 10 per cent in the last two
years.
The number of loans was up to 416, an increase of 19 over the previous year, an
indication that the actual use of the library is not falling off. The number of showings
was up to a record high of 1,880, an increase of 375 showings over the previous year.
This increase was primarily accounted for by the showings given on the school-lecture
tour.
The total audience for the year reached a new record of 165,372 persons, of whom
26,988 were adults, 95,102 children, and 43,282 not classified. Of the 95,102 children
viewing the films, 39,633 were reached by the two members of the Division's school-
lecture tour team. This brings the cumulative total audience for the years 1945 to 1950,
inclusive, to 494,597, with an average audience of 84 persons.
A total of 163 showings to 15,300 persons was given by headquarters and district
personnel of the Service. The Fort George Forest District again registered the largest
audience of any district with a total of 4,884, while Nelson led in the number of individual showings with 33.
The most widely seen of the educational films were " Adventures of Junior Raindrop " (shown 132 times to 12,905 persons), "Garibaldi Park" (62 times to 10,460
persons), and " Tweedsmuir Park " (76 times to 9,029 persons).
Certain American universities continued to utilize the services of our film library,
and the office of the United States Forest Service at Columbus, Ohio, borrowed films
for the first time.
During the year the Division's motion-picture projection equipment was borrowed
forty-two times by members of other divisions. The two slide projectors were borrowed
a total of twenty-seven times. A tabular statement of the stock and circulation of the
film library appears on page 132 of the Report.
EXHIBITS
The Division concentrated its efforts on three large exhibitions instead of the several
small fall fairs, as had been the policy in the past.   In co-operation with the Canadian OO 76 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Forestry Association (British Columbia Branch) a large commercially built display was
entered in the North Vancouver Exhibition and later in the Pacific National Exhibition
in Vancouver and the Modern Home Exhibition at New Westminster. At these locations
the display caused interest and favourable comment. Due to the Division's lack of
storage-space, the exhibit has been left with the Canadian Forestry Association pending
further use. The portable fire-detection display was pressed into service for its third
year; this time at the Comox Agricultural and Industrial Fall Fair, Courtenay. A special
small display featuring a selection of Forest Service pumps and technical equipment of
interest to the public was arranged for the View Royal Community Fair near Victoria.
In all cases where exhibits were shown, a member of the Division was in attendance.
SIGNS AND POSTERS
Due to lack of the necessary working-space, it was not possible for members of the
staff to continue with the construction of the large forest-protection Scotchlite highway-
signs. Therefore, an order was placed with a commercial company to make up a total
of twenty-five of these signs, using the material previously assembled for that purpose by
the Division. This work was completed satisfactorily late in the summer, and five signs
were shipped to each district. Each forest district now has ten of these large reflecting-
signs for use during the fire season on the main routes of travel within their boundaries.
Special forest-protection highway-signs were designed by the Division for erection
on the Hope-Princeton Highway at the entrance to Manning Park. These signs were
most successful and caused favourable comment on the part of the travelling public and
in the press.
The production of standardized directional signs was impossible during the year
because of lack of working-space. In December the Forest Service Marine Station indicated that it was able to initiate the construction of fifty of the Ranger-station signs.
By the end of the year, sufficient material had been ordered by the Division and delivered
to the Marine Station to permit a start to be made on these signs.
During the year the Division designed and distributed eight new coloured forest-
and range-protection posters of various sizes and shapes. A stock in eleven poster
designs is now available for display during the fire season.
MISCELLANEOUS MEDIA
An oval-shaped coloured decalcomania transfer with a forest-protection message
and design was produced by the Division for use on automobile windshields during fire
seasons. Ten thousand copies were secured from a commercial company for distribution
prior to the 1951 fire season.
For the first time the Division utilized the publicity medium of the smaller independent motion-picture theatres throughout the Province with a forest-protection stere-
opticon slide. This slide was shown on alternate nights during the months of June, July,
and August in fourteen theatres to an estimated audience of some 60,000 persons. The
slide was an original design produced by the Division.
CO-OPERATION
During the months of July and August the Division arranged for an educational
tour through certain Forest Service installations for members of the junior forest-warden
movement encamped at Port Atkinson, Burrard Inlet. Altogether, some 200 junior
wardens were conducted through the Green Timbers Nursery, Ranger School, Forest
Service Marine Station, and Forest Service Radio Station XL442, Vancouver. Four
tours were made, each with approximately fifty wardens in attendance. The forester in
charge of the division or his assistant supervised each of the tours and spoke to the group
on each occasion.   The willing co-operation on the part of the four installations visited REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1950 OO 77
is deeply appreciated by the Division and accounted in no small measure for the success
of the project.
A total of 837 honorary fire wardens was appointed by the districts during the year.
To each appointee went a letter of appreciation over the Minister's signature and a year's
subscription to the conservation magazine " Forest and Outdoors."
The Division co-operated closely with the Parks and Recreation Division in making
arrangements for and organizing two special events during the year—the opening of Pine
Woods Lodge, Manning Park, and Mount Seymour Park Road.
Another special project was carried out in conjunction with the Reforestation Division and the Vancouver Forest District when members of the press were taken on an
extensive tour of the planting areas on Vancouver Island. This resulted in many fine
factually sound articles in the press on the reforestation and forest-protection activities of
the Service.
Frequent aid in material, suggestions, and assistance in editing manuscripts was
rendered a number of individuals preparing forestry or forest-industry articles for
publication.
Shortly after the public-school term commenced in the fall, the Division, with the
endorsation of the Department of Education and the co-operation of the Canadian Forestry Association (British Columbia Branch), launched a motion picture-lecture tour
through the elementary, junior high, and superior schools of the Province. The Division
put two lecturers in the field, and the Canadian Forestry Association one. By the year's
end all schools in these classes on Vancouver Island, and some schools on the Southern
Mainland Coast, had been visited by one of the two lecturers operating in the Vancouver
Forest District. The second Forest Service lecturer toured the Kamloops Forest District
and had made good progress by the year's end.
During the initial three-month period, from approximately October 15th to December
15th, 148 lectures were given by the three lecturers and a total school attendance of
17,706 was recorded. In addition, some 30 special showings (other than to schoolchildren) were presented to audiences totalling 1,655.
The talks and films have aroused widespread interest amongst both teachers and
students in the problems of forest management and conservation. The films shown have
also stimulated requests for further visual aids, while the inquiries for pamphlets have
almost exhausted the available supply.
In order to embark on this worth-while project, it was necessary for the Division to
add two lecturers to its personnel. One of these, a senior Ranger of long service, was
transferred to the Division on a permanent basis, while the other lecturer was added from
outside the Service on a temporary basis.
Manuscripts for a series of " Conservation Topics " for distribution to the schools,
as follow-ups to the lectures, were at hand and in the process of editing by the end of the
year. The Division is indebted to members of the Economics Division (Research), the
Parks and Recreation Division, and the Forest Insect and Forest "Diseases Investigation
Services, Dominion Department of Agriculture, for preparing the originals of these
manuscripts.
LIBRARY
The library continued to operate at a high level of activity, with a very noticeable
increase in the number of requests for loans and information on a wide variety of forestry
and allied subjects. A large number of special publications covering a broad field of
activities was ordered for members of the Service.
Owing primarily to lack of space, the library is not yet able to provide completely the
service for which it was designed. The ever-increasing number of photographic file-
cabinets and Kodachrome-slide files continues to tax the limited facilities available. The
almost constant traffic through the library in connection with photographic matters,
unfortunately, makes it impossible to maintain an atmosphere conducive to reading or
serious study. 00 78 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
GRAZING
1 INTRODUCTION
The grass-land and forest ranges of this Province are a valuable resource which, if
properly managed, can continue to make large annual contributions to the Provincial
economy in perpetuity. They will supply forage for live stock, serve as important
recreational areas, and be suitable as a home for game without any reduction in their
value as watershed areas. If mismanaged and allowed to deteriorate, returns in the form
of meat and wool will diminish and other values will be damaged.
A very large percentage of the range land in this Province remains as Crown land,
and the live-stock industry is largely dependent on the Crown range for summer forage.
The allocation and preservation of this range is the responsibility of the Forest Service
and, through close co-operation with and by the stockmen, continued progress toward
improved range-management practices was made during 1950.
ADMINISTRATION
In view of the necessity of maintaining the closest possible contact with the ranching
industry, grazing administration is decentralized to the fullest extent practical. The bulk
of administrative work is carried out under the direction of the District Forester concerned.
Specialized personnel are employed to handle this phase of forest administration at the
district-office level, and a fair share of the time of the Ranger staff is also devoted to range
administration.
During 1950 the volume of routine administrative work was particularly heavy. This
was due to numerous factors, including more intensive range management, an increase in
grazing fees, and an intensified range-improvement programme. Numerous changes in
ranch ownership, resulting in the necessity of reallocating grazing privileges, meant additional work. Land applications, which must be checked carefully to determine their effect
on the use of Crown range, were numerous. A considerable amount of effort was also
expended in improving and clarifying grazing-permit area descriptions.
Early in the year the Grazing Regulations were revised and consolidated. The only
innovation of importance concerned grazing fees, which were placed on a sliding scale.
The fees which had been in effect since 1919 are now used as base fees and are related to
average live-stock prices for 1939. The actual fees charged each year are in the same
ratio to the base fees as average prices for the immediately preceding year are to average
prices for 1939. On this basis, grazing fees charged in 1950 were 16 cents per head per
month for cattle, 20 cents per head per month for horses, and 3XA cents per head per
month for sheep.
GENERAL CONDITIONS
The winter of 1949-50 was extremely cold, a condition detrimental to live stock.
However, in most areas there was an adequate supply of hay, and over-all losses were
not much above average. In a few cases, where inadequate hay was provided or where
stockmen had relied too greatly on winter range, losses were severe. On the average,
stock were in somewhat poorer condition than desirable when turned out on the range.
The advent of spring weather was late and, throughout the range area, forage growth
was very slow. Turnout on the spring ranges was delayed as long as possible, but in
many areas it became necessary to allow grazing before the range was properly ready for
use. With the exception of the East Kootenay Valley and the easterly portion of the
Boundary country, subsequent summer heat and dry conditions prevented a good
recovery on the grass-land ranges. The volume of fall forage was, therefore, below
average and, even in the East Kootenay Valley, late summer drought had a detrimental
effect. . -.■   -    -'-■ ■■■r = ~^.".
■   '
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950
OO 79
Baled hay for winter feed, Thompson River valley.
;    .; ; \  :;   ;      :
::' '       •  :.'.'. .
Association of summer range, spring-fall range, and agricultural land for winter feed. OO 80 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Although growth started late, summer range conditions were excellent. The
adequate moisture reserves, resulting from heavy winter snow and previous wet years,
combined with the hot weather to produce large quantities of good-quality forage on the
forest ranges. Alpine range conditions were also good. Stock came off the summer
range in better condition than average.
Owing to the generally poor condition of the fall ranges and a sharp cold spell
accompanied by snow in the early part of November, winter feeding commenced earlier
than usual in many areas. However, the cold weather did not persist and, as the 1950
hay-harvest was good both as to quantity and quality throughout most of the range
country, it is expected that stock will come through the winter in good condition.
Grasshoppers were not a particularly damaging factor to the range this year,
although there are some indications that the grasshopper cycle is again on the up-swing.
Materials and equipment were in good supply during 1950 and. for the first time
since 1941, an adequate supply of good-quality barbed wire was obtained for use in our
range-improvement programme. Although the ranch and range labour situation has
improved somewhat, costs are up very considerably and the turnover of labour is still
abnormally large. In spite of high ranch wages, labourers are attracted by the amenities
of the town. As stock-handling requires considerable skill and experience, and as time
is required for a rider to become familiar with an extensive range, a stable labour force
is essential to good range management.
! RANGE MANAGEMENT
Proper management is necessary to obtain maximum forage returns and at the same
time prevent deterioration of the range resource. Range depletion has occurred in some
areas, due partly to a lack of knowledge and partly to economic forces over which the
stockman had no control. A particular effort is now being made to bring about an
improvement on these depleted ranges. The principal malpractices to be remedied are
too early turnout, overstocking, and poor stock distribution. Time is required to overcome these without unduly disrupting the industry. Considerable progress was made
during 1950, with the co-operation of the range-users concerned. Further progress can
be expected as the stockmen become aware of the benefits deriving therefrom.
During the year, emphasis was placed on developing improved management plans
for ranges recently covered by range surveys. Implementation of these plans was
commenced and will continue progressively.
Several alpine ranges which were formerly grazed by sheep are now being used by
cattle, as the ranches concerned have converted to the latter class of stock. In spite of
weeds comprising a high percentage of the forage, the cattle, particularly cows and
calves, have done surprisingly well. Cattlemen are now showing a marked interest in the
use of alpine ranges.
CO-OPERATION
There are now forty-four active live-stock associations in the Province. Three new
associations were formed during the year and one was disbanded owing to changed
conditions and a lack of interest. One hundred and twelve meetings were reported, of
which ninety-two were attended by forest officers. The associations continued to be
of valuable assistance in all phases of range administration.
During the year several trial range-improvement projects were carried out in
co-operation with the Dominion Range Experiment Station. Excellent response was
also received from the Station in connection with plant identification and technical
problems which were referred to it for study and advice. Several range inspections were
carried out in company with Game Department officials to study game-livestock relationships.   Close co-operation with the Live Stock Branch of the Department of Agriculture REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950 OO 81
continued throughout the year in connection with the bull-control and disease-free areas
being established in the range country. Close contact with the various Indian Agents
was maintained with reference to the use of Crown range by Indians.
RANGE IMPROVEMENT
With increased funds and more material available, the range-improvement programme was stepped up in 1950, with the following projects being completed: Stock-
bridges, 2; cattle-guards, 8; drift-fences, 16; experimental plots, 4; holding-grounds
(repaired), 5; mudhole fences, 2; range seedings, 2; stock-trails, 7; water-developments,
3; weed-control measures, 1. In addition, stockmen were authorized to construct, at
their own expense, the following secondary improvements: Breeding pastures, 1; corrals,
1; drift-fences, 2; grazing enclosures, 1.
Further action was taken to keep the ranges clear of wild and useless horses. On
the recommendation of associations and stockmen, fifty horse-roundup permits and
fifty-two horse-shooting licences were issued. Seventy-nine horses were rounded up and
shipped for slaughter and 674 were shot.
The range seedings carried out to date have been on a pilot basis only, owing to the
high cost of seed and a lack of information as to the best methods of seeding. However,
on the basis of experience gained, it is felt more of this work should be undertaken.
In anticipation of an increase in activity along this line, a quantity of crested wheat-grass
seed was obtained late in the year when prices were the most favourable in years. Also
a plot 22 acres in extent in the vicinity of Kamloops was seeded to crested wheat-grass,
from which seed may be harvested in the event of a recurring shortage of this seed.
The experimental plots listed above were established to study the effect of fire on
range, the response of depleted range to complete protection, response of dry grass-land
range to fertilizer applications, and the adaptability of various grass species for use on
dry range in the Grand Forks area.
The weed-control measure listed is a continuation of the goatweed project commenced in 1949. It is now evident that complete eradication of this pest from the range
area is impractical. Efforts in 1950 were directed toward reducing the spread of the
weed. Weed-patches isolated from the main areas of infestation and along roads or in
other strategic locations were treated.   In all, a net area of 80 acres was treated.
Early in the year a meeting between forest officers and a committee of the British
Columbia Beef Cattle Growers' Association was held to discuss range improvements
generally and in particular the type of projects which should be given preference in the
utilization of any additional funds available as a result of the increase in grazing fees.
RANGE RECONNAISSANCE
The range-reconnaissance programme was reduced somewhat in 1950, with the
following areas being covered: — Acres
Nicola Stock Range (Maka Creek unit)     51,680
Ashcroft Stock Range (north-west portion)  417,792
Grand Forks-Greenwood Riding Stock Ranges     92,000
561,472
In addition, eleven range examinations were carried out, in the course of which old
range-surveys were checked and, where necessary, the maps revised or extended.
GRAZING, HAY, AND SPECIAL-USE PERMITS
Grazing permits issued in 1950 were approximately the same in number as in 1949.
The number of stock covered was down somewhat owing to continued heavy sales OO 82
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
resulting from high prices.    The tabulation on page 133 shows the volume of business
for 1950 and the past ten years.
Grazing fees billed and collected in 1950 were much higher than in previous years,
and are shown in the tabulation on page 133. The marked increase in fees was due to
the revision of the grazing regulations referred to earlier.
Twenty-three special-use permits authorizing the fencing of pastures for special
purposes in Provincial forests were issued in 1950.
One hundred and sixty-two hay-cutting permits authorizing the cutting of 1,942 tons
of hay and 84 tons of rushes on Crown range were issued. This is a considerable decrease
from 1949.
MISCELLANEOUS
Live-stock Losses
Losses of stock on the range appeared to be somewhat heavier this year. Poisonous
weeds continued to be a problem, with timber milk-vetch being particularly bad. Owing
to the dry summer, water-levels in lakes dropped lower than for several years, and reports
of mired animals were more frequent. Losses to predatory animals were reported less
than during the last few years. Highway traffic is responsible for an increasing number
of stock-losses. Some animals are reported to have died from gunshot wounds during
the hunting season.
Loading sheep, Elko. 11.11.   .   L...-L.
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950 OO 83
Markets and Prices
Demand still far exceeds the supply of meat and wool on the markets available to
British Columbia stockmen. As a result, prices advanced as much as 40 per cent during
the year. Shipments of cattle were about the same as in 1949, with sheep and lambs
being up about 10 per cent. There were six major range-livestock shows and sales
in 1950.
Prosecutions
No prosecutions were instituted in 1950 under the " Grazing Act " and regulations.
As usual, a number of acts of trespass took place, but in all instances the stockmen
concerned complied with our written instructions to rectify the situation.
Plant Collections
Plant identification is essential as a basis for range management. To aid in this,
collections of mounted specimens of the important range plants are being built up in the
district offices. This work continued during 1950 and, in addition, the Grazing Division
supplied the Ranger School with the nucleus of a grazing herbarium for use in connection
with the course in grazing. OO 84 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY, 1951
VICTORIA OFFICE
C.   D. Orchard Deputy Minister and Chief Forester Victoria.
R. C. St. Clair Assistant Chief Forester.
C. Cooper Forest Counsel.
R. G. McKee .Forester i/c Operation Division Victoria.
P. Young Assistant Forester.
A. H. Dixon Assistant Forester.
D. W. Perrie Meteorologist.
P. H. Bodman Forester-in-training.
R. T. Flanagan Forester-in-training.
E. A. Moyes Forester-in-training.
W. C. Spouse Mechanical Superintendent.
A. B. Crowe Assistant Mechanical Superintendent.
J. H. Taylor Superintendent of Construction.
G. A. Playfair Radio Superintendent.
H. E. Ferguson Assistant Radio Superintendent.
R. L. Fielder Technical Forest Assistant (Fire Research).
L. Lucas Technical Forest Assistant (Fire Research).
A. Stringer Chief Clerk.
F. S. McKinnon Forester i/c Management Division Victoria.
S. E. Marling Forester.
G. M. Abernethy Assistant Forester.
J. S. Stokes Assistant Forester.
A. E. Collins Assistant Forester (Forest-cover Maps).
W. G. Hughes Assistant Forester (Management Licences).
D. M. Carey Assistant Forester (Public Working-circles).
D. M. Trew_1 Assistant Forester (Farm-woodlot Licences).
F. F. Slaney Engineer.
R. G. Gilchrist Chief Draughtsman.
E. H. Henshall Chief Clerk.
A. Chisholm Chief Clerk (Timber-sale Administration).
H. Casilio Senior Clerk (Timber-sale Contracts).
H. G. McWilliams Forester i/c Reforestation Division Victoria.
A. H. Bamford Assistant Forester.
E. G. Whiting Assistant Forester.
W. D. Grainger Forester-in-training.
T. Wells Nursery Superintendent (New Westminster).
J. R. Long Nursery Superintendent (Duncan).
W. Turner Nursery Superintendent (Campbell River).
N. G. Wharf Clerk.
E. G. Oldham Forester i/c Parks and Recreation Division.. Victoria.
C. P. Lyons Assistant Forester.
L. Brooks Forester-in-training.
R. H. Ahrens Forester-in-training.
R. Lowrey Forester-in-training.
W. E. Rolls Forester-in-training.
G. F. Macnab Forester-in-training.
D. ,L. Macmurchie Technical Forest Assistant.
N. M. F. Pope Technical Forest Assistant.
G. A. Wood Technical Forest Assistant (Geographer).
R. Y. Edwards Assistant Biologist.
E. A. McGowan Engineer-in-training.
C. J. Velay Engineer-in-training.
J. M. Bailey Engineer-in-training.
R. Stewart Architectural Draughtsman.
S. E. Park Senior Clerk (Administration).
E. Charlton Senior Clerk (Accounts). REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1950 OO 85
VICTORIA OFFICE—Continued
E. Druce Forester i/c Public Relations and Education Division Victoria.
D. R. Monk Public Relations Officer (Administration).
P. W. H. G. Johnson Public Relations Officer (Photography).
W. N. Campbell Technical Forest Assistant
Miss I. Chisholm Forest Service Library.
R. H. Spilsbury Forester i/c Research Division Victoria.
E. H. Garman Assistant Forester (Silviculture).
A. R. Fraser Assistant Forester (Mensuration).
L. A. deGrace Assistant Forester (Aleza Lake Experimental Station).
A. L. Orr-Ewing Assistant Forester (Silviculture).
G. C. Warrack Assistant Forester (Silviculture).
H. C. Joergensen.— Assistant Forester.
J. M. Finnis Forester-in-training.
R. L. Schmidt Forester-in-training.
M. B. Clark Forester-in-training.
T. P. Decie Forester-in-training.
H. A. W. Knight Agrologist-in-training.
E. A. Roberts Foreman (Cowichan Lake Experimental Station).
H. M. Pogue Forester i/c Forest Surveys and Inventory Division ... Victoria.
G. Silburn : Assistant Forester.
H. N. Cliff Assistant Forester.
G. W. Allison Assistant Forester.
W. Bradshaw  —„.Forester-in-training.
R. Breadon Forester-in-training.
C. J. Calder  Forester-in-training.
R. Darnall Forester-in-training.
D. M. Fligg Forester-in-training.
B. Ford Forester-in-training.
J. H. Frey Forester-in-training.
C. J. Highsted Forester-in-training.
R. C. Jones Forester-in-training.
E. H. Lyons Forester-in-training.
E. G. Vaughan Forester-in-training.
W. Young Forester-in-training.
C. J. T. Rhodes Supervising Draughtsman.
D. Macdougall Technical Forest Assistant.
W. C. Pendray Forest Agrologist i/c Grazing Division Victoria.
W. V. Hicks Inspector, Forest Accounts Victoria.
D. I. MacLeod Assistant Inspector.
W. C. Higgins Chief Accountant.
A. E. Rhodes Assistant Accountant.
J. R. L. Conn Clerk, Expenditures.
E. Clough Overrun Investigator.
R. D. Greggor Forester i/c Ranger School New Westminster.
J. A. Pedley Assistant Forester.
G. L. Levy Clerk.
J. G. MacDonald Superintendent, Forest Service Marine Station... Vancouver.
VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT
E. W. Bassett District Forester Vancouver.
D. B. Taylor Assistant District Forester.
D. H. Ross Assistant Forester (Operation).
J. A. K. Reid Assistant Forester (Management).
C. F. Holmes Assistant Forester (Slash-disposal Officer).
C. E. Bennett Assistant Forester.
G. R. Johnston Forester-in-training.
W. B. Gayle Forester-in-training.
F. S. Williams Forester-in-training. OO 86
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
VANCOUVER FOREST DISTRICT—Continued
T. R. Hubbard  Forester-in-training.
J. McNeill Supervisor.
R. H. Morrison Supervisor.
C. S. Frampton Supervisor.
P. R. Neil   Technical Forest Assistant.
H. H. Hill  _ .....Mechanical Inspector.
C. L. Armstrong Supervisor of Scalers.
A. C. Heard Assistant Supervisor of Scalers.
H. A. D. Munn Assistant Supervisor of Scalers.
J. A. Fetherstonhaugh Inspector of Licensed Scalers.
J. H. Templeman  .Inspector of Licensed Scalers.
E. P. Fox.....  Chief Clerk.
G. Birkenhead Supervising Draughtsman.
F. Goertzen Radio Technician.
R.D. No.
1. H. Stevenson Ranger Chilliwack.
2. J. H. Robinson... __ Ranger Mission.
3. G. G. Armytage Ranger   .North Vancouver.
4. S. C. Frost  —Ranger   Squamish.
5. L. C. Chamberlin Ranger Sechelt.
6. D. H. Owenr... Ranger Madeira Park.
7. W. Black...  Ranger Powell River.
8. R. W. Aylett Ranger Lund.
9. A. F. W. Ginnever Ranger Thurston Bay.
10. K. A. McKenzie -Ranger Thurston Bay.
11. W. P. Rawlins..  Ranger Alert Bay.
12. R. W. Jones  —Ranger Port Hardy.
13. C. D. S. Haddon Ranger Campbell River.
14. S. Silke „ Ranger Courtenay.
15. W. E. Jansen..  Ranger Nanaimo.
16. P. Sweatman Ranger Duncan.
17. J. P. Greenhouse ..Ranger Langford.
18. F. Tannock Ranger Alberni.
19. C. J. Wagner Ranger Zeballos.
20. H. Barker  Ranger Cowichan Lake.
21. R. Little Ranger Harrison Lake.
. 22. R. J. Glassford ...Ranger Parksville.
23. M. H. Mudge Ranger Alert Bay.
PRINCE RUPERT FOREST DISTRICT
M. W. Gormely District Forester Prince Rupert.
M. O. Kullander Assistant District Forester.
J. P. MacDonald —Assistant Forester (Operation).
L. B. B. Boulton...  Assistant Forester (Silviculture).
J. B. Bruce Assistant Forester (Management).
R. W. Corregan Forester-in-training (Management).
D. R. Selkirk Forester-in-training (Management).
J. R. Gilmour Forester-in-training (Silviculture).
W. H. Hepper Recreational Officer.
J. B. Scott   Inspector of Licensed Scalers.
S. G. Cooper Inspector of Licensed Scalers Terrace.
H. L. Couling Supervisor.
C. Dahlie Technical Forest Assistant (Crew Supervisor) Smithers.
C. V. Smith  ......Chief Clerk.
J. W. Eastwood Assistant Chief Clerk.
I. Martin Senior Draughtsman.
R.D. No.
1. C. L. Gibson Ranger . Burns Lake.
1. R. L. Brooks Ranger Burns Lake.
2. L. G. Taft  Ranger   Hazelton.
3. D. R. Smith. .....Ranger Terrace. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1950 OO 87
PRINCE RUPERT FOREST DISTRICT— Continued
R.D. No.
3. W. H. Campbell Acting Ranger  Terrace.
4/7. S. T. Strimbold Ranger Prince Rupert.
4. R. G. Benson  Ranger Atlin.
5/6. H. B. Hammer Ranger  — Queen Charlotte City.
8. H. G. Bancroft Forester-in-training Ocean Falls.
9. W. A. Antilla Ranger Southbank.
9. P. J. Piche Ranger   Southbank.
10. J. A. Willan Ranger Smithers.
11. J. F. Munro Ranger  ..Houston.
12. A. A. Antilla Ranger     Pendleton Bay.
13. J. Mould Ranger Kitwanga.
FORT GEORGE FOREST DISTRICT
L. F. Swannell District Forester Prince George.
W. G. Henning Assistant District Forester.
E. W. Robinson Assistant Forester (Management).
F. Hollinger Mechanical Inspector.
I. R. Burrows Forester-in-training (Management).
G. M. Shires Forester-in-training (Operation).
D. R. Glew Forester-in-training (Silviculture).
F. H. Nelson Supervisor.
L. A. Willington Fire Inspector.
A. H. McCabe Inspector of Licensed Scalers.
R. B. Carter Chief Clerk.
R.D. No.
1. J. S. Macalister Ranger McBride.
2. R. Mackenzie Acting Ranger   Penny.
3. A. F. Specht...  Ranger  —Prince George (S.E.).
4. C. L. French Ranger Prince George (N.).
5. A. V. O'Meara Ranger .. Fort St. James.
6. G. G. Jones Ranger Quesnel (E.).
7. H. T. Barbour Ranger  ..Pouce Coupe.
8. M. F. Painter Ranger..  . Aleza Lake.
9. N. Threatful Ranger Vanderhoof.
10. J. Woolsey Ranger '. Fort St. John.
II. R. I. Patterson Ranger Fort Fraser.
12. R. B. Angly Ranger Fort McLeod.
13. G. E. Meents Ranger  Quesnel (W.).
14. W. H. Mulholland Forester-in-training  Prince George (W.).
KAMLOOPS FOREST DISTRICT
A. E. Parlow District Forester Kamloops.
W. C. Phillips Assistant District Forester.
W. W. Stevens Assistant Forester (Management).
J. R. Johnston Assistant Forester (Operation).
J. C. Payne Assistant Forester (Management).
C. D. Grove-White Assistant Forester (Silviculture).
N. A. McRae Forester-in-training (Management).
M. L. Kerr Forester-in-training (Management).
L. W. Lehrle Forester-in-training (Silviculture).
T. R. Broadland Recreational Officer.
H. K. DeBeck Assistant Forest Agrologist.
M. T. Wallace Assistant Forest Agrologist.
A. Paulsen Assistant Forest Agrologist.
R. O. Pringle Assistant Forest Agrologist.
B. E. Neighbor Forester-in-training (Grazing).
A. L.Kirk Fire Inspector.
H. S. Noakes . Fire Inspector.
J. H. Smythe Mechanical Inspector.
E. A. Charlesworth Inspector of Licensed Scalers. OO 88 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
KAMLOOPS FOREST DISTRICT—Continued
C. Williams   Inspector of Licensed Scalers.
W. P. Cowan Technical Forest Assistant.
C. R. Downing Technical Forest Assistant.
C. H. Huffman Technical Forest Assistant.
G. F. Bodman  Technical Forest Assistant.
E. A. Bowers.—  Radio Technician.
H. J. Parker Chief Clerk.
R.D. No.
1. M. A. Johnson Ranger  ..Vernon.
2. H. W. Campbell Ranger  ..Birch Island.
3. D. P. Fraser  Ranger   Barriere.
4. H. A. Ferguson...  Ranger Kamloops.
5. H. G. Mayson  Ranger  ...Chase.
6. J. Boydell Ranger  Salmon Arm.
7. LA. Sim Ranger Sicamous.
8. E. L. Scott Ranger Revelstoke.
9. J. W. Hayhurst Ranger   Vernon.
10. C. Perrin Ranger Penticton.
11. J. H. Dearing Ranger Princeton.
12. C. E. Robertson Ranger Clinton.
13. K. N. Petersen .....Ranger .. Williams Lake.
14. T. L. Gibbs Ranger  _  Alexis Creek.
15. R. B. W. Eden Ranger Kelowna.
16. L. E. Cook  Ranger   Wells Gray Park.
17. R. C. Hewlett Ranger Merritt.
18. A. C. Schutz.—  Forester-in-training Blue River.
19. H. C. Hewlett  Ranger :. .-. Enderby.
20. R. H. Boyd...  Ranger Manning Park.
21. O. Paquette  Ranger 100-Mile House.
NELSON FOREST DISTRICT
H. B. Forse  District Forester Nelson.
I. T. Cameron Assistant District Forester.
L. S. Hope  Forester (Silviculture).
W. E. Young...  Assistant Forester (Management).
J. E. Milroy  ..Assistant Forest Agrologist.
E. Knight  Forester-in-training.
J. G. Hall Forester-in-training.
W. G. Bishop Forester-in-training.
E. R. Smith Forest Agrologist-in-training.
R. G. Gill Technical Forest Assistant.
J. H. A. Applewhaite Technical Forest Assistant.
G. Lepsoe Technical Forest Assistant.
R. H. Baker Mechanical Inspector.
G. T. Robinson Inspector of Licensed Scalers.
J. H. Holmberg Supervisor.
I. B. Johnson Supervisor.
L. A. Chase Supervisor.
R. O. Christie Supervisor.
G. C. Palethorpe Supervisor.
J. C. I. Rogers Supervising Draughtsman.
L. S. Ott Radio Technician.
S. S. Simpson Chief Clerk.
R.D. No.
1. C. R. Tippie Ranger   Invermere.
2. R. A. Damstrom Ranger Fernie.
3. H. J. Coles Ranger   Golden.
4. F. R. Hill Ranger Cranbrook.
5. A. I. Ross Ranger Creston.
6. J. L. Humphrey  Ranger Kaslo.
7. A. J. Larsen  Acting Ranger : Lardo. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1950 OO 89
NELSON FOREST DISTRICT—Continued
R.D. No.
8. L. M. Quance Ranger...  Nelson.
9. R. E. Robinson Ranger New Denver.
10. H. R. Wood Ranger Nakusp.
11. J. F. Killough  Ranger Rossland.
12. E. W. Reid  .-Ranger j  Grand Forks.
12. M. G. Isenor... —Ranger Grand Forks.
13. L. E. Stilwell Ranger Kettle Valley.
13. J. E. Connolly  Ranger '. Kettle Valley.
14. C. J. McGuire Ranger Canal Flats.
15. J. B. Gierl  —Ranger Arrowhead.
16. W. D. Haggart Ranger    .Edgewood.
17. F. G. Hesketh.    Ranger.  Elko.  APPENDIX  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950 OO 93
TABULATED DETAILED STATEMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE
CONTENTS
Table No. GENERAL Page
1. Distribution of Personnel, 1950 -—    95
Reforestation
2. Summary of Planting during the Years 1941-50     96
Forest Management
3. Estimated Value of Production, Including Loading and Freight within the
Province  97
4. Paper Production (in Tons)  97
5. Water-borne Lumber Trade (in M B.M.)  98
6. Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during the Years 1949-50
(in F.B.M.)  99
7. Species Cut, All Products (inF.BJVI.), 1950  100
8. Total Scale (in F.B.M.) Segregated, Showing Land Status, All Products, 1950._ 101
9. Timber Scaled in British Columbia in 1950 (by Months and Districts)  102
10. Logging Inspection, 1950  104
i;. Trespasses, 1950  104
12. Pre-emption Inspection, 1950 :  105
13. Areas Examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of the " Land Act " 1950  105
14. Classification of Areas Examined, 1950  105
15. Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1950  106
16. Timber-sale Record, 1950  106
17. Timber Sales Awarded by Districts, 1950  107
18. Average Stumpage Prices as Bid per M B.F. Log-scale, by Species and Forest
Districts, on Saw-timber Cruised on Timber Sales in 1950  108
19. Average Stumpage Prices Received per M B.F. Log-scale, by Species and Forest
Districts, on Saw-timber Scaled from Timber Sales in 1950  109
20. Timber Cut from Timber Sales during 1950  110
21. Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1950  111
22. Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1950  111
23. Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc., 1950— 112
24. Summary for Province, 1950  112
25. Timber Marks Issued  113
26. Forest Service Draughting Office, 1950  113
Forest Finance
27. Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax  114
28. Acreage of Timber Land by Assessment Districts  114
29. Acreage of Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax as
Compiled from Taxation Records  114
30. Forest Revenue  115
31. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, 1950  116
32. Amounts Charged against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1949-50:  117 OO 94 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table No. Page
33. Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1949-50   118
34. Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1949-50  119
35. Scaling Fund :  119
36. Silviculture Fund  120
37. Forest Reserve Account  120
38. Grazing Range Improvement Fund  120
39. Forest Protection Fund  121
40. Forest Protection Expenditure for Twelve Months Ended March 31st, 1950—
by the Forest Service  122
41. Reported Approximate Expenditure in Forest Protection Expenditure by Other
Agencies, 1950  123
Forest Protection
42. Summary of Snag-falling, 1950, Vancouver Forest District  123
43. Summary of Logging Slash Created, 1950, Vancouver Forest District  123
44. Acreage Analysis of Slash-disposal Required, 1950, Vancouver Forest District _ 124
45. Analysis of Progress in Slash-disposal, 1950, Vancouver Forest District  124
46. Summary of Operations, 1950, Vancouver Forest District  125
47. Summary of Slash-burn Damage and Costs, 1950, Vancouver Forest District... 125
48. Recapitulation of Slash-disposal, 1934-50 .  126
49. Fire Occurrences by Months, 1950  126
50. Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1950  126
51. Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years  127
52. Fires Classified by Size and Damage, 1950  127
53. Damage to Property Other than Forests, 1950  127
54. Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1950  128
55. Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1950  128
56. Comparison of Damage Caused by Forest Fires in Last Ten Years  129
57. Fires Classified by Forest District, Place of Origin, and Cost per Fire of Fire-
fighting, 1950  129
58. Prosecutions, 1950  130
59. Burning Permits, 1950  131
Ranger School
60. Enrolment at Ranger School  132
Public Relations
61. Motion-picture Library  132
62. Forest Service Library .  132
Grazing
63. Grazing Permits Issued  133
64. Grazing Fees Billed and Collected  133 (I)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950
Distribution of Personnel, 1950
OO 95
Personnel
Forest District
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
Fort
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Victoria
Total
Continuously Employed
Chief Forester, Assistant Chief Forester, and Division
Foresters    	
District Foresters and Assistant District Foresters..
Foresters and Assistant Foresters	
Agrologists and Assistants. 	
Foresters-in-training-
Supervisor of Rangers and Fire Inspectors .
Rangers      	
Supervisor of Scalers and Assistants	
Scalers, Official-  	
Scalers, Licensed-
Inspectors, Royalty and Export 	
Mechanical—Radio and Engineering Supervisors	
Technical Forest and Public Relations Assistants 	
Nursery, Reforestation, Parks, and Research Assistants
Nursery Superintendents    	
Draughtsmen...   	
Clerks, Stenographers, and Messengers 	
Superintendent and Foreman, Forest Service Marine
Station     _  	
Mechanics, Carpenters, and Technicians _ 	
Launch Crewmen   	
Assistant and Acting Rangers.
Dispatchers..
Cruisers and Compass-men	
Truck and Tractor Operators...
Foremen	
Miscellaneous 	
Total, continuous personnel.
Seasonally Employed
Assistant and Acting Rangers .
Patrol-men 	
Lookout-men	
Dispatchers and Radio Operators	
Fire-suppression Crewmen 	
Reforestation—Shag-fallers, Planters, etc. .
Cruisers and Compass-men 	
Truck and Tractor Operators.  	
Student Assistants  	
Silvicultural Crewmen _	
Foremen 	
Miscellaneous     .—
Total, seasonal personnel .
Total, all personnel	
2
5
3
3
24
5
68
1
3
1
4
62
3
12
27
16
3
3
1
246
16
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4
45
110
356
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2
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14
6
2
2
4
1
15
1
63
6
3
10
3
3
9
1
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45
108
2
13
14
2
1
60
14
16
3
1
11
69
129
2
4
4
5
1
26
2
4
19
31
9
2
1
4
121
11
15
25
7
45
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6
10
6
7
142
263
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2
3
4
21
1
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17
25
31
1
27
94
17
13
34
10
32
1
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11
10
7
2
145
239
15
16
3
18
91
4
27
16
6
30
308
450
6
81
7
106
654
962
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10
47
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45
9
99
10
68
1
4
20
24
16
3
33
218
4
30
12
111
43
6
19
8
36
892
64
46
115
24
122
450
8
29
106
37
27
137
1,165
2,057 OO 96
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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OO 99
(6)
Total Amount of Timber Scaled in British Columbia during the
Years 1949-50 (in F.B.M.)
Forest District
1949
1950
Gain
Loss
Net Gain
2,962,078,034
174,799,387
3,314,537,513
161,554,917
352,459,479
!
13,244,470
3,136,877,421
3,476,092,430
352,459,479
13,244,470
98,910,325
263,403,404
298,230,238
252,260,939
124,467,500
321,294,753
355,946,635
282,278,806
25,557,175
57,891,349
57,716,397
30,017,867
912,804,906
1,083,987,694
171,182,788
4,049,682,327
4,560,080,124
523,642,267
13,244,470
510,397,797 OO  100
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Z REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950
OO 101
Total Scale (in F.B.M.) Segregated, Showing Land Status,
<s) All Products, 1950
Forest District
Vancouver
Prince
Rupert
(Coast)
Prince
Rupert
(Interior)
Fort
George
Kamloops
Nelson
Total
740,701,524
155,836,379
136,238,729
2,768,175
10,901,432
27,946
53,200,467
738,720,846
3,021
115,793,725
2,957,214
897,097
71,861
1,149,430,064
103,875,288
35,697,829
67,415,916
14,230,224
7,325,432
5,670,764
13,024,93!
14,347,532
174,293
45,460
782,275,476
169,035,603
136,284,189
15,686,694
59,275,822
352,623
Timber berths 	
Pulp leases    	
12,918,519
48,374,390
324,677
456.638
Pulp licences   	
10,793,560
236,616,521
12,753,802
Hand-loggers' licences _	
6,275,002
186,922,422
Dominion lands  	
4.316.860
75,042,527
44 486 79fi!m4 840 978
275,234,049
1,586,820,862
29,705,854
115,793,725
37,436,461
1,426,077
71,861
Pulp-timber sales  	
29,702,833
504,623
No mark visible  	
7,995,686
8,596,852
528,980
4,628,284
Forest Reserve Account 	
Crown grants—
To 1887 	
236,509
437,109
3,823,631
26,242,337
27,257,509
6,167,823
15,996,616
27,665,109
2,323,674
35,185,526
1,179,247,756
146,601,316
1887 to 1906
427,584
1,810,065
8,318,568
507,986
3,741,013
6,433,129
1906 to 1914      	
1914 to date 	
15,644,8891    151,719,948
Totals   	
3,314,537,513
161,554,917
124,467,500| 321,294,753 355,946,635282,278,806
4,560,080,124
Timber from lands in the former Dominion Government Railway Belt which has passed over to the jurisdiction of
this Province is included under the various land-status headings shown above.
Only timber from Indian reserves and other lands still under the jurisdiction of the Dominion Government is shown
under the heading " Dominion Lands."
Cubic Scale Converted to F.B.M. (Included Above), Showing'Land
Status, All Products
(Conversion factor: Coast—1 cubic foot=5.7 board-feet; Interior—1 cubic foot=5 board-feet.)
Forest District
Management
Licences
Timber
Licences
Timber
Sales
No Mark
Visible
Crown Grants
Total
To 1887
1887-
1906
1914 to
Date
778,227
990,256
10,123
16,936,302
'80,986
102,007
18,897,901
528,980
528,980
528,980
778,227
990,256
10,123
16,936,302
80,986
102,007
19,426,881
PROVING.
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VICTORIA, B. C. 00  102
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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(10)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Logging Inspection, 1950
Type of Tenure Operated
Forest District
Timber
Sales
Hand-
loggers'
Licences
Leases,
Licences,
Crown Grants,
and
Pre-emptions
Totals
Number of
Inspections
1,195
1,122
736
1,392
744
1
5
1,252
465
70
1,149
876
2,448
1,592
806
2,541
1,620
6,404
Prince Rupert 	
2,989
1,539
2,473
2,816
Totals, 1950 	
5,189
6
3,812
9,007
16,221
Totals, 1949	
6,405
7
4,440
10,852
15,483
Totals, 1948	
4,847
5
3,982
8,834
15,432
Totals, 1947  .	
4,428
5
3,190
7,623
13,876
Totals, 1946    .
3,627
6
3,021
6,654
12,974
Totals, 1945 	
3,492
9
2,852
6,353
11,901
Totals, 1944	
3,373
4
2,540
5,917
11,648
Totals, 1943  —  	
3,259
11
2,519
5,789
12,110
Totals, 1942                      	
3,086
18
2,569
5,673
13,753
Totals, 1941  	
3,207
18
2,833
6,058
11,438
Ten-year average, 1941-50... _	
4,091
9
3,176
7,249
13,484
(11)
Trespasses, 1950
QJ
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57
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76
62
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279
435
1,060
851
6,371,050
1,896,407
910,496
1,787,803
1,787,649
136,603
71,527
38
934
123
260
120
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208
191
200
2,878
3,043
75,309
9
1
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2
2
$53,151.51
7,311.18
4,649 54
73,725
78,335
3,373
4,177
9,305 60
13,171.40
Totals, 1950
276
3,072
12,753,405
360,190
1,475
1,806
6,312
75,309
7,550
16
$87,589.23
Totals, 1949
418
4,132
20,419,563
244,655
1,298
3,514
9,022
34,070
8,785
28
$81,923.27
Totals, 1948
312
3,062
11,738,855
470,674
3,569
18,211
3,711
11,135
4,100
8
$59,654.37
Totals, 1947
316
5,132
17,234,601
659,621
5,599
5,235
15,416
439,554
17,506
15
$74,761.43
Totals, 1946
226
2,568
7,084,343
1,760,574
1,469
2,900
10,148
41,377
35,997
8
$27,530.63
Totals, 1945
267
3,313
24,322,556
516,960
1,910
9,902
2,438
10
$37,877.12
Totals, 1944   .....
210
2,467
12,317,066
179,219
3,369
4,231
3,781
5
$29,193.16
Totals, 1943    	
167
3,058
9,744,957
129,409
6,873
552
7,923
7
$23 725 29
Totals, 1942	
180
1,159
4,413,906
365,861
4,757
490
1,512
15
$14,391.61
Totals, 1941	
236
1,788
7,627,990
526,391
2,887
1,365
4,150
17
$24 253 10
Ten-year average,
1941-50	
260
2,977
12,765,800
521,356
3,321
4,821
6,442
13
$46,089.82 (12)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1950
Pre-emption Inspection, 1950
Pre-emption Records Examined by District
OO 105
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
10
80
106
28
Total
224
(13)
Areas Examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of the
"Land Act," 1950
Forest District
Applications
for Leases
Applications
for Pre-emption
Records
Applications
to Purchase
Miscellaneous
Total
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
Number
Acres
te?-       A—
Number
Acres
Vancouver. 	
6
5
74
1
440
2
2
21
22
2
200
320
3,230
3,081
240
114
13
94
109
79
6,428
1,519
8,778
9,802
6,515
56
8
13
10
9
106
54
415
499
480
178
23
133
215
91
7,174
1,893
729
55,357
86
13,152
Kamloops	
Nelson	
68,739
7,321
Totals	
86
56,612
49
7,071
403
33,042
96
1,554
640
98,279
(14)
Classification of Areas Examined, 1950
Forest District
Total Area
Agricultural
Land
Non-agricultural Land
Merchantable
Timber Land
Estimated
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land
Acres
7,174
1,893
13,152
68,739
7,321
Acres
2,522
356
7,567
34,310
3,394
Acres
4,652
1,537
5,585
34,429
3,927
Acres
640
14
427
370
133
MB.M.
13,355
162
5,240
4,550
1,250
Nelson _ 	
Totals... 	
98,279
48,149
50,130
1,584
24,557 OO 106
(IS)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Areas Cruised for Timber Sales, 1950
Forest District
Number
Cruised
Acreage
Saw-
timber
(MB.M.)
Pit-props,
Poles, and
Piles
(Lin. Ft.)
Shingle-
bolts and
Cordwood
(Cords)
Railway-
ties
(No.)
Car-stakes.
Posts,
Shakes,
etc. (No.)
728
385
428
405
250
70,835
53,723
72,976
89,702
66,199
585,419
271,193
389,189
271,281
259,943
400,869
1,233,510
352,200
2,698,805
2,703,491
4,903
5,404
3,505
6,753
3,957
35,920
82,971
2,200
2,000
9,500
3,500
42,100
297,340
Totals, 1950	
2,196
333,435
1,777,025
7,388,875
24,522
123,091
352,440
Totals, 1949	
1,638
269,576
1,355,342
9,599,176
57,002
170,475
738,510
Totals, 1948	
1,851
346,648
1,817,737
7,603,641
44,726
180,602
1,947,010
Totals, 1947 - 	
1,960
361,834
1,481,715
23,015,436
50,346
299,501
1,064,125
2,059
362,587
1,230,716
40,760,769
90,078
216,892
2,718,706
Totals, 1945            	
1,488
261,150
948,673
48,743,325
95,774
301,276
1,802,468
Totals, 1944 	
1,476
334,729
1,205,308
8,166,829
137,737
483,363
1,345,439
Totals, 1943	
1,771
590,953
907,768
10,720,729
259,741
454,767
816,544
Totals, 1942 	
1,469
305,222
794,676
8,562,739
100,232
381,106
743,500
Totals, 1941 	
1,611
321,220
689,595
15,794,246
126,463
199,174
263,480
Ten-year average, 1941-50...
1,753
348,735
1,220,855
17,835,578
98,663
281,020
1,159,223
(16)
Timber-sale Record, 1950
District
Sales
Made
Sales
Closed
Total
Existing
Total Area
(Acres)
Acreage Paying Forest
Protection
Tax
Total
10-per-cent
Deposits
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert...
Fort George	
Kamloops-	
Nelson 	
Totals..
Including cash sales...
Total sales	
651
392
386
462
269
2,160
431
2,591
604
384
293
497
344
2,122
1,620
1,055
942
1,657
990
356,412
224,405
209,693
435,657
308,152
6,264
1,534,319
256,266
187,095
152,108
408,469
278,663
1,282,601
$1,342,614.27
287,766.47
348,483.05
479,456.72
338,452.81
$2,796,773.32 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1950
OO 107
$4,488,276.58
698,867.45
852,825.56
1,564,150.50
1,548,671.72
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(21)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1950
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1950
OO ill
Operating
Shut Down
Sawmills
Shingle-mills
Sawmills
Shingle-mills
Forest District
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.M.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
Shingles, M
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.M.
Number
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
Shingles, M
Vancouver   _	
Prince Rupert _	
426
267
447
411
275
8,529
1,393
3,672
2,734
2,815
61
2
2
8,574
30
32
59
20
85
18
52
268
158
554
109
373
3
8
84
Fort George	
Kamloops  	
Nelson	
94
Totals, 1950. 	
1,826
19,143
65
8,636
234
1,462
11
178
Totals, 1949 	
1,671
19,082
61
7,708
314
2,373
17
513
Totals, 1948	
1,671
18,570
68
8,464
179
840
11
360
Totals, 1947	
1,634
17,546
73
8,609
143
754
6
100
Totals, 1946	
1,228
15,256
59
8,656
115
741
8
165
Totals, 1945	
931
13,590
51
7,054
137
808
7
150
Totals, 1944	
807
14,974
51
6,695
110
702
16
581
Totals, 1943	
614
13,623
54
7,411
120
646
19
829
Totals, 1942	
551
13,197
70
8,874
149
1,206
11
135
Totals, 1941	
557
13,820
76
8,835
129
1,083
5
63
Ten-year average,
1941-50	
1,149
15,879
63
8,094
162
1,062
4
308
(22)
Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1950
Species
Grade No. 1
Grade No. 2
Grade No. 3
Ungraded
Total
Fir  	
2,743,510
4,491,421
1,421,868
4,278,477
7,274,389
27,031
9,996,015
9,608
38,934
841
6,657,266
5,092,677
103,645
76,062,703
52,801
61,870
13,679,253
16,858,487
130,676
87,480,591
19,210,615
62,409
103,400
Spruce ....     .
19,210,615
2,596
157
121
Totals, 1950                                      	
8,659,552
21,625,295
88,031,088
19,210,615
137,526,550*
Totals, 1949          	
6,392,228
21,382,979
103,550,707
14,228,041
145,553,955*
Totals, 1948                         	
9,380,092
31,127,805
106,739,296
16,367,096
163,614,289
Totals, 1947 .    	
7,156,095
21,100,803
52,368,152
7,552,386
88,177,436
Totals, 1946	
6,843,046
17,485,065
28,308,163
33,898,926
86,535,200
Totals, 1945	
3,852,321
20,696,800
24,903,105
32,624,170
82,076,396
Totals, 1944
6,724,297
29,051,958
33,851,519
32,027,805
101,655,579
Totals, 1943 	
2,809,744
17,720,743
28,863,804
29,261,754
78,656,045
Totals, 1942	
2,639,167
18,960,886
27,618,347
106,793,550
156,011,950
Totals, 1941           	
8,549,320
63,485,278
43,165,973
191,879,335
307,079,906
6,300,586
26,263,762
53,740,014
48,384,368
134,688,730
* Of this total, 124,806,149 F.B.M. were exported from Crown grants carrying the export privilege; 12,720,401 F.B.M.
were exported under permit from other areas. OO  112
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(23)
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts,
Railway-ties, etc., 1950
Forest District and Product
Quantity
Exported
Approximate
Value,
F.O.B.
Where Marketed
United
States
Canada
United
Kingdom
Other
Countries
Vancouver—
Poles.._  lin. ft.
Piles- —lin. ft.
Sticks and stakes lin. ft.
Fence-posts   pieces
Cedar shakes pieces
Christmas trees    pieces
Pulp-wood _  cords
Prince Rupert—
Poles and piling lin. ft.
Hewn ties  pieces
Posts  _    cords
Nelson—
Poles  lin. ft.
Piling.  lin. ft.
Orchard-props _ _ lin. ft.
Mine-props  . cords
Posts     .cords
Cordwood   cords
Hewn ties. pieces
Christmas trees   pieces
Fort George-
Poles  _ —lin. ft.
Posts    cords
Ties  pieces
Kamloops—
Poles and piling  lin. ft.
Mine-timbers   lin. ft.
Stubs  lin. ft.
Posts -  cords
Ties   pieces
Christmas trees  pieces
Total value, 1950..
Total value, 1949..
4,437,187
434,779
457,200
46,903
9,089,949
84,558
37,266
1,812,940
71,055
38
3,355,759
30,688
476,000
3,714
10,651
16
17,356
777,336
413,446
1,761
68,870
6,085,640
102,275
1,000
4,260
47,883
643,168
$976,181.14
95,651.38
16,002.00
11,725.75
181,800.00
29,595.30
689,421.00
398,846.80
78,160.50
874.00
738,266.98
6,751.36
5,950.00
55,710.00
244,973.00
156.00
19,091.60
272,067.60
90,951.52
39,468.00
75,757.00
1,338,840.80
21,477.75
100.00
97,980.00
52,671.30
225,108.80
3,136,191
58,399
457,200
2,275
8,875,429
84,558
37,266
789,295
2,223,400
476,000
2,722
730,870
383,211
3,347,205
1,000
1,798
565,254
$5,763,579.58
$5,503,004.37
1,296,093
371,880
44,628
13,500
1,023,645
71,055
38
1,132,359
30,688
3,714
7,929
16
15,356
46,466
30,235
1,761
68,870
2,738,435
102,275
4,260
46,085
77,914
4,903
4,500
201,020
(24)
Summary for Province, 1950
Product
Volume
Value
Per Cent of
Total Value
 lin. ft.
16,570,409
-   102,275
$3,645,489.98
21,477.75
63.3000
Mine-timbers  	
  lin. ft.
0.3710
Stubs	
 ..lin. ft.
1,000
100.00
0.0015
   lin. ft.
476,000
457,200
5,950.00
16,002.00
0.0100
Sticks and stakes	
 lin. ft.
0.2800
Pulp-wood    —	
    cords
37,266
689,421.00
12.0000
Mine-props...	
   cords
3,714
55,710.00
0.9650
Cordwood 	
 cords
16
156.00
0.0025
Fence-posts 	
. cords
16,665
383,295.00
6.6500
Fence-posts —	
   pieces
46,903
11,725.75
0.2200
Cedar shakes —	
 pieces
9,089,949
181,800.00
3.2000
Hewn ties -	
 pieces
205,164
225,680.40
3.9000
1,505,062
526,771.70
9.1000
$5,763,579.58
100.0000 (25)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950
Timber Marks Issued
OO  113
Old Crown grants  	
Crown grants, 1887-1906	
Crown grants, 1906-1914	
Section 55, " Forest Act " 	
Stumpage reservations 	
Pre-emptions under sections 28
and 29, " Land Act "	
Timber berths  	
Indian reserves 	
Timber sales 	
Hand-loggers __	
Special marks  	
Pulp leases 	
Pulp licences _
Totals    _	
Transfers and changes of marks .
1941
211
85
101
282
64
16
5
1,853
11
6
2
17
1942
2,654
307
160
85
92
250
79
2
9
4
1,709
19
6
2
1
2,418
224
1943
190
98
104
283
72
2
5
11
2,017
9
5
1
4
2,801
237
1944
1945
280 | 329
89 115
81 | 106
234 337
51 53
1
9
10
1,893
8
6
1
1
2,664
251
2,882
327
1946
631
200
176
473
70
15
2,637
35
4,248
486
1947
738
191
176
489
75
9
18
2,469
4,206
655
1948
791
156
150
439
82
5
4
20
2,612
40
2
4,301
745
1949
548
128
97
352
60
7
18
2,525
3,763
550
1950
549
169
165
505
69
32
2,591
27
4
4
Ten-year
Average,
1941-50
4,134
752
443
132
125
364
67
15
2,221
5
19
1
3
3,408
454
(26)
Forest Service Draughting Office, 1950
Month
Number of Drawings Pre
pared or Tracings Made
Number of Blue-prints
or Ditto-prints Made
from Draughting Office
Drawings
Timber
Sales
Timber
Marks
Examination
Sketches
Miscellaneous
Matters
Constructional
Works, etc.
Total
Blueprints
Ditto-
prints
Total
January	
February 	
54
37
42
40
77
68
67
79
67
103
83
111
89
72
183
109
255
217
195
151
204
211
156
208
65
46
103
69
98
118
119
95
57
126
99
113
30
32
29
26
57
96
158
59
86
69
84
79
253
6
3
6
21
21
31
8
14
6
4
5
491
193
360
250
508
520
570
391
428
515
426
516
740
957
1,073
1,089
949
1,388
1,864
1,242
1,004
1,166
1,061
1,226
1,092
717
875
886
1,530
1,510
1,442
1,337
1,050
2,085
1,820
2,255
1,832
1,674
1,948
1,975
2,479
2,898
3,306
2,579
2,054
3,251
2,881
3,481
April	
May  _
June...   	
July 	
August 	
September   .
December   . 	
Totals, 1950 	
828
2,050
1,108
805
378
5,168
13,759
16,599
30,358
Totals, 1949	
514
1,547
988
353
80
3,482
10,184
10,344
20,528
Totals, 1948	
681
2,300
1,247
241
58
4,327
13,625
12,959
26,401
Totals, 1947 -
500
2,223
1,238
290
55
4,306
12,026
9,844
21,870
Totals, 1946	
604
1,931
1,028
525
48
4,136
9,113
7,300
16,413
Totals 1945             	
569
1,193
693
684
75
3,214
6,495
6,701
13,196
Totals, 1944	
442
889
459
544
46
2,380
4,159
4,983
9,142
Totals, 1943 —
356
937
396
293
93
2,075
4,009
3,448
7,457
Totals, 1942
329
868
359
111
73
1,740
*
*
*
I
Totals, 1941	
247
1,087
468
150
70
2,022
*
*
*
Totals for ten-year
period  	
5,070
15,025
7,984
3,996
976
32,850
73,370
72,178
145,365
Average for ten-year
period—   	
507
1,503
798
400
98
3,285
9,171f
I
9,022t    18,171t
I
* No record kept prior to 1943. t Average for eight-year period only. OO  114
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(27)
Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection Tax
Year Area (Acres)
1921  845,111
1922  887,980
1923  883,344
1924  654,668
1925  654,016
1926 . 688,372
1927  690,43 8
1928  671,131
1929  644,011
1930  629,156
1931  602,086
1932  552,007
1933  567,731
1934  557,481
1935  535,918
Year Area (Acres)
1936 . 515,924
1937  743,109
1938  754,348
1939  719,112
1940  549,250
1941  543,632
1942  527,995
1943  543,044
1944  571,308
1945  591,082
1946  601,148
1947  596,900
1948  571,439
1949  597,790
1950 . 631,967
(28)
Acreage of Timber Land by Assessment Districts
Acres
Alberni  95,704
Comox   139,720
Cowichan   108,285
Fort Steele  8,830
Gulf Islands  240
Kettle River  315
Nanaimo  135,162
Nelson  1,997
Acres
Omineca  160
Prince George  1,193
Prince Rupert  21,272
Revelstoke  33,179
Slocan  35,608
Vancouver  74
Victoria   50,228
Acreage of Crown-granted Timber Lands Paying Forest Protection
<29> Tax as Compiled from Taxation Records
Year
Acreage
Assessed as
Timber
Land
Coast
Interior
Logged
Timber
Logged
Timber
1936                 ..           	
766,186
766,413
756,328
719,111
549,250
543,633
527,995
543,044
571,308
591,082
601,148
556,900
571.439
597,790
631,967
Acres
92,892
96,598
106,833
89,209
103,486
105,541
112,834
125,313
134,194
142,504
146,331
153,072
158,120
172,024
207,308
Acres
352,582
363,693
344,858
338,794
338,419
335,468
322,306
325,996
345,378
357,037
364,556
354,207
326,738
340,200
378,985
Acres
152,846
153,566
157,508
153,032
24,852
26,016
20,072
20,205
20,816
21,536
23,125
26,591
25,485
30,625
8,635
Acres
167,866
1937    -  	
1938                                  _	
152,556
147,129
1939                                — ..   -   	
138,075
1«40
82,493
1941                  -     —   - -
76,608
1942                 	
72,781
1943     - -	
1944    -     	
1945                 -     —
71,529
70,920
70,005
1946              --      -	
67,136
1947                   — -
63,030
1948                	
61,096
1949   	
54,941
1950                       	
37,039 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950
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< 00 118 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
<33> Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1949-50
Ten-year Average
Timber-licence rentals  $381,549.18 $401,524.81
Timber-licence transfer fees  580.00 1,883.50
Timber-licence penalty fees  2,667.11 8,987.46
Hand-loggers' licence fees  100.00 205.00
Timber-lease rentals   49,345.35 51,032.22
Timber-lease penalty fees and
interest   18.53 80.74
Timber-sale rentals   95,617.36 60,322.60
Timber-sale stumpage  5,047,235.22 2,137,036,09
Timber-sale cruising  30,897.29 21,358.47
Timber-sale advertising  5,399.20 4,114.98
Timber royalty  2,596,583.85 2,321,387.23
Timber tax  47,603.93 32,479.02
Scaling fees (not Scaling Fund).—       114.14
Scaling expenses  (not Scaling
Fund)    3,810.92 502.87
Trespass stumpage*         31,810.48
Scalers' examination feesf        389.00
1 Exchange  111.81 108.35
i                Seizure expenses  846.44 784.48
General miscellaneous  25,246.92 12,944.23
Timber-berth rentals, bonus, and
fees  16,926.02 20,973.20
Interest on timber-berth rentals  11.71 58.74
Transfer fees on timber berths _____ 96.45 132.69
Grazing fees and interest  26,849.90 30,346.85
$8,331,497.19 $5,138,627.15
Taxation from Crown-granted
timber lands  445,632.68 269,502.45
Totals   $8,777,129.87 $5,408,129.60
* Trespass penalties now included in timber-sale stumpage.
t Scalers' examination fees now included in general miscellaneous. (34)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950
Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1949-50
OO 119
Forest District
Salaries
Expenses
Total
$33,824.37
62,005.73
25,562.00
20,040.52
28,613.71
32,470.28
214,504.66
$33,824.37
$195,410.01
98,592.93
90,046.76
166,737.39
153,962.78
349,731.95
257,415.74
124,154.93
110,087.28
195,351.10
186,433.06
564,236.61
$1,054,481.82
$417,021.27
$1,471,503.09
4,000.00
87,092.68
29,715.55
365,553.17
43,772.30
462,516.50
50,973.48
4,033.80
13,424.95
2,000,000.00
230,251.70
$4,762,837.62
Contributions from Treasury to special funds detailed elsewhere.
<35> Scaling Fund
Balance, April 1st, 1949 (debit)     $75,624.14
Collections, fiscal year 1949-50     378,241.52
Expenditures, fiscal year 1949-50..
$302,617.38
397,087.93
Balance, March 31st, 1950 (debit)__.,.     $94,470.55
Collections, nine months, April to December, 1950     413,375.16
$318,904.61
Expenditures, nine months, April to December, 1950 __    334,734.15
Balance, December 31st, 1950 (debit)     $15,829.54 OO  120 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(36) Silviculture Fund
Balance forward, April 1st, 1949      $364,982.33
Collections, fiscal year 1949-50        521,661.06
$886,643.39
Expenditures, fiscal year 1949-50        166,000.96
Balance, March 31st, 1950      $720,642.43
Balance, April 1st, 1950      $720,642.43
Collections, nine months to December 31st, 1950___       533,180.75
$1,253,823.18
Expenditures, nine months to December 31st, 1950 _       176,634.05
Balance, December 31st, 1950 (credit) ____ $1,077,189.13
137> Forest Reserve Account
Credit balance brought forward, April 1st, 1949  $561,677.22
Amount received from Treasury, March 31st, 1950
(under subsection (2), section 32, "Forest Act ") 230,251.70
Moneys received under subsection  (4), section 32,
" Forest Act "     	
$791,928.92
Expenditures, April 1st, 1949, to March 31st, 1950___    199,490.18
Credit balance, March 31st, 1950  $592,438.74
Expenditures, nine months to December 31st, 1950     235,354.71
Balance, December 31st, 1950 (credit)  $357,084.03
<38> Grazing Range Improvement Fund
Balance, April 1st, 1949 (credit)  $27,626.91
Government contribution (section 14, " Grazing Act ") 14,659.15
Other collections  98.50
$42,384.56
Expenditures, April 1st, 1949, to March 31st, 1950     15,638.85
Balance, March 31st, 1950 (credit)  $26,745.71
Government contribution (section 14, " Grazing Act ")    13,424.95
Other collections     	
$40,170.66
Expenditures, April 1st, 1950, to December 31st, 1950    20,328.70
Balance, December 31st, 1950 (credit)  $19,841.96 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950 OO 121
(39) Forest Protection Fund
Balance, April 1st, 1949      $563,083.44
Expenditure  $1,904,957.61
Less refunds  32,593.68
1,872,363.93
$1,309,280.49
(See detailed summary of net expenditure
on page 122.)
Government contribution   $2,000,000.00
Collections, tax        321,771.98
Collections, slash and
snags  $35,412.83
Less refunds     15,957.11
  19,455.72
2,341,227.70
Balance, March 31st, 1950  $1,031,947.21
Balance, April 1st, 1950  $1,031,947.21
Expenditure, nine months, April to
December, 1950  $1,537,724.09
Repayable to votes (approximately)       418,795.43
Collection, tax  $223,291.30
Collections, miscellaneous  15,966.53
Refunds of expenditure  20,533.38
Government contribution  1,500,000.00
1,956,519.52
$924,572.31
     1,759,791.21
Estimated balance, December 31st, 1950       $835,218.90 OO 122
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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> REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950
OO 123
(41)
Reported Approximate Expenditure in Forest Protection
by Other Agencies, 1950
Expenditures
Forest District
Patrols and
Fire-
prevention
Tools and
Equipment
Fires
Improvements
Total
$184,132.00
,5,949.00
$171,764.00
10,155.00
$162,901.00
2,658.08
16,473.40
4,426.40
9,028.01
$23,421.00
$542,218.00
18,762.08
16,473.40
4,426.40
42,183.94
6,430.00
15,389.00
11,336.93
$196,511.00
$197,308.00
$195,486.89
$34,757.93
$624,063.82
Ten-year average, 1941-50
$90,420.06
$131,507.42
$163,226.71
$10,510.44
$395,664.63
<42>        Summary of Snag-falling, 1950, Vancouver Forest District
Acres
Total area logged, 1950  75,503
Logged in snag-exempted zone*      702
Logged on small exempted operations*  1,904
  2,606
Assessed for non-compliance, less 185 acres
subsequently felled      692
     3,298
Balance logged acres snagged, 1950  72,205
* Exemption granted under subsection (3), section 113, " Forest Act."
Summary of Logging Slash Created, 1950, "Vancouver
<43) Forest District
Acres
Total area logged, 1950  75,503
Area covered by full hazard reports  52,402
Covered by snag reports but exempted from slash-
disposal*         795
Covered by acreage reports only (exempted from
slash and snag disposal) *     2,606
55,803
Slash created too late to be dealt with in 1950 .  19,700
* Exemption granted under subsection (3), section 113, " Forest Act." OO 124 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Acreage Analysis of Slash-disposal Required, 1950,
<44> Vancouver Forest District
Acres of Slash Total
Prior to 1950                  1950 Acres
Broadcast-burning  14,395            16,522 30,917
Spot-burning     6,347            10,545 16,892
Totals  20,742 27,067 47,809
1950 reports not recommending slash-disposal  25,335
1950 slash examined for snags but exempt from slash-disposal       795
1950 slash in zone completely exempted      702
1950 slash on very small operations exempted without
special examination   1,904
    2,606
Total area of slash dealt with, 1950  76,545
Note.—Above table does not include the estimated 19,700 acres (see Table No. 43) created too late to be dealt
with in 1950.
Analysis of Progress in Slash-disposal, 1950, Vancouver
(4S> . Forest District
Acres
Total disposal required (see Table No. 44)  47,809
Acres of Slash Total
Type of Disposal Prior to 1950 1950 Acres
Spring broadcast-burning _       346 121 467
Fall broadcast-burning     8,809 9,159        17,968
Spot-burning      3,370 3,234 6,604
Total burning completed  12,525        12,514        25,039
Burned by accidental fires  1,700 1,700
Lopping, scattering, land-
clearing, etc.    350 350
Totals   12,525        14,564 27,089
Balance reported slash not yet abated  20,720
Slash created prior to 1950—acres assessed     4,010
Slash created 1950—acres assessed        107
     4,117
Remainder waiting final disposition, 1951  16,603
Plus slash created too late to be dealt with,
1950  19,700
Total area of slash carried over to 1951 for disposition   36,303 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950 OO 125
<46> Summary of Operations, 1950, Vancouver Forest District
Total operations, Vancouver Forest District  1,434
Intentional slash-burns  185
Operations on which slash was disposed of by lopping,
scattering, land-clearing, etc.   37
Operations on which slash was accidentally burned  54
Operations not required to burn  691
Operations given further time for disposal  14
Operations granted total exemption under subsection (3),
section 113, " Forest Act "  277
Operations  where  compensation  assessed  or  security
deposit posted  12
Operations in snag-falling only area  55
Operations pending decision re assessment or further time
for disposal  109
  1,434
Note.—All inactive operations omitted from Table No. 46.
Summary of Slash-burn Damage and Costs, 1950,
<47) Vancouver Forest District
Total acres of forest-cover burned in slash fires, 1950 823
Net damage to forest-cover  $6,606.00
Net damage to cut products  62,610.00
Net damage to equipment and property  40,063.00
Total damage  $109,279.00
Cost of Slash-burning as Reported by Operators
Total Cost Acres Cost per M B.M.*
(a) Spring broadcast-burning __ $1,550.00 467 8c.
(b) Fall broadcast-burning _      40,402.00 17,965 5V..C.
(c) Spot-burning  12,060.00 6,604 6c.
* (a) and (&) Based on volume of 40 M B.M. per acre;   (c) based on volume of 30 M B.M. per acre. OO  126
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(48)
Recapitulation Slash-disposal, 1934-50.
Year
Acres of Slash Burned
Accidentally Intentionally
1934  4,927
1935  11,783
1936  1,340
1937  3,015
1938  35,071
1939  1,930
1940  2,265
1941  3,385
1942  4,504
1943  2,046
1944  5,121
1945  3,897
1946  2,174
1947  2,663
1948  2,215
1949  1,468
1950  1,700
15,935
13,239
7,691
27,516
50,033
51,603
33,034
5,524
80,226
40,013
27,278
46,467
25,498
34,414
30,652
53,543
25,389
(49)
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1950
Forest District
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
Total
Per
Cent
Vancouver  _
3
4
2
4
3
45
7
13
56
42
83
23
61
99
51
126
7
38
141
126
65
8
16
82
76
69
3
32
145
77
2
1
4
1
390
53
165
531
376
25.74
3.50
10.89
Kamloops 	
35.05
24.82
Totals	
3
13
163
317
438
247
326
8
1,515
100.00
0.20
0.86
10.76
20.92
28.91
16.30
21.52
0.53
100.00
Ten-year average, 1941-50
3
48
188
170
491
397
167
8
1,472
	
0.20
3.26
12.77
11.55
33.36
26.97
11.35
0.54
100.00
(50)
Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1950
Forest District
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121
147
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14
41
130
33
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4
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55
39
108
97
10
80
86
15
2
23
17
20
3
18
2
2
54
7
12
14
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1
2
55
7
12
97
25
3
3
14
15
390
53
165
531
376
25.74
3.50
10.89
Kamloops    	
Nelson 	
35.05
24.82
342
251
197
291
77
25
94
7
196
35
1,515
100.00
22.57
16.57
13.00
19.21
5.08
1.65
6.21
0.46
12.94
2.31
100.00
Ten-year average, 1941-50 —.
472
187
229
269
63
13
49
13
145
32
1,472
	
32.07
12.70
15.56
18.28
4.28 1 0.88
3.33
0.88
9.85
2.17
100.00 ^—
(51)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950 OO  127
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years
Causes
1950
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
1941
Total
342
251
197
291
77
25
94
7
196
35
487
215
325
281
60
20
87
13
169
44
266
105
113
140
39
5
45
5
58
23
326
193
270
245
51
8
53
13
144
29
515
263
231
326
117
16
38
10
159
32
541
183
426
356
69
5
32
32
155
39
408
203
329
342
51
10
51
13
210
50
256
157
216
304
58
8
20
7
136
23
704
158
114
220
30
31
38
5
90
24
871
142
73
184
81
4
33
20
134
19
4,716
1,870
2,294
2,689
633
Campers _	
Smokers 	
Road and power- and telephone-line construction	
132
491
125
Miscellaneous (known causes) 	
Unknown causes	
1,451
318
Totals _	
1,515
1,701
799
1,332
1,707
1,838
1,667
1,185
1,414
1,561
14,719
(52)
Fires Classified by
Size and Damage, 1950
Total Fires
Under Vi Acre
!4 to 10 Acres
Over 10 to 500
Acres
Over 500 Acres
in Extent
Damage
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Vancouver	
390
25.74
271
69.49
33.09
93
23.84
19.50
26
6.67
14.86
367
7
16
Prince Rupert	
53
3.50
27
50.94
3.30
14
26.42
2.93
10
18.87
5.71
2
3.77
4.55
46
6
1
Fort George	
165
10.89
78
47.27
9.52
30
18.18
6.29
24
14.55
13.71
33
20.00
75.00
120
23
22
Kamloops  	
531
35.05
180
33.90
21.98
234
44.07
49.06
109
20.53
62.29
8
1.50
18.18
498
26
7
Nelson	
376
24.82
263
69.95
32.11
106
28.19
22.22
6
1.60
3.43
1
0.26
2.27
370
4
2
Totals	
1,515
100.00
819
100.00
477
100.00
175
—
100.00
44
100.00
1,401
66
48
100.00
	
54.06
31.49
11.55
2.90
92.47
4.36
3.17
Ten-year aver
age, 1941-50
1,472
825
431
173
43
1,369
67
36
100.00
56 05
29.28
..._...
11.75
2.92
93.00
4.55
7 45
(53)
Damage to Property Other than Forests, 1950*
Forest District
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture
Buildings
Railway
and
Logging
Equipment
Miscellaneous
Total
Per Cent
of Total
$105,786.65
4,050.00
703.70
3,608.20
126.25
$1,501.00
4,500.00
10,800.00
1,660.00
405.00
$218,966.90
20,000.00
1,400.00
1,683.15
$7,184.80
65.50
24,350.00
5,903.38
500.00
$333,439.35
28,615.50
37,253.70
12,854.73
1,031.25
80.70
6.92
9.02
Kamloops 	
3.11
0.25
Totals           	
$114,274.80
$18,866.00
$242,050.05
$38,003.68
$413,194.53
100.00
27.66
4.56
58.58
9.20
100.00
Ten-year average, 1941-50	
$99,866.40
$16,731.25
$113,949.25
$29,871.55
$260,418.45
	
38.35
6.42
43.76
11.47
100.00
: Does not include intentional slash-burns.    (For this item see page 125.) OO 128 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
<54>      Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1950—Part I*
Accessible Merchantable Timber
Inaccessible Merchantable
Timber
Immature Timber
Forest District
eg
OJ
1-1
<■_!
^  QJ
ZS-j
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o OS
H>__
Salvable
Volume of
Timber
Killed
CJ
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O.
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SS
OJ
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is
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Acres
264
512
2,150
2,144
134
mb.m.
3,139
1,060
9,892
1,336
8
MB.M.
1,020
508
5,933
344
$
7,385
616
14,990
3,752
1,300
Acres
26
MB.M.
520
6
1,921
$
Acres
972
122
53,761
5,091
1,038
$
7,091
22
6,437
726
6
281
122,974
Kamloops ,   _	
6,228
3,082
Totals   ..
5,204
15,435
7,805
28,043
313
2,447
6,459
60,984
140,101
Per cent 	
0.61
86.32
50.57
7.80
0.04
13.68
1.80
7.19
38.98
Ten-year average, 1941-50
22,139
119,794
18,214
173,164
1,567
5,767
5,391
50,489
148,573
6.55
95.41
15.20
44.63
0.47
4.59
1.39
14.94
38.30
* Does not include intentional slash-burns.    (For this item see page 125.)
<54>     Damage to Forest-cover Caused by Forest Fires, 1950—Part II*
Not Satisfactorily
Restocked
Noncommercial
Cover
Grazing or
Pasture
Land
Nonproductive
Sites
Grand Totals
District
0J
0J 3
oo 5
M-S
°s
►J.D
13     -U
oj      oj
OD      B
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tl am
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as     S3
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s
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Vancouver —
Prince Rupert 	
Acres
1,683
696
2,290
486
67
Acres
787
25
1
296
5
Acres
80
13,132
2,920
2,187
81
$
721
36,490
6,893
2,795
1,790
Acres
505
35
456,618
2,334
18
$
216
109
114,174
738
4
Acres
41
6
263,015
4,428
16
$
n
13,151
222
1
Acres
252
13
28,275
690
763
$
69
3
7,068
169
190
Acres
4,610
14,541
809,036
17,937
2,122
MB.M.
3,659
1,060
9,898
3,257
8
$
15,493
37,944
279,272
20,341
Nelson —
6,367
Totals 	
5,222
1,114
18,400
48,689
459,510
115,241
267,506
13,385
29,993
7,499
848,246
17,882
359,417
Per cent	
0.61
0.13
2.17
13.55
54.17
32.06
31.54
3.72
3.54
2.09
100.00
100.00
100.00
Ten-year average,
1941-50 .-	
4,700
2,613
24,474
14,183
111,660
30,111
53,979
3,235
66,342
13,314
337,963
125,561
387,971
1.39
0.77
7.24
3.66
33.04
7.76
15.97
0.83
19.63
3.43
100.00
100.00
100.00
* Does not include intentional slash-burns.    (For this item see page 125.)
(55)
Fire Causes, Area Burned, Forest Service Cost,
and Total Damage, 1950
Causes
Number
Per
Cent
Acres
Per
Cent
Cost
Per
Cent
Damage
Per
Cent
342
251
197
291
77
25
94
7
196
35
22.57
16.57
13.00
19.21
5.08
1.65
6.21
0.46
12.94
2.31
36,851
527,277
800
5,307
231,976
128
1,504
883
43,061
459
4.34
62.16
0.09
0.63
27.35
0.02
0.18
0.10
5.08
0.05
$46,211.89
36,245.56
971.56
27,535.69
6,917.93
230.75
6,407.62
3,172.24
6,696.51
7,298.79
32.62
25.58
0.69
19.43
4.88
0.16
4.52
2.24
4.73
5.15
$85,097.41
203,171.63
5,938.73
227,623.86
51,054.01
467.00
154,222.94
3,712.67
33,373.23
7,950.05
11 01
Campers  	
26.30
0 77
29 46
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing)
Road and power- and telephone-line
6.61
0 06
19 96
Incendiarism  	
Miscellaneous (known causes)	
Unknown causes	
0.48
4.32
1.03
Totals	
1,515
100.00
848,246
100.00
$141,688.54
100.00
$772,611.53
100 00 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950
OO  129
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Prosecutions, 1950
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1 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,
1950
OO 131
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Van
Prin
Fort
Kan
Nels 00  132
(60)
department of lands and forests
Enrolment at Ranger School, 1950
Forest District
Rangers
Acting
Rangers
Assistant
Rangers
Clerks
Total
1
2
1
1
1
5
1
2
4
3
7
1
3
5
5
Totals, 1950.	
3
3
15
~-
21
Totals, 1949 _	
3
2
16
.._
21
Totals, 1948  _	
4
2
12
2
20
Totals, 1947	
8
12
20
Totals, 1946                         .. ._
2
9
9
20
(61)
Motion-picture Library
Stock Records
Year
Totals,
1945*
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1945-50
74
4
5
75
t
75
2
2
75
61
75
8
7
74
77
74
2
5
77
77
77
3
1
75
74
75
6
9
78
76
Films withdrawn during year	
New films added during year  ,
25
29
Circulation Records
Number of loans made during year :.
Number of film loans during year (one
film loaned one time) 	
Number of showings during year	
Number in audiences—
Adults	
Children...	
Mixed—    	
Totals	
85
76
2,341
6,676
8,730
17,747
328
371
11,940
10,408
10,285
32,633
235
632
812
8,009
25,362
24,351
57,722
436
1,122
1,293
21,633
20,455
42,930
85,018
397
1,075
1,505
14,568
24,031
87,506
126,105
416
1,046
1,880
26;988
95,102*
43,282
165,372:):
1,704
4,288
5,934
85,479
182,034*
227,084
494,5971
* Recording of film circulation only commenced in 1945. t No record. J Including attendances of lecture
tour of two school lecturers.
Note.—Figures of audience do not include those attending showings at the Forest Service exhibit at the Pacific
National Exhibition, Vancouver.
(62)
Forest Service Library
Classification
Items Received and Catalogued
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
Ten-year
Average,
1941-50
5
153
36
9
120
29
10
85
32
12
49
63
13
80
61
12
126
79
14
231
90
39
123
140
36
100
153
27
62
140
18
113
Government reports and
82
Totals  	
194
158
127
124
154
217
335 |     302
289
229
213
Periodicals and trade journals —-
55
5,259
43
1,962
45
1,170
50
1,175
48
1,294
51
1,523
72 |       72
1.798      3.543
80
2,074
102
1,960
62
2,176 (63)
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE,  1950
Grazing Permits Issued
OO 133
District
Number of
Permits
Issued
Number of Stock under Permit
Cattle
Horses
Sheep
1,081
392
29
97,154
9,109
1,222
3,205
1,272
130
30,234
890
81
Totals, 1950
1,502
107,485
4,607
31,205
Totals, 1949 	
1,496
113,307
4,832
33,999
Totals, 1948 -	
1,328
117,133
5,526
31,664
Totals, 1947 _	
1,322
105,723
5,513
26,189
Totals, 1946  	
1,379
106,273
5,035
31,274
Totals, 1945
1,378
109,201
5,064
39,235
Totals, 1944 ~	
1,320
101,696
4,862
40,858
Totals, 1943    _	
1,221
93,497
4,844
39,921
Totals, 1947
1,130
84,788
4,797
36,962
Totals, 1941    	
881
77,774
4,180
39,552
1,295
101,687
4,925
34,844
(64)
Grazing Fees Billed and Collected
Year
Fees Billed
Fees Collected
Outstanding
1940 _ 	
$23,338.28
23,781.19
25,116.02
24,680.37
28,554.02
30,066.34
30,120.38
28,584.74
28,960.42
27,819.65
80,178.43
$38,146.48
29,348.82
30,802.23
31,148.36
31,000.34
31,465.28
31,412.24
29,203.74
27,089.74
28,299.94
74,305.08
$27,203.90
1941
21,636.87
194?
15,950.56
1943
9,482.57
1944..       _   _      _	
7,036.25
1945	
5,637.36
1946                                                                                              	
4,345.50
1947... _	
3,726.50
1948
5,597.18
1949
5,113.39
1950
10,986.74
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty
,    1951
1,495-351-5735   

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