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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Department of Agriculture FORTY-FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT 1950 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1951

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Department of Agriculture
FORTY-FIFTH
ANNUAL REPORT
1950
VICTORIA, B.C.
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty
1951  To His Honour Colonel Clarence Wallace, C.B.E.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit herewith for your consideration the Annual Report of
the Department of Agriculture for the year 1950.
HARRY R. BOWMAN,
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., January 2nd, 1951.  BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
DIVISION AND STAFF MEMBERS,  1950
Minister of Agriculture:
"'Honourable H. R. Bowman.
Minister's Secretary:
Miss P. Hetherington.
Deputy Minister:
*W. H. RobertsonT B.S.A.
Departmental Secretary:
Miss A. E. Hill, Victoria, B.C.
Administrative Division:
*M. M. Gilchrist, B.S.A., Assistant Markets Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
George H. Stewart, Statistician, Victoria, B.C.
*C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
*R. G. Garry, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
•J. S. D. Smith, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
N. L. Camsusa, Chief Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
J. S. Wells, Assistant Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
A. J. Hourston, General Assistant, Victoria, B.C.
J. A. McDiarmid, Clerk, Publications Branch, Victoria, B.C.
L. W. Iohnson, Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, Victoria, B.C.
Mrs. Stella E. Gummow, Superintendent of Women's Institutes, Victoria, B.C.
*Miss E. Lidster, B.S.A., Supervisor of Boys' and Girls' Clubs, Vancouver, B.C.
W. H. Turnbull, Senior Apiarist, Vernon, B.C.
A. McNeill, Inspector, Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
T. T. Vaulkhard, Clerk, Accounts Branch, Victoria, B.C.
Plant Industry Division:
*Ben Hoy, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
*N. F. Putnam, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
*C. H. Nelson, B.S.A., Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
*E. W. White, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
E. C. Hunt, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Nelson, B.C.
*G. E. W. Clarke, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
*J. L. Webster, B.S.A., Horticulturist, Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
*R. P. Murray, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Kelowna, B.C.
*G. R. Thorpe, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Creston, B.C.
*M. P. D. Trumpour, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.
*A. W. Watt, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, West Summerland, B.C.
*J. A. Smith, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Kelowna, B.C.
W. Baverstock, District Horticulturist, Court-house, Vernon, B.C.
*R. M. Wilson, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Kamloops, B.C.
*W. D. Christie, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
*D. A. Allan, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Oliver, B.C.
*J. E. Swales, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Nelson, B.C.
*I. C. Carne, Assistant District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
*A. E. Littler, Clerk, Horticultural Branch, Victoria, B.C.
*W. R. Foster, M.Sc, Plant Pathologist, Victoria, B.C.
*I. C. MacSwan, Assistant Plant Pathologist, Vancouver, B.C.
*W. F. Morton, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Kelowna, B.C.
G. H. Comly, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Pentiction, B.C.
*M. G. Oswell, B.S.A. Assistant District Horticulturist, Penticton, B.C.
*E. C. Hughes, B.A. and B.S.A., Assistant, Field Crops Branch, New Westminster, B.C.
* Member of the British Columbia Institute of Agrologists. BB 6 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Animal Industry Division:
*W. R. Gunn, B.S.A., B.V.Sc, V.S., Live Stock Commissioner and Chief Veterinary Inspector,
Victoria, B.C.
Iohn C. Bankier, B.V.Sc, Veterinary Inspector and Animal Pathologist, Langley Prairie, B.C.
G. M. Clark, B.V.Sc, V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
J. J. Carney, M.R.S.L., Veterinary Inspector, Nelson, B.C.
A. Kidd, D.V.M., D.V.P.H., Veterinary Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
I. D. C. Clark, D.V.M., Veterinary Inspector, Penticton, B.C.
C. F. Morris, D.V.M., Veterinary Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
*F. C. Clark, M.S.A., Live Stock Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
*U. Guichon, M.S.A., Live Stock Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
R. J. Weir, Clerk, Live Stock Branch, Victoria, B.C.
*F. C. Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
*N. H. Ingledew, Dairy Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
*G. Patchett, Dairy Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
*G. D. Johnson, Dairy Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
*H. Riehl, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
G. H. Thornbery, Superintendent, Cow-testing Associations, Victoria, B.C.
J. A. Mace, Inspector, Cow-testing Associations, Victoria, B.C.
*G. L. Landon, B.S.A., Poultry Commissioner, New Westminster, B.C.
*W. H. Pope, Poultry Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
R. H. McMillan, Poultry Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
Thomas Moore, Recorder of Brands, Victoria, B.C.
A. J. Duck, Brand Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
R. L. Lancaster, V.S., D.V.M., Veterinary Inspector, Nelson, B.C.
A. Robertson, V.S., D.V.M., Veterinary Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
Extension Division:
*Wm. MacGillivray, Director, Agricultural Development and Extension, Victoria, B.C.
*G. L. Calver, B.E. (Agr.), Agricultural Extension Engineer, Vancouver, B.C.
H. Barber, Clerk, Land-clearing Division, Vancouver, B.C.
*G. A. Luyat, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
*S. G. Preston, M.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Box 639, Prince George, B.C.
*J. S. Allin, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Creston, B.C.
*J. D. Hazlette, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Box 999, Duncan, B.C.
*R. L. Wilkinson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Courtenay, B.C.
*A. E. Donald, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Court-house, New Westminster, B.C.
*M. J. Walsh, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, B.C.
*J. L. Gray, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
*K. R. Jameson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Smithers, B.C.
*G. A. Muirhead, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Smithers, B.C.
*T. S. Crack, District Agriculturist, Pouce Coupe, B.C.
*R. W. Brown, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Fort St. John, B.C.
*J. F. Carmichael, M.Sc, District Agriculturist, Grand Forks, B.C.
*J. W. Awmack, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cranbrook, B.C.
*A. M. Johnson, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Vanderhoof, B.C.
*S. B. Peterson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Creston, B.C.
*George W. Hayes, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Box 639, Prince George, B.C.
*A. J. Allan, District Agriculturist, Box 498, Mission B.C.
*H. R. Anderson, District Agriculturist, Nelson, B.C.
*R. S. Berry, District Agriculturist, 34 Yale Road East, Chilliwack, B.C.
*J. F. Caplette, Assistant District Agriculturist, Court-house, Vernon, B.C.
*G. Cruikshank, Assistant District Agriculturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
*A. R. Tarves, Assistant District Agriculturist, Quesnel, B.C.
*C. M. Williams, Assistant District Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
*D. M. Hamilton, Assistant District Agriculturist, New Westminster, B.C.
* Member of the British Columbia Institute of Agrologists. TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Report of Deputy Minister  9
Report of Statistician  10
Report of Markets Branch  16
Report of Plant Pathology Branch  18
Report of Farmers' Institutes  24
Report of Women's Institutes  29
Report of Agricultural Development and Extension Branch  33
Report of Soil Classification Branch  76
Report of Field Crops Branch  84
Report of Apiary Branch  98
Report of Horticultural Branch  101
Report of Dairy Branch  128
Report of Poultry Branch  133
Report of Live Stock Branch  140
Report of Recorder of Brands  193
Appendices—-
No. 1. Threshermen's Report  196
No. 2. Movement of Grain Screenings  196
No. 3. Estimate of Honey-crop  197
No. 4. Inspected Slaughtering of Live Stock  198
No. 5. Grading of Beef Carcasses  199
No. 6. Average Prices for Cattle  200
No. 7. Average Prices for Lambs  200
No. 8. Average Prices for Hogs  201
No. 9. Dairy Premises Inspected and Graded  202
No. 10. Slaughter-house Licences  203
No. 11. Hide-dealers' Licences  204
No. 12. Stock-dealers' Licences  205
No. 13. Horsemeat-dealers' Licences  205
No. 14. Horse-slaughterers' Licences  205
. No. 15. Beef-peddlers' Licences _~ 206
No. 16. Permit to Transport Horses   206
No. 17. Permit to Transport Stallions  206
No. 18. Record of Cattle and Hide Shipments  206  Report of the Department of Agriculture
REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE
The Honourable H. R. Bowman, B.S.A.,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Forty-fifth Report of the Department of
Agriculture for the year ended December 31st, 1950.
The Report, as submitted, contains detailed reports of the various branches which
constitute your Department. Items not dealt with in the reports as mentioned are as
follows:—
PUBLICATIONS
In the past year the Publications Branch received 4,228 letters requesting agricultural
literature, distributed 43,472 bulletins to the public and the district offices, mimeographed
123,155 stencils for the various branches of the Department, and added 58,900 copies of
new, revised, and reprinted publications to our stock.
The following is a list of new and revised publications printed in 1950:—
Forty-fourth Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture.
Statistics Report, 1948.
Climate Report, 1949.
Land-clearing for Agriculture in B.C.    B. 85.
Diseases of Fruit-trees.    H.C. 73.
Exhibition Standards of Perfection.    A.D.C. 50.
Potato Diseases.    F.C.C. 15.
Poultry Diseases.    P.B. 108.
Turkey-raising, Practical.    P.B. 27.
Charts:—
Fertilizer Recommendations, 1950.
Control of Tree-fruit Pests and Diseases, 1951.
Control of Small-fruit Pests and Diseases.
Control of Vegetable and Field-crop Pests and Diseases, 1951-52.
STAFF CHANGES
Appointments.—R. S. Berry, June 22nd; Miss M. L. Dawson, May 22nd; Mrs.
M. M. Gowan, August 21st; Miss S. Hamaura, March 13th; Mrs. L. W. Howe, April
1st; Mrs. I. M. Leversage, March 15th; J. A. Mace, May 1st; Mrs J. S. Mercer, April
11th; C. L. Neilson, November 6th; R. R. Owen, April 24th; Miss S. E. G. Peterson,
July 1st; Dr. A. Robertson, July 1st; Miss B. E. Staf, September 1st; G. Cruickshank,
October 1st; Mrs. C. Daykin, October 23rd;  G. H. Comly, April 18th.
Transfers.—Miss H. M. Gabel, December 1st.
Resignations.-—J. E. Beamish, January 31st; Mrs. H. M. Bruhjell, April 30th;
Miss K. M. Campbell, August 31st; Mrs. M. R. Campbell, April 17th; Miss H. M.
Davis, April 17th; Miss B. B. De Graves, August 31st; Miss D. E. Furtney, April 30th;
Miss R. I. Love, April 30th; Mrs. J. S. Mercer, August 31st; Miss J. E. Trehearne,
March 31st; Mrs. B. E. Whitehead, November 1st; Mrs I. M. Leversage, December 1st.
Superannuations.—Dr. J. B. Munro, O.B.E., November 7th; E. O. MacGinnis
October 1st.
9 BB  10 BRITISH COLUMBIA
FREIGHT ASSISTANCE ON FEED-GRAIN SHIPMENTS
The Freight Assistance Policy covering shipments of feed-grains from Prairie points
to British Columbia became effective on November 18th, 1941. The basis of payment
is set out in Order in Council P.C. 5434. Further details are also contained in Canadian
Freight Association Tariff No. 145. There has been no change made in the freight
rates to British Columbia from the date that the policy became effective.
From the date when this policy was brought into effect in British Columbia to
October 31st, 1950, there has been imported into the Province a total tonnage of feed-
grains amounting to 2,242,048 tons, valued at $14,386,963.60. The average rate per
ton over the period for which this assistance has been given amounts to $6.42 per ton.
During the last twelve months (December 1st, 1949, to November 30th, 1950) the
importations of feed-grains into British Columbia have been as follows: Wheat, 51,081
tons; oats, 40,605 tons; barley, 18,729 tons; mixed grains, 1,133 tons; mill-feeds,
23,010 tons; total, 134,558 tons.    It is hoped that this policy will be continued.
LEGISLATION
During the First Session of the Twenty-second Parliament of British Columbia
new legislation dealing with agriculture as passed at that Session consisted of an " Act
to amend the ' Stock-brands Act.' " This is cited as the " Stock-brands Act Amendment Act, 1950," and details covering this amendment are fully explained in the report
as submitted by the Provincial Recorder of Brands.
An " Act to amend the ' Milk Act,' " and cited as the " Milk Act Amendment
Act, 1950," provides for further powers for Inspectors, as well as dealing with certain
matters relative to the vendors of milk.
Respectfully submitted.
W. H. ROBERTSON,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture.
REPORT OF AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS
G. H. Stewart, Agricultural Statistician
SYNOPSIS OF AGRICULTURAL CONDITIONS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA,
YEAR 1949
Preliminary estimates indicate that the gross value of agricultural production in
1949 amounted to $139,960,563. This was about 3 per cent below the all-time high
production of $144,225,229 established in 1948.
Cash income to British Columbia farmers from the sale of farm products amounted
to $98,041,000 in 1949, a decrease of approximately 4 per cent from the revised
estimate of $102,318,000 in 1948. The maintenance of the 1949 farm cash income
at such a high level may be attributed largely to increased returns from the sale of
grains, seeds, potatoes, vegetables, and dairy products. Less income was received
from live stock, fruits, wool, and poultry products.
The total value of imports of agricultural products is estimated at $79,360,956,
a slight decrease from the estimate of $79,382,802 in 1948.
Imports from other Provinces are valued at $74,497,655, compared with $75,260,392
in 1948, while imports from foreign points reached a total of $4,863,301, compared
with $4,122,410 in 1948. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950 BB  11
The total value of exports is placed at $31,424,263 in 1949, as compared with
$36,264,372 in 1948, a decrease of $4,840,109.
HORTICULTURAL CONDITIONS
The winter in the Kootenay sections, while not extremely cold, was prolonged.
Snow was recorded in early December, 1948, with a temperature drop to 4 degrees
below zero in January, with heavy snows and low temperatures being recorded until
the end of March in all fruit-growing districts of this area. In the Okanagan low
temperatures were also recorded, varying from —12° F. at Oliver to —27° F. in the
Salmon River valley. All districts, however, reported a comparatively heavy fall of
snow, which undoubtedly was a protection to fruit-tree roots. One noticeable feature
of the winter was the fact that through December, 1948, to March, 1949, cold weather
generally prevailed, with little or no mild weather. Reports from the Fraser Valley
show also that cold weather set in about the middle of December, 1948, and continued
until the end of February. The cold weather was accompanied by snowfall which,
while not heavy in comparison with Interior districts, was heavier than usual for this
area. Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands also experienced one of the longest
continuous cold spells on record. In this district, January, in addition to being cold,
was one of the driest first months on record and February one of the wettest second
months on record.
Weather conditions began to improve in all areas toward the end of March, and
what gave indications of being a late spring actually turned out to be a spring somewhat
earlier than that of 1948.
The spring was comparatively dry in all districts. This was particularly noticeable in the Okanagan and Coast areas. Summer rainfall was also light, and the general
temperature, while not high, was higher than that of 1948. However, a few good
summer rains were recorded, which materially helped the irrigation areas and also the
Coast districts where late plantings of vegetables were made.
Early fall frosts in many districts shortened the season for the harvesting of certain
canning-crops, but this period on the whole was dry and gave an excellent opportunity
for the harvesting of the main fruit and vegetable crops in all sections.
Several severe hail-storms were experienced in the Okanagan during the past
season. Amongst the hardest hit were sections of South Kelowna, Okanagan Mission,
and parts of East Kelowna. Certain growers sustained losses as high as 70 per cent.
Heavy losses were also experienced in Naramata and Penticton districts from the hailstorms of July 23rd and 24th and August 23rd. In these two districts approximately
500 acres suffered from hail. The Naramata district has had hail losses two years in
succession, but had no hail damage for fifteen years prior to 1948.
TREE AND SMALL FRUITS
From a Provincial standpoint the production has, in the case of most tree-fruits,
been the heaviest on record. While there has in the past been a heavier production
of apples, the spring indications were that this crop would be smaller than in 1948.
Nevertheless, due to favourable weather conditions, freedom from pests, etc., the crop
of apples was considerably heavier than that of last year.
The pear-crop was slightly below that of last year. The crop was undoubtedly
reduced due to the general prevalence of fire-blight in many districts.
HORTICULTURAL CONDITIONS
The cherry-crop was one of the best on record and, in the Okanagan particularly,
was harvested in excellent condition due to the satisfactory weather conditions at
harvesting-time. BB 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The peach-crop also was very heavy, and owing to the dry season there was little
loss from disease. Dry weather, however, was a factor in the failure to size, particularly in early peaches. The apricot-crop was larger than that of 1948, with little or no
Joss from disease.
The plum production showed a marked increase, as also did the prune production.
The prune-crop on the whole was of poor quality due to a heavy set and many devitalized
trees.
The total production of small fruits for the current year shows a reduction as compared with 1948. This is particularly noticeable in the case of loganberries, which
suffered very materially from winter-injury. Other small fruits, such as blackberries,
currants, and gooseberries, show little change from last year. Prices for small fruits,
while showing a decline in comparison with past years, may be considered as satisfactory,
with the demand excellent, particularly in the case of strawberries, and there was a
heavy movement of this fruit in car-load lots to the Prairies from Vancouver Island.
The total production of all fruits in 1949 amounted to 501,026,000 pounds, valued
at $23,638,029, as compared with 448,184,000 pounds, valued at $27,078,666, in 1948,
indicating an increase of 52,842,000 pounds or 11.7 per cent in volume but a decrease
of $3,440,637 or 12.7 per cent in value.
The 1949 apple-crop is estimated at 362,568,000 pounds, of a value of $12,115,057,
as compared with 305,446,000 pounds, valued at $14,108,572, in 1948.
The cherry-crop was the largest ever recorded. The 1949 crop amounted to
11,032,000 pounds, as compared with the 1948 production of 6,530,000 pounds, an
increase of 4,502,000 pounds or 68.9 per cent.
Production of peaches for the current year reached an all-time high. The 1949
crop is estimated at 38,666,000 pounds, as compared with 36,476,000 pounds in 1948.
The 1949 pear-crop is estimated at 26,940,000 pounds, down 448,000 pounds
from the previous year.
The 1949 apricot-crop, amounting to 9,066,000 pounds, was the largest ever
produced in the Province and exceeded the 1948 production by 1,458,000 pounds.
The 1949 raspberry-crop is estimated at 9,338,000 pounds, as compared with
14,820,000 pounds in 1948, a decrease of 5,482,000 pounds.
Production of strawberries in 1949 amounted to 14,814,000 pounds, of a value
of $2,384,400, as compared with 19,192,000 pounds, value $3,443,105 in 1948.
Of the other principal fruits, the estimated commercial production and value for
1949 are as follows, with corresponding figures for 1948 placed within parentheses:
Plums, 3,048,000 pounds, $186,964 (2,686,000, $180,197); prunes, 17,614,000
pounds, $751,865 (13,820,000, $860,331); blackberries, 1,062,000 pounds, $103,419
(950,000, $112,578); loganberries, 878,000 pounds, $123,785 (2,262,000, $340,286).
VEGETABLES
With the increase in population there comes an increased demand for vegetables.
This demand is met by domestic production as well as by importation. There is also
a certain export movement of early vegetables from British Columbia to the Prairie
Provinces and farther east.
On Vancouver Island greenhouse tomato production during the past season has
been well up to average, although prices are back more or less to normal after the
very high prices of 1948. There was a fair car-load movement of tomatoes from
Vancouver Island to eastern points. The heavy shipments were from the spring crop,
eight straight car-loads being shipped east. From the fall crop, three car-loads were
shipped to eastern points, making a total of eleven carloads in all.
The broccoli-crop on Vancouver Island, which, under normal conditions, is one
of the principal winter crops, was considerably damaged due to low temperatures. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1950 BB 13
In the Fraser Valley, vegetable production is of major importance and a large
percentage of this production is within a comparatively small radius of Vancouver and
New Westminster. Many other areas in the Fraser Valley could and undoubtedly
will be developed as the demand for vegetables increases.
In the Okanagan there is a heavy production of all main crops, such as onions,
tomatoes, celery, carrots, beets, etc. There is very little variation in the acreage of
these crops from year to year, enough being grown to supply local demand as well as
a large percentage being used for export to the Coast markets and to the Prairie
Provinces.
The aggregate of all vegetable-crops for 1949 was 86,327 tons, of a value of
$7,090,997, as compared with 77,654 tons, of a value of $7,670,856, produced in 1948,
indicating an increase of 8,673 tons or 11.1 per cent in volume but a decrease of
$579,859 or 7.5 per cent in value.
Greenhouse tomato production in 1949 amounted to 1,958 tons, valued at $766,397,
as compared with 1,848 tons, valued at $1,231,795, in 1948.
Field tomatoes produced amounted to 20,481 tons, as against 19,619 tons in
1948, an increase of 862 tons.
The quantity of field cucumbers produced in 1949 is estimated at 2,859 tons,
as compared with 1,940 tons for the year previous, an increase of 919 tons or 47.3
per cent.
An increase of 31 tons is recorded in the quantity of greenhouse cucumbers produced.    The 1949 crop amounted to 311 tons, valued at $121,839.
Of the other vegetable-crops, the following showed an increase in volume of production over the previous year: Beets, cauliflower, celery, corn, lettuce, mushrooms,
parsnips, green peas, spinach, and turnips. On the other hand, such crops as asparagus,
green beans, cabbage, carrots, onions, and rhubarb recorded decreases.
FIELD CROPS
The 1949 season was most satisfactory in so far as production of field crops is
concerned. Throughout the Province satisfactory weather conditions prevailed, and
although no record crops were established, yields and quality of cereal and hay crops
were well up to average. The Fraser Valley made a remarkable come-back after the
1948 floods, and good crops of hay were harvested under ideal weather conditions for
the most part. Early spring drought in the Vanderhoof-Smithers-Terrace area set crops
back somewhat, but the crops survived and were only slightly below average.
In general, cereal-crops were good throughout the Province, with quality being
well up. Good harvesting weather prevailed throughout most areas. The oat-crop
in the Fraser Valley was very good, with little damage from lodging. Crops in the
North Okanagan were up to average in yields, with quality very good. The Peace
River Block experienced one of the best years in regard to cereal production.
Forage-crops in the Fraser Valley were good, particularly red clover. In the
Central Interior and Peace River, alsike clover, altaswede red clover, alfalfa, and
timothy were poor and very spotty. One field would yield 200 pounds per acre of
seed, and across the fence the stand would not be worth cutting. Early frost probably
contributed much to the poor seed-set.
The total gross value of the principal field crops produced on farms in British
Columbia in 1949 is now placed at $34,103,000, up $597,000 from the 1948 total.
The total area devoted to the principal field crops in 1949 was 629,900 acres, as
compared with 596,100 acres in 1948, an increase of 33,800 acres or 5.6 per cent.
Wheat production in 1949 is estimated at 3,889,000 bushels from 149,000 acres,
a yield per acre of 26.1 bushels, as compared with 2,459,000 bushels from 116,000
acres, or 21.2 bushels per acre, in 1948.    Oats yielded 4,195,000 bushels from 83,400 BB  14 BRITISH COLUMBIA
acres, as compared with 3,456,000 bushels from 75,800 acres in 1948, yields per
acre of 50.3 bushels and 45.6 bushels respectively. Barley production is estimated at
494,000 bushels from 13,700 acres, or 36.1 bushels per acre, as compared with 485,000
bushels from 15,600 acres, or 31.1 bushels per acre, in 1948.
The production of mixed grains is placed at 346,000 bushels from 8,000 acres,
or 43.2 bushels per acre, as compared with 339,000 bushels from 8,400 acres, or 40.4.
bushels per acre, in 1948.
The production of all grain-crops amounted to 9,057,000 bushels, valued at
$10,363,000, as compared with the 1948 production of 6,872,000 bushels, valued at
$7,654,000.
The total yield of hay and clover in 1949 amounted to 422,000 tons from
211,000 acres, as compared with 458,000 tons from 218,000 acres in 1948, yields
per acre of 2 tons and 2.10 tons respectively. Alfalfa yielded 261,000 tons from
94,900 acres, or 2.75 tons per acre, as compared with 231,000 tons from 82,500 acres,
or 2.80 tons per acre, in 1948. Fodder corn yielded 46,000 tons from 4,100 acres,
or 11.2 tons per acre, as against 33,000 tons from 3,100 acres, or 10.50 tons per acre,
in 1948. Grain-hay is estimated to have yielded 74,000 tons from 40,000 acres, as
compared with 84,000 tons from 48,000 acres in 1948, yields per acre of 1.85 tons
and 1.75 tons respectively.
Fodder crops aggregating a total of 803,000 tons, valued at $16,297,000, were
produced in 1949, as compared with 806,000 tons, valued at $18,973,000, in 1948.
The total yield of potatoes in 1949 was 117,300 tons from 17,000 acres, as compared
with 111,350 tons from 17,400 acres in 1948, the respective yields being 6.90 tons and
6.40 tons.
DAIRYING
There was a heavy winter snowfall throughout the Province, but generally favourable
conditions prevailed during the spring and summer. Good hay and grain crops, coupled
with a fairly mild open fall, resulted in a slightly increased milk production, with a steady
demand and fair prices for all milk and milk products.
Total milk production is estimated at 651,647,000 pounds in 1949, an increase
of 18,071,000 pounds or 2.7 per cent over 1948.
The quantity of milk used in the manufacture of factory dairy products represented
approximately 35 per cent; fluid sales absorbed approximately 50 per cent; while the
amount used on the farm for live-stock feeding, the manufacture of farm-made dairy
products, and home consumption accounted for 15 per cent of the total milk-supply.
The total farm value of milk production amounted to $21,844,000 in 1949, an
increase of $207,000 from the previous year. The total value of dairy products, including
manufactured products and fluid sales valued at the factory, plus the value of products
made and used on farms, amounted to $30,707,000, an increase of $845,000 over the
year 1948.
The butter output of creameries in 1949 was 4,589,000 pounds, as compared with
4,326,000 pounds in 1948, an increase of 263,000 pounds or 6 per cent.
Cheddar-cheese production is estimated at 496,000 pounds in 1949, as compared
with the final estimate of 431,000 pounds in 1948, representing an increase of 65,000
pounds or 15 per cent.
Ice-cream production was down from 2,492,000 gallons in 1948 to 2,387,000
gallons in 1949, a decrease of 105,000 gallons.
Sales of fluid milk and cream, the latter expressed as milk, amounted to 327,502,000
pounds in 1949, an increase of 7,121,000 pounds in comparison with last year.
The production of evaporated whole milk was the highest on record. The output
of the condenseries in 1949 was 32,422,000 pounds, as compared with 31,286,000 pounds
in 1948, an increase of 1,136,000 pounds. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1950 BB 15
LIVE STOCK AND POULTRY
Two unusual winters reduced the foundation herds in some sections of the range
country where ranches depend upon native hay for their winter feed-supply, but a recent
survey indicates that these herds are building up again.
Despite the general prediction that prices of beef would take a substantial drop
when the heavy marketing season arrived, prices held up particularly well, especially for
cattle ready for killing. New market outlets came along to at least temporarily help
the situation. High prices continue to favour cattle carrying good but light finish and
cattle that go for processed meats.
The sheep industry has experienced another successful year from the standpoint
of prices. The sheep population continues to go down all over the continent due to the
problem of dogs and predators. Observations, however, indicate a revived interest in
this branch of the live-stock industry. More replacement ewes are being held over, which
should show an increase in sheep numbers very shortly.
There is little change in the swine-production picture. With an increase in the
numbers of sows to farrow from June to November, 1949, it does appear that there
will be an up-turn in the cycle.
Estimates of the numbers of principal species of live stock on farms at June 1st, 1949,
showed a reduction from those of the previous year.
The number of horses on farms is placed at 49,000, a decline of 3.2 per cent from
the total of 50,600 in 1948.
Cattle numbers at 348,000 represent a decrease of 13,600 or 3.8 per cent from the
total at June 1st, 1948. Milk-cow numbers, estimated at 94,000 at June 1st, 1949, are
400 above those of a year ago.
The June 1st survey indicated 92,800 sheep and lambs on farms, as compared with
104,700 in 1948, a decrease of 11,900.
There were 55,000 hogs on farms at June 1st, 1949, as compared with 59,300 on
June 1st, 1948, a decrease of 4,300.
Numbers of hens, cocks, and chickens registered a decrease from 4,129,000 in 1948
to 3,814,000 in 1949, a decrease of 7.6 per cent.
Turkey numbers at June 1st, 1949, reached the highest level ever recorded. The
total of 225,000 represented an increase of 78,000 head or 53.1 per cent over the
previous year.
The number of ducks increased by 71.4 per cent, being 24,000, as compared with
14,000 on June 1st, a year ago.
There was also an increase of 12.5 per cent in geese.
Egg production during 1949 decreased by 4,044,400 dozens, or 11.9 per cent.
Total production of eggs is estimated at 29,824,000 dozens, valued at $13,888,000, in
1949, as compared with 33,868,400 dozens, valued at $14,321,000, in 1948.
Poultry-meat production was down from 18,266,000 pounds in 1948 to 14,922,000
pounds in 1949, a decrease of 3,344,000 pounds or 18.3 per cent.
MISCELLANEOUS
Seasonal conditions were good for practically all seed crops. High contract prices
for all seeds, which was a feature of the war period, have disappeared, and prices are now
nearer pre-war level. Total value of production has decreased, but the volume as a whole
is much larger than at any pre-war period. The industry appears to be on a fairly firm
basis. The total value of flower, vegetable, and field-crop seed production for 1949
amounted to $1,287,737, as compared with a value of $1,000,707 in 1948, an increase
of $287,030.
Due to a decrease in sheep numbers the total wool-clip was somewhat below that
of the previous year.    Wool production in 1949 amounted to 355,000 pounds, valued BB  16 BRITISH COLUMBIA
at $102,000, as compared with .the 1948 production of 409,000 pounds, valued at
$117,000.
Total honey production for 1949 is estimated at 1,647,000 pounds, as compared
with 1,638,000 pounds in 1948.
Hops yielded 1,803,000 pounds from 1,520 acres, as compared with 2,009,000
pounds from 1,635 acres in 1948—yields per acre of 1,186 pounds and 1,229 pounds
respectively.    The 1949 crop was valued at $1,305,000.
Climatic conditions were generally favourable to the growth and development of
the 1949 tobacco-crop. The crop yielded 87,000 pounds, valued at $29,200, from
81 acres, as compared with 19,000 pounds, valued at $8,000, from 24 acres in 1948,
the respective yields being 1,074 pounds and 792 pounds.
The revenue derived from fur-farming in 1949 is placed at $602,000, as compared
with a value of $673,000 for 1948.
REPORT OF MARKETS BRANCH
Ernest MacGinnis, Commissioner
GENERAL
Marketing conditions during the past year entered another phase, contributing to
which were several circumstances, not particularly evident in former years.
Until recently, the United States provided a market for our meat-crops and did
little to compete in the fruit and vegetable field. The recent levelling-out of meat prices
and a heavy vegetable-crop across the Border has introduced difficulties in disposing
of the local products. This is especially to be seen with potatoes, carrots, and other root
crops.
Berries in the Fraser Valley were more fortunate, as in this case U.S. buyers bidding
for the fruit built a floor upon which excellent prices and heavy disposal were effected.
Heavy Okanagan fruit losses virtually wiped out its apricots and peaches and reduced the pear and plum tonnage, leading to heavy importations of these commodities.
Although 10 per cent of the apple-trees were killed, the tonnage has increased over
1949, with an estimated 7,500,000 boxes compared with 7,000,000 last year.
Rising feed and labour costs have had a depressing effect on production records in
quantity and in quality, which in turn has an influence on marketing.
Consumer buying-power, fortunately, has remained high, and there is a consistently
greater demand for high-quality products.
EXCHANGE SITUATION
The adverse exchange situation has disrupted established markets for our major
export crops—apples, berries, and small seeds—and resulted in the closing of the fibre-
flax industry. The importation of bulbs, shrubs, and berries from Holland has been
encouraged by it. Strawberries in S02 were landed in Victoria on November 15th at
prices which eliminated local growers from possible competition, though they have stock
on hand still unsold.
ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER
In January M. M. Gilchrist joined the Branch as Assistant Markets Commissioner.
This was a promotion from the Extension Branch, in which he had been District Agriculturist at New Westminster. Mr. Gilchrist, a graduate of the University of British
Columbia and an ex-R.C.A.F. officer, brings to the Branch a wide variety of experience,
which is of value to this phase of agricultural industry. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950 BB  17
In the early summer he accompanied the Minister and other officials on a survey
of conditions in the Nechako, Bulkley, and Prince George areas. Later, accompanied
by the Commissioner, he toured as far east as Windermere and in the early autumn,
with him, made a study of early tomato and cantaloupe marketing in South Okanagan.
In addition to other duties, he has assumed entire responsibility for editing the
Markets Bulletin, which is becoming increasingly popular.
MARKETING CONFERENCE
One of the outstanding events of the year affecting marketing was the Second
Annual Marketing Conference called by the Minister on November 24th in Vancouver,
at the request of and immediately following the Annual Convention of the British Columbia Federation of Agriculture.
On this occasion the production and marketing situation regarding ten of the chief
agricultural products was discussed by the following speakers: Tree-fruits—Ivor Newman, president, B.C.F.G.A., and A. K. Loyd, president and general manager, Tree
Fruits Limited; small fruits—J. Klassen and R. C. Lucas, Consolidated Coast Growers;
beef—T. P. Wilson, president, British Columbia Beef Growers' Association; small
seeds—W. H. Baumbrough, grower, and N. Van der Giesson, sales manager, British
Columbia Seeds Co-operative; dairying—Harold German, president, British Columbia
Dairymen's Association, and Everard Clarke, secretary, British Columbia Dairymen's
Association; seed-potatoes—John Ronayne, Sr., Pemberton grower, and C. H. Bradbury, manager, Northern Certified Seed Potato Growers' Co-operative Association;
vegetables—Col. A. W. McLelan, grower, and Col. E. Poole, secretary, British Columbia
Interior Vegetable Marketing Board; poultry—Cyril Headey; sheep—Lloyd Haywood,
president, British Columbia Sheep Association; swine—F. M. Reichel, president, British
Columbia Swine Association.
Commentators included Col. Moore Cosgrave, R. S. O'Meara, C. R. Mathews,
Harvey Turnbull, William Read, William MacGillivray, and H. L. Ford, who reviewed
the live-stock situation, present and future.
The Honourable H. R. Bowman was present throughout the six-hour conference,
which was chaired by officials of this Branch.
OTHER ASSOCIATED ACTIVITIES
During the year the opportunity was presented to become associated with the
Dominion Economics Branch in a poultry-marketing survey in the Fraser Valley being
undertaken by that body. Because of the importance to the poultry industry of an
efficient marketing programme, it was considered that participation in such a movement
fitted itself into activities of this Branch. Plans are under way for co-operation with the
same agencies on another project next year. The Dominion Government, the University
of British Columbia, and this Branch are all interested in these projects.
British Columbia apples were the featured attraction of a non-competitive exhibit
at the Royal Winter Fair. This was a well-planned display of commercial apples with
appropriate advertising material and two officials of the fruit-growers' selling agency
and one grower present to answer the many questions inspired by the exhibition. This
Branch was able, for the second time, to assist with a grant.
The Branch also participated with its own display in the planned farming programme
carried out in the Fraser Valley. This was arranged by Mr. Gilchrist, who accompanied
the exhibit throughout its tour.
BRITISH COLUMBIA MARKETING BOARD
The personnel of the British Columbia Marketing Board has been changed, with
the replacement of J. A. Grant by the present Commissioner, who acts as secretary. BB  18 BRITISH COLUMBIA
With the Chairman, he attended, in March, a Dominion-wide conference called by the
Canadian Federation of Agriculture at Ottawa. At this meeting, marketing legislation,
both Provincial and the Federal Act known as " Bill 82," was discussed. The " Natural
Products Marketing (British Columbia) Act," having been before the Privy Council,
was referred to as having passed both the acid tests of recognized legality and successful
operation.
It is noted that Saskatchewan now has a honey plan, that New Brunswick recently
developed a potato scheme, and that a Prince Edward Island plebiscite on the question of
controlled marketing was overwhelmingly favourable to the idea.
Under this legislation the consumer receives full benefit from conditions presently
developing through heavier yields and increased imports. Commodity Boards operating
under the Marketing Act have been granted powers to control prices only on the regulated product actually produced in the area in which they operate, and not on imports
from anywhere outside of their own areas, either as regards value or volume.
Operations of a Commodity Board are therefore limited in so far as they may
stabilize the producer prices and conditions of surplus, and consequently lower returns
are attributed by the unthinking to inefficiency in operation of these boards.
During the past season, interest has developed in the possible application of a
scheme under the "Natural Products Marketing (British Columbia) Act" among
several farm organizations, including berries, bulbs, and cut flowers, and dairy products;
discussions are being continued.
A study was undertaken covering conditions complained of by tomato and cantaloupe growers under the Interior Vegetable Marketing Board in the South Okanagan.
The major difficulty was in the application of the quota and " pick to order " regulations
made under that system. This study, when finalized, will be presented to the Minister
for his information, but will constitute neither a directive nor suggestion to the Commodity Board elected by producers to administer the scheme which was established by
Order in Council.
It is interesting to observe that in any case when criticism is made of a Board's
operation, the producers always emphasize their approval of the principle of orderly
marketing, and that it is the administration of it in some particular instance to which
criticism is directed.
CONCLUSION
Acknowledgement is made of the continued co-operation accorded the Branch by
officials of this and other departments, the University of British Columbia, and Government of Canada.
In closing this, my final report as Markets Commissioner, I would depart for a
moment from the formal and express my personal appreciation of the many acts of
courtesy and kindness which have been extended by officials of this Department and
many others. To have been able to contribute to the good of agriculture in this
Province through the Agricultural Production Committee, Emergency Farm Labour
Service, Farmers' Institutes, and this Branch has been a privilege of which I am very
proud.
REPORT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY BRANCH
W. R. Foster, M.Sc, and I. C. MacSwan, B.S.A.
Many of the important plant diseases caused little damage owing to the dry weather
during the growing season. Some of the diseases which caused less damage than usual
are scab of apples and pears, fire-blight of apples and pears, powdery mildew of apples, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1950 BB 19
late blight of potatoes, onion mildew, and late blight of celery. Some of the diseases
that were important are rosette of apples in the Okanagan, little cherry in the Kootenays,
Coryneum blight of peaches in the Fraser Valley and Kootenays, brown-rot of cherries
in the Fraser Valley, black-knot of plums in the Fraser Valley, red-stele of strawberry
at the Coast, an unidentified virus disease of strawberries in the Wynndel district,
Godronia canker of blueberry in the Fraser Valley, bunt of winter wheat in the Northern
Okanagan, Typhula blight of winter wheat in the Vanderhoof area, and club-root of
crucifers at the Coast. The Province still appears to be virtually free of bacterial ring-
rot of potatoes.
The amount of low-temperature damage to tree-fruits in the Okanagan and Main
Line was greater than ever before.
A virus disease was found to be the main cause of the difficulty of growing satisfactory crops of strawberries in the Wynndel district. The particular virus involved has not
been identified, but a practical control is accomplished by the use of certified planting
stock from the Coast.
For the first time an agricultural hazard forecast for a disease—late blight of
potatoes—was inaugurated. If an outbreak of late blight is foreseen, the timely warning
may help in combating it. If the forecast is for freedom from attack, the farmers can
save the expense of spraying needlessly.
The Provincial regulations governing the shipment of horticultural and nursery
stock to British Columbia from other Provinces of Canada have been cancelled.
PERENNIAL CANKER OF APPLES
There has been an increase in perennial canker of apples caused by Neofabraa
perennans in recent years in most of the Okanagan. The increase has been due to a considerable increase in the number of woolly aphides, which are responsible for spreading
the disease. The woolly aphis has increased with the use of DDT, which kills the woolly-
aphis parasite, Aphelinus mali.
ROSETTE OF APPLES
Rosette, a zinc-deficiency disease, has become increasingly prevalent in the Okanagan. Apples appear to be affected more than other deciduous fruits. The recommendation where there is a noticeable zinc deficiency is to apply a dormant spray at the rate
of 80 pounds of zinc sulphate per acre in late March or early April. As a preventive,
zinc oxide at the rate of 2 pounds per acre applied annually as an early summer spray is
recommended.
INSPECTION FOR LITTLE CHERRY IN THE OKANAGAN
Owing to severe winter damage in cherries, the regular inspection for little cherry
was not conducted. Only the orchards where small bitter cherry had been previously
found were inspected. The little-cherry disease still appears to be confined to the
Kootenays.
BLACK-KNOT OF PLUMS AND PRUNES
The black-knot eradication campaign has been continued during the past year
throughout the Lower Mainland, but mainly in the Chilliwack area, by publicity to growers
with affected trees, and it is felt that some progress in reducing the number of affected trees
has been made. A prune-orchard on the farm of J. Kehler, Chilliwack, established in
1949, with the assistance of W. D. Christie, as a demonstration orchard, has been used
to show that the black-knot disease can be kept under control by early spring spraying
of 1-10 lime-sulphur and the pruning-out and burning of all knots. BB 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA
WINTER-INJURY IN TREE-FRUITS
Low temperatures during January and February, 1950, caused greater losses to tree-
fruits than ever before. Twenty per cent of all the kinds of fruit-trees were killed in the
Okanagan, Main Line, and Grand Forks. Low temperatures ranged from —16° F.
in the southern end to —37.4° F. in the northern areas.
The amount of injury, such as killing fruits, buds, bark, and woody tissue to the trees
that survived, varied with the temperature, the amount of snow protection, the kind of
fruit-tree, the variety, age, cropping habits, vigour, and maturity. The least amount of
damage to fruit-trees took place in the Penticton, Naramata, and Summerland districts,
where the temperature was not as low as in the more northern districts, and where there
was a heavy covering of snow, compared with the very little to none in the more southern
areas. Peach-trees were injured the most, followed by apricots, sweet cherries, plums,
prunes, pears, and apples. The peach varieties Valiant, Vedette, and Veteran appeared
to be the hardiest, followed by Rochester, Elberta, and J. H. Hale, the most susceptible.
In apricots, the Moorpark and Perfection seemed to be hardier as far as wood is concerned
than Tilton or Blenheim, but the buds of the Tilton were the hardiest of the four. In
cherries, the Lambert and the Van appeared to survive better than the Bing and Napoleon.
The Italian prunes were the hardiest of the plums. In pears, the Bartlett variety was the
most severely injured, compared with Flemish Beauty or Anjou. In apples, the Mcintosh,
Wealthy, and Winesap seemed to be the hardiest, and the following appeared to be susceptible:  Stayman, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, Newtown, Delicious, and Golden Delicious.
In general, old trees were more severely damaged than young ones. Healthy
vigorous trees appeared to survive better than weak or sick trees. The trees which bore
the heaviest crops in 1949 appeared to be harder hit than those which bore lighter crops.
WINTER-INJURY IN SMALL FRUIT
Many blueberry plantings in the Fraser Valley showed severe twig and branch die-
back injury as a result of the low temperature of the winter 1949-50. Slow-growing
varieties—Atlantic and Pemberton—were not so severely damaged as were the relatively
quick-growing varieties—Jersey and Dixie. Die-back was quite common in loganberries
in the Fraser Valley and to some extent on Vancouver Island.
A VIRUS DISEASE IN STRAWBERRIES
An invesigation of the decline in yields of commercial strawberry plantations in the
Wynndel district seems to have given promising results. The degeneration seems to be
caused by a virus disease. A large quantity of certified strawberry plants from selected
growers were planted in the district for the first time in the spring of 1949. In the summer
of 1949 no noticeable difference was observed between the certified and the uncertified
local-grown plants. In the following year, 1950, however, the difference was amazing,
the certified plants gave six pickings, and were about three times the size and vigour as
the local plants, which gave only two pickings. Even though the temperature was too
high during the picking season and the pH 7.5 of the soil was too high for best growth,
yields up to 6.5 tons per acre were obtained. The most promising means of rehabilitating
the strawberry industry appears to be the use of certified strawberry plants for planting
stock.
CERTIFIED STRAWBERRY PLANTS
The certification service for strawberry plants continues to be well received. The
demand for the 2,000,000 certified plants was much greater than the supply. Thirty-
three growers' plants passed for certification. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950 BB 21
RED-STELE OF STRAWBERRIES
The red-stele root-rot continues to be an important obstacle to the production of
high-yielding crops in some areas of the Lower Mainland. The causal organism can be
distributed in soil adhering to machinery, farm tools, boots, by drainage water, and by
diseased plant roots.
Commercial growers with infested land, however, can produce strawberries profitably by ridging their plants to allow for drainage of the plant roots. This practice of
ridging plants to offset the effects of the disease is growing in popularity.
Certified strawberry plants are recommended for new planting and for planting in
land free of red-stele.
BACTERIAL RING-ROT OF POTATOES
British Columbia continues to be virtually free of bacterial ring-rot of potatoes.
No rejection of potatoes entered for certification was caused by ring-rot. Nine farms in
the Ladner-Westham Island district and one on Lulu Island, growing potatoes for the
commercial market, were found to have crops affected by trace amounts of bacterial
ring-rot. Potato-crops on four other farms were placed under detention because machinery had been used from affected farms. The source of seed for five of the farms was
certified Katahdin from Prince Edward Island, 1948-49. For the others, the source of
seed was from Pemberton, 1948-49. The sale of the crops under detention is being
disposed of in paper bags to special markets and is expected to be completed not later
than January 31st, 1951.
No ring-rot was detected in any potatoes, certified or commercial, imported into the
Province. Most of the inspected imported commercial potatoes came from the United
States—106 car-loads and 10,717 sacks in trucks. Alberta only supplied 17 car-loads
and Prince Edward Island 4 car-loads. Twenty car-loads of certified seed-potatoes were
imported from other Provinces in Canada and one from the States.
A bacterial ring-rot directive for imported potatoes was issued in October, 1950,
and forwarded to all importers and wholesalers in British Columbia, as follows:—
October, 1950.
BACTERIAL RING-ROT DIRECTIVE RE IMPORTED POTATOES
Dear Sir:
For the 1950-51 crop season it is considered advisable to deal with all imported potatoes in
such a way as will:—
(1) Limit the number of affected car-loads of potatoes to be held in Victoria and Vancouver
to a maximum of three cars.
(2) Any car-loads over and above this maximum, which on inspection indicate the presence
of bacterial ring-rot, must be immediately returned to Province or country of origin,
unless they can at once be exported to fill orders. No build-up over three cars will be
permitted.
(3) In areas other than Victoria and Vancouver, affected car-load or truck must be immediately returned to Province or country of origin, unless they can be promptly disposed of
to one of the listed markets given below.
This regulation is necessary in order to:—
(1) Reduce to a minimum the possibilities of spreading the disease.
(2) To make available certain markets for British Columbia potatoes from Provincial ring-
rot areas.
Ring-rot potatoes, whether imported or grown in British Columbia, can only be shipped to the
following markets where there is a minimum chance of spreading the disease:—•
(1) Prince Rupert and coastal areas north of that port.
(2) Coastal points that are isolated, such as Ocean Falls, .Port Alice, Powell River, etc.
(excluding Bella Coola).
(3) Lumbering, mining, forestry, and fishing camps on the Mainland coast as well as on the
coast of Vancouver Island.
(4) Government institutions, hospitals, potato-chip manufacturing plants (not fish-and-chip
eating-houses), ocean shipping, local coastal shipping; Army, Navy, and Air Force
camps. BB 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA
LATE BLIGHT OF POTATOES
Dry weather throughout most of the growing season kept late blight in check, and
losses to commercial growers were slight. It was not until July 19th that the first occurrence of the disease, on plants of the Early Epicure variety in Sumas, was reported.
During the third week in August, however, many unsprayed home garden-plots were
severely affected by late blight, and losses from tuber-rot after a short period in storage
were as high as 50 per cent.
INAUGURATION OF POTATO-GROWERS' ADVISORY SERVICE
A potato-growers' advisory service for the Lower Mainland was inaugurated this
year in co-operation with N. S. Wright and R. Glendenning, of the Dominion Department
of Agriculture, to warn growers of weather conditions favourable for outbreaks of late
blight and for the dissemination relative to insect pests of potatoes. Two bulletins were
issued—on July 24th and August 17th.
The forecasting of plant-disease epidemics is rapidly growing in importance, and
will continue to do so with the growth of understanding of disease weather relationships
and the use of long-range weather forecasting, which has been an outstanding accomplishment during the recent war. Forecasting and spray warning services for potato
late blight evolved independently in Holland, England, France, and the United States.
A reliable crop-disease forecast appears to be useful to a farmer if it enables him to
avert predicted disease outbreaks by timely intervention of control measures as crop
spraying or dusting, or to save the expense of these control measures in seasons in which
the forecasts are for relative freedom from disease.
The destructiveness of late blight fluctuates from year to year, depending upon the
weather conditions. The cumulative rainfall for June 1st to September 30th for the
years 1938 to 1949, inclusive, was charted, and the resulting graphs were compared.
Records in Canadian Plant Disease Survey showed that blight was most severe during
the years of greatest cumulative summer rainfall. In the years of least cumulative summer rainfall, blight was slight or was not reported. A straight median line was drawn
between the graph lines for the blight and non-blight years and may be called the critical
rainfall line. This line joins 0 inch of rainfall on June 1st to 5Vi inches on September
30th. It is generally believed that optimum conditions for swarmspore production and
germination must prevail for a period of seven to ten days before an epidemic of late
blight occurs. The consistency of the correlation between cumulative summer rainfall
and late-blight incidence during the past twelve years indicates that precipitation data and
the critical rainfall line may be used to forecast the probable severity of late blight during
a particular growing season.
2,4-D SPRAY INJURY
An increasing amount of injury from 2,4-D seems to be brought to our attention
every year. The hormone injury appears to come from drift or from spray equipment
in which 2,4-D had been used, even though it may have been washed with water. The
commonly affected are roses, tomatoes, grapes, beans, celery, and brussels sprouts.
Slight injury was also observed in fruit-trees and carnations.
THE CLOVER NEMATODE
The clover nematode, Heterodera schachtii var. trifolii, was reported for the first
time. The identification was made by Dr. G. Steiner, Division of Nematology, U.S.
Department of Agriculture. An embargo was placed upon shipments to the United
States from Canada. Further study by the Dominion Plant Pathology Laboratory, Saan-
ichton, revealed that the pest was in both wild and cultivated land.    The embargo was DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950 BB 23
removed shortly after, when it was found that the clover nematode was also attacking
plants in the State of Washington.
BUNT IN THE NORTHERN OKANAGAN
The amount of dwarf and tall bunt in winter wheat took a turn for the worse in 1950
in the Nortthern Okanagan. Good control was obtained from 1931 to 1944 by the
growing of the resistant varieties Ridit and Hussar. The incidence of bunt on these
varieties in this area was upward in 1945, 1946, and 1947. The incidence then dropped
considerably during 1948 and 1949, but increased in 1950. The Wasatch variety under
test for 1948, 1949, and 1950 has been very resistant, and is now recommended and
licensed for sale.
TYPHULA BLIGHT ON WINTER WHEAT
Typhula blight of winter wheat again caused serious damage in the Vanderhoof area.
The previous year, 1949, was the first in which serious damage had been reported. No
satisfactory practical control is known.
PROVINCIAL NURSERY-STOCK REGULATIONS CANCELLED
The Provincial regulations governing the shipment of horticultural and nursery stock
to British Columbia from other Provinces of Canada have been cancelled. The Provincial regulations were brought into force when the Dominion only inspected nursery stock
imported from other countries. The present regulations under the Federal " Destructive
Insect and Pest Act" take care of the movement of nursery stock from other Provinces
to British Columbia. Consequently, there appears to be no further need for the Provincial regulations.
The British Columbia regulations did not apply to points in the Peace River Block,
or to all points along the main line of the Canadian National Railways from Lucerne to
Prince Rupert, inclusive, and points north thereof. The British Columbia regulations
which have been cancelled dealt with the shipment of nursery stock and plants from the
Provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba destined to points other than the
above indicated area. The regulations allowed the nurseries on the Prairies to deliver
direct to consignees when bearing an official shipping-tag. The nurseries were supplied
with tags on request, on condition that a statement of plants consigned was given at the
close of the season that no plants were in the shipment other than such as were grown on
the premises. The consignees were also able to obtain shipping-tags to forward to the
shipper by applying direct to the Provincial plant pathology office. The shipments of
nursery stock not tagged were forwarded to Vancouver for inspection or fumigation.
The regulations also included the shipments of the following nursery stock and plants
from points in Canada east of the Province of Manitoba, destined to points in British
Columbia south of the area served by the Canadian National Railways from Lucerne to
Prince Rupert, must be shipped via Vancouver for inspection or fumigation:—
(a) Shipments of hardy trees, shrubs, and ornamental trees (except unprohibited evergreens).
(b) Shipments of hardy trees, shrubs, and ornamental trees (except unprohibited evergreens) mixed with greenhouse plants, herbaceous perennials,
herbaceous bedding plants, bulbs, tubers, etc.
INTERPROVINCIAL NURSERY-STOCK INSPECTION
Special delivery-tags issued to nurseries and others in the Prairie Provinces number
747 (898 in 1949), which covered shipments of ornamentals, greenhouse plants, fruit-
trees, asparagus plants, potato eyes, onion-sets, and rhubarb. In addition, 53 untagged
shipments arrived in Vancouver, of which 33 contained ornamentals, 7 greenhouse plants,
6 fruit-trees, 4 small fruits, 2 bulbs, and 1 potatoes. BB 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA
PUBLICATIONS
Three circulars were revised during the year:—
(1) Diseases of Fruit-trees, Horticultural Circular No. 73.
(2) Potato-diseases.    Field Crop Circular No. 15.
(3) Damping-off of Vegetables and Flowers.
REPORT OF FARMERS' INSTITUTES
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent
At the close of the year there were 197 Farmers' Institutes in British Columbia, two
less than the previous year. During the year four new Institutes were granted a certificate of incorporation—namely, Seymour Arm, District " G "; Deer Park and Renata,
District " F "; and Squam Bay, District " D "—while the six Institutes which had failed
to report for two or more consecutive years had their certificates of incorporation cancelled.
Seven of the 197 Institutes have failed to file returns for two consecutive years,
leaving 190 Institutes in good standing. The number of Institutes and membership in
each of the ten districts for the year 1949 are as follows:—
District Institute      Membership
"A"—Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands  21 1,147
" B "—Bulkley and Skeena  20 380
" C "—Nechako Valley  14 364
" D "—Kamloops and North Thompson  19 301
" E "—Lower Fraser Valley  31 2,825
" F "—West Kootenay  20 584
"G"—Okanagan and Shuswap  16 483
" H "—Cariboo  12 249
" I "—East Kootenay  15 304
" J "—Peace River  22 559
As most of the individual Institutes do not hold their annual meetings until the new
year, and as annual returns are not required until March 31st, therefore the last complete
figures available covering Institute activities are for the year 1949, and are shown in the
following tables together with those for the year 1948:—
Although there was a decrease in membership in 1949 compared to 1948, receipts
and expenditures were greater, as were assets and liabilities.
1948 1949
Receipts   $801,341.58 $913,211.32
Expenditures      736,128.54 824,706.68
Assets         267,648.11 308,540.89
Liabilities      84,194.69 103,288.58
One of the objects of a Farmers' Institute is to arrange on behalf of its members
for the purchase, distribution, or sale of commodities, supplies, or products. It will be
noted from the following table that there was a considerable increase in the purchase of
powder and miscellaneous commodities over those of 1948, while purchases of feed and
seed were somewhat lower:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950
BB 25
District and Year
Stumping-
Powder
Feed
Seed
Miscellaneous
District " A "—
1948                                     	
$10,367.62
13,197.58
528.18
868.85
1,216.69
912.66
2,593.91
1,218.85
48,537.43
60,947.33
1,586.18
814.83
4,133.06
5,825.75
440.86
1,510.64
381.69
193.27
1,648.34
1,039.83
$4,308.29
1,959.03
4,794.21
10,516.34
8,856.76
8,836.64
2,285.98
2,596.03
431,518.73
331,808.67
45,287.79
85,433.19
5,884.59
7,408.12
11,831.01
$804.34
705.10
444.82
1,428.01
2,335.96
2,993.90
6,051.78
441.51
3,388.37
1,671.40
3,118.14
1,574.25
4,753.90
4,361.03
1,128.26
1,617.50
1,052.11
3,311.85
$5 016.10
1949. -_	
6,564.67
District " B "—
1948   	
18,183.43
1949        	
22,050.70
5,339.59
District '.' C "—
1948	
1949 	
13,213.90
District " D "—
1948    :...                       	
3,521.10
1949       	
4,379.58
5,284.70
7,399.18
33,638.65
72,062.13
1,165.43
District " E "—
1948	
1949  	
District " F "—
1948
1949 -- -.  	
District " G "—
1948	
1949                                         	
3,225.36
894.75
District " H "—
1948
1949    -  '    ...
297.62
District " I "—
1948                                    	
16,974.04
14,747.50
16,451.11
1949                         	
1,709.46
District "J "—
1948               -   -                                	
1,546.44
1949                                                         	
65.89
Totals—
1948
$70,466.46
86,529.59
$531,741.40
463,305.52
$23,117.68
18,104.55
$93,957.06
1949     ...-	
130,968.49
DISTRICT INSTITUTES
All districts held annual meetings during the year, which were well attended.
A large number of resolutions on National, Provincial, and local problems affecting
farmers and rural life were discussed. The National and Provincial problems were
passed on to the Advisory Board, while those of a local nature were dealt with by the
district executives concerned.
The place and date of each meeting, together with the names of the president,
secretary, and Advisory Board member elected, are as follows: —
District
Place
Date
Officers Elected
" A "       	
Nanaimo	
September 29th-
June 22-23	
June 20-21.-	
June   14	
November 3	
May 22 	
May 25-	
W. H.  Dunn, Hillbank;   J. T. Neen,  R.R. 2, Nanaimo;
" B "            	
A. Mclntyre, R.R. 2, Victoria.
George   Brandon,   Telkwa;     Arthur   Shelford,   Wistaria;
"C "
Arthur Shelford, Wistaria.
R. S. Fells, Dunster;   S. Zingle, Box 536, Prince George;
" D " 	
" E " 	
" F "... _
"G"
Kamloops.	
New Westminster
Balfour 	
Deep Creek	
J. Andros, Vanderhoof.
F. A. Shook, R.R. 1, Clearwater;   E. C. Leavitt, Kamloops;
William Harrison, Pritchard.
T. Kuhn, R.R. 2, Cloverdale;  J. C. MacKenzie, New Westminster;   A. H. Peppar, loco.
G. T.   Haines,   Brouse;    K.   Wallace,   Boswell;    William
Shipmaker, Edgewood.
"H "
June 16 	
May 18 	
June 29..	
Woodburn, Salmon Arm.
" I "           	
Canim Lake.
L.   G.   Pippin,   Cranbrook;    A.   B.   Smith,   Cranbrook;
"J "
A.  B.  Smith,  Cranbrook.
P.  A.   Leeland,   Clayhurst;    John  Close,  Sunset  Prairie;
A. H. Dunn, Sunset Prairie. BB 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA
ADVISORY BOARD OF FARMERS' INSTITUTES
The Advisory Board met in Victoria at the call of the Minister of Agriculture from
February 27th to March 2nd. The Board considered 113 resolutions dealing with such
matters as soil-conservation, warble-fly control, brucellosis, veterinary service, land-
clearing, water-supply, noxious weeds, T.B.-free areas, and stock-brands; in addition,
various resolutions regarding predatory animals and game matters, taxation, highways
and public works, motor-vehicle insurance and licence fees, hospital insurance, daylight
saving time, and numerous miscellaneous subjects were also considered.
For the third year in succession the Board met with the president and secretary
of the Federation of Agriculture for the purpose of discussing and agreeing on resolutions
to be presented jointly to the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture for their
consideration. Thirteen resolutions were presented to this Committee, and the following is the report presented to the Legislative Assembly by Thomas King, Chairman
of the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture:—
Legislative Committee Room, March 24th, 1950.
Madam Speaker:
The Select Standing Committee on Agriculture held several meetings and heard representations
from the Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes conjoined by a representation from the B.C. Federation of Agriculture, and begs leave to report as follows:—
(1) That in future years the Government allot more funds to the Department of Agriculture
to the end that the farmers of the Province may become more efficient and improve the
status of their living standard:
(2) That, to encourage more rural settlement and make for better living for those engaged
in agriculture, the Department of Public Works keep the side-roads in as good condition
as possible:
(3) That sufficient funds be supplied to the Game Commission to enable it to carry out a
policy of conservation and destruction of predatory animals:
(4) That the matter of school taxes be reviewed by the Department of Education with the
purpose of making equitable distribution among all citizens:
(5) That the Government review the operation of the " Hospital Insurance Act" with a view
to having the Department handling the matter place it in as high and efficient and
economical standard as is possible so that the great benefits thereof may be made available to all our citizens at as reasonable a cost as possible:
(6) That the Government fully investigate the automobile insurance systems as proposed by
Mr. Thomas King, M.L.A.:
(7) That hereafter, when it is decided to have daylight savings, the months to change to this
idea may conform to the summer school holidays, being, as suggested, from July 1st to
Labour Day:
(8) That the Department of Agriculture assist in the matter of advertising British Columbia
seed-potatoes in the test-plots conducted in the State of California:
(9) That the raising of bulbs be considered as a regular farm activity so that they be not
liable for licences or taxes not exacted from other branches of agriculture:
(10)  That, if and when the International Water and Power Commission decides on development on international rivers for power that may be developed in the United States,
arrangements be made to bring to British Columbia whatever power it may be economical so to do.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Thomas King, Chairman.
During this meeting of the Advisory Board the following resolution was passed:—
Resolution No. 72
Whereas this Board meeting is at the time the Legislature is in session and any proposed legislation
cannot be considered by the House; and
Whereas if the Board meeting was held earlier, copies of all resolutions approved by it could be
forwarded to each member of the Legislature well in advance of the Session, and time allowed for the
drafting of appropriate legislation:
Therefore be it resolved, That it is recommended to the Honourable the Minister of Agriculture
that the date of the meeting of this Board be advanced to the latter part of November. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1950 BB 27
In keeping with this request the Minister of Agriculture called a meeting of the
Advisory Board in Victoria from November 27th to 30th. This meeting replaces the
one that would have normally been held the latter part of February, 1951.
Resolutions were passed dealing with such agricultural subjects as margarine,
machinery field-days, land-clearing, water-supply, erosion, Boys' and Girls' Clubs,
legal fences, definition for farmer, farmers' licences, subsidy on fertilizers, lime and
stumping-powder, control of animal diseases, veterinary services, Newcastle disease,
noxious weeds, etc. Resolutions dealing with predatory animals, game, taxation,
marketing, highways, and public works, motor-vehicle insurance, education and social
welfare, freight rates, electrification, daylight saving, and various miscellaneous matters
were also considered, making a total of 134 resolutions in all.
The Board selected some ten resolutions dealing with such subjects as land-clearing,
erosion, department of co-operation, animal diseases, motor-vehicle insurance, school
taxation, rural electrification, daylight saving time, increased appropriations for the
Department of Agriculture, and land taxation for presentation to the Select Standing
Committee on Agriculture during the next sitting of the Legislature.
EXHIBITIONS AND FAIRS
During the year there were held in the Province one Class A exhibition, two Class
B exhibitions, and fifty-three fall fairs, all of which received assistance from the Department in the form of judges and grants.
The place and date of these exhibitions and fairs were as follows:—
Exhibitions
Vancouver (Pacific National) Aug. 23 to Sept. 4.
Chilliwack September 6 to 8.
Armstrong (Interior Provincial)  . September 11 to 14.
Fairs
Vancouver Island
Mayne Island August 23.
Alberni August 24 to 26.
Saturna Island August 30.
Ganges August 31.
Courtenay September 1 to 4.
Saanichton September 4.
Cobble Hill September 6.
Duncan September 7 to 9.
Coombs September 8 and 9.
Sooke September 13.
Nanaimo September 14 to 16.
Luxton September 16.
Ladysmith September 20 and 21.
Lower Fraser Valley
Gibsons  August 18 and 19.
Squamish September 2.
Mission  September 2, 4, and 5.
Meridian Heights September 4.
Port Moody September 7 and 8.
North Burnaby September 8 and 9.
Abbotsford September 11 and 12.
Ladner September 13.
Haney September 13 and 14. BB 28
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Agassiz	
Cloverdale	
South Burnaby_.
Langley	
Vancouver-.	
Aldergrove	
Okanagan, North Thompson, etc.
September 15.
..September 15 and 16.
-September 15 and 16.
September 18 and 19.
.October 6 and 7.
..October 18.
August 31.
Peachland—
Oliver  ___ September 4.
Louis Creek September 4.
Cawston September 7.
Rock Creek September 7 and 8.
Lillooet September 14 and 15.
Salmon Arm September 21 and 22.
East and West Kootenays
Invermere September 1 and 2.
Arrow Park September 9.
Crawford Bay September 13.
Castlegar September 13.
Nelson September 14 to 16.
Creston September 29.
Central British Columbia and Peace River
 August 18.
Montney	
Sunset Prairie __. .. August 19.
McBride August 30.
Williams Lake Aug. 31 to Sept. 1.
Prince George September 1, 2, and 4.
Fort Fraser September 2.
Bridge Lake September 2.
Woodpecker September 2.
Watch Lake September 6.
Quesnel September 8 and 9.
Terrace September 13.
Francois Lake September 16.
In addition to the above fairs the Department gave financial assistance to eight
other fairs, consisting of seed, potato, turkey, rabbit, and fat-stock shows.
POUND DISTRICTS
As the rural areas of the Province continue to be settled, more requests are being
received for new pound districts and extension of boundaries of present pound districts.
Petitions were received from eleven areas requesting pound districts, ten being
granted and one rejected.    Districts constituted were as follows:—
Name of Pound
District
Date
Constituted
Peace River  _ _ _	
April 24.
May 2.
June 6.
Campbell River   _ _	
Vancouver Island ___ _____ _____   __	
East Kootenay _	
Shirley - - - -	
Vancouver Island _ _ _	
East Kootenay  _  	
July 14.
July 14.
August 16.
September 26
Balmoral-Carlin-Notch  Hill _ _	
Big Eddy       	
Rejected. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1950
BB 29
Petitions were received during the year from six areas requesting that the boundaries
of existing pound districts be extended.    These were as follows:—
Name of Pound
District
Date
Extended
Oyster-Cedar   	
South Dawson   	
North Enderby and Grindrod
Kootenay Reclamation Flats..
Fruitvale _  	
Progress   	
Lumby  _ 	
Vancouver Island .
Peace River	
North Okanagan _
Creston  	
East Kootenay	
Peace River 	
Okanagan	
January 27.
February 13.
June 15.
July 12.
August 16.
October  15.
December  15.
In addition to the above constitutions and extensions, twenty-five pound districts
requested the appointment of pound-keepers, all of which were granted.
REPORT OF WOMEN'S INSTITUTES
Stella E. Gummow, Superintendent
The Women's Institutes have continued their steady growth during the year, with
six new Institutes organized to bring the total to 216. Reports received from 201
Institutes for 1949 gave the membership as 5,035. The financial reports for that year
showed the total receipts of these Institutes amounting to $119,915.13, while the
expenditures were $84,440.30. The Institutes that show the largest totals are those
that keep up their own halls, and the hall receipts and expenditures make a large sum.
The value to the communities of this total is hard to assess. It is found in the community activities sponsored and the worthy causes helped. These show a fine record of
community service in building halls, improving school-grounds, promoting health services
and well-baby clinics, fall fairs and flower shows, garden competitions, aid to needy and
burnt-out families, and welcoming new Canadians and newcomers.
NEW INSTITUTES
The new Institutes organized were Kersley and 100-Mile House in the Cariboo,
Ymir and Winlaw in the Kootenay, and Englewood and Woss Lake in the northern part
of Vancouver Island. The interest and enthusiasm shown in each case was an encouraging indication of the value of a Women's Institute to the community, with almost every
women present for the inaugural meeting.
PROVINCIAL CONVENTION
The Tenth Provincial Convention, held lune 6th, 7th, and 8th at the University
of British Columbia, surpassed all records for enthusiasm and attendance. It was highlighted by the presence of Mrs. E. Morton, of Vegreville, president of the Federated
Women's Institutes of Canada. The outstanding session was one devoted to Home
Economics, which was addressed by Mrs. Morton, and which was attended by 150 women
from near-by Whatcom County, Wash. A tour of the new Home Economics Building
was made at this time. (The interest in the University was indicated later in the
sessions, as it was voted to raise $500 to furnish a room in the new Women's Residence.)
A noteworthy session was the one devoted to Agriculture, when the topic under
discussion was the Federated Women's Institute project of Soil-conservation. Dean
Blythe Eagles was chairman, and four speakers prominent in soil-conservation work
addressed the Convention on Conservation, Erosion, Soil-depletion, and Utilization. BB 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The question period proved of interest and value, as the types of soil in different parts
of the Province were discussed.
The Hospital Insurance Commissioner, Lloyd Detwiller, gave an informative and
enlightening talk on the subject of hospital insurance.
Mrs. R. J. Sprott, Alderman of the City of Vancouver, as speaker on Citizenship,
was a fine example of women in public life.
Mrs. R. W. Chalmers, a beloved and respected Women's Institute leader for many
years, retired from the Provincial Board, and much appreciation was expressed for her
years of service.
The following officers were elected: President, Mrs. J. H. East, Keremeos; vice-
president, Mrs. A. A. Shaw, 4020 Tenth Avenue West, Vancouver; secretary-treasurer,
Mrs. R. Doe, Box 35, Salmon Arm; directors, Mrs. E. Glover, 915 Darwin Road,
Victoria, and Mrs. C. C. Strachan, Experimental Station, Summerland.
Conveners of the Standing Committees were chosen by the Board as follows:
Agriculture, Mrs. J. Young, Rose Prairie; Citizenship, Mrs. E. Tryon, Parksville;
Handicrafts and Industries, Mrs. L. Cunnington, Little Fort; Home Economics, Mrs. T.
Windt, R.R. 1 (Alexandria), Quesnel; and Social Welfare, Mrs. M. Powers, Camp
Lister.
DISTRICT MEETINGS
*Twelve district meetings were held during the year, and also two district rallies at
which the Institutes attending voted to form their own district. Some of these meetings
were honoured by the presence of the Minister of Agriculture, the Honourable Harry R.
Bowman, Mrs. J. H. East, and Mrs. A. A. Shaw, as well as Mrs. R. W. Chalmers, Mrs.
R. Doe, and Mrs. E. Glover in their own districts. All fourteen were attended by your
Superintendent, while visits to individual Institutes were made as time permitted. These
meetings were held as follows:—
April 4th.—South Fraser District at Abbotsford. This was the largest of all district
meetings, with 250 women, from twenty-six Institutes, attending. Since the change to
one-day meetings the attendance and interest has increased. A thoughtful discussion on
rural and urban relations among women, with a view to creating a better understanding
of the problems of food production among city women brought out much useful comment.
April 15th.—North Fraser at Haney. One hundred women attended from sixteen
of the twenty Institutes, with interesting reports showing the variety of work done.
April 26th.—North Vancouver Island at Courtenay. Encouraging results were
reported regarding the district project of a home for senior citizens at Courtenay. This
was started by the Institutes, and has now grown into a community project backed by all
organizations.
May 4th.—South Okanagan at Summerland. One hundred and fifty-six members
and sixteen delegates were present at this meeting, which featured a trip to the Experimental Farm. Resolutions were stressed regarding the use of apple-juice fortified with
Vitamin C and the use of the 20-ounce can as well as the 15-ounce for fruit and
vegetables.
May 6th.—North Okanagan and Salmon Arm at Salmon Arm. There were 170
registered at this meeting, with nineteen Institutes represented. Among the resolutions
passed was one asking for a Home Economist under the supervision of the W.I. Branch
to give instruction in Home Economics to Women's Institutes and Girls' Sewing Clubs.
A number of Girls' Clubs are sponsored by the different Institutes in and around Salmon
Arm, and they have been most successful.
May 9th.—Rally of North Thompson Women's Institutes at Little Fort. This was
a good meeting, with the Institutes of Barriere, Beresford, Birch Island, Clearwater, Little
Fort, Squam Bay, Star Lake, and Westsyde attending. This has been a part of the North
Okanagan and Salmon Arm District, but distances have been so great that very few were DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950 BB 31
able to attend. At this well-attended and enthusiastic meeting it was decided to ask for
permission to form the North Thompson District, and an executive was elected. A resolution was passed asking that the new proposed pipe-line from Alberta should follow the
route of the Canadian National Railway through the North Thompson.
May 13th.—Arrow Lakes at Arrow Park. There were seventy-eight registered at
this meeting, with nine Institutes out of ten reporting. Resolutions dealt with roads,
dental service, daylight saving, bus and mail service, and rural electrification.
May 16th.—Kootenay at Slocan City. An interesting display of Japanese dolls was
a feature of this meeting. They were arranged by the local Japanese people, many of
whom are still living happily in this district. Resolutions were passed asking for a road
from Edgewood to Robson and a plebiscite on daylight saving.
May 18th.—East Kootenay at Cranbrook. The addition of a large representation
from the three Institutes of Creston, Wynndel, and Lister-Huscroft made this a very
successful meeting, with thirty-five members representing seven Institutes. The main
resolution was that all cattle should be tested for Bang's disease.
June 16th.—Cariboo at Canim Lake. Eight Institutes were present at this one-
day meeting. The first hour was a joint meeting with the Farmers' Institutes of District
" H," after which separate sessions were held. Mrs. T. Windt, district president, was
named as Provincial convener of Home Economics. Each Institute demonstrated some
type of handicraft or gave a short talk, and this resulted in demonstations of darning,
spinning, attachment to a sewing-machine, use of a knitting-machine, weaving, a talk
on the history of Horsefly by a native daughter, and the story of the Alexandria Historical Table-cloth.
June 20th and 21st.—Central Interior at Prince George. This is the only two-day
district meeting, and is held at the same time as the Farmers' Institutes of District " C."
A tour was made to the Experimental Farm and Northern Interior Travelling Library.
Resolutions were passed regarding snow-ploughing of the roads, seed-grain, maturity
of fruit for the consumer market, a public park, family allowances for children over
16 years attending school.
June 23rd.—Bulkley-Tweedsmuir at Quick. Nine out of eleven Institutes sent
delegates, with fifty-seven present altogether. A feature was an interesting and informative talk on the teeth of pre-school children by Dr. Weber, a young dentist from Europe
farming in the district. Through the representations made by the Institutes, he was
allowed to practise on a permit, and this resulted in a service to the people that has
filled a great need. Resolutions were passed asking for improvements to roads, keeping
roads open for school buses in the winter, more public health nurses, electrification,
daylight saving, and bank closing-hours.
June 28th.—Peace River at Pouce Coupe. At this well-attended meeting it was
decided to give the money left over as a result of closing the Dawson Creek rest-room
for the furnishing of a Women's Institute ward in the new Pouce Coupe Hospital. A
tour of this building, now under construction, was a part of the programme.
September 27th.—South Vancouver Island at Sooke. This was a good one-day
meeting, with resolutions passed asking for garbage-dumps in unorganized areas, compulsory vaccination for Newcastle disease. A new feature was panel discussion groups,
with different conveners leading in discussions on Agriculture, Citizenship, Drama groups,
Handicrafts, and Women's Institute work and method. These proved of interest, as
the different members divided into the separate groups for the half-hour discussions.
PROVINCIAL BOARD
The Provincial Board met November 20th and 21st at Vancouver. The president,
Mrs. J. H. East, gave an interesting account of the meeting of the Associated Countrywomen of the World in Copenhagen, from which she had just returned. BB 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Mrs. R. Doe, secretary-treasurer, announced that the sum of $740.24 was on hand
as interest on the $10,000 Othoa Scott Trust Fund for crippled children. As no appeals
had come in for help recently, it was decided to give the sum of $250 each to the two
institutions started by the Women's Institutes—the Crippled Children's Hospital in
Vancouver and the Queen Alexandra Solarium on Vancouver Island.
The Women's Institutes Memorial Fund, a scholarship fund in Home Economics
of $250 yearly, has now reached the objective of $10,000 in four years. The scholarship was awarded to Miss Margaret Whitham, of Duncan, this term.
GIRLS' SEWING CLUBS
Girls' Sewing Clubs have been sponsored by fourteen of our Women's Institutes,
and the Busy Beavers Girls' Sewing Club, sponsored by the South Canoe Women's
Institute, sent the winning B.C. team to the Toronto Fair this year—the first girls' team
sent by this Province.
RURAL HOUSING ADVISORY COMMITTEE
A number of meetings of this Committee have been held during the year, with two
new booklets issued—the Utility Room and Farmstead Planning and Layout. One on
farm-house design is now ready for the printers. These booklets have been very popular,
and seem to have filled a definite need.
FEDERATION OF AGRICULTURE
The annual meeting of the Federation was attended by your Superintendent and
members of the Provincial Board. The affiliation of the Women's Institute with the
Federation is valued as a means of providing a common meeting ground for discussion
of rural problems.
PACIFIC NATIONAL EXHIBITION
The Women's Institute entries in this exhibition were of high quality and the competition keen. Twenty-one Institutes sent in 179 entries, making a total of well over
500 articles. The Silver Cup went to Hazelmere, with 40 points. Point Grey was a close
second with 38 points, while North-east Burnaby and Haney tied for third place with 18
points. This work was ably supervised by Mrs. A. A. Shaw, vice-president, and she also
arranged the demonstration booth at which different Institute members demonstrated
quilting, weaving, soft toys, tatting, knitting, pastel-painting pottery and figurine-painting,
rug-making, textile-painting, copper and leather work.
HANDICRAFTS DISPLAY AT LEGISLATURE
A display of quilts, rugs, weaving, pottery, copper and leather work was arranged in
the rotunda of the Parliament Buildings the first week of the opening of the Legislature.
This proved of absorbing interest to all visitors.
MONTHLY NEWS-LETTER
The monthly news-letter is sent out, along with highlights from the individual
Institutes, twenty-five of them being included each month. Conveners' suggestions and
the minutes of the Provincial and district meetings are also sent out, so that all Institutes
may be kept informed of the activities of the others.
INDIVIDUAL VISITS
Individual visits have been made as much as possible. Some of these were made
at the time of district meetings—Fort Langley for its fortieth anniversary, Westsyde, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950 BB 33
Okanagan Centre, New Denver, and Nukko Lake. The Institutes of Colwood, Esquimalt, Lake Hill, Victoria, Cowichan, South Saanich, Langford, and Somenos in and
around Victoria were visited during the year. Haney was visited on its thirty-fifth
anniversary. A trip was taken to the northern section of Vancouver Island in October
to visit the new Institutes of Kla-Anch and Englewood, and organize Woss Lake. These
three are in a large logging area, and the Women's Institute has done a great service in
providing a community meeting-ground for the women.
In November a trip was taken into the Kootenay, when Winlaw was organized, and
Renata, Robson, Granite Road, Nelson, Salmo, and Kinnaird were visited. In the
Boundary a trip was made to Main River and Rock Creek, while a combined meeting
at Greenwood included the Midway women. A large group of Japanese women were
also present at this meeting.
On request of the citizenship convener of the Qualicum Women's Institute, with
Mrs. E. Glover, Board member, accompanying, a trip was taken to Hilliers to talk to the
Doukhobor women. Some of the women addressed did not understand English and an
interpreter was required. No effort was made to press them into organizing as a Women's
Institute, but the friendly feeling of the B.C. Women's Institutes was stressed. Near-by
Institutes have welcomed these Doukhobor women at their Institute meetings, and it is
hoped that this may be the start of a better understanding.
PRESS REPORTS
Fine publicity has been given to the work of the Women's Institutes, your Superintendent, and the Board members by the Press. A very friendly and helpful spirit is
evident in the excellent coverage and space given.
APPRECIATION
Your Superintendent wishes to acknowledge with deep appreciation the co-operation
and help of members of the Provincial Board of Women's Institutes, the Minister and
staff of the Department of Agriculture, and the men in the field, who have never failed
to give every assistance possible to the work in this Province.
REPORT OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND EXTENSION BRANCH
William MacGillivray, Director
The following staff changes were affected during the year:—
J. E. Beamish, Extension Agricultural Engineer and Assistant Director of Land-
clearing, resigned to return to Federal employment. George L. Calver was promoted
from Assistant to the position of Extension Agricultural Engineer. M. M. Gilchrist,
District Agriculturist at New Westminster, transferred to the position of Assistant
Markets Commissioner at Victoria. A. E. Donald, District Agriculturist at Chilliwack,
was transferred to fill the vacancy created at New Westminster. R. S. Berry, a 1950
graduate in agriculture from the University of British Columbia, was appointed District
Agriculturist at Chilliwack. D. M. Hamilton, a 1950 graduate in agriculture from the
University of British Columbia, was appointed Assistant District Agriculturist at New
Westminster. George Cruickshank was transferred as Assistant District Agriculturist
from Chilliwack to Abbotsford, the latter point being more central for his work with
Junior Clubs. K. V. Ellison was engaged in farm labour placements at Victoria during
the summer months and later was transferred as Assistant District Agriculturist to
Prince George, where he handled much of the work in connection with land-clearing. BB 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA
P. N. Sprout was associated with the Courtenay office as Assistant District Agriculturist,
again largely in connection with land-clearing. He transferred in November to the
Soils Branch at Kelowna. C. M. Williams, Assistant District Agriculturist at Kamloops,
was given leave of absence to engage in postgraduate work at the University of British
Columbia.    During this winter K. V. Ellison will replace him at Kamloops.
A number of changes took place in the clerical staff, details of which will be found
elsewhere in the Report of the Department.
The various regional and district reports submitted herewith deal with climatic and
general crop conditions to an extent that makes further comment unnecessary.
Much information on field-crop production and on live-stock production submitted
by individual branch representatives has been omitted here, as it will appear in the
reports of the branch heads concerned. This is also true of reports dealing with demonstration-plots of grains, pastures, or fertilizers. It is expected, of course, that, where due,
the necessary credit will be given to the field officials concerned.
Early in 1950 each District Agriculturist was asked to complete a reasonably
detailed survey of the district he served. A suggested outline of operations was prepared
here and submitted to each official for his guidance. The results were exceptionally good.
While the assignment was at first regarded as an extra chore, several of those participating
have advised that, as their research progressed, their interest became more keen and in
the final analysis they felt that something of definite value had been accomplished. The
majority of the completed surveys were of excellent quality and extensive in scope and
detail. A few showed lack of imagination and failed to appreciate the value of the
information sought to the district men themselves.
Each regional supervisor has been supplied with a complete file of the reports,
and others have been made available to the University of British Columbia and to the
Department of Lands and Forests. We have had several other requests for copies, but
have not been able to make them available. Copies of the original outline of information required have been sought and supplied to two other Provincial Departments of
Agriculture.
During the summer P. N. Sprout made similar surveys of most of the islands
adjoining Vancouver Island.
It is intended to ask for certain supplementary information this next year, which
will add to the value of that now available. Steps will then be taken to edit and consolidate the data in one volume for the use of Departmental officials.
Regional meetings with supervisors and District Agriculturists were held early in
the year at Creston, Prince George, Kamloops, and Vancouver to discuss district problems and to review local programmes and objectives. The Field Crops Commissioner
was present at all of these.
Arrangements were made with G. L. Landon to hold short courses of instruction
on poultry for District Agriculturists at the points named, and in this he had excellent
co-operation from G. R. Wilson, of the Federal Markets Service.
Encouragement was again given to the operation of Co-ordinating Committees on
various phases of agricultural activity in certain areas.
The committee established in Central British Columbia arranged, in co-operation
with this Branch, for a tour that extended from Smithers to Quesnel over a five-day
period in July. A number of interested agencies were represented, and the Honourable
the Minister of Agriculture attended.   This was felt to have been a worth-while effort.
In the Kootenays, at Kamloops, and in the Fraser Valley, somewhat similar groups
are functioning satisfactorily.
It is felt that the formation of a small committee of Federal, Provincial, and University officials to deal with various matters arising out of requests for short courses is
a progressive step. The same may be said of the recently appointed Advisory Committee
on Junior Club work. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950 BB 35
An effort has been made to keep the work of the Branch practical. Fieldmen have
been encouraged to so base their approach to farm problems. The best advice that
a District Agriculturist can give a farmer is that he use his land efficiently to produce
those crops or follow those practices which his acreage, his soil, his climate, and his
markets indicate will be to his best advantage—in the final analysis, which will make
him most money.
Emphasis has been placed on the need for sound land use for improved soil management and, in most parts of the Province, improved pasture management. In all districts,
live-stock improvement has been of primary importance. Farmers are being urged to
assess per acre returns on pounds of beef, pounds of milk, or pounds of butter-fat,
of wool, or of lamb produced, rather than on the more commonly used basis of number of
animals grazed or fed.
Land-clearing again required much supervision from District Agriculturists in the
areas where equipment operated. While very effective extension work can be carried
out in conjunction with clearing on individual farms, it is evident that in some districts it
is necessary to provide additional personnel for supervisory purposes if other essential
work is to receive attention.
Of particular interest in this year's operations was the project undertaken near
Prince George in conjunction with the Department of Lands and Forests to determine
pre-settlement clearing and breaking costs. Valuable information was obtained, and
lessons have been learned that will have definite value in the future.
Much time was given to this particular project, which will be further developed
next year.
In addition to the reports that follow, there are on file in the Department the
individual reports of each official, which cover in detail the position of agriculture in the
districts this past year. Some of these are outstandingly well prepared and most comprehensive in scope, outlining adequately the work carried out and the results achieved
by the official concerned.
VANCOUVER ISLAND
Both R. L. Wilkinson, District Agriculturist at Courtenay, and J. D. Hazlette.
District Agriculturist at Duncan, refer to the severe conditions experienced during the
winter of 1949-50.
In the Courtenay district a record snowfall of 98.5 inches was experienced, with
a low monthly mean temperature of 21.1° F., which was almost 14 degrees lower than
the long-time over-all average. Throughout the Island a late spring retarded planting
and seeding of crops.   Killing frosts were experienced late into May.
While good growing conditions prevailed in the northern part of the Island until
early August, the summer was one of the driest on record in the southern section, with
hay and pastures suffering severely. Mr. Wilkinson indicates that while most of August
and September were very dry, rainfall since October 7th has been three times greater
than normal. In his district, crops generally were good, and secured under favourable
conditions, although some difficulty was experienced in harvesting potatoes in the later
part of the season.
Much of the time of these extension workers has been spent in assisting various
farmers in developing improved management practices. Emphasis has been placed on
the need to step up the per acre production of milk and butter-fat on those holdings
where dairying is practised, and to increase the tonnage and quality of hay, forage crops,
and root crops, including potatoes.
In co-operation with the Field Crops Branch, considerable demonstration work has
been carried out, with particular emphasis placed on pasture management and pasture
improvement. BB 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA
In both districts definite efforts are being made by the officials concerned to develop
an interest among farmers in better soil management.
Demonstration work on subsoiling and on various tillage practices has been initiated.
It is intended to develop these further next year, in the hope that perforation of the soil to
a greater depth will prove of value in certain structures. The Department is particularly
interested in this work, and the results will be very carefully assessed.
All of this work will be commented on in greater detail by the Field Crops
Commissioner.
Both officials have initiated short courses, in co-operation with the Agricultural
Societies functioning around Duncan, Alberni, and Courtenay, and with the Farmers'
Institute at Hilliers.
During the winter and spring of 1949-50 a number of lectures by specialists dealt
particularly with soil management and improvement. Courses which commenced this
fall are intended to assist in better dairy-farm management. Very definite interest has
been shown at all points, and it is felt that the effort is very much worth while.
Junior Club activities have required a considerable amount of time. More interest
is evident, with an indication that there will be increased membership in each area next
year. Further details of the 1950 Junior Club programme are shown in the report of
Miss Lidster.
Considerable time is also given to assisting the Agricultural Societies throughout
the Island in planning and carrying out annual fairs. Many contacts made in this way
have proven of definite value in the field of extension.
Mr. Wilkinson finds his close connection with the Certified Seed Potato Growers'
Association in the Courtenay-Comox area to be of great benefit. An organization of this
nature is most valuable in a community, encouraging, as it does, better general farming
practices. A man who is an efficient grower of certified seed-potatoes will rarely be other
than a first-class all-round farmer. The annual field-day, with visits to the farms of all
members, organized by Mr. Wilkinson and the officers of the association, permits a close
and careful inspection of growing crops and, at the same time, provides an opportunity
for a study of the methods employed in developing each phase of activity on the holdings
visited.
Mr. Hazlette has maintained a close association with the Saanich Jersey Breeders'
Club and with the Vancouver Island Ayrshire Club, as well as with the work of the
Cowichan Agricultural Society and the Saanich Agricultural Society, both of which are
definitely interested in all phases of agriculture in the districts they serve.
Adequate contact has also been maintained by both officials with Farmers' Institutes.
A close liaison has been maintained by both officials with the Experimental Farm
Service, with the Federal Production and Science Services, with the University of British
Columbia, and with other branches of this Department.
Assistance has been rendered in the selection of sires for dairy herds and for beef
herds, in swine promotion, and in warble-fly control.
They have actively participated in field-days organized in conjunction with Illustration Stations of the Experimental Farm Service.
The services of the Agricultural Engineering Division of this Branch have been
sought on several occasions to assist farmers throughout the Island on matters pertaining
to drainage and to irrigation. There is a definite interest shown in sprinkler irrigation
where conditions warrant. Material assistance has been given by this particular Division
on farm structures, including barns, silos, potato-storage sheds, etc.
Mr. Wilkinson has administered the land-clearing operations conducted from Parksville to Courtenay during the year. Over 410 acres were cleared, at an average cost of
$66.54 per acre. It was necessary to provide him with the services of P. N. Sprout as an
assistant, in order that the land-clearing operations referred to and those in the Powell DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1950 BB 37
River district would be properly supervised. Ninety-five acres were cleared in the latter
district, at an average cost of $110.45 per acre. This will enable considerably more land
to be seeded down to pastures and used for milk production. A very large proportion
of that commodity consumed in the Powell River district is imported from the Fraser
Valley at the present time. It would appear that it will be necessary to maintain land-
clearing equipment on the northern end of Vancouver Island for at least another three
years.
Both officials report an increased interest in beef production. For reasons which
we need not enumerate, a number of farmers have disposed of dairy herds, and the
present high price of beef is encouraging this particular development.
Mr. Wilkinson has indicated in his report the very great importance of the seed-
potato industry to his district. He has outlined the extent to which growers are using
fertilizer and the interest being shown in the control of diseases and in the general
improvement of this particular crop.
The various demonstrations carried out in both districts are of definite importance.
Factual data are being obtained that is of great value in making recommendations based
on actual local results.
The following statistics give some indication of the amount of work carried out in
the Courtenay office from January 1st to November 15th, 1950: Farm visits, 951; mail
received, 1,319; mail sent, 1,417; lectures sponsored, 22; meetings addressed, 5;
meetings attended, 50; office callers, 791; reports and returns to Government, 802; soil
samples, 21; telephone calls, 977; publications distributed, 516.
Generally speaking, much effective extension work in the field of general agriculture
has been accomplished on the Island this past year.
FRASER VALLEY
Extension offices are maintained at New Westminster (A. E. Donald, District Agriculturist, and D. M. Hamilton, Assistant District Agriculturist), Mission (A. J. Allan,
District Agriculturist), Chilliwack (R. S. Berry, District Agriculturist), and Abbotsford
(G. Cruickshank, Assistant District Agriculturist).
While Mr. Cruickshank is primarily engaged in Junior Club activities, he is carrying
out considerable other general extension work.
As elsewhere in the Province, the Fraser Valley experienced an unusually severe
winter, followed by a late spring. The summer generally was warm and dry, which
lowered practically all crop yields.
Reference is made by Mr Donald to the great increase in the number of urban wage-
earners who are establishing residence in adjacent rural municipalities, with a consequent
greater subdivision of existing farm lands. This development follows particularly closely
on the expansion and extension of water services by the Greater Vancouver Water Board
in the northern and western areas of Surrey. He refers to the work that might be done
by the recently formed Regional Planning Board for the Fraser Valley in directing urban
and industrial development to areas least suitable for agricultural purposes.
All offices refer to the greater trend toward farm mechanization, the tendency to use
more powerful tractors and equipment, and the definite interest shown in sprinkler
irrigation.
No great change is observed in farm-building construction, although lbafing-sheds
and milking-parlours are increasing in use.
Potato and other storages now being erected are of definitely improved types, with
reasonably satisfactory temperature control.
Mr. Allan mentions increased settlement along the North Fraser area. He indicates
the extent to which dairy-farmers grow canning-crops, such as peas and corn, as cash
crops. BB 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA
This district Agriculturist has, in conjunction with the Field Crops Branch, conducted, with success, fertilizer-demonstration trials and potato-variety trials.
There is a definite scope for much more work of this nature. Details of this year's
operations are given elsewhere in the Report of this Department.
In the spring of 1949 all offices co-operated in the planned farming display.
The following quotation from the report of Mr. Donald outlines a certain phase of
activity in soils:—
" In the late summer and fall of 1949 the District Agriculturists of the Fraser Valley,
by mutual agreement, took composite soil samples on a fairly evenly distributed basis.
A total of 153 samples was taken, which were later analysed by the Field Crops Branch,
and the individual results, together with soil-requirement recommendations, were forwarded to each farmer from whom soil was obtained. The analysis results were also
summarized according to soil type, and the sample areas were also indicated on the soil
map by means of a small black dot. This work has served to familiarize each of us with
the various soil types, and the summarized information has been extensively used when
discussing soils and in making recommendations.
" To take care of requests for soil-analysis and to obtain more information on the
various soil types, the same work was continued this year. Again this was done by
mutual agreement for the purpose of pooling information.  In all, 239 samples were taken.
" It is not the intention of this work to prove or disprove previously existing information, but rather to enable ourselves and others to make a more confident approach to
sound cultural practices under complex soil conditions."
Reference is made to the greater use of lime, and it is evident that the work of the
Branch in advocating increased application of this particular commodity is bearing fruit.
Much information of a statistical nature dealing with crop condition and yields has
been supplied from the reports of the various officials to the Field Crops Commissioner
and will be found in his report.
Valuable references have been made, by all offices, to live-stock production, artificial
insemination, live-stock breeding problems, auction sales, milk production, cannery-crop
acreages, etc., but as these will be dealt with in reports of other branch heads, they are
omitted here.
It is of definite interest, however, that there is general mention of the extent to which
beef-cattle herds—namely, Herefords—are being established in the valley.
D. M. Hamilton made several visits to the Pemberton Valley, and as no references
to that area have appeared in recent reports of the Department, the following extract from
his report is of definite interest:—
" The farmers of Pemberton Valley depend for their livelihood to a very large extent
on the sale of certified seed-potatoes. The areas planted to certified seed this year by
forty-seven growers averaged 5.1 acres or 2.8 fields per grower. A total of 132 fields,
or 240 acres, were planted, of which 100 fields passed official inspection.
" There was some loss in crop due to flooding of the Lillooet River and its tributaries.
Seepage through the dykes caused considerable damage; however, a few farmers kept
this at a minimum by installing tractor-powered pumps.
" Because of the losses encountered by high water and the prospects of a poor market
for seed, some growers are looking for other agricultural enterprises.
" This year a Provincial agricultural land-clearing outfit cleared approximately
147V5 acres for many of the farmers in the valley. High waters made it impossible to
clear all of the land for which applications had been made. The land cleared was very
much needed by the farmers and should assist them in expanding their operations into
better and more complete farm units.
" Turnip production has been developed to a limited extent. This year the crop
looks very good, with, as yet, a favourable market. One farmer grew carrots for the local
market.   These, too, appeared to be of very good quality. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1950 BB 39
" Severe weather last winter seriously affected the few fruit-trees in the valley, with
only one or two of the hardier varieties surviving. Late spring frosts caused further
damage to trees and strawberry-patches.
" There are three reasonably large cattle breeders in the valley, though most of the
farmers keep a few head. Practically every farm has one or two milk cows, and three
or four farmers ship cream to Lillooet.
" The completion of electrification in the valley this fall and the proposed extension
of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway to Vancouver will both benefit the district greatly.
Farmers will be able to further modernize their holdings, and improved farm practices
will include live stock, with emphasis on dairying. Live-stock production complements
potato-growing.
" The Dominion Government through the P.F.R.A. has spent, and is spending,
large sums of money in the valley. Lillooet Lake has been lowered 9 feet by dredging
out the Lower Lillooet River. New cuts have been made for the Lillooet River so that
it will run straight down the valley and not meander at will. These operations are
expected to assist in controlling the river. Dykes have been erected and strengthened
along the Lillooet River, Birkenhead River, Ryan and Miller Creeks, and large ditches
are being dug which will link in with a proposed canal system. It is hoped that this will
control the high water of the Lillooet River and its tributaries and will stop seepage water
from damaging crops.
" I visited Pemberton Valley six times this year, and on every occasion found the
farmers more interested in my arrival and wanting more assistance and information from
the Department."
All district officials devote considerable time to Junior Club activities, and excerpts
from their reports will be found in the section dealing with that particular division.
Mr. Allan handled farm-labour placements in the Mission area, which required much
of his time during berry-picking.
Mr. Berry refers to the value of the short course featuring agricultural engineering
matters which was held in Chilliwack last winter, and which drew an average attendance
of seventy-nine at each of the eight meetings. A short course on dairy-farm management
is being sponsored at Chilliwack and at Matsqui this winter.
Certain statistical data from the New Westminster and Chilliwack offices is of
interest:—
Chilliwack Office Statistics, November 1st, 1949,
to October 31st, 1950
Meetings of organized groups attended  81
Junior judging demonstrations and field-days attended ..._ 15
Machinery and other demonstrations attended  8
Flock inspections under hatchery-approval regulations  45
Miscellaneous inspections  5
Reports and returns to the Government  32
New Westminster Office Statistics, November 1st, 1949,
to October 31st, 1950
Meetings of organized groups attended  48
Junior judging demonstrations and field-days attended  21
Machinery field-days and demonstrations attended   7
Junior Club inspections  189
1 Miscellaneous inspections  23
Soil samples taken for analysis *  108
Reports and returns to the Government  64
Publications, etc., distributed  2,200
Mail pieces received  2,350
Mail pieces sent  1,550 BB 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The first five items include days or times when either or both the District Agriculturist or the Assistant District Agriculturist were in attendance.
CENTRAL BRITISH COLUMBIA, NORTH CARIBOO, AND
PEACE RIVER DISTRICTS
(Report of S. G. Preston, Supervising Agriculturist)
January, 1950, set a record for a low mean temperature, which was, in Central
British Columbia, approximately 30 degrees below normal and making a difference of
2V% degrees in the yearly figure.
Crops generally were a near failure in the Peace River, fair in the Quesnel and
Vanderhoof districts, fair to poor in the Bulkley Valley, and good in the Prince George
district.
The Peace River suffered from a late spring. Precipitation was sufficient for a fair
crop, both grain and seed, but hail in July and both frost and snow in August reduced
most cereal returns to very poor yields of low feed grades. Where air drainage was good,
a few farms escaped serious frost-injury and some No. 3 and No. 4 wheat was harvested,
particularly in the area north of the Peace. Despite these drawbacks, small favoured
areas produced good-quality cereals and seed crops.
Application for assistance under P.F.A.A. was general throughout the Peace.
In Central British Columbia the spring was very cold and backward, followed by an
extremely warm, dry June. The Prince George area was favoured by rain before the
condition became too serious, and the crops made a phenomenal recovery. Rain in other
areas came later. Crops made a fair recovery in the Nechako Valley and Lakes District,
but suffered all season from a moisture shortage.
The Bulkley Valley and parts of the North Cariboo were very dry throughout the
season, which reduced crop yields and gave poor natural and tame pasture.
Frosts were experienced in the Houston Flats, in the Bulkley Valley. There grain
and potatoes suffered considerably. Some frost damage is reported in all areas to
potatoes, prior to digging. The cold spell in November, 1950, found some vegetable-
growers unprepared, with consequent losses, particularly in temporary storage.
Weather records for the period November 1st, 1949, to October 31st, 1950, are
shown as an appendix.
The value of live stock in a farm programme has never before been quite so evident
either in the Peace River District or in Central British Columbia. Those with beef stock,
dairy stock, poultry, swine, or sheep have an outlet right at home for the hay and grain
produced, and a ready and remunerative market for the resulting live-stock products.
Field Crops
As indicated, this year proved a near disaster for Peace River farmers. Seed crops,
however, were slightly better than in 1949.
In Central British Columbia the best crops were in the Prince George-McBride
districts, where the backward spring was offset by a particularly favourable fall. Very
little cereal crops are grown in the Quesnel district, the northern part of which suffered
severely from a moisture shortage.    The only good crops observed were under irrigation.
Spring Wheat
The yield of this crop is only a fraction of that of 1949 in the Peace River—for
example, some 480,000 bushels of poor feed grades as against some 2,500,000 bushels
of No. 3 and No. 4 milling grades last year. The relatively low acreage of spring wheat
in Central British Columbia is generally of good quality, however, and predominately of
the Saunders variety.    This variety is also becoming the favourite in the Peace River. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950 BB 41
Fall Wheat
As yet only a few cars of this crop are grown in the Nechako Valley, but an effort
is being made to extend its production to the Prince George district, where newly cleared
land will have to be cropped to best advantage to pay for the heavy clearing costs. To
assure a steady market for this wheat, it appears necessary to produce a hard variety,
unless further markets can be secured for the higher-yielding soft winter varieties.
Oats
This crop produced excellent yields in the Prince George district, with good germination expected. There were lower yields farther west, and very low yields in the Peace
River District. Difficulty is expected in securing ample seed-oat supplies for the Peace
next spring, although the germination of promising-looking crops is better than anticipated.
No shortage of seed-oats is expected in Central British Columbia. Ajax oats is most
commonly grown here, with Victory predominating in the Peace River.
Barley
The acreage of this crop is not extensive in either Central British Columbia or the
Peace River District. The variety Olli is grown almost exclusively. Yields and grades
this year were low in the Peace, and again difficulty is anticipated in securing 1951 seed-
supplies. In Central British Columbia some good stands of barley were observed, but
generally the hot, dry weather in June was too much for this crop.
Alfalfa
Yields of alfalfa seed were much improved this year in the Peace over 1949, but
still quite low, and quality is, in many cases, poor. However, this and other seed crops
will materially assist the farmers concerned in sustaining themselves until the 1951 crop
returns.
Alsike Clover
This is the main seed crop in eastern Central British Columbia. Yields are fair,
although not exceptional, and lower in the Nechako Valley, due to shortage of moisture.
It was again obvious this year that for successful alsike-seed and alfalfa-seed production,
opportunity must be afforded wild bees to pollinate the crops. This is usually done best
by planting close to bush or leaving strips of bush to harbour the bees. In almost every
case, growers have found that the yields of seed from large open fields have been
disappointing.
Other Crops
Flax and rye contribute in some part to the economy of crop production in the Peace.
Yields and grades are very low this year.
Timothy-seed yields were fair, but the price was very low and little has been sold to
date. The best yields were obtained in the Lakes District, but fair production was
realized in the Bulkley, despite the low rainfall. A considerable amount of timothy was
threshed in the Prince George district, but production of this crop is new to farmers there,
and many spoiled the grade by excessive hulling during the threshing operations.
Fescue and brome grass contributed to some extent to general seed production, and
prices were fair.
Prices
Cereal prices remained reasonably steady this year. The price for soft fall wheat
has dropped, with the loss of the export (east) market.
Alsike clover prices strengthened, giving the farmer a more remunerative return.
Altaswede clover is down, and timothy seed dropped from a 1949 price of 50 cents to
1950 offerings of 6V£ cents.    The buyers have informed the growers that a large United BB 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA
States crop has created a timothy-seed surplus.    Most growers, anticipating a rise in
values, are holding timothy seed.
An estimate of field-crop production for the year 1950 is shown as an appendix.
Weeds
The weed problem in the Peace River Block is handled by two Weed Inspectors—
namely, F. Martens, north of the Peace, and R. Shearer, south of the Peace. In Central
British Columbia, weeds constitute a perennial problem, but to date have not required
appointment of Weed Inspectors. On the whole, farmers are weed-conscious and are
co-operating accordingly, as they realize the urgency of control.
Weed-spray machines are being purchased, both in Central British Columbia and in
the Peace, and farmers will save themselves many dollars if the spraying is done correctly.
The Government-owned weed-spray machine operated by Mr. Shearer in the Peace
was busy most of the season.
It has been indicated that thresher and combine operations need closer checking at
threshing-time to see that machines are cleaned out thoroughly before leaving each farm
or travelling on highways.
There is room in the Lakes District and Bulkley Valley for a combined weed-control,
cultural practice, and reseeding programme on large areas of timothy land that has been
invaded by dandelions. Much of this land cannot be ploughed, but is potentially good
hay or pasture land if the weeds were kept under control. Officials of the Experimental
Station at Smithers, aided by Mr. Jameson, District Agriculturist at that point, are conducting some experimental tests, but widespread demonstrations are also needed.
Leafy spurge was observed in the Narcosli area this year. R. Tarves, District
Agriculturist, attempted control measures, using chemical sprays, but with little success.
A programme for control and eradication of this menace is being drawn up now, and
will be implemented next year. This is the only district in Central British Columbia in
which the weed is threatening.
Fertilizers
This year showed an extended use of commercial fertilizer in Central British
Columbia. The chief fertilizer used is 16-20 for grain or forage crops. It is recommended that it be seeded in the spring with grain, or very early on forage or forage-seed
crops. The fertilizer companies and the Department of Agriculture generally co-operate
in fertilizer recommendations, but we have instances where company representatives have
advised independently with negative results, and a consequent impression by the farmer
that there is no place in his economy for the use of commercial fertilizers.
In the Peace River Block some work is being done to determine the correlation, if
any, between certain fertilizer applications and seed-set. Provincial and Federal Departments of Agriculture are working on this problem, but to date no significant results have
been obtained.
In the seed-potato growing areas of the North Cariboo, large quantities of fertilizer
are used in conjunction with barnyard manure or green manure crops. To date, 6-30-15
has been used in most cases, but farmers are becoming more conscious that specific studies
of their soil should be made, and many are prepared to accept recommendations for
cropping and fertilizing.
General
Prospects for crops in the Peace River Block are good for 1951, provided sufficient
good seed can be secured. There appears to be plenty of Saunders and Thatcher seed,
but coarse grains are in short supply. Fall moisture is sufficient, but no more, and
plenty of spring rain will be required.
The Prince George farmer can look forward to good soil conditions next spring,
and seed-supplies appear to be sufficient.    Soil-moisture is low in the Bulkley, and early DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950 BB 43
spring rain will be required to ensure crops.    Conditions are fair in the Vanderhoof
district.    Little damage to fall wheat is anticipated from snow mould.
The north section of the North Cariboo is still dry and, like the Bulkley, will need
good spring rains to bring on pasture, range, and cereal crops.
Live Stock
Throughout Central British Columbia and the Peace River Block, live-stock men, or
those whose income is partially derived from a live-stock project, are much better off
than those dependent on cereals or seed crops. Despite this general assertion, live-stock
men in the Peace River, the Bulkley Valley, and parts of the North Cariboo are having
difficulty securing sufficient feed to winter their breeding replacement stock.
It is doubtful if the five-stock population has increased much during the past year,
but marketings, particularly of beef stock, have been heavier, indicating that quite a few
ranches have sold heavily.
A gradual increase in dairy stock is indicated throughout the central area of British
Columbia, although large shipments of milk still come from the Fraser Valley, as does
much butter, ice-cream, etc.
Beef Stock
Live-stock shipments were as follows: —
Cattle Hogs Sheep
District (Car-loads) (Car-loads) (Car-loads)
Bulkley Valley  12
Lakes District and Nechako Valley  62   4
Prince George and McBride  11   1 *
North Cariboo  41 6 1
Peace River Block  76 40 2
  202 47 7
* Hogs and sheep.
It is impossible to separate North and South Peace River shipments, as stock all
goes out via the rail-head at Dawson Creek. Mr. Crack, District Agriculturist at Pouce
Coupe, reports all live-stock marketings ahead of 1949.
Four car-loads were exported directly to the United States from the Nechako Valley
and Lakes District. Other Central British Columbia shipments were divided between
Edmonton and Vancouver.   Those from the North Cariboo went to Vancouver.
Results of the sale at Quesnel will be found in the report of the Live Stock
Commissioner.
Higher prices realized for cattle have encouraged a number of stockmen to cull their
herds and purchase better sires.
Several new Bull Associations were formed this year in Central British Columbia and
in the Peace River Block. The Federal Production Service feels that now is the time to
maintain the quality of beef cattle, and is willing to co-operate with farmers who are
prepared to make an effort to improve and increase their herds and arrange farming
programmes to include five stock.
Dairying
The remunerative price for whole milk has interested a good many farmers in
dairying. Most of those with an aptitude for dairying are improving their cattle and
their premises for whole-milk production.
All whole milk produced in the North Cariboo and Prince George area is consumed
locally. In addition, some 30,000 gallons of milk were shipped in from the Fraser
Valley. Shipments from the Bulkley Valley to Prince Rupert were supplemented by
some 47,000 gallons from the Fraser Valley. BB 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA
In the Peace River Block, the Sudeten settlement south of Pouce Coupe supplies
most of the whole milk required for Dawson Creek. On the north side of the river
a pasteurizing plant at Fort St. John handles the milk for that town.
Throughout Central British Columbia and the Peace River Block it is very obvious
that more dairy cattle could well be fitted into the economy of the various districts.
However, farmers lack dairy experience and are loath to milk cows if there are other
ways of making a living. In addition, good dairy stock and new dairy buildings are
expensive.
Swine
There appears no marked change in hog production, either in the Peace River Block
or Central British Columbia. It is expected, however, there may be a demand for young
stock in the Peace River Block to help market frozen grain. On the other hand, some
hogmen have had to sell off heavily owing to lack of feed. Mr. Brown reports a few
new Swine Improvement Associations formed north of Fort St. John, thus enabling
the farmers to obtain the use of good-type boars.
In Central British Columbia unsatisfactory marketing conditions are the greatest
single factor in restricting swine production. On completion of the Pacific Great Eastern
Railway, however, it may be possible to co-operate with some of the Cariboo hog-
producers in arranging joint shipments.
Sheep
Sheep-raising is a minor activity anywhere in Central British Columbia or the Peace
River Block. There is no live-stock project to-day that will give as great returns as
sheep, but the predator problem has caused practically every breeder to reduce flocks
or go out of sheep altogether. We believe there is a place for the small farm flock and are
trying to promote this form of sheep-raising. A number of such flocks are raised around
Prince George and Vanderhoof, and no great problems are encountered as long as the
sheep are fenced.
Live-stock Diseases
Indigestion and deficiency problems arose following and during the exceptionally
cold weather of January last year. During that period, horses and cattle did not drink
sufficient water and impaction followed.
Other than the regular cases of milk fever, mastitis, etc., we know of no serious
live-stock diseases during the season.
Poultry
Poultry and egg production changed very little in either the Peace River Block or
Central British Columbia. Despite the apparent opportunity for poultry production at
a low cost in the Peace River, very few people are interested. Perhaps the establishment
of egg-grading stations and a more assured market would encourage more people to keep,
at least, farm flocks.
In Central British Columbia the high cost of feed, early in 1950, was discouraging,
but, at the same time, sales of baby chicks were good, and no great decrease in production
is expected this year. The North Cariboo poultry-producers at Quesnel have, perhaps,
the happiest situation for egg sales of anywhere in British Columbia. The local market
takes care of the whole production, and practically every egg-producer delivers his
eggs to the co-operative egg-grading station.
The following is a list of eggs handled through egg-grading stations during the past
year in Central British Columbia: Quesnel, 68,075 dozens; Prince George, 17,000
dozens (30 per cent); Vanderhoof, 30,060 dozens; Bulkley Valley, 60,000 dozens
(estimated). DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950 BB 45
Turkey-raising has increased to some extent. The largest number is raised in the
Soda Creek area, where some 2,500 poults were started. This year, blackhead caused
heavy losses.
All turkeys find a ready local market, and so far it has not been necessary to ship
any out.
Horticulture
Fruits
Fruit production of any scale is carried on only in the Terrace district. Elsewhere
some small fruits are produced for farm use, but none commercially.
Vegetable Seed
A few acres of spinach and Swede turnip seed are grown at Houston. Some 4 acres
of stecklings came through the winter and produced 500 pounds of Swede turnip seed.
Of the 10 acres planted to spinach, 9,372 pounds of seed were harvested.
Seed-potato Production
Raising seed and commercial potatoes in the North Cariboo has, in a few years,
become the chief source of income to a number of farmers and very materially improved
the economy of all farm business. In other parts of Central British Columbia, some seed
and commercial potatoes are grown, but not to the same extent. Mr. Crack reports three
seed-potato growers south of the Peace River. However, with the frost this year, Peace
River potato yields were low. In addition, Mr. Crack informs us that two of the growers
produced Netted Gems, which are definitely not a recommended variety for the Peace
River Block. The other variety was Canus, which, it is hoped, will be of as good quality
as Irish Cobbler, but smooth enough to compete on the commercial market.
The following is a table of potato acreages for Central British Columbia:—
North CaribOO  Acres
Seed _,  404
Commercial     62
Bulkley and Skeena—
Seed     69
Commercial     75
Prince George and McBride—
Seed     40
Commercial  200
Vegetable Production
A relatively good market for vegetables at Prince Rupert and Prince George has
induced a number of enterprising farmers to produce for that trade. To date they are
relatively inexperienced and have difficulty competing with the carefully graded produce
from the south. Cariboo growers market some vegetables through the Interior Marketing
Board at Quesnel.
Land-clearing
The season was excellent for land-clearing, and for the most part the farmers were
well pleased. One unit operated through from May to the middle of November, and the
second unit from July to the middle of November.
In all, some 305 acres were cleared in the Vanderhoof-Endako area and 1,327.5
acres in the Prince George district, a total of 1,632.5 acres.
In addition, these units did 408.5 acres of breaking and miscellaneous repiling and
dirt work to the extent of $21,137.53. Seventy-six per cent of the total amount of work
done was paid for in cash. BB 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Junior Clubs
As usual, the greatest activity in Junior Clubs was in the North Cariboo, where an
active Club Council takes over much of the responsibility. Much credit is due to Mr.
Tarves for his work in this phase of activity.
A Club Council was formed in the Prince George area this year, but so far has been
diffident about assuming any responsibility.
The writer had the pleasure of accompanying the B.C. teams to the Royal Winter
Fair at Toronto. This was an experience both for the members and the writer, and at
this time our appreciation to the Department for being chosen is sincerely expressed.
More detailed information on Junior Clubs will be found in the report of Miss
Lidster.
Meetings
In July the Co-ordinating Committee on Agricultural Services for Central British
Columbia meeting took the form of a week's trip from Smithers to Quesnel. There is no
other means, we feel, by which all workers could so quickly and thoroughly become
acquainted with the extent of the farming areas, the problems, and the reason for our
various recommendations.
Regional meetings of District Agriculturists were held in April and October. At the
April meeting, R. W. Brown and T. S. Crack from the Peace River Block attended.
In October a trip was made to the Peace River Block, of which the group consisted
of Messrs. MacGillivray, Tapp, Reed, Putnam, and the writer. The main object of the
trip was to attend the meeting at Spirit River, which dealt with seed-supplies for 1951.
However, a trip was made as well by Mr. Reed and the writer to study the Lassiter
land-clearing projects at Wahnam, Eaglesham, and Tangent.
Conclusion
The season has been unfavourable in the Peace River Block and only fair in other
areas.   The Prince George-McBride districts were the most favoured.
New settlers continue to come into the Peace River Block and greater acreages are
being cleared in Central British Columbia. Our greatest problem, and it is also the
problem of extension, is to encourage suitable crops, rotations, and a sound live-stock
programme.
SOUTH CARIBOO, KAMLOOPS, NICOLA, SHUSWAP, OKANAGAN,
AND SIMILKAMEEN DISTRICTS
(Report of G. A. Luyat, Supervising Agriculturist)
Climate
The year of 1950 gave two extremes in climate in the range country of the Interior of
British Columbia, in that temperatures during late December and all of January dropped
to a record low, with a change of but a few degrees, while the summer months were continuously hot to an extent not experienced in the Interior for several years. The spring
season was cold and backward, and remained so up to early June, when flood conditions
on the Fraser River and its tributaries seemed inevitable. The month of September was
without rain and with higher-than-average temperatures. The fall months of October
and November were quite mild, but the precipitation was higher than usual. The first
killing frost in the Southern Interior came on September 28th.
Live Stock
Beef Industry
Marketing.—History was made in the cattle business, when record prices of $30
to $32 were paid for grain-grass finished steers in the late spring.   Grass-finished steers DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950 BB 47
during July and August sold for $28 to $30 per hundredweight, but in September these
good ones dropped to a low of $24 because of the Canadian dollar seeking its own level.
Prices have again risen, but the demand, especially for heavy steers, has been sluggish
compared to that paid for replacement cows and heifers and for feeder steers. During
the fall months considerable interest was manifested in replacement stock, which indicates
that ranchers have an optimistic view-point on the immediate future of the industry.
M. J. Walsh, District Agriculturist at Williams Lake, sums up the situation well;.—
"Heavy selling during the years 1947 to 1949 was reflected in this year's cattle
marketings from the South Cariboo. Total sales will probably be much reduced from the
average of 20,000 head per year for the above period, a rough estimate putting the figure
at 12,000. Sales to date from Williams Lake amount to less than 5,000 head, as compared to 12,000 head in 1948. Ranchers in general appear inclined to build their herds
up again this fall. There was such a demand for stockers that light steers and light heifers
outsold fat stock at the fall sale. Most of the heifers and at least half the cows offered
were bid back by local cattlemen.
"Apart from the fact that many ranches are somewhat understocked at the present
time, the cattle industry is in very good condition." Heavy culling of low-grade cows has
taken place through the past three years, and this, in conjunction with continued use of
good pure-bred sires, will make a very definite improvement on the average quality of
beef produced."
Three large shipments of cattle were moved in September by Weiller & Williams to
Montgomery, 111., from the Nicola Valley. Two of these were from the Douglas Lake
Cattle Company, with one consisting of 628 head. The third, of over 500 head, was
from the Nicola Stock Farms.
A system of weekly auction sales held on Monday of each week was instituted by
the British Columbia Livestock Co-operative Association at its yards in Vancouver, with
the opening sale on October 2nd.
Two fall sales of commercial cattle were again held in this region. The one at
Williams Lake on October 12th, with 1,810 head entered, represented a reduction of
1,558 head from the total of the 1949 sales. Steers brought $19 to $25.50, with light
feeders bringing a cent more per pound than the butcher stuff.
The other was held at Okanagan Falls on September 13th, with 601 head. This
total was short by 792 head of the 1949 sale; 219 head of steers averaged $27.07. The
" she " stuff brought remarkably good prices. American buyers took a fair percentage of
the offering.
Three bull sales were held in the region—namely, the Provincial Bull Sale at Kamloops in March, and the other two followed the commercial sales of cattle at Williams
Lake with the Cariboo Bull Sale, and at Okanagan Falls with an offering of four Hereford
bulls.
Two fat-stock sales were held in Kamloops during the year—namely, the Provincial
Fat Stock Show and Sale held on March 7th, in conjunction with the Provincial Bull
Sale, and the Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale in November, featuring the Boys' and
Girls' Beef Clubs.   Full details are shown in the report of the Live Stock Commissioner.
Disperal Sales.—Three ranch auction dispersal sales were held during the year in
the Kamloops-Nicola district. Mrs. Blake Wilson, Ashcroft, disposed of 83 head of
mostly registered Herefords of comprest breeding, introduced from top American herds.
R. McGregor dispersed almost all of his registered herd, retaining only a few head; one
cow brought $1,200. C. McGregor, at the same time, disposed of 110 head of well-bred
commercial cattle. Prices paid for replacement cattle at this sale ran in line with the
heavy demand.   One group of thirteen well-bred heifer calves brought $33.75.
Cattle Improvement.—Four Hereford herds from this region were represented at
the Royal Winter Fair—namely, Fred Dey, Westsyde; Earlscourt Farms, Lytton; D. C. BB 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Wilson & Sons, Vinsulla; V. E. Ellison, Oyama. These herds faced strong competition
from Alberta, but, nevertheless, made a splendid showing.
Mr. Gray, District Agriculturist at Kamloops, reports that a new bull-loaning association was formed in the Vavenby-Birch Island area. The Federal Production Services
supplied one-half of the bulls from purchases at the Kamloops Bull Sale. The Raft River
Range will be used by this association. This is the third to serve the North Thompson
Valley.
The Sullivan Valley Stock Association again put its voluntary Bull-culling Committee
into operation. The Cariboo Bull Sale results very clearly demonstrated that the buyers
in that district are becoming more and more discriminating in their choice of bulls. Good
replacement breeding cattle have not been difficult to place at considerably more money
than the prevailing market prices.
Nutrition.—The whole plane of nutrition of beef cattle is on a much higher level
than formerly. Much progress in this respect has been made, especially in the Cariboo,
where again large importations of grain and pellets were made to meet any winter emergencies. Hay-supplies were drawn to a dangerously low point by the prolonged cold
period. This supplementary feeding has had the much desired effect of stepping up the
calf-crops. More and more calf herds are being fed concentrate rations along with hay,
with better results compared to those maintained on hay alone.
General.—With a few exceptions, cattle, wherever well fed and managed, came
through the winter in a healthy, strong condition.
By midsummer the ranges of the Interior had received a bit of a set-back from
drought after several seasons of above-normal precipitation. Till July the ranges on the
lower levels were good and opened early. Those at higher levels, because of the cool
spring, were not open to grazing until mid-June. Heavy October and November rains
have built up a reserve of moisture to give plants a good start next spring.
Sheep and Wool
The sheep population of British Columbia during the year has not changed much,
although wool shipments have been higher. Heavier fleeces generally were produced in
the 1950 clip. The total clip for the Province was 237,480 pounds, as compared with
216,678 pounds for 1949, with about the same sheep population of 30,954 head. No
large bands have been dispersed during the year. Greater interest in sheep production
is indicated by the fact that determined efforts by band-owners to get additional breeding
stock from Alberta were in vain. The price quoted for yearling white-faced ewes in
Alberta, under limited supply, was $30 per head. In lieu of importations, sheepmen are
keeping back a part of their ewe lambs for band replacement—something which they
usually do not care to do.
Lower ranges for fall use this year were dried out, making the finishing of light
lambs more difficult and expensive.
Much interest is being shown by the sheepmen of the Interior in employing the
services of Basque shepherds. In the Cariboo District, expansion will depend on farm
flocks being increased in size to a point where shepherding can be practised with some
economy.
Dairy Industry
The three district offices of Kamloops, Salmon Arm, and Vernon report that dairying
is expanding, although Mr. Caplette, at Vernon, points out that high meat prices and
shortages of hay and pasture may have a tendency to reduce the dairy-cow population in
the North Okanagan. The ready sale for fluid milk is stimulating considerable interest in
both the Salmon Arm and Kamloops areas.
During 1950 a movement was initiated to move dairy calves to the Interior from the
Fraser Valley.   These were from sires used in the artificial-insemination stations.   Many DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950
BB 49
of the difficulties were ironed out, and calves moved into the Kamloops, Salmon Arm,
and Vernon districts.   The following table outlines the numbers and breeds brought in.
Holstein
Ayrshire
Jersey
Guernsey
Total
Salmon Arm  -               	
20
11
3
1
....
19
17
11
25
53
Kamloops-      -	
Vernon _	
54
17
Total   	
--        |        ....                ....        |        .._
1                   I                   1
124
There have been other importations of dairy cattle into the areas. Mr. Gray reports
that the Dutch Dairies, supplying Kamloops with milk, keep 80 cows, mainly of Holstein
breeding. The equipment used for this herd is fully modern, with milking-parlour and
loafing-shed.   In the future it is proposed to handle a 200-cow herd.
C.T.A. work has been revived in Salmon Arm, with eleven herds on official test.
The Kelowna dairymen are asking for a resumption of this service.
Dr. Bankier and D. B. Young held a series of meetings in the Salmon Arm and North
Okanagan area, discussing the possibilities of the establishment of artificial-insemination
depots. Some progress has been made toward the possible introduction of this breeding
project. Mr. Caplette states that approximately 200 heifer calves are being raised from
the Kelowna Artificial Insemination Depot. Farmers are keenly interested in artificial
insemination everywhere in this region. The outlook for higher dairy production is
favourable.
Swine and Poultry
Increasing grain prices have had the effect of restricting hog production, even though
returns have been maintained at a point high enough to provide a profitable margin.
The North Okanagan still produces the large bulk of the hogs of this region.
Higher grain- prices and the threat of Newcastle disease have kept the poultry
industry from expanding. More interest, however, is being shown in the Grindrod and
Enderby areas.
Field Crops
Hay
Alfalfa-hay crops, because of the cool spring, were backward until the forepart of
June, but recovered quickly by cutting-time. The second crop was quite normal, and
in many favourable places a third crop was taken under good weather conditions.
In the Salmon Arm and North Okanagan areas, where irrigation is not practised, the
crops were light, and consequently very little hay was shipped out. The prices paid were
$28 to $30 per ton, with advances as the supply diminished.
Grain
The grain-crops in the unirrigated sections ripened up rapidly, due to the sudden
heat following a cool spring.   Yields were generally lower.
Potatoes
The year was not favourable for potatoes. Drought affected the crops in both
irrigated and dry-land areas. It was difficult to maintain an even supply of moisture
under the hot temperatures. Frost affected some crops in the Cariboo, where late rains
delayed harvesting. In the Southern Interior the flea-beetle caused damage to fields not
dusted sufficiently.
Husking-corn
A total of 105 acres of husking-corn was grown this year in the Kamloops-Lillooet
area, mostly of the Canbred 150 and 250.   The heat and freedom from early frost made BB 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA
the year an exceptionally favourable one. Late-maturing hybrids could have matured
as indicated by the small trial-plots grown. Progress in establishing this plant as the
main grain-crop has been slow, but some headway is being made. In the Okanagan,
ensilage corn, where not irrigated, yielded poorly.
Seeds
The British Columbia Seeds Co-operative is now established at Kamloops, with
a warehouse and office, and is equipped to handle forage-crop seeds. This move should
stimulate the industry. Already some ranchers have threshed alfalfa seed for the first
time, and are having the organization clean and handle the seed, with, in all, about 60
acres of alfalfa seed being harvested. Some sweet-clover stands were established this
year for seed production in 1951, and a certain interest is shown in growing hairy vetch
for seed.
Pasture
Irrigated Pasture for Beef.—Jointly, the Department and the Federal Range Experiment Station established a 50-acre demonstration area on the Nicola Stock Farm property
for the purposes of demonstrating the advantage of finishing beef steers on irrigated
pastures. The field was fertilized with 11-48-0 at the rate of 200 pounds to the acre
at the time of seeding down to a mixture consisting of orchard-grass (5 pounds), brome-
grass (5 pounds), alta fescue (2 pounds), Grimm's alfalfa (4 pounds), Ladino clover
(1 pound), at 17 pounds per acre. A good catch was obtained, and it appears that the
pasture will be producing to capacity by the summer of 1951.
Mr. Gray established three plots, consisting of seven units, on the farms of L.
Johnson, Heffley Creek; Pavilion Ranch; and D. Stelter, Chase. He reports a satisfactory
catch, and some interesting information should be available next year. Mr. Muirhead,
at Salmon Arm, reports that the orchardgrass-clover mixture pastures gave three weeks'
longer grazing under droughty conditions than did the ordinary common type.
Weeds
Spraying of grain-fields with 2,4-D for the destruction of annual weeds has become
common practice over the southern part of this region and has given good results.
Some research into the destruction of diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa) has
been conducted by this Department under J. L. Gray, and by the Federal Range Experimental Station under T. Willis. A course of eight different treatments has been undertaken at Pritchard.   Some conclusions should be established by 1951.
The leafy-spurge infestation at Campbell Creek was treated with Atlacide at the
rate of Wi to 2 pounds per square rod. The top growth has been killed, but it will not
be known until next year how much of the root system has been destroyed.
M. J. Walsh states that willow treated in 1949 with 2,4-D derivative of both sodium
and ester gave very good kills where the whole leaf surface was covered. Aeroplane
spraying would seem to be the answer to efficient application.
Insects and Pests
Grasshopper-con trol
The whole of the range territory was comparatively free of hoppers during the year,
although an outbreak was reported and controlled on Pavilion Mountain. The three
control areas of this region finished up the year without any expenditures for control
measures.
Land-clearing
In the Salmon Arm area a total of 145 acres was cleared at an average cost of
$59.26 per acre. In the Vernon and Westbank communities 1,321 acres were cleared.
The equipment was moved in the late fall from the Lumby area to Falkland. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950 BB 51
General
Several ranch properties have changed hands during the year. Considerable interest
in British Columbia properties is being shown by American buyers.
EAST AND WEST KOOTENAYS, GRAND FORKS,
AND BOUNDARY DISTRICTS
(Report of J. S. Allin, Supervising Agriculturist)
Extension services in this region have been conducted by four District Agriculturists,
with headquarters situated at Cranbrook, Creston, Nelson, and Grand Forks. Detailed
reports on crop conditions, production, experimental work, and extension activities have
been submitted by District Agriculturists J. W. Awmack, S. B. Peterson, H. R. Anderson,
and J. F. Carmichael respectively. Statistical data on agricultural production included
in the reports of the District Agriculturists are not repeated here in detail, since it will
be included in the reports of other branches.
Co-operative Effort
District Agriculturists have worked closely with representatives of other branches,
and we have been fortunate in having Federal Department of Agriculture services
extended to a greater degree than previously in this region. In particular, the Experimental Farms Service, Lethbridge, and the Science Service, Lethbridge, have expanded
to include that part of the region east of Kootenay Lake. In the whole region, extension
workers and farmers alike have benefited by the assistance of Production Service—more
specifically Seed Potato Inspection, Plant Products Division, and Livestock Division.
In addition, the work of entomologists from Dominion laboratories at Victoria and
Kamloops has been of direct benefit to producers during the past year, as has been the
assistance given by the Supervisor of Illustration Stations, Agassiz, in laying down
experimental plots in the West Boundary District. This close working relationship
between all agricultural services is appreciated and should continue to the advantage of
the producer.
Extension Programmes
No two districts have exactly the same problems or needs, and their programmes
must vary accordingly. Early in the year the District Agriculturists met to draft their
programme of work in the light of past experience, current information, and problems
or needs of the farm. They were assisted in this programme planning by the Director of
Agricultural Development and Extension and the Field Crops Commissioner.
Some problems are common to all districts, and the planning included such long-
range programmes as improving soil-fertility, breeding better live stock, better live-stock
management, improving pastures, etc.
Much of the extension work is done on an individual level, and the extent to which
individual services have been rendered is indicated by the following record: Mail, 5,781;
publications, 498; office visitors, 1,633; farm visits, 1,833.
Dairying
Milk production remains in a constant state of change. A short period of surplus
existed during the spring and early summer. However, serious shortages occurred early
in the year and still remain. This scarcity is due to a number of factors, including poor
pastures, poor management, lack of feed, etc. The region as a whole is not self-sufficient
in this commodity. Fluid-milk shipments have been made into the region from three
points in Alberta and from the Okanagan. Certain localities produce more than enough
for local needs; others are in a state of famine.    Earlier in the year it was evident that BB 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA
milk-producers were not paying sufficient attention to management methods, and the
value of pastures and other live-stock feeds was not being fully realized by the farmer.
Extension efforts in all districts therefore were necessarily directed at these problems.
Assistance was given in marketing. Courses and tours were conducted, and individual
help given to improve methods of milk production. Meetings were held with producers
to discuss problems of clean-milk production.
Dairy producers were assisted with their breeding programmes. Good-quality
female stock was added to herds or replaced poorer-grade animals. District Agriculturists assisted in the distribution of well-bred sires. Junior Clubs in areas where they
are operating have been a factor in the progress which has been made in improving the
general quality of dairy production.
In every district definite results have been achieved in improving quality production.
Special efforts were made in such localities as Creston, Fruitvale-Salmo, Arrow Lakes,
and Grand Forks, in each of which dairying is a major farm enterprise. An example of
the progress which has been made in dairy production as a result of extension efforts is
contained in the report of District Agriculturist S. B. Peterson at Creston, which
indicates:—
(a) During the past two years nearly 50 head of good stock has been brought
into the district, which, together with natural increases, brings the total
to 80 head.
(b) During the same period twenty milk-houses have been constructed and
an equal number have been improved. Two years ago only two milk-
houses were in evidence.
(c) A fair competitive price for quality production has been achieved, and
prices between districts have levelled off.
(d) Bacterial content and, more important, the presence of coliaerogenes in
milk samples have shown marked improvement. This progress has been
a result of supervision by the District Agriculturist of milk-production
methods on an individual and group level.
Beef Cattle
Beef production is a major item in farm production in the East Kootenay District
and in the Boundary District. In these areas, range is available for summer grazing and
farm crops are mainly devoted to feed production for maintenance of the live stock.
To assist producers with improvement of better-quality stock, J. W. Awmack,
District Agriculturist in the East Kootenay District, is directly connected with the
management of several organizations, such as bull-control areas and grazing associations.
Through these organized groups we attempt to improve the quality of bulls and maintain
a satisfactory bull-cow ratio on the range for breeding purposes. This latter factor,
together with other management practices, is designed to improve the quality and the
percentage calf-crop.
As a result of these extension efforts, definite progress has been made in improving
the type of beef animal and herd-management practices. To assist with the live-stock
improvement programmes, we have been supported by the Livestock Division, Federal
Department of Agriculture, which has, through its Bull Loaning Policy, made available
to these organizations for the past five years good-quality sires. Three bull-control areas
operate under Provincial regulations and four grazing associations have been formed to
take advantage of the Bull Loaning Policy supervised by the Livestock Division, Federal
Department of Agriculture, Production Service. In these areas, approximately forty
bulls are used on the range, about half being supplied by the Federal Department of
Agriculture.
The beef-cattle auction sale at Elko is another activity supported by the District
Agriculturist and other officials of the Extension Branch.    Such a sale not only provides DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1950 BB 53
a market outlet, but tends to raise the general level of beef prices throughout the district,
providing a standard of prices obtained by competitive buying. The sale is managed by
the Waldo Stock-breeders' Association, and this year grossed over $100,000 for 558
head of cattle.
District Agriculturists have assisted with the purchase and distribution of good sires
for live-stock associations and for individual ranchers. As in the case of dairy cattle, we
have given assistance, when possible, in selecting good-quality female stock to add to
existing herds, both commercial and pure-bred, and to replace inferior-quality stock culled
and marketed during the year.
Increasing emphasis needs to be placed on a programme to encourage:—
(1) Retention of the best young females in a herd to be used for breeding
stock.
(2) Disposal of older, poorer-quality stock.
(3) Better winter-feeding practices.
Programmes and problems of animal-parasite control have been dealt with by
District Agriculturists, including warble-fly and liver-fluke. Control of the latter still
remains to be undertaken by the responsible authorities.
Hogs
The level of hog production has remained fairly constant, with a slight upward trend.
Quality of hogs being produced has improved as a result of importations, arranged by
District Agriculturists, of good-type hogs, both sires and gilts, followed up by progeny
distribution to areas where better breeding stock is required and requested by producers.
Soils and Fertilizers
District Agriculturists have continued to encourage farmers to make use of the
soil-testing services of this Department.
On the basis of these soil tests and data supplied by experimental work planned and
conducted with the assistance of the Field Crops Branch and Experimental Stations, the
District Agriculturists have made fertilizer recommendations, or have advised the use
of other soil amendments or practices, emphasizing observations of crop responses to
various treatments.
Farmers of this region have used more commercial fertilizers than ever before.
During the past year approximately 1,058 tons of fertilizer were sold in the four districts
combined.
District Agriculturists have likewise been concerned with improving the texture and
fertility of the soil. A study of crop production on the reclamation area at Creston and
immediately adjacent land in Idaho over a period of about fifteen years reveals that
average yields have gradually decreased from 36 bushels to the acre to 26 bushels to the
acre. A similar picture can be painted of declining production in parts of the West
Boundary and East Kootenay Districts. For the most part, therefore, extension efforts
throughout the region have been directed toward encouraging the farmer to conserve and
improve soil-fertility. Several approaches have been used, and advice is constantly being
given on methods of soil-building, such as proper crop-rotation, special seed crops, animal-
pasture units, and use of suitable machinery for incorporating organic matter supplemented by commercial fertilizers.
The results of this programme of soil-improvement are shown by changes in farming
practices and yields as observed by S. B. Peterson, District Agriculturist at Creston.
(a) Incorporation of organic matter plus fertilizer applications plus planned
crop sequence produces results where the yield is 8 to 10 bushels per acre
in excess of the over-all average. BB 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA
(b) A 300-acre field of Kharkov under conscientious soil-conservation management and planning yielded 50 bushels to the acre; a 200-acre field of
Kharkov under converse conditions yielded 18 bushels to the acre.
(c) Forty acres have been sown to small-seed production, such as orchard-
grass, timothy, Ladino clover, and brome-grass.
(d) Twenty-five acres have been seeded to alfalfa for hay production.
(e) There is a marked tendency to avoid stubble-burning.
Each District Agriculturist during the past year has conducted planned fertilizer tests.
These are designed to provide the extension worker with information on the optimum
kinds and amounts of fertilizers which provide the most economical crop response, and
also with demonstration material which can be used locally in conjunction with his extension programme of soil-fertility.
Detailed reports of experimental work conducted by each District Agriculturist have
been compiled and will, no doubt, be included in the report of the Field Crops Branch.
Field Crops
•Right along with the programmes of better soil-management goes the work to
improve hay, pastures, and other field crops. Each District Agriculturist has therefore
developed plans for testing, on co-operating farms, hay and pasture mixtures, cereal
varieties, etc., in order to have information on which he can base his recommendations.
In the East Kootenay J. W. Awmack, District Agriculturist, with the co-operation
of the Field Crops Branch, tested six varieties of spring wheat at two stations and four
varieties of oats at two stations.
J. F. Carmichael, District Agricuiturist, serving the Boundary area, with the assistance of the Field Crops Branch, tested seven varieties of spring wheat and four varieties
of oats at two stations. The Supervisor of Illustration Stations, Agassiz Experimental
Farm, and Mr. Carmichael have laid down tests in the Rock Creek-Bridesville area to
include cereals (forty varieties), flax (three varieties), grasses (seven varieties), legumes
(eight varieties), corn (one variety), and fertilizers.
For Creston and West Kootenay the District Agriculturists, S. B. Peterson and H. R.
Anderson, have attempted to emphasize the value of good permanent pastures, quality-hay
production, and greater use of silage. As a result of the efforts of those officials, farmers
have had excellent success with silage production (grass, legume, and cereal), and the
use of this product has increased many times.
Mr. Peterson reports further that his programme for improving hay and pasture
crops, together with soil-improvement work, has achieved the following results:—
(1) Cattle numbers in the district have increased considerably, primarily for
dairying purposes, resulting in home consumption of the hay and manure
return to the land.
(2) A few pastures of limited size have been sown, using brome-grasses, blue-
grasses, timothy, and other plants suitable to the area. Crested wheat-
grass has been incorporated in a few instances during the year, and will
evidence results during the coming season.
(3) Nearly 100 acres of new seeding incorporated brome-grass as a portion
of the mix, as advised by the district office.
(4) Experimental work indicates that with the use of ammonium phosphate
we can expect an increase of 1,000 pounds per acre of hay, resulting in an
over-all district increase of 900 tons.
Tours, farm visits, news-letters, bulletins, field-days, short courses, and group meetings have all been used to present this information to the farmer.
Investigations have been carried out and encouragement has been given by District
Agriculturists on seed production of legumes and grasses.    Factors influencing seed-set DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950 BB 55
have been studied. Recommendations have been made to seed-growers whose seed crops
were being affected by diseases and pests.
Yields of potatoes have been increased by improving management practices, fertilizer
applications, and as a result of using good seed. Because of the high quality of seed-
potatoes from this region, thirty-one car-loads of seed were exported to the State of
Washington during the past year.
The establishment of seed-potato control zones has been a factor in maintaining and
improving the quality of seed-potatoes. An area of 246 acres out of 293 acres was
planted in tuber units in the Grand Forks Seed-potato Control Zone. Work is now
proceeding to establish seed-potato control zones in the East Kootenay District.
Approximately five seed-potato growers have taken advantage of the new arrangements whereby assistance is given growers to send seed samples to Oceanside, Calif., for
testing.
Weed-control demonstratitons were made by the District Agriculturist in the East
Kootenay District, using 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T with good results. Weed-control in peas
and cereals is extensively used at Creston, and a survey conducted by the District Agriculturist at that point revealed the following:—
(a) Approximately 6,000 acres of cereals were treated with 2,4-D.
(b) Pea-growers used Sinox for weed-control in 600 acres of peas.
(c) In co-operation with a local farmer an application of 8 ounces per acre
of ester, 2,4-D was made on a 100-acre field, with excellent results.
Burdock and red-root pigweed were effectively controlled.
Generally, however, the weed problem is becoming more serious. Weeds that are
new to the region are appearing, and a more intensive weed-control programme seems
advisable.
Junior Clubs
Sixteen Junior Clubs operated in the region during the past year, including projects
in potatoes, sewing, tractor maintenance, beef, dairy, and poultry.
Since the success of Junior Club work depends on local leadership, a short course
or conference for club leaders was arranged. Attendance was not large, but it served
a very useful purpose, and the success can only be measured by improvements in the
clubs themselves.    Club leaders have requested a similar conference for next year.
Land-clearing
Operations under the " Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Act" were handled
locally by the District Agriculturists. Clearing was performed in two districts during
the past year—Nakusp and Lardeau—with total work amounting to $15,323 for 308.5
acres on sixty-three farms.    Average cost per acre was approximately $45.
General Conditions
Spring was later than usual and farm operations were delayed by at least two weeks.
The usual spring rains did not occur until late June and July. In some districts, lack of
rain during the growing season seriously reduced yields of all crops and particularly hay,
pasture, and cereals. While most areas report adequate feed-supplies, farmers of the
West Kootenay will have little, if any, surplus.
Haying and harvesting of other crops was generally completed by the end of September.    Unusually fine weather, with absence of frost, prevailed, thus assisting ripening.
Constant rain during October established near records and caused difficulty in
potato-harvesting, which, in some cases, was not completed until November.
In summary, farmers have experienced satisfactory returns during the year. General
improvement has been noted in methods of production, which is reflected in improved
conditions on the farm and in the home. In an attempt to maintain uniform production
during the growing season, and also to utilize land to best possible advantage, many
(PROVINCIAL LIBRARY
VICTORIA, B. C- BB 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA
farmers are concerned with installing irrigation systems and converting from furrow to
sprinklers. Producers are paying more attention to crop sequences, soil-fertility, pastures
and pasture-management, live-stock improvement, and to the advice of extension officials.
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING DIVISION
(George L. Calver, Extension Agricultural Engineer)
The purpose of this Division is to assist District Agriculturists with problems of an
agricultural engineering nature and to assist farmers generally with farm machinery, farm
structures, soil and water, and, to some extent, rural electrification problems.
Circulars and Bulletins
The primary purpose of circulars mimeographed during the past year has been to
reduce the number of letters required when one specific problem seems to be of interest
to a fairly large group. The circulars and numbers printed during the past year are as
follows:—Drainage, 250 copies; Silo Types and Silage Machinery, 250 copies; Loafing
Barns and Milking Parlours (reprint), 650 copies;  Trench Silos (reprint), 300 copies.
Some of the problems on which circular material should be printed are as follows:
Water-ram installation; sandpoint wells; deep freezer for the home—the revision and
improvement of some of the material already on hand.
The revised edition of the land-clearing bulletin prepared by J. E. Beamish has been
printed, and a large number of copies have been distributed.
During the year, inquiries have been answered dealing with house plans, barns and
silos, other farm structures, farm machinery, drainage and irrigation, water-supply,
refrigeration, and many miscellaneous subjects.
Plans
The satisfactory operation of any farm requires that suitable buildings be provided
for all farm enterprises. One of the best methods of assisting the farmer in the construction of a building that will conform to the requirements of the particular operation for
which it was intended, and also to any local regulations, is to supply him with reasonable
plans which he need not follow to the letter, but which will clarify in his mind the type of
building suitable for his purpose and also clear up some of the difficulties which he is
likely to encounter in construction. Plans were prepared by this Division during the past
year for sav/n Gothic rafter, bent Gothic rafter, turkey sun-porch, range waterer, and
range feeder. This latter plan was incorporated in the Poultry Division's latest bulletin
on turkey-raising. Also, plans were prepared for community halls and a small general-
purpose barn.
This Division should take a very active part in the development of an over-all plan
service for the Province in order that suitable material can be on hand to generally
improve our farm structures.
Field-days
During the past year this Division, in co-operation with the Agricultural Engineering
Department at the University of British Columbia, arranged and conducted farm-
machinery field-days to assist farmers in obtaining more satisfactory service from their
equipment, both in better operation and through longer life. This past year, field-days
were extended to take in some work on drainage, irrigation, and farm structures. They
were arranged by District Agriculturists through farmer groups. A total of forty-nine
field-days was held. Professor Young conducted twenty-five field-days, Professor
Coulthard four field-days, and W. Cleave, laboratory technician, one field-day. Professor
Leroux assisted in conducting a farm-structures field-day at Duncan. Twenty were
handled by myself. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1950 BB 57
Attendance ran from a high of four hundred to a low of six persons attending, with
an average figure of approximately fifty.
A farm-machinery field-day appears to be a most satisfactory method of extension,
since it presents an opportunity to prove the points which the demonstrator is trying to
make, and anything which a person is shown and can take part in is more likely to
remain with him than a mere fact given from a platform.
Farm Structures
Farm-structure work ties in very closely with a plan service, and if the latter were
satisfactory, it would greatly reduce the work required on individual farms. During the
past year, assistance was given with approximately ten structures, including barns, potato
storage, manure-pits, and water-storage tanks. In all of these cases, some written
material was given to the farmer, either in the form of a plan or a rough sketch, as well
as one or more visits to the farm in order to assist with the layout and design of the
structure. Advice has been given during the course of farm visits arounds the Province
on many other problems.
Soil and Water
Assistance was given in connection with drainage, irrigation, and water storage.
Drainage
During the past year, at the request of the District Agriculturist, assistance has been
given on twenty-one farms. In most of these cases it has been necessary to make a survey
and later draw up a plan of the area to be drained and of the drainage structures which
should be used. A number of requests remain to be dealt with as soon as circumstances
permit.
Irrigation
It is apparent that the farmers of British Columbia are becoming much more
interested in the application of additional water through furrow and sprinkler irrigation.
Many of the firms which are supplying irrigation equipment are greatly improving their
sales services, but in many cases the farmers appreciate an unbiased opinion as to the
amount of equipment which will be required, as well as information on the most satisfactory system and layout. Assistance with sprinkler irrigation problems was given to
five farmers in the Vancouver Island area, five in the Kootenay area, and three in Central
British Columbia.
Water Storage
With the greater interest in irrigation, water storage presents new problems. Assistance has been given in approximately six cases of this nature, and it is evident it will
also be necessary to increase this service. The storage of water for domestic use has
also received some attention during the past year.
Other Projects
The agricultural engineering booth, in connection with the planned-farming display
in the Fraser Valley, stressed irrigation and drainage and pointed out the other phases of
information which could be obtained from this Division.
A complete survey was made of the pre-settlement clearing project sponsored by
the Department of Lands and Forests, at Prince George, and a map drawn up to show
2-inch contours. The location of a water-holding dugout was determined, and some data
obtained on probable draining of one area. Plans were prepared for construction of a
small earth dam to form a water-supply for stock.
Another survey was made in the Lily Lake area, near Fort Fraser, to determine the
amount of earth which would have to be moved in order to provide an improved channel
for the Tahultzu Creek.   A slight lowering of the lake, together with faster spring run-off, BB 58
BRITISH COLUMBIA
would greatly lengthen the haying season for farmers affected and increase the acreage
available for profitable farm production.   This project has definite merit.
Meetings
Talks were presented at several short courses held throughout the Province, and two
radio addresses were given through the co-operation of Tom Leach of the C.B.C. farm
broadcast. These talks dealt with barns, milking-parlours, silos, drainage, irrigation, and
farm machinery.
JUNIOR CLUB DIVISION
(Miss Echo Lidster, Supervisor)
Following are the figures indicating membership in the junior clubs in British
Columbia for 1949 and 1950:—
Projects
Clubs
Members
1949
1950
1949
1950
Alfalfa                              	
3
14
22
50
9
6
25
36
16
1
3
21
16
49
16
20
1
2
16
34
16
2
1
30
162
303
530
69
74
241
335
145
10
22
Beef         -            _    	
239
Clothing                                      ■	
205
Dairy Calf.               ..   ._ 	
647
130
275
9
17
Potato                 - -  _	
165
284
137
32
Tractor              _                    _.   	
8
Totals 	
183
197
1.909         1     7 170
The Lamb Project was revived again at Lavington and Barriere.
The Clothing Clubs have shown a decrease from twenty-two to sixteen this year
because of the difficulty of obtaining leaders in four cases, and in lack of interest to
complete membership in the other two instances. The Notch Hill Clothing Club
members made and donated a pure-wool quilt to the Children's Hospital in Vancouver.
The first Clothing Club Achievement Day was held at Salmon Arm on October 14th,
when club members were hosts to their mothers at a tea and social afternoon. Miss
Elizabeth Per.ny, teacher of home economics at Salmon Arm High School, was the
judge of the girls' work.
The Vernon Honey Bee Club, organized by Leo Fuhr, is the first venture of its
kind in this Province for Boys' and Girls' Clubs.
The first Tractor Club in this Province was formed in September at Newgate,
under the leadership of Stan Wilkinson.
Advisory Committee
In September an Advisory Committee on Junior Club Work was formed, with
the Supervisor of Boys' and Girls' Clubs as chairman. Other members of the committee were J. S. Allin, Supervising Agriculturist, Creston; S. G. Preston, Supervising
Agriculturist, Prince George; J. L. Gray, District Agriculturist, Kamloops; George
Cruickshank, Assistant District Agriculturist, Abbotsford; R. L. Wilkinson, District
Agriculturist, Courtenay.
The duties of this committee shall be to assist in designing the club programme in
British Columbia, and to make suggestions for revision and improvement as the need
arises. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1950
BB 59
BRITISH COLUMBIA POULTRY-JUDGING TEAM
Allan Eustis (left) and Eric Powell (right), Burnaby Poultry Club.
Coach, George Bancroft.
:S111II
BRITISH COLUMBIA CLOTHING TEAM
Mae and Rae Untershultz, twin sisters, Salmon Arm Clothing Club.
Coach, Mrs. Gladys Caldwell. BB 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Provincial Elimination Contests
District examinations were revived this year. These were held at Chilliwack for
the Abbotsford, Chilliwack, Langley, and Mission Dairy Clubs; at Armstrong for North
Okanagan clubs; at Kamloops for the Kamloops area; and at Quesnel for the Cariboo
clubs.
The Provincial elimination contests were held at the Pacific National Exhibition
in Vancouver, with the following results:—
Beef.—1, Narcosli—Tom Windt and Pat Webster; 2, Barriere—Bruno Schilling and Alan Schmidt;  3, Pineview—Keith Johnson and Betty Anne
Johnson; 4, Armstrong—Jack Parkinson and Bobby Wood.
Clothing.—1, Salmon Arm—Mae Untershultz and Rae Untershultz; 2, Quesnel—Doreen Trueman and Denise Emmelkamp.
Dairy.—1, Armstrong—Pat Thompson and Bernice Heighton; 2, Matsqui—
Alex Gergely and Frank Keis;  3, Cobble Hill—Marie Cullen and Carolyn Pearson;  4, Salmon Arm—Brian Veale and Earl Stewart;  5, Chilliwack—Don Northgraves and Robin Lister;   6, Langley—Jean Forrest
and Don Urquhart.
Potato.—1, Surrey—Bob Bose and Sargit Singh; 2, Newgate—Brader Charles-
worth and Ernie Strauss.
Poultry.—1, Burnaby—Eric Powell and Allan Eustis; 2, Armstrong—Bonnie
Cavers and Gordon Moore.
Swine.—1, Armstrong—Dennis Taylor and John McCallan;   2, Quesnel—
Ray Susag and Jack Dobb;   3, Chilliwack—Jack Pickup  and Doug
Bathgate.
Special Prizes and Trophies
The Crystal Dairy Limited (Vancouver) Scholarship was won this year by Lance
Richardson, Surrey. He is attending the University of British Columbia, being enrolled
in the Occupational Agriculture Course.
There were no applicants for the Sperry Phillips Memorial Scholarship this year.
The Board of Trade at Fruitvale donated a pure-bred heifer Ayrshire calf to the
club member coming first in the club project for the year 1950.
M. Riedemann, of Alkali Lake, donated a steer to Martha Twan, owner of the
championship calf shown in the Junior Club section at Williams Lake Show and Sale
in October, 1950.
Travels for 1950
J. D. Moore, Public Relations Officer for the Canadian Council on Boys' and
Girls' Club Work, spent one week in British Columbia.
Needs in the Club Movement
There is a great need to secure additional club leaders. There is also a great need
for more training of the club leaders already serving.
There is a need, which could be brought out in training programmes, to convey
to leaders and parents alike the real objective in club work. Too many people fail
to realize that it is the individual club member, not the individual project which is
important.
There is a need to develop a programme which will inspire older club members to
remain in club work for longer periods. This year there is a slight increase in the
average age of club members.    It is now 14.5 years for 1950.
George Cruickshank, Assistant District Agriculturist, stationed at Abbotsford, has
been almost entirely engaged during the year with Junior Club work in the Fraser Valley,
and reports:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950
BB 61
" Junior Farmers' Activities.—The Agassiz area continued to expand its club work,
which had been discontinued during the flood of 1948. The Agassiz Grade Club
continued as from last year, and, in addition, the Agassiz Jersey Calf Club reorganized
under the direction of Frank Appel.
" The Abbotsford area continued along the same lines as in 1949, but there was an
increase in membership; five clubs showed some yearlings and some members also
showed 2-year-olds. The Abbotsford Poultry Club, the only one in this area, was unable
to exhibit because of Newcastle disease.
" The Chilliwack clubs continued successfully, with the membership slightly
increased over that of last year. Quite a few boys and girls showed yearlings, and along
with the group classes—both calf and yearling—this helped to round out the show into
an excellent junior farmers' display.   The Swine Club had a successful year.
" The Langley area had a good year; the junior farmers' show was a success due
to the interest of the boys and girls and the efforts of the organizers. Although this show
was not the largest in the valley, it was one of the best of the junior farmers' displays
this year.
" The Surrey area had a good turnout, with members of the Jersey and Guernsey
Clubs showing some yearlings. The Potato Club had a successful year, with two
members, Robert Bose and Sargit Singh, winning the elimination contest at the Pacific
National Exhibition, and proceeding to represent British Columbia at National Club
Week in Toronto, where they won the Canadian championship. Sid Gray, of Milner, and
Doug Bose, the club organizer, coached them, with assistance from H. S. McLeod
and his staff.
" Following is a table of numbers of clubs and members enrolled during the past
four years in the Fraser Valley and a table showing the total number of club members
and inspections made by members of the staff in 1950:—
Name of Club
Clubs
1947
1948
1949
1950
Members
1947 1948 1949 1950
Dairy Calf	
Dairy Heifer.
Swine	
Poultry	
Potato	
36
7
4
16
5
37
7
5
10
4
39
13
4
7
4
I
312
76
38
164
62
278
24
35
93
54
352
60
42
88
36
I
350
79
27
70
43
Number of clubs     66
Number of members  499
Number of inspections  959
" Field-days.—One major field-day was held this year. It was held at the Colony
Farm on June 29th, 1950, with twenty-seven clubs represented and 190 members
participating.
" Chilliwack continued its programme of holding four field-days in the area, with
each club taking a turn at being host for the day.
" Other areas held field-days throughout the summer. The M.S.A. district held
four, which all clubs attended. The Langley area held meetings for all clubs every
Monday evening, starting in June. The Surrey area also held a few meetings which all
clubs could attend. They varied their programmes in this district by holding meetings
on farms where other classes of live stock were kept, such as beef, sheep, and swine.
" The Swine Club held its annual field-day at the Chilliwack Fair Grounds in
conjunction with the British Columbia Swine-breeders' annual field-day. BB 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA
"Fall Fairs.—The Fraser Valley was very fortunate in that it had ideal weather
conditions for the annual fall fairs. All of the junior-farmer shows were at least as good
as those of last year, and in many cases somewhat improved.
BRITISH COLUMBIA BEEF-JUDGING TEAM
Miss Pat Webster and Tom Windt, Narcosli Beef Club.
Coach, Bill Webster, Sr.
" The Agassiz and Surrey areas have room for improvement in the condition in
which the calves are shown. The other areas showed their calves in a condition that
would be a credit to senior showmen." .■"       ^ :;■--
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1950
BB 63
"Pacific National Exhibition.—The junior farmers' show at the Pacific National
Exhibition went on this year to greater success than in 1949. Practically all clubs
attended this year, to make it the largest show on record. Four hundred and twenty-five
members were enrolled at the Pacific National Exhibition. As in the past, the boys
and girls worked hard, yet enjoyed themselves. Living accommodations and eating
facilities were excellent, and numerous opportunities for entertainment were arranged.
BRITISH COLUMBIA DAIRY-JUDGING TEAM
Miss Pat Thompson (right) and Miss Bernice Heighten (left), Armstrong
Jersey Calf Club.   Organizer, Tom Fowler, centre.
"The winners of some of the competitions at the Pacific National Exhibition
are listed below:—
Pym Trophy—Yvonne (Bonnie) Cavers, Armstrong.
Individual Live-stock Judging—Yvonne (Bonnie) Cavers, Armstrong.
Individual Poultry Judging—Allan Eustis, Burnaby.
Individual Swine Judging—Pat McClughan, Langley.
Individual Beef Judging—Doug Ormrod, Langley.
Individual Dairy Judging—Marjorie McLellan, Langley.
Individual Horses Judging—Yvonne (Bonnie) Cavers, Armstrong.
Individual Sheep Judging—Carl Wuyzke, Lumby.
B.C. Stock Breeders' Challenge Trophy and Gold Medals—Ray Susag, Jack
Dobb, and Pat Webster, Quesnel.
Silver Medals—Pat Thompson, " Skip " McCallan, and Dennis Taylor, Armstrong.
Bronze Medals—Elaine Phillips, Jean Forrest, and Don Urquhart, Otter Jersey
Calf Club.
Stall Competition (Dairy)—Chilliwack Jersey Calf Club.
Interclub Competition—Ayrshire Trophy, Mission Ayrshire Calf Club; Guernsey Silver Cup, Mount Lehman Guernsey Calf Club; Frasea Farms Shield,
Richmond Holstein Calf "A" Club; Jersey Farms Shield, Delta Purebred BB 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Jersey Calf Club;   Pacific National Exhibition Trophy, Langley Swine
Club; Brackman-Ker Milling Company Silver Trophy, Richmond Potato
Club.
" The expanding junior clubs' show at the Pacific National Exhibition necessitated a change in the manner in which Provincial elimination contests were handled.
Two district elimination-days were held this year in the Fraser Valley, with the first one
being held at Chilliwack to select the dairy teams for the Chilliwack, Mission, and New
Westminster districts.    These contests were run on the same basis as the Provincial
elimination contest held at the Pacific National Exhibition.    The following Dairy
Calf Club teams won the right to represent their districts in the Provincial contests:
New Westminster—Don Urquhart and Jean Forrest (Otter Jersey);  Mission—Frank
Keis and Alex Gergely (Matsqui Guernsey); Chilliwack—Robin Lister and Don North-
graves  (Chilliwack Jersey).    The following teams won the right to represent their
districts:   New Westminster—Bob Bose and Sargit Singh (Surrey Potato Club);  New
Westminster—Eric Powell and Allan Eustis (Burnaby Poultry Club).
"A Junior Farmers' International Day was held at the Pacific National Exhibition
on Thursday, August 24th. A large number of 4-H (seventy-five members) and Future
Farmers of America (200 members) boys and girls from the State of Washington were
entertained by members of the Junior Farmers' Committee of the Pacific National
Exhibition and by club members. Judging classes were also provided for the visitors
for their own competitions.
"Annual Meeting of Organizers.—On April 27th, 1950, a meeting of the Fraser
Valley junior club leaders was held in the Anglican Hall in Abbotsford. Reports were
given by all the club leaders in attendance. Rules and regulations were discussed, and
certain changes were suggested, these to come into effect in 1951.
" Club Calves Sired by Artificial Insemination.—A survey showed that 22 per cent
of the calves in Calf Clubs in the Fraser Valley were sired by bulls used at the insemination centres at Milner and Chilliwack.
" National Contests.—The following junior judging teams represented the Province
at the National contests held in conjunction with the Royal Winter Fair at Toronto in
November. They were accompanied by S. G. Preston, Supervising Agriculturist, Prince
George.
Beef Team (Alexandria Beef Calf Club):   Miss Pat Webster, Narcosli Creek;
Tom Windt, Alexandria.
Clothing Project (Salmon Arm Clothing Club):  Misses Rae and Mae Untershultz, R.R. 3, Salmon Arm.
Dairy Team (Armstrong Dairy Calf Club):   Miss Bernice Heighton, Armstrong; Miss Pat Thompson, Armstrong.
Potato Team (Surrey Potato Club):  Sargit Singh, R.R. 2, Cloverdale; Robert
Bose, Surrey Centre.
Poultry Team (Burnaby Poultry Club):   Allan Eustis, 4206 Rumble Street,
Burnaby; Eric Powell, 4425 Woodland Street, Burnaby.
Swine Team (Armstrong Swine Club):  "Skip" McCallan, Armstrong; Dermis
Taylor, Armstrong.
" The Potato Team again brought the National championship for potato judging
back to British Columbia.    The Narcosli Beef Team and the Burnaby Poultry Team
placed fourth.    Fifth and sixth places respectively were won by the Dairy and Swine
Teams from Armstrong.    The Clothing Club Team from Salmon Arm placed seventh.
This is the first occasion on which British Columbia has been represented at Toronto
by a team from this particular project.
" It is interesting to note that Eric Powell, of the Burnaby Poultry Team, was
selected to introduce John Fisher, internationally known C.B.C. reporter, when he
addressed a banquet attended by those associated with the National contests. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950
BB 65
BRITISH COLUMBIA POTATO-JUDGING TEAM
Bob Bose and Sargit Singh, Surrey Potato Club.   Club leader, Doug Bose;
special coach, Syd Gray.
BRITISH COLUMBIA SWINE-JUDGING TEAM
John (Skip) McCallan (left) and Dennis Taylor (right), Armstrong
Swine Club.   Club leader, Lou Field (centre). BB 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA
" On two occasions Sargit Singh, of the Surrey Potato Club, expressed the thanks
of the young people for honours conferred upon them."
J. D. Hazlette, District Agriculturist at Duncan, makes the following report regarding
junior clubs:—
" Three new Dairy Calf Clubs were organized in the district this year—namely, the
Duncan Dairy Calf Club, under Mrs. I. N. Windeyer; the Cowichan Jersey Calf Club,
under Mrs. H. Standen; and the Saanich Holstein Calf Club, under Alex Hall.
Club Members
Saanich Jersey Calf Club (A. Hall, organizer)     7
Saanich Holstein Calf Club (A. Hall, organizer)  14
Cobble Hill Registered Jersey Calf Club (E. Hamilton, organizer) 9
Cobble Hill Registered Jersey Yearling Club  (E. Hamilton,
organizer)      7
Cobble Hill Grade Calf Club (R. B. Moulton, organizer)     6
Cobble Hill Swine Club (T. Standring, organizer)     4
Cowichan Jersey Calf Club (Mrs. H. Standen, organizer)     9
Duncan Dairy Calf Club (Mrs. I. N. Windeyer, organizer)  18
Ladysmith Ayrshire Calf Club (Rev. C. McDiarmid, organizer) 7
Ladysmith Jersey-Holstein Grade Club  (Rev. C. McDiarmid,
organizer) .. .-._::■     8
" Eighteen regular meetings were attended. Four special meetings were held for
the team competing in eliminations at Vancouver. Members of this team were Marie
Cullen, Carolyn Pearson, and Annabelle Loveseth."
The report received from A. J. Allan, District Agriculturist at Mission, states:—
" Junior club inspections and other work for the Mission and Maple Ridge districts
have been done through this office during the year.   The following is a list of the clubs
of the district:— __   ,    __   ....   .     _
Members Beginning Members Completing
Club Year's Work Year's Work
Mission Ayrshire Calf Club " A "  8 7
Mission Ayrshire Calf Club " B "  10 9
Mission Ayrshire Yearling Club  14 8
Mission Jersey Calf Club  13 11
Mission Jersey Yearling Club  7 5
Mission Holstein Calf Club  7 7
Mission Swine Club  12 9
Mission Potato Club  13 13
Mission Poultry Club No. 1  10 9
Mission Poultry Club No. 2  11 9
Mission Poultry Club No. 3  10 8
Maple Ridge Jersey Calf Club  13 12
Maple Ridge Swine Club  7 6
Totals of thirteen clubs  135 113
" Two inspections were done on all these clubs, except the Poultry Clubs, on which
only one inspection was possible because of Newcastle disease. A total of 200 individual
inspections were made, involving thirteen clubs and 113 members.
In connection with junior club work, fifteen evening meetings were attended, also
seven afternoon field-days and three fall fairs."
The following is the report of R. S. Berry, District Agriculturist at Chilliwack, on
club work in his area:—
" Junior club work in the Chilliwack area progressed quite favourably this year.
Besides the regular breeders' junior club field-days, regular Monday night judging meet- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1950
BB 67
ings were held and were attended by a large percentage of the club enrolment,
look for junior clubs is quite good, and more members are expected next year,
concerning Chilliwack clubs are listed below:—
Club Enrolled
Ayrshire " A "     9
Ayrshire " B "  9
The out-
Statistics
Ayrshire Yearling  6
Guernsey " A "  7
Guernsey " B "  8
Guernsey " C "  8
Guernsey Yearling .  7
Holstein  L  18
Jersey " A "  8
Jersey " B "  10
Jersey " C "  10
Jersey Yearling  9
Swine  8
Completed
7
. 7
6
7
8
8
7
7
8
10
10
9
6
Field-days
May 6th, 1950—Holstein  71
May 27th, 1950—Jersey  77
August 5th, 1950'—Ayrshire  54
August 12th, 1950—Guernsey _  51
Total   253
" Turnout of adults:  25 to 30 at each meeting."
J. F. Caplette, Assistant District Agriculturist at Vernon, has submitted this report
on club work in his area:—
" Despite the large membership in the area, the over-all quality of club work has
improved, as indicated by increased attendance at meetings, field-days, and fairs.
" Two Provincial championships were won by Armstrong teams, in addition to other
trophies, discussed later.
" The following table shows a slight increase in membership, which can be almost
wholly attributed to the two new Beef Clubs started in Lumby. These have been very
active and receive very enthusiastic support from the district.
Club
1949
1950
Clubs
Membership
Clubs
Membership
4
3
2
10
....
43
41
24
.6
64
......
8
4
4
8
3
1
68
35
Beef                                     -	
40
76
Potato _	
43
Sheep   ,,.  	
9
Totals
27
258
28
271
"Field-days.—At the beginning of the year it was decided that the Kamloops,
Salmon Arm, and Vernon offices hold joint field-days for club members. These were
initiated for two purposes—to have a large number of members together so that outside
judges could be brought in to instruct the boys and girls, and to remove the necessity of
having competitions for each club individually. BB 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA
" The first field-day was held at Armstrong, where approximately 250 boys and girls
took part in various competitions. The second was held at Tranquille. Organizers were
most enthusiastic that these two functions were highly successful.
"Senior Clubs.—With teams entering Provincial eliminations from Swine, Beef,
Dairy, and Poultry Clubs in the Armstrong area, the writer planned joint meetings of all
participants, starting in April and continuing twice monthly until July. Approximately
sixteen senior members were involved in this plan. Films on various topics were shown,
and each club project discussed with the whole group. In this way the number of separate
meetings was reduced, and the boys and girls became much more adept in public speaking.
It also gave members a chance to learn about other projects, which will be of use to them
later.   The scheme was successful to a degree and will be utilized again this coming year.
"Organizers' Club Council.—The Council of Armstrong Organizers again functioned very well. The Okanagan-Main Line organizers' meeting held in Armstrong in
March was of definite value.
" Feeding Reports.—The writer devised a Beef Club feeding report form in answer
to a request from the British Columbia Beef Cattle Breeders' Association. This was
mimeographed and sent to Beef Club members throughout the Province.
" To supplement this, a table was devised for estimating the weights of beef cattle
by measurement. This table was tried at the Kamloops Bull Sale and proved successful
for cattle in the 800-1,100-pound group. With additional data now available, it is hoped
that this table can be further developed.
"Pacific National Exhibition.—Four teams from Armstrong entered the competitions for Provincial championships. In addition, three members of the Lumby Beef Club
were selected to enter the British Columbia Stock Breeders' Trophy competition. Their
expenses were paid by the Lumby Board of Trade.
" Of the teams entering in the Toronto competition, " Skip " McCallan and Dennis
Taylor won the swine competition; Bernice Heighton and Pat Thompson won the dairy
competition; Bonnie Cavers and Gordon Moore came second in the poultry competition;
and Jack Parkinson and Bob Wood came fifth in the beef competition.
" Bonnie Cavers won the Pym Trophy, with Gordon Moore a close second. In the
individual competitions, Bonnie Cavers won the horse judging, and Carl Wutzke of
Lumby won the sheep judging.
" In the British Columbia Stock Breeders' Trophy, the Armstrong team placed
second and the Lumby team ninth."
The report of J. L. Gray, District Agriculturist at Kamloops, on junior club work
in that area is as follows :•—
" Progress of the club movement has been slow, with a decline of interest showing
in the beef projects. New clubs include a Beef Club at Merritt and Garden Clubs at
Westwold and Knutsford.   Club membership is down slightly from 1949.
" During the year two successful Main Line-Okanagan field-days were held—one
at Armstrong and one at Tranquille.
" Five Beef Club field-days were held in the district, with the locale at various purebred ranches.
" Seven club members travelled to the Pacific National Exhibition and took part in
competitions. The beef team of Allan Schmidt and Bruno Schilling placed second in the
Provincial eliminations.
" C. M. Williams, Assistant District Agriculturist, carried out field inspections for
all clubs. This year, members are being marked on the following points: Recordkeeping, organizer's rating, judging, inspection of project, and, in the case of Beef Clubs,
showmanship.
" Mr. Williams and the writer attended a total of fifty-four club meetings within
the period of this report. Approximately 190 hours were spent on the meetings and
twenty-one days on club inspections. '
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1950
BB 69
"A junior club column, begun in April, is written weekly for the Kamloops Sentinel
by the writer.
" Outlined below is a summary of clubs in the district:—
Type
Number
Name
Membership
Beef
7
1
3
1
1
11
16
Vinsulla	
20
15
9
17
6
Potato  	
10
Barriere  	
10
39
10
Barriere  _  	
7
8
" Total clubs, 13; total membership, 168."
The following report on junior club work was submitted by G. A. Muirhead, District
Agriculturist at Salmon Arm:—
" During the past year there were seven Boys' and Girls' Clubs in operation. They
were as follows: Salmon Arm Purebred Jersey Club, White Creek Valley Grade Calf
Club, Canoe Poultry Club, Salmon Arm West Poultry Club, Silver Creek Poultry Club,
Deep Creek Poultry Club, and Salmon Arm Swine Club. Total membership was forty-
six. During the summer period a number of meetings and judging classes were held with
the various clubs. A Dairy Judging Team was sent from the Purebred Jersey Club to
compete in the competitions at the Pacific National Exhibition."
The following is from the report of M. J. Walsh, District Agriculturist at Williams
Lake:—
" Junior club activity in the district this year consisted of two clubs—namely, St.
Joseph's Mission Beef Club and the Sacred Heart Potato Club at Alexis Creek. Both
these clubs are composed of Indian children.
" Fifteen members of St. Joseph's Mission fed calves for the Williams Lake Fall Sale,
exhibiting this year a better-finished lot of animals than has been the case in previous
seasons. They are handicapped, however, by their absence during the summer holidays
from the school.   Average price received this fall was about $31 per hundredweight.
" The Anahim Mission Potato Club is by and large under the direction of the Sisters
of that institution. They have done a very creditable job with the material available.
The Potato Club exhibited at this year's Vancouver Potato Show and placed second in
its class."
A. R. Tarves, District Agriculturist at Quesnel, gives the following information on
club work in that district:—
" Fifteen junior clubs, with a membership totaling 134 club members, were organized
during the past twelve months. There were twenty-three club members less than last
year, one club dropped out, and a new club was formed. A Dairy Calf Club was
organized, with a membership of nine.
" Following is an outline of various clubs, their membership, and their respective
organizers:—
Club Membership
Narcosli Beef (T. Windt, organizer)     7
Quesnel Dairy (H. Moffat, organizer)    9
North Quesnel Swine (F. Bartels, organizer) __..  11
Bouchie Lake Swine (P. Newcombe, organizer)  7
Dragon Lake Swine (A. Pett, organizer)  7 BB 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Alexandria Potato (G. Windt, organizer)     9
West Quesnel Potato (J. A. D. Anderson, organizer)     9
Bouchie Lake Potato (A. Carnegie, organizer)  12
Baker Creek Poultry (Mrs. J. Higdon, organizer)     8
Bouchie Lake Poultry (Mrs. P. Newcombe, organizer)     8
Landsdown Sewing (Mrs. H. Moffat, organizer)     8
Quesnel Sewing (Mrs. Crossfield, organizer)  11
Bouchie Lake Sewing (Mrs. Halliday, organizer)  10
Dragon Lake Sewing (Mrs. J. Sales, organizer)     7
Quesnel Garden (Mrs. N. Palmer, organizer)  11
" Monthly meetings were held during the summer, and some clubs will continue to
meet throughout the winter. Each meeting agenda covered a particular topic related to
the club project. In addition, each meeting included public speaking, debating, and
a short social period.
"A final elimination contest for the J. L. Gray Public Speaking Trophy was held
at the banquet for the North Cariboo Growers' Co-operative Association's annual meeting
on February 25th. Miss Pat Webster, recipient of the trophy, presented an outstanding
address entitled " My Project and Its Future." Miss Shirley Beath and Jack Dobb were
the respective runners-up. The three speeches were recorded and later broadcast over
both CKPG and the C.B.C.
" The Junior Club Advisory Council was reorganized somewhat this year in regard
to policy and in relationship to the Fair Board. As a result, the junior club programme
has benefited materially, especially the Girls' Sewing Clubs. Members of the Council
have taken over much of the organizing work connected with the annual field-day.
" On July 7th a Junior Club Leaders' Convention and banquet was held in the
Quesnel Junior-Senior High School, with an attendance of ninety-five.
" Members of the Narcosli Beef Club completed their year's project by selling their
calves at the Williams Lake Cattle Sale. Martha Twan's steer placed grand champion
both in the open class and in the boys' and girls' competition.
" Three judging teams represented the North Cariboo at the Provincial elimination
contests held at the Pacific National Exhibition in August. The beef team, comprised of
Pat Webster and Tom Windt, who won the Provincial beef eliminations, represented the
Province at the Toronto Royal Winter Fair, where they placed fourth in the National
contest. Jack Dobb and Raymond Susag placed second in the Provincial elimination,
while Doreen Trueman and Denise Emmelkamp placed second in the home economics
eliminations."
Junior club activities in the Prince George district were reported by G. W. Hayes,
District Agriculturist:—
" In Prince George the Tabor Creek and Pineview Beef Club held regular meetings
during the year and were quite active, as was the case with the Salmon Valley Poultry
Club. These three clubs have excellent leaders, who are as follows: Salmon Valley
Poultry Club, C. Campbell; Tabor Creek Beef Club, W. Leidl; and Pineview Beef Club,
J. Aitcheson.
" Betty Ann Johnson and Keith Johnson represented the Prince George area in the
Junior Beef Club eliminations held at the Pacific National Exhibition. They placed
third in the contest and are to be congratulated on a fine showing, having been in club
work only a short time.
"All clubs exhibited their projects at the fall fair and made a very commendable
showing."
J. F. Carmichael, District Agriculturist at Grand Forks, reports as follows:—
" Two Poultry Clubs were active at Grand Forks this year, and also a new seven-
member Potato Club.    Beef Calf Clubs at Rock Creek and Bridesville operated again DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950 BB 71
and enjoyed a very successful year financially. Calves were shown and auctioned at
Okanagan Falls Stock Sale on September 13th, bringing an average of 34 cents a pound,
which was 10 cents higher than last year. These Calf Clubs made the show at the Rock
Creek Fair on September 7th and 8th.
"A newly organized Junior Farmers' Fair Committee at Grand Forks sponsored
a fair for the Poultry and Potato Clubs on November 10th, making arrangements for
additional educational displays of fruit and vegetables showing grades and varieties. This
fair was very successful, except that only a few adults turned out to see it.
"Both Calf Clubs have already been reorganized for the 1951 project and most
calves have been obtained and are starting on feed."
The following report from H. R. Anderson, District Agriculturist at Nelson, is
of definite interest:—
" The Fruitvale Calf Club was very active again this year, with twenty-nine members
completing their projects. The club is divided into four sections—Ayrshire, Holstein,
Jersey, and Beef. Special prizes of two registered Ayrshire heifer calves, imported
from the Fraser Valley, were presented to the two top members. A well-known Ayrshire
breeder has donated a registered Ayrshire bull calf to the club, and it will be used in the
dairy-herd improvement programme which the club is carrying out.
" During the past year a Beef Calf Club was organized at Arrow Park, with thirteen
members enrolled and nine completing their projects. The Arrow Park Agricultural
Society donated $100 toward the purchase of a registered Shorthorn heifer calf, which
was presented to the member with the highest aggregate mark. Results obtained through
working with this club have been most gratifying and indicate that one of the most
effective ways of reviving interest in farming and improving the present farming practices
will be through junior clubs."
From Creston, S. B. Peterson, District Agriculturist, reports as follows:—
" Junior Farmers' club activities were more successful during the year. The
majority of the members satisfactorily completed projects in calves and potatoes.
Meetings were held regularly during the year, with five inspection tours of projects.
Two field-days were organized in conjunction with tours, which stimulated interest.
The outlook for the commencement of the third year is most favourable."
The report received from R. L. Wilkinson, District Agriculturist at Courtenay, is
as follows:—
" There were seven Boys' and Girls' Clubs organized within the district this year.
Their names and membership are as follows:—
Club Membership
Alberni District Calf Club  10
Comox Red, White, and Black Club     8
Comox Valley Grade Calf Club     6
Comox Valley Grade Jersey Calf Club     7
Denman Island Calf Club     9
Powell River Barred Rock Club     5
Powell River New Hampshire Club     8
"All of the above clubs are particularly active groups, which have displayed keen
competition at their respective achievement-days.
" Three members chosen by elimination from the Comox Valley clubs attended
the Pacific National Exhibition to represent their district in the judging competitions.
As a team they scored in fourth place."
LAND-CLEARING DIVISION
During the past year, land-clearing equipment owned by the Department operated
to advantage under the terms of the " Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Act." BB 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Experience gained since the policy was initiated indicated that crawler tractors of
less than 75 horse-power were not generally satisfactory for the clearing of land;
accordingly, all the 60-horsepower machines were disposed of and two additional more
powerful crawlers were acquired.
Large-scale operations in the West Kootenay and Arrow Lakes districts were
concluded in June. One machine operating there was sold to two former employees
and the other two were moved to Central British Columbia. It had been hoped that
sufficient interest would have been shown in the Grand Forks general district to warrant
moving the equipment there, but sufficient applications were not forthcoming.
Most of our tractors were headquartered at Westbank during the winter of 1949-50,
as, in normal weather conditions, clearing of the V.L.A. project there could have been
completed before spring.
Extreme cold and heavy snowfall made this impossible, operations being tied up
till late March. All equipment there was thoroughly overhauled in the interval.
The V.L.A. clearing was finished in May, after which the various outfits were again
dispersed.
Three machines returned to Vancouver Island, three were sent to Pemberton,
three to Prince George, three to the Salmon Arm-Eagle Valley area, and, as already
indicated, the larger machines from the Arrow Lakes moved to Prince George in June.
Work at Pemberton was curtailed by flood conditions. Two of the crawlers used
there were later moved to Powell River and the third to Prince George.
For the first time in four years fine working conditions were experienced in the
latter district, with the result that a great deal of good clearing was accomplished, not
only in the immediate vicinity of Prince George, but west to Endako.
During the 1950 season, work was carried out in the following districts: East
Arrow Park, West Arrow Park, Nakusp, Brouse, Westbank, Kelowna, Vernon, Malakwa,
Cambie, Solsqua, Sicamous, Salmon Arm, Silver Creek, Enderby, Lumby, Sugar Lake,
Cherryville, Shuswap Falls, Mable Lake, Falkland, Pemberton, Lang Bay, Westview,
Powell River, Parksville, Qualicum, Royston, Happy Valley, Cumberland, Courtenay,
Strathnaver, Hixon Creek, Canyon Creek, Woodpecker, Stone Creek, Pineview, Salmon
Valley, Cranbrook Ridge, Forman, Beaverley, Isle Pierre, Endako, north side of Fraser
Lake, Nethi, Stellako, Fraser Lake, Fort Fraser, Engen, and Vanderhoof.
In all, approximately 4,100 acres were cleared this year by fourteen machines,
which is very little short of the acreage cleared by nineteen machines in 1949.
While weather conditions were of definite help, a higher degree of efficiency was
achieved in our operations.
During the fall months one tractor was used to operate the Nordheimer breaking-
plough at Prince George, with excellent results. Approximately 410 acres of new land
were broken, at an average cost of $13.60 per acre.
In addition to clearing and breaking, our equipment has undertaken a great deal
of other work for farmers. This can consist of repiling partially burned windrows on
land previously cleared and piled, excavation of basements for farm homes or buildings,
levelling fields, ditching for irrigation or drainage, farm road-building, removing obstructions in streams, creeks, and rivers, building dykes, excavating dugouts for water storage,
building dams for the same purpose. All of these jobs are of definite importance to
farmers who have no alternative source of equipment. The extent of this particular
phase of activity may be gauged from the fact that in Central British Columbia this
year receipts for those miscellaneous operations amounted to two-fifths of those from
straight land-clearing.
This information is given to show that the figures for acreage cleared by no means
indicate the full extent of the valuable work being performed by our equipment. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1950 BB 73
The total acreage cleared since the inception of the programme in 1946 is approaching 25,000 acres, with almost another 1,000 acres of breaking by special plough.
Work has been carried out for 2,430 farmers to a total value in excess of $800,000.
In 1951, operations will continue on North Vancouver Island, Prince George area,
Francois Lake, and in the North Okanagan, Shuswap, and Kamloops regions. The outfit which operated at Powell River is now housed at Quesnel, where work will commence
next spring.
Farmers' interest in the clearing programme is being maintained at a high level.
There is widespread approval of the policy and a definite indication that sufficient work
will be forthcoming to justify operations for the next few years.
Early in 1951 J. E. Beamish, Assistant Director of Land-clearing, resigned to
return to the staff of P.F.R.A. in Regina. W. G. Reed, Mechanical Superintendent,
was required to assume responsibilities other than those which his position would
ordinarily require, and these he has discharged with commendable efficiency. Harry
Barber, accountant in charge of the office in Vancouver, and his clerical staff have
again maintained excellent and complete records of the year's operations.
FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL FARM-LABOUR PROGRAMME FOR
BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1950
The 1950 Federal-Provincial Farm-Labour Programme for British Columbia followed very closely the pattern established in 1943 and succeeding years.
Farm-labour requirements were largely seasonal. While considerable help was
supplied to dairy farmers, cattle-ranchers, and mixed-farmers, the producers of small
fruits in the Fraser Valley and on Vancouver Island and the owners of tree-fruit orchards
in the Okanagan Valley and in the Kootenays caused most concern.
The situation which developed following the extremely cold winter in the Okanagan
made it difficult to estimate the demand that would arise for orchard-labour. It was felt
generally, however, that tree-fruits would require very little thinning, and consequently
that very few workers would be needed in the early part of the season. Skeleton staffs
only would be required in the fruit-packing houses and canneries. Based on this premise,
those concerned felt that it should be possible to recruit sufficient workers from the Interior
of the Province to make it .unnecessary to move workers from the Prairie Provinces to
British Columbia for small-fruit harvesting in the Fraser Valley.
Although the situation was tense on more than one occasion, we were fortunate in
being able to meet all requirements without calling for an interprovincial movement.
A lighter crop on Vancouver Island than in 1949 caused little concern, and adequate
help was available.
In the Fraser Valley, however, only very close and consistent co-operation between
the National Employment Service and Placement Officers of the Farm Labour Service
made it possible to meet the situation, which changed from day to day. Weather
conditions varied to an extent that seriously affected the picture.
Placement Officers in the Okanagan Valley gave very valuable assistance in recruiting workers, who were moved by special buses to the Fraser Valley. Most of those
workers were of excellent calibre, and there is a feeling that this intraprovincial movement
can be explored further.
The final strawberry-crop was much heavier than had been anticipated earlier, but
we are satisfied that little, if any, loss of crop was experienced by any grower through
lack of help.
It was evident that those whose accommodation and working conditions were on
a par with present-day requirements had little, if any, difficulty in securing sufficient help
and maintaining adequate crews until the end of the season. BB 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA
As the season advanced, it became evident that apple-orchards in the Southern
Okanagan would likely yield very much heavier than had been anticipated. Many
requests were received for thinners.
A heavier cherry-crop materialized in the South Okanagan. To meet those developments, it was necessary to use extremely good judgment and to enlist the co-operation
of local residents and school-children to a greater extent than on any previous occasion.
A general impression circulated that there would be no fruit-crop in the Okanagan
in 1950. As a result, not only were the hundreds of people who normally move each
year from other parts of British Columbia and other Provinces to the Okanagan deterred
from doing so, but a great many local persons who depend upon the fruit industry for
summer and autumn employment were discouraged and sought work elsewhere.
It became evident early in August that some drastic measures must be taken, not
only within the Province, but on the Prairies, to re-establish confidence in the Okanagan
fruit-crop as a source of employment. This had to be done and the ordinary seasonable
flow of transient labour had to be encouraged without in any way drawing much needed
labour from other agricultural operations elsewhere.
The Farm Labour Committee arranged for a meeting of its Placement Officers,
Department of Agriculture officials, and the president of the British Columbia Fruit
Growers' Association at Penticton on August 16th.
At that time, apple-crop prospects were thoroughly reviewed, decisions taken on the
methods necessary to obtain the help that would be required, and agreement reached on
the manner in which publicity would be effected.
We are indebted to the Canadian Press and to other news agencies, radio stations,
and newspapers for the very wide coverage that was given to statements released by the
British Columbia Farm Labour Committee. Within a few days excellent results were
evident.   A strong continuing movement of workers began to flow into the Okanagan.
It was necessary from time to time to revise original estimates of apple yields, and
these were increased materially.
From the middle of August until the end of October, the Farm Labour Service
experienced what was probably the most difficult season since its inception. Only by
continuous advertising, by exploring every possible source of labour, and by the initiative
and determination of our Placement Officers was it possible to meet the situation that
developed.
Our position was complicated by the strong demand for, and the shortage of, able-
bodied men in other sources of employment. Road-construction, building-construction,
logging camps, sawmills, hydro-construction—all of these were short of men.
An effort by fruit-growers earlier in the season to establish a schedule of wages
lower than that of 1949 had added materially to our difficulties. This schedule was
abandoned, and in the final analysis it is evident that higher wages were paid in the
orchards this year than in any previous season.
Credit must be given to local Placement Officers and to officials of the National
Employment Service for their untiring efforts. From the Regional Superintendent down,
each official and local manager concerned spared no effort. Mr. Horrobin, Regional
Employment Officer, arranged that a thorough canvass be made of the hop-pickers in the
Chilliwack, Sardis, and Agassiz districts. While the actual organized movement from
that particular source was less than had been hoped, it is evident that a very large number
of workers moved of their own volition and by their own transportation to the Okanagan,
materially helping to relieve a most serious situation. Local managers at Chilliwack,
Penticton, Kelowna, Vernon, and Kamloops co-operated fully.
As in the Fraser Valley, it was again evident that those growers who had good
accommodation, and who were prepared to pay top wages, had least difficulty.
During the past seven years there has been a marked improvement in the accommodation provided for orchard-workers in the Okanagan and for berry-pickers in the DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950 BB 75
Fraser Valley. In order, however, to attract and to retain the best class of worker, there
must be still further improvement. Our Placement Officer at Penticton has drawn this
very forcibly to the attention of his growers, and the Farm Labour Committee proposes
to further publicize this most important feature during the winter months. Much can be
done between now and spring to improve existing cabins, to erect new ones, and to plan
for better conditions generally.
Placements of temporary or seasonal workers showed a slight decline. Placements
of permanent farm and ranch workers were also a little lower than in 1949. In the
Fraser Valley this is attributed in part to the number of Dutch workers who have been
established on many of our dairy-farms and have remained in their jobs, giving very
satisfactory service.
There has been the usual seasonal demand for men for haying on Interior ranches.
In the Fraser Valley there was a reasonably strong demand for able-bodied men to
fill silos, for pea-threshing, for haying, and for grain and potato harvesting.
Mechanization of many farm operations, and this includes the wider use of the
pick-up hay-baler and the grain-harvesting combine, reduces materially the number of
men required for seasonal operations. A reasonable return for farm products and an
equally reasonable price for new machinery would still further influence the picture.
Wages for casual labour have been at a new high. Eight dollars a day and board
was being paid in more than one district of the Province this year for haying crews.
At other points, $1.05 per hour and one meal was being paid.
The number of displaced persons or families moving to farms in British Columbia
this past year was not great. Generally, this type of labour has not given too much
satisfaction, although there are outstanding exceptions.
The very keen demand for workers in other industries at high rates of pay and short
hours of work give those associated with farm-labour requirements the gravest possible
concern. The continuation of the present unfavourable relationship in income and hours
of work will further tend to move away from the farm a large percentage of the best
available sources, not only of labour, but of potential farm-owners.
Your Director wishes to express again sincere appreciation of the very valuable
support given to him by the Minister of Agriculture, the Deputy Minister of Agriculture,
by other officials of the Department, by the Regional Superintendent of the Unemployment Insurance Commission, the Regional Employment Officer, and local managers.
A most happy relationship has again existed with Dr. MacNamara, W. W. Dawson, and
other representatives of the Department of Labour in Ottawa.
CONCLUSION
This Branch, established in 1947, is still, in comparison with other branches of the
Department, in a very early stage of development. Much remains to be done before the
original objective of a competently staffed, thoroughly integrated extension service can
be achieved. Mistakes have been made. Some earlier conclusions and ideas have had
to be discarded. Circumstances unforeseen and beyond our control have delayed
progress.
Much has, however, been achieved. The pattern is becoming visible. The structure
is taking shape. Farmers and ranchers generally are appreciating to a greater extent the
services that are available and the assistance that can be obtained from or through the
District Agriculturist. In areas of the Province other than those given over almost
entirely to horticultural crops, the District Agriculturist and the Supervising Agriculturist
are, or should be, the key men where agricultural matters are concerned.
In order that there may be the closest possible co-ordination of effort, all activities
of other branches of this Department or of any other department—Federal or Provincial—must be channelled through the district offices of this Branch.   This will avoid over- BB 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA
lapping and diverse approaches to the same or similar problems and ensure teamwork
which will be to the credit of all concerned.
The services of subject-matter specialists in production, in science, and in marketing
are essential to the district man in carrying out his duties effectively. Whether specialists
are available within the Branch or from other agencies, they must work with him, or
through him, and not independently, to achieve the best results.
In many parts of the Province the lucrative price for logs and lumber has drawn
many men from the farms to woods and mills. While most are still operating their land
holdings, they are doing so in a manner that is far from satisfactory—more or less from
year to year—and not planning ahead with a definite long-term plan of development.
While this is regrettable, most men concerned are earning money that will enable
them to make more rapid progress in the future in land-clearing, in building, and in the
purchase of improved stock and equipment.
The influx of new settlers to the Peace River Block, to Central British Columbia,
and to many other parts of the Province places new and heavier responsibilities on this
Branch.
The industrial expansion now evident and contemplated should accelerate new
settlement and greater development of present holdings, particularly in the North Cariboo
and Central British Columbia.
This potential expansion will require bold and comprehensive Departmental policies
and programmes designed for practical application to the areas concerned.
I wish to express my keen appreciation of the excellent work carried out by the field
staff and by the clerical staff of all divisions throughout the year.
REPORT OF SOIL CLASSIFICATION BRANCH
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor
During the winter the office work of processing the field activities of the previous
summer and fall was undertaken. A number of drainage problems in local orchards and
farms were solved, and many soil and water samples were tested. Detailed and reconnaissance soil-survey maps were drafted, and reports were prepared.
In contrast with the field work of recent years, there was a drop in the demand for
soil-surveys of irrigation proposals and more time was spent on reconnaissance surveys.
Aside from drainage and irrigation problems, the only small job undertaken was a detailed
soil-survey of the Blueberry Creek Irrigation District, located between Castlegar and
Trail, and production of a Reclamation Committee report covering this area. Reclamation Committee reports dealing with the Cuisson Creek and Salmon Arm irrigation proposals were also produced. Work on the proposed Soil Conservation Act was continued.
A preliminary study of ground-water conditions in the Peace River Block was undertaken
by the Department of Mines in co-operation with this Branch.
Three major field surveys were carried on in 1950. A soil-survey of the southern
part of Vancouver Island, including adjacent islands and several areas on the west coast,
was completed, and surveys of the East Kootenay District and the Peace River Block
were continued. The Vancouver Island soil-survey was undertaken as a joint operation
of the northern and southern field parties.
In 1950 the southern field party consisted of J. S. D. Smith, with the student help
of J. D. Lindsay and A. L. Van Ryswyk. R. G. Garry remained in charge of the Kelowna
office during the summer, his duties being land drainage, irrigation, and soil problems.
During shortage of help in the fall, Mr. Garry assisted with the East Kootenay soil-survey. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950 BB 77
The northern field party, under the supervision of L. Farstad, Senior Pedologist,
Dominion Experimental Farms Service, consisted of T. M. Lord, J. H. Day, and S.
Vernon, Dominion Department of Agriculture, and J. A. Green and G. Dargie, student
assistants, Provincial Department of Agriculture. J. H. Day and J. A. Green spent the
field season completing the Vancouver Island survey. Dr. C. A. Rowles, Associate
Professor of Soils, University of British Columbia, gave advisory assistance on Vancouver
Island and in the Peace River District.
LAND DRAINAGE AND IRRIGATION
A service for the solution of problems met with in the drainage of irrigated and
other lands has been established by the Soil Survey Branch, present operations being
limited to the Okanagan and South Thompson Valleys. Land drainage is a form of
reclamation devoted to the increase of production on lands already farmed.
Experience has shown that attempts by the farmer to drain land without competent
advice are seldom successful, and much of the capital expended for this purpose has been
lost. With this in mind, a technique for dealing with drainage problems has been
developed over the past sixteen years, and in 1950 the amount of advisory drainage work
was increased.
During the year complete plans were provided for drainage systems on 291 acres.
About 28 acres of orchard, 190 acres of mixed-farming land, and 62 acres of vegetable
land were drained in the Vernon, Kelowna, and Keremeos localities.
Preliminary investigation was carried out on 141 additional acres of irrigated land.
Detailed work will be completed on these projects as the farmers are prepared to install
drains.
During the summer, data was gathered in co-operation with the Summerland
Experimental Station to determine actual water requirements of mature orchards on the
several soil types under sprinkler irrigation. This information is being compiled to assist
growers in planning sprinkler systems and to improve water distribution by present
sprinkler irrigation.
General information was distributed as to the kinds of sprinkler equipment available,
the laying-out of new systems, the setting-up of screening devices for irrigation-water,
lateral layouts, and maintenance. Numerous water samples were tested for content of
alkali salts.
BLUEBERRY CREEK IRRIGATION DISTRICT
Detailed classification of the Blueberry Creek Irrigation District was carried out in
April. The survey was in co-operation with the Water Rights Branch and the local
district, the purpose being to determine the irrigable acreage and the best use of the land.
The mapped area, covering a total of 284 acres, is located about 5 miles south of
Castlegar or 15 miles north of Trail on the main highway. It is served by the Canadian
Pacific Railway, which maintains a siding called Blueberry.
It is featured by two of a number of glacial outwash terraces which fan from Blueberry
Creek canyon and cut across terraced deposits of the Columbia River. The outwash
terraces are bordered on the north-west by higher ones, on the east by the Columbia
River, and on the south-west by the deeply cut channel of the creek.
The highest elevation, situated near the canyon-mouth, is about 1,700 feet above
sea-level. The lowest elevation, at high water on the Columbia River, is about 1,250 feet
above the sea.
The bench surfaces are gently undulating, with a general slope toward the main
valley, the margin of the most easterly and lower bench being about 250 feet above the
Columbia River, or 1,450 feet elevation. The lower bench occupies about two-thirds
of the map-area. BB 78 BRITISH COLUMBIA
There is no local meteorological station. Comparable points are Warfield, 1,982
feet elevation, and Columbia Gardens, 1,350 feet elevation. May 1st to September 30th
rainfall at these stations is 7.93 and 7.84 inches, annual precipitation being 26.15 and
23.83 inches, annual mean temperature 48° F. and 45° F., and frost-free period 186
and 141 days. June is the month of highest rainfall, and prevailing wind is southerly.
The climate is summer-dry.
The original vegetation of Douglas fir, Ponderosa pine, Western larch, Western red
cedar, white pine, lodgepole pine, birch, willow, and aspen has been destroyed. Present
vegetation consists of snow-bush, wild filbert, willow, birch, and scattered patches of
conifers.
Soils
The Blueberry Creek benches were probably formed by torrential melt-water from
a retreating up-stream glacier. A broad channel was carved through previous sandy
deposits of the Columbia River, and the channel was floored with coarse material.
This flooring consists of 10 to 15 feet of granitic and gneissic boulders, stones,
gravel, and coarse sand, which overlies the fine sandy Columbia River material. The
Columbia River sands outcrop near the margins of the stony outwash, and during
deglaciation the sands were blown back over the creek rubble to form a coating of loess.
The irrigable soils consist of soils derived from a loess coating at least 18 inches
thick over the outwash stones and gravel described above, and soils derived from the
thick Columbia River sands. The soils belong to the Brown Podsolic Zone, and the
acreage and classes are as follows:— Acres
Blueberry Creek glacial outwash capped with loess—
Stony fine sandy loam   50.9
Loamy sand     5.0
Columbia River deposits—
Fine sandy loam  19.3
Loamy sand      8.4
Total irrigable area  83.6
Reaction in the soil profile ranges from pH 4.5 at the surface to pH 6.7 at depth.
The strongly acid condition near the surface is due chiefly to the granitic, comparatively
lime-free parent material from which the soils are derived. Lime application is required
for general agriculture.
Land Utilization
Excepting school property and road allowances, all the land is privately owned.
There are nineteen owner-occupiers and two absentee land-owners. The Canadian
Pacific Railway and West Kootenay Power and Light Company have rights-of-way
across the area.
Only two land-owners depend on their land for a living. About 50 acres are under
some form of agricultural use, including gardens, orchards, strawberries, raspberries, and
poultry. The chief crops are potatoes, vegetables, and small fruits. The orchards are
old, neglected, and unproductive.
This is a residential area for Trail Smelter employees, and it should not be regarded
primarily as an agricultural community. Irrigation and domestic water for small holdings
would be desirable, the carrying capacity of the system being 8 acre-inches per month.
A soil map, scale 200 feet to an inch, called " Soil Map of the Blueberry Creek
Irrigation District," was prepared and distributed to co-operating agencies. The mapped
area was examined by the Reclamation. Committee, whose recommendations appear in
Reclamation Committee Brief No. 9, May 20th, 1950. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950 BB 79
PROPOSED SOIL-CONSERVATION ACT
In 1949 some 500 circulars were distributed to farm organizations and Government
departments inviting evidence of soil-erosion and suggestions as to methods of control.
The returns were helpful and unanimous in support of a Soil-conservation Act. In the
fall and winter of that year a proposed Act was drafted. This is based on the following
principles:—
It is proposed that the State has an interest in preserving the soil resources for its
own benefit and the benefit of succeeding generations, and should share the cost of such
conservation up to the value of its interest. The interest of the State would in part be
served by providing leadership and education for the purpose of persuading private
land-owners to voluntarily take better care of their lands. The Act should apply to the
privately owned part of the Province. It should be financed as part of the cost of
the Department of Agriculture, with annual financial assistance from the Dominion
Department of Agriculture.
Some of the most intensively populated agricultural communities should be organized
into self-governing soil-conservation districts, which would have no power to tax. These
soil-conservation districts would lay out their own-soil conservation programmes annually,
with an estimate of annual cost, and submit them to the Department of Agriculture for
approval. Funds may be provided to carry out such parts of these programmes as
require expense and are approved. Districts would have the power to co-operate with
land-owners, and power to establish by-laws by popular vote.
In the spring of 1950 the proposed Soil-conservation Act, including an explanation
of the several sections, was mimeographed. Approximately 1,000 copies of this material
were distributed to farm organizations, farm papers, Government officials, and organizations and individuals having an interest in soil-conservation. Free criticism of the
material was asked, and suggestions for improvement were requested.
The chief product of this distribution indicates support in principle by the farming
population, which appears to be ready and willing to receive well-considered and workable
soil-conservation legislation. Not a single objection was received from any organization
or individual. Editorial criticism was confined to minor details. With a favourable
public reaction established, the work remaining to be done is largely technical and legal.
GROUND-WATER STUDIES IN THE PEACE RIVER BLOCK
In the early part of the season a co-operative arrangement was made with the British
Columbia Department of Mines in regard to a preliminary study of ground-water
conditions in the Peace River Block.
The work was undertaken in August by Dr. W. H. Mathews, Department of Mines,
who reports some areas favourable and others unfavourable for the finding of well-water
at shallow depths.
Preliminary conclusions regarding availability of ground-water at depths less than
100 feet were produced on a map. The map shows ground-water to be available in
about one-third of the Peace River Block, chiefly in the comparatively undeveloped
western part. In another third of the area, information is presently inadequate for any
conclusion, and in the remainder of the Block the conditions are relatively unfavourable.
Unfortunately, the unfavourable area contains a considerable part of the better farming
lands.
The preliminary study indicates the possibility of separating areas favourable for
domestic wells from areas where well-drilling should not be encouraged. It is hoped
that this work can be continued to the stage where settlers can be given advice as to the
method they should use to obtain a water-supply in different parts of the district. BB 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA
VANCOUVER ISLAND AND ADJACENT ISLANDS
Following a survey in 1936 and 1937 to obtain an inventory of the forest resources
of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway land grant, the Forest Service recommended
a soil-survey of the southern part of Vancouver Island. The objective of the soil-survey
would be to separate non-arable lands suitable for forestry from lands having agricultural
value. The purpose was to start a tree-planting programme to stock the non-arable
Crown lands.
A soil-survey to serve this requirement began in 1940 under the direction of R. H.
Spilsbury, Forest Economic Branch, and L. Farstad, Dominion Experimental Farms
Service. Since the objective was limited, the work was not done in sufficient detail for
publication of a soil-survey report. The areas of interest to the Forest Service were
studied and adjacent islands were not included.
In order to fill the requirements of publication, it was decided to go over the area
again in the spring of 1950 and to include the islands near Vancouver Island in the
map-area.
For this purpose the northern and southern field parties joined forces and carried
out the field work necessary to meet the requirements of a detailed reconnaissance
survey. The field work began on May 15th and was continued until July 1st. By this
time the map-area had been completed up Vancouver Island to Parksville, including most
of the islands in the Strait of Georgia.
On July 1st the operation split up, and the field parties left Vancouver Island to
carry out commitments in the Peace River and East Kootenay Districts. One soil
surveyor and student assistant remained on Vancouver Island to continue and complete
the map-area northward to Sayward—a job that continued until October.
Since Mr. Farstad was associated with the original survey, he directed the survey
of 1950, and will be responsible for the preparation of the soil maps and report. The
intention is to prepare the maps and report during the present winter, and have the
material ready for publication as a soil-survey bulletin by the spring of 1951.
The mapped area consists of the potentially arable fringe of Vancouver Island from
Jordan River to Victoria, and from Victoria to Sayward. The valley of the San Juan
River near Port Renfrew and the Alberni locality are included. Islands mapped in the
Strait of Georgia consist of James, Sidney, Piers, Portland, Coal, Saltspring, Galiano,
Mayne, North and South Pender, Prevost, Morseby, Saturna, Samuel, Thetis, Kuper,
Gabriola, Valdes, Newcastle, Hornby, Denman, and Quadra. A rough estimate of total
acreage in this map-area, including islands, amounts to about 760,000 acres.
UPPER KOOTENAY RIVER VALLEY
A detailed reconnaissance soil-survey of the Rocky Mountain Trench in the area
between Canal Flats and Montana was completed in 1949. The map-area amounts to
about 497,000 acres, of which about 249,500 acres are potentially irrigable. The field
work was completed before a new base map became available, hence preparation for
publication was delayed. The chief office task of the present winter will be to prepare
a soil map and report of the above area for publication. The published report will be
called " Soil-survey of the Upper Kootenay River Valley."
The immediate purpose of this survey is to estimate the acreage of potentially
irrigable land in the area, and how much water this land would use when fully developed
for agriculture. This information is required by the Water Resources Division, Department of Resources and Development, as part of the data dealing with the use of Columbia
River water.
In order to ensure that the duty of water estimate will be as reliable as possible, it
has been proposed that two irrigation stations of about 10 acres each should be established DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1950 BB 81
on representative soil types. These stations would be managed by the Dominion
Experimental Station, Lethbridge, Alta., which operates in this area, and in addition to
duty of water experiments, the maximum yields and fertilizer practice would be
determined.
During the summer, representatives from this Department and the Experimental
Station, Lethbridge, selected sites for the two proposed irrigation stations, which may
be established in 1951.
UPPER COLUMBIA RIVER VALLEY
The soil-survey of the Upper Columbia River Valley is designed to classify the
lands in the Rocky Mountain Trench from Canal Flats northward as far as there are
lands of agricultural value. The northern limit of the survey will probably be in the
neighbourhood of Beavermouth, some 21 miles north of Golden.
The general soil-survey of the Rocky Mountain Trench is therefore divided into
northern and southern map-areas, the division being at Canal Flats. The division is
based on the amount of map paper at a suitable scale that can be stored in the back
of a soil-survey bulletin.
The Upper Columbia Valley survey, so named because of its location in the headwaters of the Columbia River, was started in July at Canal Flats, after spring work on
Vancouver Island, and carried northward to a point about 6 miles north of Edgewater.
The total area classified in 1950 amounts to about 157,000 acres. There are about
143,500 acres of well-drained soils, of which some 73,000 acres are potentially irrigable
and 70,500 acres are non-arable. Lands subject to flood between Columbia and Windermere Lakes cover about 3,540 acres, including ponds, and between Lake Windermere
and Luxor the swamp lands cover 10,200 acres, including ponds.
The most important bodies of water are Columbia and Windermere Lakes, which
cover about 6,200 and 4,500 acres respectively, these acreages not being included in the
area of surveyed lands.
The distribution of glacial deposits in the Rocky Mountain Trench changes to the
north of Canal Flats, due chiefly to a change in the structure of the mountain systems
bordering the great depression. The Stanford Range of the Rockies starts at Canal
Flats and continues northward as an unbroken ridge to Sinclair Pass, where it merges
with the slightly more broken Beaverfoot Range. The Kootenay River valley occupies
the eastern side of these ranges, thus producing a high ridge offering little opportunity for
the accumulation of glacier ice. By contrast, the Purcell Mountains, lying opposite,
contribute long, deeply cut valleys ideal for the production of large tributary glaciers.
Therefore, the Wycliffe till-plain is on the west side of the trench in this area. On
the east side there are a few scattered morainal remnants high on the mountain-sides, but
colluvial fans are a prominent feature at the toe of the mountain-slopes.
Columbia Lake is bordered on both sides by stratified white silts, from which Mayook
series is derived.    The till, fans, and stratified silts are highly calcareous.
The abrupt faces of the stratified silts along the sides of Columbia Lake, which
continue northward to Edgewater, give the impression that the valley-bottom, now
swamped and occupied by lakes, was a broad river-channel at an early stage of deglacia-
tion. It seems likely that the Kootenay River may have flowed northward in a broad,
meandering course before the fan, now called Canal Flats, dammed the Kootenay River
and turned it southward. Thus Columbia Lake is a shallow pond in an old river-bottom,
made possible by the dams at Canal Flats and Dutch Creek. Windermere Lake is a
similar formation, lying between the Dutch Creek fan outwash and the fan to Toby Creek.
The swamped river-flats to the north of Windermere Lake have the appearance of
a river-valley whose flood-plains have been covered over and otherwise modified by the
more recent fan deposits of tributaries. BB 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA
The Wycliffe and Elko soils, common in the southern part of the trench, continue
northward. The calcareous Wycliffe till is still the main soil type, but the shallow Elko
soils, and the glacial river-channels in which they are formed, become less important.
In place of the Elko soils is a similar and deeper soil type derived from large outwash fans.
Since streams are associated with the fan formations, the new soil type is the most extensively irrigated and cultivated, particularly around Windermere Lake and in the vicinity
of Edgewater.
The Mayook soils, derived from calcareous stratified silts, are fairly extensive around
Windermere Lake and northward, in some places being rather severely eroded. There
is little agricultural development in the Mayook soils, but they would respond to irrigation.
Northward from Canal Flats, several familiar species of plants such as antelope-bush,
Ponderosa pine, and larch gradually disappear, and slow-growing fir becomes dominant.
After removal of the larger trees the forest is being developed for Christmas-tree production. Progressively northward the growth is increased by greater precipitation, and
spruce begins to appear at the lower elevations in the vicinity of Edgewater. Density
of forest-growth is slowly increased to a maximum in the vicinity of the Boat Encampment, where the Columbia River turns south around the northern margin of the Selkirk
Mountams.
The area surveyed in 1950 contains more irrigated and cultivated acreage than any
other part of the Rocky Mountain Trench. In the locality between Canal Flats and
Luxor, a few miles north of Edgewater, there are about 2,500 acres irrigated and under
some form of cultivation. About 1,200 acres, formerly irrigated, are no longer in use.
About 300 acres of the ground-water soils in the valley-bottom are used for the production
of swamp-hay. During the past few years a more or less continuous decline of the local
agriculture has been arrested. This is due chiefly to a better market for beef and seed-
potatoes. As in many pioneer communities, most of the settlers derive a part of their
income from outside employment.
One of the chief problems in this area is to determine the future use of the swamped
valley-bottom from Columbia Lake to Windermere Lake and from Windermere Lake to
Golden. It could be used, as at present, chiefly as a sanctuary for water-fowl, or
reclaimed for agriculture, or used as a storage-reservoir.
The Columbia River in this area has an average fall of about 1 foot per mile, the
decrease of elevation being reduced by stream meanders. The result consists of a system
of low levees supporting deciduous forest, sloping on each side of the river to sedge
meadows and lily ponds, the latter filling a substantial part of the area. Here and there
the forested fans of tributaries invade the flats, acting as low dams and helping to keep
the areas between them swamped and ponded.
Tn 1951 a committee of agricultural experts will be brought together for the purpose
of defining the value of the flats for agriculture, as opposed to other possible uses.
PROGRESS REPORT OF SOIL-SURVEY OPERATIONS IN THE
PEACE RIVER BLOCK, 1950
The soil-survey in the Peace River Block, as in previous years, was conducted on
a co-operative basis by the Field Husbandry Division of the Experimental Farms Service
and the Provincial Department of Agriculture. Field work began July 15th on a modest
scale and continued until September 15th, at which time the majority of the personnel
returned to the University to continue their studies.
During the short interval allotted to this northern project the systematic soil-survey
was continued. In addition, exploratory traverses into the North-eastern Peace River
Block were also undertaken.
The soil-survey was confied to the area north of the Peace River, bordered on
the east by the British Columbia-Alberta Boundary and on the west by the Beatton River. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950 BB 83
The objective of this survey is, first, to obtain basic information on the nature of the
soil resources, their distribution, and information on some of the problems likely to be
encountered.   The second, research in order that problems of utilization may be met.
In our northern areas, and particularly in the Peace River Block, we are lacking in
basic information obtained through soil-surveys. To date soil-surveys have been busily
engaged studying settled areas and therefore have obtained little basic information in
the lands beyond settlement.
During the short time allotted to the work in the Peace River Block this past summer,
the major efforts were directed to surveying along the fringe of settlement north of
Clayhurst. Some 100,000 acres were covered, which includes several townships beyond
the fringe of settlement.
The systematic survey was under the direction of T. M. Lord, B.S.A. The soils
mapped were very similar to others mapped and described in previous Annual Reports
and were therefore readily classified as members of the Degraded Black and Grey Wooded
Zonal Great Soil Groups.
In addition to the regular mapping programme, a traverse into the North-eastern
Peace River Block was undertaken. The route taken was from Rose Prairie eastward
through Townships 86 and 87 in Ranges 15 and 16. At various points short side traverses
were made to examine soil and geological features. G. Dargie, Provincial Department
of Agriculture, and K. Haugan, of the Department of Veterans' Affairs, were members
of the party.
The forest-cover over the majority of the area is about 75 per cent to 12-inch aspen
and willow, with the remainder heavy stands of conifers. Grass vegetation is generally
sparse throughout, except in areas adjacent to the major streams. Much of the topsoil
has been burned off by recurrent forest fires.
No water was observed in the area, except that carried in the permanent streams.
The only road in the area is the abandoned Bynes Creek Cut-off, now a pack-trail.
Before this area can be effectively settled, some satisfactory solution to the water problem
must be found. As there are no available lakes, and there is little run-off, it may become
necessary to construct dugouts or drill to horizons where water may be encountered.
The purpose of this traverse was mainly to investigate how best to survey this large
area containing upwards to a million acres. As yet, no very satisfactory solution has been
developed, due mainly to the lack of water and density of cover.
The country was very interesting in places, but from the standpoint of agriculture
much of the land was disappointing. The traverse only covered a fraction of the area,
but many poorly drained acres were covered. Much of the land adjacent to the Doig
River is sandy, and in the north-east sections of the Block the soil is highly leached,
strongly acid in reaction, and inclined to be stony.
The first need toward utilization of the soil resources in this area is investigational
work, and we are woefully lacking in basic information obtainable through surveys.
Fortunately, the area has good air-photo coverage. Through careful photo interpretation,
supplemented by frequent traverses, it is anticipated a great deal of valuable basic information can be gathered in a short time. BB 84
BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPORT OF FIELD CROPS BRANCH
Norman F. Putnam, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner
GENERAL
Unfavourable weather conditions prevailing throughout most of the Province this
past season were responsible for general decline in crop production. Most areas reported
record low temperatures last winter, with a cold, late spring which delayed spring seeding
operations and spring pasture-growth. General conditions of drought followed, which
further aggravated the situation. Early fall frosts in the major grain-growing area of the
Peace River Block seriously affected quality and yields. Most districts experienced ideal
harvesting weather.
FIELD-CROP PRODUCTION
Cereals
The severe winter, with an attendant cold, late spring, delayed seeding operations
on Vancouver Island and in the Lower Fraser Valley a week to ten days. This was
followed by a dry, warm summer, and cereal production on the Island particularly
suffered. Oats is the main crop in the area, and average yields on the Island would be
about 65 bushels per acre. Approximately 15,000 acres were seeded in the Fraser
Valley, with an average yield of about 90 bushels per acre. Some winter-injury was
reported in fall-seeded grains in the Duncan area, particularly where the seeding was
done after the middle of October. There was a fairly heavy infestation of aphides on
oats in the Fraser Valley and some injury was reported, up to as high as 25 per cent.
Under the dry summer conditions, little lodging was noted and good-quality oats were
harvested.
In the Kamloops area a cold, late spring delayed seeding two weeks, and the dry
conditions following during summer reduced yields seriously, with spring wheat averaging
only 15 bushels per acre. Fall wheat, which is of less importance in that area, outyielded
spring seedings.
Throughout the North Okanagan-Main Line, including the grain-growing area
around Armstrong, spring-seeded cereals showed severe injury from summer drought.
Winter wheat came through in better condition, with average yields of about 25 bushels
per acre. Total production is down about 10 per cent. There was some evidence of
loose smut on fall wheat in the Armstrong area again this year, and Ridit, which is
commonly grown as a resistant variety, has now been found susceptible to a new strain
of " dwarf " bunt.
In the Boundary District, yields were about the same as last year, with little change
in the seeded acreage. Most of the area is in spring-wheat production, but there is some
fall wheat as well, which outyielded spring varieties. Average yields for the district are:
Wheat, 15 bushels per acre; barley, 25 bushels per acre; and oats, 35 bushels per acre.
In the West Kootenay, cereal crops were poor, with average yields of oats reporting
at 40 bushels, and spring wheat 15 bushels per acre .
Yields in the West Kootenay were again low, and the following was given as a brief
summary from the District Agriculturist's report:—
Dry Land
Irrigated
Spring
Wheat
Fall
Wheat
Rye
Wheat
Oats
Barley
Average yield (bushels per acre)	
10
1,500
15,000
7
350
1,050
8
200
1,600
40
500
20,000
60
300
18,000
70
50
Total (bushels)     	
3,500 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950 BB 85
The main cereal-growing area of the Kootenays is on the reclaimed area of the
Creston Flats, where about 17,000 acres are in production. There was a general decline
in cereal production this year both in average yields and total production. The District
Agriculturist reports that wheat production will be down 60,000 bushels this year. There
has been an increase in the acreage seeded to oats and barley this year.
Average yields and production are as follows:—
Average Yield per Acre Total
(Bushels) (Bushels)
Wheat (spring and fall)   25 250,000
Oats     55 128,140
Barley    40 14,400
Grain is not an important crop in the Cariboo District, but farmers are generally
increasing acreages, particularly of coarse grains, to supplement winter feeding. Unfavourable weather conditions during the past season reduced yields considerably, though
a long, open fall made for good harvest conditions.
In the Central Interior along the C.N.R.-Prince Rupert line, the area around
McBride and Prince George, although starting off with a late spring, had a good growing
season, and good yields of wheat, oats, and barley are reported.
At Vanderhoof, fall wheat was not as adversely affected by dry summer as the
spring-seeded cereals. There was some report of snow-mould injury on the fall wheat
at Vanderhoof. Farther west through the Lakes District and the Bulkley Valley, grain
suffered most seriously, with average yields very low. Throughout this area the earlier
varieties of spring grains, such as Ajax oats, Olli barley, and the new Saunders wheat,
are becoming more popular for the short growing season in the area. Ridit and Dawson's
Golden Chaff wheats are the most popular fall varieties. Estimated total yields for the
Central Interior as reported are: Wheat (spring and fall), 68,900 bushels; oats, 330,000
bushels; and barley, 54,000 bushels.    In general, quality of all grains is good.
The Peace River area experienced one of its worst seasons on record, with the area
on the south side of the river probably being affected more adversely. Average yields,
as reported by the District Agriculturists, are given as follows;.—
North Side Bushels
per Acre
Wheat     8
Oats  16
Barley     6
Flax     6
Wheat.
South Side
Bushels
per Acre
     5
Oats	
12
Barley
     7
Flax __._
     8 '
Total production for the whole Block, as reported: Wheat, 480,000 bushels; oats,
600,000 bushels; barley, 79,500 bushels; and flax, 14,000 bushels.
The total yield of wheat and coarse grains is only about one-quarter of last year's
record production. Quality of all grains is extremely low, and many farmers will not
have seed.
Hay and Pasture
Pastures on Vancouver Island were late in starting growth, and the early drought
which followed dried up pasture fields earlier than usual, resulting in a very short pasture
season. Yields of hay were also down somewhat, but quality was generally good.
Somewhat better conditions were experienced in the Fraser Valley, and although pastures
were late starting, they held up fairly well into July. First-cut crops of hay came on
well and yielded satisfactorily, but second cut was poor. Some high-quality hay went
into storage for the winter, and in most instances farmers will have sufficient for their
needs under average conditions. The extremely dry weather conditions seriously affected
pastures and hay-crops from Kamloops through Salmon Arm, Armstrong, and North
Okanagan-Main Line district.    First-cut alfalfa-hay was light, and only in rare instances BB 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA
was the second crop harvested. Range pastures also suffered from the hot, dry summer,
and overgrazing of these areas is becoming a serious problem. It was noted in the
Salmon Arm area that stands of good pastures of orchard-grass and wild white clover
maintained more satisfactory growth in spite of the dry season.
In the Cariboo, ranges remained generally good and there was a fair quantity of
good-quality hay, particularly from the upland meadows. Alfalfa-crops were favourable,
and there will be plenty of feed providing there is an average winter. There is enough
hay throughout the Central Interior for local needs and for a small export, which generally
goes into the logging camps. Pastures suffered severely, particularly in the Lakes District
and the Bulkley Valley, and in this area, too, yields of timothy were very low. Pasture
and range lands in the East Kootenay suffered seriously from drought. In the Camp
Lister area a heavy cut of first-crop alfalfa was taken off, but the second crop was disappointing, although there will be some exportable surplus in the area.
Silage and Roots
Production of silage crops fills an important place in the crop-rotation of the dairy-
farm. The main silage production is in the dairying areas of Vancouver Island, Fraser
Valley, and the North Okanagan. The most important silage crop is probably P.O.V.
mixture, particularly on Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland. Silage corn is also
grown extensively and ensiled. There is an increasing interest in the use of grass and
legume mixtures, particularly on Vancouver Island and the North Okanagan, being
utilized as silage. Under unfavourable weather conditions, grasses and legumes which
cannot be matured for hay can be saved in the silo. Production of field roots as a supplementary feed plays a minor role. Shortage of labour and high cost of labour has
generally been responsible for the decrease in field roots.
Forage-crop Seed Production
Production of field-root and forage-crop seeds continues to hold a prominent place
in the agricultural economy of the Province. Acreages for alfalfa-seed production were
increased this year. Preliminary reports indicated a reduced yield due to frost damage
in the Peace River area. However, the extent of this damage was not as great as at first
anticipated, and yields will be slightly higher than in 1949. Because of a poor hay year
in the North Okanagan, many alfalfa-fields around Armstrong were left for seed, and
about 50,000 pounds of seed were harvested. Double-cut red-clover yields are reduced
considerably this year. Alsike yields have been spotty, but the total production of seed
will be well above 1949. A late spring followed by a dry summer is responsible for light
yields of timothy in the North Central Interior, but since a larger acreage was left for
seed, production is up. Timothy-alsike and alsike-timothy production is also considerably higher this year. In the Fraser Valley the production of white clover (Ladino)
seed continues to increase.
The following table gives indication of the seed production as estimated for 1950,
as compared to the actual production in 1949:— Estimated
Production, 1949 Production, 1950
(Lb.) (Lb.)
Alfalfa  220,000 400,000
Red clover  663,000 363,000
Alsike  146,000 248,000
Timothy-alsike and alsike-timothy  150,000 255,000
Sweet clover  309,000 294,000
White clover (Ladino)       6,500 10,000
Timothy  .250,000 294,000
Brome   150,000 137,600
Creeping red fescue  200,000 123,000 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950 BB 87
Estimated
Production, 1949 Production, 1950
(Lb.) (Lb.)
Crested wheat-grass       4,000 20,750
Reed canary-grass       1,500 5,000
Orchard-grass       1,000 2,000
Perennial rye       1,500 2,000
Vetch      75,500 14,000
Buckwheat     20,000 8,000
Field corn (open-pollinated)      2,000 	
Field corn (hybrid)     16,020 6,000
Field peas  250,000 300,000
Fibre flax       8,640 1,500
Mangels     47,700 15,000
Sugar-beets  402,759 650,000
Potatoes
Generally throughout the main potato-growing areas in British Columbia good crops
were harvested this year, total production being only slightly lower than in 1949. In the
Quesnel area a heavy frost at the end of September penetrated the ground and froze a
considerable amount of potatoes which had not been dug. Potato prices took a sharp
drop this season, and the growers are receiving about $15 less per ton.
The favourable season has been conducive to the production of stock of good quality.
There was little report of blight this year. Growers on the Coast and Vancouver Island
have a well-planned spray programme for control of this disease, as well as insect-control.
Damage from flea-beetle was not severe in the Fraser Valley. In the Kamloops area
there was some damage from this insect where control measures were inadequate.
Production of certified seed-potatoes is becoming increasingly important. Seven
seed-control areas are now set up under the Act, and the high quality of British Columbia
seed is finding a steady market in the United States. There were approximately 2,500
acres of foundation and certified seed in British Columbia last year.
As a service to the seed-growers, this year the Department is supervising the Ocean-
side test-plots and eighty-seven samples were planted, representing sixty-six growers.
The following is a list of the main varieties and acreages as supplied by the Dominion Seed
Potato Certification Service:—
Variety Acreage Variety Acreage
Canus __■_         7.85 Irish Cobbler         5.22
Chippewa       21.75 Katahdin       38.75
Columbia Russet __.      69.25 Netted Gem  1,650.98
Early Epicure     140.46 Sebago         5.00
Early Rose       24.30 Warba       118.20
Great Scot       16.15 White Rose     234.21
Green Mountain     127.36
The main areas of production are also given with approximate acreages inspected
in 1950: Vancouver Island, 175 acres; Lower Mainland, 681 acres; Pemberton, 156
acres; Okanagan, 341 acres; Cariboo, 543 acres; Central Interior, 55 acres; Boundary,
247 acres; East and West Kootenays, 205 acres.
Peas
Peas for the frozen-food trade continue to be a popular cash crop on farms in the
Victoria District, where they are frozen locally. Approximately 250 acres were seeded
this past year, but, due to the dry season, yields were down, averaging only 1,500 pounds
of clean shelled peas per acre. There was an increase in the acreage of canning-peas in
the Fraser Valley this year, with approximately 2,900 acres seeded, with average yields BB 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA
of approximately 2,000 pounds per acre of excellent quality.    There is also an increased
acreage in peas for the freezing trade.
The pea-crop makes an excellent cash crop in the dairy-farm rotation, and the vine
gives high-quality silage for winter feed.
Acreage of dried peas in the North Okanagan and Creston areas is down slightly
this year, with lighter average yields. No peas were grown in the Peace River area this
year.
Threshermen's Returns
Appendix No. 1 tabulates the kind and amount of grain threshed in respective
districts, as submitted to the district agricultural officials.
FIELD-CROP DEMONSTRATION WORK
Soil-treatment Trials
In co-operation with the District Agriculturists, several fertilizer demonstrations and
trials were laid down in different areas of the Province. Subsoiling demonstrations were
initiated on Vancouver Island, and a sawdust-mulch trial was begun in the North
Okanagan.
Two demonstrations with fertilizer were carried out by J. D. Hazlette. Due to a
very dry season, the response from fertilizer was not as good as expected. One demonstration showed a definite difference in yield and colour from a 16-20-0 fertilizer
applied at three different rates.
R. L. Wilkinson reports on three demonstrations on established hay-pasture fields
in the Courtenay and Alberni districts located on Delta silt loam, Merville loam, and
Cowichan clay loam. First-year results indicated that no response was obtained from
the use of potash. The demonstrations aroused a great deal of curiosity and prompted
much discussion.
E. C. Hughes, co-operating with A. J. Allan, laid down a demonstration-plot in
the Pitt Meadows district.    No yield data were obtained.
J. F. Carmichael reports that the fertilizer trials on potatoes were continued this
year, but yield results have not been obtained. From results obtained in 1949, indications still confirmed the need for a complete fertilizer, such as 6-30-15, which is
the recommendation for this area. Mr. Carmichael is continuing these tests and will
try out the use of more nitrogen with the 6-30-15 type of fertilizer.
H. R. Anderson reports no visible or measurable response from fertilizers on hay
and pasture lands in the Fruitvale, Nakusp, and Edgewood districts. Lack of response
is attributed to a very dry season, but further observations will be made on these plots
in the coming year. Two fertilizer analyses were also tried on potatoes in the Fruitvale area, and preliminary results indicate less phosphate in the ratio might give a
better balance of nutrients.
J. W. Awmack continued the fertilizer test-plots on potatoes in the Windermere
district.    Reporting on these tests, Mr. Awmack states:—
" The test laid out on clay loam with a high organic-matter content showed that
additions of potash would give increased yields. However, in some cases the increased
potash caused a poor-type potato not suited to the grading for seed-classes.
" The soil on Farm No. 2 was exceedingly low in organic matter and had not been
in crop for a number of years. The general trend indicates the best response from
6-30-15 applied at 1,200 pounds per acre, and when increased, this amount cannot
be used to advantage by the plant. This test also shows that the addition of potash
without a corresponding increase of phosphorus under these soil conditions is not
effective."
In the Creston district the fertilizer plots on alfalfa were continued this year, but
the report on yield data is not yet completed. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1950 BB 89
M. J. Walsh reports on tests using 11-48-0 and 16-20-0 on corn and cereal
crops. The corn tests were a failure due to inclement weather, and data have not been
completed for cereal-crops. On a fertilizer test-plot on pasture in the Horsefly district
the fertilizer has given a definite response for the three years following application.
G. W. Hayes reports on demonstration-plots with 16-20-0, gypsum and manure
treated, with stable phos being compared. 16-20-0 tripled hay yields, manure and
stable phos doubled the yield, and gypsum gave no increase.
A demonstration-plot using 16-0-0, 16-20-0, and 16-20-10 was put down in the
Grassy Plains area. No yield data were obtained, but the plots did attract a great deal
of attention from the farmers in the area. High freight costs discourage the use of
fertilizers in this area, but fertilizer sales are on the increase.
K. R. Jameson reported the use of light applications of fertilizers applied on grain
gave increased vigour and growth early in the year, which proved sufficient to keep the
crop growing through the summer dry period when unfertilized crops were at a standstill.
R. W. Brown reports fertilized plots were at least a week advanced in maturity,
and yield and quality were slightly superior in favour of the fertilized plots. Trials on
alfalfa showed a significant difference only in the spring, and Mr. Brown notes that fall
fertilization appears to advance the crop materially.
G. A. Muirhead reports as follows on demonstration-plots using shavings and
various fertilizers:—
" This year one set of demonstration-plots was laid out on the farm of R. I. McPhee,
of Balmoral. These were plots using shavings and various fertilizers in combination
to determine their value in opening up heavy clay soils so as to provide a greater amount
of organic material, and thus give a higher moisture-holding capacity. As the summer
was very dry, the breakdown of these shavings was only very slight. We are trying to
determine what expenditure can be made on hauling shavings or sawdust and still show
economic increases."
On a pasture established in 1947 in the Victoria area, clippings were taken by
N. F. Putnam and C. H. Nelson. The pasture was fertilized in the spring of 1950 with
10-20-10 at 300 pounds per acre and ammonium sulphate at 200 pounds. Though
there was a slight increase in yield from the complete fertilizer, it was insufficient to
warrant the increased expenditure.
With the fertilizer demonstration-plots placed in the various districts, the purpose
has been to show: (1) The increase in yield obtained through the use of fertilizer on
crops; (2) the increase in yield obtained through the use of the fertilizer recommended
for the crop and the district.
The farmers of the district have shown their interest in these demonstration-plots,
and much discussion has been aroused. There has been very little evidence to indicate
there is a need for a change of recommendations for fertilizers in those areas where the
plots have been used.
This year, under supervision of the Field Crops Branch, subsoiling demonstrations
were carried out in the Duncan area. A standard subsoiler was used in the spring on
Cowichan clay, with part of the field being crossed. This machine went to a depth of
approximately 15 inches.    First observations on results are promising.
In the fall a Killefer road-ripping machine was obtained on loan from the Department of Public Works, and, using one blade, a demonstration was made in the Duncan
area, again on Cowichan clay, where trouble had been encountered with excess water
lying on the land. This machine went down to about an average depth of 22 inches.
Again first indications are promising. These fields will be kept under observation and
reported on for the next three years. BB 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Pasture and Forage-crop Trials
The Field Crops Branch has continued to stress the importance of well-established
and well-managed hay and pastures for efficient farm production. There has, during the
past year, been an increased interest in the production of some of the newer forage-crop
seeds. During the past year this Branch has co-operated with resident District Agriculturists in setting out further pasture demonstration-plots as a means of demonstrating
to farmers what can be accomplished.
On Vancouver Island single stands of alta fescue, subterranean clover, and birds-
foot trefoil, as well as a mixture of alta fescue and birdsfoot trefoil, were established on
dry upland soils in the Courtenay area. A mixture of alfalfa and orchard-grass seeded
on dry upland soil in 1949 showed good response this year and gave increased yield over
an adjacent native sward A pasture demonstration seeded down in the Alberni district
three years ago was under continued observation this year and showed improved yield.
A pasture demonstration trial in the Victoria area seeded down in 1947 has continued
to show marked improvement over most of the common pastures in the area, and this
year gave at least two weeks' earlier spring growth. In the Kamloops area an irrigated
pasture for beef production was set out in the Nicola area on the Nicola Lake Stock
Farm. This mixture includes orchard-grass, brome-grass, alta fescue, Grimm alfalfa,
and Ladino clover. The trial is in conjunction with the District Agriculturist and the
Range Experimental Station, and will be used to determine the carrying capacity for
beef cattle. At present no information is available, except the original seeding has made
a good start. In addition, we have co-operated with the District Agriculturist at Kamloops in setting out seven different pasture mixtures, including grasses and legumes at
three stations to test the response of varying mixtures to the area. Although no new
trials have been laid down in the Salmon Arm area, Mr. Muirhead, the District Agriculturist at that point, has previous plots under observation and reports as follows:—
" In all cases the volume of pasture in plots was considerably greater than on other
mixtures. It was encouraging to note that under the extremely dry weather conditions
the orchardgrass-wild white clover mixture pastured considerably longer. In the plots
the pasture season extended at least three weeks longer."
Hybrid-corn variety trials both as a silage crop and for grain were continued
throughout the North Okanagan, Kamloops, Salmon Arm, Armstrong, and Vernon
areas in co-operation with the District Agriculturists. In co-operation with Mr. Walsh,
District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, several grass mixtures were tested for hay and
pasture under dry-land conditions. In addition, cereal trials were included this year,
including Thatcher, Saunders, and Red Bobs wheats, and Olli barley. These are all
early varieties which should be more suited to that district. Cereal variety trials were
also conducted in the Bridesville area in co-operation with Mr. Carmichael, and in the
East Kootenay in co-operation with Mr. Awmack. These latter trials included Garnet,
Red Bobs, Thatcher, Saunders, Marquis, and Regent wheats, and Ajax, Eagle, Larain,
and Victory oats.    Plots were harvested, but no yield data are available at this time.
In addition, this Branch co-operated with R. M. Hall and Mr. Carmichael in
conducting rod-row trials of wheat, oats, barley, and flax, and several grasses and clovers
in the Bridesville area. In addition, small samples of intermediate wheat-grass, crested
wheat-grass, brome-grass, and sainfoin were supplied to Mr. Carmichael and Mr. Awmack
to test on dry-land ranges. These were only sown this year, and reports will be available in subsequent years.
With a view to promoting a diversified type of farming in the Creston area, consideration is being given to production of forage-crop seeds, and this year 10-acre blocks,
each of Ladino clover, red clover, orchard-grass, and timothy, were seeded out in cooperation with Mr. Peterson, and next year these will be harvested for seed, and records
will be available.    To date all varieties have made good growth. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950 BB 91
To get further information on suitability of potato varieties to the various regions
in the Province, trials were instigated through this Branch and with the co-operation of
the Potato Committee of the Agronomists' Association. The trials included fourteen
varieties, conducted at five stations in the Province, including the Fraser Valley, McBride,
Houston, Kispiox Valley, and Peace River. Seasonal observations were made by
District Potato Inspectors of the Dominion Inspection Service and resident District
Agriculturists, and yields and quality were taken and are being analysed through the
co-operation of Dr. T. Anstey at Agassiz.
With the general increased interest in seed production, attempts are being made to
evaluate some strains or varieties of grasses and legumes for seed production, and this
year the Field Crops Branch, in co-operation with J. L. Webster, brought in for trial
small plantings of Dollard red clover, Ranger alfalfa, and Hercules orchard-grass. These
varieties will be continued under observation as to their seed-producing qualities.
B.C. FIELD CROP UNION
This union of British Columbia farmers has been in operation since 1933. Through
the union, members may obtain one of the experimental lots of seed for trial under his
local conditions. Certain changes were instituted this year to group the lists of tests
according to broad general regions, and this year, for the first time, a grass-legume pasture
mixture was included and proved very popular. Interest was also shown in the alfalfa
trials and the Ladino clover.
Membership in the union was maintained at 163 in 1950, approximately the same as
1947. Altogether, 146 tests, including ensilage corn, peas, clover, grasses, and grass-
legume pasture mixture, were carried out, and were supplied in the following areas:
Vancouver Island, 27; Lower Mainland, 4; North Okanagan, 21; Central Interior, 47;
Boundary and Kootenays, 22; Peace River, 25.
SEED IMPROVEMENT
Again this year a supply of elite, registered, and certified stock seed of cereals has
been made available to this office by the Agronomy Department, University of British
Columbia, through co-operative arrangement between the University and the British
Columbia Department of Agriculture. This seed is distributed to farmers throughout
the Province at nominal costs.
The following is a list of stock seed made available in 1950: Registered Victory
oats, 1,600 pounds; Registered Olli barley, 400 pounds; Certified Ridit wheat, 275
pounds; Certified Storm rye, 700 pounds.
PRODUCTION OF REGISTERED AND CERTIFIED SEED
The production of registered and certified seed not only helps meet the export
demand, but also provides a valuable source of pure-seed stock for commercial growers
within the Province. The inspection and registration of cereal and forage crops is carried
out by representatives of the Plant Products Division, Dominion Department of Agriculture, under the regulations of the " Seeds Act."
The following table gives, in summary, the number of acres and estimated production
of varieties inspected for certification in British Columbia during the past season:— BB 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Total Acreage and Estimated Production of Cereal and Forage Crops Inspected
for Registration and Certification in British Columbia
Variety
Total Acres
Estimated Production
for 1950 (Bushels)
Montcalm	
32.7
1,000
Newal	
12.0
500
O.A.C. 21 	
15.5
600
Olli	
29.0
12.0
620
Vantage	
500
Oats—
Ajax                         _    - 	
83.0
5,420
Beaver 	
58.5
2,450
Eagle  	
25.0
2,500
Exeter 	
2.0
70
Larain	
28.0
1,120
Vanguard 	
20.5
900
Victory	
798.5
39,000
Wheat—
Dawson's Golden Chaff	
5.0
3.0
200
Jones' Fife	
110
Redman 	
22.0
1,000
Regent 	
76.0
900
Saunders 	
637.0
17,900
Thatcher	
398.0
8,800
Kharkov 	
31.0
1,250
Flax—Redwing	
200.0
2,910
Alfalfa-
Grimm 	
4,794.0
Rhizoma __ 	
465.5
76.0
Brome	
Sweet clover—
White Blossom	
178.0
Arctic     __   __
12.0
Creeping red fescue	
Red clover—Altaswede	
90.0
14.0
BEE-SURVEY
In the interests of the forage-seed industry, particularly alfalfa-seed growing,
H. A. McMahon, of the Dominion Entomological Laboratory, Saskatoon, Sask., was
invited this year to include certain areas of British Columbia in his bee-survey, to determine the possibility of certain districts as potential alfalfa-seed growing areas as appraised
by the wild-bee population, which are the natural pollinators of alfalfa. Mr. Nelson,
Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, accompanied Mr. McMahon, and the following is a
brief summary of his report:—
" Co-operating with H. A. McMahon, a survey was commenced this year in an
attempt to obtain information on the possibility of alfalfa-seed production in some areas
of the Province. According to the work already under way in Saskatchewan and Alberta
under the supervision of Mr. McMahon, the best pollinators of alfalfa are the leaf-cutter
bees (Megachilidas). Where there is a large population of this type of bee, there is good
reason to expect a high seed-set in alfalfa-fields, particularly if these fields are laid down
in narrow strips. Certain of the Bombida? or bumble-bees will set seed, but they are, in
general, slow trippers, and likelihood of the population being maintained from year to DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1950 BB 93
year is not as high as with the leaf-cutter. Starting in the Camp Lister area near Creston,
the survey proceeded through Nelson, Nakusp, across the Monashee Pass to Vernon, and
via Salmon Arm to Chase and Celista areas. The most promising of these areas in
relation to leaf-cutter bee population was from the Adams River to the Scotch Creek
Ferry and Celista area. This was the only area where any large concentration of leaf-
cutter bees was evident. In the Enderby area there was evidence that the practice of
leaving small fields of alfalfa would give a fairly high yield of seed. It was felt this
seed-set was due to a heavy concentration of a species of bumble-bees which tripped
alfalfa flowers."
SOIL-ANALYSIS
Up to the end of November, 1950, 1,206 samples had been analysed, which constitutes approximately the same number as analysed in 1949. About 30 per cent of these
samples are forwarded to this office by city gardeners. When the analysis report is
returned, general recommendations are made for the use of lime, fertilizer, organic matter,
and cultural practices. The percentage of samples received from farmers, either directly
or through the District Agriculturist, shows a slight increase over 1949. Results of these
analyses are forwarded to the District Agriculturist in the district concerned, as it is felt
the district men can make a direct contact with the farmer and assess his problem in the
field and advise him what fertilizer to use, or what other practices he should follow. Soil-
analysis is only an aid in making recommendations. The greatest benefit derived from
the present method of analysis is from the interpretation of the pH reading and the rapid
analyses for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium. Soil-reaction is determined
by potentiometer; the available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium are determined by the Spurway method.
The District Agriculturists in the Fraser Valley, co-operating with E. C. Hughes,
continued the survey begun in 1949. Approximately 240 samples were obtained from
the Fraser Valley and Pemberton districts this year. In obtaining these samples, all
possible information as to fertilizing, manuring, cropping, and liming practices was
secured. Whenever possible, this information was obtained over a period of four years.
Mr. Hughes analysed these samples, and the results will be returned to the farmer by the
District Agriculturist concerned, together with recommendations. The need for lime on
Fraser Valley soils and the need for phosphorus continues to show up on many of these
samples, although this fact is already recognized. With the continuation of this project
for another two or three years, much valuable information as to soil-treatment with
fertilizers and amendments should be obtained.
WEED-CONTROL
The use of the newer weed chemicals has continued to interest farmers in the general
weed-control, and with the expanding information on the use of these materials, they are
becoming increasingly important in controlling weeds both in cereal and horticultural
crops.
Two Weed Inspectors were appointed during the past season in the Peace River
District—Robert Shearer for the south side and F. Mertens for the north side—working
in co-operation with the District Agriculturists. In addition, J. R. Weldon, Hagensborg,
was appointed part-time Weed Inspector in the Bella Coola area.
Weed chemicals were supplied through this office to all resident District Agriculturists for demonstration and experimental work. The Department weed-sprayers
located at Cranbrook, Armstrong, Vanderhoof, and Dawson Creek have been used
extensively this year in demonstrating the use of chemicals in weed-control, and also
have been used by the Department of Public Works and private farmers on weed-infested
areas to good advantage.    During the past year this Branch has continued certain dem- BB 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA
onstration work on controlling weeds.    The following is a brief summary of trials conducted through this Branch.
Control of Hoary Cress
Work was undertaken three years ago in the North Okanagan, using Atlacide and
various formulas and rates of 2,4-D. Results from 2,4-D were encouraging, and after
the three years' application some patches had been completely eradicated, while others
are seriously reduced in stand. From the results obtained, farmers with infestations of
this weed have practised spraying the growing cereal-crop to control hoary cress, with
good results.
Control of Leafy Spurge
In trials conducted the past three years in the Okanagan, 2,4-D has given little
permanent results on trials on this weed. This year we are attempting soil-sterilization
with the use of borax as a permanent control measure.
Control of Field Bindweed
Trials with 2,4-D on field bindweed in the North Okanagan have been showing good
results where fall cereals, as wheat or rye, are seeded at a heavy rate and then sprayed the
following spring when the weed is coming into bud. The crop is harvested early and
summer-fallowed the rest of the season.
Control of Diffuse Knapweed
Diffuse Knapweed is becoming a serious problem on range lands between Lytton
and Chase and in the Boundary District. In co-operation with J. L. Gray, District
Agriculturist, and the Dominion Range Experimental Station, Kamloops, trials were laid
down this year using 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, Atlacide, and T.C.A. From one year's reports,
2,4-D was giving promising results. The Range Experimental Station is also studying
the habits and requirements of the plant.
Control of Klamath Weed
Klamath weed is common in our Coast regions on the Island and Lower Mainland,
but does not constitute any problem on cultivated land in these areas. However, it was
recently introduced into the range lands of the Boundary District centring arbund Grand
Forks. In co-operation with the Forest Service we undertook trials last year using
2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, a mixture of the two, Atlacide, and borax. 2,4-D showed very promising,
killing all top growth, and this year regrowth was nil or very sparse. This year the
Forest Service undertook a full-scale programme to treat all known infestations in the area.
Mr. Hughes, stationed in New Westminster, did considerable work on weed-control
throughout the Fraser Valley this year, particularly on controlling tall buttercup in
pastures and weed-control in oats and peas. The following is a brief summary of the
results of his trials as reported:—
"(1) Tall Buttercup (Ranunculus Acris).—Control trials in pastures using 2,4-D
and 2,4,5-T alone and in combination were laid down at the following locations (in
amount previously reported): (1) Charles Hallam farm, Chilliwack; (2) William
Leighton farm, Haney; (3) Endersby Farm, Ladner Trunk Road, Ladner.
" Results—indicate that 2,4,5-T is not as effective as 2,4-D at any equal concentration. Esters of 2,4-D do not seem outstandingly better than the amines. In these
trials, 1 pound of 2,4-D acid equivalent, ester or amine, reduces the. buttercup stand
aproximately 50 per cent; \V% pounds of 2,4-D acid equivalent reduces the stand approximately 80 per cent. Good spray coverage is essential. Severe knockdown of clovers
occurs, however, but wild white or Dutch clover makes fair recovery later in the season.
Flowering of all clovers is prevented.    Red clover is most severely damaged. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1950 BB 95
"(2) 2,4-D on Oats.—Forty acres of oats standing 10 to 15 inches high, belonging
to William Savage, Ladner, were sprayed with 7 ounces of acid equivalent 2,4-D amine,
using a sprayer delivering approximately 6 gallons per acre at 40 pounds pressure.
A comparative test of 1 acre using 7 ounces of acid equivalent 2,4-D ester was made
with Herbate donated by C.I.L. Weeds present were wild turnip, wild radish, cat's-ear,
red-root pigweed, smartweed, and Canada thistle. All weeds, with the exception of
Canada thistle, suffered nearly 100 per cent kill. Amine seemed to curl the Canada
thistle somewhat more than ester, but both retarded its growth considerably. A few of
the most mature wild turnip and wild radish, though badly curled, managed to set seed.
A very occasional head of oats was found damaged.
"(3) 2,4-D on Sheep's-sorrell.—A pasture trial using 1 pound of acid equivalent
amine, using a sprayer delivering 6 to 8 gallons per acre at 40 pounds pressure on fan-type
nozzles, resulted in no observable control. The sheep's-sorrell was approaching maturity
when sprayed.
"(4) 2,4-D Dust on Sugar-beets.—When seed-set was fairly well advanced, spraying was carried out in Ladner by aeroplane application. Many weeds were controlled
between the sugar-beet rows or set back and prevented from setting seed.
"(5) 2,4-D on Corn.—Corn was sprayed at the farms of Mr. Kehleher and
Mr. Cherry, Abbotsford, by customs sprayer when corn was approximately 15 inches high.
Amounts are unknown, but good weed-control was observed. Unusually extensive
growth of brace roots to finger-like size were especially noticeable.
"(6) Aero Cyanamid (Special Grade) on Peas.—In co-operation with C.I.L. and
The North American Cyanamid Company, which supplied the material, three plots of
special-grade aero cyanamid were laid down at 300 pounds per acre at the following places
(a potato-dusting machine was used): (1) Barker's farm, Goudy Road, Ladner clay;
(2) Reynold's farm, Benson Road, Ladner clay; (3) Reifel's farm, Westham Island,
silt loam.
" Possibly due to the facts that an extreme drought spell of six weeks occurred and
that the weeds were too well established (post emergent treatment) little or no control
was observed.
"(7) Di Nitro Sprays on Peas.—The entire acreage under pea contract to Westminster Canners in Ladner was sprayed, using dinitros, mainly Sinox. Excellent results were
obtained. Cost on the large-acreage scale was approximately $5 per acre, Stan Keith,
Chilliwack, using Dow Selective at 1 gallon of Dow per 100 gallons of water at as low
a pressure as possible, 32 to 35 pounds per square inch, obtained excellent results on
weed-control.    Approximate charge for custom work was $7 per acre.
"(8) Soil Sterilants—(a) Polybor,—One plot sprayed at the rate of IVi pounds
in 3 gallons of water per 100 square feet gave sterilization for two months. Grasses
gradually returned following this period."
On trips throughout the Province we are continually on the lookout for any new weed
infestations. During the past year an outbreak of leafy spurge was located in the Narcosli
district; also toad flax has been reported in the Merritt area and also in the Cobble Hill
area. A thriving patch of Russian knapweed was found in a patch of alfalfa at Midway,
and also one at Greenwood. A heavy infestation of leafy spurge was also noted for the
first time in a grain-field in the Bridesville area. In addition, Mr. Hughes reports the
following:—
" Worthy of note are the distribution of wild radish and wild turnip in the Ladner
area, buttercup throughout the Fraser Valley, toad flax in the Cloverdale and Cobble
Hill areas, St. Johnswort in the Fraser Valley and Cobble Hill areas, white cockle and
cseri near the Rosedale Ferry, water-hemlock in Matsqui, bladder-campion at Nanaimo,
and Canada thistle (white- and blue-flowered varieties), especially on Vancouver Island-.
Of special mention is the discovery and identification of Senecio Jacobeo in the area
around Nanaimo.    This weed is noted for its association with Pictou disease in cattle. BB 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA
This survey also served to instigate a collection of weed specimens common to the Fraser
Valley."
Definite progress can be seen in the matter of the farmers' interest in weed-control,
although I still think there is a long way to go. In the major grain-growing areas of the
Peace River, Creston Flats, and Armstrong districts, many are now using the newer
chemicals to control weeds. Approximately 80 per cent of the grain-fields on the Creston
Flats were sprayed this year.
In the Fraser Valley and Creston Flats a large acreage of peas was sprayed with
selective sprays, and next year it is expected 90 per cent of the acreage in the Fraser
Valley will be treated.
A large acreage of carrots in now being weeded with the lighter oil solvents each
year, and this year a fairly large proportion of the onion-seed crop in the Vernon district
was treated with aero cynate for weed-control, with good results.
FERTILIZER AND AGRICULTURAL POISONS BOARD
Meetings of the above Board were attended during the year. At the request of the
trade, the Board considered new fertilizer mixes for 1950-51 in May, and the recommendations were forwarded to the Minister of Agriculture, as follows: 0-12-20; 2-15-15;
2-16-6; 4-10-10; 6-8-6 (organic); 6-30-15; 8-10-5;  10-20-10.
It will be noted that 8-35-6, 17-6-6, and 2-12-10, previously on the list, have been
deleted, and 14-7-10 for sugar-beets is considered as a special mix for sugar-beets.
AGRICULTURAL LIME
During the past year the use of agricultural lime as represented by sales has again
increased considerably over the previous record of 1949. There has been a constant
increase in the use of agricultural lime for soil-amendment purposes, particularly in the
Fraser Valley, over the past number of years, and we are now reaching closer toward our
goal of 50,000 tons a year, which is felt should be used in the area.
During the past year a slight revision was made in subsidy payments by the Federal-
Provincial Governments. In the past both a producer and consumer subsidy was paid.
This year the producer subsidy was discontinued and only one subsidy was paid directly
to the consumer. The consumer subsidy was increased from $1.50 to a maximum of
$2 per ton, and the Dominion Government pays 60 per cent and the Provincial Government 40 per cent. Because of the differentiation in quality of lime coming from various
quarries, certain adjustments are made in the amount of subsidy paid to the consumer,
depending on the quality of lime as determined by official test. The following table
indicates the general increase in the sales of lime during the past five years. The figures
for 1946-49 are based on producer subsidy paid and the figure for 1950 is based on
consumer subsidy payments:— Tons
January 1st to December 31st, 1946     5,636
January 1st to December 31st, 1947  13,104
January 1st to December 31st, 1948  14,555
January 1st to December 31st, 1949  20,752
January 1st to December 31st, 1950  22,012
SEEDING OF LOGGED-OFF AND BURNED-OVER LANDS
No report is available this year on the seeding of logged-off lands on the Northwest Logging Company Road No. 155, nor in the Campbell River district, nor in the
Hanning Lake district, as these areas were not visited this year. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950 BB 97
GRAIN SCREENINGS
This is a by-product originating in the recleaning process of wheat at the grain-
elevators.    It is delivered from the cleaners in various separations and graded accordingly.
A pamphlet (Bulletin No. 4) issued by the Board of Grain Commissioners of
Canada provides for five grades of screenings, which are identified as follows: Oat
screenings, No. 1 feed screenings, No. 2 feed screenings, uncleaned screenings, and
refuse screenings, each being graded according to official standards.
Up to November 25th ten permits have been issued for the removal of refuse and
uncleaned screenings from elevators by dealers or grain merchants. Special mention
of two of these permits should be made. One was issued to a dealer for experimental
use in the production of cake feeds for export. The other was issued to another dealer
working in co-operation with University of British Columbia to determine the nutritive
value of these screenings. Both permits involved the use of relatively small amounts of
refuse screenings.
With regard to feeder's permits—that is, those permits issued for the feeding of
refuse and uncleaned screenings in enclosed pens—twenty-seven such permits were
issued. Care is taken to impress on the feeder the necessity in preventing the spread of
v/eeds not only by careless handling of refuse, but by also using the manure in areas
where weed-spread is not likely to occur (that is, city gardens, etc.) and by the proper
rotting of these manures before their use. Of these permits, two were issued in the
Kamloops area, one in the Kelowna area, two in the Nelson area, and the remainder
were issued in the area around Vancouver and New Westminster. Of this total, one
permit was cancelled in the Nelson area when subsequent examination showed a possible
threat of weed distribution as determined by H. R. Anderson, District Agriculturist at
Nelson.
According to the " Noxious Weeds Act " and regulations thereunder for the Province
of British Columbia, a permit is not required for oat screenings and No. 1 and No. 2
feed screenings.
In compliance with the British Columbia "Noxious Weeds Act" and regulations,
thereunder, grain screenings which contain weed-seeds in excess of the percentage allowed
by the "Canada Grain Act" of the Dominion, or the regulations made thereunder from;
time to time for No. 2 feed screenings, shall not be removed from any grain-elevator,
mill, or warehouse to any place within the Province, except only by virtue of permit
duly signed by the Minister of Agriculture, or by a person authorized in writing by the
Minister, and issued at the office of the Department of Agriculture, Court-house, New
Westminster, B.C.
Permits above referred to consist of two specific forms; that is, one permitting
removal of low-grade screenings by a dealer or grain merchant, and one a feeder's
permit which entitled the holder to remove low-grade screenings conditional to prescribed
regulations. These permits are available only to certain areas, mainly within the
boundaries of Greater Vancouver. Care is exercised in preventing the removal of low-
grade screenings to farming districts where the high percentage of weed-seeds contained
in such screenings may become a general menace through the introduction of many
varieties of weeds.
Managers' Reports
Complying with section 4 of the Screenings Regulations under the " Noxious Weeds
Act," managers' reports are submitted in duplicate each month by British Columbia
grain elevators and dealers who handle grain screenings to the Minister of Agriculture
through the office of the Department of Agriculture, Court-house, New Westminster,
B.C. These reports show the movement of all grades of screenings, the name and address
to whom delivered, date of delivery, quantity, grade, number of permit (if any), and
whether for local use or export.    The original copy of these reports is forwarded to the
4 BB 98 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Field Crops Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C., and a copy
kept on file at the Court-house office.
Movement of Screenings
Appendix No. 2 is a summary showing the total movement of all grades for each
month and also the total of each grade of screenings for the period as covered by this
Report both for local use and export.
PRIZE-WINNERS AT THE CHICAGO INTERNATIONAL HAY AND
GRAIN SHOW AND TORONTO ROYAL WINTER FAIR
There were not as many entries at the Toronto Royal and Chicago International
Hay and Grain Show this year as in the past but British Columbia exhibitors have done
very well at these major shows.
Mrs. A. Kelsey, now of Victoria, won the championship at Chicago with her sample
of Reward wheat in the Hard Red Spring-wheat Class and also placed sixth at the Toronto
Royal. J. P. Richter, Joe Vopicka, and H. F. Mills, all of Fort St. John, placed well up
in this class at Toronto.
Growers of forage-crop seeds again made a very good showing in the Red-clover
Seed Class; second place was taken by K. Davis, of New Westminster. A. Weaver, New
Westminster; F. Kuhn, Cloverdale; and H. Reynolds, Ladner, took fourth, fifth, and
sixth places respectively. F. Choveaux, Okanagan Landing, placed fourth in the Alfalfa
Class. A. Montgomery, Ladner, placed fourth in the Timothy Seed Class and J. Vopicka
was eighth with his sample of flax. D. W. Johnson, Dawson Creek, took second place
in the Red-fescue Class, both at Chicago and Toronto, while C. B. Tibbett, of Rolla, took
third place at Chicago.
D. R. Honeyman, New Westminster, placed second and A. R. Thompson, New
Westminster, third in the Swede-turnip Seed. Class.
In the Rose or Red Potato Variety Class, J. Decker, Pemberton, was first. Ross
Brothers, Pemberton; R. H. Maddock, Steveston; and Vic. Guichon, Ladner, placed
third, fourth, and fifth respectively in the Any Other Variety Class. In the Netted or
Russet Class, fourth, fifth, and sixth places were taken by Miller & Sons, J. Decker, and
Ross Brothers, all of Pemberton.
Other growers in British Columbia who placed well up in the prize list were A. D.
Heywood, Salmon Arm; J. H. Avent, Courtenay; G. A. Luyat, Kamloops; Fred Day,
Kamloops; and Urban Guichon, Kamloops.
REPORT OF APIARY BRANCH
W. H. Turnbull, Senior Inspector
The winter of 1949-50 was very severe, but due, no doubt, to the educational
campaign carried on from this office in the past five or six years, practically all the bees
that went into winter quarters were in excellent shape in the fall and well supplied with
stores. Most bee-keepers tried to leave at least 50 pounds of honey for winter stores
and building up in the spring. Those who did not leave sufficient natural stores supplemented the stores left with a heavy sugar syrup medicated with Sulfathiozole. This
procedure put the bees in the best shape for winter.
Practically all commercial bee-keepers are now wrapping each colony with several
layers of paper and covering the whole with tar-paper firmly tacked or tied around. This
method of wintering, being used more each year, shows the best results.    More bee- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950 BB 99
keepers are using it every year. Some of the older bee-keepers who have Kootenay hive
cases or cases of a comparable type are using them still, and, from reports coming to
hand, the two methods of wintering in the southern parts of the Province are of equal
value. The wrapping method, however, is cheaper from a standpoint of capital investment and labour. Many bee-keepers on the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island use
only top packing to take care of the surplus moisture. The main point in wintering in
our milder districts seems to be an abundant supply of good stores and adequate ventilation. Packing in Kootenay cases in the eastern and northern parts of the Province is still
advised and carried out in those districts.
Winter losses in the winter of 1949-50 were the lowest for many years. It is estimated by commercial bee-keepers that the loss from all causes was less than 6 per cent.
Spring opened up well and bees were able to get a good supply of pollen and nectar from
willows, dandelions, and maple, which assisted greatly in rapid building-up.
Package bees were imported by many bee-keepers, and those that fed sugar syrup
to supplement natural food had packages ready for the honey-flow by the middle of June.
A steady flow of nectar started about June 12th and, with few exceptions, continued into
August. Bee-keepers in all districts reported an excellent honey-crop, and commercial
honey-producers all over British Columbia reported from 100 to 200 pounds average
surplus.
The grade of honey was high, very little grading under " white " in colour. The
water content was low, many samples showing less than 14 per cent, and some of the
best in the drier areas being less than 13 per cent.
The Peace River District was not up to its usual standard in so far as yield was
concerned, but bee-keepers there report a most satisfactory crop in spite of unusual
weather conditions throughout the summer and some exceptionally early frosts. The
quality of Peace River honey was up to its usual standard.
The questionnaire sent out in 1949 on the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island
was mailed to all bee-keepers in the rest of the Province this year, and returns showed
487 cancellations, while new registrations were 172, leaving a net loss in number of beekeepers of 315, with a net reduction in colonies of 3,566. This apparent loss, although
shown this year, no doubt was due to many bee-keepers discontinuing the keeping of bees
when sugar was taken off the ration list, and covers a period of at least four years. The
average crop per colony is slightly under last year, being 81 pounds.
Bee-keeping in the Province is now in a very healthy condition, and the number of
commercial bee-keepers is increasing. Prices are keeping up well, and the demand
for British Columbia honey is increasing rapidly. We do not produce more than 30
per cent of the honey consumed in the Province, and all our imports are from Alberta
and Saskatchewan.
FIELD WORK
Following the plan adopted in 1948, we spent most of our time in visiting beekeepers and instructing them in the use of sulfathiozole as a preventive of American
foul-brood. Very few cases of this disease were found, and, in so far as samples submitted to the office in Vernon for examination was concerned, only one case of American
foul-brood was sent in. Most bee-keepers are now in a position to diagnose American
foul-brood and have been instructed in the use of sulfathiozole as a preventive measure.
The use of several bee-masters to look into local reports has helped to a great
extent in keeping the bee-keeping public well informed on all matters in connection with
bee-keeping problems. American foul-brood has ceased to be a real problem in British
Columbia, but as sulfathiozole is not a cure, your inspection staff will have to keep busy
on extension work and be ready to handle any isolated outbreaks reported.
A thorough inspection was carried out in the district lying between Kamloops and
Lytton. Every colony in the area was examined, and no disease was found in the
district. BB 100 BRITISH COLUMBIA
Some work was done in conjunction with the University of British Columbia in
agricultural short courses at Cloverdale. The attendance was very poor and did not
warrant the effort. Your Inspectors attended the Pacific National Exhibition and gave
every assistance they could in promoting a good honey show. V. E. Thorgeirson
attended all Fraser Valley fairs and judged the honey in each, while your Senior Inspector
did the same work in the Interior and the Kootenays. This work needs to be carried
on and extended, as the contacts made with bee-keepers under these conditions are of
great value from an educational standpoint.
SPRAY POISON
Very little loss from spray poison was reported this year.
" BEE-WISE "
, The demand for this publication is increasing rapidly, and we have been able to
use it for its primary purpose as a reminder to do a certain job at a certain time and
to further use it as a medium to warn bee-keepers to look for various bee diseases and to
use Sulfathiozole as a preventive for American foul-brood. Its use has materially
reduced the demand for increased inspection. From 750 to 1,000 copies were issued
each month from February to August; in all, eight editions were sent out.
OFFICE WORK
" Bee-Wise," as usual, takes a large part of the time in the office. Since May we
have completed a survey of all bee-keepers in the Interior and mailed some 1,800 questionnaires. Upon the return of these we were able to compile a very complete list of
active bee-keepers. A new card index was completed in which all bee-keepers were
listed alphabetically and cross-indexed, under which all were listed under post-offices.
Incoming letters were 1,342, while outgoing mail was made up of 8,865 pieces. Miss
Joan Trehearne resigned in April, and her place was taken by Miss Sumi Hamaura.
The office work has been handled in a very efficient manner.
No new projects were started this year, but work was carried on throughout the
year on a new film " The Beneficent Bee." This film will be ready for release early in
1951 and should go a long way toward acquainting the public with the value of honeybees in controlled pollination, as the theme is built around this very important part of
the work of the honey-bee.
BEE-MASTERS
The new bee-masters qualified in 1950 were the following: H. C. Bacon, Victoria;
Miss Ruby Bate;  and Ivan Lewis, Nelson.
Too much emphasis cannot be laid on the co-operation given by all members of
the agricultural staff, more especially the horticulturists and A. J. Hourston, general
assistant, whose work on the new film has been of real value.
I would like to also mention the outstanding work of V. E. Thorgeirson as Inspector
on the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island, as well as the work done by several active
bee-masters in the past season. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1950
BB  101
REPORT OF HORTICULTURAL BRANCH
Ben Hoy, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist
CLIMATIC CONDITIONS
The winter of 1949-50 was considered the coldest in fifty years. All of our main
fruit-growing areas in the Interior suffered sub-zero temperatures during the month of
January, ranging from a low of —37.4° F. at the North Kamloops meteorological office
to —18° F. recorded at the Southern Okanagan Lands Project office at Oliver. The
lowest temperature recorded at the Summerland Experimental Station was —22° F.
Unofficial recordings varied according to location—elevation, distance from lake, and
exposure—from —16° F. at Peachland to as low as —40° F. in some of the northern
fruit-growing areas. The coldest day in the Interior was on January 24th. The minimum mean temperature for January in Kelowna was —4.29° F. and at Salmon Arm
-13.45° F.
Other sections of the Province recorded low temperatures for the same period.
The area from Edgewood to Nakusp reported temperatures ranging from 35 to 40 degrees
below zero, Nelson —20° F., Creston —20° F., and at Boswell on the main Kootenay
Lake the highest minimum of —8° F.
Reports from the Fraser Valley and Gulf Islands also indicated record low temperatures for the month of January.    In Abbotsford district a low of —6° F. was recorded.
The weather moderated in all areas about February 5th and normal temperatures
prevailed for the balance of the month.
Snowfall was heavier than normal in all sections of the Province and in Interior
sections; though tree damage was heavy from top-killing, the snow covering gave adequate
protection to the roots in most areas.
In the Cawston and Osoyoos areas, owing to the wind, the snow drifted and left
the ground exposed in many orchards. In these areas, losses from root-killing were
heavy.
Cool weather and higher precipitation than normal was experienced in the months
of March and April and growth in all areas commenced later than in 1949. The comparison of blossom dates for the leading kinds of fruit for the past five years, as reported
by J. A. Smith, District Horticulturist at Kelowna, gives a good indication of the lateness
of the season:—
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
Apricots   ' ....'.	
Cherries     	
Apr. 16
Apr. 26
ADr. 29
May   7
Apr. 16
Apr. 22
Apr. 26
May   5
Apr. 22
May   5
May 10
May 20
Apr. 23
Apr. 29
May   4
May   8
May  2
May 13
May 17
May 22
Growing conditions throughout the summer in the irrigated districts were generally
satisfactory. Crops in non-irrigated areas depending on a minimum of rainfall suffered
from lack of moisture. This was particularly noticeable in small fruit, field, and vegetable
crops.
Apple-harvesting conditions were good at the start of the Mcintosh harvest, but
before this crop was off, frequent showers and rains interfered with picking operations.
This condition prevailed throughout the harvesting of Jonathan, Delicious, and later
varieties.
Hail was reported in Salmon Arm, Kelowna, Naramata, Penticton, and Cawston. I_n
the Salmon Arm and Kelowna areas, damage was very slight.    In the hailed area of BB 102
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Naramata and Penticton, damage ranged from a few apples on the exposed side of the
tree to almost complete loss. This was the third successive year that hail had damaged
the crop in this area. However, this year's damage was considerably less than last year
and most growers were covered with hail insurance.
In the Cawston area practically all of the damage was confined to onion-seed crops
and tomatoes. Onion-seed yields were reduced by almost 50 per cent and the tomato-
crop set back ten days to two weeks.
WINTER-INJURY
In order to arrive at the number of trees damaged to the extent that they would need
replacing, a questionnaire was sent to all registered growers in the Okanagan, Main Line,
and Grand Forks areas.    There were 3,300 forms sent out and 2,249 returned.
The returns were compiled at the Kelowna horticultural branch office and are shown
in the tables below. In Table No. 1 the number of trees killed is shown in various size
groups ranging from under 2 inches in diameter to over 12 inches. Table No. 2 indicates
the number of trees January 1st, 1950, and the number of trees reported killed in the
various districts.
Table No. 1.—Number of Trees Killed (2,249 Growers Reporting)
Kind ol Tree
Under
2 In.
2 to 5 In.
5 to 7 In.
7 to 12 In.
Over
12 In.
Total
Percentage ol
Total
Killed
5,729
9,859
14,335
2,312
9,940
301
3,105
6,645
24,285
14,108
2,618
6,348
1,002
6,907
14,712
39,108
5,515
1,850
3,215
1,626
12,102
46,521
30,774
3,233
4,678
2,524
1,723
9,620
33,421
7,287
790
6,988
693
497
2,239
107,028
111,313
37,981
18,446
22,720
5,149
33,973
31.8
33.0
Apricots - 	
Cherries	
11.3
.   5.5
6.8
1.5
10.1
Totals                  -	
45,581
61,913
78,128
99,073
51,915
336,610
100 0
Table No. 2.—Total Number of Trees and Number of Dead Trees
District
Total
Orchard as
at Jan. 1,
1950
Total
Dead
Trees
Number
Orchards
Reported
Average
Percentage
Loss per
Orchard
Lytton-Chase  	
Salmon Arm-Sorrento .
Armstrong  _	
Vernon  —
Oyama, Winfleld, and Okanagan Centre .
Kelowna	
Westbank	
Peachland    	
Summerland 	
Penticton   	
Naramata  _ 	
Kaleden    	
Keremeos and Cawston   	
Oliver-Osoyoos 	
Grand Forks  _	
Totals
45,435
80,405
7,871
212,750
117,832
354,977
79,890
45,885
150,726
89,007
36.190
27,231
81,465
339,434
14,939
24,629
24,956
2,919
53,619
16,144
50,536
12,368
8,423
13,739
5,915
2,665
3,235
19,112
94,826
3,524
1,684,037
336,610
91
160
22
252
175
395
78
68
243
139
60
32
108
398
28
54.0
31.0
36.9
25.2
13.7
14.2
15.5
18.3
9.1
6.7
7.3
11.9
23.5
27.9
23.6
2,249
19.9
It will be noted, of the losses reported, that 54 per cent of the trees were killed
in the area from Lytton to Chase and 6.7 per cent in the Penticton area. In areas south
of Kelowna nearly all the losses are in peaches, apricots, and cherries. In Kelowna and
north, stone-fruits of all kinds were severely damaged, as well as winter varieties of
apples—Stayman, Winesap, Jonathan, Delicious, Yellow Newtown, etc.    Mcintosh came DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950
BB  103
through with few exceptions in all but the Kamloops area, where a large percentage of
the heavy-producing trees were killed.
A similar survey was made in the Arrow Lakes and Creston areas. Five hundred
and sevety-three forms were sent out and 101 growers reported. The tables below indicate the number of trees in the orchards reporting as at January 1st, 1950, and the number
of trees killed. It will be noted that less than 20 per cent of the growers reported and
that total damage in these two areas was not nearly so extensive as in the Okanagan,
Main Line, and Grand Forks areas.
Record of Winter-killed Trees for Kootenay and Arrow Lakes (Sixty Growers Reporting)
Kind of Tree
Number of Trees
Under
2 In.
2 to 5 In.
5 to 7 In.
7 to 12 In.
Over
12 In.
Total
Apples ....
Pears	
Plums	
Prunes....
Peaches ...
Apricots.
Cherries .
52
30
13
2
58
30
38
164
26
43
30
6
7
6
118
19
52
92
18
53
2
49
26
274
4
112
Totals.
223
253
238
514
131
181
61
86
10
397
105
519
1,359
Total dead trees, 1,359;   total trees in orchards, 12,531;   10.8 per cent killed.
Record of Winter-killed Trees for Creston (Forty-one Growers Reporting)
21
4
38
14
87
9
80
11
7
59
63
9
19
4
19
1
24
9
27
31
35
3
5
61
1
21
5
11
15
41
15
85
Pears   	
134
48
Pnitww   	
22
Peaches    	
Apricots —-  	
223
87
Cherries   	
159
173
238
103
157
87
758
Total dead trees, 758;   total trees in orchards, 20,951;   3.6 per cent killed.
HORTICULTURAL CROPS
Tree and Small Fruits
Owing to the severe damage and losses of fruit-trees of all kinds, it was predicted
early in the year that all tree-fruit crops would be very light, but as the season advanced
and trees came into bloom, it was evident that production would be heavier than anticipated. With favourable growing weather throughout the tree-fruit area, freedom from
disease and insect pests, these areas produced a crop of apples that is at the present time
estimated larger than in 1949. Had there been no winter-killing, an all-time record crop
would have been harvested.
Due to winter-killing of buds and injury of bearing wood in many districts, the
Bartlett pear tonnage was very much reduced. Anjou and Flemish Beauty were not
injured to the same degree and in many orchards produced a normal crop. The pear-
crop over the Province was considerably lower than last year.
Cherries.—The cherry-crop in the Okanagan was light. In the heavy-producing
orchards around Kelowna and north it was practically nil. South of Kelowna in orchards
where top-killing and bud injury was not so severe, a partial crop was harvested. The
size and quality of the fruit was good. BB 104
BRITISH COLUMBIA
Peaches and Apricots.—Throughout the Okanagan, winter-injury was severe and
thousands of trees were heavily damaged, but injury being general in the trees that survived.    The quantity of peaches and apricots harvested was very small.
Prunes and Plums. — The prune-crop was considerably reduced from last year
because of winter-injury. Plums suffered more than prunes. Old trees were more
severely damaged than the younger more vigorous ones. The fruit harvested was of good
quality and marketed at a satisfactory price. Just what effect the results of last winter
will have on future crops is difficult to predict. Many old weak trees that had been
winter-injured in previous cold winters, trees damaged by root-borers and other causes,
were killed out, but many other trees were only partially damaged and will go on producing. It is probable that the killing of these weak trees will reduce tonnage for some years
and that the general quality of the prune-crop will be improved.
Small Fruits.—The production of small fruits in the Salmon Arm area was reduced
owing to blossom damage in the spring and drought conditions previous to and during
harvest. At Creston the strawberries yielded well, but the raspberry-crop was light.
Though the spring was late in the Fraser Valley, good growing and harvesting weather
followed, and crops of strawberries and raspberries were satisfactory. On Vancouver
Island the tonnage of strawberries was somewhat reduced, but better prices prevailed than
last year. Though winter-injured in some degree, the loganberry-crop was an improve-'
ment over last year. Boysenberries and blackberries, because of winter damage, produced
a light crop.
The following table indicates the actual production of tree and small fruits in 1949
and the estimated production in 1950:—
Kind
Year       Production
Kind
Year      Production
Apples 	
Crab-apples.
Pears	
Plums
Prunes...
Peaches.
Apricots.
Cherries ..
1949
1950
1949
1950
1949
1950
1949
1950
1949
1950
1949
1950
1949
1950
1949
1950
Boxes
8,632,576
8,728,000
85,703
162,500
641,417
427,100
Crates
203,215
128,500
1,174,285
688,500
1,933,339
203,300
453,332
51,800
551,552
227,900
Strawberries....
Raspberries .—
Loganberries..
Blackberries...
Red currants...
Black currants
Gooseberries..
Grapes	
1949
1950
1949    |
1950
1949
1950
1949
1950
1949
1950
1949
1950
1949
1950
1949
1950
Crates
822,969
820,600
518,802
536,900
48,750
53,000
58,994
38,000
3,569
3,500
7,766
7,600
3,890
5,100
Lb.
2,224,494
1,539,000
Vegetables
Increase in population in all parts of the Province is taking place. In many areas
climatic factors are such that people living in less favourable climates are coming to
British Columbia. Land in many of these favourable areas is not plentiful and values
are increasing. Many of these new settlers wish to grow crops and are buying small
holdings. This means that farms already too small are being cut up into smaller acreages.
These small acreages are cropped intensively, many of them to one crop, and consequently yields grow smaller and of poor quality because of lack of rotations and adequate
soil-maintenance programmes. Handling produce from these areas is a problem to the
Marketing Boards. Improvement in soil-maintenance and opening up of new areas is
perhaps the answer to the problem. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950 BB  105
The production situation in the three main producing areas is outlined in the reports
of the Supervising Horticulturists from Vancouver Island and the Fraser Valley, and the
District Horticulturist in Kelowna.
E. W. White, Vancouver Island:—
" There was an excellent crop of Christinas cauliflower harvested in November and
early December of 1949. However, harvesting was practically cut short on December
18th with a snowfall of 8 inches and 10 degrees of frost on December 19th. Continuing
low temperatures in December and in January destroyed a large proportion of the early
broccoli-crop. However, some plantings of April-May broccoli survived the winter and
there was a fair cut.    Prices were somewhat depressed on the Christmas cauliflower-crop.
" Spring and summer vegetable-crops have been in good supply throughout the
season.
" There has been a relatively good crop of Christmas cauliflower cut during the
present month. Very wet weather during the month has made harvesting difficult.
If the weather gets back to normal and continues during December, January, and February, a good cut of spring broccoli should be available. Acreage is down from last
year."
G. E. W. Clarke, Fraser Valley:—
" Vegetable production in the Fraser Valley is of major importance, as it represents
approximately $5,000,000 to the growers.
" In addition to the acreage required for supplying the fresh-vegetable trade, a considerable amount is contracted annually by the various canneries. Peas, beans, and corn
are the principal crops grown on contract, with a few smaller contracts for such crops as
spinach, beets, and carrots.
" The frozen-vegetable pack is increasing in importance, and indications are that a
wider range of vegetables will be required than has been handled in any quantity up to
the present.
" On account of the cold, wet spring, most growers were unable to commence field
operations as early as usual. In some particularly favoured locations some early transplanting was done in March, but on most places transplanting and seeding were not done
until well into April.
" Early spinach appeared on the market in limited quantities after the first week in
May, which is a month later than usual. Head lettuce became available about May 24th,
and in an average season car-loadings can be expected about the middle of May. In June,
supplies of vegetables became available in quantity, and throughout the year ample
supplies of a seasonable range of vegetables have been maintained. Car-load shipments
to Prairie markets have not been as large as is usual to expect.
" Early potatoes, because of late planting, were not available until about June 20th,
which meant a loss of nearly three weeks on the early markets.
" Except for the late spring, the past season has been a fairly good year for most
crops. Peas and beans have been of good quality, and this has also been an excellent
year for corn."
J. Smith, Okanagan:—
" On the whole a good growing season was experienced by vegetable-growers. Brief
comments on the various crops follow.
" Tomatoes were of good quality throughout the season. Yields were good. Disease
was absent owing to the dry season.    Acreage was up slightly.
" Fall-planted onions yielded a good crop of high-quality onions.
" Spring-planted onions were checked in their growth during late April and May by
cool winds, and the hot summer was considered responsible for small bulbs. Germination of the seed was good, and excellent control of maggots with the use of calomel was
experienced.    The DDT treatment of onion seed for maggot-control was also tried to BB 106
BRITISH COLUMBIA
a limited extent and also gives promise of success. Acreage in onions was increased, and
the crop exceeds last year's.
" Silver-skins yielded a heavy crop of good quality. Acreage was increased. Calomel gave good control of maggots.
" Early potatoes gave good crops on increased acreage. Late potatoes produced
satisfactory yields.    Control of flea-beetle was poor.
" Cucumbers yielded well. The Marketer variety is replacing older varieties, largely
because of its shipping qualities.
"Asparagus produced a normal crop.
" Cannery beans yielded well and were of good quality. No disease problems were
encountered this year.
" Beets were of good quality and the yield was good. The short-top strain of Detroit
is winning favour."
Estimated Acreage and Production of Vegetable-crops in British Columbia,
Year 1950 (as at November 1st)
The following table gives the estimated acreage and production for 1950:—
Crop
Planted
Area
Average
Yield per
Acre
Total
Production
Asparagus	
Beans, green _
Beets 	
Cabbage	
Carrots   	
Cauliflower —
Celery  	
Corn	
Lettuce	
Onions 	
Parsnips 	
Peas, green..
Spinach
Tomatoes, field.
Turnips.— 	
Acres
290
1,080
390
830
1,210
445
660
2,370
880
1,300
135
4,050
520
2,630
405
Lb.
2,480
7,820
11,460
10,940
13,870
6,610
8,330
7,000
12,200
15,800
14,030
2,540
5,830
14,480
16,470
Lb.
719,000
8,446,000
4,469,000
9,080,000
16,783,000
2,941,000
5,498,000
16,590,000
10,736,000
20,540,000
1,894,000
10,287,000
3,032,000
38,082,000
6,670,000
Flower and Bulb Production
The situation regarding bulb and cut-flower production is summed up in the reports
of the Supervising Horticulturists for Vancouver Island and the Fraser Valley, as
follows:—
E. W. White, Vancouver Island:—
" Bulb Production.—The lateness of spring and the relative earliness of the Easter
season (April 7th to 10th) resulted in a shortage of cut narcissus blooms for the pre-
Easter week market. After the Easter season the demand for cut blooms fell off very
rapidly. Mother's Day coming on May 14th, a week later than in 1949, gave the tulip-
crop a week longer to develop and there was a good movement of cut tulip blooms.
" There has been considerable discussion among bulb-growers in recent weeks as to
the advisability of establishing a Marketing Board for the sale of spring-bulb cut blooms."
G. E. W. Clarke, Fraser Valley:—
"A great deal of educational work has been done among bulb-growers by this office
in conjunction with the inspection services of the Dominion Department of Agriculture.
This work has demonstrated that by following good cultural practices with careful handling
and proper storage conditions, high-quality bulbs can be grown.
" Bulb-growing will develop into a very important crop and can be remunerative.
Growers are being encouraged to select varieties for type and freedom from disease and
to establish foundation-stock blocks as a basis for commercial plantings. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,  1950 BB  107
" The British Columbia Bulb Growers' Federation is doing a great deal in bringing
the growers together to discuss the many problems in production and handling. The
annual field-day held in the Fraser Valley on June 10th was well attended and promoted
favourable discussion.
" The Dominion Department of Agriculture Plant Protection Service, Vancouver,
is giving good assistance to the growers while making certification inspections of the bulb-
crops. The reports as issued are important guides to the growers. This year, shipments
of bulbs to points outside the Province were, for the most part, disappointing. This was
due to an intensive sales campaign by Dutch growers. It is hoped that this situation
will improve as buyers gain confidence in our bulbs."
Estimated Value of Marketable Bulb Production in British Columbia in 1950
The following table gives an excellent idea of the value of bulb production in British
Columbia:—
Narcissus—
190 acres X 100,000=19,000,000 planted.
Marketable output—15% =2,850,000 @ $30perM= $85,500
Tulips—
90 acres X 100,000=9,000,000 planted.
Marketable output—25% =2,250,000 @ $25 per M=    56,250
Iris (bulbous)—
30 acres X 150,000=4,500,000 planted.
Marketable output—30% = 1,350,000 @ $30 per M=    40,500
Gladiolus—
60 acres X 100,000=6,000,000 planted.
Marketable output-30% =1,800,000 @ $20 per M=    36,000
Miscellaneous—44 acres X $1000=     44,000
Total (414 acres) $262,250
Blueberries and Cranberries
The production of these two crops is reported on by G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising
Horticulturist in the Fraser Valley, as follows:—
" Blueberries.—The high-bush varieties of this fruit are being grown extensively on
the peat areas of Lulu Island and Pitt Meadows. During the past few years, plantings have
increased, and production, as these plantings come into bearing, is showing a marked
increase. While a limited tonnage has been frozen or canned, the greater part of the
crop, to date, has been handled on the local and Prairie fresh-fruit markets.
" Production in many plantings was reduced to a marked degree as a result of winter-
injury. Fresh-fruit shipments to the Prairies were curtailed for about ten days on account
of the railroad strike in August.
" Cranberries.—The growing of cranberries has been receiving considerable attention
by a few growers on the peat areas of Lulu Island. Up to the present time, production
has been limited, but this year, as more of the plantings are coming into production, it is
expected that about 12,000 pounds will be offered on the local market. No arrangements
have been made for the flooding, if necessary, of these plantings.
" The main variety at present is the MacFarlane. Yields and quality of the crop
would indicate that there is a possibility of further development. There are some insect
and cultural problems that will require attention during the coming year."
Tobacco
G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist for the Fraser Valley, reports as follows
on tobacco production:— BB 108
BRITISH COLUMBIA
" This year the acreage of Virginia flue-cured tobacco was about 82 acres, which
is nearly double that of last year. This crop is shipped to Eastern Canada by the Sumas
Co-operative Tobacco Growers' Association, Abbotsford, for grading and marketing.
" The weather was good at the time of transplanting, and while irrigation was necessary during the summer, the growth and development of the crops was good to excellent.
Ideal conditions prevailed during the harvest, and about four car-loads, which is about
100,000 pounds of the cured leaf, will be shipped in December."
Hops
Hops are one of the important crops produced in this Province. At the present
time the large producing areas are in the Fraser Valley and around Kamloops. Parties
interested in hop production are looking for more land in areas where climatic factors
are suitable for the production of this crop. The area devoted to hop-growing has
increased from 925 acres in 1931 to 1,650 acres in 1950, and the annual value of the
hop-crop is close to $1,500,000. G. R. Thorpe, District Horticulturist at Creston,
reports that the Clements E. Horst Company has taken an option on 440 acres on
reclaimed land at Creston for the purpose of experimenting with hop-growing.
G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist in the Fraser Valley, and R. M. Wilson,
District Horticulturist at Kamloops, report as follows on hop production in their respective districts:—
G. E. W. Clarke, Fraser Valley:—-
"There are over 1,500 acres in production in the Fraser Valley, representing an
annual crop value of Over $ 1,000,000. The companies engaged in the growing of hops
employ a large staff of full-time and seasonal labour.
" Crop production has been fair to good this year, and excellent weather prevailed
during the picking period. Hop-picking machines have been tried during the past few
years and during the past season additional machines were operating. This equipment
is reducing the time and cost in handling the fields."
R. M. Wilson, Kamloops:—
" Near Kamloops 68 acres of hops are grown on the Ord plantation and 80 acres
are grown by Capilano Breweries Limited.    Hop-fields were notably free of insect pests
and other troubles and yields were satisfactory.    Clear, warm days provided good
harvesting weather.    Machine-picking has practically replaced hand-picking methods in
this area."
Nut Production
The production of nuts is a growing industry in the Fraser Valley. A recent survey
indicates a substantial increase in acreage during the past four years, especially in filbert
production.
The following table indicates the acreage of filberts and the number of walnut-trees
over the past twelve years, 1938-50:—
District
Filberts
Walnuts
1938
1
1940
1944
1946
1950
1938
1940
1944
1946
1950
1
Ac.
25£ |
53||
Ac.
34
82
Ac.
28J
2848
Ac.
14J
5501
Ac.
321
510J
5431
Trees
132
114
Trees
202
84
Trees
180
371
Trees
232
2,593
Trees
376
2,000
Totals _	
79   |
1
116
313J
565
246
286
551
2,825
2,376
The following comments on the industry are taken from the report of G. E. W.
Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist for the Fraser Valley:—
" The British Columbia Nut Growers' Association was formed in 1947 and has
been active in fostering the growing of filberts in particular.    Meetings are held by this DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1950 BB 109,
association during the year, and a field-day was held this year at Chilliwack on September 13th.
" An insect and disease survey of the filbert plantings was made this year under the
direction of H. F. Olds, Senior Inspector of the Dominion Department of Agriculture,
Plant Protection Division, Vancouver, at the request of the above association.
" While there are some large blocks of filberts in this district, there are numerous
smaller plantings, and as these plantings are now coming into production, a marked
increase in tonnage is to be expected in another year or two.
" Several growers have spent considerable money on machinery and equipment for
cleaning, drying, and grading. Some of this equipment is being made available for
custom work, and by this means the growers hope to offer good, well-graded quality nuts
to the Canadian markets. Prices for filberts during the war years were between 30 and
40 cents per pound.    Recent prices have been about 20 cents per pound.
"Walnuts, chestnuts, and hard-shelled almonds are being planted in some places,
but plantings of these are limited, as on most places a few trees have been planted along
fence-lines or driveways."
Seed Production
There was a heavy demand for seed of all kinds during the war and prices were;
attractive, encouraging many growers to increase acreages or venture into a new industry.
Since the war, owing to increased competition from seed imports, export trade restrictions,,
and exchange barriers, the acreage in seed production has declined from 4,382,891
pounds in 1946 to an estimated total of 1,962,229 pounds in 1950.
The seed work in the Province comes under the direction of J. L. Webster, of the
Horticultural Branch. The following extracts are from Mr. Webster's report for the
current year:—
"Brief Discussion on Unfavourable Markets for Vegetable Seed.—One problem
confronting seed-growers to-day is a very considerable surplus of onion seed. Approximately 70,000 pounds remain unsold at this date, with very little prospect of sale.
" The over-all market situation for vegetable seed still remains unfavourable. The
devaluation of British, Dutch, and other European currency, which results in a 20- to
30-per-cent monetary advantage for imported seeds from these countries, has had a
serious effect on the price structure in this country. We have heard from other sources
that onion seed has been quoted in Holland and in Great Britain as low as 40 cents per
pound on the basis of our funds. This applies also to carrot and some other important
seed items. The reason for the low price of vegetable seed in Europe is that both 1948
and 1949 were exceptionally good years in Europe from the standpoint of weather conditions. Seed yields were high and considerable surplus was built up on many varieties.
Although some of the vegetable varieties are not used in this country or the United States,
the whole picture on surplus has had a very depressing effect on our markets.
" In the United States, continued high yields of most vegetable-seed crops has
resulted in some surpluses which are being offered in Canada at low prices. Mechanization of agriculture in the United States and the growing of seed-crops on larger acreages
enables these producers to make a small profit at prices at which it is difficult to compete.
" The situation at th