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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Annual Report of The Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1950

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Annual Report of
The Social Welfare Branch
of the Department  of
Health and Welfare
For the Year ended March 31st
1949
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Don McDiakmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1950.  Victoria, B.C., November 24th, 1949.
To His Honour C. A. Banks,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The Annual Eeport of the Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and
Welfare for the year ended March 31st, 1949, is herewith respectfully submitted.
GEO. S. PEARSON,
Minister of Health and Welfare.
Office of the Minister of Health and Welfare,
Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C. Social Welfare Branch,
Victoria, B.C., November 24th, 1949.
The Honourable G. S. Pearson,
Minister of Health and Welfare, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Social Welfare Branch
for the year ended March 31st, 1949.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
E. W. GRIFFITH,
Deputy Minister of Welfare. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Letter of Transmittal     3
Letter of Transmittal    4
Letter of Transmittal     7
Assistant Director of Welfare     8
Research Consultant  16
Family Division—
Social Allowances  17
Mothers' Allowances  23
Family Service  28
Child Welfare Division  34
Old-age Pension Board  49
Medical Services Division  65
Institutions—
Boys' Industrial School  67
Girls'Industrial School  76
Provincial Home  82
Welfare Institutions Board  85
Division of Tuberculosis Control  92
Division of Venereal Disease Control  94
Psychiatric Division—
Provincial Mental Hospitals  95
Child Guidance Clinics  98  REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH.
E. W. Griffith, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Welfare.
Sir,—I have pleasure in submitting the Annual Report of the Social Welfare
Branch of the Department of Health arid Welfare for the year ended March 31st, 1949.
In the following pages will be found the reports of the Assistant Director of
Welfare, the heads of the various divisions, and of the superintendents of institutions
comprising the Social Welfare Branch. These reports deal not only with the routine
aspects of the work, but emphasize new developments and hopes for the future.
The reports show routine responsibilities faithfully carried out despite heavy caseloads and increased pressures. They show also a type of thinking which is, I feel, a
credit to the Branch. There is scarcely a report which has not a suggestion for a
better way of carrying on our task of serving the needy citizens of our Province. Our
senior officials and our field staff show day by day, as is obvious in these reports, that
their interest in their work and in the people they serve is an incentive toward thinking
and planning better ways of making the Social Welfare Branch a real factor in building better homes and better citizens in British Columbia.
One of the outstanding advances shown in the Report is the new medical plan for
social assistance recipients. Hospital insurance premiums are paid for these people
and, in addition, through arrangements made with the British Columbia College of
Physicians and Surgeons, they receive without cost to themselves full medical, surgical,
and obstetrical care in home, hospital, and office. The co-operation of the medical profession to this end is acknowledged and appreciated.
This medical programme would not have been possible had it not been for the
excellent co-operation we have received from the municipalities. There has been a
growth in understanding between the Branch and the municipalities which has made
progress in many directions possible.
In this Report there are no reports from five senior officials whose excellent work
has been a foundation stone upon which we have been able to build our programme.
These are our regional administrators, whose reports will be included in our next
Annual Report of the Branch, an innovation which I feel will give a clear picture of the
work of the Provincial social worker in all parts of the Province, which, in the last
analysis, is the work this Branch is set up to do.
In this year, the sixth since the formation of the Social Welfare Branch, it is
possible to see from these reports the gradual emergence of a unified type of thinking.
Senior officials are not thinking only in terms of their own divisions, but rather in
terms of a programme which will best serve the general need, realizing that the work
of each division affects each other division and that we are not working in separate
categories, but together are serving the family who has need of our help. Part of this
realization has come from our plan of generalized social work, which means that the
one worker perhaps utilizes three or four divisions while serving one family, so that
knowledge and appreciation of the work done by the other divisions comes to our attention. Also part comes, as far as senior officials are concerned, from the regular meetings of the Planning Council, where problems of every division and of the Branch as a
whole are brought for discussion and solution. It is in these meetings that the realization comes to us that we are to all intents and purposes meeting the same basic
problems, and that if we solve them for one division, we have solved them for all.
I gratefully acknowledge the assistance received from municipal officials, divisional
heads, regional administrators, supervisors, and social workers.
Respectfully submitted.
kj.  W. J-iUJNJJl,
Director of Welfare. R  8 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF WELFARE.
I beg to submit the following report for the fiscal year 1948-49 with respect to the
field service staff and its over-all operation :■—
The period under review in this report provided the first real test of the plan of
decentralized administration and supervision. Launched in October, 1946, the first two
years of decentralization were understandably complicated by the changes in policy the
new plan entailed, and by the fact that the case-work supervisors appointed to field
supervisory posts had much to learn about their districts, their staff, their clientele,
the administrative operation of the district offices, and, indeed, about supervision itself.
This third year saw most of these complications overcome, and from observations made
in field visits, and through one or two regional conferences held during the year, it is
gratifying to report that the plan is succeeding.
This success is due to many things. There has been an outstanding effort made on
the part of the whole Branch, divisions as well as field staff, to ensure its success. The
heavy responsibilities placed on the regional administrators and on the case-work
supervisors in the field have been assumed with fortitude and in a spirit of participating in a constructive plan to bring a better service to the people of the Province. The
social workers in the field have contributed to the success of decentralization in no
small way. Their response to face-to-face supervision, which means accepting direction of their work and professional learning, has been beneficial to them individually
and to the service they are giving. Throughout each region there are, in short, signs
of staff growth and development, and a remarkable professional interest and loyalty
which should result in the restoration and saving of human values in ever-increasing
degrees of success.
Decentralization has entailed a shift of emphasis from the divisions' supervision
to the field itself. This year, with policies realigned to conform to this shift, the divisions have had less and less contact with the field staff, and less and less occasion to
direct the work entailed in the administration of the legislation for which they are
ultimately responsible. The fact that the divisional heads are responsible in the last
analysis for the proper administration of legislation, and are keenly concerned with
the maintenance of high standards of performance in their respective specialized fields
of responsibility, poses a problem which has been given first consideration by the
general administration this year. Besides the divisions' concern that standards of
performance be maintained, the general administration itself, having jurisdiction over
all phases of Branch activity, is imperatively conscious of their need to be kept closely
informed about standards. Only by being informed can the entire service be properly
focused to ensure that long-standing needs of the people may be met adequately, and
new needs as they arise may be studied and given consideration.
A move has therefore been decided upon to breach this widening gap that decentralization has created among the field, the general administration, and the divisions.
Three of the most experienced and most capable supervisors of the Branch have been
designated to assume the positions of field consultants at the beginning of the new
fiscal year. They will spend the greatest part of their time in regions to which they
will be assigned, reviewing with the case-work supervisors the total operation of the
district offices. Periodically they will meet together in Victoria and Vancouver to compare their findings, and will jointly present these to the general administration, reporting to the divisional offices on the problems arising in the field with respect to divisional
matters.
DISTRICT OFFICES.
The number of people served by the Branch continues to increase, as figures in the
case-load table will reveal, and to maintain our services as economically as possible,
three new district offices were opened during the year. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH. R 9
In May, 1948, the Provincial Government took over from the Dominion Government the administration of the social welfare services required by the Japanese who
are still resident in British Columbia. The greatest number of those in need of such
services are concentrated in the New Denver district, where a tuberculosis sanatorium
for the Japanese is established. Accordingly, a new office was opened in New Denver,
the social worker placed there serving the whole population over a wide surrounding
area.   The case-work supervisor from Nelson supervises this social worker.
An office was opened in Creston in June, 1948, to serve that growing community
and adjacent territory. Formerly the social worker for this area operated out from
the Cranbrook office, necessitating much travelling before reaching the district. The
supervisor from Cranbrook gives supervision in this office.
Similarly, in the Cariboo, great distances had to be travelled to reach the southern
part of this spacious country. To economize, and to make our services more accessible,
an office was opened in Williams Lake in September, 1948. Supervision of the social
worker placed in this office is maintained from the Prince George office.
Two municipalities this year entered new agreements with the Branch with respect
to their administration of social welfare. West Vancouver and Esquimalt originally
provided their own services, appointing officials for this purpose who gave part time
only to the work involved, and whose salaries were proportionately shared by the
Branch. The growth of the work involved proved greater than had been anticipated,
however, and both municipalities entered into the agreement provided by the regulations to the " Social Assistance Act," in which the Provincial district office does the
necessary work, with the municipality paying 15 cents per capita of population.
Esquimalt is therefore now absorbed by the Victoria district office, and West Vancouver by the Vancouver district office.
The total number of Social Welfare offices in the Province at the end of this fiscal
year is as follows:—
Provincial district offices  27
Municipal offices  13
Total  40
PERSONNEL.
The figures given in the following tables present a more stable staff picture than
has pertained in the past, although the fullest measure of stability has not been
achieved by any means. The increasing number of graduates from the University
Department of Social Work has made it possible to employ professionally qualified
staff in greater numbers this year, which will undoubtedly contribute in succeeding
years to greater stability and better services.
Appointments during the year were sixty-six, of whom thirty-nine were professionally trained. Resignations, however, numbered thirty-nine. The reasons for resigning are listed below:— Men. women.
Married women   18
New positions      4 7
Municipal positions      1
Returned to university     5 1
Released      1 1
Retirement      1
Totals  12 27
Thus the actual increase in staff this year was twenty-seven, far below the number
needed to meet the large increase in case-load shown in a later table.    In addition to
I R 10
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
this lag in appointments, nine of the staff were granted leave of absence for educational
purposes.
The table below gives the total staff picture of the entire Branch:—
April 1st, 1948.
Men.       Women.      Total.
Mahch 31st, 1949.
Men.        Women.      Total
District offices	
Regional administrators.
Divisional offices	
Leave of absence	
Totals	
36
65
101
6
6
42
65
107
6
37
43
48
102
150
3
2
5
48
72
120
6
	
6
54
72
126
6
42
48
60
114
174
2
6
8
182
DIVISIONAL OFFICES.
The staff of social workers and supervisors in divisional offices are allocated as
follows:—
Administrative and
Supervisory.
Caseworkers.
Total.
General Administration	
Child Welfare	
Family Services	
Old-age Pensions	
Psychiatric Division (General)
Mental Hospital	
Child Guidance Clinics	
Medical Social Work (General)
Tuberculosis Division	
Venereal Disease Division.
Research Consultant	
Training Supervisor	
Welfare Institutions	
Boys' Industrial School	
Totals	
19
2
1
9
5
1
10
2
1
1
1
2
MUNICIPAL OFFICES.
The thirteen municipal offices noted previously in this report having their own
social welfare administrations fall into two classifications. One classification is termed
the amalgamated office and the other simply municipal office. In the former, all of
which represent municipalities of over 10,000 population, the Social Welfare Branch
provides an equal number of social workers with the municipality to cover the services
required. In the latter classification the municipality requires the services of only one
social worker, whom it appoints according to qualifications demanded for Provincial
appointees, and whose salary is shared on a 50-50 basis between Province and municipality. Except in the Cities of Vancouver and Victoria, where case-work supervision is
provided for, the Provincial case-work supervisors exercise supervision over all other
municipal social workers.
The number of staff in municipal offices, including administrators, is as follows:—
Provincial.
Municipal.
Total.
42
62
5
104
5
Totals	
42
67 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH.
R 11
Taking into account the municipally appointed social workers, supervisors, and
administrators, the public welfare programme in the field in British Columbia, exclusive of divisions, is carried out by a total of 198.
CASE-LOADS.
A new system of returning statistics on the number of cases carried by the field
staff was introduced during this year. A revised statistical card and a revised monthly
report form greatly simplify this necessary operation. This new system makes it
possible to report the number of families served, as well as the number of categorical
services given. It is a family emphasis, or social treatment of a family as a whole,
that is the chief emphasis of the professional work done by the staff.
For example, a man may be in receipt of an old-age pension, and his wife, who may
be ineligible for the pension because of her age, may require a social allowance. So far
as the social worker is concerned, this is one family unit, though two separate Acts
were used to meet their needs. For statistical purposes, however, it is also necessary
to count each categorical service so that field figures will balance with divisional figures.
The device of showing the second service in the above example as a " shared service "
makes it possible to obtain both a family-unit total as well as a categorical total.
The following table gives the categorical totals for the year ended March 31st,
1948, and the categorical and family-unit totals for the year ended March 31st, 1949.
That is, in the latter year 39,208 families were served, although 41,747 categorical
services were involved in serving these families.
March 31st,
1948.
March 31st, 1949.
»
Without
Shared
Services.
With
Shared
Services.
Without
Shared
Services.
7,002
759
921
22,822
2,791
60
1
204
13
18
85
14
51
9.045                   8.472
Mothers' Allowance	
704
1,327
26,655
3,125
290
322
29
685
1,302
25,266
3,022
Tuberculosis Division	
39
228
11
39         |               26
"Welfare Institutions	
Provincial Infirmary	
105                         96
21         |                 7
85         1               54
Totals	
34,741
41.747                 39.208
Average Case-loads.
The number of cases that can be served by one social worker demands constant
consideration. A study of the table above reveals that the greatest increase occurred
in the Old-age Pension classification, the relaxed regulations of 1947 accounting principally for this increase. The second largest increase was in Social Allowance, persons
who must be classified as unemployable. It must not be assumed that these clients are
merely established on some form of social assistance and then forgotten. Some old
people on pension need as much individual consideration as younger people, and many
of them require an intensive case-work service to ensure their well-being. Unemployable
persons particularly need case-work services, for it is our objective to so counsel with
. R  12 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
the client and utilize available resources that he may regain a self-supporting or a
partially self-supporting status.
This demands much time and thought, and staff who have too many cases can do
only a superficial job. The same thing applies in the other classifications of service
which show pronounced increases. Family Services, where no financial aid is required,
suggests at once a case-work or counselling service with respect to difficult family
relationships, a service which, if properly given, may prevent the distressing consequences of family breakdown. The appreciable increase in child welfare implies similar
intensive services, while the Mental Hospital, Child Guidance Clinic, Welfare Institutions, and Hospital Clearance increases imply prompt, thorough, and frequent continuing services.
An analysis of case-load, however, must be accompanied by a realistic consideration of how much a department of government may expend to provide adequate services.
In terms of what is saved through giving adequate services, the expenditure for
salaries and operative costs effects results which are probably statistically inestimable.
In order to determine what constitutes reasonable case-load, and to give an estimate of
the probable saving effected by successful work, would require a good deal of research
and would be an exhaustive task. However, this is probably the only way in which a
reasonably accurate answer can be given to the question of " How much can a government afford to invest in the welfare of the people? " From the results of such a study
and in the light of even the cursory knowledge we now have, the question would seem
to have to be reworded " How much can a government not afford to invest in such
services? "
Meanwhile, in the year under review, the average number of cases carried by the
staff throughout the Province was 348. Even without research, it is obvious that this
figure is too high.    Nevertheless, the staff has measured up well to this over-loading.
PLANNING COUNCIL.
By common consent the co-ordinating group originally named Supervisors' Council
was absorbed into the Planning Committee set up in 1947, and this interdivisional
organization was renamed the Planning Council. The executive heads of all divisions
make up its membership, and matters discussed and recommendations made have therefore a more authoritative basis. Matters referred by the Deputy Minister for discussion and opinion, and matters emanating from the divisions themselves, thus receive
combined thinking and incorporate the points of view of all our senior officials.
As an example of the subjects studied by the Planning Council during the year,
the following were perhaps the most significant, although this list by no means exhausts
the matters considered:—
Comforts Allowances to B.C. Patients.
Revision of Policy Manual.
" The Female Refuges Act " in Ontario.
Committee to report on the fact that boys of subnormal intelligence had been
committed to B.I.S.
Annual Reports from the Field to Divisions.
Regional Conference.
Decentralization of Child Welfare Division.
Discussion  around the  appointment  of field consultants — responsibilities,
duties, etc.
Alcohol Education.
STAFF DEVELOPMENT.
Supervision.
The results of the face-to-face supervision that decentralization has provided are
proving the value of this necessary part of staff development.   It is true that the teach- REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH. R  13
ing provided by the fourteen supervisors has perhaps tended to be principally on the
administrative aspects of the work. However, administrative details must be learned,
and when mastered, the worker thus has more time for the important counselling
services.
So thoroughly, in fact, have the supervisors absorbed their administrative functions in the district offices that they themselves have this year pressed for further
responsibilities to be transferred to the field from the divisions. The purpose of this
request—to simplify administration so that a more direct and more expeditious service
can be given the client—indicates the growing strength of our field supervisors, and
their concern to participate in the promotion of an effective service. To offset this
commendable attitude was the acknowledged fact that our supervisors themselves have
had little preparation for the responsible and skilled task of supervision, and the
divisions quite properly argued that until all areas of the Province could have the benefit of supervision, and until their professional guidance in case-work planning could be
improved, further decentralization could not be entertained.
Late in this year, however, further decentralization of certain Child Welfare
Division functions was discussed with the general administration. At the same time,
a case-work institute was planned to make a beginning in the matter of providing staff
education for the supervisors. Conducted in February by the Superintendent of Child
Welfare and the Child Welfare Division supervisors, this institute revealed the purposeful attitude of the field supervisors toward learning how to do their jobs better
and their eagerness and ability to accept further responsibility. Two trained and
experienced members of the field staff were also at this time given preparation for
supervisory positions, these promotions ensuring that the staff in all areas of the
Province would have supervision. The success of this institute suggests that as time
permits, other divisions be given the opportunity to conduct similar teaching conferences.
Educational Leave of Absence.
To help to ensure a higher standard of service for the future, nine persons were
granted educational leave this year. Three of these were supervisors, four were studying for masters' degrees in social work, and two were in-service trained staff taking the
first-year course at University of British Columbia as special students.
In-service Training.
To complement the number of trained staff appointed during the year, two in-
service training classes were conducted. These classes helped to keep pace with growing
case-loads and general staff turnover. A new plan of training was undertaken this year,
the recruit spending from two to four months in a district office, gradually learning
through supervised experience and observation as much as possible about all phases of
the work done, and then spending four full weeks in Vancouver in lectures and discussions. Twenty-three persons were given this training, plus two new municipal staff
members from the Vancouver City Social Service Department and one special student
from the Canadian National Institute for the Blind.
Orientation.
The orientation of newly appointed trained staff members was continued, to provide
some preparation for the work before these social workers proceeded to rural offices.
Publications and Library.
The circulation of British Columbia's Welfare, the Branch's monthly staff journal,
was increased to 750 during this year, requests for it coming from many social agencies
in Canada and the United States. The revision of a mimeographed study of the Social
Welfare Branch, entitled " Outline of British Columbia's Public Welfare Programme," R  14 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
was undertaken, to include the new plan of decentralization, and many copies were
distributed to persons and agencies inquiring about the operation of the Branch.
Library circulation in the central library was 302, which does not take into account
the use of regional libraries by the field staff.
Training Supervisor.
In addition to her normal duties involving in-service training, editing the staff bulletin, managing the library, and serving as secretary to Branch committees, the training supervisor was loaned on a part-time basis to the Department of Education during
this year. That Department, in setting up a new high school course in Home and
Family Living, requested her services to co-ordinate the committee set up to prepare
this important course. Her services entailed attendance at the Summer School of
Education, when the committee's preliminary work was perfected in a high school
teachers' workshop.
Conferences.
Five delegates attended the National Conference on Social Work in Hamilton, Ont.,
in June. Immediately following this conference, it was possible for me to attend a
conference of the American Public Welfare Association held in Chicago and to make a
contribution to the discussion on the personnel needs of public agencies.
The first conference of Branch administrators and supervisors since May, 1947,
was called for November. During the week of discussion, many problems arising in
the field, principally because of decentralization, were thoroughly discussed, and the
recommendations placed before the general administration were aimed at the solution
of many outstanding difficulties. For the first time, representatives of the amalgamated
municipal social welfare administrations were present, and their contribution to the
deliberations was most helpful. Moreover, their presence and participation illustrated
the cordial relationships existing between municipal departments and this Branch, and
accentuated the co-operation possible between the two levels of government.
A regional conference was held in Vernon in April for the staff of Region 3, during
which many particular problems were discussed by that region's staff as a whole, and
during which many of those problems could be given interpretation from the point of
view of the general administration. Highlight of this conference was the presence of
Miss Bessie Touzel, secretary of the newly created Public Welfare Division of the Canadian Welfare Council. Miss Touzel was on a tour of observation of public welfare
agencies across the Dominion, and besides bringing the staff a good deal of inspiration,
it was possible for her to learn, and to appreciate, the services of the Branch through
her attendance at this conference.
Placement of University Students.
Twenty-two students were placed in divisional, district, and municipal offices
adjacent to Vancouver for field-work—Vancouver, Burnaby, and New Westminster.
Ten students were placed for a period of four months in rural offices—Cranbrook,
Penticton, Kamloops, Abbotsford, Chilliwack, Alberni, and Prince Rupert. This
" block" field-work placement began in January and represented a new scheme of
student-training undertaken by the University of British Columbia Department of
Social Work in co-operation with this Branch and other agencies.
NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL VISITORS.
Two holders of fellowships from the United Nations visited British Columbia in
the course of their tour of observation of Canadian social agencies, Mr. B. Mehta, of
Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Bombay, India, and Mr. Luis Manalang, of the Philippines.   Their itineraries while in British Columbia were arranged by this Branch at report of the social welfare branch. r 15
the request of the Deputy Minister of National Welfare, and included visits to many
of our divisions, as well as to related agencies in this Province.
Miss Bessie Touzel, whose attendance at the Region 3 conference is mentioned
above, had an opportunity to meet the divisional heads at a specially called meeting
of the Planning Council, as well as meeting many officials individually. Her work for
Canadian Welfare Council meets a long-felt need among Canadian public welfare
agencies, and it may be expected that through her Division many problems of National
concern, such as inter-Provincial residence pi'oblems, needs of the aged, and unemployment assistance, will be pressed to solution. In these National efforts, the Social Welfare Branch and municipal social welfare departments in British Columbia will
participate fully.
CONCLUSION.
This report has attempted to cover the salient aspects of the over-all operation
of the field service staff and to present observations with respect to current achievements.
The most significant single conclusion to be drawn from the foregoing remarks,,
and from the accomplishments of this Branch to date, is the measure of staff unity and
loyalty that characterizes our social workers, supervisors, and administrators in the
field. In spite of their preoccupation with the onerous duties they fulfil from day to
day, there is nevertheless a remarkable degree of unified thinking throughout, and a
realistic vision with respect to ways and means of improving our existing services.
This team-work is marked moreover by an esprit de corps that makes for the happiest
of relationships among the staff, this desirable situation, without doubt, having in no
small way been fostered by means of the wise leadership of our regional administrators.
It is to be hoped that the next annual report will show an increasing stability of
staff, the one thing needed to consolidate the gains that have been made in providing
a realistic professional service to the socially distressed people of this Province.
Amy Leigh,
Assistant Director of Welfare. R  16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
RESEARCH CONSULTANT.
The Research Consultant begs to present the following report for the fiscal year
1948-49 :—
The study on child-caring facilities in British Columbia was completed as far as
the Children's Aid Society of the Catholic Archdiocese of Vancouver was concerned.
This necessitated the reading of many records of foster children in an endeavour to
evaluate the weaknesses and strengths of the foster-home plan, and to find out what
other child-caring facilities were needed to make an effective well-rounded programme.
A tentative report on this part of the survey, pending an opportunity to study other
child-caring agencies, was submitted.
Further work was interrupted by the exigencies of the flood situation, as the
Research Consultant was loaned for the month of June to work with the Flood Aid Fund
of the Red Cross Society (Vancouver Branch) in the old hotel where flooded-out families
were billeted. A group of volunteer social workers was recruited so that the necessary
services could be given to the large numbers of evacuated women and children. By
the end of the month it was possible for all but a few to return to their homes, and this
group was transferred to the centres at Abbotsford or Mission. This project was a
good example of how health agencies and social agencies can meet an emergency and
work together effectively.
On the return of the Research Consultant to her office, work on the history of the
Social Welfare Branch from its earliest beginnings to the time of amalgamation was
commenced. Each division was traced back to its inception and the development outlined briefly. The material found in many of the numerous files read was capable of
being enlarged upon much more than was necessary for the purpose of this project,
although in some instances it was necessary for the Research Consultant to contact
some of the personnel who had been employed in the early days in order to interpret
the records.
In September the Research Consultant was again loaned to the Flood Aid Fund;
this time to the Provincial division, to work out in the flood areas with families who
had now returned to their homes and were in need of referral to health or welfare
agencies. Most of the three months was spent in Matsqui, where flood conditions were
bad and rebuilding operations were going on while the families lived in the homes.
Each flooded area had an office where Red Cross officials issued replacements of furniture and household equipment, food aid, and clothing. The Research Consultant worked
with families where there was some health or social problem and made recommendations
to the Director as to the best solution.
On her return to her office in December the Research Consultant made a study of
the facilities and the opportunities offered by the new Western Society for the Rehabilitation of the Physically Handicapped, as there were some Provincial cases in hospital
for whom the medical authorities had recommended this further treatment. This
society is in reality a school for retraining paraplegics and other physically handicapped
people so that they may become socially and economically independent.
Further work on research assignments was unfortunately interrupted because
of a period of sick leave. The co-operation of all those with whom the Research Consultant was in contact during this year was appreciated.
Isobel Harvey,
Research Consultant. REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH.
FAMILY DIVISION.
R 17
SOCIAL ALLOWANCES.
The fiscal year under review has been another year of contrasts. It has seen a
period of over-all high employment, with evidence of a serious unemployment problem
during the slack winter season.
It has been a year of great activity in industrial enterprise as well as in housebuilding, but there is still a serious lack of low-rental units within the ability of the
low-income group and social allowance recipient to pay.
It has also been a year of marked increase in the cost of living, which has given
rise to additional budgeting problems for those in receipt of social allowance.
In spite of the general picture of prosperity, however, there has been a further
increase in the social allowance case-load and consequently in expenditures. Some of
the causes for the increases are apparent, while others can only be discussed in general
terms. As a basis for remarks, a comparative statement of case-load is given as at the
end of the past three fiscal years:—
Table I.—Case-load.
March, 1947.
March, 1948.
March, 1949.
1,853
3,839
5,061
2,075
4,461
5,893
2,614
5,789
6,827
10,753
.    12,429
15,230
This indicates a 22.54-per-cent. rise in the total number of recipients over the year
1948 as against a 15.59-per-cent. increase for the year prior to that. Taken on a month-
by-month basis, the case-load for the fiscal year 1948-49 shows the following variations
and increases:—
Table II.—Case-load on a Monthly Basis.
Heads of
Families.
Dependents.
Single Men
and Women.
Total.
April, 1948	
May, 1948	
June, 1948	
July, 1948	
August, 1948	
September, 1948..
October, 1948	
November, 1948..
December, 1948...
January, 1949......
February, 1949....
March, 1949	
2,146
2,164
2,141
2,128
2,130
2,115
2,147
2,210
2,297
2,428
2,551
2,614
4,706
4,704
4,583
4,523
4,592
4,544
4,606
4,766
5,029
5,406
5,650
5,789
6,049
5,988
5,947
5,884
6,006
6,042
6,143
6,255
6,494
6,572
6.747
6,827
12,901
12,856
12,671
12,535
12,728
12,701
12,896
13,231
13,820
14,406
14,948
15,230
Apart from a slight fluctuation and decrease in the spring and summer months,
there has been a gradual increase exceeding the maximum of the previous year.
Once again it is difficult to give positive reasons for the increase in case-load, as
no particularly significant factor has arisen during the year which would explain it,
except, in part, the absorption into the case-load after April 1st, 1948, of the Japanese
evacuees who were formerly maintained at the expense of the Dominion Government.
Of this case-load, some 272 social allowance recipients were transferred to the social
allowance case-load, with the social allowance granted to them shared on a 50-50 basis
with the Dominion Government until March 31st, 1950.
We can only repeat some of the possible causes which have been noted before, such
as the increase in population in the Province.    From the figures available to us as at R  18 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
June of each year, it is noted that in June, 1947' the population figure is given as
1,044,000, while in June, 1948, the figure is 1,082,000.
While the incidence of need of assistance in the added population will probably be
no higher than in the static group of population, still those who do find it necessary
to apply for social assistance will increase the total case-load.
We are also told our population is one in which the proportion of older persons is
increasing, and it is among this group that the misfortunes of illness and disability
are more likely to arise. The employment picture for the older person has changed
too, and it has become extremely difficult for him to find employment, even though he
may be willing and able. For the older group, too, who may be living on fixed small
benefit or retirement funds, the rising cost of living has made it increasingly difficult
for them to manage on their limited income and forced them to seek public assistance
in some instances.
To return to the difficulties of employment again, with special reference to the
disabled or physically handicapped, it is encouraging to note that there is considerable
discussion current on the matter of rehabilitation of the handicapped or disabled by
means of physical and mental rehabilitation and retraining and selective employment.
There has been some discussion of a conference to be called by the Federal Labour
Department with the Provinces and interested groups, and thought is being given to
methods of ascertaining the size of the problem and methods to meet it. It is hoped
that some constructive planning of a programme for a complete service to the civilian
handicapped will be made in the not too distant future. At the present time such
facilities are available to only restricted groups through such agencies as the Department of Veterans' Affairs, Workmen's Compensation Board, Canadian National Institute for the Blind, and a few private organizations.
For experience with such plans we can look to England,* which has had a voluntary
registration of disabled persons since September, 1945. For those who are unemployed, medical rehabilitation services have been established, along with a vocational
training scheme and the establishment of " re-employ factories." In addition to voluntary undertakings is sheltered industry, where the disabled may work at trades or
skills within their ability to learn and perform. They also have a Disabled Persons
(Employment) Act of 1944 which requires employers of twenty or more workers to
employ a certain quota of disabled persons (3 per cent, in 1947).
As case files are not maintained in the divisional office, it is not possible to ascertain
how many persons now receiving social allowance might be considered for an organized
rehabilitation programme, but it would seem safe to estimate that a fair number might
benefit from any such plan. The number is probably not all-important, but the benefits
would be immeasurable to those who could be restored to an independent life.
At this point we might describe an experimental step in this direction which has
been undertaken by the Social Welfare Branch this year. Arrangements were made
for three post-polio patients who were Provincial responsibilities to receive remedial
and vocational training through the services of the Western Society for Physical
Rehabilitation, whose treatment centre is situated in Vancouver. To underwrite the
cost of this undertaking called for special financial consideration in each case, but the
outlay will be well worth while if these three are restored to economic independence.
If the plan progresses successfully, it is hoped to continue with three cases at a time
as a tentative measure. The final success of the first three patients is yet to be determined, but the reports to date are encouraging. On the success of such an experiment
may be built a full-scale programme for paraplegic and post-polio patients who otherwise will have to be maintained indefinitely on social allowance. Indeed, it may well
set the example for a general rehabilitation service for all civilian disabled.
In order to proceed to consideration of the financial aspects of this report, the
following table is presented:—
* United Kingdom Information Office:   " Notes on British Social Services," December, 1948, and January, 1949. REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH. R  19
Table III.—Expenditure by the Province for Social Allowances,
Medical Services, etc.
Fiscal Year Fiscal Year Fiscal Year
1946-47. 1947-48. 1948-49.
1. Cases who are the responsibility of a
municipality   (80   per   cent,   paid   by
Province)     $1,047,635.94   $1,329,993.91   $1,509,312.18
2. Cases who are the sole responsibility of
the Province   (100 per cent,  paid by
Province)          638,227.97        815,054.68        981,240.49
3. Repatriation, transportation within the
Province, nursing- and boarding-home
care (other than T.B.), special allowances and grants  16,893.65 58,603.23        394,376.04
4. Medical services—Provincial and municipal cases (social allowance, old-age
pensioners,    and    Mothers' Allowance
cases)          185,973.68        335,073.61 *
5. Emergency payments—such as where
family may lose its home by fire  or
similar circumstances   967.91 4,704.34 7,020.97
6. Municipal and Provincial cases—
(a) Tuberculosis boarding-, nursing-,
and private-home cases	
(6) Transportation of tuberculosis
cases 	
(c) Comforts allowance for tuberculosis cases 	
7. Dependents of conscientious objectors.-
8. Allowances to Japanese persons*	
179,905.19
213,459.89
253,865.61
2,371.56
3,279.55
3,178.40
6,358.40
422.40
8,926.40
209.20
9,659.60
330.00
$2,079,086.70   $2,769,304.81   $3,158,653.29
Less recovered by refund and payment
from Dominion Government—
Conscientious objectors            $631.60
Allowance to Japanese persons           15.00
Total refunds           $646.60
Net social allowance _-_  $2,079,086.70 $2,768,658.21 $3,158,653.29
9. Administration, hospitalization,  social
allowances, etc., re Japanese indigents                   222,497.25
Less Dominion Government share*                    109,856.48
$112,640.77
10. Hospitalization of indigents*         254,164.76        435,269.75
11. Medical services             $3,022,822.97        466,469.70
Total cost of social allowance, etc., to Province, 1948-49    $4,173,033.51
* Medical services for 1948-49 was set out as a separate vote.
t An agreement has been made with the Dominion Government whereby they share 50-50 on the Japanese
project, New Denver.
% Hospitalization of indigents, £287,184 ; payment of hospital insurance premiums for first three months of
calendar year 1949, $148,085.75 R 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In reviewing this statement, several factors should be taken into account when
considering increased expenditures:—
(1) There is, of course, the increased case-load.
(2) The additional cost represented in the absorption of the Japanese evacuee
case-load mentioned above, effective April 1st, 1948.
(3) Extension of our services in May, 1948, to cover medical services to
immigrants. It was recognized that emergencies might arise before these
people had been employed a sufficient length of time to enable them to
meet these expenditures or make satisfactory arrangements with the
doctor or hospital. Therefore, this Branch undertook on a 50-per-cent.
shareable basis with the Dominion Government to pay doctor and hospital
accounts at minimum rates for services to displaced persons who had come
to Canada in group labour movements for a twelve-month period after
their arrival in British Columbia. This service was not intended to cover
minor illness, but only emergency circumstances. The plan covers immigrants from Europe, the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Malta.
(4) In July, 1948, the social allowance rates were increased in the amount of
$5 for a single person, $7.50 for group two, and $1 for each additional
dependent person in the home. A comparable increase was also made to
Mothers' Allowance recipients, and as the maximum Mothers' Allowance
is set by Statute, this supplementary increase is also charged to the social
allowance vote.
(5) In August, 1948, recognition was given to the hardship caused by the
sudden cancellation of tuberculosis dietary extras to " contacts " where
the " extras " were no longer recommended on medical grounds. A transitional period of six months was approved, during which time the
" extras " can be gradually eliminated until the basic allowance is reached,
where circumstances appear to warrant this extra consideration.
(6) In October, 1948, recognition was also given to the expensive and sometimes crippling cost to an individual or family for the treatment of cancer,
and the fact that some types of treatment are only available in certain
hospitals or clinics. The Province, therefore, undertook to share with
municipalities (for municipal cases) 80 per cent, of the cost of such
treatment and 80 per cent, of any necessary travelling expenses to a
treatment centre on an individual-case basis approved by the Director of
Medical Services. If boarding-home was necessary in the treatment
centre, sharing of the cost would be on the usual basis—80 per cent, up to
$55 per month.
If the treatment was available locally, the municipality would also be
reimbursed for 80 per cent, of the cost if approval of the Director of
Medical Services was obtained prior to the starting of treatment.
For Provincial cases, of course, the cost of such services is a 100-percent, charge on the Province.
While it does not affect the social allowance picture, mention should
perhaps be made here of the Cancer Aid Fund of the British Columbia
Division of the Canadian Cancer Society, which is available to assist those
patients who are not in receipt of social assistance and matches in some
respects the provisions of the Province.
(7) Effective January 1st, 1949, the British Columbia Hospital Insurance
Service went into effect, and the Social Welfare Branch accepted responsibility for payment of hospital insurance premiums for all social assistance
recipients. On cancellation of social assistance, the Social Welfare Branch
pays the premiums for a further temporary period of six months from
cancellation. REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH. R 21
(8) The Medical Services Plan became effective March 1st, 1949, covering all
recipients of social assistance.   The plan need only be mentioned here, as a
description of it belongs in the report of the Director of Medical Services,
but it was an attempt to apportion the costs of medical care on a more
equitable basis as between the municipalities and the Province.
These then are the known factors which have increased the social allowance
expenditures and represents a growing recognition of the need for services and for
a more equitable distribution of the cost.
Under our system of decentralization where administration of social allowances
is delegated to the local area, municipal or Provincial, the Province continues to share
with the municipalities for the costs. The Province is, of course, totally responsible
for those who are Provincial responsibilities in accordance with the " Residence and
Responsibility Act" and reimburses the municipalities for 80 per cent, of allowances
granted to municipal responsibilities. This percentage reimbursement is based on a
maximum set up in the social allowance guide as amended in July, 1948.
In order to obtain a clearer view of the proportion of responsibility, the case-load
for March, 1949, of 15,230 (see Table I) has been broken down as follows:—•
Table IV.—Place of Residence of Recipient (with regard to Legal Residence
as determined by the " Residence and Responsibility Act.")
Recipients living in organized areas  10,568
Recipients living in unorganized areas     4,662
Total _._ 15,230
Table V.—Comparative Table on Percentage Basis.
March, 1947.       March, 1948.       March, 1949.
Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent.
Living in organized territory  68.39 62.48 69.39
Living in unorganized territory  31.61 " 37.52 30.61
There will be noted a nearly 7-per-cent. increase over the previous year in the
number of recipients residing in organized areas. What this figure implies is difficult
to determine. It indicates certainly a population shift from the rural to the more-
populated areas, but the reasons are not so easily stated. Perhaps as all social allowance recipients are unemployable for one reason or another, they may feel that there
is greater opportunity for selective or sheltered employment for the disabled in the
more-populated areas, or better housing, or educational opportunities for their children,
or more resources for medical care. These, at the best, can be only surmises; perhaps
it is just a further indication of a trend already noted on a National scale of the
gradual movement of population from the rural and isolated areas to the more-settled
areas.
On the basis of legal responsibility in accordance with the " Residence and Responsibility Act," a further breakdown of the case-load may be made.
Table VI.—Legal Responsibility of Social Allowance Recipients,
March, 1H9.
Municipal responsibility      9,616
Provincial responsibility      5,614
Total  15,230 R  22 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table VII.—Comparative Table on Percentage Basis.
March, 1947.       March, 1948.       March, 1949.
Per Cent. Per Cent. Per Cent.
Municipal responsibility   63.82 63.40 63.14
Provincial responsibility   36.18 36.60 36.86
From these comparative figures it is apparent there is no marked change in the
proportion of responsibility, in spite of the marked change in the place of domicile.
General Comments.
During the year under review four more municipalities, because of increase in tax
revenue, were added to the list of those already participating under the provisions of
the " Social Assistance Act " and Regulations. The participating municipalities (cities,
districts, and villages) now number sixty-six.
The municipal-Provincial relationship has remained a cordial one, and we have
continued in our efforts to solve any problems to the mutual satisfaction of everyone
concerned. Such co-operation is only maintained by the understanding recognition
of each other's difficulties on the part of the municipalities and the Province, and each
discussion is undertaken on this basis.
Administration of social allowances in the field is conducted with every concern
for the total welfare of the recipient. It is recognized that financial assistance is not
always an end in itself and that other problems of a personal or emotional nature may
be just as serious, and individuals and families are always assured of case-work and
counselling services to meet these needs.
From a divisional point of view a large portion of time is spent on negotiating
with other Provinces in the matter of inter-Provincial responsibility for those who
find themselves in need of public assistance in a Province in which they do not have
legal domicile.
Residence and responsibility is still a time-consuming problem, but as a result
of the membership meeting held in January, 1949, under the auspices of the Public
Welfare Division of the Canadian Welfare Council, it is hoped that a new and uniform
inter-Provincial agreement may be reached which will eliminate many of the difficulties
now encountered.
It is early yet to forecast what effect the recent inter-Provincial agreements with
regard to facilitating the enforcement of maintenance orders under deserted wives
and children legislation will have on the social allowance case-load, but it is hoped that
we may have some definite indication to report by the end of the next fiscal year.
There have been no changes or amendments to the " Social Assistance Act " and
Regulations, but under the flexible terms of this provision every effort has been made
to meet the problem of human need on a financial and case-work basis.
It has been said of the " Social Security Act" of 1935 in the United States that
the intent of the Act is clear in the preamble and implicit in the regulations " by
insuring the right to maintenance to certain group of needy persons and by administering assistance in such a manner as to safeguard personal dignity and self-respect
and to promote physical, economic, and social rehabilitation, thereby benefiting both
the individual and the community."*    This then is our criterion.
To the workers, supervisors, and administrators in the field, municipal and Provincial, we extend our appreciation of their untiring efforts and co-operation, as it is
to them that we owe in large measure the success of the social allowance programme.
J.  M.  RlDDELL,
Supervisor.
* " Public Assistance in 1948," by Jane M. Hoey—Journal of Social Casework, April, 1948. REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL WELFARE  BRANCH.
R 23
MOTHERS' ALLOWANCES.
During the fiscal period under review, April 1st, 1948, to March 31st, 1949, no
amendments or changes were made in the " Mothers' Allowances Act " itself, but two
major changes occurred in the administration of the allowances.
Effective July 1st, 1948, a supplementary increase was granted of $7.50 per month
for a mother and one child and $1 per month for each additional child and incapacitated
husband in the home. This increase brought the maximum amount paid to $50 per
month to a mother and one child and $8.50 per month for each additional child and the
incapacitated husband in the home.
In addition, in December, 1948, for the first time, a Christmas bonus was granted
to Mothers' Allowance families in the amount of $3.20 for each family unit.
The total cost of these additional allowances is discussed in one of the tables to
follow.
The total case-load continues to fall, as will be seen in the following figures:—
Statement of Case-load as at March for Past Ten Years.
March, 1940   1,762
March, 1941   1,697
March, 1942   1,552
March, 1943   1,194
March, 1944   1,080
March, 1945   940
March, 1946  . 905
March, 1947  863
March, 1948   751
March, 1949   681
There is, of course, a consequent and comparative decrease in total expenditures
and per capita costs in so far as the Mothers' Allowances Fund is concerned, as will
be shown in the following table :•—
Statement showing per Capita Cost.
Fiscal Year.
Total
Expenditure.
Population
as at June of
Each Year.
Per Capita
Cost to the
Province.
Total Reduction from
Previous Year.
Percentage
Change over
Previous Year
(Decrease).
1939-40.
1940-41.
1941-42.
1942-43.
1943-44.
1944-45.
1945-46.
1946-47.
1947-48.
1948-49
$810,688.12
798,097.32
751,835.56
667,213.02
681,541.29
528,442.87
498,901.72
488,866.74
441,966.71
389,347.24
805,000
818,000
870,000
900,000
932,000
949,000
1,003,000
1,044,000
1,082,000
(1940)
(1941)
(1942)
(1943)
(1944)
(1945)
(1946)
(1947)
(1948)
.92
.77
.65
.57
.53
.49
.42
.36
$12,590.80
46,261.76
84,622.50
85,671.73
53,098.42
29,541.15
10,034.98
46,900.03
52,619.47
1.55
5.79
11.26
12.85
9.13
5.59
2.01
9.59
11.95
The above table, however, should not be studied without taking into consideration
two factors, namely, the supplementary increase which was granted effective July 1st,
1948, and chargeable of necessity to the social allowance vote, to supplement the maximum set by the " Mothers' Allowances Act"; and the Christmas bonus mentioned
above. In this way an additional sum of $56,579.80 was paid to Mothers' Allowance
recipients for the fiscal year, made up of $54,391 in supplementary increases and
$2,188.80 in the bonus.
Taken month by month the following totals in case-load are given for the year
under review:— R 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Monthly Case-load Fiscal Year, April 1st, 19b8, to March 31st, 1949.
Number of
Allowances
in Fay.
Number
o? Persons benefited.
Month.
Mothers.
Children.
Incapacitated
Husbands.
737
732
725
718
704
699
693
689
684
684
684
681
737
732
725
718
704
699
693
689
684
684
684
681
1,553
1,549
1,538
1,531   -
1,503
1,489
1,474
1.470
1,455
1,459
1,460
1,445
162
160
159
159
152
September	
150
149
November	
148
148
January	
151
151
152
It will be noted that the total case-load has been reduced by 9.3 per cent, since the
beginning of the fiscal period, although during the fiscal year under review 176 applications were received, as compared with 143 for the previous year, 1947-48. In this
period a total of 191 cases were considered as follows:—
Statement of Applications received.
Applications pending as at April 1st, 1948     15
New applications received in the year  135
Reapplications received in year     41
Total   191
Statement of Decisions within the Year.
Grants  118
Refusals  29
Applications withdrawn  .  14
161
Applications pending as at March 31st, 1949     30
Total   191
The reasons for refusals were as follows:—
Husband not totally incapacitated  2
Personal property in excess  4
Not resident in British Columbia for three years  3
Withdrawn     14
No child under 18 attending school  2
Social allowance preferable form of assistance  4
Disability which caused death of husband arose in a seriously
disabling form outside British Columbia  2
Mother's earnings in excess  6
Husband not committed to penitentiary  2
Unearned income  2
Divorce not two years standing  1
Unable to qualify under section 7 of " Mothers' Allowances Act "__ 1
Total
43 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH.
R 25
Reasons for applications pending:—
Awaiting further information re property and assets  7
Awaiting further social information  8
Awaiting medical information  3
Awaiting verification of citizenship  8
Awaiting verification of status  2
Awaiting decision (received March 31st, 1949)  2
Total  30
During the year 188 allowances were cancelled for the following reasons:—
Mother deceased   4
Mother remarried  41
Mother left British Columbia  3
Mother in hospital indefinitely  1
Mother's earnings in excess  42
Section 7 of the " Mothers' Allowances Act "  3
Husband not totally disabled  10
Husband released from penitentiary  2
Only child removed from care  4
Only child 18 years of age  15
Only child under 16 years left school  8
Only child under 18 years left school  24
Only child deceased  1
Older children maintaining  8
Personal property in excess  4
Unearned income in excess  8
Social allowance preferable form of assistance  6
Withdrawn   4
Total  188
Of the above cancelled cases, the following shows the length of time on allowance :—
Statement of Length of Time on Allowance of the 188 Cancelled Cases.
1     2     3     4     5     6     7     8     9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17
21    32    16      9    17      7    14    14      8    14      6    11      4      4      2      1      3
Total, 188.    Average length of time on allowance, 6.45 years.
To return to the active case-load as at March 31st, 1948, a further breakdown
under status or reason for granting allowances gives the following figures:—
Status and Number of Children of Families in Receipt of Assistance
in March, 19^9
Years
Cases
18
3
19
2
Number
of Children.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
1
6.      |      7.
\
8.
1
9.      1     10.
I
Total.
Widows	
Husband in penitentiary.
Husband in mental hos-
174
3
6
63
1
7
9
2
3
145
3
6
47
8
18
74
4
4
25
1
2
4
23
3
16
4
1
10
2
1
5
2
5
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
433
12
21
Incapacitated husbands....
152
3
Divorced	
17
37
3
Unmarried	
3
Totals	
258
227
114
47
20
9
2
2
1
1
681
Number of individuals benefited, 2,227:   Mothers, 681;   husbands, 101* ;   children, 1,445.
* This figure applies only to those incapacitated husbands living in the home for whom a Mothers' Allowance
grant is paid. In addition, there are 29 incapacitated husbands away from home (in hospital or cared for elsewhere)  and 22 husbands in receipt of old-age or blind pension for whom no Mothers' Allowance grant is paid. R 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
From this table it is apparent that one-child cases form 37.88 per cent, of the
total case-load. It must be remembered, however, that this total will cover two
extremes of cases: the one where the one child is the youngest of a large family and
the last remaining on Mothers' Allowance, and where possibly the mother's age or
health precludes her from seeking employment; the other where the original grant
was made with only one child in the family. Of this latter grouping, only thirty-
seven grants were made during the current year.
In one-child applications every effort is made to encourage the mother to remain
independent, but the age or health of the child or health of the mother are important
considerations in any planning of this nature with the mother. In addition, there
may be an incapacitated husband in the home who requires her care and attention.
Occasionally, too, the mother has had no training or experience for employment and
Mothers' Allowance may be granted for a temporary period to provide security and to
enable the mother to fit herself for employment.
The emphasis in all cases is, however, to encourage the mother, where it is reasonable to expect she can do so, to become independent as soon as conditions in the home
warrant such action.
It is interesting to note that in Annual Reports as far back as 1922 we find the
following comments:—
" For the most part the mothers now realize that the assistance granted is not
intended as being sufficient for all their needs and they appreciate the fact that they
must supplement their incomes accordingly, in such manner and to the extent that
their particular circumstances will permit."
And again in 1929:—
" Every encouragement is given to ' self-help ' and enterprise on the part of the
mothers so long as the children are given the advantage of the additional benefits
provided and experience no neglect thereby."
The great depression of the thirties intervened, of course, since those comments
were written, and during that period no amount of encouragement could find work
where such did not exist.
However, the war period and the four years that have followed have opened up
innumerable employment opportunities, and to-day we have many mothers who are
able to and do supplement their allowance by casual or part-time employment. While
some do so because they feel they must in order to meet the increased cost of living,
many do so in a sincere desire to become independent.
Encouragement is given, too, to working-children to assist with the maintenance
of the home over and above their board payments which they would pay wherever they
lived. Each case is considered on an individual basis within the maximum scale of
grants and exemptions allowed, at the same time striving for an administration of the
fund which will be equitable for all recipients.
Mothers' Allowances Advisory Board.
The personnel of the Board remained unchanged during the year, and Mrs. W. R. F.
Richmond, Chilliwack; Mrs. Margaret Christie, Alderman for the City of Victoria;
Mr. Percy Gomery and Mr. H. Patterson, both of Vancouver, continued to serve under
the chairmanship of Mrs. F. W. Smelts, of Vancouver.
Two meetings of the Board were held during the year, and consideration given
to the following matters:—
(1) Merging of Mothers' Allowances with social allowances.
(2) Need for increase in the Mothers' Allowance in the light of present-day
cost of living. REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL WELFARE  BRANCH.
R 27
(3) Schedule of exemptions and deductions in relation to unearned and earned
income of the mother and working-children.
(4) Responsibility of children for maintenance of their parents.
The interest and co-operation of the Advisory Board at all times is appreciated
and has been of great assistance to the administration.
Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year April 1st, 1948, to March Slst, 19^.9.
Advance received from Minister of Finance
Bank interest	
$392,250.00
18.97
Amount of
Month. Advance.
March      	
April   $35,000.00
May  34,500.00
June   34,000.00
July   32,000.00
August  31,500.00
September   32,000.00
October   32,250.00
November  32,500.00
December   32,500.00
January   32,500.00
February   32,000.00
March   31,500.00
Amount of
Interest.
$0.92
3.27
4.11
1.08
1.68
1.30
.48
.62
.77
2.07
.90
1.77
Amount of
Allowances.
$392,250.00 $18.97
Allowances paid as follows:—
Month.
April   $34,113.63
May  33,885.78
June  33,521.41
July   33,206.38
August  32,496.08
September   32,184.40
October  32,066.78
November    31,856.16
December   31,541.81
Christmas bonus  2,188.80
January   31,566.67
February  31,507.66
March   31,400.48
$392,268.97
391,536.04
Balance to be accounted for.
$732.93
The books and records of the Mothers' Allowances Fund have been examined under my direction. I hereby
certify that the above statement is a true account of the Receipts and Disbursements of the Director of Welfare
under authority of the " Mothers' Allowances Act " for twelve months ended March 31st, 1949, according to the
information furnished me, and as disclosed by the books and records submitted for my inspection.
J. A. CRAIG,
Comptroller-General.
Refunds for the year totalled:
$136;  a total of $1,243.01.
Mothers' Allowance, $1,107.01;   social allowance, r 28 british columbia.
General Comments.
Several significant factors have been apparent in this year's administration—none
of them new.
The problem of housing is a pressing one, as it was in 1928 and the years that
followed, according to old Reports, not only from the standpoint of availability but also
cost. Rental rates in some cases are prohibitive, and in many instances the amount
of rent paid seriously affects the family budgeting for other necessities. In addition to
high rentals, the rising cost of food and clothing has presented serious problems. In
spite of the supplementary increase from July 1st, 1948, there are frequent references
in reports reaching this office of the difficulties encountered by many mothers in
" managing " on the Mothers' Allowance. These difficulties are recognized, and every
effort has been made to offset them by giving the broadest interpretation possible to
the scale of exemptions and deductions relating to earned and unearned income.
The most significant point in the administration of Mothers' Allowances during the
past fiscal year has been the continued decline in the case-load, with an average decrease
of between five and six cases per month. There are possibly other reasons for this
unknown to us, but the one major known reason is that social allowance is rapidly being
accepted as a preferable form of assistance. The flexibility of the " Social Assistance
Act " in the administration of social allowances frequently outweighs any concept that
Mothers' Allowance is a preferred form of assistance.
It is recognized and accepted that financially in so far as municipality versus
Province is concerned there is an advantage to the municipalities in the granting of
Mothers' Allowances, in that this allowance is paid entirely from Provincial funds,
whereas social allowances are paid on an 80-20 shareable basis. This fact is supported
by the following table:—
Total applications and reapplications received during year  176
Total applications and reapplications (municipal responsibility) _ 158
Total   applications   and   reapplications   (residing   in   municipal
territory)    171
Total grants made during year  118
Total grants (municipal responsibilities)  101
Total grants (residing in municipal territory)  108
Of the total applications received, 89.8 per cent, were responsibilities of a municipal
area, 96 per cent, resided in organized territory; and of the total grants made, 85.6
per cent, were municipal responsibilities and 91.5 per cent, resided in organized
territory.
In closing we wish to express our appreciation to the municipal and Provincial
social workers for their service on behalf of the mothers in receipt of Mothers'
Allowances and their unfailing co-operation with the Division.
J. M. Riddell,
Supervisor.
FAMILY SERVICE.
In submitting the annual report for the fiscal year 1948-49 for the Family Service
Section of the Family Division, we are dealing with that section of the case-load where
financial need does not constitute a problem, or at least is not the basic need. Rather,
these are the cases where the need is an emotional or social one and where counselling
and case-work services are required and given. report of the social welfare BRANCH. R 29
This is a field of service which is relatively new in the public welfare setting and
has been established in recognition of individual and community need beyond that of
financial assistance. It has taken some time to broaden the general concept of public
welfare to include this area of service, but growing case-loads and more diversified
sources of referral indicate that we are slowly achieving this goal. Indeed, the goal
was set with the inclusion of " counselling services " in the definition of social assistance
in our " Social Assistance Act." Thereafter, achievement of the goal has become a
matter of education and interpretation of the fact that financial security may lessen the
impact but not the incidence of problems which may arise in family relationships, or
from physical or mental ill-health, or social maladjustment and behaviour difficulties.
Evidence that our service in this area is becoming more widely known and accepted
comes from a growing case-load shown in the monthly reports of the district workers,
as follows:—
Table I.—Monthly Case-load.
As at April, 1948  1,009
As at May, 1948  1,018
As at June, 1948  1,054
As at July, 1948  1,100
As at August, 1948  1,085
As at September, 1948  1,126
As at October, 1948  1,115
As at November, 1948  1,336
As at December, 1948   1,107
As at January, 1949  1,113
As at February, 1949  1,359
As at March, 1949  1,327
With minor variations the case-load shows a net increase of 318 cases or 31.5 per
cent, from the opening to the closing of the fiscal year.
In the absence of case files in the divisional office under our system of decentralization, the only source of information available for a report such as this one is from
the statistical cards submitted by the district workers to the divisional office. It is
recognized that information thus obtained cannot of necessity give a complete or conclusive picture, but it can give indications of volume of case-load, nature of problems,
and the demand for services.
As at March 31st, 1949, we had received cards showing a total of 1,793 active cases
during the year.
This active case-load by regions is shown as follows:—
Table II.—Regional Case-loads.
i     Region 1   385
Region 2    668
Region 3  409
Region 4   234
Region 5   97
Total   1,793
For our study of the problems presented, we took only those cases opened or
reopened during the fiscal year, as indicated by a statistical card received in this office.
These totalled 532, and the type and frequency of the problems are shown in the following table:— R  30 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table III.—Incidence in New and Reopened Case-load (532).
Problem. Per Cent.
Separation  11
Desertion       7
Marital problems   18
Divorce and legal separation      5
Death of parent or parents     2
Behaviour and personality difficulties of children  11
Delinquency, Juvenile Court, and probation  10
Illegitimacy       3
Unsatisfactory home conditions  14
Financial—non-support or insufficient income  15
Physical illness, defect, or handicap     9
Mental illness or defect  14
Placement      4
Care of children      6
Others      8
It is interesting to note in comparing these percentages with those given in the
last annual report that there is little variation in the distribution of the problems listed.
In listing these problems, it should be emphasized that they are taken from a statistical
record of facts or situations and do not show a progressive record of family maladjustment and rehabilitation. They give no clue either to variety of situations in which we
find these problems or to the multiplicity of services which are rendered to meet them.
Some of the examples will service to present the diverse nature of the cases. In
one case the referral may be made from an anxious family in England who are concerned over the welfare of their daughter, a war bride whose letters home tell of difficulties of adjustment in this country or of marital problems arising from a variety of
causes. In another it may be a father in another Province whose wife has deserted
him, taking the children and coming to British Columbia to live under somewhat
precarious circumstances. He is concerned over the children's welfare, sometimes a
genuine inquiry, sometimes showing a genuine desire for a reconciliation, and occasionally indicating a vindictive attitude toward his family.
On occasions the referral is made because of a request for assistance to some
private resource, the Junior Red Cross, a benevolent fund, or the British Columbia
Youth Foundation, and our inquiry and case-work services are available to these individuals and families. On another occasion it may be a veteran in military hospital
worrying over the general welfare of his wife and children or family relationships.
It may be parents whose child has developed behaviour or delinquent tendencies with
which they feel unable to cope, and the advice of the social worker is sought.
The father, too, whose wife has taken ill, leaving him to care for small children,
seeks the help of the social worker in finding a housekeeper to tide over the temporary
emergency in the home. Or it may be the separated or deserted wife with small children to care for, living on minimal or no maintenance from her husband, who comes
to the district office seeking advice on how to resolve her problem. Many of these
cases, of course, require legal aid and counsel, to which the mother is directed.
In this connection it might be noted that many do seek and receive legal counsel,
for which we can assume they are charged only a minimum fee, if any at all, and our
appreciation goes to the legal profession for this voluntary service.
However, the frequency of requests for which legal advice is the only solution
leads to the consideration of the need for establishment of some form of legal aid
throughout the Province similar to that established in a few of the larger centres, so
that such service may be equally available. REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH. R  31
These, then, are samples of a few of the cases that reach the social workers' attention in a public welfare agency outside the urban centres. In any or none of these the
matter of economic need may never arise. In the way in which we meet these needs
lies our demonstration and interpretation of counselling services, apart from the giving
of financial assistance.
In the 532 cases mentioned above, a review of the sources of referral proves interesting, and they have been tabulated as follows:—
Table IV.—-Sources of Referral.
Source. Per Cent.
Other agency   42.4
Client   23.3
Relative      2.0
Community  _     7.0
Doctor      4.0
School      4.3
Police   13.0
Others      1.0
Not stated      3.0
Among the community group we have included friends, landladies, neighbours,
Councillors, or Reeves. Attention can only be drawn to the fact that while slightly
over 40 per cent, of the known referrals came from other agencies, which is to be
expected, and slightly less than one-quarter came from the clients themselves, that
about one-third of the referrals came from other community organizations, professional
groups, and individuals.
Family Allowances.
Our referral policy with the Family Allowances Branch of the Department of
National Health and Welfare has continued as in the past; namely, that all requests
for investigations into family circumstances or changes which might affect the payment of family allowances are directed through the Family Service Section and are
referred to the district offices or appropriate agency.
Table V.—Requests from, Family Allowances Branch,
April 1st, 1948, to March 31st, 1949. ;
Pending as at April 1st, 1948     73
Received during fiscal year April 1st, 1948, to March 31st, 1949,
by months—
April   40
May   46
June   44
July   50
August  40
September   31
October   62
November   47
December   73
January, 1949  51
February   38
March   29
— 551
Total case-load  624
Cases completed within fiscal year  529
Cases pending as at April 1st, 1949    95 R  32 BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
As these individual requests may involve inquiries to one or more district offices
or agencies, the volume has been broken down on a regional basis, as follows:—
Table VI.—Requests to District Offices and other Agencies.
Pending as at April 1st, 1948     83
Sent out during fiscal year April 1st, 1948, to March 31st, 1949,
by regions—
Region 1   103*
Region 2   3641
Region 3      73
Region 4      55
Region 5      49
  644
Total number of requests  727
Requests completed within fiscal year, by regions—
Region 1      84
Region 2  354
Region 3     75
Region 4      57
Region 5      55
  625
Requests pending as at April 1st, 1949  102
* Includes requests to private agencies in Victoria City.
t Includes requests to private agencies in Vancouver City.
As part of the Family Division function, a record is kept in the divisional office
for accounting purposes of all requests and completed investigations, for which reimbursement is made by the Family Allowances Branch of the Department of National
Health and Welfare.
British Columbia Youth Foundation.
We have continued to act as a clearing-house for all referrals directed to us for
investigations in connection with applications to this foundation. Following is a table
showing the volume of these requests:—
Table VII.—British Columbia Youth Foundation Applications.
Pending as at April 1st, 1948     2
Applications received—
Region 1      8
Region 2   15
Region 3      2
Region 4     2
Region 5      1
— 28
30
Grants   22
Withdrawals    2
Pending as at March 31st, 1949  __    6
30 REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH. R 33
The Family Service Section also continues to serve as a clearing-house for sundry
out-of-Province inquiries of a diverse nature, which are directed to the proper source
for action and reply.
Conclusion.
During the year considerable thought has been given to the means by which an
adequate picture of family service in a public welfare setting can be given in an annual
report. It is recognized that statistical cards are not enough from which to give
a clear and comprehensive portrayal of the services rendered. It is further recognized
that such material must come from the workers themselves, who are doing the job
day by day, meeting the clients, working with them, and helping to adjust or resolve
their problems.
We have one classic example in the fiscal year just passed. It was the year of
disastrous floods in the Province, creating havoc and destruction in many areas. All
community resources were called into action to meet the problems created by such
violence. Our field-workers were among these who worked hard for long and weary
hours. Financial need was not the problem in many instances, as this was covered
by generous voluntary effort, but the variety of tasks which fell to their lot in such
a disaster can only be imagined. After the waters subsided and the job of rehabilitation and reclamation began, the district workers would need all their skills in offering
help and counsel to those most affected by the disaster. How do you record such
service on a statistical card?
Next year it is our hope that the field-workers themselves will contribute to this
report.
To them all—administrators, supervisors, and workers and consultants—we say
thank you for their co-operation.
J. M. Riddell,
Supervisor. E 34
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
CHILD WELFARE DIVISION.
This has been a year of considerable achievement in the Child Welfare Division,
in that many of the important plans leading to further decentralization of certain
phases of administration as recommended in our last Annual Report have been successfully carried out.
In reporting the number of children removed from their homes under the " Protection of Children Act," " Juvenile Delinquents Act," or at the request of parents on a
non-ward basis, last year, we pointed out that unless some means were developed
whereby both field and Division could share more closely in evaluating the standards
of preventive work, we could not continue to feel with any certainty that removal of
a child from his home was in all instances in his best interests. This channel of communication between this Division and the field service staff and vice versa will be met
through the creation of the position of field consultant. This new office, as far as child
welfare is concerned, will provide the Division with a means of gauging the standards
of the child welfare work done in the field and, alternatively, will provide a medium for
interpreting to the field staff the policies and practices which this Division wishes to
see maintained. The heavy legal responsibilities entailed in the administration of child
welfare legislation will thus be more effectively controlled, and the Division's obligations
to see that professional standards are maintained will be safeguarded.
In preparation for the consultants' appointments, the Child Welfare Division has
taken an active part in planning and carrying out their orientation to the new job.
Also, in order that district supervisors would be better able to carry their increased
responsibilities under further decentralization of the Child Welfare Division, a child
welfare institute was held with all district supervisors during the week of February
14th, 1949. This was the first institute of its kind in the Branch and, from both a
divisional and field view-point, has proved to be highly worth while. Material used for
discussion was drawn principally from cases currently active which lent themselves
to discussion about changes in policy, trends in family and children's work, and
improved case-work methods. This kind of institute can be an important method of
teaching in the field of social work and should become in the future an integral part
of the Branch's staff development programme.
"PROTECTION OF CHILDREN ACT."
There were 112 children from 69 families apprehended during this year, which is
an increase of 16 children and 12 families over the previous year.
Region 1.
Region 2.
Region 3.
Region 4.
Region 5.
Total.
Present Status.
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Made wards of Superintendent..
Still before Court     	
11
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2
6
1
2
19
12
7
3
13
9
4
1
21
15
2
11
9
2
4
6
1
2
2
1
5
2
1
3
2
1
60
36
13
35
23
10
1
Application  withdrawn and
children returned to parents..
Not presented and children
1
Totals	
U     1        9
41
27
38
22
11
5
1
69
"
--«
It is not possible in a report such as this to outline the reasons why 112 children
were removed from their parents' homes, but from the standpoint of what is involved
for workers in planning for their placement, it is worth while to consider a few of the REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH. R 35
disturbing experiences some of these children have known before coming into our care.
Four children from one family, the oldest only 10 years of age, were taken from their
mother and her current common-law husband because neither was caring adequately
for them, and the mother's promiscuous behaviour was continuing to such an extent
that all the children were disturbed and showing symptoms of serious behaviour
difficulties. One child, aged 7 years, had been left with an immature and rejecting
father who had placed him in an orphanage four years previously after the mother's
committal to the Provincial Mental Hospital. This child has little knowledge of
anything but distorted relationships with adults and will no doubt find it extremely
difficult to put his trust in either foster-parents or workers. Three children had lived
through a gruelling experience when their mentally unbalanced father attacked and
killed their mother. Interested and capable relatives were subsequently located, and
with them these children will have a better than average opportunity of regaining their
confidence in people. One teen-age girl had lived for a number of years with a mentally
disturbed mother, heroically trying to hold the home together since her father's
desertion. Five other children from one family were deserted by both mother and
father when a charge of running a disorderly house was laid against them.
These are only a few from among the 112 children, and many of the others have
had similar shattering experiences. To place these children so that they may come to
know good and wholesome family relationships is a heavy responsibility for district
workers, who are already hard pressed with heavy case-loads in all phases of the Social
Welfare Branch services.
"JUVENILE DELINQUENTS ACT" AND JUVENILE COURTS.
Ten children from nine families were made wards of the Superintendent of Child
Welfare under the " Juvenile Delinquents Act " during this year by Courts located in
the following regions:— chiIdren       Families
Region  1	
Region 2     1 1
Region 3    2 2
Region 4     6 5
Region 5     1 1
Totals  10 9
We very much appreciated the invitation extended to us by the Honourable the
Attorney-General to attend the Magistrates' conference last fall, and during the
two-day session had an opportunity to hear about some of the difficulties encountered
by Juvenile Courts in rural areas throughout this Province. Here again, if less pressed
for time, our workers could give greater help and support to Courts in dealing with
children, and in more instances propose alternate plans to removal from their homes
whereby the child's needs could better be met. It was evident while attending the
Magistrates' conference that much is expected from rural Magistrates apart from their
responsibilities as Juvenile Court Judges, and that some special help in the handling
of cases involving children would be welcome to them.
NON-WARD ADMISSIONS.
In addition to the children taken into care under the " Protection of Children Act "
and the " Juvenile Delinquents Act," there were 172 children admitted at the request
of parent or parents on a non-ward basis. A study of the reasons for taking these
children from their own homes is revealing and points out certain gaps in our family
and children's services:— R 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Number of
Reasons for Admissions. Children.
Health of mother  23
Health of father where mother either deceased or deserted____ 15
Health of both mother and father    4
Mother deserted and father unable to work and care for
children   13
Mother deceased and father unable to work and care for
children      8
Children of unmarried mothers	
Behaviour problem of child     9
Serious marital problem in home	
Health of child	
Unsatisfactory stepmother situation	
Only parent in gaol 	
63
87
6
5
1
1
—    22
Total..
172
About 37 per cent, of the children came into care because one or both parents
were ill, or because the mother was deceased or had deserted. If we had an adequate
home-maker's or housekeeper's service, many of them could have been cared for in
their own homes. Such a service would not be a simple one to develop in this Province because of scattered populations and difficult geographic factors. However, only
a small number of these children come from isolated areas, where placement of a
housekeeper in the home would present insurmountable difficulties, but in many of the
other situations such a placement would have been possible and would have met the
family's needs. Socially and economically, home-makers' services have proven to be
sound, and our preventive work with children and their families will continue to be
limited until this resource is developed.
APPREHENSIONS UNDER THE "PROTECTION OF CHILDREN
ACT" PREVIOUS TO APRIL 1ST, 1948.
Forty-nine children from twenty-seven families were apprehended and still before
the Court at the end of the previous fiscal year.
Region 1.
Region 2.
Region 3.
Region 4.
Region 5.
Total.
Present Status.
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21
17
11
9
11
Withdrawn and children returned
7
Totals	
8
6
21
10
6
4
8
4
6
3
49
27
COMMITTAL ORDERS UNDER THE " PROTECTION OF
CHILDREN ACT" RESCINDED.
During this fiscal year eight children from six families were returned to their
parents when the order of committal was rescinded by Court under the " Protection
of Children Act."    One child had been our ward for ten years and is now self- REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH. R 37
supporting. Her mother had been helped toward a better understanding of her daughter and seemed now capable of sharing in the girl's life. Another child, a ward for
nine years, was returned to her father's home, where his new wife was anxious and
willing to provide adequately for her. A boy, aged 12, who had been our ward for seven
years, was returned to his father's care when he had shown for a considerable time
that he was capable of planning wisely for his son. Another child, committed to our
care in 1944, was returned to his family following a marked change in attitudes on the
part of his parents, and a resulting improved living standard. Two children, whose
parents had been unwilling to plan for them at the time they separated, had been wards
for two years, during which time the parents were helped toward a reconciliation.
When the committal order was rescinded, they had achieved a good degree of stability
and a much-improved standard of living in a new and better locality. Two other children, made wards early this year, were returned to their parents by Court under our
continued supervision. These parents will still require a great deal of help and support,
but their affection for the children and desire to have them in the home may enable
them to maintain the kind of environment necessary for their well-being.
This kind of family rebuilding should be a vital part of our work with children in
foster-care and their parents. Too often, because workers are pressed by other duties,
they are not able to maintain the understanding and helpful relationship these parents
need, and, as a result, some children remain in foster homes unduly long. This is
damaging when a child is in our care by order of a Court, but when he is in care at the
parents' request during a period of family crisis, it is of particular importance that
everything be done to remedy the difficulties which led to the temporary separation of
family and child so that the two may be brought together again as soon as possible.
This kind of work with parents is time-consuming, but is rewarding and gives meaning
to any child-placement service.
PLACEMENT OF CHILDREN.
During this fiscal year there were 1,070 children in the care of the Superintendent
of Child Welfare, but by March 31st, 1949, this number had been reduced to 823.
During the year 776 were cared for in our own foster-home areas, 275 were placed with
Children's Aid Societies, and 19 were in various institutions.
In all, there were 112 more children cared for this year, and, as at March 31st,
1949, we had 97 more children in care than at the end of the last fiscal year.
The following tables show the status of these children, together with the distribution of placement, as between the Child Welfare Division foster-home areas,
Children's Aid Societies, other Provinces, or institutions. R 38
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
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C REPORT OP THE SOCIAL WELFARE  BRANCH. R 39
In total, the Superintendent of Child Welfare assumed responsibility for 1,070
children during the fiscal year 1948-49, as follows:—
Wards—
Of Superintendent—
" Protection of Children Act"  410
" Juvenile Delinquents Act "     21
Of Children's Aid Societies     76
Of other Provinces     36
543
Non-wards—
Of Superintendent  523
Of Children's Aid Societies       3
Of other Provinces      1
527
1,070
At March 31st, 1949, the Superintendent of Child Welfare had in care:—
Wards—
Of Superintendent—
" Protection of Children Act "  394
" Juvenile Delinquents Act "     27
Of Children's Aid Societies     68
Of other Provinces     28
Before Court      56
573
Non-wards—
Of Superintendent  250
Of Children's Aid Societies . ____
Of other Provinces  	
     250
823
COST OF MAINTAINING CHILDREN IN CHILD WELFARE DIVISION
OR CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETIES' CARE.
As will be seen from the foregoing, the number of children being maintained
yearly outside their own homes by the Superintendent of Child Welfare is a large one.
In addition to this number, many children are also under the care of the Children's Aid
Societies in the Province. How many in total and how the costs of maintaining these
children are apportioned is shown in the following:—
Total number of children in Child Welfare Division foster homes, March
31st, 1949  618
Provincial Government responsible for 100 per cent, of cost  303
Provincial Government responsible for 80 per cent, and municipality for 20 per cent, of cost  184
Other Provinces responsible for 100 per cent      9
496
Children in wage or free homes  122
Number of children in pay care, March 31st, 1949  496 R 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The cost of maintaining children in Child Welfare Division foster homes for the
fiscal year ended March 31st, 1949, was carried as follows:—
Gross cost of maintenance to Provincial Government  $171,558.50
Less—
Municipal 20-per-cent. share for children with
municipal residence  $11,906.34
Parents' contributions        4,767.09
Received from other Provinces       1,079.13
Received from Children's Aid Societies for
their children in care of Child Welfare
Division     14,314.81
Miscellaneous       2,007.91
       34,075.28
Net cost to Provincial Government  $137,483.22
Total number of children in Children's Aid Societies during the
fiscal year ended March 31st, 1949  1,725
Provincial  Government responsible for  100 per
cent.   468
Provincial Government responsible for 80 per cent.
and municipality for 20 per cent, of cost  829
Community Chest, and wage or free homes  428
1,297
The cost of maintaining children in the care of Children's Aid Societies chargeable
to Provincial Government or municipal governments during the fiscal year ended March
31st, 1949, was carried as follows:—
Carried forward  $137,483.22
Cost of maintenance of children with Provincial residence   $222,102.80
Refunds to municipalities 80 per cent, of maintenance
of children with municipal residence     200,123.99
$422,226.79
Less—
Paid by municipalities for Child
Welfare Division children in
Children's Aid Societies' care $7,167.87
Parents' contributions     3,906.91
Paid   by   Dominion   Government
(Indian Department)       1,168.48
Paid by other Provinces     1,657.52
Miscellaneous credits      1,082.72
       14,983.50
    407,243.29
Net cost to Provincial Government  $544,726.51
The total cost of $544,726.51 expended by the Provincial Government for maintenance of children in care of the Child Welfare Division or a Children's Aid Society
during the fiscal year, including the percentage of costs for which municipalities
receive reimbursements, represents, we believe, an unequalled degree of Provincial
Government participation in any similar child-care programme in the Dominion. REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH. R 41
The following additional expenditures were made by the Child Welfare Division
during the fiscal year, making the total net amount expended by the Provincial Government $552,402.24:—
Gross expenditures for Jewish overseas children  $12,639.03
Less reimbursements from the European Children's
Committee     10,463.64
■ $2,175.39
Gross transportation of children     $4,267.94
Less reimbursements from parents   67.60
 4,200.34
Grants to institutions     1,300.00
$7,675.73
RESOURCES LACKING.
Because the Child Welfare Division has been able to plan for the majority of our
children throughout our own regions, requests for admission of children from outlying
areas to a Children's Aid Society have been chiefly confined to situations where a child
required some special form of care not available outside Vancouver or Victoria. The
Vancouver Children's Aid Society and the Catholic Children's Aid Society continue to
accept a number of our children for care admitted from areas close to Vancouver
because our emergency admission resources are not yet developed sufficiently to meet
our needs. We are grateful to these agencies, but in the near future must plan to
increase our own existing facilities.
FREQUENT REPLACEMENTS OF CHILDREN IN CARE.
We are still having far too many replacements of children and not sufficient success
in achieving satisfactory permanent placements for children who, for one reason or
another, must grow up apart from their parents. Having taken a child into care, our
goal must always be to see that from an early date he is in the environment which will
best meet his particular needs during his growing-years. Consultants in the field will
be a tremendous help to district supervisors and workers in their efforts to plan carefully for each child under their care, and, providing workers' case-loads can be reduced
to a reasonable number, we can expect to have more success in the future in our efforts
to make permanent and happy placements for children in our care.
CHILD-CARE INSTITUTIONS.
We have continued to use some of the voluntary child-caring institutions in the
Province with reasonable success in special instances where a child required a group-
living experience rather than the close intimacy of foster-home living. In particular,
we appreciate the services given to two of our children by the Loyal Protestant Home
in New Westminster. The staff showed good understanding of the children's needs and
were most co-operative with workers in their efforts to help these children. One of
them, a boy now aged 11, who has been in the Home over a year, came to us almost two
and a half years ago when he was before the Court on a charge of stealing. Not wanted
by his own parents, he could not let himself trust foster-parents, and workers' efforts to
place him in a foster home had resulted in a series of unhappy incidents, each followed
by a brave attempt on his part to run away from it all. This boy has settled down considerably in the less-personalized environment of the Home and attends school regularly.
In due course he may be helped back to a family way of life, but this past year has
provided him an opportunity to be like others and yet be free from the remembered
hurting emotional pulls inevitably to be met in foster-home life by such children. R 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
FAMILY ALLOWANCES.
Family allowances for children in care has become a sizable administrative responsibility in the Division, as well as an important resource in our work with foster-
children.
As at April 1st, 1948, we had $5,501.10 in our Family Allowances Trust Account,
and during the fiscal year received $22,294.18 in family allowances for children in care.
As at March 31st, 1949, there is a balance of $8,482.21 in the Family Allowances Trust
Account, paid on behalf of 262 children in care.
Expenditures as reported to the Family Allowances Branch of the National Department of Health and Welfare for the calendar year 1948 from family allowances on
behalf of children in Child Welfare Division foster homes were as follows:—
Paid to foster-mothers on behalf of children  $16,014.86
Expenditures for such items as music lessons, sports equipment, bicycles, Guide and Scout uniforms, camp and
other summer vacations, etc       1,109.70
Gifts, Christmas and birthday, etc  26.90
Paid to own parents when child discharged from care  303.59
Paid to adoptive parents when child placed permanently____ 126.00
Refunds to Family Allowances Branch and other agencies 322.96
Total  $17,904.01
In addition, the Family Allowances Branch paid allowances for 198 children direct
to foster-mothers because these children had been in the same foster home for one year
or more.
INCREASED FOSTER-HOME RATES.
Foster-home rates were increased as at July 1st, 1948, according to the recommendations submitted by the Children's Aid Societies and Child Welfare Division staff
committee set up to consider the adequacy of current foster-home rates. Their findings
proved that rates had been left far behind in the unprecedented upward flight of cost
of living. They were found to be particularly inadequate in the face of current clothing
costs, and the study showed that foster-parents were absorbing a high portion of these
costs out of their own incomes. The new rates allow only for a minimum maintenance
standard, but the agencies have agreed to pay for clothing over and above this rate
wherever indicated. In the Child Welfare Division we have established this method of
payment for clothing as general policy because prices vary to a surprising degree in
the various buying centres throughout the Province, and it would be difficult to determine an equitable flat rate to cover clothing for all age-groups. By paying for all
clothing in addition to board rate, we can be assured that foster-parents are protected
at least to a degree from further increases in cost of living.
Present foster-home rates are a marked improvement, but are still on a minimum
scale. As we further develop our child-placement programme, payment to foster-
parents in recognition of the contribution in service they make would seem to be an
inevitable and necessary consideration. Also, further study is indicated of what it
costs to rear a child in a foster home, as well as of what it costs to rear a child in his
own home, if foster-parents and own parents in receipt of financial assistance are to
fulfil their responsibilities as parents with dignity and self-respect.
SOME SPECIAL PLACEMENTS.
A number of years ago, at the request of the Indian Department, the Child Welfare
Division agreed to place in foster homes a few selected children who showed ability and
wished to continue their education beyond the grades available to them on the various
J ^—
REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL WELFARE  BRANCH. R 43
Indian reservations. The results have been satisfying to all concerned. One of the
boys is now in his fourth year at the University of British Columbia, and a girl is
enrolling there this fall. Another boy and girl, whose interests were more along
vocational lines, are having opportunity to pursue this kind of training. The Indian
Department has paid the full cost of maintaining these children, and under the circumstances the arrangement proved advantageous to these particular children. However, it
is not sound practice to require children to live* apart from their families over long
periods of high school training, and we believe the experiment has served to emphasize
to the Indian Department the need to develop local educational facilities for native
children comparable to those available for other children.
PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN.
We are still trying to plan through foster-home placement for a number of permanently physically handicapped children, and are discouraged in the knowledge that
we are not nearly meeting their needs. These are children whose handicaps make it
impossible for them to take part in most of the play and other activities enjoyed by
normal boys and girls. Through the use of proper teaching and retraining facilities,
however, many of them could be helped toward a less-limited adult life. There is a
sufficient number of such children throughout the Province, already known to the Division, to warrant the establishment of a long-term institutional programme for their
care, as has been previously suggested. If, however, in view of other expanding and
costly Government programmes, it would seem inadvisable to develop such an institution
within Government services at this time, then it is strongly recommended that some
interim plan, probably in co-operation with some private organization, be made whereby
these children can receive the kind of instruction and care they so urgently need.
CLOTHING.
The change in policy whereby the Division pays the cost of clothing for most
children in foster homes in addition to the board rate has naturally increased expenditures for this item. A total of $32,903.41 was spent for clothing this year, which is
approximately $51.81 per year per child for whom we paid maintenance in Child Welfare Division foster homes during the fiscal year. We are satisfied this is not an
extravagant amount, and that with the Division absorbing this increased expenditure,
the board rate paid represents an amount more closely approximating the actual cost of
maintaining a child than formerly.
HOSPITAL, MEDICAL, AND DENTAL CARE.
As at January 1st, 1949, all wards in the care of the Superintendent of Child Welfare and the Children's Aid Societies were registered for hospitalization under the
British Columbia " Hospital Insurance Act," with required premiums being paid by
the Social Welfare Branch. This will provide a complete hospitalization coverage for
wards, but we are presently looking to the parents of other children in care to register
them and pay the necessary premiums. However, a good number of the parents of our
children are in poor financial circumstances or are lacking the maturity and sense of
responsibility which enables other parents to provide this kind of security for their
children. Because of this, it may be necessary for us to reconsider this policy in the
future and include for registration and payment at least a portion of the number of
children in non-ward care in order to ensure their eligibility for hospital service.
We have to report the death of two children this year. One 3-year-old boy was
accidentally drowned, and a 1-year-old baby boy died suddenly of spinal meningitis.
The circumstances surrounding both these deaths left no room to question the care the
children had received while in our foster homes.    On the contrary, both boys had R 44
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
become so much a part of their foster-family's lives that in all probability they would
have remained with them permanently had they lived, and their loss is keenly felt by
all members of the foster-families. The general health of all the other children in care
has been good.
A total of $5,239.24 was spent for medical care and $1,471 for dental care. We are
still having difficulty in some areas to obtain doctors' services under the current
minimum-fee-charging policy, and we are looking forward to the greater security we
will have next year in this direction when children in care can be included in the proposed all-over medical-care programme between the British Columbia College of
Physicians and Surgeons and the Social Welfare Branch.
ADOPTIONS.
The increased number of children we have been able to plan for on a permanent
basis through adoption placement this year is encouraging and satisfying.
Seventy-two children were placed in adoptive homes last year, and this year the
number was 117. The table below shows that by broadening the concept of the term
" adoptable " a higher number of children are being placed in permanent homes at an
early age. These are children whose backgrounds might indicate some limitations, but
who themselves show promise of perfectly normal physical and mental development at
the time of placement. The adoptive parents chosen understand our aim in placement
of these children and willingly accept, as do natural parents, what risks may be involved
in rearing a child, and willingly agree to the extended probation period.
Placements made by Child Welfare Division, April 1st, 1948,
to March 31st, 1949.
Type of Placement.
Age-groups.
Religion.
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In the above table we show the religion, to point up the increased interest in
children for adoption which is becoming evident in Catholic families throughout the
Province. This is gratifying and has enabled us to plan permanently for more children
of this faith than ever before.
As will be seen from the following table, a higher number of children have also
been placed for adoption by Children's Aid Societies, who, too, are endeavouring in
their broadened policies to plan permanently for a larger number of children.
Agency.
Long-
term
Probation.
One-year
Probation.
Foster
Home
became
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Home.
Totals.
69
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19
71
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1
20
184
28
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Totals          .   .
93
82
103
34
65
1
261
117
Totals	
175
137
_,_ REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH.
R 45
A comparison of all agency placements with last year's is revealing and encouraging:  Number of Number of
Placements,   Placements,
Agency. 1947-48.      1948-49.
Vancouver Children's Aid Society  163 184
Catholic Children's Aid Society  17 28
Victoria Children's Aid Society  25 49
Child Welfare Division  72 117
Totals  277 378
ADOPTIONS COMPLETED.
There were 640 adoptions completed by Court order this year, or 103 more than
last year. The geographic distribution of these is shown below, and it is also interesting
to note the high percentage of these children who were placed for adoption through a
recognized child-placing agency.
Adoptions completed, April 1st, 1948, to March 31st, 1949.
Child Welfare Division completed Adoption.
Agency.*
Relative.f
Adopting
Mother is Natural Mother..
Private. §
Total.
23
47
26
17
10
7
6
•1
1
1
20
32
14
9
3
20
40
22
19
9
70
125
63
Total Child Welfare Division	
123
137
21
20
3
16
2
....
78
47
5
16
110
52
5
5
327
Totals	
304
18
146
172
* Adopting parents chosen by a Children's Aid Society or Child Welfare Division.
t Adopting parents are child's own relatives.
t Adopting parents are natural mother and husband.
§ Adopting parents chosen privately,
|| Adopting parents moved outside of British Columbia subsequent to child's placement.
Adoption placement has become a large and important part of work in the field.
District workers know adopting parents both before a child is placed in the home and
for some time following placement. Because of this, our plans for further decentralization of certain phases of administration will include, as at April 1st, 1949, a change of
policy, whereby the Court report, required under the "Adoption Act" to be submitted
to the Supreme Court Judge at the time of completion of the adoption, will be written by
the district worker and sent to the Child Welfare Division for final approval and forwarding to Court. These reports are presently written by divisional supervisors, and
the new policy will give workers and district supervisors added opportunity to estimate
standards of work and to see themselves more clearly as an integral part of the important final step of the total-adoption procedure.
"CHILDREN OF UNMARRIED PARENTS ACT."
The sharp increase in illegitimate births which occurred throughout the country
during the war and post-war years seems now to be levelling off to a figure fairly compatible to our increased population in British Columbia, at least from a statistical R 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
standpoint. However, the 1,320 illegitimate-birth registrations received by the Division of Vital Statistics this year still represents a precarious and hazardous life road
for a large number of children, and for their unmarried mothers an unhappy future
unless they are helped toward a more satisfying and acceptable way of life. Our statistics show that the majority of unmarried mothers of these children were known to
a social agency, and many received help in planning. However, there is great need for
research in this field to determine whether or not we really get beyond the immediate
presenting problems of medical care for the mother, foster home or adoption placement
for the child, and financial help from putative father or public funds, into the all-
important matters of the unmarried mother's—and unmarried father's—attitudes and
conflicts. Unless these are resolved, they will continue to be immature people, incapable
of establishing meaningful and lasting relationships in their own family group as they
grow older.
COLLECTIONS UNDER THE "CHILDREN OF UNMARRIED
PARENTS ACT."
There were 40 new Court orders obtained this year under the " Children of Unmarried Parents Act" and 68 new agreements, making a total of 130 active Court orders
and 181 active agreements;  33 settlements in full were accepted.
The sum of $33,492.35 was collected under orders, agreements, and settlements
this year, which is $6,747.67 over last year's collections. This means that, on the total
active orders, agreements, and settlements, an average amount of $97.36 was collected
during the year, or about $8.11 per month. Taking all the various financial circumstances into consideration, this is a fair average, but it is difficult to assess how socially
constructive enforcement of orders and agreements is in certain instances.
One of the settlements effected this year, for instance, was in lieu of an order made
eleven years ago, on which the putative father had paid spasmodically. We were convinced in our interviews with the unmarried mother that the constant efforts made to
enforce the order over the years had only served to increase her bitterness and made
her less able to be a good mother to her child. When we interviewed the putative
father, it was evident that he had not been unaware of his responsibility. His earnings
were good, but still left little for savings after his family's needs were met and the
payment due for the unmarried mother's child was made. The constant strain of trying
to make ends meet was fast creating a serious situation between him and his family.
A final arrangement to accept a cash payment of an amount acceptable to him and his
wife and the unmarried mother in lieu of the balance owing seemed to release them
from an old and unwanted emotional tie, leaving them freer to form new and more
meaningful future relationships.
The " Children of Unmarried Parents Act" does provide a means whereby maintenance may be obtained for the child born out of wedlock, but whether or not such action
is always socially sound for the mother, putative father, or the child is problematical.
This Act has been in existence for a number of years, and our records should hold a
wealth of material around this problem for the research we hope can be done in the
future.
OVERSEAS CHILDREN.
The four British overseas children who will be remaining in Canada on a permanent basis continue to make good progress in their foster homes.
An interesting application was received from the Immigration Department, in
which two British children who had spent the war years with us were applying to
return. Their parents came to Canada at the end of the war, grew dissatisfied with
the prospects, and returned with the children to England. They apparently intend to
fulfil the promise they made themselves when leaving us a few years ago that they REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH. R 47
" would return to stay some day." We will be glad to give this boy and girl what help
we can toward becoming happily established.
The group of Jewish overseas children has grown from twenty-three as at April
1st, 1948, to forty-six children in care of the Vancouver Children's Aid Society this year.
Considering the devastating experiences these children had known in Europe during the
war years, they are making a remarkably good adjustment to Canadian life.
Nine of them are attending school or university, nineteen are employed, and four
are seeking employment. Three of the girls married during the year, and one went
with his foster-parents to live in an Eastern Province. As at March 31st, 1949, there
were forty-two Jewish overseas children in the care of the Vancouver Children's Aid
Society.
The costs for maintaining these children were $12,639.03, the total of which was
reimbursed to the Provincial Government by the European Children's Committee.
IMMIGRATION OF CHILDREN.
The Canadian Immigration Department asked us during the fiscal year to report
and advise on thirty-five applications to come to Canada, involving thirty-nine children;
thirty-two were destined to relatives and seven to friends.
Two applications involving two children have been withdrawn because of changed
circumstances within the family groups. Eleven children have arrived. The plan for
two children of one family was not satisfactory, and our recommendation that the
application be refused was carried out by the Immigration Department. Plans for the
remaining twenty-four children are still incomplete.
Of the children who have arrived, two, from two families, are now on adoption
probation in their new homes. Another girl is living with her own mother in British
Columbia following her parents' divorce in the United States, but her sister, who also
came on the application, has since returned to the United States. The other seven
children who have arrived are in relatives' homes.
Many of these placements will work out satisfactorily for all concerned, but there
will inevitably be some which will not. Three of those applying lived in the United
States, but the remaining thirty-six children lived in Europe or Great Britain, and
the distances are too great and the cultural differences too many to hope to have all make
a happy adjustment. One teen-age girl from England, for instance, came out to well-
intentioned relatives, but soon after arrival showed signs of serious behaviour disorders and was deported six months later by the Immigration Department. To safeguard against this sort of thing happening to children, we are endeavouring to have
the Immigration Department obtain more information about the child and the events
which led to application being made to come to Canada. Also, we must plan to keep
in closer touch with these children until they are well established in their new homes,
and be prepared to give what help may be necessary to them and to their foster-
parents.
CUSTODY OF CHILDREN IN DIVORCE AND EQUAL GUARDIANSHIP
OF INFANTS ACTIONS.
Twenty-six requests for investigations involving forty-six children were received
this year from Supreme Court Judges, following divorce actions and disputes over^
custody of children. In addition to our reports, the Courts have turned to us for consultative services in a number of instances, and we are satisfied that, in serving in
this capacity and through the reports, we are consistently pointing the way in which
the welfare of children involved in these unhappy situations can be best safeguarded.
Seldom are the parents unco-operative, and in our interviews with them it is evident
that, in general, they welcome the opportunity to discuss this serious crisis in their R  48 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
lives and are usually anxious to arrive at some arrangement whereby their children
will suffer less. In one instance of legal separation involving five children, the parents
were helped toward a reconciliation, and the situation now holds promise of a good
degree of stability and understanding. Legislation to cover this important phase of
child welfare is still lacking, but in the interim, under the present arrangement with
the Courts, considerable information is being collected about the drafting of amendments to Acts when the time is appropriate.
PRINCE OF WALES FAIRBRIDGE FARM SCHOOL.
The appointment of a qualified person as Superintendent of Child Care at the
Fairbridge Farm School in October, 1946, provided us with new opportunities to learn
about the results of this kind of child-placement programme. We have worked closely
with the Superintendent of Child Care and the local Placement Committee, and have
become increasingly aware of the loneliness and isolation of this group of children in
Canada. We agree heartily with the local Fairbridge committee's recommendation to
the London board of directors of Fairbridge that all the girls and younger boys be
placed outside the institution as soon as possible, and we have assured the local board
that we would endeavour in every way to find suitable homes for them. Plans to bring
additional children to Canada are presently under suspension, partly because of the acute
dollar shortage in Great Britain, but we would urge, before any reinstatement of the
scheme is considered by the Government in the future, that a full and complete study
be undertaken by the Department, in conjunction with the local Fairbridge board, of
the adjustment made by the children already brought to British Columbia by Fair-
bridge Farm School. Only if it can be established beyond doubt that Fairbridge in
Canada is providing these children with opportunities and care surpassing those available to them in or out of their own homes in the United Kingdom, should further
permission be granted them to bring additional children to this country.
STUDENT PLACEMENT.
For a number of years the Child Welfare Division has accepted, for field-work
placement, students from the Department of Social Work, University of British
Columbia, and during the past three years has tried to develop the placement so that
the student could have an experience in the field of administration—a field in which
the student placed in an ordinary case-work agency placement can be given little
opportunity to participate. Our efforts to develop this kind of field-work placement
so far seem satisfying to the students, and it has been a stimulating experience for
all members of the Divisional staff.
In concluding this report, and on behalf of the Child Welfare Division staff, our
thanks go once more to all members of the field staff for their untiring efforts in the
face of many and heavy responsibilities, and to the Children's Aid Societies and other
voluntary agencies and public welfare departments throughout the Province for their
continued co-operation and help throughout the past year.
Ruby McKay,
Superintendent of Child Welfare. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH.
OLD-AGE PENSION BOARD.
R 49
The year 1948-49 was another very busy one in the administration of old-age
pensions. The number of new applications received, including both blind and old age,
was 6,110, as compared with 5,996 the year before, and 6,139 pensions were granted,
compared with 5,012 the year before. The number granted included some applications
that were received in 1947-48 but were still pending at the end of that year. As at
March 31st, 1949, there were 26,213 pensioners, including both blind and old age, on
the pay-roll, compared with 22,081 the previous year. This represents an increase of
18.71 per cent, during the year.
Total expenditures, including both basic pensions and cost-of-living bonuses for
both blind and old-age pensioners, amounted to $11,513,273.83, compared with $9,357,-
915.91 last year. This shows an increase of 23.03 per cent., which is accounted for by
the increase in number of pensioners.
The increase in the number of pensioners resulted mainly from the changes made
in the Act and regulations in 1947, but partly also from a normal growth in the number
of elderly and blind people in the Province, particularly the former. The population of
British Columbia is rapidly growing older. The first settlers in the Province were
largely young people, but now these have advanced to the old-age group. In addition,
we are now getting our first large " crops " of elderly people from our earliest native
sons and daughters. Then, too, because of our favourable climate, many older people,
as well as young and middle-aged, have come here to swell our rapidly increasing total
population. And added to all these contributing factors is the fact that people are
living longer now than they used to; the life-span is lengthening out rapidly. While,
therefore, the problem of the care of the aged is becoming greater everywhere, it is to
be expected that it will be particularly acute in this Province in the coming years. In
fact, when one contemplates the possibilities, they appear almost overwhelming. There
is great need for advance thinking and planning so that we may be prepared to meet
the task, and the time is short.
In the past there have been a great many more transfers of pensioners from other
Provinces to British Columbia than there have been transfers from British Columbia
to those other Provinces. We have grown accustomed to assuming, therefore, that the
movement is largely and almost inevitably always to this Province. The following
statistics for the past three years give at least some slight evidence, however, that the
trend may have changed at least temporarily:—
1946-47.
1947-48.
1948-49.
596
111
137
357
94
145
588
Number of B.C. pensioners returned to British Columbia	
83
184
There is some statistical evidence that in the last few years there has been a
greater tendency for prospective pensioners to postpone making application beyond the
70-year age-limit. For instance, whereas, in 1944-45, 45.8 per cent, of the persons to
whom pensions were granted were 70 years of age, only 38.3 per cent, of those to whom
pensions were granted in 1948-49 were of that age; and whereas only 10.64 per cent,
of those to whom pensions were granted in 1944-45 were between the ages of 76 and
80 years, inclusive, 14.45 per cent, of the pensioners to whom pensions were granted
in 1948-49 were in that age-group. There are doubtless various reasons for this trend,
but one obviously is that the high-employment period of the war and post-war years
enabled more of the older people to obtain work, and they continued either at their jobs
to an older age than would previously have been the case or the earnings they received R 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
prior to reaching the age of 70 years were sufficient to finance them for a time beyond
that age.
RECIPROCAL AGREEMENTS.
As a result of agreements made with Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and
New Brunswick, British Columbia pensioners who have transferred to any of those
Provinces receive the British Columbia cost-of-living bonus of $10 a month just as our
pensioners here do. The costs are, of course, charged back to British Columbia by the
other Provinces.
Alberta.
Under the reciprocal agreement with Alberta, British Columbia pays the Alberta
bonus of $7 a month to Alberta pensioners now living in British Columbia and charges
the cost back to Alberta.
Saskatchewan.
From October 1st, 1947, to May 31st, 1948, Saskatchewan did not pay any bonus
to its pensioners, hence British Columbia paid no bonus on behalf of that Province to
Saskatchewan pensioners living here, but Saskatchewan commenced paying a bonus up
to a maximum of $5 a month, depending on income, to its pensioners as from June 1st,
1948, hence British Columbia commenced paying this bonus to Saskatchewan pensioners
living here as from that same date and charged the cost back to Saskatchewan.
Ontario.
Just before the end of the fiscal year 1947-48, covered by our last report, an agreement was concluded with the Province of Ontario whereby, on April 1st, 1948, Ontario
commenced paying our bonus of $10 a month to all British Columbia pensioners living
in Ontario, and British Columbia commenced paying the Ontario bonus, up to $10 a
month, to Ontario pensioners living in British Columbia, each Province charging costs
back to the other.
New Brunswick.
Although New Brunswick does not pay any cost-of-living bonus to its own pensioners, it continued to pay our bonus of $10 a month to British Columbia pensioners
living there, as in the previous year. The costs were, of course, charged back to British
Columbia.
SOCIAL SERVICE.
" The planning of care for the aged is intimately tied up with the developments in
other welfare fields." This principle is effectively demonstrated in the British Columbia
organization, where the Old-age Pension Board operates within the same department
as other social services and utilizes the same field staff of social workers throughout the
Province. The liaison person between these social workers and the large clerical staff
of the Pension Board is the supervisor of social service, who acts also as a consultant
in social problems arising within the administrative set-up at head office.
A second social worker is in charge of all interviewing in the intake office. The
numerous, though brief, contacts with pensioners, as well as other interested persons,
are enlightening to the Board and, skilfully handled, go far toward interpreting the
administration and fostering good relations.
Attendance at committees concerned with services to the aged affords the supervisor an opportunity to gain broader knowledge and encourage activities in this field.
As there is no social agency in the Province working exclusively with older people, the
Social Service Division of the Old-age Pension Board tends to become more or less of
an information bureau, not only for social workers, but for others concerned in one
way or another with the welfare of senior citizens. report of the social welfare branch. r 51
District Work.
First responsibility of social workers in the district offices is to assist applicants
in establishing eligibility. But service does not by any means stop at that point.
Interest and activity on behalf of the older people are limited only by the volume of
work, the average case-load, in spite of increased staff, being around 300, of which
approximately 60 per cent, are pensioners. Studies in two districts suggest that at
least 25 per cent, of this group are in need of continuous case-work, as well as many
incidental services.
Progress.
The great need of research, in order to plan effectively for the increasing number
of our population in the older group, scarcely needs comment. In the meantime, in
British Columbia an effort is being made to meet the pensioners' most urgent requirements. Provisions already in effect are gradually being improved and extended, and
we are pleased to record two outstanding achievements in health services for our
pensioners during the past year.
As from March 1st, 1949, following negotiations with the British Columbia College
of Physicians and Surgeons, a new medical plan came into effect which provides full
services, including those of specialists, in accordance with recognized medical practice,
free of charge to all pensioners. The coverage is Province-wide and replaces a more
limited scheme in which a number of municipalities were not participating. Individual
consideration is given to special services which do not come within the scope of the
medical plan.
Provision has also been made for pensioners to have full advantage of the British
Columbia Hospital Insurance Service (January 1st, 1949). Premiums in all social
assistance cases, including old-age and blind pensioners, are paid by the Provincial
Government. Service, in cases of acute illness, is available to these pensioners on the
same basis as to other citizens who are in a position to make their own payments.
Increased pressure on acute general hospitals naturally points up still more clearly
the problem of care for chronics in which there has been no significant development
during the past year. Mention may be made, however, of plans well under way for a
fourth branch of the Provincial Infirmary located at Terrace. A second unit of the
Home for the Aged, accommodating 200 patients, has been opened in Vernon. This
unit, together with the first one at Essondale, affords custodial care to 580 patients
suffering from advanced senility.
ACCOMMODATION.
Supervision of the chronically ill is obviously a medical problem, but we have besides
the large group of dependent, or partially dependent, aged who need suitable accommodation with, or without, a degree of supervision. Due to population trends and
changing mores, this group is increasing at an alarming rate. Arrangements for their
care is a community problem with broad social implications.
The Provincial Government, through its policy of generous contributions toward
the cost, has given leadership and encouragement to the efforts of municipalities and
private organizations to meet this pressing problem of housing and institutional care
for the aged. It has also established a safeguard through the " Welfare Institutions
Licensing Act," which sets up certain general health and safety standards which apply
to all institutions caring for more than one old person. Included in these are the large
number of proprietary boarding-homes upon which we are still largely dependent for
supervised care for the less able of our group.
Experience suggests that further steps should now be taken and further study
given to this whole subject of housing for elderly persons, in order that more definite R 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
guidance may be available to groups embarking on projects to provide either housing
or homes for older people.
It has been found, for instance, that large institutions seldom give the congenial
homelike surroundings that are essential to the well-being of the older person. Only in
the smaller place will he feel the sense of belonging and find the interest and activity
which go so far toward preventing deterioration and postponing the day when more
intensive—and expensive—care may be needed. It is also accepted that the social
worker should play an important role both in regard to planning for placement and in
later relationships. And any group starting out on a project of this nature should be
reminded at the outset that mere physical care is not the answer but that " recreational
activities and occupational therapy are recognized to-day as essential factors in the
administration of homes for older people."
DEVELOPMENT.
During 1948 the following new homes were added to those previously reported:
The Swedish Canadian Rest Home, Lynnmour, North Vancouver District; Normanna
(Norwegian Home), Burnaby;   St. Jude's (Church of England Home), Vancouver.
The United Church has commenced building operations for a home in Burnaby.
Individual cottages are being added to the premises at Dania (Danish Old Folks'
Home).
The Senior Citizens' Homes Association has completed sixteen units of duplex
housing at Cassiar Street and Fifth Avenue, Vancouver.
Activities.
The devastating lack of social contacts and varied interests for older people has
been stressed in previous reports and need not be repeated here.
Inquiries as to how to go about organizing clubs and other leisure-time activities
are coming into the Social Service Division from lay persons, as well as members of
the field staff, and indicate growing awareness of a need too fundamental to the well-
being of the old folk, and to society in general, to be overlooked.
Small beginnings have been made in several communities. Given encouragement
and guidance, senior citizens can, and will, do a great deal of their own organizing—
and be the better for it. However, leadership must be provided to get such a programme under way. Whether this should come from the more-specialized voluntary
agencies or from the public department is a question calling for careful consideration.
Trends in Thinking.
Social service is concerned chiefly with facts not easily translated into figures and
graphs. In the course of a year's activities, however, certain attitudes and trends of
thinking seem to emerge so frequently as to suggest general tendencies which may have
some significance.
The increase in the total allowable income to $600 (single) and to $1,080 (married), as at May 1st, 1947, seemed to put the old-age pension scheme on a different
level. It became, if one may so state it, more socially acceptable. A married man in
his late sixties with a small bank account and an annuity of $300 found, on inquiring,
that he could have these savings, his small annuity, and a modest home and garden with
almost full pension for him and his wife. In addition, medical services would be taken
care of.   A new feeling of security and hopefulness is the result.
A different attitude is evinced by the applicant who, in answer to an inquiry about
possible employment, replies, " Oh no, I won't be working any more. You know I'm 70."
This idea is so often repeated in one form or another that one cannot fail to see the  6ir6/
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reflection of a society which, more and more, tends to determine ability to participate
in normal activities by a date on the calendar rather than individual capacity.
In a study of 2,000 cases in which pensions were recently granted, a very conservative estimate indicated that at least 15 per cent, of the applicants were employable.
The plain fact is that many pensioners who could be employed at least at a light, part-
time, or otherwise suitable job refuse to accept it, because working will preclude the
pension otherwise available without effort.
That the unoccupied man readily becomes a burden to himself and others needs
no demonstration. If we fail to encourage older people to take some part in the
work-a-day world and make no effort to provide means for them to do so, society will
soon be faced with an overwhelming responsibility in caring for this large, inactive
group. While these comments may not be entirely in place in the report, this whole
question is thrown into such sharp relief in the administration of old-age pensions it
would seem that a measure of responsibility rests with those who are familiar with
the facts.
The third trend which comes to light in our contacts with pensioners and their
families relates more specifically to the younger generation. Sound family life is
accepted as basic to a healthy society. Old people are an integral part of the family
group, but social changes have made it necessary to provide funds for maintenance and
possibly special accommodation apart from relatives in many instances. The Government, through pensions and other social services, has, to a considerable extent, assumed
financial responsibility for older people. The idea carried further is readily interpreted
—and indeed frequently voiced by younger relatives—as: " It's up to the Government
to look after the old folks. We have all we can do." At this point family life breaks
down. Briefly, young people do not get the sense of the whole span of life and older
people suffer from the feeling of being unwanted. From neither the psychological nor
the economical point of view can public departments afford to " take over " completely.
Case-workers recognize the necessity of encouraging and strengthening family ties.
Frequent contacts and the rendering of incidental services are ways of doing this.
To quote Leurs Mumford: " We live in a time when the three-generation family that
lived together has all but disappeared, when even the two-generation family finds it
difficult to remain together for a long period. Therefore, if this process goes on, we
must restore in the community the active relationship of the old with the young, which
we have excluded now, from the home." Social workers on the Provincial field staff
find this one of their major case-work problems.
GRAPHIC PRESENTATION COVERING PERIOD SINCE 1927.
In the report for 1946-47 a rather complete interpretation was given of the graphic
presentation of the administration of old-age pensions in British Columbia covering
the whole period of twenty years during which the Act had been in effect, and the report
for 1947-48 dealt particularly with certain rather interesting developments which had
resulted from several important changes at that time only recently made in the Act and
regulations.
Because of improvements made some few years ago in the organization of our
statistical data, we now have available records covering the activities for a number of
years that are sufficiently standardized for making valid comparisons and interpreting
trends. As these records accumulate from year to year, we shall have material available that will enable us to present reports of still greater significance. In this present
report, even though our records are not yet complete for all items, some analysis is
made of trends that are becoming noticeable and which may be more clearly seen as
time goes on.
From an examination of the long-term graph on the preceding page showing the
number of pensioners, it is evident that from 1927 to the early years of the war the R  54 BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
trend is a steady increase at a fairly uniform rate. A variation is shown, however,
with the levelling-off of the graph during the war years, and this may reasonably be
taken to mean that when economic activity is brisk and employment available for older
people, there is less demand for old-age pension services.
Following the termination of this (for these older people) happier period, the
graph of the number of pensioners again shows a rising trend, but at a much-
accelerated rate. While there may indeed be many reasons for the greater number of
persons applying for pension, one of which is the attraction of a higher rate of pension,
it is certain that the result will be an increase in the proportion of persons on pension
to the total population. This trend, which has considerable practical significance in
estimating probable future costs of pensions, is confirmed by Table XIV in the statistical section found further on in the report.
GRAPHIC PRESENTATION COVERING YEARS 1946-47,
1947-48, AND 1948-49.
In the long-term graph already referred to, a general picture is given of the trends
in the number of old-age pensioners and the cost of pensions. In the column graph
presented opposite, more details are given of activities which, from an administrative
standpoint, are of particular importance, and these are shown for the years noted above.
As, in this column graph, figures for three consecutive years are used, it is possible
to compare not only one month with another, but also one year with another, and to
note the trend shown in a succession of three years. From an analysis of the graph and
a study of the statistical tables shown below, which refer to this particular graph, some
conclusions may be drawn as to the probable trend of future developments.
Activities of the Years 1946 to 1949.
Fiscal Year      Fiscal Year       Fiscal Year
Activities. 1946-47. 1947-48. 1948-49.
Applications received   2,937 5,849 5,983
Applications granted   2,971 4,918 5,996
Applications refused      322 304 411
Pensioners deceased   1,402 1,674 2,226
Pensions suspended       370 268 304
Pensions reinstated       232 328 254
The above table serves to emphasize the difference in the activities of the three
fiscal years. Although the extreme differences between the year 1946-47 and the year
1947-48 must in large part be attributed to changes in the " Old Age Pensions Act"
and regulations, the differences shown between the years 1947-48 and 1948-49 may be
reasonably attributed to influences that are likely to be more or less consistent for some
time to come.
In the year 1948-49, 134 more applications were received than in 1947-48, which
is an increase of over 2 per cent. However, for these two years no valid comparison
may be made between the numbers granted, because it is evident that a considerable
number of applications received toward the latter part of the year 1947-48 were not
granted until some time in the year 1948-49. Usually this would not be an important
factor, but when the number of new applications received in 1947-48 is compared with
the number received in 1946-47, it can be understood that the unusual increase resulted
in some delay in the investigational procedure.
It will be noted that, as the total number of pensioners increased, there was a
related increase in the number of deaths. There was also an increase in the number
of applications refused, and these figures probably bear some statistical relationship
to the total number on pension.    Fluctuations in the number of pensions suspended PROFILE OF ACTIVITIES  FOR THE YEARS
APRIL      MAY      JUNE      JULY       AUG.      SEPT.      OCT.       NOV.      DEC.       JAN.     FEB.        MAR.     APRIL      MAY       JUNE      JULY      AUG.       SEPT.      OCT.      NOV.       DEC.      JAN.       FEB.      MAR.      APRIL      MAY      JUNE      JULY      AUG.      SEPT.      OCT.       NOV.       DEC.       JAN.       FEB.      MAR. REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH. R 55
and in the number of pensions reinstated in these three years are more likely to be
influenced by changes in the Act and regulations of too recent date to have established
statistical significance.
STATISTICS.
OLD-AGE PENSIONS.
Table I.—Disposition of Applications.
Number of new applications received     5,983
Number of new applications granted      5,996*
Number of new applications not granted        411
* Includes some left over from previous year.
Table II.—Miscellaneous.
Number of B.C. pensioners returned to British Columbia  83
Number of new " other Province " pensioners transferred to
British Columbia   588
Number of B.C. pensioners transferred to other Provinces  184
Number of pensioners from other Provinces transferred out
of British Columbia or suspended  378
Number of B.C. reinstatements granted  258
Number of B.C. pensions suspended  304
Number of deaths of B.C. pensioners  1,991
Number of deaths of " other Province " pensioners in British
Columbia   235
Total number of pensioners on pay-roll at end of fiscal year____ 25,633
Table III.—Reasons why Applications not granted.
Number. Per Cent.
Not of pensionable age     79 19.23
Unable to prove age     50 12.14
Not sufficient residence     13 3.16
Unable to prove residence     15 3.65
Income in excess  110 26.77
Property transferred      14 3.41
Receiving war veterans' allowance       1 .25
Transferred to mental institutions       7 1.70
Information refused       9 2.20
Applications withdrawn  113 27.49
Total   411 100.00
Table IV.—Sex of New Pensioners.
Number. Per Cent.
Males   3,386 56.47
Females   2,610 43.53
Total   5,996 100.00 R 56
Married
Single ___
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table V.—Marital Status of New Pensioners.
Number.
  2,609
      721
Widows   1,311
Widowers   802
Separated   509
Divorced   44
Total   5,996
Table VI.—Birthplace of New Pensioners.
Number.
British Columbia       106
Other parts of Canada T  1,419
British Isles   2,611
Other parts of the British Empire        96
United States of America     341
Other foreign countries  1,423
Total   5,996
Table VII.—Ages at Granting of New Pensions.
Number.
Age 70   2,297
Age 71   676
Age 72   592
Age 73   441
Age 74   400
Age 75   311
Age 76 to 80  866
Age 81 to 90  393
Age 91 and up   20
Total   5,996
Table VIII.—Ages of Pensioners at Death.
Number.
Age 70   58
Age 71   108
Age 72   128
Age 73   117
Age 74   159
Age 75   79
Age 76   132
Age 77   133
Age 78   133
Age 79   107
Age 80   125
Age 81   118
Age 82   119
Age 83   112
Age 84   102
Per Cent.
43.51
12.04
21.87
13.37
8.48
.73
100.00
Per Cent.
1.77
23.67
43.56
1.58
5.69
23.73
100.00
Per Cent.
38.30
11.28
9.88
7.36
6.67
5.18
14.45
6.54
.34
100.00
Per Cent.
2.60
4.85
5.76
5.26
7.14
3.55
5.92
5.98
5.98
4.80
5.62
5.30
5.34
5.03
4.59 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH. R  57
Table VIII.—Ages of Pensioners at Death—Continued.
Age 85 ..
Age 86 .
Age 87 .
Age 88 _
Age 89 .
Age 90 .
Over 90
Number.
Per Cent.
93
4.18
70
3.15
67
3.00
80
3.59
37
1.66
47
2.12
102
4.58
Total     2,226 100.00
Table IX.—With whom New Pensioners live.
Number. Per Cent.
Living alone   1,616 26.96
Living with spouse  1,926 32.12
Living with spouse and children      614 10.25
Living with children  1,000 16.67
Living with others      636 10.60
Living in public institutions        99 1.65
Living in private institutions      105 1.75
Total  5,996 100.00
Table X.—Where New Pensioners are living.
,                                                                              Number. Per Cent.
In own house  2,294 38.26
In rented house      828 13.81
In rented suite      377 6.29
Boarding   1,414 23.57
In housekeeping room     333 5.54
In boarding-home      213 3.56
In institution       153 2.56
In single room (eating out)      384 6.41
Total   5,996 100.00
Table XL—Economic Status of New Pensioners.
(a)   Holding real property of value—                             Number. Per Cent.
$0    3,612 60.24
$1 to $250      183 3.05
$251 to $500      386 6.43
$501 to $750      472 7.88
$751 to $1,000      416 6.94
$1,001 to $1,500      454 7.57
$1,501 to $2,000      227 3.78
$2,001 and up     246 4.11
Total   5,996 100.00 R 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table XL—Economic Status of New Pensioners—Continued.
(6)  Holding personal property of value—                    Number. Percent.
$0    2,516 41.96
$1 to $250  1,655 27.60
$251 to $500      669 11.15
$501 to $750      349 5.83
$751 to $1,000      216 3.60
$1,001 and up      591 9.86
100.00
Total
5,996
Table XII.—Number of Pensioners living in other Provinces whose Pensions
were granted by British Columbia and are paid wholly or partially by this
Province.
Number.
Alberta   140
Saskatchewan      54
Manitoba      38
Ontario 	
Quebec 	
New Brunswick
Nova Scotia	
Prince Edward Island-
Northwest Territory ...
134
19
7
9
2
Total  403
Table XIII.—Claims against Estates, Old-age and Blind.
Number of cases of deaths  1,991
Number of cases where claims were made      129
Number of cases where claims were waived or withdrawn in
favour of beneficiaries        85
Number of cases on which collections were made      190
Total amount collected—
Old age  $77,761.65
Blind   267.22
Total  $78,028.87
Table XIV.—Percentage of Pensioners to Population over Ten-year Period.*
1939.
1941.
1943.
1945.
1947.
1948.
1949.
Percentage of pensioners to the total population of the Prov-
1.64
3.59
45.82
1.79
3.60
49.79
1.74
4.85
35.87
1.65
4.94
33.36
1.80
5.08
35.37
2.07
5.31
39.03
2.38
Percentage of all persons over 70 years of age to the total
5.31
Percentage of pensioners to the population over 70 years of
44.86
* Percentages based on population estimated by Dominion Bureau of Statistics. report of the social welfare branch. R 59
Table XV.—Distribution of B.C. Pensioners according to the Amount of
Pensions received (Basic Pension $30).
Pension. Per Cent.
$30  91.15
$25.00 to $29.99     3.20
$20.00 to $24.99     2.09
$15.00 to $19.99     1.57
$10.00 to $14.99     1.08
$9.99 and less     0.91
PENSIONS FOR THE BLIND.
Table I.—Disposition of Applications.
Number of new applications received  127
Number of applications granted  143*
Number of new applications not granted     18
♦Includes some left over from previous year.
Table II.—Miscellaneous.
Number of B.C. pensioners returned to British Columbia
Number of new " other Province " pensioners transferred to
British Columbia  17
Number of B.C. Pensioners transferred to other Provinces  5
Number of pensioners from other Provinces transferred out of
British Columbia or suspended  13
Number of B.C. reinstatements granted  5
Number of deaths of B.C. pensioners  22
Number of deaths of " other Province " pensioners in British
Columbia   2
Total number of pensioners on pay-roll at end of fiscal year  580
Table III.—Reasons why Applications not granted.
Number. Per Cent.
Not blind within meaning of Act       9 50.00
Ineligible on account of residence  	
Income in excess      4 22.23
Property transferred   	
Applications withdrawn        5 27.77
Total     18 100.00
Table IV.—Sex of New Pensioners.
Number. Per Cent.
Males      96 67.14
Females      47 32.86
Total  143 100.00 R 60
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table V.—Marital Status of New Pensioners.
Number. Per Cent.
Married      49 34.27
Single      33 23.07
Widows      19 13.28
Widowers      12 8.39
Separated     26 18.20
Divorced        4 2.79
Total  143 100.00
Table VI.—Birthplace of New Pensioners.
Number. Per Cent.
British Columbia      23 16.09
Other parts of Canada     39 27.27
British Isles      33 23.08
Other parts of the British Empire       3 2.09
United States of America     10 6.99
Other foreign countries     35 24.48
Total  143 100.00
Table VII.—Ages at Granting of New Pensions.
Number.
       3
Age 21 	
Age 22 to 30  12
Age 31 to 40  21
Age 41 to 50  18
Age 51 to 60  31
Age 61 to 70  44
Age 71 to 80  9
Age 80 and up  5
Total
143
Per Cent.
2.09
8.38
14.68
12.65
21.67
30.75
6.28
3.50
100.00
Table VIII.—Ages of Pensioners at Death.
Number. Per Cent.
Age 21   _ 	
Age 22 to 30   	
Age 31 to 40  	
Age 41 to 50  _____ 	
Age 51 to 60       1 5.26
Age 61 to 70       6 31.58
Age 71 to 80     11 57.90
Age 81 and up       1 5.26
Total     19 100.00 report of the social welfare BRANCH. R 61
Table IX.—With whom New Pensioners live.
Number. Per Cent.
Living with parents     11 7.70
Living alone      28 19.52
Living with spouse     26 18.20
Living with spouse and children     16 11.20
Living with children     14 9.80
Living with others     37 25.88
Living in public institutions       5 3.50
Living in private institutions       6 4.20
Total  143 100.00
Table X.—Where New Pensioners are living.
Number. Per Cent.
In own house    27 18.88
In rented house     22 15.38
In rented suite     14 9.79
Boarding      45 31.46
In housekeeping room     11 7.70
In boarding-home        5 3.50
In institution       4 2.80
In single room     15 10.49
Total  143 100.00
Table XI.—Economic Status of New Pensioners.
(a) Holding real property of value—                                Number. Per Cent.
$0  110 76.92
$1 to $250       6 4.20
$251 to $500       4 2.80
$501 to $750       5 3.50
$751 to $1,000       3 2.10
$1,001 to $1,500       9 6.28
$1,501 to $2,000       3 2.10
$2,001 and up       3 2.10
Total  143 100.00
(b)  Holding personal property of value—
$0  96 67.13
$1 to $250  16 11.19
$251 to $500  5 3.50
$501 to $750  9 6.29
$751 to $1,000  6 4.19
$1,001 and up  11 7.70
Total  143 100.00 R 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table XII.—Number of Pensioners living in other Provinces whose Pensions
were granted by british columbia and are paid wholly or partially by this
Province.
Number.
Alberta      4
Saskatchewan 	
Manitoba      1
Ontario      1
Quebec      1
New Brunswick   —
Nova Scotia	
Prince Edward Island	
Northwest Territory 	
Total     7
Table XIII.—Distribution of British Columbia Blind Pensioners according to
the Amount of Pensions received (Basic Pension $30).
Pension. Per Cent.
$30.00   93.82
$25.00 to $29.99  1.37
$20.00 to $24.99  1.72
$15.00 to $19.99  0.34
$10.00 to $14.99  1.38
$9.99 and less  1.37
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR ENDED MARCH 31st, 1949.
Table I.—Pensions.
Total amount paid pensioners  in  British
.-,   ,        , . Supplementary
OOIUmDia                                                                                   Pensions. Allowances.                     Total.
Old-age     $8,569,156.73 $2,686,742.54 $11,255,899.27
Blind          195,770.08 61,604.48        257,374.56
Totals    $8,764,926.81   $2,748,347.02 $11,513,273.83
Less amount of refunds from pensioners
and estates—
From estates of old-age pensioners         $77,761.65                 $77,761.65
From estates of blind pensioners  267.22          267.22
Overpayments refunded by old-age pensioners   6,215.52 $1,054.05 7,269.57
Overpayments refunded by blind pensioners   .88          .88
Miscellaneous refunds from old-age pensioners   548.20 105.00 653.20
Miscellaneous refunds from blind pen
sioners
Totals         $84,793.47 $1,159.05        $85,952.52
J report of the social welfare BRANCH. R 63
Table I.—Pensions—Continued.
Net amount paid to pensioners in British
.-,  .        , . Supplementary
OOlUmDia  Pensions. Allowances. Total.
Old-age     $8,484,631.36   $2,685,583.49 $11,170,214.85
Blind          195,501.98 61,604.48        257,106.46
Totals    $8,680,133.34   $2,747,187.97 $11,427,321.31
Add amount paid other Provinces on
account of pensioners for whom British
Columbia is partly responsible—
Old-age          $45,487.07        $32,324.68        $77,811.75
Blind   521.25 310.00 831.25
Totals         $46,008.32        $32,634.68        $78,643.00
Less amount received by British Columbia
on account of pensioners for whom
other Provinces are partly responsible—
Old-age        $392,279.03      $135,701.78      $527,980.81
Blind   9,280.13 2,368.00 11,648.13
Totals       $401,559.16      $138,069.78      $539,628.94
Less amount refunded by the  Dominion
Government—
Old-age     $6,363,538.43            $6,363,538.43
Blind          146,888.15                 146,888.15
Totals    $6,510,426.58            $6,510,426.58
Total amount of pensions paid by British
Columbia—
Old-age     $1,774,300.97   $2,582,206.39   $4,356,507.36
Blind   39,854.95 59,546.48 99,401.43
Totals    $1,814,155.92   $2,641,752.87   $4,455,908.79
Table II.—Administration Expense.
Salaries and special services  $109,807.39
Office supplies, subscriptions, etc  11,765.93
Postage, telephone, and telegraph  14,247.65
Bank exchange  2,196.80
Travelling expenses  445.94
Incidentals and contingencies  1,952.94
Total  $140,416.65
, R 64
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table III.—Supplementary Allowances.
Gross amount of supplementary allowances paid in
British Columbia  $2,779,822.65
Supplementary allowances refunded by other Provinces       138,069.78
Net supplementary allowances paid by British Columbia $2,641,752.87
CONCLUSION.
In conclusion, the Board welcomes this opportunity to express its appreciation
for the assistance received during the past year from many sources. We wish to thank
the agencies of the Community Chests and Councils of Vancouver and Victoria, clubs
and service groups all over British Columbia who have done so much for our senior
citizens. To this we wish to add our thanks to other branches and divisions of the
public service for their co-operation so fully extended at all times. Finally, we wish in
particular to thank the field service and the staff of our own office for the loyal and
efficient service given by them in spite of the almost continuous pressures under which
they had to work.
J. H. Creighton,
Chairman. REFORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH. R 65
MEDICAL SERVICES DIVISION.
The highlight of the year 1948-49 was the medical-treatment agreement reached
between the Government of the Province of British Columbia and the College of Physicians and Surgeons of the Province of British Columbia.
After due study, which disclosed the variation in the medical arrangements
throughout the Province, discussions were started which culminated in a plan inaugurated March 1st, 1949, and which should prove satisfactory to all concerned.
The Government of the Province pays the College of Physicians and Surgeons an
annual per capita for each registered welfare case to provide a complete medical service
in home, office, and hospital through their registered practising physicians. This is
subject to annual review.
The administration of this fund and the rendering of the service is placed in the
hands of the profession. The amount of money paid depends entirely on the case-load.
The medical association is to keep statistics. These are to be made available to us and
will provide an interesting study. It is hoped that in due time a true factual picture
will be presented covering the medical-service needs in the home, office, and hospital
of the group so covered.
For the first time in the history of the Province, medical services can be rendered
to all types of welfare cases in all their areas on a uniform basis according to its availability. However, this has added to the Division's work in planning and assisting in the
arrangement for services and consultations in areas far distant from the source.
Transportation costs, boarding-home, nursing-home, and overnight hotel costs will
increase.
In the latter part of 1948 the Provincial Government offered to the municipalities,
through its Medical Services Division, assistance and participation in the costs of
diagnosis and treatment of cancer. This included the boarding-home and nursing-home
care required for this purpose. The reception of the offer has generally been quite
good. Our Division is responsible for arranging consultations and making available
boarding-home and nursing-home care and payment for the latter. The payment for
medical services provided by the British Columbia Cancer Institute has been accepted
by the Health Department. Medical services for this condition rendered in home,
office, and hospital are covered by the over-all medical agreement.
At present we are negotiating with the executive of the British Columbia Optometrist Association to make suitable arrangements with them to make their services
available on a uniform basis throughout the Province for our welfare cases. We hope
in the very near future to complete this.
There remain various other needs which will have to be satisfied, such as dental
care, physiotherapy, etc.   These we are hoping to deal with in the coming year.
The question of drugs and medicines is most important. The present system of
handling the problem is somewhat of an heirloom, and it is hoped in the coming year
that a more adequate method of dealing with this will be evolved with the co-operation
of the municipalities. A comparable basis of participation in the costs could well
follow the arrangement between the Government and the municipalities set in the
sharing of costs of the medical services per capita.
A comparison of the costs for the fiscal years 1947-48 and 1948-49 is as follows:—
1947-48. 1948-49.
Medical  .___ $185,613.57 $250,004.18
Drugs      123,913.10 172,554.46
Dental         13,008.82 19,290.90
Hospital           3,602.90 10,317.53
Optical           2,615.64 3,817.73
Transportation          6,319.58 10,484.90
Totals  .  $335,073.61        $466,469.70 R GC
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The above is but a brief description of a few of the highlights of the activities of
the Division. We are constantly working to bring about the maximum of service of
the highest calibre for our welfare cases on a uniform Provincial-wide basis.
J. C. Moscovich, M.D.,
Director. REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL WELFARE  BRANCH.
R 67
INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR BOYS.
In presenting the forty-fifth annual report of the Provincial Industrial School for
Boys, may I say that every facility of the school has been taxed to capacity, with an
average daily population of eighty-six boys. Although, as a school, we are endeavouring to keep abreast of new developments in the treatment and training of our lads, we
are aware that under the present circumstances a certain amount of regimentation
has, of necessity, crept in. We do, however, realize that most delinquent children are in
need of specialized care. Their futures are in jeopardy just as much as those who are
physically ill or handicapped, and while the treatment is vastly different, nevertheless
it is just as important. Success means the return to normal living and good citizenship, while failure may result in a life of crime with all its attendant misery and
expense.
Your attention is respectfully drawn to the statistical records and graphs for an
analysis of our admissions for the year. Graph A shows the admissions annually for
the last twenty years, and it will be noted that 125 boys were committed to our care
during the fiscal year 1948-49, this being thirty-three less than the total committed
GRAPH A.—SHOWING ADMISSIONS OVER TWENTY-YEAR PERIOD
1929-49.
Number of Adm
ih. 165
160
155
150
145
140
135
130
125
/SO
1/5
I/O
105
IOO
95
90
B5
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
IO
5
O
-                                                                                    '^r-
-X
IX
4V
l     t
t X
I     J
12.
'//
A'V-     -h
y& \ l
%y    X t
39                                                                         2                    j     I
-A     3.-                        £            v-t
1\-/X                    4             tt
-A                                      t     V       V               Sr-              t                            X
_l\                      L   *         %   1-   £       ?f                   J
J.    5«             ,              £7       A-   I                £
\L       \             1                            \7
•   ■if              »
4     5/=-'
r-     7          X
t_/
17
jz:
39
during the previous twelve months. Of our admissions, 44 per cent, were under 15
years of age and 56 per cent, were over 15 years, as follows: 1.6 per cent, or two boys
were under 12 years of age; 11.2 per cent, or fourteen boys were between 12 and 13
years of age; 12.8 per cent, or sixteen boys were between 13 and 14 years of age;
18.4 per cent, or twenty three boys were between 14 and 15 years of age;   20.8 per R 68
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
cent or twenty-six boys were between 15 and 16 years of age; 23.2 per cent or twenty-
nine boys were between 16 and 17 years of age; 12 per cent or fifteen boys were over
17 years of age.
Our average daily population was eighty-six boys. Our average monthly admissions were ten and five-twelfths boys, while releases averaged ten and one-half per
month.
Offences against property appear to be the main cause of commitment and responsible for 105 admissions during the year. The average length of the training period
was 241 days, or eight months.
Forty-two Juvenile Courts are represented in our year's intake. These cover most
areas of the Province, but naturally the Lower Mainland provides the greater portion,
as will be observed in the breakdown by social welfare regions. It should be remembered, however, that several boys appear in Juvenile Courts far removed from their
home regions, particularly in the case of older boys who are out working.
Of the total number of admissions, twenty-three or 18.4 per cent, were recidivists.
HEALTH SERVICES.
The health of our inmates is given major consideration, and the detailed report
which follows brings out the fact that the majority of our boys are found to be in need
of medical or dental care upon admission.
The routine tests and examinations as outlined last year were carried out in detail
within the first month of admission to our school, the results of which played an important part in our programme of training.
Two hundred and ninety-two days' hospitalization were required for a variety of
medical and surgical treatment. The following is a summary of cases requiring hospitalization and cases treated in the school infirmary:— CaSK.       Hospital days.
Herniotomy    2 19
Tonsils and adenoids  12 36
Appendectomy      2 16
Mastoidectomy      1 15
Incision and drainage of infected hand     1 10
Osteomyelitis (leg)      1 33
Open reduction of fractured ankle     1 15
Tendon repair      1 4
Fractured leg and application of plaster of paris cast.    1 4
Body cast  ____     1 2
Treatment for mastoid ________    1 5
Catarrhal jaundice  __: :__    4      .   '     51
Tonsillitis ____._:     1 6
Acute sinusitis  _     1 7
Diabetic and epileptic     1 30
Observation     7 39
Totals  38 292
Cases treated in the school are as follows:—■   .
Type. , Cases.
Fractured nose _  1
Fractured leg  :___ :  1
Fractured ankle  1
Fractured arm  1
Fractured foot   1
Minor injuries requiring clips and sutures  12
Venereal warts ,  1
Gonorrhoea! infection   1 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH. R 69
Type. Cases.
Conjunctivitis   t  1
Otitis media  __  5
Sore throat and colds .  9
Furuncles  _  6
Swollen glands ,  1
Bursitis _____ ...  1
.        Infections (fingers, etc.)  6
Ringworm .  38
Influenza  _ .  23
Scabies __,".  2
Basal metabolic rates , ____.-  3
Electroencephalograms  ■_,  3
Dermatitis  3
Juvenile osteochondritis of spine __._  1,
Specialists' services were required for seven cases, four of which were for optical
care, one for mastoidectomy, one nasal examination, and one for a fractured ankle.
One hundred and forty-nine chest X-rays were taken, 146 of which were found to
be negative, one showed a minimal arrested tuberculous lesion, while two gave indication of healed primary tuberculous lesions.
Our dental services are being taken care of by. the* Vancouver General Hospital
Dental Clinic, where we have, three mornings per week reserved for school use. We
cannot speak too highly of the very courteous and efficient treatment given by both
doctors and nurses at the clinic. The figures given will show the amount of work done,
and it is a matter of satisfaction to know that our dental care is up to date, our appointments now being given to new admissions and re-examinations.
One hundred and six boys were given dental care, necessitating 318 appointments,
the figures for the twelve-month period being:—
Type. Number.
Extractions :___.__:  151
Fillings   _  j. „__"_ _:;__ &  734
X-rays .1 : --^--_.____.:_:___.__^_____::__._::_T .'__ 30
Complete dentures __, _________ J*_____:_____.__ __.  1
Partial plates •_  3
SOCIAL WORK DEPARTMENT.
The addition of a second social worker to our staff has permitted considerable
improvement in the case-work services of the school and makes possible the expansion
of activities from intake and release procedures to include participation in programme
planning and intensive interviewing, the latter being an integral part of our treatment
programme.
Discussion with the supervisory staff,, when obtaining detailed information of the
boys' problems and reactions to training features, presents an opportunity to interpret
our particular job and the proper approach to the varied behaviour problems.
Upon admission each boy spends considerable time-with the social worker, who
interprets the school programme, gathers information relative to home and community,
and endeavours to assess his emotional state, interests, and ambitions. It is felt that
with adequate quarters a brief orientation period following a boy's admission would
be most beneficial. It would enable him to become accustomed to his new surroundings, meet the various staff members, and become familiar with the different departments of the school and the general regulations. Material assembled during this
orientation or reception period would provide the basis for planning a treatment
programme based upon individual needs, interest, and ability. R 70                                                              BRITISH COLUMBIA.
An initial report is immediately sent to an agency already familiar with the boy's
case or contact is established with the agency best fitted to provide case-work services
in the home.    In urban centres a Children's Aid Society or juvenile probation service
is requested to accept supervision, while in rural areas a referral  is made to the
appropriate Social Welfare Branch district office.    Close contact is maintained with
the supervising agency through the medium of regular reports  showing the boy's
progress in social adjustment and behaviour, while the agency in the district is interpreting the boy's problems and preparing the home for his return.    Through this
co-operative effort and planning the boy is eventually released from the school, and
the supervising agency continues the process of counselling and guidance until the
boy no longer requires case-work services.
There were 95 boys in the school at the beginning of the fiscal year 1948-49 and
125 boys were admitted during the year, making a case-load of 220 handled during
the year ended March 31st, 1949.
Supervision of the year's  admissions was assumed by  agencies  illustrated  in
Graph B.
GRAPH B.—SHOWING DISTRIBUTION BY AGENCIES.
NUMBER OF CASES.
0      5     10    15    20    25    30    35    40    45
Social Welfare Branch
Family Welfare Bureau
Child Welfare Division
Provincial Probation
Vancouver Juvenile Court
Victoria Juvenile Court
Victoria Children's Aid
Vancouver Children's Aid
Catholic Children's Aid
Department of Indian Affairs
North Vancouver Social
Welfare Department
New Westminster Social
Assistance Department
44
_oys or 35.2%
3 boys or   2.4%
2 boys or   1.6%
10 boys or   8.0%
35 boys or 28.0%
7 boys or   5.6%.
7 boys or   5.6%
6 boys or   4.8%
3 boys or   2.4%
2 boys or   1.6%
2 boys or   1.6%
4 boys or   3.2% REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH. R 71
During the year thirty boys received full examination at the Child Guidance Clinic.
Seventeen of these were boys from the Victoria and Vancouver areas and the balance
from other districts throughout the Province. Fifty-two psychiatric-treatment interviews were given to a group of emotionally disturbed boys, 90 per cent, of whom came
from the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island.
The valuable services of the Child Guidance Clinic are utilized as fully as possible,
but owing to the number of appointments available to us, less than 25 per cent, of our
population was able to benefit therefrom, and due to our limitations in trained staff
and facilities we have not been able to follow through on all the clinic's recommendations for treatment, but this department has been greatly assisted in personal counselling and planning by the staff of the Child Guidance Clinic.
We feel that full psychiatric examination of each boy admitted to the school is
essential in order to determine his needs and to help us plan more adequately for his
training. It is hoped that eventually one day per week may be available to the school,
as our requirements appear to warrant this service.
EDUCATIONAL.
A total of 108 boys attended academic classes during the year, 39 of whom were in
Division I, 54 in Division II, and 15 in Division III. Admissions and releases during
the year interfere considerably with the continuity of the studies and affect the final
term examinations for many boys whose attendance at school has been broken.
Twelve boys, in addition to their school-work, took correspondence courses. One
selected a course in cooking, one diesel engineering, seven mechanical drawing, and
three academic subjects. Thus opportunity is given the boys to improve their education, and special periods are allotted for coaching them in their chosen courses.
Auditory and visual aids continue to play an important part in our educational
programme and do much to stimulate interest in the more routine forms of study.
School radio broadcasts and educational films are weekly events, and also recordings in
musical appreciation. We note that the majority of our pupils require to be introduced
to good music very gradually, and it is difficult at times to secure suitable recordings
from the rental exchanges.
The Industrial Arts Department continues to be very popular, and we have a waiting list of boys who should be attending. It is not possible, however, to provide this
training for all of our boys, owing to the limited capacity of our workshops.
During the year some much-needed equipment has been installed and the programme expanded. The courses now available include electricity, draughting, woodwork, metalwork, and motor mechanics.
It is obvious that boys committed to our care will benefit in proportion to any
increase provided in this department and in further opportunities for occupational
therapy which would fit them for a useful citizenship upon their release. The inadequacy of accommodation handicaps the work of this department and limits the size and
number of classes and the variety of subjects taught.
Our garden and greenhouse, although small, continue to be very vital factors in
our programme, not only for the amount of vegetables and flowers produced, but for
their therapeutic and training value. A variety of vegetables sufficient for the school
for approximately four months and flowers to beautify the grounds are available each
year, the product of a group of boys who plant and care for them from seeding to
harvest time. We find that many of our most disturbed lads can best work in this
department and appear to find satisfaction in close contact with the soil, away from
other activities which irritate them. R 72
BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
RELIGIOUS TRAINING.
Both Catholic and Protestant services are held each Sunday, and opportunity given
during the week for the boys to meet with men representative of these denominations
for discussion and study. Rev. Father J. P. Kane, of Port Coquitlam, the New Westminster branch of the Salavation Army, and the Sapperton Baptist Church have been
very faithful in ministering to our needs. The kindly interest taken by these men and
the fact that they are willing to give time to visit the school so regularly is indeed
encouraging, and we know that many of our boys have been helped and influenced by
their efforts. In expressing our thanks to them, we realize that words are sometimes
poor vehicles of expression, yet we know and share with them the inner satisfaction
that comes through this form of service to our fellow-men.
The records show that most recognized denominations and faiths are represented
in our school population, there being seventy-six of Protestant faith, thirty-five of
Roman Catholic faith, and fourteen others.
RECREATION AND ENTERTAINMENT.
Recreation and entertainment' occupy a large portion of the late afternoon and
evening hours and are quite seasonal in aspect. Regular periods of physical training
and swimming instruction are held twice weekly. Various team and group games which
change- with the seasons are always popular. These consist principally of soccer,
lacrosse, baseball, volleyball, and basketball. Teams representing the school compete
with outside groups, such as Y.M.C.A., church, and school teams. We feel that this
form of competitive sport stimulates the spirit of fair play and good sportsmanship.
Hobby clubs meet regularly during the fall and winter months and provide a
natural outlet for the boys interested in model-making and other spare-time activities.
The. New Westminster Parks Board generously permits groups of our boys to
attend the professional hockey and lacrosse games during the season and other special
features, such as an ice carnival, gymkhana, and circus. These events are a special
privilege for good conduct and are greatly appreciated.
Service clubs and other organizations have brought special features to the school.
The annual Christmas entertainment is the big event. Fifty-five artists from Vancouver and New Westminster combined in providing a 21/o-hour variety programme of
very high calibre, consisting of band numbers, vocal selections, acrobatics, accordion-
band numbers and solos, with a lot of humour intermixed.
To the above could be added many other outstanding events, such as picnics, hikes,
visits to points of interest, and weekly picture shows—all of which helped considerably
in providing an adequate programme of recreation and entertainment.
We would like to emphasize the valuable work of the boys of our school during the
flood crisis in June, 1948. Our regular school programme was laid aside for two weeks
while seventy-five of our boys and staff worked long hours on the dykes at Colony Farm
and Pitt River areas. Even the junior boys volunteered and were able to fill sand-bags.
This was a most worth-while service, and it is gratifying to note that no untoward
incident took place. The daily work parties were purely voluntary, and the boys
appreciated the opportunity of helping out during the emergency and the recognition
given them in the form of a pocket-wallet containing a card expressing thanks by the
Government.   They were happy indeed that their effort received recognition. REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH. R  73
MOVEMENT OF POPULATION, APRIL 1st, 1948, TO MARCH 31st, 1949.
Number in school, April 1st, 1948     95
Number in Oakalla, April 1st, 1948       3
Number on extended leave, April 1st, 1948       3
Number absent without leave, April 1st, 1948       7
Number of new admissions during year_  102
Number of readmissions during year     23
  233
Number released during year  126
Number in Oakalla, March 31st, 1949       1
Number on extended leave, March 31st, 1949      3
Number absent without leave, March 31st, 1949     14
  144
Number in school, March 31st, 1949     89
STATISTICAL INFORMATION FOR YEAR 1948-49.
Charges resulting in Commitment.
Offences against property  105
Offences against persons       6
Other offences     14
Total  1  125
Number of Apprehensions, by Regions.
Region 1   28
Region 2   64
. Region 3   18
Region 4   8
Region 5   7
Total   125
Ages of Boys.
11 years  2
12 years   14
13 years  16
14 years  23
15 years  26
16 years   29
17 years  15
Total   125
Parental Relationships.
Number of boys from normal homes     60
Number of boys from broken homes     65
Total   125 R  74 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
EXPENDITURE AND PER CAPITA COST.
Salaries   $66,791.16
Less—
Rent collected     $591.88
Board collected  1,969.28
Amount received from W.C.B      626.89
       3,188.05
$63,603.11
Office and school supplies  $1,212.56
Travelling and transportation  9,431.94
Shoes and clothing  4,889.51
Janitor's supplies and maintenance of grounds  2,204.01
Light, fuel, water  4,694.79
Furnishings, equipment   2,268.77
Provisions   25,770.40
Medical, surgical, dental   5,488.30
Laundry  2,185.26
Vocational and recreational supplies  1,243.52
Incidentals and contingencies   837.85
$60,226.91
Less—•
Maintenance paid for inmates  $730.25
Unemployment insurance deductions       30.26
Miscellaneous receipts      44.25
 • 804.76
59,422.15
$123,025.26
Public Works expenditure          6,152.95
$129,178.21
Decrease in value of stock  426.43
$129,604.64
Cost-of-living bonus   $11,707.63
Public Works cost-of-living bonus  384.00
       12,091.63
$141,696.27
Reconciliation with Public Accounts.
Expenditure as per Public Accounts  $134,732.89
Add Public Works expenditure        6,536.95
$141,269.84
Add decrease in inventory  426.43
Expenditure as per above statement  $141,696.27
Per Capita Cost.
General operating expense   $4.13
Cost-of-living bonus       .38
Total per capita cost  $4.51 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH. R  75
CONCLUSION.
In conclusion, we must say that the year 1948-49 has been most active. Although
there were fewer admissions than during the previous year, the average daily population was higher and our programme appears to have reached the maximum possible
within the present confines of the school. The buildings are being used to a capacity
far beyond normal housing and to the place where there is no available desk-space for
necessary stenographic help and some senior officials. With the development of the
Mental Hospital and the Home for the Aged, our buildings and grounds have gradually
become surrounded. It is becoming more obvious that many of our boys require
custodial care and training in an area providing maximum security. This condition
is accentuated by the increasing number of A.W.O.L.'s, who, upon return, must of
necessity be placed in the open dormitory from which they ran away. Unfortunately,
many of them are responsible for additional delinquencies while A.W.O.L. It is hoped
that the work on the proposed new school may soon be given the right-of-way.
There are so many to whom we should express our thanks and appreciation for
services rendered, but space does not permit enumeration. Sufficient to say, to all
who have given of their time and talent in helping us to help those committed to our
care, our grateful thanks.
George Ross,
Superintendent. R 76
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS.
I respectfully submit the thirty-fifth annual report of the Girls' Industrial School,
for the period from April 1st, 1948, to March 31st, 1949. A change of administration
early in the year necessitated a number of adjustments among staff and girls. These
changes were gradual, and have been satisfactory in most instances. The Superintendent's own adjustment to a new position has been made easier by the generous
interest, assistance, and support of department heads, agencies, Children's Aids, and
all other organizations. This has been deeply appreciated, and to them all she extends
her thanks.
Of the thirty-three admissions, six were recidivists, and of these, two were on
third commitments. Ages ranged from 12 years to 17y2 years, with the largest percentage in the 16-year group.
Health is always of paramount importance, and upon admission of girls this is
given first consideration. The programme found successful last year has been continued with regard to dental and optical care, as well as medical attention. Thirty-
nine days' hospitalization were required by eleven girls. This included eight tonsillectomies, one maternity case, and one venereal disease treatment. In addition to this,
two girls spent several periods in hospital for observation purposes, which resulted in
their transfers to Provincial Mental Hospital.
We greatly appreciate the assistance provided by the Child Guidance Clinic. It
has been interesting to note that a good many of our new admissions have been
examined at the Child Guidance Clinic previously. If this has been shortly before
coming to the school, a girl's attendance at the clinic is delayed for some time.
Otherwise, we plan for a visit as soon after admission as it is possible to obtain
a complete social history and to prepare a progress report. A second visit before
release, stressing aptitudes, is arranged.
With our increased population it has been possible to provide each department
with adequate training groups to develop a good standard of household maintenance,
at the same time allowing the girls time for specialized training where they desire it.
Several girls have shown an aptitude for sewing and have become a credit to the
interest and teaching of our sewing-room supervisor. All wearing-apparel used by the
girls during their stay in the institution is provided by them, as well as table linen, bed
linen, curtains, and the maintenance of these.
As our over-all enrolment increased, so did our academic classes. The following
table shows movements of school pupils:—
On roll April 1st, 1948     7
Enrolled in Government Correspondence Courses during term _ 14
Attending, but not enrolled     4
— 25
Released from school classes during year  11
In class March 31st, 1949  14
Of those enrolled in Government Correspondence classes, six were receiving instruction in high school grades and the remainder in Grades VI, VII, and VIII. The Government Correspondence Courses are of the greatest assistance to us, for they make it
possible for each new girl to pick up her work at any place in the term and to progress
at her own speed. The classroom teacher assists each individual pupil to gain the
greatest possible return from her class time. Girls not enrolled are instructed according to the British Columbia schools' curriculum. This year there were two girls in
Grade V and one each in Grades III and VI.
The regular training in various household departments was carried on as previously.    In this small institution we have few facilities for practical vocational train- REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH. R 77
ing owing to lack of expensive equipment or instructors. The field of trades rather
than academic or professional is the one toward which most of the girls will gravitate
if properly trained. A glance at the school grades will show that few are in a position
to enter schools of training in which academic standards are too high. We have much
good material that could be diverted into such useful channels as factory-workers,
ward maids, kitchen and tray girls in hospitals, and domestics. The last named is
not the best type of employment for our girls, for the work is necessarily lonely, and
the change from group participation to such work is not usually successful. During
this year we have used a leave-of-absence plan, whereby it has been possible for a girl
to take work or training outside the school previous to release. This provides an
opportunity for a girl to try her wings while still unreleased. She may live at the
institution, going to and from her work each day. In some cases the work has been
an in-residence type, where she is under the supervision of her worker and the school.
Should she find that the work is unsuitable or that she is not ready for the responsibility, the girl may always return to the school for further preparation and later
placement. The money she earns provides an extra security for the day when she
will be released to whatever placement is provided.
All girls receive instruction in various forms of handicrafts, and many show
a decided flair for manual work. The sale of finished work builds up a fund for the
purchase of handiwork materials and sports equipment.
Our earnest thanks are extended to the various religious workers. Our Sunday
services have been conducted by the faithful groups from the Salvation Army; John
Howard Society; Anglican, United, and Roman Catholic Churches; and the Women's
Christian Temperance Union. Instruction classes during the week have also been
provided by the Roman Catholic clergy and lay workers. Groups of all denominations
attend the neighbourhood church of their choice on Sundays.
The Women's Musical Club, Women's Philharmonic Orchestra, and Lions Club
Orchestra were generous as always in providing us with pleasurable concerts during
the winter months. Several groups of teen-age girls sponsored by members of the
above organizations arranged parties with our girls. A great deal of enjoyment and
some worth-while friendships have developed from these gatherings.
Our radio, records, weekly movie, baseball, badminton, picnics, swimming at
Windermere Pool, folk-dancing, sports days, and celebration of various holidays have
rounded out our programme. A delightful treat was presented in the form of sufficient
tickets for all of the girls to attend the ice circus at the Vancouver Skating Club. All
the girls went to the Pacific National Exhibition, and much of interest and pleasure
resulted from this visit.
We always have a number of Indian girls in the school. These present special
problems in training and placement. Too often these girls remain in this institution
long after reaching saturation point because no suitable plan for after-care or placement can be arranged. Most of them reach us in a state of poor health, retarded in
school, and socially unacceptable from the standpoint of hygiene, mental and physical.
Nearly all are pleasant children, appreciative of efforts made for them and eager to
accept a different pattern of daily living. We believe they should learn to be proud
of their blood heritage. For a time during the winter months a class in totem-pole
carving and design, as well as other forms of Indian art and culture, was presented to
our Indian girls. The teacher of this group was herself an Indian, and understood
her pupils, who showed a wonderful ability and talent for colour and design. Nearly
all are excellent needleworkers and enjoy all forms of handicraft. The work with these
children presents a terrific challenge.
We have been more than gratified by the increased active interest in individual
cases displayed by various social workers of the Children's Aid Societies, the field
staff, and Probation Officers of the Juvenile Court.    Their assistance in planning and R 78
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
placement has been a constructive support in rounding out a happy and, we hope,
progressive year. In conclusion, we look forward to continued co-operation of all those
whose assistance in the past year we gratefully acknowledge.
POPULATION OF SCHOOL, MARCH 31st, 1949.
On roll, April 1st, 1948  14
Girls admitted during year April 1st, 1948, to March 31st, 1949..__ 33
47
Released on parole  15
Transferred to other institutions     2
Transferred out of British Columbia     3
— 20
Total in school, March 31st, 1949  27
LIST OF GIRLS ADMITTED FROM APRIL 1ST, 1948, TO MARCH 31ST, 1949.
No.
Place of Birth.
Parentage.
Residence; previous
to Admission
to School.
British
Columbia.
Canada.
I
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
Vancouver, B.C	
Vancouver, B.C	
Vancouver, B.C	
Kincolith, B.C	
Cranbrook, B.C	
Valdes Island, B.C	
Vancouver, B.C	
Winnipeg, Man	
Mission, B.C	
Vernon, B.C	
North Vancouver, B.C	
McLennan, Alta	
Victoria, B.C	
High Prairie, Alta	
Meadow Lake, Sask	
England	
West Saanich Reserve, B.C
Vancouver, B.C	
Cranbrook, B.C	
Vernon, B.C	
Trail, B.C	
Saskatoon, Sask	
Arcadia, Sask.	
White Bear, Sask	
Estevan, Sask	
Vancouver, B.C	
Roblin, Man	
Benito, Sask	
Vancouver, B.C	
Vancouver, B.C	
Vancouver, B.C	
Victoria, B.C	
Calgary, Alta	
Scottish	
English-Scottish	
Swedish	
Indian	
Russian-English	
Indian	
Scottish-English	
Irish-English	
Indian	
Ukrainian	
English	
French-Half breed..
English-Irish	
Indian	
Scottish	
English	
Indian	
Irish	
Italian-English	
Ukrainian	
English-American..
English-Irish	
Indian	
Irish-German	
French	
English-Irish	
French	
Russian	
English	
Scottish	
German-Canadian..
Irish-English	
French-English	
Years.
16
14
17
14
14
13
15
15
14
15
13
1
3 mos.
17
16
14
14
17
4
1 mo.
4
4
14
2 mos.
7
16
15
15
17
2
Years.
16
14
17
14
14
13
15
15
14
15
13
15
9
16
15
3 mos.
17
16
14
14
17
12
16
15
16
14
16
17
16
16
15
17
15 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH. R 79
PLACES OF APPREHENSION.
Region 1     4 Region 4     4
Region 2  19 Region 5     4
Region 3      2 —
Total   33
OFFENCES COMMITTED.
Incorrigibility   17 Vagrancy     2
Theft      4 Assault      1
Intoxication      4 ■—■
Sexual delinquency      5 Total   33
LENGTH OF SENTENCE.
Sec.   20,   Juvenile   Delin- Three months     1
quents Act, 1929  15 Indeterminate  11
Industrial School for Girls                    Indeterminate not exceed-
Act     2 ing two years     1
Sec.   16,   Juvenile   Delin- —
quents Act, 1908     2 Total   33
Sec.   2g,   Juvenile   Delinquents Act, 1929     1
RELIGIOUS STATISTICS.
Church of England  15 Pentecostal      1
Roman Catholic  12 Baptist     1
Presbyterian      1 Unknown      2
United Church     1 —
Total   33
GIRLS AND THEIR PARENTS.
Normal homes  12
Broken homes   20
Adoptive home     1
Total   33 R 80
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
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3 EXPENSES AND REVENUE STATEMENT OF SCHOOL, MARCH 31st, 1949.
Total inmate-days from April 1st, 1948, to March 31st, 1949  6,920
Per capita cost, one year     $2,257.74
Per capita cost, one day        $6.1856
Operating expenditure by voucher—
Salaries   $22,850.36
Cost-of-living bonus       3,691.91
Office and school supplies, etc.—
Postage, office and school supplies  $180.26
Telephone and telegraph     149.65
  329.91
Travelling expenses  536.66
Farm operations   328.40
Furnishings, equipment, etc  684.13
Clothing—
Clothing   $886.21
Boots and shoes  312.92
1,199.13
Janitor's supplies  579.85
Fuel, light, and water—
Fuel    $2,945.81
Water        297.00
Light and power        664.92
       3,907.73
Provisions—■
Groceries   $3,894.35
Meat      1,327.06
Fish         173.72
Medical attendance, medical supplies, and dental cost—
Medical attendance   $526.00
Medical supplies       133.74
Surgery   78.00
Dental cost  242.50
Eyes examined and glasses provided  17.25
5,395.13
997.49
Good Conduct Fund  .        167.38
Incidentals and contingencies .  626.64
Total expenditure for year by voucher  $41,294.72
Maintenance and repairs (expended through Public Works Department) —
Salaries  1  $2,280.00
Cost-of-living bonus  _        384.00
Repairs        2,039.50
4,703.50
Inventory, March 31st, 1948       1,059.23
Less board  $1,738.76
Less rent         472.50
Less credit for sale of garden produce     -    19.05
Less inventory, March 31st, 1949     2,023.02
$47,057.45
Reconciliat.on.
4,253.33
$42,804.12
Total expenditure as per Public Accounts  $39,064.41
Add Public Works expenditure       4,703.50
$43,767.91
Add inventory as at March 31st, 1948       1,059.23
$44,827.14
Less inventory as at March 31st, 1949       2,023.02
Expenditure (as above) ,___ $42,804.12
Ayra Peck, Superintendent.
81 	 R 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
PROVINCIAL HOME, KAMLOOPS.
I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the Provincial Home, Kamloops, for
the fiscal year 1948-49.
During the year special emphasis was placed on the physical aspects of the Home,
as there was particular need for certain alterations and renewals. The sick ward,
which was dingy and inconvenient, was altered and redecorated. New Gatch beds and
bedside tables with other necessary equipment were provided. A new dispensary and
examination-room were built and furnished with standard equipment, and the bathrooms enlarged and improved. In the Home proper, ramps were built to eliminate steps,
furniture purchased for the music-room, and fire-doors built. The exterior of the Home
was completely painted, and new lighting was installed in the hallways and entrance.
These improvements will, we feel, be beneficial both to residents and staff.
ENTERTAINMENT.
Although we have an excellent library, it is not very popular with our residents.
They seem to much prefer illustrated periodicals. There are various games available,
as well as playing-cards.   Moving pictures are shown once a week.
During the year several organizations have come to the Home to provide entertainment for the residents—a service which has been greatly appreciated. Among these
have been the local junior high school band and choir, the band of H.M.C.S. " Naden,"
the Shriners' band, St. Ann's Convent girls, the Indian boys' school, and the Elks
concert party.
MEDICAL SERVICES.
We have established a new medical arrangement with the Irving Clinic, whereby
one of their doctors has taken over our medical work. He visits the Home once a week
and is on call whenever needed.   This plan has proved most satisfactory.
FARM.
Our farm supplies the needs of the Home with necessary fresh vegetables, certain
fruits, and eggs. It also affords an outlet for a few of the more physically fit inmates
who enjoy farm-work.
POPULATION OF HOME ACCORDING TO AGE, AS AT
MARCH 31ST, 1949.
55 to 60 years  ._ 3      86 to 90 years  12
61 to 65 years  5      91 to 95 years   5
66 to 70 years  13      96 to 100 years   1
71 to 75 years  27 	
76 to 80 years  42 Total  143
81 to 85 years  35 FINANCIAL REPORT.
Expenditure for the Fiscal Year ended March 31st, 1949.
Salaries   $51,000.20
Less—
D.V.A. refund        $10.00
Overpayment  . 12.75
Overpayment  .  45.00
W.C.B. refund  .        126.39
  194.14
     $50,806.06
Cost-of-living bonus          9,607.66
Expenses—
Office supplies, etc        $712.84
Less unemployment insurance         122.15
590.69
Fuel, water, light, etc  $16,995.85
Less—•
Charge to Provincial Police  $1,767.48
Charge to Public Works     2,308.98
       4,076.46
       12,919.39
Janitor's supplies and maintenance         1,236.83
Furnishings, equipment, etc     $2,989.76
Less Hulbert Bequest Account  176.72
2,813.04
Provisions, etc.   $26,444.31
Less—
Tobacco sales      $391.12
Sale of vegetables  84.13
475.25
 25,969.06
Clothing, etc.          2,034.93
Medical and surgical supplies        3,510.60
Transportation of inmates        $595.00
Less overcharge   .4g
594.52
Feed for live stock  990.40
Laundry       $2,165.71
Less return of empty drums .__ 13.75
2,151.96
Burials          1,020.00
Incidentals and contingencies  $10,135.30
Less—•
Comfort money to pensioners  $6,008.48
Comfort money to non-pensioners     1,239.00
Films         150.00
Ingram & Bell        191.02
Arrow Transfer         10.50
Rent for pasture land         12.00
Exhibition prize          25.00
Sundry municipalities         728.01
       8,364.01
         1,771.29
$116,016.43
Less rent, $705, and board, $1,993.34        2,698.34
Total expenditure   $113,318.09
83 r 84 british columbia.
Inmate-days.
Inmates in Home, April 1st, 1948  145
Inmates admitted during the year     67
  212
Inmates discharged     45
Inmates died    27
    72
Total number of inmates, March 31st, 1949  140
Total number of inmate-days  52,085
Expenditures by Department of Public Works, Maintenance
and Repairs.
Salaries      $8,915.00
Cost-of-1 iving bonus      1,501.07
Repairs       7,206.65
Grounds           134.80
Total  $17,757.52
Summary.
Total Provincial Home expenditure  $113,318.09
Public Works expenditure       17,757.52
Total expenditure   $131,075.61
Total cost per capita:  $131,075.61-=-52,085=$2.5166.
Moneys paid to Government Agent, Kamloops.
Pensions     $50,802.03
Maintenance collections          825.91
Total  $51,627.94
Reconciliation.
Net expenditure as per Public Accounts  $64,816.01
Add maintenance receipts  54,510.56
$119,326.57
Add Public Works expenditure       17,757.52
$137,084.09
Less Pensioners' comforts        6,008.48
Total expenditure (as above)  $131,075.61
CONCLUSION.
In conclusion, the Superintendent would like to express his appreciation of the
help given him by senior officials of the Department and also to thank the staff of the
Provincial Home for their whole-hearted co-operation during the year.
J. M. Shilland,
Superintendent. REPORT of the social welfare BRANCH. R 85
WELFARE INSTITUTIONS BOARD.*
I herewith submit the annual report of the " Welfare Institutions Licensing Act."
In 1948 the total number of applications and inquiries dealt with under the
" Welfare Institutions Licensing Act" was 572. This was an increase of 73 over the
previous year. There were 303 licences issued, of which 222 were renewals and 81 were
new licences. The number of licensed institutions which closed during the year was
38, leaving 265 licensed institutions at the end of the year.
The " Welfare Institutions Licensing Act" aims to protect, through licensing, the
following dependent groups:—
(a)  Children under 15 years of age who are in private boarding-homes or
institutions.
(6) Pregnant women living apart from their husbands (if any).
(c)  The aged and handicapped adults in receipt of social assistance of some
form  and who  are  being  cared  for  in  a  private  boarding-home  or
institution,
(c.)  The unemployed, living in a home or hostel, which accommodates fifteen
or more persons.
(e)   Children placed for day care in foster homes, kindergartens, play schools,,
or other similar centres.
Formal application for licence to operate a welfare institution is made to the Chief
Inspector, and all applications must be approved by the Welfare Institutions Board
before a licence can be issued.   The fee for licence is $1.   Buildings used as welfare
institutions must meet the standards of building, zoning, fire, health, sanitation, and
electrical wiring pertaining to the area in which it is located.    Welfare institutions
are open to inspection at all times.
WELFARE INSTITUTIONS—CHILDREN.
A. Full-time Care of Children.
There are two types of welfare institutions licensed to give full-time care to
children, namely:—
(1) Children's institutions which are under the auspices of a private organization or society and administered by a board of management and cares
for a large number of children.
(2) The private family home where a maximum of five children are given care.
Institutions for Child-care.
Care and training of children in institutions in this Province show steady improvement. Better-trained personnel are being employed, who are turning to social agencies
in the community for guidance in dealing with the needs of the children. Boards of
management are becoming aware that the social and emotional needs of the children
must be considered, as well as their physical care.
Many of our institutions are making themselves part of the community by sending
the children to the local school and churches and to various clubs and community
activities.
Some of our institutions give a special kind of service to children, and one of these
is St. Christopher's School. This institution is for the training of sub-normal boys,
who are taught elementary-school work and also to do routine jobs. Admission to the
school is through the Provincial Psychiatric Clinic, and individual attention can be
given each boy by keeping the number small. Two institutions, which are in reality
children's boarding-homes, were established so that children in outlying areas could
* During the year reported upon in this report this Division has been under the supervision of the Provincial
Secretary's Depai tment. R  86 ■'•-■' BRITISH COLUMBIA.
get proper schooling.    The children live at the institution, attend the district school,
and return to their homes at the end of the school-year.
The individual needs of children in our institutions are being recognized, and
children are given an opportunity to develop their talents. Many are encouraged to
study music, others dancing, and need for hobbies is stressed.
While boards of management are more understanding, and staffs better trained,
there is still advancement to be made in intake standards, case-work services, and
follow-up procedures. This could more readily be attained if a case-worker was a staff
member of all institutions.
Number of institutions licensed in 1948  11
Number of children cared for  683
Number of days' care  130,289
Private Boarding-homes.
(As distinct from a home approved as a foster home by the Child Welfare Division,
Social Welfare Branch.)
The standard of care of private boarding-homes for children continues to improve,
and the situation, as far as these homes are concerned, is now fairly well controlled.
The chief reasons for the placement of children in these homes are broken homes,
illegitimate births, inadequate housing, and illness of a parent.
Much of the success in improving the standard of care given in these boarding-
homes is due to the close working relationship between Children's Aid Societies, public
health nurses, other welfare agencies, and the licensing authority.
There are many good private boarding-homes in our country districts. Homes in
rural areas seem to be preferred by parents seeking placement of their children.
It is essential that private boarding-homes for children be closely supervised at
all times.
Number of children's boarding-homes licensed in 1948  66
Number of children cared for        342
Total days' care  50,178
B. Day Care for Children.
Welfare institutions licensed for day care usually confine their activities to the
care and training of pre-school children. Projects are licensed for three different
kinds of day care.
(a) Foster Homes for Day Care.
In Vancouver, day care for children of working mothers is a service provided by
the Vancouver Foster Day Care Association. Children are cared for in private homes
in small groups of four or five by a kindly foster-mother. All homes used are licensed
under the " Welfare Institutions Licensing Act" and are closely supervised by the
Foster Day Care Association. Mothers using this service are required to register with
the agency and are responsible for taking the child to and from the foster home. Cost
of care is at a minimum, and mothers not able to pay the full amount are helped out
financially by the association.
Number of foster homes licensed  8
Number of children cared for        190
Total days' care  15,072
(b) Kindergartens, Play Schools, and Nursery Schools.
Interest in all projects training pre-school children still continues, and standards
in programmes and personnel have greatly improved since licensing. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH. R 87
Through the co-operation of the Department of Education and the Extension
Department of the University of British Columbia, many courses are now available for
persons interested in this work and also for parents. Literature and other valuable
information on pre-school education can be obtained from the Extension Department
and the twelve bulletins on " Co-operative Play Groups for Children Under Six " are
highly recommended.
Many excellent centres for pre-school children are being operated by churches,
community associations, neighbourhood groups, and private persons. Most of these
centres have child-study groups in which all mothers whose children are attending are
expected to participate.
The services of the public health nurse in the district are available to all pre-school
centres.
Number of pre-school centres licensed in 1948         102
Number of children registered       5,071
Number of days' care given  375,193
(c) Child-care Centres.
One child-care centre was open for a few months during the year. The centre was
located in Alexandra Neighbourhood House and provided care for children, at a very
small charge, for one afternoon each week. So few mothers availed themselves of this
service that the centre was closed.
Number of centres licensed : : :.____________ 1
Number of children cared fori       48
Total number of days'care :  7,680      i < !',
MATERNITY HOMES.   . "
There are three licensed maternity homes in British Columbia. There is the May-
wood Home, Vancouver, operated by the Salvation Army; the United Church Home,
located in Burnaby, which is under the auspices of the United Church of Canada;
and Our Lady of Mercy Home, in Vancouver, which is run by a Roman Catholic
sisterhood.
These homes are for the care of unmarried mothers, and arrangements are made
for adequate prenatal and medical care. There is a close working relationship between
these homes and the Children's Aid Societies and other welfare agencies. Case-work
services are available to the mother through these agencies, which help her plan for her
own and her child's future.
Total accommodation of these three homes is fifty-five mothers and fifty-one babies.
Number of homes licensed in 1948 __!__  3
Number of mothers Cared for ;       284
Number of infants cared for '_ _■    '   265
Total days' care .__  32 856
AGED-CARE.
Care of our aging population is a problem which affects us all. Recognizing that
our older people needed care and protection, our Provincial Government passed the
"Welfare Institutions Licensing Act." This Act provides for the licensing of all
homes wherein two or more aging people, in receipt of some form of social assistance
such as old-age pension, are given care. Homes so licensed must meet the required
standards and-are open for inspection at all times. There are several fine licensed
homes for our senior citizens throughout British Columbia.
In making plans for the care of our senior citizens, the fact that they wish to
remain near relatives and friends and-among familiar surroundings is an important R 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
factor which must be considered.    Realizing this,  many municipalities,  as well as
religious and other groups, have opened homes for their older people.
Success of these homes is due to the fact that there are few, if any, rules or
regulations.
The Scandinavian peoples—Danish, Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish—are to be
commended for establishing very fine homes for their older citizens.
There are also many excellent homes for old people which are privately operated.
Many of these homes have very active women's auxiliaries who look after the
recreational and occupational needs of the old people. Concerts, movies, trips, transportation, material for handwork, and other comforts are provided by these auxiliaries.
In recent years the Provincial Government has encouraged the establishment of
homes for older people. Where the ownership is municipal or official, it has generously
contributed toward the cost of construction of the home.
Number of homes licensed during 1948  68
Number of persons cared for       1,823
Total days' care  365,130
UNEMPLOYED ADULTS.
There are four homes licensed for this type of care, all being for girls and women.
These homes are for girls who have come to the city looking for work. The Sisters of
Service Residential Club, located in Vancouver, has established a home for twenty-two
girls of Roman Catholic faith. Bethel Home, located also in Vancouver, is licensed for
fifteen girls and is always filled to capacity. The home is sponsored by the Mennonite
Church of British Columbia and is open to girls of that faith. Rainbow House in Victoria gives a home to approximately fifteen girls, and in Prince Rupert the Salvation
Army has opened a home for fifteen native (Indian) girls who go to Prince Rupert to
work and who find it difficult to find suitable living-quarters.
These homes are giving a valuable service to the communities in which they are
located by providing a comfortable home for the girls, along with protection, companionship, and good wholesome entertainment.
Number of homes licensed in 1948  4
Number of girls cared for  434
Total days' care  111,561
SUMMER CAMPS.
" The rocks, the rills and templed hills, the healing fragrance of the woods; the
beauties of lake and coastline; the open air; the clean blue sky; these belong to all
people, and the right to enjoy them is the heritage of every child."
Camping has developed principally around the belief that in the pleasant and
invigorating environment of the outdoors the most favourable conditions can be created
to provide for the sound development of youth.
There are many fine camps in this Province operated by churches and other organizations which provide each summer a happy, healthy holiday for hundreds of our
growing children. Many underprivileged children are given a camping holiday at
these camps through the generosity of our service clubs.
There were twenty-six camps licensed in 1948, and conditions were found to be
reasonably good.
The Provincial Health Department and the British Columbia Camping Association
are co-operating to improve camping standards. The purposes of the Camping Association are to bring together all persons interested in camping to become acquainted, to
interchange ideas, to raise standards, to train counsellors and leaders, and to promote
camping in all its various aspects.
It is interesting to watch the development of the camping programme in this
Province. REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH.
R 89
GENERAL.
The work of the " Welfare Institutions Licensing Act " still continues to increase,
and many difficult situations arise concerning licensing. A few people still have an
aversion toward licensing, which they consider as Government interference and an
infringement on their personal liberty. Many visits and interviews, along with much
patience and understanding, are necessary to keep persons from opening unsuitable
welfare institutions, and also to keep and maintain proper standards.
Because of recent amendments to the " Welfare Institutions Licensing Act," and
also because of the increase in the number of applications for licenses received, there
is an urgent need for broader and more complete regulations, and these are already
under study.
Chart 1 shows the development of the work during the last ten years.
Chart 1.—Showing a Comparison of the Gross Case-load, the Number of Premises
that are licensed, and the new applications received under the " welfare
Institutions Licensing Act " in the Ten-year Period 1938-48.
600
500
400
300
^
200
90
80
70
60
40
20
10
Gross case-load.
Licences granted.
New applications. R 90
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The gross case-load and the applications under the " Welfare Institutions Licensing
Act" were the same the year the Act began to operate. For the next two years the
new applications dropped and then began to rise, and have kept a steady rise ever since.
The sudden increase in 1943 and 1944 was due to the amendments to the Act, which
brought about the licensing of kindergartens, day-schools, and play-schools. You will
note the parallel pattern that is being followed for the past three years between the
three units shown.
Table I.—Showing a Comparative Summary of Information regarding Premises
licensed under the " Welfare Institutions Licensing Act."
1945.
1946.
1947.
1948.
Children—Total Care (excluding Summer Camps)
Number licensed—
Institutions	
Boarding-homes	
Capacity	
Number of children under care	
Number of days' care	
Number of premises located—
In Vancouver	
In rest of Province	
Women—Pregnant.
Number licensed	
Capacity	
Number of persons under care	
Number of days' care	
Number of premises located—
In Vancouver	
In rest of Province	
Adults—Unemployable and Infirm.
Number licensed T.	
Capacity	
Number of persons under care	
Number of days' care.	
Number of premises located—
In Vancouver	
In rest of Province	
Adults—Employable.
Number licensed	
Capacity	
Number of persons under care	
Number of days' care	
Number of premises located—
In Vancouver	
In rest of Province	
Children—Day Care.
Number licensed	
Capacity _	
Number of children enrolled	
Number of attendance-days	
Number of premises located—
In Vancouver	
In rest of Province	
51
579
758
145,360
27
32
4
123
579
32,109
49
873
1,266
246,678
26
23
1
19
119
7,305
71
2,022
4,112
293,435
50
21
10
49
659
874
151,956
24
35
4
127
720
1,279
2
2
53
984
1,415
288,396
27
26
3
43
299
14,846
2
1
81
2,210
4,531
314,447
54
27
11
51
690
970
162,915
21
41
102
533
33,591
64
1,077
1,667
336,977
29
35
4
58
377
20,051
2
2
90
2,485
4,674
326,541
55
35
11
66
748
1,025
180,467
25
52
3
106
32,856
68
1,206
1,823
365,130
34
34
4
58
434
11,561
2
2
111
3,026
5,309
397,945
68
43 report of the social welfare branch. r 91
Table II.—Case-load, showing the Total Number of Separate
Licences, Applications, and Inquiries, 1948.
Section A.
Brought forward from 1947—
(a)  Licensed premises   222
(&)  Applications and inquiries      98
Total case-load on January 1st, 1948  320
Section B.
Applications received during 1948  252
Gross case-load, 1948   572
Section C.
Closed during 1948—
(a) Licensed       38
(b) Inquiries   175
Total subtractions   213
Section D.
Carried forward into 1949—
(a) Licensed premises—■
(1) Children—total care   88
(2) Women—pregnant   3
(3) Adults—unemployable and infirm  64
(4) Adults—employable   4
(5) Children—day care   99
Composite licence under (1) and (3)  7
265
(&)  Applications and inquiries      94
Total case-load carried into 1949  359
OFFICERS.
The following are the officers of the Welfare Institutions Board for 1948:—
Chairman:  Mrs. Edith Pringle, R.N.
Members:   Miss Amy Edwards, Old-age Pension Board;   Miss Ruby McKay,
Superintendent of Child Welfare;   Mr. J. A. Sadler, Regional Administrator;   Dr. J. F. Cork, Consultant, Hospital Services Division.
Chief Inspector:   Mrs. Edith Pringle, R.N.
Deputy Inspector:   Mrs. Edna L. Page, B.A.
Statistician:  Miss A. E. Scott, B.A.
(Mrs.) M. Edith Pringle, R.N.,
Chief Inspector of Welfare Institutions. R 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
DIVISION OF TUBERCULOSIS CONTROL.
During the year ended March 31st, 1949, there have been no major changes of
policy in this Division. However, there have been some interesting developments
which have made and will make the work of the social service department much more
effective.
The most important of these was a new plan for dealing with the problems presented by patients who are alcoholics, or drug addicts, or who are generally uncooperative, or who sign themselves out of hospital. Always in the past there has been a
certain amount of confusion and misunderstanding as to how these cases should best be
handled. Early in the year a large meeting was held at the Vancouver City Social
Service Department, where all departments concerned with the care of these patients
were represented. It was decided then that an individual conference should be called
when a difficult case presented a problem. In order that the fullest possible understanding and co-operation can be reached, these conferences include members of the
Vancouver City Social Service Department staff, the Metropolitan Health Committee,
the director of the tuberculosis unit concerned, the doctor in charge of the case, and
the social worker from the Tuberculosis Social Service Department. During the year
it was necessary to hold six such conferences, at which nineteen patients were discussed.
The results have been greatly increased understanding on the part of the medical staff
of the Division of Tuberculosis Control, who now realize some of the problems faced by
social workers in trying to deal with these patients in the community, and on the part
of the social workers, who have a clearer understanding of the problems dealt with in
an institution when one or two patients completely disrupt the routines which are of
greatest benefit for other patients.
Another problem which took up a large part of the social workers' time during
the year was that of trying to plan home-making or housekeeping care for patients
who must remain at home while waiting hospital beds, or who were discharged home
before they were ready to undertake full household duties. Because of the experience
which the social workers in this Division and the public health nurses in the community
had with such cases, it was decided to request that home-making service for patients
in the City of Vancouver be instituted under the Dominion health grants. The actual
request was made by the Metropolitan Health Committee, based to a large extent on
information furnished by this department. This request was granted, and members
of this department have taken part in the preliminary planning for the new home-
making service.
Another service which will be provided in the near future by the Dominion health
grants is that of a full-time Rehabilitation Officer. Members of this department have
also participated in the planning for this service.
The Metropolitan Health Committee has recently appointed a full-time occupational therapist to work with tuberculous patients in their homes. The social workers
have taken a share in the planning and setting-up of this programme and will be
expected to work co-operatively with the public health nurses in deciding who will
best benefit from this new service.
Early in the fall, in order to help members of the National Employment Service
and the Casualty Rehabilitation Officers of the Department of Veterans' Affairs understand some of the objectives in rehabilitating tuberculous patients, the Rehabilitation
Officer of the British Columbia Tuberculosis Society and the social workers from this
department took part in a series of meetings held at Shaughnessy Hospital under the
auspices of the Casualty Rehabilitation Section. These meetings were most valuable
in giving us the opportunity to interpret the place of social service in a programme of
tuberculosis control.
The Provincial supervisor was very fortunate to have an opportunity while in the
East to visit the National Tuberculosis Association, Canadian Tuberculosis Associa- REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH. R 93
tion, and various hospitals for the care of tuberculous patients. Information gathered
in these visits was particularly useful in helping to plan the rehabilitation programme.
Also, it was possible to interest the chief psychiatric social worker of the Payne-
Whitney Clinic of Cornell University Medical School in a project in this department
under the Dominion health grants. This worker was in this department for two
weeks at Christmas time doing a pilot study to see whether there was material for
an intensive survey of the part emotional factors play in tuberculosis. She also gave
valuable consultative service to the social workers in this department. Her written
report indicated that at the present time there was not sufficient material available.
For instance, a complete psychiatric review of every patient studied would be necessary, and that is not possible at present. We hope that in future, however, such a
survey will be made.
During the past year in this department we have been extremely fortunate in
having excellent consultation service from a psychiatrist appointed to the staff of the
Division. He has given the social workers a great deal of help and guidance in
handling some of the more difficult problem cases. We hope shortly to be able to
start a 100-per-cent. review of all newly diagnosed patients under his direction. This
will be possible without an increase in the present staff of social workers.
During the past year we have again had two workers at Tranquille who have more
than proved their worth.    The staff situation in the other units remains unchanged.
Helen M. Sutherland,
Supervisor. R 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
DIVISION OF VENEREAL DISEASE CONTROL.
During the year ended in March, 1949, there have been interesting developments
in this department.
All the work concerned with facilitation reports was transferred to the epidemiological workers early in the year. This gave the social workers the opportunity to do
more intensive case-work with individual patients and to keep more detailed and
adequate records. For instance, patients who were hospitalized for treatment were
seen daily and some excellent case-work was possible. Growing out of this closer
contact with patients was the realization that many new patients at the clinic, although
given careful medical instruction by the epidemiological workers and the medical staff,
were in need of further service. Many of them did not fall into the groups who were
routinely referred to the social worker. Therefore, a detailed study was started in
February of all newly infected persons between the ages of 14 and 25. This survey-
will undoubtedly yield much valuable information on which further developments of
the services given by the social workers can be based.
Dr. D. H. Williams, former Director of the Division, did a broad survey of the
venereal disease control programme under the Dominion health grants. The social
workers participated in conferences with Dr. Williams and by preparing a written
report of the work as done at present, with suggestions for future developments.
Growing out of this has been a closer working relationship with the medical staff.
The clinic social worker, for instance, was asked to discuss her work at a medical staff
meeting.
One handicap to the development of a more-skilled type of case-work has been the
lack of adequate facilities for psychiatric consultation. It is to be hoped that in the
near future a psychiatrist will be appointed to the clinic medical staff and that he will
give a consultative service to the social workers.
A full-time physician in charge of clinics was appointed in September. He is
intensely interested in the work of the Social Service Department, and much of the
progress made has been due to his encouragement and to the interest of the Director
of the Division.
Helen M. Sutherland,
Supervisor. report of the social welfare BRANCH. R 95
PSYCHIATRIC DIVISION.
I beg to submit the annual reports of the Social Service Department of the
Provincial Mental Hospitals, Homes for the Aged, and Child Guidance Clinics for the
fiscal year 1948-49.
REPORT OF THE PSYCHIATRIC SOCIAL WORKERS' PARTICIPATION IN
PROVINCIAL MENTAL HOSPITALS AND HOMES FOR THE AGED.
The Social Service Department attached directly to the Provincial Mental Hospitals
and Homes for the Aged has, as in previous years, endeavoured to work as part of the
team assisting in the patients' treatment. In order to do this, there must be an
understanding of the needs, the psychiatric factors involved in the illness of the
patient, an ability to co-operate with the rest of the team, and at the same time
work within the limits of our own profession on a case-work level, but maintaining
an understanding of the job of the team members and how their work dovetails in
making a co-operative plan.
There was a time when most of the energies of the psychiatric social workers were
spent in the taking of social histories. These histories were often so long and involved
that they became of little use to the rest of the team. History-taking without case-work
with the patients and their families is of little value. We must be able to interpret
the patient's pattern of living, his total environment, and his probable assets for
rehabilitation. To do this, the psychiatric social worker is the person who has the
contact with the home and community from which the patient comes. It is the social
Worker who must interpret the total environment to the rest of the team.
This last year the whole team has been more aware of the needs for rehabilitation.
The Psychological Department has been of great assistance in giving us leads in types
of occupation for which the patient is best fitted. The rehabilitation home, The Vista,
has been a great help. Through the observation, treatment, and job-finding carried
on in this centre, female patients have shown a more permanent recovery. With the
male patients, we have one male staff member assigned to work with special patients
who are ready to leave the hospital. He handles cases in which no other member of
the staff is actively interested. We believe that the continuity of case-work done by
one worker throughout the whole hospital stay of the patient and rehabilitation is much
more valuable than referring it to any one person.
There have been 121 special patients helped to find jobs. Some of the patients had
more than three jobs found for them before a placement fitted to the patient's needs
presented itself. Rehabilitation should emerge at the time of the first contact with the
family and the patient. This project requires the full participation of the patient and
the guidance for him through the psychiatric team.
The help received through the field service, embracing all of British Columbia, has
been absolutely wonderful. We are indeed fortunate to have the assistance from this
source. Only those of us who have worked in the field previously fully appreciate the
total coverage which we now have. Even from most-remote sources the field submits
case-histories and prepares the ground for the patient's return home. They also report
back to us during the patient's six months' probation. We, in turn, supervise and give
as much guidance as possible. This again is team play. The slow, steady work involved
in education of this group of field-workers has paid dividends. It is one of our pleasures
to participate in their training and supervision.
In conjunction with the educational work we also enjoyed having two social service
students from the University of British Columbia doing field-work within the Mental
Hospital setting. There were six clinics given at the Mental Hospital for the social
service staff from the University of British Columbia. The staff psychiatrists directed
and gave these clinics, and again, as part of the team, we participated.   We have had R 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
the usual number of visitors from other fields. We participated in the University
lecture course for the public health nurses, as well as having them for stated periods
of orientation. Our department has taken an active part in group discussions within
the community. However, the best medium for teaching is the help given to individual
families who have had the sorrow of mental illness in their family unit.
Our department of the hospital keep day-sheets and submit detailed month-end
reports to the Medical Superintendent, and have modified statistical reports for the
Department of Welfare. This year we have considered the Child Guidance Clinics
should give their fuller statistical report. The Social Service Department of the
hospital will give fuller ones next year, else our readers would become too statistical
weary. There is one point we would like to draw to your attention, however. The
Social Service Department has more cases referred to it than there are patients
admitted during the year. This is because patients are often referred to us who have
been residents of the hospital from two to ten years, but who have recovered sufficiently
to require case-work prior to discharge. In most instances, newer and improved
methods of treatment have caused this happy circumstance.
Throughout our service we have tried to encourage good mental-hygiene principles
in regard to statistics. Cases where there is no active work being done are closed out.
Opening cases means very little as a time element, but the worry of carrying work and
not having the time to do it is not only poor mental hygiene, but a waste of energy
which can be directed more profitably. During the past year the Social Service
continued to make its contribution to the team in ward rounds, clinics, and study of
special cases.
The staff of the Social Service Department has been increased and, as a whole, has
received more training. We are indeed fortunate to be an active and participating
part of the whole hospital programme. report of the social welfare branch. r 97
Statistics, April 1st, 1948, to March 31st, 1949.
Number of New Cases referred to Social Service Department.
In Vancouver      524
Out of Vancouver      726
1,250
The number of new admissions was increased by 139 during the past fiscal year.
Disposition.
Discharged on probation—
In Vancouver  244
Out of Vancouver  231
475
This is an increase of 75 cases which were referred for probation services.
Report of Social Service Work carried out by Members of
Social Service Department at Essondale.
Initial interviews to obtain social histories—
In Vancouver  1,364
Out of Vancouver  8*
  1,372
Other  interviews  entailing case-work,  such  as  consultations
with other social agencies (public and private), employers,
school authorities, and other resources in Vancouver  1,198
Probation visits—
In Vancouver  725
Out of Vancouver  	
•      725
Out-of-town supervisory service by mail—
Letters to the Provincial field staff requesting social
histories and probation visits, and of a general
supervisory nature  2,123
Letters to other social agencies in and out of British
Columbia       287
  2,410
Social histories, probation and other reports, and
letters of a general consultative nature received
from Provincial field staff  1,531
Histories, reports, and letters received from other
social agencies in and out of British Columbia ___    352
■  1,883
There were orientation periods for nine public health nurses, one postgraduate
nurse, and fifty-four field service staff.
Special assignments were as follows: Old-age pension, 412; reports on rehabilitation of special cases in Vancouver, 80.
* Cases  referred to our  department for special work  by trained psychiatric  social  workers  under the  direct
supervision of the psychiatrist. R 98
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
REPORT OF THE CHILD GUIDANCE CLINICS.
The past year has been one of growth in experience and expansion of services for
the Child Guidance Clinics of the Government of British Columbia.
The growth and expansion can be readily grasped by perusing Table I.
Table I.—Summary of Clinics' Activity, April 1st, 1948, to March 31st, 1949.
Number
of Clinics
held.
Physicals.
Urinalysis.
Playroom
Observations.
Case
Conferences.
Consulting
Conferences.
Psychiatric
Interviews.
Vancouver	
243
24
1
4
1
3
3
8
2
2
2
2
1
636
85
3
15
4
11
11
31
7
8
7
8
4
529
3
3
8
7
4
258
	
	
	
689
70
4
15
4
11
11
30
8
7
8
5
210
11
1
1
2
1
3
	
	
1
1
1,105
161
8
28
Trail	
8
21
20
Nanaimo	
Vernon	
Penticton	
44
9
15
13
16
8
Totals	
296
830
554
258
869
231
1,456
There were 296 clinics held during the fiscal year. A total of 830 patients were
given complete psychiatric examinations, and 1,100 conferences of diagnostic treatment
and consultative nature were held during the fiscal year. Also, 1,025 patients were
given psychiatric interviews; of this number, 782 were new patients within the fiscal
year. A total of 243 patients continued in treatment through this fiscal year, although
they had been referred to the Child Guidance Clinics during the previous fiscal year.
Table II.-
-Number, Sex, and Status of all Cases examined at Child Guidance
Clinics, April 1st, 1948, to March 31st, 1949.
New Cases.
Repeat Cases.
Total
Males.
Females.
Total.
Males.
Females.
Total
Cases.
Adults.
Children.
Adults.
Children.
Adults.
Children.
Adults.
Children.
629
68
1
15
3
9
7
23
5
5
7
7
3
108
2
	
I    	
1    	
	
	
251
36
1
11
1
5
4
14
4
5
4
1
2
69
7
1
1
201
23
4
1
4
3
8
1
3
6
1
198
20
3
1
2
4
8
2
3
1
1
34
1
1
100
15
2
1
4
5
2
3
1
7
1
57
3
1
1
3
1
827
Victoria	
Murray ville	
New Westminster-
Trail	
88
4
15
4
11
11
31
7
8
Cranbrook	
Abbotsford	
7
8
4
Totals
782
110    |      339
1
78
255
243
36
133
8
66
1,025
From Table III it can readily be seen that, of the 1,025 patients given psychiatric
service, 763 patients were referred to the Child Guidance Clinics by community, social,
and health agencies. Two hundred and sixty-two patients were referred privately
either by parents, physicians, public health nurses, or schools, and these 262 were given
continuing treatment services within the Child Guidance Clinics. REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL WELFARE  BRANCH.
R 99
Table III,
-Sources of all Cases referred to Child Guidance Clinics,
April 1st, 1948, to March 31st, 1949.
Agency or Source.
Number of
Cases.
Total.
Percentage
Distribution.
321
157
64
36
21
7
1
1
5
5
43
9
7
2
2
1
1
1
2
3
47
13
5
3
43
2
3
119
37
60
2
1
1
608
10
66
73
45
122
37
60
4
59.32
Y.M.C.A	
0.98
6 44
Tuberculosis Social Service Department	
7.12
Public	
Other—
4.39
6. Adult Court	
11.90
3.61
9. Other	
.39
Totals	
1,025
100 00
Each profession which makes up the clinical teams of the Child Guidance Clinics
of British Columbia has contributed equally in bringing to patients the four services of
the clinics, namely: Diagnosis, treatment, consultation, and co-operative case-handling.
The extent of the service rendered during the past fiscal year, the effectiveness of the
service to the patients, as seen in Tables I, II, III, is due to the combining of the
professional disciplines working together as a team.
The Child Guidance Clinic team can best be understood as a combined professional
approach to understanding and treatment of children whose behaviour or personality
make-up indicates the existence of underlying emotional difficulties. The value of this
combination of professional knowledge in the study of emotionally disturbed patients
is described by Dr. Daniel Blain as follows:* "Modern diagnosis and therapy is not
best accomplished by an individual psychiatrist. All patients need careful social services
and psychological work-up and follow-up.   ...   A skilled psychiatrist who knows the
* Blain, Daniel:   " Some Essentials of Mental Health Planning," Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic. Nov., 1946, p. 184. R  100 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
functions of the nurse, social worker and clinical psychologist, and has some experience
in group work can adequately handle five to ten times as many patients as he can alone.
He can not only care for more, but the quality of care is markedly enhanced."
The clinical teams of the Child Guidance Clinics of the Government of British
Columbia consist at present of four professions—psychiatry, psychology, social work,
and nursing. Within the give and take of the functioning of the team, each profession
contributes its specialized knowledge. Although the psychiatrist is the head of the
team, since treatment of the child is considered our main responsibility, there is in the
team approach a division of responsibility equal to the special skill invested in each
profession. As a result of this, there really cannot be a hierarchy of responsibility or
even status within the team. In the clinical approach, each member of the team has an
equally important professional contribution to bring to the understanding and treatment
of the child's emotional disorder.
Working within the team approach, the psychiatrist has the responsibility of diagnosis and the determination of the child's need for psychiatric treatment, as well as
the responsibility for providing an evaluation of the child's physical condition. The
psychiatrist also gives to the team his observation of the child's reaction during the
examination. In this latter contribution he is assisted by the profession of nursing.
The nurse working within the team is alert in observing the child's reaction as he first
enters the clinic up to the physical examination.
The profession of psychology brings to the team an estimate of the child's intelligence, personality, and achievements and makes a valuable contribution in the observation of the child's reaction in separating from his parents for the test and his reactions
in the test situation also. In addition, psychology provides tutoring and remedial
reading and, under the direction of the psychiatrist, may take full responsibility for
some forms of treatment.
The profession of social work brings to the team an understanding of social,
emotional, and cultural factors within the living experience of the child and the
parent-child relationship. It is to be noted that it is in the dynamic area of relationships that the discipline of social work makes its first, and perhaps its most important,
contribution to the team's understanding of the "whole child." Because this report is
primarily concerned with the social worker's responsibility in participation in the
clinical team, the contribution of this profession to the team approach is primarily
considered.
In the Child Guidance Clinics of the Government of British Columbia, the social
workers, under the direction of the psychiatrist, have responsibility in the treatment of
the child, besides the treatment of the parent-child relationship. The social worker's
understanding of the dynamics of human behaviour, respect for the uniqueness of the
individual, her understanding of relationships within family and groups, and her
knowledge of the many community services available to parents and children enable her
to help in the treatment role. The social worker, as she helps the patient, is in continuous consultation with the psychiatrist. While engaged in this consultation, her
understanding of the patient's needs is broadened, yet in this consultation with the
psychiatrist she is aware of what really comprises her skill and the limitations of her
skill. With her special knowledge, the social worker is able to evaluate the needs of
patients, and relate these needs to the service possible to the patient within the agency
and within her skill. The social-case worker, besides her duty mentioned above, integrates the teams in the Child Guidance Clinics. This integration involves the intake
of cases, the arrangement of the mechanics of the appointment of the child with the
various team members, and the interpretation to the parents of the position, the purpose, and the findings of each member of the team, including that of the social worker.
Since the social worker has the responsibility for the continuing contacts with the
parents up to the clinical examination of the child, and following it, applications for
service come first to her.    She also has the responsibility for carrying the parents and REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL WELFARE  BRANCH.
R 101
child through the various team contacts and for securing the history of the child's
difficulty, as well as describing the parent-child relationship. The process of securing
history is no single entity, but rather a continuous one which stretches from the time
of intake to the termination of treatment.
The social-case worker also serves as liaison person between the parent and child
with the rest of team members. This is done because it is through the use of her case
record that the day-by-day exchange of pertinent information concerning the patient
among the team members is effected. The social worker also schedules the diagnostic
staff conference, which is held with the purpose of reviewing, evaluating, and arriving at
some decision as to the problem, the need for and feasibility of treatment, and treatment
plan. It is the social worker who prepares the social data in summary form for this
conference.
The social worker also prepares further summaries of data for the treatment conferences which are usually held by the clinical team from time to time during the
patient's treatment. Within the treatment conference, the team participates in evaluating the patient's progress within treatment, and together the team decides on the termination of treatment. It is, however, the responsibility of the social worker to record
the outcome of the team's conferring in treatment.
Table IV.—Statistical Report of the Psychiatric Social Workers, Provincial
Child Guidance Clinics, for the Fiscal Year April 1st, 1948, to March 31st,
1949.
Vancouver.
Victoria.
Total.
Case-work services—
65
102
14
170
100
81
1,121
960
218
297
34
1
21
2
1
59
114
33
48
11
92
58
34
419
57
21
1
12
72
98
Cases referred during the year—
150
25
Total number of cases   (continuing case-work)   carried during fiscal year
(C.F. + New + Ro)                                    	
262
158
Total number of cases carried forward to fiscal year 1949-50	
Total  number of interviews with and regarding patients   (included  are relatives, physicians other than clinic psychiatrists, social workers attached to
115
1,540
1,017
Other than case-work services—Conferences attended—
(2)   Private cases carried by Child Guidance Clinic   (continuing case-work
239
298
Persons referred for orientation—
Total	
71
Travelling clinics (not including Victoria Child Guidance Clinic) —
32
150
Table IV is the statistical report of the psychiatric social workers within the teams
of the Child Guidance Clinics of British Columbia. In perusing it, it can be seen that
262 patients were given continuous case-work services by the psychiatric social workers
within the team. In the course of the year 1,540 interviews were given to patients
and 1,017 patients were given immediate case-work services by the social workers. The
supervisors of social-case work gave 298 periods of supervision to the case-workers on
the staff of the Child Guidance Clinic teams.    Many interested people were given R  102 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
periods of orientation in the clinic to enable them to have a better understanding of
the clinic services, and in order to help them use the clinic services in a way most
effective and helpful to their clients.
The psychiatric social workers have also participated during the past fiscal year
in one other important function of the Child Guidance Clinics, and that is the function
which involves community education. All members of the team have given talks to
interested groups, publicly by radio, and by the use of the educational film.
Members of the professions of psychology, social work, and nursing have been
assisted during the past fiscal year to obtain postgraduate study.
Josephine F. Kilburn,
Provincial Supervisor, Psychiatric Social Work.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Don MoDiabmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1950.
995-1149-5149  

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