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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS HON. E. T. KENNEY, Minister G. P. MELROSE,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1951

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Hon. E. T. Kenney, Minister G. P. Melrose, Deputy Minister of Lands
Report of the Lands Service
containing the reports of the
Lands Branch, Surveys and Mapping Service,
and Water Rights Branch
together with the
Dyking Commissioner, Southern Okanagan
Lands Project, University Endowment Lands,
and the Coal, Petroleum and Natural Gas
Controls Division
Year Ended December 31st
1950
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty
1951  ^
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a  Victoria, B.C., January 30th, 1951.
To His Honour Clarence Wallace, C.B.E.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of British Columbia Lands
Service of the Department of Lands and Forests for the year ended December 31st, 1950.
E. T. KENNEY,
Minister of Lands and Forests.
Victoria, B.C., January 30th, 1951.
The Honourable E. T. Kenney,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the British Columbia Lands
Service of the Department of Lands and Forests for the twelve months ended December
31st, 1950.
GEO. P. MELROSE,
Deputy Minister of Lands.  CONTENTS
Page
1. Introduction by the Deputy Minister of Lands _       9
2. Lands Branch—
(a) Lands Branch  19
(b) Land Utilization Research and Survey Division  40
Soil and Land-use Surveys—Summary and Map ,  49
(c) Land Inspection Division  58
(d) Land Surveyor  73
3. Surveys and Mapping Service     79
(a) Air Survey Division     86
(b) Geographic Division  101
(c) Legal Surveys Division  109
(d) Topographic Division  125
Topographic Surveys—
(1) Yalakom-Empire Valley-Churn Creek Areas  128
(2) Nass River Valley, Vicinity of Meziadin Lake  136
(3) Between Fraser and Quesnel Rivers  145
(4) Seechelt Peninsula-Jervis Inlet  149
(5) Smithers-Telkwa Area  155
(6) Tamihi Creek and Earle Creek Areas  160
(7) Triangulation Survey, Clearwater Lake Area.  161
(e) British Columbia-Yukon Boundary Survey  168
(/)   British Columbia-Alberta Boundary Survey  173
(g)  British Columbia-Northwest Territories Boundary Survey  182
4. Water Rights Branch  193
5. Coal, Petroleum and Natural Gas Controls Division  211
6. Dyking Commissioner  223
7. Southern Okanagan Lands Project  233
8. University Endowment Lands  241
9. Land Settlement Board  247
10. Mail and File Room  251  MINISTER OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Hon. E. T. Kenney
ORGANIZATION
BRITISH COLUMBIA LANDS SERVICE
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Victoria, B.C.
December, 1950
I
LANDS SERVICE
I
Deputy Minister of Lands
(Geo. P. Melrose)
Asst. Pep. Mins. of Lands
(C. E. Hopper)
FOREST SERVICE
Deputy Minister & Chief Forester
(CD.  Orchard)
Director of Conservation
(D.  B.  Turner)
Recorder (a)   Mail and File Roomsfc)
(H.  A. Tomalin)    "      (J.  A.  Grant)
University Endowment Lands
(M.  E.  Ferguson)
Dyking Commi ssioner
(G. B.( Dixon)
Assistant Commissioner
Land Sales Fire Dept. Maintenance       (j#  L- MacDonald)
Property Room(a)
(S.  Smith)
 1 '
Land Settlement Board Southern Okanagan Lands Pro.iect
(D. W. Hodsdon)
Chairman r ' 1
(G. P. Melrose)
Secretary
(Miss C. Stephenson)
Inspector
(I. Spielmans-Nelson)
Land Sales
Irrigation
Maintenance
BRANCHES
LANDS BRANCH
I
Superintendent of Lands
(R. E. Burns)
I
Asst. Supt. of Lands
 (R. Torrance)	
Land Inspection
Chief Inspector
(H. E. Whyte)
I
Land Inspectors
V'L. D. Fraser
(D. Borthwick
(F. M. Cunningham
(H. L. Huff
(D. E. Goodwin
(C. T. W. Hyslop
(W. R. Redel
(A. F. Smith
(J. A. Esler
Kamloops)
Kamloops)
Nelson)
New Westminster
Pouce Coupe)
Prince George)
Quesnel)
Smithers)
Williams Lake)
Land Surveyor
(P. M. Monckton)
Land Utilization
Research & Survey
Director
(D.  Sutherland)
Asst. Director
(N. T. Drewry)
Accounts("'
(R. L. Poyntz)
Chief Clerk
(E. A. Walls)
Land Leases  Land Purchases Crown Grants
(W. J. Holman)  (C. P. Axhorn) (S. C. Hawkins;
SURVEY AND MAPPING SERVICE
Director of Surveys and Mapping
(N. C, Stewart)
Accounts
(A. J. Crawford)
Asst.
Dir. of Surveys & Mapping
(G. S. Andrews)
Legal Surveys Piv.
Surveyor General
(F. 0. Morris)
\ I
Ch. Draughtsman Asst. Ch. Engineer
Air Surveys Piv.
I
Chief Engineer
(G. S. Andrews)
(D. Pearmain)
(W. Hall)
Topographic Div. Geographic Piv.
I I
Chief of Piv. Chief of Piv.
(A. G. Slocomb) (W. H. iHutchinson)
Asst. Chief Asst. Chief
(W. R. Young) (A. H. Ralfs)
COAL.
PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS CONTROL
I
Controller
(T. B. Williams)
WATER RIGHTS BRANCH
I
Comptroller of Water Rights
(J. E. Lane)
Asst. Pet. & Nat. Gas Contr.
(J. D. Lineham)
Chief Chemist  Asst. Coal Contr.
(K. C. Gilbart)  (N. D. McKechnie)
Pep. Comptr. & Ch. Engr. Pistrict Engineers Administrative Assistant
(E. H. Tredcroft)   (A. G. Hatton - Kamloops)   (K. R. F. Denniston)
I (R. Pollard   - Nelson)      , 1 ,
Chief Hydraulic Engr.  (A. F. Paget  - Kelowna) Ch. Draughtsman Ch. Clerk
(T. J. A. Leach)    (C. Errington - Victoria)   ^ R# Ford) (A# Sargent)
(a) Also functions for Forest Service.
(b) Supervision of all accounting matters
pertaining to Crown lands, other than
Water Rights Branch and Dyking (Commissioner. REPORT OF THE BRITISH COLUMBIA
LANDS SERVICE
Geo. P. Melrose, Deputy Minister of Lands
The Annual Report for 1950* provides an appropriate vehicle for a short review
of the Lands Service organization and functions. At the same time, a recapitulation
of the history and the evolution of land administration in our Province is not amiss, both
because it explains the Lands Service organization of to-day and because we have reached
the first century of land administration, settlement, and development.
THE LANDS SERVICE ORGANIZATION
The chart facing this page indicates in concise form the structure of the British
Columbia Lands Service which, in conjunction with the British Columbia Forest Service,
constitutes the Department of Lands and Forests, under the ministry of the Honourable
E. T Kenney.
A glance at the chart will show that a considerable share of responsibility for the
care and administration of the natural-resources wealth of British Columbia rests upon
the Lands Service. Under the direction of the Minister of Lands and Forests and under
the general administration of the Deputy Minister of Lands, there are four main branches
of the British Columbia Lands Service. These are Lands General; Water Rights
Branch; Survey and Mapping Service; Coal, Petroleum, and Natural Gas Control.
In addition to the main branches, there are several operations that come directly under
the jurisdiction of the Deputy Minister. The University Endowment Lands, the Land
Settlement Board, the Dyking Commissioner, and the Southern Okanagan Lands Project
are examples of such self-imposed units.
Functions of the Lands Service
Briefly stated, the function of the Lands Service of the Department of Lands and
Forests is to exercise control over the surface of the Province of British Columbia.
Since the area of the Province comprises 234,403,000 acres, or some 366,255 square
miles, with about 95 per cent of this Crown-held, you will understand that this is a vast
responsibility, at least physically.
This jurisdiction is not a static one, but particularly active, since British Columbia
is the most rapidly developing Province in Canada. To achieve comprehension and
direction of the control of the surface of British Columbia, our administrative and technical personnel must (1) measure and map the surface; (2) subdivide for agricultural,
industrial, and control purposes; (3) allot the measured, mapped, and legally established
surface to its proper uses.
When the inventory of the surface (which includes water, of course, since it is part
and parcel of land) has been completed, and if need be, in conjunction with, or prior to,
final legal examinations, a second function of the Lands Service is implemented. This
is to investigate the land and establish resource priorities. By this I mean that the land
is examined to determine its most valued use or uses.    Government policy, based on
* The change in the title of this Report has been deemed advisable by reason of the 1950 amendment to the
" Department of Lands and Forests Act," which denned the Lands Service as including all the business of the Department except the Forest Service. It thus has jurisdiction over Lands, Water Rights, Surveys and Mapping, Coal,
Petroleum and Natural Gas, Dyking and Drainage, Land Settlement Board, University Endowment Lands, and Southern
Okanagan Lands Project. II 10 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
our way of living and the optimum development of the resources of the Province, then
outlines what is to be done with the land. Recommendations from such agencies as the
Land Inspection Division and the Land Utilization Research and Survey Division may
be that a particular parcel of land is best suited to agricultural purposes. These technical
recommendations are usually accepted, and the land disposed of through administrative
channels. If investigation reveals that an area should be reserved for the growing of
trees, the management of such land is turned over to the British Columbia Forest Service.
Since control over the surface of the Province is vested in the Lands Service, it
follows, by definition of its functions, that this large agency of Government must be
scientifically certain and administratively careful in its conclusions concerning the allocation of land areas to the respective departments, such as agriculture or mining, which
are charged with the development of such lands. Examination of land areas then, and
assessment of their resources, are thorough. It is not enough, at times, to give oil leases
(which we do, since we control the land), but it is often necessary to drill and explore
the sub-surface to determine the relative importance of the non-renewable resources such
as coal or petroleum. When this is known, there is little delay in assigning the development of such land to the proper department.
General Comment
The chart shows better than words can describe the many activities pursued by the
Lands Service organization. Exploration and investigation are carried on over, above,
and under the surface of the Province of British Columbia, from foreshore to mountain-
tops, in the valleys and along the ridges, in arid areas, and on snowfields, up to the tiny
tributaries of headwaters, across lakes and muskegs, and down rivers to the sea. Reports
are made on our heritage of resources, including soil, water, grass and forests, fisheries,
mines, and the sources of power for industry, homes, and farms, and the recreational
opportunities for our citizens and visitors.
When land examinations are completed, maps prepared, and areas legally recorded,
the land is then allotted to its best use. The land is either offered for private purposes,
such as farming, home-sites, and development of industry, or reserved in the name of
the people for the use and benefit of all citizens and their Government. The business
of disposal of Crown land in British Columbia, by Crown grant, lease, reserve, or other
method, is centred in the Lands General Branch, which thus becomes the largest real-
estate dealer in the Province.
Land in British Columbia, 1849-1949
One hundred years ago supplies a convenient date for a horse-back review of the
history and evolution of land policy in British Columbia.
On January 13th, 1849, by Royal charter, Vancouver Island was ceded to the
Hudson's Bay Company upon the condition that it should form there a colony of British
subjects and dispose of the land at a reasonable price for that purpose. Money derived
from sale of land, together with receipts from the mining of coal and other minerals, less
10 per cent, were to be used in the colonization and improvement of the Island. James
Douglas, being in charge of the Hudson's Bay Company, became the agent of the Government. The civil authority was to be represented by a governor appointed by the
Crown.
Previous to 1849 there were certain land transactions incidental to maritime exploration and the fur trade. " The first land transaction took place on July 20, 1791, when
John Kendrick, a Boston fur-trader, obtained in return for 10 muskets a deed from
Maquinna and other Indian chiefs for nine square miles of land." In 1795 the employer
of Kendrick issued English, French, German, and Swedish circulars advertising the land
for sale and urging its purchase by settlers who would enjoy the delightful climate and REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER OF LANDS II 11
fertile soil. The venture died, but set the pattern of enthusiastic praise for the agricultural potentialities of the Province that characterized advertisement for later land-
settlement schemes.
Fur companies, between 1800 and 1850, commenced agriculture in connection with
their trading-posts.
In 1811 David Harmon, of the North West Company, cleared land at Fort St.
James, at the foot of Stuart Lake, and established the first garden-site on the British
Columbia Mainland.
The Hudson's Bay Company factors at Fort Fraser, Fort George, and Fort Alexandria followed Harmon's example and tried to make their posts self-sufficient. The
spread of the idea was notable after 1821, when the two fur companies merged and when
the Hudson's Bay Company, in 1838, was given exclusive right for twenty-one years to
trade with the Indians. Posts at Kamloops, Fort Langley, and on Vancouver Island
raised cereals, stock, and garden produce, according to their respective suitabilities.
Early Land Policy, 1849-66
As has been mentioned, in 1849 the British Government, through the Hudson's
Bay Company, initiated the first colony on the Pacific Northwest Coast, the location
being Vancouver Island.
The regulations for the granting of land were published in the London Times.
They stated:—
(1) No purchases of less than 20 acres.
(2) Price of land to be £1 per acre, payable in London.
(3) Purchasers were to pay their own passage out.
(4) For each 100 acres bought, the purchaser was obliged to bring out five
single men as labourers or three married couples.
(5) Ten per cent of the land in each section was to be set aside for a minister.
His passage and that for enough labourers to work his allotment were
provided.
(6) An additional 10 per cent of the land was set aside for roads, sites for
church and graveyard, schools, and other public purposes.
The Hudson's Bay Company terms of settlement did not encourage a flow of immigrants. Only thirty independent settlers were established in the first seven years; the
other land-owners were officials of the company. Lack of markets, clearing and drainage
costs, and competition from Oregon and California were other discouraging factors.
In 1856 Governor Douglas (succeeded Richard Blanshard, who was the first governor), with the elected council of seven members, extinguished the Indian title to the
land now granted by the Crown. Other early legislation dealing with the land brought
introduction of laws enabling the purchase, registration, transfer, and inheritance of real
estate. James Douglas was in the position of a buffer between the demands of immigrants for more lenient land regulations and the flexible control of the administrators of
his company in Britain, who were thoroughly unfamiliar with the British Columbia scene.
In 1850 the regulations regarding purchases exceeding 20 acres requiring the
importation of labourers was cancelled, since to enforce them amounted to prohibiting
settlement.
The absence of immigrants and the lack of land sales finally induced Hudson's Bay
House to relax the regulations requiring payment in full for the land at the time of
purchase.    Instalment purchase was instituted.
Up until 1858 there was no settlement on the Mainland, except in connection with
fur-trading posts. In that year Governor Douglas, now divorced from the Hudson's
Bay Company, issued the first pre-emption ordinance for the Colony of British Columbia. II 12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
This permitted 160 acres to be pre-empted, with the pre-emptor having the right to
purchase at 10 shillings per acre.
On November 19th, 1858, at Fort Langley, the Colony of British Columbia became
fact. The following year New Westminster became the seat of government. James
Douglas was the Governor of the Mainland.
The two colonies were united in 1866 and Victoria, following much controversy,
was selected as the capital.
Gold was the third motivating force that brought land settlement in British Columbia. Men arrived by the hundreds and then the thousands, practically overnight, in
1858 when gold was discovered on the bars of the Fraser River. This, in fact, led to
the establishment of the Mainland colony under James Douglas. The demand for land
was greatly intensified and pre-emptions pre-dated surveys. Full payment for land was
made when surveyors reached the pre-emptions, and no land could be pre-empted that
had not been offered for sale previously at £1 per acre. Pre-emption allowed 160
acres to British subjects and aliens who took the oath of allegiance if they were over
18 years of age. A married man whose wife lived on the Island was entitled to 200
acres, plus 10 acres for each child under 18.
Within four years—that is, by 1862—254 pre-emptors had taken up more than
50,000 acres of land. To facilitate the transfer of real estate and provide for the registration of titles, the " Land Registry Act " was passed in 1860.
In February, 1859, Lord Lytton, then Colonial Secretary, sent out a set of suggestions to guide land policy. He advised the maintenance of a fixed high price and discouraged any suggestion for instalment purchase on the grounds that it would tend to
attract a class of indigent persons, when the object was to attract men with available
capital. Nevertheless, by the Land Proclamation in the same year, Douglas proceeded
with a policy of lower prices for land. All lands except townsites were to be sold for
10 shillings per acre, payable half in cash and the balance at the end of two years.
The Land Ordinance of 1870 repealed earlier Acts and permitted pre-emption of
land to the extent of 320 acres northward and eastward of the Cascades and 160 acres
in the rest of the Province. Right of the Crown was retained to remove gravel, stone,
and timber required for the construction of public works. Also the Crown retained the
right to divert any unrecorded and unappropriated water.
The price of unsurveyed and unoccupied land was determined by Order in Council,
1873, as $2.50 per acre, exclusive of mineral rights. Purchases were limited to 640
acres to the individual or the member of a company.
In 1871 British Columbia entered into Confederation. A. railway link to the rest
of Canada was one of the terms.    The last spike was driven in 1885.
Promoter and land-seeker now succeeded the gold-miner as agents of land settlement. From 1870 to 1900 development was explosive. Railroads to exploit the coal
mines on Vancouver Island, the base-metal mines of the Kootenays, and the development
of the Okanagan were laid. In 1880 and 1883 the Legislature passed the great railway
land grants, the former conveying a 20-mile strip on each side of the main line of the
Canadian Pacific Railway. The latter Act, in 1883, was drawn in favour of the Dominion Government, and conveyed two blocks of land—one on Vancouver Island and the
other, of 3,500,000 acres, in the Peace River area—for the same purpose.
Vancouver was incorporated in 1886, as were companies in the new city, such
as the Vancouver Electric, the Vancouver Street Railways, and the Vancouver Gas
Company.
Legislation was enacted to secure the rights and revenue to the Crown with respect
to the great natural resources of timber, fish, and game.
In 1873 an Act was passed respecting the drainage, dyking, and irrigation of lands
in British Columbia. In the same year, to force development of lands held for speculation, a Bill was passed imposing a wild-land tax of 1 per cent of the value per acre. REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER OF LANDS II 13
To force payment of due sums on purchase money for surveyed lands, an Act was
passed in 1878 levying an interest rate of 24 per cent on sums owed and forfeiture of
the land if payment was not completed within three months.
In 1882 land prices of surveyed Crown lands were set at $2.50 per acre and the
price of pre-empted land at $1, payable in instalments.
In 1891 the first recognition was made of the variation in productivity of land.
Class I land, at $5 per acre, was agricultural or having good timber or wild-hay meadows.
Class II was land requiring irrigation and valued at $2.50 per acre. Class III was
mountainous or rocky land at $1 per acre.
In 1896 surveyors were empowered to segregate timber-lands as well as determine
the three classes aforementioned. Timber-lands had an average of 8,000 board-feet
per acre if west of the Cascades and 5,000 board-feet or over east of the Cascades.
These timber-lands could not be sold.
In 1899 coal and petroleum rights were reserved to the Crown in respect to all land.
This Century
Present-day policy, since 1900, has had much to do with refinement of Acts, adaptations to modern conditions, provisions for the veterans of both wars, relocations,
development of land-settlement projects, attention to watersheds, and alterations to land
classification.
The task of land administration necessitated the formation of a Department of
Lands, which was established in 1908. In 1912 a Forest Branch was included in the
Department of Lands. To-day the Department of Lands and Forests controls the
surface of the Province of British Columbia.
Land legislation that will have far-reaching effects on British Columbia in the years
to come was passed in 1945 and 1946:—
(1) The "Irrigation Assistance Loan Act" of 1945 provided for a sum up
to $500,000 for the acquisition, construction, reconstruction, replacement,
improvement, and extension of works for the diverting, storing, and conveying of water for the irrigation of the land. In 1946 the sum available
was increased to $1,000,000.
(2) The "Electric Power Act" instituted the Power Commission and provided a possible solution for the long-sought goal of cheaper pumping
costs for the irrigated lands of the Interior.
(3) The "Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Act" enabled present landowners to hire the use of heavy land-clearing machinery, paying the costs
in instalments.
These Acts are an indication of the new outlook in the development of the land
resources whereby the former policy of expediency is being succeeded by long-range
planning to ensure the sound and permanent development of land and its resources.
This Year, 1950
To bring the record down to the current year of operations, and to point the reader
to outstanding items contained in this volume, the following noteworthy accomplishments* are singled out for attention, in order according to the organization arrangement
of the Lands Service:—
Administration
1. In an attempt to safeguard the huge expenditure made by the two senior Governments in rebuilding and rehabilitation, following the disastrous flood of 1948, the
1950 Session of the Legislature enacted the "Dykes Maintenance Act." Under this.
Act, G. Bruce Dixon was named Dyking Commissioner for British Columbia.
* Details are given in the respective sections. II 14 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
2. In 1950 also, the Fraser Valley Dyking Commission, formed in 1948 to combat
and correct the devastation of that year's floods, was dissolved, its work having been
completed in advance of the 1950 freshet.
3. In the Southern Okanagan Lands Project, centred in the Town of Oliver, the
year 1950 will remain vivid in the minds of the fruit-grower for its severity of weather.
Soft-fruit growers, especially in the Osoyoos area, suffered heavy losses, with nearly
80,000 trees killed by frost.
4. In the University Endowment Lands a record was made in lots sold, a greater
number than was marketed in 1949, which, in turn, was almost double that of 1948.
This activity brought forward the need for considering contingent problems, such as
those of trunk sewers and new water-mains, and possible new subdivision.
Lands Branch
The Lands Branch is divided into four divisions—namely, Lands, Land Settlement
Board, Land Utilization Research and Survey, and Land Inspection.
1. The returns of the year's operations are set out in the statistical tables submitted
herewith and show a continued activity in the disposition of Crown lands. It is to be
noted that collections show an increase over 1949.
2. Agricultural settlement is most marked in Northern British Columbia. As was
the case during 1949, the largest influx of settlers was in the Peace River District, where
an increase of 30,000 acres in the sale of unsurveyed lands was recorded for 1950. The
chief localities of new settlement were in the Peace River District, chiefly north-west of
Clayhurst, in the area north of Rose Prairie, and in the Blueberry River region. A lesser
amount of settlement is noted in the vicinity of Lone Prairie, west of the Murray River.
3. In the industrial development of the Province the Department has taken an
active part. Various companies have applied for or acquired Crown lands for their
present or proposed industries. Among these may be mentioned the following: Nanaimo
Sulphate Pulp Limited, Columbia Cellulose Company Limited, Gas-ice Corporation
(Canada) Limited, and Aluminum Company of Canada Limited.
4. To provide for the tourist and the vacationist, the Province has disposed of a
large number of sites along the Alaska Highway for service-stations and tourist accommodation. On various lakes or at other suitable locations, lands have been acquired for
the building of hunting and fishing lodges and dude ranches. These sites are situated
mainly in the Cariboo and Kamloops districts.
Surveys and Mapping Service
1. The completion of the preliminary, general air photography of the Province is a
significant accomplishment. The ten-year programme was telescoped into five. This
means that there is now at least some information about every acre in British Columbia.
2. Due to developments in the north and east portions of the Province, and adjacent
territories, principally the prospecting for oil and gas east of the Rockies, the extension
of the external boundary surveys under the British Columbia-Yukon-Northwest Territories and the Alberta-British Columbia Boundary Commissions was intensified and is
being continued this winter.
3. For the first time in the history of British Columbia surveys, a completely airborne topographic survey was undertaken in the vicinity of Meziadin and Bowser Lakes,
using conventional-type aeroplanes and a helicopter. This formidable area for ground
travel was mapped without trails, pack-horses, axemen, mountain-climbers, and the time-
consuming constructing and establishing of a large number of main camps.
4. The recognition of the interim-mapping technique as the speediest method of
obtaining the mapping information contained in the air-photo cover was followed quickly
by application.    The resulting maps, while not as accurate as the standard topographic REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER OF LANDS
II  15
maps, have a great practical use in many lines of endeavour, such as forest and land-use
surveys.
5. Mapping on larger scales through use of the Multiplex plotting-machine was
initiated, the first units being obtained in 1950. Maps with contours at intervals of 20
feet or less can be made with these plotters. The demand for these maps is great, and
already orders which will take three to four years to fill have accumulated.
Water Rights Branch
1. The work of the Water Rights Branch for the past year approached or reached
new records in several respects. The Branch's revenue reached an all-time high; more
water licences were issued than in any year but one, and more improvement districts were
incorporated than in any other year.
2. Further progress was made in the investigations of the Fraser and Columbia
watersheds in co-operation with the Governments of Canada and the United States, and
a large number of other engineering investigations were carried out during the year.
3. Among the more notable water licences issued was one on the Nechako and
Nanika Rivers for the development of power for the proposed multi-million dollar
aluminium industry.
Coal, Petroleum and Natural Gas Control
1. The rapid increase in the amount of the petroleum and natural-gas holdings and
in the drilling activity in our wildcat areas is a hopeful sign. Under the " Petroleum and
Natural Gas Act" eighty-four permits were issued, chiefly in the Peace River District,
covering an area of 8,254,579 acres. Our laboratories expanded to include geologic
examination of drilling samples.
2. The coal industry is united in asking for a Dominion coal policy, which the
Chairman of the Dominion Coal Board assures is forthcoming.
PERSONNEL OF GENERAL ADMINISTRATION, 1950
G. P. Melrose, Deputy Minister.
C. E. Hopper, Assistant Deputy Minister.
D. B. Turner, Director of Conservation.
H. A. Tomalin, Recorder.
J. A. Grant, Senior Clerk—Grade 1.
S. Smith, Senior Clerk—Grade 1.
G. D. Higgs, Intermediate Clerk—Grade 1.
E. C. Mclntyre, Intermediate Clerk—Grade 1.
K. L. Morris, Intermediate Clerk—Grade 1.
H. K. Kidd, Clerk.
L. B. Russell, Stock Clerk—Grade 2.
W. C. Fry, lunior Clerk.
W. R. Henderson, lunior Clerk.
D. C. Jenkinson, lunior Clerk.
N. H. Martin, lunior Clerk.
B. I. Mullins, lunior Clerk.
W. W. M. Ross, lunior Clerk.
B. O. Skerritt, lunior Clerk.
R. W. Young, lunior Clerk.
Miss F. I. N. Fergusson, Secretary.
Miss V. E. V. Mesher, Secretarial Stenographer
—Grade 2.
Miss M. I. Michaud, Secretarial Stenographer
—Grade 1.
Miss S. R. Mitchell, Secretarial Stenographer—
Grade 1.
Miss E. M. Ridewood, Clerk-Typist.
Mrs. M. I. Sandeman Allen, Typist.    LANDS BRANCH II 19
LANDS BRANCH
R. E. Burns, Superintendent of Lands
The Lands Branch is divided into four divisions—namely, Lands General, Land
Settlement Board, Land Utilization Research and Survey, and Land Inspection Division.
The returns of the year's operations are set out in the statistical tables submitted herewith and show a continued activity in the disposition of Crown lands. It is to be noted
that collections show an increase over 1949.
As was the case during 1949, the largest influx of settlers was in the Peace River
District, where an increase of 30,000 acres in the sale of unsurveyed lands is recorded.
The chief localities of settlement were in the northerly part and just north of the
centre of the Peace River Block; also in the district north-west of Clayhurst and in the
vicinity of Lone Prairie.
Being fully aware of the importance of reserving suitable areas for the use of the
public and continuing the policy in that regard, all field staff have been instructed to
report, during examinations, any sites which are considered suitable for the use, recreation,
and enjoyment of the public. The reserves established for this purpose during the year
number twenty-one. Temporary map reserves have also been made of various other
parcels of land pending further investigation as to the advisability of the establishment
of a park or reserving such areas under the " Land Act " for the use of the public.
In addition to the above, lands continue to be set aside for various other purposes,
including those required in connection with both Provincial and Dominion Government
projects.
The British Columbia Lands Service has had a long-standing interest in the rehabilitation of war veterans, rendering timely service in connection with various land-grant programmes. Current among the laws which have been enacted to deal with such programmes
are the " Land Settlement and Development Act," the " Soldiers' Land Act," the " Pre-
emptors' Free Grants Act," and the " Veterans' Land Settlement Act."
The " Land Settlement and Development Act," from its inception in 1917, has been
aimed at expansion of agricultural land in British Columbia and entitles every veteran of
World War I to a $500 rebate on the purchase price of Crown land. Merville, Vancouver
Island, and Camp Lister, near Creston, are development areas established after World
War I under this Act.
The " Soldiers' Land Act " also has a long history, dating from 1918. According
to its terms, veterans of all services and of both World Wars may acquire lands within the
Southern Okanagan Lands Project, which was established under the Act.
Another Act which serves an important function in the re-establishment of war
veterans is the " Pre-emptors' Free Grants Act " of 1939. Almost identical to a similar
Act passed in 1916, the 1939 Act entitles all veterans of World War II who held preemptions prior to their date of enlistment to free Crown grants.
The " Veterans' Land Settlement Act," passed in 1944, is a joint Dominion-Provincial
agreement, with the purpose of assisting veterans of World War II to take up and settle
land. A total of 25,764 acres of Crown land, scattered through various parts of the
Province, has already been granted under the Act, while an additional 2,194 acres are
pending approval.
Through these various programmes and through special assistance in individual
cases, the Lands Service continues to play a key role in the rehabilitation of our war
veterans.
The following tables are a brief statistical summary of the various veterans' land-
grant schemes and the total acreage which has been disposed of to December 31st, 1950:— II 20 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
" Land Settlement and Development Act "
Acres
Merville development area :  9,297.98
Camp Lister development area  5,350.20
Fernie development area .  1,180.23
" Soldiers' Land Act " (Southern Okanagan Lands Project)
Number of Crown grants issued to the Director, V.L. A  72
Acreage of Crown land granted to the Director, V.L.A. 715.12 acres
" Pre-emptors' Free Grants Act," 1939
Crown grants issued  284
Total acreage  41,556.8 acres
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act "
Crown grants issued to the Director, V.L.A  227
Acreage of Crown lands granted to the Director,
V.L.A  25,763.75 acres
The reports of the Chief Inspector of Lands and the various Land Inspectors show
in detail the varied nature of the work carried out during the year. It is noted in this
connection that every endeavour is being made to take over as far as possible from the
Forest Service the work of land examinations. Valuable assistance is being given by the
Inspectors to intending settlers and advice furnished the general public relating to problems
concerning land matters in general.
The Land Utilization Research and Survey Division continued during the year to
conduct examinations and prepare reports with the object of classifying and mapping
undeveloped Crown lands in various parts of the Province. These examinations were
carried out in the southern portion of the Peace River Block, and the Terrace, Vanderhoof, and Prince George areas. Farm units have now been selected in the Peace River,
Quesnel, and Prince George areas, and in the last-mentioned area an experimental settlement unit was established.
The surveyor of the branch carried out diversified work in various portions of the
Province, consisting of subdivisions of parcels of land into town lots and for summer-home
sites on certain lakes. Old surveys were reposted and some lake-shores retraversed. At
Smithers, sixty blocks of the townsite were redefined.
In the development of the Province, this Branch has played an important part in
various phases, such as granting rights-of-way easements for both overhead and submarine
power-line cables, issuance of titles to lands, and granting of foreshore leases for new
industrial sites. Latest developments were the new sulphate plant near Nanaimo and the
plant of the Columbia Cellulose Company Limited at Port Edward, near Prince Rupert.
A status has been made and temporary reservations placed on various areas in connection with the establishment and operation of the proposed aluminium plant in the
vicinity of Kitimat, in Range 4, Coast District.
A new industry is being established in the Province in the production of dry-ice,
which is dependent on the development of carbon-dioxide gas, and Crown lands are being
applied for to obtain this gas.
In connection with the extension of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway to Prince
George, in addition to the Crown grants issued for necessary lands, assistance has been
rendered the Railway Department in statusing the lands required for the right-of-way.
A considerable amount of status work is carried out by the Branch both for the
assistance of prospective settlers and other branches of the Department, as well as other LANDS BRANCH II 21
departments, both Provincial and Dominion. A status was made during the year for the
Dominion Government in connection with the administration of the " Prairie Farm
Assistance Act." This necessitated a search of every surveyed parcel of land in the Peace
River Land District, and recording the information upon the thirty-eight reference maps
involved.
This Branch has the supervision and maintenance of all land records, included in
which are 800 land-status registers which are in current use. In addition, there are many
hundreds of volumes of counterfoils of Crown grants from which valuable information is
furnished, both in respect to surface and under-surface rights of lands within the Province.
The Lands Branch has developed from a self-contained unit to a large organization
dealing with a multiplicity of agencies, such as the various municipalities, Town Planning
Division, " Veterans' Land Settlement Act," etc. Never in its history has it been shown
so clearly that the Branch is a service organization much more than one for sales.
During 1950 approximately 4,500 persons (not including officials of other departments) seeking information of a varied nature were attended to at our general office. Of
the 32,382 letters received during 1950 by the Branch, 2,412 were requests from people
in all parts of the world seeking information as to opportunities for settlement in British
Columbia.
BEHIND THE STATISTICS
R. Torrance, Assistant Superintendent of Lands
The statistical tables in this Report record in cold, hard figures the actual business
accomplishments of the year. They do not, however, record service rendered. The Lands
Service, by reason of its responsibility in the administration of the surface of Canada's
third largest Province, occupies a unique position in the structure of government. Of the
several divisions which comprise the Lands Service organization, the Lands Branch has
the greatest public contact. It is through this Branch that all applications to acquire
Crown lands are submitted, and it follows, therefore, that this division is required to
devote a considerable portion of the time and effort of its staff to public and interdepartmental service. While this activity cannot be tabled statistically, it does represent many
work-hours and should, we believe, be at least briefly reported. The following is intended,
therefore, as a glance behind the tables.
COUNTER SERVICE
Approximately 4,500 persons were attended to at the big counter in the Lands
General Office during 1950. Here courteous assistance is afforded to people in all walks
of life, from prospective settlers desirous of obtaining maps, descriptive literature, or other
information to business and industrial operators seeking sites, land, and foreshore for
numerous commercial enterprises. Maintaining records covering the entire Province, the
Lands Branch is visited daily by members of the legal profession for all types of information, much of which is of a most complicated nature, requiring exacting attention by
experienced officials. In the course of a year many hundred staff-hours are occupied in
public consultations.
CORRESPONDENCE
During 1950, 32,382 letters were received and dealt with by the Lands Branch. As
would be expected, mail of this enormity covers every conceivable problem in land
administration. As an indication of the widespread interest in our Province, special
mention might, however, be made of the 2,412 requests received from people in all parts
of the world for information regarding settlement opportunities in British Columbia.   The II 22 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
potential value of these inquiries is realized, and it is our policy to afford all possible
assistance to such applicants by furnishing maps, descriptive literature, land-availability
charts, and other necessary particulars.
STATUS WORK
During the course of a year the staff of the Lands Branch is required to do a considerable amount of status work. Land-availability maps and lists are continually being
prepared for the assistance of prospective settlers and other public use. In addition, the
activities of various departments and branches of the Government service require information with respect to lands vested in the Crown, privately owned, under reserve, etc. While
some of these status jobs are quickly disposed of, others necessitate the checking of
hundreds of parcels of land and require the full-time services of a clerk for extended
periods. As a typical example of this type of work, reference might be made to a status
recently completed for the Dominion Government in connection with the administration
of the " Prairie Farm Assistance Act." This necessitated a search covering every surveyed
parcel of land in the Peace River Land District and recording the information upon the
thirty-eight reference maps involved.
LAND RECORDS
An important function of the Lands Branch is the maintenance of records that will
readily show the correct legal status of the surface of this Province. In addition, under-
surface alienations must be noted. Much of the official information contained in our
registers is not recorded anywhere else, and absolute accuracy of entry, therefore, is
essential. In addition to many hundreds of volumes of counterfoils of Crown grants,
certificates of purchase, leases, pre-emption records, etc., there are over 800 land-status
registers in current use in our vault.
With a view toward affording more efficient public service, the Lands Branch, in
1948, instituted a programme of compiling status registers for local Land Commissioners
throughout the Province. With the limited staff available, the task undertaken is a
gigantic enterprise and requires painstaking research and accuracy of record. However,
that good progress is being made may be evidenced by the more than 40,000 register
sheets or folios which have already been prepared and placed in service in the offices of
the Land Commissioners at Prince George and Nelson.
In addition to registers, several agency offices have been furnished with reference
maps coloured to show land status at a glance. Fifty-four of these maps have already
been prepared and are filling a long-felt need in assisting the Land Commissioners in outlying districts to handle public inquiries adequately. It is, of course, intended to eventually
cover the entire Province with these status maps.
RESERVES
In 1950, 200 reserves of land and foreshore were established for varied purposes,
such as for the use and enjoyment of the public, school-sites, national defence, forestry
experimentation, fisheries research work, and sites for industrial and Government projects.
It is our policy to screen carefully all applications to purchase, lease, or pre-empt in order
that no alienation may be made which might be prejudicial to the present and future welfare of the public. In addition, our field staff has been instructed to be continually on the
lookout for suitable areas which may be reserved and set apart for public use.
AUCTION SALES
Under arrangements concluded by the Lands Branch, twenty-five auction sales of
lots were held in various parts of the Province during 1950.   At these sales a total of 230 LANDS BRANCH II 23
lots was offered, 152 of which were sold to the highest bidders.   The sale value of the
auctioned lots amounted to $42,398.
MINERAL CLAIMS
It may not be generally realized that the Lands Branch prepares all Crown grants to
mineral claims acquired under the provisions of the Mineral and Taxation Acts. In
addition, all applications to lease reverted mineral claims are cleared through the Lands
Branch. The issuing of these Crown grants and clearances involves a considerable amount
of research work to determine accurately mineral availability and surface conflict. In
1950, 157 Crown grants of mineral claims were prepared and 312 clearances of reverted
mineral claims issued.
CONVEYANCES
The Lands Branch provides a central recording depot for conveyances and titles to
lands acquired by the Public Works, Attorney-General, Liquor Control Board, and other
Government departments. The Branch attends to the drawing-up and registration of
conveyances in the Land Registry Offices to transfers of properties obtained by the Forest
Service for such purposes as ranger stations, lookout-sites, tool-sheds, and garages. Conveyances recorded during 1950 totalled 133.
STATISTICAL TABLES
Total Collections
Recorded collections under the " Land Act " are greater by approximately $110,000
over 1949, an increase of over 10 per cent and well above the ten-year average.
Sundry revenue, as well as miscellaneous collections, shows a marked increase.
Revenue collections under the " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act " show a substantial
increase of approximately 30 per cent over last year's activities.   A sum of approximately
$520,000 was held in suspense at the end of the year in accordance with the terms of
the Act.
Table 1.— Summary of Recorded Collections for the Year Ended
December 31st, 1950
" Land Act "—
Land sales  $366,458.62
Sundry revenue     387,435.19
Sundry fees, maps, air photos, etc       38,986.49
      $792,880.30
" Soldiers' Land Act "—
Southern Okanagan Lands Project  $114,163.87
Houses, South Vancouver  360.00
 114,523.87
" University Endowment Lands Administration Act "        211,732.14
Refunds and votes  40,852.55
Total collections  $1,159,988.86 II 24
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
CHART  I.     SOURCES OF COLLECTIONS  1950
SEE TABLE   1   FOR  DETAILS
Table 2.—Summary of Total Collections for Ten-year Period
1941-50, Inclusive
1941 $612,810.01
1942 -■"——■————-——- 768,710.98
1943 576,228.02
1944 595,117.61
1945—mm-—-—-——-—— 846,456.33
1946 992,201.70
1947—————mm———. 1,770,413.49
1948 —■■ , 975,772.41
1949 MMMMMM»», 1,045,969.03
19^0 ——      1,159,988.86
Total  $9,343,668.44
Ten-year average, $934,366.84. LANDS BRANCH II 25
Table 3.—Sundry Revenue for the Year ended December 31st, 1950
Collections under " Land Act "—
Leases, land-use permits, fees, etc  $209,197.79
Crown-grant fees  19,115.00
Occupational rentals :  3,088.75
Improvements   840.00
Royalty   4,299.67
Reverted mineral claims  6,439.74
Sundry  4,871.37
  $247,852.32
Collections under " Coal and Petroleum Act "—
Leases and fees       $3,177.09
Sundry  310.00
         3,487.09
Collections under " Coal Act," 1944—Licences, leases, and fees         1,475.00
Collections under " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act "—
Leases, permits, and fees  $134,341.78
Sundry  279.00
     134,620.78
Total   $387,435.19 II 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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Table 4.—Summary of Sundry Revenue Collections for Ten-year
Period 1941—50, Inclusive
1941 $175,787.02
1942 156,863.76
1943 173,251.99
1944 182,782.73
1945 199,042.61
1946 207,696.63
1947 262,760,93
1948 288,901.91
1949 322,683.92
1950 387,435.19
Total  $2,357,206.69
Ten-year average, $235,720.67.
Table 5.—Miscellaneous Collections, 1950
Collections under " House, South Vancouver "—
Principal	
Interest      $360.00
Administration  _-_  	
Taxes 	
Insurance	
$360.00
Refunds—
Advances   $7,438.75
Votes A  33,413.80
     40,852.55
Total   $41,212.55
Land Sales
Acreage of country land sales shows a decrease, with the exception of unsurveyed
lands, which is up 33,000 acres.
The number of new land sales concluded was above that of 1949, and the value of
same was the second highest during the past several years. II 28
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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Table 7.—Country Land Sales, 1950
Surveyed  Acres
First class  13,217.94
Second class  38,982.05
Third class  13,537.69
     65,737.68
Unsurveyed      47,474.33
Repurchases (section 135, " Land Act ")  284.37
Total  113,496.38
Table 8.—Certificates of Purchase Issued, 1950
Land Recording District Number of Sales
Alberni  18
Atlin    11
Cranbrook  37
Fernie  22
Fort Fraser  38
Fort George  152
Golden   46
Kamloops  55
Kaslo  30
Lillooet   49
Nanaimo   72
Nelson  62
New Westminster  40
Osoyoos   21
Peace River  197
Prince Rupert  55
Quesnel  121
Revelstoke  18
Similkameen  56
Smithers   65
Telegraph Creek  1
Vancouver  105
Victoria  .  25
Totals  1,296 II 30                                    DEPARTMENT
Table 9.—
Ainsworth 	
Alberni	
Athalmer	
Atlin	
Bastion Bay	
Beaverdell 	
OF LANDS AND FORESTS
-Town Lots Sold, 1950
          3
        44
$210.00
1,500.00
370.00
1,235.00
100.00
306.75
650.00
120.00
100.00
420.00
385.00
1,290.00
200.00
355.00
275.00
370.00
175.00
285.00
600.00
1,275.00
190.00
880.00
50.00
275.00
1,005.00
100.00
215.00
65.00
5,050.00
1,813.00
725.00
215.00
740.00
690.00
100.00
210.00
190.00
170.00
9,025.00
350.00
375.00
3,535.00
525.00
570.00
520.00
300.00
100.00
155.00
125.00
23,010.00
2,865.00
        36
        18
          4
10
Campbell River 	
Canal Flats 	
          5
4
Cedar 	
Christina Lake	
          2
        16
Cliffside	
Cranbrook 	
Edgewater 	
Elko 	
Engen  	
Extension 	
Falkland	
        11
        64
        40
          3
        11
          8
. _   .                      3
Fernie	
Gibsons Landing 	
Golden 	
Grand Forks 	
          4
          2
         209
5
Hansen Lake 	
             5
Hedley 	
          2
Hope 	
Houston 	
Huntingdon 	
           1
        39
2
Invermere	
Keremeos 	
Ladysmith    _	
Lakelse Lake 	
        23
          2
           8
18
Lardeau 	
Lillooet	
Lodge Cove 	
Long Lake City	
      112
        26
          4
             22
McBride 	
Masset	
Merritt 	
Moyie	
          2
          6
        19
6
Myrtle Point 	
Nanaimo	
Naramata 	
Nelson	
Newcastle	
New Denver	
        21
          4
        11
        29
          4
___.   .                  20
New Hazelton 	
                   92
North Bend	
    .                    5
Port Alberni	
            6
Port Clements	
                  6
Port Coquitlam	
Prince George	
Prince Rupert	
        11
      238
          8 LANDS BRANCH
II 31
Table 9.—Town Lots Sold, 1950—Continued
Princeton	
Qualicum Beach	
Queen Charlotte City
Quesnel .1	
Retallack	
Revelstoke  ___
Royston	
Salmo 	
Savona 	
Silver City	
Skidegate	
Smithers 	
South Hazelton	
South Wellington 	
Squamish	
Telkwa 	
Terrace	
Texas Point 	
Topley	
Tulameen 	
Upper Lynn 	
Vananda	
Vancouver 	
Vanderhoof	
Walhachin 	
Wardner _____	
Westview	
Willow River 	
Windermere 	
Ymir	
Miscellaneous	
        10
17
  4
63
5
        10
  6
        30
  2
  4
  8
        23
 :       9
 1  2
  3
   '   30
  7
  2
        11
  8
  3
        25
_1  2
45
1  4
  3
        19
        18
22
29
        61
University Endowment Lands         29
Totals   1,768
$425.00
900.00
80.00
4,150.00
50.00
250.00
50.00
238.53
100.00
25.72
190.00
875.00
90.00
150.00
450.00
585.00
630.00
70.00
180.00
400.00
195.00
1,120.00
2,050.00
735.00
300.00
150.00
1,801.00
315.00
220.00
215.51
2,094.67
96,065.99
$179,511.17
Table 10.—Land-sales Collections, 1950 (Collections under
" Land Act " (Principal and Interest) )
Country lands—
Reverted  $120,287.15
Crown      159,490.58
 $279,777.73
Pre-empted lands	
Town lots       84,546.98
Special regulations         1,063.16
Surface rights of mineral claims  973.00
Former Dominion  97.75
Indian reserve cut-off  	
Total  $366,458.62 II 32
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
CHART 3.     SOURCES OF  LAND-SALES COLLECTIONS  1950
SEE TABLE   10  FOR  DETAILS
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
Table 11.—Summary of Land Sales for Ten-year Period
1941—50, Inclusive
$153,663.91
151,752.83
202,458.04
215,409.40
294,034.56
368,088.19
811,752.23
379,650.48
375,254.88
366,458.62
Total  $3,318,523.14
Ten-year average, $331,852.31.
Leases
While the number of leases issued is slightly less than 1949, the acreage leased shows
an increase.   There is an increase in revenue of over $35,000. LANDS BRANCH II 33
Table 12.—Leases Issued, 1950
Number Acreage
Hay and grazing  116 78,375.60
Agriculture   17 3,129.23
Quarrying—limestone, sand, gravel, etc  14 438.55
Fur-farming     	
Home-site  18 223.50
Booming and log storage  48 1,153.22
Oyster, clam, and shell-fish  16 269.74
Cannery  2 19.87
Foreshore—miscellaneous   31 123.83
Miscellaneous   63 352.93
Totals  325        84,086.47
Land-use permits       8 7.00
Licences of occupation, easements, etc     18 35.99
Table 13.—Sundry Lease Collections (" Land Act ")
Leases, land-use permits, etc  $208,907.30
Occupational rentals  3,088.75
Royalty  4,299.67
Assignment fees, etc  3,203.47
$219,499.19
Table 14.—Summary of Home-site Leases Collections for
Ten-year Period 1941-50, Inclusive
1941 __ $1,846.85
1942 ' 1,924.23
1943 wmmmmmmmmmmm* 1,921.75
1944 masmmmmma^mmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmm 2,162.11
1945 ■■■■■■ .i...mi..u.c          in             n 2,751.67
1946 ■■■■■■■ ■ 2,109.86
1947              i    2,932.25
1948 - 2,265.74
1949 —— 1,926.99
1950 II...H. —i 2,040.33
Total  $21,881.48
Ten-year average, $2,188.15.
Pre-emptions
Pre-emptions allowed are about the same as 1949, but certificates of improvement
issued show an increase.    More pre-emption records were cancelled than in 1949. II 34
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Table 15.—Pre-emption Records, 1950
Land Recording District
Pre-emption
Records
Allowed
Number
Ten-year
Average
Pre-emption
Records
Cancelled
Number
Ten-year
Average
Certificates of
Improvements
Issued
Number
Ten-year
Average
Alberni..
Atlin.	
Cranbrook	
Fernie	
Fort Fraser—.
Fort George-
Golden	
Kamloops	
Kaslo	
Lillooet	
Nanaimo	
Nelson.
New Westminster..
Osoyoos	
Peace River	
Prince Rupert	
Quesnel	
Revelstoke	
Similkameen	
Smithers	
Telegraph Creek-
Vancouver	
Victoria	
Totals _
4
15
2
1
10
1
82
23
0.3
i.i
0.2
11.4
17.2
3.9
6.7
21.7
1.6
0.6
4.1
2.5
84.4
0.6
25.0
1.6
3.2
2.4
1.3
0.2
19
35
7
11
30
2
2
4
75
~43
1.0
0.1
3.1
0.9
13.5
26.6
4.7
12.7
0.4
17.3
3.7
1.0
8.6
1.9
59.5
2.0
28.1
2.8
6.4
4.2
0.1
3.6
0.7
141
190.0
242
202.9
4
20
2
13
15
5
2
39
19
3
3
2
2
1
130
0.1
0.1
0.8
0.1
8.4
15.6
2.1
7.6
0.2
11.8
1.7
0.6
4.8
2.4
57.4
0.4
15.6
2.8
2.9
2.2
1.9
0.4
139.9
Crown Grants
Crown grants issued were slightly less than 1949 and showed a decline for the ten-
year period.    Total area deeded was considerably less.
Crown-grant applications and fees collected show an increase.
Table 16.—Crown Grants Issued, 1950
Purchases (other than town lots)      662
Town lots      529
Pre-emptions  	
" Pre-emptors' Free Grants Act "	
Mineral claims (other than reverted).
Reverted mineral claims	
University Endowment Lands	
" Public Schools Act "	
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act "	
Home-site leases	
" Dyking Assessments Act "	
Dominion homesteads	
Supplementary timber grants	
Pacific Great Eastern Railway	
Miscellaneous	
94
1
78
79
33
26
21
14
6
3
3
10
21
Total.
1,580 LANDS BRANCH II 35
Table 17.—Crown Grants Issued for Past Ten Years
1941  1,102
1942  1,134
1943  1,421
1944   1 j528
1945  1,817
1946  2,203
1947  2,577
1948  2,063
1949  1,602
1950  1,580
Total  17,027
Ten-year average, 1,702.7.
Table 18.—Total Area Deeded by Crown Grant, 1950
Purchases of surveyed Crown lands (other than town lots) 52,217.08
Pre-emptions   12,733.26
" Pre-emptor's Free Grants Act "  161.00
Mineral claims (other than reverted)  3,229.44
Reverted mineral claims  3,094.42
" Public Schools Act "  87.97
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act "  2,716.10
Home-site leases  173.52
Dominion homesteads  254.62
Supplementary timber grants  64.60
Pacific Great Eastern Railway  980.60
Total  75,712.61 II 36
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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II 37
PERSONNEL OF LANDS BRANCH, 1950
R. E. Burns, Superintendent of Lands.
R. Torrance, Assistant Superintendent of Lands.
E. A. Walls, Chief Clerk—Grade I.
R. L. K. Poyntz, Accountant.
D. L. Cornock, Pre-emption Inspector.
C. P. Axhorn, Senior Clerk—Grade 2.
S. C. Hawkins, Senior Clerk—Grade 2.
W. J. Holman, Senior Clerk—Grade 2.
S. G. Wilson, Senior Clerk—Grade 2.
E. R. Gandy, Intermediate Clerk—Grade 2.
R. D. B. Lyttle, Intermediate Clerk—Grade 2.
J. A. Underwood, Intermediate Clerk—Grade 2.
J. W. Wright, Intermediate Clerk—Grade 2.
N. Allan, Intermediate Clerk—Grade 1.
W. J. Long, Intermediate Clerk—Grade 1.
J. C. Moore, Intermediate Clerk—Grade 1.
G. L. Ritchie, Intermediate Clerk—Grade 1.
R. Rutherford, Intermediate Clerk—Grade 1.
R. McLeod, Clerk—Grade 2.
J. D. Southern, Clerk—Grade 2.
I. K. Abrahams, Clerk—Grade 1.
R. A. Husband, Clerk—Grade 1.
L. S. Prevost, Clerk—Grade 1.
E. M. Davies, Junior Clerk.
H. D. Ingall, Junior Clerk.
Miss H. G. Bouveur, Stenographer—Grade 2.
Miss W. M. Fletcher, Stenographer—Grade 2.
Miss L. P. Rosenbury, Stenographer—Grade 2.
Mrs. J. D. Sobkowicz, Stenographer—Grade 2.
Miss M. T. Liebhauser, Stenographer—Grade 1.
Mrs. E. R. Millar, Stenographer—Grade 1.
Miss J. I. Baillie, Stenographer—Grade 1a.
Miss D. M. Brown, Stenographer—Grade 1a.
Miss P. Roissetter, Stenographer—Grade 1a.
Miss F. M. Sutcliffe, Clerk-Typist.
Miss J. N. Simm, Typist. II 38 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
(1) Small fruits and vegetables grow in abundance on the farms of the
" Horseshoe " area adjacent to Terrace, 90 miles east of Prince Rupert on the Skeena
River.   Mountains of the Coast Range in the background.
(2) Typical of the dry, level river terraces which give the town its name. View
shows a portion of the Frank Dairy Farm on the upper bench-land north of Terrace.
(3) Thousands of acres of arable land await the settler on the broad, clay-
covered stretches of the Nechako Plateau. Looking south toward Vanderhoof, with
Sinkut Mountain in the distance. This extensive settlement area lies 72 miles west
of Prince George.
(4) Fall wheat forms the bulk of the grain shipments from the co-operatively
owned elevator at Vanderhoof. View shows a field of ripening fall wheat in the
Prairiedale district, north of the Nechako River.
(5) Dawson Creek District.—Looking north over first-class farming land.
Dawson Creek and rolling uplands shown in the background.
(6) Peace River Survey Camp.—View shows a typical Land Use survey camp.
Working and living conditions are greatly improved when buildings can be used for
an office and kitchen. This camp was situated on the Alaska Highway, 27 miles
north-west of Dawson Creek. LANDS BRANCH
II 39
Land Utilization Research and Survey
:«sM*i.fliSS
TERRACE
VANDERHOOF
PEACE RIVER
(5)
(6) II 40 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
LAND UTILIZATION RESEARCH AND SURVEY DIVISION
D. Sutherland, B.S.A., Director
The 1950 season has been the most satisfactory in the experience of the Division.
Though reduced appropriations sharply curtailed field operations, a very gratifying
volume of work was accomplished by a smaller field staff. The experience of past seasons
is paying dividends in the amount of work accomplished per man. The increase in
efficiency is due, in no small measure, to the acquisition of three permanent Land
Inspectors who were able to take capable charge of field parties and take full responsibility for the amount and quality of work done in their respective districts. Party chiefs
for former surveys had to be selected from among students hired for the summer. Their
return to university always constituted a serious break in the continuity of the work and
a resulting lag in the production of reports.
Facilities and staff for map production are still below requirements. It was not
until late in 1948 that a draughting establishment was created, and it was not until 1949
that the present low level of one draughtsman per survey party was attained. Only the
shortage of suitable personnel has prevented expansion in this department. The combination of insufficient staff, lack of adequate base maps, and accumulated work has
brought about the present situation, which requires the draughting staff to attempt to
create base maps and compile current work in addition to finishing earlier uncompleted
maps.
REVIEW OF AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The purpose of land-utilization surveys, as formulated when the Division was reconstituted in 1946, are repeated here to emphasize the broad policy being followed:—
" It is the intention of this Division to conduct further intensive regional studies,
with the object of classifying and mapping undeveloped Crown lands.in accordance with
their capability to produce.
" By means of such a survey, prospective settlers may be guided to areas suitable
for agricultural development. These areas will be laid out in units conforming to the
soil and topography, and to the type of agriculture adapted to the location."
These objectives have not changed. The primary aim of the Division is the selection
of good farm lands from the available Crown and reverted lands, especially in the newer
settlement areas.
The Division also investigates, or co-operates with other agencies in the investigation of, special projects for irrigation, reclamation, or special uses. These investigations
are undertaken at the request of the Deputy Minister of Lands as the need for them
arises. The selection of farm units is a continuing programme which proceeds in accordance with the funds and other facilities made available for the purpose.
SURVEY PROCEDURES FOR FARM-UNIT SELECTION
Although procedures vary somewhat from one project to another, there are a number
of elements which must always be considered. These elements are the land itself, how
it is being used, and the status of land-ownership. All these features are mapped
separately.
An attempt is made to combine all the physical features which constitute the land
into a land-capability classification embodying eight classes of use-capability, four of
which are arable and four non-arable. The capability map, on which the land classification is plotted, serves as a guide to the selection of the best parcels of land.
On the present use map are plotted all the cultural features, including native cover,
crops, fallow, buildings, roads, railways, telephone and power lines, schools, urban centres,
and any other amenities bearing upon the extension of settlement in a partially developed
area.    From this map it is possible to visualize the relative difficulty likely to be met in LANDS BRANCH II 41
clearing land and providing access to a new farm, and to weigh mentally the advantages
and disadvantages of a particular locality with respect to the availability of services and
amenities.
The land-ownership status map indicates which parcels of land are available from
the Crown and the terms and conditions governing their disposal under the " Land Act."
A comparison of the three maps described provides a person wishing to secure farm
land with all the pertinent information required for a preliminary selection. He can
envisage the parcels which are available as to ownership, suitable as to quality, and
desirable as to location, amenities, and cost of development.
Though these maps, and the various data which are collected on the surveys, are
designed to be of help in the selection of farm lands, they need not be justified on that
basis alone. Their potential usefulness covers a much wider field. Rural planning is
just as important as town planning and is rapidly coming to be recognized as such.
The construction of rural roads, schools, and telephone and power lines are all dependent
upon land utilization; the prevention of waste in these services, and in many cases the
possibility of providing the services at all, depends upon intelligent planning of settlement
and land use. If many of the agricultural settlements in the Central and Northern
Interior of British Columbia could be consolidated, the cost of public services could be
very much reduced, and at the same time their quality might be immeasurably improved.
Thus the scope of land-utilization research widens with a developing appreciation
of its possibilities as an instrument of orderly and successful settlement.
In order to encourage the consolidation of existing settlements, our Land Inspectors
have pre-selected suitable farm units and described them in detail. A number of these
farm-unit reports are available for lands in the Central Interior and Peace River areas.
They provide, for the inquiring settler, plans and information pertaining to the development and management of the farm unit.
SPECIAL PROJECTS
Under this general heading are grouped a variety of subjects, partly of a research
nature. Behind the more or less routine work connected with the conduct of field surveys
and the preparation of reports, a good deal of study is involved in seeking solutions to
the many, and often perplexing, problems which are encountered in the various survey
areas. In the past, this work has been held to a minimum because of limited technical
staff, but its importance in land-utilization studies is becoming apparent. It is anticipated
that, with our present technical staff, specialized activities will attain correspondingly
greater importance.
Many of the situations encountered are not capable of complete and final solution;
they might be considered as being capable of gradual and continued improvement.
Among problems falling in this category might be mentioned the methods and cost of
land-clearing and the application and duty of irrigation-water—two operations of vital
importance to agricultural development. Research into these broad problems can be
expected to continue indefinitely, with expectations of continued progress from year to
year, adding little by little to the fragmentary knowledge we now possess.
The reclamation of the Pemberton meadows adds the problem of land drainage to
the list of specialist activities connected with the broader study of land utilization. The
actual mechanics of drainage can be better handled by engineers, but where a project
embraces farm drainage or land development, the services of the agricultural technician
are also important.
Individual members of the staff, according to their past experience, training, or the
needs of the moment, are undertaking to study these special problems, in each case of
course, in conjunction with the land-utilization surveys in progress. II 42 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
SOIL AND LAND-UTILIZATION SURVEY COVERAGE TO 1950
Soil-surveys were instituted by the Department of Agriculture in British Columbia
inl932 and land-utilization surveys by the Lands Service in 1942. During a period of
years, maps and reports have been compiled for a substantial acreage of land located in
the main settlement and agricultural areas and for many widely scattered special projects
where blocks of land are being considered for irrigation development or for reclamation
by drainage.
It is believed that there are many who are not informed of the amount of information
on land that is now available on application to the Federal and Provincial Departments
of Agriculture, the Lands Service, Victoria, or by writing to those responsible for the
actual conduct of the individual surveys.
A summary and a location map have been compiled by A. L. Farley, M.A., listing
and locating all areas that have been surveyed and indicating the nature and intensity
of the individual surveys. The map and summary tables are appended to this Report.
The information should prove useful to students, research-workers, and any others interested in land and land-development in the Province.
PEACE RIVER SURVEY
J. S. Gilmore, B.S.A., Land Inspector
The field party operated for the third successive season in the southern portion of
the British Columbia Peace River Block, and some 150,000 acres, described in the
appended table, were classified. In addition, some 40,000 acres classified in 1948 were
checked and revised, and an exploratory survey was carried out in the Blueberry area
along the northern boundary of the Block.
The main portion of the survey was carried out in Townships 80, 81, and 82 from
the British Columbia-Alberta Boundary to the Kiskatinaw River, and two townships were
classified in the triangle formed by the Kiskatinaw and Peace Rivers.
The survey revealed that Crown land topographically suited to agriculture was largely
limited by the nature of the soil and the relatively heavy costs of clearing.
The soils over most of the area, excluding the Rolla district, are of the Grey Wooded
group and vary from sandy loams to loamy sands, with average depths to subsoil of 8 and
20 inches respectively. These are at best classified as limited arable. Virtually all of the
arable Crown land of the surveyed area falls into this classification group, and, as a result,
fairly large tracts of available lands are considered marginal for settlement. In one township (81-17) 80 per cent of the land has been classified as limited arable and, as such,
is suited only to long rotations of grasses and legumes. The occasional grain-crop may be
grown without serious results if sound farming practices are followed.
Forest fires which swept over large areas in September will make it necessary to
reclassify some 40,000 acres to determine what deleterious effects, if any, the fire may
have had upon the soil. The general opinion is that the fire may have been beneficial, in
the sense that the clearing costs over a considerable acreage may have been markedly
lowered, and, as a result, this poorer land may be brought under cultivation for that reason
alone.
The exploratory survey in the Blueberry district (Townships 113 and 115) revealed
that of the considerable acreage of good arable land (approximately 8,000 acres) with
very light cover, little or none remains as Crown land. The area still open for settlement
is confined largely to the higher land (Grey Wooded soils) or the areas with heavy cover.
Considering the distance from the rail-head (some 85 miles), it appears unlikely that
economic units could be formed on these marginal soils. LANDS BRANCH
II 43
Total
Total
Arable
Improved
Area
Arable
Crown
Acres
23,040
20,954
17,238
23,040
13,872
2,391
4,239
23,040
9,023
2,870
.   2,447
23,040
15,369
6,491
4,580
2,323
346
6
98
20,185
13,110
755
7,607
10,265
3,471
533
1,598
1,230
17,280
14,262
12,634
6,926
3,792
638
1,584
150,369
94,199
26,318   •
39,391
Township 80, Range 14 ....
Township 80, Range 15 ...
Township 80, Range 16 —
Township 80, Range 17	
Township 80, Range 18
Township 81, Range 14 ....
Township 81, Range 15	
Township 81, Range 16	
Township 81, Range 17	
Township 82, Range 14	
Totals	
TERRACE SURVEY
C. V. Faulknor, B.S.A., Land Inspector
During the first two weeks of the 1950 season, members of the Vanderhoof party
moved to Terrace to check certain phases of the 1949 survey, special attention being given
to parcels of Crown land with farm-unit potentialities.
On reclassification of some 47,490 acres of available Crown and reverted land, 4,375
acres were considered to be arable, 2,285 acres limited arable, and the remainder non-
arable.
A more intensive examination of the arable acreage revealed that a considerable
portion of this was unsuitable for inclusion in farm units because of heavy cover, drainage
or flooding problems, or poor accessibility. It is estimated that there are fourteen suitable
units of undeveloped Crown land now available for new settlement in the Terrace area.
These have been placed on reserve for agricultural use as a step toward the proper utilization of the remaining undeveloped land.
The first week of June the party returned to Vanderhoof, where they remained until
the end of the survey season.
VANDERHOOF SURVEY
C. V. Faulknor, B.S.A., Land Inspector
The post-war years have been marked by a growing interest in the North-Central
portion of the Province. Large industrial concerns have started to probe the outlying
areas with an eye to future needs. Increasing demands for lumber and beef and stabilization of the grain market have resulted in a heavy influx of settlers to this region in search
of new timber-stands and undeveloped farm land.
Extending for 100 miles west from Prince George, the Nechako Plateau is said to
contain the largest continuous acreage of undeveloped arable land west of the Rocky
Mountains. The favourable topography and lightly forested nature of the Vanderhoof
area singles it out as the choicest part of this region for agricultural development. Numerous large, well-equipped farms in this vicinity indicate that a goodly portion of the
occupants secure from the land a return that is considerably above subsistence level, and
that a type of agriculture has been developed that is adaptable to the particular soil and
climatic conditions found there.
Soils of the area are of the northern Grey Wooded and the Grey-black transition
type, and can be divided into five main categories as to origin—soils developed from
glacial till, soils derived from heavy-textured lacustrine deposits, soils derived from silty-
textured lacustrine deposits, more recent soils that have developed from silty alluvium,
and miscellaneous organic deposits. Lacustrine clays, silt loams, and silty clay loams
are the soils of agricultural importance and comprise about 50 per cent of the surveyed II 44 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
area. All these are highly productive, but differ in workability according to texture.
Surface stones are rare in the district, although " stony clay " has been noted in patches
where parent glacial till shows through the overlying lacustrine mantle.
The climate of the Vanderhoof region is of the Continental type, featuring a distinct
demarcation between the four seasons. Average mean temperature taken over a twenty-
four-year period is 35° F., with an average mean of 55° F. for the months of June, July,
and August. The average annual precipitation is 13.3 inches; average for the period
May 1st to August 31st is 4.43 inches, or about 1.2 inches per month during the growing
season. Three to four feet of snow falls in the area during a normal winter, seldom
reaching a depth of more than 2 or 3 feet at any one time. Taking 29° F. as a killing-
frost, the average frost-free period is approximately sixty days, resulting in a growing
season that is short enough to constitute a serious handicap .to agriculture. Special farming practices and selection of the more hardy and early-maturing crop species have offset
this disadvantage to a marked degree.
Chief agricultural products of the Nechako Valley are beef, grain, seed, and forage
crops. In the Vanderhoof area some 25,000 bushels of wheat, 70,000 bushels of oats,
and 15,000 bushels of barley and rye are produced annually on a total of 3,500 acres.
An additional 1,250 acres provide an annual seed yield of about 145,000 pounds of
alsike clover, red clover, and sweet clover; alsike seed comprises over 75 per cent of this
total. Grain exported through the co-operatively owned elevator amounts to 10,000 to
15,000 bushels of wheat and 5,000 to 6,000 bushels of oats annually. The remainder
of the grain produced is fed on the farm or marketed locally, while the bulk of the
forage-seed crop is handled by individual sales. Live-stock shipments consist mainly
of beef cattle and sheep, with a few hogs. Destination of these shipments is either
Vancouver or Edmonton, a greater percentage going to Vancouver.
This year's survey covered portions of eight townships from Vanderhoof west to
Willowvale, the eastern boundary being the 124th meridian and the southern boundary
the 54th parallel. Within this area some 136,940 acres were classified and mapped,
showing land-capability classes and present use. Crown or reverted land totalled 96,265
acres; privately owned land, 38,675 acres; and private land developed, 11,395 acres.
The arable and limited-arable acreage was found to comprise about 43 per cent of the
total area, as follows: Arable land, 45,435 acres; limited arable, 13,685 acres; and non-
arable, 77,820 acres. Of the 98,265 acres of available Crown land, 19,780 acres were
considered arable, 7,685 acres limited arable, and the remainder unsuited to cultivation.
The arable classes thus comprise about 28 per cent of the land still available for new
settlement.
Individual field sheets were made out for some 230 quarter-section parcels of arable
Crown and reverted land, detailing various features of each parcel with regard to its
suitability as part of a farm unit.
Present farming practices within the area indicate a trend toward larger farm units,
with an emphasis on greater mechanization. It was estimated that 320 acres comprise an
economic farm unit in the Vanderhoof region, and that at least 100 acres would have to
be cleared at the outset if the farm were to be operated on a full-time basis. The Crown-
held arable acreage indicates a maximum of sixty-two available units within the surveyed area, but a more intensive investigation of these is bound to reduce this number
appreciably.
The survey results indicate that the Vanderhoof area possesses a considerable acreage
of arable land available for future settlement. Spruce, aspen, and pine trees that cover
much of the district are generally small in diameter, and the stands are of moderate
density, land-clearing costs averaging about $30 per acre at present rates. Other factors
favouring the settler are off-season employment opportunities, and excellent hunting and
fishing in the surrounding areas.   Disadvantages, such as the short growing season, and LANDS BRANCH II 45
heavy texture of most of the soils can be overcome by proper farming methods. It is
generally conceded that a permanent agriculture in this region must be supported by
a sound live-stock industry; any steps that will encourage this industry are highly desirable.
PRINCE GEORGE SURVEY
J. H. Neufeld, B.S.A., Land Inspector
The survey was started in May with a party of three, under the direction of Mr.
Drewry of this Division. After a period of three weeks Mr. Drewry left the party and the
work was carried on by R. E. Gordon, undergraduate in agricultural mechanics, University
of British Columbia, and the writer until the middle of September. During this time
28,070 acres of land selected from the earlier land-utilization survey were reinspected,
with the objective of choosing portions of land which would constitute economic farm
units.
Of the above-mentioned total, 17,070 acres were covered by detailed foot traverses.
Of this acreage, 8,170 were found suitable for settlement and were divided into forty-
three farm units; 8,900 acres were found unsuitable for settlement at the present time
because of high clearing costs or poor or no access. The, latter, however, may become
suitable for settlement when a less expensive method of clearing bush land is developed
or the demand for farm products becomes such that a higher cost of land becomes
economic, in which case some fifty farm units could be added to the present number of
forty-three. The remaining 11,000 acres, examined only by jeep traverses, obviously did
not fall within the standards set for economic farm units because of existing commercial
timber or adverse soil or topography.
A four-page report, which includes a cover and capability map and pertinent information regarding the unit as a farming chance, has been made of each of the forty-three
selected parcels, and these reports were prepared in triplicate. Two copies will be filed
in the land-utilization office, and one sent to the Land Inspector at Prince George. One
of the former will be made available to any interested agency upon request to the Director.
In addition, a block of twenty-one farm units south of the Salmon River and east of
the Hart Highway was mapped as a prospective settlement scheme. These twenty-one
units are sufficiently concentrated to make a block settlement feasible. However, it is
only feasible if good access is established and if clearing costs and provision of water
supply, in the form of a dugout, be partially subsidized. It was recommended that access
be provided by the construction of some 8 miles of all-weather road and the improvement
of a further 6 miles, that 50 acres be cut and piled on each unit, and that water be provided
by the construction of a dugout. These operations should be subsidized to the extent that
the partially improved land could be sold to prospective settlers at its market value.
This survey should not be taken as the final word in the selection of farm units in the
area. As the area develops, an entirely different picture of settlement possibilities may
evolve.
EXPERIMENTAL SETTLEMENT UNIT, PRINCE GEORGE
This Division, co-operating with the British Columbia Department of Agriculture
and the Land Settlement Board, cleared and partially broke 100 acres of an experimental
unit in order to obtain accurate costs of developing farm land. The development was
carried out on the East Half of Lot 1550, a Land Settlement Board property in the Pine-
view district south of Prince George.
The unit was mapped in detail by Land Inspectors of this Division, and the borders
of the portion to be cleared were blazed to provide a guide for the clearing-machines.
A patch of timber, about 5 acres in extent, was set apart as a farm wood-lot adjacent to>
the proposed farmstead. II 46 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Six machines were brought in by the land-clearing division of the Department of
Agriculture to do the clearing and piling. This was accomplished in a few days, and the
piles were burned shortly after so that some breaking and fall seeding could be done. The
first burning of the piles, using portable flame-throwers, was only moderately successful,
resulting in a fairly heavy bill for repiling and subsequent burning. Eighty-four acres
were broken, forty-nine by a mould-board plough and thirty-five using a one-way disk.
Four acres were seeded to fall wheat. The Department of Agriculture is supervising the
cropping and management of the unit.
Accurate records were kept of the cost of each operation, and while these records
in some cases show costs far in excess of previous estimates, they do provide a factual basis
for estimating the cost of farm-development in the future. Careful study of the costs of
the different operations also gives some important guidance as to where economies might
be effected in future clearing operations.
It was found that the clearing and piling of the moderately dense aspen, averaging
6 inches in diameter, and occasional spruce up to 10 or 12 inches in diameter, cost $50.80
per acre. The remainder of the clearing operation, including repiling and burning the
windrows, brought the cost up to $65.63 per acre. The breaking added an average of
$10.88, to bring the total cost for preparing the land for cropping to $76:51 per acre. The
market value of similar improved land in the Prince George district ranges from $40 to
$70 per acre. Clearly the operation was not an economic success, though the information
gained more than offsets the financial loss. It is also felt that, as a result of this information, it will be possible to reduce future costs by perhaps $10 or $15 per acre. It should
be explained, also, that labour charges for the operation were rather high because suitable
men were not available for such a brief period of employment.
The experiment has served its prime purpose—that of providing a factual basis for
estimating clearing costs, a vital step in our farm-unit selection programme. It is intended
to further pursue the study in 1951, perhaps with a survey of private clearing operations.
An excellent opportunity will be provided for such a study if it is decided to proceed with
a proposal of this Division to assist the settlement of a suitable block of farm units north
of Prince George by clearing a portion on each unit. In the meantime the experimental
unit may be leased on a crop-share basis until it is completely developed and sold.
BRIEF ON A LAND SETTLEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT POLICY
FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA
Neil T. Drewry, B.S.A., Assistant Director
Land utilization surveys in British Columbia show that new settlement is not keeping
pace with expansion in other industries; in fact, it is not registering any appreciable
expansion. In an attempt to determine the underlying causes and to suggest possible
remedies, this Division has conducted an extensive research, culminating in a brief recommending a policy of assistance in settlement and land-development for British Columbia.
Three main arguments were put forth supporting the contention that the settlement
of our forested lands cannot succeed without public assistance. These arguments were
based upon, firstly, the lack of progress in the alienation of agricultural lands as shown by
the statistics of pre-emptions and land sales compared with the statistics of cancellations
and tax-sale reversions; secondly, the results of settlement studies conducted by the
Federal Department of Agriculture in British Columbia and other Provinces where
similar conditions prevail; and, thirdly, the measures which other Provinces have found
necessary to adopt to encourage the settlement and development of forested lands.
Evidence supporting the need for increasing agricultural production and extending
settlement centred upon (a) the small per capita acreage of cultivated land in British
Columbia—1 acre per person;   (b) the wide and increasing ratio of urban to rural
- LANDS BRANCH II 47
population, and the extreme concentration of population in the south-west corner of the
Province; (c) the pattern of Provincial trade with respect to primary agricultural commodities, especially animal products; and (d) the advantages of integrating agricultural
expansion with industrial expansion to maintain a balanced economy.
Administrative details have not yet been outlined, but the principles involved have
been made quite clear. Due to the diverse nature of agriculture in British Columbia,
a comprehensive authority is necessary to deal with the great variety of situations which
are encountered. The "Land Settlement and Development Act," 1917, contained the
necessary broad powers. Insufficient planning and lack of appreciation of the problems
involved were the main causes of the mediocre success of previous attempts at assisted
settlement under this Act. It might be said that the failures of previous schemes were
also due to poor timing. They were attempted before the Province was ready for them.
These conditions have now changed in favour of another attempt at assisted settlement.
A great deal of research data and technical knowledge is now available to direct future
efforts along more realistic lines. Improvements in communications, expansion of industrial enterprises, and increases in population and purchasing power combine to* ensure
a greater measure of success to a new venture in assisted colonization.
The question of Dominion assistance in Provincial colonization has also been explored. Unofficial opinion has expressed the possibility that such aid might be forthcoming if new settlement could be integrated with the re-establishment of Prairie farmers.
The possibilities of such an arrangement should be investigated at the policy level,
supported by information which can be furnished by the technical divisions.
NORTH SAANICH LAND UTILIZATION SURVEY
Neil T. Drewry, B.S.A., Assistant Director
The whole problem of future water-supplies for Victoria and adjacent municipalities
has been under study by civic and Provincial authorities since 1947. The rapid rise in
urban population has made it imperative that the water-supply be increased and the distribution be extended. At the same time, the expanded urban market has called for
increased agricultural production from the adjacent rural areas. Since the area of suitable
land is limited and the cost of developing new land high, the possibility of increasing
production by irrigation in the Saanich Peninsula is being considered, and since concentrations of population on the peninsula are in need of domestic water, a system which
could provide both requirements is desired.
To assist in determining the probable capacity required of such a system, the Soil
Survey Branch of the Department of Agriculture conducted a land-utilization survey of
Saanich Municipality in 1948. At the request of the Comptroller of Water Rights, this
Division extended the survey to include the remainder of the Saanich Peninsula north of
the municipal boundary. Maps showing present land utilization and potentially arable
land, as well as other cultural features, were prepared on base maps supplied by the
Regional Planning Division, Department of Municipal Affairs. The map-area totals
approximately 10,750 acres, of which 3,500 acres are now under cultivation and can be
regarded as irrigable, while a further 2,500 acres probably could be brought under cultivation. Cultural features were interpreted largely from aerial photos obtained from the
air-photo library, Department of Lands and Forests. Soil boundaries were taken from
maps prepared by R. H. Spilsbury, of the British Columbia Forest Service, and L. Farstad,
Dominion Experimental Farms Service, in 1944.
PARTICIPATION AND PUBLIC RELATIONS
This Division was represented on six major committees studying special agricultural
problems and aspects of agricultural production and farm-development.   These meetings II 48 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
make definite contributions to the solution of problems, the furthering of agricultural
extension, and the education of our own staff. A number of specialists, by getting together,
pool their knowledge to effect the solution of particularly difficult questions. In turn, the
specialists benefit greatly from the interchange of technical knowledge.
Your Director, or other members of the organization, was represented on the following bodies:—
(a) Sub-committee of British Columbia Co-ordinating Committee on Proposed
Camp Lister Irrigation Project.
(b) Committee on the Selection of Sites for Experimental Substations in the
East Kootenays.
(c) Co-ordinating Committee on Agriculture of Central British Columbia.
(d) Sub-committee of British Columbia Co-ordinating Committee on the
Niskonlith Irrigation Proposal.
(e) Agricultural Committee of the Third British Columbia Natural Resources
Conference.
*     (/)   Dominion-Provincial Soil Correlation Committee for the Alberta-British
Columbia Peace River Block.
PROGRAMME FOR 1951
The surveys which have been in progress in the Central Interior and Peace River
District since 1947 will be continued in 1951.
The survey of the Vanderhoof district, including the selection of a number of farm
units, should be completed during the coming season. This will bring to four the number
of such surveys in the Central Interior adjacent to the Canadian National Railway
northern main line. The Upper Fraser Valley, east of Prince George, will probably
receive attention in the near future. The settlement of other districts farther from the
railway will have to await improved communications and marketing facilities. There
are known to be potentially arable lands in the vicinity of Stuart and Pinchi Lakes, also
along the Nechako River between Prince George and Vanderhoof.
The Peace River party has almost completed the survey of the agricultural lands
south of the Peace River. When this is completed, possibly this coming year, the survey
of the great area north of the river will begin as a separate project, since the river divides
the area into two more or less separate geographic entities. Approximately half the
presently accessible lands lie north of the river.
The reclamation of the Lillooet Valley at Pemberton is entering the final phase, with
the completion of the main drainage works by P.F.R.A. engineers. This Division proposes
to supply two technicians to assist in working out the drainage of the individual farms and
the remaining Crown lands, and to submit a plan for their utilization.
The appraisal of the capabilities and the cost of rehabilitation of the Doukhobor lands
in the Kootenays has been under consideration by this Division for some time. The Commission investigating Doukhobor problems under Dr. N. A. M. MacKenzie has suggested
that this work be undertaken in 1951. It is likely that the University of British Columbia
will provide some technical assistance to this project, in addition to the findings of a team
of specialists employed there in 1950.
The programme outlined above will keep the present staff of the Division fully
occupied during the 1951 season. If past experience can be used as a guide, there will
be a number of requests by the Department for special investigations. These will receive
attention by the Director or other members of the staff as the circumstances require.
PERSONNEL
The Division was reconstituted in 1946 with the appointment of your present
Director, replacing F. D. Mulholland, who left for employment in a private forest industry LANDS BRANCH
II 49
in 1945. The staff now numbers ten—Director, Assistant Director, three Land Inspectors, two draughtsmen, two technical survey assistants, and a stenographer. J. H. Neufeld, Land Inspector, and J. Rutter, junior draughtsman, were added to the staff during
the current year.
Personnel of Land Utilization Research and Survey, 1950
D. Sutherland, Director.
N. T. Drewry, Assistant Director.
C. V. Faulknor, Land Inspector.
J. S. Gilmore, Land Inspector.
J. H. Neufeld, Land Inspector.
A. L. Fraser, Supervising Draughtsman (Temporary).
D. MacBride, Technical Survey Assistant.
E. W. McDonald, Technical Survey Assistant.
J. Rutter, Junior Draughtsman (Probationary).
S. Roissetter, Clerk-Stenographer.
Eleven graduate and undergraduate students from the University of British Columbia
were employed during the summer months on three survey parties—six in the Peace River,
four at Vanderhoof, and one at Prince George. This arrangement has again proved of
mutual advantage to the employer and employees. The University has provided each
year a group of assistants of high calibre.
SUMMARY AND MAP OF SOIL-SURVEYS AND LAND-UTILIZATION
SURVEYS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
A. L. Farley, M.A.
A great deal of very useful information regarding the major settlement areas of
British Columbia has been assembled through soil-surveys and land-utilization surveys.
This material, in the form of maps and reports, presents information ranging from topography, soils, and other features of the physical earth to details of existing settlement and
possible future development. This work has been in progress for some years, and it was
felt that a summary and map of the areas for which information is available would be
welcomed by all who are interested in land and land-development. The material from
which this summary is compiled was obtained through the co-operation of C. C. Kelley,
Provincial Department of Agriculture; L. Farstad, Department of Agriculture, Canada;
and D. Sutherland, Provincial Department of Lands and Forests.
Origin and Development of Soil-surveys and Land-use Surveys
Soil-surveys have been in operation in British Columbia since 1932 and have as their
immediate objective the systematic classification and mapping of soils in the various
settlement areas of the Province. Up to 1940 the surveys were conducted on a small scale,
but since that date they have greatly expanded in keeping with the increased tempo of
Provincial development.
Close co-operation is maintained between the Provincial and Federal Governments
in the direction of the surveys—C. C. Kelley for British Columbia and L. Farstad for
Canada. In addition, assistance is furnished by Dr. D. G. Laird and Dr. C. A. Rowles,
staff members of the Agronomy Department, University of British Columbia. The
University also provides a number of graduate and undergraduate agriculture students
who take summer employment with the field parties.
Three reports have been published by the King's Printer, Ottawa, covering surveys
in the Lower Fraser Valley, the Prince George area, and the Okanagan and Similkameen
Valleys. Another report, now in the process of publication, covers the area adjoining the
Canadian National Railway from Prince George to Terrace and extends into the Lakes
District south of Burns Lake. A fifth survey, dealing with the Upper Kootenay River
valley, is being prepared for publication. II 50 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Land-utilization surveys in British Columbia began in 1942 under the direction
of F. D. Mulholland. Some 176,000 acres of land in the Nechako Valley were surveyed
before discontinuation of the surveys in 1944. The Land Utilization Division was
reconstituted in 1946, with D. Sutherland as Director.
The objective of the Division is the classification of Crown lands in the Province,
and from this the determination of land considered suitable for settlement in economic
farm units. Personnel in this Division are assisted in field work by students and faculty
members of the University of British Columbia, particularly those in the Agronomy and
Geology and Geography Departments.
Though no land-utilization reports have been published, the Terrace report is now
ready for publication, and a considerable amount of material in the form of tracings,
field maps, and reports regarding the various surveys is available for consultation.*
Besides this, detailed information concerning economic farm units and recommended
farming practices has been made available to the offices of Government Agents in each of
the survey areas.
Interpretation of the Map and Tabular Data
The following tabular data and accompanying map offer a reference to all areas in
the Province covered by either or both soil and land-utilization surveys. For easier
consultation, the surveys have been grouped by areas in the tables and on the map.
Since the map is necessarily of small scale, differentiation between detailed and
reconnaissance surveys could not be easily represented. Again, most of the detailed
surveys lie within larger reconnaissance surveys. Thus, for either soil or land-use surveys, where separate surveys cover contiguous areas, a single symbol is used; where
separate surveys cover separate areas, each is given an individual symbol; and where
the same survey covers separate areas, the designated symbol is repeated as necessary.
The table of land-use studies represents surveys made by the Land Utilization
Research and Survey Division which was reconstituted in 1946. Hence it does not
include the land-use survey in the Nechako area undertaken by F. D. Mulholland in
1944. The area covered by Mr. Mulholland, however, lies largely within the scope of
the 1949—1950 land-use survey carried out in the Vanderhoof area.
Where the table indicates that tracings, field-maps, etc., are available, such material,
along with survey reports, is available for consultation in the General Office, Department
of Agriculture, Victoria, or in the Land Utilization Division, British Columbia Lands
Service, Department of Lands and Forests, Victoria. Where tracings are indicated as
available, copies may be had upon written request to the authority concerned.
For further information regarding soil-surveys in the Peace River area, Central
Interior, and Vancouver Island, correspondence should be directed to L. Farstad, Senior
Pedologist, Experimental Farm Service, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.
For further particulars regarding soil-surveys in the southern portion of the Province and
regarding detailed surveys, C. C. Kelley, Provincial Soil Surveyor, 1476 Water Street,
Kelowna, B.C., should be consulted. Additional information concerning land-use surveys can be obtained from D. Sutherland, Director, Land Utilization Research and
Survey Division, Department of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
* A series of seven land-use maps by F. D. Mulholland, covering 136,000 acres in the Nechako Valley, was published
in 1942. In 1950 this area was resurveyed, using a revised classification with the intention of consolidating the information on one map-sheet. 139°        138°        137° 136°        135°        134°        133°       132°        131° 13Q°        129°        128°        127°       126°       125°        124°       123°        122°        121°        120°        119°        118° 117°
116° 115°
SOIL SURVEYS
114° 113° 112° 111° no*
(Department  of  Agriculture,   British
Columbia, and Department of
Agriculture, Canada)
LAND  USE  SURVEYS
(Department of Lands and Forests,
British Columbia)
Key
Date Letter
1950
950
1948
Acreage Date
Vancouver Island and Gulf Is.
46,559*       1948, 1950
* Completed  jointly  by   Provincial
Soil Surveys and Provincial Land
Use Surveys
Middle and Lower Fraser
25,000
1,000
16,500
1947
1947
1949
2,000 1948
668,000 1947-1949
137,000 1950
87,500 1949-1950
58
57
DEPARTMENT of LANDS  and  FORESTS
Honourable E. T. Kenney, Minister
Scale of    miles
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O II 58 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
LAND INSPECTION DIVISION
H. E. Whyte, B.Sc, D.L.S., B.C.L.S., Chief Land Inspector
As predicted in my report of last year, the addition of three new Land Inspectors in
that period has had a marked effect in reducing the number of outstanding land examinations. In the Peace River District, however, due to the activity in that area, the backlog
of examinations required has increased. Unfortunately, it was found impossible to
supply extra assistance for that district during the year.
It is to be noted that, even with nine Inspectors, a large percentage of the examinations are still being carried out by the British Columbia Forest Service. A reduction
could be made in this percentage, however, if stenographic assistance could be supplied
in the case of several of the Land Inspectors. This would permit them to spend more
time on field work.
It is gratifying to know that the general public is now becoming aware of the service
offered by the Land Inspection Division. To-day the various Inspectors are being
consulted more frequently for assistance regarding land-settlement problems in their
respective districts.
With the exception of the Peace River District, new settlers have not arrived in
British Columbia in any large numbers. On the other hand, acquisition of Crown land
over a large part of the Province has been made by residents wishing to add to their
present holdings.
More air photos have been made available for the use of the Inspectors either by
purchase by this Division or by reference to Forest Service libraries. The use of these
photos enables the land examinations to be made with more speed and thoroughness.
Reference to these air photos is more and more frequently made by the general public, in
keeping with the increasing recognition of the valuable information that can be obtained
from a study of them.
The use of land-clearing machinery, made available by the British Columbia Department of Agriculture, has greatly assisted many farmers to increase the amount of their
cleared acreage. This service I consider to be an excellent one, well warranted, and
productive of splendid results both to the individual farmer and to the Province.
The following table shows the number and type of inspections that I made during
the year:—
Purchases—
Agricultural     1
Industrial and commercial :     2
Leases—
Land—Industrial and commercial     1
Foreshore—
Booming and log storage     2
Industrial and commercial  10
Oyster and shell-fish     1
Subdivisions—
Valuations     1
Survey inspections     1
Plans cancellation     1
Reserves     1
Miscellaneous inspections     1
Total   22 LANDS BRANCH II 59
The following table indicates the number and type of inspections made by the whole
of the Land Inspection Division during the year:—
Purchases—
Agricultural  306
Home-sites   105
Industrial and commercial  25
Camp-sites and resorts  26
Wood-lots  8
Miscellaneous  23
Leases—
Land—•
Agricultural  11
Home-sites   11
Industrial and commercial  8
Quarrying, sand, gravel, limestone, etc.:  7
Fur-farming   1
Grazing (including hay-cutting)  121
Miscellaneous  12
Foreshore-
Booming and log storage  19
Industrial and commercial  35
Oyster and shell-fish  2
Miscellaneous  1
Land-use permits, licences of occupation, easements, etc  15
Pre-emptions—
Applications  78
Annual inspections  220
Subdivisions—
Valuations  8
Selection Crown's quarter-interest  5
Survey inspections  2
Plans cancellation  4
Reserves  30
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act "  13
Land Settlement Board—
Land classification  12
Valuations  132
Miscellaneous inspections  77
Total  1,317
D. BORTHWICK, B.S.A., LAND INSPECTOR, KAMLOOPS
The writer was transferred from New Westminster on April 17th, 1950, to the Kamloops office. During the first three and one-half months of the year, which were spent at
New Westminster, a total of eighteen inspections was made; these are classified in the
table at the end of this report.
Since coming to Kamloops, a total of ninety-two inspections has been made, of which
57 per cent were applications for grazing leases, involving some 45,000 acres. Many of
these were outstanding renewals of Dominion ranch leases and ranged in area from 80
acres to 12,000 acres.
An attempt was made to inspect as many of the pre-emptions as possible. All of
the inspections were made in the Kamloops and Barriere Ranger Districts and a number II 60
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
were done for the Chase and Clinton districts. It is generally felt that the pre-emption
sections of the " Land Act " have outlived their usefulness in this district, where extensive
cattle-ranching is the chief form of agriculture. Any bench-lands that can be irrigated
have long since been alienated, so that high-class agricultural land is practically nonexistent for pre-emption purposes. A glaring example of the unsuitability of parts of this
district for pre-empting are the Beresford, Rose Hill, Knutsford, and Lac du Bois areas,
surrounding Kamloops, where extensive homesteading took place after World War I and
attempts were made to dry-farm these sections. Tumble-down houses and barns still
stand in mute evidence of their failure, and the land, for most part, is now used for grazing
cattle.
During the past season my work was confined chiefly to the Lillooet, Clinton, Barriere, Kamloops, and Chase Ranger Districts, where a backlog of work has been cleared up.
At the present time I feel that the land-inspection work is well in hand. There are
a small number of inspections yet to do. However, these are all applications of recent date.
There does not seem to be any trend of extensive land settlement in this district;
land purchases and leases were mainly made by established residents who were enlarging
their holdings or reapplying for leases which had expired.
The following table indicates the classification and number of inspections which
I have completed during the past year at New Westminster and Kamloops:—
Classification
New Westminster
Kamloops
Total
Purchases—
Agriculture and grazing     	
Home-sites   	
Camp-sites and resorts _	
Wood-lots —-   - 	
Miscellaneous  __ —	
Land leases—
Home-sites    ._.	
Industrial and commercial  	
Quarrying, sand, gravel, limestone 	
Grazing (including hay-cutting) 	
Miscellaneous— _ -  	
Land-use permits, licences of occupation, easements, etc.
Pre-emptions—
Applications      ., 	
Annual inspections    	
Subdivisions—Valuations - -
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act "_ - —
Miscellaneous inspections   .	
Totals      _
10
4
2
1
1
52
3
16
12
9
2
1
2
1
1
1
52
1
1
3
21
1
1
1
18
92
110
F. M. CUNNINGHAM, B.S.A., LAND INSPECTOR, NELSON
The backlog of inspections at the time of my last annual report was twenty-eight.
The number of inspections received in this district during the past year totalled 119,
which made a total of 147 inspections to be done during the year. Of these I did ninety-
nine, the Rangers did thirty-eight, leaving still ten to be done. The number of inspections
received in the District Forester's office is again down this year from last year, the number
received this year being 119, as compared to 141 for last year, or a drop of approximately
14 percent.
Again, most of the applications to lease and purchase centred in the Cranbrook
district, and again about 60 per cent of the applications were for home-site purposes.
Slightly less than one-third of all inspections made throughout the district were for
home-site purposes and slightly more than one-third were for agricultural purposes, the
remaining one-third being for a variety of uses.
There is practically no new raw land being purchased or leased, but rather the applications to purchase, lease, or other usage are invariably for reverted lands.   This is under- LANDS BRANCH II 61
standable when the mountainous conditions of this district are considered. It can be quite
safely said that any new farming development in this district will centre in one or all of
four districts, these being the Creston flats, dependent on reclamation; the Camp Lister
area, dependent on irrigation; the Lardeau district, dependent on road access being provided; and finally the Midway-Kettle Valley district, dependent on irrigation also. Of
these four, the Creston flats seems to be the first to be developed, as reclamation plans are
already under way. The Camp Lister area would appear to be the next on the list, and
officials appointed by the " Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act " are now making an examination of this area, following a survey done by the Land Utilization Division. The Lardeau
and Kettle Valley districts are taking a back seat at present, but may come to the fore in
the future when land-development demands warrant the opening-up of these two areas.
In addition to the above-mentioned work, a larger, more comprehensive report was
sent in concerning possible veteran settlement in the Nakusp area, also a report on the
Lardeau district and one covering the old Alexander timber limits of the Camp Lister area.
These latter two reports are still in the compilation stage, the field work having been
completed, however.
In June of this year I approached the Forest Service with the idea of formulating
a better working arrangement for handling land examinations. An arrangement was
worked out tentatively whereby I would take over completely certain of the Ranger Districts, and leave all work in the other districts to the Rangers themselves. This arrangement worked out very well for several reasons, one being that the work which I was now
doing was more concentrated, which in turn resulted in less travelling and less mileage.
It also meant that each Ranger knew exactly the work for which he was responsible. The
Rangers outside my territory, however, were given to understand that I was still on call
for any examinations which the Ranger did not want to do or for advice regarding land
examinations. In September of this year I found that I was in a position to handle more
work, which resulted in five more Ranger Districts being added to my territory. At
present, therefore, I am handling all the Nelson Forest District, with the exception of five
Ranger Districts. I now feel that I can take over these five districts as well if I could
secure the assistance of a stenographer for part time. This would be necessary, as the
office work and field work together would be too much to handle by myself. I discussed
the possibility of taking over the entire district with the Forest Service officials here, and
they were in accord with the suggestion. There would be several points to be ironed out
of course, but the main drawback to acting on this proposal would be the stenographic
assistance.
An office move was made at the beginning of this month to the K.W.C. Block in the
centre of town, said office being shared with Mr. Spielmans of the Land Settlement Board
and Mr. House of the Hospital Insurance Service. The present office is much more comfortable and more readily accessible to the public. A change was made in the telephone
connection, whereby we are now connected directly to the Court-house switchboard, which
makes it much more convenient for interdepartmental calls, and outside calls as well.
In summarizing the year's activity I can say that probably less time has been spent
in the field per examination than last year, this being due mainly to the fact that more and
more back-roads, logging-roads, trails, corner posts, etc., are now known to me. Unfortunately, while the time spent in the field is on the decrease, the time spent in the office is
increasing in proportion, which means that an increase in land examinations or inspections
is not practical. The increase in office work, however, indicates that the public is becoming more and more aware of the services at their disposal through this office, and I find
now that a large number of letters of inquiry and even application are coming directly to
me rather than to the Government Agent. In general, land purchases are still on the
decline and will probably remain so until new development, either irrigation or reclamation, opens up new land.   Such are necessary in this district to supplement the two main II 62 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
industries—mining and lumbering. At the present time it is impossible for the present
farming area to even supply the main centres of population with essential farm products
such as milk, butter, eggs, and meat, and the industrial centres of Kimberley and Trail rely
to a large extent on imports of these basic commodities from Alberta and the Okanagan
respectively. The dairy jndustry has increased rapidly in the Creston district and is helping to alleviate this situation, but the district as a whole is far from being agriculturally
self-supporting.
Again, I would mention the co-operation which has been extended to me by the
various Government officials with whom I have come in contact, and take this opportunity
to extend my thanks.
The following table gives a classification of inspections made:—
Purchases—
Agricultural     3 5
Home-sites     30
Industrial and commercial       5
Camp-sites and resorts       9
Wood-lots       3
Miscellaneous       8
Leases—
Land—
Agricultural       1
Home-site       1
Quarrying, sand, gravel, limestone, etc       1
Grazing (including haycutting)       4
Foreshore—Industrial and commercial       3
Land-use permits, licences of occupation, easements, etc       2
Pre-emptions—
Applications        1
Inspections      17
Subdivisions—Selection Crown's quarter-interest       3
Reserves       1
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act "       2
Land Settlement Board—Land classification       1
Miscellaneous inspections     40
Total  167
JOHN A. ESLER, B.S.A., LAND INSPECTOR, WILLIAMS LAKE
For three weeks during February and March, L. D. Fraser and I worked in the Land
Registry Office in Kamloops bringing the subdivisions up to date on a soils map of the
Salmon Arm Irrigation District.
A severe winter, with temperatures down to 60 degrees below zero, was followed by
a late spring. But a dry summer made field work quite pleasant. Heavy snow came on
November 13th.
Land applications were as follows: Requests to December 1st, 1950, 100; examined
to December 1st, 1950, 80; outstanding at December 1st, 1950, 29; carry-over from
1949, 9.
Of the thirty-eight applications to purchase, 50 per cent were for agricultural purposes; mainly to consolidate the ranchers' holdings. Forty-two per cent were applications for home-sites and came, in the main, from our American neighbours and people
from our own cities who have come to appreciate the fishing and hunting possibilities
throughout the Cariboo.    In addition, a vast increase in the number of mills in the LANDS BRANCH II 63
vicinity has resulted in a search for suitable home-site locations by mill-owners and mill-
hands.
Twelve of the fifteen leases applied for were for hay and grazing. Mostly it was a
matter of the rancher leasing the area under his control. Applications for pre-emptions
made up the largest number, being 22 per cent of the total. The majority came from the
Forest Grove-Bridge Lake area, where mixed farming is more practical than around
Williams Lake.
Of the sixty-seven annual pre-emption inspections, forty were done by the writer,
eighteen by Forest Service personnel, and nine not inspected.
It is felt that more time should be spent on the inspection of suitable public reserves
on the many fine lakes in this area. Road improvements make lakes more accessible, and
this results in more applications for water-front property. The great number of inquiries
about Crown land is an indication of the interest being shown in the central part of the
Cariboo.
Interesting experience was gained this summer with the Assessor and other members
of the Department of Finance who are reassessing the grazing lands in this district.
The purchase of air photos by the Inspection Division to cover a large part of this
area is extremely useful in land-inspection work.
Forest Service personnel and Government officials in other departments have been
co-operative in all phases of the land-inspection work, and I wish to express my appreciation to them for their help.
The following is a list of the inspections done:—
Purchases—
Agricultural  19
Home-sites  16
Industrial and commercial ,  1
Camp-sites and resorts  2
Miscellaneous  1
Land leases—
Home-sites   2
Industrial and commercial  1
Grazing (including hay-cutting)  12
Pre-emptions—
Applications   22
Annual inspections  40
Reserves  6
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act "  3
Land Settlement Board—
Land classification  1
Valuations  1
Miscellaneous inspections   2
Total   129
L. D. FRASER, B.S.A., LAND INSPECTOR, KAMLOOPS
Ninety-two land examinations were made this season. The work covered the Kamloops Forest District, with the exception of three Ranger Districts in the Cariboo which
are handled from the Williams Lake Office.
Grazing leases in the Kamloops, Clinton, and Barriere districts demanded most of
my time. Over 40 per cent of the inspections were for grazing-lease renewals or new
grazing leases, ranging in area from 80-acre to over 11,000-acre units. II 64 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Purchases for agricultural land consisted of small units for home-site purposes or
additional area to supplement the needs of the home farm.
Land suitable for pre-empting in this area is very scarce. In my opinion, Part II
(Pre-emption of Crown Lands) of the " Land Act" has outlived its usefulness for the
greater part of Central British Columbia.
Land settlement is slow in this district, due to the fact that the good agricultural
land has long since been alienated. The remaining arable land is either inaccessible or
requires expensive irrigation equipment. A certain amount of land is changing hands,
but usually the buyer is a resident and not a new settler.
Industrial and commercial development is at a low ebb in the Kamloops area. Most
of this activity is concentrated on hunting and fishing lodge-sites for the tourist trade.
A reconnaissance of the Shuswap Lake shore was made with the view of reserving
suitable beaches for the use and enjoyment of the public. In addition to the reserves
already established on this lake, several more were recommended.
In conclusion I feel that the work is well in hand in this area. The backlog of
requests has been practically eliminated and the few remaining applications are of recent
date.
The classification of land inspections for 1950 is as follows:—
Purchases—
Agricultural and grazing  19
Home-sites   11
Industrial and commercial     2
Camp-sites and resorts     1
Leases—
Land—
Industrial and commercial     2
Grazing (including hay-cutting)  38
Foreshore—
Booming and log storage     1
Industrial and commercial     4
Land-use permits, licences of occupation, easements, etc.      1
Pre-emptions—
Applications      2
Annual inspections     5
Subdivisions—
Selection Crown's quarter-interest     1
Survey inspections     1
Reserves -     3
Land Settlement Board—Valuations     1
Total   92
D. E. GOODWIN, B.S.A., LAND INSPECTOR, POUCE COUPE
Inspection work in the Peace River District has been handled equally by D. L.
Cornock, Pre-emption Inspector, and myself. In general, we worked independently, but
during the latter part of the season it was found to our advantage to travel together.
Aerial photographs have been used extensively during the past season, providing the
means of completing inspections quicker and with greater accuracy.
Considerably more time was spent in the office this year aiding prospective settlers.
Up-to-date status maps of the district showing the Crown land available proved of great
value. In addition to prospective settlers, there were settlers on Crown land seeking
information; that is, pre-emption duties, improvements required under section 53 of the LANDS BRANCH II 65
" Land Act," lease fees, etc.   To offset this increased office work, part-time stenographic
assistance was obtained.
The season suited to field work has been of average length. Field work commenced
the beginning of May and ended the latter part of October.
Pre-emption inspections have been held in abeyance because of the large number
of new inspections pending. The only pre-emptions inspected were if a complaint was
received against a pre-emption or if a pre-emptor applied for the Crown grant.
At this time last year there were 125 inspections pending, compared with 150 inspections pending at the present time. This indicates that the inspection staff in the Peace
River are not keeping up with the number of new applications. It is suggested that a Land
Inspector be stationed at Fort St. John. This would reduce the travel and expense of
making inspections north of the Peace River from the Pouce Coupe office.
The greatest number of inspections made were in the Blueberry River, Clayhurst,
and Rose Prairie areas respectively.
This year there has been greater co-ordination between the Land Utilization Division
and this office—an agreement has been reached whereby that Division supplies this office
with copies of its records of field work completed in this area. In this manner its work
is readily made available to the public. J. S Gilmore, head of the land-utilization party
in the Peace River, accompanied me on an inspection trip to the Blueberry River area.
The weather has been unsettled this past season. Between 1 to 3 inches of snow fell
on May 18th, and again on August 14th there was 5 inches throughout the district. Hail
fell at different times during the summer in scattered areas. On September 1 st hail as large
as hen's eggs fell on the Village of Dawson Creek, causing considerable damage to
windows and Neon signs. On August 15th there was 6V2 degrees of frost. As a consequence of this freak weather, the crops are poor. The yield and grade of the crops were
so low that assistance has been asked under the " Prairie Farmers' Assistance Act." This
is the first year that the Peace River District as a whole has asked for such assistance.
The latter part of September saw many forest and scrub-brush fires rage out of
control. Smoke from these fires, as well as from fires in Northern Alberta, was reported
seen in New York and as far away as Scotland. In one fire near Doig River six Indians
were burned to death. Close to ten families were burned out and lost everything. Ranger
Barbour states that the majority of the fires were caused by careless settlers.
The following is a summary of the number and type of inspections completed during
1950:—
Purchases—Agricultural    130
Land leases—
Agricultural       6
Home-sites        1
Fur-farming       1
Grazing (including hay-cutting)       7
Miscellaneous        6
Pre-emptions—
Applications      17
Annual inspections      15
Reserves       8
Miscellaneous inspections     4
Total   195 II 66 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
D. L. CORNOCK, PRE-EMPTION INSPECTOR, POUCE COUPE
The following is a summary of the number and type of inspections made during
1950:—
Purchases—
Agricultural  150
Home-sites        5
Industrial and commercial       1
Grazing  .       2
Land leases—
Agricultural  12
Grazing (including hay-cutting)       7
Pre-emptions—
Applications  16
Annuals  18
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act "       2
Miscellaneous inspections        4
Total   217
H. L. HUFF, B.S.A., LAND INSPECTOR, NEW WESTMINSTER
The weather of the past year has been, to say the very least, unusual. It has had
a marked effect on the operations of this office. Normally speaking, field work can be
carried out in this territory to a greater or less degree throughout the entire year. This
past year has been a notable exception. Field work for the months of January and
February and part of March were either impossible or nearly so. Throughout the year
there were other periods of shorter duration when the weather forbade field work.
The net result of these interferences with procedure can be readily seen on examining
the table of inspections given at the end of this report. Comparatively speaking, the
number of inspections made this year is down. Conversely, the acreage involved is considerably up. Some 8,570 acres were involved in 111 of the 127 inspections made.
(The acreage involved in the sixteen annual pre-emption inspections is not included in this
8,570-acre figure.) Carrying out these examinations necessitated covering an area from
Princeton on the east, Port Renfrew on the west, to Texada Island and Lillooet on the
north.
During the year three auctions of Crown lands were held in the lower coastal area.
These involved twenty-four, twelve, and one parcel of land respectively. In my opinion
the public's response to two of these sales was and is a good barometer of the state of the
public's mind in the areas involved. The third sale was affected by a purely local condition, and the area has since been sold.
The largest sale involved some twenty-four parcels of land, comprising a portion of
District Lot 6173. This subdivision was created in the summer of 1949. It is located in
the Powell River area. Interest in the sale was considerable, and the bidding was keen
and competitive. Twenty-two of the twenty-four parcels offered were sold. In my
opinion the public's interest in this sale is a tangible expression of its confidence in the
area's immediate future. This can be directly attributed to the stable prosperous condition
of the community.
The second sale involved twelve parcels in District Lot 3182. This district lot is
located in the vicinity of the junction of the Cheakamus and Cheekye Rivers and is some
7 to 8 miles north of Squamish. It is partially developed and is particularly suitable for
summer-home site purposes. At the time the reserve was placed on all lands in the
Squamish Valley a year ago; this area was attracting considerable attention from potential LANDS BRANCH II 67
purchasers. The auction of these lots this last spring was a complete failure. The public's
interest was zero. Not a lot was sold. Interest may have waned due to lack of definite
information regarding road access being provided directly with Vancouver.
Last spring the Fraser Valley was once again faced with the prospect of a general
flood. The severe winter with exceptionally heavy snowfalls, coupled with a silver thaw
and a wet spring, created a situation having a flood potential as great as that of 1948. The
coolness of the weather in April and May had its beneficial results in that the run-off was
slowed somewhat. The flood crest, although it did not quite reach the 1948 level, was
very close to it. Flooding, generally speaking, was confined to the undyked areas. The
greatly improved dykes more or less stood up, but there were many local danger-spots.
Damage behind the dykes was mainly caused by seepage. Even so, the repairs to the
dykes as a result of this spring's run-off are going to run into quite a large sum of money.
The usual excellent assistance was rendered this Inspector during the past year by
officials of the Forest Service.   This assistance is very much appreciated.
Closer liaison between this Department and the Game Commission was established.
The fields of endeavour thus affected are the areas suitable for game reserves and areas
suitable for the use and enjoyment of the public.   Sometimes these are synonymous.
A trip was made in May with H. E. Whyte and Dr. D. B. Turner over the Hope-
Princeton Highway in connection with locating sites adjacent to the highway as suitable
for the use and enjoyment of the public.
Dave Borthwick, Land Inspector, was transferred from New Westminster to the
Kamloops office just prior to Easter.
Examination of the table at the end of this report reveals the point that a large
number of examinations carried out by this office deal with industrial and commercial
land of one type or another.
Another point not revealed by the appendixed table is that a considerable number of
land examinations are still being made by the Forest Rangers. Approximately two-thirds
of the examinations recorded in this table were made at the direct request of the Lands
Service. In other words, a fairly large percentage of the requests for examination made
through the Forest Service are still being done by the Rangers.
The following is a tabulation of inspections made during 1950:—
Purchases—
Agricultural     15
Home-site -     23
Industrial and commercial      13
Camp-sites and resorts       1
Wood-lots        1
Miscellaneous       3
Leases—
Land—
Home-site       1
Industrial and commercial       2
Quarrying, sand, gravel, limestone       4
Miscellaneous       2
Foreshore—
Booming and log storage     12
Industrial and commercial     18
Oyster and shell-fish       1
Miscellaneous       1
Land-use permits, licences of occupation, easements       4 II 68 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Pre-emptions—
Applications  2
Annual inspections  16
Subdivisions—
Valuations  1
Selection Crown's quarter-interest  1
Reserves  3
Miscellaneous inspections  3
Total   127
C. T. W. HYSLOP, B.S.A., LAND INSPECTOR, PRINCE GEORGE
There has been considerable activity in the sale of Crown lands in the McBride area
this year. This is due in part to the ready availability of land-clearing equipment.
Several families of immigrants have come into this area recently, and they are becoming
well established. In addition, there has been a small but steady influx of settlers from
other parts of the Dominion.
The sale of agricultural lands in the Prince George area has dropped off again
slightly this year. Many of the more progressive farmers in this area have increased their
cleared acreage considerably by means of the Department of Agriculture land-clearing
machinery, and quite a number of these will soon have sufficient cultivated land to be able
to operate their farms as a full-time proposition and will not have to rely on the lumber
industry for off-season employment.
There has been a considerable number of applications for Crown land supposedly
for agricultural purposes, but in reality for the timber values on the land. This type of
application is being discouraged, as it has been found by experience that the applicants
have logged off these areas, realizing a considerable profit on the timber without any
obligation to complete their purchase or pre-emption requirements. The agreement of
sale or pre-emption has then been abandoned or, in the case of a purchase if the sale has
been completed, the land is allowed to revert for non-payment of taxes. This type of
applicant is now advised to take out a timber or cash sale over the area through the usual
Forest Service procedure.
The Department's recent policy of providing new status maps and lot-books in the
various Government Agencies in this area has improved the service to the public greatly.
There is now little or no delay in providing status information, and upon receipt of
the farm-unit field-notes, maps, and reports of the Land Utilization Division in this area,
this service will be even more improved.
During the past season assistance was given Parks Division personnel in regard to
reserves previously recommended within the newly established Crooked River Provincial
Forest. The northern boundary of this forest is in the vicinity of the McLeod Lake Post,
and as the Hart Highway will probably be extended beyond this area during the next year,
consideration should be given to a reconnaissance being made east from Fort McLeod and
the Parsnip River crossing. The reconnaissance should follow the route of the Hart
Highway up the Misinchinka River as far as Azouzetta Lake for camp-sites and possible
reserves for the use of the public. This survey should also include an examination of
lakes outside of but adjacent to the highway and Provincial forest. In addition, campsites should be located and established along the Parsnip and Finlay Rivers, as these areas
will become readily accessible to the general public as the highway reaches completion.
This will provide good camping-grounds for the public and at the same time protect these
grounds from alienation, as many of them have been established and used for years past
by the local trappers, prospectors, and Indians. LANDS BRANCH
II 69
As anticipated, there has been a rush of speculators hoping to purchase cheap Crown
lands along the rights-of-way of both the Hart Highway and the extension of the Pacific
Great Eastern Railway. This has been true to some extent as well in the City of Prince
George and surrounding subdivisions. However, the reserves wisely established by the
Government over these areas have defeated these speculators in their hopes of reaping
fortunes similar to those made by some during the boom times experienced in the early
railroad-construction days in this country.
A glance at the accompanying tables will show the tremendous decrease in the
number of applications for Crown lands in the Fort George Land Recording District from
the year 1947 to the present time. The number of town lots involved in transactions so
far in 1950 has been only some 11 per cent of that of 1947, which is due in large part to
the reserves that have blanketed this area from time to time during the past two years.
Of course, part of this decrease in sales is a normal decline due directly to the economic
conditions of to-day. This can be noted in the almost 50-per-cent decrease in applications
for acreage lots between 1947 and 1950.
Land Transactions of Fort George Land Recording District,
Years 1947 to 1950
1947
1948
1949
1950*
304
751
144
139
389
120
109
267
95
33
88
Number of applications for acreage lots 	
76
* 1950 figures for eleven-month period only from January 1st to November 30th, inclusive.
Summary of Land Transactions
1947
1948
1949
333
124
185
14
34
19
'27
12
11
21
22
50
17
17
28
2
3
7
270
212
143
1950*
A.P. allowed and C. of P. issued	
A.P. disallowed, cancelled, withdrawn —
Pre-emption records allowed __ 	
P.R.'s disallowed, cancelled, withdrawn .
Leases allowed _. -	
Leases disallowed, cancelled, withdrawn
Crown grants issued 	
122
10
11
24
18
13
134
* 1950 figures for eleven-month period only from January 1st to November 30th, inclusive.
The sale of Crown lands in the Vanderhoof-Fort Fraser area has remained fairly
steady during the past year. This area, embracing the Nechako Plateau, is considered as
the most suitable for large-scale agricultural development in the Central Interior. Consideration could well be given to additional farm settlement in this area. Larger-scale
immigration is possible if the settlers are given assistance through easier terms for low-
priced Crown lands, land clearing and breaking, and help in obtaining water-supply.
About eighty quarter-sections of Land Settlement Board land were revalued in this
area during the past year. Much of this land is suitable for such an assisted settlement
project, since forest-cover is light and the soil and water conditions suitable for agriculture.
Immigration on the whole in the Fort George Land Recording District has been very
slight. Many of the immigrants who came originally to farms soon drifted into other
employment either in the towns or numerous sawmills in the district. This is largely
because of the disparity in wages between the farm and industry. Unfortunately, the
farmers in this district cannot pay higher wages, and the immigrant is forced to seek
better-paid jobs elsewhere. The greatest number of immigrants are from Europe and
include Danes, Swiss, Estonians, Latvians, Germans, and displaced persons of mixed
nationality. II 70 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Few of these immigrants have applied for Crown land, as they are unable to undertake the clearing of it with the minimum arrival capital at their disposal, for it will not
begin, unfortunately, to cover the requirements of a family for settlement under present-
day conditions.
The following is a summary of the number and type of inspections made during
1950:—
Purchases—■
Agricultural  22
Home-sites       6
Camp-sites and resorts  4
Wood-lots       3
Miscellaneous        3
Leases—
Land—
Home-sites        1
Industrial and commercial       1
Quarrying, sand, gravel, limestone, etc  2
Grazing (including hay-cutting)  2
Foreshore—Booming and log storage       1
Land-use permits, licences of occupation, easements, etc.       3
Pre-emptions—
Applications        8
Annual inspections .  33
Subdivisions—Valuations   4
Reserves        3
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act "  2
Land Settlement Board—
Land classification       5
Valuations  99
Miscellaneous inspections  1  12
Total  214
W. R. REDEL, B.A.Sc, LAND INSPECTOR, QUESNEL
During the winter and early spring I spent the time organizing the office in preparation for the coming season's work. All maps were placed on sticks and indexed according
to standard Forest Service procedure. Earlier in the year the most recent aerial photographs for this district were ordered. When these photographs arrived, they were filed
numerically by flight-strips, and a key-map embodying the whole district was drawn up.
This map showed the flight-strips for all photographs on hand either in my office or the
Forest Service office. Two colours were employed, in order to differentiate between the
photographs filed in the two offices. Both the Forest Service people and myself use this
map extensively for our respective purposes. Last year was the first year that any amount
of aerial photographs were available in this district, and considerable interest was shown
in them by real-estate people, mill operators, and local mining-men, as well as by the
District Engineer and the Assessor.
In the early part of July I accompanied Mr. Trew, Park Inspector, and Mr. Ahrens,
Assistant Park Inspector, on an inspection trip around the chain of lakes known as the
Bowron Lake Game Reserve. All applications in this area were dealt with at this time.
In September Mr. Hyslop, Land Inspector at Prince George, and myself made a jeep trip
into the Nazko country and as far west as Batnuni Lake. All outstanding land applications and pre-emptions in this area were examined.    In addition, a number of suitable LANDS BRANCH II 71
camp-sites were chosen on Titetown, Boat, and Batnuni Lakes with a view to having same
set aside for the use and enjoyment of the public.
A concerted effort was made to get all pre-emptors with sufficient improvements to
obtain their certificates of improvement and Crown grants for their pre-emptions. Several
farmers were assisted in filling out the necessary papers. In addition, I have been able to
direct some settlers, who came to my office, to suitable tracts of arable land.
At the time this report is being compiled, there are two outstanding land applications
and seventeen areas to be revalued for the Land Settlement Board. I have found it difficult
to revalue these areas without making the usual inspection and classification of the land
involved. Hence I am treating these revaluation requests just as I would a normal
application.
A comparison between last year's and this year's figures would indicate that the land
sales are down by approximately 27 per cent. However, last year could not be considered
an average year for this area because the total land applications shown on last year's
report embodied a number of outstanding applications from previous years. This year
I have been able to relieve the Forest Service people almost entirely of any land-inspection
work in this district. This would not have been possible, however, without the co-operation of the Ranger and his staff. In many cases my work was simplified by following
directions passed along by the Forest Service people, who were more familiar with the
country than myself.
The following is a tabulation of the inspections made during the year:—
Purchases—
Agricultural 1     25
Home-sites        5
Industrial and commercial       1
Camp-sites and resorts       6
Leases—
Land—
Agricultural       2
Home-sites        4
Grazing (including hay-cutting)       3
Foreshore—Booming and log storage       1
Land-use permits, licences of occupation, easements, etc       2
Pre-emptions—
Applications     . 14
Annual inspections     42
Subdivisions—Valuations        1
Reserves .       2
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act "       2
Land Settlement Board—
Land classification       4
Valuations __ .       1
Miscellaneous inspections        3
Total  :  118
A. F. SMITH, B.S.A., LAND INSPECTOR, SMITHERS
At the beginning of the year considerable time was spent in assisting the Government
Agent at Burns Lake to reorganize the filing system for purchases, leases, and preemptions. As a further aid to this Agency and as a check on the Land Registers, the
Provincial Assessor at Smithers secured a duplicate copy of the assessment roll for the
Burns Lake office. II 72 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Status maps of the district were brought up to date last winter, using the new Departmental colour key. In view of the interest in status maps shown by the Agency staffs in
Smithers and Burns Lake, the intention for the coming year is to prepare duplicate copies
of the necessary maps for these two offices.
A somewhat late spring was followed by a dry summer which greatly facilitated field
work.
This year, as was the case last year, the demand for Crown land has come from
established residents desirous of extending their Crown-granted holdings and not from
new settlers. New arrivals interested in agriculture generally work out for a year or two
before purchasing land. These people have no difficulty in finding employment in the
logging camps. Employment opportunities should increase, as the coal mine at Telkwa
is expanding operations and, since the recent increase in the price of base metals, seven
mining companies plan to begin operations next spring. Further opportunities are expected with the completion of the celanese plant at Prince Rupert and a consequent
increase in the timber activity in the Terrace area.
Throughout the year aerial photographs were frequently used in the field. The
majority of these photographs were loaned from the Ranger offices in the district; a few
were on loan from the Provincial Air-photo Library. As the Forest Service is acquiring
air coverage of the district and in order to avoid duplication, the only photographs requisitioned by this office have been for townsites, special projects, and enlargements.
Excellent co-operation was received from the Forest Service and other Government
departments during the past year.
The land examinations and inspections carried out during the year may be listed as
follows:—
Purchases—
Agricultural     28
Home-sites        5
Industrial and commercial       1
Camp-sites and resorts       1
Miscellaneous        6
Leases—
Land—
Agricultural       1
Grazing (including hay-cutting)       3
Miscellaneous        3
Foreshore—Booming and log storage       2
Land-use permits, licences of occupation, easements, etc       2
Pre-emptions—
Applications        9
Annual inspections     31
Reserves       6
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act " .       3
Land Settlement Board—
Land classification       1
Valuations     30
Miscellaneous inspections      11
Total   143
PERSONNEL OF LAND INSPECTION DIVISION, 1950
H. E. Whyte, Chief Land Inspector. C. T. W. Hyslop, Land Inspector—Grade 2.
F. M. Cunningham, Land Inspector—Grade 2. A. F. Smith, Land Inspector—Grade 2.
L. D. Fraser, Land Inspector—Grade 2. D. Borthwick, Land Inspector—Grade 2.
D. E. Goodwin, Land Inspector—Grade 2. J. A. Esler, Land Inspector—Grade 1.
H. L. Huff, Land Inspector—Grade 2. W. R. Redel, Land Inspector—Grade 1. LANDS BRANCH II 73
LAND SURVEYOR
Philip Monckton, B.C.L.S.
Owing to the severity of the weather in the early part of 1950, no field work was
carried out during the first six weeks, but the preparation of plans and field-notes of the
1949 season occupied all the available time until the weather improved.
On February 21st two inspections were carried out—at Brechin and Nanaimo—and
in March two visits were made to Lot 72, Oyster District, in connection with the Forest
Service taking over an area there for a park.
In April a start was made on the main programme of field work for the season, first,
by an inspection of Block 10 in the Townsite of Hope, and a preliminary survey of the old
Fairview Townsite in the South Okanagan. In the former case a subdivision into 60-foot
lots was recommended, and in the case of the latter that only a part be laid out in acreage.
While in the South Okanagan we made a subdivision of the old School Block in the
Village of Osoyoos into 60-foot lots.
In May I left Victoria for the Mainland, taking R. M. Patterson, of Sidney, as
assistant, to carry out our programme, which was to occupy us for nearly five months.
The first stop was made at Hope, where about ten days were spent in trying to get a
groundwork on which to base our subdivision, but owing to being unable to reconcile our
figures with those of previous surveys, the job could not be completed, nor can it be until
final plans of the road surveys of the Hope-Princeton Road are filed by the Department
of Public Works. While at Hope another survey was made, delineating the " Old Mill
lead " (an ancient and indistinct ditch) which is used as a natural boundary for some
of the local properties.
On June 1st we moved to Oliver, 2 miles from the Fairview work; the subdivision
here used our time until June 8th, when we moved to the East Kootenay area and camped
at Moyie, which was deemed to be a central point between the surveys at Creston, Monroe
Lake, and an inspection at Wasa. At Creston the site of the new Forest Service building
was posted; at Monroe Lake twelve small summer-home site lots were plotted on this
very beautiful small lake. A good new road has lately been built up to the lake, where
there are already many summer homes, owned by people from Kimberley and Cranbrook.
The inspection at Wasa consisted of identifying some corner posts which we had set two
years previously, and which purchasers of the lots were not certain about.
At the point where the Trans-Canada Highway crosses the Columbia River by an
imposing 273-foot steel span, the Forest Service has constructed a new Assistant Ranger
Station, and the next item on our schedule was to make a survey of this. Incidentally,
this spot is probably unique in British Columbia in that it rejoices in three different (and
all commonly used) names—namely, " Big Bend," " Boat Encampment," and " Columbia
Crossing "—so that tourists and strangers getting into conversation with local people are
likely to be slightly confused.
On July 5th the party arrived at Lillooet, after having stopped en route at Kamloops
to pass our driver's retesting and, incidentally, to take part in the ceremony of frying an
egg on the sidewalk on the hottest day of the year (100° F.).
We visited Pemberton Meadows next, travelling on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway
to Creekside, and taking a truck down to the mouth of the Lillooet River, at Lillooet Lake,
which has been lowered 16 feet by the "Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act" engineers.
Our work was to traverse the new shore-line and to find out how much land has been
created by the dropping of the water-level. We discovered that the rapid current of the
Lillooet River was eating away the new land very quickly and reverting toward the original
shore-line. Pemberton is very notorious for its mosquitoes, and early July, 1950, fully
bore out its reputation, so that it was with great relief that we returned to the Dry Belt and
began the next survey—laying out some water-front areas on Fountain (Kwotlenemo) II 74
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
View of Monroe Lake, East Kootenay, where summer-home sites were recently laid out.
. Lillooet Lake, near Pemberton Meadows, showing new ground created by lowering of lake 16 feet.
Kootenay River, Creston, at its highest level, showing strengthened dykes holding
against flood, June 19th, 1950. .  .•;-<■;-..>■?■-.
■■■■■•'v :■■■/-..■■.-
LANDS BRANCH II 75
Lake, 20 miles east of Lillooet, and high in the mountains. Fountain Lake is known as
a very good fishing lake, which is certainly true; but the beaches have been ruined by the
raising of the lake by a dam, and there is a lot of debris and dead trees along the shoreline. The water gets pleasantly warm, but there is never the great heat that Lillooet gets.
The lake is at least 3,000 feet above sea-level, and during our stay there we never saw
a mosquito or any other biting fly.
In Lillooet we ran a line of levels of Station Road for the Department of Public
Works.
On July 21st we pulled out from the Lillooet district and drove north to Terrace, on
the Skeena River, some 95 miles inland from the sea at Prince Rupert, arriving on July
24th and staying until August 12th. The work here consisted of dividing an old mile-
square survey into smaller portions, and comprised the area of flat land at the mouth of
the Copper (Zymoetz) River, 8 miles east of Terrace.
We then moved up to South Hazelton and made two surveys, both being concerned
with reposting of lands where no trace of the original wooden corner stakes remained.
The railway right-of-way plan formed the only base from which to start.
On August 24th we moved east to Smithers and began the largest single job of our
season—the redefining of sixty blocks of the townsite survey, made nearly forty years ago.
However, here and there evidences were found of the old survey and though sometimes
these did not conform to each other with great accuracy, yet, through a certain amount of
give and take, the patchwork was fitted together. The Smithers job took up our time for
nearly a month, and on September 14th we moved to Telkwa, where we finished our
northern work by resubdividing a former townsite on the west side of the Bulkley River
into acreage.
Leaving Telkwa on September 21st, we were favoured with fine weather for the trip
south, during which we called on the survey party of Mr. Drewry at the 93-mile on the
Cariboo Road and the District Forester at Kamloops.
Some monuments were set at old corners at Fairview, and a return made to Victoria
on September 29th via the Hope-Princeton Highway, then covered by its first snow of the
1950-51 winter.
At Hope a consultation was held with A. H. Ralfs, B.C.L.S., who had been surveying
there all summer, and it was at this juncture that it was decided that it would be useless
to try to finish the Hope subdivision until the final right-of-way plans of the Hope-Princeton Highway are filed by the Department of Public Works.
Victoria was reached on October 1 st.
On October 20th an inspection of Lots 30c, Oyster, and Foreshore Lots 135 and
258, Cowichan, was carried out, and on November 10th and December 12th, inspections
at the Esquimalt Lagoon.
From November 15th to 19th a check survey was made at Sechelt, where some errors
in old surveys had been suspected. A report was drawn up on this and submitted to the
Surveyor-General.
On December 22nd an inspection was carried out at the Gorge, where some houseboats had been reported as encroaching on the fairway.
To summarize, there were eleven inspections made, sixteen survey jobs of various
sizes, and six months' time spent in the field.
PERSONNEL OF LAND SURVEYOR, 1950
P. M. Monckton, Land Surveyor. D. W. Carrier, Land Surveyor's Assistant.  SURVEYS AND MAPPING
SERVICE d&zr SURVEYS AND MAPPING SERVICE II 79
SURVEYS AND MAPPING SERVICE
N. C. Stewart, B.A.Sc, D.L.S., B.C.L.S., P.Eng., Director of
Surveys and Mapping
As Director, I have the honour to submit the following report of the Surveys and
Mapping Service of the Department of Lands and Forests for the year 1950. During the
year many of the changes and improvements in the Service which were instituted during
the five years that I have been head of the Service have come to fruition, and will, I have
no doubt, greatly enhance the value of our work in the administration and development of
the resources of the Province. The value of our work is borne out through tributes in
letters received and in various publications. A few of these public expressions are noted
here.
The following resolution pertaining to standard topographic maps was carried unanimously at the Third British Columbia Resources Conference, February 15th, 1950:—
" Whereas the present area of British Columbia that is mapped adequately for
resource inventories amounts to 63,000 square miles:
"And whereas the total area of British Columbia is 366,000 square miles:
"And whereas the present production of adequate maps is at the rate of 5,000 square
miles per year for standard topographic maps:
" Be it therefore Resolved, That this Third Resources Conference urge the Provincial
Government to augment their existing mapping agencies by obtaining suitable personnel
and equipment so that the rate of production of standard topographic maps may be
substantially increased."
The following quotation re our interim maps is from a recent (September, 1950)
publication of the Food and Agriculture Organization (F.A.O.) of the United Nations:■—
" It is possible to produce detailed maps quickly even though established control
points are few and far between, although the accuracy of the results, in the sense that each
point mapped will appear in its true geographic position, may not be up to the highest
standards. But, althought individual features may be displaced somewhat from their true
positions, the positions of adjacent features with respect to each other will be approximately correct, and it is this characteristic which is most important from the point of view
of practical resource development.
" Recently, detailed topographic maps were made of a tract of mountainous country
where the only available control stations were 60 miles apart in one direction and 50 miles
in the other. Obviously, the control was very weak, and it is believed that mapped positions of points near the centre of the area may be displaced 600 feet or more from their
true positions. Nevertheless, all topographic features are correctly outlined and are shown
in proper relationship to each other, and the map is being used successfully for resource
development. The Government concerned plans to map this area again with greater precision when circumstances permit. Meanwhile, production of these interim maps has
made possible the opening-up of that particular tract of country without long delay. It is
believed that in many parts of the world similar interim mapping programs based on aerial
photography would be fully justified."
Quotation from editorial in the Daily Colonist, November 19th, 1950:—
" It was that R.C.A.F. planes, acting in concert with the Lands Department, have
now completed the aerial mapping of British Columbia once over, in some 300,000 photographs taken at a uniform height of 16,000 feet. The basic photographs must be supplemented by others and considerable detail added before cartographers can produce the
maps from which every known facet of the province can be studied in years to come. It.
is an achievement, however, to fit British Columbia into a set of photographic plates.
"A very real task lies ahead. That is to prepare accurate and up-to-date maps from
the data which this aerial survey has made available.   The planes have brought in photo- II 80 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
graphs of places in British Columbia where it is probable, if not certain, that no man has
ever trod. The pictures have defined mountain ranges, river systems, shorelines, forest
and other lands in a fashion which would have taken large field survey parties many years
in painful expeditions by pack-horse, canoe, and on foot. This sudden new wealth of
knowledge cannot merely be superimposed on what was learned before; it must be
developed afresh, almost from scratch. Fifty years, and more, may be required to put
on paper what the cameras have scanned in a brief five-year period since the close of the
last war.
" One can assume that this, the real mapping, will now go ahead, as it must and
should."
Two meetings of the Interdepartmental Committee on Survey and Mapping were
held during 1950. At these meetings the requests for surveys and maps from other departments are received and discussed. The outcome of these practical meetings is that this
Service endeavours to arrange its programme so as to meet these requests and, at the same
time to carry on its regular work of providing surveys, maps, air photos, and geographic
data of interest to the general public. Our staff had to be temporarily augmented in an
endeavour to take care of an unusual increase in work in all divisions, resulting, no doubt,
from the increased activities due to a great influx of people and to large industrial developments. A considerable number of the projects requested called for mapping at larger than
normal scales, thus requiring low-altitude photographs and more intensive ground control,
required by the multiplex plotter.
G. S. Andrews, Assistant Director and Chief of the Air Survey Division, who
normally would have been promoted to the position of Director at my retirement on
February 1st, wished to continue in the capacity as Chief of the Air Survey Division so
as to complete its organization, and also to become familiar with the duties attached to
the position of Director. During the summer Mr. Andrews visited all of our field parties,
in order to obtain first-hand information on personnel and methods used in their work.
In the report which follows, Mr. Andrews tells of future trends in mapping procedure.
AIR SURVEY DIVISION
W. Hall, M.C., B.A.Sc, B.C.R.F., Assistant Chief Engineer, has presented the annual
report of the Air Survey Division. This report tells of the complete coverage of the whole
of the Province with vertical mapping photographs, an achievement that has taken place
much sooner than expected and one that will have a far-reaching effect on the development
of our Province. Five years ago there were large blank spaces on many of our maps,
spaces which indicated an absolute lack of geographic information. From now on our
maps will have no such blank spaces, for the air photos will provide much of the needed
data.
Mr. Hall's report includes briefs from the senior men on (a) Air Operation,
(b) Processing, (c) Air-photo Library, (d) Map Compilation, (e) Multiplex, and
(/) Tri-camera Control. It is noted that the work of each of the first four—(a), (b),
(c), and (d)—has increased over that of last year. The multiplex plotter has now been
in operation for several months on special large-scale mapping for the Forest Service. An
accumulation of work sufficient to keep this machine in full operation for two years is
already on file. Tri-camera control is in the experimental stage, but with results so far
that are exceptionally good.
TOPOGRAPHIC DIVISION
A. G. Slocomb, B.C.L.S., Chief of the Topographic Division, reports that 5,000
square miles of standard 1-mile-to-l-inch maps, with contour interval of 100 feet, were
controlled by five field parties during the season, and additional control required to
complete three map-sheets on Vancouver Island was obtained by a sixth party. /£&o
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SURVEYS & MAPPING SERVICE
DEPT. LANDS 8c FORESTS
VICTORIA. B.C.   OCT. 26tM950
82L/I4-C30
NORTH half SURVEYS AND MAPPING SERVICE II 81
For the first time a completely air-borne mapping survey was undertaken this year
by the Topographic Division. The continuation of the mapping of the country east of the
Coast Mountains northward from the Kispiox Valley to Bowser Lake in the valley of the
Nass River was the site of this operation. Float-equipped conventional aeroplanes transported men and equipment to various main camps, and a helicopter moved the instrument-
men from these main camps to the sub-camps. (For details of this operation see report
of G. C. Emerson, B.C.L.S., of the Topographic Division.)
From our experience with a helicopter as a transportation medium, we are convinced
that the use of these machines on topographic surveys is fully warranted. Their use has
also been confirmed by the experience of others, such as the Topographic Branch of the
Department of Mines and Technical Surveys and the Mapping Section of the Department
of National Defence. The use of the helicopter is particularly good in areas difficult of
access, such as our mountainous areas and in flatter areas, where access on the ground is
very limited or non-existent. Helicopter transportation speeds up the work, but owing to
the limitation of its effective load and its cost of operation, it has not as yet decreased the
cost of mapping. It has, however, eliminated a lot of very hard foot-slogging and arduous
climbing. Axemen, packers, and pack-horses are replaced by instrument-men. One
helicopter on mountain work can service five to eight sub-parties; hence up to ten
instrument-men are necessary to utilize fully its capacity.
A start was made this year in the topographic mapping of the Mainland coast in the
neighbourhood of Sechelt. The Mainland coast stretches for nearly 600 miles from Vancouver to Stewart, B.C. The area along the coast that can be reached from the shore for
topographic mapping extends in a belt nearly 100 miles in width, with an approximate
area of 60,000 square miles, to which should be added about 4,000 square miles for the
Queen Charlotte group, giving a grand total of 64,000 square miles. At the present rate
of standard mapping for one party, using the motor-vessel " B.C. Surveyor " it will take
about ninety years to complete this task. I would suggest that the mapping of this coastal
belt, which is potentially rich in forests, minerals, fisheries, and other resources, be speeded
up by the addition of one more field party at least, equipped with a suitable boat.
LEGAL SURVEYS DIVISION
F. O. Morris was appointed Surveyor-General on February 1st, 1950, retaining as
well the position of Chief of the Legal Surveys Division. He reports a continued increase
in the work of his Division, indicating abnormal general activity throughout the Province.
Due chiefly to lack of office space, the staff of the Legal Surveys Division has not been
augmented sufficiently to take care of this extra work. Whether we like it or not, ways
and means must soon be found to add to the personnel or else a chaotic condition will
ensue, for the work of this Division has to do with the title of all Crown lands and foreshore, alienated or leased, of which an up-to-date record must be kept. Perhaps on the
completion of the new administrative building, additional office space near our vault will
be obtained and so ease the situation.
The continued requests through the Interdepartmental Committee on Surveys and
Mapping for composite or key maps, which provide an index of all land subdivisions of
an area, resulted in the formation of a group consisting of a supervising draughtsman and
three draughtsmen, two of the latter being engaged on a temporary basis, to undertake
this important work. Manuscripts mounted on metal-backed sheets were designed to fit
into the National Topographic Series, so that the work of the other mapping sections
could be utilized or vice versa. Thirty-three sheets have been completed already. It is
estimated that it will take about four years to complete this work. II 82 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION
The retirement on superannuation of W. G. H. Firth, Chief of the Geographic Division, is recorded with regret. His ability in leadership and his devotion to his Division
was very well known. He was succeeded by W. H. Hutchinson, Chief Computor of the
Standard Base Maps Section, nominally attached to the Geographic Division, but owing
to the large number of departments served by the Base Map Section, actually reporting
direct to the Director of Surveys and Mapping. The appointment of Mr. Hutchinson as
Chief again consolidates the Division.
In the report of the Geographic Division, it is noted that the compilation of the
Geographic Gazetteer of the Province is about complete and should be in print during
the coming year.
Among the many special jobs undertaken by this Division was the drawing of detailed
descriptions and the mapping of some 1,370 enumeration areas to be used in the 1951
Census.   This job we completed on May 1st.
EXTERNAL BOUNDARIES
A meeting of the British Columbia-Yukon-Northwest Territories Boundary Commission (B. W. Waugh, Surveyor-General, Ottawa, and the writer, Commissioner for British
Columbia) was held in Ottawa on January 27th. A tentative plan of operations for the
continuation of the delineation of the north boundary of the Province was drawn up.
Arrangements were made with the Geodetic Service of Canada for help in establishing the
positions of points at frequent intervals by astronomical observation along that portion
of the 60th parallel between its crossing of the Liard River and the north-east corner of
the Province. This resulted in the appointment, by the Chief Geodesist, of C. H. Ney,
D.L.S., to undertake this important work. An interesting report of his trip into this
little-known portion of the Province by Mr. Ney is appended.
In anticipation of the completion of the survey of our north boundary in the not too
distant future, and to the necessity of confirming the boundary as run by legislation, it
was decided to make an inspection and maintenance survey of that portion of the boundary
west of Teslin Lake which was surveyed between forty and fifty years ago. A. J. Campbell, D.L.S., B.C.L.S., who has since 1946 been in charge of the survey of the British
Columbia-Yukon Boundary, was asked to undertake this work, and his report is appended.
Owing to the recent prospecting for and development of oil resources on both sides
of the Alberta-British Columbia Boundary, the necessity of completing the survey of that
boundary became urgent. Steps were taken to revive the Alberta-British Columbia
Boundary Commission by the appointment of the following Commissioners: B. W. Waugh,
Surveyor-General of Dominion Lands, Chairman; J. H. Holloway, Director of Surveys of
Alberta; and N. C. Stewart, D.L.S., B.C.L.S., for British Columbia. A meeting of this
Commission was held in Ottawa on January 30th, 1950. A tentative plan of operations
was drawn up, resulting in the selection of R. W. Thistlethwaite, D.L.S., A.L.S., B.C.L.S.,
as the surveyor in charge. The Alberta-British Columbia Boundary had already been
established by the former Commission to latitude 57° 26' 40.25" leaving approximately
170 miles of the 120th meridian to be surveyed to reach latitude 60°, its terminal point.
Sixty-five miles of the line was cut out during the summer, and details of the work are
given in Mr. Thistlethwaite's report.
On August 10th the writer made a flight up the Alberta-British Columbia Boundary
from the Peace River to the north-east corner of the Province for the purpose of gaining
some first-hand knowledge of that little-known area. The flight continued westerly along
the north boundary about 50 miles before returning southward to Fort St. John. This
flight confirmed Mr. Ney's description of a large swampy area which extends in an east-
west direction some 75 miles, and also southward almost to the Hay River.   It appears SURVEYS AND MAPPING SERVICE II 83
that winter survey must be undertaken for the completion of the boundaries across this
swampy terrain.
I wish to mention the work carried out by the Federal mapping agencies in British
Columbia during the past season. First, we are grateful to the Royal Canadian Air Force
for photographing some 20,000 square miles in the north-east and north-west corners of
the Province;, secondly, through the combined efforts of the Department of National
Defence and the Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, between 30,000 and 35,000
square miles (exact figures not available yet) of mapping at a scale of 1:250,000 was
controlled, and approximately 3,500 square miles at the 1:50,000 scale. (It should be
noted that the scales now used by the Federal authorities are 1:50,000 and 1:250,000,
replacing the 1-mile-to-l-inch and 4-miles-to-l-inch scales. No decision for the adoption
of these scales has yet been reached by the Surveys and Mapping Service.) Since the war
the mapping on the 4-mile scale of approximately 180,000 square miles, or about half the
total area of the Province, has been undertaken by them. This work is gradually reaching
the printed stage, some of the map-sheets having already been received.
I am sure that a clear understanding of the high quality and scope of the work of the
Surveys and Mapping Service will be obtained by reading the following reports of the
Assistant Director, the Chiefs of Divisions, and other leading personnel.
This is the last time that I will have the honour of sponsoring the annual report of
the Surveys and Mapping Service. The reorganization of this Service commenced just
after the war. At that time there was a staff of thirty-five, mostly in the Legal Surveys and
Geographic Divisions. Additional trained personnel were not available. There was no
office space readily obtainable, except some army huts which were not suitably located.
Very little equipment was owned. In addition to this, there was a huge accumulation of
unfinished or unattempted work handed down from the depression and war years. In the
brief space of a little more than four years this has all been changed. There are now nearly
150 trained men on our staff. We are well supplied with equipment, both for the field and
office. We have two aeroplanes equipped for photography and a motor-launch capable of
accommodating a survey crew of ten men. In that time, in addition to many other
important tasks, the Air Survey and Topographic Divisions alone completed the following:
Photographed 97,800 square miles standard mapping photos; photographed 10,791
lineal miles tricamera; photos printed, 104,619; photos added to library, 180,000
(approximately); compiled 27,995 square miles of interim maps; compiled 15,600
square miles of standard topographic sheets. This record should be beaten substantially
in the years ahead, for little time henceforth will be required in educating the staff and
co-ordinating the functions of the various divisions.
The building of this Service was not easy. It would have not been possible without
the help and financial support provided and the splendid co-operation and zeal of each
and every one of the staff.   May this spirit be maintained in the years ahead.
THE FUTURE TREND IN MAPPING BRITISH COLUMBIA
G. S. Andrews, M.B.E., B.Sc.F., P.Eng., B.C.R.F., F.R.G.S., Assistant
Director, Surveys and Mapping Service
While prophecy is hazardous, some assessment of the future mapping trend in
British Columbia may be timely now, at the beginning of the second half of the twentieth
century, and is necessary if logical progress is to continue. As in projecting a field survey
from known into unknown country, at the station occupied, the present, we first direct
our theodolite back on to previously established stations in the past, and thus firmly
oriented and located, we swing the instrument forward to read salient targets in the
future. Ignoring the overburden of detail, we shall, therefore, focus our telescope on
significant points in the framework of past experience, which will govern orientation of
the future pattern.
Our senior topographic surveyors, who pioneered the standard topographic mapping
in British Columbia during the past twenty-five years, and who have now handed over to II 84 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
younger men, not only perfected a remarkably effective method of propagating mapping
control in the field by terrestrial survey photography, but also evolved office procedure for
correlating this control with vertical aerial photographs to compile 2-inch-per-mile maps
with 100-foot contours to standard accuracy, by hand methods, using no more complicated
equipment than simple office stereoscopes and certain home-made accessories. True, the
method called for a dense incidence of control, something like one occupied field station
per 10 square miles for horizontal control, and almost a cloud of (unoccupied) terrestrial
photo points per overlap of vertical air photos for contouring. Although a time-consuming, labourious, point-by-point procedure, it was, until only recently, a uniquely efficient
method for topographic mapping in difficult mountain country.
Within the past two decades improved field-survey instruments, both terrestrial and
aerial, have initiated a new era of efficiency and precision. Light, stream-lined theodolites
of remarkable precision, such as the Wild T 1 and T 2, have automatically raised the
accuracy of triangulation into a higher order without extra field effort. A new photo-
theodolite camera, recently designed and produced by our own Service, has reduced the
weight of back-packing this item from over 35 pounds to 7 pounds, with distinct practical
improvements, but without sacrifice of accuracy. Also, since the war, we have used
air cameras which have revolutionized old standards of precision and covering power.
Entirely new concepts of mobility in the field have been realized by the acquisition
of our diesel launch " B.C. Surveyor " for operations along the coast, by light four-wheel-
drive trucks, and by the use of modern aircraft, both fixed-wing pontoon aeroplanes, such
as the Beaver and, most recently, the helicopter. Up to three years ago our surveyors
braved the elements out on the West Coast in rowboats—heroic, but pathetic—for getting
much work done. During the past three years, thanks to the vision of our Department
heads and to the courage and enterprise of our young field surveyors, we have proven
the practicability of helicopters for deployment of field crews and their equipment to the
instrument stations. Rate of movement has thereby been accelerated from something
under 3 miles per hour on foot or pack-horse, by circuitous routes, to something over
70 miles per hour direct as the crow flies. Field accomplishment has been accelerated
at least threefold by the helicopter.
In air survey, after a few pioneering years prior to 1941, we have, since the war,
developed a highly efficient air-photo squadron of two specialized aircraft and a processing (darkroom) section of outstanding accomplishment in both quality and quantity of
production, as will be evident from a perusal of this and earlier Annual Reports. A very
significant proportion of the improved accuracy and speed of our latest mapping methods
is due to the fact that we have superlative air photography to plot—well-flown courses,
full forward and lateral overlaps, insignificant tilt, and scintillating photo quality—a
credit to air crew, darkroom staff, and to co-ordination between them.
Marked advances in photogrammetric compilations have recently taken place in
our mapping office, with the effective use of slotted templets, various simple planimetric
and stereo plotters, and installation of multiplex equipment. The annual output of
standard topographic mapping has been doubled, and interim planimetric mapping has
been quadrupled in the last three years, with improved quality due in no small measure
to the high-quality air photography, instrumental aids mentioned, and to the efficiency
and enthusiasm of personnel, now showing the benefits of five years' selection and training. The long-anticipated potentialities of precise tricamera air photography for propagating control by aero triangulation are at last being realized in the form of an effective
plotting technique recently evolved.
Effective response to the exigencies of field operations can only be co-ordinated at
the proper control centres and articulated in prompt reflex action by a good system of
communication. Without it, our activity may be compared to that of a body paralysed
with nervous sclerosis.    In recent years portable two-way radio sets, together with a SURVEYS AND MAPPING SERVICE II 85
network organized and maintained by the Forest Service, have made it possible to tie in
all field units, such as aircraft, launches, and survey camps, with local and Province-wide
wireless communication. Some further developments in this type of communication are
desirable and appear to be soon forthcoming. In helicopter operations constant radio
hook-up between the aircraft and the ground units is most important, and due to severely
limited pay-load a super-lightweight set is needed. The same applies to deployment of
field crews by back-pack. In this connection the radio section of the Forest Service has
recently perfected a very light two-way set with adequate range for local satellite networks
between helicopter, fly camps, and main base camp.
By way of review, let us enumerate briefly these salient factors: Terrestrial photo
propagation of control from a high-order instrumental triangulation net with modern field
instruments; accelerated mobility in the field; air photography of superlative technical
quality at low cost; universal radio communication; improved photogrammetric procedures and equipment in the office; and a staff of comparatively young men, carefully
selected, well trained, loyal, and enthusiastic.
Our interim mapping based on slotted templet and good air photography has demonstrated that a large output of planimetric mapping of impressive accuracy and detail
can be achieved by a small but skilled group of technicians from very sparse control
indeed. We are confident that, with very little increase of control density, the interim
mapping will fully meet specifications for standard mapping at the same scale. The
desired control density can be achieved in three ways:—
(1) Positive air-photo identification of existing survey control on the ground.
This means transporting small but well-trained crews to the area to locate
and identify the surveyed station on the ground, and then to pin-point it
accurately on the air photograph.
(2) Establishment of a strong but thin density of strategically placed ground
stations by instrumental triangulation, and from each of these occupied
stations a full round of terrestrial survey photos.
(3) Propagation of additional and denser pattern of unoccupied photo control,
in the office, from both the terrestrial and the tricamera air photographs.
All this control will provide horizontal and vertical fixes for planimetry and contouring by slotted templet and stereoplotter. The multiplex may be enlisted occasionally
to bridge a tract of excessively difficult or inaccessible terrain, but will not normally be
needed for mapping detail at this scale.
Even now, with current methods, we find that our standard topographic mapping
requires far fewer control points than formerly, and when a full complement of stereo-
plotting instruments is acquired, it will require even less dense terrestrial control.
So the picture visualized is the consolidation, in the near future, of the interim and
standard topographic mapping; the former by getting a bit more control which the latter
can well afford to do without. Our field parties will occupy the same number of stations
in a season as at present, but these stations will cover an area approaching ten times
greater, at a density similar to that of primary and secondary triangulation. The instrument crews will have to move rapidly over the country, but helicopters, supported by
fixed-wing pontoon aircraft, will provide this mobility. On the coast the survey motor-
vessels will provide a movable base, probably towing a barge for helicopter landings.
Greater attention will have to be given to identification of the ground control on the air
photos, and a severe discipline of accuracy and checking will be obligatory.
All field activities must be tied in by radio communication. The day is gone for
ever when a surveyor, with his crew, disappeared into the wilderness for months—silent
and forgotten. The pace and complexity of modern life demands that the left hand
knoweth what the right hand doeth. The philosopher may argue whether this be good
or not.    The map-maker must keep step with progress. II 86 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
AIR SURVEY DIVISION
W. Hall, M.C., B.A.Sc, B.C.R.F., Assistant Chief Engineer
The detailed reports of the section heads which follow show 1950 to be a year of
increased production and efficiency while still maintaining the high standard of quality
of which the Division has been proud.
This is the direct and gratifying result of five years of organizing, selection, and
training of personnel, and of finally obtaining reasonably suitable facilities for working.
Being a new division in the Government Service, only a nucleus of trained men was
available at the outset. The majority of staff, apart from that of the Processing Laboratory, had little pre-war connection with the technicalities of air photography and airphoto mapping. Over the years since 1946, however, by conscientious effort, close
supervision, and enthusiasm on the part of the personnel, the Division has now a fairly
good balance of experience and ability.
The Division was very fortunate during this year in obtaining the services of two
senior surveyors, W. K. MacDonald, D.L.S., and E. A. Rothery, F.R.I.C.S., both with
long and varied careers in survey and mapping work of all kinds. Mr. MacDonald
achieved eminence with the Canadian Army Survey overseas, rising to the rank of
lieutenant-colonel. His wide army survey experience has been supplemented with three
years' activity as chief engineer of the Exploration Department of the International
Petroleum Company in South America. He brings a special knowledge of instrumental
plotting of large-scale maps to his present post in charge of the Multiplex Plotting Section.
Mr. Rothery was, until his arrival in British Columbia, with the British Colonial Survey
in Nigeria. His special knowledge of triangulation, survey computations, and instrument
repair and maintenance has already proved invaluable in the Division. Mr. Rothery will
be in charge of the Tricamera Control Section and the instrument-shop at Patricia Bay.
These two men have helped fill the fairly serious lack, noted in previous reports, of
senior experienced supervisors, so essential in developing new techniques and maintaining the high standards which are a prerequisite for acceptable mapping.
It would not have been possible to obtain this organization without the continuous
efforts of senior officials in the Surveys and Mapping Service. The special abilities
required in work of this nature are not always apparent to those responsible for selection
and acquisition of personnel, and considerable energy has been expended in obtaining
suitable grades and appointments to give an efficient distribution of responsibilities in the
various sections. As new projects are accepted by the Division, it will, of course, be
necessary to make adjustments throughout the staff to maintain a nice balance of work
and responsibility. For the present, however, with the very satisfactory screening of
personnel by the Civil Service Commission for the junior grades, a more or less stable
and satisfactory organization exists.
AIR-SURVEY FLYING OPERATIONS
A. D. Wight, Acting-Supervisor, Air Operations
The significance of our accomplishment for the past five years can only be realized
by turning back the pages of time to March, 1946, the founding of the Air Survey
Division.
At that time the Air Survey Section of the British Columbia Forest Service had
completed 22,000 square miles of vertical photography. In the following five years the
total has been increased by 130,000 square miles, averaging 26,000 square miles per
year. Thus approximately one-third of the total area of the Province has been covered
with vertical photography by Provincial Government agencies. The remaining two-
thirds has been photographed by the Federal Government through the services of the SURVEYS AND MAPPING SERVICE
II 87
Air Survey Division
Three Aspects of Air Survey Work
Multiplex aero-projectors.
Operators plotting topographic detail.
Stockroom of the airphoto library. Approximately 300,000 air photos
are contained in these
filing-cabinets. II 88 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Royal Canadian Air Force and commercial contractors. At the half-century mark there
exists complete photographic cover of the entire Province, a fact which surpasses the
fondest dreams of five years ago.
The importance of the R.C.A.F. cover is not fully told by figures alone. Large
portions of the area photographed by them are inaccessible to our present-day equipment
and facilities.
This year brings to an end the all-out efforts of the photographic squadrons in the
R.C.A.F. Their strength, in future, will be reduced to one-third of that employed on
photographic operations during the past few years.
The reduction in the Federal Government's programme will undoubtedly increase
demands for photographic work by the Air Survey Division. This increased demand
will come from the Provincial Government and possibly the Federal Government.
In future it may be necessary for this Division to procure photographic cover of
areas we now consider inaccessible (see Appendix 7). This will require one of the
following:—
(a) Construction of at least two landing strips.
(b) Purchase of a higher-performance land-based aircraft.
(c) Purchase of a high-performance water-based aircraft.
Aircraft and Equipment
To enjoy effective and dependable operation of any machine, it is necessary to
maintain it at a high peak of efficiency. This is of particular importance in dealing with
aircraft where human lives are at stake. With this foremost in mind, and to comply
with regulations of the Department of Transport, our two photographic Anson V aircraft
underwent extensive minor repairs last winter. Improvements effected included the
installation of newly reconditioned engines, the redoping of the air frames, and the
replacing of many damaged and worn parts. This work was carried out by Government
personnel in the hangar leased by this Division at Patricia Bay Airport.
The cameras and relevant equipment received a thorough mechanical reconditioning.
Precision plotting, such as the multiplex and tricamera control, necessitated recalibrating
the optical units in these cameras. Glass calibration plates were exposed in the early
spring and the computation completed during the summer. The want for precision
micrometer measuring instruments, necessary to measure the glass calibration plates, was
overcome by co-operation from the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory on Little
Saanich Mountain.
Basic Vertical Cover
Flying efforts this year were concentrated on completing the basic vertical cover of
the Province. A total of 2,605 square miles of previously unphotographed country was
photographed from standard height.*
In addition to the above, 19,591 square miles of previously photographed country
was rephotographed. Reflying was necessary because the existing photographic cover
was outdated or below the standard quality required for mapping purposes. This was in
accordance with the practice of reflying areas required for the current standard topographical mapping programme.
A further area of 3,015 square miles was photographed to improve existing photography. This consisted of filling gaps, straightening badly flown strips, and reflying strips
where the photographic qualities, due to cloud interference or exceedingly long dark
shadows, etc., precluded use of existing photographs for mapping.
From 17,500 to 20,000 feet above mean sea-level. SURVEYS AND MAPPING SERVICE II 89
Basic Tricamera
Tricamera operation this year again took second place to the concentrated effort of
standard vertical cover. Approximately 930 lineal miles of standard tricamera photography was flown. One strip, 405 miles long, was flown along the 120° west longitude
(British Columbia-Alberta Boundary) from 52° 40' north to 59° 30' north latitude.
The boundary-line, portions of which have not yet been cut, was contained in the centre
or vertical view of the tricamera assembly.
Tide-rip Photography
Application of air photography and photogrammetry to various sciences is still in
its infancy.
This year, two photographic missions, consisting of seven sorties each, were flown
to record the movements of the tidal waters at the approaches to the Fraser River. These
flights were flown at two-hour intervals over a period extending from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m.—■
one on June 1st for the spring tide cycle, and the second on June 10th for the neap tide
cycle. In each case the photographic quality of the early and late flights was poor, but
they did reveal the required information.
Operations such as this, where a time-limit is present, require extensive planning
and teamwork. This teamwork is not solely within our own Division, but includes the
meteorologists who so diligently prepare special photographic weather forecasts as
required to fulfil our needs.
Multiplex Operations
A variation to our routine procedure of taking photographs and then spotting them
on index maps was encountered when flying special multiplex areas. In this case the
procedure was reversed. An index map showing the ideal location of the photo centres
was prepared and then the air crew was required to expose the photos to correspond with
the predetermined positions of these points. In areas having good ground detail no
particular problems were encountered, and even in monotonous timbered country the
results were tolerable. During the season six such areas were covered. For detailed
costs, etc., refer to the Appendices.
Miscellaneous Operations
The limitless scope in the use of air photographs is evident by the increasing
demands for specified types of operations. Qperations started in April this year, with
the photographing of the Nechako River and all the main watercourses along a line
roughly west from Prince George to the coast. The purpose of this was to record the
annual low water, which occurs during a period of about three days following the ice-
breaking. Due to the extremely cold winter, this year's annual low water was expected
to be below average. These photographs will aid the International Pacific Salmon
Fisheries Commission and the Department of Fisheries to determine the navigable capacity of these waters for fish, which depend mainly on the volume of water present.
The programme of photographing densely populated areas from 5,000 feet above
average ground-level was this year extended to include the Okanagan Valley from the
United States Boundary north to the Shuswap Lakes, covering 2,400 square miles.
Additional low-altitude photographs, covering twenty urban areas, were flown to
meet the current requirements of the composite mapping programme. For detailed
outline of low-altitude photographic cover refer to Appendix No. 5.
Experimental low-level photographs were exposed from 1,000 feet above ground to
aid in identification of the triangulation stations occupied by the topographic-survey
parties.    The triangulation stations were readily seen and identified on them, and these II 90 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
photographs provide a complete and permanent record and have simplified the problem
of locating these stations on our standard high-altitude photographs.
A total of 194 lineal miles, or approximately 88 square miles, of large-scale photography on the Hope-Princeton, Cariboo, and Hart Highways was obtained; these were
taken from an altitude of 2,000 feet above the average road-level.
General Comments on 1950 Flying Operations
The products of this season's flying effort were generally excellent. There are
times when pressure of demands influences the detachment chief to photograph on poor
photographic days. Under such circumstances, substandard photographs are sometimes
exposed. Nevertheless, the need for photographs may be great, and even poor photographs are better than none at all.
The marked reduction in the average costs per square mile for basic block vertical
photographic cover to 89 cents per square mile is due to increased experience and well-
positioned air bases, both of which permitted more efficient use of the flying-time. In
general, the weather this year compared similarly to that experienced during the last three
years. A total of seventy-three partial days was utilized on photography during the
seven months of operations. The increase in the number of days used for photography
was due to the large portion of low-level photography, the long season, and not to
improved weather conditions.
This year the Federal Government, through the services of the R.C.A.F., photographed approximately 20,000 square miles of British Columbia with high-altitude vertical cover. This consisted of two blocks—one covering the north-east corner of the
Province, Map-sheets Nos. 94h, 94i, 94p, and 94o, and the other in the north-west
corner, adjacent to the Alaska Panhandle, covering portions of Map-sheets Nos. 114p
and 114o.
PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESSING LABORATORY
T. H. Bell, Chief Processing Technician
The primary concern of this unit is to produce air photographs from films exposed
by our air crews.
Immediately after exposure, and from wherever in the Province operations are being
carried on, the films are sent to the Processing Laboratory in Victoria for development.
Each completed film represents a great deal of activity in the field and is therefore very
valuable. As such, it is handled with the greatest care in the darkroom and the maximum values obtained from it.
The development of lengths of exposed air film is standard practice in any air-survey
photographic laboratory. This important process, one of a series resulting in a permanent record in the form of a print or plate, brings to light and fixes for ever the photographic efforts of the air crews.
The films are developed by the spiral processing technique, mentioned in the 1947
Annual Report, wherein a unique method of loading holds the film in such a manner as
to permit strict control over a number of variables. Stress and strain along the entire
60-foot length of the 5V-i -inches-wide film is eliminated, and at the same time the full
length of film is subject to the actions of the various chemicals during the period of
immersion. Full advantage is taken of the latest improvements in chemical formula?,
temperature, and agitation control, and experiments are continuous in this regard. This
procedure ensures optimum results in producing a negative particularly suited for projection by concentrated arc light.
The negatives are then printed to the standard 9- by 9-inch size. Skilful shading
manipulation by the photographer is standard practice to achieve the best possible
working-print. It is expected that a precision-built fixed-focus enlarger, previously
reported as in the course of manufacture, will be ready for use in the near future. SURVEYS AND MAPPING SERVICE
II 91
In addition to the primary product of standard prints, enlargements up to six
diameters, 30 by 30 inches, are made. The recently acquired precision enlarger, mentioned in the 1949 Annual Report, and now fitted with a concentrated arc-condenser lens
system, is being modified, step by step, to a high standard of excellent definition. Adjustments to almost micrometer standards are necessary in the use of this enlarger. Where
demands for hundreds of enlargements are received, the need for excellent machinery,
with modifications to permit guaranteed accuracy in the mass production of enlargements,
is an obvious requirement.
A small darkroom was set aside for topographical-surveys processing, and arrangements made for the provision of deep film-developing tanks and a small enlarger. Since
each topographical-surveys film is taken from a station high up on a prominent mountain-
peak, a failure cannot be readily repeated without considerable labour and expense. Like
the air films, the topographical-surveys films have become valuable and may be irreplaceable on arrival at the Photographic Laboratory. Great care must be taken in the handling through the developing stages. Each photograph is then enlarged to 11 by 14
inches as the working-print for the photogrammetrists and draughtsmen.
The demand for diapositive plates, 64 by 64 millimetres, resulted in production
greater than originally planned. Where demands for about fifty or so diapositives were
expected, over 500 were requested. These were made in a few months. Preparation
of diapositive plates for the multiplex is exacting. For example, a great deal of experimental work was carried out by the multiplex technician and the photographer, working
together, to improve definition in the diapositive printer and in processing methods.
The photography of various air-survey equipment has been undertaken, as well as
the copying of photographs and charts for making lantern-slides.
Experiments in reflex printing by the new autopositive process were successful.
The use of this method promises to eliminate a great amount of skilled and laborious
work. Copying is done accurately, and in a matter of minutes of such valuable manuscripts as original map tracings. Demands for fairly large quantities of such autoposi-
tives, in sizes up to 27 by 42 inches, are in prospect.
It is expected that the work of producing the photographic enlargements with grid
overlay for use in Forest Service fire lookout stations will be added to the demands upon
the Air Survey Photographic Laboratory.
In April, 1950, the Photographic Laboratory was moved to the remodelled and
more spacious quarters in Temporary Building No. 3. With the new Photographic
Laboratory occupied, it was possible to organize the man-power to meet and produce
the greater variety of photography demanded.
Production Record
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
Grand
Total
Air films processed (rolls).   —	
Mountain-station films processed (No. 118 rolls)	
Calibration and other glass plates processed __
Standard 9-by 9-inch (X 1.8) prints. _ —
Contact prints, 5V4 by 5V4 inches 	
Enlargements of various sizes, 12 by 12 to 30 by 30
inches  	
Mountain-station enlargements, 11 by 14 inches	
Diapositive plates for multiplex, 64 by 64 millimetres..
Lantern-slides, 2 by 2 inches..   —
Autopositive films (reflex copies maps and charts),
20 by 24 inches — — -  	
Photographs and copies  — -	
Requisitions completed..— - —	
84
Nil
Nil
i
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
220
Nil
Nil
20,160
Nil
162
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
100
190
Nil
767
54,475
Nil
421
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
1
392
288V4
Nil
1,290
70,000
27,963
1,767
Nil
Nil
Nil
Nil
65
750
228
542
62
90,000
11,165
354
2,495
562
54
62
56
896
l,010!/2*
542f
2,119
234,635
39,128
2,704
2,495f
562
54
62
122
2,138
* Rolls averaging 115 negatives.
t For Topographic Surveys Division.
% Not recorded. II 92 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
AIR-PHOTO LIBRARY
A. C. Kinnear, B.C.R.F., Air-photo Analyst
In April of 1950 the Air-photo Library was moved to the quarters formerly occupied
by the Processing Laboratory on the first floor of the west wing at 553 Superior Street.
This move gave the Library the additional space required to keep the various functional
sections of the Library intact.
Air-photo Index Maps
The procedure of preparing index maps from contact prints of new flying was again
in operation during the past year. This system, plus the addition of two new junior
draughtsmen, has enabled the indexing of the 1950 flying programme to be completed.
For a number of years it has been apparent that the reproduction of index maps for
distribution to Government departments and the public has not been of sufficient quality
to be a credit to this organization. After experimenting with several new products, the
Kodagraph autopositive film, made by the Eastman Kodak Company, was found to be
the most satisfactory medium on which to prepare index maps. This highly translucent
film can be prepared in our Processing Laboratory and prints made in the ozalid
machines. It is anticipated that the usefulness of this autopositive film will be of
considerable value to other offices in the Service.
The operation of transferring all previous air photography from the old index sheets
to the new autopositive film is in progress, and it is anticipated that by next year all
index maps will be on this new basis.
Even though a good portion of the Province is covered by more up-to-date photography and, in some cases, larger scale, it is of value to record properly the location of the
older photography to be used as a basis of comparison for interpretation studies. Every
photograph taken is important and therefore merits place in our records.
Reprints from British Columbia Air-photo Negatives Supplied, 1950
(Figures are approximate; 9 by 9 inch prints.)
Government departments— Number
Provincial  Requisitions Reprints
Forest Service, Victoria  15 1,000
Forest Service, districts  40 32,175
Lands   54 8,000
Miscellaneous  89 4,000
Library copies  115 30,200
Schools and universities  13 2,000
Cities and corporations  and municipalities   7 300
Federal Government  34 7,000
Totals .  367 84,675
Private—
Private individuals   253 1,500
Engineering industries  12 195
Forest industries  69 1,000
Mining industries   15 130
Oil industries  5 700
Miscellaneous companies  71 1,800
Totals  425 5,325
Grand totals  792 90,000
Enlargements, 18 by 18 inches, 20 by 20 inches,
30 by 30 inches     53 396
This total of 90,000 does not include the number of rough contact prints which were
printed for indexing purposes. -
SURVEYS AND MAPPING SERVICE
II 93
Air-photo Library Service
The loan service of the Library again shows an increase in the number of air
photographs in use both by the departments of government and by the general public.
A policy of restricting loans to the general public for a period of two to three weeks has
been put in force. In order to maintain a complete library, it is intended, in the future,
to reprint copies of all the photographs which are being used by the various mapping
offices and which are not available for loans.
Each year it is noticed that different Government departments are finding air
photographs valuable in their work. This year, for example, the Provincial Assessors
in various districts throughout the Province have borrowed more than 2,500 air photographs from the Library.
Loan Traffic, Library Copies of Air Photographs
Issued
Out on loan, December 31 st, 1950     44,816
Loaned out during 1950     69,01 1
Returned during 1950 .     	
Totals, December 31st, 1950_„_ 113,827
Net photos out on loan, December 31st,
1950 (to balance)     	
Totals   113,827
Loan Traffic, 1950
Government agencies— issued
Surveys and Mapping Service  35,260
Forest Economics  8,240
Forest Service, headquarters and district
offices   3,185
Parks  1,029
Lands (Land Utilization, Land Inspectors)   3,482
Department of Finance (Assessors)  3,366
Mines   1,539
Federal Government agencies  2,052
Miscellaneous  1,599
Totals  59,752
Private industries and others—
Municipalities, corporations, and towns_ 386
Forest industries  1,932
Mining companies  208
Engineering companies  828
Oil companies  1,341
Schools and universities  432
Miscellaneous   companies   and   private
individuals  4,132
Totals
9,259
Returned
59,760
59,760
54,067
113,827
Returned
29,523
6,640
2,903
989
3,204
3,041
1,314
1,871
1,416
50,901
386
1,752
162
793
1,276
410
4,080
8,859
Grand totals  69,011
59,760 II 94
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Progress of Air Photography in British Columbia (Statistical)
Library Copies, Air Photographs of British Columbia
Federal
Provincial
Total
In hand December 31st, 1949 -   	
Accessions, 1950    —	
165,408*
19,986
94,967
26,959
260,375
46,945
In hand December 31st, 1950  	
185,394
24,96 It
121,926
8,463
307,320
26,161
210,355
130,389
333,481*
* Includes 7,900 photographs from commercial sources.
t Approximate.
% Ail different photographs (exclusive of duplicates).
Of the total 380,000 square miles in the Province, including approximately 14,000
square miles of coastal waters, British Columbia air photographs are available for
134,000 square miles and Dominion Government photographs are available for the
remaining 246,000 square miles.
Public Enlightenment
Throughout the year the following lectures and courses of instruction were given, in
keeping with the general policy of furthering the use of air photographs to outside
organizations:—
Date
Lecturer
Organization
Subject
Jan.  18
United Church Men's Group, New Westminster
Officers of Canadian Scottish Regiment
Third B.C. Natural Resources Conference
Cadboro Bay Men's Association
Jan.  14
Feb. 14
Mar. 15
Mar. 20
to Apr. 5
A. C. Kinnear	
G. S. Andrews	
G. S. Andrews  .
Military Photo Interpretation.
Base Maps for B.C.'s Resources.
Illustrated lecture on B.C.
G. S. Andrews —
G. S. Andrews	
W. Hall	
A. D. Wight
June 22
Oct.  13
Oct   20
American Society for Engineering Education, Seattle, Wash.
C.S.F.E. meeting in Nanaimo 	
First United Church Young People-
Engineering Institute of Canada	
Victoria Lions Club  	
Western   Forestry   and   Conservation
Meeting, San Francisco, Calif.
Surveying and Mapping in Canada.
Application of Air Photo to Forestry.
Nov. 17
W. K. MacDonald
W. Hall        	
Use   of  Multiplex   for  Topographical
Mapping.
Dec.   5
G. S. Andrews 	
Recent Air Survey Development in B.C.
In addition to these lectures, displays portraying the work of the Division and the
usefulness of air photographs were exhibited on the following occasions:—
February, 1950—Canadian Institute of Surveying and Photogrammetry, Ottawa,
Ont.
November, 1950—Williamson Company, Limited, Toronto, Ont.
November, 1950—Community Planning Association of Canada, Vancouver,
B.C.
December, 1950—Western Forestry and Conservation Meeting, San Francisco,
Calif.
MAP COMPILATION
W. Hall, M.C., B.A.Sc, B.C.R.F., Assistant Chief Engineer
The passing of another year has been marked by the development of a fairly definite
pattern in the long-term mapping programme in British Columbia.    The organization SURVEYS AND MAPPING SERVICE 11 95
of eighteen compilers and photogrammetrists has been maintained on the main effort of
supplying the British Columbia Forest Service with adequate planimetric maps at a scale
of 2 inches to 1 mile.
During the year, maps covering approximately 13,000 square miles were completed
(see Appendix 6), bringing the total area mapped and traced on linen ready for the
printing of ozalid copies to 28,000 square miles* since the inception of the programme
in 1946.
The 1951 programme involves forty map-sheets covering an area of 14,000 square
miles, distributed as follows:  Number of Area
Map-sheets Square Miles
Toba-Bute Inlet  3 1,050
Bella Coola-Rivers Inlet  4 1,400
Nass River  8 2,800
Babine Lake  5 1,750
Prince George  3 L050
Cranbrook  9 3,150
Lytton-Merritt  8 2,800
Totals  40 14,000
Control for the Bella Coola-Rivers Inlet area is being obtained from tricamera
photographs, while for the other areas existing triangulation and cadastral control is
being used.
Adequate, accurately identified ground control remains a major problem in this
particular phase of mapping. To date no field work has been expended on any of the
areas compiled, partly because no personnel were available, but mainly because the areas
mapped, with the exception of Toba River, Bella Coola, and White River, have been
adjacent to well-surveyed features such as railroads, coast triangulation, blocks of
cadastral surveys in settled areas, where lot-lines are visible on the photographs, or to
areas where existing maps were available.
Demands are now being received for maps of areas in more remote sections of the
Province where available control that can be accurately identified without recourse to
field work is becoming very scarce indeed. For example, coastal areas such as Seymour
Inlet and Portland Canal, where high-order coast triangulation exists, have not yet been
charted by the Dominion Hydrographic Survey, and hence no office identification of the
triangulation stations on the photographs can be made. Similarly, the triangulation net
running north-west from Lillooet to the Skeena River and south from Tatla Lake to
Knight Inlet, while very good basic control, is of no use in mapping without positive
identification of the actual triangulation stations on the photographs.
Every effort is being made to obtain these identifications with a minimum of expenditure. The Dominion Government Hydrographic Service has been most co-operative
in supplying this Division with whatever identified control on the coastal areas of the
Province that is available in their offices. In the Rocky Mountain region the original
ground photographs and work-sheets used in the British Columbia-Alberta Boundary
survey, for the years 1913 to 1924, inclusive, have been released to this Division from
Ottawa. From use of this data, surveyed features are being identified on existing air
photographs and being readied for future use.
To supplement the above, however, it is becoming increasingly apparent that efforts
should be made without further delay to obtain positive photographic identification of all
existing triangulation stations in the Province. The photographs with identified stations
would be cross-filed with the existing card-index system of triangulation stations and be
available for any future mapping programme.
* Some 2,800 square miles of this total on Vancouver Island and in the vicinity of Jervis Inlet have since been
surveyed and compiled by the Topographic Division in its standard mapping programme. II 96 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Photogrammetry
During the year the Division obtained four Kail radial planimetric plotters which are
designed to transfer planimetric detail directly from the vertical air photograph to the
manuscript map. These have been most successful, and the old method of marking the
detail on the photographs and then transferring it to the map by means of ratio projectors
has been discarded.
Instrument-shop
Apart from routine instrument overhaul and repair and aircraft maintenance, which
involves a large part of the total effort of the instrument-shop personnel, three major
projects were completed.
The prototype of the Andrews stereoplotter was completed, ready for testing.
Improvements in design and manufacture in the appplication of this instrument to
contouring single overlaps of vertical air photographs are presently being investigated.
A new precision fixed-focus enlarger for the production of standard 9- by 9-inch
prints was designed and built, and is practically ready for use in the Photographic
Laboratory, and the Saltzman enlarger has been modified to use the concentrated arc-light
source.
MULTIPLEX SECTION
W. K. MacDonald, D.L.S., Air-photo Analyst
Quarters in the annex to Temporary Building No. 1, 553 Superior Street, were made
available on April 27th, 1950, and are adequate for our current and contemplated
requirements.
The equipment, comprising a complete six-projector multiplex unit, was set up and
made ready for testing by May 1st, 1950. The apparatus was thoroughly checked and
found to meet our specifications. However, the photographic quality of the diapositives
was not up to usual standards. Progressive experiments made over the period from
lune to October culminated with the modification of the diapositive-printer diaphragm.
The diapositive quality is now up to standard. The tests revealed that we can expect
a contour accuracy of H/900 and " spot heights " to H/1800.
Aerial photography of the pin-point type is economically desirable for large-scale
multiplex mapping. Our air crews had not attempted assignments of this nature prior
to covering the Tamihi Creek project. The proposed exposure stations were plotted on
the high-level photographs, and these passed to the crew along with the usual specifications
covering altitude, tilt, and crab. The plot of the completed sortie revealed a maximum
departure of 3 chains from the indicated exposure stations. This, from 9,500 feet, is
a highly creditable performance.   Subsequent projects have been equally well covered.
Control established for the multiplex projects processed to date has not been satisfactory. This, we believe, is due to a lack of appreciation of the multiplex problems
involved. The deficiencies were pointed out as encountered, and when the Lawless Creek
project was under consideration, the control situation was thoroughly reviewed and
resulted in the drawing-up of a sound plan and the commitment of a properly balanced
party to the task. We cannot evaluate the results until the project is processed, but the
indications are that we will find considerable improvement in this all-important phase of
our operations.
Operator-training has been carried on concurrently with production and has naturally
resulted in a low production rate. Time is the only remedy for this, and we must accept
a lower-than-normal production rate until our operators are trained. -.
SURVEYS AND MAPPING SERVICE
Projects
II 97
Square
Miles
Photographs
Name
Authority
Scale:
Vert. Int.
State of
Completion1
Remarks
40.0
4.3
33.1
40.0
10.3
21.0
36
6
27
32
4
31
Squamish Town and
vicinity
Aleza Lake 	
Tamihi Creek	
Earle Creek __	
Mount Farrow  ..
Fort George Canyon
P.G.E. Railway..
Forestry Experimental
Station
Forest Economics	
Forest Economics.
Internal	
Water Rights -
10 ch./in.
9 ch./in.
20 ft.
10 ch./in.
20 ft.
10 ch./in.
25 ft.
13 ch./in.
100 ft.
8 ch./in.
20 ft.
20%
20%
100%
In hand.
100%
In hand.
Dropped   temporarily  in
favour of Tamihi Creek.
Ran out of control.
It is considered that the " shaking down " period is over and we are now in steady
production, the rate of which will steadily accelerate as the need for operator-training
decreases. The quality of our control should improve as the field parties become familiar
with our requirements.
It is suggested that the use of radar altimeters and shoran for the controlling of aerial
photography be investigated as the next step in the improvement of our product.
TRICAMERA CONTROL
E. A. Rothery, F.R.I.C.S., Air-photo Analyst
In the report of 1949 it was stated that the coastal area between Bute Inlet, Howe
Sound, Bridge River, and Chilko Lake had been selected as the first area for the propagation of control by the use of tricamera photography. This project was designed with
a view to extending the existing maps in the lervis-Toba Inlet areas.
Priority mapping for the British Columbia Forest Service in the Bella Coola-Rivers
Inlet area dictated a shift into this more northerly region, and the efforts of the tricamera
work have been concentrated on this project.
Very gratifying results have been obtained to date. Shore-line triangulation along
Burke Channel, Fitzhugh Sound, and Moses Inlet has served to control the centre verticals of the tricamera assemblies, while Mount Waddington was available to orient the
oblique views pointing inland. A pattern of fixed points is being established between
Bella Coola and Rivers Inlet to control the maps required by the Forest Service in 1951.
This operation will be extended east and south to cover the entire, hitherto uncontrolled,
coastal area.
Various modes of approach to obtain correct horizontal angles from high obliques
were investigated.    It was decided to take off angles on the plane of the oblique photograph and then correct them with the formula? tan 0=tan A cosec 6 where—
0=angle on the horizontal plane.
A=angle on the plane of the oblique.
0=angle of depression.
For measuring the angles in the plane of the oblique, a 2-metre protractor was drawn up
on an old plotting-board.    This reads to 05' direct and 01' by estimation.
Tilt and tip are prime factors in arriving at a correct horizontal angle. These have
been arrived at by two different methods. The first one by horizons and the second one
from known heights on or near the horizon. In the latter case a minimum of three points
is necessary—two on one side and one on the other. Tilts and tips were calculated from
both right and left obliques, and the results meaned. II 98
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
The general procedure laid down in the Manual of Photogrammetry (Preliminary
Edition), page 660 onwards, was adopted with some refinements to give the higher
standards of accuracy required.
Experience gained from the Bella Coola-Rivers Inlet project indicates that a team
of three men can establish a network of fixed points to control a slotted-templet lay-down
for an area of 3,000 square miles in approximately two months. The cost in salaries,
therefore, amounts to about 30 cents a square mile for horizontal control.
The method is practical, and with photographs at 6-inch focal length taken at an
altitude of 17,000 feet, a standard of accuracy of no plottable error at a scale of %2ooo
should be finally attainable.    The immediate improvements that are required are:—
(a) Identification, by examination on the ground, of the photographic position
of control points.
(b) A more stable basic material than the standard bromide photographic
paper in present use.
No attempts have been made as yet to establish vertical heights by this method, but
it is hoped that some attempt can be made during the coming year to investigate this
problem.
APPENDICES
Appendix 1.—Summary of Air-survey Operations, 1936 to 1950, inclusive
!
1936^10   I      1946
1947
1948
1949
1950 1946-50
Vertical basic cover—
New cover (square miles)..
Reflying (square miles)..
Average cost per square mile above ..
Improvement flying (square miles) —
Average cost per square mile .
22,000
$2.02
Tricamera photography, 17,500-20,000 feet
(lineal miles)
Average costs per lineal mile.
Vertical special low altitude (square miles)
Average cost per square mile  —
Tricamera   special   low   altitude    (lineal
miles)  	
Average costs per lineal mile	
Total number of photos exposed	
Weather—number of days utilized..
Cost distribution—
Organization..
23,313
Flying (aircraft operation)..
Salariesf  	
Salaries, air crew..
Insurance	
Field expenses..
Depreciation (equipment)	
Film developing and annotation _
Prints, one set (9 by 9 in.)	
19,500
$1.40
175
$2.88
9,500
29
10.3%
49.0%
26,400
21,400
$1.36
6,440
$3.36
147
$12.93
25,000
23
6.6%
51.2%
15.0%
2.5%
2.4%
7.3%
6.6%
6.9%
7.1%
2.8%
6.4%
8.0%
8.8%
9.1%
$1.52
2,586
$1.91
3,472
$4.05
101
$10.17
533
$7.12
20,882
20
4.2%
49.7%
10.7%
4.0%
7.2%
9.4%
7.9%
6.9%
100.0%
100.0%    | 100.0%
27,800
1,720
$1.17
5,375
$1.26
890
$3.50
1,956
$5.75
1,729
$5.93
33,395
2,605
19,590
$0.89
3,015
$2.03
932
$5.11
4,705
$5.19
524
$9.49
25,342
30*
37*
4.4%
5.8%
32.6% t
25.2%
12.7%
14.6%
14.2%
5.0%
5.0%
9.9%
10.7%
11.3%
6.8%
12.1%
11.5%
10.1%
8.1%
00.0%
100.0%
97,705
21,310
$1.26
10,976
$1.62
11,734
$3.71
7,084
$5.52
2,786
$6.83
114,119
139
5.7%
} 43.0%
12.2%
4.1%
8.0%
8.8%
9.8%
8.4%
100.0%
* Includes low-altitude photography.
t Includes pilots' and mechanics' salaries.
Standardized Equipment, 1947-50
Aircraft: Anson V.
Number used: Two, 1949-50, Government-owned.
Undercarriage: Wheels.
Air speed (miles per hour): 150.
Range (hours): Seven.
Camera make: Eagle V.
Lens, focal length:  Ross, 3!4 inches.
Negative size: 5 by 5 inches.
Print size (routine): 9 by 9 inches. SURVEYS AND MAPPING SERVICE
II 99
Appendix 2.—Summary by Projects, 1950 Air-survey Photographic
Flying Operations
Basic vertical cover, 17,500 and 20,000 ft./m.s.l-
1. New cover—
Prince George block	
Bute block  	
Totals .
2. Revision—
Prince George block _
Bute block	
Nass-Skeena  	
Quesnel, Yalakom, and Big Creek blocks..
Gulf Islands 	
Totals.
Grand totals, basic block vertical cover-
Average cost per photo (approximate )-
Average cost per square mile (approximate)..
Improvement reflying	
Average cost per photo (approximate)	
Average cost per square mile (approximate)-
Basic tricamera control, 20,000 ft./m.s.l.-
British Columbia-Alberta Boundary	
Waddington area	
Totals-  	
Average cost per photo (approximate)	
Average cost per lineal mile (approximate) .
Special projects—
1. Tricamera—
(a) Tide-rips_
(6) Fraser River (Hope-French Bar Creek)..
(c) Murray Creek —
(d) Leon-McKay Creek  	
Totals  	
Average cost per photo (approximate)	
Average cost per lineal mile (approximate)..
2. Vertical—
(a) Topographic Surveys' triangulation stations	
(6) Composite mapping (townsites)..
(c) International Pacific Salmon Fisheries..
(d) Department of Fisheries ..
(c) Fraser River (Prince George-Woodpecker-Soda Creek-Quesnel).
(/) Multiplex projects-
Additional Forest Service photos for above-
(g) Okanagan low-level cover 	
(h )  Highway photography.—   -	
(i) University forest —   	
(;) Shawnigan Lake 	
(k) Sooke Harbour 	
(0 Fraser flood   	
(m) Babine Lake 	
(n) Morice Falls  .	
(o) Quesnel South 	
(p) Lillooet River -   	
(q) Truax Creek..
(r)  Gordon Pasha Lake -
Totals      	
Average cost per photo (approximate)	
Average cost per square mile (approximate)—t~
D. Obliques—
Victoria..—
Armstrong .
E. Reconnaissance .
F. Grand totals, photographic operations -
G. Total, operational expenditure 	
1 Square miles.
' Lineal miles.
Number of
Photos
531
297
828
1,827
690
2,228
1,524
276
6,545
7,373
1,673
1,779
264
2,043
1,494
1,131
108
243
2,976
985
1,042
829
639
954
403
740
4,223
1,046
18
15
12
211
12
15
7
45
23
16
11,235
34
25,342
Area
Cost
Sq. Mi.
1,600
1,005
2,605
5,500
2,095
6,650
4,200
1,146
19,591
22,196
3,015
$1,268.11
847.00
$2,115.11
$4,363.21
1,966.14
6,242.16
4,347.85
764.94
$17,684.30
$19,799.41
2.69
.89
$6,130.97
3.66
2.03
Lin. Mi.
810
122
932
420
82
15
7
524
190
421
96
160
108
355
245
2,400
88
16
15
6
420
25
5
15
40
45
55
4,705
f   29,916*
I     l,456t
$4,134.35
628.69
$4,763.04
2.33
5.11
$3,110.80
1,374.14
173.97
315.58
$4,974.49
1.67
9.49
$3,596.74
2,549.34
2,769.63
2,577.63
1,848.11
2,036.02
1,719.11
6,471.49
1,536.67
123.45
73.81
63.78
448.79
13.80
22.09
61.80
123.52
124.19
98.28
$26,258.25
2.34
5.58
$92.52
53.24
$1,576.87
$63,648.79 II 100
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Appendix 8.—Personnel of Air Survey Division, 1950
Name and Position
G. S. Andrews, Chief Engineer
Section Name and Position
Section
B. Albhouse, Senior Stenographer     I
A. M. Barber, Air Svy. Det. Chief    II
R. K. Bates, Stockman  IV
T. H. Bell, Chief Process. Tech IH
M. B. Bentley, Tech. Svy. Asst. II    V
A. R. Best, Instrument-maker  VI
P. D. Bragg, Tech. Svy. Asst. II     I
A. M. Broughton, Ir. Draughtsman    V
.!. C. Buchan, Ir. Draughtsman  IV
E. I. Clark, Ir. Draughtsman  IV
E. P. Creech, Chief Draughtsman*    V
H. N. Davis, Draughtsman  IV
C. E. I. Gould, Ir. Draughtsman IV
E. B. Hackett, Photographer  III
L. D. Hall, Tech. Svy. Asst. Ill    V
W. Hall, Asst. Chief Engineer     I
I. A. Hawes, Asst. Photographert    V
O. R. Hawkins, Ir. Draughtsman!  IV
C. D. Hobson, Asst. Photographer  III
A. C. Kinnear, Air-photo Analyst     I
R. W. Kroeger, Tech. Svy. Asst. Ill    V
B. K. Lace, Aircraft Mech. I    II
R. W. Lambert, Photographer  III
K. F. Lapham, Ir. Draughtsman  IV
R. M. Lee, Ir. Draughtsman    V
A. S. Lukinuk, Air Svy. Det. Chief    II
C. A. E. Matson, Air Svy. Pilot    II
F. R. Morris, Air Svy. Tech  II
T. F. Muir, Draughtsman  V
E. I. Mullins, Air Svy. Pilot  II
W. K. MacDonald, Air-photo Analyst  V
R. H. McAra, Ir. Draughtsman  III
R. D. McDougall, Ir. Draughtsman  III
I. McMurchy, Ir. Draughtsman  V
R. F. Oberg, Ir. Draughtsman  V
R. S. Oberg, Ir. Draughtsman  V
R. A. Paine, Tech. Svy. Asst. II  V
H. Palmer, Tech. Svy. Asst. II  V
R. S. Parsons, Tech. Svy. Asst. II  V
A. H. Phipps, Draughtsman  V
D. L. Ricardo, Typist  IV
E. A. Rothery, Air-photo Analyst -. V
I. M.' Saunders, Typist  I
I. W. Shaw, Tech. Svy. Asst. II  V
G. S. Smith, Tech. Svy. Asst. Ill  V
R. H. Smith, Draughtsman  V
R. I. Stevenson, Air Svy. Tech  II
A. G. I. Sutherland, Tech. Svy. Asst. II  V
W. W. Taylor, Ir. Draughtsman*  V
J. F. Tomczak, Tech. Svy. Asst. Ill  V
G. M. Ward, Aircraft Mech. I   II
D. T. Wells, Ir. Draughtsman  V
A. D. Wight, Air Svy. Det. Chief  II
R. E. Woods, Tech. Svy. Asst. II  IV
Personnel Employed during 1950 and Services Now Terminated
A. D. Aldridge, Tech. Svy. Asst. II
W. Crossman, Ir. Draughtsman  IV
I. R. Czechowski, Typist  IV
M. Emmerton, Jr. Draughtsman  IV
E. J. Gravenor, Tech. Svy. Asst. II    V
D. Hicks, Ir. Draughtsman    V
II H. N. Hoyle, Draughtsman    V
A. I. Marshall, Tech. Svy. Asst. II    V
I. G. Moffatt, Ir. Draughtsman  IV
H. V. Piddington, Jr. Draughtsman  IV
D. F. Thomson, Ir. Draughtsman  III
* On loan from Geographic Division.
t On loan to Composite Mapping Section.
+ On loan to Topographic Section.
I—-Administration.
II—Operations.
SECTIONS
III—Processing.
IV—Library.
V—Compilation.
VI—Instrument-shop AIR   SURVEY   OPERATIONS-1950
CALENDAR   OF   WEATHER   IN   RELATION TO  FLYING   ACTIVITIES
APPENDIX NO.   3
AIR   SURVEY    DIVISION.    SURVEYS    AND    MAPPING   SERVICE.
DEPT.    OF   LANDS    AND    FORESTS.    VICTORIA,    B.C.
FILE   0160043   -   22ND     NOV.    1950.
APRIL
I       4
12
20
28 30
—   MAY 	
13 21
29 31     |
BASE
PAT  BAY N^T-k-
DOG CREEK
^BAvk  SMITHERS  ^^-|^—  COMOX    >|<   PAT   BAY
DATE
WEATHER
o 8-0 o
—JUNE
Mf    *
M        *
0
I
n
q
DETACHMENT    NO. I-AIRCRAFT    CF-EZN
VERTICAL    PHOTOGRAPHY
0
1
0
   OCTOBER 	
17 15 21
* * ***     * 9 9
0 8-0 0
u
2
10-00     »-
I 2:0 0     °
I
I
8
1
SPECIAL   LOW  WATER SURVEY   OF NECHAKO
AND   VICINITY
9 9
4 12
fr
20
28
APRIL
PRINCE   GEORGE
2
□
2    i o:oo    0
i- - s
<     I 2:0 0
I
«0      | 4.0 0
<      I 6-0 0
13
21
29
MAY
-^
PAT   BAY
O
I
a.
cl
oc
id
Q
13
**   9 9
21
29
JUNE
*K-
KAMLOOPS
L,  MOUNTAIN   STANDARD      >J
f\—" time -—^1
B
2
□
B
DETACHMENT    NO    2 - AIRCRAFT    CF-EZI
VERTICAL   AND   TRICAMERA      PHOTOGRAPHY
0
** *      J* 19
14 22
— JULY  	
*      WW w* wt t f   *
30
14                  22
AUGUST  	
29
XX
14                   22
SEPTEMBER   	
-^|<5  CRANBROOK N<^
PRINCE GEORGE
^ FT. ST. JOHN -^l™-^
30
I 0.0 0  2
2:0 0  5
a
Z
I 6:0 0  <
9MB99Mm9&m weather
n w   9
I               7                    15
 OCTOBER	
DATE
COMOX
*£
PAT   BAY —   BASE
TIME   ON    PHOTOGRAPHY
DEAD-HEADING
TIME  ON   PHOTOGRAPHY
DESCENT
ill FERRY   FLIGHT
L2J ABORTIVE     FLIGHT
[I] AIR    TEST
4 RECCE.    FLIGHT
0
A. P.
Mg*l f 10.1 _CLOyP_ INTER FERE N C E
"   LOW    CLOUD   INTERFERENCE
<>    PRECIPITATION
X   AIRCRAFT    UNSERVICEABLE APPENDIX        4
T
AIR SURVEY DIVISION
HIGH ALTITUDE
AIR-PHOTO COVER
(10,000'-20,0007m.s.l.)
Vertical Photography:
Dominion Government
B.C. Government
Tricamera Photography:
Dominion Government
B.C. Government
1926-
-45
[a-
•i
1936-
-40
i.
!
1946-50
1946-50
-•—•—•—•-
Detail index maps, 4 miles to 1 inch, showing the location of actual
air-photo centres, are available on application. Order by block number
and sheet letter, e.g., Prince George 93G.
For reprints of Dominion Government air photographs write
direct to:
Topographical Survey,
National Air Photo Library,
Department of Mines and Technical Surveys,
Ottawa
For   reprints   of   B.C.   Government   air   photographs   or   inquiries
regarding air photography within the Province write to:
Air Survey Division,
Surveys and Mapping Service,
Department of Lands and Forests,
Victoria
INDEX  SHOWING   NUMBERING   SYSTEM   OF   MAP  SHEETS
OF  THE   NATIONAL TOPOGRAPHIC  SERIES
Prepared  by Geography  Pi v.. Dept.of Lands and Forests APPENDIX
AIR SURVEY DIVISION
LOW ALTITUDE
AIR-PHOTO COVER
(Under 1 0,0007m.s.l.)
Vertical Photography
Tricamera Photography   -
Detail index maps, 1 mile to 1 inch, showing the location
of actual air-photo centres, are available on application. Order
by block number, sheet letter and grid number, e.g., Prince
George 93G/15.
For reprints of low altitude photographs or inquiries regarding low altitude photography within the Province, write to:
Air Survey Division,
Surveys and Mapping Service,
Department of Lands and Forests,
Victoria
INDEX  SHOWING   NUMBERING   SYSTEM   OF   MAP  SHEETS
OF  THE   NATIONAL TOPOGRAPHIC  SERIES
Prepared   by Geographic  Pi v.  Peot.of Lands -and Forests —*-
APPENDIX
AIR SURVEY DIVISION
PRACTICAL OPERATIONAL LIMITS
FROM EXISTING AIRFIELDS
For Anson V Aircraft
(Circles—100 miles radius)
INDEX  SHOWING   NUMBERING  SYSTEM   OF   MAP  SHEETS
OF  THE   NATIONAL TOPOGRAPHIC  SERIES
Prepared  by Geographic
December 31st, 1950
y APPENDIX  6
AIR SURVEY DIVISION
INTERIM MAPS
(Planimetry only)
Completed maps.
Scale:  4 inches=l mile.
Completed maps.
Scale:   2 inches=1 mile.
Completed maps.
Scale:   1 inch=l mile.
Maps in course of preparation.
Scale:   2inches=l mile.
Prints from these maps are available
upon application to:—
Director of Surveys and Mapping,
Department of Lands and Forests,
Victoria, B.C.
WHEN  ORDERING MAPS,  SHOW:
Index No.    ------    92
Alphabet letter -----       B
Sheet No.    ------       6
E.g., VICTORIA, 92B/6
INDEX   SHOWING   NUMBERING   SYSTEM   OF   MAP  SHEETS
OF  THE   NATIONAL  TOPOGRAPHIC  SERIES
Prepared  by Geographic  Piy
I SURVEYS AND MAPPING SERVICE II  101
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION
W. H. Hutchinson, Chief, and Provincial Representative,
Canadian Board on Geographical Names
The important part being played by this Division of the Surveys and Mapping Service
is well demonstrated by the increase in the map distribution during the past year, when a
record number of maps was issued to meet administrative and public demands. However,
this is not surprising when we realize the steady progress that has been made in the general
economic development of the Province during the past few years, and the fact that accurate maps have an undisputed place in the careful planning and control of any programme
of development. The maintenance of adequate stocks of maps has taxed the skill and
ingenuity of the staff to the utmost, this being partly due to the diversified functions of the
Division. Many man-hours of work are consumed in numerous activities other than
actual map-drawing, which situation passes unnoticed to a great extent. Much effort goes
into such items as the constant revision of geographical place-names, checking of maps
other than our own previous to printing, miscellaneous draughting and statistical commitments for other departments, intricate mathematical computations, and the handling and
distribution of maps. There is no doubt that, with the much larger programme of map
production envisioned for the near future, our actual map-writing staff and space must of
necessity be increased.
The various functions of the Division are better dealt with under the following
separate headings.
ADMINISTRATION
The Division is now completing its first full year of operation since moving to the
new Superior Street quarters, and has had time to realize and appreciate the many
improvements in lighting and working conditions generally. However, with an expanding
programme, there is constant concern over the lack of ready space, especially for any
additional staff. The personnel are contained in four offices, each office primarily concerned with one of the following items constituting the main work of the Division:
Computations, Geographical Naming and Map-checking, Map Compilation and Production, and Map Distribution. .
At the end of October, Major W. G. H. Firth retired on superannuation as Chief
of the Division and Provincial Representative on the Canadian Board on Geographical
Names. Joining the staff when it was inaugurated in 1912, his ability and efficiency have
contributed in no small measure to the high standard of mapping work attained by the
Division.
A. H. Ralfs, B.C.L.S., formerly of the Legal Surveys Division, was transferred to
this Division as mathematical computer in October to fill the vacancy left by the writer's
appointment as Chief.
A. Perrin, an experienced map-writer, was appointed to the staff in November as
draughtsman (temporary).
A. L. Farley and the late Dr. Donald W. Kirk, geographers, were both temporarily
employed for parts of the year on special studies.
COMPUTATIONS
Before the details which follow, this work may first be summarized under four
headings:—
(1) Calculations of positions and elevations of new triangulation stations from
surveyors' angular observations in the field.
(2) Adjustment of triangulation network between fixed control points, and
adjoining nets with one another.
PROVINCIAL LIBRARY,
wrjp, • T->       p II 102
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Geographic Division
Major W. G. H. Firth, Chief of the Geographic     {,
Division until  his recent retirement after thirty-
eight years' service.
Preparation of a blue colour plate,
the original transparency being exposed
to sensitized plate in vacuum frame.
Drawing original for red colour
printing-plate on transparent Vinylite
sheet. This will be exposed in vacuum
frame to sensitized plate. TRIANGULATION CONTROL
Geodetic Survey of Canada (Basic Control)   solid line   Purple
Dominion Geological, Topographical,
Public Works Surveys and Department
of National Defence     - - dotted line Purple
* Provincial Standard    ----- Recj
Provincial—Other than Standard    -       - Green
*The standard type of Provincial triangulation meets the following
requirements: —
Network of quadrilaterals or polygons with all angles read.
All angles read to the nearest second of arc.
Maximum closing error for each triangle, 10 seconds.
All stations marked by brass bolts or iron posts.
Distance and azimuth derived from Geodetic Survey Basic
Control wherever available.
Only the main framework of triangulation is shown on this map;
numerous additional stations have been established, many of which are
marked by brass bolts, iron posts, or cairns.
Details concerning each station are recorded in a card-index, giving
marking, geographical position, elevation, distances and directions to
adjacent stations, etc.
There were more than sixteen thousand cards on file at the end
of 1950.
Triangulation surveys of all the principal coastal waterways have
been made, either by Provincial or Canadian Hydrographic surveys.
These are not shown on this map on account of its small scale.
INDEX  SHOWING   NUMBERING   SYSTEM   OF   MAP  SHEETS
OF  THE   NATIONAL  TOPOGRAPHIC  SERIES
PrSBflrgfl   fay Scqgrflphtc   D.v,  Dfpt.gf L.and<S gng  rgrfi?t5
December 3>st, 950 SURVEYS AND MAPPING SERVICE II 103
(3) Collection and indexing of all triangulation data covering the whole
Province.
(4) Dissemination of triangulation control data, in response to requests.
Final returns covering the following triangulation surveys, the field work for which
was undertaken in 1949, were completed:—
Topographic triangulations of Hazelton area by G. C. Emerson, B.C.L.S.,
D.L.S.
Topographic triangulations of Bridge River area by W. R. Young, B.C.L.S.
Topographic triangulations of Campbell River and Johnstone Strait areas by
F. H. Nash, B.C.L.S., and A. F. Swannell, B.C.L.S.
Topographic triangulations of Kitimat area by E. R. McMinn, B.Sc.
Triangulation in the Squamish area by S. H. de Jong, B.C.L.S.
Geographic positions (latitudes and longitudes), bearings and distances between
stations, and elevations were determined for each station.   The results were recorded in
the card index.
Following the close of the 1950 field season, elevations and preliminary co-ordinates
were determined for all stations set by the topographic surveyors in the following areas:—
Yalakom-Empire Valley area by W. R. Young, B.C.L.S.
Meziadin Lake area by G. C. Emerson, B.C.L.S., D.L.S.
Quesnel River area by F. H. Nash, B.C.L.S.
Sechelt-Texada Island area by A. F. Swannell, B.C.L.S.
Smithers-Telkwa area by E. R. McMinn, B.Sc.
Tulameen area by D. J. Roy, B.C.L.S.
Tamihi Creek area by J. M. C. Wade, B.C.L.S.
In all, preliminary co-ordinates for 382 stations and 528 station elevations were determined, the latter involving the adjustment of 3,977 difference-of-elevation calculations.
All triangulation data relating to the Province are indexed under an alphabetical
card-index system, also under a quadrant index system.   In the alphabetical system, a
card is written for each station, on which are recorded the following details, where available: Names of surveyors occupying the station, with dates of occupation; the numbers
of the field books and plans relating to same; description of mark; description of access;
air-photo number; latitude and longitude; elevation; distances and bearings to adjoining
stations; grid rectangular co-ordinates; ties to cadastral survey posts.   More than 16,000
such cards are on file at this date.
Under the quadrant system, a register, with pages for each quadrant of 30-minute
extent, lists all the stations and cadastral-survey connections contained in each individual
quadrant. In this manner, inquiries relating to triangulation in the Province can be
attended to promptly.
Requests for triangulation control have been received from all Provincial departments concerned with mapping, and the following Federal departments: Canadian
Hydrographic Survey at Victoria, Canadian Geodetic Survey, Canadian Topographic
Survey, Department of National Defence, and the Surveyor-General at Ottawa, and also
the Dominion Department of Public Works at New Westminster. In addition, there have
been requests from British Columbia land surveyors in private practice, as well as from
private corporations and individuals. In all, 212 inquiries were received and attended to,
about 50 per cent more than were dealt with during the year 1949.
For the first time, positions of certain triangulation stations were received from
Ottawa in terms of Universal Transverse Mercator grid co-ordinates. It was necessary
for the staff to familiarize themselves with the methods for transferring these grid coordinates to latitude and longitude, and vice versa; otherwise no new technical methods
were employed.
A five-year comparative table, and one which deals with least-square adjustments of
triangulation networks made, are included in the statistical tables. II 104 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
GEOGRAPHICAL NAMING AND MAP-CHECKING
The duties of this section are to assemble, check, and record the geographic information available on all the many drainage, coastal, relief, and place names of the
Province for use in preparing the maps published by this Department, other Provincial
agencies, and all Federal departments. To this end, some fifty-three map-sheets were
checked, and numerous inquiries from the public attended to.
With the services of four university students for the summer months, the staff was
able to advance the compilation of the new Geographical Gazetteer of British Columbia
to the stage where the preparation of the manuscript for transmission to Ottawa for
printing can be proceeded with. During the past year, in this connection, 874 maps and
tracings were used in checking for description and detail some 27,900 name-cards. This
work was necessitated by the vast amount of detailed data that has steadily accumulated
through the rapidly expanding topographic surveys in the twenty years subsequent to the
printing of the original Geographical Gazetteer in 1930.
In addition, 26 map-sheets submitted by Dominion and Provincial agencies were
revised, and final checks made, before going to press.
MAP COMPILATION AND PRODUCTION
The chief function of this Division is the production of maps covering the Province
on suitable scales, with special emphasis on cadastral surveys and the status of same. As
this involves compilation, draughting, and reproduction by photolithography, we are
fortunate in having the excellent co-operation of the Photographic Branch of the Government Printing Bureau in handling the latter process.
Printing facilities, due to the postponement of the installation of a lithographic press
by the Bureau, have had to be secured from commercial firms. The press plates for two
maps published this year were prepared by the Bureau, the printing of which, executed
commercially under their supervision, was most satisfactory.
Nine Provincial maps have been produced, either as new editions or corrected to
date. These will help to supply the demands until such time as they can be supplanted
by corresponding sheets of the National Topographic Series. We have five of this series
now in course of preparation, two of which are nearing the final phase of printing. The
manuscripts of Map-sheet 82 L/S.W., prepared in the Division, which is to be produced
through the co-operation of the Department of National Defence at Ottawa, are now in
their hands; this map will supplant our present Map 4j (Vernon).
Seven National Topographic Series map-sheets, on the scale of 1 inch to 1 mile,
prepared by the Topographic Division, were checked, and the manuscript drawings sent
to the Department of National Defence at Ottawa for publication. A stock of four printed
sheets, also of this series, was received for distribution from this Department.
The original drawings of the cadastral surveys for Map-sheets 82 F/9 and 82 F/16
(scale, 1 inch to 1 mile) and Map-sheet 93e (scale, 1:250,000) were prepared by this
Division for reproduction by the Department of National Defence.
The designation numbers and names of map-sheets dealt with above appear in the
statistical tables.
MAP DISTRIBUTION—PUBLIC RELATIONS
The record task of distributing some 34,000 maps, as was done this year, was no
light one, especially as it involved, besides our own, all the publications and correlated
information of the various map-producing agencies of the Dominion Government and
commercial companies. Stocks of most of these maps must be maintained, and all must
be indexed and recorded; this information must be kept up to date. The distribution
for official and public use is carried out in three ways:   (a) In answer to written requests,
(b) by shipping in quantity to various Government Agents for local redistribution, and
(c) over the counter.    A good proportion of our space is necessarily allotted to stocking SURVEYS AND MAPPING SERVICE
II  105
all the maps and publications mentioned above in readily available form, and this promises to be a future problem as numbers increase.
SPECIAL GEOGRAPHICAL WORK
The following commissions were undertaken and completed during the year:-—■
(a) The drawing of detailed descriptions and the mapping of 1,370 enumeration areas covering the whole Province, undertaken for the Dominion
Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, to be used in the 1951 Census, was completed by May 1st as required. It may be noted here that during the year
some 3,200 man-hours of work were expended on this project.
(b) Assistance to the Director of Conservation in assembling, editing, production, and distribution of the Annual Report of the Deputy Minister
of Lands.
(c) The co-ordination in February and March of the map display held in the
rotunda of the Legislative Buildings and also, in part, in the Empress
Hotel in connection with the Third Resources Conference. This display,
effectively depicting British Columbia's natural resources, marked the
third of such exhibits in as many years in which the four divisions of the
Surveys and Mapping Service have displayed their respective mapping
techniques and progress to date. Well illustrated also were the uses to
which the resultant maps are put, and the necessity for same in the study
and work of the controlled development of the natural resources of the
Province.
Many other diversified commissions were undertaken for various departments, such
as preparing administrative boundary descriptions and sundry draughting. The value of
this and other work is shown in the statistical tables.
The Geographic section of the map display. II 106 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
COMPUTATIONS
Least-square Triangulation Adjustments Completed
Net
Locality
Type of
Bearings
Number of
Triangles
Involved
Provincial Main ..
Provincial Main _
Provincial Main _
Provincial Coast..
Provincial Coast-
Provincial Coast..
Provincial Coast..
Provincial Coast-
Provincial Coast-
Canadian Hydrographic Survey-
Miscellaneous	
Campbell River-Clayoquot	
Campbell River-Johnstone Strait-
Lillooet-Howe Sound	
Johnstone Strait and Mayne Passage..
Sutil Channel    	
Discovery Passage.
Chancellor and Cordero Channels..
Clio and Chatham Channels	
Shelter and Muchalat Arms	
Texada Island	
True
True
True
Local grid
Local grid
Local grid
Local grid
Local grid
Local grid
Local grid
Local grid
45
22
82
51
18
60
68
37
40
26
63
STATISTICAL
Maps
Published
Name
Map No.
Scale
Date of Issue
Remarks
British Columbia (small) showing roads..
Lillooet  	
North Thompson	
British Columbia (small) land recording districts_
Chilcotin 	
Bella Coola (preliminary)..
Bulkley-
Lower Fraser Valley-
British Columbia	
Provincial Government Topographic Surveys
Reproduced and Printed in Ottawa under
the National Topographic Series
Nanaimo Lakes-
Horne Lake	
Port Eliza	
Nootka	
3k
3j
lex
3f
2e
3d
4p
1j
92F/1
92F/7
92 E/14
92 E/10
40 mi. to 1 in.
3 mi. to 1 in.
3 mi. to 1 in.
40 mi. to 1 in.
3 mi. to 1 in.
4 mi. to 1 in.
3 mi. to 1 in.
2 mi. to 1 in.
27 mi. to 1 in.
1 mi. to 1 in.
1 mi. to 1 in.
1 mi. to 1 in.
1 mi. to 1 in.
Apr., 1950
July, 1950
July, 1950
Oct., 1950
Oct., 1950
Oct., 1950
Nov., 1950
Nov., 1950
Dec, 1950
Mar., 1950
Mar., 1950
Sept., 1950
Sept., 1950
Reprint.
Reprint.
Reprint.
Reprint.
New edition.
New edition.
Reprint.
Reprint.
Reprint.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition. SURVEYS AND MAPPING SERVICE
II  107
Maps—Continued
In Course of Compilation
Map No.
Scale
Date of Issue       Remarks
92 F
82 L/S.W.
92 G
103 1
93 D
92 J
82 E/N.W.
82 E/S.W.
93K./1
93K/2
92B/5
92B/12
103 1/10
103 1/7
82 F/4
92 H/4
92 0/2
92E/9
93 A/6
93 A/5
93 G/14
92H/3
1:250,000
2 mi. to 1 in.
1:250,000
1:250.000
1:250,000
1:250,000
2 mi. to 1 in.
2 mi. to 1 in.
1:50,000
1:50,000
1 mi. to 1 in.
1 mi. to 1 in.
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1 mi. to 1 in.
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
1:50,000
Bella Coola  -	
Provincial Government Topographic Surveys Being
Reproduced and Printed in Ottawa under the
National Topographic Series
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
Shawnigan _   	
Terrace   	
Rossland-Trail —   	
Chilliwack   	
Muchalat Inlet	
Horsefly	
BeaverCreek 	
Isle Pierre „ 	
Skagit 	
First edition.
The following tables give comparisons with the previous five-year period:
Computations
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
Tr angles adjusted by least squares 	
431
570
456
583
218
599
221
517
714
296
12,151
74
480
806
231
205
1,214
419
13,365
115
686
826
224
606
1,120
469
14,485
146
512
Stations calculated from rectangular co-ordinates
1,137
326
528
Index cards—
694
305
10,680
52
685
229
11,437
50
1,888
924
Total on file     ..
16,373
212
Canadian Board on Geographical Names—Naming and Recording
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
Number of mao-sheets or charts checked
Number of names checked 	
Number of new names recorded   —	
21
2,037
335
50
4,107
602
57
7,297
446
63 1
7,060
401
62
4,671
375
63
5,457
831
Geographical Work for Other Departments and Public
Total number of items .
Total value of work	
52
$2,630.55
62
$1,315.00
Map Stock and Distribution
Map issues to departments and public
Maps received into stock-
Total value of printed maps issued..
20,973
20,800
$6,997,80
29,052
11,425
$10,848.45
28,755
19,942
$10,207.89
28,673
24,228
$9,935.33
31,789
33,251
$11,512.90
34,244
36,021
$11,794.00
Letters II 108
department of lands and forests
List of Lithographed Maps
Map
No.
Year of
Issue
Title of Map
Scale,
Miles, etc.
Per
Copy
Per
Dozen
1a
lex
»lE
lH
lj
ljCA
ljC
ljD
ljE
1JF
ljGL
ljG
Ijs
lK
lL
2a
2o
92f
t92o
t92j
2e
2f
3a
3b
3c
3d
3e
3f
3a
3h
3j
3k
3m
3p
4a
4b
4c
4n
4E
4f
4o
4h
t4j
4k
^M
4n
4p
4q
5b
5c
5d
mkm!
mrm2
mrm3
mrm4
mrm5
mrm6
mrm7
mrm8
1945
1950
1930
1943
1948
1923
1948
1948
1937
1948
1937
1948
1945
1925
1940
1948
1948
1951
1951
1951
1950
1927
1949
1<M2
1949
1937
1945
1950
1949
1947
1942
1938
1Q">9
1924
1927
1946
1936
1949
lois
1947
1043
1926
1951
1923
ia->7
1930
1946
1939
1929
1929
1929
1941
1927
1928
1928
1929
1929
1932
1934
1935
1950
1948
1930
Geographic Series—
Wall Map of British Columbia,
railways, etc.
In four sheets.   Roads, trails,
British Columbia. In one sheet. Showing Land Recording Districts
Kootenay, Osoyoos, and Similkameen (South-east B.C.)	
Northern British Columbia, Special Mineralogical Data —
British Columbia.   In one sheet.   Showing post offices, railways,
main roads, trails, parks, distance charts, etc	
Ditto
Ditto
Ditto
Ditto
Ditto
Ditto
Ditto
Ditto
ditto
ditto
ditto
ditto
ditto
ditto
ditto
ditto
and precipitation
and Land Recording Districts .
and Mining Divisions
and Assessment and Collection Districts
and Electoral Districts, Redistribution 1938
and Land Registration Districts	
and Counties  	
and Census Divisions !	
South Western Districts of B.C.
Central British Columbia (contoured 1,000-ft. interval).
Land Series—■
Southerly Vancouver Island	
Northerly Vancouver Island  	
Alberni-Powell River	
Vancouver.
Pemberton
Bella Coola (preliminary)     	
Queen Charlotte Islands, Economic Geography (preliminary) .
Pre-emptors' Series—
Fort George 	
Nechako (contoured)	
Stuart Lake (contoured)	
Bulkley	
Peace River (contoured)	
Chilcotin   :	
Ouesnel (contoured)
T§te Jaune (preliminary)
North Thompson (contoured)..
Lillooet    	
Prince Rupert
Grenville Channel (preliminary)
Degree Series—■
Rossland (contoured)	
Nelson (contoured )	
Cranbrook 	
Fernie  	
Upper Elk River	
Lardeau
Windermere	
Arrowhead  .    	
Vernon (contoured)  	
Kettle Valley (contoured)..
Nicola Lake (contoured).-
Penticton (contoured)
Lower Fraser Valley (preliminary)   	
Hope-Princeton ("contoured)	
Topographical Series—
Howe Sound-Burrard Inlet (contoured), South sheet (special) .
„ „ „ North sheet (special)
Stikine River (contoured)
Revelstoke-Golden (B=g Bend-Columbia River) (contoured) .
Mineral Reference Maps (Printed)—
Slocan and Ainsworth    _   _
Trout Lake      	
Lardeau River	
Nelson-Ymir	
Rossland-Ymir
Grand Forks-Greenwood	
Greenwood and Osoyoos ..  __
Barkerville and Lightning Creek_
Miscellaneous—
B.C. Road Map
B.C. Mining Divisions      	
Geographical Gazetteer of British Columbia .
1:1,000,000
15.78 m. to
55 m. to
7.89 m. to
15.78 m. to
27 m.
31.56 m.
27 m.
27 m.
27 m.
27 m.
27 m.
27 m.
27 m.
7.89 m.
15.78 m.
4 m. to
4 m. to
4 m. to
4 m. to
4 m. to
4 m. to
4 m. to
3 m. to
3 m. to
3 m. to
3 m. to
4 m. to
3 m. to
3 m. to
3 m. to
3 m. to
3 m. to
3 m. to
3 m. to
2 m. to
2 m. to
2 m. to
2 m. to
2 m. to
2 m. to
2 m. to
2 m. to
2 m. to
2 m. to
2 m. to
2 m. to
2 m. to
2 m. to
V2 m. to
Vi m. to
5 m. to
4 m. to
1 m. to
1 m. to
1 m. to
1 m. to
1 m. to
1 m. to
1 m. to
1 m. to
40 m. to
50 m. to
$1.50
Free
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.50
.50
.50
.50
.25
.25
.25
.50
.50
u. to
■ «J3
■sgs
8S ■
□
.50
.50
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
Free
Free
1.00
$14.00
1.50
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.on
2.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
On an.
On an.
8.00
* Out of print. f In course of compilation.
Provincial sales tax, 3 per cent extra.
Note.—To avoid misunderstanding, applicants for maps are requested to state the map number of map desired
Maps listed above can be mounted to order in the following forms: Plain mounted; cut-to-fold- with wooden bars
top and bottom to hang, etc.   Prices upon application.
We can supply information concerning maps of British Columbia printed and published at Ottawa bv the Denart-
ment of Mines and Technical Surveys. y
Unless otherwise requested, maps will be sent folded.
Address inquiries for printed maps to:
Chief Geographer, Department of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.   December 31st, 1950. surveys and mapping service
Index of Lithographed Maps
II 109
PERSONNEL OF GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION, 1950
W. H. Hutchinson, Chief of Division.
A. H. Ralfs, Mathematical Computer.
W. G. Thorpe, Senior Cartographer.
G. W. Barnes, Assistant Mathematical Computer.
H. L. Hooper, Supervising Draughtsman.
T. Hinton, Senior Draughtsman.
R. S. Butt, Draughtsman.
A. F. G. Gosse, Draughtsman.
P. H. Salmond, Draughtsman.
H. Pattinson, Senior Draughtsman.
S. Wright, Senior Draughtsman.
A. L. Farley, Geographer.
A. E. Stone, Draughtsman.
E. J. Carter, Technical Survey Assistant (2).
M. D. Browne, Junior Draughtsman.
R. C. Holden, Junior Draughtsman.
G. D. More, Junior Draughtsman.
L. G. Smith, Junior Draughtsman.
H. E. Walker, Junior Draughtsman.
D. E. Watson, Junior Draughtsman.
Miss E. Rhodes, Clerk-Stenographer.
Miss L. I. Le Grys, Stenographer (2).
Temporary Staff
E. Browne, Draughtsman.
A. Perrin, Draughtsman. II 110 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
LEGAL SURVEYS DIVISION
F. O. Morris, Chief of Legal Surveys Division and Surveyor-general
This Division deals with the general correspondence, the supply of survey information to land surveyors and the general public, preparation of instructions for surveying,
checking survey field-notes and plotting official plans therefrom, clearing all applications,
and many minor activities.
A blue- and ozalid-printing plant is maintained, rendering service to the various
Government departments.
The correspondence handled by this Division continues at the same high level as the
last few years, as shown by the receipt of 10,514 letters and the sending out of 6,476,
together with the great amount of correspondence which can be handled by form letters.
All applications to purchase or lease Crown land, or to lease foreshore, are allowed
subject to instructions being issued to the surveyor employed by the applicant. The issuing of these instructions by this Division entails numerous and exhaustive searches of
previous survey records, so as to be able to present to the surveyor all survey information
of adjoining or near-by surveys.
It is necessary that returns, in the form of field-notes with plans, for any legal survey
of Crown lands be deposited in this Division. During the year, returns for such surveys
were received from fifty-seven British Columbia land surveyors and consist of the following:—
(1) Surveys made at the instigation and expense of private individuals or
companies covering applications to purchase and leases of Crown land
and foreshore. These are indicative of the large amount of development
being carried on throughout the Province.
(2) Surveys made at the expense of and under Departmental instructions.
They cover surveys of Crown lands along the Alaska Highway which are
to be leased to applicants as service-stations and stopping-places along
that route, also certain sections of Crown land in the Peace River District
which have been found of the quality necessary for their development into
farm holdings and which are close enough to the present means of access
to make this development both desirable and economically possible.
(3) Surveys of 193 mineral claims.
The total number of field-notes received during the year consists of 383 field-books
and more than 126 plans.
These field-notes are all recorded and indexed, and then are checked and plotted by
the draughtsmen and official plans are prepared. It is these official plans which form
the root of title to all lands within the Province.
The total number of field-notes now on record in the Legal Surveys Division is
approximately 90,383. These include the surveys made by the Royal Engineers and
date back to the early colonial days.
The task of clearing and statusing all applications for land or foreshore which
belongs to the Crown is a very onerous and exacting duty. These applications are passed
to this Division from the Lands Branch, and an exhaustive status is made from the reference maps, official plans, and Land Registry plans. From a combination of these three
sources, the standing of any particular piece of surveyed or unsurveyed Crown land can
be accurately determined.
The sale of all Crown timber which is disposed of through timber sales is made only
after a clearance is obtained from this Division.
This Division co-operates with other departments of the Government through the
preparation and checking of legal descriptions of municipalities, pound districts, and so
forth. SURVEYS AND MAPPING SERVICE II  111
A blue- and ozalid-printing plant is maintained by this Division, and, as will be seen
by Table A, a very large volume of work is turned out by this section. Not only are
prints made for all divisions of the Surveys and Mapping Service, but a service is rendered to many other departments of the Government; a great amount of ozalid printing
is done for the Department of Public Works and the Department of Education. As a
further service, this Division has the equipment and material to prepare ozalid paper and
linen tracings, and this has been a great boon in a great number of instances.
A further service is rendered to other departments and to the public through the
operation of a photostat machine. With this equipment, all plans and documents which
cannot be copied by the blue-print machine are satisfactorily handled. It is also possible
with this machine to prepare enlargements or reductions of plans and documents, and by
a new process of the Canadian Kodak Company it is now possible to have these photostats produced on tracing film.
Departmental Reference Maps.—In order to keep a proper graphic record of alienations and inquiries, reference maps, generally on the scale of 1 inch to 1 mile and covering
the whole of the Province, and mineral reference maps on the scale of 1 inch to 1,500
feet, which cover the mineralized areas of the Province, are maintained by this Division.
These maps are drawn on tracing-linen, and prints of same are procurable by the public.
As applications to purchase or lease lands are received, notations are made on these
reference maps, and thus at any time an up-to-the-minute status can be given of any
particular piece of Crown land anywhere within the Province.
The work of keeping these reference maps up to date by adding new survey information, as it becomes available, and of renewing them when they become worn by constant use and handling in the blue-print machines, forms a considerable portion of the
work of this Division. During the year fourteen reference maps were compiled. There
are now 205 reference maps and 82 mineral reference maps, making a total of 287 maps.
During the year nearly 440 copies of Land Registry Office plans were added to the
records on file in this Division. These plans are listed carefully and are in constant use,
particularly in connection with the clearance and statusing of applications for lands
reverted to the Crown for non-payment of taxes.
FIELD SURVEYS
The legal surveys made at the expense of the Department during the year, and
referred to earlier, are more particularly outlined in the following:-—
J. A. F. Campbell, B.C.L.S., completed a reposting survey of part of the Village of
Burns Lake. This was carried out in conjunction with the village authorities. In addition, he subdivided an area of Crown land at Davie Lake for summer-camp sites.
Duncan Cran, B.C.L.S., surveyed some sixty-one sections of Crown lands in the
Blueberry, Beatton, and Doig River areas of the Peace River District. Practically all
these sections are now taken up by lease or purchase under the " Land Act."
J. R. Mackenzie, B.C.L.S., of Dawson Creek, surveyed some fourteen sections of
Crown land in the Peace River District, mainly in the Clayhurst and Pine River areas.
lohn Elliott, B.C.L.S., surveyed four blocks of residential lots in Connaught Heights,
District Lot 172, Group 1, near New Westminster.
A. E. Humphrey, B.C.L.S., of Chilliwack, subdivided about 300 acres of Crown
land near Sardis into home-site lots of 10 and 20 acres.
E. O. Wood, B.C.L.S., of Kelowna, surveyed an area of approximately 250 acres
adjoining Westbank on Okanagan Lake into twenty-one lots.
D. I. McGugan, B.C.L.S., of New Westminster, has reposted the majority of the
water-front lots at Woodhaven on Bedwell Bay.
Some very necessary triangulation, with ties to existing surveys, was made by W. N.
Papove, B.C.L.S., in Jervis Inlet and at the mouth of Howe Sound.    This work was done II 112
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
in the spring, and use was made of the Surveys and Mapping Service vessel " B.C.
Surveyor."
ALASKA HIGHWAY
Control survey of the right-of-way of the Alaska Highway was continued this year
by W. N. Papove, B.C.L.S. Seventy miles of the highway between Mile 148 and Mile
278 were surveyed and posted with permanent survey monuments. In addition, twenty
lots were surveyed at various points along the highway for the Department and for the
Northwest Highway System. As the Alaska Highway survey is designed to act as control
for future surveys adjacent to it, the instructions issued for this work call for a precise
order of survey, in which all distances are checked and directions controlled by frequent
astronomic observations. Furthermore, the survey is well marked on the ground by
standard survey posts and mounds, with concrete monuments at frequent intervals.
Hope—Princeton Highway, 19 miles east of Hope.    Section of Dewdney Trail, 1860, at left.
In accordance with the continued Departmental policy of providing control for
future cadastral surveys along and adjacent to the highways of the Province, two such
surveys were carried out by I. H. Drewry, B.C.L.S., and A. H. Ralfs, B.C.L.S. The
survey by Mr. Drewry consisted of a survey of some 25 miles of the Cariboo Highway,
in the vicinity of 93-Mile House. Mr. Ralfs, who is a member of the staff, carried out a
combined control and right-of-way survey on the new Hope-Princeton Highway. It
extended from Mile 1 at Hope to Mile 15 near Tashme. The instructions for these
surveys, made in conjunction with the Department of Public Works, included the require- ■■:\r---x,^-ii-.'^ "■ "^ ™v>'£-V ^**-*fe^'
SURVEYS AND MAPPING SERVICE II  113
ments of a highway right-of-way plan (for deposit in the Land Registry Office), with
added instructions for obtaining information desired by this Service.
Instructions were prepared for a number of miscellaneous surveys undertaken by
P. M. Monckton, B.C.L.S., on the staff of the Superintendent of Lands. These surveys
included subdivisions at Telkwa, Monroe Lake near Cranbrook, Fairview Townsite near
Oliver, and a number of other Crown-land surveys and repostings at various points,
including Zymoetz (Copper) River, Smithers, Lillooet, Creston, Hazelton, and Sechelt.
R. E. Chapman, B.C.L.S., a member of the staff, in addition to his duties of examining and checking survey returns, including field-notes and plans, attended to a number
of survey inspections in the field.
W. A. Taylor, B.C.L.S., and R. W. Thorpe, B.C.L.S., members of the staff, carried
out a number of miscellaneous surveys required by the Department. Mr. Taylor did
practically all of the survey work requested on Vancouver Island, as well as a group of
home-site lots at Egmont on the Skookumchuck Narrows. The work on the Island
included the survey of a 680-acre parcel in Goldstream District to be acquired from the
City of Victoria for park purposes, three Forest Service lookout-sites, small subdivisions
at Campbell River and Stamp River, as well as a number of reposting surveys at Port
Alberni, Kelsey Bay, Nanoose Bay, Esquimalt, and Sooke. Mr. Thorpe's work consisted
of a district lot and subdivision survey at Silver Lake near Hope; small Crown-land
surveys at Little Shuswap Lake and Le leune Lake in the Kamloops district, Tabor Lake,
Quesnel, and Kersley in the Cariboo, and at Castlegar on the Columbia River. In addition, he made a subdivision of dyked lands at Port Coquitlam and carried out other minor
surveys at Cowichan Lake, Woodhaven, and Ganges. Some of this work was jointly
done with Mr. Chapman.
Renewal of Survey Landmarks.—In the Regulations Regarding Permanent Survey
Monuments, which was issued in 1947, authority was given private surveyors to replace
a limited number of old survey posts with permanent monuments at the expense of the
Surveys and Mapping Service. During the past year seventy-six such renewals were
made. In addition, a large number of corners were re-established and permanently
posted by private, as well as Departmental, surveyors in connection with their surveys of
adjoining lands.
Survey Fees, Sales of Maps, etc.
Collections under " Land Act " Total Collections
Survey fees  $6,933.58
Blue-prints   16,863.27
Lithographed maps  5,186.85
Photostats  1,270.43
Air photographs   7,797.21
Miscellaneous   935.15
Totals  $38,986.49 II 114
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
SOURCES OF COLLECTIONS  1950
Survey Fees, Sales of Maps, etc., for Ten-year Period 1941-50, Inclusive
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
$11,646.30
16,670.53
18,751.40
18,413.92
25,080.57
29,235.51
28,512.34
20,744.33
32,394.32
■ 38,986.49
Total
$240,435.71
Ten-year average, $24,043.57. SURVEYS AND MAPPING SERVICE
II  115
Attached hereto are Tables A, B, and C. Table A summarizes the main items of
work carried out by the general staff, while Tables B and C give a list of present reference maps.
Also attached are several surveyors' reports giving further details of some of the
surveys referred to above.
PERSONNEL OF LEGAL SURVEYS DIVISION, 1950
F. O. Morris, Chief of Division and Surveyor General
A.I. Baker, Supervising Draughtsman.
D. H. Beck, Junior Draughtsman.
J. Callan, Acting Technical Survey Assistant.
M. Chandler, Senior Draughtsman.
R. E. Chapman, Land Surveyor.
S. L. Clarke, Senior Draughtsman.
J. Edward, Supervising Draughtsman.
C. Green, Intermediate Clerk—Grade I.
J. Gulliver, Intermediate Clerk—Grade I.
C. Hume, Junior Draughtsman.
T. A. Jacklin, Blue-print Operator.
R. A. Jefferson, Blue-printer's Assistant.
F. Leacock, Draughtsman.
J. Macallan, Supervising Draughtsman.
T. Moore, Draughtsman.
C. T. V. Morley, Senior Draughtsman.
L. McBratney, Junior Draughtsman.
D. A. McGee, Junior Draughtsman.
Mrs. P. Newburg, Stenographer.
D. Pearmain, Chief Draughtsman.
D. S. Prezeau, Blue-printer's Assistant.
H. P. Rutter, Technical Draughtsman.
J. R. Stone, Senior Draughtsman.
D. Stuart, Senior Draughtsman.
W. A. Taylor, Land Surveyor.
R. W. Thorpe, Land Surveyor.
C. R. Vater, Blue-printer's Assistant.
Miss B. Warren, Stenographer—Grade 1a.
D. B. Young, Photostat Operator.
Table A.—Summary of Office Work for the Years 1949 and 1950,
Surveys Division
1949 1950
Number of field-books received  343 383
lots surveyed   385 411
lots plotted  439 433
lots gazetted   448 377
lots cancelled  73 30
mineral-claim field-books prepared.. 101 160
reference maps compiled  9 13
applications for purchase cleared.  1,207 1,076
applications for pre-emption cleared 218 264
applications for lease cleared  882 1,081
coal licences cleared :  2 2
water licences cleared  99 18
timber sales cleared  3,242 4,625
free-use permits cleared  248 492
hand-loggers' licences cleared  5 3
Crown-grant applications cleared   _ 1,674 1,678
reverted-land clearances  1,492 1,665
cancellations made  865 1,022
inquiries cleared  826 1,181
placer-mining leases plotted on maps 380 191
letters received  9,315 10,514
letters sent out :  6,348 6,476
Crown-grant and lease tracings made 1,666 1,431
miscellaneous tracings made  38         . 38
Government Agents' tracings made 420 361
photostats made  4,109 3,835
Sale value of photostats  $3,390.95*      $3,118.84*
Number of blue-prints made  79,514 86,114
Sale value of blue-printing  $32,243.39*    $36,229.14*
Number of documents consulted and filed in vault 51,828 51,843
* Total value. II 116
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
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SURVEYS AND MAPPING SERVICE
II  121
Typical Country of Peace River District
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East of
Beatton River.
South of
Blueberry River. II  122 DEPARTMENT" OF LANDS AND FORESTS
REPORT BY DUNCAN CRAN, B.C.L.S.
Under instructions from the Director of Surveys and Mapping, surveys were carried
out embracing as large a proportion as possible of the land applied for, as could be done
in the five months' period from June to October. Portions of Townships 87 and 88,
Ranges 16 to 20, were surveyed, and a few sections in Township 119 north of the Peace
River Block line. These surveys extended, at intervals, from the Doig River west to the
old Fort Nelson Trail and comprised sixty-one sections. Only a small part of this area
was not staked as applications to purchase.
Fires in the year 1950 were the worst known to most residents. These fires swept
through the country, including that surveyed by us in the first part of the season, and
blackened the ground on which we, a week or so later, pitched camp. We were fortunate
in being camped at a point on the Beatton River which was untouched while the worst
of the fires were raging in many directions from us.
Our last two camps were situated close to land that had recently been broken. One
enterprising man had broken about 500 acres and cleared and roughly graded several
miles of road to get in and out with his wife and family of four children. I believe it
was understood that some assistance should come from some of the other settlers which
the road benefited. This is what is known as the Blueberry country, once sparsely settled
and rather hard of access but now being opened up by some new settlers and, to a considerable extent, by local people. Land in this district includes small valleys tributary
to the Blueberry River—Snyder, Buick, and Umbach Creeks (the last two known locally
as Buck and Squaw).
REPORT BY J. H. DREWRY, B.C.L.S.
The following is a report on operations in the 1950 season by the writer, who, under
instructions from the Director of Surveys and Mapping and from the Department of
Public Works, organized a party of eight to survey and monument the right-of-way of a
portion of the Cariboo Highway.
The party left Vancouver by motor-vehicle on May 19th and travelled via the Trans-
Canada Highway, Cache Creek, and the Cariboo Highway to the 93-Mile House, where
permanent camp was made in three clean and comfortable cabins. Good board for the
crew was secured at the coffee-shop operated at that point by R. J. Flaherty & Co.
Work at surveying the right-of-way commenced on Monday, May 22nd, in a series
of sleet and hail storms, at the northern limit of the previously surveyed right-of-way, at
the top of the 83-mile hill. With the exception of three days lost for wet weather and
for holidays on July 1st and Labour Day, the party worked continuously six days a week
and covered 24.75 miles of the new highway, finishing at the north boundary of Lot 76,
Lillooet District. All curves were monumented, and all intersecting lot boundaries were
retraced and their intersections monumented in accordance with the instructions issued.
Old corners on these boundaries were re-established where necessary, and all were
remonumented with standard pipe posts.
Branch roads to a total of approximately 1 mile were traversed and their turnouts
monumented on the boundary of the main highway.
A tie was made to Geodetic Survey station " Begbie " by resection from two points
on the highway traverse, and the azimuth carried to " Lone Butte " by occupying
" Begbie." The azimuth used showed an apparent difference from that of the Geodetic
Survey of 12 seconds. A tie was also made by traverse and spirit-level to Geodetic
Bench-mark 654-J on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway right-of-way about 1,400 feet
easterly from the highway crossing and near the north boundary of Lot 964.
Frequent checks on the bearings were made by observation on Polaris at intervals
of 2 to 3 miles along the highway.    All angles of the highway traverse were quadrupled SURVEYS AND MAPPING SERVICE II 123
with a Wild T-l theodolite. Chainage was read to hundredths of a foot and checked
with a tape graduated in links and chains, a constant tension being applied in all measurements. Corrections were applied for slope, temperature, and sag where applicable, and
for tape error determined by comparison with a standardized tape. The error in chain-
age is believed to be not over three-tenths of a foot per mile of traverse.
Reference monuments were, in general, placed on the easterly side of the highway,
with iron bars on the westerly side. Concrete monuments were placed at intervals of
approximately half a mile, with the factor of intervisibility governing their position.
This does not apply to the first 8 miles, which were monumented under initial instructions
from the Director of Surveys and Mapping. Here, concrete monuments mark each
curve and boundary intersection at much shorter intervals.
The right-of-way through Crown land was made 132 feet wide, but through alienated lands it was contracted to 100 feet in width.
Physical Features
The first 13 miles of the highway traversed this season passes over the highest terrain
on the route of the Cariboo Highway, from Mount Begbie to the ridge which lies immediately south of the 100-Mile House. Here the elevations vary between 3,800 and 3,975
feet above sea-level.
The soil is glacially deposited clay, with some content of volcanic ash, and has a
somewhat cement-like quality. This clay is liberally interspersed with boulders—-often
large—the great majority of which are of basic lava. All of the higher terrain is well
sprinkled with small lakes and swamps, but there are few streams; small creeks at the
north of Mount Begbie, at 93-mile and 97-mile being the only ones crossed. Drainage
is to the south-east.
This area bears an almost complete forest-cover, consisting largely of jack-pine with
occasional groves of poplar or spruce. There is some fir on the higher ridges. Almost
the entire area has been burned over and (or) cut over in comparatively recent times, as
evidenced by the youth of the present forest-cover. Grass grows throughout the greater
part of the wooded area and there is very little underbrush, but there is little grazing
which attracts cattle, except along the course of Ninetythree Mile Creek, which flows
easterly across the highway to Lone Butte, and in wild-hay meadows in the vicinity of
Lot 5309.
From 1 mile south of the 100-Mile House, the highway passes through valleys of
open range land divided by ridges from 100 to 200 higher than the valley-floors. The
ridges are heavily timbered with fir, the best part of which has been cut over some years
ago, and which is showing an amazingly vital regeneration. The highway makes a
gradual over-all descent toward Lac la Hache, starting at 3,025 feet at the 100-Mile
House, rising to over 3,200 feet, then dropping to 3,000 feet west of the 103-Mile Lake,
and to 2,940 feet at the 108-Mile House. In this area much evidence of stream-action
was visible, and several deposits of water-borne gravel were noted, one of which—near
103-Mile Lake—was used for all concrete poured during the summer.
The soil of the open range land of the valleys was found to be mostly a shallow
deposit of black loam over clay subsoil, with infrequent outcrops of lava bedrock. The
soil of the ridges is similar to that of the high-level terrain previously described.
Access and Transportation
The two arteries of transportation which traverse the Cariboo—the Cariboo Highway and the Pacific Great Eastern Railway—roughly parallel one another from Clinton
northward. The highway from Maiden Creek, through Clinton, to the 100-Mile House
has been completed with a 24-foot black-top surface.    From the 100-Mile House to' II 124 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Lac la Hache the oil sub-surface has now been laid, and the black-top with gravel
shoulders will complete this 15 miles. This fine highway has encouraged motor travel
of all kinds, and the Pacific Great Eastern Railway now has serious competition in the
freight traffic of the district. Three truck lines operating out of Vancouver and one
from Kamloops now use the highway, some trucks taking their freight as far as Vanderhoof. There is also a refrigerator truck making weekly trips from Vancouver with
frozen foods, including ice-cream.
A network of roads through the territory between Green Lake and Horse Lake is
developing, and is now connected to Little Fort on the North Thompson River. Access
from the main highway is from the 70-Mile House via Green Lake and from the 93-Mile
House via Lone Butte. Improvements to these roads and to the Canim Lake Road
from the 100-Mile House will draw increasing traffic and hasten the development of this
lake-enriched resort and ranching area.
Agriculture
No evidence of agricultural activity was noted, other than the cutting of wild hay
on Lot 5309 and on meadows east of the 93-Mile House, until the vicinity of the 100-
Mile House was reached. Here, in the valley of Bridge Creek and northward through
the open range land of the valley of Watson Creek and its tributaries, the low-lying areas
were under cultivation for feed crops, while the higher portions were left for grazing,
which is generally sparse because of lack of summer moisture. Cattle-raising monopolizes the agricultural occupation of this district.
Industry
The only industrial activity noted was that of lumbering. There are several small
sawmills cutting logs from timbered areas some distance from the highway, notably at
Soda Lake, Bridge Lake, and Forest Grove. The latter trucks much of its cut to a
planing-mill at Exeter on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway. The lumber produced is
almost entirely fir.
Tourist Travel
A very heavy influx of motoring visitors was apparent during the summer months
and again during the hunting season. About half of the cars bore United States licence-
plates. The area of Horse Lake, Canim Lake, Bridge Lake, with its many lodges and
good fishing, attracts large numbers of tourists, most of whom use the Lone Butte and
Canim Lake roads to gain access to one or more of the numerous lakes lying east of the
highway.
Game and Wild Life
The larger lakes of the aforementioned area all provide good trolling for rainbow
trout and char. Moose are plentiful throughout the district, while deer are somewhat
less numerous. Willow grouse and Franklin grouse were seen in good quantity, while
ducks were plentiful in the watered areas. A flock of about fifty wild geese was noted
in the Watson Creek valley, evidently the product of this year's nesting in the lakes of
that vicinity. Coyote, bear, and porcupine were seen at frequent intervals, with occasional evidence of the presence of skunk, one of which became uncomfortably curious as
to what the chainmen were doing. Timely diplomacy resulted in avoidance of any
untoward incident.
Climate
This part of the country has a climate of extremes of temperature. During the past
severe winter a low temperature of —62° F. was reported at Lone Butte and at the
93-Mile House.   A normal summer is very warm and, after June, almost rainless until TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS
MANUSCRIPTS
B.C. Provincial Government Surveys
Photo-topographic manuscripts
with Air Photo cover.
Scale:   2 inches= 1  mile (1/31,680)
Photo-topographic manuscripts.
Scale:   1/40,000
A. Sheets on North End of
Vancouver Island completed
with Air Photo cover.
B. Sheets on Mainland not compiled
from Air Photo cover, nor numbered
on National Topographic System.
Provincial Government field
work completed with Air
Photo cover.
Scale:   2 inches=l  mile.
Dominion Government Surveys
Manuscripts in hand (not
available).
Scale:   2 inches=l mile.
WHEN ORDERING MANUSCRIPTS, SHOW:
Index No.    -----    92
Alphabet letter      -    -    -       B
Sheet No.    -----      6
E.g., VICTORIA, 92B/6
See index map of lithographed sheets for manuscripts
published on scale 1 inch=l mile.
Prints from manuscripts of B.C. Provincial Government
surveys are obtainable of most of this classification.
Information and prices available on application to:—
Director of Surveys and Mapping,
Department of Lands and Forests,
Victoria, B.C.
INDEX   SHOWING   NUMBERING   SYSTEM   OF   MAP  SHEETS
OF  THE   NATIONAL  TOPOGRAPHIC  SERIES
Pr*Dar«d  bv Geographic Div.. Dept.of Lands and fgrg§tS
December 31st, 1950 TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEYS
LITHOGRAPHED MAPS
B.C. Provincial Government Surveys
Lithographed maps.
Scale:   1  inch=l  mile.
Dominion Government Surveys
Lithographed maps.
Scale:   1  inch=l mile.
(NOTE.—Portion of 92G/6 also covered by Provincial
Government, 2 inches= 1  mile, lithographed map.)
WHEN ORDERING MAPS,  SHOW
Index No.    -----    92
Alphabet letter      -     -    -       B
Sheet No.    -    -    -    -    -       6
E.g., VICTORIA, 92B/6
Lithographed maps at 25 cents per copy are obtainable
on application to:—
Director of Surveys and Mapping,
Department of Lands and Forests,
Victoria, B.C. SURVEYS AND MAPPING SERVICE II  125
October, or even later. Temperatures on the pavement, noted during the survey, went
as high as 124° F. in July and August. After the middle of August night frosts began
to occur, with a marked decrease in the insect population. This feature of early and
late frosts, with severe winters and light snowfall, has completely discouraged the attempts
of the local residents at any form of gardening between Clinton and the 100-Mile House.
The final monuments were completed and marked on October 4th, and the following day the return trip to Victoria was commenced. The party and equipment arrived in
Victoria without incident on October 7th.
TOPOGRAPHIC DIVISION
A. G. Slocomb, B.C.L.S., Chief, Topographic Division
A few daubs of colour and a rounded figure can usually attract a man's eye no
matter what the subject. The same combination of colour and figure is used here to
aid the individual requiring copies of our maps and, in addition, to show the actual
progress toward a complete coverage of British Columbia. After glancing at the small
map accompanying this report, daubed with red streaks and squares, some solid colour
and some hatched, the reader is reminded that the whole of British Columbia is divided
into map-sheets covering one-half of a degree of longitude by one-quarter of a degree
of latitude. The number on each conforms to the National Topographic Series. When
all are completed, there will be approximately 1,080 of these maps. The word approximate is used advisedly; that is, wherever the limits of the Province touch the shore-line
and embrace the islands, it is often found more economical to include one of the part
map-sheets with its neighbour rather than produce two, one of which would be mostly
water. However, the decision to " double up " is subject to decision according to the
individual case; hence the exact number of map-sheets to cover British Columbia
cannot be given as a final number.
Field work has been completed on one-ninth of the Province, with air photographs
employed to obtain the topographic detail. Half of the maps involved are complete and
are now available on the standard 1-mile-to-l-inch lithographed sheet. Among the other
half, many are complete in manuscript form at the scale of 2 inches to 1 mile, while the
balance are in varying stages of completion. By the summer of 1951 all should be
available for use in making photostat copies.
In addition, though not shown this year on the index map, there are available a
large number of topographic maps of varying shapes and sizes, made without the benefit
of air photographs. Many of them were completed by this Division through use of the
former photo-topographical methods. It is the intention to revise them by combining
the old control wherever possible with modern air photographs and making the sheets
conform to the National Topographic Series. A start has been made on this revision
and several maps have been completed; for example, the Manning Park and the Ashnola
sheets. Most of the balance will have to be recontrolled, as they are Dominion Government Geological Survey sheets, done in the main by the use of the plane table, with no
permanent marks left on the ground. The total area of all these maps would cover
approximately sixty standard sheets. Allowing these below-standard sheets to count as
coverage for the moment until they can be revised, we find that one-sixth of British
Columbia has been mapped at the scale of 1 mile to 1 inch. That leaves approximately
900 sheets left to control and map. At our present rate of production this represents
sixty years' work.
This year fifteen map-sheets, with a controlled area of 4,813 square miles, were the
combined score of four regular field parties and one larger party equipped with a heli- II 126 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
copter. A sixth party obtained additional control for the much-demanded sheets of
Nanaimo, Duncan, and Cowichan Lake on Vancouver Island. W. R. Young, B.C.L.S.,
was in charge of the party controlling the Yalakom-Churn Creek section; G. C. Emerson,
B.C.L.S., D.L.S., utilizing the helicopter, in the Meziadin Lake-Bowser Lake area; F. H.
Nash, B.C.L.S., between the Quesnel River-Fraser River and south; A. F. Swannell,
B.C.L.S., using the " B.C. Surveyor " in the vicinity of Jervis Inlet-Seechelt Peninsula;
E. R. McMinn, B.A., B.Sc, in the Smithers district; and J. M. C. Wade, B.C.L.S., had
a more or less roving commission obtaining control and traversing over two areas—
Tamihi Creek and Earle Creek—for the Forest Economics Division of the Forest Branch,
and the previously mentioned additional control for three Vancouver Island map-sheets.
A triangulation party under A. Pollard, B.C.L.S., worked south from the geodetic
net in the vicinity of Clearwater Lake, its objective being a tie to the geodetic stations in
the vicinity of Adams Lake. Approximately 50 per cent of the work was completed.
This survey was undertaken for the Fraser River Basin Board.
The proper identification on the air photographs of our triangulation and control
stations has always been a source of trouble and worry. Although great stress has always
been laid on photograph identification of these stations or of a control point close by, at
the time of occupation, errors still kept occurring. As this identification governs the
slotted-templet plot, it was becoming a major problem. This year, however, a solution
was found. The Air Survey Division flew the different areas at the end of the season,
photographing all signals and cairns at low altitude with the same camera used in the
regular air photography. These vertical photographs, after identification of the cairn or
signal, could then be reduced to the scale of the mapping photograph. By matching
features and topographic detail the exact position of the control is identified, thus checking the position identified by the surveyor while in the field. This is first-class insurance.
Although the season's effort was experimental, it was a definite success and will be
standard practice in future.
The two outstanding features of this season's field work were the fine weather and
the success of the helicopter project, which was completed by August 20th. The former,
of course, was the main contributing factor to the early shut-down. Our contract with
the Okanagan Air Services Limited called for 300 flying hours and, as the Bell helicopter
requires a major engine overhaul after 300 hours, that was the time-limit of possible
flying.    On the completion of the overhaul the company had other commitments.
It is my firm belief that the Department should own and operate its own helicopters.
Our experience this summer provided an example of what happens when the weather is
good and we charter. We were forced to come home in the middle of the fine weather,
as the locale was not suitable for any other means of transport except back-packing and
possibly horses. The gain would not have been worth the effort in the case of operation
by back-pack. In the second case the nearest horses were at Hazelton and the season
would have been over before they could have been brought in. The ideal arrangement
would be to own two helicopters, operating in adjacent areas. When one is being serviced or overhauled, the other could maintain operations. Two helicopters and an extra
engine unit would allow a change-over in a day and would hardly disrupt service at all.
A considerable drop in operational cost was experienced when the Air Survey
Division bought its own aeroplanes. It would be reasonable to expect a similar drop
should we purchase and operate our own helicopters. The purchase of a Beaver or a
Norseman for servicing these large-scale operations would certainly be economical, and
we have pilots presently on our staff. The combination of two helicopters and a Beaver
were used in the Northern Yukon by the Department of Mines and Technical Surveys of
the Dominion Government this past summer, and they are highly recommended as a
working unit. In addition, this agency chartered and found cost to be higher than
expected.    Our helicopter party used a crew double the regular size and completed five SURVEYS AND MAPPING SERVICE
II  127
map-sheets in eighty-two days. During this time they were unable to fly on only eight
days. The helicopter was able to service five instrument parties. Supplies came in by
conventional aircraft from Stewart once a week.
The four Willys jeeps, equipped with four-wheel drive and a front-end winch,
proved indispensable. The experimental springs were found unsatisfactory and will be
replaced, but on the whole the vehicles were a big improvement over our previous equipment. When our present standard trucks reach the retirement stage, they will be replaced
by four-wheel-drive units.
The " B.C. Surveyor " again demonstrated the worth of a boat of this size, able to
service a regular field party without having to establish main camps on the rocky shoreline. However, the ship has several features that need improvement. Cramped crew
quarters, lack of the drying-space which is so necessary in wet weather, and inadequate
fresh-water storage are worthy of mention. If a slightly larger and otherwise suitable
boat could be located, it would appear that we would be well advised to buy, either adding
to our fleet or as an exchange, preferably the former. There are still many more map-
sheets on the coast-line to control, and a goodly number of these could be done by helicopter, using a scow for a landing-field and the boat for servicing. Other map-sheets
need only positive identification of the coast triangulation stations on the shore-line and a
minimum of vertical control. The " B.C. Surveyor " could well take care of this, using
a smaller crew, and a larger boat could be utilized for a full-sized party.
G. J. Jackson retired from the Division on October 31st after serving for thirty
years as a topographic surveyor. The occasion marked the close of an era, he being the
last of the original staff to leave.
In April three of our staff obtained their commissions as British Columbia land
surveyors. In addition, one passed the preliminary examination and became an articled
pupil.    We will have candidates in boths exams next year.
A detailed report from each chief of party follows.
PERSONNEL OF TOPOGRAPHIC DIVISION, 1950
A. G. Slocomb, B.C.L.S., Chief
D. G. Alexander, Technical Survey Assistant (1).
G. L. Alston-Stewart, Technical Survey Assistant (2).
A. Bridge, Technical Survey Assistant (1).
J. A. Cambrey, Draughtsman.
E. J. Carter, Technical Survey Assistant (2).
G. Castle, lunior Draughtsman.
J. A. Church, Draughtsman.
H. T. Cole, Technical Survey Assistant (1).
J. Cullie, Technical Survey Assistant (1) (Temporary).
J. E. Curtis, Technical Survey Assistant (3).
G. Duncan, Technical Survey Assistant (1).
G. C. Emerson, Topographic Surveyor (3).
H. G. Calvin, Draughtsman.
C. H. Gibson, Junior Draughtsman.
E. J. Gray, Assistant Instrument Mechanic.
C. R. Irving, Junior Draughtsman.
R. P. Justice, Technical Survey Assistant (2).
C. R. W. Leak, Topographic Surveyor (2).
J. W. P. Matthews, Technical Survey Assistant (2).
B. Morrison, Technical Survey Assistant (1).
G. E. McLaren, Junior Draughtsman.
E. R. McMinn, Acting Topographic Surveyor
(2).
W.    H.    McNaughton,    Senior   Draughtsman
(Temporary).
F. H. Nash, Topographic Surveyor (3).
R. Petkovich, Technical Survey Assistant  (1)
(Temporary).
F. W. Rich, Supervising Draughtsman.
R. R. Ridley, Technical Survey Assistant (2).
H. W. Ridley, Technical Survey Assistant (2).
W. S. Robinson, Technical Survey Assistant (1).
D. J. Roy, Topographic Surveyor (3).
F. C. Smith, Junior Draughtsman.
F. O. Speed, Technical Survey Assistant (2).
A. F. Swannell, Topographic Surveyor (3).
L. G. Temple, Technical Survey Assistant (2)
(Temporary).
A. S. Thomson, Chief Draughtsman.
J. M. C. Wade, Topographic Surveyor (2).
Miss J. M. Waldie, Typist.
If. Wickes, Technical Survey Assistant (2).
W. R. Young, Topographic Surveyor (3).
G. J. Jackson, Topographic Surveyor (3) (Retired).
W. Davenport, Launch Captain (Resigned).
J. A. Jones, Technical Survey Assistant  (1)
(Resigned). II 128
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY OF YALAKOM-EMPIRE VALLEY-
CHURN CREEK AREAS
W. R. Young, B.C.L.S.
The following is a report on the field work carried out in the Yalakom and Empire
Valley areas during the season of 1950 under instructions from the Director of Surveys
and Mapping. This area, described in detail below, lies partly west and partly east of the
Fraser River and is approximately 80 air miles north-west of Kamloops.
The survey was undertaken by this Department at the request of the Department
of Mines. The finished map will also be of interest to others, however—notably the
Dominion-Provincial Board, Fraser River Basin.
Specifically, the instructions were to conduct a topographic survey which would
provide ground control for air photographs of sufficient density to produce an accurate
map on a scale of one-half mile to 1 inch, with contours at 100-foot vertical intervals,
ZZ'bo'
5I°I5'-
5l°oo'
\Jesnumd.
-5l°is'
Hogback Mtn.      |2z°oo'
Fig.   1. SURVEYS AND MAPPING SERVICE II  129
covering Map-sheets 92 0/1 and 92 0/8 and that part of Map-sheet 92 0/7 lying east
of Churn Creek. Further instruction was to extend the existing main triangulation network through the above-mentioned areas in such a way that further extension to the north
could be carried out in the future.
These instructions were followed, and the work, comprising an area of approximately 800 square miles, was completed in full.
For convenience the areas are shown on the sketch-map (Fig. 1) and for clarity will
be referred to as the Yalakom area (Map-sheet 92 O/l), the Empire Valley area (Map-
sheet 92 0/8), and the Churn Creek area (Map-sheet 92 O/l).
The party consisted of eleven men, including myself as chief of party. The others
were D. J. Roy, B.C.L.S., assistant chief; J. W. P. Matthews, senior instrument-man;
V. C. Goudal, junior instrument-man; four survey helpers; a packer; an assistant packer;
and a cook. For transportation we had a 1-ton Mercury truck, a Willys jeep truck, and
twelve pack-horses. Four men and the two trucks loaded with all equipment and complete camp outfit left Victoria on the night of May 25th and arrived at Clinton on May
26th. Five other men left Victoria on May 27th and arrived at Clinton the morning of
May 28th. A main camp was established near the centre of the east boundary of the area
in the vicinity of Jesmond, and work was commenced immediately on that portion of the
area lying east of the Fraser River, using the trucks for transportation over local jeep and
wagon roads.   The packers arrived from Williams Lake with the horses on June 4th