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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Provincial Department of Fisheries REPORT WITH APPENDICES For the Year Ended… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1951

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Provincial
Department of Fisheries
REPORT
WITH APPENDICES
For the Year Ended December 31s
1949
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty
1950  To His Honour Colonel Clarence Wallace, C.B.E.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May It Please Your Honour:
I beg to submit herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial Department of
Fisheries for the year ended December 31st, 1949.
LESLIE HARVEY EYRES,
Minister of Fisheries.
Department of Fisheries,
Minister of Fisheries' Office,
, . Victoria, B.C. Honourable Leslie H. Eyres,
Minister of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial
Department of Fisheries for the year ended December 31st, 1949.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
GEORGE J. ALEXANDER,
Deputy Minister. TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Value of British Columbia's Fisheries in 1949 Shows a Decrease  7
The Canned-salmon Pack for British Columbia, 1949  7
British Columbia's Canned-salmon Pack by Districts   8
Review of British Columbia's Salmon-canning Industry, 1949  15
Other Canneries (Pilchard, Herring, and Shell-fish)  16
Mild-cured Salmon  17
Dry-salt Salmon  17
Dry-salt Herring  17
Pickled Herring  17
Halibut-fishery  17
Fish Oil and Meal  19
Net-fishing in Non-tidal Waters  20
Value of Canadian Fisheries and the Standing of the Provinces, 1948  20
Species and Value of Fish Caught in British Columbia  21
Condition of British Columbia's Salmon-spawning Grounds  22
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon (Paper No. 35) (Digest)__ 22
Herring Investigation  23
Shell-fish Investigation  25
APPENDICES
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon (No. 35). By
A. Andrekson, M.Sc, and D. R. Foskett, B.A., Pacific Biological Station,
Nanaimo, B.C  26
Results of the West Coast of Vancouver Island Herring Investigation,
1949-50. By J. C. Stevenson, M.A., and J. A. Lanigan, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C. L  41
Investigation at Seal Island, 1949.   By D. B. Quayle, Ph.D.    81
Report of the Biologist, 1949.   By D. B. Quayle, Ph.D  82
Report of International Fisheries Commission, 1949  84
Report on Investigations of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries
Commission for 1949  8 7
Salmon-spawning Report, British Columbia, 1949  91
Statistical Tables :  100
I  Report of the Provincial Department
of Fisheries for 1949
VALUE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S FISHERIES IN 1949
SHOWS A DECREASE
The total marketed value of the fisheries products of British Columbia for 1949
amounted to $56,456,260. This was a decrease from the year previous of $2,247,543,
or approximately 3.8 per cent less than the marketed value of fisheries products in 1948.
The principal species, as marketed in 1949, were salmon, with a value of $35,897,732;
herring, with a value, of $9,412,786; and halibut, with a marketed value of $4,356,310.
The salmon production in 1949 was $773,408 less than the production in 1948. The
value of the herring production in 1949 showed a decrease from the year previous of
$1,072,304, and the value of the 1949 halibut-catch also dropped $291,561.
In 1949 the total fish and shell-fish landed amounted to 5,463,149 hundredweight,
with a landed value of $27,260,217.
The total value of vessels, boats, premises, gear, and other equipment employed in
catching and landing fish in British Columbia in 1949 amounted to $30,747,565. This
figure is compared with $30,913,279 for capital similarly employed in 1948.
In 1949 there was a total of 12,235 persons employed in catching and landing the
fish in British Columbia and 3,455 persons engaged in processing plants, canneries, etc.
Of this latter figure, 2,516 were males and 939 were females. These figures for employment are compared with a total of 16,406 persons employed in 1948, of whom 12,226
were engaged in primary occupations, such as fishing and landing the fish, and 4,180 in
fish-processing plants.
The above figures were supplied by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Ottawa, and
are hereby gratefully acknowledged.
THE CANNED-SALMON PACK FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA,  1949
The total canned-salmon pack for British Columbia in 1949 amounted to 1,439,866
cases, according to annual returns submitted to the Provincial Department of Fisheries
by the licensed canners. The 1949 canned-salmon pack was 101,595 cases more than
were packed in 1948. The pack in 1949, however, was 39,947 cases less than the
average for the immediately preceding five years. In 1949 the pack consisted of 259,821
cases of sockeye, 21,184 cases of springs, 2,373 cases of steelheads, 215,944 cases of
cohoe, 709,987 cases of pinks, and 230,556 cases of chums. In the above figures 6,955
cases of bluebacks are combined with cohoes, and in each instance the half-cases have
been dropped.
Again, in 1949, the sockeye-salmon pack for British Columbia was disappointingly
small. The 1949 sockeye-pack was 76,094 cases below the average for the immediately
preceding five-year period and was also 1,409 cases less than the comparatively small
pack put up in 1948. The bulk of British Columbia sockeye is considered to be four-
year fish. If so, this would make 1945 the cycle-year for this species. In that year the
total sockeye-pack for British Columbia was 329,001 cases, or 69,180 cases greater than
were packed in the 1949 season. In the preceding cycle-year, 1941, the total sockeye-
salmon pack for British Columbia amounted to 455,298 cases.    When compared with D 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA
the previous two cycle-years, one will readily agree that the pack in 1949 was most
disappointing.
The canned spring-salmon pack in British Columbia is never an indication of the
size of the run of this species because large quantities of spring salmon find a ready
market in the fresh- and frozen-fish trade. The 1949 canned-salmon pack of spring
salmon, amounting to 21,184 cases, was above the 1948 pack, in which year 16,445
cases were packed, and 7,473 cases greater than the five-year average pack of this species.
Steelheads are not salmon, but a few are canned each year, those which are caught
incidentally while fishing for other species. In 1949 the steelhead-pack amounted to
2,373 cases. This figure is compared with 5,663 cases of steelheads canned in 1948
and 3,260 cases in 1947.
The canned cohoe-salmon pack in 1949, amounting to 215,944 cases, while slightly
lower than the pack of this species in 1948, must be considered as reasonably satisfactory.
The 1948 cohoe-pack amounted to 221,804 cases, while the pack for this species in 1947
was 146,293 cases. The 1949 pack was 35,328 cases above the average annual pack
for cohoe salmon in British Columbia for the previous five-year period.
The pink-salmon pack in 1949, amounting to 709,987 cases, was 195,064 cases
greater than the average annual pack of this species for the previous five-year period.
The 1949 pack of pinks was 388,266 cases greater than were packed in 1948 and
109,200 cases greater than the pack for this species in the immediately preceding cycle-
year, 1947. It will be recalled that this cycle produced a pack of 825,513 cases of pinks
in British Columbia in 1945.
In 1949 chum salmon were canned to the extent of 230,556 cases. The 1949 pack
of this species was 280,848 cases less than were packed in 1948 and 200,423 cases less
than the average annual pack of chums in British Columbia for the previous five-year
period. The pack of chum salmon, however, is not necessarily an indication of the size
of the runs of this species to British Columbia waters. Large quantities of chum salmon
are frozen each season for the winter trade, and these quantities should be taken into
consideration when evaluating the size of the run of chum salmon.
In comparing the canned-salmon pack figures of any of the species of salmon which
are canned in British Columbia, the reader is referred to the text in the next section of
this Report for a breakdown of the figures for each species by districts. The reader
should also take into consideration the escapement to the spawning-beds.
In the Appendix to this Report there will be found a report on the spawning-beds
of British Columbia, which has been supplied by the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for
the Federal Department of Fisheries. ,
BRITISH COLUMBIA'S CANNED-SALMON PACK BY DISTRICTS
Fraser River
The total canned-salmon pack in British Columbia from Canadian-caught fish on the
Fraser River in 1949 amounted to 189,938 cases. The total Fraser River pack in 1949,
while slightly greater than the packs of 1948 and 1947, was, nevertheless, 30,185 cases
less than the average annual pack for the Fraser River for the previous five-year period.
In 1949 the Fraser River pack consisted of 96,159 cases of sockeye, 9,889 cases of
springs, 214 cases of steelheads, 10,286 cases of cohoes, 66,626 cases of pinks, and 6,763
cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—In 1949 Canadian fishermen caught sockeye salmon to the
equivalent of 96,159 cases from Fraser River run fish. The 1949 Fraser River Canadian
sockeye-salmon pack was 31,336 cases above the pack figure for 1948. The 1949 pack
was, nevertheless, slightly below the five-year average for this species. The pack of
salmon comprising the 1949 run was the progeny of the run of 1945. In that year the
sockeye salmon packed from fish caught by Canadian fishermen on the Fraser River
amounted to 79,977 cases. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT D 9
The Fraser River sockeye-salmon fishery, owing to the international character of the
runs of fish, is regulated by an international commission under treaty between Canada
and the United States. The commission is composed of six members, three of whom are
appointed by the United States Government and three appointed by the Canadian Government. According to figures supplied to this office by the International Pacific Salmon
Fisheries Commission, the total catch of sockeye on the Fraser River in 1949 amounted
to 161,176 cases. The Commission reported that, of this amount, 80,547 cases were
caught by United States fishermen and 80,629 cases were accounted for by Canadian
fishermen. According to International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission figures, the
percentages are as follows: Canadian gear, 50.02 per cent; American gear, 49.98 per
cent. There is a slight discrepancy in the figures supplied by the International Pacific
Salmon Fisheries Commission and the figures computed from returns made by the licensed
canners to the Provincial Department of Fisheries, due to the fact that the Canadian
figures include the sockeye salmon caught in lohnstone Strait, which are known to be
proceeding to the Fraser River.   For convenience the table of percentages is included in
this Section from  1933 tO  1949, inclusive:— American Canadian
Per Cent Per Cent
1933  71.00 29.00
1934  72.00 28.00
1935  47.00 53.00
1936  25.00 75.00
1937   38.00 62.00
1938  42.00 58.00
1939 .  44.50 55.50
1940  37.50 62.50
1941  39.30 60.70
1942  37.20 62.80
1943  37.42 62/58
1944  29.77 70.23
1945  39.90 60.10
1946  43.90 56.10
1947  16.60 83.40
1948  59.47 40.53
1949  49.98 50.02
For convenience the reader will find in the Appendix to this Report a table showing
the total sockeye-salmon packs of the Fraser River, arranged in accordance with the four-
year cycle from 1895 to 1949, inclusive, showing the catch by British Columbia and
Washington fishermen in the respective years.
Spring Salmon.—In 1949 the pack of spring salmon on the Fraser River amounted
to 9,889 cases. This pack is compared with the packs of spring salmon in previous years,
which were, in 1948, 2,955 cases; in 1947, 1,455 cases; and, in 1946, 1,096 cases. The
1949 pack of spring salmon was the largest pack of spring salmon on the Fraser River
since 1944, when the pack amounted to 12,577 cases. It will be recalled that the spring-
salmon catch, as indicated by the canned-salmon figures, is not necessarily indicative of
the size of the run of this species, owing to the large number of spring salmon which find
a ready market in the fresh- and frozen-fish trades.
Cohoe Salmon.—There was a total of 10,286 cases of cohoe salmon canned from
Fraser River caught fish in 1949. The cohoe-salmon pack in 1948 amounted to 16,102
cases, which was the largest pack of this species on the Fraser River since 1941. In 1949
the Fraser River cohoe-pack, while considerably below the amount packed in the year
previous, was, nevertheless, equal to the five-year average for this river system.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon run to the Fraser River in the odd-numbered years,
and 1949 was a pink-salmon year.   The total pack of pink salmon in 1949 amounted to D  10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
66,626 cases. The 1949 run of pinks was disappointingly small. In the previous cycle-
year, 1947, the pack of pinks on the Fraser amounted to 113,136 cases, while in 1945,
the preceding cycle-year, 95,748 cases were canned. The 1949 pink-salmon pack on the
Fraser River was 14,926 cases less than the average five-year cycle pack for this species
for the previous five cycle-years.
Chum Salmon.—The Fraser River in 1949 produced a chum-salmon pack amounting to 6,763 cases. This is compared with 20,209 cases in 1948, 16,475 cases in 1947,
60,713 cases in 1946, and 27,610 cases in 1945. The 1949 pack of chum salmon on the
Fraser River was the smallest pack put up on this river system in recent past years. It
should be pointed out, however, that chum salmon are frozen to quite an extent, and the
Fraser River chum-salmon pack would, no doubt, have been larger had greater quantities
of chums been diverted to the canneries instead of being frozen. Another factor which,
in recent years, has distorted the pack figures on the Fraser River (especially for chum
salmon) is the growing practice of shipping chum salmon to the United States for canning
in the State of Washington. In recent past years United States canners have been able
to pay considerably higher prices for chum salmon than Canadian operators could pay
and, consequently, large quantities of chum salmon have been finding a market south of
the line.
In considering the canned-salmon pack as a measure of the total runs, one must take
into account the escapement to the spawning-beds.   There will be found in the Appendix
to this Report a detailed statement of the escapement to the various spawning-beds of the
different river systems.   The reader is referred to the salmon-spawning report for British
Columbia, which will be found of immense value in appraising the salmon runs to the
different river systems.
Skeena River
The total canned-salmon pack on the Skeena River in 1949 amounted to 129,027
cases. This was 64,408 cases less than the total pack for this river system in the year
1948. The total pack for the Skeena River in 1949 was 16,886 cases less than the
average annual pack for this river system for the previous five-year period. In 1949 the
pack consisted of 65,937 cases of sockeye, 2,507 cases of springs, 1,283 cases of steelheads, 21,333 cases of cohoes, 33,069 cases of pinks, and 4,896 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The canned sockeye-salmon pack of 65,937 cases on the Skeena
River for 1949 was again disappointingly small. In 1945, the cycle-year for Skeena
River sockeye, the canned-salmon pack amounted to 104,279 cases, and in the previous
cycle-year, 1941, the total pack amounted to 81,767 cases. In view of the pack for
1945, it was hoped that this cycle was increasing, but the short pack in 1949 would
indicate that some factor is at work here which is not yet understood. The 1949 pack
of Skeena River sockeye was 5,452 cases less than the average annual pack for this river
system for the immediately preceding five-year period. The 1949 Skeena River sockeye-
salmon pack was 941 cases above the average annual pack for the five preceding cycle-
years. This period takes in that part of the period of very low production on the Skeena
River, which has been commented on in the Report of this Department in previous years.
Spring Salmon.—The Skeena River spring-salmon pack, like the pack for this
species on other river systems, is never indicative of the run to that particular river
system, as spring salmon find an outlet chiefly in the fresh- and frozen-fish markets.
In 1949 the Skeena River produced a pack of 2,507 cases of spring salmon. This is
compared with the pack for 1948, when 4,018 cases were canned. The 1947 pack
amounted to 2,113 cases and the 1946 pack, 2,439 cases. The Skeena River spring-
salmon pack in 1949 was 185 cases less than the average annual pack for this species
for the previous five-year period.
Cohoe Salmon.—Cohoe salmon are never packed in large quantities on the Skeena
River. This species, like spring salmon, finds a considerable market in the fresh- and
frozen-fish trade.    In 1949 the Skeena River produced 21,333 cases of cohoe salmon. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT D  11
The 1949 pack of cohoes on the Skeena River was 3,767 cases less than the average
annual pack for this river system for the previous five-year period.
Pink Salmon.—The 1949 pink-salmon pack for the Skeena River was not as large
as anticipated. The 33,069 cases of pink salmon in 1949 were the progeny of the 1947
run. In that year the Skeena River produced 13,190 cases. It must be remembered,
however, that this cycle has been producing in the neighbourhood of 50,000 cases per
year until 1945. It would seem that with proper management this cycle is capable of
producing at least an average of twice the 1949 Skeena River pink-salmon pack. It is
interesting to note that in 1945 there were 69,783 cases of pink salmon canned on the
Skeena River, while in 1943, 54,509 cases were canned. In 1941, again in the same
cycle, 50,537 cases were canned, and in 1939 the pack amounted to 95,236 cases. The
pink-salmon pack on the Skeena in 1949 was 11,148 cases less than the average pack
of this species for the five preceding cycle-years and was 22,268 cases less than the
average pack for the previous ten cycle-years.
Chum Salmon.—The Skeena River is never a large producer of chum salmon, and
the 4,896 cases of this species canned on the Skeena in 1949 was no exception. The
1949 pack of chum salmon was 6,967 cases less than were packed in the year previous
and 4,188 cases less than the average annual pack of chum salmon on the Skeena River
for the previous five-year period.
Nass River
The total canned-salmon pack on the Nass River in 1949 amounted to 58,336 cases.
The Nass River pack in 1949 was greater than in any year since 1944, when 61,096 cases
of all varieties were canned from fish running to this river system. The Nass River pack
in 1949 was 14,413 cases above the average annual pack for this river system for the
previous five-year period. The 1949 pack was composed of 9,268 cases of sockeye,
174 cases of springs, 51 cases of steelheads, 6,665 cases of cohoe, 34,324 cases of pinks,
and 7,854 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The 9,268 cases of sockeye salmon canned on the Nass River
in 1949 was the smallest pack of sockeye put up on this river since 1945, one of the
cycle-years. In that year the pack amounted to 9,899 cases. It should be explained
that Nass River sockeye are the progeny of the runs four and five years previous. The
run in 1944 produced 13,083 cases. The 1949 sockeye-pack was 1,874 cases less than
the average annual pack of this species for the previous five-year period.
Spring Salmon.—On the Nass River, as on most of the salmon-rivers in British
Columbia, spring salmon are never a large factor in the canned-salmon pack owing to the
fact that this species finds an outlet in the fresh and frozen condition. The Nass River,
in 1949, produced a pack of 174 cases of spring salmon, most of which were caught
incidentally while fishing for other species. The 1949 pack is compared with the pack
for 1948, when 416 cases were canned, and 1947, when the pack amounted to 398 cases.
In 1946 the Nass River produced 472 cases of spring salmon.
Cohoe Salmon.—The cohoe-salmon pack on the Nass River in 1949, amounting to
6,665 cases, was 2,289 cases less than were canned on this river in the year previous.
The 1949 pack of cohoe on the Nass was also 1,099 cases greater than the average annual
pack for this species for the immediately preceding five years.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon canned on the Nass River in 1949 produced a pack of
33,069 cases. This must be considered as reasonably satisfactory when it is recalled that
the pink-salmon pack on this river system in 1948 amounted to only 8,565 cases and the
1947 pack, the cycle-year, produced 5,047 cases. However, this same cycle is capable
of producing larger packs, as is evinced by the packs previous to 1945 when, in that year,
35,918 cases were canned. Again, in 1943, the pack amounted to 17,669 cases. In
1941 the pack was 22,667 cases and in 1939, 26,370 cases. D  12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Chum Salmon.—Chum salmon are never a large factor in the Nass River canned-
salmon production. In 1949 the pack of this species amounted to 7,854 cases. This
figure is contrasted with the pack figures for 1948, when 7,272 cases were canned, and
with 1947, when 8,925 cases were canned. In 1946 the Nass River produced a pack of
chum salmon amounting to 13,810 cases, while in 1945 the pack was only 4,981 cases.
In any analyses of the salmon runs to the various river systems, based on the canned-
salmon pack, the reader is advised to refer to the conditions prevailing on the spawning-
beds for the years in question. There will be found in the Appendix to this Report a
report on the conditions on the spawning-beds, supplied by the Chief Supervisor of
Fisheries for British Columbia.
Rivers Inlet
The total canned-salmon pack on Rivers Inlet in 1949 amounted to 70,210 cases.
The pack on this inlet in 1949 was 1,907 cases less than the total amount packed in
1948 and 43,786 cases less than the average annual pack for Rivers Inlet for the previous
five-year period. In 1949 the Rivers Inlet pack of canned salmon was composed of
39,494 cases of sockeye, 743 cases of springs, 239 cases of steelheads, 5,978 cases of
cohoe, 11,937 cases of pinks, and 11,819 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—Rivers Inlet, in 1949, produced a pack of sockeye salmon
amounting to 39,494 cases.    This was 1,829 cases greater than the amount packed in
1948 but was 50,241 cases less than the pack in 1945, one of the cycle-years for sockeye
in Rivers Inlet. In 1944, which would correspond with the five-year cycle for the Rivers
Inlet run, the pack was 36,582 cases. The 1949 pack was 36,566 cases less than the
average annual pack of sockeye for this inlet for the previous five years.
A close examination of the sockeye-salmon pack figures for Rivers Inlet over the
years would seem to indicate that Rivers Inlet is not producing sockeye salmon to the
extent of its capabilities.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are caught in Rivers Inlet incidental to fishing for
other species. In 1949 the spring-salmon pack in this inlet amounted to 743 cases.
This figure is compared with 899 cases in 1948, 475 cases in 1947, 1,108 cases in 1946,
and 1,191 cases in 1945.
Cohoe Salmon.—Rivers Inlet is never a large producer of canned cohoe salmon,
and the pack of 5,978 cases in 1949 was no exception. This figure is contrasted with
8,143 cases in 1948, 5,182 cases in 1947, 9,524 cases in 1946, and 17,516 cases in 1945.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon are never a very large factor in the Rivers Inlet canned-
salmon pack. In 1949 Rivers Inlet produced 11,937 cases of pink salmon. This was
1,554 cases less than the pink-salmon pack for the year previous but was 2,912 cases
above the cycle-year 1947.
Chum Salmon.—Up until 1935 chum salmon were not fished in Rivers Inlet, except
those caught incidental to the sockeye-fishery. Since 1935 Rivers Inlet has continued
to produce considerable quantities of chum salmon and in 1949 this inlet produced a
pack of 11,819 cases. The 1949 pack was 333 cases above the pack for 1948 but was
considerably less than the five-year average for this species, the five-year average being
18,273 cases.
Smith Inlet
The total canned-salmon pack for Smith Inlet in 1949 amounted to 19,083 cases,
composed of 13,189 cases of sockeye, 159 cases of springs, 56 cases of steelheads, 785
cases of cohoe, 2,533 cases of pinks, and 2,361 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The canned sockeye-salmon pack from Smith Inlet caught fish,
amounting to 13,189 cases, was 2,733 cases greater than were canned in 1948.    The
1949 pack, however, was 1,825 cases less than the pack in 1945, the cycle-year. The
1949 pack was 4,766 cases less than the average annual pack of sockeye produced in
Smith Inlet over the past five years. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT D  13
Spring Salmon.—In 1949 there were caught and canned in Smith Inlet sufficient
spring salmon to fill 159 cases. These fish were caught incidental to the sockeye-fishery
and are compared with the packs in recent past years, as follows:   1948, 186 cases;
1947, 43 cases;  1946, 45 cases;  and 1945, 26 cases.
Cohoe Salmon.—Cohoe, like spring salmon, are not particularly fished in Smith
Inlet. The pack represents the quantity caught incidental to fishing for sockeye. In
1949 the cohoe-pack in Smith Inlet amounted to 785 cases, compared with 929 cases in
1948, 348 cases in 1947, 177 cases in 1946, and 560 cases in 1945.
Pink Salmon.—The production of pink salmon in Smith Inlet in 1949 amounted to
2,533 cases. This figure is compared with 1,481 cases in 1948, 1,054 cases in 1947,
235 cases in 1946, and 2,362 cases in 1945. Pink salmon canned in Smith Inlet are
also caught incidental to the sockeye fishery.
Chum Salmon.—In recent past years there has been a small fall chum-salmon
fishery in Smith Inlet conducted by the seine fleet. In 1949 this was recorded as having
produced 2,361 cases of chums. The pack in 1948 was 1,521 cases and in 1947, 7,910
cases. In 1946 chum salmon were canned to the extent of 8,369 cases, while in 1945
the pack was 3,692 cases. The size of the canned-chum pack in Smith Inlet is not
considered indicative of the size of the run of this species.
Queen Charlotte Islands
There are only two species of salmon fished in the Queen Charlotte Islands District
for canning purposes. These are pinks and chums. Large quantities of spring and
cohoe salmon caught by troll in the vicinity of the Queen Charlotte Islands find an outlet
in the fresh- and frozen-fish trade and, consequently, are not considered in the canned-
salmon pack. A few cohoe, which were caught incidental to fishing for chums or pinks,
are included in the canned-salmon pack and are so reported.
In 1949 the total canned-salmon pack from Queen Charlotte Islands caught fish was
34,544 cases. This was 92,775 cases less than were canned in the Queen Charlotte
Islands in 1948. It must be remembered, however, that pink salmon are taken in the
Queen Charlotte Islands only in the even-numbered years and 1949 was not a pink-
salmon year. The 1949 pack for Queen Charlotte Islands caught fish consisted of 8,141
cases of cohoe, 1,550 cases of pinks, and 24,852 cases of chums.
Cohoe Salmon.—The 8,141 cases of cohoe salmon canned from Queen Charlotte
Islands caught fish in 1949 are compared with 4,145 cases of this species canned in 1948.
As pointed out in a previous paragraph, the canned-cohoe pack is no indication of the
size of the cohoe run to the Queen Charlotte Islands, as large quantities of this species
are caught by troll and find a market in the fresh- and frozen-fish trade. The canned-
cohoe pack is made up of fish caught incidentally while fishing for chums. For convenience the pack figures are given for the immediate past years. In 1947 the cohoe-pack
was 392 cases; in 1946, 1,192 cases; in 1945, 1,108 cases; in 1944, 19,615 cases; and
in 1943, 14,488 cases.
Pink Salmon.—As pointed out in a previous paragraph, pink salmon frequent the
waters off the Queen Charlotte Islands only in the even-numbered years. There was no
pink-salmon run to the Queen Charlotte Islands in 1949. The 1,550 cases of pink
salmon canned from Queen Charlotte Islands caught fish were those caught incidentally
while fishing for chum salmon.
Chum Salmon.—The Queen Charlotte Islands produced 24,852 cases of canned
chum salmon in 1949. This was 46,435 cases less than were canned the year previous
and 6,704 cases less than the average annual pack of this species for the previous five-year
period. If chum salmon are considered to be four-year fish, then the 1949 run was the
progeny of the 1941-45 cycle. In 1941 the run produced 76,745 cases of chums, while
in 1945 the pack amounted to 12,132 cases. D  14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Central Area
For statistical purposes the Central Area comprises all of the salmon-fishing areas
off the coast of British Columbia between Cape Calvert and the Skeena River, except
Rivers Inlet. The salmon-fishing in this area is conducted on many different runs of
salmon in the various parts of the district, and, as a consequence, the size of the pack in
this area is no indication of the magnitude of the different runs to the various streams.
In 1949 the total canned-salmon pack credited to the Central Area amounted to
351,420 cases of all species. This figure is compared with the pack figures for 1948,
when the Central Area produced 439,995 cases, and 1947, when 440,951 cases of all
species were canned. In 1949 the total pack for the Central Area was 77,336 cases less
than the average annual pack for the previous five-year period. The 1949 pack consisted
of 16,140 cases of sockeye, 1,007 cases of springs, 355 cases of steelheads, 44,169 cases
of cohoes, 173,456 cases of pinks, and 116,292 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-pack for the Central Area in 1949, of 16,140 cases,
is compared with the pack of this species in 1948, when 23,246 cases of sockeye were
canned, and with the cycle-year 1945, when the pack was reported as 24,109 cases. The
sockeye-pack in the Central Area in 1949 was 2,550 cases less than the five-year average
for this species in this district.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are caught and canned in the Central Area to some
extent, but, as in other areas, the canned spring-salmon pack is made up of fish which are
caught incidentally while fishing for other species, and, therefore, the pack is not a
measure of the size of the run. In 1949 the spring-salmon pack amounted to 1,007 cases,
while in 1948, 1,195 cases of this species were canned in the Central Area. In the
immediately preceding years, 1947 produced a pack of 514 cases, while in 1946, 656
cases were canned.    The pack in 1945 amounted to 542 cases of spring salmon.
Cohoe Salmon.—The Central Area produced 44,169 cases of cohoe salmon in 1949.
This exceeded the pack for 1948 by 5,353 cases and was 9,206 cases above the five-year
average.
Pink Salmon.—The Central Area has always been considered a high-production area
for pink salmon and has produced as high as 370,000 cases in a season. In comparatively recent years, however, the pack figures for pink salmon in this area have been
considerably less than this amount. The 173,456 cases of pink salmon canned in the
Central Area in 1949 were 21,256 cases greater than the pack of this species in 1948
and 72,215 cases greater than the pink-salmon pack in 1947, which was the cycle-year
for this species in the Central Area. However, in 1945, the previous cycle-year, the
Central Area produced 364,385 cases, while in 1943, the cycle-year before that, the pack
amounted to 288,109 cases. The 1949 pack of pink salmon was 25,208 cases less than
the average pack for the previous five cycle-years.
Chum Salmon.—In 1949 the Central Area produced a chum-salmon pack amounting to 116,292 cases. This was 109,394 cases less than the chum-salmon pack for the
year previous. The 1949 pack was also 82,814 cases below the average annual pack for
this species for the previous five-year period.
Vancouver Island
The total canned-salmon pack from fish caught in the Vancouver Island District in
1949 amounted to 538,370 cases of all species. This is compared with 317,572 cases
in 1948 and 55,294 cases in 1947. In 1946 the pack amounted to 264,922 cases, while
in 1945, 492,281 cases were canned. The 1949 pack consisted of 19,486 cases of
sockeye, 6,361 cases of springs, 151 cases of steelheads, 98,958 cases of cohoe, 361,783
cases of pinks, and 51,629 cases of chums. Vancouver Island, like the Central Area,
supports numerous races of salmon running to the different watersheds. In this breakdown no attempt is made to deal with the various races separately.    It should be men- REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT D 15
tioned, however, that sockeye salmon caught in the Sooke traps are not credited to
Vancouver Island, but are credited to the Fraser River, where most of them are known
to migrate. Similarly, sockeye salmon caught in lohnstone Strait between Vancouver
Island and the Mainland are also credited to the Fraser River in this Report and are not
credited to Vancouver Island.
Sockeye Salmon.—The Vancouver Island District, with the exceptions noted above,
produced a sockeye-salmon pack of 19,486 cases in 1949. This was 9,505 cases greater
than were packed from Vancouver Island caught fish in 1948. The 1949 sockeye-pack
for Vancouver Island was 2,401 cases above the previous five-year average.
Spring Salmon.—Large quantities of spring salmon are caught each year by trolling
in the waters off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Most of these fish, however, find
a market in the fresh- and frozen-fish trade or as mild-cured salmon. The troll-caught
salmon on the lower west coast of Vancouver Island also find a market principally as
fresh, frozen, or mild-cured. Because of these other outlets, the canned-salmon pack
figures for spring salmon in the Vancouver Island District are nowise indicative of the
catch of this species. In 1949 the total Vancouver Island canned spring-salmon pack
was 6,391 cases. In 1948 the canned-salmon pack for this species was 6,622 cases,
while in 1947, 4,942 cases were canned.
Cohoe Salmon.—In 1949, 98,958 cases of cohoe salmon were canned from Vancouver Island caught fish. This was 10,981 cases less than the pack in 1948 and 14,740
cases greater than the average annual pack for the five preceding years.
Pink Salmon.—In 1949 Vancouver Island was credited with having produced a
pack of 361,783 cases of pink salmon. In 1947, the cycle-year for this species, the
Vancouver Island District was credited with having produced sufficient pink salmon to
fill 355,992 cases, while in the previous cycle-year, 1945, 242,590 cases were canned.
Chum Salmon.—Vancouver Island, in 1949, produced 51,629 cases of canned
chum salmon. This is compared with the chum-salmon packs for the previous five
years, which are as follows: 1948, 147,227 cases; 1947, 99,679 cases; 1946, 190,313
cases;  and 1945, the cycle-year for this species, 136,724 cases.
REVIEW OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-CANNING
INDUSTRY, 1949
In 1949 the Department of Fisheries licensed twenty-four salmon-canneries, all of
which operated. The total number of salmon-canneries operated in 1949 was three less
than were licensed to operate in 1948. The operating canneries in 1949 were located
as follows: Skeena River, 6; Central Area, 3; Rivers Inlet, 1; Johnstone Strait, 2;
Fraser River and Lower Mainland, 11; and west coast of Vancouver Island, 1.
The distribution of the salmon-canneries operated in 1949 was somewhat similar to
the distribution of those which operated in 1948, except that on the Skeena River in 1949
six canneries operated, while seven operated on the Skeena River in 1948. Again, in
Johnstone Strait in 1949 there were two canneries operated, while only one operated in
this area in 1948. On the Fraser River and Lower Mainland in 1949 eleven canneries
operated, compared with twelve in this district in 1948, and on the west coast of Vancouver Island one salmon-cannery operated in 1949, compared with three in 1948.
There were no salmon-canneries operated in the Queen Charlotte Islands or on the Nass
River in 1949. This is the fifth consecutive year in which no canneries have been
operated in these two areas, and it would appear that the plants in these areas have been
relegated to the status of fish camps. The salmon-catch from both of these areas was
again transported to salmon-canneries operating in other districts.
In previous Reports of this Department, attention has been drawn to the growing
tendency of the salmon-canners to concentrate the packing of salmon in fewer canneries.
The liberal use of ice during the salmon-canning season, together with modern, fast D 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
packers, have made it possible for the operators to transport fresh salmon over greater
distances. This has been made necessary due to high production costs since the beginning of World War II, and the operators have been forced to reduce their production
costs. One way of doing this is by operating fewer canneries. The practice of consolidating operations apparently is continuing, and each year fewer canneries are being
licensed to operate. Not only are single companies concentrating their canning operations in fewer canneries, but different companies have made mutual agreements amongst
themselves to can each other's fish in certain instances, and this seemingly has been to the
mutual benefit of the companies. The continued increase in production costs, together
with keener competition for the consumer's dollar, will continue to force the salmon-
cannery operators to keep down production costs. It should be pointed out, however,
that the cost of producing canned salmon can be only partially reduced by this method.
The largest portion of the cost of a case of canned salmon is the cost of the raw fish,
and until such time as the price of raw fish levels off, the cost of producing canned salmon
will continue to rise, regardless of the concentration of operating canneries.
In 1947, after September 1st, there commenced the movement of large quantities of
chum salmon to the United States for processing in American canneries. This practice
continued in 1948, and in 1949 the chum-salmon season, so far as Canadian canners
were concerned, might as well have closed on September 1st, as practically all of the chum
salmon for canning purposes caught after that date found a market and were canned
in United States canneries. This is not to say that all of British Columbia's chum-salmon
production after September 1st was exported, as large quantities were frozen by Canadian
freezers. It should be pointed out, however, that the export of raw fish which would
ordinarily be canned in British Columbia has had the effect of reducing the British
Columbia canned-salmon pack to less than what it would have been if all the fish caught
in British Columbia had been canned here. It should also be pointed out that practically
all of the exported chum salmon was caught in the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island
Districts, so that in considering the pack of chum salmon for these areas, due allowance
should be made for the large quantities which are exported and which were formerly
canned in British Columbia.
OTHER CANNERIES (PILCHARD, HERRING, AND SHELL-FISH)
Pilchard-canneries.—For the past few years the pilchard run off the coast of Vancouver Island has not materialized, and again, in 1949, the pilchards did not put in an
appearance. No pilchard-cannery licences were issued in 1949, although two licences
were issued in the previous year. One cannery did not operate and the other put up a
small pack of anchovies. There has been no pilchard fishery off the coast of British
Columbia for several years.
Herring-canneries.—In 1949 five canneries were licensed to can herring. This was
one more than was licensed in the year previous. The five canneries produced a pack
of 77,913 cases of canned herring, compared with 92,791 cases canned by four canneries
in 1948. During the war years, and immediately following the war, the canned-herring
business in British Columbia attained quite large proportions. The pack in 1947, when
eighteen herring-canneries were licensed to operate, reached a total of 1,283,670 cases.
It must be remembered, however, that the canned-herring pack during the war was used
chiefly for emergency feeding for troops and others, but since conditions have returned
to post-war normal, the demand for canned herring has lessened very materially, hence
the comparatively small packs in the latter years.
Tuna-fish Canneries.—The first commercial tuna-fish canning operations were conducted in British Columbia in 1948. This does not mean that this was the first time
that tuna were caught in British Columbia waters, but rather that the first commercial
canning of tuna commenced in 1948.    Previous to that year, tuna caught in British REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT D  17
Columbia waters or offshore were mostly frozen and shipped to American canneries for
processing. In 1948 there was a decided change in policy, and three canneries were
licensed, all of which operated. In that year the three canneries produced a total pack
of 40,436 cases of canned tuna. In 1949 four plants were licensed to operate, which
produced a pack of canned tuna amounting to 48,507 cases.
Shell-fish Canneries.—Under this heading those plants which are concerned with
the canning of various species of shell-fish are reviewed. In 1949 there were six shellfish canneries licensed to operate by the Provincial Department of Fisheries. This was
three less than were licensed in 1948. In 1949 the shell-fish canneries produced 6,409
cases of clams, 8,877 cases of crabs, 4,906 cases of oysters, and 120 cases of abalone.
These pack figures are contrasted with the year previous, when nine shell-fish canneries
were operated, which produced a pack of 11,811 cases of clams, 7,584 cases of crabs,
2,001 cases of oysters, 1,679 cases of shrimps, and 187 cases of abalone.
MILD-CURED SALMON
In 1949 eight plants were licensed to mild-cure salmon. Seven of these actually
operated. These seven plants produced 1,212 tierces of mild-cured salmon. In the
year previous there were six plants licensed to operate under this heading, and these six
plants produced a total of 1,014 tierces of mild-cured salmon.
DRY-SALT SALMON
Previous to 1939 various amounts of chum salmon were dry-salted in British
Columbia for shipment to the Orient. In some years the production of this product
reached fairly large proportions. During the war years the Provincial Government
declined to issue licences for salmon dry-salteries in order to divert as much of the
salmon-catch as possible to the salmon canners and freezers. In 1947 there were two
salmon dry-saltery licences issued. These were the first two licences issued since the
end of hostilities, but in that year no operation was conducted at either plant. In 1948
there were no salmon dry-saltery licences issued, nor were there any salmon dry-saltery
licences issued in 1949.
DRY-SALT HERRING
In British Columbia, previous to World War II, herring were dry-salted in large
quantities, the product being shipped to the Orient. Since the outbreak of the war the
bulk of British Columbia's herring-catch has been canned or reduced to meal and oil,
and in order to divert as much as possible of the herring-catch to the canneries during
the war years, no herring dry-salteries were permitted to operate in British Columbia.
However, in 1945, U.N.R.R.A. requested a certain amount of dry-salt herring for relief
feeding in China, and herring dry-salting was again permitted in British Columbia. In
1947 five herring dry-salteries were licensed to operate. In 1948 one herring dry-saltery
operated in British Columbia and produced a very small pack. There were four herring
dry-saltery licences issued in 1949, three of which operated. The three operating plants
produced a total of 3,858 tons of dry-salt herring, all of which was shipped to the Orient.
It is not anticipated that the herring-salting business will reach anything like its former
proportions so long as conditions remain unsettled in the Orient, particularly in China.
PICKLED HERRING
There was no activity under this heading in 1949.
HALIBUT-FISHERY
The halibut-fishery on the Pacific coast of North America is regulated by the International Fisheries Commission under treaty between Canada and the United States.   The D  18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
fishery is a deep-sea fishery and is shared in by the nationals of these two countries. The
Commission regulates the fishery on a quota basis and, on that account, there is very little
flucutation in the total amount of halibut landed from year to year, except when the
quotas are changed for any reason. For the purpose of regulation, the coast has been
divided into five areas, the principal areas, from the standpoint of production, being
Areas 2 and 3. Area 2 comprises the waters off the coasts of Washington and British
Columbia from the approximate vicinity of Willapa Harbour in the south to Cape Spencer
in the north. Area 3 comprises the waters from the northern boundary of Area 2 to
the Aleutian Islands. The other three areas, Ia, Ib, and 4, from which production is
small, comprise the waters south of Area 2 and the Bering Sea respectively.
The 1949 catch-limit from Area 2 was 25,500,000 pounds of saleable halibut and
for Area 3, 28,000,000 pounds. In Area 4 the limit was 500,000 pounds of saleable
halibut, while no limit was placed on the amount which might have been taken from Areas
Ia and Ib. These quotas are exclusive of the halibut caught incidentally while fishing
for other species with set-lines in areas which are closed to halibut-fishing.
The total landings of halibut by all vessels in all ports on the Pacific Coast in 1949
amounted to 54,995,000 pounds. This figure is compared with the total landings in
1948 of 55,516,000 pounds. Of this total, Area 2 in 1949 produced 26,064,000 pounds,
while 28,479,000 pounds were caught in Area 3. The figures for the respective areas in
1948 were: Area 2, 27,358,000 pounds, and Area 3, 27,917,000 pounds. Again, in
1949, Area 4 had no production, but in Areas Ia and Ib the production amounted to
452,000 pounds. This latter figure is compared with 241,000 pounds from Areas Ia
and Ib (formerly Area 1) in 1948. Of these totals, there were landed by all vessels in
Canadian ports in 1949 a total of 32,269,000 pounds. Of this amount, Area 2 supplied
14,142,000 pounds, while 8,127,000 pounds of the total were caught in Area 3. Of the
total amount of halibut landed in Canadian ports by all vessels, Canadian vessels
accounted for 18,063,000 pounds, of which 13,529,000 pounds were caught in Area 2
and 4,534,000 pounds were taken from Area 3.
In addition to the total landings by Canadian vessels in Canadian ports, Canadian
vessels also landed in United States ports a total of 787,000 pounds of halibut, 59,000
pounds of which were taken in Area 2 and 628,000 pounds in Area 3. United States
vessels landed in Canadian ports a total of 4,205,000 pounds.
The average open-market price paid for Canadian halibut in Prince Rupert in 1949
was 17.05 cents per pound and 17.17 cents per pound for Canadian landings in all British
Columbia ports. These prices are compared with the average Prince Rupert price of
16.5 cents per pound and 16.2 cents per pound for all Canadian landings in all British
Columbia ports in 1948.
Halibut-livers, because of their high vitamin content, have been a source of revenue
to halibut-fishermen for a number of years. The value of halibut-livers to United States
and Canadian fishermen in 1949 was $753,000, of which Canadian fishermen received
$164,000 and United States fishermen received $589,000 for their share of the liver sales.
The total value of halibut-liver production in 1948 was $1,759,000, of which $415,000
accrued to Canadian fishermen.
In addition to the money received by the halibut-fishermen for halibut-livers, halibut-
viscera is now marketed, and in 1949 this was worth $248,000, of which $17,000
accrued to Canadian fishermen and $171,000 to United States fishermen.
The above dollar values for livers and viscera are computed on the basis of the
approximate prices paid by the Fishermen's Co-operatives, who handled most of the
production of livers and viscera in both countries.
The statistical information, quoted above, in connection with the Pacific halibut-
fishery was supplied by the International Fisheries Commission and is hereby gratefully
acknowledged. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT D  19
FISH OIL AND MEAL
The production of fish-oil and edible fish-meal has been an important branch of
British Columbia's fisheries for a number of years. Previous to the war, pilchards and
herring were the principal species used for the production of oil and meal. Since the
outbreak of World War II and the subsequent increase in the demand for natural sources
of vitamins, other species have been found to yield oils of even higher vitamin content,
and the increased demand for these products has stimulated activity in this field. In
recent months, however, the increasing production of synthetic Vitamin A has lessened
the demand for fish-liver oils as a natural source of this vitamin, and it is felt that if the
price of synthetic Vitamin A falls much lower, the market for livers containing this
vitamin may soon disappear.
The various fish-livers, cannery-waste, and viscera are all utilized for the production
of fish-oil, much of which finds a market in the pharmaceutical trade. In addition to
the production of high-vitamin oils from British Columbia's various fish and fish-livers,
in recent years considerable activity has been manifest in the use of cannery-waste and
viscera for the production of other pharmaceutical products. This business is now
reaching quite large proportions. In addition to the high-vitamin oils used in the
medicinal field, British Columbia's fish-oils of lower vitamin potency find an outlet in
many manufacturing processes. Other vitamin-bearing oils produced in British Columbia are sold in large quantities for the feeding of poultry and live stock.
Fish-liver Oil.—As mentioned in the previous paragraph, fish-livers and fish-viscera
are an important source of high-vitamin oils, and since the outbreak of the war there has
been considerable activity in the production of vitamin oils from this source. In 1949
there were six plants licensed to process fish-livers in British Columbia. These six plants
processed 3,990,956 pounds of liver, which produced 12,079,015 million U.S.P. units
of Vitamin A. In the year previous, six reduction plants operated, and these plants
processed 3,872,823 pounds of fish-livers, which produced 10,121,374 million U.S.P.
units of Vitamin A. Previous to 1947 the production of vitamin oils has been reported
in imperial gallons. This was contrary to the usual means of measuring the production
of high-vitamin oils, and commencing with the Report of this Department for 1947, and
subsequently, this production is reported in million U.S.P. units.
Pilchard-reduction.—For five consecutive years the pilchard runs to British Columbia have been a complete failure. Biologists charged with the investigation of this
fishery are not optimistic that this condition will materially improve in the near future.
There was no pilchard run in 1949.
It might be mentioned here that these fish are not native to British Columbia waters,
but migrate from California, where they are spawned in the ocean. There is a large
fishery in California conducted on the same body of fish that formerly migrated to British
Columbia. This fishery is fished very heavily in California, and it may be that the heavy
fishing there has had some bearing on the migration habits of the species.
Herring-reduction.—The winter herring-fishery in British Columbia has developed
into a very important branch of the fishing industry. The season runs from October
through to March, and, although a few herring are caught previous to October, the season
actually get under way about the middle of November. Since the end of the war there
has been a material change in the utilization of the herring-catch. Most of the catch is
now reduced to meal and oil, but during the war years the bulk of the herring-catch was
canned for emergency feeding purposes. This fact should be kept in mind when figures
are being compared with similar figures during the war years in connection with the
herring-fishery and herring-reduction.
In 1949 there were seventeen plants licensed to operate on herring-reduction in
British Columbia.    Sixteen of these plants operated and produced 30,081 tons of meal D 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
and 3,823,643 imperial gallons of oil. In the year previous, seventeen plants operated
and produced 31,340 tons of meal and 2,614,925 imperial gallons of oil.
Whale-reduction.—In 1948 the hunting and reduction of whales was again resumed
in British Columbia after a period of inactivity. In 1949 one plant operated on the
reduction of whales. This plant processed 255 whales and produced 921 tons of meal,
21 tons of fertilizer, 215,919 imperial gallons of whale-oil, and 96,136 imperial gallons
of sperm-oil.
Miscellaneous Reduction.—Dogfish and fish-offal reduction plants are licensed by
the Provincial Department of Fisheries under miscellaneous reduction licences. These
plants operate on cannery-waste and on the carcasses of dogfish and produce meal and
oil for various purposes. The oil produced from the carcasses of dogfish is not to be
confused with the oil produced from dogfish-livers, the latter being a high-potency oil,
which is reported in another section of this Report.
In 1949 there were sixteen fish-offal reduction plants licensed by the Department.
One of these did not operate. The fifteen operating plants produced 1,622 tons of meal
and 174,431 imperial gallons of oil. The 1949 production figures are compared with
those for 1948, when thirteen fish-offal reduction plants produced 1,172 tons of meal
and 141,099 imperial gallons of oil.
NET-FISHING IN NON-TIDAL WATERS
Under section 24 of the Special Fishery Regulations for British Columbia, fishing
with nets in certain specified non-tidal waters within the Province is permissible under
licence from the Provincial Minister of Fisheries. This fishery is confined almost exclusively to the residents living within reasonable distance of the lakes mentioned. In the
Appendix to this Report there again appears a table showing the name and number of
lakes in which net-fishing has been permitted, together with the number and approximate
weight of the various species of fish taken from each lake.
It will be noted that there are three different kinds of fishing licences issued for net-
fishing in the non-tidal waters of the Province—namely, fur-farm, ordinary, and sturgeon.
In the 1949-50 season there were fourteen licences issued to fur-farmers, compared with
twenty-three in the year previous. The coarse fish taken under these licences are used for
feeding fur-bearing animals held in captivity.
There were 301 ordinary fishing licences issued in 1949-50, compared with 177 in
the previous season. Four sturgeon-fishing licences were issued in the 1949-50 season,
the same as in the preceding year.
For a detailed account of the fish taken by licensed nets in the different waters Of the
Province, the reader is referred to the table above mentioned appearing in the Appendix.
VALUE OF THE CANADIAN FISHERIES AND THE STANDING
OF THE PROVINCES, 1948
The value of the fisheries products of Canada for the year 1948 totalled
$139,748,941. During that year British Columbia produced fisheries products to the
value of $58,703,803 or 42 per cent of Canada's total. British Columbia in 1948 led all
of the Provinces in the Dominion in respect to the production of fisheries wealth. Her
output exceeded that of Nova Scotia, second in rank, by $22,612,983.
The market value of the fisheries products of British Columbia in 1948 was $38,853
more than in the year previous. There was an increase in the value of salmon amounting
to $1,150,686.
The capital employed in 1948 in the primary fishing industry was $67,289,244.
The number of persons engaged in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1948 was
16,406, or 19.6 per cent of Canada's total fishery workers. Of those engaged in British
Columbia, 12,226 were employed in catching and handling the catches and 4,180 in REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
D 21
packing, curing, and in fish-reduction plants.    The total number engaged in the fisheries
of British Columbia in 1948 was 472 less than in the preceding year.
The following statement gives the value of fishery products of the Provinces of
Canada for the years 1944 to 1948, inclusive: —
Province
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
$34,900,990
23,662,055
11,968,692
5,361,567
4,938,193
3,581,795
2,598,975
929,887
1,482,223
$44,531,858
30,706,900
■ 13,270,376
7,727,222
7,261,661
4,263,670
3,076,811
1,450,502
1,286,361
112,131
3,138
$43,817,147
34,270,761
16,419,983
7,927,022
6,296,658
4,871,037
4,470,877
1,399,083
1,148,886
558,264
5,014
$58,764,950
26,658,915
17,131,690
5,316,999
5,403,662
5,329,448
2,897,284
856,609
1,170,930
530,948
7,474
$58,703,803
36,090,820
20,122,378
6,393,635
5,942,723
5,414,583
3,634,376
1,527,834
Saskatchewan  	
1,282,437
636,352
3,131
*
Totals  	
$89,427,508
$113,690,630
$121,124,732
$124,068,909
$139,748,941
Not available.
SPECIES AND VALUE OF FISH CAUGHT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA
The total marketed value of each of the principal species of fish taken in British
Columbia for the years 1944 to 1948, inclusive, is given in the following table:—
Species
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
Salmon  -	
Halibut                                          	
$15,623,223
2,679,657
257,288
6,758,626
2,222,181
780
$25,424,954
3,042,390
275,825
8,423,136
1,439,145
$24,346,483
3,708,819
300,303
9,574,643
213,753
$35,692,625
5,296,942
647,002
12,094,582
41,750
$36,671,140
4,120,003
527,868
10,485,090
Halibut livers and viscera oil 	
Herring   	
Pilchard    	
1,296,639
206,045
368,408
77,958
438,219
24,025
105,596
6,370
90,786
284,759
16,174
5,076
6,521
5,802
4,685
24,091
50
1,319,501
349,804
446,008
217,792
848,004
40,431
258,964
150
25,765
214,882
15,970
10,326
6,070
3,705
4,486
11,337
180
108,130
596,886
369,788
268,165
297,533
515,148
55
48,538
239,099
7,101
10,629
78,435
8,070
11,328
10,142
514
3,861
36,732
134 494
1,353,900
174,673
414,753
52,495
271,231
10,451
149,754
878,972
107,546
564,888
Crabs     	
326,263
1,170,890
84,910
214,495
Flounders _ 	
132,136
284,828
13,741
3,278
3,915
1,444
5,866
16,456
540
15,661
131,910
5,731
Smelts       	
10,053
5,502
Octopus  	
2,199
5,208
30,224
Grayfis'i, etc.—
10,634
2,337,267
12,258
1,098,569
60,930
3,661,131
8,263
21,136
43,121
1,439,861
11,057
1,634,388
730
50
261,160
93,373
12,564
323,068
29,429
620
615,106
122,892
4,375
37,625
1,199
7,127
987
' 296
82,545
319,404
6,548
187,866
2,679
18,531
537,787
233,096
21,147
23,160
2,657
80,079
88,305
990,424
2,822
23,435
242
Miscellaneous , 	
454,949
$34,900,990
$44,531,858
$43,817,147
$58,764,950
$58,703,803 D 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
CONDITION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-SPAWNING GROUNDS
We are indebted to the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for the Federal Government
and the officers of his Department who conducted the investigations for furnishing us with
a copy of the Department's report on the salmon-spawning grounds of British Columbia.
His courtesy in supplying us with this report is gratefully acknowledged.
The Chief Supervisor's report on the condition of British Columbia's salmon-
spawning grounds will be found in full in the Appendix to this Report.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON
(PAPER No. 35)
(Digest)
Paper No. 35 in this series is contributed by two authors new to the pages of this
Report—namely, A. Andrekson, M.Sc, and D. R. Foskett, B.A,, of the staff of the Pacific
Biological Station at Nanaimo.
Heretofore, the work of analysing the commercial sockeye-salmon catch of British
Columbia's principal sockeye-fishing rivers has been done with funds supplied by the
Provincial Department of Fisheries, and for many years the data collected have been
analysed by Dr. W. A. Clemens, Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia.
Latterly, the extended salmon work being conducted by the Fisheries Research Board
of Canada made it possible to have the material for catch analyses collected simultaneously while other field work was in progress, by a joint arrangement between the
Fisheries Research Board of Canada and the Provincial Department of Fisheries.
Arrangements have now been made to have this investigation continued, but, commencing
with this paper, this investigation will be financed and carried forward by the Fisheries
Research Board of Canada. The Provincial Department of Fisheries will continue to
contribute to this series by publishing the series of papers relating to this investigation.
These papers will continue in the Appendix to the Annual Report of the Provincial
Department of Fisheries.
The work of Dr. W. A. Clemens in connection with this investigation and as author
of this series for many years is hereby gratefully acknowledged.
In Paper No. 35 the authors point out that the outstanding feature of the sockeye-
salmon runs in 1949 in British Columbia was the relatively small packs in the Skeena
River, Rivers Inlet, and Nass River areas. In each case the pack was much lower than
the forty-two-year averages for the Skeena River and Rivers Inlet and the thirty-seven-
year average for the Nass River. For instance, the average annual pack on the Skeena
River for the past forty-two years amounted to 86,349.5 cases, while the pack in 1949
for this river system was 65,937 cases. Similarly, in Rivers Inlet the average annual
pack for the previous forty-two-year period amounted to 81,273.5 cases, but in 1949
the pack for this inlet amounted to 39,495 cases. On the Nass River the thirty-seven-
year average pack was 20,327 cases, but in 1949 the pack amounted to only 9,268
cases. The authors point out that in any estimation of the salmon run based on pack
figures, the escapement must also be taken into consideration. In 1949 the escapements
in the Skeena River were reported as heavy, in Rivers Inlet as satisfactory, and in the
Nass River as medium; therefore, the over-all escapement must be classed as very
satisfactory.
In dealing with the separate runs to the different river systems, the authors point
out that on the Skeena River in 1949 the pack of 65,937 cases was produced chiefly
from the return of the 1944 and 1945 spawnings, and that although this pack was below
the forty-two-year average, reports indicate that the spawning stocks were satisfactory
in most of the watersheds. The Skeena, with an escapement of 509,000 sockeye, had
a lower spawning population than at any time during the past five years. The reduction
in the spawning sockeye at Babine, on the Skeena, was in the early runs to the area. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT D 23
In connection with the Rivers Inlet sockeye run in 1949, the authors point out that
the pack of sockeye on this inlet was 39,495 cases, composed of 84 per cent of four-
year-old and 13.5 per cent of five-year-old fish; therefore, it is evident that the run of
1945 contributed in large part to the pack of 1949. The return in 1950 will be the
product of the spawnings of 1945 and 1946. In the former year the pack was 89,735
cases and the escapement was reported as very good. In the latter year the pack was
73,320 cases and the escapement reports were indefinite.
For the Nass River the authors content themselves with observing that the pack of
sockeye from the run to the Nass River in 1949 was 9,268 cases, which is the second
lowest pack in the past thirty-seven years, with the escapement reported as being medium.
HERRING INVESTIGATION
The long-term investigation of the herring populations in British Columbia waters
was continued in 1949-50 by members of the staff of the Pacific Biological Station
working under the direction of Mr. J. C. Stevenson. The herring investigation in
1949-50 was financed by the Fisheries Research Board of Canada and the Provincial
Department of Fisheries.
As in other recent years, most of the effort of the investigation was directed toward
the study of the west coast of Vancouver Island herring population. Since 1946 the
only limitation on this fishery has been a fixed closure date of February 5th. The
results of this investigation are being compared with those for the lower east coast
population, which is restricted by a fixed annual quota of 40,000 tons. The immediate
object of the study is to determine whether catch quotas are effective in maintaining the
level of herring populations.
In order to determine some of the causes of the large natural variation in recruitment, various other studies have been carried out on the different stages in the early
life-history. These have included studies on the survival of the spawn and on the
distribution abundance, growth, and survival of larvae and juveniles.
West Coast of Vancouver Island Herring Studies
The herring-tags were recovered by four electronic detectors located in the unloading systems of certain reduction plants and by magnets located in the meal-lines of all
thirteen reduction plants on the coast. This year 1,133 tags were recovered as compared
with 3,170 in 1948—49. This reduced recovery was probably caused by the smaller
fishery on the west coast (due largely to the small catch in Esperanza Inlet) and the
reduction in the number of fish tagged on the west coast in 1949. As in past years,
most of the tag recoveries were made in the sub-district in which these fish were tagged.
The migration of fish from the lower east coast to the west coast was greater than that
in the reverse direction. However, the movement in both directions was greater than
that estimated for the previous year. There was a small intermingling of fish between
west coast areas. In the west coast sub-district a larger percentage of the fish moved
in a south-easterly direction than in a north-westerly direction. This is the reverse of
the movement recorded in 1948-49.
This year a total of 37,300 tons of herring was caught on the west coast of Vancouver Island, as compared with 55,000 tons in 1948-49. An increase in fishing effort
was recorded, and the availability was considerably less, as was the rate of exploitation.
This decrease in the number of herring found on the fishing-grounds does not necessarily
mean an over-all decrease in population abundance. In fact, an analysis of all the data
would indicate that the initial population abundance was greater this season but that
many of these fish did not move inshore in time to be taken by the fishery. Relatively
greater recruitment of the 1947 year-class appears to have caused the increased
abundance. D 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The tagging programme was continued in the spring of 1950. This programme
resulted in 26,656 herring being tagged on the west coast, as compared with 21,856
in the previous year.
During the 1949-50 season ninety-three samples were taken from the west coast
fishery and spawning runs. The 1947 year-class constituted over two-thirds of the west
coast catch as Ill-year fish. This was the largest predominance of Ill-year fish in the
west coast fishery since the 1945-46 fishing season. In spite of the reduced catch, the
Ill-year fish were more abundant this season than in the 1948-49 catch. As a result,
fish of Age IV and older formed a relatively small portion of the catch. The Ill-year
fish predominated in all spawning-run samples, except in Quatsino Sound. (This gives
support to indications of previous years that the herring of this area tend to be segregated
from the rest of the west coast population.)
The extent of spawn was greater in 1950 than in 1949, but the intensity was lighter.
In all areas except two the extent of spawn was greater. The reason that the over-all
amount of spawn deposited seems to remain fairly consistent from year to year is that
new schools move inshore after the completion of the fishery, thus maintaining the level
of the spawning population.
The detailed results of the fourth year of the investigation of the west coast of
Vancouver Island herring populations are given in the Appendix to this Report.
Other Herring Studies
In addition to studying the middle and lower east coasts and the west coast of
Vancouver Island herring populations, data were also gathered on all the other herring-
fisheries of British Columbia.
The total catch in all sub-districts this year was only 6,000 tons lower than the
all-time record of 189,200 tons caught in 1948-49. Quotas were reached in lower east
coast, middle east coast, northern and central sub-districts. The catch was approximately
1,000 tons short of the 10,000-ton quota in the upper east coast sub-district. Quota
extensions were granted in the northern sub-district (10,000 tons in addition to
a 30,000-ton quota) and the middle east coast sub-district (5,000 tons in addition
to a 10,000-ton quota).   Both these extensions were taken.
In the central and northern sub-districts the 1947 year-class dominated the catch in
1949-50 as Ill's and resulted in the largest fishery on record in the northern sub-district.
In the Queen Charlotte Islands sub-district the spawning-ground reports show the herring
population to be less abundant than it was two years ago. Lack of data on age composition during the period of high abundance prevents the analysis of the changes in the
year-class strength which have occurred in the population.
In the lower east coast sub-district Ill-year fish comprised well over half of the
fishery. The same year-class also dominated the spawning runs. In the middle east
coast sub-district the 1947 year-class contributed greatly to the catch in both fishing
areas of the sub-district. Studies of the amount of spawn deposition in the spring of
1950 indicated that the population carry-over to the 1950-51 season was apparently
large. However, the 1948 year-class is not expected to be as productive as the 1947
year-class.
Trawling for herring took place around Cape Lazo in the fall of 1949 but did not
prove very successful. The failure to catch fish by this method is apparently due to the
lack of adequate gear to fish off the bottom. A few tons of herring were caught by
seine-boats during the summer of 1949 in the vicinity of Namu.
Prediction of the expected abundance of herring on the various fishing-grounds for
the 1949-50 season again proved fairly accurate. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT D 25
SHELL-FISH INVESTIGATION
In the pages of this Department's Annual Report for 1948 it was reported that the
Department had secured the services of a qualified biologist and was planning on obtaining suitable premises, close to the centre of the oyster-growing industry, to establish
a shell-fish laboratory. These plans have been carried out and the Department of
Fisheries now operates a shell-fish laboratory on the shores of Ladysmith Harbour, which
is under the direction of Dr. D. B. Quayle, biologist.
In setting up an establishment of this kind, a good deal of time is required to gather
together the necessary facilities and equipment and in organizing the various research
problems to be undertaken. During the past year this work has gone forward, and in
the Appendix to this Report there will be found a report of the biologist for 1949 dealing
with the work of that branch of the Department.
The preliminary work of organizing and acquiring the necessary equipment has been
completed, and the laboratory at Ladysmith is now fairly well equipped, with the exception of a proper vessel, for field work. It is hoped that a suitable boat can be obtained
in the near future, which will greatly facilitate the biological investigations into the
Province's various types of shell-fish, which work has been planned well ahead. D 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
APPENDICES
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE
SALMON (No. 35)
By A. Andrekson, M.Sc., and D. R. Foskett, B.A.,
Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
INTRODUCTION
The outstanding feature of the sockeye-salmon runs in 1949 was the relatively small
packs in the Skeena River, Rivers Inlet, and Nass River areas. In each case the pack
was much lower than the forty-two-year averages for Skeena River and Rivers Inlet and
the thirty-seven-year average for Nass River. Skeena forty-two-year average, 86,349.5
cases; 1949, 65,937 cases. Rivers Inlet forty-two-year average, 81,273.5 cases; 1949,
39,495 cases.    Nass thirty-seven-year average, 20,327 cases;   1949, 9,268 cases.
The escapements in the Skeena were reported as heavy, in Rivers Inlet as satisfactory, and the Nass River as medium. The over-all escapement must thus be classed as
very satisfactory.
DESIGNATION OF AGE-GROUPS
Two outstanding features in the life-history of the fish have been selected in designating the age-groups—namely, the age at maturity and the year of its life in which the
fish migrated from fresh water. These are expressed symbolically by two numbers—
one in large type, which indicates the age of maturity, and the other in small type, placed
to the right and below, which signifies the year of life in which the fish left the fresh water.
The age-groups which are met most commonly are:—
k 3l5 4X—the " sea-types " or fish which migrate in their first year and mature at
at the ages of three and four respectively.
3 2—" the grilse," usually males, which migrate in their second year and
mature at the age of three.
42, 52—fish which migrate in their second year and mature at the ages of four
and five respectively.
53, 63—fish which migrate in their third year and mature at the ages of five and
six respectively.
64, 74—fish which migrate in their fourth year and mature at the ages of six
and seven respectively.
1. THE RIVERS INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1949
(1) General Characteristics
The pack of sockeye salmon at Rivers Inlet in 1949 was 39,495 cases. The run
was composed of 84 per cent of four-year-old and 13.5 per cent of five-year-old fish, and
it is thus evident that the run of 1945 contributed in large part to the pack of 1949.
The return in 1950 will be the product of the spawnings in 1945 and 1946. In the
former year the pack was 89,735 cases and the escapement was reported as very good.
In the latter year the pack was 73,320 cases and the escapement reports were indefinite. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT D 27
(2) Age-groups
The data for this year's studies were obtained from day-to-day sampling of the
commercial catch from June 27th to August 5th, inclusive, representing 686 fish. The
42 age-group is represented by 576 individuals or 84 per cent. The 52 age-group consists of 92 individuals or 13 per cent. This percentage of the 42 age-group is the highest
on record for this area. The run thus consisted largely of the four-year-old fish, which
were the progeny of the 1945 spawning. In 1945 the same age-group constituted only
57 per cent of the catch and a very good escapement was recorded. In 1944 the 52 age-
group constituted 23 per cent of the run and a light escapement was recorded. Although
the 42 age-group is high, it is not unusually so for this area, where the records of the
past thirty-six years show this group to fluctuate between 3 and 81 per cent.
The 5:> and 6:>t age-groups are represented by six and one fishes respectively
(Table II).
In the 41 age-group there occurred 11 individuals or 1.6 per cent of the total
sampling. This age-class has never before been recorded in such high numbers from this
area. From Tables II and III it would appear that average lengths and weights for the
Ax age-group fall into the expected category of being slightly longer and heavier than
the 42 age-group.
(3) Lengths and Weights
The average lengths of the males and females of the Ax age-group are 25.3 and 23.0
inches respectively; of the 42 age-group, 20.9 and 21.4 inches respectively; and of the
52 age-group, 23.8 and 22.8 inches respectively. The average weights of the males and
females of the 4X age-group are 7.4 and 5.7 pounds; of the 42 age-group, 4.4 and 4.3
pounds; and the 52 age-group, 5.9 and 5.9 pounds respectively. The 42 and 52 lengths
fall within the limits of past records. The 42's weights are in no way out of order, but
the average male's weight is a new low at 5.9 pounds, as compared to the old record of
6.2 pounds average and the thirty-three-year average of 6.9 pounds. The female 52's
average weight is also 5.9 pounds, which equals the 1947 record for light weight in this
group.   The thirty-three-year average weight for female 52's is 6.4 pounds.
(4) Distribution of Sexes
The total number of males in the samples was 428 and of females 258, percentages
of 62.4 and 37.6 respectively. In the 42 age-group the males greatly predominate, with
a percentage of 69.8, while in the 52's the females predominate, with 78.3 per cent.
In the 4j age-group, females predominate, with a percentage of 63.6. This distribution of sexes is not unusual for this river system.
2. THE SKEENA RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1949
(1) General Characteristics
The pack of 65,937 cases produced by the 1949 sockeye run was the return chiefly
from the 1944 and 1945 spawnings. Though this pack is below the forty-two-year
average, reports indicate that the spawning stocks were satisfactory in most of the
watershed. The Skeena, with an escapement of 509,000 sockeye, had a lower spawning
population than at any time during the past five years, as may be seen from the Fisheries
Research Board estimates, as follows: 1944, 620,000 fish; 1945, 1,360,000 fish; 1946,
680,000 fish; 1947, 690,000 fish; and 1948, 700,000 fish.* The reduction in the
spawning sockeye at Babine was in the early runs to the area.
* Due to the washout of the Babine fence in 1948 this number is an approximation from a comparison with the
1947 run. D 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA
(2) Age-groups
The data on which the 1949 study is based consists of scale samples from 1,342
sockeye. The 52 age-group was dominant in these fish, as 1,020 individuals or 75 per
cent were of this age. Only 16 per cent, 223 fish, were in 42 age-group. The 53 and 63
age-groups, forming 4 and 3 per cent of the run, were represented by 57 and 43 fish
respectively. The so-called sea-run sockeye—that is, those which go to sea immediately
upon emergence from the gravel—were represented by one individual from the 3X
age-group and one from the 42 age-group. These fish were a male 20^ inches,
2>XA pounds, and a female 25 inches, 6% pounds respectively. The one jack male
represented was 16Vi inches in length and weighed 2 pounds. These fish have not been
included in the tables.
(3) Lengths and Weights
The lengths as shown in Table VIII do not differ materially from the average of the
past few years. In weight the 42, 53, and 63 age-classes appear normal, and the 52 group
seems to be slightly above average.
(4) Distribution of Sexes
The total number of males in the sample was 479, and the total number of females
was 863. Thus the percentages were 36 (males) and 64 (females). This 2-1 ratio
was not general throughout the age-classes but was confined to the 52 group, as may be
seen from the tables.   The 42, 53, and 63 age-groups had a preponderance of males.
3. THE NASS RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1949
(1) General Characteristics
The pack of sockeye from the run to the Nass River in 1949 was 9,268 cases, which
is the second lowest pack in the past thirty-seven years. The escapement was reported
as medium.
(2) Age-groups
The material for 1949 was obtained from 152 fish, taken in five random samplings
of the commercial fishery from June 25th to August 3rd, inclusive. The age-groups
were represented as follows: 42, 60 fish or 39 per cent; 52, 9 fish or 6 per cent; 53, 73
fish or 48 per cent; 63, 10 fish or 7 per cent. There is nothing unusual in this distribution. One individual fish was a Ax male, 23% inches long and 6% pounds in weight,
and is not included in the table (Table XIII).
(3) Lengths and Weights
The average lengths of the males and females are shown in Tables XIV and XV.
In the 52 female age-group the average length is less than in previous years, and the
average weight of this group is well below previous averages.
(4) Distribution of the Sexes
The total number of males in the samplings is 81, and of females 71, percentages
of 53 and 47 respectively. This is identical with the 1948 sex ratio. Unlike former
years, the males are dominant in the 53 age-group and are in 50-50 ratio in the 63
age-group (Table XVIII). REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
D 29
Table I.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs
Year
Percentage of Individuals
6,
1907 (87,874 cases)....
1908 (64,652 cases)....
1909 (89,027 cases)....
1910 (126,921 cases)..
1911 (88,763 cases)....
1912 (112,884 cases)..
1913 (61,745 cases)....
1914 (89,890 cases) ...
1915 (130,350 cases)..
1916 (44,936 cases)....
1917 (61,195 cases)....
1918 (53,401 cases)....
1919 (56,258 cases)....
1920 (121,254 cases)..
1921 (46,300 cases)....
1922 (60,700 cases)....
1923 (107,174 cases)-
1924 (94,891 cases)....
1925 (159,554 cases)_
1926 (65,581 cases)....
1927 (64,461 cases)....
1928 (60,044 cases)....
1929 (70,260 cases)....
1930 (119,170 cases).
1931 (76,428 cases)....
1932 (69,732 cases)....
1933 (83,507 cases)....
1934 (76,923 cases)...
1935 (135,038 cases).
1936 (46,351 cases)....
1937 (84,832 cases)...
1938 (87,942 cases)...
1939 (54,143 cases)...
1940 (63,469 cases)...
1941 (93,378 cases)...
1942 (79,199 cases)....
1943 (47,602 cases)...
1944 (36,852 cases)...
1945 (89,735 cases)...
1946 (73,320 cases)...
1947 (140,087 cases).
1948 (37,665 cases )-
1949 (39,495 cases)-.
21
80
35
13
26
39
57
46
5
49
81
74
43
23
59
81
55
77
49
53
67
44
77
57
53
60
27
67
69
59
76
57
37
3
55
84
79
20
65
87
74
61
43
54
95
51
18
24
54
77
38
16
40
18
48
44
27
55
20
41
46
37
70
32
28
40
91
91
23
41
63
97
44
14 D 30
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table II.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1949, Grouped by Age, Sex,
Length, and by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Length in Inches
4
1
42
52
53
6g
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
18	
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
4
8
16
8
26
13
36
26
33
17
48
26
26
21
23
12
15
8
6
7
6
4
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
4
4
12
9
13
11
19
9
16
7
15
7
7
4
10
5
4
3
6
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
5
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
4
1
3
2
8
4
12
1
7
2
10
1
4
2
4
3
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
	
1
1
18 %     	
I
18V4      	
5
18%	
9
19	
20
19% 	
12
l9'/2 .    	
38
19% -	
22
20 	
2014.  	
2OV2      	
50
37
54
203/4 	
21  	
27
66
21%	
34
21'/2 	
45
2134  	
29
22   	
35
22%.....	
22%	
22% .  	
23    	
20
35
18
26
23% .	
23% '	
23%	
24	
11
24
7
16
24% 	
3
24%	
24%	
8
3
25	
25%.	
25 Vi       .          	
9
7
25%.. 	
26	
3
26%	
26% 	
26%.. 	
27 	
27% -	
1
1
27%	
-----    1    -	
1
4
7
402
174
20
72
2
4
1
Average lengths
25.31
23.07
20.96
21.4
23.8
22.8
22.5
21.06
25.0 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
D 31
Table III.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1949, Grouped by Age,
Sex, Weight, and by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Weight in Pounds
4
1
42
52
5
3
h
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F,
2%            ....            	
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
7
27
38
49
55
58
44
39
22
14
16
12
8
2
2
1
3
1
1
1
1
6
9
17
27
25
17
19
17
14
5
2
5
3
2
1
2
1
2
1
....    1     	
1
1
	
	
1
1
3 ...      ...
2
1
4
1
3
1
1
1
1
2
1
7
6
10
3
4
7
4
9
4
4
5
4
1
1
1
13
3%	
36
3% ... 	
55
3%	
81
4 ...	
82
414	
77
4'/2
72
4% 	
63
5	
47
5%        	
27
5%    ...
22
5% ...	
26
6	
6%.
20
15
6%
10
6% 	
6
7	
7%	
7
7
7% 	
4
7%.....	
8	
4
3
8 %	
3
8%                 	
2
8%         	
1
9 -
2
Totals	
4
7
402
174
20
72
2
4
1
686
Average weights
7.37
5.75
4.37
4.33
5.85
5.84
5.12
4.12
7.5
Table IV.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches
of the 4.2 and 52 Groups, 1912 to 1949
Year
4
2
5
2
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912 41    .              .      -	
22.4
21.6
21.9
20.5
21.1
20.9
20.6
20.6
21.4
20.9
22.4
21.6
21.3
21.1
21.0
21.2
21.1
20.7
21.3
21.4
25.4
24.6
25.0
24.3
23.5
24.2
25.1
24.0
25.2
23.8
24.7
23.9
1942        	
23.8
1943	
23.7
1944	
23.3
1945	
23.9
1946                                                                                  .   -           ~
'4.1
1947                                         	
23.5
1948                                                     	
24.2
1949
22.8 D 32
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table V.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds
of the 42 and 52 Groups, 1914 to 1949
Year
4
2
5
2
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41  .... 	
1942	
4.9
5.1
4.1
4.6
4.3
3.9
4.1
4.7
4.4
4.8
4.6
4.4
4.4
4.4
3.9
3.9
4.6
4.3
7.0
7.2
6.8
6.2
6.6
7.2
6.4
7.9
5.9
6.5
6.4
1943	
6.3
1944          	
1945    	
6.0
6.4
1946   ..... 	
1947-	
6.2
5.9
1948  	
7.0
1949	
5.9
Table VI.-
-Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1949
Year
41
4
9
h
Per Cent
Total
Males
Per Cent
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Total
Females
36
64
63
61
62
67
70
79
72
50
70
37
39
38
33
30
21
28
50
30
34
35
34
33
39
37
35
38
22
66
65
66
67
61
63
65
62
78
50
38
36
59
57
53
36
45
63
50
1942 	
1943	
62
64
1944        	
1945   	
1946 	
1947  	
1948...	
41
43
47
64
55
1949	
37 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
D 33
Table VII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups
in Runs of Successive Years and Packs
Percentage of Individuals
Year
42
52
5g
63
1907 (108,413 cases)                                                              	
1908 (139,846 cases)    	
1909 (87,901 cases)                                                                     	
1910 (187,246 cases)	
1911 (131,066 cases).	
....
1912 (92,498 cases)                  	
57
43
1913 (52,927 cases) 	
50
50
1914 (130,166 cases)	
25
75
1915 (116,553 cases)                   	
36
64
1916 (60,923 cases)......  	
34
38
13
18
1917 (65,760 cases) ._    	
57
29
9
5
1918 (123,322 cases)  	
51
34
9
6
1919 (184,945 cases)...	
27
60
9
4
1920 (90,869 cases)  	
15
71
6
8
1921 (41,018 cases)..	
69
22
6
3
1922 (96,277 cases)  	
70
16
12
2
1923 (131,731 cases)..  	
56
29
8
7
1924 (144,747 cases)	
23
69
7
1
1925 (77,784 cases).....   	
51
45
3
1
1926 (82,360 cases)   	
62
26
9
3
1927 (83,996 cases) 	
62
28
9
1
1928 (34,559 cases)..	
51
39
7
3
1929 (78,017 cases)...  	
62
30
6
2
1930 (132,372 cases)	
39
52
8
1
1931 (93,023 cases)	
40
30
28
2
1932 (59,916 cases)                   	
44
37
7
12
1933 (30.506 cases)  	
57
36
5
2
1934 (54,558 cases).....	
58
34
7
1
1935 (52,879 cases)  	
49
31
18
2
1936 (81,973 cases)       	
67
20
11
2
1937 (42,491 cases)..    	
45
40
11
4
1938 (47,257 cases)  .„         ..
64
15                      16
5
1939 (68,485 cases)...	
50
35           |           11
4
1940 (116,507 cases)	
80
15
4
1
1941 (81,767 cases)                                       	
39
52
'8
1
1942 (34,544 cases)	
36
54
7
3
1943 (28,268 cases)	
39
39
16
6
1944 (68,197 cases)..  	
37
52
7
4
1945 (104,279 cases)              	
20
1          «
12
5
1946 (52,928 cases)	
13
i          70
8
9
1947 (32,534 cases)                                       	
14
t          82
3
1
1948 (101,267 cases)                                                            	
80
13
6
1
1949 (65,937 cases)	
17
1           76
1
4
3 D 34
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VIII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1949, Grouped by Age, Sex,
and Length, and by Their Early History
Number of Individuals
Length in Inches
A
2
52
.       h
6
3
Total
,M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
17 '/2  	
1
1
1
1
3
2
3
6
7
5
9
8
17
9
13
11
9
4
4
3
1
2
1
1
1
6
8
4
6
9
16
8
18
7
8
1
2
.
2
1
1
1
6
2
4
3
7
7
14
11
22
20
24
19
26
31
35
10
21
13
9
5
5
2
2
1
3
1
3
4
17
15
25
19
38
37
78
64
85
61
98
62
47
27
17
9
3
2
1
1
1
2
2
3
4
3
3
1
4
3
2
1
1
1
4
1
3
2
5
1
1
3
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
2
3
1
3
4
1
1
1
2
3
1
1
1
3
3
2
1
2
3
1
17%       - 	
18                    J	
18%         -	
18%      j	
18%   	
19	
19%    ....	
19%        	
1
19%
1
20  ....	
20%    	
2
20%    	
5
20%     	
9
21    .
16
21%      	
15
21%  '      	
17
21%	
17
22   .'...-	
22%         	
37
24
22%   	
62
22%     	
40
23
56
23%  ..
39
23%
60
23%
56
24	
105
24%     	
85
24%.  	
24%    	
115
91
25  ....-•.	
129
25%	
25% '	
82
74
25%  __     	
61
26	
55
26%   --	
19
26%      	
27
26%   	
15
27    	
10
27%	
6
17%    	
5
27%..     ..
2
28.	
3
121
102
301
718
30
27
27
16
1,342
22.5
22.2
25.3
24.5
23.2
22.3
24.8
23.9 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
D 35
Table IX.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1949, Grouped by Age, Sex,
and Weight, and by Their Early History
Weight in Pounds
Number of Individuals
4
2
52
53
t
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
2%         	
1
2
5
7
3
10
13
31
15
15
7
5
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
5
4
17
26
14
12
8
3
5
2
2
1
1
1
1
2
5
11
11
10
21
16
20
19
1
4
12
13
27
41
62
53
79
80
87
68
1
1
3
5
3
5
1
4
2
3
4
2
3
1
5
1
1
1
4
2
1
3
2
2
1
	
1
2%.   - - -- 	
3 -.-.
2
3%  ...
1
3%	
3% .....  	
1
10
4.     ......      ......
19
4%          ....	
28
4%	
57
4%  .
4    |        5
2    j        3
7    |    ......
2 1         1
3 !        2
3     t        2
52
5    .....
84
5% .. 	
85
5%  	
99
5%         	
82
6             ....
116
6% .......      	
6%      	
6%   __ 	
2
1
1
1
-—
109
112
94
7            	
25     1      78
108
7%  ...
28
34
26
29
13
10
6
5
3
2
1
-J
52
32
22
5
1
1
81
71/2  ...
71
7%   .        	
50
8      ... ...
34
8% ..  	
15
8V2 ..
11
8%    .
7
9   	
5
9%
3
9%  __
2
9% 	
10                              	
1
10% .
10>/2
2
121
102
301
718
30    |      27
27
16
1,342
5.0
4.7
7.1
6.3
5.3     1     4.8
6.6
5.7
Table X.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1949
4
2
5
2
5
3
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41  —	
1912-41 (conversion) _._.	
1942                         	
23.7
23.0
22.6
21.9
22.4
22.6
22.7
22.3
23.0
22.5
23.1
22.4
22.3
21.9
21.7
22.3
22.0
22.0
22.3
22.2
25.8
25.1
25.2
25.1
24.8
24.9
25.4
25.1
25.3
25.3
24.9
24.2
24.3
23.9
23.9
24.1
24.3
23.8
24.1
24.5
24.2
23.5
24.1
23.3
22.5
23.3
23.9
23.0
23.0
23.2
23.4
22.7
23.7
22.6
21.7
22.6
23.2
22.4
22.1
22.3
25.8
25.1
26.3
25.8
25.0
25.0
25.5
26.3
26.0
24.8
24.8
24.1
24.9
1943	
1944                          	
24.7
23.7
1945   	
1946                                     	
24.3
24.4
1947                                  	
25.8
1948.	
1949	
24.5
23.9 D 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XL—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1949
Year
4
2
5
2
5
3
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41	
5.4
4.9
4.7
5.1
5.2
4.7
4.9
5.5
5.0
5.0
4.7
4.6
4.6
4.9
4.2
4.7
4.9
4.7
6.8
6.7
6.8
7.0
6.7
6.9
6.9
7.3
7.1
6.1
6.0
5.9
6.1
6.1
5.8
5.9
6.1
6.3
5.7
5.8
5.5
5.3
5.6
5.8
5.3
5.4
5.3
5.1
5.4
4.9
4.6
5.0
5.1
5.0
4.7
4.8
6.8
7.2
7.3
7.1
6.7
7.0
7.7
7.7
6.6
6.0
1942  	
1943    	
1944 ...	
6.6
6.1
5.8
1945	
6.2
1946	
6.1
1947.   :	
6.8
1948	
6.4
1949 	
5.7
Table XII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females, 1915 to 1949
Year
42
5
2
Per Cent
Total
Males
Per Cent
Total
Females
M.
F.
M.
F.
48
42
50
54
41
50
50
50
54
52
58
50
46
59
50
50
50
46
43
25
31
34
35
32
29
29
30
57
75
69
66
65
68
71
71
70
46
33
43
43
38
38
33
47
36
54
1942 _ 	
67
1943         	
57
1944	
57
1945 -	
62
1946.. 	
62
1947..	
67
1948.     	
53
1949  	
64 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
D 37
Table XIII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Principal Age-groups
in Runs of Successive Years and Packs
Year
Percentage of Individuals
42
52
53
63
1912 (36,037 cases)  	
8
15
4
19
9
10
30
7
8
10
6
11
4
23
12
8
30
25
28
10
28
35
13
11
16
22
21
14
23
37
22
5
15
46
13
15
12
39
27
12
41
14
17
15
16
22
14
7
2
6
3
8
12
7
6
9
15
17
4
7
9
10
7
4
4
13
8
7
7
13
15
11
12
12
16
6
63
71
45
59
66
71
45
65
72
75
91
77
91
67
63
81
61
60
54
67
61
55
74
73
67
68
70
66
59
52
66
67
32
37
72
56
60
48
2
1913 (23,574 cases)   	
2
1914 (31,327 cases)	
10
1915 (39,349 cases)	
8
1916 (31,411 cases)	
8
1917 (22,188 cases)
4
1918 (21,816 cases)  	
9
1919 (28,259 cases)                                 	
6
1920 (16,740 cases) ...            	
6
1921 (9,364 cases)                                                             	
8
1922 (31,277 cases) 	
1
1923 (17,821 cases) -
6
1924 (33,590 cases) ~  	
2
1925 (18,945 cases)                                   	
?
1926 (15,929 cases)    .	
13
1927 (12,026 cases)                                            	
4
1978 (5,540 cases')
3
1929 (16,077 cases)                                               	
6
1930 (26,405 cases)                                      	
3
1931 (16,929 cases)                              	
6
1932 (14,154 cases)                                                -	
7
1933 (9,757 cases)	
3
1934 (36,242 cases)                                           -	
4
1935 (12,712 cases)                           	
6
1936 (28,562 cases)                                   -	
10
1937 (17,567 cases)                            	
6
1938 (21,462 cases)                                               	
1939 (24,357 cases)                                     	
7
1940 (13,809 cases)                                                 	
10
1941 (24,876 cases)                                            -	
4
1942 (21,085 cases)                 -	
5
1943 (13,412 cases)                                     	
15
1944 (13,083 cases)    - .—
1945 (9,899 cases)     	
1946 (12,511 cases)                                    	
38
6
3
1947 (10,849 cases)  	
17
1948 (13 181 cases)                                            	
12
1949 (9,268 cases)                                              	
7 D 38
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XIV.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1949, Grouped by Age, Sex,
and Length, and Their Early History
Length in Inches
Number of
Individuals
4
2
52
53
6
3
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
21 %    	
1
1
3
2
6
5
3
5
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
5
6
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
2
5
3
5
1
3
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
7
7
4
4
4
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
21 %  ..	
1
21%	
1
22   	
3
22%  :	
3
22% ...
9
22%  	
10
23     	
5
23%	
16
23% ...
16
23% ...
9
24
16
24% ...
9
24% -
11
24% ...
5
25    	
7
25% ...
6
25% ...
5
25%    	
1
2
1
5
26	
3
26% ...
2
26%
26% ...
3
2
27  	
2
27%	
27%  	
27%  ..-.	
1
28 	
28%.-
1
34
26
5
4
37
36
5
5
152
Average lengths  	
23.76
22.77
26.20
23.81
24.73
23.67
26.1
25.55 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
D 39
Table XV.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1949, Grouped by Age,
and Weight, and by Their Early History
Sex,
Weight in Pounds
Number of Individuals
4
2
h
53
t
3
Total
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
4    	
4% ---     ' -	
1
1
3
8
5
6
2
3
1
1
1
3
1
9
5
2
2
1
1
	
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
4
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4%        ■•	
8
4%
5 	
4
15
5%	
4
8
20
5%                  	
4    j        9
1 1    	
4    |        5
2 [         3
4     1         1
24
5%     	
6  	
8
17
6% ....
9
6%   -.
10
6%  	
2
5
1
6
7 	
7
7% ---   ... 	
2
2
4
7%.....
3
7%.-
1
1
2
1
1
8     „    ... '•	
9
8%                           	
2
8%                     	
3
8%   	
9 	
9% ...
9% ....
1
34
26
5
4
37
36
5
5
152
Average weights   	
5.94
5.13
7.90
5.81
6.52
5.44
7.70
6.80
Table XVI.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1949
Year
42
h
h
h
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41      	
24.5
23.8
23.9
22.8
23.5
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.3
23.8
23.7
23.0
23.2
22.2
22.7
22.8
22.4
22.9
22.6
22.8
26.3
25.6
26.1
26.1
25.7
25.0
26.3
25.9
26.2
26.2
25.2
24.5
24.9
24.8
24.6
24.4
24.9
24.1
25.3
23.8
26.1
25.4
24.9
24.1
24.8
24.7
24.9
24.5
25.0
24.7
25.3
24.6
24.3
23.5
23.8
24.0
23.9
23.6
24.1
23.7
27.7
27.0
26.9
27.1
26.8
25.1
28.1
27.0
27.7
26.1
26 4
25.7
1942	
1943.  -- -	
1944- 	
1945  	
1946	
26.0
25.8
25.8
25.5
26.0
1947	
25.6
1948- - ..-	
1949-   -	
26.7
25.5 D 40
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XVIL-
-Nass River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1949
Year
42
52
h
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41 	
6.0
5.8
5.2
5.7
5.7
5.6
5.8
5.8
5.9
5.4
5.1
4.7
5.0
5.3
4.9
5.3
5.3
5.1
7.3
7.1
7.6
7.7
7.0
8.1
7.7
8.1
7.9
6.4
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.4
6.7
6.2
7.1
5.8
6.9
6.2
5.9
6.7
6.5
6.5
6.3
7.0
6.5
6.2
5.6
5.3
5.7
5.9
5.4
5.6
6.0
5.4
8.0
7.5
7.9
8.2
7.2
8.9
8.1
9.1
7.7
7.0
1942 	
6.7
1943    	
6.9
1944 ......	
1945
7.1
7.1
1946	
1947      	
7.0
6.9
1948  -	
1949  	
7.9
6.8
Table XVIII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1949
Year
42
52
h
63
Per Cent
Total
Males
Per Cent
Total
Females
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
49
42
51
53
37
62
50
45
57
51
58
49
47
63
38
50
55
43
47
48
67
45
37
59
52
54
56
53
52
33
55
63
41
48
46
44
45
44
47
39
38
45
51
52
51
55
56
53
61
62
55
49
48
49
63
70
74
60
53
75
81
66
50
37
30
26
40
47
25
19
34
50
47
45
54
50
38
50
56
53
53
53
1942 	
55
1943	
46
1944	
50
1945  	
1946   	
1947	
1948    	
62
50
44
47
1949.   	
47 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT D 41
RESULTS OF THE WEST COAST OF VANCOUVER ISLAND
HERRING INVESTIGATION,  1949-50
By J. C. Stevenson, M.A., and J. A. Lanigan,
Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
CONTENTS
Page
Introduction  41
The 1949-50 Fishery  44
Tagging and Tag-recovery  45
Recoveries by Tag-detectors  48
Recoveries of Tags by Plant Crews  50
Population Statistics from Tag-recoveries  51
Tagging during the 1950 Spawning Season  52
Sampling of the Catches and the Spawning Runs  53
Age Composition  5 3
Sex Ratio and Stage of Development  56
Average Length and Weight  57
Extent and Intensity of Spawning  57
Discussion  58
Summary  60
Acknowledgments  61
References __  63
INTRODUCTION
A long-term investigation of the herring populations of the west coast and lower east
coast of Vancouver Island was begun in 1946-47 to investigate two contrasting methods
of fisheries management. Since then each population has been subjected to different
catch regulations. Fishing on the west coast of Vancouver Island has been unrestricted
by quota, while the lower east coast fishery has been held to a fixed annual quota of
40,000 tons. A closure date, February 5th, has prevented fishing from taking place in
either population when fish are massed close'to shore prior to spawning. The immediate
objective of the study is to determine whether catch quotas are effective in stabilizing
herring populations or whether they are unnecessarily restrictive in view of the large
natural fluctuations which occur in year-class strength.
The comparative study of the two populations has demanded intensive investigation
of the fishable stocks. This has involved the collection of accurate catch statistics, the
determination of the relative strengths of the year-classes supplying the fishery, the estimation of the relative size of the spawning stock as determined by surveys of the extent
and intensity of spawn depositions, and the calculation of certain population statistics
(on the west coast population) from tag-recovery data. By obtaining these data over
a period of years at various levels of population abundance, it is anticipated that consider- D 42
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Fig. 1. Map showing the division of the British Columbia coast into districts,
sub-districts, and areas. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
D 43
Fig. 2 Map of Southern British Columbia showing the location
of places mentioned in the text. D 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
able information will be collected on various fundamental fisheries problems. One of
these problems concerns the general relationship between spawning potential and recruitment. Greater knowledge of this relationship would be a major step in determining the
minimum spawning stock required to produce maximum sustained yield.
Another aspect of the present study has been concerned with the determination of
the causes of the large natural variation in recruitment. During the four years of the
investigation, various studies have been carried out on the different stages in the early
life-history. These have included studies on spawn survival, and on the distribution,
abundance, growth, and survival of larva; and juveniles. For the most part these studies
have been restricted to the west coast of Vancouver Island population.
This report, the fourth in an annual series, deals primarily with the studies conducted
during 1949-50 on the adult stocks. Chief reference is made to the changes in the west
coast population, but comparative data from both populations are discussed in a final
section of the report. Results obtained in each of the previous years of the investigation
have been published (Tester and Stevenson, 1947, 1948; Stevenson, 1950).
Fig. 1 shows the division of the British Columbia coast into districts, sub-districts,
and statistical areas. Place-names in the coastal waters of Vancouver Island and adjacent Mainland, which are mentioned in the text, are given in Fig. 2.
THE 1949-50 FISHERY
Herring-fishing on the west coast of Vancouver Island began at Swale Rock (Area
23) on November 14th. During the previous week one seine-boat scouted various west
coast fishing-grounds without success. Good fishing continued in Area 23 until the
Christmas closure on December 16th, resulting in a record catch of 29,900 tons for the
area. The catch was taken principally from Imperial Eagle (Middle) Channel and
Effingham Inlet.
In the two-week period from November 20th to December 3rd a small catch was
taken in Sydney Inlet (Area 24). Although Areas 25 and 26 were scouted in the
pre-Christmas period, no catches were made.
Efforts to catch fish in Area 23 in January proved unsuccessful; one set of about
35 tons from Uchucklesit Harbour constituted the entire January catch of the area. Area
25, the other major west coast fishing area, yielded moderately good catches from January
4th to 7th in Esperanza Inlet, but no large body of fish .was encountered during the
season.    The Area 25 catch was the smallest since 1945-46.
Fairly good fishing occurred in Ououkinsh Inlet (Area 26) from January 8th to
12th. However, by January 13th freezing weather prevented the continuation of the
fishery, and when fishing resumed in the area on January 18th the schools were broken
up and catches were small. For the next few days most of the fishing-grounds in the
west coast sub-district were scouted, but no fish were caught. By January 23rd all
seine-boats had left the west coast to fish in the central sub-district.
It is noteworthy that both in the 1949-50 season and in the previous season (Stevenson, 1950) there was a remarkable scarcity of fish during January on the west coast.
In each year a period of unusually cold weather hampered fishing operations and caused
ice conditions in many of the inlets. These facts have suggested that a relationship
between inshore temperatures and availability might exist, and they have led to an analysis
of data covering the past six years. For this period a statistically significant correlation
was found between the average January temperature on the west coast (Daily Seawater
Observations for 1945 to 1949, inclusive) and the proportion of the catch taken during
January (r = 0.87; P = 0.02). Thus, in 1944-45, when the average water temperature in January was high (48.2° F.), over 95 per cent of the west coast catch was taken
during the month, whereas in 1948-49 and 1949-50, when low water temperatures prevailed in January (41.3° F. in each year), very small proportions of the total catch REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
D 45
(5 per cent and 16 per cent respectively) were taken in the post-Christmas fishery. The
data suggest that lowered temperatures in the inlets may act as a deterrent to inshore
migration and may cause schools already in the inlets to move offshore. This is the
first indication of possible factors which may influence inshore migration.
Data on catch, fishing effort, and availability are given in Table I for each area and
for the sub-district as a whole. The area catch was estimated from records of landings
at the various plants and from information supplied by the Department of Fisheries.
The number of days spent by all vessels in scouting and catching fish was compiled from
records submitted by seine-boat captains. Since these records were only 73 per cent
complete, the number of active fishing-days was proportionately adjusted. The availability, or catch per unit effort, was also calculated from data supplied by seine-boat
captains.
Catch statistics from the west coast fishery are presented for each season since the
removal of quota restriction in the following tabulation:—
1946^17
1947-48
1948^19
1949-50
Catch (tons)   ... 	
59,000
777
76
45,200
948
48
55,000
686
80*
37,300
790
47
* Correction to number given in previous report.
In the 1949-50 season the fishery yielded the smallest catch in the four-year period.
This was chiefly a result of the greatly reduced fishery in Area 25. The other major west
coast fishing area, Area 23, yielded the largest catch ever recorded. The availability for
the sub-district was considerably less and fishing effort was greater than in 1948-49.
Availability showed a greater decrease in Area 25 than in Area 23 (compare Table I in
this report and Table I in Stevenson, 1950).
The catch data suggest that the abundance of herring on the fishing-grounds was less
in 1949-50 than in 1948-49, and probably similar to the abundance in the 1947-48
season. However, the indications of less fish on the fishing-grounds in 1949-50 does
not necessarily infer that population abundance on the west coast was smaller in 1949-50
than in 1948-49. In later sections of the report evidence will be given which suggests
that population abundance in 1949-50 was greater than in the previous season.
TAGGING AND TAG-RECOVERY
Herring-tagging studies serve two main purposes in the west coast of Vancouver
Island herring investigation. They permit an estimation of the extent of movement from,
to, and within the west coast population each year, and they provide data from which
calculations can be made of the changes in rate of exploitation from one season to the next.
Tagging is carried out each spring at or near the time of spawning. Most of the
recovery from taggings of a particular year occurs during the fishing season which takes
place seven to ten months after tagging, but lesser numbers of recoveries are obtained in
subsequent seasons. In the spring of 1949 tagging was continued in the west coast of
Vancouver Island population, as well as in the middle and lower east coast populations
(Stevenson, 1950). The 1950 tagging programme was extended to include the herring
populations of Northern British Columbia. In the 1949-50 fishing season, tags of the
1949 tagging (13-series) and of previous taggings were recovered from the catches. The
places and dates of the individual taggings producing recoveries in 1949-50 are listed in
Table VIII. Fishing-grounds yielding catches which contained or might have contained
tags include the following: Area 4—Edye Pass, Lewis Channel, Chalmer Anchorage,
Herbert Reef, and Butlers Cove; Area 6—Surf Inlet, Kent Inlet, Racey Inlet, Helmcken
Inlet, David Bay, Poison Cove, Thistle Pass, Laredo Sound, and Meyers Pass; Area 7— D 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Kwakshua Passage, Bella Bella, Body Pass, Cultus Sound, Kildidt Sound, and Safety
Cove; Area 9—Moses Inlet and Drainey Inlet; Area 12—Chatham Channel, Kingcome
Inlet, Minstrel Island, Bones Bay, Knight Inlet, Simoom Sound, and Belleisle Sound;
Area 13—Deepwater Bay; Area 14a—Lambert Channel, Hornby Island, and Deep Bay;
Area 14b—Nanoose Bay and Northumberland Channel; Area 17—Walker Rock and
Trincomali Channel; Area 18—Active Pass and Pender Island; Area 23—Effingham
Inlet, Imperial Eagle (Middle) Channel, Peacock Channel, and Mayne Bay; Area 24—
Sydney Inlet; Area 25b—Esperanza Inlet and Espinosa Inlet; Area 26—Kyuquot Sound
and Ououkinsh Inlet.
Tag-recovery is effected by tag-detectors placed in the unloading systems of certain
reduction plants and by magnets located in the meal-lines of all plants. Four tag-detectors
were operated during the 1949-50 season—two old-type detectors working on the
Wheatstone-bridge principle (Tester, 1946), and two new-type detectors operating on the
principle of induced currents. In addition, magnets and certain machinery in thirteen
reduction plants were searched for tags throughout the season.
Two of the four tag-detectors gave reasonably satisfactory performances. One of
them (old type) was located at the Imperial plant, and the other (new type) operated at
the Gulf of Georgia installation. Each showed a higher percentage efficiency of operation
than in the previous season, as indicated in the following tabulation (efficiency in 1948-49
is given in parentheses) :  While Operating on Catches from—
Middle and Lower
Detector Installation East Coasts West Coast
Imperial  60 (54) 78  (58)
Gulf of Georgia  86 (55) 50 (36)
The increased efficiency of the Gulf of Georgia detector appears to have resulted
from various improvements made to the plant installation in the summer of 1949. On
the other hand, the better performance of the Imperial detector occurred in spite of difficulties arising from changes made in the plant to accommodate a new weighing-machine.
The third tag-detector, operated at Nootka, gave poor results for the fourth successive year. There was evidence that the detector itself (new type) performed more
efficiently than in previous years, but various factors relating to the general installation
continued to hamper operations. The exposed nature of the unloading system caused
many of the working parts of the detector to freeze in the cold weather, and the location
of the marine leg in relation to the chute prevented detector operation during certain
stages of the tide. The fourth installation, located at Kildonan, was of an experimental
nature. A reconditioned old-type detector was operated for a short period to test its
usability.   Further improvements were added to this machine during the summer of 1950.
The efficiency of tag-recovery in the plants was again determined by magnet-
efficiency tests (Stevenson, 1950). Satisfactory tests were conducted in four of the six
west coast reduction plants and in three of the four Steveston plants. Average plant
efficiency was found to be similar in the past two seasons. Only one plant (Gulf of
Georgia) showed an appreciable change in plant efficiency over the two years. The
striking decrease recorded for that plant resulted mainly from a breakdown in one of the
magnet installations. In 1949-50 four tags were recovered from tests made during the
previous year, as compared to eight in 1948-49. One "hang-over" tag was recovered
at the Kildonan plant, one at Ecoole, and two at Colonial. As in previous years, most of
the tags from magnet tests were taken in the first five days after the tests were made.
Detailed results of the 1949-50 magnet tests are given in Table II. A comparison of
percentage plant efficiencies in 1948-49 and 1949-50 are presented in the following
tabulation (1948-49 results are given in parentheses):— REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
D 47
West Coast Plants
Number of
Tests
Kildonan  1   (2)
Ecoole  1  (1)
Port Albion „_  2 (1)
Nootka  2(1)
Average Percentage
Recovery
92.0
98.0
93.0
68.0
(84.0)
(90.0)
(98.0)
(77.6)
Average of west coast plants       87.8  (87.4)
Steveston Plants
Number of Average Percentage
Tests Recovery
Imperial  2  (1) 79.6 (68.0)
Gulf of Georgia  2  (2) 58.2 (99.0)
Colonial    2 (1)       i    74.0 (68.0)
Average of Steveston plants    70.6  (78.3)
Grand average  80.4 (83.5)
Knowledge of efficiency of tag-detectors and plants in recovering tags is essential in
determining the probable number of tags in the catches—a valuable statistic in herring-
tagging studies. In addition, magnet-efficiency tests provide information at each plant
on the time between unloading of the fish and recovery of the tags; this information on
time-lag is used to determine more accurately the fishing-ground or area from which
various tag-recoveries originate. Finally, since diligence of plant crews in recovering
and submitting tags is an important factor in recovery efficiency, the tests provide an
opportunity for stimulating interest in recovering tags and for improving the quality of
the data submitted with the recovered tags.
The apparent discrepancy between the percentage tag-recovery of more- and less-
experienced taggers (tagging at the same time and place) was considerably less in the
1949-50 data than in the data of the previous year. In 1949-50 about 13 per cent more
tags were recovered from taggings made by more-experienced taggers than from those
made by taggers with less experience, whereas in 1948-49 the former groups accounted
for 82 per cent more tags than the latter. The difference in recovery was considered to
be statistically significant in the case of three of the.six pairs of taggers in 1948-49
(Stevenson, 1950), but in the past season statistical analysis of the data did not indicate
a significant difference in the recovery from any of the tagging pairs. In 1947-48 (Tester
and Stevenson, 1948) the results were similar to those obtained in 1949-50. The fact
that in all years taggings of less-experienced taggers gave generally fewer recoveries suggests that a greater tagging mortality is induced by taggers with less experience in the
tagging technique.
A comparison is given in Table III of the percentage recovery from 1949 taggings
made at the same time and place by more- and less-experienced taggers. Table III is
summarized in the following tabulation:—
More-experienced Taggers
Less-experienced Taggers
Tagger
Number of
Tags Used
Number
Recovered
Per Cent
Recovered
Tagger
Number of
Tags Used
Number
Recovered
Per Cent
Recovered
No 2
2,531
2,531
1,024
3,573
494
1,517
49
49
46
132
3
31
1.94
1.94
4.49
3.69
0.61
2.04
No. 9    	
2,520
2,547
1,015
3,584
500
1,516
35
38
46
136
1
18
1.39
No 2
No. 10     	
1.49
No. 2 , - 	
No. 2 ...- 	
No 6
No. 6 	
No. 4   - -	
No. 11  	
4.53
3.79
0.20
No 6
No. 12
1.19 D 48
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Recoveries by Tag-detectors
In 1949-50 tag-detectors recovered a total of 137 tags, all but 6 tags being taken
by the Imperial and Gulf of Georgia installations. The recoveries are tabulated in Table
IV according to area of tagging, code, area of recovery, and installation; the calculated
probable number of tags in the catches are given in Table V.
The smaller tag-detector recovery in 1949-50 (a reduction of 40 per cent over that
of 1948—49) was partly caused by the reduced west coast catch. Since the west coast
population has been intensively tagged in recent years, a change in the sub-district catch
greatly affects the potential number of tags which might be recovered. Another contributing factor was probably the reduction in the number of fish tagged on the west coast
in 1949 (21,856 fish were tagged in 1949, compared with 31,947 in 1948). Furthermore, the fact that the decrease in tagging was not uniform in all the areas might have
accentuated the drop in tag returns. In the fishing areas of the southern part of the
west coast (Areas 23 and 24), where over four-fifths of the catch was made, the number
of fish tagged decreased 27 per cent, whereas in the more northerly fishing areas (Areas
25 and 26), where catches were light, tagging decreased only 11 per cent.
A measure of the decrease in concentration of tags is given by the probable number
of tags per ton of catch each season. In 1948-49 the estimate was 0.0639 tags per ton
(Stevenson, 1950), whereas in 1949-50 the estimate was 0.0205 tags per ton. This
decrease was also reflected in the number of tags recovered by the plants. The concentration of tags in the middle and lower east coast catches showed relatively little change
in the two seasons.
To facilitate the analysis of movement of fish between the various sub-districts,
pertinent data from Table V are summarized below (the figures show the probable
number of tags taken from each area, as computed from the actual number of tags
recovered by tag-detectors, shown in parentheses):—
Area of Recovery
Area of Tagging
West Coast
Lower
East Coast
Middle
East Coast
Total
747 (86)
18 ( 2)
92 (17)
90 (18)
15 ( 3)
7 ( 1)
31 ( 6)
25 ( 3)
846 (104)
139 ( 26)
40 (    6)
Totals	
765 r881       1       197 H8)
63 (10)
1,025 (136)
As in past years it was noted that most of the tags from the west coast and lower
east coast taggings were recovered in the sub-district in which they were originally used.
The " homing " was again found to be considerably more pronounced on the west coast,
where 88 per cent (74%4e) of the tags were recovered in the general region of tagging,
than on the lower east coast, where only 65 per cent (9%3o) of the tags showed no
movement outside the tagging areas. The appreciable movement of lower east coast
fish to the middle east coast—22 per cent (3%:i;i)—accounts for most of the lower east
coast migration. The small number of tags involved prevents drawing any conclusions
of the movement of middle east coast fish, but it appears that migration to the lower east
coast is considerable.
The data suggest that movement of west coast fish to the lower east coast was
greater than in any previous year of the study. About 10.9 per cent (97s-u;) of the
recoveries from west coast taggings were taken in lower east coast catches, as compared
with 3.3 per cent (1948-49), 5.8 per cent (1947-48), and 1.8 per cent (1946-47).
The immigration of lower east coast fish into the west coast sub-district was calculated
at 12.9 per cent (18A3&). This was much greater than that estimated from 1947-48
data (2.9 per cent).    In 1948-49 a tremendously large movement of lower east coast REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
D 49
fish to the west coast was calculated (30 per cent), but since the calculation was based
on very few tag-recoveries, it was not considered that the value was a good estimate of
the extent of the migration (Stevenson, 1950).
No explanation can be offered at the present time for the apparently large immigration and emigration of herring to and from the west coast during the past season.
In order to consider the mixture of fish between the different west coast areas, the
probable numbers of west coast tags in 1949-50 west coast catches are taken from
Table V and presented as follows:—
Area of Tagging
Area of Recovery—12-series
Area of Recovery—13-series
23
!
24    ]     25
1
26
All Areas
23
24
25
26
All Areas
23     	
84
50
14
84
50
14
256
19
57
3
16
107
272
24  	
25
22
164
Totals  	
148
148
332
3
123
458
It will be noted that the catches in Areas 24, 25, and 26 yielded no tag returns
from the 1948 taggings (12-series), and no tags from the 1949 taggings (13-series)
were taken from the Area 26 catch. The poor recovery in these areas was largely a
result of the small catches made during the 1949-50 season. This might also be related
to the fact that a smaller proportion of the catches of Areas 24, 25, and 26 was examined
for tags by detectors than was the Area 23 catch. In this connection it should be stressed
that the figures in the foregoing tabulation are not actual tag-recoveries but the estimated
number of tags which could have been recovered if the entire catch had been searched
by tag-detectors working at 100 per cent efficiency.
The average dispersal from tagging areas, according to the 13-series data, amounted
to 20 per cent O'rins)- Comparative data from previous years indicate dispersals of
40 per cent (1948-49) and 30 per cent (1947-48). It is suggested that the smaller
dispersal indicated for 1949-50 might be connected with the fact that most of the west
coast catch (80 per cent) came from one area (Area 23).
Analysis of the 12-series and 13-series tag returns in the Area 23 catch showed
that 77 per cent (25%;j2) of the 13-series tag-recoveries were from Area 23 taggings,
while only 57 per cent (8/<j48) of the 12-series tag-recoveries originated in taggings made
in Area 23. This indicates a greater dispersal for 1948 taggings (12-series) than for
1949 taggings (13-series)—a condition which would be expected on the basis that the
longer tagged fish are at liberty the more widely they will be dispersed.
A considerably larger percentage of fish moved in a south-easterly direction along
the west coast than in a north-westerly direction, according to the data pertaining to the
13-series. Area 23 tags were recovered in Area 25 to the extent of 5.9 per cent (1%-2),
whereas 34.8 per cent (5%g4) of the Area 25 tags were returned from Area 23 catches.
The relatively small north-easterly movement could be caused by a considerable proportion of the Area 25 herring not being subjected to a fishery (the latter possibility is
discussed in later sections of this report). The only season in which the data have
indicated a greater movement of fish in a north-westerly direction along the coast was
1948_49. it appears that this apparent reversal of the direction of the general movement
might have been related to the extremely large catch in Area 25 in that season.
The large percentage of Area 24 tags taken in the Area 23 fishery is of interest in
giving further evidence of the close relationship between the fish of Areas 23 and 24.
Data from the 1947-48 and 1948-49 seasons also indicated that more Area 24 fish
moved to Area 23 than to Area 25, but the extent of the movement was not as striking
as in the past season. Although it is probable that the small catch in Area 25 was the
cause of the lack of Area 24 tags being taken there in 1949-50, it is significant that in D 50
BRITISH COLUMBIA
1946-47, when the Area 25 catch was large, a strong south-easterly movement of Area
24 fish was indicated.
Recoveries of Tags by Plant Crews
During the 1949-50 fishery 996 decipherable tags were recovered by plant crews
from the magnets and machinery of thirteen reduction plants. This total represents a
decrease of 66 per cent from that of the previous year. Reasons to account for the
reduced recovery from the plants are similar to those advanced previously to explain the
decreased recovery from tag-detectors. The following tabulation shows the number of
tags submitted by each plant during the season:—
Plant
Code
Number of
Tags
Plant Name
A. Imperial      . 118
B. Namu  12
C. Port Albion   160
D. Kildonan — 146
E. Ceepeecee   58
F. Nootka   93
K. Alert Bay  3
Plant
Code
Number of
Tags
Plant Name
L. Gulf of Georgia _ 78
M. Hecate   16
N. Ecoole   112
P. Phoenix   5
Q. Colonial  114
R. North Shore  81
The distribution of the tags according to area of tagging and probable or certain
area of recovery is given in Table VI. Methods used to determine the areas from which
the tags were recovered followed the procedure as outlined in previous reports of this
series. It will be noted that there was insufficient data on 116 (about 12 per cent) of
the 1949-50 tag returns to ascertain the general recovery area. To facilitate the analysis
of the movement of fish to and from the west coast, Table VI is summarized as follows
(tag-recoveries for 1948-49 are given in parentheses):—
Area of Recovery
Area of Tagging
West Coast
Sub-district
Other
Sub-districts
Indeterminate
Sub-district
Total
677 (2,116)
14      (15)
101    (94)
88 (153)
95 (500)
21    (62)
873 (2,710)
123     (230)
Totals —-   —	
701 (2,131)
189 (247)
116 (562)
996 (2,940)
Movement of west coast fish to other sub-districts was calculated to be 13 per
cent (10777r) on the basis of plant recoveries. Further analysis of the data indicated
that migration to the lower and middle east coasts comprised most of this emigration
from the west coast. On the basis of the 1949-50 data it appeared that about 12 per
cent of the fish tagged on the west coast were taken in lower east coast or middle east
coast catches. Since tag-detector recovery (where area of recovery is always specific)
has consistently suggested that there is very little or no movement of west coast fish to
the middle east coast, the 12-per-cent movement probably approximates the migration of
west coast fish to the lower east coast. This estimate is in close agreement with the
10.9-per-cent migration as calculated from tag-detector recoveries in 1949-50. The
estimates of the movement of herring from the west coast to the lower east coast are
considerably higher than those obtained in the previous years of the investigation. In
1948-49 the percentage apparent movement was 3.3 per cent for detector recoveries and
4.3 per cent for plant returns (Stevenson, 1950).
The migration of west coast fish to the northern and central sub-districts was small—
less than 1 per cent. This extent of movement was similar to that estimated in the
1948-49 season. As noted in previous years, fish tagged in Area 27 constituted most
of the west coast fish recovered in the northern sub-districts. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT D 51
The increase in the percentage emigration of west coast fish to the lower east coast
in 1949-50 was accompanied by an increase in the movement of fish in the opposite
direction. Plant recoveries indicated that the immigration of lower east coast and middle
east coast tagged fish was 13.7 per cent (1;Ko2), as compared with 8.9 per cent in
1948-49 (Stevenson, 1950). Again, this estimate closely resembled that obtained from
tag-detector returns (12.9 per cent). The evidence obtained from tag-detector recoveries that movement of middle east coast fish to the west coast is very small indicates,
as in the foregoing discussion on emigration, that the immigration of fish to the west coast
is largely due to movement of lower east coast fish. The origin of the 14 " outside " tags
taken from west coast catches (plant returns) suggests that about 11 per cent of the fish
tagged in " outside " areas (areas other than the west coast) were lower east coast fish
that were taken in west coast catches, and that about 3 per cent of the fish tagged in
" outside " areas were middle east coast fish from west coast catches (addition of the
percentages approximates the total immigration to the west coast—13.7 per cent).
It should be pointed out that the lack of northern or central sub-district tags in the
1949-50 west coast catch does not necessarily mean that immigration of fish from the
northern and central populations was non-existent or very small in the past year. From
1946 to 1949 no taggings were made in the north, and it is likely that only very few tagged
fish remain from the 1945 taggings. Since tagging was conducted in the northern sub-
districts in 1950, it is expected that data on the immigration of northern and central fish
to the west coast will be available in the 1950-51 season.
Population Statistics from Tag-recoveries
Certain statistics relating to changes in exploitation and initial abundance of the west
coast population have been calculated from tag-recovery and catch data (Tester and
Stevenson, 1948; Stevenson, 1950), using formula; given by Ricker (1940). In these
calculations it has been considered that the herring-fishery conformed most closely to
Ricker's Type Ia fishery (1944), where fishing mortality is proportional to population
present at any time during the fishing season and where recruitment and natural mortality
are negligible. The applicability of all the various statistics which may be derived in
this manner is restricted by limitations of the basic data and by known and possible
deviations of the herring-fishery from the theoretical type. However, in spite of these
limitations certain population statistics pertaining to the west coast fishery in recent years
have shown general agreement with data obtained from age composition and spawning-
ground studies. It is considered that continuance of this phase of the research is valuable
in enabling eventually a more complete assessment to be made of the significance of these
statistics in herring studies.
Although actual rate of exploitation cannot be determined directly from herring
tag-recovery, it is possible to calculate the ratio of the exploitation rates in two successive
seasons. Assuming that the tags are randomly distributed throughout the fishable population, the ratio of the probable percentage of first-year tags in the catches of two consecutive years should approximate the ratio of the exploitation rates in the same two seasons.
On this basis the ratio of the exploitation rates in 1948-49 and 1949-50 was calculated
at 0.27 (2.09/7.85) for tag-detector recoveries and 0.41 (3.37/8.24) for plant returns,
or an average ratio of 0.33 (geometric mean). The probable percentage of tags in the
catches was derived from data pertaining to 12-series tags in 1948-49 (Stevenson, 1950;
Table VI) and 13-series tags in 1949-50 (Table VII of this report).
The tremendous decrease in the rate of exploitation in 1949-50 is in contrast to the
slight decrease noted from 1947-48 to 1948-49 (Stevenson, 1950). Also, it is noteworthy that whereas the decrease in rate of exploitation in the earlier period (0.85) was
accompanied by a decrease in fishing effort (0.72), and greater decrease in rate of
exploitation in 1949-50 (0.33) was associated with an increase in fishing effort (1.15— D 52
BRITISH COLUMBIA
fishing effort in 1948-49 and 1949-50 was given in a previous section). This presents
an anomalous situation, since Ricker's Formula 19 (1940) implies that when fishing
effort increases from one season to the next, the rate of exploitation must also increase
(although not necessarily proportionately), and that, likewise, when fishing effort
decreases, the exploitation rate will decrease.
There are various factors which may have caused the apparently aberrant statistics.
The inadequacy of the basic data and the scope of the assumptions made in analysis may
be partly responsible. However, it is suggested that abnormal conditions affecting a part
of the population in 1949-50 might have constituted a more important factor. Evidence
from age composition and spawn studies indicated that only a small portion of the more
northerly west coast herring was fished in 1949-50 (discussed in further detail in a later
section). It was considered that certain unknown oceanographic factors might have
prevented part of the population from coming inshore during the fishing season. If this
were so, it would be expected that the catch would contain a relatively small number of
tags, which in turn would result in a relatively small rate of exploitation in 1949-50.
Since the conditions of the hypothetical fishery type require the whole adult population
to be available to the fishery, any factors precluding this would be liable to influence the
relationship existing between the various statistics.
The initial population abundance in 1949-50 was estimated to be 2.08 times as
great as that in 1948-49 (Ricker, 1940; Formula 20). Although the numerical value
of the estimate is questionable in view of the numerous assumptions involved in the calculations, it appears that the estimate is indicative of an increase in population size. Relatively great recruitment of the 1947 year-class appears to have caused the increased
abundance.
Tagging during the 1950 Spawning Season
In the spring of 1950 herring-tagging was continued in the west coast, lower east
coast, and middle east coast sub-districts, and resumed after a lapse of five years in the
northern and central sub-districts. Three seine-boats loaned by the fishing industry were
utilized in the tagging programme. One seine-boat operated exclusively on the lower
and middle east coasts during the last two weeks of February and most of the month of
March. The other two vessels were used on the west coast during March and in the
northern and central sub-districts for about two weeks in April.
A list of the 1950 taggings, with information on the locality, date, and code letters
of each tagging is given in Table XVI. In the following tabulation, comparative data
are given on the numbers of fish tagged in the various areas in 1949 and 1950:—
Area of Tagging
5
6
7
10
14a
15
14b
17
18
23
24
25
26
27
1949	
1950
2,548
6,578
4,404
1,012
2,531
2,019
2,984
4,046
2,013
6,090
1,996
3,082
3,494
7,650
8,025
3,036
2,011
11,170
10,081
4,510
2,029
A total of 56,435 herring was tagged in 1950. This represents an increase of
about 60 per cent over the 1949 tagging, which reflects not only the expansion of activities
into the northern sub-districts but also increased tagging in each of the other sub-districts.
A total of 26,656 fish was tagged on the west coast in 1950, as compared with 21,856
in the previous year. Moreover, fish were tagged in all west coast areas in 1950, whereas
tagging was limited to Areas 23, 24, and 25 in 1949. In the lower east coast sub-district,
tagging was considerably increased in Area 14b, due mainly to the large quantity of
herring available in Departure Bay during the spawning period. Although scouting took
place in Area 18 on several occasions, no fish were located.    Attempts to tag fish in REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT D 53
Area 13 (middle east coast sub-district) again failed, but an increased number of fish
were tagged in Area 15.
The tagging along the Northern British Columbia coast-fine this spring was the
largest ever carried out, with the exception of the 1945 tagging (Tester, 1945, p. 46;
Hart, Tester, and Boughton, 1942, p. 52). In the latter year 20,399 fish were tagged'
as compared to 14,542 in 1950. It should be mentioned that direct comparison between
the size of northern and central taggings in 1950 and size of taggings as reported in the
above references cannot be made due to the fact that Area 5 was formerly considered in
the central sub-district, whereas recently it has been included in the northern sub-district.
A purse-seine (180 fathoms long by 12 fathoms deep) of the type used in commercial operations was employed in catching herring for tagging this spring for the first
time. Formerly much smaller and shallower seines were used exclusively. The experience gained this season with the larger seine suggests that it will facilitate the catching
of fish in the deeper water, and thus obviate the necessity of waiting long periods for fish
to spawn before they can be caught for tagging.
SAMPLING OF THE CATCHES AND THE SPAWNING RUNS
The determination of the relative strengths of the year-classes contributing to the
west coast herring population is the chief purpose of the sampling programme. Age
studies are conducted on the commercial fishing runs and the spawning runs in the
individual areas of the sub-district. These studies also provide data which, along with
information obtained from catch records and spawning surveys, permit rough estimation
of relative year-class strength before the year-class has been fully recruited to the fishable
stock. Various other data relating to growth, sex, and sexual maturity are also obtained
in the sampling studies.
A total of 310 samples, each containing approximately 100 randomly chosen fish,
was taken from all sub-districts in 1949-50. On the west coast 93 samples were
obtained, as compared with 78 in the previous season. The distribution of the sampling
according to area is shown in the following tabulation (with comparable numbers of
samples taken in 1948-49 in parentheses):— Number of SampIes
Area Fishery Spawning Runs
23     65 (24) 4(3)
24     2(_) 1(2)
25      4 (39) 4 (10)
26   10 ( __ ) 2 (....)
27  (_.) 1 (_)
A list of the 1949-50 samples is given in Table IX.
Age Composition
The average age composition of the west coast fishery as a whole (weighted to
numbers of fish caught in each individual area) is given for several recent years in the
following tabulation:—
Year
In Year of Age
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX-XI
1945 46                              - -
+
+
+
+
11.1
5.0
2.4
7.4
4.4
74.0
53.0
58.2
45.2
68.8
10.0
32.1
27.8
32.9
20.5
2.8
6.0
8.5
9.6
5.3
0.9
2.5
2.1
3.4
0.8
1.0
0.9
0.5
1.0
0.2
0.2
0.5
0.3
0.3
0.1
+
0.1
1946 47                 	
1947 48               -       --.-	
0.1
1948 49                          .      -
0.1
1949 50                             -	 250
x
oo
^200
u_
OI50
to
olOO
_i
=   50
1949        1948       1947       1946 1945      1944       1943       1942
YEAR     CLASSES
30
40
20
0
o
£  60
co
2  40
5
O
o  20
UJ
u     o
<
uj  60
o
<
"-   40
■z.
UJ
o  20
UJ
°-     0
60
40
20
0
w,
B
AREA    23
AREA    24
AREA    25
AREA    26
III IV V V VII VIII
IN   YEAR   OF   AGE
Fig. 3. Diagrams showing the total number of herring in each year-class caught by the
commercial fishery in 1949-50 (A), and the average percentage age composition of samples
from the commercial catches in Areas 23, 24, 25, and 26 (B). REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT D 55
The 1947 year-class constituted over two-thirds of the west coast catch in 1949-50
as Ill-year fish. This was the largest dominance of Ill-year fish in the west coast fishery
since the extremely large entry of the 1943 year-class in the 1945-46 season. Forewarning of the relative abundance of the 1947 year-class was given by its relatively high
contribution as Il-year fish in the 1948-49 fishery and in the 1949 spawning runs
(Stevenson, 1950). In spite of the reduced west coast catch in 1949-50 over that of
the previous year, the 1947 year-class produced 233.7 million Ill-year fish in the
1949-50 fishery (Table X and Fig. 3(A)), as compared with 224.0 million Ill-year
fish by the 1946 year-class in 1948-49.
Fish of Age IV and older were more poorly represented in the 1949-50 catch than
in the catch of the previous year. This was largely a result of the strong recruitment
of the 1947 year-class and the relative weakness of the 1946 year-class. The reduction
in abundance of older fish might also be partly caused by four years of intensive fishing
not subject to quota restriction.
The relatively large proportion of Ill-year fish in the 1949-50 west coast fishery
was reflected in each of the area catches (Table XI and Fig. 3(B)), and in the samples
from the spawning runs of all areas except Area 27 (Table XI). But whereas Area 23
yielded a record fishery, a very poor catch was taken from Area 25, the other major west
coast fishing area. In view of the near-average spawnings which occurred in both areas
in the spring of 1950 (discussed in the following section), it appears that the lack of
fish on the Area 25 fishing-grounds was not caused by any drastic decrease in population
abundance in the northern west coast areas. This suggests that a considerable proportion of the adult stocks did not move inshore during the fishing season.
As pointed out earlier in the section dealing with the 1949-50 fishery, there is
evidence indicating that low water temperatures in lanuary might be a factor in preventing herring schools from moving inshore. However, assuming that this accounts for the
scarcity of fish in all west coast areas in January the lack of a fishery in Area 25 in the
pre-Christmas period is not explained.
It is noteworthy that very similar conditions prevailed in the fishery during the
1945-46 season. As mentioned previously, a strong year-class (that of 1943) entered
the fishing runs as Ill-year fish. A large catch was taken from Area 23; Area 25 provided a small fishery, and the amount of fish left to spawn was not greatly different from
that of 1950. The only obvious dissimilarity between the conditions of the two seasons
was that in 1945-46 fishing was stopped on the completion of the quota, whereas quota
regulations were not in force in 1949—50. However, the data indicated that fish were
not as abundant in Area 25 in 1945-46 as in the three subsequent years, and it is doubtful
if removal of the quota limitations would have greatly increased the Area 25 catch.
In the season following 1945-46, the 1943 year-class (as IV-year fish) yielded a
large Area 25 catch (Tester and Stevenson). Similarly, the present indications of a
large residual population in the northern part of the west coast sub-district suggest that
good fishing will probably occur in the 1950-51 season in Area 25, providing the fish
move inshore during the fishing season.
From the analysis of data from the 1945-46 and 1949-50 seasons it appears possible that certain factors tend to prevent the fishing of an abundant year-class in Area 25
in its third year. Sampling data of previous years show that Ill-year fish dominate the
catches and spawning runs in Area 25 less frequently than in Area 23. In some years
fish of Age IV constitute the most abundant age-groups in the former area. This suggests either that the factors which prevent inshore migration have a greater effect on
Ill-year fish in Area 25 than in Area 23 or that a larger proportion of the recruitment
of new year-classes occurs at Age III in Area 23 than in Area 25. The possibility that
there is a delay in the recruitment of fish in Area 25 poses the problem of what time of
year recruitment occurs in the northern part of the sub-district. On the evidence that
most of the recruitment may not have taken place by the end of the fishing season and D 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
that in some years new recruits may join the adult population prior to spawning (in order
to account for the sustained level of the spawning population), it would be presumed
that recruitment would take place between the close of the fishery and the beginning of
spawning. However, since previous information has generally indicated that almost all
recruitment takes place after spawning and before the beginning of the fishery, acceptance
of this theory presents considerable difficulty.
Although the abundance of fish in Area 25 in 1950-51 will probably depend largely
on the 1947 year-class (as IV-year fish), the Area 23 fishery is expected to depend
mostly on the strength of the 1948 year-class entering the fishery as Ill-year fish.
Indications of relative year-class strength in the west coast populations have been given
with reasonable accuracy in recent years by an analysis of the representation of Il-year
fish in the fishery and in the spawning runs. In 1949-50 Il-year fish (1948 year-class)
comprised a smaller proportion of the catch than the previous year, and in the spring of
1950 they were relatively much less abundant than in the preceding spring. Considering
the data from the separate areas, it was found that Il-year fish were less abundant in
Area 23 fishing samples than in 1949-50 but more abundant in Area 25 samples than
in the previous year. Thus it appears that the 1948 year-class will supply fewer
recruits to the fishing stock than the 1947 year-class and that the abundance of fish in
Area 23 will be less in 1950-51 than in the 1949-50 season. A possible indication of
poorer survival in the 1948 brood during its early stages was obtained from reports
received in the summer of 1948 on the relative abundance of juvenile herring on the
west coast in the summers of 1947 and 1948 (Tester and Stevenson, 1948).
The dissimilarity between the age composition of the sample of spawning fish in
Area 27 (Table XI) and that of spawning samples from other areas gives support to
indications of previous years that the herring of Area 27 tend to be more or less segregated from the rest of the west coast population. The 1947 year-class was less strongly
represented in the Area 27 sample than in the samples from other areas. This might
account for the reduced spawning population in the area, as mentioned in the following
section of this report. The large contribution made by the 1945 year-class (as V-year
fish) suggests that this year-class was relatively stronger in Area 27 than elsewhere on
the west coast. This is confirmed by the sampling of the spawning runs in 1947—48,
which showed that the 1945 year-class (as Ill-year fish) was relatively most productive
in Area 27.
Sex Ratio and Stage of Development
Sex ratio (number of females divided by number of males) and sexual development
of herring based on samples from the commercial fishery and the spawning runs are
given in Table XII. Comparison of results of the past four years (Tester and Stevenson,
1947, 1948; Stevenson, 1950) shows that males and females have been equally abundant
in the fishing samples in all but one year. In that season (1947-48) females were
slightly more numerous than males. However, in the spawning samples, males have
predominated in all years, the ratio ranging from 0.81 in 1948-49 to 0.92 in 1946-47.
This can be explained by the fact that the proportion of males to females is greater in
samples of younger fish. In each of the years of the present study the average age of
the spawning runs has been less than that of the fishing samples. In 1948-49, when
the smallest ratio in the spawning samples was obtained, the average age of the spawning
runs was the smallest ever recorded, whereas in 1946-47, when the ratio was only
slightly less than one, the average age was the largest observed in the four-year period.
As in previous years, immature fish formed a small proportion of the fishery—just
over 3 per cent in 1949-50. About one-third of the fish in the spawning samples were
spent. In only one of the last four years, 1948-49, have spent fish been more numerous
than unspent fish in spawning samples. The ratio of spent to unspent fish depends
largely on whether the samples are taken from the tagging pond immediately after the
fish have been impounded or after spawning has taken place on the web of the pond. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
D 57
Average Length and Weight
The average lengths and average weights of west coast herring in samples from the
commercial catch are given for each age in Table XIII according to area. Average
lengths of fish in the spawning samples are presented in Table XIV.
No appreciable change in average length of fish of the same age has been discernible
for the west coast as a whole during the four-year period of the investigation (Table XIII
and comparable tables in previous reports). The growth of fish in the spawning runs
was found to be similar at each age to the growth of fish from the fishery. Comparison
of the average lengths of fish in Areas 23 and 25 showed a tendency for Area 25 fish of
each age to be very slightly faster growing than fish from Area 23. The growth difference was only about one-half of 1 per cent at Ages III and IV, the ages which comprise
most of the population. The data suggest that west coast fish were heavier in 1949-50
than in 1948-49, but the difference is probably not significant. It appears that the
effect of the factors which influence herring growth has been more or less constant in
recent years.
The following tabulation presents a comparison of the average length (A, in millimetres) and average weight (B, in grams) for samples from the 1948-49 and 1949-50
fisheries:—
Year
In Year of Age
II
III
IV
V
VI
1948-49
A
159
164
50
56
188
190
87
94
201
202
111
117
213
212
138
137
222
1949-50                                                              ...       ...         .            	
220
1948-49
B
158
1949-50- - - -	
152
EXTENT AND INTENSITY OF SPAWNING
For the fourth consecutive year, members of the herring investigation staff made a
study of the extent and intensity of spawn depositions in the west coast of Vancouver
Island sub-district. As in past years the fisheries officers also conducted an independent
survey of the spawning-grounds. The purpose of this phase of the research is to estimate
as accurately as possible the amount of spawn deposited in successive years (Stevenson,
1949). The information is used to assess the relative abundance of the spawning stock.
The data also form an essential part of the early life-history studies.
The development of new methods to improve the accuracy of the spawning data was
continued in 1950. In order to permit more accurate fixing of the date of previously
unobserved spawnings, drawings of eggs at various stages of incubation were distributed
to fisheries officers. Improvement in standard methods of obtaining the necessary data
was also continued. Consultations were held with fisheries officers in the field and at their
annual meeting in Vancouver to discuss the most effective ways of conducting spawning-
ground surveys.
Dates, places, and size of individual west coast spawnings (Table XV) followed the
general spawning pattern of previous years. The most striking exceptions to the usual
pattern were (1) the spawning in Ross Passage (Area 24), noted this year for the first
time, (2) the unusually large spawning between Nootka cannery and Marvinas Bay (Area
25), (3) the exceptionally large spawning around Nuchatlitz Village (Area 25), (4) the
almost complete lack of spawning in the Port Eliza-Queen Cove locality (Area 25), and
(5) the spawning at Rugged Point (Area 26), which was recorded for the first time this
spring. D 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The spawning extent recorded for the sub-district as a whole was slightly greater in
1950 than in 1949. Increases were shown in Areas 23 and 25, the major west coast
fishing areas, and in Area 26. A sharp decrease was recorded in Area 27, and in Area
24 the extent of spawning remained about the same in both years. The data on extent
of spawn (in statutory miles) are summarized for 1949 and 1950, according to area, as
follows :  Extent in Miles
Area 1949 1950
23 :  11.7 13.4
24  4.3 4.2
25  16.3 18.2
26  2.2 3.2
27  6.6 4.5
Totals  41.1        43.5
The spawning intensity was generally lighter in 1950 than in the previous year.
A comparison of the average spawning intensity in 1949 and 1950 is presented below.
Average intensities of spawn deposition are calculated by weighting the various intensities
of the individual spawnings—very heavy, heavy, medium, light, and very light—in the
ratio of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively, and by correcting for extent of the individual
depositions. Average Spawning Intensity
Area 1949 1950
23  3.1 2.4
24 HZZZZZ I  3.1 2.8
25 . :_ :  3.5 3.2
26  3.4 3.3
27  2.6 3.0
All areas  3.2 2.9
It appears that the slight increase in the extent of west coast spawning in 1950 was
offset by the decrease in average spawning intensity. One of these two factors (extent
and intensity) appears to have more or less compensated for the other in all areas. The
data suggest that the amount of spawn deposited was similar in both years. Similar
conclusions were drawn on comparing the relative amounts of spawn in 1949 and 1948,
and in 1948 and 1947. In each of the years since quota restrictions were removed from
the west coast catch, fishing stopped well before the official closing-date because of
inability to locate fish on the fishing-grounds. The maintenance of the size of the
spawning stock during those years indicates that new schools moved inshore after the
completion of the fishery. It appears that under conditions of non-quota fishing the
spawning stock on the west coast of Vancouver Island has been kept at a level of abundance well above the critical amount necessary to maintain the population.
DISCUSSION
Since 1946 the west coast population has been exploited without limitation of catch
by quota, whereas the lower east coast fishery has been rigidly held to a 40,000-ton annual
catch. In both populations the 1947 year-class in 1949-50 (as Ill-year fish) constituted
a large proportion (about two-thirds) of the catch and the spawning runs. The 1946
year-class was heavily recruited to the lower east coast population in the previous year.
The resulting population supported an intensive fishery in that year and, in addition, a
residual population of record size was left to spawn. This suggested that the carry-over
of the 1946 year-class to the next season would be large. Moreover, there were good
prospects of a second successive year-class (1947 year-class) entering the fishery. Thus
it appeared that the lower east coast population might reach a record size in 1949-50. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT D 59
However, although the quota was readily achieved in the 1949-50 season, catch per unit
of effort showed a moderate decrease, and spawning-ground data in the spring of 1950
indicated a reduced spawning population. Since the 1949-50 catch and the 1950 spawning runs were largely composed of fish of the 1947 year-class, it appeared either that the
year-class was tremendously abundant or that the carry-over from the previous year had
been less than anticipated. The decreased spawning in the spring of 1950 gave support
to the latter alternative.
The apparent decrease in the population of lower east coast herring recalls a more
pronounced reduction in population abundance recently noted in the Queen Charlotte
Islands sub-district. In 1948 spawn-deposition studies indicated that the latter population had reached an exceedingly high level of population abundance following several
years of no fishing in the sub-district, and in 1949 extent of spawning decreased by about
65 per cent (Stevenson, 1949). In these two instances very large populations have suffered sudden decrease for reasons which were independent of the fishery.
Dymond (1947) pointed out that such conditions are frequently found amongst
animals of various species. He suggested that emigration or disease might be causative
factors. With reference to the herring populations concerned, no evidence of disease has
been apparent. It also appears improbable that increased emigration could explain the
situation. Although movement of lower east coast fish to the west coast appeared to be
relatively high in 1949-50, migration of west coast fish to the lower east coast was also
higher than in previous years (discussed previously).
Turning now to the west coast, a large catch was taken in 1948-49 in spite of a
relatively small contribution made by the 1946 year-class as Ill-year fish. The large
catch reflected the record fishery which occurred in Area 25, where the 1945 year-class
in its fourth year entered the fishing runs in large numbers. The portion of the population which escaped the fishery was sufficient to produce normal spawning in the spring of
1949. The entry of a relatively strong 1947 year-class (Ill's) in 1949-50 was expected
to maintain a high level of population, despite the fact that the preceding year-class was
poor and the 1945 year-class (as V-year fish) would not continue to be a major contributor to the fishery. Statistics derived from tag-recovery and catch during 1949-50
suggested that this expectation was sound. A record fishery characterized by a predominant 1947 year-class occurred in one (Area 23) of the two major west coast areas.
However, a very poor catch was produced in the other area (Area 25). It is considered
that this low catch in the northern portion of the sub-district was a result of the main
runs not moving inshore during the fishing season. For reasons little understood, strong
year-classes on the west coast usually do not provide good fishing in the more northerly
areas of the sub-district in their third year. The satisfactory spawning which took place
in the spring of 1950 suggested that the main body of fish came inshore after fishing
stopped.
Relatively good year-class survival has resulted in maintaining high abundance in
both populations in the first four years of the present study. On the lower east coast
a relatively large 40,000-ton quota has been readily taken in each year. In 1947, 1948,
and 1949 the size of the lower east coast spawning population appeared to increase, but
in 1950 it suddenly decreased by an amount which cannot be readily accounted for by
the fixed catch. Over the same period large catches were made on the west coast (ranging from 37,300 to 59,000 tons), and the size of the spawning population has remained
relatively uniform. On the basis of past studies on spawning extent and resultant
recruitment, the level of west coast spawning in recent years appears to be great enough
(probably unnecessarily large) to ensure that the extent of spawn deposition will not be
a limiting factor in year-class survival.
These results have a direct bearing on the practical object of the investigation.
They indicate apparent changes in the two populations during a period in which recruitment from a succession of good year-classes has been relatively large.    It is noteworthy D 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
that present data suggest that the level of the spawning stock on the west coast under
conditions of non-quota fishing was maintained over the period, whereas the spawning
portion of the lower east coast population which is subject to quota restrictions on catch
decreased in the past season. The extent of the present decline is expected to be more
apparent when the 1950-51 data become available. Among other organisms abrupt
declines have been observed to follow peaks of abundance, and the lower east coast
herring may be presenting a similar picture. However, at least one more example of
this sequence will be necessary before it becomes reasonable to postulate that overpopulation is the cause of the decline.
If additional support to these present indications is given by results of future study,
quota regulations on catch in periods of high population abundance will appear unnecessarily restrictive. This could possibly mark a first stage in the progress of the long-term
investigation in which herring research is engaged.
Two further steps appear essential to the completion of the study. It will be
necessary to determine the conditions obtaining in the two populations when population
abundance is reduced by recruitment of a series of less productive year-classes. Also,
the general applicability of the conclusions to the other herring populations of British
Columbia will require careful consideration.
In addition to the studies heretofore described, other herring studies concerned
primarily with survival in the early stages of the life-history are being undertaken.
A major purpose of these studies is to discover the reasons for the great variations shown
to exist in year-class strength. It appears likely that the results thus obtained will be of
considerable importance in the final solution of the practical fisheries problems confronting herring investigators.
SUMMARY
A comparative study of the changes occurring in two major herring populations
subjected to different methods of management is in progress. Chief emphasis is being
laid on the west coast of Vancouver Island population, which since 1946 has had no quota
limitations imposed upon catch. The other population, that of the lower east coast of
Vancouver Island, has had catch restricted to 40,000 tons annually. The practical
purpose of the research is to determine the most effective method of managing herring-
fisheries to ensure maximum utilization of the stock. In this, the fourth in a series of
annual reports, the 1949-50 results of studies on the adult population of the west coast
sub-district are discussed, and a comparison is given of the changes considered to have
occurred in both populations.
The 1949-50 fishery on the west coast yielded the smallest catch (37,300 tons) in
the four-year period of the study. Although one of the two major fishing areas (Area
23) produced a record catch, the other (Area 25) had a very small fishery. Fishing
effort was higher and availability was lower than in the previous year. The January
catch was small, as in 1948-49. Data from previous years indicated that in seasons
when average January temperatures were low, post-Christmas catches were small.
The reduced catch appeared to be primarily responsible for the smaller number of
tags recovered by tag-detectors (40 per cent less) and by plant crews (66 per cent less).
Analysis of both detector tag returns and plant recoveries suggested that a much greater
percentage of fish migrated into and out of the west coast sub-district in 1949-50 than
in the previous year. Reasons to account for the greater movement were lacking. As in
past years, the interchange of fish between the west coast and the lower east coast sub-
districts was found to be greater than between the west coast and any of the other
sub-districts.
Considerable mixture of fish again occurred between the different west coast areas.
Most of the movement along the coast took place in a south-easterly direction. The
tendency for more fish to move south-easterly than north-westerly along the coast was REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT D 61
found in three of the four years of the present study. Tags which had been out about
two years showed greater dispersal than those which had been out less than a year.
Tag-recovery data indicated that the rate of exploitation was much less in 1949-50
than in the previous year. The initial population abundance was estimated to be
considerably larger than in 1948-49.
More herring were tagged in each of the southern British Columbia populations in
the spring of 1950 than in the preceding spring. Also, tagging operations were expanded
to include the central and northern populations. About 20 per cent more fish were
tagged on the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1950, and a better distribution of taggings
was achieved between the various areas.
The 1947 year-class (Ill-year fish) constituted about two-thirds of herring in the
fishing samples. It was about equally dominant in all of the area catches. In the
samples from the spawning runs of all areas except Area 27 it also formed an unusually
large proportion of the fish. The data indicated that this year-class was of relatively
greater strength than the previous year-class (that of 1946), and that its abundance was
probably similar to that of the 1943 year-class. The fact that a very small fishery
developed in Area 25 suggested that a portion of the northern west coast runs had not
come inshore during the fishing season. This theory found support in the tag-recovery
data, which indicated that the rate of exploitation was smaller in 1949-50 than in the
previous year. It could not be determined what factors had prevented the fish from
coming into Area 25 during the fishing season.
Spawning-ground studies also indicated that the population in the northern part of
the west coast was not as low as the small fishery in Area 25 might suggest. Extent of
spawning in Area 25 was at least as great as it was in the preceding year. For the west
coast as a whole it appeared that the general level of spawning established in the preceding
three years was maintained in 1950. Area 27 was the only area which showed a significant decrease in spawning. This was considered to indicate a decrease in the extent of
the local runs, caused by a relatively poorer survival of the 1947 year-class in that area
than in the areas to the south. Evidence from the age composition of a spawning sample
from Area 27 supported this view.
The changes occurring in the west coast and the lower east coast herring populations,
subjected to contrasting regulations on catch, were discussed. Heavy recruitment of a
succession of better-than-average year-classes has resulted in relatively high population
abundance in both populations in the last four years. On the west coast, where catch
has not been restricted by quota, the spawning population has been maintained at a
relatively constant level during the period, while the spawning portion of the lower east
coast population, which is subjected to quota regulations, increased until 1949 and
abruptly decreased in 1950. Further investigation is necessary to determine the
significance of this apparent decline.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The assistance and co-operation given to herring research by many individuals and
organizations in the 1949-50 season is gratefully acknowledged.
Sincere thanks are extended to the personnel attached to the herring investigation
for their conscientious and diligent efforts in carrying out the various phases of the study.
The junior author devoted most of his attention to the tag-recovery programme and the
survey of the west coast spawning depositions. Miss Anne Lazareff, junior biologist,
and R. S. Isaacson, laboratory technician, were responsible for making the age determinations on herring taken in the sampling programme and for compiling the sampling
data. The collection and organization of the catch statistics was also undertaken by
Mr. Isaacson. A. G. Paul, the senior member of the technician staff, undertook a large
share of the field responsibility in the tagging programme and in tag-detector operations. D 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Maintenance of the tagging equipment was also handled by Mr. Paul, while the servicing
and overhauling of tag-detectors and other electrical equipment was carried out by J. H.
Larkman. Mr. Larkman was also engaged in tagging operations. The other members
of the technician staff, K. Herlinveaux, B. W. Wildman, J. Saker, and D. McDermott,
assisted at one time or another in most phases of the field work and aided in the preliminary analysis of the data. Certain of the investigation's personnel devoted most of their
attention during the year to early life-history studies, the results of which were not ready
for publication in this report. A. S. Hourston, assistant biologist, initiated a major study
of the juvenile herring, with the assistance of D. N. Outram, junior biologist, who recently
returned to the staff. K. J. Jackson, junior biologist, continued the study of bird preda-
tion on spawn. Messrs. Hourston and Jackson also undertook a considerable amount of
responsibility in field operations connected with larval studies. Preliminary analysis of
the larval data was carried out by R. R. Gardner. Stenographic and clerical duties were
performed by Miss Hazel Cox and Miss Alice Nyquist.
The responsibility for the interpretation of the data, as presented in this report, is
assumed by the senior author, who supervised the herring studies in 1949-50.
It is a pleasure to extend the appreciation of the herring investigation to members
of the fishing industry who have contributed to the study of the herring in many ways.
For permission to operate tag-detectors at reduction plants located at Steveston, Kildonan,
and Nootka, the investigation is indebted to the executives and plant managers of British
Columbia Packers, Limited, and the Canadian Fishing Company, Limited. The companies also made vessels available again for general contact work and the scouting of
herring during the fall and winter, and for tagging operations, spawn studies, and young-
herring surveys in the spring and early summer months. British Columbia Packers,
Limited, offered the " W. No. 10" and the "Bessie Mac" for scouting trips, the
" Mina H." for contact work and tagging, and the " Dominion No. 1 " for young-herring
studies; the Canadian Fishing Company, Limited, loaned the " Skedans " for general
field contact work and the " Pacific Queen " for tagging; Nelson Brothers Fisheries,
Limited, placed the " Western Commander " at the disposal of the herring investigation
for tagging studies; and the Anglo-British Columbia Packing Company made available
the " Fir Leaf " for spawn and larval work. The herring investigation also wishes to
express its thanks to the captains and crews of these vessels for their assistance and
personal interest.
Various employees of the reduction plants assisted the research. Plant bookkeepers submitted records of the catches landed at plants, permitting estimates of catch
by area and aiding in the interpretation of area of recovery for tag returns. Recovery
of tags from magnets and plant machinery was undertaken by reduction-plant personnel.
Staff members of certain plants aided the sampling programme by freezing samples of
fish from the catches and shipping them at a later date to the Biological Station.
The captains of the herring seine-boats submitted catch records, from which data
on fishing effort and availability were compiled.
The herring investigation again gratefully acknowledges the assistance and cooperation of the Dominion Department of Fisheries in the 1949-50 studies. Fisheries
officers along the coast continued their surveys of spawn depositions and submitted
reports. Without their aid the acquisition of information on changes in spawning
populations would have been extremely difficult. To A. J. Whitmore, Chief Supervisor,
and J. S. Tait, Supervisor of the Nanaimo regional office, the herring investigation is
indebted for the many courtesies extended in connection with the west coast of Vancouver
Island studies.
The herring research was again financed jointly by the Fisheries Research Board of
Canada and the Provincial Fisheries Department of British Columbia. The support and
advice of the respective executive officers of these organizations, Dr. R. E. Foerster and
Dr. J. L. Hart, and G. J. Alexander, were sincerely appreciated. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
D 63
REFERENCES
Dymond, F. R. (1947): Fluctuations in animal populations with special reference to
those of Canada.    Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., Vol. XLI, Section V, pp. 1-34.
Hart, J. L.; Tester, A. L.; and Boughton, R. V. (1942): Tagging of herring
(Clupea pallasii) in British Columbia: apparatus, insertions, and recoveries during
1941-42.    Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1941, pp. 49-78.
Pacific Seawater Observations, Pacific Coast of Canada (mimeographed reports),
1945-50, inclusive, Vols. VI, VII, VIII, and IX. Pacific Biological Station,
Nanaimo, B.C.
Ricker, W. E. (1940): Relation of " catch per unit effort " to abundance and rate of
exploitation.    Journ. Fish. Res. Bd., Canada, Vol. V, No. 1, pp. 43-70.
  (1944):   Further notes on fishing mortality and effort.    Copeia, No. 1, April
21, 1944, pp. 23-44.
Stevenson, J. C. (1949): The extent of herring spawning in British Columbia in 1949.
Progress reports (Pacific), Fish. Res. Bd., Canada, No. 80, pp. 57-59.
  (1950):   Results of the west coast of Vancouver Island herring investigation,
1948-49.    Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1948, pp. 37-85.
Tester, A. L. (1945): Tagging of herring {Clupea pallasii) in British Columbia:
insertions and recoveries during 1944-45. Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept.,
1944, pp. 45-63.
Tester, A. L., and Stevenson, J. C. (1947): Results of the west coast of Vancouver
Island herring investigation, 1946-47. Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1946,
pp. 42-71.
 (1948): Results of the west coast of Vancouver Island herring investigation, 1947-48*.    Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1947, pp. 41-86.
Reprints of this paper are dated 1949.
Table I.—Catch (Tons), Fishing Effort (Total Number of Active Fishing-days Expended
by All Seine-boats), and Availability (Average Catch per Seine per Day's Active
Fishing) for West Coast Sub-district Areas during 1949-50 Fishing Season.
Area
Estimated
Catch
Fishing
Effort*
Availability
23                                        -
29,900
1,300
3,800
2,300
670
22
56
42
44.6
24	
59.1
25                                                                 	
67.9
26                          -     -  -
54.8
27f                                            	
37,300
790
47.2
* The total number of active fishing-days is calculated to the nearest whole number from availability based on
incomplete data and from estimated catch.
t No records are available for the very small amount of scouting which took place in Area 27. D 64
BRITISH COLUMBIA
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D 65
Table III.—Tagging and Recovery Data for Taggings Conducted Simultaneously
by Two Taggers at One Time and Place
More-experienced Tagger
Less-experienced Tagger
Tagging Code
Tagger
No.
Code
Letters
Number
Used
Number
Recovered
PerCent
Recovered
Tagger
No.
Code
Letters
Number
Used
Number
Recovered
PerCent
Recovered
13G 	
2
POOP
498
13
2.61
9
PMMP
505
18
3.56
13M 	
2
SDDS
503
24
4.77
9
SBBS
505
10
1.98
13N 	
2
PZZP
504
1
0.20
9
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502
1
0.20
13R .  	
2
PUUP
512
2
0.39
9
PTTP
504
1
0.20
13S	
2
SIIS
514
9
1.75
9
SHHS
504
5
0.99
13G	
2
POOP
498
13
2.61
10
PNNP
514
12
2.33
13M	
2
SDDS
503
24
4.77
10
sees
510
15
2.94
13N   ..
2
2
PZZP
PUUP
504
512
1
2
0.20
0.39
10
10
PXXP
PSSP
507
508
2
1
0.39
13R	
0.20
13S 	
2
2
SIIS
SNNS
514
513
9
32
1.75
6.24
10
6
SJJS
SLLS
508
505
8
23
1.57
13H  	
4.55
13H 	
2
STTS
511
14
2.74
6
SOOS
510
23
4.51
13H	
2
2
SNNS
STTS
513
511
32
14
6.24
2.74
4
4
SMMS
SPPS
507
516
21
15
4.14
13H	
2.91
13P     	
2
2
SWWS
SYYS
515
513
8
3
1.55
0.58
4
4
suus
sxxs
504
507
2
0.20
13P 	
0.39
131
2
2
2
TDDT
TEET
TJJT
510
507
504
30
21
24
5.88
4.14
4.76
4
4
4
szzs
THHT
tut
515
509
526
38
35
24
7.52
131...
6.88
131	
4.56
13A	
6
UEEU
494
3
0.61
11
UBBU
500
1
0.20
13A  	
6
UEEU
494
3
0.61
12
UCCU
491
0
0.00
13Q 	
6
UWWU
506
12
2.37
12
UTTU
519
10
1.93
13L	
6
UZZU
517
16
3.09
12
WAAW
506
8
1.58 D 66
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D 67
Table V.—Probable Number of Tags in the Catches during the 1949-50 Season,
Based on Detector Returns
Tagging
Area
Tagging Code and Year
Area of Recovery
12
13
14a
14b
17
23
24
25b
Total
12
14a
15
16
25
9H (1945)
12A  (1948)..
13A  (1949).
10F   (1946).
12C   (1948)..
12D    1948)..
13E   (1949)....
13F   (1949)....
10J (1946)
11H (1947)
111 (1947)
11J (1947)
UK (1947)
12G (1948)
121 (1948)
12J (1948)
12K (1948)
13G (1949)
13H (1949)
131    (1949)
IIP (1947)..
12L (1948)..
12M (1948)..
13K (1949)..
13L (1949)..
11R (1947)..
11W (1947)..
11X (1947)..
12P (1948)..
12Q (1948)..
13M (1949)..
13N (1949)..
13P (1949).
13Q (1949).
13S (1949).
11
5
26
5
19
13
19
Totals _
52
85
13
44
5
13
26
9
5
5
5
28
46
60
106
90
5
45
5
5
14
112
9
5
28
5
5
19
557
16
16
25
16
"25
82
25
205
5
22
7
11
3
4
32
98
9
16
26
9
9
5
5
32
55
60
131
138
30
45
13
10
17
16
5
25
9
5
110
13
9
19
25
1,030 D 68
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BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VII.—Number of West Coast Tags Used, and Probable Number and Percentage in
the 1949—50 West Coast Catch, According to Calculations Based on Recoveries by
Both Detectors and Plant Crews.
Tag
Tagging Code
Number
Used
Probable Number
in Catches
Probable Percentage in Catches
ging
Area
Detector
Returns
Plant
Returns
Detector
Returns
Plant
Returns
23
Tagged 1947;   Present in 1949-50 Catches
IIP                    	
2,087
2,670
1,017
2,074
2,637
994
2,191
1,011
3,499
3,084
2,021
2,622
968
16
26
9
5
30
16
5
25
6
23
14
7
30
3
34
3
19
6
3
2
0.60
2.56
0.43
0.19
0.86
0.79
0.19
2.58
0.29
23
23
11H	
Ill j     	
0.86
1.38
23
11J	
0.34
23
iik 	
1.14
23
11L                        	
0.30
23
11M-.                    	
1.55
23
iin                  	
0.30
24
HP.    .                 	
0.54
24
11Q__                                     .	
0.19
25
11R   ...       	
25
11W.  	
0.11
25
11X_..                                                 	
0.21
Totals   	
Tagged^ 1948;   Present in 1949-50 Catches
12G ..
26,875
132
150
0.49
0.56
23
1,511
1,053
2,082
2,025
2,548
3,063
2,516
1,986
2,019
1,503
1,985
1,524
2,043
1,515
1,381
3,193
5
5
28
46
45
5
9
5
6
14
28
46
52
33
27
14
18
6
2
2
74
8
4
19
0.33
0.24
1.38
1.88
1.47
0.20
0.45
0.33
0.40
23
12H   	
1.33
23
121  ......      ■     	
1.34
23
12J   	
2.27
23
24
12K.  _._ __  	
12L                        	
2.04
1.08
24
12M..                                    	
1.07
25
12N...                             .                            	
0.70
25
12P L	
0.89
25
12Q..                                               	
0.40
25
12R	
0.10
25
12S ..                         	
0.13
26
12T...                            	
3.62
26
12U...                         	
0.53
27
12W
0.29
27
12X ....                 	
0.60
31,947
148
353
0.46
1.10
Tagged in 1949;   Present in 1949-50 Catches
13G ..	
23
1,517
3,062
3,071
1,004
2,032
2,024
2,022
2,039
1,025
2,028
2,032
60
106
106
5
17
110
5
5
19
25
50
115
224
25
102
117
4
17
34
8
41
4.00
3.46
3.45
0.50
0.84
5.43
0.25
0.25
1.85
1.23
3.30
23
13H...	
3.76
23
24
131    •	
13K                                          	
7.29
2.49
24
13L
5.02
25
13M..
5.78
25
13N...                  _ 	
0.20
25
25
IIP	
13Q                                                                                    	
0.83
3.32
25
13R                                                                          	
0.39
25
13S                                                                            	
2.02
21,856
458
737
2.09
3.37 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
Table VIII.—Data on Taggings Referred to in Tables and Text
D 71
Tagging
Code
Tagging
Area
Place and Date of Tagging
Number
Used
7N
8M
8N
9A
9H
9J
9K
9M
9N
9P
10A
IOC
10E
10G
10H
101
10K
10L
10P
10Q
10R
11C
11F
11H
111
11J
UK
11L
11M
iin
up
11Q
nw
11X
12A
12C
12D
12G
12H
121
12J
12K
12L
12M
12N
12P
12Q
12R
12S
12T
12U
12W
12X
13A
13C
13D
13E
13F
13G
13H
131
13K
13L
13M
13N
13P
13Q
13R
13S
14A
14B
14C
14D
14E
12
7
24
20
12
12
10
7
6
5
18
14b
14a
15
12
23
24
24
25
26
26
15
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
24
24
25
25
14a
14b
14b
23
23
23
23
23
24
24
25
25
25
25
25
26
26
27
27
15
14b
17
18
18
23
23
23
24
24
25
25
25
25
25
25
14a
15
15
14b
14b
Chatham Channel; April 5, 1943 	
Gunboat Passage; Mar. 20, 1944 —
Matilda Inlet; Mar. 26, 27, 1944	
Sooke; Oct. 10, 1944 	
Cutter Creek; Mar. 22, 1945  	
Cramer Passage; Mar. 7-15, 1945 —
Takush Harbour, Angle Inlet; Mar. 26, 1945-
Gunboat Passage; Mar. 20, 21, 1945	
Parsons Anchorage; Mar. 25, 1945	
Union Passage; Mar. 30, 1945	
Prevost Island, Selby Creek; Feb. 16,1946 .....
Departure Bay; Mar. 12, 1946	
Baynes Sound; Mar. 15, 1946.....
Skuttle Bay, Mar. 16, 1946..
Cramer Passage; Mar. 23, 1946.  	
Pipestem Inlet; Feb. 26, 27, 1946 	
Herbert Inlet, Whitepine Cove; Mar. 19, 1946-
Refuge Cove; Mar. 19, 20, 1946-	
Queen Cove; Mar. 5, 6, 1946 	
Clanninick Cove; Mar. 13,1946	
Clanninick Cove; Mar. 15, 1946.—	
Skuttle Bay; Mar. 5, 1947 	
Banfield Inlet, head; Feb. 17, 1947-	
Macoah Passage; Feb. 24, 1947  	
Macoah Passage; Feb. 25, 1947 	
Macoah Passage; Mar. 1, 1947 	
Toquart Bay; Mar. 15, 1947.. 	
Toquart Bay; Mar. 20, 1947  	
MayneBay; Mar. 16, 1947 	
Mayne Bay; Mar. 19, 20, 1947 	
Refuge Cove; Mar. 12, 13, 1947	
Sydney Inlet, Flores Island; Mar. 7, 8, 1947	
Nuchatlitz Inlet, near village; Mar. 4, 1947	
Nuchatlitz Inlet, near village; Mar. 5, 1947	
Baynes Sound, Mud Bay; Mar. 5, 1948.— —
Departure Bay, Horswell Point; Mar. 10, 1948..
Hammond Bay; Mar. 4, 1948.. 	
Banfield Inlet; Feb. 23, 1948	
Macoah Passage; Feb. 20, 1948 	
Macoah Passage; Feb. 25, 1948 	
Macoah Passage; Feb. 27, 1948 —
Toquart Bay; Mar. 9, 10, 1948..
Herbert Inlet, Whitepine Cove; Mar. 19, 1948..
Refuge Cove; Mar. 14, 15, 1948— -	
Ewin Inlet; Mar. 16, 1948  -..
Kendrick Inlet, lagoon at head; Mar. 12, 1948-	
Kendrick Inlet, lagoon at head; Mar. 25, 1948	
Esperanza Inlet, Gillam Channel; Mar. 1, 2, 1948-
Queen Cove; Mar. 14, 1948  -	
Union Island, Kyuquot Channel; Mar. 3, 1948.	
Malksope Inlet; Mar. 20, 1948—
Klaskish Inlet; Mar. 6, 1948..
Forward Inlet. Matthews Island; Mar. 8, 9, 1948 .
Skuttle Bay; Mar. 8, 1949— -	
Departure Bay; Mar. 11, 12, 1949 	
Pylades Channel; Mar. 14,1949  	
Ganges Harbour; Mar. 4, 1949  	
Prevost Island, Selby Creek; Feb. 18, 1949. -
Banfield Inlet; Feb. 21, 1949 _	
Rainy Bay, Barkley Sound; Mar. 16, 1949 _.
Macoah Passage; Mar. 28, 1949	
Matilda Creek; Apr. 1, 1949	
Matilda Creek; Apr. 2, 1949 _
Ewin Inlet; Mar. 7, 1949	
Kendrick Inlet; Mar. 6, 1949 	
Kendrick Inlet; Mar. 20, 1949 .—	
Kendrick Inlet; Mar. 23, 1949	
Queen Cove; Mar. 5, 1949 __	
Queen Cove; Mar. 10, 1949.	
Lambert Channel; Mar. 27, 28, 1950	
Ragged Island; Mar. 10, 11, 1950 -	
Ragged Island; Mar. 15, 1950...... 	
Departure Bay; Feb. 22, 1950 _	
Departure Bay; Feb. 27, 1950 	
2,978
3,011
4,220
1,409
3,177
2,893
3,172
4,310
3,450
3,010
1,570
3,952
3,148
3,085
1,691
3,914
2,941
2,947
3,961
3,182
2,542
2,557
2,087
2,670
1,017
2,074
2,637
994
2,191
1,011
3,499
3,084
2,622
968
2,514
2,028
2,538
1,511
1,053
2,082
2,025
2,548
3,063
2,516
1,986
2,019
1,503
1,985
1,524
2,043
1,515
1,381
3,193
2,984
2,013
1,996
1,472
2,022
1,517
3,062
3,071
1,004
2,032
2,024
2,022
2,039
1,025
2,028
2,032
2,019
2,027
2,019
2,030
2,018 D 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table VIII.—Data on Taggings Referred to in Tables and Text—Continued
Tagging
Code
Tagging
Area
Place and Date of Tagging
Number
Used
14F
14G
14H
141
14K
14L
14M
14N
14P
14Q
14R
14S
14T
14U
14V
14W
14X
14AA
14BB
14CC
14DD
14EE
14HH
14KK
14b
17
17
23
23
23
23
24
25
25
25
25
25
25
26
26
27
6
6
5
6
10
7
7
Newcastle Island; Mar. 20, 21, 1950..
Kulleet Bay; Mar. 21, 1950 .
Dunsmuir Island; Mar. 22, 24, 1950..
Snowden Island; Mar. 6, 1950	
St. Ines Island; Mar. 7, 1950	
Toquart Bay; Mar. 12, 13, 1950	
St. Ines Island; Mar. 7, 1950	
Cypress Bay; Mar. 9, 1950	
Nootka Cannery; Mar. 15, 1950.._	
Nootka Cannery; Mar. 17, 1950	
Kendrick Inlet; Mar. 16, 1950.	
Kendrick Inlet; Mar. 18, 1950	
Queen Cove; Mar. 20, 1950-—	
Port Eliza; Mar. 24, 1950	
Rugged Point; Mar. 14, 1950 	
Ououkinsh Inlet; Mar. 26, 1950	
Winter Harbour; Mar. 21, 22, 1950-
Parsons Anchorage; Mar. 30, 1950 —
Thistle Pass; Mar. 31, 1950	
Willis Bay; Apr. 4, 1950	
Wilby Point; Apr. 7, 1950	
Takush Harbour; Mar. 25, 1950	
Kildidt Channel; Mar. 27, 1950	
Sabiston Island; Apr. 5, 1950	
2,042
1,064
2,018
2,016
2,003
1,994
2,012
2,011
505
1,511
2,015
1,017
2,543
2,490
2,019
2,491
2,029
3,061
2,512
2,548
1,005
1,012
2,362
2,042 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
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D 75
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3   3 D 76
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table X.—Number of Fish (in Millions) of Each Age in West Coast Catches of 1949-50;
Numbers of Fish in Total Weighted to Numbers of Fish Caught in Each Area
Area
In Year of Age
Total
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
23     	
0.13
12.31
0.46
1.01
1.11
182.04
8.83
25.87
16.93
58.48
2.26
6.38
2.56
14.92
0.36
1.86
0.72
1.93
0.36
0.40
0.60
0.05
0.18
0.02
270.59
24         	
25   -
76
11.91
35.48
21.79
Totals	
0.13
14.89
233.67
69.68
17.86
2.69
0.65
0.20
339.77
Table XI.—Average Percentage Age Composition of Samples from Commercial Catches
and from Spawning Runs during the 1949—50 Season
COMMERCIAL CATCHES
Area
Number
of
Samples
In Year of Age
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
23  	
24        _    	
25 	
26            	
65
2
4
10
0.05
4.55
3.90
2.85
5.08
67.28
74.12
72.92
77.71
21.61
18.94
17.98
11.75
5.51
3.04
5.23
3.30
0.71
1.03
1.86
0.22
0.21
0.07
0.10
All    	
0.04
4.38
68.77
20.51
5.25
0.79
0.19
0.06
SPAWNING RUNS
23                                	
4
1
4
2
1
5.79
6.19
73.44
65.98
67.33
70.14
56.99
17.08
19.59
10.07
15.71
13.98
3.16
5.15
2.32
5.77
23.66
0.26
3.09
1.80
1.06
3.22
0.26
0.52
0.52
24                             	
25.      	
26    	
27.  ....    	
17.96
6.28
2.15
0.52
All                    	
.""
9.66
68.86
14.47
5.19
1.39
0.35
0.09
Table XII.—Average Sex Ratio (Females/Males) and Stage of Development for
Samples of Commercial Catches and Spawning Runs during 1949-50 Season
COMMERCIAL CATCHES
Sex Ratio
Percentage
Area
Immature
Mature,
Unspent
Mature,
Spent
23                     	
0.98
1.13
1.04
1.14
3.1
8.0
2.2
2.3
96.9
92.0
97.8
97.7
24                	
25                   _  	
26          ..   -  	
All        -	
1.00
3.1
96.9
1
SPAWNING RUNS
23                                          	
0.98
0.50
0.72
1.24
0.59
68.2
53.0
82.8
60.0
25.0
31 8
24       .    -    	
47.0
25                          -                   	
17.2-
26                  	
40.0
27                       	
75.0
All     -
0.84
66.8
33.2 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
D 77
Table XIII.—Average Length (Millimetres) and Average Weight (Grams) for Each Age
in Samples from Commercial Catches, with Numbers of Fish on Which Averages
Are Based Indicated in Parentheses.
AVERAGE LENGTH
In Year of Age
Area 23
Area 24
Area 25
Area 26
All Areas
I 	
(3) 91.7
(276)  164.1
(4,053)   189.6
(1,298) 202.0
(331) 211.8
(44) 219.0
(13) 219.2
(4) 229.2
(310)   197.7
(3)    91.7
II  	
III. 	
IV 	
(5) 164.2
(98) 190.1
(25) 204.7
(4) 212.2
(11)  165.3
(279)  188.7
(69) 202.2
(20) 211.6
(4) 216.5
(48)  165.4
(732)  191.2
(111) 203.6
(30) 216.4
(18) 223.7
(2) 232.0
(1) 232.0
(55) 201.3
(340)  164.3
(5,162)  189.8
(1,503) 202.2
(385) 212.2
(66) 220.1
(15) 220.9
V. - ...
VI	
VII	
VIII	
(5) 229.8
(400)  198.0
9
(18)  192.2
(17)  199.0
AVERAGE WEIGHT
I         	
(3) 9.7
(276)    56.5
(4,053)    94.1
(1,298)  116.6
(331)  137.0
(44)  150.9
(13)  162.2
(4) 179.8
(310)  108.0
(3)      9.7
II                -
III 	
rv	
(5) 55.4
(98) 93.5
(25)  121.7
(4)  134.8
(11)    55.4
(279)    90.9
(69)  114.8
(20)  135.2
(4)  147.0
(48)    53.1
(732)    91.8
(111)  115.6
(30)  137.6
(18)  154.1
(2)  179.0
(1)  176.0
(55)  110.2
(340)    56.0
(5,162)    93.6
(1,503)  116.6
v  	
VI              	
(385)  136.9
(66)  151.6
VII
(15)  164.5
VIII
(5)  179.0
9
(18)    99.9
(17)  114.8
(400)  108.3
Table XIV.—Average Length (Millimetres) in Samples from Spawning Runs, with
Numbers of Fish on Which Averages Are Based Indicated in Parentheses
In Year of Age
Area 23
Area 24
Area 25
Area 26
Area 27
All Areas
II       	
III.. 	
rv  -
v  	
VI ....-.,
VII
(22)  164.6
(279)  187.4
(65)  198.0
(12) 205.8
(1) 209.0
(1) 216.0
(6)  162.8
(64)  185.2
(19)  197.7
(5) 208.4
(3) 220.0
(70) 164.4
(261)  188.2
(39) 202.2
(9) 209.2
(7) 218.7
(2) 236.5
(12)  163.9
(134)  188.4
(30)  199.5
(11) 211.6
(2) 223.0
(1) 234.0
(1) 236.0
(9)   197.1
(2) 173.0
(53)  189.9
(13) 204.4
(22) 207.7
(3) 212.7
(112)  164.4
(791)  187.8
(166)   199.7
(59) 208.4
(16) 217.8
(4) 230.8
VIII
(1) 236.0
?
(20)  190.9
(3)  183.0
(12)  189.8
(7)  194.6
(51)  191.8 D 78 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XV.—List of Spawnings Which Occurred on the West Coast of Vancouver Island
in 1950, Including Intensity and Extent of Each
VL=Very Light.    L=:Light.    M=Medium.    H=Heavy.    VH=Very Heavy.
Approximate
Date
Location of Grounds
Intensity
Statutory
Miles of
Spawn
Jan. 21 ..
Jan. 21...	
Feb. 17	
Feb. 27 (?)_
Feb. 27 (?)..
Mar. 1	
Mar. 4 .....
Mar. 5, 6	
Mar. 6, 7.	
Mar. 7, 8	
Mar. 11-13 _
Mar. 15 (?)..
Mar. 27 (?) .
Mar. 27 (?)..
Mar. 31	
Apr. 3 (?)._..
Mar. 8 (?) ..
Mar. 12 (?)..
Mar. 12 (?)..
Mar. 15 (?)..
Feb. 5-8 .....
Feb. 27, 28-
Mar. 6-8	
Mar. 8 	
Mar. 13 .......
Mar. 15	
Mar. 17	
Mar. 18	
Mar. 28	
Apr. 1 	
Apr. 1	
Apr. 9	
Apr. 9	
Feb. 19	
Mar. 6 	
Mar. 7, 8-..
Mar. 16	
Mar. 16 ...
Mar. 21-23
Mar. 23 ._
Mar. 26, 27
Mar. 27, 28
Feb. 25 ......
Feb. 27	
Feb. 28 ...--
Feb. 28	
Feb. 28
Mar. 15 (?)
Mar. 19 ._....
Mar. 27.--
Mar. 27	
Apr. 29	
Area 23—Barkiey Sound Vicinity
Maggie River to Cabbage Rock _ _.
Toquart River to Toquart Village. 	
Banfield Inlet   .       ...      	
Maggie River to Cabbage Rock 	
Maggie River to Toquart River  	
Grappler Creek     _
Useless Inlet      	
Maggie River to Cabbage Rock._
Stopper Islands	
Snowden Island , 	
Toquart Bay
Shears Island and adjacent shore .
Mayne Bay    _ 	
Maggie River.- 	
Sunshine Bay  	
Nettle Island 	
Area 24—Clayoquot Sound Vicinity
Cypress Bay         	
Sydney Inlet, Flores Island shore .
Little Whitepine Cove 	
Ross Passage  	
Area 25—Nootka Sound Vicinity
Port Langford     	
Nuchatlitz Village vicinity  _
Entrance, Port Langford	
Rosa Harbour .... 	
Nootka cannery to Marvinas Bay -
Strange Island      __
Graveyard B ay .	
Kendrick Inlet   _
Ewin Inlet      	
Pantoja Island   	
Owas-sit-sa Creek	
Double Island   	
False Channel	
Area 26-
Malksope Inlet, head   . 	
Nasparti Inlet, head	
Clanninick Cove	
Union Island 	
Rugged Point       	
Union Island       	
Amai Inlet, head	
Ououkinsh Inlet .._ 	
Malksope Inlet	
-Kyuquot Sound Vicinity
Area 27—Quatsino Sound Vicinity
Klaskish Inlet	
Klaskino Inlet     	
Greenwood Point     	
Hazard Point        	
Winter Harbour, west side-
Winter Harbour vicinity —
Matthews Island	
Greenwood Point
Winter Harbour, west side ..
Winter Harbour, west side..
L
L
VL
L
L-M
VL
L
L-M
M-H
M
M
M
L
L
M
M
1.02
0.91
0.71
0.68
1.08
0.40
1.42
1.62*
1.27*
0.69*
1.22*
0.31
0.24*
0.58*
1.14
0.13*
13.42
L-M
0.91*
M
0.64*
L-M
1.76*
M-H
0.84*
4.15
L
0.07
M
11.93*
H
0.17
M-H
0.84*
H
2.19
M
0.46
H
0.11*
L-M
0.28*
M
0.11*
VH
0.33
M
0.98
M
0.17
H
0.51
18.15
M-H
0.11
VH
0.47*
M-H
0.39
L
0.07
L-M
0.97*
M-H
0.45*
M
0.03
M-H
0.46*
M
0.28*
3.23
M
0.46
H
0.85
H
0.51
M
0.17
M
0.28
L
1.36*
H
0.20
M
0.40
M
0.17
L
0.11
* Spawning-grounds which were inspected by scientific investigators. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
Table XVI.—Tags Inserted during 1950 Spawning Season
D 79
Code
Letters
Tagging
Code
Area
Place
Date
Number
TKKT
TLLT
TMMT
ULLU
UMMU
UNNU
UPPU
ussu
WDDW
WEEW
WHHW
WIIW
WJJW
WKKW
WLLW
WMMW
WNNW
WOOW
WPPW
WSSW
WTTW
WUUW
WXXW
WYYW
WZZW
XEEX
XHHX
XIIX
XJJX
XKKX
XLLX
XMMX
XNNX
XOOX
XPPX
xssx
XTTX
XUUX
xwwx
XYYX
XZZX
YAAY
YBBY
YCCY
YDDY
YEEY
YHHY
YIIY
YJJY
YKKY
YLLY
YMMY
YNNY
YOOY
YPPY
YSSY
YTTY
YUUY
YWWY
YXXY
YZZY
ZJJZ
ZKKZ
ZLLZ
ZMMZ
ZNNZ
zooz
ZPPZ
zssz
ZTTZ
ZUUZ
zwwz
zxxz
ZYYZ
ABAB
ACAC
14D
14D
14D
14D
14E
14E
14E
14E
141
141
141
141
14K
14K
14K
14K
14L
14L
14L
14L
14P
14R
14R
14R
14R
14Q
14Q
14Q
14T
14T
14T
14T
14T
14U
14U
14U
14U
14U
14W
14W
14W
14W
14W
14AA
14AA
14AA
14AA
14AA
14AA
14BB
14BB
14BB
14BB
14BB
14CC
14CC
14CC
14CC
14CC
14DD
HDD
14B
14B
14B
14B
14C
14C
14C
14C
14F
14F
14F
14F
14G
14G
14H
14b
14b
14b
14b
14b
14b
14b
14b
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
26
26
26
26
26
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
14b
14b
14b
14b
17
17
17
Departure Bay-
Departure Bay-
Departure Bay-
Departure Bay-
Departure Bay....
Departure Bay.—
Departure Bay-
Departure Bay.—
Snowden Island...
Snowden Island .
Snowden Island...
Snowden Island..
St. Ines Island ....
St. Ines Island....
St. Ines Island....
St. Ines Island
Toquart Bay	
Toquart Bay	
Toquart Bay	
Toquart Bay	
Nootka cannery..
Kendrick Inlet...
Kendrick Inlet....
Kendrick Inlet—
Kendrick Inlet—
Nootka cannery...	
Nootka cannery	
Nootka cannery	
Queen Cove	
Queen Cove	
Queen Cove	
Queen Cove 	
Queen Cove	
Port Eliza	
Port Eliza	
Port Eliza	
Port Eliza	
Port Eliza	
Ououkinsh Inlet	
Ououkinsh Inlet	
Ououkinsh Inlet	
Ououkinsh Inlet	
Ououkinsh Inlet	
Parsons Anchorage-
Parsons Anchorage-
Parsons Anchorage-
Parsons Anchorage-
Parsons Anchorage-
Parsons Anchorage-
Thistle Pass _
Thistle Pass —	
Thistle Pass	
Thistle Pass	
Thistle Pass	
Willis Bay 	
Willis Bay 	
Willis Bay-	
Willis Bay	
Willis Bay—	
Wilby Point	
Wilby Point	
Ragged Island	
Ragged Island	
Ragged Island	
Ragged Island 	
Ragged Island . .....
Ragged Island	
Ragged Island	
Ragged Island .—
Newcastle Island	
Newcastle Island	
Newcastle Island	
Newcastle Island	
Kulleet Bay 	
Kulleet Bay  	
Dunsmuir Island	
Feb. 22, 1950
Feb. 22, 1950
Feb. 22, 1950
Feb. 22, 1950
Feb. 27, 1950
Feb. 27, 1950
Feb. 27, 1950
Feb. 27, 1950
Mar. 6, 1950
Mar. 6, 1950
Mar. 6, 1950
Mar. 6, 1950
Mar. 7, 1950
Mar. 7, 1950
Mar. 7, 1950
Mar. 7, 1950
Mar. 12, 13, 1950
Mar. 12, 13, 1950
Mar. 12, 13, 1950
Mar. 12, 13, 1950
Mar.
15
1950   |
Mar.
16,
1950
Mar.
16,
1950
Mar.
16
1950
Mar.
16
1950
Mar.
17
1950
Mar.
17
1950
Mar.
17
1950
Mar.
20
1950
Mar.
20
1950
Mar.
20
1950
Mar.
20
1950
Mar.
20
1950
Mar.
24
1950
Mar.
24
1950
Mar.
24
1950
Mar.
24
1950
Mar.
24
1950
Mar.
26
1950
Mar.
26
1950
Mar.
26
1950
Mar.
26
1950
Mar.
26
1950
Mar.
30
1950
Mar.
30
1950
Mar.
30
1950
Mar.
30
1950
Mar.
30
1950
Mar.
30
1950
Mar.
31
1950
Mar.
31
1950
Mar.
31
1950
Mar.
31
1950
Mar.
31
1950
Apr.
4
1950
Apr.
4
1950
Apr.
4
1950
Apr.
4
1950
Apr.
4
1950
Apr.
7
1950
Apr.
7
1950
Mar.
10
1950
Mar.
10
1950
Mar.
11
1950
Mar.
11
1950
Mar.
15
1950
Mar.
15
1950
Mar.
15
1950
Mar
15
, 1950
Mar.
20
1950
Mar.
20
1950
Mar.
21
1950
Mar
21
1950
Mar
21
, 1950
Mar
21
1950
Mar
22
1950
517
505
505
503
495
506
514
503
500
505
505
506
504
509
495
504
510
495
511
478
505
505
499
504
507
507
511
493
502
497
500
523
521
516
481
486
503
504
491
500
496
502
502
506
502
500
532
501
520
501
503
504
504
500
503
514
507
512
512
502
503
509
502
508
508
497
509
504
509
503
507
526
506
516
548
502 D 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Table XVI.—Tags Inserted during 1950 Spawning Season—Continued
Code
Letters
Tagging
Code
Area
Place
Date
Number
ADAD
14H
14H
14H
14A
14A
14A
14A
14M
14M
14M
14M
14N
14N
14N
14N
14V
14V
14V
14V
14X
14S
14X
14S
14X
14X
14EE
14EE
14HH
14HH
14HH
14HH
14KK
14HH
14KK
14KK
14KK
17
17
17
14a
14a
14a
14a
23
23
23
23
24
24
24
24
26
26
26
26
27
25
27
25
27
27
10
10
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
Mar. 22, 1950
Mar. 24, 1950
Mar. 24, 1950
Mar. 27, 1950
Mar. 27, 1950
Mar. 28, 1950
Mar. 28, 1950
Mar.   7, 1950
Mar.   7, 1950
Mar.   7, 1950
Mar.   7, 1950
Mar.   9, 1950
Mar.   9, 1950
Mar.   9, 1950
Mar.   9, 1950
Mar. 14, 1950
Mar. 14, 1950
Mar. 14, 1950
Mar. 14, 1950
Mar. 21, 1950
Mar. 18, 1950
Mar. 21, 1950
Mar. 18, 1950
Mar. 22, 1950
Mar. 22, 1950
Mar. 25, 1950
Mar. 25, 1950
Mar. 27, 1950
Mar. 27, 1950
Mar. 27, 1950
Mar. 27, 1950
Apr.    5, 1950
Mar. 27, 1950
Apr.    5, 1950
Apr.    5, 1950
Apr.    5, 1950
506
AEAE
504
AHAH
506
AIAI
506
AJAJ
519
AKAK
497
ALAL
497
AMAM
507   .
AN AN
504
AOAO
494
APAP
498
ASAS
501
ATAT
502
AUAU
501
AWAW
507
AXAX
504
AYAY
499
AZAZ
502
BABA
514
BCBC
509
BDBD
506
BEBE
494
BHBH
511
BIBI
505
BJBJ
521
BKBK
512
BLBL
500
BMBM
Kildidt Channel	
400
BNBN
Kildidt Channel	
437
BOBO
Kildidt Channel      .
513
BPBP
Kildidt Channel 	
512
BSBS
506
BTBT
Kildidt Channel	
500
BUBU
502
BWBW
513
BXBX
521
Total   	
56,435 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
D 81
INVESTIGATION AT SEAL ISLAND,  1949
By D. B. Quayle, Ph.D.
The studies in the productivity of the experimental clam area at Seal Island, near
Comox, B.C., have been carried on since 1942 by the Pacific Biological Station at
Nanaimo, under the direction of Mr. Ferris Neave. Results have been reported by him
annually since 1942. Responsibility for this work was transferred to the Provincial
Department of Fisheries in 1948, and the controlled digging at Seal Island in 1949 was
under its supervision.
Digging was opened on January 11th, 1949, and the catch was acquired by the
British Columbia Packers, Limited, whose co-operation is sincerely appreciated. It
required seventeen nights to obtain 82 tons (the catch-limit had previously been set at
100 tons annually), after which the company withdrew its buying facilities. Closure of
the beach was not applied until much later, but no further digging occurred.
In spite of what was regarded as fine weather conditions for digging, the catch per
man-tide was only 220.5 pounds, which was the lowest since 1942, when the initial
controlled digging was instituted. The production and digging effort for the period of
investigation is shown in the following table:—
Year
Man-tides
Man-hours
Catch
Average Catch
per Man-tide
Average Catch
per Man-hour
1942.....   - - -	
1943  — - - —	
393
394
264
484
442
529
813
740
1,586
1,588
1,160
2.108
1,918
2,789
3,313
3,330
Lb.
235,757
236,825
209,211
207,160
196,072
186,035
196,287
163,170
Lb.
599.89
601.08
792.57
435.60
443.60
351.67
241.44
220.50
Lb.
148.64
149.09
1944	
1945      	
1946 -	
180.38
98.26
102.23
1947    - -
1948  -	
66.70
59.25
1949	
49.00
Analysis of the length and age distribution of clams on the beach and in the catch
indicates that the fishery is still dependent on the 1934 and 1935 year-classes which
initiated the fishery in 1942. Younger year-classes are very poorly represented, and only
7 per cent of the population is under the minimum legal size limit of 2Vz inches. Of
these, the 1946, 1947, and 1948 year-classes have the greatest strength, constituting
70 per cent of those clams under legal size. These three year-classes taken together
would be insufficient, however, to form the nucleus of a population large enough to
support an extensive fishery.
The weight of the present remaining stock, estimated to be approximately 100 tons,
is probably lower than what it was when the area was closed in 1939, although then the
bulk of the clams were undersized, whereas now they are practically all well above legal
size and of advanced age. While occasional patches of dead or dying clams are found,
it appears that natural mortality is still not excessive.
In order to make full use of this stock, the beach will be again opened for digging in
1950. It will be opened from the period February 15th to June 1st, with no extraordinary limitations. D 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF THE BIOLOGIST,  1949
By D. B. Quayle, Ph.D.
This was the first full year of operation of the Biological Section of the Provincial
Department of Fisheries, and, as such, the bulk of the time was taken up with organization
and the collection of equipment.
THE LABORATORY
The shell-fish laboratory at Ladysmith was completed on July 1st, 1949. It is a
five-roomed frame building, 28 by 32 feet, consisting of two laboratories, a workshop,
an aquarium room, and a darkroom. The laboratories are equipped with hot and cold
running water. Salt water for the aquarium is provided by a 500-gallon storage-tank
with an automatic electric pump, which takes water from the harbour in front of the
laboratory from a depth of 4 feet at low water.
The laboratory is equipped with the standard apparatus required for marine biological studies. The floating equipment consists of a 14-foot inboard motor-boat and
several standard-type floats used for shell-fish culture. A larger vessel, 35 to 40 feet, is
required and anticipated for the near future.
BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS
Biological investigations were, of necessity, limited in number and scope.
1. A study of the seasonal growth of the Pacific oyster was begun, and this investigation will take at least one year to complete. The object is to determine when Pacific
oysters should be moved or the seed broken in order to interfere least with the natural
rhythm of growth. The investigation will also add to the fund of knowledge of the
biology of this oyster.
2. Studies on the breeding and larval habits of the Pacific oyster were made. Forecasts on the possibility and time of " sets " were made in order to assist oyster-growers
to take full advantage of such spatfalls and to increase their supply of seed oysters. One
such spatfall was forecast in Ladysmith Harbour during the summer of 1949, and growers
there obtained an excellent " catch " of seed. This service will be increased, in time, to
cover all oyster-growing areas in the Province.
OYSTER-CULTURE
Fifty cases of Pacific oyster seed were obtained from Japan and planted on Lot 164,
Ladysmith Harbour, which is the experimental oyster area set aside for the use of this
laboratory by courtesy of the Department of Lands. The object here is to obtain information on the productivity of the broken and unbroken oyster seed planted at various
densities at various tidal levels, and treated in several different ways in respect to breaking
clusters.    This investigation will require at least four years.
Attempts are being made to collect native oyster seed, with the object of determining
whether this species may be grown successfully from an economic (and biological) point
of view as an adjunct to the culture of the larger Pacific oyster. Also, the stocks of this
indigenous species are seriously depleted and the establishment of a breeding stock in
Ladysmith Harbour would be of use and value.
In order to keep oyster-growers informed on recent developments in oyster culture
and biology, bulletins are issued by the laboratory at intervals which give resumes and
digests of work being done here and abroad. During the summer period the bulletins
are principally concerned with reports on oyster breeding in the various areas, with indications of the possibility of spatfalls. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT D 83
Each year approximately 5,000 cases of oyster seed—which are the equivalent of
50,000,000 seed oysters—are imported into British Columbia from Japan. In order
to reduce or prevent the chance of oyster pests being introduced with the seed, it is
inspected at the time of arrival at the American port. In this connection the Provincial
Department of Fisheries works closely with the biologists of the Washington State
Department of Fisheries.
An important function of the shell-fish laboratory is to provide a general advisory
service to the oyster-growing industry, and, whenever it is possible, periodic visits are
made to all oyster-growers in the Province, at which time their problems are discussed.
In addition, a considerable amount of advice is given by correspondence to persons
already in the oyster business and to those contemplating entering it.
Assistance was given to the officers of the Provincial Department of Health and
Welfare in formulating regulations for the sanitary control of the shell-fish industry and
in introducing and applying the regulations to the industry. These regulations were made
effective in October, 1949, and have proved a great success both with the consumer and
the producer. The introduction of the regulations was a much needed and important
step in the organization and stabilization of the oyster industry in the Province. From
the sanitation point of view, British Columbia oysters are now on a par with the best
produced anywhere.
CLAMS
Razor-clams
Investigations into the life-history and abundance of the razor-clam on the Queen
Charlotte Islands was begun by the Pacific Biological Station at Nanaimo, and is being
continued by this laboratory. Analyses of the commercial catches are being made by
studying size and age composition of the clams and the catch per unit of effort, which is
a measure of relative abundance. Life-history studies are particularly difficult to carry
on in this case because of the distance and isolation of the razor-clam beaches.
Hard-shell Clams
The investigations on the butter and little-neck clams were also begun at the Pacific
Biological Station, and these are being continued at this laboratory. Until a larger vessel
is obtained, the work here must be confined essentially to a partial analysis of age and
size composition of the commercial catch and of the catch per unit of effort.
In 1949 the experimental area at Seal Island was dug by commercial diggers under
the supervision of the biologist.
In the light of newer knowledge, fishery regulations governing the taking of clams
were reviewed and altered somewhat. Much more information is required before completely adequate regulations may be formulated.
GENERAL
There was participation in the work of several committees on fishery and marine
biological problems and a number of lectures were given to various organizations.
Two shipments of spores of the kelp Macrocystis integrifolia were made to the
Scottish Seaweed Research Association for experimental purposes.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Sincere appreciation is hereby expressed for the assistance and co-operation given
by the Dominion Department of Fisheries, the Pacific Biological Station at Nanaimo,
the Pacific Oceanographic Group at Nanaimo, the Provincial Department of Lands and
Forests, the Provincial Department of Health and Welfare, and the shell-fish industry
of British Columbia. D 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES COMMISSION, 1949
The International Fisheries Commission continued the regulation of the Pacific
halibut-fishery, under authority of the treaty of January 29, 1937. It also continued the
statistical and biological observations of the changes in the fishery and in the stocks of
halibut, which are essential to rational regulation.
Members of the Commission during most of 1949 were as follows: Stewart Bates,
Deputy Minister of Fisheries, Ottawa, and George W. Nickerson, Prince Rupert, for
Canada; Edward W. Allen, Seattle, Wash., and Milton C. James, Assistant Director of
the Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C., for the United States. Mr. Nickerson
served as chairman, Mr. James as secretary. In September, Stewart Bates resigned and
George R. Clark, western director of the Department of Fisheries, Ottawa, was appointed
by the Governor-General to succeed Mr. Bates.
Meetings of the Commission were held at Seattle Wash., on January 11th, 12th, and
13th, and at Juneau, Alaska, on October 1st. The Seattle meetings were the regular
annual meetings at which the Commission reviewed current results of regulations and
investigations, and adopted regulatory changes and approved the investigational programme for the ensuing season. At the Juneau meeting, proposals of the fishermen and
dealers for modification of the regulations in the 1950 season were considered.
Close contact was maintained with all branches of the halibut industry by means of
conferences with the fleets and wholesale dealers and through public hearings.
On January 12th the Commission met with the Halibut Conference Board, composed
of representatives from the fishermen's and vessel-owners' organizations in the major
halibut ports. The representatives were informed about the current condition of the
stocks of halibut and, in turn, presented proposals regarding the regulation of the fishery
in 1950.
One proposal was that the fishing season in each area be split into a number of successive open and closed periods, to overcome some of the adverse biological and economic
effects of the short, intense fishing season. This proposal, which appeared to have merit
and to be practicable under the Commission's treaty authority, was referred to the fleets
and other interested parties in the various ports for further consideration. It was found
that some sections of the fleets considered that the application of such a split season would
be economically disastrous to them. The Commission deferred decision in the matter
until public hearings could be held.
Public hearings were held at Seattle, Vancouver, Prince Rupert, Ketchikan, Petersburg, and Juneau on September 23rd, 26th, 28th, 29th, 30th, and October 1st,
respectively. They were well attended by halibut-fishermen, vessel-owners, and wholesale dealers.
Vessel-owners, fishermen, and most dealers agreed to the biological and economic
need for spreading the catch over a longer season, but gave little support to the split-
season proposal, involving alternate short open periods and longer closed periods.
Preference was expressed for a programme of control, involving the application of
between-trip tie-up to the vessels individually, which would provide a continuous supply
of halibut. Considerable preference was also expressed for supplementing the current
early fishing season with a short open period in late summer to permit fishing on stocks
which became available later in the year and were not being reached by the fishery.
Subsequent to the hearings, the Commission was advised by the United States
Government that, in its considered opinion, the present treaty authorized only one open
period in an area during one year and would not authorize the application of between-trip
tie-ups to fishing-vessels individually during the fishing season. These opinions precluded
the adoption of such regulatory measures under the present treaty.
The Pacific Halibut Fishery Regulations for 1949 were approved by the Governor-
General in Council on April 26th and by the President of the United States on April 28th REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT D 85
and became effective on the latter date. They were essentially the same as those for 1948.
The section pertaining to the use of bait nets by vessels with halibut-fishing licences was
revised to indicate that the character of bait nets and their use must conform to the laws
of the country where the nets were used.
Under the regulations, all areas were opened to halibut-fishing on May 1st. Areas
2 and Ib, lying between Cape Blanco in Southern Oregon and Cape Spencer in Southeastern Alaska, were closed at midnight June 3rd upon attainment of the Area 2
catch-limit of 25,500,000 pounds. Areas 3, 4, and Ia, including the remainder of the
convention waters, were closed at midnight July 12th, with the attainment of the Area 3
catch-limit of 28,000,000 pounds. Small landings of halibut continued to midnight
November 15, under provisions which permitted set-line boats to secure permits to retain
and land a proportion of incidentally caught halibut.
Landings of halibut reported on the Pacific Coast in 1949 amounted to 55,380,000
pounds, approximately the same as in 1948. The landings from the different areas were
as follows: Area Ia, south of Cape Blanco in Oregon, 194,000 pounds; Area Ib, between
Cape Blanco and Willapa Harbour in Washington, 243,000 pounds; Area 2, between
Willapa Harbour and Cape Spencer in Alaska, 26,316,000 pounds; Area 3, between Cape
Spencer and the Aleutian Islands, 28,627,000 pounds. Included in the Area 2 total were
926,000 pounds of incidentally caught halibut, landed under permit after closure of the
area.   No halibut were landed from Area 4, in Bering Sea.
Landings by Canadian vessels in 1949 amounted to 18,666,000 pounds—13,531,000
from Area 2 and 5,135,000 from Area 3. They constituted 51 and 18 per cent of the
catches from Areas 2 and 3 respectively. Landings of United States vessels at Canadian
ports amounted to 4,205,000 pounds.
Investigations which guide the regulation of the fishery were continued by the Commission's staff. Statistical and biological data were collected and analysed to determine
the current condition of the stocks of halibut. Gear experiments were conducted. Special
studies of the origin of catches were undertaken and new marking experiments were initiated to ascertain the extent to which the stocks on the different banks were being utilized.
The abundance of halibut, as indicated by the catch per standard unit of fishing
effort, did not change significantly from 1948 to 1949 in Area 2 and was 167 per cent
above the 1930 level. It was 5 per cent below the 1948 level in Area 3, due to a decline
in the western part of that area, but was approximately 125 per cent above the level of
1930, when allowances were made for changes in the season, in the distribution of fishing,
and in the character of the fleets fishing. ■   .
Observations of the changes occurring in the size and age composition of the stocks
were continued. They were expanded, by sampling the landings at Prince Rupert as well
as at Seattle, to include additional grounds in Area 2 and grounds in Area 3.
Analysis of Area 2 materials showed that the numbers of young halibut entering
the fishery were well below average for the second consecutive year. The comparative
scarcity of young fish of marketable size precluded any early increase in the size of the
marketable stock, such as would be required to justify any immediate increase in the
annual catch.
In the absence of sampling in Area 3 during the war and post-war period from 1943
to 1948, inclusive, comparisons could be made there only with 1942 and earlier years.
These showed that the number and weight of medium and large halibut available to the
fishery had increased about 150 per cent from 1933 to 1949. Conclusions regarding
changes in the number of young entering that fishery must await special studies of changes
in the fishermen's rejection of small fish.
A direct comparison of the catches taken by vessels using conventional halibut gear
and by vessels using modified set-line gear, which carries small hooks and is hauled by
drum, was made by fishing operations on a small chartered vessel.    The catches taken D 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA
with the drum-type gear did not differ significantly from those taken with the standard
halibut gear.
A programme of new marking experiments was initiated to ascertain the extent to
which the stocks on different banks in Area 3 and Area 2 were being utilized with the
present short season. The halibut vessel " Eagle " was chartered and operated for this
purpose from mid-July to mid-September. During two trips to Area 3 a total of 2,762
halibut were caught and 1,272 were tagged on Portlock and Albatross Banks near Kodiak
Island. During a short trip to northern Hecate Strait at the end of the charter, 1,239 were
tagged out of a total catch of 3,839 halibut.
Tags recovered during 1949 from experiments started between the north end of
Vancouver Island and Dixon Entrance in 1946 and 1947 followed the same pattern as
recoveries in 1948. The percentage of tags recovered, relatively high from May and June
experiments and relatively low from July and August experiments, indicated that a part
of the stock on the fishing-grounds in July and August was not on the fishing-grounds in
May and June and consequently was not available to the fishery.
An explanation of the above phenomenon was found in the results of a marking
experiment on the spawning-ground at the south end of the Queen Charlotte Islands in
December, 1939, and January, 1940, at a time when the fishing season in Area 2 extended
from April to September. Analysis of recoveries according to size of fish and season of
recovery gave the following results. Halibut under 10 pounds, few of which were mature,
were equally available to the fishery from May to August, inclusive. Those between 10
and 20 pounds, some of which were mature, were slightly more available in July and
August than in May and June. Halibut over 20 pounds, many of which were mature,
were more than twice as available in July and August than in May and June. It was
apparent that most of the mature fish did not return from the spawning-grounds to the
summer fishing-grounds until late summer.
These results were supported by the statements of experienced fishermen, that larger-
sized halibut were caught during July and August than during May and June in the Hecate
Strait region.
A detailed study was made of the changes in the amount of halibut caught in different
years in subsections of Area 2. It was found that the catches from the 1931—35 period
to 1948 had increased 41 per cent, 60 per cent, and 71 per cent on the grounds off the
north end of Vancouver Island, in middle and northern Hecate Strait, and inside Southeastern Alaska respectively. During the same period the catches from the grounds in
southern Hecate Strait and off the coast of South-eastern Alaska had decreased 48 per
cent and 25 per cent respectively. The reduction in catch from the latter grounds could
only be attributed to the shortening of the fishing season and the consequent closure of
those areas before their normal season of best fishing, July and August. On the basis of
the general improvement in the Area 2 stock, it appeared that a potential catch of at least
4,500,000 pounds was being lost on these grounds annually.
The Commission's marking experiments and investigations indicated that the current
short fishing season, resulting from the great increase in the abundance of halibut and a
twofold increase in the size of the fleet, was not permitting the full and uniform utilization
of the halibut stocks on the grounds in Area 2. They gave added force to the Commission's request of 1946 for broader authority, which would enable it to spread fishing over
a longer season. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT D 87
REPORT ON INVESTIGATIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL
PACIFIC SALMON FISHERIES COMMISSION FOR 1949
In 1949 Canada and the United States continued their joint effort to increase the
yield of sockeye salmon from the Fraser River watershed and as nearly as practical to
divide the allowable catch equally between the two countries.
The Commission met seven times during the year. Recommendations for the
management of the fishery in convention waters for the 1949 season were considered by
the Commission at meetings held in Bellingham, Wash., and Vancouver, B.C. Recommendations for regulations were adopted on January 23rd, 1949, in compliance with
Articles IV and V of the treaty, and were transmitted to the Departments of Fisheries
for Canada and the State of Washington. They were accepted for Canadian treaty waters
by an Order in Council adopted on June 2nd, 1949, and for United States treaty waters
by order of the Director of the Washington State Department of Fisheries promulgated
May 11th, 1949.
The official 1949 sockeye-fishing season in United States treaty waters started July
19th and continued to August 20th, inclusive, with a forty-eight-hour weekly closed
period for gill-net gear and a sixty-hour weekly closed period for all other types of gear.
Because of price negotiations, actual fishing did not commence until July 25th. Beginning August 20th, the week-end closed period for all gear was thirty-six hours, as established by the Washington Director of Fisheries. An 8-inch minimum net size for gill-nets
was in effect during the period June 1st and July 19th.
In Canadian treaty waters, Areas 19, 20, and 21 in District 3 were opened on July
19th, with a weekly closed period of seventy-two hours until the end of the season.
In District 1 the sockeye season opened on July 25th, with a seventy-two-hour
weekly closed period in effect until the official end of the sockeye season on August 20th.
During the period of July 1st to July 19th in Areas 19, 20, and 21, and from July 1st to
July 25th in District 1, the 8-inch minimum net size for gill-nets was in effect. During
this period it was unlawful to fish for. possess, sell, or purchase sockeye salmon.
United States catches by August 2nd exceeded the total Canadian catch by over
100,000 sockeye. The trend at that time because of increased units of gear indicated
that the Canadian catch at the end of the season could not equal that of the United
States. Consequently, the Commission added one day's restriction on United States
fishermen, effective August 4th, and reduced the following week-end closed season in
Canada by one day, effective August 5th. Practical division of the season's take of
sockeye between Canada and the United States was obtained by this simple adjustment
without interference with the catch of pink salmon, and no further modifications of the
regulations were required.
A total of 2,078,916 fish was taken in treaty waters from the 1949 sockeye run, of
which 1,058,117 were landed by the United States fishermen and 1,020,799 by the
Canadian fishermen. The total catch in 1949 shows an increase of 392,800 sockeye
over the brood-year catch in 1945.
The sockeye runs of 1949 were watched with particular interest because they
included the first returning progeny of fish using Hells Gate fishways. It was already
known that the block to ascending adults had been removed by the completion of the
fishways in 1945, but the effect of its removal upon the survival of up-river races could
not be ascertained until a return from unblocked fish occurred. The Commission's
expectations were realized when the 1945 escapement to all spawning districts above Hells
Gate, except the one to Chilko, produced at a very high rate.
The Stuart Lake escapement, including both the early and late runs, was the largest
recorded since 1913. A total of 712,000 was present on the spawning-grounds during
the 1949 season, fourteen times that of the 1945 cycle, which was 50,000. Individual
spawning-streams had as many as twenty-five-fold increases. D 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The early escapement to the Stellako system, numbering 26,562, was very encouraging, while the late run increased from 20,800 in 1945 to 104,800 this season. The early
runs to Bowron and the South Thompson showed substantial increases, with Bowron
having 22,300 spawners as compared to 4,100 in 1945. The South Thompson early
run had 11,800 in 1949. The number of spawners in the Quesnel district increased fourfold over the brood-year escapement of 3,000 to 12,300. This second continuous
increase to the Quesnel district in spite of an intense fishery indicates that this area is
once again capable of producing a large run of sockeye.
The number of adult spawners at the outlet of Chilko Lake declined considerably
for the second time in this cycle. The Chilko race of sockeye has developed until it
and the Adams River race have become the backbone of the sockeye-producing areas of
the Upper Fraser River. In the early days both the Adams and Chilko systems, as they
approached larger production, tended to develop one year of high productivity out of
four. This dominant year of productivity appears to be fully developed in the Shuswap
area, and the large run to Chilko last year (1948) with a lesser run this year is apparently
following this historic pattern. There is no indication of any reduction in the total
productivity of the Chilko area, but it does appear probable that the 1948 cycle is
emerging as the dominant one and that in the exceedingly valuable portion of the Fraser
region, production appears to be approaching a stage of stability.
The Adams River run on this cycle consists predominantly of three-year-old precocious males (jacks) preceding the normally dominant 1950 cycle. A total of 21,300
spawners, including jacks and adults, was present in the Adams-Little River area this
season.
While the normal adult escapement above Hells Gate showed considerable increase
in all areas except Chilko, the total escapement to the lower river areas declined. The
Birkenhead was down approximately 6,000 from the brood-year to 74,000 in 1949.
The Harrison River race, which had about 16,000 spawners in the brood-year, produced
about 3,500 spawners this year. Cultus Lake had 9,300, Weaver Creek 12,500, and
Big Silver Creek 2,100 sockeye in 1949, which were all equal to cycle escapement in
1945. Pitt River had 9,500 spawners, which are predominantly five-year fish. No
escapement records are available for the brood-year for this area.
The scientific investigations and regulations of the Commission are directed primarily to the rehabilitation and perpetuation of the Fraser River sockeye. Fishing
regulation can in part bring about the rehabilitation of the existing Fraser River races.
However, where a race has been exterminated in a once-productive area, rehabilitation
cannot be accomplished by regulation.    Artificial measures appear necessary.
Construction of the Quesnel field station was nearly completed, and the first group
of eggs was taken for rearing in the hatchery. Two experiments were started, the results
of which will not appear for four years. In the first, which is a control test of artificial
methods used, 302,000 native Horsefly River sockeye eggs were taken and fertilized.
They will be hatched, reared, and marked by fin excision and released back into their
parent river system. Successful return of these fish would indicate that fish return to
their native stream when artificially propagated and released.
As a step toward rehabilitation, eggs were secured from the Seymour River, placed
in the Quesnel field station, hatched and reared, to be later released in the Upper Adams
River. The Upper Adams River, a once-productive area, is now entirely devoid of
spawning sockeye. Its present lack of fish is attributed to a combination of the obstruction at Hells Gate and the splash dam on the Lower Adams River. Two requirements
are now recognized to be necessary for a successful transplant. Water temperatures at
spawning-time should be the same in both the parent and adopted stream, and the distance
of migration from salt water to the spawning-grounds should be approximately the same
for the donor and receiver streams. The Seymour River race was thought to be a suitable donor race, since it met these requirements. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT D 89
With the advent of man's modern industrial developments in the Fraser River, new
hazards are continually jeopardizing the security of the sockeye salmon. The species has
over the centuries become adapted to certain environmental conditions. Interference by
man may bring about changes in conditions which may be of such a nature that they are
beyond the tolerance of the species. It is quite apparent that in order to evaluate the
effect of any change in the environmental conditions, it is necessary to obtain measures
of the optimum natural environment. The Nechako district is at present being considered
by the Aluminum Company of Canada as a potential source of power. Surveys are now
being conducted by the company for a dam which will divert the flow of water from the
Nechako River to the coast. While the Upper Nechako system does not support spawning
sockeye, studies are now being conducted by the Commission, engineering and biological
staff to evaluate the effect of the diversion which will lower the flow of the Nechako River
in that area now used by sockeye migrating to the Stuart and Fraser-Francois Lake
systems. The distribution of spawning adults and changing water-levels during the
incubation period of the resultant spawn is being recorded for the Chilko and Adams
Rivers.
Records collected by the Commission in 1949 and previous years indicate that
a close relationship exists between water temperatures on the spawning-beds and time of
arrival at the spawning-beds. Early arrivals on the grounds often die unspawned when
temperatures are too high. The effect of low temperatures on the survival of eggs at
different stages of development is now being studied experimentally at the University of
Washington and in the field. Arrangments are also being made to expand this work to
the University of British Columbia.
If maximum productivity of a race depends on an adequate utilization of the optimum spawning temperature, care must be exercised to guarantee that sufficient numbers
of fish reach the spawning-beds when temperatures are at an optimum level. The fishery
itself may be instrumental in changing the time of arrival on the spawning beds and may,
by so doing, influence the productivity of the race. Only by a thorough understanding
of the environmental requirements of the sockeye races can the effects of the industrial
expansion and any selectivity of the commercial fishery be evaluated.
During the summer, district biologists made surveys of Beaver Lake, at the headwaters of Salmon River near Prince George; Pinchi Lake in the Stuart system; Tatla,
Tsuniah, and Taseko Lakes in the Chilcotin system; Mabel Lake in the South Thompson
district; and Chilliwack Lake in the Vedder River area to determine their potential as
sockeye-producers. A survey of the Blackwater River and its system of numerous small
lakes was started and will be completed in 1950.
All tagging at Hells Gate has been discontinued since the fishways have been thoroughly checked as to their efficiency. A report on this study is being prepared for early
publication. Dip-netting was continued this year, according to an established procedure,
in an effort to determine the relationship of catch per hour to the daily escapement past
this point. The effect of any regulatory restriction to increase escapement is readily
observable in the catch figures at Hells Gate, but the amount of error in calculating the
actual number of fish passing up-stream cannot be determined until more than one year's
data is available.
The damage caused by the flood conditions of 1948 has been reported upon. The
repair work has, except for one item, been completed. The fishways were cleaned of all
extraordinary debris deposited during the flood period. A new bridge was constructed,
with width and capacity to permit the transportation of mobile equipment to the fishways
of either bank. At the close of 1949 preparatory work was started on the placement
of a retaining-wall which will complete the bank repairs on the east bank and will permit
the future construction of high-level fishways without disturbing the embankment. The
fishway decks were submerged under 22 feet of water on May 16th this year, correspond- D 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA
ing to a gauge elevation of 75 feet. While the river this year produced a better-than-
average flood crest, it did not approach the discharge of 1948, when on May 31st a gauge
level of 108 feet was recorded, submerging the fishways under 55 feet of water. The
fishway remained in operation throughout all periods of the sockeye runs.
The Bridge River Rapids fishways were cleaned of extraordinary debris caused by
the flood of 1948 and remained in operation during the sockeye runs throughout their
designed operation levels.
The fifth and final fishway at Farwell Canyon has been completed and is ready for
operation in the spring of 1950. The four fishways previously constructed operated
throughout the time of passage of sockeye runs through this difficult reach of the Chilcotin
River.
Membership of the Commission during 1949 is a follows:—
Canadian Commissioners:   A. J. Whitmore, secretary;  Senator Thomas Reid,
member; Olof Hanson, member.
United States Commissioners:  Milo Moore, chairman (resigned); Edward W.
Allen, chairman; Albert M. Day, member; Alvin Anderson, member. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT D 91
SALMON-SPAWNING REPORT, BRITISH COLUMBIA,  1949
By A. J. Whitmore, Chief Supervisor of Fisheries
GENERAL SUMMARY
Sockeye.—Of outstanding importance in relation to the sockeye-fisheries of British
Columbia is the splendid escapement of sockeye salmon during 1949 to the upper areas
(Chilko excepted) of the Fraser watershed. This was the return from the first runs to
pass through the Hells Gate fishways completed in 1945 by the International Pacific
Salmon Fisheries Commission. Although not of the same magnitude, but of no less significance, was the return of 11,000 sockeye in the Horsefly River and 400 sockeye to
Mitchell River in the Quesnel system, once the greatest sockeye-producer of the Fraser
River, but to which during the past thirty years the sockeye runs have been practically
non-existent. The rehabilitation measures of the Commission, as indicated by 1949
spawning-ground returns, are meeting with marked success.
To the Skeena watershed the escapement of sockeye from the moderate run which
passed through the commercial area may be regarded as equitable. The escapement to
the Babine area, the principal spawning-ground of the system, was large, and satisfactory
supplies ascended the Bulkley River. Medium to heavy runs were present in such
sections as Bear Lake, Kispiox, Kitwanga, and Kitsumgallum, while spawning was only
fair at Lakelse.
Sockeye-supplies to the spawning areas of Rivers Inlet were satisfactory as to
volume, but the fish individually were small. Moderate supplies spawned in the Smith
Inlet, Nass, and Bella Coola systems; whereas on Vancouver Island, in the Nimpkish,
Alberni, and Kennedy Lake systems, the supplies of sockeye were much greater than for
many years.
Springs.—The escapement of springs to the Fraser watershed was satisfactory, particularly in the Prince George and Kamloops areas. Moderate supplies were present on
practically all the spawning areas of District No. 2, with the exception of the Nass, where
spawning was light. It is a source of some gratification that several of the more important
streams along the east coast of Vancouver Island carried improved stocks, including
Cowichan, Puntledge (Comox system), Big Qualicum River, Salmon River, and the
Nimpkish River.
Cohoes.—Generally, supplies of this variety appeared to be satisfactory. There was
a moderate seeding of practically all streams along the northern coast. Spawning was
fairly good in the Vancouver Island and adjacent Mainland streams, with the exception
of Quathiaski, Pender Harbour, and the Nanaimo-Ladysmith sections, where it was disappointingly light. In the Fraser River area the escapement was average, with increases
recorded at Mission-Harrison and Chilliwack sections. Squamish River received a better-
than-average seeding.
Pinks.—Pink-supplies on the spawning-grounds in District No. 2 were satisfactory
generally and above the brood-year level—heavy to the Nass, Lower Skeena, and Bella
Coola areas, moderate but also in excess of the brood-year in the Butedale and Bella Bella
areas, and light at Grenville-Principe area. As it was the " off " year for this variety in the
Queen Charlotte Islands, comparatively few were present. In District No. 3 spawning in
the Mainland streams of the Alert Bay sub-district was generally good; with an " off " year
for Vancouver Island streams, the usual small runs were present, but in numbers somewhat better than those of the brood-year. With few exceptions, supplies in the Quathiaski
area were fairly light. Stocks at Jervis Inlet, although about average, were below those
of 1947, when an abnormally large escapement occurred. Main streams in the Comox
area received a fairly heavy seeding; elsewhere in District No. 3 supplies were light. D 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA
A decline in the escapement to the Fraser spawning-grounds is again recorded. It
will be recalled that the escapement in the brood-year 1947 was of lesser abundance than
in the parent year of 1945. In 1949 the escapement is estimated as being from 30 to
50 per cent below that of 1947, notwithstanding the application of special restrictive
measures on the Fraser commercial fishery. The observation made in the 1947 Salmon-
spawning Report in this respect, as follows, continues to be apt: " This condition (lesser
escapement) unquestionably reflected the unusually heavy toll claimed by commercial
operations en route and raises speculation as to whether the time has not yet arrived to
consider bringing pinks under the International control now provided for sockeye by the
Fraser Treaty, if adequate protection for the maintenance of this highly valuable run is to
be assured."
Squamish and Indian rivers were heavily seeded with pinks.
Chums.—In District No. 2 moderate supplies only were found in the principal areas
such as Butedale, Bella Bella, and Bella Coola. Supplies to the streams of the lower
east coast of Moresby Island, with few exceptions, were light to medium, and to Skidegate
Inlet and Narrows medium to heavy, while on the west coast of the Queen Charlottes,
with the exception of good supplies at Port Chanal Harbour and Peel Inlet, were generally
light. At Naden Harbour spawning was fairly heavy; light in Masset Inlet. In District
No. 3, at the Alert Bay area, stocks were good in the larger producing streams, with the
exception of the Vancouver Island streams along Johnstone Strait, as well as Seymour
and Belize Inlet streams, where the spawning was light. Stocks were fairly satisfactory
but below brood-year levels in the Quathiaski sub-district, and below normal in the
Comox area. Escapement was good in streams in the Pender Harbour area, fair in the
Nanaimo-Ladysmith section, better than average in the Cowichan area, and satisfactory
in the Victoria sub-district. On the west coast of Vancouver Island, where net fishing
was not permitted after September 1st to allow total escapement of all varieties, the
supplies were heavy in the main streams in the Barkley Sound and Nootka areas, moderately heavy in Kyuquot area, and, with few exceptions, satisfactory in the Quatsino
section.
The chum escapement to the Fraser, particularly the early run, was the best in some
years.    Squamish and Indian Rivers were satisfactorily seeded.
Damage by Flash Floods
Tributaries of the Lower Fraser and other streams of the Lower Mainland and
along the east coast of Vancouver Island experienced severe storms and heavy precipitation on two occasions in the latter part of November and early part of December, 1949.
In the resultant flash floods the spawning areas of many of the streams suffered damage,
in some cases unquestionably of severe proportions. Heavy loss of salmon-eggs which
had been deposited in this area, particularly of the pink and chum varieties, undoubtedly
occurred.
IN DETAIL
Masset Inlet and North Coast of Graham Island Area
The cohoe spawning was light in all streams. This being the " off " year, there
were no pinks present in either Masset Inlet or Naden Harbour. A fairly good escapement of chums occurred to Naden River, while supplies on the grounds in Masset were
light.
Skidegate Inlet and West Coast of Graham-Moresby Island Area
Light to medium cohoe-supplies were present, stocks in Tlell and Copper Rivers
showing some increase over the brood-year. This being the " off " year, the pink
seeding was generally light, and although there was some improvement in the small
streams, there was a slight decrease in the number of spawners in Copper River.    Chum- REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT D 93
supplies were medium in Skidegate Inlet and heavy in the streams of Skidegate Narrows.
On the west coast, chum spawning was disappointing, all streams being lightly seeded,
with the exception of those on Port Chanal and Peel Inlet, where stocks were adequate.
East Coast of Moresby Island and South Queen Charlotte
Islands Area
There was a moderate to heavy seeding of cohoe, the main streams showing increase
over the brood-year 1946. This being the " off " year for pinks, there was none of this
variety present other than a very light supply in Mathers Creek, Big Goose Creek, and
Little Goose Creek. In general the chum seeding was light to medium, the best spawning
taking place in Lagoon Bay, Big and Little Goose Creeks, Dana Inlet, Lockeport and
Scaat Harbour, Powrivco Bay and Baag Harbour, and Harriet Bay. Elsewhere supplies
ranged from light to medium.
Nass Area
There was a medium escapement of sockeye to the Meziaden Lake area, the principal
spawning-ground for this variety in the Nass system—about equal to 1944 but not quite
as good as 1945. Spring-salmon stocks were light in all streams, with the exception of
the Kitsault, where a heavy escapement occurred. At time of inspection, cohoe-supplies
were generally light, but new fish were continuing to arrive on the grounds. There was
a heavy seeding of pinks in all streams. Chums were present in moderate numbers,
showing some increase over the brood-year.
Skeena
Babine-Morice Area.—Although sockeye were somewhat later than usual in appearing in the Babine Lake area, a heavy seeding was reported on most grounds. A total
of 509,000 sockeye passed through the counting-fence maintained by the Fisheries
Research Board. Escapement of this variety to the Morice River area is reported as
fairly good and to the Bear Lake area medium to heavy. The spring-salmon seeding
in the Babine area was from medium on some grounds to heavy on others, a total of
7,443 passing through the counting-fence during this season. The escapement of this
species to the Morice Lake and Bear Lake areas was excellent. A total of 11,938
cohoes passed through the counting-fence in Babine River. In other streams in the
area moderate supplies were present. The pink-salmon seeding was light in all streams
over the area, and only 28,663 of this variety were counted passing through the fence
in Babine River.
Lakelse Area.—Sockeye-supplies generally were only fair; light in the Lakelse and
Allistair areas, medium to heavy in the Kitsumgallum and Kispiox systems. Spring-
salmon stocks were average, the Kitsumgallum system receiving the heaviest seeding.
Cohoe-supplies were good in all streams, particularly so in the Lakelse River. Pink
stocks showed a notable increase over those of the brood-year, especially in the Lakelse,
Kispiox, and Kitwanga Rivers.    Moderate supplies of chums were present.
Lower Skeena Area
Medium supplies of sockeye in the Shawatlans River compared unfavourably with
the heavy seeding reported in the brood-year 1945. Stocks of this variety were normal
on the limited grounds of the Ecstall system. A medium spring-salmon spawning
occurred. Cohoe-supplies were light. There was an exceedingly heavy escapement
of pinks to practically all streams over the area, showing a notable increase over the
brood-year.    Chum stocks were average.
Grenville-Principe Area
The escapement of sockeye were generally favourable, a medium to heavy seeding
occurring in the major streams, Minktrap Bay, Bare Bay, Quinstonsta, Union Pass, D 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Cridge Inlet, and Gale Bay; medium supplies were present in Endhill Bay, Mikado,
Sheneeza, and Curtis Inlet streams, while light supplies were found in Lewis Creek,
Bonilla Arm, Deer Lake, and Lowe Inlet streams. Cohoe-supplies were satisfactory.
With the exception of Deer Point Creek, Gale Bay, Bare Bay, and Endhill Bay creek
not normally supporting pink salmon and Kumelean Creek, which were heavily seeded
with pinks, the spawning of this variety over the area was disappointingly light. Moderate
supplies of chums were present.
Butedale Area
A light to medium escapement of sockeye occurred from the moderate run of this
variety. Compared with the brood-year, larger rivers such as the Kitlope and Kitkiata
showed slight decreases, as did all the smaller rivers on Aristazabel Island, as well as
Qua Qua and Talamosa. Although cohoe-supplies were moderate, there was an increase
over the brood-year, with the exception of streams in Laredo Inlet. There was a medium
escapement of pink salmon, showing an increase over most of the area compared with
the brood-year, with the exception of Laredo Inlet, which was a failure. Spawning in
Douglas Channel and vicinity, Poison Cove, and Matheson Channel was good, and in
Kainet River the seeding was exceptionally heavy. Generally the escapement of chums
from the medium run of this variety which occurred through the commercial area was
slightly down from the brood-year, with the exception of Laredo Inlet, which was
practically a failure.
Bella Bella Area
There was a medium spawning of sockeye on the limited spawning-grounds in this
area, showing some decrease from the brood-year. The moderate seeding of cohoe was
much heavier than the light seeding reported in 1946. Generally the escapement of
pinks to all but the smaller streams was heavy, the run to Koeye River being exceptionally
heavy. While the larger streams in the area were well seeded with chum salmon, there
was light spawning in the smaller streams; generally the light to moderate spawning
of this variety was much below brood-year levels.
Bella Coola Area
Sockeye-supplies were heavy in the Bella Coola-Atnarko system, medium in the
Kimsquit watershed, and light on the limited grounds of the Dean River. There were
moderate supplies of spring salmon present in the Bella Coola, Atnarko, and Kimsquit
Rivers, while light supplies only reached the Dean River. Generally the seeding of cohoe
was medium in all streams. Pinks-supplies were heavy, particularly so in the Bella Coola
and Kwatna Rivers, where there was an exceptional increase over the brood-year
spawnings. Bella Coola River and Cascade Inlet were heavily seeded with chums;
elsewhere stocks were moderate.
Rivers Inlet Area
There was a satisfactory escapement of sockeye to the Owekano Lake system,
heavier than that of the brood-year, the Waukwash, Genessee, Quap, and Dallec Rivers
being especially well stocked. The Asklum River was the only point in this system that
was below par. The size of the individual fish, however, was below average, and very
few large or five-year-old fish were observed. Spring-salmon supplies were normal.
Moderate supplies of cohoe were present. The pink-salmon seeding on the limited
grounds in this area was light. The escapement of chum salmon to Moses Inlet and
the late run to the head of Rivers Inlet were very good, but the seeding in Draney
Inlet was light.
Smith Inlet Area
The salmon-spawning grounds of Smith Inlet were inspected twice during the
sockeye-spawning period.    Both spawning areas—namely, the Geluck and Delebah REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT D 95
Rivers—received medium seedings. The sockeye observed generally were small in size.
Cohoe stocks were average. Escapement of pinks to the Nekite River was good.
Chum-salmon supplies were moderate on all spawning-grounds, with the exception of
Takush River, which was well seeded.
Alert Bay Area
The run of sockeye to Nimpkish River was the heaviest since 1935, all grounds
being satisfactorily seeded. Supplies in Keogh River, Knight Inlet, and McKenzie River
were better than the brood-year, while areas such as Kakweiken River, Fulmore River,
Quatse River, Shushartie River, and Nahwittie River had average seeding. Spring-salmon
supplies were satisfactory, particularly so in the Nimpkish River system. The escapement
of cohoe was heavier than in the brood-year and far in excess of last year. Very satisfactory numbers of pinks reached the spawning-grounds in the Mainland portion of the
sub-district, particularly heavy seeding occurring in the Kakweiken and Ahnuhate Rivers
and in Lull Creek. It being the " off " year for this variety in Vancouver Island streams,
the light runs in this area were expected. Chum stocks were very similar to those of the
brood-year. The spawning in some of the better producing streams, such as Keogh
River, Wakeman River, and Viner River, was heavy, while in the streams of Vancouver
Island flowing into Johnstone Strait the seeding was light. The spawning-grounds
throughout Seymour and Belize Inlets were lightly seeded, with the exception of Quicella
Creek, where heavy spawning took place.
Quathiaski Area
Sockeye stocks were good in Hayden Bay creek and light in Phillips River. Spring-
salmon spawning in Campbell River, Salmon River, and the Bute Inlet streams was
good; elsewhere stocks were light. Cohoe-supplies were light and below expectation
in all streams. Good supplies of pinks were present in Apple River and Frazer Creek
in Loughborough Inlet, Orford River, Phillips River, and Quatum River in Ramsay Arm,
while in the other streams supplies were light and about equal to those of the brood-year.
With the exception of the streams flowing into Loughborough Inlet, there was a fairly
satisfactory showing of chum salmon, although somewhat less in numbers than in the
brood-year.
Comox Area
The escapement of springs to the Puntledge River was very satisfactory and the best
in many years. Between 200 and 250 springs were present in Big Qualicum River for
the first time in a number of years. In general the spawning of cohoes was good and
above average. The pink-salmon spawning was heavy in the Tsolum and Oyster Rivers,
the main spawning-ground of this variety, and medium in the Puntledge River and very
light elsewhere, the over-all escapement being lighter than in 1948 but about equal to
that of the brood-year of 1947. Chum-supplies were lighter than during the brood and
intervening years. Spawning was good in Puntledge, Tsable, Little Qualicum, and Big
Qualicum Rivers, also in Cook and Cougar Creeks, light in Rosewall Creek, Waterloo
Creek, and Tsolum River, and average elsewhere.
Pender Harbour Area
A total of 3,931 sockeye entered Saginaw Lake, which compares fairly well with
the escapement of recent years. Sockeye-supplies in Tazoonie River at Narrows Arm
were satisfactory. The spawning of spring salmon was normal, there being a good
escapement to Toba River and a fair run to Jervis Inlet and Narrows Arm. Cohoe-
supplies were light and disappointing in almost all streams in the area. Pink-salmon
stocks in the spawning-streams of Jervis Inlet and adjacent waters were considerably
lighter than during the brood-year, when the over-all run was abnormally heavy. In the
streams in the Toba portion of the area the seeding of this variety was satisfactory. D 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA
A good escapement of chums occurred to all the large rivers and most of the smaller
ones, and generally the escapement compared favourably with the brood-year.
Nanaimo-Ladysmith Area
Spring-salmon supplies in the Nanaimo River were light—somewhat less than
during any of the previous four years. Only light supplies of cohoe were present.
Approximately 800 pinks were found on the spawning-grounds of the Nanaimo River,
where in previous years the average has been less than 200. This is the only stream
in which pink salmon were observed. The seeding of chums was somewhat lighter than
during the brood-year, good supplies being present in Englishman River, Nanaimo River,
and many others.
Cowichan Area
The spawning of spring salmon in the Cowichan River was better than that of 1948
or 1945, approximately 8,500 spawners being present over the watershed. The cohoe
spawning was also heavier than last year or the brood-year 1946, the total run to the
Cowichan River being estimated at 53,000 fish. Chum-supplies were very good in comparison with average years, and the local officer estimates that a total of 150,000 spawners
were present.
Victoria Area
Cohoe-supplies were average. Chum-supplies were satisfactory, their being a heavy
spawning in Goldstream.
Alberni-Nitinat Area
The escapement of sockeye to the Somass River system, in the opinion of the local
officer, was the best on record. It is estimated that approximately 100,000 parent
sockeye entered Great Central Lake and that from 80,000 to 90,000 reached Sproat Lake.
Very satisfactory numbers of this variety reached the spawning-grounds of Anderson
Lake, about 15,000 to 20,000, while approximately 5,000 sockeye were present on the
spawning-grounds at Hobarton Lake. Satisfactory numbers of spring salmon also
ascended the Somass, Nahmint, Sarita, and Nitinat Rivers. Fair supplies of cohoes were
present, somewhat lighter than the brood-year. Light stocks were particularly noticeable
in the San Juan, Nitinat, and Somass River systems. The number counted (partial count
only) over Stamp Falls fishway was 10,776, practically the same as the number in similar
counting in the brood-year 1946. Fair stocks of chums were present in all the streams
throughout the area, while in a few of the main rivers spawning was heavy.
Clayoquot Area
Good supplies of sockeye spawned in the Kennedy Lake system. The spring-salmon
spawning was generally satisfactory, particularly so in the Megin, Moyeha, and Cypress
Rivers. Generally the escapement of cohoe was lighter than the brood-year; fair supplies, however, spawned in the Upper Megin River, Lemmens Inlet, and South Bay
streams. Chum salmon were present in fair numbers in all the streams throughout the
area, while in a few of the main streams spawning was heavy, the over-all seeding being
about equal to that of the brood-year.
Nootka Area
Spring-salmon supplies on the limited spawning-grounds in this area were normal.
Cohoe seeding was slightly greater than the spawning in 1946, an increase in numbers
being particularly noticeable in the Burman, Camp Bay, Sou End, Inner Basin, and Big
Zeballos Rivers. There was a fairly heavy escapement of chums to many of the streams
in this area, the over-all spawning being much in excess of that of 1945. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT D 97
Kyuquot Area
The escapement of spring salmon was equal to that of last year and the previous
several years, the seeding in Tahsish River being very good. The cohoe spawning was
disappointingly light—only slightly better than 50 per cent of that of the brood-year.
There is no run of pink salmon of importance to this area. This variety, however, was
seen in small numbers in some of the streams, with fair showings in Tahsish and Clannick
Rivers. Generally moderate to heavy chum-supplies were present, with practically all
the smaller streams being satisfactorily seeded, while supplies in several of the larger
rivers, such as Artlich and Kaouk, were light.
Quatsino Area
There was some increase in the small runs of sockeye to this area. Approximately
10,000 fish ascended Mahatta River, and the escapement to Fisherman River was estimated at approximately 6,000. Canoe Creek had a spawning population of approximately 8,000 and Marble Creek about 1,500. The spring-salmon spawning in the main
stream, Marble Creek, was satisfactory, although there was a slight decline from the
previous year, and in the several other streams spawning was average. Cohoe-supplies
were disappointing—quite good in the streams on the west coast but poor in all others,
with the exception of Coal Harbour and Colony Creek, as well as Crawford's and Price's
Creeks in Holberg Inlet, where there was a fair escapement. This was the " off " year
for pinks and, as usual, very few were present. With the exception of Neroutsos Inlet,
where in streams such as Cayuse, Jeune, and Teeta seeding was only fair, supplies of
chums were generally satisfactory and much better than during the brood-year.
Fraser River
Prince George Area.—There was a tremendous increase in the number of sockeye
reaching this area compared with the previous two cycles. An estimated 700,000 sockeye
ascended the Stuart Lake system, compared with 50,000 in 1945 and 12,000 in 1941.
The early run, comprised of some 570,000 fish, spawned in the streams tributary to
Middle River and Takla Lake, while the late run of about 130,000 spawned in Middle
River and Tachie River. Approximately 125,000 spawners were present in the Fraser-
Francois system, the early run spawning in various streams flowing into Fraser and
Francois Lakes, and the late or main run of about 100,000 in the Stellako River and to
some extent around the shores of Francois Lake. The fish arrived in good condition.
The spring-salmon seeding in the Upper Fraser River area was the best for some years;
also in the Upper Nechako River more than 2,000 spring salmon were counted and
a further 1,000 spawned in Stuart River.
Quesnel-Chilko Area.—An estimated 60,000 sockeye reached the Chilko spawning
area a decrease of approximately 140,000 from the brood-year 1945. The run was fairly
well distributed over the usual spawning-grounds in the Chilko River below the outlet
of Chilko Lake. Biologists of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission
do not believe this is indication of reduction of Chilko area productivity; rather, that 1948
cycle is emerging as the dominant year, with 1949 cycle as becoming less dominant. In
the Quesnel system, sockeye-supplies were far larger than in any recent year, although
still on a small scale in comparison with the large runs of thirty years ago. Approximately
11,000 reached the Horsefly River, and spawning occurred in the 3 Vi -mile stretch of the
stream-bed located between High Bank Island to well below Jones Crossing. Sexes
appeared to be about equal. About 400 sockeye reached the Mitchell River, the headwater stream of the Quesnel system. A total of 22,300 sockeye ascended the Bowron
system, compared with 4,050 in the brood-year 1945. Water-levels on the Upper Bowron
remained at satisfactory stage throughout the fall season. The seeding of spring salmon
over the sub-district was moderate, very similar to that occurring in the brood-year. D 98 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Kamloops Area.—The early run of sockeye was distributed between Raft River,
tributary to the North Thompson River, and the streams tributary to Shuswap Lake.
The number reaching these spawning-grounds was approximately 13,000—a considerable
increase over the brood-year, when 3,500 were present. The late run of sockeye is
mainly to the Adams River. Jacks formed by far the greater proportion of this run, there
being approximately 15,000 present—a considerable decrease when compared with the
60,000 jacks reported in the brood-year 1945. There was a notable increase in spring-
salmon supplies over the whole watershed, compared with the brood-year 1945. Approximately 6,000 were present in the Lower Shuswap River, tributary to Mara Lake. In
Clearwater River, tributary to the North Thompson River, 5,000 to 6,000 spawned,
whilst a heavy seeding estimated at 2,000 to 2,500 occurred in the North Thompson at
the outlet of Finn Creek.. Cohoe-supplies were average. This was the first time in
a great many years that pink salmon reached this area, a total of about 500 spawning in
the South Thompson and Nicola Rivers.
Lillooet Area.—A run of upwards of 95,000 sockeye spawned in the Birkenhead
River, compared with 80,000 in the brood-year 1945. Jacks were again quite numerous,
comprising about 15 per cent of the total run. Owing to changes in the river near Creek-
side, more than usual spawned farther up-stream. Stocks of this variety in the Seton-
Anderson system were small, similar in number to those of the brood-year. As the
spring-salmon runs to Tyaughton Creek and Ferguson Creek were blocked this year by
the B.C. Electric dam at Bridge River, no spawning occurred in these streams. The Fish
Culture Development Branch of this Department, in carrying out a salvage programme
below the dam, secured 196,000 eggs from springs caught just below the dam. Of these,
48,000 were planted in Portage Creek and 148,000 in Gates Creek. A light run of spring
salmon was present in the Yalakom River, flowing into Bridge River below the dam, and
it is possible that a few stragglers from the blocked Tyaughton Creek spring-salmon run
entered this stream to spawn. The cohoe spawning in the Birkenhead River in the
Upper Lillooet was moderate. The spawning of pinks in this area was insignificant,
other than a light run of this variety to Cayoosh Creek.
Yale-Lytton Area.—This area does not contain any major salmon-spawning grounds.
Streams being of the mountainous variety, they have only short spawning areas near their
confluences with the Fraser River. A light seeding of pink salmon occurred in Anderson,
Nahatlatch, and Spuzzum Creeks. Cohoe-supplies consisted of approximately 400 individuals observed in Nahatlatch Creek.
Chilliwack Area.—The run of sockeye to Cultus Lake was light, totalling slightly
over 9,000 spawners, compared with 9,300 in 1945. The usual small numbers of this
variety were observed in the Chilliwack Lake area. There was a good run of cohoe to
the Chilliwack-Vedder, while other streams in the area received a moderate seeding.
Pink-supplies were considerably below brood-year levels. In the Coquihalla River the
run was late in starting, and it was estimated to be in the vicinity of 12,000 fish. In
the Upper Chilliwack River it is estimated 30,000 to 35,000 pinks spawned. In the
smaller streams entering the Fraser in this area the runs were, on the whole, lighter than
the brood-year. The greatest decrease in the runs was in the Vedder River below
Vedder Crossing. In the previous two cycle-years, huge quantities of pinks spawned
in this area, but during the past season it is estimated that the run was possibly only 50
per cent of the previous cycle. The chum seeding was average—only slightly better
than the brood-year.
Mission-Harrison Area.—With the exception of Weaver Creek, where the run was
about on a par with that of the brood-year, the sockeye seeding was light and below
expectations. Moderate supplies of spring salmon were present. There were good
supplies of cohoe in practically all streams frequented by this variety, a marked increase
over the brood-year. Stocks of pinks were below brood-year levels. It is estimated that
between 85,000 and 100,000 pinks spawned in this area, being considerably less than REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT D 99
the figure of 130,000 in the brood-year. The preponderance of this run spawned in the
Chehalis and Harrison Rivers. Chum-supplies were below average but in most cases
above brood-year levels. While the larger systems were sufficiently well seeded, spawning in the smaller streams was in most cases light.
Lower Fraser Area
The tributaries of Upper Pitt River were fairly well seeded with sockeye. There
was a moderate seeding of spring salmon. Cohoe stocks were fairly light in all spawning
areas. Pink salmon were later than usual in appearing on the spawning-grounds and
disappointingly light in all streams, there being a decrease of over 50 per cent compared
with the brood-year 1947. The seeding of chums was fair, showing some increase over
the brood-year in all streams, with the exception of the South Alouette River.
North Vancouver Area
The cohoe escapement was good in all streams—about equal to that of the brood-
year—with the exception of Indian River, where an increase was noted. There was an
exceptionally heavy run of pinks to Indian River, where it is estimated that 100,000 of
this species spawned in an area some 6 miles in length. Fair supplies of chums were
present.
Squamish River Area
Spring-salmon supplies were satisfactory and the cohoe showing was better than
average. There was an excellent escapement of pink salmon, all grounds being heavily
seeded. It is estimated that from 200,000 to 300,000 pinks spawned in this system.
Moderate spawning of chum salmon occurred in about the same intensity as that of the
brood-year. Supplies totalling approximately 5,000 chums were present in the Cheaka-
mus River, about 1,000 in the Mamquam River, and an estimated 40,000 in the Squamish
River proper. D  100
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATISTICAL TABLES
LICENCES ISSUED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF FISHERIES
FOR THE 1949 SEASON
Kind of Licence
Number of
Licences
Salmon-cannery  24
Herring-cannery  5
Pilchard-cannery .   	
Herring-reduction  17
Pilchard-reduction    	
Tierced salmon  8
Fish cold-storage ±  20
Fish-processing  24
  6
  4
  16
6
  1
  4
  1
  1
Shell-fish cannery	
Tunafish-cannery	
Fish-offal reduction	
Fish-liver reduction	
Whale-reduction	
Herring dry-saltery	
Processing aquatic plants	
Harvesting aquatic plants	
Fish-buyers'    518
Non-tidal fishing    319
Dogfish-reduction        1
975
General receipts       A
Revenue
$4,800.00
500.00
1,700.00
800.00
2,000.00
24.00
6.00
4.00
16.00
6.00
100.00
400.00
10.00
10.00
12,950.00
325.00
1.00
$23,652.00
25.00
Total  $23,677.00
PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON, SEASON 1949, SHOWING THE
ORIGIN OF SALMON CAUGHT IN EACH DISTRICT
District
Sockeye
Springs
Steelhead
Cohoe
Pinks
Chums
Total
96.159J
9,889
2141
10,286
8,1411
6,665
21,3331
5,978
785
44,169
98,9581
19,0591
568
66,626
1,550
34,324
33,0691
11,937
2,533
173,456
361,7831
24,708
6,763
24,8521
7,854
4,896
11,819
2,361
116,2921
51,629
1,255}
2,834
189,938
34,544
9,268
65,937
39,494}
13,189
16,1401
19,486}
146
1741
2,507}
743
159
1,007
6,3611
3421
51
1,2831
239
56
355
151}
23
58,3365
129,027
70,2105
Smith Inlet              	
19,083
351,420
Vancouver Island and adjacent
Mainland  	
Alaska 	
538,3701
45,5345
3,402
Totals. 	
259,821
21,184
2,3731
215,944
709,987
230,5561
1,439,866
Note.—6,9551/i cases of bluebacks are combined with cohoes in this table for Vancouver Island. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
D  101
STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL SALMON-PACK BY SPECIES
FROM 1941 TO 1949, INCLUSIVE
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
1941
259,821
21,184
230,5565
709,987
215,944
2,373
261,2305
16,4455
511,404
321,7215
221,804
5,6635
286,497
10,025
486,615}
600,787}
146,293
3,260}
543,027
8,100}
576,133}
116,6075
100,1545
4,1155
329,0015
12,801
350,188}
825,513
218,8865
2,922
247,714
19,362
255,3165
389,692
181,5465
3,9265
164,889
10,658
363,347}
530,189
186,043
3,095
666,570
24,744}
633,834
270,622}
211,138
4,649
455,298
51,593
926,801
Pink	
427,774
430,513
3,454
Totals	
1,439,866
1,338,271
1,533,478}
1,348,138}
1,739,312}
1,097,557}
1,258,221}
1,811,558
2,295,433
STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL SALMON-PACK OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA BY DISTRICTS
Total Packed by Districts in 1941 to 1949, Inclusive
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
1941
189,938
129,027
70,210}
19,083
58,336}
538,370}
431,498}
3,402
104,485
193,435}
72,117
14,675
38,538}
317,572
567,314
30,134
171,302}
79,718
168,935}
46,172
29,450
552,940}
456,639
28,321
413,542
105,9121
123,304
23,177
38,313
264,922
378,968
221,351}
221,471}
135,412
21,682
54,980}
492,281}
592,133}
130,883}
149,948}
59,391
6,194}
61,096
193,459
496,587
126,5415
133,589
79,6975
21,942
52,3335
347,7105
496,407
549,617
152,4185
105,539
23,777
100,142}
536,803}
343,260}
431,299
200,497
138,650
Smith Inlet
32,109
71,330
Vancouver Island and
adjacent Mainland-
985,835
398,152
46,561
Grand totals
1,439,866
1,338,271
1,533,478}
1,348,138}
1,739,312}
1,097,557}
1,258,2215
1,811,558
2,295,433 D  102
BRITISH COLUMBIA
TABLE SHOWING THE TOTAL SOCKEYE-PACK
ARRANGED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE FOUR
British Columbia .
Washington	
OF THE FRASER RIVER,
■YEAR CYCLE, 1895-1949
Total......
British Columbia
Washington	
Total..
British Columbia .
Washington	
Total......
British Columbia .
Washington 	
Total	
British Columbia
Washington 	
Total	
British Columbia
Washington	
Total
British Columbia .
Washington 	
Total.
British Columbia .
Washington	
Total.
British Columbia.
Washington 	
Total	
British Columbia	
Washington	
Total	
British Columbia .
Washington	
Total	
British Columbia .
Washington	
Total 	
British Columbia	
Washington 	
Total	
British Columbia	
Washington	
Total.
40,712
155,264}
1895—
395,984
65,143
1896—
356,984
72,979
1897-
- 860,459
312,048
1898— 256,101
252,000
461,127
429,963
1,172,507
508,101
1899—
480,485
499,646
1900—
229,800
228,704
1901-
- 928,669
1,105,096
1902— 293,477
339,556
980,131
458,504
2,033,765
633,033
1903—
204,809
167,211
1904—
72,688
123,419
1905-
- 837,489
837,122
1906— 183,007
182,241
372,020
196,107
1,674,611
365,248
1907—
59,815
96,974
1908—
74,574
170,951
1909-
- 585,435
1,097,904
1910— 150,432
248,014
156,789
245,525
1,683,339
398,446
1911—
58,487
127,761
1912—
123,879
184,680
1913-
- 719,796
1,673,099
1914— 198,183
335,230
186,248
308,559
2,392,895
533,413
1915—
91,130
64,584
1916—
32,146
84,637
1917-
- 148,164
411,538
1918— 19,697
50,723
155,714
116,783
559,702
70,420
1919—
38,854
64,346
1920—
48,399
62,654
1921-
- 39,631
102,967
142,598
1922— 51,832
48,566
103,200
111,053
100,398
1923—
31,655
47,402
1924—
39,743
69,369
1925-
- 35,385
112,023
1926— 85,689
44,673
79,057
109,112
147,408
130,362
1927—
61,393
97,594
1928—
29,299
61,044
1929-
- 61,569
111,898
1930— 103,692
352,194
158,987
90,343
173,467
455,886
1931—
40,947
87,211
1932—
65,769
81,188
1933-
- 52,465
•128,518
1934— 139,238
352,579
128,158
146,957
180,983
491,817
1935—
62,822
54,677
1936—
184,854
59,505
1937-
- 100,272
60,259
1938— 186,794
•135,550
117,499
244,359
160,531
322,344
1939—
54,296
•43,512
1940—
99,009
•63,890
1941-
- 171,290
110,605
1942—446,371
263,458
97,808
162,899
281,895
709,829
1943—
31,974
•19,117
1944—
88,515
*37,509
1945-
- 79,977
•53,055
133,032
1946— 341,957
•268,561
51,091
126,024
610,518
1947—
33,952
6,760
1948—
64,823}
90,441
1949-
- *96,159
80,547
176,706
1 These figures are based on reports submitted by Canadian canners. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
D  103
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES
Fraser Riv
er, 1934 to 1949, Inclusive
1949
1948
1947            1946
1945
1944,
1943
1942
96,1595
9,889
6,763
66,626
10,286
2141
64,823}
2,9555
20,209
31
16,102
364
33,9525
1,455
16,475}
113,1365
6,105
178
341,957
1,0965
60,713
429
9,1681
178
79,977
6,1305
27,610
95,748}
11,615
270}
88,515
12,5775
13,8035
130
15,564}
293
31,973}
3,505}
52,149
29,860}
8,809
244
446 371
Springs..  	
9,688
82,573
134
Pinks    	
10,542
309
Totals . 	
189,938
104,485
171,302}
413,542
221,3515
130,883}
126,541}
549,617
1941
1940
1939
1938
1937
1936
1935
1934
Sockeyes  	
Springs   	
Chums  ..   ...
Pinks  	
171,290
34,038
95,070
102,388
28,265
248
99,009
4,504
35,665
12
13,028
145
54,296
5,993
30,150
95,176
13,557
69
186,794
4,308
58,778
63
27,127
14
100,272
5,444
20,878
94,010
11,244
184,854
15,126
31,565
62,822
9,401
8,227
111,328
24,950
139,238
16,218
104,092
2,199
Cohoes    	
28,716
11,392
431,299
152,363
199,241
277,084
231,848
260,261
216,728
273,139
Skeena River, 1934 to 1949, Inclusive
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
65,937
2,5075
4,896
33,069}
21,333}
2,507}
101,2675
4,0185
11,863
50,656
22,0865
3,544
32,534
2,113
8,236
13,190}
21,600}
2,044
52,928
2,439
11,161
10,737
26,2815
2,366
104,279}
2,382
9,264
69,783}
34,201}
1,561
68,197
1,500}
8,741}
48,837
20,191}
2,481
28,2685
1,783
6,597
54,509
40,4795
1,952
43,544
6,374
11,421
Pinks  -
52,767
44,081}
3,231
Totals -     -
129,027
193,435}
79,718
105,912}
221,471}
149,9485
133,589
152,4185
1941
1940
1939
1938
1937
1936
1935
1934
81,767
4,985
10,707
50,537
50,605
1,896
116,507
6,118
4,682
47,301
20,614
133
68,485
4,857
7,773
95,236
29,198
55
47,257
4,318
16,758
69,610
52,821
42
42,491
4,401
10,811
59,400
15,514
21
81,973
4,5515
15,2975
91,389
25,390
33
52,879
4,039
8,122
81,868
23,498
14
70,655
8,300
24,388
Pinks           	
126,163
Cohoes     	
54,456
114
Totals __ 	
200,497
195,355
205,604
190,806
132,638
218,634
170,420
284,096 D  104
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES—Continued
Rivers Inlet, 1934 to 1949, Inclusive
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
Sockeyes	
Springs 	
Chums	
Pinks    	
Cohoes 	
Steelheads	
Totals .
39,4941
743
11,819
11,937
5,978
239
37,665}
899}
11,486*
13,491
8,143
4315
140,087
475
13,873
9,025
5,182
2931
70,210}
72,117
168,9351
73,320
1,108}
37,395}
1,641}
9,524}
314
89,735
1,191}
16,793
9,916
17,516}
260
123,304
135,412
36,5821
805
2,705
5,289}
13,921
47,602}
765
11,448
8,347
11,466
69
59,391
79,697}
79,199
985
15,874
954
8,467
60
105,539
1941
1940
1939
1938
1937
1936
1935
1934
Sockeyes  	
93,378
1,692
15,442
4,807
23,202
129
63,469
1,226
9,025
3,329
11,561
55
54,143
745
5,462
12,095
10,974
83
87,942
1,209
7,759
9,063
16,285
105
84,832
917
9,415
7,536
6,012
70
46,351
5815
11,505
6,432}
7,122}
19
135,038
429
7,136
4,554
8,375
39
76,923
436
Chums  _  	
Pinks ....	
895
2,815
4,852
79
Totals	
138,650
88,665
83,502
122,363
108,782
72,011}
155,571
86,000
Smith Inlet, 1934 to 1949, Inclusive*
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
13,189
159
785
2,533
2,361
56
10,456}
1865
929}
1,481}
1,521?
99}
36,800
43
348
1,054
7,910
21
14,318
45
177
235
8,369
33
15,014
26
5«0
2,362
3,692
28
3,165
66
343
498}
2,122
666
15,010
118
541
556
5,693
24
15,939
8
Cohoes   	
Pinks	
1,813
527
Chums 	
5,490
Totals 	
19,083
14,675
46,172
23,177
21,682
6,194}
21,942
23,777
1941
1940
1939
1938
1937
1936
1935
1934
Sockeyes  	
21,495
124
1,955
749
7,741
45
25,947
142
1,102
755
6,015
37
17,833
215
3.880
3,978
2,771
50
33,894
68
1,058
1,761
8,076
64
25,258
21
241
483
9,494
5
12,788
30
310
65
1,653
42
31,648
216
1,201
4,412
12,427
24
14,607
Cohoes 	
Pinks 	
3,941
6,953
15,548
43
32,109
33,998
28,727
44,921
35,502
14,888
49,928
41,256
' Previously reported in Queen Charlotte and other districts. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
D  105
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES—Continued
Nass River, 1934 to 1949, Inclusive
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
9,268
174}
7,854
34,324
6,665
51
13,181}
416
7,272}
8,565
8,954}
149
10,849
398
8,925
5,047
4,075
156
12,511
472
13,810
7,147
4,239
134
9,899
202
4,981}
35,918}
3,895
84}
13,083
68U
9,143
31,854
6,102
232}
13,412}
1,0021
10,146}
17,669
9,768
335
21,085
Springs   	
Chums  _	
Pinks    	
1.515
12,518
49,003}
Cohoes     _
15,487
534
Totals.	
58,336}
38,538}
29,450
38,313
54,980}
61,096
52,3331
100,142}
1941
1940
1939
1938
1937
1936
1935
1934
24,876
519
6,246
22,667
16,648
374
13,809
1,716
5,461
29,278
10,060
117
24,357
708
2,500
26,370
1,996
15
21,462
773
15,911
61,477
14,159
188
17,567
1,251
10,080
8,031
12,067
46
28,562}
2,167
20,6201
75,887}
11,842
496
12,712
560
17,481
25,508
21,810
143
28,701
654
2,648
32,964
9,935
311
Totals ,. 	
71,330
60,441
55,946
113,970
49,042
139,575}
78,214
75,213
Vancouver Island District and Adjacent Mainland, 1934 to 1949, Inclusive
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
19,486}
6,3611
51,629
361,783}
98,958}
151}
9,981}
6,622
147,2275
43,5745
109,9391
227
14,543
4,9425
99,679}
355,992
77,6845
99
35,3815
2,283}
190,313
6,809}
29,983
151}
5,988
2,323
136,724
242,590}
104,528
128
5,288}
3,068}
56,029}
49,092
79.813J
165
7,185
2,937
132,843
130,825
73,846}
74
51,961
5,407
383,005
Pinks .... 	
Cohoes*  	
14,474
81,837}
119
Totals    	
538,370}
317,572
552,940}
264,922
492,281}
193,459
347,7105
536,803}
1941
1940
1939
1938
1937
1936
1935
1934
40,273
8,038
593,016
177,292
166,908
308
15,177
2,454
279,064
33,785
88,885*
214
16,259
2,889
212,949
235,119
123,388
132
27,965
4,254
266,566
70,108
89,471
190
25,427
2,359
203,900
318,780
52,244
88
32,696}
6,340
347,951
82,028}
90.625
105
22,928
6,525
143,960
191,627
104,366
21
27 282
Springs	
Chums  — 	
Pinks  	
Cohoes* -	
1,630
210,239
54,526
78,670
Totals                 	
985,835
419,579
590,736
458,554
608,798
559,746
469,427
372,347
Since 1940, bluebacks have been included with the cohoe-pack for Vancouver Island.
Queen Charlotte Islands, 1940 to 1949, Inclusive
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
1941
1940
20
145
71,287
51,722
4,145
157
20
81,916
90,993
19,615
1
53
1
38
43,801
83,329
16,935
41
149
236
76,745
524
27,421
11
16
Springs  .
Chums —	
Pinks  	
Cohoes -	
24,852}
1,550
8,141}
4
12,132
4,809
1,108
62
14,096
1,200
392
32,414
8.024
1,192
5
35,370
313
14,488
164,911
44,966
8,897
Totals	
34,544
127,319
15,688
41,635
18,053
192,702
50,224
144,145
105,086
218,852 D  106
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES—Continued
Central Area, 1940 to 1949, Inclusive
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
1941
1940
Sockeyes 	
Springs	
Chums  	
Pinks 	
Cohoes 	
Steelheads....	
16,1401
1,007
116,292}
173,456
44,169
355
23,2461
1,1955
225,686
152,200}
36,816
850}
17,343}
514}
292,6045
101,2415
28,778
469
12,6115
656
221,958
81,584}
19,589
934
24,109
542
138,992
364,385
45,4621
590
32,715
643
80,793
162,986
25,823
666
21,101
547
109,101
288,109}
26,645
397
17,470
723}
79,152
69,434
31,274
355
20,854
460
111,587
66,130
45,218
330
32,042
1,518
135,802
54,478
49,886
506
Totals
351,420
439,995
440,951
337,333
574,080}
303,626
445,900}
198,408}
244,579
274,232
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS, 1934 TO 1949, INCLUSIVE
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1943
1942
Fraser River.	
Skeena River 	
Rivers Inlet    	
Smith Inlet  	
Nass River  	
Vancouver Island and adjacent Main
land  _ 	
Other districts..: 	
Packed out of cold-storage stocks	
Totals 	
96,159}
65,937
39,4941
13,189
9,268
19,486}
16,286}
64,823}
101,267}
37,665}
10,456}
13,1815
9,981}
23,266}
588
33,952}
32,534
140,087
36,800
10,849
14,543
17,3431
388
341,957
52,928
73,320
14,318
12,511
35,3815
12,611}
79,977
104,279}
89,735
15,014
9,899
5,988
24,109
88,515
68,197
36,582}
3,165
13,083
5,2885
32,883
31,9735
28,268}
47,602}
15,010
13,412}
7,185
21,437
446,371
34,544
79,199
15,939
21,085
51,961
17,471
259,821
261,230}
286,497
543,027
329,001}
247,714
164,889
666,570
1941
1940
1939
1938
1937
1936
1935
1934
171,290
81,767
93,378
21,495
24,876
40,273
22,219
99,009
116,507
63,469
25,947
13,809
15,177
32,484
54,296
68,485
54,143
17,833
24,357
16,259
34,514
186,794
47,257
87,942
33,894
21,462
27,965
36,357
100,272
42,491
84,832
25,258
17,567
25,427
29,989
183,120
81,973
46,351
12,788
28,562}
34,430}
27,584
62,822
52,879
135,038
31,648
12,712
22,928
32,417
139,238
70,655
76,923
Smith Inlet    .     .. -	
14,607
28,701
Vancouver Island and adjacent Main-
27,282
20,438
Totals 	
455,298
366,402
269,887
441,671*
325,836
414,809t
350,444
377,844
* 5,779 cases of Alaska sockeye packed at Skeena River are not shown in the above table for the year 1938.
t 216 cases of Alaska sockeye packed in British Columbia canneries are not shown in the above table for the year 1936. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
D  107
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SPRING-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA, BY DISTRICTS, 1938 TO 1949, INCLUSIVE
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
1
9 R8Q            1 gsS!
1,455
1,096}
6,130}
4
202
2,382
1,191}
26
542
2,323
12,577}
20
Queen Charlotte Islands	
145
416
4,0181
899}
186}
1,195}
6,622
174}
2,507}
743
159
1,007
6,3615
342}
398
2,113
475
43
514}
4,942}
472
2,439
1,108}
45
656
2,283}
1,500}
805
Smith Inlet	
66
643
3,068}
7
84
Totals          ,.	
21,184
16,445}
10,025
8,100}
12,801
19,362
1943
1942
1941
1940
1939
1938
3,505}
9,688
38
1,515
6,374
985
8
7231
5,407
6
34,038
236
519
4,985
1,692
124
460
8,038
383
1,118
4,504
62
1,716
6.118
1,226
142
1.518
2,454
5,993
36
708
4,857
745
215
655
2,889
4,308
66
1,002}
1,783
765
118
547
2,937
773
4,318
1,209
Smith Inlet   	
68
540
4,254
Totals  _...	
10,658
24,7441
51,593
17,740
16,098
15,536
STATEMENT SHOWING THE COHOE-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA, BY DISTRICTS, 1938 TO 1949, INCLUSIVE
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
Fraser River      - 	
10,286
8,141}
6,665
21,333}
5,978
785
44,169
98,958}
19,059}
568
16,102
4,145
8,954}
22,086}
8,143
9295
36,816
109,939}
6,105
392
4,075
21,600}
5,182
348
28,778
77,6841
2,128
9,168}
1,192
4,239
26,281}
9,5245
177
19,589
29,983
11,615
1,108
3,895
34,2015
17,516}
560
45,462}
104,528
15,564}
19,615
6,102
20,191}
13,921
343
25,823
79,813}
173
14,688
215,944
221,804
146,293
100,1545
218,886}
181,5461
1943
1942
1941
1940
1939
1938
8,809
14,488
9,768
40,479}
11,466
541
26,645
73,846}
10,542
16,935
15,487
44,081}
8,467
1,813
31,274
81,837}
701
28,265
27,421
16,648
50,605
23,202
1,955
45,218
166,908
31,187
39,104
13,028
8,897
10,060
20,614
11,561
1,102
49,886
88,885
20,489
13,557
3,020
1,996
29,198
10,974
3,880
44,426
123,388
14,658
27,127
16,616
14,159
52,821
16,285
1,058
56,716
89,471
26,828
186,043
211,138
430,513
224,522
245,097
301,081 D  108
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATEMENT SHOWING THE PINK-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA BY DISTRICTS, 1938 TO 1949, INCLUSIVE
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
66,626
1,550
34,324
33,069}
11,937
2,533
173,456
361,7831
24,708
31
51,722
8,565
50,656
13,491
1,481}
152,200}
43,574}
113,136}
1,200
5,047
13,190}
9,025
1,050
101,241}
355,992
429
8,024
7,147
10,737
1,6411
235
81,584}
6,809}
95,748}
4,809
35,9185
69,783}
9,916
2,362
364,385
242,590}
90,993
31,854
48,837
5,289}
Smith Inlet     	
162,986
49,092
12
Alaska      	
Packed out of cold-storage stocks	
905
Totals                                                          	
709,987
321,721}
600,787}
116,6075
825,513
389,692
1943
1942
1941
1940
1939
1938
29,860}
313
17,669
54,509
8,347
556
288,109}
130,825
134
83,329
49,003}
52,767
954
527
69,434
14,474
102,388
524
22,667
50,537
4,807
749
66,130
177,292
2,680
12
44,966
29,278
47,301
3,329
755
54,478
33,785
95,176
2,123
26,370
95,236
12,095
3,978
150,498
235,119
57,952
61,477
69,610
9,063
Smith Inlet  	
130,842
70,108
Totals	
530,189
270,622}
427,774
213,904
620,595
400,876
STATEMENT SHOWING THE CHUM-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA BY DISTRICTS,  1938 TO 1949, INCLUSIVE
1949
1948
1947
1946
1945
1944
Fraser River....    —	
6,763
24,8525
7,854
4,896
11,819
2,361
116,292}
51,629
1,255}
2,834
20,209
71,287
7,2721
11,863
11,486}
1,521}
225,686
147,2275
16,475}
14,096
8,925
8,236
13,873
7,910
292,604}
99,679}
60,713
32,414
13,810
11,161
37,395}
8,369
221,958
190,313
27,610
12,132
4,981}
9,264
16,793
3,692
138,992
136,724
13,803}
81,916
9,143
8,741}
2,705
2,122
80,793
56,029}
63
14,851
24,816
Totals               ..              	
230,556}
511,404
486,615}
576,133}
350,188}
255,316}
1943
1942
1941
1940
1939
1938
52,149
35,370
10,146}
6,597
11,448
5,693
109,101
132,843
82,573
43,801
12,518
11,421
15,874
5,490
79,152
383,005
95,070
76,745
6,246
10,707
15,442
7,741
111,587
593,016
3,908
6,339
35,665
164,911
5,461
4,682
9,025
6,015
135,802
279,064
2,816
30,150
45,519
2,500
7,773
5,462
2,771
79,384
212,949
82
58,778
40,882
15,911
16,758
7,759
8,076
127,089
266,566
Smith Inlet ..   .             	
Totals         	
363,347}
633,834
926,801
643,441
386,590
541,819 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
D  109
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF PILCHARD PRODUCTS
PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1930 TO 1949
Season
Canned
Meal
Oil
1930-31           	
Cases
55,166
17,336
4,622
2,946
35,437
27,184
35,007
40,975
69,473
7,300
59,166
72,498
42,008
94,512
78,772
79,536
4,359
2,656
Tons
13,934
14,200
8,842
1,108
7,628
8,666
8,715
8,483
8,891
906
4,853
11,437
11,003
15,209
8,435
5,812
699
67
Gals.
3,204,058
1931 32                                                         -          	
2,551,914
1932-33	
1,315,864
1933-34    	
275,879
1934-35  	
1,635,123
1935-36                                 -	
1,634,592
1936-37                                             -	
1,217,087
1937-38                                                         -	
1,707,276
1938-39    	
2,195,850
1939-40
178,305
890,296
1940-41      	
1941-42                                            	
1,916,191
1942-43                              	
1,560,269
1943-44                                                            _
2,238,987
1944-45                                  	
1,675,090
1945-46          -	
1,273,329
1946-47                                                         	
81,831
1947-48
12,833
1948^(9  	
1949-50                                                          	
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF HERRING PRODUCTS
PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1935 TO 1949
Season
Canned
Dry-salted
Pickled
Meal
Oil
1935 36                                           	
Cases
26,143
20,914
27,365
23,353
418,021
640,252
1,527,350
1,253,978
1,198,632
1,190,762
1,307,514
1,634,286
1,283,670
92,719
77,913
Tons
14,983
16,454
10,230
7,600
7,596
5,039
Tons
892
779
502
591
26
100
129}
1
Tons
5,313
10,340
14,643
18,028
22,870
10,886
8,780
4,633
7,662
9,539
5,525
7,223
18,948
31,340
30,081
Gals.
328,639
1936-37	
1937-38      	
786,742
1,333,245
1938-39        	
1,526,117
1939-40	
1,677,736
1940-41  	
923,137
1941^12                                            	
594,684
1942^13                -	
323,379
1943-44
512,516
1944-45                                           	
717,655
1945^16 - -  --
1946-47       ..--
302
5,807
3,084*
412
3,858
521,649
484,937
1947^18 - - —
1948-49	
1949-50       	
1,526,826
2,614,925
3,823,464
* Previously reported as 2,988 tons.
The above figures are for the season October to March 31st, annually. D  110
BRITISH COLUMBIA
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF MEAL, OIL, AND FERTILIZER
PRODUCED FROM SOURCES OTHER THAN HERRING AND PILCHARD, 1935 TO 1949.
Season
From Whales
From Fish-
livers
From Other Sources
Whalebone
and Meal
Fertilizer
Oil
Oil
Meal and
Fertilizer
Oil
1935-36
Tons
211
332
268
273
181
270
130
62
119
921
Tons
354
687
527
512
434
561
205
90
324
21
Gals.
426,772
763,740
662,355
543,378
Gals.
1
Tons                  Gals.
2.7.76         1         260.387
1936-37	
2,857
2,445
2.059
356,464
1937-38 	
266,009
1938-39      	
186.261
1939-40...	
3,559                331,725
1940-41	
361,820
619,025
255,555
134,553
4,998                415,856
1941-42	
5.410                  405.340
1942-43.	
1943 44
916,723
822,250
545,736
445,858
211,914
11,109,063*
10,121,374*
12,079,015*
4,768
4,332
2,721
4,560
4,208
3.929
338,502
60,000
301,048
1944-45 	
1945-46	
513,442
1946-47	
1947-48	
	
453,008
519.802
1948-49      	
186,424
312,055
1.177                   141.098
1949-50.	
1,635
175,202
* Fish-liver oil, formerly reported in gallons, is now reported in million U.S.P. units Vitamin A. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
D  111
55
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B, O so VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty
1950
1,295-1050-3082

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