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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS HON E. T. KENNEY, Minister C. D. ORCHARD,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1950

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
HON. E. T. KENNEY, Minister C. D. ORCHARD, Deputy Minister of Forests
REPORT
of
THE FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST
1949
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Don MoDiaemid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1050.  Defective hemlock in the Big Bend region, showing sporophores of the Indian-paint fungus
(Echinodom.riiim tinctorium Ell. & Ever). g  Victoria, B.C., March 1st, 1950.
'1 o His Honour Colonel C. A. Banks, C.M.G.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia,
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service
of the Department of Lands and Forests for the calendar year 1949.
E. T. KENNEY,
Minister of Lands and Forests.
The Honourable E. T. Kenney,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
SIR,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Forest
Service during the calendar year 1949.
C. D. ORCHARD,
Deputy Minister and Chief Forester.  CONTENTS.
Item. Page.
1. Introductory   9
2. Forest Economics  13
Forest Surveys ,  13
Kyuquot Region   13
Quadra Island  17
Smith Inlet Region  20
Provincial Forests  22
Forest Research  23
Nursery Fertility Studies  23
Soil and Land-use Surveys  23
Site-type Studies  25
Silvicultural Studies  25
Mensuration  28
Volume Tables  29
Growth Studies  29
3. Reforestation  36
Forest Nurseries _— 36
Seed Collections  37
Reconnaissance and Survey Work  37
Planting  37
Preparation of Planting Areas  38
Plantations  38
4. Parks and Recreation  39
Introduction    39
Administration and Development , _-_  39
Reconnaissance and Inventory  42
Planning _,__  43
Engineering and Architectural Design  46
5. Forest Management  50
Sustained-yield Management  51
Forest-cover Maps  51
Silvicultural Fund  52
6. Forest Accounts :  53
7. Forest Protection .  54
Weather  54
Fires  55
Occurrences and Causes  55
Cost of Fire-fighting 1  55
Damage  56
Fire-control Planning and Research  56
Visibility Mapping  56
Panoramic Lookout Photography  56
Trail and Road Traverses  57
Weather Recording  57
Fire-weather Investigations  57
Miscellaneous Projects  58
Fire-suppression Crejws  58
Aircraft -  58 MM 8 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Item. Page.
7. Forest Protection—Continued.
Mechanical Equipment  59
Automotive    59
Tankers  59
Trailers, Tractors, and Maintainers  60
Outboard Motors, Pumps, and Chain-saws  60
Miscellaneous Equipment  60
Mechanical Inspection  60
Forest Service Marine Station  61
Building and Construction  63
Roads and Trails    66
Radio Communication  66
Slash-disposal and Snag-falling  70
Fire-law Enforcement  70
Forest Closures  71
Co-operation—other Agencies  71
8. Forest-insect Investigations  72
9. Forest-disease Investigations  77
10. Forest Ranger School  80
11. Public Relations and Education  84
Press and Radio  84
Motion Pictures and Photography  84
Publications .    85
Exhibits  86
Protection and Directional Signs    86
Articles, Papers, and Addresses  87
Co-operation  87
Library  87
12. Grazing  88
Introduction  88
General Conditions  89
Range Management Plans  89
Co-operation  90
Range Improvement _    90
Range Reconnaissance  91
Grazing, Hay, and Special-use Permits  92
Miscellaneous  93
Live-stock Losses  93
Predatory Animals  93
Markets and Prices  93
Stock-counts  93
Prosecutions  93
13. Personnel Directory, 1950  94
14. Appendix—Tabulated Detailed Statements to Supplement Report of Forest
Service    101 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE.
The year 1949 was marked by a return to normalcy in respect to available personnel, both technical and non-technical, equipment, and materials. For the first time
in almost a decade it was possible to carry out the planned programme of the Forest
Service comparatively unhampered by shortages of these three vital elements.
One amendment of note was made to the " Forest Act" at the 1949 Session of
the Legislature, through the addition of a section to control log-salvage operations.
The sum of $2,000,000 was allotted to the Forest Protection Fund.
The administrative organization of the Service was developed further by the
establishment of an eighth division charged with direction of grazing administration.
The services of a forest counsel were secured, the officer in question holding degrees in
both forestry and law.
Work on forest surveys was stepped up, with five field parties completing 6,544
square miles during the year. Reports on the Sayward region and Quadra Island
were published. Five new forest reserves—four on the Lower Coast and one in the
North-Central Interior—were created, bringing the total to fifty-nine, comprising
37,912 square miles.
Studies in forest-nursery fertility were maintained, and a number of properties
examined in the East Kootenays as prospective sites for a nursery there. A land-use
survey was made of the Bella Coola Valley.    Site-type studies were continued.
Silvicultural studies included a determination of the most favourable time for
collection of Douglas fir seed and a study of repellents to protect direct seeding from
rodents. During the year the Aleza Lake Experiment Station was reopened and a
resident research forester appointed. Re-examination of all permanent growth-study
plots was maintained, and numerous growth-and-yield and volume tables were
developed.
Adverse weather during the early months of the year caused heavy losses of forest
nursery stock. In the spring, beds were sown to produce 10,000,000 trees for planting
in the spring of 1951. Sowing of hemlock seed, earlier root-pruning, and work on
soil-fertility were undertaken on an experimental basis. An experimental nursery was
established at Elko.
A conveyer-belt was installed at Green Timbers Nursery to expedite sorting and
counting of seedlings.
The cone-crop on Douglas fir was almost a complete failure. White-grub infestation continued a serious problem at Quinsam Nursery.
Heavy snow and a tardy spring deferred planting until late in March. Planting
terminated on May 6th. Suitable labour was difficult to obtain at the outset, but this
situation remedied as the season progressed. A total of 7,785 acres was planted,
with slightly less than 7,000,000 trees; the industry planted 1,010 acres with 855,000
trees.
One plantation was fire-damaged to the extent of 19 acres. A total of 170,000
snags, on 12,500 acres, was felled; 160 miles of forest road maintained; 4.5 miles of
new road constructed; and 37 miles of old logging-railroad grade converted to
truck-trails.
A large increase in personnel was essential to meet the increasing demand for
development of the Provincial park system. Men were trained to serve as recreational
officers for the Vancouver, Kamloops, and Nelson Forest Districts.
Expenditure of available funds was concentrated largely on six widely separated
areas: Little Qualicum Falls, Peace Arch, Manning, Mount Seymour, and Wells Gray
Parks received attention, and a workshop was constructed at Langford, V.I. MM 10 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Reconnaissance and inventory of the recreational resource was continued with
seventy-five reserves or proposed reserves being examined and classified. At the end
of the year there were fifty-nine Provincial parks, comprising 9,006,209 acres.
Both production of forest products and the estimated value of same fell short of
comparative figures for 1948. The total cut was 4,050,000 M board-feet, a drop of
approximately one-quarter billion feet, and the value totalled $331,590,000—some
$30,000,000 less than the estimate for the previous year. Paper production was
higher, as were the lumber export figures.
Douglas fir again headed the species cut, more than doubling the figure for hemlock, which ranked second in volume. Cedar, spruce, balsam, lodgepole pine, white
pine, yellow pine, and cottonwood followed in that order.
There was a slight lowering in the weighted average price bid for stumpage of
all species, amounting to 30 cents per thousand. The total number of existing timber
sales was reduced from 6,500 to 6,200, but the total number of sales awarded during
the year was on a parity with 1948. Log exports fell from 164,000,000 feet in 1948
to 146,000,000 in 1949.
There were noteworthy advances in the forest management licence field. Two
licences were in effect at the end of the year, one of which had been signed during the
period. Three other contracts have entered the final stages, and six more have been
approved in principle, and a reserve established over the areas under consideration.
Progress has been made in the organization of technical staffs to deal with farm-
woodlot and public working-circles management.
A full programme of forest-cover mapping and the revision or replacement of
existing maps was accomplished. Successful projects under the Silvicultural Fund
were launched in four forest districts—Prince Rupert, Fort George, Kamloops, and
Nelson.
Revenue collections reached a record figure of $8,181,860.97. The mechanical
tabulation of scale and royalty accounts for the Vancouver Forest District, which was
initiated late in 1948, has now been in operation for one complete calendar year and
has proven its value in the rapid compilation of accurate records.
Although conditions on several occasions pointed to a serious and costly fire
season, and the number of fires was more than double that of 1948, intermittent rains
periodically reduced the hazard build-up and relieved the situation. July and August
were the two bad months.
Of the 1,701 fires, smokers caused 29 per cent., lightning 28 per cent., and railways
19 per cent. The cost to the Forest Service of direct fire-fighting during the year was
$94,600—34 per cent, less than the average over the past ten years. Total acreage
burned over was 145,549.
Two visibility-mapping crews were placed in the field, and these examined sixty-
four possible lookout-sites and submitted complete maps and reports on each. The
lookout photography project was revived, and fourteen lookout points completed. Four
crews were engaged on trail and road traverses for fire-control planning, and these
completed surveys of 364 miles of roads. A total of 179 miles of new road and trail
construction was completed, and 1,336 miles maintained.
A forest meteorologist was engaged, and fire-weather investigations renewed,
with an intensive study of past projects. Thirteen fire-suppression crews were organized and in the field up to 100 days in mid-fire season. A two-year contract was signed
with Central B.C. Airways, Ltd., to supply three floatplanes for fire-detection and
suppression work. A floatplane was stationed in each of the three Interior districts.
Air-to-ground transmitter-receivers were installed in each aircraft. Supplies were
parachuted successfully to ground crews on a number of occasions when waterways for
landing were not available. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949. MM  11
A serious fire at the Forest Service Marine Station in Vancouver in mid-May
handicapped the work of boat overhaul and construction and the regular programme
of pump and engine overhaul. The loss was almost completely covered by insurance.
By the end of the year the plant was nearly in full production once more. The
mechanical staff of the Division designed two mobile cooking-dining cars—one self-
propelled and the other a trailer type. A very large and diversified building programme was undertaken, and excellent progress made.
Developments in the Radio Section included installation of new types of transmitter-receiver units on Assistant Ranger and Ranger launches and remote-control units
at many district and Ranger headquarters. Intensive developments in the FM field
were undertaken, with one network nearly at operating stage. A total of 397 sets
were in use at year's end.    The total messages handled by all stations numbered 18,647.
There was a total of twelve forest closures imposed during the year. Operators
in the Vancouver and Fort George Districts co-operated on occasion by voluntary
closures or by going on early shift, and thus a general closure was avoided.
In British Columbia all basic research in forest entomology and forest pathology
is conducted by the Dominion Government. The assistance and unfailing co-operation
of the two Dominion services charged with the study of these problems in this
Province are herein recognized and acknowledged.
Through the courtesy and co-operation of the Victoria offices of Forest Insect
Investigations and Forest Pathology Investigations, Science Service, Dominion Department of Agriculture, it is possible to include reports on the situation in British Columbia with respect to forest insect pests and fungous diseases.
Of particular interest during the year were the study of deterioration in hemlock-
looper-killed timber, investigation of ambrosia-beetle damage, and studies of bark-
beetle damage to white and lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce.
Research on pathological problems included decay in mature and overmature
Douglas fir, decay in Western hemlock and Amabilis fir in the Prince Rupert District,
an analysis of Western hemlock in the Big Bend area, and Northern black cottonwood
on the Upper Fraser River. Studies were also carried on in plantations of Douglas fir
on Vancouver Island and the Lower Mainland and of blister-rust occurrence in
white-pine stands.
In January the fourth class, of twenty-one students this time, was enrolled at the
Ranger School at Green Timbers. The course was extended from two three-month
terms to three three-month terms. As might be expected, the present group is younger
and less experienced than students in earlier courses. A one-week special course was
given at the termination of the spring term to lookout-men of the Vancouver Forest
District.
The new school building was completed by early summer, and the new dormitory
and services buildings completed and officially opened by the Chief Forester in early
autumn.
The press-advertising programme of the Division was increased by the initiation
of a series of pre-fire-season advertisements in the daily and weekly papers. In
addition, a comprehensive schedule of brief radio messages was broadcast over all
stations in the Province for the first time.
There was an increase of over 41,000 in the total audience record of the film
library. Three new motion-picture projection units were acquired and placed in district offices.    Three film subjects were photographed and readied for sound-tracking.
Twelve publications of various types were produced in addition to six personnel
news-letters, the annual calendar, and numerous other printing projects. Two portable
exhibits were in circulation in the Interior during the Fall Fair season.
The winter of 1948-49 was long and severe and entailed heavy feeding until an
unusually late date.    Subsequently, however, there was an excellent growth of forage, MM 12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
and summer and fall ranging conditions were generally good, with the exception of
the alpine ranges. Meadow-hay was abundant but of inferior quality, and in some
sections quantities were lost as a result of wet weather persisting until late in the
summer.
Forty-two live-stock associations are active in the Province, and their co-operation
was invaluable in assisting in proper range management. The Division collaborated
with the Game Department in the study of game-livestock relationships on the range
and with the Live Stock Branch of the Department of Agriculture in establishing
bull-control and disease-free areas.
A total of 691,912 acres was covered by the range-reconnaissance programme.
An all-time record number of grazing permits were issued, although the number of
stock covered was slightly lower than in the previous year. Two men were employed
on predator-control during four and one-half months of the winter season with limited
success.
Statistical details of much of the Service's work are embodied in tabular form in
the Appendix to this Report. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949.
MM 13
FOREST ECONOMICS.
FOREST SURVEYS.
The programme of forest surveys continues to expand as technically trained personnel become available, and it is now evident that there will be no difficulty in reaching
the objective of surveying 8,000 square miles annually, commencing in 1951. A total of
sixty persons was employed on forest surveys throughout the 1949 field season. Five
parties were maintained, and surveys were completed on 6,544 square miles, distributed
by project as follows:— Acre_
Lower Skeena survey  1,789,877
Upper Fraser survey     818,560
Resurvey of Sechelt Forest     678,800
Princeton survey      896,800
Whiteswan Lake survey         4,300
Total
4,188,337
The finished maps, timber estimates, and reports for the above surveys are in the
process of compilation and will be available to the public in due course.
Kyuquot Region.
The estimates and forest-cover maps for the Kyuquot region have been completed
and are available upon request. This heavily timbered region is now estimated to
carry more than nineteen billion board-feet of merchantable timber, which compares
with the 1937 inventory of eight and one-half billion board-feet. The reason for the
large increase is that the early estimate was not based on a detailed survey but was
made up from scattered commercial cruises of private timber holdings, scattered timber-sale cruises, and reconnaissance by Forest Service officers. In addition, technological advances in logging and towing methods, during the interval between estimates,
have revolutionized West Coast utilization standards.
The total volume of merchantable timber is estimated to be 19,405,930,000 board-
feet, of which 91 per cent, is considered physically and economically accessible. The
details of timber volumes (over 11 inches D.B.H.) are as follows:—
(Thousands of feet, board measure.)
Species.
Crown
granted.
Timber Leases
and Licences.
Vacant
Crown Land.
Total.     '
199,650
60,200
170,210
4,930
46,450
2,190
2,390
959,700
765,550
1,414,040
153,630
513,040
15,240
21,170
1,276,640
2,666,560
6,922,840
241,920
3,516,740
71,670
381,170
2,435,990
3,492,310
8,507,090
400,480
4,076,230
89,100
404,730
486,020
3,842,370
15,077,540
19,405,930
It is worthy of note that in the Kyuquot region only 22 per cent, of the merchantable timber has been alienated under the various forms of private tenure. This ownership pattern is in contrast with average conditions on the Coast, where 60 per cent, of
the merchantable timber has been alienated. Mature yellow-pine type, west of Princeton.
Ollala Creek valley, showing typical open-stocked stands of Keremeos region. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949. MM  15
The classification of areas is as follows:—
Productive forest land—
Mature timber  Acres. Acres.
Accessible    528,960
Inaccessible       97,780
Total      626,740
Immature timber—
1-    5 years   160
6- 10     „        1,310
11- 20      „  320
21- 40     „        14,530
41- 60      „        22,970
61- 80     „       780
81-100      „       820
Total         40,890
Not satisfactorily stocked—
Logged    4,990
Logged and burned  1,080
Burned    250
Deciduous   2,450
Coniferous   3,360
Total  .....      12,130
Total sites of productive quality      679,760
Non-productive and non-forest land—
Cultivated and villages  290
Barren, scrub, and alpine  579,870
Swamp and water     14,990
Total non-productive sites      595,150
Total area of region  1,274,910
History records that the first timber to be exported from Vancouver Island was
cut in the Kyuquot region. In 1778 Captain Cook arrived at Nootka with his two ships,
the " Resolution " and " Discovery," both of which were badly in need of repairs. He
replaced the damaged masts and spars from trees cut along the shores of Nootka Sound.
In 1788 Capt. John Mears, on a trading voyage across the Pacific, cut a small
amount of spars and planking from timber in the Nootka area for export to the Chinese
market.
Except for intermittent, small logging .operations, there was no utilization of
importance in the region until 1938, when a company financed by English capital built
a sawmill on the north end of Nootka Island. This plant operated for about one year
and then shut down on the outbreak of war in 1939. About the same time two small
mills commenced operation in the Zeballos area, cutting lumber for local use. In 1946
a large export mill was constructed at Port Tahsis, and this was followed by a similar
mill at Zeballos in 1948. Although industrial development to date has been directed
toward establishment of sawmills, the timber resources are more adapted to use for
pulp and paper products; consequently, the ultimate expansion should be construction
of a pulp-mill. MM 16
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949.
MM 17
Hemlock-balsam stand, 129 years old, on Zeballos River.    Average diameter, 26 inches;
maximum diameter, 34 inches;   maximum height,  178 feet.
Quadra Island. ._..._.
The timber estimates and forest-cover maps for Quadra Island have been finished
and are available upon request.    The classification of areas is as follows:—
Productive forest land—
Mature timber  Acres.       Acres.      '
Accessible       9,400
Inaccessible        Nil
Total      9,400
Immature timber—
1- 5 years 	
6-10
11-20
21-40
41-60
61-80
1,680
230
20,140
9,890
830
120
Total   32,890 MM 18
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Not satisfactorily stocked—
Logged    1,950
Logged and burned  2,510
Burned   1,860
Deciduous  10
Coniferous   220
Total        6,550
Total sites of productive quality  48,840
Non-productive and non-forest land—
Cultivated and villages  830
Barren, scrub, and alpine  15,470
Swamp and water  3,050
Total non-productive sites  19,350
Total area of region  68,190
The details of the estimate of merchantable timber (over 11 inches D.B.H.) are
as follows:—
(Thousands of feet, board measure.)
Species.
Crown
granted.
Timber Leases
and Licences.
Vacant
Crown Land.
Total.
6,080
90
3,920
2,820
1,330
90
840
300
26,980
3,930
15,180
70
220
600
106,430
17,990
69,020
1,400
1,260
1,900
150
40
138,490
22 010
88,120
4,290
2,810
2,490
990
340
15,470
46,880
197,190
259,540
Quadra Island was surveyed previously in 1930, and, although little new industrial
development has taken place in the interval between surveys, forest conditions in
general show considerable improvement. The 1930 survey found that 15,670 acres
were understocked. However, subsequent regeneration has been exceptionally good, and
the present examination showed that 84 per cent, of the cut-over land was,satisfactorily
stocked. Further, a large part of the area currently understocked may be expected to
restock naturally; consequently, Quadra Island is one area on the Lower Coast where
there is no problem in regeneration. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949.
MM 19
IZ5_!
50-125'
(D_BI0CK Nui
6-Map Num.
50*-l25'
INDEX     MAP
.QUADRA ISLAND.
1Z5V MM 20
department of lands and forests.
Smith Inlet Region.
In 1948 surveys were completed over a region centring on Smith Inlet, and the
estimates of merchantable timber and forest-cover maps have been completed. The
classification of areas is as follows:—
Productive forest land-
Mature timber —
Total 	
Immature timber—
1-   5 years	
6- 10     „     	
11- 20     „    	
21- 40     „     	
41- 60     „    ______
61- 80     „     	
81-100     „    ______
101 „     —
Total
Not satisfactorily stocked-
Logged 	
Logged and burned __
Burned 	
Deciduous 	
Coniferous 	
Total
Acres. Acres.
107,880
107,880
390
700
550
480
110
20
2,250
710
420
50
1,180
Total sites of productive quality  111,310
Non-productive and non-forest land—
Cultivated and villages      Nil
Barren, scrub, and alpine  184,830
Swamp and water     17,630
Total non-productive sites
202,460
Total area of region  313,770
The details of the estimate of merchantable timber (over 11 inches D.B.H.) are
as follows:—
(Thousands of cubic feet.)
Species.
Crown
granted.
Timber Leases
and Licences.
Vacant
Crown Land.
Total.
Western red cedar...
Western hemlock	
Sitka spruce	
Balsam	
Western white pine.
Yellow cedar	
Alder	
Totals	
Acres	
2,843
735
211
556
3
415
12,214
10,714
4,747
8,885
741
225,428
96,628
26,611
70,110
53
24,569
110
4,763
37,301
443,509
1.310
8,630
97,940
240,485
108,077
31,569
79,551
56
25,725
110
485,573
107,880 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949.
MM 21 MM 22
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Hemlock-lodgepole pine type, 250 years old, near Kitsumgalium Lake, Terrace.
PROVINCIAL FORESTS.
Five new forest reserves were created during 1949, thereby adding 5,578 square
miles to the system of Provincial forests scattered throughout the Province. Four of
these new forests—namely, the Quatsino, Chilliwack, Juan de Fuca, and Clayoquot—
are situated on the Lower Coast, and the fifth—the Crooked River—is in the North-
Central Interior near Prince George.
There was one minor adjustment of the boundaries of Provincial forest reserves
which involved the elimination of 1.5 acres from the Vancouver Island plantations for
commercial purposes.
The summary of the forests to date is as follows:—
Coast Region.
Interior Region.
Total.
Class of Forest.
Number.
Area
(Sq. Mi.).
Number.
Area
(Sq. Mi.).
Number.
Area
(Sq. Mi.).
24
16,236
28
2
1
21,411
233
28
52
2
5
37,647
233
4
4
32
28
16,240
31                 21.672
69
37,912 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949. MM  23
FOREST RESEARCH.
Nursery Fertility Studies.
As in previous years, an inventory was made of seedling growth at each of the
three nurseries in order to check on soil-fertility and possible soil deterioration with
successive cropping.   The following data were obtained on Douglas fir:—
Nursery.
Length of Top
(in Cm.).
Diameter of
Stem (in
64th Inches).
Dry Weight
(in Gms.).
Number of
Primary
Roots.
Top-Root
Ratio by Dry
Weight.
Number
of
Samples.
1
10.2 + 0.34      j      4.2+0.11
9.6 + 0.54       1       4.8+0.16
0.66+0.05
0.72+0.05
1.80+0.24
8.5+0.26
6.2 + 0.42
10.0 + 1-10
1.7+0.11
1.2+0.06
2.6+0.11
28
25
Duncan	
19.7 + 1.27
6.3+0.50
17
The largest stock was produced at the Duncan Nursery. The seedlings are thrifty
and have well-developed roots. Considerable frost damage to the tops occurred during
the winter of 1948. The seedlings are considerably smaller than those produced in
1947 and 1948, although all three crops are from land that has never produced nursery
stock before.    This may be due to seasonal differences, for the soil is very uniform.
The Quinsam stock was smaller than the Green Timbers stock. In previous years
the reverse has been true. It will be noted in the above table that the top-to-root ratio
appears very favourable, yet there are few primary roots. This condition was produced by an unusual root-development. The few primary roots tend to be long and
non-branching. The tips tend to be thickened and covered with root-hairs which persist and appear as a brown tomentum covering the roots. According to a British
Forestry Commission report, this condition on tree rpots may depend upon the form in
which nitrogen occurs in the soil. The Green Timbers stock was small but nicely
balanced between top and root.
With this year's inventory, records are available for two successive crops, grown
in a rotation on the same field at Green Timbers and at Quinsam. At Green Timbers
the length of top produced in 1946 was 13.3+2.4 centimetres. This year a length of
10.2+0.34 was found, a decrease of 3.1 centimetres. This difference is statistically
significant. The same is true at Quinsam, where the length of top in 1946 was
16.1 + 0.37 as compared to 9.6 + 0.54 in 1949. These differences, while significant, may
be due to seasonal differences of temperature and rainfall; on the other hand, they may
indicate soil depletion. Should this condition be repeated in the other fields in the next
two years, serious consideration should be given to adopting a general programme to
build up soil fertility.
In anticipation of the time when fertilizers will become a necessity, fertility studies
were started in 1947. The first results were recorded in the Report of the Forest Service for 1948. A new series of plots were laid out in 1948 at Green Timbers but,
unfortunately, seed germination was so poor that sufficient seedlings were not available
for measuring seedling response to different fertilization. Further studies were laid
out in 1949, but the results will not be available until 1950, when the seedlings will have
completed two seasons' growth in the nursery.
Soil and Land-use Surveys.
Soil examinations were made on a number of properties in the East Kootenays for
the purpose of selecting a nursery-site. A suitable location was finally found between
Cranbrook and Kimberley. Two types of soil occur on the property. The lower
benches consist of Oldtown Very Fine Sandy Loam. This soil would seem to be very
satisfactory for seedling production. The soil is neutral in reaction, deep and well
drained, free from stone, and of nearly level relief.    The upper benches are a Mayook MM 24
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Silt Loam. This soil is not quite so desirable, for the subsoil is strongly alkaline and
somewhat compacted. The disadvantages are more than balanced by an adequate
supply of irrigation-water.
A land-use survey was made of the Bella Coola Valley to delineate the arable soils.
This constitutes the initial step in developing a plan of forest management for that
area. The valley is some 40 miles long and varies from 1 to 2 miles in width. It is
U-shaped, the floor being occupied by rich alluvial soil. The valley is flanked by precipitous rock walls that terminate in snow-capped peaks. No extensive foothills or
upland benches separate the bottom-lands from the mountainsides.
The climate is temperate, being favourably modified by the protection afforded by
the coastal islands separating the valley from the ocean.
'.:JSgggjfr
View of Bella Coola Valley, looking east from near the mouth of the river. Note
bottom-lands extending to the base of the mountains and absence of extensive forested
foothills.     (R.C.A.F. Photo.)
The valley is only partially developed with farms, of from 5 to 40 cleared acres,
scattered along the 45 miles, of road. It would seem that practically all crops suitable
to a temperate climate can be successfully grown. For comparative purposes the
Agassiz district of the Fraser Valley is quite similar in soil, topography, and climate.
The present development is no criterion of the agricultural potentialities. Practically the entire acreage of the valley-bottom is suitable for agricultural use if and when
markets and transportation justify more intensive settlement.
Bella Coola occupies a strategic position on the coast of British Columbia, being
midway between Vancouver and Prince Rupert. Furthermore, it is somewhat unique
in that it is probably the only valley in the Central Coastal region containing a large
acreage of potentially arable land. Although it is isolated at present, only 14 miles of
new road-construction are necessary to link this valley with the roads of the Interior,
thereby making Bella Coola a coastal port serving the Interior of the Province. Bella
Coola is, therefore, favourably situated to respond to any new development that may REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949. MM  25
take place within a wide radius of this district. For these reasons, agricultural settlement is a logical development of the Bella Coola Valley that should parallel the establishment of primary and secondary industries in the Central Coastal region of British
Columbia.
Site-type Studies.
Site-type studies in second-growth hemlock and hemlock-fir stands were continued
in 1949. A number of areas were examined in Johnstone Strait. Progress in these
studies is slow, for these mixed-forest types extend over the coastal region and areas
are often accessible only by boat.    The data collected has not been analysed as yet.
Some time was spent in the field with foresters of three large logging companies
who were interested in the application of site classification by means of the indicator
species of the natural vegetation. Some time was also spent with students at the
University Forest at Haney. There appears to be a growing interest in the use of
plant indicators for site-type identification.
Silvicultural Studies.
A study was carried out during the year to determine the most favourable time
for the collection of cones of Douglas fir. Tests were made to see if there was any
relationship between the specific gravity of the developing cones and the germinative
capacity of the seed. From July 5th to September 28th weekly cone collections were
made from three trees. These trees were in the Robertson River valley, near Cowichan
Lake, Vancouver Island, and were 17 to 18 years old and 25 to 30 feet high. Freshly
picked sample cones were placed in solutions of common salt. The specific gravity of
the solutions in which the cones floated was recorded. Germination tests were made
on the seeds from each tree in each weekly collection. Two types of germination tests
were carried out: (1) Biochemical method using sodium biselenite, and (2) incubator
germination test. Part of the seed was stored, and germination tests will be made in
the spring of 1950 to determine whether early collecting of the cones has any effect on
the keeping qualities of the seed. The biochemical test and the incubator test both
showed that, by the end of the first week in August, the seeds were capable of germination. One hundred field-run seeds were used in each test, but the low and varying
number of filled seeds made the results inconclusive. Throughout August the cones
had specific gravities represented by aqueous solutions of sodium chloride varying in
strength from 8 per cent, for the lowest tree to 12 per cent, for the highest. The cones
from two of the trees floated in water on September 6th and from the third tree on
September 13th. Before these dates the specific gravity of the cones had shown no
downward trend and gave no guide as to the degree of maturity of the seed, but these
cones were not ready to open for two to three weeks after the stage of floating in water.
One experiment is under way to test the reliability of the bud-ratio index in forecasting cone-crops, and another to explore certain aspects of pollination.
At Cowichan Lake 108 individual trees have been under observation for a number
of years for the purpose of recording the annual fluctuations in cone production; some
are 40 to 50 years old, some 70 to 90 years old, and the remainder are residual veterans
from the original stand. Some of the trees are located on the margins of stands
while the veterans are growing over a younger understory. In 1949 there was an
intermediate-sized crop similar to the one in 1948. The best individual crop on a
mature Douglas fir rated fair with a production of 1,700 cones; one 90-year-old tree
had 1,160 cones, to be classed as a fair crop; and the best young trees had good crops
of 1,800 cones on a 50-year-old individual and 1,060 cones on a 40-year-old tree. Sixty-
five of a total of eighty-four Douglas fir trees bore cones in 1949, of which twenty had
fair crops. The same number of trees had fair and good crops in 1948, but few trees
bear in successive years.   The exceptions to this rule were two thrifty 80-year-old trees MM 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
which had fair crops each season. Grand fir had a slightly lighter crop than in 1948,
and half of the observation trees had fair to good crops. In the last fifteen years there
have been six years when half of the trees of this species bore fair or better crops.
The trees representing Grand fir and Western white pine are in the 90-year age-class.
By contrast to the Grand fir, the white pines had no crop in 1949 and, over the same
period of observation, on no occasion have half of the trees borne a fair or better crop.
In order to determine more definitely the monthly distributions of seedfall for the
Coastal conifers, a study was made at the Cowichan Lake Station of the dissemination
from a moderately good cone crop in 1948. A systematic pattern of twenty-four seed-
traps (0.006 acre) was established in the central third of a 1-acre plot. The sample
acre was about 1 chain inside the margin of a stand adjoining a clear-cutting made
twenty years ago. Within the plot were eighty-nine trees, situated not farther than a
half-chain on north and south sides and 1 chain on east and west sides from the traps.
Sixty-six were potential seed-trees and twenty-one bore cones in 1948. Douglas fir
ranged in size from 20 to 62 inches D.B.H., and cone-crops increased with diameter.
Hemlock was small, with diameters from 12 to 18 inches. Western red cedar trees
were 31 to 71 inches D.B.H., and Grand fir (Abies grandis Lindley) 15 to 42 inches.
Probably contributing to the seed collected on the plot are two 400-year-old Douglas firs
near the boundaries; one is 64 inches D.B.H., 214 feet high, and bore 15,000 cones in
1948.   Details of the cone-crop on the plot follow:—
Species.
Number
of Trees.
Type of Cone-crop.
Excellent.
Good.
Fair.
Poor.
7
42
5
12
1
2
1
1
1
3
2
2
6
1
1
5
8
4
4
Totals...
66
1
4
6
10
21
The accompanying graphs, showing the distribution of fall for this crop, indicate
that dispersal was well maintained to the end of December from a start in early September for fir, balsam, and cedar, and late September for hemlock. Strong winds on
eight days in November helped to keep up the rate of fall, despite an exceedingly wet
month with relative humidity not lower than 80 per cent, on twenty days. As would be
expected for a species with deciduous cones, balsam seed fell early in the season and had
all fallen by December in the year of production. Cedar also fell early with 97 per cent,
of viable seedfall in the same four-month period, compared to 75 per cent, for fir and
the much slower dispersal of 43 per cent, for hemlock. Hemlock increased its rate of
fall in March, and in April dissemination was at the same rate as in December. It will
be noted that, despite a delay of one month in release of seed, cedar follows a similar
course to balsam in making a rapid dispersal of the crop. The large fir-trees outside
the plot must have had a considerable influence on seed-catch, as the catch of 380,000
per acre for fir is better than indicated by the cone-crop. The trap catches of 600,000
hemlock per acre and 6,100,000 cedar per acre roughly reflect the respective cone-crops.
Apparently about 280,000 seeds to the acre of balsam can be expected from a fair cone-
crop on these trees. Repetition of the experiment coincident with a good crop is
needed. The same balsam-trees bore a light cone-crop in 1949. In following the
course of seedfall in September by collections at intervals of four days, it was noted
that seed-catch was extremely uniform at 1,200 per acre per day from the beginning,
except for one period from September 4th to 8th when the rate increased to 4,750 per
acre per day. Prior to the latter date the weather had been clear and calm for two
weeks, with maximum temperatures between 80° F. and 89° F., but the sudden burst REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949.
MM 27
DEC. MAR.        APR.       MAY
PERIOD   OF  SEEDFALL
JUNE       JULY MM 28 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
of seed-dispersal came when the relative humidity dropped to 20 per cent, on September
5th and 6th.
Further direct-seeding studies were carried out in an attempt to find some repellent
substance which could be applied to Douglas fir seed for protection against Peromyscus,
the deer-mouse. No completely effective substance has yet been found, and it is now
intended to follow up some of the more recently developed control measures found satisfactory in Oregon and Washington. Through the courtesy of the United States Fish
and Wildlife Service, it was possible to obtain first-hand information on these control
measures from Mr. A. W. Moore, who has been working on similar rodent problems
for some time. A brief life-history study of the deer-mouse has been completed
recently and will be published. Participation in the North American Census of Small
Mammals, which is organized by the Johns Hopkins University, has been continued on
a larger scale, and results obtained to date have been published in the. annual report of
the project. The Research Council of British Columbia is also investigating methods
for protecting seeds against the deer-mouse, and live trapping was carried out at
different periods in order to supply them with live mice for some of their tests.
In 1929 an experimental forest of 476 acres was established at Cowichan Lake.
From time to time, adjacent parcels of Crown land have been added to the reserve,
and the total area is now 800 acres. It has become desirable, first, to integrate these
several units into one forest and, second, to manage the forest under the guidance of
a new working plan embracing the entire area. This plan is presently under preparation, with its primary aim the best utilization of the forest's resources for silvicultural
work of an experimental or demonstration nature. Existing information, supplemented by a 20-per-cent. cruise this summer, has provided the basic data necessary,
not only for the compilation of an up-to-date forest inventory but for the production
of detailed topographic, forest-cover, soil, and vegetation site-type maps. The area has
been divided into a new series of compartments, and proposals for future management
will be forthcoming shortly.
Undoubtedly the outstanding event in forest research during the year was the
reopening of the Aleza Lake Experiment Station coincident with the appointment of
a resident research forester. The reserve comprises nearly 28 square miles of virgin
spruce-balsam. Merchantable volumes average between 12,000 and 15,000 board-feet
per acre, and the stands are characterized by semi-all-sized distribution. Management
is complicated by two major factors—the slow establishment of spruce reproduction
and the incidence of butt-rot in the older trees. The long-term objective will be conversion to a true selection forest but, over the next decade, pertinent results should be
forthcoming from on-the-ground demonstrations of a utilization which will be a compromise between the best silviculture and the practicality of logging methods now in
use in the region.
During the past summer, trails were renewed, 19 miles of transit base-lines were
cut out, and a 5-per-cent. cruise made of the reserve for the purpose of drawing up a
preliminary working-plan. Seventeen miles of level-lines tied into prominent topographic features were run to develop comprehensive ground control for a 20-foot-
interval, aerial-photo, topographic map. A party of four men made a four-week study
of the residual stands following tree-length logging.
A modern residence for the research forester has been constructed on a newly
established Forest Service building-site overlooking Aleza Lake. This residence forms
part of a group of buildings which combine the requirements of the District Ranger
and permanent housing for the forester.
Mensuration.
The programme of re-examination of permanent growth-study plots was maintained with the remeasurement of twenty-five standard plots.   One party in the field REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949. MM 29
for three months established 140 line plots in nine series of the upper slope and plateau
types east of Vernon and Kelowna.
Volume Tables.
During the year the following new site-class volume tables based on cubic feet
were prepared: Lodgepole pine, yellow pine, and Western larch. Additional tables
prepared were standard D.B.H.-total height table for Western white pine and Western
larch. The following tables were also prepared, based on board-feet: Site-class volume
table for lodgepole pine, Western white pine, yellow pine, Sitka spruce, Interior spruce,
and Interior balsam. Site-class tables in board-feet and cubic feet are now completed
for our mature commercial conifers.
Growth Studies.
An analysis of the data from permanent plots on the Coast and the Interior is
being continued. The preparation of a yield table for Douglas fir based on vegetative
site types has been started. Yield tables for hemlock and mixed Douglas fir-hemlock
types will be completed next year.   Volume tables for these types will also be prepared.
The following data were derived from the growth-and-yield permanent plots
established in 1949:— MM 30
DEPARTMENT
OF
LANDS AND FORESTS.
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_J REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949. MM 31
Lodgepole pine makes up 20 per cent, of the merchantable timber in board-feet,
B.C. Log Rule, and a larger percentage by cubic feet, of the Okanagan Drainage. It
ranks next to Douglas fir in abundance. The very extensive stands on the plateaux
above 4,000 feet elevation are well stocked. The plots 100 years and older, laid out to
give average stocking, have volumes equal to or greater than the yield tables. The
merchantable mean annual increment in cubic feet is pleasingly high. The lower
stocking of the 51-year-old stand may be partially due to a serious perennial canker
prevalent on 25 per cent, of the trees. The present increase in diameter in the
100-year-old stand is very slow and height-growth is rapidly falling off. This table
shows that these stands range from 3 to 14 inches D.B.H. at 100 years, and better than
80 per cent, of the total volume of wood is merchantable, allowing for a 1-foot stump
and utilizing trees to a 4-inch top.    Logs cut from these stands will be small.
A lodgepole pine along the Hope-Princeton Highway required forty-five years to
grow 1.6 inches in diameter breast height before release and increased 3.1 inches in
diameter in the last thirteen years. This indicates that, under favourable conditions,
lodgepole pine will respond to intermediate cuttings. The object should be to have the
potential wood production put on the fewest number of trees that will utilize the soil
nutrients and moisture fully so as to obtain the largest-sized trees and, at the same
time, utilize wood which is now lost through mortality. The upper limits of the range
in diameters—namely, 14 inches at 100 years—may not be increased, but the lower
limits can be moved up and larger average logs produced.
The upper sidehill Douglas fir-larch-lodgepole pine types are producing good yields.
A large percentage of the larch, even in the 70-year-old stands, is badly infected with
heart-rot. This is an abnormal condition for other species of this age. The Douglas
fir and lodgepole pine associates appear sound. This type at present is being used for
lumber and ties.
A plantation of Norway spruce established in May, 1939, has been reserved as a
permanent plot. A check-plot occupied by indigenous spruce was established in the
vicinity. During the last eight years the average dominant Norway spruce grew 7.7
feet, compared with 4.4 feet for the native spruce on the check-plot.
The number of years to grow to height of ring-count was determined for the
lodgepole pine-spruce plots. The study was made on a seedling stand following fire.
The largest lodgepole pine or spruce on each block of 0.005 acre was felled and the
height-growth determined. Lodgepole pine required 3.2 years to grow 1 foot with a
standard deviation for individual trees of 0.81 year. It required 8.7 years to grow
4.5 feet with a standard deviation of 1.00 year. The number of samples required for
a given precision varies with the standard deviation. It would require fewer trees
when counts were made at 1 foot than at 4.5 feet. Spruce required 4.4 years to reach
1 foot in height with a standard deviation of 1.14 years, compared with 13.0 years to
reach 4.5 feet with a standard deviation of 1.92 years. It requires about three times
the number of trees to obtain the same precision when ring-counts are made at breast
height compared with stump height. Other studies with Douglas fir, Sitka spruce,
and hemlock showed less variation at 1 foot than at 4.5 feet. For this reason all
counts should be made at 1 foot where possible. Boring trees below 1-foot height is
seldom practical. A further analysis of age data indicated that sufficient ring-counts
should be made at 1 foot to give a standard error of the mean of one year instead of
two years which was the previous standard.
The volumes of permanent plots are determined from total height curves and
D.B.H.-total height volume tables. An analysis of the variation between height curves
prepared by freehand method and by the formula H=a-\-bD—cD2 is being studied.
In the above formula a, b, and c are constants determined from the sample of D.B.H.-
height measurements and D is the diameter at breast height. The analysis is not
complete but the study indicates that, for extensive work such as the preparation of MM 32 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
height curves for temporary plots, height curves for cruising, and long-term calculations for permanent plots, the curves calculated by formula are satisfactory; but, for
determining periodic growth over relatively short periods, well-balanced freehand
curves are preferable because a difference of even 1 foot in a curve where the periodic
growth is 8 feet in five years will make a difference of at least 12 per cent, in volume.
The most precise means of determining volume in permanent plots would be based
partially on the height of every tree. The degree of sampling necessary for high
precision is being investigated.
An analysis of the relative accuracy of cruise data by 2-inch, 4-inch, 6-inch, and
8-inch diameter classes indicates that, for the spruce-balsam type, 4-inch diameter
classes give a satisfactory result. A full discussion of this subject is being prepared
in the form of a research note to be published in due course. There is also in progress
an analysis of the variation in total cubic volume per acre in the uneven-aged spruce-
balsam types to ascertain the intensity of examination necessary to estimate total
volume of stand within prescribed limits of error. For example, a 1-per-cent. cruise
of a 3,000-acre type or a 5-per-cent. cruise of a 600-acre type gives a result within an
error of 10 per cent.
Annual growth percentage is usually based on changes in basal area, height, and
form. The change in basal area is most important, and this is usually determined from
the D.B.H. and number of rings in the last inch of radius. Owing to irregularities of
growth this number varies with different positions around the bole of the tree at
breast height.
An analysis of two borings on each of 255 hemlock, 314 balsam, and 299 spruce'
gave an average difference, disregarding sizes for individual trees, of 25, 25, and 37 per
cent, respectively for the different species. This variation indicates that several borings on a tree are necessary to determine the average growth in radius within reasonable limits. The same principles apply where precise measurements are being made
for weekly or monthly periods. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949.
MM 33
PRELIMINARY SITE-CLASS TABLE—MATURE WESTERN LARCH   (LARIX OCCIDENTAL1S).
(Gross Merchantable Cubic Feet.)
Site Index.
Top
D.I.B.
40.
60.
80.
100.
120.
D.B.H.
Average Maximum Height.
Number
of
Trees.
68.
95.
120.
145.
170.
Total
Height.
Volume.
Total
Height.
Volume.
Total
Height.
Volume.
Total
Height.
Volume.
Total
Height.
Volume.
8
4.1
5.5
0.9
8.2
9.6
5.7
5
10
8.5
11.2
14
10
19
0.0
5
12
14
10
23
26
30
0.3
5
14
21
28
34
.
3S
43
0.6
5
16
62
20
38
45
52
60
6.9
5
18
06
38
48
GO
69
81
7.2
0
20
68
40
63
76
88
104
7.5
5
22
68
50
01
78
95
110
127
7.8
5
24
68
70
04
95
115
134
155
8.1
5
20
68
82
95
112
1 16
137
100
185
8.4
5
28
6S
05
129
118
160
187
218
8.7
5
30
95
146
120
1S4
140
215
254
9.0
0
32
95
164
120
208
142
242
165
291
9.3
5
34
95
184
120
232
144
275
167
328
9.6
5
36
05
203
120
257
145
310
167
305
9.9
5
38
120
283
145
344
168
405
10.2
6
40
120
310
145
377
168
450
10.5
2
42
120
338
145
410
169
492
10.8
o
44
145
444
169
538
11.1
4
46
145
4 79
109
584
11.4
1
4S
145
515
170
625
11.7
0
50
145
553
170
070
12.0
0
52
145
592
170
715
12.3
3
54
145
033
170
700
12.6
2
50
145
674
170
810
12.9
0
Volume in cubic feet, allowing for 2-foot stump and top D.I.B.'s shown. Heights based on all available data
from cruises by Forest Service prior to 1949. Site index based on report by Cummings Northern Rocky Mountain
Experiment Station, U.S.F.S. Volumes based on measurements made by unknown personnel of B.C.F.S. and C.P.R.
Figures in bold-face type mark maximum heights for site class found in basic data. No site 40 occurred in basic
data.    1949. MM 34
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
PRELIMINARY SITE-CLASS TABLE—MATURE LODGEPOLE PINE  (PINUS MURRAY AN A).
(Gross Merchantable Cubic Feet.)
Site Index.
D.B.H.
40.
50.
60.
70.
80.
90.
Total
Height.
Volume.
Total
Height.
Volume.
Total
Height.
Volume.
Total
Height.
Volume.
Total
Height.
Volume.
Total
Height.
Volume.
6
48
4.5
53
5.0
59
5.6
64
6.1
8
54
9.3
61
10.5
68
11.8
74
12.8
80
13.9
10
56
14.8
66
17.5
75
20.0
83
22.2
90
24.1
97
25.9
12
66
20.6
69
25.6
80
29.8
89
33.2
98
36.6
106
39.6
14
56
26.9
69
33.5
82
40.0
93
45.5
104
51.0
114
56.0
16
69
41.6
82
49.7
96
58.4
108
65.9
120
73.3
18
82
57.8
96
67.9
110
78.1
123
87.5
20
96
75.1
111
87.2
125
98.5
22
111
93.9
126
106.9
24
126
114.0
Gross volumes—no deductions, for defect.
Merchantable cubic feet—1-foot stump to a top D.I.B. of 3 inches.
Site index—average height of dominant and co-dominant trees at 80 years.
PRELIMINARY SITE-CLASS TABLE—MATURE WESTERN WHITE PINE   (PINUS MONTICOLA).
(Gross Merchantable Cubic Feet.)
Site Index at 100 Years.
70.
80.
90.
100.
110.
120.
130.
140.
D.B.H.
D.B.H.
Average Maximum Height.
97.
111.
125.
139.
153.
167.
180.
194.
S
7.54
7.64
7.65
7.65
7.05
7.05
7.70
7.76
8
10
15.6
16.0
16.2
16.4
10.4
10.0
16.6
16.7
10
12
24.6
25.8
26.1
26.8
27.0
27.2
27.4
27.0
12
14
35.8
37.8
38.6
39.8
40.2
41.0
41.4
42.0
14
IC
47.7
51.2
53.3
55.3
56.4
57.9
58.4
59.3
16
18
60.5
66.1
70.5
73.6
75.G
77.5
78.7
80.0
18
20
73.2
82.2
88.3
93.6
90.5
99.5
101
103
20
22
85.9
98.2
107
114
119
123
127
130
22
24
99.4
114
127
137
143
150
154
158
24
20
130
146
160
169
178
184
189
26
28
165
183
196
207
215
222
28
30
1S5
206
224
238
249
258
30
32
229
252
271
284
295
32
34
281
305
321
338
34
36
310
339
359
380
30
38
340
372
397
423
38
40
406
435
466
40
42
473
508
42
44
511
551
44
40
550
594
46
48
038
48
50
085
50
Gross merchantable volumes in cubic feet; 2-foot stump; top D.I.B._=4.5+0.15 D.B.H., O.B. No allowance for
defect or breakage. Diameters at which average maximum heights occur are in bold-face type. Average site index
for Interior stands, 100 feet at 100 years. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949. MM 35
PERMANENT STUDY-PLOTS ESTABLISHED AND IN USE AS AT DECEMBER 31st, 1949.
Number of Plots.
Description of Project. Proj-
Growth and yield studies— ecfc-   GP-
Coast forest types   559
Southern Interior types   184
Central Interior types  .  185
  928
Silvicultural studies—
On cut-over land—
Seed dissemination from standing trees  8
Survival of seed-trees   4
Artificial seeding  5
Growth of exotic trees  2
Competition between broom and Douglas fir  1
In young stands—■
Thinnings   10
Prunings  7
Christmas-tree cuttings   1
In mature stands—
Selective cutting   4
Slash-disposal methods   6
     48
Total number of plots  976
Regional studies— Number of
Natural regeneration in representative districts— Plots. Acres.
Alberni, Vancouver Island  1,200 4.8
Cowichan Lake, Vancouver Island      600 6.0
Alouette Lake, Fraser Valley      500 5.0
Cumshewa Lake, Queen Charlotte Islands        80 0.1
Totals  2,380 15.9 MM 36
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
REFORESTATION.
FOREST NURSERIES.
Weather conditions, which play such an important part in the production of planting stock, were directly responsible for heavy losses in our forest nurseries during the
winter of 1948-49. Extending over a period of three months, temperatures were the
lowest on record, and the resulting frost damage was most severe. Precipitation
during the year was 10 inches below the ten-year average, but this did not materially
affect seedling production.
High-pressure blow-torch burning off weeds.
Seed-beds were sown to produce 10,000,000 trees in the spring of 1951.
Experimental work on soil-fertility was continued, and details are given in the Economics Section of this Report under " Nursery Fertility Studies." The pathological
and entomological services of the Dominion Government also continued their work with
damping-off fungus at Duncan and the white-grub problem at Campbell River.
Experimental sowing of hemlock seed was continued, but it will be several years
before a definite technique has been established for this species.
At Green Timbers 3,035,500 trees were shipped to spring planting projects and
an additional 3,000,000 will be available for planting in 1950. Frost-heaving was so
severe in the 1-0 stock that root-pruning was impossible, and the seedlings were left iPPiilP^^SllliifllSPI
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949. MM  37
undisturbed. Four hundred seed-beds were sown to produce 4,000,000 trees in the
spring of 1951. A conveyer-belt has been installed, to be used for sorting and counting
the trees for shipping to the various planting projects. This is expected to improve the
planting stock by establishing greater control over the culling of seedlings. Plantations adjoining the nursery were pruned to a height of 7 feet and bushed out, adding
a great deal to the general appearance of the station.
At Campbell River 3,990,000 trees were shipped to planting projects in that area,
and 3,500,000 seedlings will be available for planting in the spring of 1950. The white-
grub infestation is still a serious problem at "this nursery, and it will not be known for
some time if the chemical controls attempted have been effective.
At Duncan 1,206,000 trees were shipped to the spring planting projects in the
Cowichan Valley. One project planted 490,000 trees in the fall, which brings the
total seedlings lifted at the nursery to 1,696,000. An experiment to induce earlier
hardening-off of the planting stock was instituted by root-pruning a few of the seedbeds in July and August. The earlier pruning gave good results, with no apparent ill
effects to the trees. This experiment will be continued on a larger scale this year and,
if successful, it should increase the survival of planting stock in the field.
In the East Kootenay a few seed-beds were sown near Elko to yellow pine, Douglas
fir, and white spruce on an experimental basis. The yellow-pine seed from three separate localities was sown and covered with sand and (or) soil. Germination was
excellent in some beds, and growth through the summer was up to expectations.
SEED COLLECTIONS.
The cone-crop was practically a complete failure in 1949, except for a small area
north of Campbell River where some 200 bushels of Douglas fir were collected for
experimental work. Several pounds of Western-red-cedar seed were again collected by
shaking trees. The nurseries continue to operate on seed collected during the bumper-
crop year of 1945.
RECONNAISSANCE AND SURVEY WORK.
Only one reconnaissance was carried out in 1949 over a logged and burned area
of 2,400 acres. Survey work consisted mainly of re-examining and preparing new maps
for some 14,000 acres of logged and burned land.
PLANTING.
Heavy snow and a late spring again prevented planting until the latter part of
March. The last project completed its quota on May 6th, which is five weeks later than
in a normal year. Some 390 acres of Douglas fir were planted at Tahsis, on the West
Coast of Vancouver Island, in a logged-off valley which had been burned the previous
summer. This was done to ascertain whether Douglas-fir seedlings could compete with
the rapidly growing brush which ordinarily takes over the better sites on the West
Coast after logging.
The turn-over of planters was rapid at the beginning of the season, but a nucleus
of steady men was built up after the first few weeks and most of these remained until
planting was completed.
The spring planting programme was carried on from eight camps which planted
6,933,800 trees on 7,785 acres. One project operated during the fall, planting 490,000
trees, at an elevation of approximately 3,000 feet, before being stopped by snow at the
end of November. Logging companies reforested another 1,010 acres of their logged-
off lands with 855,000 trees.
One plantation suffered from fire damage over an area of 19 acres, bringing the
total acreage destroyed by fire to date to 640 acres, which is still well under 1 per cent.
of the total area planted. (See page 104 of Appendix for statistics of planting over the
last ten years.) MM 38
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
PREPARATION OF PLANTING AREAS.
During the year, approximately 100 men were employed at eight projects on
snag-falling and road-construction. To make the planting areas accessible, 4.5 miles
of new road were constructed and 37 miles of old logging-railroad grade were converted
to truck-trails.    In addition, 160 miles of forest roads were maintained.
The felling of snags on and adjacent to plantable areas was carried on by hand
sets and one power-saw contractor. During the year 170,000 snags were felled on
12,500 acres.
Root-pruner with blade in " ud " position.
PLANTATIONS.
Survival examinations were made in the 1946 and 1948 plantations, and plots were
established in the 1949 planting. This required 140 man-days of work by experienced
personnel. Due to the lack of labour for planting in 1945, it was necessary to hold
stock over in the nurseries for the next two years. The 3-year-old seedlings planted
in 1946 suffered from six weeks of severe drought, and-the average survival, three
years after planting, was 63.3 per cent. Similar stock planted in 1947 was favoured
by a more-or-less normal spring, and the indicated survival after three years is 72.5
per cent., only 2.5 per cent, lower than the average for all plantations to date. In 1948
the normal use of 2-year-old stock was resumed. The planting season was followed by
a very wet spring, and survival after one year averaged 83.9 per cent., which is well
above the average for 2-year-old seedlings. Browsing of seedlings by grouse and deer
soon after planting showed a very noticeable decrease during 1949. J^^^^-^-^^pPlfSslilllr
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949. MM 39
PARKS AND RECREATION.
INTRODUCTION.
For many years the emphasis on forest use in British Columbia was symbolized by
the logging camp and sawmill. Gradually, the aspects of forest protection, reforestation, silviculture, and management were introduced to the public. But participation or
interest in these various phases of forestry touched intimately only a relatively small
proportion of residents and visitors. In contrast, forest recreation, a still more recent
aspect, was quick to catch public attention. The importance of this activity was greatly
accelerated by improved access and accommodation facilities for a rapidly increasing
number of forest resorts. More leisure time and an awakening of public consciousness
to aesthetic and conservation values were other important factors. The drawing power
of unspoiled lakes and mountains, and of fish and wild life in relation to the valuable
tourist industry, come clearly into focus as a major item to be protected to ensure a
promising future.
ADMINISTRATION AND DEVELOPMENT.
Administration.
Increased public interest in parks and forests, coupled with the various projects it
has been possible to undertake, has forced a rapid expansion in office and field personnel.
The organization of this personnel is complicated by the specialization required on a
variety of projects, thus necessitating close supervision. The training of men to
assume positions as recreational officers in the Vancouver, Kamloops, and Nelson Forest
Districts will materially ease administration problems. The urgency with which facilities are required in Manning and Mount Seymour Parks to serve the great number of
visitors brought in through recent highway-construction has led to an accelerated pace
in design and development work.
Development.
Although, in comparison to previous years, a considerable sum of money was
available for development work, it was only possible to utilize it on a relatively small
number of urgent and costly projects. This resulted in work being concentrated in the
same six widely separated areas as the previous year.
Little Qualicum Falls Park.
Construction of the park-entrance road begun the previous year was completed
during the early part of 1949. This involved the moving of approximately 5,000 cubic
yards of material to prepare a subgrade and the hauling of 1,000 cubic yards of crushed
gravel for surfacing. During the latter part of July, a 2-inch-thick and 20-foot-wide
asphalt surface was laid over this road. A parking-lot 100 by 200 feet was also hard-
surfaced. A water system was constructed and put in operation. This project required
approximately 600 cubic yards of excavation and the placement of approximately 50
cubic yards of reinforced concrete, together with the installation of 3,000 feet of 3-inch
wooden pipe and 2,000 feet of galvanized pipe. Construction of the toilet building,
with septic tank and disposal pit, required 175 cubic yards of excavation and placement
of 25 cubic yards of concrete.
Peace Arch Park.
The much needed facilities of a kitchen-dining building and comfort-station were
provided in 1949. Completion of these buildings has resulted in an appreciable increase
in the number of park visitors. Approximately 13,000 signed the visitors' register
during the period of May 23rd to October 31st, and more than a million persons passed
through on the main highway.   Landscaping was carried out to enhance the setting of MM 40
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Fishing resorts benefit by aesthetic appeal.
t.
k
Provincial parks and forests are rich
in wild life.
Visitors enjoy the lakes and forests. <-}■ .     .....!.1'...J
REPORT OF FOREST  SERVICE, 1949. MM 41
the new buildings and to create pleasant glades for outdoor picnicking. Almost 1 acre
of ground has been turned into a conveniently located parking area. As in past years,
the planting of some 13,000 annual flowers kept the park colourful during the summer
months. Some planting material was provided for the Langford workshop and the
Forest Ranger school at Green Timbers.
Manning Park.
During the summer of 1949 more improvements were undertaken than the total in
all previous years. Even this amount of work will barely meet the basic requirements
of the visiting public. Although all major buildings were constructed by contract, there
were time-consuming phases in their erection that were undertaken by the Forest
Service. These involved the clearing of land; excavation of basements, septic tanks,
and sump holes; supply of building-gravel; back-filling and grading. Approximately
11 acres were cleared, and excavations were dug for three large buildings. Six hundred
and twenty cubic yards of washed gravel were delivered to the various building-sites.
Topsoil was hauled and rock walls constructed in the initial landscaping. The installation of a light and water service to the administration, service, and concession areas
was completed.
Trail and road work undertaken totalled 5.1 miles. In connection with this, repairs
were made to trails and one heavy-duty bridge was built on the Lightning Lakes
jeep-road.
Mount Seymour Park.
In 1948 the first 3.88 miles of the Mount Seymour Highway were completed to the
" Upper Parking-lot." In May, 1949, a contract was let for 2.42 miles to the " Water
Hole," and this was further extended by 1.51 miles in August. This brought the entire
road under contract, which, when completed, will give access to the park's " mountain-
top " attractions. Provision for parking has been made by the location of parking areas
both at key view points and near centres of main recreational activity. The administration and service area at the start of the highway was improved by the clearing of 1
acre for the service area and 0.26 acre at the administration building. A 3-inch wooden
water-main, 2,500 feet long, now hooks up the administration building and service area
to the city water system, although a booster pump had to be installed to step up the
pressure. The main improvement to ski-ing facilities was in the clearing of 3% acres
in front of the proposed ski-lodge site. An 800-foot-long ski tow is planned for this
area. Logs from the clearing were cut for fuel-wood and the slash carefully burned.
Approximately twenty-five park-use permits were issued in the year, and about forty
cabins were completed in the cabin area. Accommodation for the first-aid ski patrol
was furnished through the erection of a Quonset hut near the ski camp. As in the
past, spraying of creeks and lakes with DDT was attended to and further improvement
noted in the control of biting insects.
Wells Gray Park.
This vast park dwarfs any efforts undertaken either to protect it or make it more
convenient to visit. However, work along these lines has proceeded during the past
few years and now a new phase appears imminent in the providing of administration
facilities and accommodation for visitors. The main project was the replacing of a
bridge across the Murtle River. A crew of men was secured locally and construction
commenced in July.   About 600 man-days were expended on the project.
Langford Workshop.
A drying-shed, measuring 20 by 54 feet, was added to the workshop, and workshop
personnel completed the finishing of the workshop proper and installed necessary wood- MM 42 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
working machinery. During the summer two large entrance signs were designed and
built for MacMillan Park. Other signs were planned for Manning Park. Five picnic
tables were placed in Little Qualicum Falls Park, and a number of others are under
construction. Two additions to the workshop staff will enable construction of an
increased number of tables and signs, as well as unique carvings for fireplace plaques,
signs, and furniture.
Maintenance.
The five heavily used parks on Vancouver Island were staffed by park attendants
supervised by a parks officer. The attendants were kept busy on day-to-day maintenance, which causes work on large projects to be deferred. In order to deal with these,
a small mobile crew is being employed during the winter months. Maintenance work
on the many miles of trail in Wells Gray Park was supervised by the Park Ranger. In
Tweedsmuir Park, a small trail crew spent several months in repairing the trail from
near Stuie Lodge to Tanya Lakes, a distance of approximately 50 miles. This is the
first maintenance work done on this trail since it was built over ten years ago. The
emphasis in Manning Park was on new trail construction rather than the repairing of
old trails. In Mount Seymour Park the main trail required a major share of time to
keep a route open to the upper park area. That section of the park road already
constructed is being maintained and kept open for both summer and winter traffic.
Another item requiring annual attention is the provision of fuel-wood for various
buildings. In all, over 60 cords of wood were cut during the summer. The intensive
maintenance programme required at Peace Arch Park was alleviated by the purchase
of a Gravely garden-type tractor with a 72-inch-wide grass-cutting unit and a 72-inch-
wide gang-disk spiker.
RECONNAISSANCE AND INVENTORY.
General.
This work has continued unabated throughout the year, but there is a tremendous
amount of work still required before the objective of a well-balanced Provincial park
system is achieved. Due to the increased number of areas being proposed for recreational purposes, much time has been spent appraising and classifying them. It is also
becoming increasingly necessary to appraise the recreational values in relation to other
resources and land uses in order to reduce future conflicts of interest as much as possible. These two factors—number of areas to be studied and the degree of appraisal—
are at present taking the greatest amount of this Section's time. Because much of the
appraisal depends on local and regional factors, a definite attempt is being made to visit
and understand the recreational potential and requirements of each district. Contacts
with Forest Service district officers, Rangers, and Land Inspectors are gradually
tending toward a uniform appreciation of our park standards and requirements. Thus,
much of the preliminary appraisal is being done by men in the field best acquainted
with local and regional conditions.
RECONNAISSANCE.
During the year some seventy-five reserves or proposed reserves were examined
and classified. The greatest number of these were areas readily accessible from major
highways. They were given priority because of the increasing need for some type of
picnic, camp-site, and lookout points along or near our main highways. Among the
more important projects were the following:—
(1) The study of effects of logging along the road to Loon Lake, near Clinton.
(2) A check on the winter-sport potential of Silver Star Park.
(3) A study of the effects of flooding, by the United States Libby Dam
project, on the recreational values in the Lower Kootenay River. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949.
MM 43
(4) A reconnaissance of a potential winter-sport and summer-use area on
Mount Brenton, located on Southern Vancouver Island.
(5) An appraisal of the park potential of Hudson Bay Mountain near
Smithers.
(6) Completion of the survey of Strathcona Park and the Forbidden Plateau
with a view to revising the boundaries to obtain a better recreational
unit and reduce conflict, especially with timber utilization.
Inventory.
Except for a general inventory of resources necessary for the appraisal of proposed
parks or reserves, no complete inventory of our parks has been made to date. A start
has been made in Strathcona and Manning Parks in connection with boundary revisions. In both these areas Forest Survey inventories have not been completed as yet
but are gradually being compiled.
The over-all park inventory stands as follows :■—
General Summary of Parks (as of December 31st, 19b-9).
Class of Park.
A	
B	
C	
Number.
_ 22
..._    5
_ 29
Special     3
Totals_.
59
Acreage.
290,863.68
7,054,846.00
4,004.445
1,656,455.00
9,006,209.125
New Parks.
Parks formed during the year 1949 are as follows:-
Name.
Created.
Acres.
Class.
Vicinity.
Forest
District.
6/5/49
7/4/49
35.00
49.73
"C"
"A"
Saltspring1 Island
Ladysmith
Decreases in Acreage.
Cancelled: Liard River Special Park of 1,802,240 acres.
Increases in Acreage.
Wells Gray Park, Class " B," increased by 160 acres to 1,164,960 acres.
PLANNING.
General.
The lack of trained personnel greatly limited the amount of planning that should
be done to pave the way for engineering and development programmes. For this
reason, attention could only be given to the more pressing problems.
Two survey crews were engaged in planning work during the summer. One,
composed of three university students and a cook, worked in Wells Gray Park, while
the other, made up of three forest engineering graduates, examined the Sayward
Provincial Forest and recreational problems in both the Kamloops and Nelson Forest
Districts. Further to this, a report on cost estimates for aesthetic improvements to
the John Hart Dam and townsite development was prepared at the request of the
British Columbia Power Commission. MM 44 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Wells Gray Park.
With the help of the Park Ranger, an investigation was made in the Hemp Creek
area to determine park boundaries on the ground and to recommend the most suitable
location for a park entrance and Ranger station.
Considerable time was spent in the key areas near Dawson and Helmcken Falls.
At both falls a large-scale topographic map was made to guide parking, picnic, and
camp-ground planning. Particular attention was given to locating and designing protective measures for view points facing these outstanding attractions.
A preliminary road location-line was surveyed to Helmcken Falls and showed that
only 2.7 miles of road would be required to make these spectacular falls accessible to
motor traffic.
In an attempt to find a suitable route between Dawson Falls and Murtle Lake, a
difficult reconnaissance was made along the north bank of the Murtle River. This
revealed that a portion of the route was feasible but that the remaining portion would
be extremely costly to construct. Because the value of this trail depends so much on
its possible correlation to a fire-protection plan, no definite recommendations have been
made until all aspects are investigated.
The trail between Dawson Falls and Clearwater Lake was examined for possible
relocations, but no major changes were recommended.
In the important Clearwater Lake region, where a great deal of park use will be
concentrated, a detailed topographic map was compiled, with suggestions for the location of a lodge, landing-floats, camp-ground, and pasture. Further to this, two areas
were mapped on the west side of Clearwater Lake in a region favoured by aeroplane
visitors and also used as a hunting and fishing camp-site.
A general reconnaissance of Murtle, Azure, and Mahood Lakes was facilitated by
the co-operation of the Kamloops District office in moving the survey party by aeroplane.
Sayward Forest.
The recreational survey, so obviously required, was carried out in May and June.
This survey has attempted to correlate recreational activities with other important
land values and plan accordingly for developments most urgently needed. Such integration of land use is especially important in the Sayward Forest, where a multiplicity
of purposes occur. Logging, reforestation, management licences, forest protection,
hydro-electric power development, wild-life management, and trapping—together with
existing tourist businesses and permit holdings—all call for consideration in recreational planning.
In the course of the work, at least thirty lakes were examined and information
recorded dealing with the diverse physical features and cover types. Suitable campgrounds, picnic areas, summer-home sites, and centres for commercial establishments
were tentatively selected. Possibilities for view points and features of .esthetic and
educational value were considered. The existing road system and the necessary sign
system, both directional and educational, were studied. Wild life, weather, and general
botanical observations were carried on in the course of the survey. Enough detailed
surveying has been completed to allow a mobile crew to begin improvement work.
On a further project, the party spent a week at Elk Falls Park, where recommendations were made for suitable landscaping to cover the many scars incurred in constructing the John Hart hydro-electric development. This report also included cost
estimates for proposed improvements reported on in 1948.
Kamloops Recreational Survey.
The crew made its headquarters at Kamloops for six weeks while investigating
some of the recreational problems of the forest reserves in the district.    The main REPORT OF FOREST
SERVICE, 1949.
MM 45
1
1
1
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ffA' -
' ■■;   .
' U J itii-^!;- Z-^&t- ■
1
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WATER-STORAGE SHOULD NOT ELIMINATE RECREATION.
Neighbouring lakes in the Kamloops Forest District.
__...__*
VALUABLE RECREATIONAL AREAS BECAUSE OF AN  URGENT NEED
AND ADAPTABLE CONDITIONS.
Potential ski-grounds—Mount Brenton,
near Duncan.
Potential beach and swimming place-
Morton Lake, Sayward Forest.
Defacing of scenic highways
is unnecessary.
Investigation  may lead to a new park.
Hudson Bay Mountain, near Smithers. MM 46 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
problem arose from the flood of applications for fishing camps and summer homes on
widely scattered lakes. The urgency for fishing-camp accommodation highlights the
need for immediate recreational planning. However, it is evident that proper integration of the various forest uses required a recreational master plan for the entire
Kamloops District. A start on such a plan was made in the course of high-priority
investigations.
More than forty lakes were examined in connection with applications for special-
use permits in various forest reserves. Reports on the lakes were as comprehensive as
possible in order to provide information for future, more-detailed planning. The main
factors noted were physical and ecological descriptions of lake and surroundings,
present public and private use, recreational potentiality, fish and game conditions, and
the possible development and status of land in the vicinity.
About one-third of the time was spent in the Nehalliston Forest Reserve. This
forest was recently made more accessible by the completion of a road from Little Fort,
on the North Thompson River, to Bridge Lake, in the Cariboo.
Nelson Recreational Survey.
Following the Kamloops field work, four weeks were spent in the Nelson District
on the reconnaissance and surveying of public reserves and special-use permit areas.
Examinations were as thorough as possible, with a view toward accumulating data
for present and future recreational planning. Eighteen separate areas were visited in
the course of this work.
A general reconnaissance was made of the Kettle River valleys to study their
present and potential recreation values. Suitable areas for public picnic and camp
grounds were examined and recorded. The Champion Lakes Reserve was studied to
determine its potentialities as a multi-use park. This group of three lakes and the
surrounding land were examined in detail, and sufficient information acquired on
topography, cover, and present use to prepare a preliminary development plan. A similar study was made of Jewel Lake, near Greenwood.
Cultus Lake.
The more important areas of this popular holiday centre are being surveyed during
the 1949-50 winter season. The resulting maps will provide the base on which the
location and details of required facilities may be plotted.
ENGINEERING AND ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN.
General.
The problems posed by highway and bridge location and construction, together
with the great amount of surveying and design required in providing services to, and
supervising construction of, numbers of buildings has led to the establishment of an
engineering section.
With park buildings in urgent need at Mount Seymour and Manning Parks, the
preparation of building plans has been an important item in the speed with which
contracts can be let. During the year, plans were prepared for the following buildings
in Manning Park: Concession building, administration building, crew-house, five-car-
garage, and power-house. Buildings designed for Mount Seymour Park comprise an
administration building and a five-car garage. Plans for the completion of the present
Forest Service buildings and alterations to the ski camp were also drawn. In addition,
numerous drawings were required for additions and alterations to the above buildings.
Building plans for a picnic-shelter and comfort-station in Little Qualicum Falls Park
were completed. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949. MM 47
Mo2tnt Seymour Park.
A survey crew of one resident engineer, a civil engineering graduate, several university students, and a cook were located at the lower-camp buildings during the
summer. The work is itemized under the two headings " Surveys " and " Supervision
of Contracts."
Surveys—
(1) Preliminary and final location for Mount Seymour Highway, 1.51 miles.
(2) Residency survey work, 2.42 miles.
(3) Reconstruction of Indian River Drive from 16-foot-wide road to 24-foot-
wide road, 0.37 miles.
(4) Location of access road for service and administration areas.
(5) Investigation of water system for Mount Seymour Park.
(6) Foundation investigation for proposed lodge.
(7) Parking-lot surveys.
Supervision of Contracts—
(1) Contract for highway-construction, 3.93 miles.    Completed to  Station
330-|-00.    Remainder 75 per cent, completed.
(2) Construction of parking areas with accommodation for 400 cars.    WTork
completed.
(3) Indian River Drive reconstruction.    Work completed.
(4) Clearing of service and administration areas with access road.    Work
completed.
(5) Contract for construction of five-car garage and administration building.
Work completed.
(6) Reconstruction of certain sections of road completed in 1948.
(7) Construction of a %-vaile length of 2,300-volt power-line.    Project completed.
Supervision was given a project to install 2,500 feet of 3-inch wood pipe and a
booster pumping-station to supply water to the administration and service areas.
Little Qualicum Falls Park.
In keeping with the present policy of planning development to enable optimum use
of Provincial parks, a water system was designed for Little Qualicum Falls Park to
meet an estimated eventual need of 3,000 gallons per day.
This project entailed the design of permanent casings for two springs, a covered
reinforced-concrete catch-basin, a concrete storage-reservoir of 9,000-gallon capacity,
together with a distribution system 5,000 feet in length.
Varied picnic facilities were planned adjacent to the new parking area in an effort
to protect the scenic background of the falls by removing the heavy use for picnicking
and parking from that vicinity. A group of twelve six-place tables, two fireplaces, and
a faucet-equipped fountain were designed. Three smaller picnic-sites were laid out.
Each unit has a fireplace, convenient water-supply, and a group of from two to four
tables. A 24- by 40-foot stone-and-timber picnic-shelter was designed. A toilet building to accommodate men's and women's rooms was designed for location adjacent to
the picnic and parking areas.
Wells Gray Park.
The replacement of the pack-horse bridge over the Murtle River necessitated the
design of a crossing which would be safe during high-water periods and also meet the
requirements of vehicular traffic should the need arise.
The bridge, designed for a 15-ton load, has a vertical clearance of 13 feet and a
width of 12 feet. The total length is approximately 200 feet, including the approaches.
The south approach bridges a rough, rocky portion of river-bed frequently flooded MM 48
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Carved plaques for fireplaces—concession building, Manning Park.
Administration building, Manning Park. New Murtle River Bridge, Wells Gray Park.
Rotary snowplough for Mount Seymour
Highway.
Difficult highway-construction,
Mount Seymour Park. REPORT OF FOREST  SERVICE, 1949. MM  49
during high water. Here, six spans, each 20 feet in length, were required. The main
span over the river was bridged by a Howe truss, 62 feet 6 inches long, and a connection
made to the north bank by an approach 16 feet long.
In all, eleven bents were framed but, as two of these were placed adjacent to other
bents, only nine concrete footings were required. Twenty-five cubic yards of concrete
were poured to form these footings, which were anchored by bolts to the bedrock.
All timbers, with the exception of decking and railings, were treated with a wood
preservative. Butt joints were tarred, and bearing surfaces protected from rot by a
layer of tar-paper.
Manning Park.
Engineering duties were particularly heavy in this park due to the large number of
projects. These, in turn, were necessitated by the urgent need for administration and
catering facilities occasioned by the opening of the Hope-Princeton Highway.
The engineering projects covered three main phases, namely, surveying, designing,
and supervision of contracts.
Surveys—
(1) Location of dam-site and setting location-line and grade for 3,600 feet of
main water-line for station and concession area supply.
(2) Setting location-line for 1,870 feet of primary and 500 feet of secondary
power-transmission line.
(3) Staking all buildings, service areas, camp roads, and driveways.
(4) Location of 10 per cent, maximum grade of 3%-mile road from highway
to first Lightning Lake.
(5) Preliminary line of 3,600 feet from Lightning Lake camp-site to Frosty
Creek camp-site.
(6) Preliminary line of 2 miles, with maximum grade of 12 per cent., from
Lightning Lakes camp-site along Skyline Trail.
(7) Preliminary line of 51/.! miles, with maximum grade of 12y2 per cent.,
from Ranger station to Blackwall Peak, on proposed jeep and riding trail
to Three Brothers Mountain. Two thousand six hundred feet at the lower
end of this line, plus a 420-foot-long branch, were given final location and
grade as an access road for construction of the dam.
(8) Preliminary line of 4% miles, with maximum grade of 12 per cent., for
jeep and riding trail from Ranger station to Windy Joe Lookout.
(9) Preliminary line of 2% miles, with maximum grade of 12 per cent., from
Station 64 on Windy Joe Trail along ridge toward Mount Frosty.
(10) Preliminary line of 1% miles for riding trail to connect Windy Joe Trail
(Station 17) to Lightning Lakes Road (Cambie Bridge).
Design.—A concrete dam and spillway of gravity section was designed to form a
reservoir of 43,500-gallon capacity in Station Creek and to provide an intake for the
station and concession area water-supply. The water-supply system was also designed.
This consisted of 3,630 feet of 5-inch main with valves, house-service branches, and
fire-hydrants.    This system can be extended as the development of the area progresses.
Supervision of Contracts.—One contract, covering the erection of the park administration building, power-house, five-car garage, and a cafe and dining-room building,
was supervised at all stages and was completed by the end of the year.
A second contract, to build a Forest Service personnel building with accommodation
for twenty-six men, has been supervised to its present stage and is expected to be
finished by mid-February, 1950. MM 50 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
FOREST MANAGEMENT.
The total estimated value of production for the year 1949 amounted to $331,590,000.
This is approximately $30,000,000 less than the total for the previous year, which may
be accounted for by curtailment of log output due to climatic conditions and the
uncertain markets. The total cut for the Province was roughly 4,050,000,000 board-
feet, log scale, being a reduction of some 244,000,000 feet from the previous year. The
reduction was general throughout the entire Province, with the curtailment being somewhat greater in the Coast region.
The statistical tables in the Appendix show the details of management activity, and
the following comments are offered with respect to the various data submitted.
Paper production exceeded 1948 totals, and home manufacture showed a more
favourable balance. Prices remained fairly constant, with the exception of sulphate-
pulp products.
Water-borne lumber shipments increased over the previous year, with the United
States and the Atlantic Coast materially increasing the volume of lumber received.
At the same time, curtailment in the United Kingdom market held the grand total
somewhat below the 1948 volume.
Of the total production, which includes all products, Douglas fir again is the leading
species, being double the volume of hemlock and overtopping cedar by a greater percentage. Spruce and balsam are next in importance, with the spruce output being
about double that of balsam. Larch accounts for 92,000,000 feet, while lodgepole pine
increased to 65,000,000 feet. White pine and yellow pine each accounts for about
40,000,000 feet.    The balance is made up of deciduous species, including cottonwood.
Considering the origin of the forest production, timber sales account for
1,385,000,000 feet out of the 4,000,000,000, while old Crown grants still hold a production figure of about 1,000,000,000 feet. Timber licences are in third place, but show a
reduction from the previous year. Volume production in cubic feet topped 1948 figures
and indicates the factor of closer utilization from logged-over lands through salvage
operations.
Total number of logging inspection reports was maintained on the same level as
the previous year, with timber sales again leading in the type of logging activity.
As previously mentioned, the intensity of supervision over this type of logging falls
short of ideal, due largely to greatly increased activity and limited staff available to
cope with it.
The number of timber trespasses showed a sharp advance and again emphasizes
the necessity for more adequate field inspection.
Pre-emption inspections showed a material increase over the previous year due to
accelerated co-operation through the assistance of Land Inspectors.
Areas examined for miscellaneous purposes under the " Land Act" were but
slightly lower than in 1948 and reflect the continued desire for land use with increasing
population. Here again, assistance secured through the Lands Branch Inspectors
materially facilitated the work.
Total existing timber sales have dropped from the previous 6,500 to 6,200, but the
total number of sales awarded during the year, including cash sales, was on the same
level as the previous year. The total area under sale contract is now over 1,500,000
acres, with guarantee deposits in excess of $2,250,000.
A wide range in stumpage prices bid still prevailed owing to the highly competitive
nature of many of the chances. The weighted average price bid on all species shows a
reduction of about 30 cents from the previous year, the figure for 1949 being $4.05 per
thousand, inclusive of royalty. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949. MM  51
The number of operating sawmills throughout the Province remains identical with
1948, but a larger number of shut-downs both in sawmills and shingle-mills is indicated,
due to restricted marketing conditions prevailing during the last half of the year.
Total log exports show a drop from 1948, the total being 146,000,000 feet as compared with 164,000,000 feet the previous year. As indicated by the record of exports,
the demand for lumber products was fully maintained, assisted by the application of
export quotas under the Federal Timber Control authority. At the same time, 30,000,000
feet out of the 146,000,000 feet originated on Crown grants with the export privilege,
which is about 20 per cent, of the total.
Minor products marketed outside of the Province were valued at $5,500,000, being
about $500,000 in advance of the previous year. The United States market took the
larger proportion of shipments made, and poles and piling account for 67 per cent, of
the total value.
Timber marks and draughting-office work again demanded a high degree of concentration due to the logging activity which prevailed.
SUSTAINED-YIELD MANAGEMENT.
Provision was made in 1947 for the granting of forest management licences to
enable practice of sustained-yield forestry by private industry. Two licences are now
in effect, for one of which the contract was executed during the year. Both licences
are on the Coast. Contracts for an Interior licence (in the Nelson Forest District) are
ready for executing and, in addition, drafts of the applicant's working-plan are now at
hand for two more licences, for which contracts should be executed shortly. In six
other cases, where the application has been approved and a reserve established, working-
plans are in various stages of preparation. In all cases a lengthy study of the individual areas is necessary both on the part of the applicants and the Forest Service, for
which reason some of the earlier applications are just reaching or have yet to reach
the contract stage.
Parallel with private sustained-yield management on an industrial scale is the
development of farmer-forestry and of working-circles for public management. During
the latter part of the year, technical officers were assigned to the Division to provide
for such developments. One officer has been detailed to extension work, with particular
emphasis for the time being on the farm wood-lots provided for in 1948 legislation.
The other will undertake such field surveys as are needed to complete working-plans for
public working-circles. Work has commenced during the year on the Sayward working-
circle, a portion of the Sayward Provincial Forest to be managed on this basis, and will
be extended to other Provincial forests.
FOREST-COVER MAPS.
In the course of the year, 1,253 maps were revised, as follows: Victoria, 325;
district offices, 424; Rangers' offices, 504. Of the above total, 106 are new replacements. New replacements comprise 26 new forest-survey editions distributed to the
three offices concerned and 28 present maps replaced for wear and tear.
Instruction in forest-cover mapping and the organization of maps and plans was
given to 147 Forest Service personnel, at forty-three points throughout the Province,
as follows: Ranger School, Green Timbers, 21; Vancouver Forest District, 16; Prince
Rupert Forest District, 22; Fort George Forest District, 37; Kamloops Forest District,
20;   and Nelson Forest District, 31.
A set of three key maps has been prepared for distribution to all district offices
showing maps available and in the process of being made, as follows: (1) Departmental
reference map series; (2) standard topographic maps; and (3) air-survey interim
maps.   These maps will be periodically returned for revision to Victoria.
16*907 MM  52 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
SILVICULTURAL FUND.
In 1946, legislation was inaugurated to provide funds from Crown timber sold east
of the Cascade Mountains in order that measures could be undertaken to reduce hazards
created by the removal of timber, or to ensure or promote the growth of a second crop,
or to provide silvicultural treatment incident to removing the existing stand. The
funds are derived from the total stumpage collected and are described as the Silvicultural Fund.
In 1948, after sufficient funds had become available, a commencement was made in
the Kamloops and Nelson Forest Districts, with initial action being taken on slash
hazards and sawmill waste from bush mills. The Kamloops District had one crew and
the Nelson District three to carry out project work.
With more funds being available for personnel and equipment in 1949, the four
districts—Prince Rupert, Fort George, Kamloops, and-Nelson—launched projects which
met with considerable success. All districts engaged one crew to carry out the work,
except Nelson which had two. Since the inauguration of these crews, improved
methods have developed in the use of equipment, training in personnel, and supervision
to show improvement from an economical point of view. As many projects require
consideration, a great amount of planning will be necessary in the future, when more
experience is gained, equipment becomes available, and trained personnel are acquired. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949. MM 53
FOREST ACCOUNTS.
Revenue collections, which have been increasing steadily since 1943, reached a
record high of $8,181,860.97 during the calendar year 1949, while charges against
logging operations rose to a record $8,655,568.74.
These increases were reflected in a corresponding increase in the volume of accounting and recording work handled by this Division. The number of accounts issued
during the year was as follows: Scale and royalty, 37,502; stumpage, 5,373; miscellaneous, 1,242;   general, 806;  marking-hammers, 2,350;   and grazing and hay, 1,576.
Receipts issued for collections received totalled 26,370, while 2,564 vouchers were
drawn on Timber Sale Deposit and Suspense Accounts and 38,868 vouchers were issued
in connection with Forest Service expenditures. Discharge cheques issued to firefighters totalled 7,267.
The mechanical tabulation of Vancouver District Scale and Royalty Accounts,
which was commenced in August, 1948, by the Bureau of Economics and Statistics,
Department of Trade and Industry, has now completed its first full year of operation
and is proving of value in compiling accurate records. MM 54 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
FOREST PROTECTION.
WEATHER.
The 1949 fire season had all the indications of a serious and costly one, at least for
the south half of the Province. The early spring was exceptionally dry, but rains
decreased the hazard in time to prevent serious flash fires. Similarly, during the summer, the hazard build-up was relieved several times by rain. This was particularly
fortunate, as precipitation during the fire season for most of the Province was almost
50 per cent, less than last year. This is reflected in the comparative Table No. 48 (see
Appendix, showing 1,701 fires in 1949 v. 799 fires in 1948).
In the Vancouver Forest District an unusual pre-fire season situation existed as a
result of a freak condition occurring early in the previous winter. Prior to the occurrence of snowfall in December, 1948, forest soils were sealed off by heavy frost, with
the result that considerably less than average soil-moisture penetration occurred. This
caused early evaporation of moisture content of the forest soils and left the stage set
for an extremely bad build-up, but the rains and showers of the last half of May saved
the situation. The months of June and July, up to July 16th, although not particularly
hazardous, saw a gradual build-up in fire risk which was relieved somewhat in the
period of July 17th-31st with higher humidities and light rainfall. The month of
August was about average until the twenty-seventh, when a serious hazard build-up
commenced, extending to September 13th. The situation was again relieved with rains
and showers in the last half of September.
In the Prince Rupert Forest District the rainfall was slightly less than in other
years but was spread over a greater number of days, thus accounting for a very favourable fire season in the Interior of that district as well as in the Coastal region.
In the Fort George District the weather was generally favourable from the forest-
protection point of view and is reflected in the reduced acreage burned and reduced
damage figures (see Appendix), although the total number of fires (158) was slightly
higher than the ten-year average. West of the Rockies the season opened with low
hazard due to cool and damp weather until May 9th. From then until May 16th
increased temperatures and winds dried out the slash areas, and a flurry of fires in
these open areas occurred which did not run in the green timber. The situation was
relieved on May 16th by cool and showery weather which, together with the presence of
luxuriant green growth, prevented any serious fires. The next hazard period started on
July 8th and, although alleviated by showers on July 16th, it was bad while it lasted.
The Northern Interior Lumbermen's Association co-operated in asking millmen to take
extra care during this period. At this time, also, numerous lightning-strikes occurred,
often in accessible areas. From July 16th on, cooler and slightly wetter conditions
prevented serious outbreaks. By May 1st the hazard east of the Rockies, particularly
in the Fort St. John area, was already high. The situation was eased considerably by
scattered showers on May 16th, and after that date, due to lower humidities and rain,
the Peace River District had no serious fire-trouble.
In the Kamloops Forest District the weather was unusual in several respects.
The early spring was exceptionally dry, but rains decreased the hazard shortly after
conditions were right for grass fires. In fact, the Cariboo and Chilcotin were wet all
summer, and it was almost fall before the grass turned brown. The central portion of
the Kamloops District was quite wet, with a few long dry spells in September. The
Okanagan, on the other hand, had particularly dry weather all summer and fall.
In the Nelson Forest District the season was considerably drier than 1948, there
being only about 40 per cent, the amount of rain during the fire season. On several
occasions the hazard built up to a critical point but, just as the fire situation threatened
to become serious, the weather broke and it was reduced by timely rains.    The most .........
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949. MM  55
prolonged and intense fire-hazard period occurred in mid-April. Due to the reduced
rainfall, there was a noticeable lowering in the water-table level, with many creeks,
springs, and wells drying up that had not been dry for years. Moderate lightning
activity was experienced as usual in the Nelson District, but favourable rains occurred
each time and no particular difficulty was experienced in controlling the resulting fires.
FIRES.
OCCURRENCES AND CAUSES.
The 1,701 fires of 1949 were over twice the number of last year and slightly above
the ten-year average (see Table No. 48 of the Appendix).
For comparison with Table No. 46, shown below is the total fire occurrence by
forest districts :  Fire Occurrence
during Ten-year Percentage
Forest District. Period 194.-49. of all B.C.
Vancouver   3,960 25.48
Prince Rupert  598 3.85
Fort George   1,401 9.01
Kamloops   4,715 30.34
Nelson  4,888 31.32
Totals  :  15,542 100.00
The actual fire occurrence by months during the 1949 season (see Table No. 46)
varied in each forest district with the periodic hazard build-up. Fifty-two per cent, of
the total fires occurred during July and August, which are the worst fire months of the
average season.
The three major causes of fire occurrence were campers and smokers, 29.2 per
cent.; lightning, 28.6 per cent.; and railways, 19.1 per cent. Camper and smoker
fires were again held to the ten-year average, but it is apparent that there is still much
room for improvement and education in this field. Due to rains accompanying most
lightning-storms, this cause is below the ten-year average and, as was to be expected,
the Nelson and Kamloops Districts accounted for the majority of lightning fires—
namely, 77 per cent.
In the Vancouver District 35 per cent, of the fires were due to railway operations,
mainly on the Pacific Great Eastern. It is hoped that the recent installation of some
diesel equipment will materially benefit the situation next year.
Cost of Fire-fighting.
For details under this heading see Tables Nos. 41 and 54 of the Appendix. The
latter table covers only wages, food, and transportation of fire crews and not the Forest
Service protection overhead as detailed for the previous year in Table No. 40. It is
gratifying to point out that this year a gain of 8 per cent, over the last ten-year average
was experienced in the number of fires which were extinguished without hiring additional fire-fighting crews.
Comparing Tables Nos. 41 and 52, it will be noted that outside agencies in the
Vancouver Forest District report having spent more money on direct fire-fighting than
the Forest Service for the entire Province. Actually fifteen of these fires aggregated
$74,750 in fire-fighting cost to industry plus an additional $11,000 to the Forest Service.
The three major causes of Forest Service fire-fighting costs are lightning, 46 per
cent.;  campers and smokers, 28 per cent.;  and industrial operations, 17 per cent.
The total cost to the Forest Service of direct fire-fighting for 1949—namely,
$94,600—is almost three times that of last year but 34 per cent, less than the average
over the past ten years. mm 56 department of lands and forests.
Damage.
The total area burned over in 1949 is estimated at 145,549 acres, or less than
one-half of the average for the past ten years. This factor and the other comparable
factors shown in Table No. 53 are ample proof of the timely breaks in the weather to
help combat the 1,701 fires after they started. Again, the Peace River section accounts
for the major part of the area burned—namely, 121,900 acres—although the bulk of
this was on grazing land.
The total estimated damage to forest-cover from all forest fires during the year
was $32,500, or less than 10 per cent, of the ten-year average. The total damage to
miscellaneous property—including felled and bucked timber, cold-decked piles, logging
equipment, and sawmills—was $326,850. This is well above the ten-year average.
From Table No. 52 it will be noted that over 70 per cent, of this damage is attributed
to fires caused by industrial operations, and some very expensive lessons were painfully
learned, such as the danger of having large stockpiles of cold-decked logs in the woods
at the height of the fire season. Seventy-six per cent, of this damage occurred in the
Vancouver Forest District and includes damage in such low-risk areas as Wells Pass,
Loughborough and Bute Inlets on the Mainland coast, and Tahsis Arm on the west
coast of Vancouver Island.
FIRE-CONTROL PLANNING AND RESEARCH.
Fire-occurrence maps and fire-analysis ledgers for all districts except Prince
Rupert have been compiled and brought up to date to the end of the 1949 fire season.
In addition, new fire-occurrence maps were set up to start the 1950 season in order to
prevent overcrowding of the existing maps. A start has also been made to bring the
Prince Rupert District as up to date in this work as are the other forest districts.
Visibility Mapping.
Two visibility-mapping crews were in the field again this year. As in the past,
the personnel for these crews were recruited from forestry students at the University
of British Columbia. The crews started their work on Vancouver Island, then proceeded to the Prince Rupert, Fort George, and, finally, the Kamloops Forest Districts
to survey immediately necessary requirements in those districts. In all, sixty-four
possible lookout-sites were examined in detail with visibility maps, and reports completed on each.
The information obtained by the crews was analysed and the results compiled in
five separate reports which recommend the establishment of fourteen new primary and
six secondary lookouts—three primaries for Vancouver Island, nine primaries and five
secondaries for Kamloops, one primary and one secondary for Fort George, and one
primary for Prince Rupert.
Panoramic Lookout Photography.
Lookout photography was reinstituted this season, using a two-man crew. Because
it had not been possible to carry on this phase of protection last year, more work had
accumulated in the five districts than could be done by one crew in the time available.
The advantage of this was that the crew could adopt a flexible plan of operations. When
clouds obscured visibility in one district, they were able, on radio advice, to move
quickly to another district to take advantage of clear weather there. In all, fourteen
lookout points were completed.
Primary lookouts photographed for the first time were located in the districts as
follows: Vancouver, 1; Fort George, 2; Prince Rupert, 1; Kamloops, 1; Nelson, 4.
In addition, three primary lookout points in the Vancouver District and two in the
Nelson District were rephotographed.   This latter work becomes necessary when the REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949. MM  57
forest-cover of the area seen from the lookout changes due to fire, logging, and growth,
or where improvements, such as tower-building or clearing, have been made since the
last set of photographs were taken.
The loose-leaf holders for the photographs, sent into the field in 1948, have been
found to be preferable to the old folding binder type and have, therefore, been adopted
as standard. With the multiple sets required for field use, eighty-one sets for this
year's work have been completed. The number of lookouts photographed since the
beginning of the work in 1936 is 112, of which 16 have been retakes.
Trail and Road Traverses.
As an aid to better fire-control planning, four crews were fielded this year in the
Interior forest districts doing nothing but traverse work. These three-man crews were
recruited from third-year forestry students at the University of British Columbia, and
one was assigned to each district for three and one-half months of traverse work.
Their purpose was not only traversing of roads and trails, using chain and staff compass, but also to make notes on the reconditioning work necessary and, particularly, to
establish ^-mile post markers along the trails and roads both on the ground and on the
appropriate cover maps. In the Fort George District accuracy was ensured by plotting
these traverses first on the available air photographs and thence transferring to the
final maps.    In all, some 364 miles of existing roads and trails were so traversed.
Weather-recording.
The fire-weather recording system as described in the 1946 Annual Report was
continued in the Vancouver Forest District. In all, sixteen stations radioed reports of
moisture and precipitation twice daily to both the Vancouver and Victoria offices.
Similarly, in the Nelson Forest District, fifteen stations reported to the Nelson office.
The subsequent charts prepared were of considerable assistance in giving a graphic
representation of the hazard prevailing and in particular of the hazard build-up.
However, it has long been realized that combining this information with the
detailed weather forecasts as supplied by the Dominion Public Weather Office, although
of much assistance, still leaves a great deal to be desired when it comes to breaking
down the general hazard picture to particular localities. With this in view, an experienced meteorologist has been engaged to undertake the study of fire danger, with
particular reference to meteorological aspects.
Fire-weather Investigations.
The first step of the forest meteorologist's work was an intensive study of past
investigations available for review both on the North American Continent and elsewhere in the world. It is obvious from this study that much remains to be accomplished in this field.
Our studies will be aimed at a clearer understanding of the factors which control
fire-danger, such as relative humidity, fuel-moisture, and wind-speed. In addition,
studies will be directed toward utilizing, if possible, existing Forest Service and private
weather-station data to adapt the available weather forecasts to comparatively smaller
areas. At this time it would appear that, because of the profound local influences
exerted by topography, all meteorological qualities concerned in rating fire-danger and
forecasting local weather conditions will have to be measured on the location for which
the rating is required.
It is obvious from the slow progress which has been made over the past several
years that we cannot anticipate a rapid solution of the complex problems involved. MM 58
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Miscellaneous Projects.
Three hundred and twenty-six sets of fuel-moisture indicator-sticks were made up,
seasoned, and finally checked by this Division. These were distributed among the
Forest Service stations and to those operators in industry who requested them. We are
pleased to report a gradual increase in use by industry of these fire-risk indicator-sticks.
This year the total was 140 sets among operators in the Vancouver Forest District.
FIRE-SUPPRESSION CREWS.
Fire-suppression crews were again placed in the Vancouver, Kamloops, and Nelson
Forest Districts and were again stationed in localities where fires were likely to occur
within quick striking distance from existing roads. Three ten-man crews and ten
twelve-man crews were fielded for a maximum of 100 days in mid-fire season. Actual
locations of the crews were as follows: In the Vancouver District at Langford, Nanaimo,
Parksville, and Campbellton; in the Kamloops District at Vernon, Kelowna, Penticton,
Princeton, and Kamloops; and in the Nelson District at Elko, Lumberton, Erie, and
Kettle Valley. Actual organization of these crews has been previously described in
other Annual Reports (see page 42 of the 1948 Annual Report). In all, 162 fires were
fought, and it will be noted from the table below that 86 were stopped at less than
one-quarter acre in size. In the Penticton Ranger District, where the fire-hazard was
particularly bad this year, one crew, working in relays, handled 43 fires and certainly
proved how valuable a trained force of twelve men was to a hard-pressed Ranger staff.
In view of the fact that the fire-occurrence in 1949 was more than double that of
last year, the value of maintaining these thirteen quick-acting fire-fighting crews was
emphasized. Actually, they fought 67 more fires this year than the average for the
past five years and contributed in no small degree to the low forest-cover damage.
In addition, these crews averaged more than 50 per cent, of their working-time
on project work, such as trails and roads, and the results of that work are included in
the tabulation on page 66.
EECORD OF SUPPRESSION-CREW ACTION, 1949.
Number
of Fires.
Subsequent Spread (by Number of Fires).
Size of Fire when attacked.
Vi Acre
or less.
Over
*,4 Acre to
1 Acre.
Over
1 Acre to
5 Acres.
Over
5 Acres to
50 Acres.
Over 50
Acres.
Spot (up to % acre)	
Over .£ acre and up to 1 acre	
Over 1 acre and up to 5 acres	
Over 5 acres and up to 50 acres	
Over 50 acres	
99
23
25
12
3
86
I
10
18
3
3
20
2
5        ]         ....
7                    5
.   3
Totals	
162                  86
I
28                  26
1
12
10
AIRCRAFT.
With the expiration of the one-year contract of 1948, tenders were called early this
year for a two-year contract embracing a further one-year renewal clause. This
contract was awarded to Central B.C. Airways, Limited, and included three floatplanes,
each capable of carrying a pay-load of 1,000 pounds or better. For the contract season
the aeroplanes were stationed at Prince George, Kamloops, and Nelson. All aircraft,
while based at these specific points, were available, on call, in any forest district east
of the Cascade and Coast Mountains.
All aircraft were fitted with air-to-ground radios and equipped with two crystals
of Forest Service frequencies. These radios proved satisfactory throughout the season
and were of great value in quick reporting of the fires spotted. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949. MM 59
In all, a total of 940 hours were flown under the contract. In addition to fire
patrol and spotting fires, these aeroplanes were used for the transport of men and
supplies both to fires and some survey parties in distant locations. Dropping supplies
by parachute proved successful where there was no convenient body of water large
enough to afford a landing. In this connection, the value of aeroplanes with larger
carrying capacities was demonstrated and, in the Nelson Forest District, a system of
dropping loose lumber was evolved.
To supplement the contract flying, local aircraft were chartered to a limited
degree. The outstanding cases in this category were the patrol flying out of Terrace,
covering the management licence in the Kitsumgallum area, and fire-reconnaissance
flying in the Peace River area.
MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT.
The improvement in supply of mechanical equipment mentioned in last year's
Report has continued and, for the first time since cessation of hostilities, all equipment
ordered last spring, together with back-ordered items, has been delivered.
AUTOMOTIVE.
It is expected that all future orders for motor-vehicles of standard type will be
filled immediately from stock or within a matter of weeks from receipt of order.
Purchase of new equipment during 1949 was as follows:—■
Sedans     8
Coupes      9
Coaches      1
Jeeps      2
Station wagons (four-wheel drive)     1
^-ton light deliveries (two-wheel drive) :  16
1-ton light deliveries (two-wheel drive)  13
1-ton light deliveries (four-wheel drive)  17
Dodge power-wagons    2
Heavy-duty 5-ton trucks and trailers     4
Snowplough      1
Total  74
The 74 vehicles include 5 back-orders which had not been delivered at the end of
1948. Of the total number, 31 were replacement units and the balance were additional
vehicles. A Sicard rotary snowplough was also acquired for use at Mount Seymour
Park.   The Forest Service fleet now totals 442 vehicles.
Tankers.
It was decided to try out high-pressure fog-type fire-fighting equipment this year
on an experimental basis and, for this purpose, three Bean F.M.C. Model 201F units
were obtained. These consist of a light air-cooled gasoline-engine driving a two-
cylinder reciprocating water-pump coupled to a live reel containing 400 feet of %6-inch
high-pressure hose. This assembly is mounted on the top of a 100-gallon (U.S.)
water-tank, the whole unit being designed to fit into the box of any popular make of
%-ton pick-up.
Unfortunately, the delay in obtaining an import permit, coupled with slow delivery,
made it impossible to give the units a try-out this year. They are now on hand,
however, and will be set up at the commencement of our next fire season.
The " drop-on " unit mentioned in last year's Report has proved quite satisfactory,
although it was not used to any great extent due to a favourable fire season in the
locality where operated. mm 60 department of lands and forests.
Trailers, Tractors, and Maintainers.
Four heavy machinery-trailers were constructed during the year to be used
primarily for hauling 45- and 60-horsepower crawler tractors, owned by the Forest
Service. There are times, however, when haulage of rented tractors for fire-fighting
is desired, and the trailers have, therefore, been built to accommodate larger tractors
if necessary.   The trailers are pulled by 5-ton Model ACR-623 G.M.C. trucks.
Delivery was taken of two 45-horsepower units for the Nelson Forest District,
one 45-horsepower unit for the Kamloops District, one 60-horsepower unit for the
Fort George District, and one 60-horsepower unit for the Parks Division.
Three Huber maintainers, complete with front-end loader, bulldozer blade, and
grading blade, were purchased for the Nelson and Kamloops Forest Districts and the
Parks Division.
Outboard Motors, Pumps, and Chain-saws.
Although delivery of outboards was still somewhat limited, it was possible to
obtain complete requirements during the year. Some of the units were damaged by
a fire which occurred at the Forest Service Marine Station and had to be rebuilt
before being put into service. A total of nine were acquired—eight 22-horsepower
and one 5-horsepower.
During the year fifty Bennett-MacDonald fire-pumps were manufactured, but
assembly was badly disrupted by the fire, resulting in complete loss of these units.
The loss was fully covered by insurance. In addition to these units, thirty-nine
commercially manufactured medium-weight fire-pumps were obtained and supplied
to the field.
During the year eleven chain-saws were purchased for various Forest Service
activities, most of these being the one-man type used by our silviculture crews. The
modern, small one-man chain-saws have proved to be a very versatile tool, and much
of the trouble encountered in the operation of early models seems to have been
eliminated by improved design.
Miscellaneous Equipment.
Three gasoline-driven and five automatic electric water systems were purchased
and installed in various parts of the Province. Four electric-light plants, exclusive of
marine installations, were purchased and installed at outlying Forest Service headquarters. These were two 40-kilowatt diesel plants for Parks Division, a 5-kilowatt
diesel plant for Aleza Lake, and a 3-kilowatt gasoline plant for Blue River. In addition,
two portable generating sets of 1,500 watts were obtained for the Public Relations
Division's motion-picture projectors.
One gasoline-powered cement-mixer was obtained for use by the various park-
improvement crews and one for the Fort George District. A Warsop gasoline-powered
rock-drill was acquired, to be used for trail-construction in inaccessible locations and
assigned to the Vancouver District.
One rather unusual activity completed by the mechanical staff was the design of
two mobile cook-cars—one self-propelled and the other a trailer type—which were
constructed under our supervision during the year. The cook-cars will be assigned to
the ten-man silviculture crews for the present. It is expected that two additional
trailer-type units will be completed next year for the Fort George and Prince Rupert
Forest Districts.
Mechanical Inspection.
The Mechanical Inspectors required to complete organization were obtained, and
staff now comprises a Mechanical Superintendent, Assistant Mechanical Superintendent, and five Mechanical Inspectors. Some time was required for special training at
the Marine Station, following which the Inspectors were assigned to field-inspection REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949.
MM 61
duties and have operated continuously in the field since June. As a result, in addition
to a very thorough inspection of all mechanical equipment, it has been possible for the
Mechanical Inspectors to supervise the overhaul of all automotive and heavy-duty
equipment in the field.
Arrangements have been made to assign District Inspectors to Nelson, Kamloops,
and Vancouver Districts. One Inspector will be assigned to Fort George and Prince
Rupert Districts, and one is to be attached to Victoria headquarters for parks,
reforestation, economics, and other general utilization.
Following a request by the Department of Finance, the Forest Service Inspectors
will check Department of Finance vehicles while on their rounds, and a similar
arrangement has also been made with the Lands Branch. The Forest Service's
mechanical section will, therefore, be servicing over 600 vehicles during 1950.
;:._.&
•••':'
Marine Station following fire, May,   1949.
FOREST SERVICE MARINE STATION.
The year proved a disastrous one as far as the Forest Service Marine Station was
concerned. A fire of unknown origin on May 15th partially destroyed the main
building and ways and seriously damaged the new west wing which was practically
completed. This loss greatly handicapped the normal activities of the station.
Fortunately, the loss was almost fully covered by insurance and, owing to the prompt
action of the staff and the Vancouver Fire Department, none of the Vancouver District
launches which were at the station for overhaul suffered any damage. The fire was
stopped before gutting the east wing of the plant, which contained two practically
completed 34-foot Assistant Ranger launches. MM 62
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
The clearing-away of the debris was started immediately, and tenders for
rebuilding the plant were opened on August 30th. Subsequent progress is illustrated
in the photographs herewith. It is anticipated that, with the completion of installation
of electrical and heating equipment in February, the plant will again be in full
production.
In spite of the handicaps resulting from fire damage, a creditable total of
completed work was turned out during the year, as detailed below.
In the marine-repair section, forty-one launch overhauls were carried out and,
although the lack of the main marine ways was a serious detriment, the boats were
serviced by using the small ways and pulling the boats up by tractor and also by
making use of the west ways as soon as the electrical winch was overhauled and
Rebuilding Marine Station.
furnished with temporary power. The two new Assistant Ranger launches were
completed and put in service for the fire season. These launches are now equipped
with auxiliary charging units, which proved necessary because of the heavy battery-
drain due to the more powerful radio transmitters which are now being installed.
These auxiliary units proved so successful that it is proposed to similarly equip all
launches of this type. Three such units have been completed and three more are now
being fabricated. Five new boats were purchased, ranging in size from 16 feet to
42 feet, and these were overhauled and put in commission. One uncompleted hull which
had been purchased in 1948 was completed and also put in service. In addition, four
marine engines, ranging in size from 100 horse-power to 150 horse-power were shipped
to the plant from various parts of the Province, and these were completely overhauled
and rebuilt. ms^^^
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949. MM 63
In the prefabricating-shop a start was made on sectional huts early in the year,
and one model building was completed and erected, which served as temporary office
quarters during the year. As the fire disrupted the power-supply, the programme
of building twenty-five sectional huts and a number of prefabricated lookout buildings
had to be postponed. Since the installation of temporary power in this shop, numerous
smaller articles have been manufactured, such as tool-cabinets, work-benches, tables,
stock-bins, stationery-cabinets, and desks.
A description of the work carried out in the pump and outboard shop is necessarily
divided into two parts. Prior to the fire the work done comprised the following:
Overhaul of fifty-two fire-fighting pumps, twenty-six outboard motors, manufacture
of fifty circle scales and forty-six fuel-moisture balances. In addition, forty Bennett-
MacDonald pumps were in various stages of construction and ten completed when they
were all destroyed by fire. Subsequent to the fire, one Bennett-MacDonald pump and
a specially built portable pump for irrigation purposes for the Elko Nursery were
completed. Thirty-two more fire-pumps and thirteen more outboard motors were
overhauled, and two Seagrave pumps were overhauled and rebuilt for the Ranger
School.
BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION.
The construction programme for the adequate housing of staff and equipment,
which commenced in 1947, was continued in 1949 and was the largest in the history
of the Forest Service. Forty-five major building projects were on the agenda before
the work of rebuilding the Forest Service Marine Station was necessitated. A fourth
structural draughtsman was added to the staff to help with the overload of work
entailed in preparation of site plans, building plans and specifications, contracts, and
supervision of construction.
It was fortunate that this augmented programme of building was coincident with
increased production of building materials and more stabilized prices for same. It was
also found that more contractors were interested in doing this class of work than in
past years. Because of these facts, a much larger proportion of our building programme
for the year was carried forward to completion than in previous years. MM 64
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
■
Forest Service Marine Station, Vancouver.
Floating boat-house on North Thompson at Blue River. - ■,' ---
-■•     '-■■■;...>
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949.
MM 65
MAJOR NEW BUILDING PROJECTS FOR FOREST-PROTECTION
AND ADMINISTRATION PURPOSES, 1949.
Location.
Type of Building.
Construction Agency.
Progress to Date.
Forest Service project
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Plans in preparation.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Work proceeding.
"Work proceeding.
Completed.
Plans in preparation.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Completed.
Plans in preparation.
Plans in preparation.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Forest Service project
Ranger office and stores building, four-car
Forest Service project
Canal Flats*	
Ranger office and stores building, four-car
Day-labour	
Elko* _	
Office and stores building, four-car garage...
Elko	
Edgewood*	
Ranger office and stores building, four-car
garage	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Houston	
Kettle Valley	
Office and stores building, four-car garage...
Office and stores building, four-car garage...
Alterations   to   Ranger   office   and   stores
Four-car garage	
Ranger office and stores building, four-car
garage...	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Forest Service project
Forest Service project
McBride	
Ranger office and stores building, four-car
New Denver	
Warehouse and four-car garage	
Four-car garage	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Forest Service project
Forest Service project
Forest Service project
Contract	
Forest Service project
Forest Service project
Contract	
Contract	
Contract	
Sechelt*	
Ranger office and stores building, four-car
garage	
~
Machine-shop building, Forest Service Marine Station	
New prefabricating building,  Forest Ser-
Office, Forest Service Marine Station	
* Denotes project started last year (see page 49 of 1948 Annual Report). MM 66
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Standard Forest Service warehouse, Vernon.
EOADS AND TRAILS.
With the gradual acquisition, during the past few years, of road- and trail-building
machinery and with increased funds available to hire improvement crews, it has been
possible to make a serious start on keeping up the necessary road and trail network
so essential for adequate forest protection. In this programme more attention will be
paid to the maintenance of existing roads and trails, some of which have not been
cleared out for years, than to the construction of new roads and trails. For comparative purposes, below is listed the work accomplished throughout the Province, classified,
by the degree of difficulty encountered, into light, medium, and heavy work.
Light.
Medium.
Heavy.
Total.
New road-construction ....
Miles.
20
175
Miles.
27
162
Miles.
33
31
Miles.
80
378
Total new road construction and maintenance	
195
189
64
458
59
465
26
318
14
175
99
Trail-maintenance	
958
524
344
189
1,057
RADIO COMMUNICATION.
During the year, while expansion in the number of stations continued, advances
were the result of plans formulated during the preceding two years. Since the war
the main efforts have been to get enough equipment, and only during the current year
has it been possible to give full attention to improving reliability of message-handling.
New equipment consisted of thirty-seven SPF portable units, eight new-type
100-watt launch transmitters, seven new-type 25-watt transmitter-receivers for Assis- ..■■„,.,:■_■■.■
——7——
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949.'
MM 67
tant Ranger launches, and five PAC units. In the Forest Service radio laboratory at
Victoria, construction was completed on ten remote-control single-channel receivers
(both a.c. and d.c), two 450-megacycle experimental units, and a 150-watt transmitter
of eight channels to replace the obsolete three-channel unit at Victoria. In all, fifty-one
transmitter-receivers, nine transmitters, and ten remote receivers were purchased
or built.
In past years, due to low power and insufficient frequencies, the only direct
communication on an everyday basis between Victoria and the districts has been
through the relaying facilities of Kamloops. With the establishment of 150-watt
8-channel transmitters at Kamloops and Prince George, and smaller units on higher
Type MRT transmitter with type RM receiver. MM 68
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
frequencies doing temporary duty at Nelson and Prince Rupert, Victoria can now
communicate directly with all districts. Traffic is delivered to its destination within
a matter of minutes instead of hours or even days, allowing, of course, for limitations
imposed on delivery by local district schedules.
In the Vancouver District the abandonment of 3,430 kilocycles as an interdistrict
frequency gave Vancouver this channel exclusively, allowing district contacts to be
made at any time of day without interference from Victoria.
Assistant Ranger launches working along the coast between Vancouver and Port
Hardy have, in the past, given less than their optimum value due to their inability to
communicate with their Rangers or with Ranger headquarters. This year three of
these small ships were equipped with new-type transmitter-receiver units. Six months
of actual use have proved that, in spite of the small aerials available on these ships, the
Assistant Ranger, far from headquarters, is no longer isolated and impossible to recall
when needed in a hurry. Although these small 25-watt units were not intended for any
other purpose than to provide communication within a Ranger district, it has been
found that they are frequently heard in Vancouver, giving the Assistant Ranger
recourse to contact with Station VB9T and the Northwest Telephone Company, should
the need arise.
Type MRT-100 transmitter with power-supply—a marine radiophone of 100 watts
and 5 channels.
In 1948 replacement of obsolete Ranger-launch radio equipment was started by the
purchase of nine of the new-type RM receivers. At the same time, specifications were
drawn up for a new launch transmitter of twice the power of the original launch sets.
This unit, the MRT100, was commercially manufactured for the Service this year, and
three are in actual operation and proving extremely satisfactory.
In the Prince Rupert District installation of the 6-channel remote-controlled
receiver on Mount Hays was completed in June, with an immediate improvement in
reception in spite of trouble experienced with the 6 miles of telephone-line connecting
the receiver with the Court-house. Most of this line-trouble has been eliminated by the
substitution of underground cable for the overhead open wire. At the same time a new
temporary transmitter of 75 watts was built in Victoria to supply improved communication until a type HQT-200-8 can be constructed.
With the closest Ranger district some 80 miles from Prince Rupert and each succeeding district being still farther away, the PAC and S-25 units are not sufficient to
cover territory notoriously poor for radio reception.   A survey of the situation made REPORT OF FOREST  SERVICE, 1949. MM 69
this summer resulted in a complete change in plans which will give Prince Rupert
an improved communication system, including remote-control receivers at Terrace,
Smithers, and, possibly, Hazelton. The first of the Ranger station remote-control units
has already been put into operation at Burns Lake.
In the Nelson District new remote-control units were installed at Fernie and
Creston, but it has not been possible to date to supply Nelson headquarters with a
multi-channel 150-watt transmitter and to bring the Nelson remote-control set up to
standard. Unfortunately, it has been necessary to vacate our present headquarters
remote-site and to move farther away. While this will involve additional expense, the
results will undoubtedly be worth while on account of the improved noise level.
With the installation of the HQT-200-8 transmitters in the spring of 1949, the
range and reliability of both Kamloops and Prince George headquarters stations have
increased 100 per cent. Both districts have additional remote-control installations
planned, but these are at the moment in abeyance.
With the question of frequencies always a major problem, the addition of three
high frequencies in 1948 made a tremendous difference to efficiency where long-distance
contacts are concerned.
It was originally intended to go into the field of FM gradually, extending the cost
on conversion over a period of years and maintaining most of the present units to
supplement the reduced ranges of VHF transmission. With the prospect of a reshuffle
of intermediate frequencies in the near future, it became necessary to take action at
once, and the coming year may see one complete FM network in operation. Considerable experimental work was done in 1949, preparing sites and determining signal-
strengths to be expected between Victoria and Campbell River, using high-elevation
relay points to carry the signal over intervening topography. The final network, if
subsequent results are as satisfactory as anticipated, will link between Victoria and
Vancouver. So far, attempts to establish this latter circuit have failed due to the low
elevation of both stations, but it is probable the difficulty will be overcome before long.
Having observed other FM systems operating on 40 megacycles, with long-distance
signals from the Eastern States and Canada constantly interfering, all experiments
have been carried out on 150 megacycles with no interference whatever. This frequency, therefore, will probably become the standard channel for all Forest Service FM
operation. At the same time, experiments have been made with some success with
frequencies as high as 450 megacycles and, although the results on this channel leave
a great deal to be desired, there is little doubt that it will be used for short-range
point-to-point communication in addition to 150 megacycles FM.
In line with the policy of appointing operators to provide headquarters radio
stations with continuous radio watch and to give technicians freedom of movement for
maintenance purposes, two additions to radio personnel were made during 1949. These
appointments were at Nelson and Prince Rupert.
At the close of 1949 the number of sets in use was as follows: Type SPF, 298;
type PAC, 52; type S-25, 5; HQ transmitters (50 watts), 1; HQ transmitters (75 to
100 watts), 3; type HQT-200-8 transmitters (150 watts), 2; launch transmitter-
receiver installations (25 to 50 or 100 watts), 22; HQ remote-control installations, 6;
Ranger station single-channel remote-control receivers, 8. Total transmitting units
(all types), 383; total special receiver installations, 14.   Net total, 397.
Messages handled by all districts, up to December 15th, exclusive of weather data,
numbered notes, and conversations, reached the following totals: Victoria, 5,555;
Vancouver, 5,749; Nelson, 2,163; Kamloops, 1,950; Fort George, 2,024; Prince Rupert,
1,206. Net total, 18,647. This figure, compared with a net total of 15,413 for 1948,
represents an increase of messages for the current year of 3,234. MM 70 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
SLASH-DISPOSAL AND SNAG-FALLING.
Although spring burning was disappointing, the over-all results of slash-disposal
in 1949 were very satisfactory owing to the extended period of favourable weather in
the fall.
Many operators who were convinced of the advantage of spring burning were
foiled in carrying out their plans by the rapid development of early hazard conditions.
In spite of this, a total of 1,530 acres of slash was disposed of by fifty operators prior
to the commencement of the fire season. Most of these operations were on the lower
levels and, as is usually the case with spring burning, the damage was light.
The absence of industrial disputes in the logging industry permitted continuous
operation through the summer, with the exception of a partial Forest Service closure
of four days. However, a number of voluntary closures were put into effect by private
companies during more hazardous periods and, in some cases, accidental fires caused
prolonged shut-downs. In a certain number of cases these interfered with fall-burning
plans, and an effort is being made where this occurred to remedy the situation by
burning this coming spring.
The excellent fall weather for slash-disposal continued from September 12th until
October 4th in most areas and was ideal for broadcast burning. On the southern tip
of Vancouver Island these conditions prevailed even longer. During that period there
appear to have been only two days—namely, September 27th and 28th—when the
burning risk became dangerous, and a very small number of fires escaped temporarily
during this period. The only areas affected by this were the east coast of Vancouver
Island from Duncan south and the Gulf Islands. Of a total of 459 recorded slash burns,
only 24 show damage, most of which is of a minor nature. Favourable spot-burning
weather continued throughout October, and excellent results were obtained. The very
heavy rains in November terminated any possibility of further burning in 1949, except
on the southern tip of Vancouver Island where spot-burning continued well into
November.
In recapitulation, a total of 70,414 acres was logged during 1949 in the Vancouver
Forest District. This is a decrease of approximately 10 per cent, from 1948. Of this
acreage, 48,966 acres were examined and reported on. The balance of 21,448 acres was
logged subsequent to September 1st and, therefore, slash-disposal requirements will be
dealt with in 1950, except for 4,730 acres included in this figure covering areas not
considered necessary to deal with under section 113.
Compensation for failure to comply with the provisions of section 113 was levied
during the current calendar year as follows:— _.    ,
Number. Acreage.
Failure to dispose of slash as instructed  91 6,745
Failure to fall snags  39 1,196
As shown above, snags are being felled concurrently and, to date, results are satisfactory. At least 98 per cent, of assessments are for failure to clean up the few scattered snags that were missed.
Detailed statistics on all slash-disposal for the year 1949 appear in tabulated form
in Table Nos. 42 to 45 of this Report.
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT.
As will be noted from Table No. 55 of the Appendix, information was laid in
thirty-one cases during the year, which is one more than the last ten-year average. In
all but two cases convictions were obtained; thirteen for burning without a permit;
nine for refusing to fight fire, and eight for failure to maintain proper fire-protection
equipment in accordance with the regulations. REPORT OF  FOREST  SERVICE,  1949.
MM   71
FOREST CLOSURES.
No general closure proved necessary in the Vancouver Forest District in 1949.
Several times during the season the hazard build-up was such that many operators
voluntarily went on early-morning shift or completely shut down their operations for
short periods. By mid-July, with a two weeks' build-up of hazard conditions plus a
forecast of continued dry weather, a restricted closure was instituted under section 120
of the " Forest Act," prohibiting industrial operations in the woods from 1 p.m. to
sundown in that portion of the Vancouver District south of Bute Inlet. Fortunately,
a change in weather allowed the lifting of this closure by July 18th. The postponement
of the opening of hunting season from September 10th to September 17th precluded the
necessity of a further forest closure at that time.
By mid-July, conditions were such in the Fort George District, vicinity of Quesnel,
that, at the request of the Northern Interior Lumbermen's Association, operators were
advised through press and radio releases to go on early-morning shift.
In the south part of the Province, regional closures were again invoked where warranted by existing forest values. These are listed in the table below. In some cases
the closure gates were manned by Forest Service patrolmen. In other watershed areas
less frequented by the public, warnings of the closures through press, radio, and poster
advertising sufficed.
FOREST CLOSURES, 1949.
Area.
District.
E ff ective
Date.
Date
suspended.
Vancouver
Vancouver
Vancouver
Kamloops
Nelson
Nelson
Nelson
Nelson
Nelson
Nelson
Nelson
Nelson
June  28
July    13
July   15
July    13
Aug.     6
Aug.    9
Aug.    9
Aug.   18
Aug.   18
Aug.   18
Aug.   18
Sept.    8
Aug.   26
Sept. 16
July    18
Sept. 21
Sept. 19
Sept. 19
Sept. 19
Sept. 19
Sept. 19
Sept. 19
Sept. 19
Sept. 19
Vancouver Forest District   (partial closure of sawmilling and industrial
operations)	
Topping,  Hanna,  McNally,  Murphy,   Sullivan,  Poupoure,  and Blueberry
Marsh, Hudu, Beavervale, and Kelly Creeks, and Champion Lakes areas.:	
CO-OPERATION—OTHER AGENCIES.
Again, the usual excellent co-operation from honorary fire wardens must be
acknowledged with thanks and appreciation. In 1949 the honorary fire warden organization numbered 818 throughout the Province. These public-spirited citizens voluntarily
undertake fire-fighting duties in their local communities year after year, thus augmenting the Forest Service staff and performing a most valuable function in the forest-fire-
suppression organization.
In addition, there were 684 fire-prevention officers appointed under authority of
section 123 of the " Forest Act." These men are appointed at the request of their
employers in forest industry and have the same authority as a forest officer on the
particular operation with which they are concerned.
Acknowledgment must again be made for the excellent co-operation received from
the Royal Canadian Air Force and from commercial air lines and private pilots in
detecting and reporting fires. MM 72
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
FOREST-INSECT INVESTIGATIONS *
Although the forest-insect problems in British Columbia remained numerous and
varied throughout the year 1949, no major, devastating outbreak was reported for
the year.
FOREST-INSECT SURVEY.
One of the more important developments of the year was the erection of the survey
insectary on the Provincial Forest Service property at Langford. This has permitted
the handling of Coastal survey material at Victoria, rather than at Vernon, as was the
past procedure. The work has been further facilitated through an increase in the
insect Ranger staff which now numbers twenty—eleven in the Interior and nine on the
Coast. Considerable transportation by aircraft to otherwise inaccessible areas was
provided to these men by the Forest Service.
* This section of the Report has been prepared by the Forest Insect Investigations, Science Service, Dominion
Department of Agriculture, Victoria and Vernon Laboratories.
Insectary at Langford, V.I.
Collections for the year were as follows :■—
Forest Districts.
Source.
Vancouver.
Prince
Rupert.
Fort
George.
Kamloops.
Nelson.
Total.
376
2.829
94
359
193
344
146
1.168
139
1.256
948
5,956
i
Totals	
3,205
453
537
1,314                 1,395
i
1
6,904 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949. MM 73
DETERIORATION OF HEMLOCK-LOOPER-KILLED TIMBER.
Studies on this problem, resulting from the 1946 outbreak of hemlock looper, were
continued through the year. Although no looper activity has occurred over the past
three years, marginal trees are still struggling for recovery. During the 1949 season
the number of these marginal trees that died exceeded that of either of the two preceding years. This applies to all species, although Western hemlock was affected to
the greatest extent. This increase in mortality has been due to the build-up in secondary insect population's over these intervening years. It appears evident that this
secondary attack has now reached its peak, with the majority of marginal trees now
being dead. Parasitism of secondary insects has increased greatly. A high of 95 per
cent, parasitism was recorded in one hemlock undergoing attack by the important wood-
borer Tetropium velutinum. Although most of the mortality occurred among trees
that were from 95 to 100 per cent, defoliated, many trees that were defoliated as lightly
"as 50 per cent, were killed by secondary insect attack. This work will be continued
through 1950.
OTHER STUDIES.
Ambrosia-beetles.—A new approach to the ambrosia-beetle problem was undertaken in 1949 when a sawmill study was conducted in co-operation with the British
Columbia Forest Products, Ltd., and the Dominion Forest Products Laboratory. The
study, one of a series of such mill investigations, was aimed at transposing ambrosia-
beetle damage to sawlogs to actual dollar-loss by the mill operator.
Bark-beetles in the Interior of the Province appear to be on the increase. This is
further substantiated by increasing prevalence of beetle outbreaks in the Western
States.
The mountain-pine beetle, Dendroctonus monticolse Hopk., has continued active on
previously reported areas of white pine and lodgepole pine. An important new outbreak of this bark-beetle was reported this year in lodgepole pine on the White River
drainage-basin in the East Kootenays. Over 1,000 acres are. at present involved but,
although the infestation is a menace to extensive stands of pine, the area is so inaccessible that the cost of direct control measures is considered prohibitive.
A sporadic outbreak of the Engelmann-spruce beetle, Dendroctonus engelmanni
Hopk., is active on a timber sale at Bolean Lake in the Kamloops district. At present
the infestation is confined mainly to an isolated uncut stand and to selectively logged
areas immediately surrounding it. The early cutting of the infested timber has been
recommended as a control measure and also as a salvage operation.
Bark-beetles at Palling, in the Burns Lake district, were active over an area of
some 16 acres. Since a large stand of spruce was endangered, this small infestation
was cut and burned, the first operation taking place in May and a second control in the
fall. A total of 121 trees, 115 infested stumps and a pile of infested green slab wood,
were burned in the course of the operation.
Spruce Budworm.—Due to improvement in the detection service, infestations of
the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.), were found to be much more
extensive in spruce-alpine fir stands in the Southern Interior of the Province than
previously recorded. This defoliator has continued active at Sock Lake, Johnson Lake,
Bolean Lake, and east of Barkerville. Other infestations, which evidently have been
active for several years, were located at Martin Creek and Bouleau Lake west of
Okanagan Lake, on Silver Hills east of Lumby, at Mayson Lake in the North Thompson
district, and apparently on Clearwater Creek, a tributary of the Peace River.
The infestations of the Douglas-fir tussock-moth, Hemerocampa pseudotsugata
McD., recorded in 1948, subsided completely, but new defoliation occurred this year in
sub-marginal stands south and east of Savona, on the east side of Deadman River, and
in patches on the north side of Kamloops Lake, including a small area on Tranquille
Creek. MM 74
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Dead hemlock in 1949 following hemlock-looper outbreak in 1946. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949.
MM  75
sv
bp
I_t.. !l>'___^____» i       '*      teS
^kiw^S
i?__*tf-   ■»•«   *    ? .-»»?8|*.-' 1 jK* _
*-•-;*.
;1*y'   '*.,
___» _.*=*
Residual hemlock in  l 949 following hemlock-looper outbreak in  I 946. MM  76 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
The satin-moth, Stilpnotis salicis L., a species of European origin, was found to
have extended its range in British Columbia eastward from Lytton to Savona and
Cherry Creek. It was also recovered from the north end of Stump Lake. Lombardy
poplars at Savona were almost completely defoliated in May. Although the attack
appeared to be confined to exotic species of poplars, other hosts of this insect include
native cottonwoods and aspen, and hence the spread of this pest constitutes a serious
threat to the extensive stands of cottonwood and aspen in the Interior of the Province.
Feeding by the spruce gall-adelgid Adelges cooleyi (Gill.), on the foliage of Douglas fir in the semi-dry areas of the Interior continued to cause considerable loss to the
Christmas-tree industry. Damage was severe in parts of the East Kootenay, including
the areas sprayed with DDT in 1948 for the control of the false hemlock looper, but an
investigation failed to show any increase of adelgid population on the sprayed area as
compared to unsprayed stands.
Although the hemlock looper has been inactive throughout the Province over the
past three years, one region was recorded during 1949 where a nucleus population
persists. The area in question is located in the Prince Rupert District, westward from
Hazelton to Scotia River in the vicinity of Kwinista. Heaviest population was recorded
at Kitsumgallum Lake and in the vicinity of Salvus. Survey sampling in these areas
averaged ten larvae per beating. An autumn egg survey, however, failed to reveal any
overwintering eggs, although a large number of the previous year's hatched eggs were
found. Indications point to a diminished population in 1950, although this will require
careful study.
Insect activity in nurseries and plantations during 1949 was not sufficient to
occasion important losses. The most persistent problem remains that of white-grub
larvae attacking 1-0 stock in the Quinsam nursery. The larva, have been shown to be
present in all rotational areas during the past three seasons. Although relatively
heavier losses occurred in 1949, they still remain less than 1 per cent, of production.
A programme of experimental control was initiated during 1949, but effectiveness of
the materials has yet to be determined. In the same nursery 2-0 stock suffered about
50 per cent, attack by the spruce gall-adelgid. A series of sprays was applied against
this insect, and a safe and economical combination appears to be the use of nicotine
sulphate and soap flakes. This was tested against more recent insecticides and made
a very good showing.
A lead into the physiological effects of the spruce gall-aphid upon young stock has
opened the way to a series of future investigations. The insect appears to have a
definite relation to earlier hardening of stock. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949. MM  77
FOREST-DISEASE INVESTIGATIONS *
An intensive programme of forest-disease investigation was conducted in British
Columbia during 1949. This programme was made possible, in part, through the
valuable co-operation extended by the British Columbia Forest Service and the forest
industry and, in part, by an increase in the technical staff assigned to forest pathology.
Field personnel employed during 1949 totalled thirty, of which fourteen were permanent
members of the Victoria organization and sixteen were student assistants or labourers.
Seven additional employees were engaged in laboratory and administrative work in
Victoria.
During the year, greater emphasis was afforded problems involving immature
stands, and an expanded programme of investigation was undertaken in the case of
the forest-disease problems occurring in the Interior of the Province.
Publications distributed during 1949 included the following:—
Bier, J. E.:  Some common tree diseases of British Columbia.    Canada, Dept.
of Agr., Div. of Botany and Plant Pathology, Ottawa.    1949.
Foster, R. E., and Hurn, D. R.:   A preliminary report on deterioration in the
Western hemlock-Douglas fir type on lower Vancouver Island following
attack by the Western hemlock looper.    For. Chron. 25: 202-204.    1949.
Thomas, G. P.:   Interim report on decay losses sustained in mature and overmature northern black Cottonwood in the Quesnel region, British Columbia.    Dom. Lab. of For. Pathology, Victoria.    Mimeographed.    October,
1949.
Thomas, G. P.:  Two new outbreaks of Phomopsis lokoyie in British Columbia.
Dom.   Lab.   of   For.   Pathology,   Victoria.    Mimeographed.    November,
1949.
Waldie, R. A.:   Decay losses in Western white spruce in the Upper Fraser
Region.    Dom. Lab. of For. Pathology, Victoria.    Mimeographed.    October, 1949.
DISEASES OF MATURE AND OVERMATURE FORESTS.
1. Studies of decay in mature and overmature Douglas fir were conducted in
several of the more important forest regions of British Columbia during 1949. Samples
were obtained on Vancouver Island, in the vicinity of Parksville and in the Chemainus
Valley, and in the Mainland coast area at Bella Coola. To date, some 1,550 trees have
been analysed, and preliminary information has been obtained relative to the incidence
and importance of decay in this species. Further sampling will be undertaken to
permit the study of decay in fir over a full range of site and age classes.
2. Preliminary investigations into decay of Western hemlock and Amabilis fir in
the Prince Rupert Forest District were initiated in 1949. The study was confined to
the vicinity of Onion Lake, south of Lakelse Lake. On the basis of preliminary information obtained in this region, it appears that extensive cull losses may be realized in
certain localities. On a total-stand basis, decay resulted in losses of 60 and 49 per cent,
in hemlock and Amabilis fir respectively. On a residual-tree basis, decay resulted in
losses of 51 and 44 per cent, in Western hemlock and Amabilis fir respectively. Ages
for hemlock averaged 364 years and those for Amabilis fir averaged 303 years. Average site was determined to be 100. More extensive sampling is projected in the Lakelse
region during 1950.
3. An analysis of Western hemlock in the Big Bend region was undertaken through
the co-operation of the British Columbia Forest Service. Two areas were investigated,
and all trees above 9 inches in diameter contained on an area of 3 acres were felled and
were bucked into short lengths in order to obtain accurate information relative to
* This  section  of the  Report has  been  prepared  by  the  Laboratory of  Forest  Pathology,   Science  Service,
Dominion Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C. MM 78
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Stem and branch canker of Douglas fir caused by Phomopsis Lokoy_e (Hahn). ^In^pPws^^^if^liSSMspr
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949. MM  79
decay and related losses. Western hemlock was found to be very defective in both
areas. On a total-stand basis, cull from decay exceeded 71 per cent, of the gross
volume in a 265-year-old stand at Martha Creek and 66 per cent, in a 224-year-old stand
at Wigwam. Most of the loss was attributed to the Indian-paint fungus (Echino-
dontium tinctorium Ell. and Ever.), although considerable variation in the incidence of
this fungus and that of Fomes Pint (Thore) Lloyd was recorded. Present information
indicates that an appreciation of external indications of decay would facilitate the
determination of individual trees, and areas, free from extensive decay.
4. Studies of decay in Northern black Cottonwood were conducted in the Upper
Fraser region north of Quesnel. A field research centre was established at Quesnel,
and technical personnel of the Ottawa and Victoria laboratories were employed in a
detailed study of the fungi associated with decay in this species. A field crew augmented previous studies relative to the nature and extent of decay and other losses
occurring in peeler and potential pulp volumes by obtaining an additional 4-acre sample.
The sample, now complete for the Upper Fraser region, will permit the analysis of
300 trees.
5. Further studies we're conducted relative to the deterioration of insect-killed
Western hemlock and Douglas fir on Vancouver Island. Studies were confined, for the
most part, to Douglas fir. It was found that the cumulative losses from decay were of
relatively minor importance in this species to date. A further examination of the
progress of deterioration in Western hemlock is projected for 1950.
DISEASES OF IMMATURE FORESTS.
1. An extensive survey of the disease of native and introduced plantation stock
was undertaken in the vicinity of Elk Falls, Campbell River, and Echo Lake. In addition, preliminary studies were conducted on the Lower Mainland. It is intended that
this survey provide a basis for an intensive programme concerned with diseases of
immature forests.
2. Specific investigations were undertaken concerning Poria weirii root-rot of
Douglas fir. The progress of the disease was recorded at a number of points in the
Coastal area, and records were maintained for a number of permanent sample plots.
3. An outbreak of the Douglas-fir canker, caused by Phomopsis lokoyse Hahn, was
recorded in the vicinity of Haney in the Lower Fraser Valley and in the vicinity of
Soda Creek, south of Quesnel. This outbreak, in two widely separated areas, was
attributed to the unusual climatic conditions prevailing during the previous season.
No permanent damage of a serious nature was noted.
4. An intensive survey was continued in the Coastal and Interior regions in an
effort to isolate individual white-pine trees that are resistant to the blister-rust disease.
Initial steps were taken toward the establishment of an experimental disease area on
Vancouver Island. Permanent plots in the Interior region were re-examined, and the
progress of the disease was recorded under natural conditions of development.
5. A disease of unknown cause and origin, pole-blight of Western white pine, was
reported in the Arrow Lakes district. An extensive survey confirmed its presence
throughout most of the commercial range of this species in the Interior. Certain of
the areas examined revealed over 30 per cent, of the pine as affected. Reports from
Idaho and adjacent States indicate that there is no recovery from this disease, and that
the death of affected trees may be anticipated within a very few years. An experimental area in the vicinity of New Denver has been placed in reserve to provide the
facilities for intensive studies pertaining to the nature, cause,  and control of the
disease.
DISEASES OF NURSERY STOCK.
No extensive mortality was observed in the three forest nurseries on the Coast of
British Columbia during 1949. Records were maintained relative to normal disease
mortality which may be anticipated in Douglas-fir nursery stock. In addition, a
detailed control programme was carried out at the Duncan nursery. MM 80
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
FOREST RANGER SCHOOL.
The Ranger School opened to its fourth class on January 6th, 1949. Previous
classes had been given training in two three-month terms. Commencing with the
fourth class, the course has been extended to three three-month terms. No additional
subjects have been added, but more time is devoted to the practical aspects of Ranger
work in both forest protection and management. The subjects taught and time allotted
are listed later in this Report.
Twenty-one students are attending the present class, twenty representing—as in
previous years—all forest districts, with one man from the Parks and Recreation
Division (see Appendix, Table No. 57). Five are either Rangers or Acting Rangers, and
the others are Assistant Rangers who were recommended for Ranger training by their
District Foresters. The present class will not graduate until April, 1950, at which time
it is expected that a number of Ranger positions will be filled from their ranks, the
remainder forming a reserve body of trained Assistant Rangers. In this connection it
is of interest to note that the three previous classes included thirty-five men in the
Assistant Ranger category who were tested and trained with a view to using them as
replacements for retiring Rangers or for newly created Ranger districts. Most of these
men have now been appointed to the Ranger staff.
Ranger School, Green Timbers Forestry Station.
It is noticeable, and is to be expected, that this year's and, probably, ensuing
classes will have a greater number of younger and less-experienced men than was the
case with the first three classes. More time is necessary for instruction in the fundamentals of all subjects than would be the case with Assistant Rangers of longer service
or greater woods experience. The extra term now allotted is, therefore, proving
necessary.
EXTRA COURSES.
Following the spring term, a one-week special course was given to lookout-men
appointed to the Vancouver Forest District. Over and above the quick detection and
accurate reporting of forest fires, the importance of the lookout-man is increasing due to
his added duties in connection with weather records. The course, therefore, emphasized
training in the use and maintenance of detection and weather instruments plus the
keeping of proper records. Reports received again indicate that the time and expense
involved were well repaid by the added efficiency of the lookout-man. :■'--   ■',-!■
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949.
MM 81
SCHOOL BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS.
The new school buildings were completed during the early summer of 1949, and the
class was able to make full use of them from the commencement of the fall term.
During the summer months a considerable amount of work was accomplished by
the staff in preparing the buildings for use. A number of small improvements were
made to the classrooms, the workshop was fitted and equipped for practical instruction
in the mechanical courses, and the tool-cache was fitted with shelves and racks and fully
equipped with fire-fighting tools for a 350-man unit. Other improvements were made
to the kitchen, dining-room, and living-quarters.
Lounge in new Ranger School dormitory.
An underground sprinkler system for the lawns was installed, and a fire-protection
system included and tied in to two outside hydrants. This was designed for additional
fire protection for the buildings. A cement reservoir with a capacity of 16,000 gallons
was built to connect both systems, sprinkler and protection, as may be required.
The roads fronting the building and the driveways leading to each set of buildings
were paved, with exception of the driveway to the garage.
Advantage was taken of the open fall to seed down the extensive laws and open area
behind the school. In addition, considerable progress was made in landscaping the
grounds, many ornamental trees and shrubs being planted. Work on this project was
halted by winter weather. MM 82 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
The new school buildings were officially opened on September 16th, 1949, by the
Deputy Minister of Forests, Dr. C. D. Orchard, followed by an address by the Minister
of Lands and Forests, Hon. E. T. Kenney. A large gathering was present, including
representatives of the forest industries, the University, and local Governmental and
municipal officials. Following Mr. Kenney's address, the buildings were inspected by
the guests and refreshments served in the lounge and dining-room.
The Forest Ranger School has now been brought to a standard that should compare
favourably with any similar institution. The buildings are fully modern and well
equipped for their purpose. When landscaping of grounds is completed, the school will
be a credit to this Service from both the .esthetic and practical view-points.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
We wish to acknowledge with thanks the assistance received from the undermentioned persons or organizations, whose aid materially added to the efficacy of the
courses: Division of Plant Pathology, Dominion Department of Agriculture, Forest
Pathology; Division of Entomology, Dominion Department of Agriculture, Forest
Entomology; Provincial Police, Law Enforcement; St. John Ambulance Society, First
Aid; University of British Columbia, for accommodation at their Loon Lake camp in
the Haney Forest where the school carried out survey and forest-mensuration exercises;
British Columbia Forest Products, Limited, Youbou, for transportation in connection
with field work in the Nitinat Valley; and Victoria Lumber Company, for transportation and assistance in slash-disposal and logging-inspection field work.
CURRICULUM, 1949-50.
Spring Term, 1949.
Operation. Number of
Hours.
1. Fire Law and Operation Procedure  60
2. Preliminary Fire Organization  45
3. Construction and Maintenance of Improvements  55
4. Operation and Care of Mechanical Equipment  60
5. Office Methods  20
240
General Courses. •
1. Mathematics   30
2. Surveying   50
3. Forest Entomology  25
4. Botany  35
5. Public Speaking   30
6. Forest Mensuration   50
220
Totals for Spring Term.
Operation   240
General   220
Miscellaneous and tests  50
510 report of forest service, 1949. mm 83
Fall Term, 1949.
Operation.
6. Fire Prevention     30
7. Fire Suppression  110
140
General Courses.
2. Surveying (continued)   100
4. Botany (continued)     40
6. Forest Mensuration (continued)   100
7. Stumpage Appraisals 100
340
Totals for Fall Term, Tests included.
Operation   140
General and Tests  350
490
Spring Term, 1950.
The third term will consist of log scaling, forest management procedure, grazing
management, silviculture, forest pathology, forest inventory mapping, and a general
review of all operation subjects previously taken. MM 84 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
PUBLIC RELATIONS AND EDUCATION.
The work of the Division increased during the year to a point where further
expansion and diversification is almost impossible with the present staff. Additional
shelf-space for the library, storage shelves for publications, and greater space for
photographs, films, and motion-picture work is urgently required if the Division work
is to be carried on in an orderly and efficient manner.
PRESS AND RADIO.
The customary annual series of forest-protection advertisements, six in number,
was carried in ten daily, seventy-one weekly, and fifteen other publications. Layout
and copy were produced by the Division; the art work was done by the Government
Printing Bureau; and mechanical work and insertion schedules handled by an agency.
In addition, special copy was prepared for eighteen advertisements in that number of
publications of various categories.
During this year the Service initiated a pre-fire-season advertising campaign,
placing three special advertisements in all daily and weekly newspapers. These
advertisements contained no art work; copy was written in the Division; and insertion
instructions were issued direct to the publications.
For the first time the Service instituted a regular programme of radio announcements, 15-second flashes to the number of twenty-six being broadcast over every station
in the Province.
Both the press and the radio services contributed generously to the advancement
of our educational programme, and the thanks of the Division are extended for this
invaluable co-operation.
MOTION PICTURES AND PHOTOGRAPHY.
Motion Pictures.
The stock of the motion-picture library was reduced from seventy-seven to seventy-
five subjects. Three obsolete films were removed from circulation and one new sound-
and-colour film was added late in the year.
A considerable number of forestry films produced by outside agencies were previewed by members of the staff with a view to purchase. However, none of these were
considered sufficiently applicable to conditions existing in British Columbia to warrant
their inclusion in the library.
There is now evident a strong trend on the part of the borrowing public away from
silent films. This aversion to silent subjects has become apparent this year by the
reduction in individual film-loans to 8 per cent, below the 1948 total. It is felt that the
individual loan figure is the best basis for gauging the public's interest in the library,
as the numbers in the audiences are actually the responsibility of the borrower and not
a result of the interest created by the film subjects themselves.
Although the number of loans was down from 436 in 1948 to 397 this year, the
number of showings was up to a new high of 1,505. The total audience for the year
amounted to 126,105 persons—a significant increase of 41,087 over the preceding year.
This brings the cumulative total audience for the years 1945 to 1949, inclusive, up to
319,225 persons, with an average audience size of 105.
Members of the Service continued to make good use of the film library. A total of
160 showings was given by headquarters and district personnel to an audience of 12,765.
The Fort George District registered the largest total audiences, with 4,167 persons
attending its showings, while Kamloops District maintained its excellent record by
giving 36 individual showings. . .. ....  . ■ ■'..
REPORT OF FOREST  SERVICE, 1949. MM 85
Late in the year, projection units, complete with portable generators for use in
areas without electric power, were allotted on permanent loan to the Nelson, Kamloops,
and Prince Rupert-Fort George Districts by this Division. It is expected that this will
enable the districts to greatly increase their use of the film library and make it possible
for the Service to reach a still larger audience in the future.
A block of seven National Film Board subjects was given a circulation outlet
through the library. These films were used primarily to complement our educational
subjects in order to produce balanced programmes of the widest possible interest.
The most widely shown forestry films were " Mount Robson Park " (shown eighty-
four times to 6,924 persons), " Garibaldi Park" (seventy-three times to 6,573 persons),
and " Tweedsmuir Park " (sixty-nine times to 6,156 persons).
The most distant point at which our films were shown was the Department of
Forestry, Swiss Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland, where a block of four
subjects was shown six times to a total audience of 765 students and foresters. Certain
American universities continued to show interest in our films, as well as the University
of British Columbia, to whom a greater number of loans were made than ever before.
A tabular statement on the stock and circulation of the film library appears on
page 140 of this Report.
PHOTOGRAPHY.
In 1949 the Division darkroom processed and supplied the following material: —
Enlargements—■
8 by 10—284: To newspapers, magazines, and other publications.
8 by 10—363: To divisions of the Forest Service, the general public, and
Government publications.
5 by 7— 90: To divisions of the Forest Service.
5 by 7—189: To publishers and for educational purposes.
Contact Prints—
136: Various requests and for files.
The Division photographer took 246 black-and-white photographs and 180 colour
transparencies for the Division files. Also, many copy photographs were made from
old prints, and fading negatives in the old files were intensified.
Special photography was done for all divisions of the Service, such as copying
charts, illustrating radio hook-ups, photographing increment-borer cores to give contrast to the growth-rings and enlarge them for more accurate measurement. This
latter gave record prints before the cores had a chance to shrink.
Production of the following motion pictures in colour has been completed to the
initial editing stage, and they are ready for sound-tracking: "Reforestation," 1,000
feet; "Coast Logging," 1,000 feet; and "Forest Protection," 800 feet. Work was
done toward completion of the Christmas-tree industry film and the film on helicopter
spraying of hemlock loopers.
The Division photographer hand-coloured thirty-three ll-by-14 photographs for
the Forest Service Ranger School.
A new file system and library of 35-millimetre colour slides has been started and
plans completed for sets of indexed slides, suitable for lectures, education, and public
entertainment.
PUBLICATIONS.
The Annual Report of the Service for the calendar year 1948 was edited and
distributed. Assistance was rendered to other divisions of the Service on various
editorial and printing projects, including one popular bulletin, two technical bulletins,
three research notes, and three forest-protection bulletins. The Division designed
the 1950 Service calendar, produced six personnel news-letters, and arranged for the MM 86 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
reprinting of three other publications of various types. Forty thousand copies of a
children's booklet, "How the Fir Forest Was Saved," by H. W. Weatherby, were
printed, and distribution of the major portion of the edition effected by direct mail or
through the district offices and Ranger staff.
In the case of all publications enumerated, staff of the Division was responsible for
arranging printing by the Government Printing Bureau. Numerous minor printing
jobs were also supervised by members of the staff.
EXHIBITS.
The two portable displays dealing with forest protection and reforestation respectively were again circulated at various fairs and exhibitions held throughout the
Province during the late summer and early fall of the year. Designed as an educational
media, a supply of the leaflet " Forest Fire-Reforestation " accompanied the displays
for distribution to the public attending these events.
The protection exhibit was first shown early in September at the Prince George
Fall Fair and was then shipped to Rossland, Nelson, and Creston for entry in their
respective fairs. A member of this Division was in attendance at Rossland and also at
Nelson, where a special broadcast was arranged over radio station CKLN covering the
display and featuring radio contact between the exhibit and the Service's patrol aircraft
which circled the fair grounds during the broadcast and aroused interest and favourable comment.
The reforestation display, with a member of this Division in attendance, was
shown at the Invermere Fall Fair and later shipped to Elko and Creston where the
local Rangers and their staffs attended.
In addition to these portable displays, a number of floats and exhibits were constructed by members of the field staff throughout the Province for participation in local
parades. When called upon, this Division assisted in this phase of public-relations
work with the loan of banners and signs for decorating these floats.
Plans have been developed for the construction of a portable exhibit accenting the
desirability of proper range management. The circulation of this exhibit will be
primarily through the fall fairs and stock shows in the grazing areas of the Province.
Preliminary work has also been done on the compiling of a suitable leaflet for distribution with the display.
PROTECTION AND DIRECTIONAL SIGNS.
Protection.
During the early part of the year, twenty forest-protection highway signs of
Scotchlite reflecting fabric were constructed by members of the Division. These signs
measured 7 by 4 feet, using 1- by 3-inch finished lumber for the frames and a single
sheet of high-grade masonite for the sign-boards. Three different colours of Scotchlite
fabric were employed in making up the message and design. Four of these signs were
allotted to each of the forest districts for erecting at various points throughout their
areas for purposes of testing their durability and effectiveness under summer and fall
weather conditions. As a result of these tests, it was found that the signs were effective both in the daylight and at night, but that certain minor improvements would be
advisable in their construction. These improvements will be incorporated in signs
scheduled for future construction.
Sufficient material has been assembled for the completion of twenty-five more
similar signs, but improved working facilities are essential if this phase of our work is
to be carried out in a satisfactory manner. report of forest service, 1949. mm 87
Directional.
Continued study was given to the subject of standardized directional signs, and all
districts were requested to submit their opinions on four basic designs drawn up by
this Division. By the end of the year a standard design had been decided upon for
Ranger stations.
ARTICLES, PAPERS, AND ADDRESSES.
A number of special articles were prepared for newspapers and other publications.
Papers, addresses, and radio scripts were also produced and delivered for a variety of
audiences. This phase of the Division's work was curtailed this year to some degree
due to the volume and urgency of other activities.
CO-OPERATION.
. A total of 818 honorary fire wardens were appointed by the district offices. To all
appointees was dispatched a letter of appreciation over the signature of the Minister of
the Department. Each appointee received a year's subscription to the conservation
magazine " Forest and Outdoors."
Material, suggestions, and assistance in editing manuscripts were rendered to a
number of individuals preparing material on forestry or the forest industries for
publication.
LIBRARY.
Work of the reference library was heavier than in any previous year and, from
time to time, it became necessary to supplement the efforts of the librarian with assistance from other staff members. MM 88
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
GRAZING.
INTRODUCTION.
The range-livestock industry plays a very important part in the agricultural
economy of British Columbia. Many factors enter into the production of range live
stock, but the most important basic element is the availability of high-quality forage.
Fortunately, range is a renewable resource which, under careful management, can
continue to produce maximum yields indefinitely. On the other hand, overstocking and
mismanagement result in range deterioration and progressively lower forage yields.
It is, therefore, important to the live-stock producer that the range be so managed as
Typical herd of commercial beef cattle, Nicola district.
to remain at the highest level of productivity year after year. Further, grass and
other forage plants are important in water and soil conservation and must be maintained in a healthy condition to avoid flood and erosion. Game and other wild life can
only thrive under good range conditions. Recreational values may also be lowered
where range depletion occurs. Heavy trampling and browsing, as a result of a shortage of forage, may retard timber reproduction and growth.
It is, therefore, in the interests of the public as a whole that the management of
our range lands be so planned and directed as to obtain maximum live-stock production
consistent with the conservation of the range resource and to meet the requirements of
other forms of land use. The Forest Service endeavours to reach these objectives in
the administration of the Crown range lands, and it may be said that 1949 saw continued progress in this direction. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949. MM 89
GENERAL CONDITIONS.
Weather has an important bearing on the live-stock business. Not only the range
forage itself but also hay production, stock handling, and stock condition are affected.
The winter of 1948-49 was long and cold, necessitating constant heavy feeding.
Forage-growth was retarded in the Kamloops and Cariboo Districts by cold, dry
weather in March and April, but in the south-easterly portion of the Province growth
commenced at about the normal date. Some supplementary feeding of concentrates
was necessary to pull the stock through, particularly in those areas where the 1948
hay-crop was poor. Calf-crops were poor in some sections, possibly due to the hard
winter and unfavourable spring conditions.
Below-normal rainfall during the spring and early summer reduced forage-growth
on the open grasslands, particularly on depleted ranges covered by annual grasses and
weeds. Ranges in good condition and carrying a high percentage of desirable perennial grasses were much less seriously affected.
Heavy rains in June and July in the Kamloops Forest District resulted in an
excellent growth of forage on the summer ranges. Some recovery took place on the
open grasslands, and fall ranging conditions were generally good. A very mild fall
made it possible to graze the Crown ranges, where feed was available, until early in
December.
In the south-easterly portion of the Province, July and August were extremely dry,
with the result that the drier, more open, and heavily used areas in the East Kootenays
were cleaned off rather severely, necessitating the removal of stock to the hay meadows
early in September. The timbered ranges in this locality were in generally good condition, and it is unfortunate that a greater use of this type of range has not been
developed by the stockmen.
Grazing conditions were not entirely favourable on the alpine ranges, used largely
by sheep. Turn-out was delayed because of the late spring, and the season further
shortened by early frosts at the high elevations.    Lambs made out fairly well, however.
Hay-crops were above average in some areas, while in others they were normal or
below. The extremely wet weather in the Cariboo and Chilcotin persisted until after
August 15th, and a considerable amount of hay cut during this period was spoiled.
Later, good weather allowed haying to continue until after the end of September.
A large quantity of only fair-quality natural-meadow hay was put up.
Damage by grasshoppers was again negligible, and no active control measures were
undertaken in the grasshopper-control areas.
Ranch labour continues to be a problem. More men are available, but there is a
growing demand for the amenities of the town, and there is an abnormally large turnover. It is extremely difficult for the rancher to properly manage his stock on the
range with inexperienced help. Most materials and equipment are now in good supply,
good-quality barbed wire—a useful tool in range management—being one of the
important exceptions.
RANGE MANAGEMENT PLANS.
Each range should have a complete management plan, based on careful reconnaissance, and this should be revised where periodic inspections indicate the necessity.
After discussion with the stockmen concerned, these plans are included as conditions
in the grazing permits. This work is going on constantly throughout the range areas
as more information becomes available. In 1949 our efforts were concentrated particularly on ranges in the Grand Forks, Creston, East Kootenay, Riske Creek, Nicola, and
Kamloops areas. On the whole, stockmen co-operated well, and it is to be hoped that
a programme of rational range management will enjoy universal support as the benefits
are demonstrated by practice. MM 90 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
The chief problems receiving attention are too early turn-out, poor distribution,
and overstocking. The first can only be effectively overcome by the rancher providing
more and better-quality winter feed and thus being in a position to feed his stock until
the range grasses have a good start. This situation is slowly improving, as a result
of continuous checking by the grazing and Ranger staff and co-operation by the
ranchers, without the necessity of seriously reducing live-stock numbers.
There is always a tendency to allow stock to remain on the open grassland and
other areas suitable for spring and fall use for the whole season, even though considerable areas of unused, timbered, summer range are often available. Wherever necessary
and practical, fuller use of the timbered range is being insisted upon, thus reducing the
pressure on the overgrazed areas. Progress toward remedying this situation was made
in 1949.    The East Kootenay requires particular attention.
Fortunately, it has been possible to reduce overstocking in most cases by making
adjustments between range units and opening up areas of unused range. However,
in a few instances, it is now becoming evident that a reduction in permitted stock is
necessary.    This is done only as a last resort and then over a period of several years.
CO-OPERATION.
Co-operation by and with local live-stock associations is an important part of range
administration. Range-users, through these incorporated and recognized bodies, are
able to give a balanced opinion on range management that is highly valuable to administrative officers. Further, associations provide the machinery by which co-operative
range management plans may be carried out.
There are now forty-two active live-stock associations in the Province. These
reported ninety-six meetings, of which eighty-four were attended by forest officers.
Two new associations were recognized during the year and a third has become incorporated, and its application for recognition is expected early in 1950.
Close co-operation with the Game Department continued throughout the year, in
considering game-livestock relationships on the range and the problem of predatory
animals. Similarly, close contact was maintained with the Live Stock Branch of the
Department of Agriculture in connection with its programme of establishing bull-
control and disease-free areas in the range country.
RANGE IMPROVEMENT.
Most ranges cannot be utilized fully without some form of improvement and
development. The Range Improvement Fund, the standing of which is reported on
page 129, is available for such purposes. The " Gi'azing Act Amendment Act, 1949,"
increased the contribution to this fund from one-third to one-half of grazing fees
collected each year.
During the year the following projects were completed: Stock-bridges, 2; cattle-
guards, 2; drift-fences, 8; experimental plots, 2; holding-grounds (repaired), 7;
mud-holes, 6;   stock-trails, 15;   water-developments, 3;   weed-control measures, 1.
Some of the ranges are still encumbered with wild and useless horses. During
1949 action was taken in critical areas in co-operation with the live-stock associations.
Horses rounded up and shipped out for slaughter numbered 364, and 217 were shot.
Stockmen have continuously advocated burning as means of improving forage.
This is a highly complex and controversial matter as numerous factors are involved.
In order to obtain more scientific data, a series of experimental burns is being carried
out by the Dominion Range Experiment Station and this Service in co-operation with
several other agencies. The effect of fire on various types and under different conditions is being studied. Also, in conjunction with this, a study of old existing burns is
being made. ■ •■■ J  -..-.' .'.-'
—
REPORT OF FOREST  SERVICE, 1949.
MM 91
It is felt that, in most cases, depleted ranges in British Columbia may be most
economically rehabilitated by conservative management practices. There are some
areas, however, on which it is evident that reseeding will be necessary. Some trial
seedings carried out late in 1948 were checked closely during 1949 to ascertain results.
It is too early to arrive at definite conclusions, but there is some evidence that it will
be necessary to drill the seed to achieve satisfactory results on the dry grasslands.
Comparison of overgrazed range in poor condition and area artificially seeded
to crested wheat-grass, Quilchena.
The encroachment of goatweed on to the Interior range lands is a matter of considerable concern. This aggressive and poisonous weed is difficult to control and is
capable of replacing the valuable forage on most of our lower range lands. Various
control measures were tested during the year and the fullest possible information
obtained regarding control measures used elsewhere. Every effort will be made to
control this weed before it gains a foothold in the range areas.
RANGE RECONNAISSANCE.
Our programme of range reconnaissance was continued in 1949, a total of 691,912
acres being covered.    The following areas were mapped:— A_re_
Tunkwa Stock Range  155,513
Swakum Mountain    41,781
Rose Lake-150-Mile   318,308
Watching Creek  710
Waldo Stock Range  134,000
Creston Flats     41,600 MM 92
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Extensive examinations were carried out in several areas, including the Coutlee
Plateau and Maka Creek units of the Nicola Stock Range and the White Lake Stock
Range. In addition, 145 man-days were spent gathering grazing data required in
connection with the proposed dam projects on the Kootenay River.
GRAZING, HAY, AND SPECIAL-USE PERMITS.
The grazing of stock at large on Crown range is controlled through the issuance
of permits under authority of the " Grazing Act." Although the number of stock was
down somewhat, as a result of heavy sales in 1948, a record number of permits was
issued in 1949. This is due largely to the necessity of issuing spring and fall permits
separate from summer permits where intensified management plans are in effect.    The
Good-quality Herefords in shipping-corral, Nicola.
tabulation on page 141 shows the volume of business for 1949 and the past ten years.
Fees billed and collected were at approximately the same level as in 1948, and are shown
in the tabulation on page 141.
During the year 213 hay-cutting permits were issued, authorizing the cutting of
2,400 tons of hay and 253 tons of rushes on Crown lands.
Under special conditions, fenced pastures may be allowed within Provincial forests.
These are normally pastures used in conjunction with commercial lodges or special
pastures required by stockmen in handling their stock on the forests. Such use is
secured through special-use permit issued under authority of the Forest Reserve
Regulations.    Former Dominion grazing leases, lying within Provincial forests in the REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949. MM 93
Railway Belt, are being replaced by grazing special-use permits upon expiry.    Special-
use permits (grazing) to the number of twenty-four were issued in 1949.
MISCELLANEOUS.
LIVE-STOCK LOSSES.
Losses of stock were about normal in 1949.    Poison-weeds accounted for some
stock, but losses in mud-holes were light owing to high water-levels.    An increasing
number of cattle are being reported killed on highways running through range areas.
Losses of stock through gunshot wounds and predators were also reported.
Predatory Animals.
Many reports have been received in recent years to the effect that predatory animals, particularly wolves, are taking a heavy toll of range live stock and, in 1948, the
British Columbia beef-cattle growers requested that temporary summer employees of
the Forest Service be kept on during the winter to help combat this menace. As an
experiment, two men were employed a total of nine man-months during the winter of
1948-49 to hunt in the range areas of the Cariboo and Chilcotin. From the standpoint
of bag obtained—twenty-six coyotes and one wolf—the trial was not an outstanding
success. However, it was evident that the weather and distribution of game were such
that wolves were not forced to approach the more settled areas and prey on domestic
live stock during that period. Numerous reported kills were investigated but, in many
cases, there was no evidence that the stock had been killed by predators.
Markets and Prices.
Excellent prices were received by British Columbia livestock-producers throughout
the year, maintaining the industry in a healthy economic condition. Shipments of
cattle were down somewhat from 1948, but sheep and lambs were about the same.
There were six major range-livestock sales in 1949.
Stock-counts.
As a check on the number of stock on the Crown range and under authority of the
Grazing Regulations, several counts were carried out early in 1950.
Prosecutions.
During the year it was necessary to institute one civil suit to recover arrears of
grazing fees, and full collection was made. Two charges of grazing in trespass were
laid and, on the hearing, the accused was found guilty and fined $25 on both counts. MM 94 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY, 1950.
VICTORIA OFFICE.
C. D. Orchard Deputy Minister and Chief Forester Victoria.
R. C. St. Clair Assistant Chief Forester.
C. Cooper  Forest Counsel.
R. G. McKee Forester i/c Operation Division  _ ...Victoria.
P. Young Assistant Forester.
D. W. Perrie Meteorologist.
W. C. Spouse Mechanical Superintendent.
A. B. Crowe Assistant Mechanical Superintendent.
J. H. Taylor Marine and Structural.
G. A. Playfair Radio Superintendent.
H. E. Ferguson Assistant Radio Superintendent.
R. L. Fielder Technical Forest Assistant (Fire Research).
L. Lucas Technical Forest Assistant (Fire Research).
A. Stringer Chief Clerk.
E. B. Prowd Forester i/c Management Division  Victoria.
S. E. Marling Forester.
G. M. Abernethy Assistant Forester.
R. C. Telford Assistant Forester (Management Licences).
J. S. Stokes Assistant Forester.
A. E..Collins Assistant Forester (Forest-cover Maps).
W. G. Hughes Assistant Forester (Farm Wood-lot Licences).
D. M. Carey Assistant Forester (Public Working-circles).
F. F. Slaney Engineer.
A. L. Parlow Forester-in-training.
N. V. Mason  Forester-in-training.
R. G. Gilchrist Chief Draughtsman.
E. H. Henshall Chief Clerk.
A. G. Mumford Chief Clerk (Timber-sale Administration).
S. F. Bankes Senior Clerk (Timber-sale Contracts).
F. S. McKinnon Forester i/c Economics Division  ...Victoria.
J. L. Alexander Forester (Mensuration).
R. H. Spilsbury Forester (Soils).
H. M. Pogue Assistant Forester (Surveys).
E. H. Garman Assistant Forester (Silviculture).
G. Silburn Assistant Forester (Surveys).
H. N. Cliff Assistant Forester (Surveys).
A. R. Fraser Assistant Forester (Mensuration).
A. L. Orr-Ewing Assistant Forester (Silviculture).
G. C. Warrack Assistant Forester (Silviculture).
L. A. de Grace Assistant Forester (Aleza Lake Experimental Station).
H. C. Joergensen Assistant Forester.
R. M. Malcolm Assistant Forester.
J. M. Finnis Forester-in-training.
R. L. Schmidt Forester-in-training.
W. Young Forester-in-training.
C. J: Calder Forester-in-training.
W. Mulholland Forester-in-training.
D. Glew Forester-in-training.
B. Ford Forester-in-training.
H. E. Lyons Forester-in-training.
M. B. Clark Forester-in-training.
J. Frey Forester-in-training.
J. P. Decie Forester-in-training.
D. Macdougall Technical Forest Assistant.
A. N. Clarke Technical Forest Assistant.
J. H. Warwick Technical Forest Assistant.
G. W. Allison Technical Forest Assistant.
D. R. Selkirk Technical Forest Assistant.
W. Bailey Technical Forest Assistant.
C. J. T. Rhodes Supervising Draughtsman. REPORT OF FOREST  SERVICE, 1949. MM  95
VICTORIA OFFICE—Continued.
H. G. McWilliams  Forester i/c Reforestation Division Victoria.
A. H. Bamford Assistant Forester.
E. G. Whiting Assistant Forester.
T. Wells Nursery Superintendent, New Westminster.
J. R. Long Nursery Superintendent, Duncan.
W. Turner-: Nursery Superintendent, Campbell River.
N. G. Wharf Clerk.
E. G. Oldham Forester i/c Parks and Recreation
Division .      Victoria.
C. P. Lyons Assistant Forester.
D. M. Trew Assistant Forester.
L. Brooks ......Forester-in-training.
R. H. Ahrens Forester-in-training.
A. W. Weston Forester-in-training.
R. Lowrey Forester-in-training.
D. L. Macmurchie Technical Forest Assistant.
N. M. F. Pope Technical Forest Assistant.
F. R. Rainbow Technical Forest Assistant.
E. A. McGowan Engineer-in-training.
C. J. Velay Engineer-in-training.
R. G. Knight Engineer-in-training.
J. M. M. Bailey Engineer-in-training.
R. Stewart Architectural Draughtsman.
A. Wade Draughtsman.
S. E. Park Clerk.
E. Charlton Accountant.
E. Druce Forester i/c Public Relations and
Education Division __. Victoria.
D. R. Monk Public Relations Officer (Administration).
P. W. H. G. Johnson Public Relations Officer (Photography).
Miss I. Chisholm Forest Service Library.
W. C. Pendray Forest Agrologist i/c Grazing Division....Victoria.
W. V. Hicks Inspector, Forest Accounts Victoria.
D. I. MacLeod Assistant Inspector.
W. C. Higgins Chief Accountant.
A. E. Rhodes Assistant Accountant.
J. R. L. Conn Clerk, Expenditures.
E. Clough Overrun Investigator.
E. D. Greggor Forester i/c Ranger School New Westminster.
J. A. Pedley Assistant Forester.
G. L. Levy Clerk.
J. G. MacDonald Superintendent, Forest Service Marine
Station Vancouver.
DISTRICTS.
Vancouver.
E. W. Bassett District Forester  Vancouver.
D. B. Taylor Assistant District Forester.
D. H. Ross Assistant Forester (Operation).
J. A. K. Reid Assistant Forester (Management).
C. F. Holmes Assistant Forester (Slash-disposal Officer).
C. E. Bennett Assistant Forester.
W. E. L. Young Assistant Forester.
G. R. Johnston Forester-in-training.
J. McNeill Fire Inspector.
C. S. Frampton Supervisor.
R. H. Morrison Supervisor.
P. R. Neil Technical Forest Assistant.
G. A. MacKenzie Technical Forest Assistant.
C. L. Armstrong  Supervisor of Scalers.
A. C. Heard Assistant Supervisor of Scalers. MM 96 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
DISTRICTS—Continued.
Vancouver—Continued.
H. A. D. Munn Assistant Supervisor of Scalers.
J. A. Fetherstonhaugh___Inspector of Licensed Scalers.
J. H. Templeman Inspector of Licensed Scalers.
F. O'Grady Export Inspector.
H. H. Hill Mechanical Inspector.
E. P. Fox Chief Clerk.
G. H. Birkenhead Supervising Draughtsman.
S. W. Croteau Radio Technician.
R.D. No.
1. J. A. Mahood Ranger Chilliwack.
2. J. H. Robinson Ranger Mission.
3. G. G. Armytage Ranger North Vancouver.
4. S. C. Frost Ranger Squamish.
5. L. C. Chamberlin Ranger Sechelt.
 Pender Harbour.
 Powell River.
 Powell River.
6. D. H. Owen Ranger
7. W. Black Ranger
7. W. P. Rawlins Ranger
8. R. W. Aylett Ranger
9. A. F. W. Ginnever. Ranger
10. K. A. McKenzie Ranger
.Lund.
-Thurston Bay.
.Thurston Bay.
11. A. C. C. Langstroth-.Ranger Alert Bay.
12. R. W. Jones Ranger Port Hardy.
13. C. D. S. Haddon Ranger Campbell River.
14. S. Silke Ranger . Courtenay.
15. W. E. Jansen Ranger Nanaimo.
16. P. Sweatman Ranger Duncan.
17. J. P. Greenhouse Ranger Langford.
18. F. Tannock Ranger : Alberni.
19. J. F. Solloway Ranger Zeballos.
20. H. Barker Ranger Cowichan Lake.
21. R. Little Ranger Harrison Lake.
22. R. J. Glassford Ranger . Parksville.
23. M. H. Mudge Ranger Alert Bay.
H. Stevenson Ranger Vancouver.
Prince Rupert.
M. W. Gormely District Forester Prince Rupert.
M. O. Kullander Assistant District Forester.
J. P. MacDonald Assistant Forester (Operation).
L. B. Boulton Assistant Forester (Management).
R. W. Corregan Forester-in-training.
C. V. Smith Chief Clerk.
I. Martin Senior Draughtsman.
F. Goertzen Radio Technician.
J. B. Scott Inspector of Licensed Scalers.
R.D. No.
1. S. T. Strimbold Ranger Burns Lake.
1. R. L. Brooks Ranger Burns Lake.
2. L. G. Taft Ranger Hazelton.
2. R. G. Benson Ranger Hazelton.
3. S. G. Cooper Ranger Terrace.
3. W. H. Campbell Acting Ranger Terrace.
4/7. J. A. Willan Ranger...... Prince Rupert.
5/6. H. B. Hammer Ranger Queen Charlotte City.
8. A. A. Antilla Ranger Ocean Falls.
9. W. A. Antilla Ranger Southbank.
10. C. L. Gibson Ranger Smithers.
II. D. R. Smith Ranger Houston.
11. J. Mould Ranger Topley. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949. MM 97
DISTRICTS—Continued.
Fort George.
L. F. Swannell District Forester    Prince George.
A. H. Dixon Assistant District Forester.
E. W. Robinson Assistant Forester (Management).
W. G. Henning Assistant Forester (Operation).
F. H. Nelson Supervisor.
A. H. McCabe Inspector of Licensed Scalers.
F. Hollinger Mechanical Inspector.
R. B. Carter Chief Clerk.
R. C. Simpson Radio Technician.
R.D. No.
1. J. S. Macalister Ranger McBride.
2. G. G. Jones Ranger Penny.
3. A. F. Specht Ranger Prince George (S.).
4. C. L. French  Ranger Prince George (N.).
5. A. V. O'Meara Ranger Vanderhoof.
6. L. A. Willington Ranger Quesnel.
7. H. T. Barbour Ranger Pouce Coupe.
8. W. V. McCabe Ranger Aleza Lake.
9. N. Threatful Ranger Vanderhoof.
10. R. B. Angly Ranger Fort St. John.
11. R. I. Patterson Ranger Fort Fraser.
12. W. N. Campbell Ranger Fort McLeod.
G. E. Meents Ranger Prince George.
Kamloops.
A. E. Parlow District Forester  Kamloops.
W. C. Phillips Assistant District Forester.
J. R. Johnston Assistant Forester (Operation).
W. W. Stevens Assistant Forester (Management).
C. D. Grove-White Assistant Forester (Silviculture).
A. R. Waldie —.Assistant Forester.
T. R. Broadland Recreational Officer.
H. K. DeBeck Assistant Forest Agrologist.
M. T. Wallace Assistant Forest Agrologist.
A. Paulsen Assistant Forest Agrologist.
A. J. Kirk  Fire Inspector.
E. A. Charlesworth Inspector of Licensed Scalers.
C. Williams Inspector of Licensed Scalers.
J. R. Smythe Mechanical Inspector.
W. P. Cowan Technical Forest Assistant.
C. R. Downing Technical Forest Assistant.
C. H. Huffman Technical Forest Assistant.
E. A. Bowers Radio Technician.
C. R. Lee Supervising Draughtsman.
H. J. Parker Chief Clerk.
R.D. No.
1. M. A. Johnson Ranger , Vernon.
2. H. W. Campbell Ranger Birch Island.
3. D. P. Fraser Ranger Barriere.
4. H. A. Ferguson Ranger Kamloops.
5. H. G. Mayson Ranger Chase.
6. J. Boydell Ranger Salmon Arm.
7. J. A. Sim Ranger Sicamous.
8. E. L. Scott Ranger Revelstoke.
9. J. W. Hayhurst Ranger Vernon.
10. C. Perrin Ranger Penticton.
11. J. H. Dearing Ranger Princeton.
12. C. E. Robertson Ranger Clinton.
13. H. S. Noakes Ranger Williams Lake.
14. T. L. Gibbs Ranger Alexis Creek.
15. R. B. W. Eden Ranger Kelowna. MM 98 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
DISTRICTS—Continued.
Kamloops—Continued.
R.D. No.
16. L. E. Cook Ranger Wells Gray Park.
17. R. C. Hewlett Ranger Merritt.
18. C. M. Yingling Ranger Blue River.
19. H. C. Hewlett Ranger Enderby.
20. R. H. Boyd Ranger Manning Park.
21. 0. Paquette.-  Ranger 100-Mile House.
Nelson.
H. B. Forse District Forester Nelson.
I. T. Cameron Assistant District Forester.
L. S. Hope Forester (Silviculture).
G. W. Minns Assistant Forester (Management).
J. E. Milroy Assistant Forest Agrologist.
R. G. Gill Technical Forest Assistant.
J. H. A. Applewhaite—Technical Forest Assistant.
G. T. Robinson Inspector of Licensed Scalers.
J. H. Holmberg Fire Inspector.
I. B. Johnson Fire Inspector.
R. O. Christie Fire Inspector.
R. H. Baker Mechanical Inspector.
L. A. Chase Supervisor.
S. S. Simpson Chief Clerk.
J. C. I. Rogers Supervising Draughtsman.
L. S. Ott Radio Technician.
R.D. No.
1. J. L. Johnson Ranger Invermere.
2. R. A. Damstrom Ranger Fernie.
3. H. J. Coles Ranger Golden.
4. F. R. Hill Ranger Cranbrook.
4. J. B. Gierl Ranger Cranbrook.
5. A. I. Ross Ranger Creston.
6. J. L. Humphrey Ranger Kaslo.
7. R. E. Robinson Ranger Lardeau.
8. L. M. Quance Ranger '_ Nelson.
9. C. R. Tippie ...'_ Ranger New Denver.
10. H. L. Couling Ranger Nakusp.
II. J. F. Killough Ranger Rossland.
12. E. W. Reid Ranger Grand Forks.
13. L. E. Stilwell Ranger Kettle Valley.
13. J. E. Connolly Ranger Kettle Valley.
14. C. J. McGuire Ranger Canal Flats.
15. H. R. Wood Ranger Arrowhead.
16. W. D. Haggart Ranger Edgewood.
17. F. G. Hesketh Ranger Elko.
G. C. Palenthorpe --Ranger (Spare) Nelson. APPENDIX  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949. MM  101
TABULATED DETAILED STATEMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE.
CONTENTS.
General.
Table No. . Page.
1. Distribution of Personnel, 1949 1  103
Reforestation.
2. Summary of Planting during the Years 1940-49  104
Forest Management.
3. Estimated Value of Production, including Loading and Freight within the
Province  105
4. Paper Production (in Tons)  105
5. Water-borne Lumber Trade (in M B.M.)  106
6. Total Amount of Timber scaled in British Columbia during the Years 1948-49
(in F.B.M.)  107
7. Species cut, all Products (in F.B.M.)  108
8. Total Scale (in F.B.M.) segregated, showing Land Status, all Products, 1949—_ 109
9. Timber scaled in British Columbia in 1949 (by Months and Districts)  110
10. Logging Inspection, 1949  112
11. Trespasses, 1949  113
12. Pre-emption Inspection, 1949  113
13. Areas examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of the " Land Act," 1949  113
14. Classification of Areas examined, 1949  114
15. Areas cruised for Timber Sales, 1949  114
16. Timber-sale Record, 1949 .  114
17. Timber Sales awarded by Districts, 1949  115
18. Average Stumpage Prices as bid per M B.F. Log-scale, by Species and Forest
Districts, on Saw-timber cruised on Timber Sales in 1949  116
19. Average Stumpage Prices received per M B.F. Log-scale, by Species and Forest
Districts, on Saw-timber scaled from Timber Sales in 1949  117
20. Timber cut from Timber Sales during 1949  118
21. Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1949  119
22. Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1949  120
23. Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc., 1949  121
24. Summary for Province, 1949  121
25. Timber Marks issued  122
26. Forest Service Draughting Office, 1949  122
Forest Finance.
27. Crown-granted Timber Lands paying Forest Protection Tax  123
28. Acreage of Timber Land by Assessment Districts  123
29. Acreage of Crown-granted Timber Lands paying Forest Protection Tax as
compiled from Taxation Records  123
30. Forest Revenue  124
31. Amounts charged against Logging Operations, 1949  125 MM 102 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Table No. Page.
32. Amounts charged against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1948-49  126
33. Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1948-49  127
34. Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1948-49  128
35. Scaling Fund _•_  128
36. Silviculture Fund  129
37. Forest Reserve Account  129
38. Grazing Range Improvement Fund  129
39. Forest Protection Fund  130
40. Forest Protection Expenditure for Twelve-Months ended March 31st, 1949—By
the Forest Service  131
41. Reported Approximate Expenditure in Forest Protection Expenditure by Other
Agencies, 1949  132
Forest Protection.
42. Summary of Acreage logged, 1949, and dealt with under Section 113, " Forest
Act"  132
43. Summary of Operations, Vancouver Forest District  133
44. Summary Chart A—Intentional Slash-burn  133
45. Recapitulation of Slash-disposal, 1934-49  134
46. Fire Occurrences by Months, 1949  134
47. Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1949  134
48. Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years ...  135
49. Fires classified by Size and Damage, 1949  135
50. Damage to Property other than Forests, 1949  135
51. Damage to Forest-cover caused by Forest Fires, 1949  136
52. Fire Causes, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1949  136
53. Comparison of Damage caused by Forest Fires in Last Ten Years  137
54. Fires classified by Forest District, Place of Origin, and Cost per Fire of Fire-
fighting, 1949  137
55. Prosecutions, 1949  138
56. Burning Permits, 1949  139
Ranger School.
57. Enrolment at Ranger School  140
Public Relations.
58. Motion Picture Library  140
59. Forest Service Library  140
Grazing.
60. Grazing Permits issued  141
61. Grazing Fees billed and collected  141 (1)
report of forest service, 1949.
Distribution of Personnel, 1949.
MM 103
Fokest District.
Personnel.
Vancouver.
Prince
Rupert.
Fort
George.
Kamloops.
Nelson.
Victoria.
Total.
Continuously employed.
Chief   Forester,    Assistant    Chief   Forester,    and
2
5
1
2
26
5
72
3
2
1
4
56
12
22
14
3
3
2
3
1
11
1
1
2
14
3
8
2
2
1
1
11
1
1
1
13
15
1
1
2
3
4
1
1
22
2
1
1
3
3
16
21
7
4
1
2
3
2
1
3
18
2
2
1
3
16
1
24
6
"_.'
9
27
1
22
1
2
12
16
47
3
23
89
4
20'
1
7
9
16
9
District Foresters and Assistant District Foresters-
10
43
7
27
7
89
11
72
1
5
Mechanical—Radio and Engineering Supervisors
Technical Forest and Public Relations Assistants....
Nursery, Reforestation, Parks, and Research Assist-
19
21
47
3
36
204
Superintendent and Foremen, Forest Service Marine
4
21
16
90
28
7
10
10
18
233
46
50
92
85
309
815
Seasonally employed.
13
14
20
6
42
8
4
6
7
6
11
1
2
4
8
4
4
10
9
14
4
1
4
2
4
4
14
16
21
9
56
5
4
7
7
13
19
12
33
13
44
....
2
16
6
....
453*
39
8
23
8
56
63
57
99
39
142
461
Cruisers and Compass-men	
43
26
44
35
31
77
113
54
52
152
159
587
1,117
346
100
102
244
244
896
1,932
* Peak employment. MM 104
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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Tota REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949.
MM 107
...
Total Amount of Timber scaled in British Columbia during the
Years 1948-49 (in F.B.M.).
Forest District.
1948.
1949.
Gain.
Loss.
Net Gain.
3,091,275,786
175,108,525
2,962,078,034
174,799,387
129,197,752
309,138
3,266,384,311
3,136,877,421
129,506,890
100,372,636
297,219,261
334,671,933
294,816,878
98,910,325
263,403,404
298,230,238
252,260,939
1,462,311
33,815,857
36,441,695
42,555,939
1,027,080,708
912,804,906
114,275,802
4,293,465,019
4,049,682,327
243,782,692
243,782,692 MM 108
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> REPORT  OF FOREST  SERVICE, 1949.
MM 109
(s)
Total Scale (in F.B.M.) segregated, showing Land Status,
all Products, 1949.
Forest District.
Vancouver.
Prince
Rupert,
Coast.
Prince
Rupert,
Interior.
Fort
George.
Kamloops.
Nelson.
Totals.
635,601,206
145,418,069
190,137,566
4,325,170
25,295,561
62,811
23,180,366
652,219,414
15,056,460
5.626.490   1        5.030 240
13,119,438
2,622,177
41,000
674,433,834
10,514,471
158,554,717
   I   	
190,178,566
20,991,3:04
59,156,537
790,602
328.836
	
25,316,474
	
85,452,098
Hand-loggers' licences...
853,413
	
2.415.173
6,270,508
198.176.718
4,760,299
169,462,351
36,955,182
59.665.341  1 83.234.489
222.598.678
1,385,356,991
8,372,798
	
8,372,798
106,421,609
3,987,781
968,187,649
121,875,405
26,825,264
57,540,163
	
106,421,609
2,336,701  |    3,946,445
1
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11,348,592  |      8,592,714
74,638  |    22,486,243
52,198  |      6,668,005
3,395,182  |    18,093,101
20,307,626  |    22,398,238
4.207,215
2,662,676
31,261,946
10,468,079
13,655,758
34,419,448
Crown grants—
To 1887..
993,411,206
1887 to 1906	
782,486  |       211,454
6,309,666 |    4,683,839
1,008,656 |    4,418,925
160,851,494
1906 to 1914
69,775,131
1914 to date    	
119,329,366
Totals	
2,962,078,034  [  174,799,387 | 98,910,325
1                         1
263,403,404  | 298,230,238
252,260,939
4,049,682,327
Timber from lands in the former Dominion Government Railwav Belt which has passed over to the jurisdiction
of this Province is included under the various land-status headings shown above.
Only timber from Indian reserves and other lands still under the jurisdiction of the Dominion Government is
shown under the heading " Dominion Lands."
Total Scale of Material in Cubic Feet included above segregated, showing Land Status,
all Products.
(Conversion factor: 1 cubic foot=5.7 board-feet.)
Forest
District.
Timber
Licences.
Timber
Leases.
Pulp
Leases.
Dominion
Lands.
Timber
Sales.
No Marl-
visible.
Crown Grants.
To 1887.
1887-
1906.
1914 to
Date.
Total.
Vancouver...
622,355
213,026
1,977,376
2,177
97,590
1,209,625
12,423,110
687,346
42,094
17,274,699 MM 110
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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O MM 112
(10)
department ©f lands and forests.
Logging Inspection, 1949.
Type of Tenure operated.
Forest District.
Timber
Sales.
Hand-
loggers'
Licences.
Leases,
Licences.
Crown Grants,
and
Pre-emptions.
Totals.
No. of
Inspections.
Vancouver	
2,209
1,155
708
1,518
815
1
6
1,660
445
68
1,215
1,052
3,870
1,606
776
2,733
1,867
5,841
2,580
1,425
2,938
2,699
Totals, 1949	
6,405
7
4,440
10,852
15,483
Totals, 1948	
4,847
5
3,982
8,834
15,432
Totals, 1947	
4,428
5
3,190
7,623
13,876
Totals, 1946	
3,627
6
3,021
6,654
12,974
Totals, 1945 :	
3,492
9
2,852
6,353
11,901
Totals, 1944	
3,373
4
2,540
5,917
11,648
Totals, 1943	
3,259
11
2,519
5,789
12,110
Totals, 1942	
3,086
18
2,569
5,673
13,753
Totals, 1941 .'.	
3,207
18
2,833
6,058
11,438
Totals, 1940	
2,864
12
2,272
5,148
10,968
Ten-year average, 1940-49	
3,857
10
3,022
6,889
12,958 (11)
report of forest service, 1949.
Trespasses, 1949.
MM 113
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53
115
90
418
519
297
445
1,779
1,092
6,802,643
4,530,933
2,056,766
5,774,476
1,254,745
6,741
20,483
1,200
63,623
152,618
139
555
122
313
169
690
1,076
1,348
400
1
471     34.070
8
Z
4
5
9
$37,948.98
300
9,976.32
1,650
6,435.65
4,375
3,876
20,303.85
7,135
7,258.47
Totals, 1949
4,132
20,419,563
244,655
1,298
3,514
9,022
34,070
8,785
28
$81,923.27
Totals, 1948
312
3,062
11,738,855
470,674
3,569
18,211
3,711
11,135
4,100
8
$59,654.37
Totals, 1947
316
5,132
17,234,601
659,621
5,599
5,235
15,416
439,554
17,506
15
$74,761.43
Totals, 1946
226
2,568
7,084,343
1,760,574
1,469
2,900
10,148
41,377
35,997
8
$27,530.63
Totals, 1945	
267
3,313
24,322,556
516,960
1,910
9,902
2,438
10
$37,877.12
Totals, 1944	
210
2,467
12,317,066
179,219
3,369
4,231
3,781
6
$29,193.16
Totals, 1943	
167
3,058
9,744,957
129,409
6,873
552
7,923
7
$23,725.29
Totals, 1942	
180
1,159
4,413,906
365,861
4,757
490
1,512
15
$14,391.61
Totals, 1941	
236
1,788
7,627,990
526,391
2,887
1,365
4,150
17
$24,253.10
Totals, 1940	
194
877
5,206,829
94,444
1,573
4,279
9,854
13
$14,088.24
Ten-year average, 1940-49	
252
2,755
12,011,067
494.781
3,331
5,068
6,796
13
$38,739.82
(12)
(IS)
Pre-emption Inspection, 1949.
Pre-emption Records examined by Districts.
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert
Fort George _._.
Kamloops 	
Nelson 	
Total.
Areas examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of the
" Land Act," 1949.
34
3
144
187
39
407
Forest District.
Applications for
Hay and Grazing
Leases.
Applications for
Pre-emption
Records.
Applications to
Purchase.
Miscellaneous.
Totals.
No.
1
9
19
58
4
Acres.
3
1,571
2,621
34,449
1,020
No.
7
5
37
41
5
Acres.
489
785
5,244
6,449
630
No.
213
52
171
194
154
Acres.
8,938
3,851
16,447
15,300
9,152
No.
102
24
23
32
12
Acres.
912
917
2,051
2,685
366
No.
323
90
250
325
175
Acres.
10,342
7,124
26,363
58,883
11,168
91
39,664
95
13,597
784
53,688
193
6,931
1,163
113 880 MM 114
(W
department of lands and forests.
Classification of Areas examined, 1949.
Forest District.
Total Area.
Agricultural
Land.
Non-agricultural Land.
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Estimated
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Acres.
10,342
7,124
26,363
58,883
11,168
Acres.
2,166
1,876
13,234
7,490
1,986
Acres.
8,176
5,248
13,123
51,393
9,182
Acres.
954
10
695
118
MB.M.
18,729
150
18,193
1,079
113,880
26,752
87,128
1,777
38,151
(IS)
Areas cruised for Timber Sales, 1949.
Forest District.
Number
cruised.
Acreage.
Saw-
timber
(MB.M.).
Pit-props,
Poles, and
Piles
(Lin. Ft.).
Shingle-
bolts and
Cordwood
(Cords).
Railway-
ties
(No.).
Car-stakes,
Posts,
Shakes,
etc. (No.).
475
307
317
367
172
59,192
33,920
47,047
77,142
52,275
606,596
182,871
204,819
185,257
175,799
817l,219
1,099,586
375,322
4,734,079
2,572,970
16,055
3,004
2,820
21,982
13,141
2,625
88,550
73,910
4,990
400
143,300
7,800
95,050
492,360
Totals  1949                 	
1,638
269,576
1,355,342
9,599,176
57,002
170,475
738,510
Totals  1948        	
1,851
346,648
1,817,737
7,603,641
44,726
180,602
1,947,010
1,960
361,834
1,481,715
23,015,436
50,346
299,501
1,064,125
Totals, 1946    	
2,059
362,587
1,230,716
40,760,769
90,078
216,892
2,718,706
1,488
261,150
948,673
48,743,325
95,774
301,276
1,802,468
1,476
334,729
1,205,308
8,166,829
137,737
483,363
1,345,439
Totals, 1943      	
1,771
590,953
907,768
10,720,729
259,741
454,767
816,544
1,469
305,222
794,676
8,562,739
100,232
381,106
743,500
Totals, 1941	
1,611
321,220
689,595
15,794,246
126,463
199,174
263,480
Totals, 1940    	
1,620
300,480
572,562
11,309,288
72,157
314,644
512,042
Ten-year average, 1940—49	
1,695
345,440
1,100,409
18,427,619
103,426
300,175
1,195,183
(16)
Timber-sale Record, 1949.
District.
Sales
made.
Sales
closed.
Total
existing.
Total Area
(Acres).
Acreage paying Forest
Protection
Tax.
Total
10-per-cent.
Deposits.
Vancouver	
559
360
356
448
286
680
438
319
492
376
1,573
1,047
849
1,692
1,065
359,311
233,828
194,995
435,836
324,093
250,522
180,164
133,623
390,723
276,033
$1,054,805.70
256,504.07
272,649.74
380,825.26
302,796.71
Nelson	
Totals	
2,009
553
2,304
6,226
1,548.063              1,231,065
$2,267,581.48
2,562
1 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949.
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report of forest service, 1949.
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1949.
MM 119
Operating.
Shut Down.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
No.
Estimated
Eieht-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.M.
No.
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
Shingles, M.
No.
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.M.
No.
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
Shingles, M.
Vancouver	
448
231
384
355
253
8,858
1,296
3,396
2,674
2,858
56
2
3
7,637
30
41
95
23
57
82
57
1,157
163
385
305
363
6
31
3
5
451
12
Nelson	
50
Totals, 1949	
1,671
19,082
61
7,708
314
179
2,373
17
513
Totals, 1948	
1,671
18,570
68
8,464
840
11
360
Totals, 1947	
1,634
17,546
73
8,609
143
754
6
100
Totals, 1946	
1,228
15,256
59
8,656
115
741
8
165
Totals, 1945	
931
13,590
51
7,054
137
808
7
150
Totals, 1944	
807
14,974
51
6,695
110
702
16
581
Totals, 1943	
614
13,623
54
7,411
120
646
19
829
Totals, 1942	
551
13,197
70
8,874
149
1,206
11
135
Totals, 1941	
557
13,820
76
8,835
129
1,083
5
63
Totals, 1940	
542
12,691
77
8,585
141
1,432
18
307
Ten-year average,
1940-49	
1,021
15,234
64
8,089
153
1,059
11
321 MM 120
(2-2)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1949.
Species.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Totals.
Fir                	
140,471
5,227,067
3,790,410
8,546,338
195,358
8,764,758
16,501,252
11,281,947
733,245
74,774,818
20 432,133
25,055,352
928,603
1,016,727
84,556,303
14,228,041
105,213
14,228,041
8,309
73,974
337
3,495
96,904
159,767
7,963
241,704
337
2,774
6,269
Total,, 1949	
6,392,228
21,382,979
103,550,707
14,228,041
145,553,955*
Totals, 1948    	
9,380,092
31,127,805
106,739,296
16,367,096
163,614,289
Totals, 1947         	
7,156,095
21,100,803
52,368,152
7,552,386
88,177,436
Totals, 1946	
6,843,046
17,485,065
28,308,163
33,898,926
86,535,200
Totals, 1945      	
3,852,321
20,696,800
24,903,105
32,624,170
82,076,396
Totals, 1944       	
6,724,297
29,051,958
33,851,519
32,027,805
101,655,579
Totals, 1943	
2,809,744
17,720,743
28,863,804
29,261,754
78,656,045
Totals, 1942	
2,639,167
18,960,886
27,618,347
106,793,550
156,011,950
Totals, 1941	
8,549,320
63,485,278
43,165,973
191,879,335
307,079,906
Totals, 1940	
4,697,188
37,567,582
24,865,886
150,396,702
217,527,358
5,904,350
27,857,991
47,423,494
61,502,977
142,688,812
* Of this total, 115,767,801 F.B.M. were exported from Crown grants carrying the export privilege;   29,786,154
F.B.M. were exported under permit from other areas. REPORT OF FOREST  SERVICE, 1949.
MM 121
(as)
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts,
railway-ties, etc, 1949.
Quantitv
exported.
Approximate Value,
F.O.B.
Where marketed.
Forest District.
United
States.
Canada.
United
Kingdom.
Other
Countries.
Vancouver—■
Poles  !	
lin. ft.
 lin. ft.
4,001,927
660,583
91,434
14,190
836,830
4,518,207
82,984
1,861,654
28
162,221
648,960
128,973
1,808
5,547,550
82,076
4,179
27,809
3,710
1,020,742
4,560,893
204,222
157,000
5,078
13,852
20
62,808
889,532
$1,000,481.75
165,145.75
22,858.50
205,755.00
29,289.00
225,910.35
16,596.80
373,000.00
400.00
154,000.00
103,833.60
126,884.82
18,085.00
1,102,425.30
98,028.92
105,741.00
2,219.92
371.00
234,770.66
912,159.00
32,675.00
785.00
101,560.00
207,780.00
180.00
84,162.00
177,906.00
2,429,106
165,995
1,220
14,190
836,830
4,473,373
82,984
1,038,090
1,561,036
491,072
90,214
11,785
3,516
Fence-posts  	
 posts
 cords
lin. ft.
 pieces
 trees
Pulp-wood   	
Sticks and stakes	
Shakes   	
44,834
Christmas trees  	
Prince Rupert—
lin. ft.
 cords
 ties
823,564
28
162,221
333,320
128,973
1,808
2,607,325
82,076
4,128
27,809
3,710
66,919
1,562,603
195,177
Fort George—
Poles  	
 lin. ft.
315,640
 cords
 lin. ft.
 ties
Kamloops—
3,940,225
51
 lin. ft.
Stubs   	
 lin. ft.
953,823
2,998,290
9,045
157,000
Nelson—
 lin. ft.
Piling   	
 lin. ft.
 lin. ft.
 cords
 cords
 cords
 trees
5,078
10,223
20
62,808
142,622
3,629
746,910
Total value, 1949	
$5,503,004.37
j
Total value. 1948	
$4,991,338.58
.2..
Summary for Province, 1949.
Product.
Volume.
Value.
Per Cent, of
Total Value.
 lin.ft.
17,485,789
91,434
19,867
20
14,190
27,809
436,078
5,078
993,830
4,518,207
3,710
1,993,258
$3,689,720.40
22,858.50
332,006.00
180.00
205,755.00
2,219.92
463,075.74
101,560.00
30,074.00
225,910.35
371.00
429,273.46
67.05
0.42
6.03
0.00
3.74
 lin. ft.
0.04
8.41
1.85
Stubs 	
 lin. ft.
 lin. ft.
0.55
4.10
0.01
7.80
Totals  	
25,589,270
$5,503,004.37
100.00 MM 122
department of lands and forests.
Timber Marks issued.
1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.
1945.
]
I
1946.
1947.
1948.
1949.
Ten-year
Average,
1940-49.
272
101
99
275
58
1
16
13
1,724
4
3
2
20
211
85
101
282
64
1
16
5
1,853
"
17
160
85
92
250
79
2
9
4
1,709
19
6
2
1
190
98
104
283
72
2
5
11
2,017
9
5
1
4
280
89
81
234
51
1
9
10
1,893
6
1
1
329
115
106
337
53
2
3
16
1,898
6
15
2
[     631
200
176
473
70
3
8
15
2,637
35
738
191
176
489
75
8
9
18
2,469
32
1
791
156
150
439
82
5
4
20
2,612
40
2
548
128
97
352
60
7
18
2,525
26
1
1
Crown grants. 1887-1906	
Crown grants. 1906-1914	
118
Section 55, " Forest Act "
341
66
Pre-emptions  under  sections
28 and 29, " Land Act"	
3
9
Indian reserves	
13
2,134
6
Totals	
2,588
315
2,654
307
2,418
224
2,801
237
2,664  |
251
1
2,882
327
4,248
486
4,206
655
4,301
745
3,763
550
3 253
Transfers    and    changes    of
410
(26)
Forest Service Draughting Office, 1949.
Number of Drawings prepared or Tracings made.
Number of Blue-prints
or Ditto-prints made
from Draughting Office
Drawings.
Timber
Sales.
Timber
Marks.
Examination
Sketches.
Miscellaneous
Matters.
Constructional
Works, etc.
Totals.
Blueprints.
Ditto-
prints.
Totals.
48
47
54
34
44
46
43
49
30
39
51
29
89
173
176
166
175
146
84
138
83
85
137
95
76
79
80
98
113
82
58
59
55
112
81
95
29
46
19
15
13
26
23
90
31
13
24
24
7
6
3
4
5
10
6
6
6
12
12
3
249
351
332
317
350
310
214
342
205
261
305
246
I
620  |       910
976 j       880
829   |     1,041
965   |        682
882 j       965
1,043  i       990
1,530
1,856
1,870
1,647
1,847
2,033
July	
762
875
604
767
915
997
700
800
1,677
1,872
September	
1,304
1,567
951   I        804
910   j        660
1,755
1,570
Totals, 1949	
514
1,547
988
353
80
3,482
10,184  j  10,344
20,628
Totals, 1948	
681
2,300
1,247
241
58
4,327
13,625  [  12,959
26,401
500
2,223
1,238
290
55
4,306
12,026
9,844
21,870
Totals, 1940	
604
1,931
1,028
525
48
4.136
9,113
7,300
16,413
Totals, 1945	
569
1,193
693
684
75
3,214
6,495
6,701
13,196
Totals, 1944	
442
889
459
544
46
2,380
4,159
4,983
9,142
Totals, 1943	
356
937
396
293
93
2,075
4,009
3,448
7,457
Totals, 1942	
329
868
359
111
73
1,740
t
t
t
Totals, 1941	
247
1,087
468
150
70
2,022
f
t
t
Totals, 1940	
224
1,151
434
282
*
2,091
f
t
t
Totals for ten-year
4,466
14,126
7,310
3,473
598
29,773
59,611
55,579
115,007
Average for ten-year
period	
447
1,413
731
347
66t
2,977
8,5161
7,940 §
16,430§
* Prior to 1941, Constructional Works, etc.,
1943. % Average for nine-year period only.
included in Miscellaneous Matters. f No record kept prior to
§ Average for seven-year period only. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949.
MM 123
(S7)
Crown-granted Timber Lands paying Forest Protection Tax.
Year.
1921.
Area (Acres).
  845,111
1922  887,980
1923  883,344
1924  654,668
1925  654,016
1926  688,372
1927  690,438
1928  671,131
1929  644,011
1930  629,156
1931  602,086
1932  552,007
1933  567,731
1934  557,481
1935  535,918
Year. Area (Acres).
1936  515,924
1937  743,109
1938  754,348
1939  719,112
1940  549,250
1941  543,632
1942  527,995
1943  543,044
1944  571,308
1945  591,082
1946  601,148
1947  596,900
1948  571,439
1949  597,790
(28)
Acreage of Timber Land by Assessment Districts.
Acres.
Alberni   81,872
Comox   133,646
Cowichan   97,779
Fort Steele  11,182
Gulf Islands  240
Kettle River  315
Nanaimo   131,627
Acres.
Nelson      1,997
Omineca         160
Prince George     1,193
Prince Rupert  20,634
Revelstoke   32,877
Slocan   37,842
Victoria   46,426
Acreage of Crown-granted Timber Lands paying Forest Protection Tax
(*9> as compiled from Taxation Records.
Acreage
assessed as
Timber
Land.
Coast.
Interior.
Logged.
Timber.
Logged.
Timber.
1936 	
766,186
766,413
756,328
719,111
549,250
543,633
527,996
543,044
571,308
591,082
601,148
596,900
571,439
597,790
Acres.
92,892
96,598
106,833
89,209
103,486
105,541
112,834
125,313
134,194
142,504
146,331
153,072
158,120
172,024
Acres.
352,582
363,693
344,858
338,794
338,419
335,468
322,306
325,996
345,378
357,037
364,556
354,207
326,738
340,200
Acres.
152,846
153,566
157,508
153,032
24,862
26,016
20,072
20,205
20,816
21,536
23,125
26,591
25,485
30,625
Acres.
167,866
1937                      	
152,556
1938	
147,129
1939	
138,075
1940	
82,493
1941	
76,608
1942	
72,781
1943    	
71,529
1944	
70,920
1945	
70,005
1946                       	
67,136
1947	
63,030
1948	
61,096
1949 	
54,941 MM 124
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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fc report of forest service, 1949. mm 127
(**)                            Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1948-49.
Ten-year Average.
Timber-licence rentals   $387,390.95 $406,188.35
Timber-licence transfer fees  2,050.00 1,895.00
Timber-licence penalty fees  1,628.00 9,771.42
Hand-loggers' licence fees  200.00 230.00
Timber-lease rentals   53,872.17 51,241.75
Timber-lease penalty fees and interest 94.27 88.31
Timber-sale rentals   100,114.68 53,601.85
Timber-sale stumpage  4,270,790.13 1,699,101.99
Timber-sale cruising  38,315.38 19,244.66
Timber-sale advertising   7,065.30 3,725.71
Timber royalty  2,999,897.17 2,253,283.90
Timber tax  38,903.25 33,150.58
Scaling fees (not Scaling Fund)    163.44
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund)___ 2,501.90 155.46
Trespass stumpage*    33,211.67
Scalers' examination feesf    434.50
Exchange   91.94 108.81
Seizure expenses  793.15 778.30
General miscellaneous   22,729.93 10,768.16
Timber-berth rentals, bonus, and fees._ 21,751.01 21,581.26
Interest on timber-berth rentals  5.93 67.15
Transfer fees on timber berths  162.76 128.20
Grazing fees and interest  29,318.30 30,230.11
$7,977,676.22      $4,629,150.58
Taxation from Crown-granted timber
lands       453,980.08 251,668.23
Totals  $8,431,656.30     $4,880,818.81
* Trespass penalties now included in timber-sale stumpage.
t Scalers* examination fees now included in general miscellaneous. MM 128
(Si)
department of lands and forests.
Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1948-49.
Forest District.
Salaries.
Expenses.
Total.
$28,783.51
44,439.87
17,633.72
15,270.66
22,653.45
22,603.44
186,015.79
$28,783.51
$164,045.85
65,670.04
72,272.02
130,083.58
127,125.50
275,097.64
208,485.72
83,303.76
87,542.68
152,737.03
149,728.94
461,113.43
Totals	
$834,294.63
$337,400.44
$1,171,695.07
4,000.00
60,175.43
25,075.68
360,994.23
21,796.27
182,593.92
4,164.70
34,264.05
35,000.00
24,292.54
14,659.15
1,650,000.00
218,935.66
$3,807,646.60
* Contributions from Treasury to special funds detailed elsewhere.
N.B.—The above figures do not include amounts paid as cost-of-living: bonus, totalling $199,979.83, made up as
follows: —
Salaries  $130,372.41
Expenses  8.456.37
Forest management  5,095.22
Forest research  2,683.42
Reforestation  39,087.55
Provincial parks  10,958.71
Ranger School  3,244.19
Insect-control  81.96
$199,979.83
(S5)
Scaling Fund.
Balance, April 1st, 1948 (debit).
Collections, fiscal year 1948-49—
$62,746.58
366,715.31
$303,968.73
379,593.87
Balance, March 31st, 1948 (debit)     $75,625.14
Expenditures, fiscal year 1948-49-
Balance, April 1st, 1949 (debit)     $75,625.14
Collections, nine months, April-December, 1949    323,400.89
Expenditures, nine months, April-December, 1949..
Balance, December 31st, 1949 (debit)	
$247,775.75
317,596.28
$69,820.53 REPORT OF FOREST  SERVICE, 1949.
<se>                                      .    Silviculture Fund.
Balance forward, April 1st, 1948     ___
MM 129
$112,631.90
302,861.08
Collections, fiscal year 1948-49      _      	
Expenditures, fiscal year 1948-49	
$415,492.98
50,510.65
Balance, March 31st, 1949	
$364,982.33
Balance, April 1st, 1949              	
$364,982.33
381,001.16
Collection, nine months to December 31st, 1949	
Expenditures, nine months to December 31st, 1949	
Balance, December 31st, 1949 (credit) 	
$745,983.49
111,847.29
$634,136.20
<S7>                                      Forest Reserve Account.
Credit balance brought forward, April 1st, 1948 _'_
Amount received from Treasury, March 31st, 1949 (under
subsection (2), section 32, " Forest Act")	
Moneys received under subsection (4), section 32, "Forest Act"
$454,128.23
218,935-56
255.00
Expenditures, April 1st, 1948, to March 31st, 1949	
Credit balance, March 31st, 1949	
Expenditures, nine months to December 31st, 1949	
Balance, December 31st, 1949 (credit)
$673,318.79
111,641.57
$561,677.22
79,299.83
$482,377.39
(3S>                               Grazing Range Improvement Fund.
Balance, April 1st, 1948 (credit)    .      	
$35,024.71
9,398.26
275.80
Government contribution (section 14, "Grazing Act").
Other collections                       	
Expenditures, April 1st, 1948, to March 31st, 1949	
Balance, March 31st, 1949 (credit) 	
$44,698.77
17,071.86
$27,626.91
14,659.15
59.00
Government contribution (section 14, "Grazing Act")..:
Other collections  	
Expenditures, April 1st, 1949, to December 31st, 1949
Balance, December 31st, 1948 (credit)  _
$42,345.06
11,428.49
$30,916.57 MM 130 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
<S!>) Forest Protection Fund.
Balance (.deficit), April 1st, 1948         $2,528.79
Expenditures  $1,491,202.85
Less refunds  38,638.16
     1,452,564.69
$1,455,093.48
Government contribution  $1,650,000.00
Collections, tax       355,109.81
Collections, slash and snags... $20,511.18
Less refunds       7,444.07
  13,067.11
    2,018,176.92
Balance (credit), March 31st, 1949      $563,083.44
Balance (credit), April 1st, 1949     $563,083.44
Expenditures, nine months,
April to December,
1949   $1,293,950.03
Less refunds  31,062.91
  $1,262,887.12
Repayable to votes (approximately)       420,646.02
     1,683,533.14
$1,120,449.70
Collections, tax     $231,797.24
Collections, miscellaneous         30,290.82
Government contribution      1,500,000.00
     1,762,088.06
Estimated credit balance, December 31st, 1949     $641,638.36 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949.
MM 131
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> MM 132
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Reported Approximate Expenditure in Forest Protection by other
<u) Agencies, 1949.
Expenditures.
Forest District.
Patrols and
Fire-
prevention.
Tools and
Equipment.
Fires.
Improvements.
Total.
$205,390.00
1,056.80
$185,450.00
4,227.20
$99,410.00
829.50
6,010.61
4,603.66
6,280.07
$12,871.00
$503,121.00
6,113.50
6,010.61
4,603.66
24,830.07
3,300.00
11,500.00
3,750.00
Totals	
$209,746.80
$201,177.20
$117,133.84
$16,621.00
$544,678.84
Ten-year average, 1940-49	
$75,394.00
$116,050.00
$150,132.00
$7,205.00
$348,781.00
(**} Summary of Acreage logged, 1949, and dealt with under
Section 113, " Forest Act."
Acres.
Total area logged, Vancouver Forest District	
1949 slash covered by hazard reports  48,966
1949 slash logged after September 1st and carried over
Acres.
70,414
to 1950
__ 21,448
■ ■ 70,414
1949 slash covered by hazard reports  48,966
1949 slash burned intentionally  22,266
1949 slash burned accidentally       819
1949 slash on which no burning was required  12,474
1949 slash on which additional time for burning has
been granted    2,505
1949 slash awaiting decision re compensation or additional time for disposal     7,065
1949 slash on which compensation has been assessed—-       148
1949 slash abated by lopping, land-clearing, etc        153
1949 slash in zone liable for snag-falling only    3,536
 48,966
Summary of Slash being carried to be dealt with in 1950.
Acres.
688
Slash accumulated prior to 1949	
Slash accumulated in 1949 (exclusive of 3,536 acres on which
snag-falling only requirement)  31,018
31,706 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949. MM 133
W Summary of Operations, Vancouver Forest District.
Total operations, Vancouver Forest District     1,541
Number of intentional slash-burns  459
Number of operations on which slash was disposed of
by lopping or land-clearing, etc  6
Number of operations on which slash was accidentally
burned   43
Number of operations not required to burn  467
Number of operations given further time for disposal „__ 21
Number of operations not considered necessary to deal
with under section 113  447
Number of operations on which compensation has been
assessed for 1949 slash  7
Number of operations pending decision re assessment
or further time for slash-disposal  92
Number of operations inactive in 1949  57
Number of operations snag-falling area only  37
Number of operations on which security deposit has
been posted   3
1,639* 1,541
* Difference noted above is accounted for by slash on some operations being disposed of by both accidental and
intentional means and some operators conducting both spring and fall burns.
c**> Summary Chart A—Intentional Slash-burn.
Operations conducting slash-burn  459
Acres slash-burned in 1949—
Created prior to 1947        614
Created 1947  11,493
Created 1948  19,170
Created 1949  22,266
  53,543
Broadcast-burned    30,281
Spot-burned   23,262
■  53,543
Acres of forest-cover burned  1,085
Total acres burned  54,628
Net damage to forest-cover    $5,274.05
Net damage to property and cut products     54,351.84
Total damage  $59,625.89
Cost of slash-disposal—
Operators   $78,685.12
Forest Service  2.00
Cost to operator per acre  1.47
Cost to operator based on stand of 40 M per acre 3.7c. per M MM 134
department of lands and forests.
as)
Recapitulation of Slash-disposal, 1934-49.
Acres of Slash burned.
Year.                                                                                                         Accidentally. Intentionally
1934  4,927 15,935
1935  11,783 13,239
1936  1,340 7,691
1937  3,015 27,516
1938  35,071 50,033
1939  1,930 51,603
1940  2,265 33,034
1941  3,385 5,524
1942  4,504 80,226
1943  2,046 40,013
1944  5,121 27,278
1945  3,897 46,467
1946  2,174 25,498
1947  2,663 34,414
1948  2,215 30,652
1949  1,468 53,543
(W
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1949.
Forest District.
March.
April.
May.
June.
July.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Total.
Per
Cent.
14
1
3
3
18
26
84
23
33
91
45
133
5
15
61
47
137
6
65
166
181
53
5
24
*102
148
85
4
4
71
41
1
1
1
4
496
44
158
510
493
29.16
2.59
9.29
29.98
28.98
Totals	
15
50
276
261
555
332
205
*
1,701
100.00
0.88
2.94
16.23
15.34
32.63
19.52
12.05
0.41
100.00
3
48
184
169
573
412
157
8
1,554
0.19
3.09
11.84
10.88
36.87
26.51
10.10
0.62
100.00
(V)
Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1949.
Forest District.
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Prince Rupert	
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals	
Per cent	
Ten-year average, 1940-49
Per cent	
123
251
34 [    176
33
101
39
487
215
28.63
185
36.29
325
219
11.91    14.09
101
11
7
107
55
281
280
15
60 I
20
3.53 |   1.18
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11
4.05 I   0.71
87
5.11
44
16
2.83
1.03
169
142
9.14
2.59    100.00
496
29.16
44
2.59
158
9.29
510
29.98
493
28.98
100.00
30 [   1,554 I
1.93 I 100.00 report of forest service, 1949. mm 135
<**> Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years.
Causes.
1949.
1948.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
Total.
487
215
325
281
60
20
87
13
169
44
266
105
113
140
39
5
45
5
58
23
326
193
270
245
51
8
53
13
144
29
515
263
231
326
117
16
38
10
159
32
541
183
426
356
69
5
32
32
155
39
408
203
329
342
51
10
51
13
210
50
256
157
216
304
58
8
20
7
136
23
704
158
114
220
30
31
38
5
90
24
871
142
73
184
81
4
33
20
134
19
1,265
236
90
400
74
5
41
38
171
18
5,639
1,855
2,187
2,798
630
112
438
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing)	
Road and power- and telephone-line construction	
156
1,426
301
1,701
799
1,332
1,707
1,838
1,667
1,185
1,414
1,561
2,338
15,542
(W
Fires classified by Size and Damage, 1949.
Total Fires.
Under %
ACRE.
Vi to 10 Acres.
Over 10 to 500
Acres.
Over 500 Acres
in Extent.
Damage.
Ii
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496
44
29.16
2.59
350
26
70.56
59.09
34.38
2.56
115
11
23.19
25.00
22.33
2.14
28
7
5.65
15.91
19.31
4.83
3
0.60
13.04
475
40
7
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Prince Rupert	
2
158
510
493
9.29
29.98
28.98
95
202
345
60.13
39.61
69.98
9.33
19.84
33.89
29
239
121
18.35
46.86
24.54
5.63
46.41
23.49
25
59
26
15.82
11.57
5.28
17.24
40.69
17.93
9( 5.70
101  1.96
1[ 0.20
39.13
43.48
4.35
140
494
430
12
11
56
6
5
7
1,701
100.00
1,018
100.00
515|	
100.00
145
100.00
23
100.00
1,579
88
34
..
	
100.00
59.85
30.28
8.52
1.35
92.83
5.17
2.00
	
	
	
Ten-year aver
age, 1940-49
1,554
869
452
185
48
1.443
73
38
100.00
55.92
29.09
11.90
3.09
92.86
4.70
2.44
(SO)
Damage to Property other than Forests, 1949.*
Forest District.
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
Buildings.
Railway
and
Logging
Equipment.
Miscellaneous.
Total.
Per Cent,
of Total.
$126,600.50
1,000.00
3,370.00
794.00
198.16
$20.00
40.00
1,750.00
9,257.50
460.00 .
$70,198.00
8,000.00
85,600.00
2,512.00
100.00
$3,280.00
60.00
1,150.00
10,397.80
2,060.50
$200,098.50
9,100.00
91,870.00
22,961.30
2,818.66
61.22
2.78
28.11
7.03
0.86
$131,962.66
$11,527.50
$166,410.00
$16,948.30
$326,848.46
100.00
40.37
3.53
50.91
5.19
100.00
$94,223.72
$22,420.85
$94,961.75
$30,684.58
$242,290.90
38.89
9.25
39.19
12.67
100.00
* Does not include intentional slash-burns.    For this item see page 133. MM 136 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(si)      Damage to Forest-cover caused by Forest Fires, 1949—Part I.*
Accessible
Merchantable Timber.
Inaccessible
Merchantable
Timber.
Immature
Timber.
Forest District.
cfl
QJ
tH
<-6
_u OJ
z%
312
o og
Salvable
Volume of
Timber
killed.
»
N
P.
■wis
55 co J
cd
<y
«._
<V~ti
%'r%
Total
Volume
killed.
Damage.
Net Area
killed.
S J>
(~ 3
QJ_-.
_. c.
P.S-
Vancouver	
Acres.
594
7
89
412
36
M B.M.
2,478
99
453
1,457
330
MB.M.
1,265
14
15
93
131
$
5,415
249
1,825
1,655
235
Acres
6
3
98
263
57
MB.M.
$
1
12
24
522
997
Acres.
315
26
2,693
3,884
621
$
2,120
6
240
496
2,058
73
4,602
1,332
393
Totals           	
1,138
4,817
1,518
9,379
426
2,800
1,556
7,539
8,520
0.78
63.24
31.51
28.90
0.29
36.76
4.80
5.19
26.26
26,490
138,348
21,143
188,847
4.362
10,676
6,296
49,749
149,898
8.77
92.84
15.28
47.13
1.44
7.16
1.57
16.47
37.41
* Does not include intentional slash-burns.    For this item see page 133.
<51>      Damage to Forest-cover caused by Forest Fires, 1949—Part II.*
Forest
District.
Not satisfactorily
restocked.
Noncommercial
Cover.
Grazing or
Pasture
Land.
Nonproductive
Sites.
Grand Totals.
-0
QJ
V- a
<_ _,
tO 3
tea
° B
J 3
8   «
_°      B
° B 3
M C..-J
13        .
OJ     T3
B       £
3 o to
« b_2
oj
to
c.
S
c.
0
•a
_ ®
8 B
J? s_
<_-t
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so
s
ts
n
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to
tf
£
B)
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CM
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8
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a
ai
to
aj
£
Q
Acres.
1,468
22
551
395
140
Acres.
484
25
299
6
330
Acres.
45
197
13
2,221
59
$
460
Acres.
138
$
38
19
4,456
304
47
Acres.
4
2
102,116
4,424
386
$
5,106
230
20
Acres.
699
$
170
Acres.
3,752
371
123,913
14,924
2,589
MB.M.
2,478
105
693
1,953
2,388
$
8,204
88
221
1,024
272
89
18,005
1,988
162
441
49
1,331
798
13
331
195
16,247
5,398
2,159
Totals	
2,576]   1,144
2,535
2,065
20,382
4,864
106,932 [5,356
2,877 [     709
145,549 |     7,617 j      32,449
1.77|     0.78
1.74
6.36
14.00
14.99
73.47 [16.51
1.98 j    2.18
IOO 00 1  100.00 [      100.00
Ten-year average, 1940-49
1
10.351J  3,541
27,052
13,080
81,396
24,776
28,439
1,956
70,758
15,834
302,138 |149,024
400,687
8.95
3.27
26.94
6.18
9.41
0.49
23.42
3.95
100.00
100.00
100 00
1
* Does not include intentional slash-burns.    For this item see page 133.
(52)
Fire Causes, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1949.
Causes.
No.      j Per Cent.
Cost.
Per
Cent.
Damage.
Per Cent.
i
4R7              9R.63
$43,332.51
18,888.62
154.74
7,975.61
2,137.05
45.82
19.97
0.16
8.43
2.26
17.15
0.33
5.37
0.51
$4,247.33
3,147.08
2,537.42
37,016.29
2,017.58
126.85
234,415.98
8,819.32
27,755.59
39,214.02
1.18
215
325
281
60
20
87
13
169
44
12.64
19.11
16.52
3.53
1.18
5.11
0.76
9.93
2.59
0.88
0.71
10.30
0.56
Road and power- and telephone-line con-
0 04
16,217.00
313.15
5,079.26
479.54
65.24
7 73
10 91
Totals	
1,701
100.00
$94,577.48
100.00
$359,297.46 REPORT OF FOREST  SERVICE, 1949.
MM 137
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(S5)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
PROSECUTIONS, 1949.
a
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1
1
2
l
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1
2
1
50.00
4
3
1
4
100.00
10
2
6
2
9
235.00
1
Totals	
31
13
9
8
1
27
$735.00
2
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30
20
$570.43
1
7
1 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1949.
MM 139
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(57)
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
ENROLMENT AT RANGER SCHOOL,  1949.
Forest District or Division.
Rangers.
Acting
Rangers.
Assistant
Rangers.
Clerks.
Total.
1
1
1
2
3
3
3
3
4
5
3
4
4
4
1
Totals 1949             	
4
8
2
2
2
9
16
12
12
9
2
21
Totals, 1948               	
20
Totals, 1947   ..         	
20
Totals  1946   .           	
20
(58)
Motion Picture Library.
Stock Records.
Year.
1945.*
1946.
1947.
Totals.
1945-49.
Films in library at January 1st	
Films withdrawn during year.	
New films added during year.	
Films in library at December 31st.
Films used during year	
5
75
f
75
2
2
75
61
75
8
7
74
77
74
2
5
77
77
77
3
1
75
74
19
20
Circulation Records.
56
85
76
2,341
6,676
8,730
164
328
371
11,940
10,408
10,285
235
632
812
8,009
25,362
24,351
436
1,122
1,293
21,633
20,455
42.930
397
1,075
1,505
14,568
24,031
87,506
1,288
3,242
4,054
58,491
86,932
173,802
Number of film loans during year (one film loaned
onetime)	
Number in audiences—
Children	
17,747
32,633
57,722
85,018
126,105
319,225
* Recording of film circulation only commenced in 1945.
• No record.
(59)
Forest Service Library.
Classification.
Items received and catalogued.
1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.
1945.
1946.
1947.
1948.
1949.
Ten-year
Average,
1940-49.
15
283
95
5
153
36
9
120
29
10
85
32
12
49
63
13
80
61
12
126
79
14
231
90
39
123
140
36
100
153
Government reports and bul-
Other reports and bulletins...
78
393
194
158
127
124
154
217
335
302
289
229
Periodicals  and  trade  jour-
47
4,278
55
5,259
43
1,962
45
1,170
50
1,175
48
1,294
51
1,523
72
1,798
72
3,543
80
2,074
57
2,408 (60)
report of forest service, 1949.
Grazing Permits issued.
MM 141
Number of
Permits
issued.
Number
op Stock under Permit.
Cattle.
Horses.
Sheep.
1,066
400
30
102,044
9,879
1,384
3,271
1,423
138
32,841
1,085
73
Totals, 1949	
1,496
113,307
4,832
33,999
Totals, 1948	
1,328
117,133
5,526
31,664
Totals, 1947	
1,322
105,723
5,513
26,189
Totals, 1946	
1,379
106,273
5,035
31,274
Totals, 1945	
1,378
109,201
5,064
39,235
Totals, 1944           	
1,320
101,696
4,862
40,858
Totals, 1943	
1,221
93,497
4,844
39,921
Totals, 1942	
1,130
84,788
4,797
36,962
Totals, 1941	
881
77,774
4,180
39,552
Totals, 1940	
790
74,404
3,958
37,132
1,224
98,379
4,861
35,678
(61)
Grazing Fees billed and collected.
Year.
Fees billed.
Fees
collected.
Outstanding.
1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.
1945.
1946.
1947.
1948.
1949.
$23,338.28
23,781.19
25,116.02
24,680.37
28,554.02
30,066.34
30,120.38
28,584.74
28,960.42
27,819.65
$38,146.48
29,348.82
30,802.23
31,148.36
31,000.34
31,465.28
31,412.24
29,203.74
27,089.74
28,299.94
$27,203.90
21,636.87
15,950.56
9,482.57
7,036.25
5,637.36
4,345.50
3,726.50
5,597.18
5,113.39
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1950.
1,495-550-8197   

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