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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Provincial Department of Fisheries REPORT WITH APPENDICES For the Year ended… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1950]

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Provincial
Department of Fisheries
REPORT
WITH APPENDICES
For the Year ended December 31st
1948
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1950.  To His Honour Charles Arthur Banks,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I beg to submit herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial Department of
Fisheries for the year ended December 31st, 1948, with Appendices.
LESLIE HARVEY EYRES,
Minister of Fisheries.
Department of Fisheries,
Minister of Fisheries' Office,
Victoria, B.C. Honourable Leslie H. Eyres,
Minister of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
SIR,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial
Department of Fisheries for the year ended December 31st, 1948, with Appendices.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
GEORGE J. ALEXANDER,
Deputy Minister. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
The Canned-salmon Pack for British Columbia, 1948       7
British Columbia's Canned-salmon Pack by Districts      8
Review of British Columbia's Salmon-canning Industry, 1948  14
Other Canneries (Pilchard, Herring, and Shell-fish)  15
Mild-cured Salmon .  15
Dry-salt Salmon 1  15
Dry-salt Herring  15
Pickled Herring  15
Halibut Production .  15
Fish Oil and Meal  17
Net-fishing in Non-tidal Waters  18
Value of the Canadian Fisheries and the Standing of the Provinces, 1947  19
Condition of British Columbia's Salmon-spawning Grounds  20
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon.    (Digest.)    (No. 34.)  20
Herring Investigation -  21
Shell-fish Investigation  23
APPENDICES.
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon.    (No. 34.)    By
W. A. Clemens, Ph.D., Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia,
Vancouver, B.C  25
Results of the West Coast of Vancouver Island Herring Investigation,
1948-49.    By J. C. Stevenson, M.A., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C. 37
Biologist's Report.   By D. B. Quayle, Ph.D  86
Report of International Fisheries Commission, 1948  88
Report on Investigations of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries
Commission for 1948.   By B. M. Brennan, Director  90
Salmon-spawning Report, British Columbia, 1948.   By A. J. Whitmore, Chief
Supervisor of Fisheries  93
Statistical Tables  99  Report of the Provincial Department
of Fisheries for 1948.
Heretofore the Report of the Provincial Department of Fisheries has carried a
section summarizing the statistics of the fisheries of British Columbia, supplied by the
Dominion Bureau of Statistics. Owing to the fact that the jurisdiction of the Provincial Department of Fisheries is limited to the processing of fish, much of the information formerly supplied by the Dominion Bureau of Statistics cannot be obtained
originally by the Provincial authority. The publication of these statistical data is
now so late that it does not reach the Department in time for inclusion in our Annual
Report, and while we have felt that the information is most desirable, we have
regretted the delay in publishing the Department's Annual Report.
Commencing with this Report, we have been reluctantly forced to drop the
statistical summary, as the information is not available at press-time.
THE CANNED-SALMON PACK FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1948.
The total canned-salmon pack for British Columbia in 1948 amounted to 1,338,271
cases, according to the annual returns submitted to the Provincial Department of
Fisheries by the licensed canners. The 1948 pack was 195,207 cases less than were
canned in the year previous and 73,080 cases less than the average annual pack for
the previous five years. In 1948 the pack consisted of 261,230 cases of sockeye, 16,445
cases of springs, 5,663 cases of steelheads, 221,804 cases of cohoe, 321,721 cases of
pinks, and 511,404 cases of chums.   In all instances half-cases have been dropped.
The sockeye-pack for British Columbia in 1948 was again disappointingly small.
The 261,230 cases of sockeye canned in 1948 were 25,267 cases less than the amount
canned in 1947, although the 1948 pack was 13,516 cases above the cycle-year, 1944.
The 1948 sockeye-pack was 72,264 cases less than the average annual pack of this
species for the previous five years and was 97,821 cases less than the average annual
pack for the previous ten-year period. In making a comparison of these averages, it is
well to remember that the exceedingly large pack of sockeye in 1946 distorts these
averages to some extent. In that year the total pack of sockeye in British Columbia
amounted to 543,027 cases.
The spring-salmon pack—that is the pack of canned spring salmon—in British
Columbia is never an indication of the size of the run of this species because of the
large quantities of spring salmon that find an- outlet in the fresh- and frozen-fish
market. The 16,445 cases packed in 1948 were 6,420 cases above the pack for this
species in 1947 and 3,099 cases above the five-year average.
Steelheads are not salmon, but a few are canned each year—those which are caught
incidental to fishing for other species. In 1948 the steelhead pack amounted to 5,663
cases. This is compared with the year previous, when 3,260 cases of steelheads were
canned.
The total cohoe-salmon pack in 1948 amounted to 221,804 cases. This pack was
77,511 cases greater than the quantity canned in 1947 and 48,071 cases above the five-
year average for this species. If cohoes are considered a three-year fish, the cycle-year
would be 1945.   The pack in 1948 was 2,918 cases above the pack for 1945.
The pink-salmon pack in British Columbia for 1948 was 321,721 cases. This was
279,066 cases less than the quantity canned in 1947 and 129,143 cases less than the
average for the previous five years.
7 S  8 BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
Chum salmon were canned in British Columbia to the extent of 511,404 cases in
1948. This was 24,753 cases greater than the amount packed in 1947 and 75,473 cases
above the average annual pack for this species for the previous five-year period.
In comparing the canned-salmon pack figures of any of the species of salmon which
are canned in British Columbia, the reader is referred to the text in the next section of
this Report for a breakdown of the figures for each species by districts. The reader
should also take into consideration the escapement to the spawning-beds.
In the Appendix to this Report there will be found a report on the spawning-beds
of British Columbia, which has been supplied by the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for
the Federal Department of Fisheries.
BRITISH COLUMBIA'S CANNED SALMON PACK BY DISTRICTS.
Fraser River.
The total canned-salmon pack in British Columbia from Canadian-caught fish on
the Fraser River in 1948 amounted to 104,485 cases. This total was 66,817 cases less
than the total amount canned on the Fraser River in 1947 and was the smallest pack of
canned salmon credited to this river system in recent past years. The 1948 pack was
103,828 cases less than the average for the previous five-year period. This amounts to
almost half a pack in 1948.
The 1948 pack on the Fraser River was composed of 64,823 cases of sockeye, 2,955
cases of springs, 364 cases of steelheads, 16,102 cases of cohoes, 31 cases of pinks, and
20,209 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—In 1948 Canadian canneries produced a total of 64,823 cases of
sockeye. This was 30,871 cases above the 1947 pack. However, the 1948 pack was
57,022 cases less than the average annual pack for the previous five years and 23,692
cases less than the pack in the cycle-year, 1944. According to figures supplied by the
International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, the total catch of sockeye on the
Fraser River in 1948 amounted to 152,081 cases. Of this amount, Canadian gear
took 61,650 cases, while United States gear accounted for 90,441 cases. The percentages
are as follows: Canadian, 40.53 per cent.; United States, 59.47 per cent. There is a
slight discrepancy in the figures supplied by the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries
Commission and the figures computed from returns made by the licensed canners to
the Provincial Department of Fisheries, due to the fact that the Canadian figures
include the sockeye salmon caught in Johnstone Strait which are proceeding to the
Fraser River.    For convenience the table of percentages is included in this section
from 1932 to 1948, inclusive:  American. Canadian.
Per Cent. Per Cent.
1932 __ 55.00 45.00
1933  71.00 29.00
1934  72.00 28.00
1935  47.00 53.00
1936  25.00 75.00
1937  38.00 62.00
1938  42.00 58.00
1939  44.50 55.50
1940  37.50 62.50
1941  39.30 60.70
1942  37.20 62.80
1943  37.42 62.58
1944   29.77 70.23
1945  39.90 60.10
1946  43.90 56.10
1947  16.60 83.40
1948  59.47 40.53 report of provincial fisheries department. s 9
Spring Salmon.—In 1948 the canned pack of spring salmon in the Fraser River
district amounted to 2,955 cases. This was 1,500 cases above the pack in the previous
year. For convenience the 1945 and 1946 packs are listed, and are 6,130 cases and 1,096
cases respectively.
Cohoe Salmon.—The Fraser River cohoe-salmon pack in 1948, amounting to 16,102
cases, was the largest pack of this species on the Fraser River since 1941 and exceeds
the pack for the cycle-year by 4,487 cases. The 1948 pack was also 2,391 cases above
the average annual pack for cohoe salmon the Fraser River for the previous five years.
The 1948 cohoe-pack is compared with the small pack of 1947, which amounted to 6,105
cases, and with the pack of 1946, which was 9,168 cases.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon run to the Fraser River only in the odd-numbered
years.   There was no run of pink salmon to the Fraser in 1948.
Chum Salmon.—The Fraser River in 1948 produced a chum-salmon pack of 20,209
cases. This was 3,734 cases above the pack for 1947. However, the 1948 pack was
considerably smaller than usual for this river system. In 1948 the pack was 7,553 cases
less than the average annual pack of chum salmon on the Fraser River for the previous
five years.
In considering the 1948 chum-salmon pack on the Fraser River, due attention
should be paid to the fact that large quantities of chum salmon were exported in 1948,
and it is estimated that at least sufficient salmon were exported to produce 100,000
cases if they had been canned in British Columbia. Therefore, these should be added
to the 20,209 cases which were recorded as having been canned in 1948.
The reader is again warned that, when using the canned-salmon pack figures for
any species as an index of the run to any river system, other factors should be given
equal consideration; namely, the escapement to the spawning-grounds and the quantities of the species under consideration which find a market in other outlets, as in the
case of chum salmon, mentioned immediately above, finding an outlet in the United
States market.
For a detailed statement of the escapement of the various species to the spawning-
beds of the different river sytems, the reader is referred to the salmon-spawning report
for British Columbia, which will be found in the Appendix to this Report.
Skeena River.
The Skeena River in 1948 produced a total canned-salmon pack of 193,435 cases.
This is contrasted with 79,718 cases packed on the Skeena River in 1947. In other
words, the 1948 pack exceeded that of the year previous by 113,717 cases. In comparing
the total 1948 Skeena River pack with that for 1947, it must be remembered that the
1947 pack on the Skeena River was the smallest in recent past years.    However, the
1948 pack exceeded the average annual pack for this river system for the previous five-
year period by 43,338 cases.
The Skeena River pack in 1948 consisted of 101,267 cases of sockeye, 4,018 cases
of springs, 3,544 cases of steelheads, 22,086 cases of cohoes, 50,656 cases of pinks, and
11,863 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The 101,267 cases of canned sockeye salmon produced on the
Skeena River in 1948 was most encouraging, particularly after the comparatively small
packs in 1947 and 1946. The 1948 sockeye-pack on the Skeena River was 68,733 cases
above the pack in 1947 and 29,426 cases above the average for the immediately preceding five years. It must be remembered, however, that the Skeena River production
has shown a drastic decline in latter years, and the pack of slightly over 100,000 cases
in 1948 is most encouraging.
Spring Salmon.—The Skeena River in 1948 produced a pack of 4,018 cases of
spring salmon. This was 1,905 cases above the pack for 1947 and 1,528 cases above the
average for the preceding five years.    The Skeena River spring-salmon pack, like the S  10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
pack for this species on other river systems, is never indicative of the run, as spring
salmon find an outlet chiefly in the fresh- and frozen-fish markets.
Cohoe Salmon.—The Skeena River is never a large producer of cohoe salmon. The
pack in 1948, amounting to 22,086 cases, was 486 cases above the pack for 1947, but was
2,786 cases below the average pack of cohoe on the Skeena River for the past five years.
If the cohoe is considered to be a three-year fish, the 1948 pack is compared with 34,201
cases of this species packed from Skeena River caught fish in 1945 and 44,081 cases
packed in 1942.
Pink Salmon.—The pink-salmon pack on the Skeena River in 1948 was most encouraging. The 50,656 cases canned were 37,466 cases above the 1947 pack for this species
and 39,919 cases above the pack for the cycle-year 1946. The 1948 pack of pink salmon
on the Skeena was 12,015 cases above the five-year average and 8,596 cases above the
average five cycle-years for this species.
Chum Salmon.—The Skeena River is never a large producer of chum salmon, and
the 1948 pack of this species was no exception. The pack consisted of 11,863 cases of
chum salmon, which was 3,627 cases above the 1947 pack and 2,010 cases better than the
average annual pack for this species for the immediately preceding five years.
Nass River.
The total canned-salmon pack on the Nass River in 1948 amounted to 38,538 cases.
This was 9,088 cases above the total pack for 1947 and was 5,937 casaes greater than
the average total pack on this river system for the previous five-year period. The 1948
pack on the Nass was composed of 1,318 cases of sockeye, 416 cases of springs, 149 cases
of steelheads, 8,954 cases of cohoe, 8,565 cases of pinks, and 7,272 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The Nass River sockeye-salmon pack of 13,181 cases in 1948 was
2,332 cases above the 1947 pack of this species and was slightly higher than the pack
in 1944, which was the four-year cycle for Nass River fish. For the five-year cycle,
however, the 1943 pack was 231 cases greater than in 1948. The 1948 sockeye-pack on
this river system was 1,276 cases above the five-year average, but was slightly lower
than the five-year average for the preceding four-year cycles. Based on the 1948
sockeye-pack, any comparison with packs of past years would seem to indicate that
the sockeye runs to the Nass River are at least being maintained.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are never a large factor in the canned-salmon
pack of the Nass River, and 1948 was no exception. The 416 cases of this species
canned in 1948 is compared with 398 cases in 1947 and 472 cases in 1946.
Cohoe Salmon.—While the 1948 pack of 8,954 cases of cohoe salmon on the Nass
River was considerably greater than the packs for the immediately preceding years, it
is still very much below the packs of cohoe produced on the Nass River in the earlier
years. The 1948 pack was 2,782 cases above the average annual pack for the years
1943 to 1948, but was less than the average pack for the years 1937 to 1942 by 2,782
cases.
Pink Salmon.—The canned-salmon pack of pinks on the Nass River in 1948,
amounting to 8,565 cases, must again be considered a failure. This is the third consecutive year in which the pink-salmon runs, as measured by the canned-salmon pack,
have been a failure on the Nass River. For the ten years previous to 1945 the Nass
River has consistently produced a pack of pinks averaging in the neighbourhood of
35,800 cases. The later packs of 1946, 1947, and 1948 are compared with this and
amount to 7,147, 5,047, and 8,565 cases respectively. This would seem to indicate that
an adverse condition is at work here, which would warrant investigation.
Chum Salmon.—Chum salmon are never a large factor in the Nass River canned-
salmon production, and the year 1948 was no exception. The 7,272 cases of chums
canned on the Nass River in 1948 are compared with the 8,925 cases of this species
packed in 1947, 13,810 cases packed in 1946, and 4,981 cases in 1945. report of provincial fisheries department. s 11
The reader is again reminded that the conditions prevailing on the spawning-beds
should be taken into consideration when taking the canned-salmon pack as the indicator
of the size of the runs to any of British Columbia's salmon streams.
Rivers Inlet.
The total canned-salmon pack on Rivers Inlet in 1948 amounted to 72,117 cases.
This is contrasted with the year previous, when the total pack amounted to 168,935
cases. It must be remembered, however, that the pack in 1947 was the largest pack for
Rivers Inlet in recent past years. The 1948 pack, however, was less than the five-year
average annual pack for Rivers Inlet by 39,720 cases.
The Rivers Inlet pack in 1948 was composed of 37,665 cases of sockeye, 899 cases
of springs, 431 cases of steelheads, 8,143 cases of cohoe, 13,491 cases of pinks, and
11,486 cases of chums
Sockeye Salmon—The sockeye-salmon pack on Rivers Inlet in 1948, amounting to
37,665 cases, was 102,422 cases less than the pack of this species in 1947. The 1948
pack of sockeye on Rivers Inlet was also 29,813 cases less than the average annual
pack of this species for the previous five-year period. However, the 1948 pack could
not have been expected to be very much larger because the 1944 pack, which was the
cycle-year, was 36,582 cases, and in 1943, which was the cycle-year for the five-year
component of the Rivers Inlet sockeye-salmon run, the pack was 47,602 cases.
In comparing the Rivers Inlet sockeye-salmon packs in recent past years with the
packs of this inlet for the earlier years, one cannot help but remark that the Rivers Inlet
sockeye-salmon run seems to be producing at a considerably lower level than formerly.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are caught in Rivers Inlet only incidental to fishing for other species. In 1948 the spring-salmon pack amounted to 899 cases. This is
compared with 475 cases in 1947 and 1,108 cases in 1946. The spring-salmon pack in
1945 was 1,191 cases.
Cohoe Salmon.—Rivers Inlet never produces a large pack of cohoe salmon. The
1948 pack, however, amounting to 8,143 cases, was 2,961 cases above the pack for this
species in Rivers Inlet in 1947, but was 2,714 cases less than the five-year average for
this species.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon are never a large factor in the Rivers Inlet canned-
salmon pack. In 1948, however, there were 13,491 cases of pink salmon canned from
Rivers Inlet caught fish. This was 4,366 cases above the 1947 pack and the largest
pink-salmon pack for Rivers Inlet since 1939. The 1948 pack was also 5,619 cases above
the average annual pack for the immediately preceding five years. The catch of pink
salmon in Rivers Inlet is never considered of great importance in the total Rivers Inlet
fishery. In previous years the packs have been composed largely of fish caught incidental to fishing for other species. However, the pack in 1948 would seem to indicate
that there is a potential pink-salmon run here which should be cultivated, as apparently
it is capable of producing a fairly sizeable pack.
Chum Salmon.—Previous to 1935 chum salmon were not fished in Rivers Inlet,
except incidental to the sockeye-fishery. Since that time, however, Rivers Inlet has
continued to produce a larger quantity of canned chum salmon. In 1948 the chum-
salmon pack in Rivers Inlet amounted to 11,486 cases. This is compared with 13,873
cases in 1947, 37,395 cases in 1946, and 16,793 cases in 1945. It would appear that
other factors affect the quantity of chum salmon canned in Rivers Inlet besides the
quantity of fish available to the fisherman; namely, markets, prospective markets, and
the need for chum salmon for cold storage and other outlets.
Smith Inlet.
In 1948 Smith Inlet produced a total pack of canned salmon amounting to 14,675
cases.    This was 31,497 cases less than the total pack for this inlet in 1947, but in S  12 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
making this comparison one must be reminded that the large pack of 1947 was the
largest since 1935. The 1948 pack in Smith Inlet was 7,705 cases less than the average
annual pack for the previous five-year period. The 1948 pack consisted of 10,456 cases
of sockeye, 186 cases of springs, 99 cases of steelheads, 929 cases of cohoe, 1,481 cases
of pinks, and 1,521 cases of chums. It will be noted from the above breakdown that
the canned-salmon pack in Smith Inlet is largely a sockeye-pack. The fishery in Smith
Inlet is, to all intents and purposes, a sockeye-fishery. Other varieties caught and
canned in this area are those which are taken incidental to fishing for sockeye.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-salmon pack for Smith Inlet in 1948 amounted to
10,456 cases. This was 26,344 cases less than were packed in this inlet in 1947 and
also 5,495 cases less than the average annual pack of sockeye for the previous five-year
period. In comparing the 1948 sockeye-salmon pack for Smith Inlet with the pack for
the cycle-year 1944, it is noted that the 1948 pack was 7,291 cases above that cycle-year.
However, for the cycle-year 1940 the sockeye-pack was 25,947 cases, or 15,491 cases
greater than the 1948 pack.
Spring Salmon.—In 1948 there were caught and canned 186 cases of spring salmon.
These fish were caught incidental to fishing for sockeye and are not to be considered as
indicative of the run. The 1948 pack is compared with 43 cases packed in 1947, 45 cases
in 1946, and 26 cases in 1945.
Cohoe Salmon.—Cohoe salmon, like spring salmon, are not fished for particularly
in Smith Inlet. In 1948 the total cohoe-pack for this inlet amounted to 929 cases. In
1947 the pack of cohoe salmon was 348 cases, while in 1946 the pack was 177 cases.
There were 560 cases of cohoes canned in Smith Inlet in 1945.
Pink Salmon.—The 1948 production of pink salmon in Smith Inlet amounted to
1,481 cases. This is contrasted with the 1947 pack of 1,054 cases and with the cycle-
year 1946, when 235 cases were packed. In 1945, however, 2,362 cases of pink salmon
were caught and canned in Smith Inlet.
Chum Salmon.—In recent years there has been some fall seining for chum salmon
in Smith Inlet, although this is primarily a sockeye-fishing area. In 1948 the chum-
salmon catch in Smith Inlet produced a canned pack of 1,521 cases. This is compared
with 7,910 cases in 1947, 8,369 cases in 1946, and 3,692 cases in 1945. The quantity of
chum salmon caught by seines in Smith Inlet does not indicate the size of the run.
The reader should consult the report on the spawning-beds for more detailed
information regarding the runs of chum salmon to Smith Inlet
Queen Charlotte Islands.
The two principal species of salmon fished in the Queen Charlotte Islands district
for canning purposes are pink and chum salmon. There are large quantities of spring
and cohoe salmon caught by troll in the vicinity of the Queen Charlotte Islands, but
these fish find an outlet in the fresh- and frozen-fish trade and, consequently, are not
considered in the canned-salmon pack.
The total canned-salmon pack from Queen Charlotte Islands caught fish in 1948 was
127,319 cases. The 1948 pack exceeded the total pack for these islands in 1947 by
111,631 cases and was also 48,240 cases above the average annual pack for the Queen
Charlotte Islands for the immediately preceding five-year period. The total pack in the
Queen Charlotte Islands in 1948 was composed of 20 cases of sockeye, 145 cases of
springs, 4,145 cases of cohoe, 51,722 cases of pinks, and 71,287 cases of chums.
Cohoe Salmon.—In 1948 there were canned from Queen Charlotte Islands caught
fish 4,145 cases of cohoe salmon. This was the largest pack of cohoe salmon since 1944,
when the catch amounted to sufficient fish to fill 19,615 cases. The 1948 pack, however'
was 1,155 cases less than the average annual pack for the previous five-year period and
5,576 cases less than the average annual pack for the previous ten-year period. An
examination of the cohoe-pack figures for the years 1945 to 1948 would seem to indicate report of provincial fisheries department. s 13
conditions have been such that the cohoe runs are not producing all that past experience
would seem to indicate they are capable of producing.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon frequent the waters off the Queen Charlotte Islands
only in the even-numbered years. In 1948 the canned-salmon pack of pinks from Queen
Charlotte Islands caught fish amounted to 51,722 cases. This is compared with the
cycle-year 1946, when 8,024 cases were canned. It should be remembered, however,
that in 1946 fishing was closed early as a conservation measure. In 1944, the previous
cycle-year, the pink-salmon pack in the Queen Charlotte Islands amounted to 90,933
cases, while the pack of this species in 1942 was 83,329 cases.
Chum Salmon.—In 1948 the canned-salmon pack of Queen Charlotte Islands caught
chum salmon amounted to 71,287 cases. This was 57,191 cases above the previous year
and 28,918 cases above the five-year average. The 1948 pack, however, was 10,629 cases
less than the pack recorded for 1944, the cycle-year for this species, if chum salmon
are considered a four-year fish.
Central Area.
For satistical purposes the Central Area comprises all of the salmon-fishing areas
off the coast of British Columbia between Cape Calvert and the Skeena River, except
Rivers Inlet. The salmon-fishing in this area is conducted on many different runs of
salmon in the various parts of the district, and, as a consequence, the size of the pack
in this area is no indication of the magnitude of the different runs to the various
streams. In 1948 the total canned-salmon pack for the Central Area amounted to
439,995 cases. This is compared with 440,951 cases in 1947 and 337,333 cases in 1946.
The pack in 1945 for this area was 574,080 cases, while in 1944 the Central Area
produced 303,626 cases. The 1948 pack consisted of 23,246 cases of sockeye, 1,195 cases
of springs, 850 cases of steelheads, 36,816 cases of cohoes, 152,200 cases of pinks, and
225,686 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The principal sockeye-salmon fishing-grounds in the Central
Area are Fitzhugh Sound and Burke and Dean Channels. Some sockeye are taken
annually in the vicinity of Banks Island and Principe Channel, and a small gill-net
fishery, which is much less important, is conducted in Gardner Canal.
The total sockeye-salmon pack in the Central Area in 1948 was 23,246 cases. This
was 5,903 cases greater than were packed in the year previous and 1,241 cases above
the average annual pack for this area for the previous five-year period, but was 9,469
cases less than the pack four years previous, which might be considered the cycle-year
for sockeye salmon in this area.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are caught and canned in the Central Area to some
extent, but, as in other areas, the canned spring-salmon pack is made up of fish which
are caught incidental to fishing for other species, and, therefore, the pack is not a
measure of the size of the run. In 1948 there were canned in the Central Area 1,195
cases of springs. This is compared with 514 cases in 1947, 656 cases in 1946, and
542 cases in 1945.
Cohoe Salmon.—The pack of cohoes in the Central Area in 1948, amounting to
36,816 cases, was 8,038 cases greater than the comparatively small pack of this species
in 1947. The 1948 pack was 5,522 cases greater than the average annual pack for this
species, but was 8,946 cases less than were packed in 1945, which may be considered
the cycle-year for cohoe salmon.
Pink Salmon.—The Central Area has always been considered a high-production
area for pink salmon and has produced as much as 375,000 cases in a season. In
comparatively recent years, however, the pack figures for pink salmon have been
considerably less than this amount. In 1948 the pink-salmon pack amounted to 152,200
cases for the Central Area. This was 50,959 cases more than were packed in this area
in 1947, but was 20,279 cases less than the average annual pack for this species in the S  14 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Central Area for the previous five-year period. However, the pack of pink salmon in
the Central Area in 1948 was 70,616 cases greater than were packed in 1946, the
cycle-year.
Chum Salmon.—The Central Area in 1948 produced a pack of 225,686 cases of
chum salmon. This was 66,918 cases less than were canned in 1947, but was 33,679
cases greater than the average annual pack of chum salmon in, this district in the
previous five-year period.
Vancouver Island.
The total canned-salmon pack from fish caught in the Vancouver Island district
in 1948 amounted to 317,572 cases. This is compared with 552,940 cases in 1947,
264,922 cases in 1946, and 492,281 cases in 1945. The 1948 pack consisted of 9,981
cases of sockeye, 6,622 cases of springs, 227 cases of steelheads, 109,939 cases of cohoe,
43,574 cases of pinks, and 147,227 cases of chums.
Vancouver Island, like the Central Area, supports numerous races of salmon
running to the different watersheds. In this breakdown no attempt is made to deal
with the races separately. It should be mentioned, however, that sockeye salmon caught
in the Sooke traps are not credited to Vancouver Island, but are credited to the Fraser
River, where most of them are known to migrate. Similarly, the sockeye salmon caught
in Johnstone Strait between Vancouver Island and the Mainland are also credited to
the Fraser River in this Report and are not credited to Vancouver Island.
Sockeye Salmon.—The total sockeye-salmon pack credited to Vancouver Island in
1948 was 9,981 cases. This was 4,562 cases less than were canned from this species
in 1947 and was also 4,255 cases less than the average annual pack for the previous
five-year period. The 1948 sockeye-pack credited to Vancouver Island was 4,693 cases
above the cycle-year for this species, but, notwithstanding this increase, compared with
the Vancouver Island packs in past years, the 1948 sockeye-pack was most disappointing.
Spring Salmon.—Large quantities of spring salmon are caught each year by
trolling in the waters off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Most of these fish,
however, find a market in the fresh- and frozen-fish trade or as mild-cured salmon.
The troll-caught spring salmon on the lower west coast of Vancouver Island also find
a market principally as fresh, frozen, or mild-cured. Because of these other outlets,
the canned-salmon pack figures for spring salmon in the Vancouver Island district are
nowise indicative of the catch of this species. In 1948 the canned spring-salmon pack
amounted to 6,622 cases. In 1947 the pack of this species was 4,942 cases, while 2,283
cases were packed in 1946 and 2,323 cases in 1945.
Cohoe Salmon.—The 1948 pack of cohoe salmon, amounting to 109,939 cases, was
32,255 cases above the 1947 pack of this species and was also 29,550 cases above the
average-annual pack of this species for the previous five-year period. The 1948 cohoe-
pack was also 5,411 cases greater than the cycle-year 1945.
Pink Salmon.—In 1948 there were 43,574 cases canned from Vancouver Island
caught pink salmon. This is compared with 6,809 cases in 1946, the cycle-year for this
species, and 49,092 cases in 1944, the previous cycle-year. In 1942 Vancouver Island
produced a pack of 14,474 cases of pink salmon.
Chum Salmon.—The chum-salmon pack in 1948 for Vancouver Island amounted
to 147,227 cases. This is compared with 99,679 cases in 1947, 190,313 cases in 1946,
136,724 cases in 1945, and, for the cycle-year 1944, 56,029 cases. The 1948 chum-salmon
pack was 21,233 cases above the average annual pack of this species for Vancouver
Island for the immediately preceding five-year period.
REVIEW OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-CANNING INDUSTRY, 1948.
In 1948 the Provincial Department of Fisheries licensed twenty-seven salmon-
canneries, all of which operated.   The total number of canneries operated in 1948 was report of provincial fisheries department. s 15
three less than in 1947. The operating canneries were located as follows: Skeena
River, 7; Central Area, 3; Rivers Inlet, 1; Johnstone Strait, 1; Fraser River and
Lower Mainland, 12;   and west coast of Vancouver Island, 3.
It will be noted from the above that the distribution of the operating salmon-
canneries in British Columbia in 1948 was similar to the distribution in 1947, except
that in the Central Area one less cannery operated in 1948 than in 1947. In Johnstone
Strait, or the area described as Johnstone Strait, one cannery operated in 1948, compared with three in 1947. There were no canneries operated in the Queen Charlotte
Islands or on the Nass River in 1948. This is the fourth consecutive year in which no
canneries have been operated in these two areas. The salmon-catch from both these
areas was again transported to salmon-canneries operating in other districts.
In previous Annual Reports of this Department, attention has been drawn to the
fact that, in recent years, there has been a tendency for the salmon-canners to concentrate the canned-salmon pack in fewer canneries, transporting the raw fish over greater
distances. High production costs since the beginning of the war and more liberal use
of ice during the salmon-canning season have made it not only necessary, but possible
for the operators to keep down production costs. One way of doing this, of course, was
by concentrating the actual canning operation in as few canneries as possible, and this
practice of consolidating operations seems to be continuing. Different companies have
made mutual agreements among themselves to can each other's fish in certain instances,
and, in other cases, companies operating more than one cannery in an area have
combined one or more of the former operating canneries and consolidated canning
operations in those canneries which are best suited for a consolidated operation, using
modern, fast packers with plenty of ice to transport the fish from the area in which
they were caught.
In 1948, as in 1947, quite large quantities of raw salmon were exported to the
United States for processing in American canneries after the first of September, when
the Federal Government's embargo on the export of canning fish was lifted. The
species exported are principally chums and a few cohoes. This export of raw fish,
which would ordinarily be canned in British Columbia, had the effect of reducing the
British Columbia canned-salmon pack to less than what it would have been if all of the
fish caught in British Columbia were canned here.
OTHER CANNERIES   (PILCHARD, HERRING, AND SHELL-FISH).
Pilchard-canneries.—In the spring of 1948 the Provincial Department of Fisheries
licensed two pilchard-canneries. One of these did not operate, and the other put up
a small pack of anchovies. The pilchard run, as in the preceding years, did not
materialize in 1948.
Herring-canneries.—In 1948 there were four herring-canneries licensed to operate.
These four canneries put up a total of 92,719 cases of canned herring. During the war
years, and immediately following the war, the canned-herring business in British
Columbia attained quite-large proportions. In 1947, for instance, there were eighteen
herring-canneries licensed to operate and these produced a pack of 1,283,670 cases.
The canned-herring pack during the war was used chiefly for emergency feeding for
the troops and others, but since conditions are returning to normal, the demand for
canned herring has lessened very materially.
Tuna-fish Canneries.—The first commercial tuna-fish canning operations were
conducted in British Columbia in 1948. It should be noted that tuna have been taken
by British Columbia fishermen off the west coast in recent past years, sometimes in
fairly large quantities, but the canning industry in British Columbia, up until 1948,
has not canned this production, but has preferred to ship the frozen tuna to American
canneries for processing. S  16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In 1948 there was a decided change in policy, and three canneries were licensed,
all of which operated. These three canneries produced a total pack of 40,436 cases
of canned tuna.
Shell-fish Canneries.—In 1948 there were nine shell-fish canneries licensed to
operate, two of which did not commence operations. The seven operating canneries
produced a pack of 7,584 cases of crabs, 11,811 cases of clams, 2,001 cases of oysters,
1,679 cases of shrimps, and 187 cases of abalone.
MILD-CURED SALMON.
Six tierced-salmon plants were licensed to operate in 1948. This was one less than
in 1947. The six operating plants produced a total of 1,014 tierces of mild-cured
salmon, compared with 1,542 tierces produced by seven plants in 1947.
DRY-SALT SALMON.
Previous to 1939 various amounts of chum salmon were dry-salted in British
Columbia for shipment to the Orient.    In some years the production of this product
reached fairly large proportions.    During the war years the Provincial Government
declined to issue licences for salmon dry-salteries, in order to divert as much of the
salmon-catch as possible to the salmon canneries and freezers.   In 1947 there were two
salmon dry-saltery licences issued, but no operation was conducted in either plant, and
in both cases the licence fees were refunded.   In 1948 there were no salmon dry-saltery
licences issued.
DRY-SALT HERRING.
»
Previous to the war, herring were dry-salted in large quantities in British Columbia, the product being shipped to China. Since the outbreak of the war the bulk of
the herring caught in British Columbia have been canned or reduced to meal and oil.
In order to divert as much as possible of the herring-catch to the canneries during the
war, no herring dry-salteries were permitted to operate in British Columbia. However, in 1945, U.N.R.R.A. requested a certain amount of dry-salt herring for relief
feeding in China, and licences were issued. Again, in 1947, herring dry-salteries were
permitted to operate, and in this year six plants were licensed, but only five actually
got into production. The five plants operated in 1947 produced a pack of 3,084 cured
tons. In 1948 one salmon dry-saltery licence was issued, which produced a very small
pack of dry-salt herring, which was finally shipped to China. It is not anticipated that
the herring-saltery business will reach anything like its former proportions, so long as
conditions are unsettled in China.
PICKLED HERRING.
During the war there was considerable interest shown in pickled herring, due to
the fact that United States supplies of pickled herring from Europe were cut off. This
business, however, has been gradually becoming less as European sources of supply
get into production, and while one plant was licensed to pickle herring in 1947, there
was practically no operation. No interest was shown in pickled herring in 1948, and
no plants were licensed.
HALIBUT PRODUCTION.
The halibut-fishery on the Pacific Coast of North America is regulated by the
International Fisheries Commission under treaty between Canada and the United
States of America. The fishery is a deep-sea fishery and is shared in by the nationals
of the two countries. The Commission regulates the fishery on a quota basis, and on
that account there is very little fluctuation in the total amount of halibut landed from
year to year, except when the quotas are changed for any reason.    For the purpose of REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. S  17
regulation, the Coast has been divided into four areas. The principal areas from the
standpoint of production are Areas 2 and 3. Area 2 comprises the waters off the
Washington and British Columbia coasts from the approximate vicinity of Willapa
Harbour in the south to Cape Spencer in the north. Area 3 comprises the waters from
the northern boundary of Area 2 to the Aleutian Islands. The other two areas, Nos. 1
and 4, from which production is small, comprise the waters south of Area 2 and the
Bering Sea respectively.
In 1948 the catch-limit for Area 2 was 25,500,000 lb. This was 1,000,000 lb. greater
than the amount allowed for Area 2 in 1947. The quota for Area 3 in 1948 was
28,000,000 lb., which remained the same as in the year previous, and Area 4 had a
quota of 500,000 lb. in 1948. This quotas are exclusive of the halibut caught incidentally while fishing for other species with set lines in areas closed to halibut-fishing.
The total landings of halibut by all vessels in all ports on the Pacific Coast in 1948
amounted to 55,516,000 lb., compared with the total landings for 1947 of 55,982,000 lb.
Of this total, Area 2 in 1948 produced 27,358,000 lb., while Area 3 produced 27,917,000
lb. Area 4 had no production but Areas lA and IB produced a total of 241,000 lb. The
total halibut-landings by all vessels in Canadian ports in 1948 was 21,088,000 lb. This
was 5,354,000 lb. less than were landed in Canadian ports in 1947. Of the 1948 Canadian landings, Area 2 produced 14,740,000 lb., while 6,348,000 lb. came from Area 3.
Canadian vessels landed in Canadian ports in 1948 a total of 18,609,000 lb. This is
compared with Canadian landings in Canadian ports in 1947 of 23,823,000 lb. Canadian vessels obtained 14,238,000 lb. from Area 2, while Area 3 produced 4,371,000 lb.
for Canadian vessels. Canadian vessels landed in American ports a total of 179,000
lb., while American vessels landed in Canadian ports 2,479,000 lb. in 1948.
The average open market price paid for Canadian halibut in Prince Rupert in 1948
was 16.5 and 16.2 cents per pound for all Canadian landings in all British Columbia
ports. These prices are compared with an open market price for Canadian halibut in
Prince Rupert in 1947 of 18.5 cents per pound, and for all British Columbia ports the
average price in 1947 was about 18.5 cents per pound.
Halibut-livers have been a source of revenue to halibut-fishermen for a number of
years because of their high vitamin content. The value of halibut-livers to United
States and Canadian fishermen in 1948 was $1,759,000. Of this amount, $415,000
accrued to Canadian fishermen. In addition to the money received for halibut-livers,
halibut-viscera are now marketed, and these were worth $159,000 to the Canadian
fishermen in 1948, and to American fishermen $501,000.
The above dollar values for the livers and viscera are computed on the basis of
prices paid by the fishermen's co-operatives who handle most of the production of both
livers and viscera in the two countries.
The statistical information in connection with the Pacific halibut-fishery, quoted
above, was supplied by the International Fisheries Commission and is hereby gratefully acknowledged.
FISH OIL AND MEAL.
Fish-oil and edible fish-meal have been an important branch of British Columbia's
fisheries production for a number of years. Previous to the war, pilchards and herring
were the principal species used for the production of oil and meal. Since the outbreak
of the war and the consequent increase in the demand for natural sources of vitamins,
other species have been found to yield oils of even higher vitamin content, and the
increased demand for these products has stimulated activity in this field. The various
fish-livers, cannery-waste, and viscera are all utilized for the production of fish-oil,
much of which finds a market in the pharmaceutical trade. In addition to the production of high vitamin oils from British Columbia's various fish and fish-livers, in recent
years considerable activity has been manifest in the use of cannery-waste and viscera
for the production of other pharmaceutical products.    This business is now reaching S 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
quite-large proportions. In addition to the high vitamin oils used in the medicinal
field, British Columbia fish-oils of lower vitamin potency find an outlet in many manufacturing processes. Other vitamin-bearing fish-oils produced in British Columbia
are sold in large quantities for the feeding of poultry and live stock.
Fish-liver Oil.—Fish-livers and fish-viscera are an important source of high vitamin oils, and since the outbreak of the war there has been considerable activity in the
production of vitamin oils from this source. In 1948 there were six reduction plants
licensed to reduce fish-livers. These six plants processed 3,872,823 lb. of fish-livers,
which produced 10,121,374 U.S.P. units.
Previous to 1947 the production of vitamin oils has been reported in imperial
gallons. As mentioned in this section in the Report for 1947, this was contrary to the
usual means of measuring the production of high vitamin oils, and, commencing in
last year's Report, this production will be reported in U.S.P. units. The production in
1948 is compared with the production of similar oils in 1947. In 1947 seven plants
were licensed. These seven plants processed 3,772,528 lb. of liver, which produced
11,109,063 U.S.P. units.
Pilchard-reduction.—This is the fourth consecutive year in which the pilchard
runs to British Columbia have been practically a complete failure. Biologists charged
with the investigation of this fishery are not optimistic that this condition will materially improve in the near future.    There was no pilchard-reduction in 1948.
The reader is referred to more specific reports on this fishery for details as to the
future possibilities.
Herring-reduction.—The winter herring-fishery in British Columbia has developed
into a very important branch of our fisheries. The season runs from October through
to March, and although a few herring are caught previous to October, the season
actually gets under way about the middle of November. During the war years a large
proportion of the herring-catch was canned, but it is anticipated that, as the demand
for canned herring gradually diminishes, there will be an increase reflected in the
amount of meal and oil produced. In 1948 there were eighteen reduction plants
licensed, one of which did not operate. The seventeen operating plants produced 31,340
tons of meal and 2,614,925 gallons of oil. These figures are contrasted with the year
previous, in which fourteen plants were licensed to reduce herring to meal and oil. The
1947 production was 18,949 tons of meal and 1,516,826 imperial gallons of oil.
Whale-reduction.—In 1948 the hunting and reduction of whales was again resumed
in British Columbia after a period of inactivity. In that year one reduction plant
operated which captured and processed 182 whales. These produced 119 tons of bone
meal, 324 tons of meat meal, and 186,424 imperial gallons of oil. In addition to this,
the company operating experimented with the production of edible whale-meat.
Miscellaneous Reduction.—Dogfish and fish-offal reduction plants are licensed by
the Provincial Department of Fisheries under miscellaneous reduction. These plants
operate on cannery-waste and from the carcasses of dogfish and produce meal and oil
for various purposes. The oil produced from the carcasses of dogfish is not to be
confused with the oil produced from dogfish-livers, the latter being a high-potency oil,
which is reported in another section of this Report.
In 1948 there were thirteen fish-offal reduction plants licensed, all of which
operated. These thirteen plants produced 1,172 tons of meal and 141,099 imperial
gallons of oil. This production is contrasted with that of 1947, when eighteen plants
were licensed, seventeen of which operated. These seventeen plants produced 3,929
tons of meal and 519,802 imperial gallons of oil.
NET-FISHING IN NON-TIDAL WATERS.
Under section 23 of the Special Fishery Regulations for British Columbia, fishing
with nets in certain specified non-tidal waters within the Province is permissible under REPORT OP PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
S 19
licence from the Provincial Minister of Fisheries. This fishery is confined almost
exclusively to the residents living within reasonable distance of the lakes mentioned.
In the Appendix to this Report there again appears a table showing the name and
number of lakes in which net-fishing has been permitted, together with the number
and approximate weight of the various species of fish taken from each lake.
It will be noted that there are three different kinds of fishing licences issued for
net-fishing in the non-tidal waters of the Province; namely, fur-farm, ordinary, and
sturgeon. In 1948-49 there were twenty-three licences issued to fur-farmers, the
same as in the year previous. The coarse fish taken under these licences are used for
feeding fur-bearing animals held in captivity.
There were 177 ordinary fishing licences issued in 1948-49, compared with 110
in 1947-48. Four sturgeon-fishing licences were issued in the 1948-49 season, compared with two in the year previous.
For a detailed account of the fish taken by licensed nets in the different waters
of the Province, the reader is referred to the table above mentioned appearing in the
Appendix.
VALUE OF THE CANADIAN FISHERIES AND THE STANDING
OF THE PROVINCES, 1947.
The value of the fisheries products of Canada for the year 1947 totalled
$124,068,909. During that year British Columbia produced fisheries products to the
value of $58,764,950, or 47.3 per cent, of Canada's total.
British Columbia in 1947 led all the Provinces in the Dominion in respect to the
production of fisheries wealth. Her output exceeded that of Nova Scotia, the second in
rank, by $32,106,035.
The market value of the fisheries products of British Columbia in 1947 was
$14,947,803 more than in the year previous. There was an increase in the value of
salmon amounting to $11,346,142.
The capital employed in 1947 in the primary fishing industry—that is, the actual
catching and landing of the fish—amounted to $26,801,434. Of this total, vessels and
boats accounted for $22,666,175.
The number of persons engaged in British Columbia fisheries in 1947 was 17,934,
or 21.3 per cent, of Canada's total fishery workers. Of those engaged in British
Columbia, 12,461 were employed in catching and handling the catches and 5,473 in
packing, curing, and in fish-reduction plants. The total number engaged in the fisheries in British Columbia in 1947 was 1,810 less than in the preceding year.
The following statement gives the value of fishery products of the Provinces of
Canada for the years 1943 to 1947, inclusive:—
Province.
1943.
1944.
1945.
1946.
1947.
British Columbia	
$32,478,632
21,684,435
11,128,864
5,632,809
5,292,268
4,564,551
2,860,146
795,000
1,154,544
$34,900,990
23,662,055
11,968,692
5,361,567
4,938,193
3,581,795
2,598,975
929,887
1,482,223
$44,531,858
30,706,900
13,270,376
7,727,222
7,261,661
4,263,670
3,076,811
1,450,502
1,286,361
112,131
3,138
$43,817,147
34,270,761
16,419,983
7,927,022
6,296,658
4,871,037
4,470,877
1,399,083
1,148,886
558,264
5,014
$58,764,950
26,658,915
17,131,690
Quebec	
5,316,999
5,403,662
5,329,448
2,897,284
856,609
Saskatchewan	
1,170,930
530,948
2,495
3,131
7,474
Totals	
$85,594,544
$89,427,508
$113,690,630
$121,124,732
$124,068,909 S 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
SPECIES AND VALUE OF FISH CAUGHT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The total marketed value of each of the principal species of fish taken in British
Columbia for the years 1943 to 1947, inclusive, is given in the following table:—■
Species.
1943.
1944.
1945.
1946.
1947.
$14,740,298
2,517,038
244,062
7,809,630
2,756,416
$15,623,223
2,679,657
257,288
6,758,626
2,222,181
780
$25,424,954
3,042,390
275,825
8,423,136
1,439,145
$24,346,483
3,708,819
300,303
9,574,643
213,753
$35,692,625
Halibut	
5,296,942
647,002
12,094,582
41,750
108,130
978,973
148,226
399,923
34,743
49,320
1,353,900
174,673
414,753
52,495
271,231
1,296,639
206,045
368,408
77,958
438,219
1,319,501
349,804
446,008
217,792
848,004
596,886
369,788
268,165
297,533
Soles	
515,148
55
10,417
82,318
1,600
72,619
150,551
9,792
736
3,526
271
5,932
9,504
21
10,451
149,754
24,025
105,596
6,370
90,786
284,759
16,174
5,076
6,521
5,802
4,685
24,091
50
40,431
258,964
150
25,765
214,882
15,970
10,326
6,070
3,705
4,486
11,337
180
48,538
239,099
7,101
132,136
284,828
13,741
3,278
3,915
1,444
5,866
16,456
540
10,629
78,435
8,070
11,328
10,142
514
Skate	
3,861
36,732
Trout	
Grayfish, etc.—
18,982
2,028,875
16,756
41,867
92,890
60,930
3,661,131
8,263
21,136
10,634
2,337,267
12,258
1,098,569
43,121
1,439,861
Meal	
730
50
261,160
93,373
12,564
323,068
620
11,483
5,760
21,046
158,184
82,545
319,404
6,548
187,866
2,679
18,531
615,106
122,892
4,375
37,625
1,199
7,127
537,787
233,096
21,147
23,160
2,657
80,079
Tuna	
Ratfish-livers	
Miscellaneous	
56,216
29,429
Totals	
$32,477,964
$34,900,990
$44,531,858
$43,817,147
$58,764,950
CONDITION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-SPAWNING GROUNDS.
Owing to this Department having discontinued making inspections of the various
salmon-spawning areas of the Province, we are indebted to the Chief Supervisor of
Fisheries for the Federal Government and the officers of his Department who conducted
the investigations for furnishing us with a copy of the Department's report. His courtesy in supplying us with this report is gratefully acknowledged.
The Chief Supervisor's report on the condition of British Columbia's salmon-
spawning grounds will be found in full in the Appendix to this Report.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
(Digest.)     (No. 34.)
In the Appendix to this Report there will be found another paper, No. 34, in the
series " Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon."   This paper is again REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. S 21
contributed by Dr. W. A. Clemens, Department of Zoology, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver.
In commenting on the salmon runs to the various river systems covered in Dr.
Clemens' paper for 1948, the outstanding feature was the sockeye-salmon runs to the
Skeena River, which produced a pack in 1948 of 101,267 cases with an escapement which
was reported as good. Another feature mentioned by Dr. Clemens is that the pack on
Rivers Inlet, which amounted to 37,665 cases, was the second lowest pack for Rivers
Inlet on record and here the escapement was recorded as only fair.
The Nass River run produced a pack of 13,181 cases, which, Dr. Clemens points
out, was considerably below the average for the past twenty-five years, with the
escapement being reported as medium.
In commenting on the Skeena River run specifically, Dr. Clemens remarks that
this large run, with a good escapement, was unexpected but very encouraging, as it
indicates the potential productivity of the Skeena River and would seem to indicate
that proper management policies should lead to a higher average annual production
than has occurred during the past fifteen years.
In connection with the Rivers Inlet sockeye run of 1948, Dr. Clements draws
attention to the fact that the packs of sockeye salmon on Rivers Inlet have shown
extreme variation in the last two years. Whereas the pack in 1947, amounting to
140,087 cases, was the second largest in the history of this river system, the 1948 pack
of 37,665 cases was the second to the smallest pack on record. It is evident that information concerning the factors relating to production and to the causes of such violent
fluctuation is urgently needed.
Commenting on the Nass River sockeye run, Dr. Clements contents himself with
observing that the pack of sockeye salmon from the run to the Nass River in 1948,
amounting to 13,181 cases, was considerably below the average pack for this river
system for the past twenty-five years, with the escapement reported as being only
medium.
In examining the various figures and the possibility of predicting the future run
on the pack and escapement, one should make due consideration for the crying need
for information which would seem to be necessary in order to predict future runs.
For a full account of Dr. Clemens' analyses of the samples of sockeye for these
three river systems, the reader is referred to Paper No. 34 in the series " Contributions
to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon," which appears in full in the appendix to
this Report.
HERRING INVESTIGATION.
Research on herring was continued at the Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo,
during the 1948-49 season under the supervision of Mr. J. C. Stevenson with the aid
of various associates. As in the two previous years, most of the efforts of the herring
investigators were directed to the study of the west coast of Vancouver Island herring
population, which since 1946 has been subjected to practically unlimited fishing. Conditions in this population are being compared with those in the lower east coast of
Vancouver Island population, where rigid adherance to a fixed quota has been maintained. The purpose of these studies is to provide a basis for judging the relative
merits of the two principles of management. In addition to this study, the collection
of various basic data was continued from the other British Columbia herring
populations.
The herring investigation in 1948-49 was financed jointly by the Fisheries
Research Board of Canada and the Provincial Department of Fisheries.
West Coast of Vancouver Island Herring Studies.
The results of the third year of the investigation on the west coast of Vancouver
Island herring population are given in the Appendix to this Report. S 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The 1948-49 catch (55,000 tons) in the West Coast Sub-district, and the estimates
of the fishing effort and availability, indicated that the abundance of herring was
greater than in 1947-48 and similar to the abundance in 1946-47. On the basis of tag
returns, the ratio of the exploitation rates in 1948-49 and 1947-48 was calculated and
showed that the rate of exploitation in 1948-49 was slightly less than in the previous
year. Using various statistics on catch and tag returns, the initial population abundance in 1948-49 was calculated to be about 1.43 times greater than in 1947-48. The
increase in population abundance was considered to be a result of the apparently large
recruitment of the 1945 year-class as IV-year fish and the influx of a relatively large
number of Il-year fish (1947 year-class).
In the spring of 1949 the total extent of spawn depositions was slightly less than
in 1948, but spawnings were generally heavier in intensity. Similar quantities of fish
were considered to have spawned on the west coast in each of the past three years.
Although fishing stopped in each year before the closure date because of lack of fish
on the fishing-grounds, new influxes of spawning fish subsequently came inshore.
Tag-recovery in 1948-49 resulted in 3,170 tags being received, a greater total than
ever before recovered. Although fewer tags were recovered by tag-detectors than in
1947-48, more were returned by plant crews from magnets and reduction-plant
machinery. The data confirmed conclusions of past years that emigration of fish from
the west coast population is small. The relative scarcity of lower east coast tags in the
catches prevented an estimate of the movement of fish from the lower east coast to the
west coast. It was considered that the small number of tags in lower east coast catches
in 1948-49, and also in the middle east coast catches, resulted from an unsually great
mortality among the herring in the spring and early summer of 1948 and from the
fact that the 1946 year-class contributed a very large recruitment to the Strait of
Georgia fisheries before fishing began in the 1947-48 season.
A considerable mixture of fish again occurred between the different west coast
areas. The tendency noted in previous years for more fish to move in a south-easterly
direction than in a north-westerly direction along the coast was reversed in the 1948-49
data for tags which had been out less than one year.
Fewer fish were tagged on the west coast of Vancouver Island in the spring of 1949
than in 1948, due mostly to inability to locate spawning fish in Areas 26 and 27. An
exceptionally good tagging was possible in Area 25, where most of the west coast catch
was taken during the fishing season.
Although the 1946 year-class (Ill-year fish) constituted a larger proportion of the
west coast catch than any other year-class, it was only slightly more abundant than the
1945 year-class (IV-year fish). Calculation of the actual numbers of fish in the catch
showed that the 1946 year-class contributed fewer recruits to the west coast fishery
than any year-class since that of 1942. In Area 25 the 1945 year-class was particularly
abundant, and in Area 23 the 1947 year-class (as Il-year fish) made up a larger proportion of the Area 23 fishery than usual. The unusually great influx of Il-year fish in
the west coast spawning runs (on an average almost one-half of the fish in the spawning
samples were IPs) suggests that the 1947 year-class is of above normal strength.
Studies of bird predation on spawn, involving the collection of spawn samples and
the shooting of gulls, suggested that gulls consumed about 50 per cent, of the spawn
on the portion of the spawning-grounds above the zero tide. Glaucous-winged gulls
were found to eat more spawn than substrate, whereas herring gulls consumed spawn
and substrate in approximately the same proportion that they exist on the spawning-
grounds.
Larval-herring studies, which were carried out along lines similar to those developed in the previous survey, were augmented by a field station set up to sample intensively the larvae of one locality. Partial analysis of the data suggests that larval
dispersal from the spawning localities may be an important factor in larval survival. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. S 23
During the first three years of the present study, population abundance has been
high in both the Lower East Coast and West Coast Sub-districts. Large catches,
greatly in excess of what would have been allowed under quota, have been taken on the
west coast, and the quota has been easily reached on the lower east coast. In each of
the three years, fishing on the west coast stopped prior to the closure date because of
lack of fish on the fishing-grounds. On the other hand, evidence pointed to considerable
quantities of fish remaining in the lower east coast when the quota was taken. Spawning-
ground studies indicated that during this period of high population abundance a considerable residual stock remained in both sub-districts after the fishery. It appeared
that the amount of spawn was well above the critical minimum necessary to maintain
the stocks. However, although the lack of quota restrictions on the west coast was
followed by spawnings of average size, restricted catch on the lower east coast resulted
in above-average spawnings in the last two years. In order to complete the present
study designed to determine the utility of the quota system of herring management,
the investigation will have to be continued over a period of low year-class abundance.
Other Herring Studies.
Collection of catch statistics, sampling of the catches, and analysis of fishery
inspectors' reports on spawning depositions were continued in all British Columbia
herring populations in 1948-49.
The total catch in all sub-districts (189,200 tons) was the largest herring-catch
ever made in British Columbia. Quotas were reached in all but the Upper East Coast
and Northern Sub-districts. Extensions to the quotas were permitted in the Middle
East Coast and Central Sub-districts. Availability was relatively high in all sub-
districts, except that of the upper east coast.
The Queen Charlotte Islands Sub-district and the northern part of the Central
Sub-district were the only regions showing a substantial decrease from 1948 to 1949
in extent of spawning. The indications are that the herring population of the Queen
Charlotte Islands suffered an unusually great natural mortality which reduced it greatly
in size. The small spawning in the north central region might have been partly a result
of a southward migration of herring from the north central to the south central
spawning-grounds.
The 1946 year-class (Ill-year fish) constituted about three-quarters of the Lower
East Coast Sub-district catch, and it was equally prominent in a portion of the middle
east coast catch. In the west coast catch the 1946 year-class was only slightly more
abundant than the 1945 year-class (IV's), while in the upper east coast the 1947 year-
class (IPs) was generally more abundant than the 1946 year-class. In the central and
northern fisheries the 1944 year-class (V's) dominated the catches.
Trawling for herring took place in Area 17 (Trincomali Channel) in the fall of
1948 while seining operations were going on, and proved unsuccessful, apparently due
to inability of the trawlers to compete with the seiners in catching fish on the same
fishing-ground. In the summer of 1949 trawling for herring was carried out in Area
14a with only mediocre success. The future of this method of catching herring appears
to depend largely on the success achieved in developing new gear to fish off the bottom.
In spite of the lack of a sound statistical basis for forecasting the herring-fisheries,
moderately good success was attained in the 1948-49 predictions.
SHELL-FISH INVESTIGATION.
Heretofore the Provincial Department of Fisheries has contributed to a joint
investigation on the Province's shell-fish resources, the work being conducted by the
Fisheries Research Board of Canada.
Commencing in 1948, the Department was fortunate in securing the services of
a qualified biologist familiar with this type of work, in the person of Dr. D. B. Quayle. S 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The Department plans to obtain suitable premises at or near Ladysmith to set up a
small shell-fish laboratory, where, henceforth, the Department will conduct its own
shell-fish investigations.
The new laboratory will be centrally located in relation to the oyster-growing areas
and will supply a much needed service in the form of practical operational research.
Heretofore the shell-fish grower was largely left to get along as best he could, but, with
the establishment of the Provincial Fisheries shell-fish laboratory, the grower will have
the assistance of scientific research which will place him in a much better position to
meet many of the problems related to his business.
Notwithstanding the fact that a great deal of time has been spent to obtain
quarters and equipment, a good deal has already been accomplished, and plans are
presently going forward which, it is hoped, when brought to fruition and as time
progresses, will help to develop the presently rather undeveloped shell-fish resources
of the Province and establish this branch of our fisheries on a firm foundation.
Heretofore part of the shell-fish investigations has been an investigation into
a measure of the production of clam-beaches, and an experimental plot at Seal Island
has been used for this purpose. This work is being continued as part of the activities
of the Provincial Fisheries shell-fish laboratory at Ladysmith, and will henceforth be
reported in that section of the Annual Report of the Department of Fisheries for the
year in which the work was done. The field work in connection with this investigation
takes place during the winter months, generally in January and February.
A detailed report on other investigations carried out or in progress at the Provincial Fisheries shell-fish laboratory at Ladysmith will also be reported in detail in the
pages of this Department's future Annual Reports. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. S 25
APPENDICES.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
(No. 34.)
By W. A. Clemens, Ph.D., Department of Zoology, University
of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.
INTRODUCTION.
The outstanding feature of the sockeye-salmon runs in 1948 was the relatively
large pack on the Skeena River, amounting to 101,267 cases, and an escapement
reported as good.
The pack on Rivers Inlet of 37,665 cases was the second lowest on record, and the
escapement was recorded as only fair.
The Nass River run produced a pack of 13,181 cases, which is considerably below
the average of the past twenty-five years, and a medium escapement.
DESIGNATION OF AGE-GROUPS.
Two outstanding features in the life-history of the fish have been selected in
designating the age-groups; namely, the age at maturity and the year of its life in
which the fish migrated from fresh water. These are expressed symbolically by two
numbers—one in large type, which indicates the age of maturity, and the other in small
type, placed to the right and below, which signifies the year of life in which the fish
left the fresh water.   The age-groups which are met most commonly are:—
3X, 4-l—the " sea types " or fish which migrate in their first year and mature
at the ages of three and four respectively.
32—" the grilse," usually males, which migrate in their second year and
mature at the ages of three and four respectively.
42, 52—fish which migrate in their second year and mature at the ages of
four and five respectively.
58, 6;j—fish which migrate in their third year and mature at the ages of five
and six respectively.
64, 74—fish which migrate in their fourth year and mature at the ages of six
and seven respectively.
1. THE RIVERS INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1948.
(1) General Characteristics.
The packs of sockeye on Rivers Inlet have shown extreme variation in the last two
years. In 1947 the pack of 140,087 cases was the second largest in the history of the
river system, while that of 1948, 37,665 cases, was the second smallest. It is evident
that information concerning the factors relating to production is urgently needed.
The return in 1949 will be the result of the spawnings of 1944 and 1945. In the
former year the pack was 36,852 cases and the escapement was reported as light.
In the latter year the pack was 89,735 cases and the escapement was reported as very
good.
In view of the recent extreme variations in production it is difficult to attempt to
predict the run of 1949. However, there would appear to be little indication of a large
return, although the 1945 spawning might produce a considerable number of four-year-
old fish. S  26 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The statement made in Paper No. 30 in regard to fishing intensity and margin of
safety will bear repeating. Since fish mature at four and five years of age, reduction
of the stock by too heavy catch will affect the returns four and five years later. If
reduction of stock occurs in two successive years, the subsequent results are doubly
effective in certain years. For example, if overfishing occurs in 1948 and in 1949, the
effect is superimposed in 1953, since both four- and five-year-old fish are involved.
(2) Age-groups.
The 1948 material obtained for analysis consists of thirty random samples taken
from June 28th to August 30th, inclusive, representing 1,764 fish taken in commercial
fishing. The age-groups are represented as follows: 42, 976 individuals or 55 per cent.;
52, 767 individuals or 44 per cent.;  and the 53, 21 individuals or 1 per cent. (Table I).
The 62 age-group is represented by four individuals, as follows: Male—23y2
inches, 6 lb., and 26 inches, 9% lb.;  female—25 inches, 8 lb., and 25 inches, 8 lb.
The 32 age-group is represented by three individuals, all males, as follows: 12%
inches, 1 lb.; 14 inches, 1% lb.; and 14% inches, 1% lb. In regard to this age-group
the report from the spawning-grounds states: " The number of runts (precocious
males) on the spawning-grounds was really phenomenal."
The above seven fish are not included in the calculations.
(3) Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths and weights are slightly higher than they have been in recent
years. This is particularly true of the weights of the 52 age-class, in which the males
have an average weight of 7.9 lb. and the females 7 lb. (Tables II, III, IV, and V).
(4) Distribution of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samples is 806, and females 965, percentages of
45 and 55 respectively. There is nothing unusual in this distribution. Over the period
of record the proportion of males to females has varied rather widely, but for the
thirty-three-year period it has been almost equal (Table VI).
2. THE SKEENA RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1948.
(1) General Characteristics.
The run of sockeye to the Skeena River in 1948, producing a pack of 101,267 cases
and a good escapement, was unexpected but is very encouraging. It indicates that the
potential productivity of the Skeena River system is unimpaired, and it is hoped that
the management policies resulting from the investigations of the Fisheries Research
Board will lead to a higher average annual production than has occurred during the
past fifteen years.
The counting weir of the Fisheries Research Board on the Babine River was
washed away in part and could not be used for enumeration purposes in 1948. From
an examination of the streams tributary to Babine Lake, it was estimated that the
escapement to the area was at least equal to, probably slightly larger than, that of 1947.
On this basis the escapement to the Skeena River system should have been well over
700,000 fish. The most probable escapements in prior years, as calculated by the
Fisheries Research Board, were: 1944, 620,000 fish; 1945, 1,360,000 fish; 1946,
680,000 fish;   and 1947, 690,000 fish.
The return in 1948 will be derived from the brood-years of 1944 and 1945. In the
former year the pack was 68,197 cases and the escapement was relatively large. In the
latter year the pack was 104,279 cases and the escapement was very large, approximately 1,360,000 fish, as against 620,000 fish in 1944. (The escapement figures are
taken from the Annual Report of the Fisheries Research Board.) If the fish resulting
from the 1945 spawning return as four-year-olds, there should be a large run in 1949. report of provincial fisheries department. s 27
(2) Age-groups.
The analysis for 1948 is based upon thirty-nine random samples taken from June
28th to August 20th, inclusive, representing 2,730 fish taken in the commercial fishery.
The 42 age-group is represented by 2,182 individuals or 80 per cent., the 52 by 361
or 13 per cent., the 53 by 162 or 6 per cent., and the 63 by 25 or 1 per cent. (Table VII).
The outstanding feature is the very large representation of four-year-old fish.
During the previous seven years, five-year-old fish predominated, reaching a peak of
82 per cent, in the 1947 run. The factors influencing the maturing of these fish at
four or five years of age are unknown.
(3) Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths and weights of the males and females in the four year-classes
are shown in Tables VIII, IX, X, and XI and present no unusual features.
(4) Distribution of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 1,292, and of females 1,438, percentages of 47 and 53 respectively. Throughout the period of record the females have
slightly outnumbered the males. In the 42 age-group the sexes are almost equally
represented. A similar condition has prevailed fairly consistently in past years. However, in the 52 age-group the males and females are represented by 29 and 71 per cent,
respectively. In past years in this age-group the females have always greatly outnumbered the males (Table XII).
3. THE NASS RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1948.
(1)  General Characteristics.
The pack of sockeye from the run to the Nass River in 1948 was 13,181 cases, which
is considerably below the average pack of the past twenty-five years, namely 17,900
cases.   The escapement is reported as medium.
The return in 1949 will be the production of the escapements of 1944 and 1945.
In the former year the pack was 13,083 cases and the escapement was reported as
average. In the latter year the pack was 9,899 cases and the escapement was recorded
as very satisfactory.   The run of 1949 should be small.
(2) Age-groups.
The material for 1948 was obtained from 1,595 fish taken in fourteen random
samplings of the commercial fishery from June 29th to August 6th, inclusive. The
age-groups are represented as follows: 42, 199 fish or 12 per cent.; 52, 253 or 16 per
cent.; 53, 952 or 60 per cent.; 63, 191 or 12 per cent. There is nothing unusual in
this distribution. In the Nass River population the 53 age-group has always been
dominant, with a percentage of approximately 60 per cent. (Table XIII).
(3) Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths of the males and females are shown in Tables XVI and XVII,
and the distributions of the lengths and weights are shown in Tables XIV and XV.
Except in the 42 age-group, the average lengths in 1948 are slightly above those of
recent years, while the average weights are decidedly so. In the 63 age-group the males
with an average weight of 9.1 lb. and the females with 7.9 lb. set new records.
(4) Distribution of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 847, and of females 748, percentages
of 53 and 47 respectively. While there has been a considerable variation in the representation of males and females in the Nass River runs over the period of years, the
average representation has been approximately equal. The males have always outnumbered the females in the 63 age-group, while usually the females have outnumbered
the males in the 53 age-group (Table XVIII). S 28
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table I.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs.
Percentage of Individuals.
Year.
42
52
h
63
1907 (87,874 cases)	
21
80
35
13
26
39
57
46
5
49
81
74
43
23
59
81
55
77
49
53
67
44
77
57
53
60
27
67
69
59
8
8
76
57
37
3
55
1
79
20
65
87
74
61
43
54
95
51
18
24
54
77
38
16
40
18
48
44
27
65
20
41
46
37
70
32
28
40
91
91
23
41
63
97
i
2
2
2
3
4
3
2
2
5
1
2
1
1
3
1
1
3
1
1
2
1908 (64,652 cases)	
1909 (89,027 cases)	
1910 (126,921 cases)	
1911 (88,763 cases)	
1912 (112,884 cases)	
1913 (61,745 cases)	
1914 (89,890 cases)	
1915 (130,350 cases)	
1916 (44,936 cases)	
1917 (61,195 cases)	
1918 (53,401 cases)	
1919 (56,258 cases)	
1920 (121,254 cases)	
1921 (46,300 cases)	
1922 (60,700 cases)	
1923 (107,174 cases)	
1924 (94,891 cases)	
1925 (159,554 cases)	
1926 (65,581 cases)	
1927 (64,461 cases)	
1928 (60,044 cases)	
1929 (70,260 cases)	
1930 (119,170 cases)	
1931 (76,428 cases)	
1932 (69,732 cases)	
1933 (83,507 cases)	
1934 (76,923 cases)	
1935 (135,038 cases)	
1936 (46,351 cases)	
1937 (84,832 cases) ,.	
1938 (87,942 cases)	
1939 (54,143 cases)	
1940 (63,469 cases)	
1941 (93,378 cases)	
1942 (79,199 cases)	
1
1943 (47,602 cases)	
1944 (36,852 cases)	
1945 (89,735 cases)	
1946 (73,320 cases)	
1947 (140,087 cases)	
1948 (37,665 cases)	 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
S 29
Table II.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1948, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Length in Inches.
Number of
Individuals.
4
2
52
h
63
Total.
M.
P.
M.
P.
M.           P.
M.
F.
18% 	
3
15
33
65
74
67
45
50
34
41
23
24
9
5
3
8
23
74
68
95
52
74
40
31
10
7
1
1
1
19    	
5
6
18
12
31
1
4
26
30
55
40
72
23
19%            	
56
20	
1    1    ......
140
20%	
2    |        1    |
1     |         |    	
1 |         |    	
     1         1     |    	
2 1        2    |
2 |         1    [
3 |         |    	
3    [         |    	
1    |    	
145
21    	
164
21%	
102
22 :	
156
22% '.	
114
23	
148
23%	
......
88
24    	
137
24%	
37
75
......     1       122
25     	
37    |      91
37    |      37
52             29
135
25%	
78
26        ....            	
81
26%	
20
28
4
4
3
6
4
1
2
26
27     	
32
27%	
5
28	
6
!>.8V„                	
3
491
485
294
473
16    j        5    |
1
     [   1,764
Average lengths	
21.4
21.3
25.2    |   24.2
22.6    |   22.1    |    	
     1    	
Table III.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1948, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Weight in Pounds.
Number of
Individuals.
4
2
52
h
h
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
3                     	
4
54
136
106
62
47
37
23
12
8
1
1
4
39
135
140
89
52
15
7
3
1
!
1    |        3
3     |       19
12     !       34
1
1
2
4
1
3
1
3
2
1
1
1
8
94
378
271
201
5%    .              	
13
19
16
34
27
31
44
36
18
20
9
7
44
49
45
61
82
61
39
25
5
4
1
158
124
6%                    	
92
113
118
93
84
61
23
     1    	
     1    	
24
10
     1    	
7
3
1
4
1
1
491
485
294
473
16
5
1,764
4.7
4.6
7.9
7.0
5.5
4.8
	 S 30
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table IV.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of the 42 omd 52
Groups, 1912 to 1948.
Year.
42
52
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41	
22.4
21.6
21.9
20.5
21.1
20.9
20.6
20.6
21.4
22.4
21.6
21.3
21.1
21.0
21.2
21.1
20.7
21.3
25.4
24.6
25.0
24.3
23.5
24.2
25.1
24.0
25.2
24.7
23.9
1942	
1943	
23.8
23.7
1944	
1945	
1946	
23.3
23.9
24.1
1947	
1948	
23.5
24.2
Table V.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of the 42 etnd 52
Groups, 1914 to 1948.
Year,
42
h
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41	
4.9
5.1
4.1
4.6
4.3
3.9
4.1
4.7
4.8
4.6
4.4
4.4
4.4
3.9
3.9
4.6
7.0
7.2
6.8
6.2
6.6
7.2
6.4
7.9
6 5
1942	
1943	
6.4
6 3
1944	
1945	
1946	
6.0
6.4
6 2
1947	
1948	
5.9
7.0
Table VI.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1948.
42
52
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Total
Females.
63
61
62
67
70
79
72
50
37
39
38
33
30
21
28
50
34
35
34
33
39
37
35
38
66
65
66
67
61
63
65
62
50
38
36
59
57
53
36
45
1942	
62
64
41
43
47
64
55
1943 	
1944	
1945	
1946	
1947	
1948	 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
S  31
Table VII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs of
Successive Years and Packs.
Percentage of Indivfduals.
Year.
42
52
h
63
1907 (108,413 cases)                   	
57
50
25
36
34
57
51
27
15
69
70
56
23
51
62
62
51
62
39
40
44
57
58
49
67
45
64
50
80
39
36
39
37
20
13
14
80
43
50
75
64
38
29
34
60
71
22
16
29
69
45
26
28
39
30
52
30
37
36
34
31
20
40
15
35
15
52
54
39
52
63
70
82
13
1908 (139,846 cases)	
1909 (87,901 cases)	
1910 (187,246 cases)	
1911 (131,066 cases)	
1912 (92,498 cases)	
1913 (52,927 eases)	
1914 (130,166 cases)	
1915 (116,553 cases)	
1916 (60,923 cases)	
13
9
9
9
6
6
12
8
7
3
9
9
7
6
8
28
7
5
7
18
11
11
16
11
4
8
7
16
7
12
8
3
18
1917 (65,760 cases)	
5
1918 (123,322 cases)	
6
1919 (184,945 cases)	
4
1920 (90,869 cases)	
8
1921 (41,018 cases)	
3
1922 (96,277 cases)              	
2
1923 (131,731 cases)	
7
1924 (144,747 cases)	
1
1925 (77,784 cases)	
1
1926 (82,360 cases)	
3
1927 (83,996 cases)	
1
1928 (34,559 cases)	
3
1929 (78,017 cases)	
2
1930 (132,372 cases)	
1
1931 (93,023 cases)	
2
1932 (59,916 cases)	
12
1933 (30,506 cases)	
2
1934 (54,558 cases)	
1
1935 (52,879 cases)	
2
1936 (81,973 cases)             	
2
1937 (42,491 cases)	
4
1938 (47,257 cases)	
5
1939 (68,485 cases)	
4
1940 (116,507 cases)	
1
1941 (81,767 cases)	
1
1942 (34,544 cases)	
3
1944 (68,197 cases)	
4
1945 (104,279 cases)	
5
1946 (52,928 cases)	
9
1947 (32,534 cases)	
1
1948 (101,267 cases)	
6
1 S 32
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table VIII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1948, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Length in Inches.
Number of Individuals.
4
2
52
h
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
19%	
5
14
40
51
116
177
221
187
164
78
25
2
1
2
1
18
60
170
282
270
192
60
37
8
1
3
5
10
13
15
2
9
30
44
62
54
42
1
3
6
11
14
25
15
13
6
1
2
4
15
21
17
4
1
2
1
	
1
3
3
3
1
2
2
3
3
2
2
2
20                           	
7
20%                       	
34
21                           	
107
21%                 	
242
22...	
432
22%	
487
23	
475
23%	
314
24                    	
290
24%	
164
25 .                      	
89
25%	
23
13
44
26	
17
9
5
1
1
19
26%	
12
27	
7
27%	
1
......
1
28	
......    1    ......
2
28 V>  	
2
2
Totals	
Average lengths	
1,081
1,101
103
258
95
67
13
12
2,730
23.0
22.3
25.3
24.1
23.0    |   22.1
1
26.0
24.5
Table IX.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1948, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Weight in Pounds.
Number of Individuals.
4
2
52
53
6
3
Total.
M.
P.
M.
P.
M.
F.
M.
F.
„
3
12
56
128
226
219
223
130
58
22
4
3
9
110
331
350
197
62
30
7
2
1
5
8
22
21
15
10
13
4
1
1
1
1
4
31
59
64
57
26
12
4
1
1
6
9
27
22
18
5
7
1
9
29
22
2
2
1
1
1
5
2
1
2
1
1
2
3
3
3
1
6
23
181
501
6                         	
5%                   	
506
381
6%                     	
248
7                         	
7%                      	
54
8                         	
8%	
16
9                         	
9%	
2
10	
10%	
11 	
1
Totals	
Average lengths	
1,081
1,101
103
258
95
67
13
12
2,730
5.5
4.9
7.3    |     6.1
!
5.4
4.7
7.7 '
6.4    |
1 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
S 33
Table X.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1948.
Year.
4
2
E
2
h
€
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41	
23.7
23.0
22.6
21.9
22.4
22.6
22.7
22.3
23.0
23.1
22.4
22.3
21.9
21.7
22.3
22.0
22.0
22.3
25.8
25.1
25.2
25.1
24.8
24.9
25.4
25.1
25.3
24.9
24.2
24.3
23.9
23.9
24.1
24.3
23.8
24.1
24.2
23.5
24.1
23.3
22.5
23.3
23.9
23.0
23.0
23.4
22.7
23.7
22.6
21.7
22.6
23.2
22.4
22.1
25.8
25.1
26.3
25.8
25.0
25.0
25.5
26.3
26.0
24.8
1912-41 (conversion)	
1942	
24.1
24.9
1943	
24.7
1944	
23.7
1945	
24.3
1946	
24.4
1947                         	
25 8
1948	
24.5
Table XI.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1948.
Year.
4
o
5
2
53
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41    	
5.4
4.9
4.7
5.0
4.7
4.6
6.8
6.7
6.8
6.1
6.0
5.9
5.7
5.8
5.5
5.1
5.4
4.9
6.8
7.2
7.3
6.0
1942	
6.6
1943	
6.1
1944	
5.1
4.6
7.0
6.1
5.3
4.6
7.1
5.8
1945	
5.2
4.9
6.7
6.1
5.6
5.0
6.7
6.2
1946        	
4.7
4.9
4.2
4.7
6.9
6.9
5.8
5.9
5.8
5.3
5.1
5.0
7.0
7.7
6.1
1947 :	
6.8
1948	
5.5
4.9
7.3
6.1
5.4
4.7
7.7
6.4
Table XII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females, 1915 to 1948.
4
2
5
2
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
Total
Females.
Year.
M.
F.
M.
P.
1915-41 (average)	
1942      	
48
42
50
54
41
50
50
50
52
58
50
46
59
50
50
50
43
•   25
31
34
35
32
29
29
57
75
69
66
65
68
71
71
46
33
43
43
38
38
33
47
54
67
1943                	
67
1944      	
57
1945         „	
62
1946            	
62
1947	
1948                           	
67
53 S 34
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table XIII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Principal Age-groups
in Runs of Successive Years and Packs.
Year.
Percentage of Individuals.
42
h
53
63
1912 (36,037 cases)	
1913 (23,574 cases)	
1914 (31,327 cases)	
1915 (39,349 cases)	
1916 (31,411 cases)                       	
8
15
4
19
9
10
30
7
8
10
6
11
4
23
12
8
30
25
28
10
28
35
13
11
16
22
21
14
23
37
22
5
15
46
13
15
12
27
12
41
14
17
15
16
22
14
7
2
6
3
8
12
7
6
9
15
17
4
7
9
10
7
4
4
13
8
7
7
13
15
11
12
12
16
63
71
45
59
66
71
45
65
72
75
91
77
91
67
63
81
61
60
54
67
61
55
74
73
67
68
70
66
59
52
66
67
32
37
72
56
60
2
2
10
8
8
1917 (22,188 cases)	
1918 (21,816 cases)                               	
4
9
1919 (28,259 cases)	
1920 (16,740 cases)	
6
6
1921 (9,364 cases)	
8
1922 (31,277 cases)	
1923 (17,821 cases)	
1
6
1924 (33,590 cases)	
1925 (18,945 cases)	
2
2
1926 (15,929 cases)	
1927 (12,026 cases)	
13
4
1928 (5,540 cases)	
1929 (16,077 cases)            	
3
6
1930 (26,405 cases)	
1931 (16,929 cases)                     	
3
6
1932 (14,154 cases)	
1933 (9,757 cases)                     	
3
1934 (36,242 cases)	
1935 (12,712 cases)                        	
4
1936 (28,562 cases)                       	
10
1937 (17,567 cases)	
1938 (21,462 cases)	
1939 (24,357 cases)	
5
1940 (13,809 cases)	
10
1941 (24,876 cases)	
4
1942 (21,085 cases)	
1943 (13,412 cases)	
15
1944 (13,083 cases)	
1945 (9,899 cases)	
6
3
17
12
1946 (12,511 cases)	
1947 (10,849 cases)	
1948 (13,181 cases)	 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
S  35
Table XIV.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1948, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Length in Inches.
Number of Individuals.
4
2
52
h
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.     j      F.
1
M.
F.
1
21                    	
[
1    [
7     |
14
27
18
12
8
1
1
1
4
8
20
33
22
15
2
4
1
1
3
7
19
19
29
19
11
1
4
4
20
14
18
17
13
5
13
1
1
7
7
24
26
18
23
13
6
1
2
2
2
3
11
12
14
7
8
2
	
1
■  4
21%                           	
1
5
22
28
68
74
95
77
76
38
8
2
1
1
12
22
72
68
76
86
68
37
10
4
1
10
22                  	
40
22%                                 	
75
23          	
147
23%           	
135
24 	
184
24%             	
195
25                                 	
203
25%	
156
26	
147
26%.             	
85
27	
71
271/.	
8
6
49
28	
14
3
2
1
1
1
42
28%	
29
29	
15
29%	
7
30...	
1
Totals	
90
109
136
117
495
457
126
65
1,595
23.3
22.6
|   26.2
25.3
25.0
24.1
27.1
26.7
Table XV.—Nass River Sockeye, 1948, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Weight in Pounds.
Number of Individuals.
4
2
52
63
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
1
F.
4	
3
16
29
25
9
5
3
3
15
37
35
13
4
2
1
13
39
58
95
89
91
69
27
10
3
- 15
64
99
103
82
64
21
6
3
	
2
2
7
15
23
22
18
21
10
4
1
1
2
1
6
6
14
13
13
5
4
1
3
4%	
5 :.	
	
34
132
5%                       	
	
1
1
10
20
23
26
18
14
11
8
2
2
6
16
19
30
18
15
S
3
1
1
6	
6%	
7	
217
227
218
7%	
8	
8%	
99
9	
54
9% :	
10	
10%.	
11	
7
11%	
1
12 	
Totals	
90
109
136
117
495
457
126
65
1
1,595
Average weights	
5.8
5.3
8.1
7.1
7.0
6.0
9.1
7.9 S 36
BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
Table XVI.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1948.
42
5
2
h
6
3
Year.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41	
24.5
23.8
23.9
22.8
23.5
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.3
23.7
23.0
23.2
22.2
22.7
22.8
22.4
22.9
22.6
26.3
25.6
26.1
26.1
25.7
25.0
26.3
25.9
26.2
25.2
24.5
24.9
24.8
24.6
24.4
24.9
24.1
25.3
26.1
25.4
24.9
24.1
24.8
24.7
24.9
24.5
25.0
25.3
24.6
24.3
23.5
23.8
24.0
23.9
23.6
24.1
27.7
27.0
26.9
27.1
26.8
25.1
28.1
27.0
27.7
26.4
25.7
1942	
26.0
1943	
25.8
1944	
25.8
1945	
25.5
1946	
26.0
1947	
25.6
1948.......	
26.7
Table XVII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1948.
42
5
2
h
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41	
1942	
6.0
5.8
5.2
5.7
5.7
5.6
5.8
5.8
5.4
5.1
4.7
5.0
5.3
4.9
5.3
5.3
7.3
7.1
7.6
7.7
7.0
8.1
7.7
8.1
6.4
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.4
6.7
6.2
7.1
6.9
6.2
5.9
6.7
6.5
6.5
6.3
7.0
6.2
5.6
5.3
5.7
5.9
5.4
5.6
6.0
8.0
7.5
7.9
8.2
7.2
8.9
8.1
9.1
7.0
6.7
1943	
6.9
1944	
7.1
1945	
7.1
1946	
7 0
1947	
6 9
1948	
Table XVIII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1948.
Year.
42
52
53
63
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Total
Females.
49
42
51
53
37
62
50
45
51
58
49
47
63
38
50
55
47
48
67
45
37
59
52
54
53
52
33
55
63
41
48
46
45
44
47
39
38
45
51
52
55
56
53
61
62
55
49
48
63
70
74
60
53
75
81
66
37
30
26
40
47
25
19
34
1942	
1943	
46
50
62
1944	
1945	
50
38
1946	
1947	
56
53
44
47
1948	 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. S  37
RESULTS OF THE WEST COAST OF VANCOUVER ISLAND
HERRING INVESTIGATION, 1948-49.
By J. C. Stevenson, M.A., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
CONTENTS.
Page.
Introduction  37
The 1948-49 Fishery  40
Tagging and Tag-recovery  41
Tag-detector Recovery  42
Magnet Efficiency Tests  44
Tags recovered by Plant Crews  45
Population Statistics from Tag-recoveries  47
Differences in Relative Recovery between Taggers  48
Tagging during the 1949 Spawning Season  48
Sampling of the Catches and the Spawning Runs  49
Age Composition  49
Sex Ratio and" Stage of Development  52
Average Length and Weight  52
Spawning-ground Studies ^  53
Extent and Intensity of Spawning  :  53
Bird Predation on Herring Spawn  54
Young-herring Studies  58
The Present Status of the Research  60
Summary .  61
Acknowledgments  63
References  64
INTRODUCTION.
During the past three years, 1946-47 to 1948-49, an intensive investigation has
been carried out on the west coast of Vancouver Island herring population. The
immediate purpose of the study is to follow the changes which take place in a herring
population subjected to practically unlimited exploitation. In 1946-47 the annual
quota of 25,000 tons was removed for an indefinite period, leaving the closure date
of February 5th as the only major restriction to catch. At the same time, for comparison, the herring population of the lower east coast of Vancouver Island has been
kept under a fixed annual quota of 40,000 tons, thus permitting a study of the relative
merits of two different methods of management.
Various fundamental fisheries problems are being studied in regard to the investigation. These include (1) the causes of natural fluctuations in abundance, (2) the
general relationship between the amount of spawn and the subsequent recruitment of
the year-class to the adult stocks, and (3) the average minimum spawning stock needed
to produce maximum sustained yield.
To obtain sufficient information for the solution of these basic problems, the study
will have to be continued long enough to permit the investigation of the population
at various levels of abundance, probably at least ten years. During the first three
years of the programme, population abundance on the west coast of Vancouver Island
has been high, due primarily to a succession of abundant year-classes, resulting in
relatively large recruitments to the population. It will be necessary for the study to
be carried out also during seasons of relatively poor recruitment and low population S 38
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Fig. 1. Map showing districts, sub-districts, and areas. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
S 39
Pig. 2. Map of the West Coast Sub-district showing the location of places
mentioned in the text. S 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
abundance. Tester (1948) pointed out that if the past history of the fishery is indicative, a decline in abundance due to natural causes but accentuated by the high fishery
intensity can be expected in the future.
This report, the third in an annual series, deals with the data and results obtained
in the 1948-49 season. The results of the past two years of the investigation have
been previously published (Tester and Stevenson, 1947, 1948).
The location of districts, sub-districts, numbered statistical areas, and places along
the west coast of Vancouver Island which are referred to in the text are shown in
Figs. 1 and 2.
THE 1948-49 FISHERY.
Scouting for herring on the west coast of Vancouver Island in the fall of 1948
began on November 14th, and fish were first located on November 17th, in Esperanza
Inlet (Area 25). The seining fleet quickly gathered, and an intensive fishery in the
vicinity of Esperanza Inlet took place during the next twelve days. Inclement weather
conditions characterized by strong winds reduced the catch in the last few days of
November and for most of the first week in December, but fairly good catches were
made from then until December 10th. Small catches continued up to the Christmas
closure date (December 16th) ; during the last few days of the pre-Christmas season
a small fishery also took place in Nootka Sound.
In late November and early December only a few small catches were made in
Barkley Sound (Area 23). However, from December 6th to 14th excellent fishing
occurred in the area (chiefly in Effingham Inlet). There were indications that just
before the Christmas closure date the abundance of herring on the fishing-grounds had
been considerably reduced by the intensity of the fishery.
A remarkably small quantity of fish was caught on the west coast in the second
half of the season. During the first week in January about 2,000 tons were taken in
Ououkinsh Inlet (Area 26) and about 600 tons from Uchucklesit Inlet (Area 23).
One small set was made in Nootka Sound (Area 25) on January 13th. Efforts were
made to locate herring in Areas 24 and 27, mostly during January, but no fish were
found. Scouting operations continued on the west coast until January 27th, nine days
before the official closure date of February 5th.
The poor fishing in January, 1949, differed greatly from the fishing conditions of
previous years. In each of the past six years well over half of the west coast catch
was made in the second portion of the season. The very large pre-Christmas catch
was probably chiefly responsible, but the long period of cold weather in the middle
of the month, causing many of the inlets to be frozen over and hampering fishing
operations, might also have been a factor. There is little information available on
the factors which influence the time at which herring runs enter inshore waters.
The " outside " fishery, which was a feature of the 1947-48 season and which
involved the catching of herring in open localities off the main shore-line, was not
continued in 1948-49. Weather conditions were generally less favourable for this
type of fishing. Consequently the seining fleet waited until the fish had moved into
the protected waters of the sounds.
Table I includes data on catch, fishing effort, and availability for each area and
for the sub-district as a whole. The catch by area was estimated from various sources,
including plant records of landings. The total number of active fishing-days expended
by all seiners, a measure of effort, was compiled from daily records of fishing as submitted by seine-boat captains, adjusted to compensate for the fact that daily records
were incomplete and comprised only 77 per cent, of the total catch. The availability,
or catch per unit effort, which is a measure of the success of fishing, was also compiled
from daily catch records. In the following tabulation catch, effort and availability
are given for the 1948-49 season and for each of the two preceding seasons:— REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
S 41
1946-47.
1947-48.
Catch (tons)	
Effort (days)	
Availability (tons per seine per day)
59,000
777
76
45,200       55,000
948 686
48 77
The data indicate that the abundance of herring during the 1948-49 fishing season
was greater than in 1947-48 and similar to the abundance in 1946-47. The reduction
of the fishable stocks in 1947-48 was considered to be due to the intensified fishery
resulting from lack of quota restrictions (Tester and Stevenson, 1948, p. 46). Since
a smaller fishing effort resulted in a larger catch in the 1948-49 season, the results
seem to indicate that continuation of the fishery on the present basis does not necessarily mean a continuous decline in abundance. Detailed studies show that the abundance of the adult population depends primarily on the strength of the year-classes
which sustain the fishing stocks. This subject will be dealt with in the section of this
report on sampling of the catches and of the spawning runs.
TAGGING AND TAG-RECOVERY.
The intensive tagging and tag-recovery programme which was begun in 1946 on
the west coast of Vancouver Island was continued in 1948-49, using methods similar
to those of the previous years (Tester and Stevenson, 1948).
Two electronic tag-detectors were operated in the 1948-49 season. The old-type
tag-detector (Tester, 1946) was again installed at the Imperial Cannery, Steveston, and
operated on fish from both the Strait of Georgia and the west coast of Vancouver Island.
Its performance was somewhat less satisfactory than in previous years, due mainly to
an intermittent break which developed in the cable leading to the " pick-up " coil. The
other detector (new type) was operated at the Gulf of Georgia plant, Steveston, on
Strait of Georgia fish during part of the season (until the end of November), then
transferred to Kildonan for the latter part of the west coast fishery. Its performance
at the Gulf of Georgia plant was quite satisfactory, considering that the Gulf of Georgia
installation was in its first year of operation. At Kildonan it worked satisfactorily
for a short period, after which various troubles combined to reduce its efficiency
appreciably. In giving these tag-detectors a thorough overhaul after the season was
over, it was found that general deterioration of the sets had occurred after several
seasons of use. The replacement of many parts was carried out, and this should lead
to better performance next season.
A third detector (new type) was installed at Nootka in early December, but it
failed to recover any tags. It was subsequently found that faulty manufacture of the
coil caused short-circuiting to occur, and the manufacturer has since made minor
changes in the structure of the coil to prevent the recurrence of this trouble. Difficulties
in detector operation at Nootka have also resulted from a fluctuating cycle in the main
power-supply. Since the plant plans to install a new power-supply this year, much
improved detector operation is anticipated in the 1949-50 season.
The recovery of tags by means of magnets in the meal-lines of the reduction plants
was highly satisfactory this year, 2,940 tags in all being recovered.
Efforts to improve the system of collecting tags by the plant crews were continued
by visiting the plants at different times during the fishing season. On these visits the
necessity of having accurate records to accompany each tag was stressed. As in the
previous year, a reward of 25 cents was paid for the recovery of test tags used in
making magnet efficiency tests, and 50 cents for the recovery of bona-fide tags.
Since 1946 a total of 90,556 tags was used in the West Coast Sub-district, as
follows:  28,148 tags in 1946 (10-series), 30,461 in 1947 (11-series), and 31,947 in 1948 S  42 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
(12-series). Tags from these three series, along with tags used in other sub-districts
and in other years, were liable for recovery in 1948-49. Places and dates of all taggings
which produced recoveries in 1948-49 are given in Table VIII.
Although tagging has been limited to the west, the lower east, and the middle east
coasts of Vancouver Island since 1946, recoveries were obtained from fisheries in almost
all areas of the British Columbia coasts in the 1948-49 season. These areas, along with
the locations of most of the fishing-grounds which produced catches this year, can be
given as follows: Area 4—Edye Pass and Butler Cove; Area 6—Laredo Sound,
Helmcken Inlet, Thistle Pass, Poison Cove, and Klemtu Pass; Area 7—Kwakshua
Passage, Cultus Sound, Raymond Channel, Nalau Passage, Boddy Passage, and Kildidt
Sound; Area 12—Belleisle Sound, Bones Bay, Mackenzie Sound, Knight Inlet, and
Retreat Pass; Area 13—Deepwater Bay; Area 14a—Baynes Sound; Area 14b—
Nanoose Bay; Area 17—Trincomali Channel, Walker Rock, and Pylades Channel;
Area 18—Swanson Channel; Area 23—Effingham Inlet, Uchucklesit Harbour, and
Peacock Channel; Area 25a—Nootka Sound and Tahsis Inlet; Area 25b—Esperanza
Inlet, Espinosa Inlet, Port Eliza, and Queen Cove.
It should be pointed out that in 1948 an important change was made in the sub-
districts on the east coast of Vancouver Island. A new sub-district, called the " Middle East Coast of Vancouver Island Sub-district," was designated, including Areas
14a, 15, and 16 (formerly part of the Lower East Coast of Vancouver Island Sub-
district), and Area 13 (formerly called the Deepwater Bay or Quathiaski Sub-district).
Since herring studies over a number of years showed that the herring which frequent
these waters tend to be distinct from those of the upper east coast and those of the
southern part of the Strait of Georgia, this change is in keeping with the general
policy of having each sub-district include a more or less discrete herring population.
Tag-detector Recovery.
As a result of the difficulties encountered in the operation of tag-detectors in
1948-49, the recovery of tags by this method was considerably lower than in the previous year (Tester and Stevenson, 1948). In all, 230 tags were recovered—173 by the
Imperial installation, 30 by the Gulf of Georgia installation, and 27 by the Kildonan
installation. Each recovery is tabulated in Table II according to code, area of tagging,
area of recovery, and the detector making the recovery.
Herring-tagging is used to study the extent of movement of fish from one sub-
district (or population) to another. To obtain this information, the probable number
of tags present in the total sub-district catch is calculated from the actual number of
recoveries obtained in examining part of the catch by tag-detectors. In this calculation
the efficiencies of the tag-detectors in recovering tags must be considered. The procedure used to determine tag-detector efficiency in 1948-49 was similar to that used in
the previous year (Tester and Stevenson, 1948, p. 47), and gave the following percentage efficiencies :  While operating on Catches from—
Middle and Lower
Detector Installation. East Coasts.       West Coast.
Imperial   54 58
Gulf of Georgia   55 36
Kildonan   22
By means of the calculations outlined above, the actual number of recoveries in
Table II are converted to the probable numbers of tags in the catches, as given in Table
III. In order to simplify the data in the latter table for the purpose of analysing the
movements of fish, the table is summarized, in part, as follows (with actual numbers
of tags in parentheses):— REPORT OP PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
S 43
Area of Recovery.
Area of Tagging.
West Coast.
Lower
East Coast.
Middle
East
Coast.
Totals.
3,503 (208)
12 (     1)
120 ( 9)
16 ( 1)
47 (  4)
3,623 (217)
12 (1)
66 (5)
40 (    3)
113 (     9)
Totals	
3,515 (209)
183 (14)
78 (6)
3,776 (229)
Of the recoveries from west coast taggings, 3.3 per cent. (12%fi23) were obtained
from lower east coast catches. This calculated movement of west coast fish to the
lower east coast is of similar magnitude to that obtained in the 1947-48 season (5.8
per cent.) and in the 1946-47 season (about 2 per cent.). The data show that 30.0 per
cent. (1%q) of the tags used in the lower east coast were recovered on the west coast,
apparently indicating a much greater movement of fish to the west coast than found
in previous years. However, this percentage is based on the recovery of only one tag,
and here it cannot be considered indicative of the movement which actually occurred.
It might be noted that the movement of fish between the lower east coast and the
middle east coast was likewise apparently greater than in most previous years, but the
small number of actual recoveries again suggests that any conclusions as to the extent
of the intermixture are unwarranted.
The paucity of tags in the lower east coast and middle east coast herring in
1948-49 can be shown by calculating the probable numbers of tags per ton of fish caught,
and by comparing these to the corresponding figures derived from the 1947-48 data, as
follows:—
Number op Tags per Ton of Catch.
West Coast.
Lower
East Coast.
Middle
East Coast.
1947-48               	
0.0577
0.0131
0.0364
1948-49 ;	
0.0639                   11.0045
0.0055
Although the concentration of tags on the west coast was similar in both years,
there was a marked decrease in the probable number of tags per ton in the other two
sub-districts. Since approximately the same numbers of fish were tagged each year in
the Strait of Georgia (middle and east coasts combined), the decrease was not caused
by smaller numbers of fish being tagged. The smaller number of tags in the catches
was probably a result of two factors: (1) A greater than usual mortality of herring
apparently occurred in these two sub-districts in the spring and summer of 1948, which
presumably reduced the abundance of the fishing stock and decreased greatly the number of tagged fish, and (2) a strong year-class (that of 1946) contributed a very large
number of new recruits to the fisheries before fishing began in the fall of 1948, causing
relatively great dilution of the surviving tagged fish in the populations.
Indications of the mortality were obtained from herring investigators who in
March, 1948, noticed a generally lethargic condition among the herring caught for
tagging. Also numerous reports were received throughout the spring and early summer
concerning excessive predation of birds on herring concentrated along the shore. It
appeared that the fish stayed inshore much longer than usual before starting on their
normal offshore migration. Evidence of the heavy recruitment of the 1946 year-class
was shown by the fact that Ill-year fish constituted over three-quarters of the herring
in samples taken from the lower east coast fishery and about two-thirds of the herring
in the samples from the middle east coast. S 44
BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
As in past years, considerable mixture of fish occurred between the different west
coast areas, as shq,wn in the following tabulation (no catches were made in Areas 24
and 27 in 1948-49, and no tags were recovered from the small catch taken from Area
26) :—
Area of Tagging.
Area of Recovery—1 1-series.
Area of Recovery—12-series.
23.         1          25.
26.
[                     1
23.                    25.                    26.
23	
24	
256                     79
24                   187
74                   217
I
620                     98
25	
24                  898
26	
27	
117
The average extent of dispersal from the tagging areas amounted to 43 per cent.
(36%46) for tJle H-series and 40 per cent. (100%519) for the 12-series. The similarity
of the dispersal for tags out one year and tags out two years is in contrast to the
1947-48 results, which showed over twice as great a dispersal for the latter as for the
former.
The tendency noted in previous years for considerably more fish to move in a southeasterly direction than in a north-westerly direction along the coast was reversed in
this year's data. For the 12-series data, 13.6 per cent. (9%18) of Area 23 tags came
from Area 25 catches, whereas only 2.6 per cent. (2%22) of the Area 25 tags were
recovered in Area 23 catches. An adequate explanation cannot be given for this occurrence at the present time. However, consideration of the 11-series data (tags which
had been out two years) showed an approximately equal movement in both directions,
23.0 per cent. (7%44) moving north-westerly and 25.4 per cent. (7%91) moving southeasterly. Area 24 tags of the 12-series showed greater movement in a south-easterly
direction than north-westerly, a situation believed to be normal but not observed in this
year's data for the 11-series tags.
Tag-recoveries from individual fishing-grounds on the west coast gave no indication
of non-uniform mixing of certain taggings, as was noted for the Trevor Channel fishery
in Area 23 in the 1947-48 season.
Magnet Efficiency Tests.
In order to check the efficiency of each reduction plant in obtaining the tags from
the catches, so-called magnet efficiency tests were conducted again in 1948-49, using
methods described previously (Tester and Stevenson, 1948, p. 48). In addition to testing the west coast plants, tests were also made this year on three plants located at
Steveston, which operate on a large portion of the west coast catch and on most of the
ratches from the middle east coast and lower east coast fishing-grounds. Data received
from these tests are essential to calculate the probable number of tags in the catches
based on magnet recoveries.
Detailed results of the 1948-49 tests are given in Table IV, and are summarized
below:—
West Coast Plants.
Area 23.
Kildonan 	
Ecoole 	
Port Albion       1
Area 25.
Nootka  	
Hecate	
Ceepeecee	
Average of west coast plants	
Number
of tests.
Percentage
Recovery.
2
84.0
1
90.0
1
98.0
1
77.6
1
79.2
1
84.0
85.5 report of provincial fisheries department.
Steveston Plants.
Number
of Tests.
S  45
Imperial	
Gulf of Georgia
Colonial	
Average
Percentage
Recovery.
68.0
99.0
68.0
Average of Steveston plants
Grand average
78.3
83.1
All west coast plants showed increased efficiency over that of last year, the average
being 85.5 per cent., as compared to 73.5 per cent, in the 1947-48 season. The majority
of tags were recovered within five days after the test was made, as was the case with
tests made in 1947-48. Continued efforts were made to increase the interest of the
plant crews in collecting tags, and this chiefly accounts for the increased percentage
of recovery. The very high percentage efficiency of the Gulf of Georgia plant at Steveston and of the west coast plant at Port Albion are noteworthy. The value of making at
least two tests at each plant during the season is recognized, and it is planned to make
two tests per plant a minimum check whenever possible.
In both 1947-48 and 1948-49 some test tags were obtained from tests conducted in
the previous fishing season. These " hang-over " tags resulted from incomplete clearing
of tags from the plant machinery after the close of the season and from the fact that
the plants have had no pilchard-reduction in the summers of 1947 and 1948 to clear
out herring-tags which remained in the meal-lines. In 1948-49 only eight such " hangovers " were obtained, as compared to twenty-four in the previous year. The smaller
number recovered this year was attributable to the much improved conditions in the
recovery system at the Ecoole plant. Pertinent data on the 1948-49 " hang-over " tags
are given below:—
Plant.
Date of Test.
Reported Date of Recovery.
Number
recovered.
Kildonan	
Jan. 13, 1948	
Nov. 24, 1947	
Jan. 13, 1948	
Nov. 26, 1948  	
Dec. 17, 1948	
Jan. 9, 1949	
Nov. 23, 1948	
Nov. 23, 1948	
Nov. 24, 1948	
Nov. 29, 1948	
Nov. 23, 1948	
1
1
1
Nov. 19, 1947	
Jan. 14, 1948	
Nov. 19, 1947        	
1
1
1
1
Jan. 14, 1948	
Jan. 8, 1948	
Tags recovered by Plant Crews.
A total of 2,940 decipherable tags was recovered by plant crews during the 1948-49
fishing season, an increase of 77 per cent, over the number Of recoveries obtained in
the previous season. This notable increase is a result of (a) greater number of magnets in the plants, (6) greater number of tags in the west coast population resulting
from continued intensive tagging on the west coast, and (c) a greater interest among
plant crews in recovering tags. The plant crews of sixteen reduction plants submitted
the following numbers of tags:— S 46
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Plant
Code.
Number
of tags.
Plant Name.
A. Imperial   172
B. Namu      21
C. Port Albion  263
D. Kildonan   303
E. Ceepeecee   411
F. Nootka   354
H. Butedale      21
I. Port Edward     18
Plant
Code.
Number
of tags.
Plant Name.
K. Alert Bay       38
L. Gulf of Georgia  243
M. Hecate  1  391
N. Ecoole  - 212
O. Redonda Bay     28
P. Phoenix  __.. 140
Q. Colonial   189
R. North Shore Packing 136
The distribution of tags according to area of tagging and probable or certain
areas of recovery is given in Table V. Unbiased interpretations of the areas from
which the tags were recovered were made as in past years, based on knowledge of
magnet time-lag, catch-history of the fish coming into each plant, and detector recoveries. In the case of certain tags, however, obtained when the plants were receiving
fish from various fishing-grounds, difficulties were encountered in determining the
locality from which the tags were recovered. Thus, the locality of recovery at times
has to be rather broad, including several possible areas. Occasionally no interpretation
of place of recovery can be offered.
A total of 2,710 tags used on the west coast of Vancouver Island was submitted by
plant crews, of which 500 were listed as indeterminate (whether or not these tags
originated in west coast catches could not be ascertained). Of the 2,210 west coast tags
for which definite or approximate interpretations could be given, 95.7 per cent. (2,116
tags) were taken from west coast catches and 4.3 per cent. (94 tags) from catches in
other sub-districts. The percentage recovery of west coast tags' in other sub-districts
in 1948-49 (4.3 per cent.) was somewhat greater than in the previous year (1.9 per
cent.), due mostly to greater opportunity for tag-recovery in catches outside the west
coast in 1948-49 by the installation of more magnets. Of the 94 " outside " tags
recovered, 19 were taken in catches from the Northern or Central Sub-districts (Areas
4-10), 53 from the Lower East Coast or Middle East Coast Sub-district, and 22 were
from catches of doubtful origin (it was known that none of the latter came from west
coast catches). Since no west coast tag-recoveries v/ere obtained by tag-detectors from
middle east coast catches, it is likely that most of the 53 plant recoveries listed as
coming from either the lower or middle east coast were from lower east coast catches.
Thus, the movement of west coast fish to the lower east coast can be estimated from
plant returns at a maximum of 2.4 per cent. (5%2io)- This estimate does not differ
greatly from the 3.3-per-cent. migration calculated previously from the tag-detector
recoveries. The data confirm the conclusions of past years that emigration of fish from
the west coast population is small.
A much larger number of west coast tags was recovered in the Northern or Central
Sub-districts in 1948-49 than in the previous year (19 and 2 respectively). Most of the
increase was caused by the relatively high recovery of fish tagged in Area 27 (14 tags
from a tagging in this area were taken in catches along the northern or central coast).
Previous taggings in Area 27 in 1940 and 1941 showed that some fish in Area 27 move
to the Central Sub-district (Hart, Tester, and McHugh, 1941; Tester and Boughton,
1943).
Fifteen tags originally used in " outside " areas were recovered in west coast
catches, of which 4 were from taggings made in the Central Sub-district, 9 from middle
east coast taggings, and 2 from lower east coast taggings. These tags represent 8.9
per cent, of the recoveries of " outside " tags. In the 1947-48 season 5.0 per cent, of
the " outside " tag-recoveries were from west coast catches. Thus, the data suggest a
somewhat greater immigration of fish to the west coast in 1948-49 than in the previous
year. As was the case with detector returns (discussed previously), the very small
number of lower east coast tags obtained in west coast catches in 1948-49 does not REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. S 47
permit a reasonably accurate estimate to be made of the migration of lower east coast
fish to the west coast.
Population Statistics from Tag-recoveries.
The probable numbers of west coast of Vancouver Island tags in the 1948-49 west
coast catches are given in Table VI, as calculated from tag-detector recoveries and from
tags recovered by plant crews. Methods used to calculate the probable number of tags
in the catches on the basis of tag-detector returns were outlined on page 47 of a
previous Report (Tester and Stevenson, 1948), and those used to determine the probable
number of tags on the basis of plant returns were given on page 50 of the same Report.
In the 1948-49 catch, tag returns were obtained from taggings made in 1946, 1947,
and 1948 (10-series, 11-series, and 12-series respectively). For each series, detector
returns and plant recoveries gave comparable estimates of the probable numbers of tags
in the catch, suggesting general reliability of data obtained from each source of tag-
recovery. Difficulty in assigning to plant returns the correct places of recovery formed
a limitation to the accuracy of the estimates based on that recovery method, and, likewise, the small number of tags recovered in certain areas by the tag-detectors tended
to limit the reliability of the estimates made from detector returns. The fiducial limits
of the estimates have not been calculated, although they are probably broad.
The tag returns permit estimates to be made of a comparison of the rates of
exploitation in 1948-49 and in the previous year. The procedure involves calculation of
the ratio of the probable percentage of 12-series tags (which were out less than one
year) in the 1948-49 catch over the probable percentage of 11-series tags (also out less
than one year) in the preceding year's catch. The data pertaining to the 12-series tags
are given in Table VI, while corresponding data on the 11-series tags were given in
Table VII of the previous Report (Tester and Stevenson, 1948).
It was found that the rate of exploitation in 1948-49 was slightly less than that
of the previous year, the ratio of the exploitation rates (as determined from probable
numbers of tags in the catches) being 0.95 (7.85/8.22) for tag-detector calculations,
and 0.75 (8.24/10.96) for calculations based on plant returns, or about 0.85 if an
average value is taken. Along with this reduction in rate of exploitation in the 1948-49
season, fishing effort decreased to 0.72 of that which it was in 1947-48 (948 active
fishing-days were recorded in 1947-48 and 686 in 1948-49). Thus, the changes which
occurred in the west coast fishery from 1947-48 to 1948-49 were very different from
those which occurred in the fishery from 1946-47 to 1947-48. It was noted in 1947-48
(Tester and Stevenson, 1948, p. 52) that both fishing effort and rate of exploitation had
increased over that of the previous year.
With the several assumptions involved in the use of Ricker's (1940) formula relating catch, initial population abundance, and ratio of exploitation rates, it may be calculated that the initial population abundance in 1948-49 was greater (about 1.43 times)
than that of 1947-48. Other calculations involving the rate of exploitation and absolute
initial abundance of the population in each of the two years have also been made, but
these are not presented because of uncertainty regarding the applicability of the basic
assumptions which must be made. The greater initial abundance in 1948-49 may be
due to increased recruitment. The analysis of the sampling data (discussed in a later
section) indicates that the 1946 year-class which entered the fishery in force in 1948-49
as Ill-year fish contributed less recruits than the preceding year-class. However, the
1947 year-class (as IPs), which gives promise of being more abundant than average,
contributed considerably more recruits to the 1948-49 fishery than any year-class since
that of 1943. Also, it seems probable that the 1945 year-class supplied a relatively larger
number of new recruits to the fishery than is usual for a year-class in its fourth year.
By considering the probable number of 11-series tags in the catches of each of the
two years, an estimate of the rate of decrease in population abundance was obtained. S 48
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The rate of decrease was calculated at slightly less than 0.7 for both detector returns
and magnet recoveries (105%4o,s and 22i%sss respectively). This decrease was similar
to that obtained by analysis of the 1947-48 data, a situation which might be expected
considering the similarity in the exploitation each year. Comparison of the catch per
unit effort in the two years (77 tons per seine per day in 1948-49 and 48 tons per seine
per day in 1947-48) suggests that the average abundance, as well as the initial population abundance, was greater in the 1948-49 season.
Differences in Relative Recovery between Taggers.
In the previous Report (Tester and Stevenson, 1948, p. 52) it was stated that no
statistically significant difference was found to exist in the relative recovery from
taggings made at the same time and place by two taggers (one more experienced than
the other). Consideration was also given to this matter in the analysis of the 1948-49
tag returns (Table VII). Whereas each of the five sets of taggers compared in the
previous Report (this tagging took place in 1947) showed no significant difference
between experienced and inexperienced taggers in percentage tag-recovery, it was found
that only three of the six pairs of taggers who tagged in 1948 showed no significant
difference. For each of the other three pairs the chi-square test of significance gave
values which suggested that the difference in recovery could not be attributed to chance.
It appeared that in these cases a greater tagging mortality was induced by the inexperienced tagger than by the more experienced worker.
The data in Table VII are summarized in the following tabulation to show the
differences in percentage recovery according to more or less experienced taggers
(asterisks denote pairs of taggers that showed significant differences in relative
recovery) :—
More Experienced.
Less Experienced.
Tagger.
Number
used.
Number
recovered.
Per Cent,
recovered.
Tagger.
Number        Number
used.         recovered.
Per Cent,
recovered.
No. 1*	
2,578
508
1,572
9.283
73
26
27
905
2.83
5.12
1.72
9.75
9.01
14.06
No. 4*
2,494                  35
507                      7
1.533                   27
8.526                 363
1.499                144
504                   60
No. 1*	
No. 6*	
No. 6	
No. 7*	
No. 8.
No. 1	
No. 2*	
No. 3	
1.521                 137
9.61
11.90
No. 3	
505
71
No. 6	
The extent to which this difference in relative recovery by different taggers might
invalidate the interpretation of the tag-recoveries has not, as yet, been ascertained.
Tagging during the 1949 Spawning Season.
In the spring of 1949 tagging of herring was again carried out in the Strait of
Georgia (Middle and Lower East Coast Sub-districts) and in the West Coast of Vancouver Island Sub-district, using the same method of catching and tagging the fish as
outlined by Tester and Stevenson (1947). In all, four vessels were used in the tagging
programme, as compared to three in the previous season. Because of the difficulty of
obtaining boats when required, the otter-trawler of the Pacific Biological Station, the
" Investigator No. 1," was temporarily modified for herring-tagging in the Strait of
Georgia from March 1st to 15th. Three vessels loaned by the industry were used
exclusively on the west coast—one was on tagging operations from February 17th to
March 15th, another from March 13th to March 28th, and the third (used also for
spawning-ground surveys) from March 15th to April 5th.
A list of all taggings made in 1949 is given in Table XX, including information on
the date and places of each tagging and the identifying code letters of each lot of tags. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
S 49
In the following tabulation the numbers of herring tagged in the various areas are
given, along with comparative data for the 1948 taggings:—
Area of Tagging.
14a.
15.
14B.
17.
18.       1       23.
1
24.
1
25.
1
26.
27.
1948..	
2,514
2,531
1,988
2,984
6,079
2,013
3,049
1,996
     j    9,128
5,579
3,036
1
|    9,017
11,170
1
3,558
4,574
1949	
3,494     |     7,650
A total of 34,874 herring were tagged in 1949, of which 5,515 were tagged on the
middle east coast of Vancouver Island (Areas 14a and 15), 7,503 on the lower east
coast (Areas 14b, 17, and 18), and 21,856 on the west coast. In both years similar
numbers of fish were tagged in the Middle and Lower East Coast Sub-districts, but only
about two-thirds as many fish were tagged on the west coast in 1949 as in the previous
year. This was mostly attributable to inability to locate spawning fish in Areas 26 and
27.   Exceptionally good success was encountered in locating fish in Areas 18 and 25.
SAMPLING OF THE CATCHES AND THE SPAWNING RUNS.
The age composition of the commercial fishery and of the spawning runs provides
information on fluctuations in year-class abundance. Thus, the sampling programme
is primarily concerned with age-studies, but, in addition, data on growth, sex ratio, and
sexual development are obtained. In the 1946-47 Report the details of the sampling
procedure were briefly outlined (Tester and Stevenson, 1947).
In 1948-49 a total of sixty-three samples was obtained from the west coast fishery,
twenty-four samples from Area 23, and thirty-nine from Area 25. Fifteen samples
were examined from the 1949 spawning runs. The list of samples taken on the west
coast during the 1948-49 season is given in Table IX, along with data on age composition, sex distribution, and development of the fish in each sample.
Age Composition.
The average percentage age compositions of the west coast catches for the last
four fishing seasons are given below (the age composition of each individual area
weighted to the number of fish caught in that area) :—
Year.
In Year of
Age.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII-XI.
+
+
+
11.1
5.0
2.4
7.4
74.0
53.0
58.2
45.2
10.0
32.1
27.8
32.9
I
1
1
2.8
6.0
8.5
9.6
0.9
2.5
2.1
3.4
1.2
1946-47	
1.4
0.9
1.4
Fish of Age III again dominated the west coast catches in 1948-49, but the dominance was less pronounced than in each of the three preceding years. It appears that
the 1946 year-class, which entered the 1948-49 fishery as Ill-year fish, was relatively
less abundant than any of the year-classes which have contributed to the fishery in the
past few years, a situation which was predicted on the basis of the large entry of the
year-class in the 1947-48 fishery as IPs (Tester and Stevenson, 1948). The large total
catch in the 1948-49 season seems to have been a result of the relatively large carryover of fish of older age (IV-year fish and older) and the large influx of Il-year fish.
Calculation of the actual numbers of Ill-year fish caught in each of the past three
fishing seasons also shows the relatively smaller production of the 1946 year-class.   In I
CO
u.
o
CO
z
o
200
*
175
A
150
'//,
125
-
///
■
100
Y/f
-
75
fy,
-
50
-
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YEAR CLASSES
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II        III       IV
VI      VII   VIM      IX
IN    YEAR    OF     AGE
Pig. 3. Diagrams showing the total number of herring in each year-class caught
by the commercial fishery in 1948-49 (A), and the average percentage age composition of samples from the commercial catches in Areas 23 and 25 (B). REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. S  51
1946-47 a total of 284.1 million fish was caught as Ill's (1944 year-class), in 1947-48
there were 240.2 million Ill-year fish in the catch (1945 year-class), and in the past
season the 1946 year-class produced 224.0 million Ill-year fish (Table X and Fig. 3 (A)).
Since quota restrictions on the west coast catch were removed before the 1946-47
season began, there is considerable justification for taking these figures as being
roughly indicative of the relative strengths of the year-classes in the population.
There was a striking difference between the age composition of the Area 23 catch
and of the Area 25 catch (Table XI and Fig. 3 (B)). In the former about 70 per cent,
of th fish were Ill-year or less, while in the latter less than 40 per cent, of the fish were
in those age-groups. The contribution of the 1946 year-class was much greater in the
Area 23 fishery than in that of Area 25. Although the Area 25 fishery was about one
and a half times as great as the Area 23 catch, it contained 23 per cent, less Ill-year
fish (Table X). Thus the tendency for older fish to be relatively more numerous in
areas to the north-westward along the west coast of Vancouver Island continued, as in
past years, to be a feature of the west coast population.
It can be seen from the above text tabulation that the 1947 year-class produced
more Il-year fish in 1948-49 than either the 1945 or 1946 year-classes produced as IPs
in the two previous seasons. The age compositions of the individual west coast areas
showed that this relatively large influx of IPs was much more pronounced in Area 23,
where IPs formed about 15 per cent, of the catch, than in Area 25, where only slightly
more than 1 per cent, of the catch was Il-year fish (Table XI). In recent years the
percentage of IPs in the west coast catch has given a fairly accurate forecast of the
abundance of the year-class in the following year as Ill's. If this relationship between
Il-year fish and year-class strength continues, the 1947 year-class should prove to be
relatively abundant in the 1949-50 fishery.
The tremendous influx of the 1947 year-class in the 1949 spawning runs on the
west coast leads to considerable speculation as to its significance. The average percentages of Il-year fish in the spawning samples from all west coast areas averaged just
under 50 per cent. (Table XI). One possible explanation is that the fishery without
quota restrictions on the catch reduced the west coast population to a low level of
abundance by fishing off most of the fish of the older age-groups, thus allowing an
average influx of Il-year fish to dominate the age composition, Another explanation
might be that abnormally large numbers of IPs joined the fishing runs after fishing
stopped and before spawning began, resulting in a much larger percentage of Il-year
fish in the spawning runs than in the fishery. Probably the situation is partly a result
of each of the above conditions—an intensive fishery during the past three years and
an abundant 1947 year-class.
However, the fact that the average age of the west coast fish increased in 1948-49
over that in 1947-48 does not suggest a radical reduction in the size of the stock. If
the residual population had been decreased to a very low level, it might be expected
that the IPs in the fishery would increase greatly as the population was progressively
lessened in size during the fishing season. However, only a small increase in the percentage of IPs occurred during the season, a situation which has been frequently noted
in Southern British Columbia. These facts suggest that the influence of the abundant
1947 year-class might be the dominant factor in explaining the unusual phenomenon.
The fact that the extent of spawning on the west coast of Vancouver Island in 1949
was similar or even slightly greater than in the previous year (as discussed in the
following section) indicates that the recruitment of Il-year fish by the time spawning
commenced was in absolute terms much greater than has ever been observed before in
any major herring-fishery. It also strongly suggests that older fish were considerably
less numerous in the spawning runs than in previous years.
It is not considered that an unintentional change in method of making age determinations from scales accounts for the large number of Il-year fish recorded in the S 52
BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
1949 spawning samples. Special attention was given to these age determinations, and
not only were they considered to be similar in the last two years, but the average
lengths of the Il-year fish were found to be similar in each of the seasons.
Sex Ratio and Stage of Development.
In Table XII the sex ratios (number of females divided by number of males) and
stages of development are given for herring in the commercial fishery and in the
spawning runs. The average sex ratio in samples from the commercial catch showed
practically equal numbers of males and females, but in the spawning samples more
males than females were taken. Since the proportion of males to females is generally
greater in younger fish, the sex ratios are in keeping with the general differences in
age compositions found in the commercial catches and the spawning runs.
Immature fish formed an average of 4.5 per cent, of the commercial catch, and no
immature fish were taken from the spawning samples. Spent fish were more numerous
in the spawning samples than mature, unspent fish, whereas in the two previous years
the unspent fish were more numerous. Spawning samples are taken from fish captured
for tagging. Since efforts were made to tag mostly spent fish in 1948-49 in order to
reduce tagging mortality, spent fish constituted a large proportion of the spawning
samples.
All of the Il-year herring in samples from spawning runs were found to be mature,
a situation also observed in the previous year when Il-year fish formed only a small
percentage of the spawning stock.
Average Length and Weight.
Data on the average length and weight of the fish at each age are considered to
reflect the effect of environmental factors which influence growth, such as food conditions on the summer feeding-grounds. Average weight data are also essential for
calculating the number of fish of each age in the commercial catches. Table XIII gives
the average lengths and average weights of herring in the samples from the commercial catch, and Table XIV gives the average lengths of the fish in the samples from the
spawning runs.
In the following tabulation a comparison of the average length (A, in millimetres)
and average weight (B, in grams) is given for samples from the 1947-48 and the
1948-49 fisheries:—
Year.
In Year of Age.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
1947-48
A.
161
159
188
188
201
201
210
213
220
222
CO   tO
CO   CO
233
233
236
243
1948-49
1947-48
1948-49	
B.
57
50
90
87
110
111
129
138
150
158
164
173
179
187
185
The general similarity in the size of herring of the same age in the two seasons
suggests that food conditions were comparable in the spring and summer feeding
periods of 1947 and 1948.
The average lengths of fish in the 1949 spawning runs were similar, at each age,
to the average lengths of fish of the same age in the 1948-49 fishery and in the 1948
spawning season. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES  DEPARTMENT. S   53
SPAWNING-GROUND STUDIES.
Spawning-ground studies along four main lines were carried out on the west coast
of Vancouver Island in 1949, as follows: (1) Studies of the extent and intensity of
spawning, (2) investigation of the amount of spawn taken off the spawning-grounds
by gulls, (3) studies of the extent of "natural" mortality of spawn (that is, the percentage of dead eggs on the spawning-grounds), and (4) studies on the development
of the embryo during the incubation period.
An average " natural " mortality of 2.3 per cent, was found by sampling spawn in
thirteen west coast localities. In 1947 the mortality was calculated at 2.9 per cent.,
while in 1948 a 5.6-per-cent. mortality was obtained. The estimate of the average
mortality in 1949 excluded a few relatively small patches of spawn (at Toquart Bay,
Cypress Bay, and Amai Inlet) in which all the eggs were dead. The dead spawn at two
of the localities was deposited high up on the spawning-beach (about 12 feet above zero
tide), and evidently the spawn died because subsequent tides did not reach it. As in
1948 (Tester and Stevenson, 1948, p. 59), it was found that mortality was less in the
early stages of development than in the later stages (5.4 per cent, and 14.1 per cent,
respectively for spawnings in the Port Eliza-Queen Cove vicinity in Area 25). Greater
mortality was found on spawn deposited on broad-leaf kelp than on either fucus or
eel-grass.
Detailed descriptions of the development of herring embryos during incubation
were made from spawn samples collected for the bird-predation studies from March
16th to April 10th. This study was designed to aid in identifying the stage of development reached by incubating herring-eggs when observed on the spawning-grounds.
The information will permit fixing the dates at which unobserved spawnings took place.
This is a matter of considerable importance in the studies of the extent and intensity
of the spawnings and in the larval-herring studies.
The studies on the extent and intensity of spawning on the west coast in 1949 and
the research on bird predation are discussed in the following subsections of this report.
Extent and Intensity of Spawning.
Estimates of the amount of spawn deposited are obtained to provide information
from year to year on the relative size of the spawning stock—that portion of the fishable
population which escapes the fishery of the preceding winter. Methods used in the 1949
spawning survey were similar to those used in previous years (Tester and Stevenson,
1948, pp. 55-56), with the main objective being to record as accurately as possible the
number of statutory miles of spawn. Fisheries officers again made an important contribution to this work by carrying on their regular surveys of the spawning-grounds
and by submitting reports. Although many of the spawnings were surveyed by both
scientific investigators and fisheries officers, it was not possible for the former to carry
out inspections of many spawnings, particularly the small ones, and thus the responsibility of obtaining the necessary data was borne by the fisheries officers.
To aid in making accurate reports of spawn extent, mimeographed copies of aerial
maps of certain spawning-grounds were supplied to some of the west coast fisheries
officers this year and were used widely by the scientific investigators. The use of these
maps, obtained from the Air Survey Division of the Provincial Department of Lands
and Forests, proved highly successful, due to the fact that their large scale (approximately 3%, 4%, 5, or 5% inches to the nautical mile) was considerably greater than
that of existing navigation charts. They permitted data on spawning extent to be
recorded with greater accuracy than was previously possible. It is planned to make
available copies of aerial maps for all major west coast spawning areas during the 1950
spawning season. S  54 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Dates, places, and extent of the individual spawnings in 1949 resembled the general
spawning pattern of the previous year, with the following noteworthy exceptions: The
usually large spawning at Refuge Cove (Area 24) failed to take place; no spawnings
occurred in the vicinity of Nuchatlitz Inlet (Area 25) in late February; exceptionally
large spawnings took place at Kendrick Inlet and Port Eliza in Area 25, resulting in
the largest spawning in that area on record; no recurrence of the late, extensive spawning in Holberg Inlet (Area 27) was reported; and a much larger and later spawning
occurred in Klaskish Inlet (Area 27) this year than in recent years. A list of all west
coast spawnings with pertinent data is given in Table XV. The data on spawning
extent (in statutory miles) are summarized according to area in the following tabulation, along with comparable data from the 1948 spawning:—
Extent in Miles.
Area. 1948. 1949.
23 - ,- 10.93 11.69
24     8.45 4.26
25  12.84 16.34
26     2.04 2.23
27     9.73 6.62
Totals '. '.  43.99 41.14
In 1949 the spawning in all areas except Areas 24 and 27 showed an increase in
extent over that of the previous year. Areas 24 and 27 were also the only areas not to
provide a fishery in the 1948-49 season. On the other hand, Area 25, which has shown
a continuous increase in the recorded extent of spawn since 1946, produced a record
catch in 1948-49.
Although the total extent of spawning on the west coast in the spring of 1949 was
slightly less than in 1948, spawnings were generally heavier in intensity. Heavy and
very heavy spawnings constituted about twice as much of the total deposition in 1949
as in the previous year, while light and very light spawnings made up only about one-
third of the total spawn deposited. Thus, it appears that on the west coast as a whole
similar amounts of spawn were deposited in the two years. Comparison of the spawning data obtained in 1948 and in 1947 resulted in a similar conclusion—that the amount
of spawn deposited in 1948, and therefore the tonnage of spawning fish, was at least
equal to and perhaps slightly greater than that of 1947 (Tester and Stevenson, 1948).
Since the spawning stock has been kept since 1946 at a level close to the average of the
past twelve years, it appears that the intensive fishing has not had a detrimental effect
on the size of the spawning population. Although in each of the three years since quota
restrictions to the west coast catch were removed fish were scarce on the fishing-grounds
by the middle of January or shortly after, it is evident that new influxes of fish entered
inshore waters and spawned.
Bird Predation on Herring Spawn.
Various species of birds, including gulls, ducks, cormorants, grebes, crows, etc.,
congregate on or near herring spawning-grounds and feed on spawning herring or
spawn. Observations over a number of years have indicated that ducks and gulls are
heavy feeders on both herring and spawn. It has appeared that while certain species
of ducks are predominantly fish-eaters and eat little spawn, other ducks feed extensively
on spawn deposited on the deeper portion of the spawning areas. Gulls, on the other
hand, feed only on the spawn deposited (chiefly on eel-grass and fucus) in the inter-
tidal zone when it is exposed by the tides.
With very limited data available on the actual amount of spawn taken by gulls, it
was thought desirable in the spring of 1948 to make a beginning on the difficult problem
of assessing the extent of gull predation. It was considered that information of this
type would be a valuable adjunct to the detailed studies on the spawning depositions on REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. S  55
the west coast of Vancouver Island. Data from the very limited study in 1948 suggested
that the amount of spawn eaten by gulls was appreciable (Tester and Stevenson, 1948).
At one spawning-ground, studies carried out when the spawn was in the early developmental stages indicated a bird predation of 26 per cent., while similar studies at another
spawning-ground in which the spawn was in late stages of development pointed to a 35-
per-cent. mortality. Thus, during the whole of the incubation period a mortality of
slightly over 50 per cent, was indicated.
An investigation of bird mortality was conducted on a somewhat larger scale in
the spring of 1949. A field station was set up from March 16th to April 17th for the
purpose, and observations were made on six spawning localities, four of which were
located in Port Eliza and two in Queen Cove (Area 25). At each locality an experimental
plot was selected which appeared to have a uniform deposition of spawn and a uniform
vegetation coverage. Part of the plot was left open to bird predation (the " exposed "
area), while the other part was covered with netting to prevent the birds from feeding
on the enclosed spawn (the " control " area). At one- or two-day intervals, samples of
eggs and substrate (each of which included all the material in a randomly selected 25
square inches of beach) were taken from the exposed and control areas of each plot.
In addition to this phase of the study, gulls were shot from time to time, and the
stomachs were removed and preserved.
Laboratory analysis of the samples from the plots involved separating the eggs
from the eel-grass or fucus substrate and weighing the eggs and substrate separately.
The eggs were weighed after centrifuging to relative dryness (as indicated by a constant weight), whereas the substrate was weighed wet. Series of 2,500 eggs from the
same sample, from different samples on the same substrate, and from the different substrates were weighed in order to obtain standard ratios between weight and numbers
of eggs. The analysis of the contents of the bird-stomachs was similar to that described
for analysing the samples from the plots. However, since the eggs were often badly
macerated through partial digestion, only unbroken eggs could be counted, and thus the
calculated numbers of eggs were considered minimal.
The bird-predation studies carried out at Queen Cove and Port Eliza were continued
over varying periods of time at the different plots, from five days at two plots to fourteen days at another plot. In some plots the study was begun shortly after the spawning took place, while in others the spawn was over a week old before any observations
could be made. The Queen Cove spawnings, which were depositions of medium to heavy
intensity, took place about March 15th, whereas the Port Eliza spawnings, which were
very light to medium in intensity, took place about ten days later. In all but one plot,
fucus was the dominant substrate. A total of ninety-eight samples was collected, of
which sixty came from depositions exposed to birds and thirty-eight from control areas
where birds were excluded. In four of the six plots, more " exposed " samples were
taken than " control " samples. Data on the general conditions at each plot are presented more completely in Table XVI.
The average weights of eggs in exposed and control samples are given in Table
XVII for each three-day period after the spawnings took place. The data show rather
strikingly that the amount of spawn on the exposed portions of the plots generally
decreased throughout the period of study, whereas the amount of spawn in the control
plots remained relatively constant until hatching reduced the abundance of eggs. The
decrease in abundance of eggs from exposed samples is best shown in Plots 1 and 2,
where the study was continued over the whole period of incubation, but the decrease
appears to have been general in all plots except Plot 4. However, the data from Plots
3, 4, and 6 reflect conditions for a relatively short period and hence cannot be used to
give a reliable indication of the predation which might have occurred. Also, it should
be pointed out that the samples obtained from Plots 3 and 4 showed that hatching was
taking place.   In these plots where spawning had taken place about March 25th, hatch- S  56 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
ing was well under way by the eighth or ninth day, while in Plots 1 and 2, where spawning occurred on March 15th, hatching was not general until the eleventh to thirteenth
day.
As was noted for the amount of eggs in the control areas, the amounts of substrate
in both the exposed and control samples showed no general decrease with time (Table
XVIII), like that shown by the spawn samples from the exposed areas. However, this
does not entirely exclude the possibility that a decrease took place. A complicating
feature of the study was the great variation in amounts of spawn and substrate which
was found in samples from the same plot taken on the same day. This occurred in spite
of the efforts made at the beginning of the study to select plots with uniform deposition
of eggs and uniform substrate coverage. Thus, it seems evident that a survey of much
greater magnitude than the one undertaken in 1949 would be necessary in order to study
the extent of bird predation in relation to the various factors involved, such as time of
spawning, intensity of spawning, age of spawn, type of substrate, and location of spawning-grounds. In a sampling problem of this kind there is also to be considered the
possible unintentional tendency on the part of the sampler to bias his results by taking
samples from areas of greatest concentration of spawn and substrate.
Making the assumption that no appreciable decrease took place in the amount of
substrate in either exposed or control areas or in the amount of spawn in the control
areas, a bird mortality of slightly over 50 per cent, is indicated for Plots 1 and 2 during
the pre-hatching period, and a mortality of about 40 per cent, is shown for Plot 5
during the same period. Whether or not this difference in mortality is significant cannot be shown by the available data.
The apparently sharp decrease in spawn abundance (exposed areas) from period 1
to period 2 in Plots 1 and 2 suggests the curvilinear decrease with time shown by
Cleaver and Franett (1945) in their investigation on bird predation at Holmes Harbour,
Wash. Samples from Plot 5 on the other hand, showed a gradual decrease in the first
three periods. The curvilinear decrease in some of the plots might possibly be attributed
to a larger population of gulls being present on the spawning-grounds early in the
incubation period.    Casual observation would tend to support this explanation.
Further analysis of the amount of substrate in exposed and control samples was
made by comparing the average amounts of substrate in all of the exposed and the
control samples of each of the most intensively sampled plots. These data are given in
the following tabulation:—
Plot.
All Plots.
1.
2.
5.
28.5
32.4
92.5
81.3
14.2
22.5
45 1
Control	
45.4
It will be noted that while two of the three plots show a tendency to have slightly
more substrate in the control samples, the difference is negligible when the three plots
are combined. However, in 1949 birds were found to consume substrate, although
relatively less substrate was found in their stomachs than spawn. Also, it was observed
in 1948, and in the course of various spawn-studies over a number of years, that birds
tended, while feeding on spawning-grounds, to loosen a considerable amount of substrate, which subsequently floated away. Hence, a measurable decrease in substrate
was expected. It is possible that inadequate sampling (associated with the great variation in the amount of substrate from sample to sample) and personal bias in taking
samples have masked the reduction which occurs. Rough calculations, based on the
ratio of eggs to substrate in the bird-stomachs, the ratio of eggs to substrate on the REPORT  OF  PROVINCIAL FISHERIES  DEPARTMENT.
S 57
spawning-ground, and on a 50-per-cent. spawn mortality, indicate that the substrate
should be decreased by at least 15 per cent.
Twenty-one gulls were shot in the course of the survey, of which nine were herring
gulls and twelve were glaucous-winged gulls. These two species constituted a large
proportion of the gulls which frequented the spawning-grounds. Munro and Clemens
(1931), in examining the contents of bird-stomachs when herring were spawning, found
that these two species and short-billed gulls were responsible for most of the gull
predation on herring spawn. The stomach contents of all birds examined were composed almost exclusively of herring-eggs and substrate—a fact which is at variance
with the findings of Munro and Clemens in their studies at Departure Bay (Area 14b).
Data obtained from the analysis of the stomach contents, including weights of stomachs
and amounts of ingested eggs and substrate, are given in Table XIX.
The weight of eggs in the stomachs was found to vary greatly. Similarly, great
differences in the amount of ingested substrate were noted. Since the birds were shot
at various times of day and, hence, would likely have been feeding for various lengths
of time, the large range in the amount of ingested material is not unexpected.
Comparative average data for each species of gull, summarized from Table XIX,
are presented below:—
Species.
Number
of Birds.
Average
Weight of
Stomach
(Gm.).
Average
Weight of
Eggs
ingested.
Average
Weight of
Substrate
ingested.
Ratio of
Weight of
Eggs to
Weight of
Substrate.
Herring gulls	
Glaucous-winged gulls
Average	
9
12
33.5
24.1
9.1
14.5
13.2
3.1
0.7
4.7
The data suggest that the herring gulls consume a greater combined weight of
eggs and substrate than the glaucous-winged gulls (an average of 22.3 grams for the
former bird and an average of 17.6 grams for the latter). The quantities of material
in the stomachs bear approximately the same ratio to each other as the average weights
of the stomachs of the two species. However, the stomach contents of the two species
indicated a considerably different proportion of eggs and substrate. The herring gulls
tended to eat more substrate than spawn, whereas the glaucous-winged gulls fed largely
on spawn. The ratio of the amount of spawn to the amount of substrate in the stomachs of the herring gulls (0.69) was slightly less than that found on the average in the
experimental plots (0.52). However, the ratio in the stomachs of the glaucous-winged
gulls was about three times as great as that which existed on the plots. This suggests
that the herring gulls eat eggs and substrate in roughly the same proportion as they
exist on the spawning-grounds, while the glaucous-winged gulls have a greater preference for the spawn and pick large amounts off the substrate.
With data obtained from the survey, the number of gulls necessary to eat 50
per cent, of the spawn available to them was roughly calculated for the Queen Cove
and Port Eliza spawnings. Although the estimate was very approximate because of
numerous assumptions involved, the number is higher than actual counts of birds would
indicate. This suggests that bird predation on spawn is not the only source of mortality.   Further work on this particular problem seems desirable.
Although bird predation is probably a major source of spawn mortality in spawnings located in protected waters, wave-action on spawning-grounds exposed to large
stretches of ocean—for example, Macoah Passage (Area 23) and the Nuchatlitz Village
vicinity (Area 25)—is probably a more serious factor (Tester and Stevenson, 1948, p.
59). Dead eggs (eggs which have died through unfavourable environmental conditions
or lack of fertilization) are found on the spawning-grounds in high concentrations (90 S  58 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
per cent, or more) in certain isolated localities, but this "natural " mortality is, on the
whole, considered to be of minor importance.
An immediate object of the present study is to determine whether bird mortality
on spawn varies greatly from year to year, and, if so, whether or not it could account
for great fluctuations in year-class strength. This study is closely allied to the research
being carried out on young herring. The studies of 1948 and 1949 have indicated a
considerable but similar mortality in each year in the localities investigated. There
were no indications in the studies or in casual observations made over a number of
years that the numbers of birds vary greatly from year to year.
YOUNG-HERRING STUDIES.
Studies of larval herring were continued on the west coast of Vancouver Island in
1949 for the third successive year. The purpose of this phase of the herring research
is to determine the effect of larval survival on the abundance of a year-class when it
enters the fishery in strength as Ill-year fish. Information obtained on spawn depositions, recruitment, and year-class strength has suggested that the larval stage in the
life-cycle of the herring is a critical period, characterized by great natural variations
in survival. If the relative abundances of the year-classes could be adduced in the
first year, sound management policies for the herring-fishery could be readily promulgated to ensure adequate safeguarding of the fishery.
At the outset this type of study was recognized as being very difficult and complex.
The large number of individual broods, which each year constitute the new year-class,
vary greatly in size—some arising from spawnings which cover several miles of coastline, others from spawnings of only a few hundred yards in length. Some of the
broods result from early spawnings, as early as late January, others from spawnings
which take place as late as mid-April. Some broods hatch from spawnings exposed to
the open ocean, and a few result from hatching which occurs near the heads of long
inlets many miles from the open sea. Thus, at almost any time in the spring months,
larvae of any stage, from newly hatched to partly metamorphosed, can be found in
various concentrations all along the west coast of Vancouver Island. At a comparable
stage in larval development, some of the larvae will be growing rapidly, others relatively
slowly, depending on the temperature of the water. Dispersal of larvae away from the
spawning-grounds goes on throughout the four to six weeks of larval existence. Great
differences in the degree of dispersal take place in the various broods, depending on
the particular shape of the shore-line of the spawning locality (and, hence, the degree of
exposure of the spawning-grounds to open water), and on the strengths of the tides
and ocean currents in the various spawning localities.
In the preliminary survey of 1947 (Tester and Stevenson, 1947; Stevenson, 1947)
studies were initiated on larval distribution in relation to type or general configuration
of spawning locality, distance from spawning localities, depth, and time of day. Larval
size (length) was studied in relation to age, and information was obtained on some of
the sources of larval mortality. The survey was carried out over a relatively short
period of time (five weeks), and it was handicapped by lack of equipment. The study
was intensified along similar lines in 1948 (Tester and Stevenson, 1948). A greater
coverage of the many west coast spawning localities was made, the period of the survey
was extended to nine weeks, efforts were made to improve the methods of capturing
larvae, and attention was given to locating schools of metamorphosed young.
The 1948 attack was continued, with some modifications, in the 1949 survey. As
in the previous years, the seine-boat " Dominion No. 1," with its 18-foot tender, was
loaned by the industry for the survey. Four cruises along the coast were made, as in
1948, to study at different times the abundance of larvae in most of the spawning localities. The period of operation in 1949 was from April 5th to June 1st. Larvae were
captured by three methods:   (1)   Fine-meshed silk nets, similar to those used in the
I REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
S 59
previous year, but with a smaller mouth (18 inches in diameter instead of 24 inches),
and patterned after the design of the Hensen egg-net; (2) a pumping system as
described in the previous Report; and (3) a Clarke-Bumpus plankton sampler (Clarke
and Bumpus, 1940). The last-named method, not used in previous surveys, worked
satisfactorily when larvae were fairly abundant, and provided valuable quantitative
data.
During the cruises of the seine-boat it was not possible to make frequent observations at any one spawning locality due to the fact that sampling of the larval populations of a large number of spawning localities along the coast was being carried out.
Thus, it was decided to study in greater detail the larvae from the spawning-grounds at
Queen Cove (Area 25) by means of a temporary field station. The field station was
operated over a period of four and a half weeks, from March 26th to April 28th. Larvae
were captured by means of silk nets of the same type used in the cruises.
Study of the schools of metamorphosed young, which was begun in 1948, was
carried on for only a few days this year in the last week of May. No schools were
located, probably due to the very short period of time devoted to this phase of the
study.
A summary of the field work accomplished in 1949 is as follows, with comparative
data for 1948 in parentheses:—
Method.
Time of Day.
Day.
Dusk.
Night.
Total.
Silk-net hauls (cruises)	
Silk-net hauls (field stations)
Sampler hauls (cruises)	
Metal-net hauls (cruises)	
Pump samples (cruises)	
Light samples (cruises)	
Scouting trips (cruises)	
Seine hauls (cruises)	
Stomach analyses (cruises)...
Totals	
70 (   84)
83   ( )
40   ( )
  (  67)
61 (  86)
   ( )
  (  13)
  (    1)
  (     1)
254 (252)
14 (15)
2 (....)
9 (....)
.... (   6)
2 (   5)
-- (-..)
14 (12)
.... (   9)
.... (....)
41   (47)
341 (280)
103 ( )
156 ( )
  (   51)
11 (   63)
24 (  26)
 - (    3)
...... (- )
  ( )
635 (423)
(18)
(....)
1 (....)
.... (....)
1 (  1)
.... (   1)
15 (10)
.... (   1)
.... (....)
21   (31)
427 (397)
190   ( )
206   ( )
  (124)
75 (155)
24 (  27)
29 (   38)
  (   ID
  (     1)
951. (753)
The total amount of data taken in 1949 was considerably greater than that obtained
in the previous year, due chiefly to the additional silk-net hauls taken at the field station.
In the 1949 studies, more effort was put into working at night than during the day-time,
since night observations generally proved more successful. The Clarke-Bumpus sampler
replaced the metal net used in 1948. Seine-hauling for young herring was not undertaken this year, chiefly because of the failure of the method last year.
A general consideration of the 1949 survey, on the basis of only that part of the
data which have been analysed thus far, indicated that statements made on larval
distribution in previous years were, for the most part, corroborated by the current
year's data. Larvae were generally more abundant in night hauls than in day-time
hauls. Relatively few larvse were found outside the immediate vicinity of the spawning-
grounds. Valuable detailed data were obtained this year, at the field station and at
certain localities which were visited several times on the cruises, pertaining to the
times of the day when larvae can be taken in maximum numbers and to the depths at
which the greatest concentrations occur. This information gives promise of permitting
assessments of the relative abundances of larvae from locality to locality and from year
to year by standard " key " hauls, and it is hoped it will lead to much greater facility
in estimating total relative larval abundances of various year-classes.
The data obtained in 1948 and 1949 appeared to discount predation as a factor
capable of causing great fluctuations in larval survival. Although predation by various
organisms was observed (jellyfish, ctenophores, sagitta worms, and other fish), it was S 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
not considered that in the years of the study the amount of predation varied greatly
from one year to another. On the other hand, an increasing amount of evidence has
pointed to a differential dispersal of larvae from spawning localities in different years
as being a possible major factor in survival. The fact that larvae approaching metamorphosis have never been found outside the immediate vicinity of the spawning localities suggests that the larvae cannot survive when removed from the protected localities
of hatching, presumably because of unfavourable ecological conditions. Hence, it is
possible that greater proportions of the larvae might be dispersed in some years than
in others, according to whether or not relatively large quantities of spawn are deposited
on the more open types of spawning-grounds. Also, it seems possible that greater
amounts of dispersal might occur in years in which north-west winds are more prevalent on the west coast, since these winds produce offshore currents (Tully, 1937) which
would tend to move large quantities of the larvae away from the shore. Indeed, a significant negative correlation was found between the total mileages of winds from the
north-west in April of the years 1937 to 1945 and the eventual relative strengths of
the year-classes as determined by their abundances in the fishery. The month of April
was considered in this correlation, since at that time most of the larvae are small and
would be expected to be easily dispersed by currents. It is planned to make oceano-
graphic observations in 1950 in connection with this new line of larval research.
THE PRESENT STATUS OF THE RESEARCH.
Three years of intensive research on the west coast of Vancouver Island have now
been completed. As pointed out in the introduction, the immediate object of this study
is to follow the changes taking place in a herring population subjected to practically
unlimited exploitation so that these changes may be compared with those observed in
an area subject to catch restriction by quota. The work should provide a basis for
judging the relative merits of the two principles of management.
During the period the population abundance has been high in both sub-districts.
Large catches have been made each year on the west coast. An aggregate of almost
160,000 tons of herring was taken, as opposed to only 57,000 tons in the three previous
years when, although a quota governed the catch, it was reached in only one of the
years. The three-year catch was 85,000 tons in excess of what would have been allowed
on the basis of the last quota. Availability of fish to the seining fleet was generally
high during the past three years, and fishing effort was relatively low. It appears that
the high level of population abundance was a result of better-than-average recruitment
of the 1943, 1944, and 1945 year-classes.
Data from tag returns have permitted estimates to be made of the ratio of the
exploitation rates in two consecutive seasons. Also, changes in population abundance
were indicated by calculations involving tagging data and catch statistics. Although
the estimates obtained are based on various assumptions and on data which in certain
cases may lack sufficient accuracy, they appear to be in general agreement with data
obtained in different years and are helpful in studying changes in the west coast population. Calculations made from data obtained on the fishery in 1947-48 and 1948-49
indicated that rate of exploitation was slightly less in 1948-49 than in the previous
year and that the initial population abundance in 1948-49 was about 1.43 times greater
than in 1947-48. The greater initial population abundance appeared to be a result of
a relatively large recruitment of IV-year fish of the 1945 year-class and greater-than-
average recruitment of the 1947 year-class, as Il-year fish.
In each of the three years, fishing stopped on the west coast before the official
closure date of February 5th because no fish could be located on the fishing-grounds.
However, new influxes of fish apparently came inshore immediately prior to spawning,
and the extent of the spawning depositions have been about equal to the average of the
past twelve years
. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. S  61
The catch quota of 40,000 tons annually was taken in the lower east coast without
difficulty in each of the past three years. As on the west coast, average availability has
also been high, except in 1946-47, as compared to that during the three years prior to
1946. In 1948-49 the quota was taken in an intensive fishery lasting less than three
weeks, the shortest period ever required. The 1943 and 1946 year-classes contributed
heavily to recent catches, and the 1944 and 1945 year-classes appeared to be slightly
above average. In contrast to the situation on the west coast, evidence strongly suggested that considerable fish remained on the fishing-grounds after fishing stopped on
completion of the quota.   While the extent of spawning was slightly below average in
1947, large spawnings occurred in 1948 and 1949, the spawning in 1949 being the
largest since 1940.
Thus, it is evident that during this period of high population abundance a considerable residual stock remained in both sub-districts after the fishery occurred. Also,
it appears that the amount of spawn was well above the critical minimum necessary to
maintain the stocks. However, although the lack of quota restrictions on the west coast
has been followed by spawnings of average size, restricted catch on the lower east coast
has resulted in above-average spawnings in the last two years. No close relationship
has been found (Tester, 1948) between the size of the spawning stock (or relative
number of eggs deposited) and the size of the resultant year-class (or relative number
of recruits to the fishable population) in studies carried out on the west coast population prior to 1946. The current study will provide a valuable check on the former
observations by allowing a further contrast between the production of average and
better-than-average spawnings.
Studies on the survival of spawn, larvae, and post-larvae have been begun in an
effort to determine the cause of the great variation in recruitment from the various
year-classes. Information accumulated so far in these studies suggests that the larval
stage might be the most vulnerable to factors affecting survival of the year-classes.
Recent studies have pointed to the possibility that oceanographic conditions, particularly those connected with the strength of offshore currents, are of greatest importance
in determining the extent of larval dispersal and, hence, of larval survival. It is
planned to analyse thoroughly the data of the first four years of study, including that
of 1950, as a unit. The ultimate aim is to follow closely each year-class from the incubation stage to the time it enters the fishery as new recruits.
In order to complete the present study designed to determine the utility of the
quota system of herring management, the study will have to be continued over a period
of low year-class abundance. Indications are that the recruitment of the 1947 year-
class will maintain the west coast fishery at a relatively high abundance level in the
1949-50 season. However, on the basis of the past history of the fishery, a series of
poor year-classes can be eventually expected to occur. An intensive study of the population at such a time will permit the comparison of the effectiveness of the different
methods of herring management under all natural conditions.
SUMMARY.
This is the third in. a series of annual reports on the results of an intensive investigation on the herring population of the west coast of Vancouver Island. The immediate
purpose of the study is to determine whether catch quotas are effective in stabilizing
British Columbia herring populations or whether they are unnecessarily restrictive in
view of the large natural fluctuations in. year-class strength which occur. The basic
condition of the research was the removal of quota restrictions from the west coast
catch and the strict adherence to a fixed annual quota on another major herring population—that of the lower east coast of Vancouver Island.
The total 1948-49 catch on the west coast was 55,000 tons, only slightly less than
the record catch of 1946-47.    Large catches were obtained from Area 25 in November S  62 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
and good fishing was realized in both Areas 23 and 25 in December. Except for a small
catch in Area 26, little fishing went on after the Christmas closure. The Area 25
fishery was the largest ever carried out in that area. The remarkably small quantity
of fish caught on the west coast in January was unusual, since a major portion of the
catch has generally been taken in the post-Christmas period. The availability (average
catch per seine per day) increased to about one and one-half times that of the previous
year, and fishing effort (number of active fishing-days) decreased by about one-fourth.
The estimates of availability and fishing effort approximated those obtained in 1946-
47, the first year of the investigation.
A record number of tags was recovered in the 1948-49 season—a total of 3,170, as
compared to 2,224 in 1947-48. Tag-detectors which were operated at the Imperial and
Gulf of Georgia plants in Steveston and at the Kildonan plant in Area 23 made fewer
recoveries than in 1947-48, primarily due to need of major overhauls after several years
of service. However, the magnets in sixteen reduction plants resulted in more recoveries than in any previous year. The large number of tag-recoveries was considered to
be a result of the increased concentration of tags in west coast catches due to continued
intensive tagging, an increase in the number of magnet installations, and greater
interest among plant crews in recovering tags.
The calculated movement of west coast fish to the lower east coast (3.3 per cent,
for detector returns and about 2 per cent, for plant returns) did not differ greatly from
that obtained in the 1947-48 season. The data confirm conclusions of past years that
emigration of fish from the west coast population is small. The relative scarcity of
lower east coast tags in the catches prevented an estimate of the movement from the
lower east coast to the west coast. It was considered that the small number of tags in
lower east coast catches, and also in the middle east coast catches, in 1948-49 resulted
from an unusually great mortality among the herring in the spring and early summer
of 1948 and from the fact that the 1946 year-class contributed a very large recruitment
to the Strait of Georgia fisheries before fishing began in the 1947-48 season.
As in past years, considerable mixture of fish occurred between the different west
coast areas. The tendency noted in previous years for more fish to move in a southeasterly direction than in a north-westerly direction along the coast was reversed in this
year's data for tags which had been out less than one year. An approximately equal
movement of fish in both directions was shown by tags out less than two years.
On the basis of tag returns, the ratio of the exploitation rates in 1948-49 and
1947-48 was calculated, indicating that the rate of exploitation in 1948-49 was slightly
less than in the previous year. It was calculated from data on catch, initial population
abundance, and ratio of exploitation rates that the initial population abundance in
1948-49 was about 1.43 times greater than in 1947-48. The increase in population
abundance was probably a result of the apparently large recruitment of the 1945 year-
class as IV's and the influx of a relatively large number of Il-year fish (1947 year-class).
In a comparison of the percentage tag-recovery between more- and less-experienced
taggers, it was found that in certain cases a statistically significant difference occurred.
The implications of such a difference in the interpretation of the results have not been
determined.
A total of 34,874 herring were tagged in the spring of 1949, as compared to 45,577
in 1948. Similar numbers of fish were tagged in the middle and lower east coasts in
both years, but fewer fish were tagged on the west coast in 1949. The reason for the
reduced tagging on the west coast was mostly attributable to inability to locate spawning fish in Areas 26 and 27.
Age-composition studies indicated that although the 1946 year-class (Ill's) formed
the largest percentage of the catch, it was only slightly more abundant than the 1945
year-class (IV's).    Calculation of the actual numbers of fish in the catch showed that REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. S   63
the 1946 year-class contributed fewer recruits to the west coast fishery than any year-
class since that of 1942. The 1945 year-class was particularly strong in Area 25, and
the 1947 year-class (as Il-year fish) made up a larger proportion of the fishery in Area
23 than usual.
The 1947 year-class constituted almost half of the fish in samples from the spawning runs. It is suggested that this very unusual occurrence may be explained on the
basis of the 1947 year-class being of above-normal strength.
In the 1948-49 season the herring in both the catches and in the spawning runs (at
the same age) were about the same size (in length and in weight) as herring in the
two previous seasons.
As in both previous years, fishing stopped before the closure date because of lack
of fish on the fishing-grounds. However, new influxes of spawning fish subsequently
came inshore. In 1949 the total extent of spawn depositions was slightly less than in
1948, but spawnings were generally heavier in intensity. It appears that similar
quantities of fish spawned on the west coast in each of the past three years.
Bird-predation studies were continued on a somewhat larger scale in 1949. They
involved the collection of samples of spawn and substrate from six spawnings in Area
25. Glaucous-winged gulls and herring gulls were shot, and their stomach contents
were examined. It was estimated that gulls consumed about 50 per cent, of the spawn
on the portion of the spawning-grounds above the zero tide. Glaucous-winged gulls
were found to eat more spawn than substrate, whereas herring gulls consumed spawn
and substrate in approximately the same proportion that they existed on the spawning-
grounds.
Larval-herring studies in 1949 were carried out along lines similar to those
developed in the previous survey. In addition to sampling larvae in most of the major
spawning localities during four cruises along the west coast in April and May, a field
station was set up in order to sample the larvae of one locality intensively. Partial
analysis of the data suggests that larval dispersal from the spawning localities may be
an important factor in larval survival.
A review of the results accumulated in the first three years of the present study
indicated that during this period of high population abundance the population under
quota restrictions (that of the lower east coast of Vancouver Island) had above-average
spawnings, whereas the population with practically unlimited fishing (that of the west
coast of Vancouver Island) showed average spawnings. Further study is needed to
determine whether or not, in view of these findings, fixed quotas imposed upon the catch
are unduly restrictive. The study must be continued through periods of low population
abundance to give conclusive results.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
During the 1948-49 season, as in past years, the herring investigation was greatly
assisted by herring fishermen, fishing companies, and government departments.
The submission of pilot-house records on catch by seine-boat captains permitted the
compilation of statistics on the availability of fish and on the amount of fishing effort
expended. Plant book-keepers furnished detailed information on catches landed at the
plants, allowing the computation of catch by area and aiding in the interpretation of
tag-recoveries. Reduction-plant crews gave valuable assistance in searching for tags
and in submitting them with the required information. Personnel of various plants
kindly aided in the collection of herring samples, and in many instances arrangements
were made with managers and plant-crew members whereby the samples were frozen
or salted and subsequently shipped to the Biological Station as required.
The herring investigation wishes to express its appreciation to British Columbia
Packers, Limited, for permitting the installation and operation of tag-detectors at its
Steveston and Kildonan plants, and to the Canadian Fishing Company, Limited, for S  64 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
similar permission at its plants in Steveston and Nootka. In the spring of 1949 various
companies loaned vessels for tagging, spawning-ground surveys, and young-herring
studies. The companies involved and the vessels loaned were Anglo-British Columbia
Packing Company ("Jessie Island No. 9"), Canadian Fishing Company, Limited
("Pacific Sunset"), Nelson Brothers Fisheries, Limited ("Western Girl"), and
British Columbia Packers, Limited ("Dominion No. 1"). The herring investigation
is greatly indebted to the companies, the plant managers, and their staffs for the assistance they have rendered.
The co-operation of the Dominion Department of Fisheries in various phases of
the research is gratefully acknowledged. The work of the fisheries officers stationed on
the west coast in making surveys and submitting reports of herring spawn depositions
has been of great value. Patrol-boat captains have assisted the investigation in the
collection of catch statistics.
Although in the course of the 1948-49 studies the writer has supervised the herring
research, most of the work involved in the field operations and in the compilation of
the large amount of data, as well as some of its analysis, was undertaken by the various
members of the investigation. The writer wishes to acknowledge their keen devotion
to their tasks and their co-operative spirit in the work.
In so far as it was practical, staff personnel were allocated to specific phases of the
investigation. J. A. Lanigan, junior biologist, undertook the chief responsibility in the
tag-recovery programme, and carried out the field work pertaining to the studies on
extent of spawn deposition. R. G. McMynn and D. N. Outram, junior biologists, supervised most of the field operations in connection with the larval and special spawn studies
and worked up part of the data. A. S. Hourston, assistant biologist, and K. J. Jackson,
junior biologist, continued these phases when Messrs. McMynn and Outram left on
leave of absence. Miss A. Lazareff, junior biologist, and R. S. Isaacson, laboratory
technician, made the age determinations from scales and were responsible for the
compilation of the sampling data. Mr. Isaacson was also responsible for the collection
and analysis of the catch statistics. Much of the responsibility of the field work in
connection with the tagging programme was undertaken by A. G. Paul, the senior
member of the technical staff. Mr. Paul also aided in various other field programmes
and is in charge of general equipment maintenance. J. H. Larkman, field technician,
was responsible for the maintenance of electrical equipment and aided in the various
surveys. E. A. R. Ball, K. Herlinveaux, and B. Wildman assisted in the sampling of
the catches and aided in most of the field operations in the various phases of the investigation.   Miss H. Cox ably carried out the stenographic and clerical work.
The writer wishes to express sincere thanks to Dr. A. L. Tester, of the University
of Hawaii (formerly intimately associated with the herring investigation), for his
general criticism of the section dealing with population statistics based on tag returns.
The herring investigation was again financed jointly by the British Columbia
Provincial Fisheries Department and the Fisheries Research Board of Canada. It is a
pleasure to acknowledge our indebtedness to G. J. Alexander, Deputy Minister of
Fisheries, and to Dr. R. E. Foerster, Director of the Pacific Biological Station, for
their support and valuable advice in the research.
REFERENCES.
Clarke, G. L., and Bumpus, D. F. (1940) : The plankton sampler—an instrument for
quantitative plankton investigations. Limnological Soc. of America, Spec. Pub.
No. 5.
Cleaver, F. C, and Franett, D. M. (1945): The predation by sea birds upon the eggs
of the Pacific herring.    State of Wash., Dept. of Fish., Biol. Rep. 46b, pp. 1-18. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
S 65
Hart, J. L., Tester, A. L., and McHugh, J. L.   (1941) :   The tagging of herring
(Clupea pallasii) in British Columbia:  insertions and recoveries during 1940-41.
Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1940, pp. 47-74.
Munro, J. A., and Clemens, W. A. (1931): Water fowl in relation to the spawning of
herring in British Columbia.   Biol. Bd., Canada, Bull. 17, pp. 1-46.
Ricker, W. E. (1940):  Relation of "catch per unit effort" to abundance and rate of
exploitation.   Journ. Fish. Res. Bd., Canada, Vol. V, No. 1, pp. 43-70.
Stevenson, J. C. (1947):  Preliminary survey of larval herring on the west coast of
Vancouver Island, 1947.    Progress reports (Pacific), Fish. Res. Bd., Canada, No.
73, pp. 65-67.
Tester, A. L.   (1946) :   Tagging of herring  {Clupea pallasii)  in British Columbia:
insertions and recoveries during 1945-46.    Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept.,
1945, pp. 43-66.
  (1948) :   The efficacy of catch limitations in regulating the British Columbia
herring fishery.   Trans. Roy. Soc, Canada, Vol. XLII, Series III, May 1948, Section 5, pp. 135-163.
Tester, A. L., and Boughton, R. V. (1943): Tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in
British Columbia:   apparatus, insertions, and recoveries during 1942-43.    Rept.
British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1942, pp. 44-69.
Tester, A. L., and Stevenson, J. C. (1947):  Results of the west coast of Vancouver
Island herring investigation, 1946-47.   Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1946,
pp. 42-71.
 (1948) :   Results of the west coast of Vancouver Island herring investigation, 1947-48.*    Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1947, pp. 41-86.
TuLLY, J. P. (1937):  Why is the water along the west coast of Vancouver Island so
cold?   Progress reports (Pacific), Fish. Res. Bd., Canada, No. 34, pp. 13-15.
* Reprints of this paper are dated 1949.
Table I. — Catch (Tons), Fishing Effort (Total Number of Active Fishing-days
expended by all Seine-boats), and Availability (Average Catch per Seine per Day's
Active Fishing) for West Coast Sub-district Areas during 1948-49 Fishing Season.
Area.
Estimated
Catch.
FishinT
Effort.*
Availability.
23      ....	
21.800
344
9
282
51
 t
63.4
24                                                            ...                             	
25                                 	
31,200
2,000
110.7
26                                                       ...                  ....            -	
39.2
27                                                 	
55,000
686
77.3
* The total number of active fishing-days is calculated to the nearest whole number from estimated catch and
availability based on incomplete data.
t A limited amount of scouting for herring took place in Area 27 during the 1948-49 season, but the number
of active fishing-days is not available. S 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table II.—Tags recovered by the Imperial (A), Gulf of Georgia (L), and
Kildonan (D) Tag-detectors during the 1948-49 Fishing Season.
Tagging Code.
Area of Recovery.
Tagging
12.
13.
14a.
14b.
17.
23.
25b.
1
A. I   L.
1
1
A.   1   L.
1
A.
A.
L.
A.
L.
A.
D.
A.
L.
0
H
12
60	
1
1
1
14a
12A	
3
2
1
6
15
10G	
12E	
1
1
1
1
16
10F	
1
1
14b
12D	
1
1
2
17
HE	
1
1
23
11H      	
2
2
1
	
	
4
"I	
1
11J	
1
2
3
UK	
1
1
4
6
11L	
1
1
11M	
2
2
iin	
1
1
2
12G	
1
2
3
12H	
1   1        1
2
121	
6
5
3  1  	
14
12J	
1
1
5
3
   1       1
11
12K	
9
1
2  1  	
12
24
HP	
HQ	
12L	
12M	
	
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
1
7  1
4  1       1
3   1  	
«  1   	
8
6
7
10
25a
ION	
	
1
1
1
11R	
  1       1
2
IIS	
1
1
11T	
1
1
11U	
1
2
7
3
2
12N	
1   | 	
12
12P	
   | 	
1
7
3
11
12Q	
    1 	
7
2
9
26b
10P	
1
 !	
 1	
 1	
1
1  j       1
4 |      1
5 I 	
2
11W	
5
11X	
6
12R 	
  1...
1
14 1      1
16
12S.	
  I..
17 I      1
26
10Q	
1
        1 .
l
2  1
10R	
•>.         1
12T	
16
5
21
12U	
s
27
12W	
12X	
Totals	
	
1
  1	
 1	
   1	
  1       1
1
1 1 	
2 j      3
1
6
1  1 --  1      1  1 	
5
5   |        2
2   |       5   |      33   |      27
126  |    23
Tonnages examined
Estimated catch
22   |  170   |  352   j 224
1,324
2,736  [1,786
819  | 820  11,435  (1.749
2.736  | 890
1,600
5,800
8,300
25,300
14,400      |      21,800
1
31,200 REPORT OP PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
Table III.—Probable Number of Tags in the Catches during the
1948-49 Season, based on Detector Returns.
S   67
Tagging
Area.
Tagging Code.
Area of Recovery.
Totals.
12.
13.     I    14a.
1
14b.
1                1
17.     ]     23.     I    25b.
I
12
14a
15
16
14b
17
23
24
25a
25b
26
27
60    	
15
19
35
12
12
21
10
10
10
10
10
16
16
16
32
16
16
12
86
31
74
31
43
62
43
226
152
137
12
12
105
62
12
31
12
31
12
31
49
30
	
44
24
30
104
83
44
89
15
15
15
30
176
176
39
39
83
74
231
276
30
54
357
74
15
102
15
72
10
19
12
24
16
86
31
74
96
10
30
43
72
43
270
208
167
116
95
149
177
15
27
31
15
30
198
192
39
39
83
105
243
276
30
54
357
105
15
102
12A	
10G 	
12E	
10F	
12D	
HE	
11H	
HI    	
11J	
UK	
HL	
11M	
HN      	
12G	
12H	
121	
12J                          	
12K	
HP	
HQ	
12L	
12M 	
ION    	
11R	
HS	
11T    	
11U 	
12N	
12P	
12Q    	
10P	
11W	
11X	
12R	
12S	
10Q	
10R	
12T	
12U        	
12W	
12X          	
Totals	
15
19    |       59    |       71
1               1
112
1.217
2.298
3,791
1 S 68
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
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BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table VI.—Number of West Coast Tags used, and Probable Number and Percentage in
the 1948-49 West Coast Catch, according to Calculations based on Recoveries by
both Detectors and Plant Crews.
Tag-
Tagging Code.
Number
used.
Probable Number
in Catches.
Probable Percentage in Catches.
King
Area.
Detector
Returns.
Plant
Returns.
Detector
Returns.
Plant
Returns.
Tagged 1946 ; present in 1948-49 Catches.
101                                                              	
3,914
2,941
2,947
1,574
3,542
3,961
3,182
2,542
	
15
39
30
54
3
2
5
3
9
31
25
17
0.42
0.98
0.94
2.12
0.08
24
10K            	
0.07
24
10L                          	
0.17
24
10M           	
0.19
25
ION                          	
0.25
25
10P                           	
0.78
26
10Q                           ...          	
0.78
26
10R                           	
0.67
24,603
138
95
0.56
0.39
Tagged 1947; present in 1948-49 Catches.
HF                             	
23
2,087
499
2,670
1,017
2,074
2,637
994
2,191
1,011
3,499
3,084
2,021
1,005
1,011
1,011
2,622
968
86
31
74
80
30
43
116
95
27
31
15
30
83
105
16
4
68
30
44
104
23
98
33
102
64
36
24
4
7
156
75
3.22
3.05
3.57
3.03
1.37
4.25
3.31
3.08
1.34
3.08
1.48
2.97
3.17
0.77
23
11G	
0.80
23
HH                           	
2.55
23
HI .           _	
2.95
23
11J	
2.12
23
HK           	
3.94
23
HL	
2.31
23
11M	
4.47
23
11N	
3.26
24
HP	
2.91
24
HQ	
2.07
25
HE            ...           	
1.78
25
HS	
2.39
25
11T	
0.40
25
11U             	
0.69
25
11W	
5.59
25
11X	
10.85     1       7.75
Totals	
30,401
846
888
2.78     1       2.92
Tagged 1948 ; present in 1948-49 Catches.
12G	
23
1,511
1,053
2,082
62
43
270
176
167
149
151
176
176
39
243
276
357
28
59
131
4.10
4.08
12.97
1 85
23
12H	
5.60
23
121	
6.29
23
12J	
2,025
2,548
3^63
2]516
1,986
2,019
1,503
1,985
1,524
2,043
1,515
1,381
3,193
151
161
93
211
155
170
244
160
304
292
8.69
6.55
4.86
6.00
8.86
8.72
2.59
12.24
18.11
17.47
6.93
1.09
3.19
7.46
23
12K	
6 32
24
12L	
24
12M	
8.39
24
12N	
7 80
25
12P	
8 42
25
12Q	
25
12R	
25
12S	
26
12T	
14.29
13.00
1.45
8.08
26
12U	
27
12W	
15    |          20
102    j       258
27
12X	
Totals	
31,947
1
7.85 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
S  73
Table VII.—Tagging and Recovery Data for Taggings conducted simultaneously
by Two Taggers at One Time and Place.
More-experienced Tagger.
Less-experienced Tagger.
Tagging Code.
Tagger
No.
Code
Letters.
Number
used.
Number
recovered.
Per
Cent, recovered.
Tagger
No.
Code
Letters.
Number
used.
Number
recovered.
Per
Cent, recovered.
12A	
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
OKKO
OMMO
ODDO
ROOR
RSSR
OKKO
ODDO
ROOR
RSSR
LKKL
LOOL
LSSL
LTTL
LWWL
NMMN
NSSN
NEEN
NHHN
MTTM
NUN
KMMK
NUUN
MXXM
KOOK
NCCN
RAAR
RIIR
RYYR
RYYR
508
498
518
510
544
508
518
510
544
507
506
570
505
512
481
505
504
513
511
509
1,056
501
464
1,127
512
506
510
505
505
26
20
4
11
12
26
4
11
12
11
30
36
41
41
38
45
39
37
49
107
178
78
9
119
47
24
42
71
71
5.12
4.02
0.77
2.16
2.21
5.12
0.77
2.16
2.21
2.17
5.93
6.32
8.12
8.01
7.90
8.91
7.74
7.21
,   9.59
21.02
16.86
15.57
1.94
10.56
9.18
4.74
8.23
14.06
14.06
4
4
4
4
4
5
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
6
OLLO
ONNO
OHHO
RMMR
RUUR
OPPO
OEEO
RNNR
RTTR
LTTL
LNNL
LPPL
LUUL
LXXL
NPPN
NLLN
NDDN
NOON
LZZL
NJJN
KNNK
NTTN
MWWM
MZZM
NAAN
RBBR
RHHR
RXXR
RWWR
499
507
505
476
507
507
507
499
527
503
498
508
503
505
492
508
505
497
499
512
987
512
456
521
520
508
497
494
504
2
4
2
11
16
7
1
10
16
7
26
14
23
23
20
17
20
27
23
41
51
40
4
13
14
28
59
57
60
0.40
12A	
12D	
0.79
0.40
12L	
2.31
12L	
3.16
12A	
12D	
1.39
0.20
12L	
2:00
12L	
3.04
12G	
1.39
121	
5.22
121	
2.76
12J	
4.57
12J	
12N	
4.55
4.07
12N	
3.35
12P	
3.96
12P	
5.43
12R	
4.61
12S	
12T	
8.01
5.17
12U	
7.81
12W              	
0.88
12X	
2.50
12X	
2.69
12K	
5.51
12M	
11.87
12Q ,:.
11.54
12Q	
11.90 S 74
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table VIII.—Data on Taggings referred to in Tables and Text.
Tagging
Code.
Tagging
Area.
Place and Date of Tagging.
Number
used.
24
15
13
9
7
24
15
12
12
12
12
10
7
7
6
6
5
5
18
17
14b
14a
14a
16
15
12
23
23
24
24
24
25
25
26
26
13
14a
15
14b
17
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
24
24
25
25
25
25
25
25
14a
14b
14b
15
23
23
23
23
23
1,193
8D
81
3,830
3,999
Rivers Inlet; Mar. 18, 1944    .               	
3,121
3,011
Matilda Inlet; Mar. 26, 27  1944                                               	
4,220
9E
Skuttle Bay ; Mar. 15, 1945                                                   	
3,166
Viner Sound ; Mar. 19, 20, 1945	
3,155
9H
Cutter Creek ; Mar. 22, 1945	
3,177
2,754
9J
2,893
9K
3,172
9L
9M
9N
1,895
4,310
3,450
90
1,523
9P
3,010
9Q
10A
3,039
Prevost Island, Selby Creek, Feb. 16, 1946	
1,570
10B
4,506
IOC
3,952
100
1,060
10E
3,148
10F
2,754
10G
Skuttle Bay; Mar. 16, 1946    .                           	
3,085
10H
1,691
101
Pipestem Inlet; Feb. 26, 27, 1946     	
3,914
10J
Banfield Inlet; Feb. 28, Mar. 1, 1946    	
3,545
10K
2,941
10L
Refuge Cove; Mar. 19, 20, 1946          	
2,947
10M
Refuge Cove ; Mar. 30, 1946                                      	
1,574
ION
Ewin Inlet; Mar. 8, 9, 1946   	
3,542
10P
3,961
10Q
3,182
10R
2,542
HA
2,564
11B
11C
Skuttle Bay ; Mar. 5, 1947	
11D
HE
Departure Bay ; Mar. 17,1947	
Kulleet Bay; Mar. 8, 1947	
2,008
3 525
11F
Banfield Inlet, head ; Feb. 17, 1947	
2,087
499
11G
Grappler Inlet, Port Desire; Feb. 21, 1947	
11H
HI
Macoah Passage ; Feb. 24, 1947	
2,670
1,017
11J
2,074
11K
Toquart Bay; Mar. 15, 1947                   	
2,637
HL
Toquart Bay; Mar. 20, 1947	
994
11M
Mayne Bay ; Mar. 16, 1947	
2,191
11N
Mayne Bay ; Mar. 19, 20, 1947	
1,011
HP
Refuge Cove; Mar. 12, 13, 1947	
3.499
HQ
Sydney Inlet, Flores Island ; Mar. 7, 8, 1947	
3,084
11R
2,021
HS
Kendrick Inlet; Mar. 15, 1947	
1,005
HT
1,011
11U
1,011
11W
2,622
HX
968
12A
12C
2,514
2,028
12D
2,538
12E
1 988
12G
Banfield Inlet; Feb. 23,1948	
1,511
12H
Macoah Passage; Feb. 20, 1948	
1,053
2,082
2,025
2,548
121
Macoah Passage ; Feb. 25, 1948	
12J
Macoah Passage ; Feb. 27, 1948	
12K
Toquart Bay; Mar. 9, 10, 1948	 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. S 75
Table VIII.—Data on Taggings referred to in Tables and Text—Continued.
Tagging
Code.
Tagging
Area.
12L
24
12M
24
12N
25
12P
25
12Q
25
12R
25
12S
25
12T
26
12U
26
12W
27
12X
27
13A
15
13B
14a
13C
14<B
13D
17
13E
18
13F
18
13G
23
13H
23
131
23
13K
24
13L
24
13M
25
13N
25
13P
25
13  Q
25
13R
25
13S
25
Place and Date of Tagging.
Number
used.
Herbert Inlet, Whitepine Cove; Mar. 19, 1948	
Refuge Cove; Mar. 14, 15, 1948	
Ewin Inlet; Mar. 16, 1948	
Kendrick Inlet, lagoon at head ; Mar. 12, 1948	
Kendrick Inlet, lagoon at head ; Mar. 25, 1948	
Esperanza Inlet, Gillam Channel; Mar. 1, 2, 1948
Queen Cove; Mar. 14, 1948	
Union Island,Kyuquot Channel; Mar. 3, 1948	
Malksope Inlet; Mar. 20, 1948	
Klaskish Inlet; Mar. 6, 1948	
Forward Inlet, Matthews Island ; Mar. 8, 9, 1948..
Skuttle Bay ; Mar. 8, 1949	
Northwest Bay ; Mar. 2, 1949	
Departure Bay ; Mar. 11,12, 1949	
Pylades Channel; Mar. 14, 1949	
Ganges Harbour; Mar. 4, 1949	
Prevost Island, Selby Creek ; Feb. 18, 1949	
Banfield Inlet; Feb. 21, 1949	
Rainy Bay, Barkley Sound ; Mar. 16, 1949	
Macoah Passage; Mar. 28, 1949	
Matilda Creek ; April 1, 1949	
Matilda Creek ; April 2, 1949	
Ewin Inlet; Mar. 7, 1949	
Kendrick Inlet; Mar. 6, 1949	
Kendrick Inlet; Mar. 20, 1949	
Kendrick Inlet; Mar. 23, 1949	
Queen Cove; Mar. 5, 1949	
Queen Cove ; Mar. 10, 1949	
3,063
2,516
1,986
2,019
1,503
1,985
1,524
2,043
1,515
1,381
3,193
2,984
2,531
2,013
1,996
1,472
2,022
1,517
3,062
3,071
1,004
2,032
2,024
2,022
2,039
1,025
2,028
2,032 S 76
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
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S 77
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a W m REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
S 79
Table X.—Number of Fish (in Millions) of each Age in West Coast Catches of 1948-49;
Numbers of Fish in Total weighted to Numbers of Fish caught in each Area.
Area.
In Year of Age.
Total.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
23	
0.30
33.84
2.81
0.18
123.06
94.88
6.08
57.91
98.76
6.33
8.19
36.96
2.37
2.43
13.54
0.87
0.58
4.20
0.27
0.10
1.47
0.09
0.35
0.02
0.08
226.41
25                 	
253.05
26*	
16.21
Totals	
0.30
36.83
224.02
163.00
1
47.52  |  16.84
1
5.05
1.66
0.37
0.08
495.67
* Estimated ; no samples obtained.
Table XI.—Average Percentage Age Composition of Samples from Commercial
Catches and from Spawning Runs during the 1948-49 Season.
COMMERCIAL CATCHES.
Area.
In Year of Age.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
23	
0.13
14.95
1.11
54.36
37.50
25.58
39.03
3.62
14.61
1.11
5.35
0.21
1.66
0.04
0.58
0.14
25... 	
0.03
All	
0.06
7.43
45.20
32.89
9.59
3.40
1.02
0.34
0.07
0.02
SPAWNING RUNS.
23	
43.35
41.60
7.21
2.22
4.49
0.37
0.37
0.37
24	
0.54
72.11
23.03
3.22
0.54
0.54
25	
0.21
44.87
33.35
16.71
3.01
1.07
0.78
All	
0.18
47.39
34.95
12.05
2.47
2.09
0.62
0.12
0.12 S 80
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table XII.—Average Sex Ratio (Females/Males) and Stage of Development for
Samples of Commercial Catches and Spawning Runs during 1948-49 Season.
COMMERCIAL CATCHES.
Area.
Sex Ratio.
Percentage.
Immature.
Mature,
unspent.
Mature,
spent.
23	
1.04
1.00
8.8
1.9
91.2
98.1
25                   	
All	
1.01
4.5
95.5
SPAWNING RUNS.
23    	
0.92
1.04
0.73
34.0
47.4
66.0
24        :	
100.0
25    	
52.6
All	
0.81
38.4
61.6
Table XIII.—Average Length (Millimetres) and Average Weight (Grams) for each Age
in Samples from, Commercial Catches, with Numbers of Fish on which Averages
are based indicated in Parentheses.
AVERAGE LENGTH.
In Year of Age.
Area 23.
Area 25.
All Areas.
I                                                                                                      	
(3)   116.67
(335)   158.89
(1,232)   188.04
(571)   200.01
(80)   208.94
(23)   214.78
(6)   220.00
(1)   220.00
II	
(40)   160.08
(1,363)   187.86
(1,416)   201.82
(532)   214.18
(194)   222.67
(60)   230.07
(21)   233.43
(5)   243.40
(1)   238.00
(246)   203.91
(375)   159.02
Ill       	
(2,595)   187.94
IV        	
(1,987)   201.30
v     	
(612)   213.49
VI                   	
(217)   221 83
VII	
VIII 	
(66)   229.15
(22)   232.82
IX                                         	
x      	
?
(89)   189.11
(335)   199 98
AVERAGE WEIGHT.
I	
II	
III...
IV....
V	
VI....
VII..
VIII
IX...
X	
(3)
(335)
(1,232)
(571)
(80)
(23)
(6)
(1)
19.33
49.82
86.03
105.15
119.72
135.87
148.83
150.00
(89)     87.24
(40)
(1,363)
(1.416)
(532)
(194)
(60)
(21)
(5)
(1)
(246)
52.92
88.76
113.80
140.51
160.60
175.82
188.90
177.40
206.00
117.13
(3)
(375)
(2,595)
(1,987)
(612)
(217)
(66)
(22)
(5)
(1)
(335)
19.33
50.15
87.46
111.32
137.80
157.98
173.36
187.14
177.40
206.00
109.19 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
S 81
Table XIV.—Average Length (Millimetres) in Samples from Spawning Runs, with
Numbers of Fish on which Averages are based indicated in Parentheses.
In Year of Age.
Area 23.
Area 24.
Area 25.
All Areas.
I	
(1)   141.00
(134)   160.53
(43)   178.74
(6)   188.17
(1)   207.00
(2)   139.50
(421)   162.98
(309)   186.87
(154)   200.89
(28)   211.39
(10)   218.30
(7)   228.00
(3)   140.00
II	
Ill	
(125)   168.20
(117)   189.95
(20)   206.35
(6)   217.33
(12)   231.25
(1)   242.00
(1)   241.00
(1)   260.00
(17)   198.76
(680)   163.45
(469)   186.89
IV	
(180)   201.07
V	
(35)   212.29
VI
(22)   225.36
VII	
(1)   244.00
(9)   231.33
VIII
(1)   241.00
IX                          	
(1)   260.00
?
(14)   169.57
(69)   187.90
(100)   187.18
Table XV.—List of Spawnings which occurred on the West Coast of Vancouver Island
in 1949, including Intensity and Extent of each.
VL=Very Light.    L=Light.    M=Medium.    H^Heavy.    VH=Very Heavy.
Approximate
Date.
Location of Grounds.
Intensity.
Statutory
Miles of
Spawn.
Feb. 13	
Feb. 13.......
Feb. 13	
Feb. 14	
Mar. 3-5....
Mar. 12	
Mar. 12	
Mar. 16-21
Mar. 28	
Apr. 10	
Feb. 15-18.
Mar. 2, 3	
Mar. 19	
Mar. 21 ( ?)
Mar. 27(?)
Mar. 10-12	
Mar. 10-14	
Mar. 11	
Mar. 11-15	
Mar. 12-14	
Mar. 12-14	
Mar. 12-16	
Mar. 15-19 ; Apr. 2
Area 23—Barkley Sound Vicinity.
Banfield Inlet	
Maggie River to Cabbage Point	
Maggie River to Toquart Village	
Useless Inlet	
Maggie River to telegraph station	
Mayne Bay	
Stopper Islands	
Sunshine Bay	
Mayne Bay	
Mayne Bay	
Area 24—Clayoquot Sound Vicinity.
Mosquito Harbour	
Cypress Bay	
Refuge Cove	
Whitepine Cove	
Little Whitepine Cove...	
Area 25—Nootka Sound Vicinity.
Port Langford	
Nuchatlitz Village vicinity	
Queen Cove	
Owas-Sit-Sa Creek...: .....
Rosa Island and vicinity	
Ewin Inlet vicinity	
Kendrick Inlet, head	
Port Eliza	
L
L
M
M
M-H
L
M
H
H
M
0.03
0.97
1.19
0.97
4.83*
0.91*
0.23
1.19*
0.23*
1.14
11.69
VL
0.57
H
1.70*
L
0.05*
M
0.80*
M
1.14*
4.26
M
0.18
VL
0.10
H
1.45*
L
0.04
VL
0.26
M-H
0.54*
M
6.25*
H
7.52*
16.34
* Spawning-grounds inspected by scientific investigators. S 82
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table XV.—List of Spawnings luhich occurred on the West Coast of Vancouver Island
in 1949, including Intensity and Extent of each—Continued.
VLr=Very Light.    L=Light.    M=Medium.    H=Heavy.    VH=Very Heavy.
Approximate
Date.
Jan. 28	
Feb. 16-19..
Feb. 20-22..
Feb. 28	
Mar. 5	
Mar. 5	
Mar. 10-16.
Mar. 16	
Mar. 17	
Mar. 18, 19
Mar. 19	
Mar. 20	
Feb. 27	
Feb. 28	
Mar. 8	
Mar. 8, 9-
Mar. 10....
Mar. 12....
Mar. 16....
Mar. 17....
Location of Grounds.
Greenwood Point	
Hazard Point	
Forward Inlet, west side..
Klaskish Inlet	
Hazard Point	
Forward Inlet, west side..
Matthews Island	
Forward Inlet, west side-
Grand total-
Intensity.
Area 26-—Kyuquot Sound Vicinity.
Malksope Inlet, near mouth	
Malksope Inlet, near mouth	
Union Island	
Malksope Inlet, head	
Nasparti Inlet, head	
Nasparti Inlet, head	
Union Island	
Malksope Inlet, mouth 	
Bunsby Islands	
Ououkinish Inlet	
Amai Inlet, head	
Union Island	
Area 27—Quatsino Sound Vicinity.
L
H
M
M
H
L
M-H
H
H
H
M-H
H
L
M
M
L-M
M
M
M
L
Statutory
Miles of
Spawn.
0.07
0.11
0.08*
0.46*
0.06*
0.03*
0.30*
0.06*
0.06
0.38*
0.54*
0.08*
2.23
0.44*
0.23
0.74*
3.98
0.23*
0.31
0.23
0.46
6.62
41.14
Spawning-grounds inspected by scientific investigators.
Table XVI.—General Conditions relating to each of the Experimental
Spawn Plots studied in 1949.
VL=Very Light.    L=Lig;ht.    M=Medium.    HrzHeavy.
Plot
No.
Location.
Dates of
Study.
Age of
Spawn
during
Study.
Average
Intensity
of
Spawning.
Dominant
Substrate.
Number of
Samples.
Exp.
Cont.
1
Mar.  16-29
Mar.  17-29
Apr.    1- 5
Apr.    2- 6
Apr.    5-10
Apr.    6-17
2-15 days
3-15 days
8-12 days
8-12 days
2- 7 days
5-16 days
M-H
M-H
VL-L
VL-L
VL-L
L-M
Fucus
Fucus
Fucus
Fucus
Eel-grass
Fucus
20
9
4
7
10
10
11
2
11
3
Port Eliza	
4
4
1
5
6
Port Eliza	
60
38 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
S  83
Table XVII.—Average Weights (in Grams) of Spawn in Exposed and Control Samples
for three-day Periods beginning immediately after Spawning occurred in each of
the Experimental Plots (with Numbers of Samples on which the Averages are
based in Parentheses).
EXPOSED SAMPLES.
Period (Days).
Plot No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
1- 3	
28.9   (2)
18.4   (9)
25.0   (2)
9.4   (4)
2.9   (3)
49.3   (1)
17.1   (2)
14.3   (1)
22.9   (3)
4.4   (2)
9.0   (3)
7.8   (5)
5.5   (2)
4- 6	
15 3   (4)
7- 9	
9.4   (3)
3.2   (1)
6.8 (3)
7.9 (4)
11.6   (5)
10-12	
13-15	
1.2   (1)
CONTROL SAMPLES.
1- 3	
18.3 (2)
19.4 (4)
38.2   (2)
28.2   (2)
31.6   (2)
66.9   (1)
31.4   (2)
44.2   (2)
37.0   (1)
16.4   (5)
7.3   (1)
10.3   (3)
10.8   (2)
4- 6	
32.7   (2)
7- 9	
9.0   (2)
7.5   (2)
18.6   (3)
10-12....            	
3.4   (1)
13-15                           	
Table XVIII.—Average Weights (in Grams) of Substrate in Exposed and Control
Samples for Three-day Periods beginning immediately after Spawning occurred in
each of the Experimental Plots (with Numbers of Samples on which the Averages
are based in Parentheses).
EXPOSED SAMPLES.
Period (Days).
Plot No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
1- 3                              ...           	
21.6 (2)
34.7 (9)
22.6   (2)
34.5   (4)
28.9   (3)
154.4 (1)
87.8 (2)
36.8 (1)
72.6   (3)
110.9   (2)
17.0   (3)
12.9   (5)
12.8   (2)
4- 6	
58.5   (4)
7- 9                 	
71.7   (3)
55.0   (1)
105.3   (3)
62.5   (4)
41.0   (5)
10-12 ..             	
13-15                            	
51.9   (1)
CONTROL SAMPLES.
1- 3
25.0   (2)
25.5   (4)
49.8   (2)
33.2   (2)
28.4  (1)
126.7  (1)
44.4   (2)
72.0   (2)
79.8   (1)
83.6   (5)
13.5   (1)
22.0 (3)
32.1 (1)
4- 6                       	
61.2   (2)
7    9
106.5   (2)
86.9   (2)
48.4   (3)
10 12                                 ...          	
69.9  (1)
13 15                                                   	 S 84
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table XIX.—Data relating to the Analyses of the Stomach Contents of Gulls shot
at Queen Cove and Port Eliza in 1949.
HERRING GULLS.
GLAUCOUS-WINGED GULLS.
Weight of
Stomach
(Grams).
Weight of
Substrate
(Grams).
Weight of
Spawn
(Grams).
Calculated
Number
of Eggs.
Weight of
Stomach
(Grams).
Weight of
Substrate
(Grams).
Weight of
Spawn
(Grams).
Calculated
Number
of Eggs.
41.3
4.7
23.4
21,874
33.5
5.2
40.4
37.3
10.5
9.827
28.9
0.4
65.2
64,041
39.5
6.7
5.3
4,993
28.6
4.6
23.2
21,696
39.1
5.9
12.7
11,916
28.0
2.6
2.0
1,883
34.6
23.6
4.8
4,534
26.9
3.7
56.1
52.526
33.4
11.2
1.1
984
26.8
3.0
10.2
9,536
32.4
20.4
3.5
3,316
23.4
11.1
0.1
94
20.8
2.4
11.3
10,601
22.2
2.2
1.0
946
19.8
6.8
9.2
8,665
21.5
0.2
0.6
543
19.5
0.4
2.5
2,314
19.1
4.0
4.6
4,319
17.4
	
8.8
8,234
Table XX.—Tags inserted during 1949 Spawning Season.
Code
Letters.
Tagging
Code.
Area.
Place.
Date.
Number.
NXXN
13F
13F
13F
13G
13G
13G
13R
13R
13R
13R
13N
13N
13N
13F
13N
13M
13M
13M
13M
13S
13S
13S
13S
13H
13H
13H
13H
13H
13H
13P
13P
13P
13P
131
131
131
131
131
18
18
18
23
23
23
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
18
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
23
23
23
23
23
23
25
25
25
25
23
23
23
23
23
Feb.     18, 1949
Feb.     18, 1949
Feb.     18, 1949
Feb.     20, 1949
Feb.     20, 1949
Feb.     20, 1949
Mar.     5,1949
Mar.     5, 1949
Mar.      5, 1949
Mar.      6, 1949
Mar.      6, 1949
Mar.     6, 1949
Mar.     6, 1949
Feb.     18, 1949
Mar.      6, 1949
Mar.      7, 1949
Mar.      7, 1949
Mar.      7, 1949
Mar.      7, 1949
Mar.    10, 1949
Mar.    10, 1949
Mar.    10, 1949
Mar.    10, 1949
Mar.    16, 1949
Mar.    16, 1949
Mar.   16, 1949
Mar.   16, 1949
Mar.   16, 1949
Mar.    16, 1949
Mar.    20, 1949
Mar.    20, 1949
Mar.    20, 1949
Mar.    20, 1949
Mar.    28, 1949
Mar.    28, 1949
Mar.   28, 1949
Mar.    28, 1949
Mar.    28, 1949
518
NYYN
508
NZZN
512
PMMP
505
PNNP
514
POOP
498
PSSP
508
PTTP
504
PUUP
512
PWWP
504
PXXP
507
PYYP
502
PZZP
504
RZZR
489
SAAS
509
SBBS
505
sees
510
SDDS
503
SEES
506
SHHS
505
SIIS
514
SJJS
508
SKKS
505
SLLS
505
SMMS
507
SNNS
513
SOOS
510
SPPS
516
STTS
511
SUUS
504
SWWS
515
SXXS
507
SYYS
513
szzs
515
TDDT
510
TEET
507
THHT
TUT
526 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
Table XX.—Tags inserted during 1949 Spawning Season—Continued.
S 85
Code
Letters.
Tagging
Code.
Area.
Place.
Date.
Number.
TJJT
131
13B
13B
13B
13B
13B
13E
13E
13E
13A
13A
13A
13A
13A
13A
13D
13D
13D
13D
13Q
13Q
13K
13K
13L
13L
13L
13L
13C
13C
13C
13C
23
14A
14a
14a
14a
14a
18
18
18
15
15
15
15
15
15
17
17
17
17
25
25
24
24
24
24
24
24
14b
14b
14b
14b
Mar.    28, 1949
Mar.      2, 1949
Mar.      2, 1949
Mar.      2, 1949
Mar.      2, 1949
Mar.      2, 1949
Mar.      4, 1949
Mar.     4, 1949
Mar.      4, 1949
Mar.      8, 1949
Mar.      8, 1949
Mar.      8, 1949
Mar.      8, 1949
Mar.      8, 1949
Mar.      8, 1949
Mar.    14, 1949
Mar.    14, 1949
Mar.    14, 1949
Mar.    14, 1949
Mar.    23, 1949
Mar.    23, 1949
Apr.      1, 1949
Apr.      1, 1949
Apr.      2, 1949
Apr.      2, 1949
Apr.      2, 1949
Apr.      2, 1949
Mar.    11, 1949
Mar.   12, 1949
Mar.    11, 1949
Mar.    11, 1949
504
TNNT
501
TOOT
509
TPPT
508
TSST
503
TUUT
510
TWWT
520
TXXT
506
TYYT
446
TZZT
Skuttle Bay	
499
UAAU
Skuttle Bay	
501
UBBU
Skuttle Bay	
500
UCCU
Skuttle Bay	
491
UDDU
Skuttle Bay	
499
UEEU
Skuttle Bay	
494
UHHU
498
UIIU
496
UJJU
495
UKKU
507
UTTU
519
UWWU
506
UXXU
499
UYYU
505
UZZU
517
WAAW
506
WBBW
503
WCCW
506
XAAX
515
XBBX
497
XCCX
500
XDDX
501
Total	
34,874 S 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
BIOLOGIST'S REPORT.
By D. B. Quayle, Ph.D.
The following report covers the period August 1st to December 31st, 1948.
The Province of British Columbia has a vested interest in the marine life attached
to or growing in the intertidal or littoral zone of the sea-shore. This marine life is
recognized as including all molluscs and marine plants. To the present time, clams and
oysters and, to a limited extent, abalones and seaweed have been exploited. Several
species, as for instance the blue or edible mussel (Mytilus edulis), exist as untouched
but potential resources. The value of none of these species as a natural resource has
been fully investigated or assessed. With the increasing population of the Province
and of the Dominion, there will be an increased demand for this type of food. Therefore, the fishery resources in which the Province has an interest should be evaluated
and their potentialities measured as quickly as possible.
It is the purpose of the biological section of the Provincial Department of Fisheries to make these assessments, to investigate problems related to the development of
the shell-fish industry generally, and, in particular, to provide an advisory service to
the oyster industry of the Province.
Prior to 1930 the British Columbia oyster industry depended entirely on the
indigenous native oyster (Ostrea lurida). Now it is dependent on the imported
Japanese variety (Gryphxa gigas). In the native oyster a once valuable asset has been
lost by overfishing, with consequent depletion. This condition need not have existed
if the industry had been properly guided in cultural practices based on the biology of
the species. While the native oyster will never again be the mainstay of the industry,
it is possible for it to be utilized as a secondary species, especially by the smaller
growers, of which there are so many in this Province. The problem will be to demonstrate in a practical manner how the native species can be used as a valuable adjunct
to the Pacific variety.
The latter has now gained a strong foothold in British Columbia, and the industry
is now based on this species. Nevertheless, there are many problems. The bulk of the
seed has still to be imported from Japan, for breeding is erratic and uncertain in
British Columbia. It would be preferable for the Province to produce its own seed, and
efforts are being made to do this. In the meantime, seed must be imported, and
because of the impractical type of cultch being used in Japan, attempts are under way
to produce a more satisfactory type which can be used there as well as here. In addition, there are a number of problems in culture which require investigation if the
industry is to operate with efficiency. Production figures, compared with the acreage
under lease, indicate that efficiency and production in the industry can be materially
increased.
The clam production in British Columbia has fluctuated greatly in the past.
Doubtless, some of these fluctuations may be due to economic conditions, but there is
insufficient knowledge of the biology of the various species to determine what other
influences are operating to cause such wide differences in production. A thorough,
sustained study of all factors which influence the production of clams is essential in
order to realize the full development of the resource.
A detailed assessment of our seaweed resources is necessary, together with more
information on the life-history and productivity of the various species. Here is a
unique opportunity for conservation measures to be applied before, rather than after,
depletion, which has been the case with so many of our natural resources.
This first year in which a biological section of the Provincial Department of Fisheries has operated has been largely one of organization, coupled with examination and
analysis of the essential problems. REPORT  OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. S  87
The initial period was spent in Victoria, when basic biological equipment was
gathered. During this time it became apparent that, for the type of work envisaged
for the section, a field laboratory would be necessary. Various locations were examined,
and a site in Ladysmith Harbour appeared to have most to recommend it: This is the
centre of an important shell-fish area; the Pacific oyster breeds with more regularity
in Ladysmith Harbour than anywhere else in the Province; a breeding population of
native oysters still exists; and there is a considerable backlog of biological information
available on the area. In addition, the other shell-fish areas are more readily accessible
from Ladysmith than from Victoria, and the library and other facilities of the Pacific
Biogolical Station at Nanaimo are close at hand. S 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
REPORT OF INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES COMMISSION, 1948.
The regulation of the Pacific halibut-fishery was continued by the International
Fisheries Commission under authority of the Halibut Convention of 1937 between
Canada and the United States. Biological and statistical investigation of the fishery
and of the stocks of halibut upon which regulation depends were carried forward.
A. J. Whitmore, of the Department of Fisheries, Ottawa, who had served as a
Canadian member of the Commission since 1936, resigned in April. Stewart Bates,
Deputy Minister of Fisheries, Ottawa, was appointed to fill the vacancy. Other members of the Commission were Edward W. Allen and Milton C. James for the United
States, and George W. Nickerson for Canada, the latter two being secretary and chairman respectively.
Subsequent to the regular annual meeting held in Seattle on January 8th, 9th, and
10th with the Conference Board, representing the several United States and Canadian
fleets, the regulations for 1949 were adopted. On June 21st, 22nd, and 23rd, the Commission met in Ottawa with representatives from several United States and Canadian
Government departments. Some of the sessions were held in conjunction with the
International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission to discuss fiscal and administrative
problems common to both Commissions.
The Pacific halibut-fishery regulations for 1948 were approved by the President of
the United States on February 27th and by the Governor-General of Canada in Council
on March 6th, becoming effective on the latter date. They were substantially the same
as those for 1947, except that the catch-limit for Area 2, which includes the waters of
the coasts of Washington, British Columbia, and South-eastern Alaska, was increased
from 24,500,000 to 25,500,000 lb., and the description of the nursery area off the
northern coast of Graham Island, British Columbia, was amplified to include the waters
of contiguous Masset Inlet. The annual catch-limits for Areas 3 and 4 remained the
same as in 1947;  namely, 28,000,000 and 500,000 lb. respectively.
The fishing season opened on May 1st. Areas 2 and Ib were closed on June 1st by
reason of attainment of the catch-limit for Area 2. Fishing terminated in Areas 3, 4,
and 1a on July 11th, when the Area 3 limit was reached. Landings of halibut caught
incidentally to fishing with set-lines for other species in areas closed to halibut-fishing
continued until November 15th.
The Pacific Coast catch of halibut from all sources amounted to 55,516,000 lb.,
which was about 400,000 lb. below the total landings in 1947.
The catches from the different areas were 150,000 lb. from Area lA, located south
of Cape Blanco, Ore.; 91,000 lb. from Area Ib, lying between Cape Blanco and Willapa
Harbour; 27,358,000 lb. from Area 2, between Willapa Harbour and Cape Spencer,
Alaska; and 27,917,000 lb. from Area 3, between Cape Spencer and the Aleutian
Islands.   No landings were made from Area 4, in Bering Sea.
Included in the above landings are 896,000 lb.—829,000 lb. from Area 2 and 67,000
lb. from Area 3—retained under permit by set-line vessels fishing for other species and
catching some halibut incidentally in areas closed to halibut-fishing.
The Canadian fleet caught 53 per cent, of the Area 2 catch and 16 per cent, of that
from Area 3, compared to 41 per cent, and 10 per cent, respectively ten years ago.
Canadian ports received nearly 40 per cent, of the landings of both the United States
and Canadian fleets from Areas 2 and 3.
Investigations necessary for determining the effects of regulation upon the fishery
and upon the stocks of halibut were carried forward. These studies included the collection and analysis of statistical and biological data to measure the effects of past
regulation and to provide a sound basis for future management of the stocks.
Observations were made on the recently developed fishery for halibut, conducted by
drum-gear boats chiefly from the salmon gill-net fishery. Information on the character
of the gear used and on sizes of fish caught were secured. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. S 89
The abundance of halibut, as shown by the average catch per standard unit of
gear fished, showed a 7-per-cent. increase over that for 1947 in Area 2, which includes
the grounds off Washington, British Columbia, and South-eastern Alaska. The abundance in this area was 167 per cent, greater than in 1930, the lowest level reached prior
to the beginning of control of the fishery by the Commission. Preliminary analysis of
Area 3 data indicates that the abundance of halibut there was approximately the same
as in 1947, which was also much higher than in the years immediately preceding
regulation.
Study of the changes in the size and age composition of the marketable stocks of
the halibut on the fishing-grounds was continued for a proper understanding of the
changes in the over-all abundance of the stocks. A total of 19,800 halibut was measured
from two representative sections of Area 2, and materials for the determination of
age were collected. A reduction in the number of small six-year-olds and of larger
eleven- and 12-year-old fish in the catches suggested that there was little likelihood of
a further increase in the available stock in the immediate future.
No new marking experiments were undertaken during the year, but recoveries
from past experiments continued to be made. Preliminary analysis of the returns
from recent experiments indicated that the current short fishing season was not conducive to the maximum utilization of the stock in Area 2. It appeared to be causing an
unequal distribution of fishing effort in the different sections of Area 2, causing some
sections to be overexploited and others underexploited, both conditions not conducive to
carrying out the Commission's objective of securing the maximum sustained yield. S  90 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
REPORT ON INVESTIGATIONS  OF THE  INTERNATIONAL PACIFIC
SALMON FISHERIES COMMISSION FOR 1948.
By B. M. Brennan, Director.
The International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, conforming to the terms
of the treaty, again regulated the commercial'fishery in convention waters, this being
the third year of regulation by the Commission.
The Commission met four times during the year 1948. The first meeting, held at
Vancouver, B.C., on January 12th and 13th, was devoted to a review of the 1947 regulations and discussions of the biological investigations of the staff during the 1947
season. On January 14th the Commission met with the Advisory Committee to discuss
the proposed fishing regulations for the 1948 season. The second meeting was held on
March 30th at the offices of the Director of Fisheries, State of Washington, Seattle,
Wash. At this meeting, regulations for the 1948 season were adopted. On June 21st
and 22nd a meeting was held at the Parliament Buildings, Ottawa, Ont. Fiscal
arrangements were discussed with the two Fisheries Commissions and the government
officials of Canada and the United States.
The final meeting of the year was held at Bellingham, Wash., on November 29th
and 30th. The Commission reviewed the 1948 season's regulations and the biological
and engineering projects carried on during the year. On November 30th tentative
regulations for 1949 were discussed with the Advisory Board. L. A. Royal was
appointed chief biologist, effective January 1st, 1949, to replace R. Van Cleve, who
resigned to become Acting Director of the School of Fisheries at the University of
Washington.
The 1948 sockeye-fishing season in United States treaty waters extended from
July 18th to August 11th, with a thirty-six-hour weekly closure during the season. The
8-inch minimum net size for gill-nets was in effect during the periods June 1st to July
18th and August 11th to September 1st. During these specified closed periods it was
unlawful to fish for, possess, sell, or purchase sockeye salmon.
In the Canadian treaty waters, Areas 19, 20, and 21 were opened on July 18th,
with a weekly closed period of seventy-two hours. Sockeye-fishing continued from July
18th until the end of the season, with no extended closure. In District No. 1 the sockeye season opened on July 25th with the seventy-two-hour weekly closed period and
extended to the end of the season, except for the first week-end closure after the season
opened, which was forty-eight hours. From June 1st until the opening date of sockeye-
fishing the 8-inch minimum size gill-net was in effect, and it was unlawful to fish for,
possess, sell, or purchase sockeye salmon during this period.
A total of 1,841,000 sockeye were taken in treaty waters from the 1948 run, of
which 1,089,000 were landed by the United States fishermen and 752,000 by the Canadian fishermen. The total landings for 1948 are the largest catch in the three cycles
1940, 1944, and 1948, and is an increase of 401,000 over the cycle-year 1944.
As in 1947, the success of the 1948 regulations was shown in the escapement of
the early runs to the Upper Fraser River spawning areas. The largest increases were
shown on the two early runs, Stuart and Bowron, which were protected almost entirely
by the 1948 regulations. The Stuart Lake area streams increased from 400 sockeye in
the brood-year 1944 to 12,000 in 1948. Bowron River had 1,700 in the brood-year and
25,000 in 1948. The Stellako River increased from 4,300 in 1944 to 16,000 in 1948.
Raft River, tributary to the North Thompson River, increased from 1,100 in 1944 to
10,500 in 1948. The Chilko River, which was heavily fished in 1948, increased from
329,000 in the brood-year to 670,000 in 1948.
The Lower Fraser runs also are increasing and are large enough in their own
right to add considerably to the commercial catch. The Birkenhead River, which has
been consistently good in the past four years, had a run of adults totalling 82,000 in REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. S 91
1948. The Upper Pitt River, which in 1947 was calculated at 90,000, again produced
a sizeable run of 53,000 in 1948. Other notable runs in the Lower Fraser in 1948 are
Harrison River rapids, 26,000; Weaver Creek, 20,000; and Big Silver Creek, tributary
to Harrison Lake, 12,000.
The Indian catch on the Fraser River and tributaries was over double that of the
cycle-year 1944. A total of 86,000 sockeyes was taken by the Indians in 1948. The
increases in the Indian catch are due primarily to the increases of the runs to the
spawning-redds, thus allowing an increased catch with little increase in fishing effort
on the part of the Indians.
In the fall of 1947, 686,000 eggs were taken from the spawning sockeye in the
Upper Bowron River spawning-redds. These eggs were eyed at the Bowron Eyeing
Station and flown by the Washington State Fisheries Patrol aeroplane to Bellingham,
Wash. Forty-eight thousand of these eggs were taken to the University of Washington experimental hatchery, and the rest were transferred to the Washington State
Marblemount Hatchery at Skagit, Wash.
In May and June of this year, the sockeye eggs, hatched and reared to fingerling
size at the University of Washington, were transported by tank-truck to the Horsefly
River, tributary to Quesnel Lake, and liberated. A total of 39,300 was released in the
Horsefly River in this experiment.
Later, during July and August, the remaining fish, totalling 162,500, hatched and
reared at the State of Washington Marblemount Hatchery, were transported to the
Horsefly River.
The gill-net mesh experiment initiated in 1947 was repeated this year on a run of
sockeye composed mainly of early-season Chilko fish. Again, ten different sizes of commercial gill-net mesh were used, ranging from 5^4 to 8% inches. The results from
the two-year experiment show that each mesh size has a definite selective action of sex
and size on sockeye salmon. In 1948 the smaller meshes, from 5% to 6 inches, caught
the small sockeye, predominantly female, and the larger meshes, from 6 to 7% inches,
caught the larger sockeye, with males in the majority.
The 71/2-mch mesh, as in 1947 experiments, again caught significant numbers of
large male sockeye, while the 8-inch mesh or larger took few sockeye of any size or
sex. The evidence from both the 1947 and 1948 experiments demonstrated clearly the
validity of the 8-inch minimum mesh restriction as prescribed by the Commission to
allow for escapement of sockeye during the season close period.
Preliminary biological and engineering surveys were made in the Tweedsmuir
Park area, which contains approximately 16.1 per cent, of the total lake area of the
Fraser River basin. This system of lakes and streams, tributary to the Upper Nechako
River, is inaccessible to salmon because of a series of falls and rapids which they
cannot negotiate.
The productive capacity to this extensive lake area for sockeye could be tremendous if they are suited for the spawning and fresh-water existence of the young
and provided the natural obstacles to their migration could be artificially eliminated.
The study of the early-life history of the large run of sockeye to the South Thompson district of 1946 was continued this year. In 1947 the development of the eggs and
fry was studied, and these studies were followed in the spring of 1948 by observations
of the yearling sockeye in Shuswap Lake, Little River, Little Shuswap Lake, the South
Thompson River, and Kamloops Lake on their seaward migration.
Excessive high water during the flood of May and June, 1948, in the Fraser
River caused considerable damage to access roads, riprap work, gratings, and so forth
at the site of the fishways at Hell's Gate, Bridge River rapids, and Farwell Canyon.
Some buildings and the suspension bridge were lost at Hell's Gate, but structurally the
fishways all withstood the ravages of the high water. S 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Membership of the Commission during 1948 is as follows:—
Canadian Commissioners: A. J. Whitmore, secretary; Tom Reid, M.P., member;  Olof Hanson, member.
United States Commissioners: Milo Moore, chairman; Edward W. Allen,
member;   Albert M. Day, member.
. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. S  93
SALMON-SPAWNING REPORT, BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1948..
By A. J. Whitmore, Chief Supervisor of Fisheries.
GENERAL SUMMARY.
Sockeye.—A medium spawning occurred in the Nass system. The escapement to
the Skeena was heavy, with a predominance of females in the Babine system. The
seeding in Rivers Inlet was just fair, a feature being the exceptionally large number
of " jacks " present over the area. Supplies in Smith Inlet were disappointingly light.
Due to the retarded opening date for sockeye-fishing in the commercial areas and
improved migratory conditions for ascending salmon resulting from the programme
of fishway installations by the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission,
there was a substantial increase in the number of spawners in all the upper areas of
the Fraser system over the escapement in the cycle-year 1944; of outstanding importance was the excellent spawning which occurred in the Chilco system.
Springs.—With few exceptions, the seeding of spring salmon was normal and somewhat above brood-year levels.
Cohoe.—The escapement of this variety to the majority of streams was generally
satisfactory; however, a lack of average supplies was noticeable in the Cowichan River,
as well as in the Quathiaski and Alert Bay Sub-districts.
Pinks.—There was a notable increase in the spawning of this variety compared
with the cycle-year 1946. A medium to heavy escapement occurred to the more important northern areas, as well as the upper part of the east coast of Vancouver Island.
Supplies in other portions of the Province were light. It was an " off " year for the
Fraser River.
Chums.—With the exception of the Central Area of District No. 2, chum-supplies
were fairly satisfactory. Due to special conservation measures the escapement in the
southern portion of the Province was moderately heavy, showing a noticeable increase
over the light seeding of this variety in the cycle-year 1944. In the northern portion
of the Province, supplies in the Bella Bella area were below normal and the seeding in
the Butedale and Bella Coola Sub-districts was light and unsatisfactory.
IN DETAIL.
Masset Inlet and Northern Coast of Graham Island Area.
Cohoe-stocks were light in all streams. The pink-salmon spawning was generally
satisfactory, particularly so in the Yakoun River. Naden River was also well seeded
with this variety, showing a noticeable increase over spawnings of recent years. There
was a medium escapement of chums to Naden River, while the grounds in Masset Inlet
received only a light seeding.
Skidegate Inlet and West Coast of Graham and Moresby Islands Area.
The cohoe spawning was light to medium, with fairly good supplies in Tlell and
Copper Rivers. Pink-stocks were light, although there was some improvement over the
brood-year. The seeding of chums in the Skidegate Inlet area was medium to heavy,
and on the west coast generally light to medium, the exceptions being at Steel Creek
in Port Louis and the Athlow Bay stream, which were well seeded.
East Coast of Moresby Island Area.
Cohoe-supplies, although generally light in the majority of streams, were heavy
in the Crescent Inlet as well as the Echo and Thurston Harbour vicinities.    Pink- S 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
supplies in Cumshewa Inlet were satisfactory, showing some increase over the brood-
year. A medium to heavy spawning of chums occurred in the Selwyn Inlet and Juan
Perez Sound areas, as well as in the Darwin Sound locality. Salmon River was well
stocked. Elsewhere the escapement was generally heavy, showing an increase over the
cycle-year.
Nass Area.
There was a medium escapement of sockeye to the Meziaden Lake area, the principal spawning-ground of this variety in the Nass system, heavier than in 1943 and
equal to 1944. Spring-salmon stocks were good, heavy in the Meziaden area, and an
improvement over the brood-year on the whole. At the time of inspection, cohoe-
supplies were generally light; new-run fish were, however, arriving on the grounds.
A medium to heavy seeding of pinks occurred, an improvement over the cycle-year.
Chums were present in moderate numbers.
Skeena.
Babine-Morice Area.—The escapement of parent sockeye to the Babine and Morice
watersheds was reported to be heavy, all grounds being well seeded. Females were
predominant in the Babine system. Spring-salmon supplies were satisfactory in the
Bulkley and Morice Rivers, but below average in the Babine area. Moderate stocks
of cohoe were present.   Fairly heavy supplies of pinks spawned in the Babine area.
Lakelse Area.—Supplies of sockeye were generally satisfactory, heavy in the Kispiox watershed and fairly good in the Lakelse, Kitsumgallum, and Allistair systems.
There was a fair seeding of springs. Moderate stocks of cohoe were present. The
escapement of pinks showed a general increase over the cycle-year, particularly so in
the Lakelse and Kispiox Rivers.    Moderate supplies of chums were observed.
Lower Skeena Area.
The sockeye-seeding of the Shawatlans system was good, while supplies reaching
the limited areas in the Ocstahl watershed were normal. Spring-salmon stocks were
medium. The pink-salmon seeding in the coastal streams of this area was heavy, similar to the heavy escapement which occurred in 1946.   Cohoe-supplies were satisfactory.
Grenville-Principe Area.
Nearly all the sockeye-streams received medium supplies of this variety. The
seeding of cohoes was generally good. The pink-salmon spawning was medium to heavy
in all major streams, both in the northern and southern portions of this area, Kumealon
Creek being particularly well seeded. Due to low water in the streams during the
migration of this variety, extra conservation measures were necessary. Chum-salmon
streams were well supplied.
Butedale Area.
Spawning of sockeye in the streams frequented by this variety, was generally medium.
The spring-salmon escapement to the area was heavier than usual. The cohoe-seeding
in Douglas Channel, Kitimat Arm, and Gardner Canal was also of medium intensity, or
much the same as in the brood-year; streams in Laredo Inlet, as well as Indian River,
showed a definite decrease; elsewhere spawning was light to medium. The seeding
of pinks was medium to heavy and generally an improvement over the brood-year,
spawning in the Douglas Channel, Devastation Channel, Kitimat Arm, Kynoch Inlet,
and Mathieson Channel streams being particularly good. Chum-supplies were definitely
light; the escapement to Bear River in Poison Cove, Kainet River in Kynoch Inlet,
and several small streams on Aristazabal Island was similar to that of the brood-year;
the seeding in the northern portion of the area, however, was disappointing, and spawning in Laredo Inlet was practically a failure. report of provincial fisheries department. s 95
Bella Bella Area.
Sockeye-supplies were below normal in limited areas in which they spawn in this
sub-district. The seeding of cohoes was favourable, particularly so in the Kajusdis
River and Gullchuck streams. The general spawning of pinks was light, with the
exception of Koeye River where an excellent seeding took place, but there was a substantial decrease in stocks in the Lower Matheson Channel area. Medium to light
supplies of chums were present, while fair numbers reached such important streams as
Neekis, Howyet, Klatse, and Salmon Rivers; spawning in all the smaller streams was
light.
Bella Coola Area.
There was a medium escapement of sockeye to the Bella Coola-Atnarko system,
while supplies in the Kimsquit and Dean watersheds were light. Spring salmon were
present in medium numbers. There was a fair escapement of cohoe. In general, an
adequate supply of pinks reached the different spawning-grounds over the area. Chum-
stocks were generally light in both the Dean and Burke Channels areas.
Rivers Inlet Area.
Three inspections of the Owekano Lake spawning areas were carried out—the
first commencing August 20th, the next September 11th, and the last October 21st.
The seeding of sockeye in this system was, generally speaking, just fair, better than
the commercial pack would indicate, and about at par with seedings which occurred in
the brood-years of 1943 and 1944.    Supplies in the Shumahault, Genesee, Nookins,
and Dallec Rivers were light.    Spawning in the Waukwash, Asklum, Cheo, and Quap
was average, while in Indian Creek and the outlet of Whannock River it was very good.
An exceptionally large number of " jack " sockeye was present over the area.   Medium
supplies of cohoe were present.    The seeding of pinks was light.    The escapement of
chums was moderate.
Smith Inlet Area.
The run of sockeye to Smith Inlet was light, and supplies reaching the spawning-
grounds were below par, notwithstanding additional conservation measures taken. The
principal sockeye-spawning streams in this area, the Geluck and Delebah, were inspected
twice. Moderate numbers were present in the latter stream, but in the Geluck only
light supplies were observed. Cohoe-stocks were average. With the exception of Hole-
in-the-wall, pink-supplies were light.    The seeding of chums was moderate.
Alert Bay Area.
The escapement of sockeye to the Nimpkish, Glendale Cove, Kleena Kleene, Kah-
weekan, and Adams Rivers was good. Usual light runs were observed in Quatse and
Nahwitti Rivers, while the spawning in Shushartie, Fulmore, and Kingcome Rivers
was small. Spring-salmon supplies were satisfactory, particularly in the Kleena Kleene
and Nimpkish systems. Cohoe-stocks were disappointing and below brood-year expectations, especially so in Allison Sound. There was a satisfactory seeding of pinks in
the Vancouver Island streams and in those on the Mainland side of Johnstone Strait,
a marked improvement over the cycle-year. The seeding of this variety in the remaining Mainland streams was generally light. The chum spawning was generally good, the
Nimpkish system receiving a particularly heavy seeding. The runs to Kingcome and
Wakeman Rivers were also heavy. Those streams in the area flowing into Johnstone
Strait, however, were only lightly seeded.
Quathiaski Area.
The escapement of sockeye to Phillips River was average, but supplies reaching
Hayden Bay creek were light.   The spawning of spring salmon was average in Camp- S  96 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
bell, Salmon, and Phillips Rivers, and the streams in Bute Inlet, the principal grounds
frequented by this variety. With the exception of the Quinsam, Fraser Creek in
Loughborough Inlet, and the major streams in Bute Inlet, the cohoe-seeding was light
and below normal. With few exceptions, the pink-salmon seeding was light. Chum-
supplies generally were fairly good, somewhat heavier than in the brood-year of 1944.
Comox Area.
There was a good escapement of spring salmon to the Puntledge River, an interesting feature being the percentage of larger-than-average size fish present in the late
runs of that variety. Cohoe-supplies were generally light in all streams, with the
exception of Tsolum and Little Qualicum River, and Black and Cook Creeks, where
there was a medium spawning. There was a heavy seeding of pinks in Oyster and
Tsolum Rivers; elsewhere the spawning was light. Supplies of chums were heavy in
Big Qualicum and Puntledge Rivers and medium in the remainder of the streams, with
the exception of Oyster River, Tsolum River, and Nile Creek, where the spawning was
light.
Pender Harbour Area.
Approximately 4,600 sockeye spawners entered Saginaw Lake, a slight increase
over the brood-year. Spring-salmon supplies were average. The seeding of cohoes was
generally fair. Pink-supplies were light and somewhat less in numbers than in the
brood-year of 1946. The seeding of chums was satisfactory, showing a favourable
improvement over the cycle-year.
Nanatmo-Ladysmith Area.
Spring-salmon stocks in the Nanaimo River were average. There was generally a
light escapement of cohoe to this area. Fair supplies reached the Nanaimo and Che-
mainus Rivers, but elsewhere the seeding was light. Chum-salmon stocks were fairly
satisfactory in most of the streams; supplies in the Nanaimo and Chemainus Rivers,
although late in arriving, compared favourably with those of the brood-year. However, spawning in Englishman River and Nanoose Creek was below normal.
Cowichan Area.
The seeding of spring salmon in the Cowichan River was lighter than for some
years, about 6,000 spawners being observed over the watershed. With the exception of
Shaw Creek, tributary to Cowichan Lake, cohoe-supplies were also light, the total run
to the Cowichan being estimated at 45,000 fish. Chum-supplies, although not quite as
heavy as in 1947, were satisfactory.
Victoria Area.
Cohoe-supplies were moderately good.   The streams west of Sooke were fairly well
. seeded, while spawning in Spoke basin and Goldstream was average. The chum-seeding
was satisfactory, Goldstream carrying a particularly heavy run.
Alberni-Nitinat Area.
The sockeye-seeding in the Somass, Anderson, and Hobarton systems was satisfactory. Good supplies of springs were present, particularly in the Somass and Nah-
mint Rivers. The escapement of cohoes was good, especially in the larger rivers, the
numbers of this variety counted over Stamp Falls fishway being the largest recorded.
Chum-supplies generally were fair, good numbers spawning in practically all streams,
showing favourable increase over the parent year. report of provincial fisheries department. s 97
Clayoquot Area.
The escapement of sockeye to the Kennedy Lake and Clayoquot River systems was
good—somewhat better than in the brood-year—while the seeding of Megin River was
fair. Spring-salmon stocks were satisfactory and compare favourably with those of
the brood-year. Cohoe-supplies were generally fair, the Kennedy and Clayoquot River
systems being well stocked. The chum-salmon seeding over the area was generally
fair, Kennedy River, Tranquille and Tofino Creeks being exceptionally well stocked.
Nootka Area.
There was an increase in spring-salmon supplies on the limited spawning-grounds
of this variety in the area. The cohoe-seeding was fair, showing slight decrease compared with the brood-year. The spawning of chums in the Port Eliza, Canal, and Mar-
vinas Bay streams was exceptionally good, but generally only fair over the remainder
of the area.
Kyuquot Area.
The general seeding of cohoe was good, heavier than for the past two years, but
somewhat lighter than that of the brood-year, which was particularly heavy. There
was a moderate run of chum salmon to all areas in the district, with the exception of
Battle River and Ououkinsh River, where the spawning was light.
Quatsino Area.
While supplies of sockeye in Canoe and Fisherman Rivers showed an increase
over the brood-year, the seeding of the Mahatta River was lighter than expected.
These runs, however, are of little value commercially. The escapement of spring
salmon to Marble Creek, the chief producer of this species, was satisfactory. The
spawning of cohoe was above average in all streams, with the exception of San Joseph
and Dominic Creeks in the Cape Scott area, and Spruce River and Coal Harbour creek
in Holberg Inlet. There was an excellent escapement of chums to all streams in this
sub-district, with the exception of those in Holberg Inlet other than Hathaway Creek.
Fraser River.
Prince George Area.—Although the total number of sockeye that spawned in this
sub-district was comparatively small, there was a notable increase over the cycle-year.
Approximately 14,000 sockeye spawned in the Stellako area this season, compared with
4,000 in the brood-year. In the Stuart Lake watershed, increases were most encouraging; in all, an estimated total of 10,000 fish were observed. Spawning conditions generally were favourable.   The seeding of spring salmon was good.
Quesnel Area. — The Department's veteran observer for twenty-five consecutive
seasons reported approximately 1,000,000 sockeye reached the Chilco spawning areas
this season, in comparison with some 350,000 in the brood-year of 1944. Spawners
were observed for the first time in many years up-stream for 5 miles in Nemaia Creek,
as well as Nemaia Bay, 25 miles above the outlet, as also in the Lagoon, 18 miles above
the outlet. In the Quesnel system, including Mitchell and Horsefly Rivers, the sockeye-
seeding was practically nil. About fifty parent fish were present in the Upper Horsefly,
but none was observed in Mitchell River. Approximately 25,000 active spawners reached
the Bowron system, a tremendous improvement over the cycle-year showing of 1,700,
and about the same as the escapement in 1947. Early spawners were in predominance.
Spring-salmon stocks were normal.
Kamloops Area.—For what is considered an " off " year, there was a considerable
increase in the number of parent sockeye observed over this area. The first run, comprising 12,000 to 18,000 sockeye, spawned in Raft River in the North Thompson area S 98 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
and in Seymour and Scotch Creeks in the Shuswap Lake area. The second run, comprised of 20,000 to 25,000, including 20 per cent. " jacks," spawned mostly in the Adams
River System. Spring-salmon supplies were satisfactory, particularly in the Nicola
River watershed. There was a considerable increase in the number of cohoe over this
area compared with the brood-year.
Lillooet Area.—The run of upwards of 100,000 sockeye spawners in the Birkenhead River was comprised of about 20 per cent. " jacks." Stocks of this variety in the
Seton-Anderson system were, however, light—very similar in number to the brood-
year. The spring-salmon seeding in the Bridge River watershed was also light. The
cohoe-spawning in the Birkenhead River and Upper Lillooet River was good, showing
an increase over the brood-year.
Yale-Lytton Area.—Little spawning of note has occurred in the streams of this
area for many years. This year it was confined to a light cohoe-seeding of Nahatlatch
(Salmon) River.
Chilliwack-Yale Area. — The return of sockeye to Cultus Lake was only fair,
totalling slightly over 12,000 spawners, compared with 14,200 in the brood-year of
1944. The usual small numbers were observed in the Chilliwack River. The supplies
of early-run cohoe were light, the late run being medium in numbers. The chum-
spawning was heavy in the Chilliwack and Vedder Rivers, medium in the Coquihalla
River, and light in Jones, Silver, and Hunter Creeks. The main run to the Chilliwack
and Vedder Rivers was late in arrival.
Mission-Harrison Area.—Excellent supplies of sockeye were observed in the Harrison River and West Fork of Silver River, and spawners generally were equal to
brood-year numbers. The seeding of spring salmon was below average. Supplies of
cohoe were light. The chum run, although late in appearing on the spawning-grounds,
was satisfactory, particularly so in the Harrison River, Squakum Creek, and Worth's
Creek, tributary to Nicomen Slough.
Lower Fraser Area.
The sockeye-spawning in the Upper Pitt River system was fairly heavy. Supplies
of spring salmon were light. The cohoe-seeding in the South Alouette, Serpentine, and
Nicomekl Rivers was only fair; elsewhere over the area, disappointingly light. No
pinks were observed, it being the " off " year for that variety. Stocks of chums were
generally light; the South Alouette and Coquitlam Rivers were fairly well seeded, but
Whonnock, West, Kanaka, and North Alouette Rivers had very light runs, and escapement to other streams was of minor proportions.
North Vancouver Area.
The cohoe-spawning was good, showing a slight increase over the brood-year of
1945 in most streams.   Chum-supplies were only fair.
Squamish River.
Spring-salmon supplies were satisfactory. The seeding of cohoes was also good,
showing considerable increase over the brood-year. No pinks were observed in this
system, this being the " off " year for this variety. The chum-spawning was moderate
—very similar to the brood-year. report of provincial fisheries department.
STATISTICAL TABLES.
S 99
LICENCES ISSUED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF FISHERIES
FOR THE 1948 SEASON.
Kind of Licence.
Salmon-cannery ....
Herring-cannery _.
Pilchard-cannery _.
Herring-reduction
Pilchard-reduction
Tierced salmon .....
Fish cold-storage ..
Fish-processing .....
Shell-fish cannery
Tunafish-cannery _.
Number of
Licences.
... 27
... 4
... 2
- 18
 :  6
  19
  20
  9
  3
Fish-offal reduction   13
Fish-liver reduction ....  6
Whale-reduction    1
Herring dry-saltery   1
Processing aquatic plants  2
Harvesting aquatic plants  3
Fish-buyers'   539
Non-tidal fishing   204
Revenue.
$5,400.00
400.00
200.00
1,800.00
Totals
877
600.00
1,900.00
20.00
9.00
3.00
13.00
6.00
100.00
100.00
20.00
30.00
13,475.00
210.00
$24,286.00
PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON, SEASON 1948, SHOWING THE
ORIGIN OF SALMON CAUGHT IN EACH DISTRICT.
District.
Sockeye.
Springs.
Steelheads.
Cohoe.
Pinks.
Chums.
Total.
Fraser River	
64,8231
20
13,1811
101,2671
37,6651
10,4561
23,2461
9,9811
588
2,9551
145
416
4,0181
8991
1861
1,1951
6,622
7
364
16,102
4,145
8,9541
22,0861
8,143
9291
36,816
109,9391
14,688
31
51,722
8,565
50,656
13,491
1,4811
152,2001
43,5741
20,209
71,287 '
7,2721
11,863
11,4861
1,5211
225,686
147,2271
14,851
104,485
127,319
Nass River	
Skeena River	
	
149
3,544
4311
991
8501
227
38,5381
193,4351
72,117
Smith Inlet	
14,675
439,995
Vancouver Island and adjacent
Mainland	
317,572
30,134
Totals	
261,2301
16,4451
5,6631
221,804
321,7211
511,404
1,338,271
Note.—20,365 */>   cases of bluebacks  are  combined  with cohoes  in this  table for Vancouver  Island,  including
59 cases packed out of cold-storage stocks, 1947 catch. S 100
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL SALMON-PACK BY SPECIES
FROM 1940 TO 1948, INCLUSIVE.
1948.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
Sockeye	
Spring	
261,2301
16,4451
511,404
321,7211
221,804
5,6631
286,497
10,025
486,6151
600,787}
146,293
3,2601
543,027
8,100}
576,133}
116,607}
100,154}
4,1151
329,001}
12,801
350,188}
825,513
218,886}
2,922
247,714
19,362
255,316}
389,692
181,546}
3,926}
164,889
10,658
363,347}
530,189
186,043
3,095
666,570
24,744}
633,834
270,622}
211,138
4,649
455,298
51,593
926,801
427,774
430,513
3,454
366,402
17,740
643,441
Pink    	
213,904
224,522
Steelhead-	
1,207
Totals 	
1,338,271
1,533,478}
1,348,138}
1,739,312}
1,097,557}
1,258,221}
1,811,558
2,295,433
1,467,216
STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL SALMON-PACK OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA BY DISTRICTS.
Total packed by Districts in 1940 to 1948, inclusive.
1948.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
104,485
193,435}
72,117
14,675
38,538}
317,572
667,314
30,134
171,302}
79,718
168,935}
46,172
29,450
552,9401
456,639
28,321
413,542
105,912}
123,304
23,177
38,313
264,922
378,968
221,351}
221,471}
135,412
21,682
54,980}
492,281}
592,133}
130,883}
149,948}
59,391
6,194}
61,096
193,459
496,587
126,5411
133,589
79,697}
21,942
52,333}
347,710}
496,407
549,617
152,418}
105,539
23,777
100.142}
536,803}
343,260}
431,299
200,497
138,650
32,109
71,330
985,835
398,152
46,561
152,363
195,355
Rivers Inlet  —
Smith Inlet         	
88,665
33,998
Nass River...	
Vancouver Island and
adjacent Mainland
60,441
419,579
516,815
Grand totals
1,338,271
1,533,4781
1,348,138}
1,739,312}
1,097,5571
1,258,221}
1,811,558
2,295,433
1,467,216 report op provincial fisheries department. s 101
TABLE   SHOWING  THE   TOTAL  SOCKEYE-PACK  OF  THE   FRASER  RIVER,
ARRANGED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE FOUR-YEAR CYCLE, 1895-1948.
British Columbia  1895— 395,984 1896— 356,984 1897— 860,459 1898— 256,101
Washington .,  65,143 72,979 312,048 252,000
Total  461,127 429,963 1,172,507 508,101
British Columbia  1899— 480,485 1900— 229,800 1901— 928,669 1902— 293,477
Washington  499,646 228,704 1,105,096 339,556
Total  980,131 458,504 2,033,765 633,033
British Columbia  1903— 204,809 1904—    72,688 1905— 837,489 1906— 183,007
Washington  167,211 123,419 837,122 182,241
Total  372,020 196,107 1,674,611 365,248
British Columbia  1907—    59,815 1908—    74,574 1909— 585,435 1910— 150,432
Washington  96,974 170,951 1,097,904 248,014
Total  156,789 245,525 1,683,339 398,446
British Columbia  1911—    58,487 1912—123,879 1913—719,796 1914—198,183
Washington  127.761 184,680 1,673,099 335,230
Total  186,248 308,559 2,392,895 533,413
British Columbia  1915—    91,130 1916—    32,146 1917— 148,164 1918—    19,697
Washington  64,584 84,637 411,538 50,723
Total  155,714 116,783 559,702 70,420
British Columbia  1919—    38,854 1920—    48,399 1921—    39,631 1922—    51,832
Washington  64,346 62,654 102,967 48,566
Total  103,200 111,053 142,598 100,398
British Columbia  1923—    31,655 1924—    39,743 1925—    35,385 1926—    85,689
Washington  47,402 69,369 112,023 44,673
Total  79,057 109,112 147,408 130,362
British Columbia  1927—    61,393 1928—    29,299 1929—    61,569 1930— 103,692
Washington  97,594 61,044 111,898 352,194
Total  158,987 90,343 173,467 455,886
British Columbia  1931—    40,947 1932—    65,769 1933—    52,465 1934— 139,238
Washington  87,211 81,188 *128,518 352,579
Total  128,158 146,957 180,983 491,817
British Columbia  1935—    62,822 1936— 184,854 1937— 100,272 1938— 186,794
Washington  54,677 59,505 60,259 *135,550
Total  117,499 244,359 160,531 322,344
British Columbia  1939—    54,296 1940—    99,009 1941— 171,290 1942— 446,371
Washington  *43,512 *63,890 110,605 263,458
Total  97,808 162,899 281,895 709,829
British Columbia  1943—    31,974 1944—    88,515 1945—    79,977 1946— 341,957
Washington  *19,117 *37,509 *53,055 *268,561
Total  51,091 126,024 133,032 610,518
British Columbia  1947—    33.952 1948—    64,823}
Washington  6,760 90,441
Total  40,712 155,264}
* These figures are corrected according to latest advice from the Department of Fisheries, State of Washington,
dated May 22nd, 1947. S 102
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES.
Fraser River, 1933 to 1948, inclusive.
1948.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
Sockeyes   	
64,8231
2,955}
20,209
31
16,102
364
33,952}
1,455
16,475}
113,136}
6,105
178
341,957
1,096}
60,713
429
9,168}
178
79,977
6,130}
27,610
95,748}
11,615
270}
88,515
12,577}
13,803}
130
15,564}
293
31,9731
3,505}
52,149
29,860}
8,809
244
446,371
9,688
82,573
134
10,542
309
171,290
34,038
95,070
Pinks
102,388
28,265
Steelheads ..—  	
248
Totals  	
104,485
171,302}
413,542
221,351}
130,883}
126,5411
549,617
431,299
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
99,009
4,504
35,665
12
13,028
145
54,296
5,993
30.150
95,176
13,557
69
186,794
4,308
58,778
63
27,127
14
100,272
5,444
20,878
94,010
11,244
184,854
15,126
31,565
28,716
62,822
9,401
8,227
111,328
24,950
139,238
16,218
104,092
2,199
11,392
52,465
Springs   	
Chums    	
Pinks  	
5,579
34,391
92.746
Cohoes — — 	
13,901
Totals                     	
152,363
199,241
277,084
231,848
260,261
216,728
273,139
199,082
Skeena River, 1933 to 1948, inclusive.
1948.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
101,267}
4,0181
11,863
50,656
22,0861
3,544
32.534
2,113
8,236
13,190}
21,6001
2,044
52,928
2,439
11,161
10,737
26,2811
2,366
104,279}
2,382
9,264
69,783}
34,2011
1,561
68,197
1,500}
8,741}
48,837
20,1911
2,481
28,268}
1,783
6,597
54,509
40,479}
1,952
34,544
6,374
11,421
52,767
44,081}
3,231
81,767
4,985
10,707
Pinks   -	
50,537
50,605
Steelheads	
1,896
Totals  	
193,4351
79,718
105,912}
221,471}
149,948}
133,589
152,418}
200,497
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
116,507
6,118
4,682
47,301
20,614
133
68,485
4,857
7,773
95,236
29,198
55
47,257
4,318
16,758
69,610
52,821
42
42,491
4,401
10,811
59,400
15,514
21
81,973
4,551}
15,297}
91,389
25,390
33
52,879
4,039
8,122
81,868
23,498
14
70.655
8,300
24.388
126,163
54,456
114
30,506
3,297
15,714
95,783
39,896
267
Springs   ...
Pinks  .....  	
Totals	
195,355
205,604
190,806
132,638
218,634
170,420
284,096
185,463 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
S  103
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES—Continued.
Rivers Inlet, 1933 to 1948, inclusive.
1948.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
Sockeyes    	
37,665}
899}
11,486}
13,491
8,143
431}
140,087
475
13,873
9,025
5,182
293}
73,320
1,108}
37,395}
1,6411
9,524}
314
89,735
1,191}
16,793
9,916
17,516}
260
36,582}
805
2,705
5,289}
13,921
88
47,602}
765
11,448
8,347
11,466
69
79,199
985
15,874
954
8,467
60
93,378
1,692
Chums —    	
Pinks   ...
15,442
4,807
23,202
129
Totals  	
72,117
168,935}
123,304
135,412
59,391
79,697}
105,539
138,650
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
Sockeyes   	
63,469
1,226
9,025
3,329
11,561
55
54,143
745
5,462
12,095
10,974
83
87,942
1,209
7.759
9,063
16.285
105
84,832
917
9,415
7,536
6,012
70
46,351
581}
11,505
6,432}
7,122}
19
135,038
429
7,136
4,554
8,375
39
76,923
436
895
2,815
4,852
79
83,507
449
677
Pinks  	
5,059
3,446
82
Totals 	
88,665
83,502
122,363
108,782
72,011}
155,571
86,000
93,220
Smith Inlet, 1933 to 1948, inclusive.*
1948.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
Sockeyes	
Springs—   —
Cohoes    	
Pinks    	
10,4561
186}
929}
1,481}
1,5211
99}
36,800
43
348
1,054
7,910
21
14,318
45
177
235
8,369
33
15,014
26
560
2,362
3,692
28
3,165
66
343
498}
2,122
666
15,010
118
541
556
5,693
24
15,939
8
1,813
527
5,490
21,495
124
1,955
749
7,741
45
14,675
46,172
23,177
21,682
6,194}
21,942
23,777
32,109
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
Sockeyes 	
Springs..   	
25,947
142
1,102
755
6,015
37
17,833
215
3,880
3,978
2,771
50
33,894
68
1,058
1,761
8,076
64
25,258
21
241
483
9,494
5
12,788
30
310
65
1,653
42
31,648
216
1,201
4,412
12,427
24
14,607
164
3,941
6,953
15,548
43
37,369
354
5,068
Pinks 	
19,995
8,841
87
Totals	
33,998
28,727
44,921
35,502
14,888
49,928
41,256
71,714
* Previously reported in Queen Charlotte and other districts. S 104
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES—Continued.
Nass River, 1933 to 1948, inclusive.
1948.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
13,181}
416
7,272}
8,565
8,954}
149
10,849
398
8,925
5.047
4,075
156
12,511
472
13,810
7,147
4,239
134
9,899
202
4,981}
35,918}
3,895
84}
13,083
681}
9,143
31,854
6,102
232}
13,412}
1,002}
10,146}
17,669
9,768
335
21,085
1,515
12,518
49,003}
15,487
534
24,876
519
6,246
Pinks. --  	
22,667
16,648
374
Totals 	
38,5381
29,450
38,313
54,980}
61,096
52,333}
100,1421
71,330
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
13,809
1,716
5,461
29,278
10,060
117
24,357
708
2,500
26,370
1,996
15
21,462
773
15,911
61,477
14,159
188
17,567
1,251
10,080
8,031
12,067
46
28,562}
2,167
20,620}
75,887}
11,842
496
12,712
560
17,481
25,508
21,810
143
28,701
654
2,648
32,964
9,935
311
9,757
Springs .	
1,296
1,775
Pinks  —  	
44,306
3,251
49
Totals   '
60,441
55,946
113,970
49,042
139,575}
78,214
75.213
60,434
Vancouver Island District and Adjacent Mainland, 1933 to 1948, inclusive.
1948.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
9,981}
6,622
147.227}
43,574}
109,939}
227
14,543
4,942}
99,6791
355.992
77,684}
99
35,381}
2,283}
190,313
6,809}
29,983
151}
5,988
2,323
136,724
242,590}
104,528
128
5,288}
3,068}
56,029}
49,092
79,8131
165
7,185
2,937
132,843
130,825
73,846}
74
51,961
5,407
383,005
14,474
81,837}
119
40,273
Springs  	
8,038
593,016
Pinks -- -- - - 	
177,292
166,908
308
Totals 	
317,572
552,940}
264,922
492,281}
193,459
347,710}
536,803}
985,835
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
15,177
2,454
279,064
33,785
88,885*
214
16,259
2,889
212,949
235.119
123,388
132
27,965
4,254
266,566
70,108
89,471
190
25,427
2,359
203,900
318,780
52,244
88
32,696}
6,340
347,951
82,028}
90,625
105
22,928
6,525
143,960
191,627
104,366
21
27,282
1,630
210,239
54,526
78,670
18,397
4 875
96,642
172,945
60,019
Pinks-	
Totals	
419,579
590,736
458,554
608,798
559,746
469,427
372,347
353,025
* Since 1940, bluebaeks have been included with the cohoe-pack for Vancouver Island. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
S 1C5
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES—Continued.
Queen Charlotte Islands, 1939 to 1948, inclusive.
1948.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
20
145
71,287
51,722
4,145
157
20
81,916
90,993
19,615
1
53
35,370
313
14,488
1
38
43,801
83,329
16,935
41
149
236
76.745
524
27,421
11
16
62
164,911
44,966
8,897
4
12,132
4,809
1,108
36
Chums -.	
Pinks —	
Cohoes — .'.-
14,096
1,200
392
32,414
8,024
1,192
5
45,519
2,123
3,020
Totals
127,319
15,688
41,635
18,053
192,702
50,224
144,145
105,086
218,852
50,699
Central Area, 1939 to 1948, inclusive.
1948.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
Sockeyes	
23,246}
17,3431
12,611}
24,109
32,715
21,101
17,470
20,854
32,042
26,158
Springs	
1,195?
514}
656
542
643
547
723}
460
1,518
655
Chums —	
225,686
292,604}
221,958
138,992
80,793
109,101
79,152
111,587
135,802
79,384
Pinks -	
152,2001
101,241}
81,584}
364,385
162,986
288,109}
69,434
66,130
54,478
150,498
Cohoes -	
36.816
28,778
19,589
45,462}
25,823
26,645
31,274
45,218
49,886
44,426
Steelheads -
850}
469
934
690
666
397
355
330
506
392
Totals -
439,995
440,951
337,333
574,080}
303,626
445,9001
198,408}
244,579
274,232
301,513
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS, 1933 TO 1948, INCLUSIVE.
1948.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
Fraser River.—   -
Skeena River  	
64,823}
101,2671
37,665}
10,4561
13,181}
9,9811
23,266}
588
33,952}
32,534
140,087
36,800
10,849
14,543
17,343}
388
341,957
52,928
73,320
14,318
12,511
35,381}
12,611}
79,977
104,279}
89,735
15,014
9,899
5,988
24,109
88,515
68,197
36,582}
3,165
13,083
5,288}
32,883
31,973}
28,268}
47,6021
15,010
13,412}
7,185
21,437
446,371
34,544
79,199
15,939
21,085
51,961
17,471
171,290
81,767
93,378
21,495
Nass River—- - -	
Vancouver Island and adjacent
24,876
40,273
22,219
Packed out of cold-storage stocks..
Totals        —  —- —
261,230}
286,497
543,027
329,001}
247,714
164,889
666,570
455,298
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
99,009
116,507
63,469
25,947
13,809
15,177
32,484
54,296
68,485
54,143
17,833
24,357
16,259
34,514
186,794
47,257
87,942
33,894
21,462
27,965
36,357
100,272
42,491
84,832
25,258
.17,567
25,427
29,989
183,120
81,973
46,351
12,788
28.562}
34,430}
27,584
62,822
52,879
135,038
31,648
12,712
22,928
32,417
139,238
70,655
76,923
14,607
28,701
27,282
20,438
52,465
30,506
83,507
37,369
9,757
Vancouver Island and adjacent
18,397
26,106
Totals   	
366,402
269,887
441,671*
325,836
414,809
350,444
377,844
258,107
* 5,779 cases of Alaska sockeye packed at Skeena River are not shown in the above table for the year 1938.
216 cases of Alaska sockeye packed in British Columbia canneries are not shown in the above table for the year 1936. S  106
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SPRING-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA, BY DISTRICTS, 1937 TO 1948, INCLUSIVE.
1948.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
2,955}
145
416
4,018}
899}
186}
1,195}
6,622
1,455
1,096}
6,130}
4
202
2,382
1,191}
26
542
2,323
12,577}
20
681}
1,500}
805
66
643'
3,068}
3,505}
398
2,113
475
43
514}
4,942}
472
2,439
1,108}
45
656
2,283}
1,002}
1,783
765
Smith Inlet  -	
118
547
2,937
Alaska   	
7
84
Totals	
16,4451
10,025
8,100}
12,801
19,362
10,658
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
9,688
38
1,515
6,374
985
8
723}
5,407
6
34,038
236
519
4,985
1,692
124
460
8,038
383
1,118
4,504
62
1,716
6,118
1,226
142
1,518
2,454
5,993
36
708
4,857
745
215
655
2,889
4,308
66
773
4,318
1,209
63
540
4,254
5,444
140
1,251
4 401
917
Smith Inlet _... _	
21
1,641
2,359
Alaska	
24,744}
51,593
17,740
16,098
15,536
16,174
STATEMENT SHOWING THE COHOE-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA, BY DISTRICTS, 1937 TO 1948, INCLUSIVE.
1948.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
16,102
4,145
8,9541
22,0861
8,143
929}
36,816
109,939}
6,105
392
4,075
21,600}
5,182
348
28,778
77,684}
9,168}
1,192
4,239
26,281}
9,5241
177
19,589
29,983
11,615
1,108
3,895
34,201}
17,5161
560
45,462}
104,528
15,564}
19,615
6,102
20,1911
13,921
343
25,823
79,813}
173
8,809
14,488
9,768
40,479}
11,466
541
26,645
73,846}
14,688
2,128
Totals        ..
221,804
146,293
100,154}
218,886}
181,546}
186 043
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
10,542
16,935
15,487
44,081}
8,467
1,813
31,274
81,837}
701
28,265
27,421
16,648
50,605
23,202
1,955
45,218
166,908
31,187
39,104
13,028
8,897
10,060
20,614
11,561
1,102
49,886
88,885
20,489
13,557
3,020
1,996
29,198
10,974
3,880
44,426
123,388
14,658
27,127
16,616
14,159
52,821
16,285
1,058
56,716
89,471
26,828
11,244
4,631
12,067
15,514
6,012
Smith Inlet   	
25,009
58,244
527
Totals	
211,138
430,513
224,522
245,097
301,081
133,489 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
S 107
STATEMENT SHOWING THE PINK-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA BY DISTRICTS, 1937 TO 1948, INCLUSIVE.
1948.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
31
51,722
8,565
50,656
13,491
1,481}
152,200}
43,574}
113,136}
1,200
5,047
13,190}
9,025
1,050
101,2411
355,992
429
8,024
7,147
10,737
1,641}
235
81,584}
6,809}
95,748}
4,809
35,918}
69,783}
9,916
2,362
364,385
242,590}
130
90,993
31,854
48,837
5,289}
498}
162,986
49,092
12
29,860}
313
17,669
54,509
8,347
Smith Inlet                                 	
556
288,109}
130,825
905
321,721}
600,787}
116,607}
825,513
389,692
530,189
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
134
83,329
49,003}
52,767
954
527
69,434
14,474
102,388
524
22,667
50,537
4,807
749
66,130
177,292
2,680
12
44,966
29,278
47,301
3,329
755
54,478
33,785
95,176
2,123
26,370
95,236
12,095
3,978
150,498
235,119
63
57,952
61,477
69,610
9,063
1,761
130,842
70,108
94,010
13
8,031
59,400
Rivers Inlet    —- 	
Smith Inlet                                                 	
7,536
483
97,321
318,780
Totals -  -	
270,622}
427,774
213,904
620,595
400,876
585,574
STATEMENT SHOWING THE CHUM-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA BY DISTRICTS, 1937 TO 1948, INCLUSIVE.
1948.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
20,209
71,287
7,272}
11,863
11,486}
1,5211
225,686
147,227}
16,475}
14,096
8.925
8,236
13,873
7,910
292,6041
99,679}
60,713
32,414
13,810
11,161
37,3951
8,369
221,958
190,313
27,610
12,132
4,981}
9,264
16,793
3,692
138,992
136,724
13,803}
81,916
9,143
8,741}
2,705
2,122
80,793
56,0291
63
52,149
35,370
10,146}
6,597
11,448
5,693
109,101
132,843
Smith Inlet 	
14,851
24,816
Totals  	
511,404
486,615}
576,133}
350,188}
255,316}
363.347}
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
Fraser River  •	
82,573
43,801
12,518
11,421
15,874
5,490
79,152
383,005
95,070
76,745
6,246
10,707
15,442
7,741
111,587
593,016
3,908
6,339
35,665
164,911
5,461
4,682
9,025
6,015
135,802
279,064
2,816
30,150
45,519
2,500
7,773
8,462
2,771
79,384
212,949
82
58,778
40,882
15,911
16,758
7,759
8,076
127,089
266,566
20,878
72,689
10,080
10,811
9,415
9,494
110,493
203,900
Skeena River. - -... —	
Rivers Inlet   	
Smith Inlet —	
Vancouver Island and adjacent Mainland	
Packed out of cold-storage stocks	
Totals	
633,834
926,801
643,441
386,590
541,819
447,760 S 108
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF PILCHARD PRODUCTS
PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1930 TO 1948.
Season.
Canned.
Meal.
Oil.
1930-31	
Cases.
55,166
17,336
4,622
2,946
35,437
27,184
35,007
40,975
69,473
7,300
59,166
72,498
42,008
94,512
78,772
79,536
4,359
2,656
	
Tons.
13,934
14,200
8,842
1,108
7,628
8,666
8,715
8,483
8,891
906
4,853
11,437
11,003
15,209
8,435
5,812
699
67
	
Gals.
3,204,058
1931-32	
2,551,914
1932-33                                                 ....           --           	
1,315,864'
1933-34  	
275,879
1934-35	
1,635,123
1935-36               	
1,634,592
1936-37                                   	
1,217,087
1937-38 	
1,707,276
1938-39..     	
2,195,850
1939-40    — -  -	
178,305
1940-41     _         -	
890,296
1941-42 -	
1,916,191
1942-43      ...           ...             ...                                            ......
1,560,269
1943-44        	
2,238,987
1944-45 ...       	
1,675,090
1945-46	
1,273,329
1946-47	
81,831
1947-48...„	
12,833
1948-49 '	
1                             1
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF HERRING PRODUCTS
PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1935 TO 1948.
Season.
Canned.
Dry-salted.
Pickled.
Meal.
Oil.
1935-36     •	
Cases.
26,143
20,914
27,365
23,353
418,021
640,252
1,527,350
1,253,978
1,198,632
1,190,762
1.307,514
1,634,286
1,283,670
92,719
Tons.
14,983
16,454
10,230
7,600
7,596
5,039
Tons.
892
779
502
591
26
100
129}
1
Tons.
5,313
10,340
14,643
18,028
22,870
10,886
8,780
4,633
7,662
9,539
5,525
7,223
18,948
31,340
Gals.
328,639
1936-37 	
1937-38	
786,742
1,333,245
1938-39
1,526,117
1939-40   -
1940-41        - 	
1,677,736
923,137
1941-42 ... -    - 	
594,684
1942-43 	
323,379
1943-44 .   - -  	
512,516
1944-45  	
717,655
1945-46	
1946-47	
302
5,807
3,084*
412
521,649
484,937
1947-48	
1948-49	
1,526,826
2,614,925
♦Previously reported as 2,988 tons.
The above figures are for the season, October to March 31st, annually. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
S 109
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF MEAL, OIL, AND FERTILIZER
PRODUCED FROM SOURCES OTHER THAN HERRING AND PILCHARD,
1935 TO 1948.
Fkom Whales.
From
Fish Livers.
From other Sources.
Whalebone
and Meal.
Fertilizer.
Oil.
Oil.
Meal and
Fertilizer.
Oil.
1935-36
Tons.
211
332
268
273
181
270
130
62
Tons.
354
687
527
512
434
561
205
90
Gals.
426,772
763,740
662,355
543,378
Gals.
Tons.
2,226
2,857
2,445
2,059
3,559
4,998
5,410
4,768
4,332
2,721
4,560
4,208
3,929
1,172
Gals.
260,387
1936-37
356,464
1937-38	
266,009
1938-39
186,261
1939-40
331,725
1940-41
361,820
619,025
255,555
134,553
415,856
1941-42
405,340
1942-43	
1943-44  	
1944-45 	
916,723
822,250
545,736
445,858
211,914
11,109,063*
10,121,374*
338,502
60,000
301,048
1945-46	
513,442
1946-47	
453,008
1947-48	
119           1           324
519,802
1948-49	
186,424
141,098
* Fish-liver oil, formerly reported in gallons, is now reported in U.S.P. units. S 110
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
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