Open Collections

BC Sessional Papers

Report of the Deputy Minister of Lands containing the Reports of the Lands, Surveys, and Water Rights… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1949

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcsessional-1.0340590.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcsessional-1.0340590.json
JSON-LD: bcsessional-1.0340590-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcsessional-1.0340590-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcsessional-1.0340590-rdf.json
Turtle: bcsessional-1.0340590-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcsessional-1.0340590-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcsessional-1.0340590-source.json
Full Text
bcsessional-1.0340590-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcsessional-1.0340590.ris

Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Hon. E. T. Kenney, Minister. G. P. Melrose, Deputy Minister of Lands
Report of the Deputy Minister of Lands
containing the Reports of the
Lands, Surveys, and Water
Rig-hts Branches
together with
the Dyking and Drainage Commissioner,
Southern Okanagan Lands Project, University Endowment Lands, and the Coal,
Petroleum, and Natural Gas Controller
Year ended December 31st
1948
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1949.  ^ 1 r
cq <J ^ ft,
if,
-*    .«    4-
O    >•   «>
O J  j(
—   c   <o   u
*  5    - "
!?■£¥
.O •£ *■
o g °
in
-n
r
r
ii
(TJ
H-
H—
£
o
+-
o
0
X.
CD
>
M-
U-
1 1
.,
o
cu
O
LL
F
o
a
10
E
O
M-
(1J
QJ
fD
J3
g<
Hb ft-  Victoria, B.C., January 30th, 1949.
To His Honour C. A. Banks,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Lands, Surveys,
and Water Rights Branches, with other divisions, of the Department of Lands and
Forests for the year ended December 31st, 1948.
E. T. KENNEY,
Minister of Lands and Forests.
Victoria, B.C., January 30th, 1949.
The Honourable E. T. Kenney,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit my Annual Report, including the reports of the
Lands, Surveys, and Water Rights Branches of the Department of Lands and Forests
for the twelve months ended December 31st, 1948, with which are also incorporated the
Annual Reports of the Inspector of Dykes and Commissioner of Dyking, Southern
Okanagan Lands Project, the University Endowment Lands, and the Coal, Petroleum,
and Natural Gas Controller.
GEO. P. MELROSE,
Deputy Minister of Lands.  	
CONTENTS.
Page.
1. Report of the Deputy Minister of Lands  9
2. Lands Branch  12
(a) Lands Division  14
(b) Land Utilization Research and Survey  29
(c) Land Inspection Division  39
(d) Land Settlement Board_„ _  48
3. Surveys Branch  49
(a)  Air Survey Division  51
(6)  Geographic Division  78
(c) Surveys Division  84
(d) Topographic Division  92
Topographic Surveys—
■  *       (1) West Coast of Vancouver Island  95
(2) Bridge River Area c  101
(3) Lakelse Lake Area  109
(4) Chilliwack Area  116
(5) Isle Pierre Area  123
(e) Astronomic Survey and Reconnaissance, Atlin-Telegraph Creek Area.— 127
(/)  British Columbia-Yukon Boundary Survey  136
4. Water Rights Branch   144
5. Coal, Petroleum, and Natural Gas Control :  159
6. Dyking and Drainage  164
7. Southern Okanagan Lands Project  174
8. University Endowment Lands ,  182
9. General Administration File-room  187 . Report of the Lands, Surveys, and Water Rights Branches.
REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER OF LANDS.
The great flood of 1948 was the outstanding event of the year in British Columbia.
Born of heavy snows in the mountains and a late spring, it affected most of the communities and many hundreds of individuals throughout the Province. Nearly every
small stream and creek, as well as the great rivers into which they emptied, overflowed
their banks, tore away buildings, fences, roads, and bridges, burst dykes, and inundated
thousands of acres of fertile land. The losses were in millions and the costs of rehabilitation more millions.
The Legislature was convened in July to deal with the problem and vote funds for
the various necessities. Among these was the urgent need for assistance to those
individuals and municipalities that had suffered loss.
To accomplish this, two boards were established in the Fraser Valley—one to
restore and rebuild the dykes, the other to rehabilitate those who suffered. For the
rest of the Province the Minister of Lands and Forests assumed responsibility and,
working through Departmental channels, organized the work on the widespread front.
This was accomplished through the Government Agents and Assessors, who were, in
turn, assisted by District Agriculturists, Public Works engineers and staffs, Land
Inspectors, and many others. The Water Rights engineers of this Department were
naturally called on for service, which was cheerfully given. The burden on them was
great both during and since the flood, and is modestly described in the report of the
Comptroller of Water Rights hereafter.
The allocation of funds and payment of accounts for supplies and labour has been
a large task, involving the handling of 933 actual cases of damage up to December 31st,
1948, for a total cost of $581,500. There are still a few cases to be finally dealt with
in the spring of 1949.
Whether or not the floods affected the land-settlement situation is not known, but
there were some declines in volume of transactions and revenue. There is still a very
satisfactory demand for lands from a constant stream of settlers, home-seekers, etc.
Industrial development in British Columbia was active during the year, and
several large concerns either proceeded with construction or plans for such. Among
these were the Columbia Celanese Corporation, which started construction of its plant
near Prince Rupert, and the Nanaimo Sulphate Pulp, Limited, which commenced building near Nanaimo. The Aluminum Company of Canada, Limited, had engineers in
the field investigating several large power schemes along the Mainland coast, while
another company was preparing for construction of a pulp-mill near Campbell River,
on Vancouver Island.
All this activity affected the administrative offices of the Department through the
many applications for lands under various tenure, the supplying of technical data available in the various branches, assistance in many instances, extra surveys of all sorts—
aerial, topographic, and cadastral—and finally office consultations over long periods.
It is felt that this great effort has not been in vain, and the excellent material laboriously collected by engineering and survey parties over many years has proven its value
in advancing the development of British Columbia.
Especially useful in this development programme is the work of the Water Rights
and Surveys Branches. For many years, through field engineering, aerial and topographic survey parties, they have accumulated a vast fund of basic information now X 10
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
being used for large developments. Some idea of what is available may be gained
from the reports of the Surveyor-General and the Comptroller of Water Rights. In
addition, a satisfactory amount of field-work was accomplished in spite of interruptions
from floods and a particularly bad year from the weather standpoint.
The survey of available lands for settlement by the Land Utilization Research and
Survey Division progressed satisfactorily, with large areas examined from the Peace
River District to the International Boundary. Particularly important were surveys of
lands in the Similkameen Valley and the East Kootenay. Both areas are the subject
of study by the International Columbia River Engineering Board created by authority
of the International Joint Commission. The function of the Board is to study all the
international aspects of the Columbia River and report to the Commission, with the
idea of developing the use of the waters to the best advantage. The Board consists
of Federal engineers from both Canada and the United States, who have, in turn, constituted the International Columbia River Engineering Committee through appointment
of their chief assistants in the West. The Committee is responsible for the field-work
and reports which are developed through the usual departmental channels. Both
Governments provide extra funds for the purpose.
The Provincial Government is represented on the International Columbia River
Engineering Committee by the Deputy Minister of Lands, and that official acts in
liaison to the Board. Since the main resource considered is water and since the effect
of water is largely on land, the department charged with the administration of those
resources is particularly interested in the Columbia Basin studies.
A somewhat similar organization has been constituted to study the basin of the
Fraser River. Since this river is wholly within British Columbia, there are no international complications. There are, however, both Federal and Provincial interests, and
consequently the organization has been named the " Dominion-Provincial Board, Fraser
River Basin." Its members represent the Dominion Departments of Public Works,
Water and Power Bureau, and Fisheries, with Provincial Departments of Public Works,
Fisheries, and Lands. This Department is represented by the Deputy Minister, the
Comptroller of Water Rights, and the Dyking Commissioner. An engineer of high
standing has been appointed to handle the technical work of the Board and organize
its functions.
Both these organizations, set up to pay particular attention to the greatest river
systems of the Province, are a good movement in the direction of sound development
of our resources.
An interesting event of 1948 was the First Natural Resources Conference for
British Columbia, organized under the patronage of the Minister of Lands and Forests
by Lands Department officers. This Conference was called experimentally to gather
in one organization all those interested in any phase of natural-resource development,
be it research, survey, teaching, administration, or extraction. Stress was laid on the
interrelationships of the various resources, such as soil, water, forests, fisheries, and
mines. Nowhere else is there a meeting-place for the exchange of information and
ideas between men in different fields. The soil scientists, the foresters, the mining-
men, and the biologists each meet in the organizations for their particular group, but
do not meet with other groups whose problems are interrelated. It is felt that the
Resources Conference has a distinct and valuable place in the Province.
Progress continued in the survey of coal resources in the Peace River District
under the Coal Controller. This official is also the Petroleum and Natural Gas Controller, whose report shows advancement in the prospects for petroleum development as
well. There appear to be reasonable hopes for the discovery of supplies of these
valuable mineral substances. REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER OF LANDS. X 11
Two important projects operated by this Department are those of the Southern
Okanagan Lands and University Endowment Lands, the reports of their respective
managers appearing herewith. Both projects are now on a self-sustaining basis and
show advancement in development and satisfactory results of management. There are
still lands available in both, but the Southern Okanagan project is getting close to the
limit of lands that can be adequately served by water. At the University Endowment
Lands the development is still in the early stages. Preparations have been made to
expand the developed area when costs become more reasonable, as at present they would
absorb too much of the sale price of the land, leaving little for the prime purpose of
endowment.
The reports of the various branches and divisions of the Department follow. X 12
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
LANDS BRANCH.
By C. E. Hopper, Superintendent of Lands.
The Lands Branch has the supervision and general administration of the disposal
of Crown lands throughout the Province by pre-emption, lease, sale, or reservation for
various purposes, together with the lands of the University Endowment Area and
Southern Okanagan Lands Project.
The Branch is divided into four divisions—namely, those of Lands, Land Settlement Board, Land Utilization Research and Survey, and the Land Inspection service.
The returns of the year's operations covering the sale and pre-emption of lands
throughout the Province record a slight reduction in numbers of applications.
This condition, however, has not reduced the volume of business transacted by the
Lands Division. Additional work was incurred in supplying particulars on lands
affected by last season's floods, checking of large areas in connection with applications
for the renewal of grazing leases, inquiries and applications for permits for oil and gas
rights in various parts of the Province, and the statusing of townsite properties where
town planning is contemplated. In late July the Division commenced a complete check
and preparation of new land registers and plans for use in the various Government
Agents' offices. The Assistant Superintendent's report on the operations of the Lands
Division is herewith submitted.
The Land Utilization Research and Survey Division records increased activity in
land-use surveys during the year. Field-parties were operating in the Peace River,
Cariboo, Lillooet, Okanagan Valley, the Columbia and Similkameen River Valleys;
particulars of such surveys are recorded by the Director in his report.
The Land Settlement Board functions under the " Land Settlement and Development Act, 1917." Mr. Camsusa, the Director, resigned June 18th, 1948, to accept a
position in the Department of Agriculture; no new appointment has been made.
Repayments on loans and agreements of sale of lands continued in line with last year's
figures, while collections of rentals and payments on agreements of sale on Doukhobor
lands show an increase.   The report of the secretary of the Board is herewith submitted.
The Land Inspection Division, consisting of the Chief Inspector and six Inspectors
located at Smithers, Prince George, Pouce Coupe, Kamloops, Nelson, and New Westminster, have completed their first full year in the field and have materially assisted
the Department in speeding up examination of land applications.
The Forest Service is extending expert advice and assistance in the training of
this personnel in order that we may take over from them all land-inspection work at
the earliest possible date. To accomplish this, however, our personnel must be increased
very materially to keep pace with the demand for lands at this time. In February a
conference of the inspection service was held in Victoria, the many problems affecting
the various districts were discussed and a general policy set to improve and speed up
the work. The reports of the Chief Inspector and staff set out details of their operations during the year.
The constant need of a surveyor in checking and locating survey lines and corner
posts, the making of small subdivisions, and assisting in inspections has warranted the
appointment of P. M. Monckton, B.C.L.S., to such duties.
During the year Mr. Monckton completed the following surveys:—
Ryder Lake, near Chilliwack, of fourteen 20-acre blocks of part of Lot 439,
Group 2, New Westminster District.
A subdivision of nine 10-acre lots in the North-east Quarter of Section 13,
Township 18, east of the Coast meridian, Hatzic Prairie.
At Nanaimo a check was made of a subdivision survey and a resubdivision
made of five residential lots. Hatzic Prairie.    Area covered with trees, subdivided
i
Hansen Lake, Kootenay District.    Beach on eastern side.
Ryder Lake subdivision, near Chilliwack. At Ladysmith a small subdivision of part of Lot 280, consisting of nine lots
on Oyster Harbour, was completed.
Also in the vicinity of Ladysmith, at Mile 61 on the highway, a small survey
was made of a road to the sea adjoining Ivey Green Park.
At Extension a survey was made in order to check the location of a road.
Several survey lines were rerun for tenants on the Industrial Reserve at
Victoria.
At Cawston a check was made of flood damage to several properties sold by
the Land Settlement Board and the area eroded determined.
Four small homesite lots were laid out near Yale, to the south of Gordon
Creek, on Lot 48, Group 1, Yale Division of Yale District.
Ranger stations were surveyed for the Forest Service at Blue River and
Westbank.
A resubdivision was made of several lots having C.P.R. trackage at Okanagan
Falls.
A survey of fifteen lots near Clinton on Cayoosh Creek and twenty-three lots
at Beaverdam Lake for summer homes was completed.
A survey of forty-six lots and two larger areas was made on Hansen Lake
in Kootenay District.
LANDS DIVISION.
By R. E. Burns, Assistant Superintendent of Lands.
The returns for the year 1948 show a slight decline in most items in so far as they
relate to the disposition of lands under the " Land Act." This is due to the fact that
during the previous year there was an unprecedented demand for land.
It is to be noted, however, that the acreage of land sales increased from 86,010.41
to 90,280.08.
While there is a decrease in the number of leases issued under the " Land Act,"
the acreage leased increased from 97,238.41 to 113,600.07.
Crown grants of a total of 2,063 were issued during the year, but this is not comparable with the total of 2,577 for 1947, which was the greatest on record.
Although considerably less than the year 1947, thirty-nine applications were
approved during the year under the " Veterans' Land Act."
Permits issued under the " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act " show an increase
from three of an area of 754,288 acres to ten covering an acreage of 1,326,594.76.
Four applications for permits are pending covering an area of 497,664 acres, and
applications have been submitted for the extensions of two permits covering an area of
511,289 acres.
Licences issued or renewed under the " Coal Act, 1944," increased from eight to
eleven, comprising a total of 4,615 acres.
Leases renewed under the former Coal and Petroleum Act show an increase from
ten to seventeen, covering an area of 8,588 acres.
With respect to revenue received of $975,772.41 for 1948, it is to be noted in comparison with the total received for 1947 that the sum of $358,215 represents payments
received in that year on repayment of money advanced out of Consolidated Revenue in
previous years.
The volume of work of the Lands Division has in nowise declined due to the work
entailed in the statusing of the large areas applied for under the " Petroleum and REPORT OF  SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS. X 15
Natural Gas Act," also lands crossed by applications for rights-of-way, particularly
those of the British Columbia Power Commission, and those lands affected by the
regulated areas under the " Town Planning Act."
Many inquiries and applications are still being received to acquire lands for home-
sites, tourist camps, and hunting and fishing lodges, indicating a continued influx of
settlers and commercial activity.
Following the general policy, various parcels of land were inspected in all parts of
the Province, and suitable sites, comprising fifty-one parcels of an acreage of 4,070,
were reserved for the use, recreation, and enjoyment of the public.
Progress has been made in respect to the issuance of leases for tourist campsites,
etc., along the Alaska Highway, following surveys made during the year.
Considerable progress has also been made in the matter of the preparation of
maps and bringing up to date the land records of the Department and those of the
various Land Commissioners, with a view to rendering better service to the public.
To assist in this work, an additional clerk was engaged during July, 1948, and a staff
of two stenographers was later added.
STATISTICAL TABLES.
Table 1.—Summary of Recorded Collections for the Year ended
December 31st, 1948.
" Land Act "—
Land revenue (sundry)   (see Table 3)  $288,901.91
Land sales (see Table 5) :     379,650.48
Survey fees, sales of maps, etc. (see Table 7)       20,744.33
  $689,296.72
Soldiers' Land Act " (see Table 9) —
Southern Okanagan Lands Project  $104,805.84
Houses, South Vancouver  390.00
  105,195.84
"Better Housing Act"—Sundry municipalities (see Table 9)  500.00
" University Endowment Lands Administration Act " (see Table 9)  146,756.13
Refunds and votes  34,023.72 X 16
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Chart 1.—Gross Revenue and Collections.
Table 2.—Summary of Total Collections for Ten-year Period
1939-48, inclusive.
1939   $458,306.02
1940   477,973.19
1941   612,810.01
1942   768,710.98
1943   576,228.02
1944   595,117.61
1945   846,456.33
1946   992,201.70
1947   1,770,413.49
1948   975,772.41
Total 	
Ten-year average annual collections, $807,398.98.
$8,073,989.76 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS.
X 17
Table 3.—Revenue Statements for the Year ended December 31st, 1948.
Land Revenue—Sundry.
Victoria
Collections.
Agency
Collections.
Total
Collections.
Collections under " Land Act "—
$1,580.00
164,446.94
1,015.00
16,350.00
4,075.00
4,216.44
1,460.62
$1,580.00
164,446.94
1,015.00
Crown-grant fees—
16,350.00
4,075.00
$2,768.96
6,985.40
1,460.62
5,353.65
920.28
5,353.65
1,130.25
2,447.15
13.64
1,161.59
56.14
30.00
369.00
18.00
1,600.00
5,254.75
2,050.53
2,447.15
13.64
Former Dominion lands—-
1,161.59
56.14
30.00
369.00
18.00
Collections under " Coal and Petroleum Act "—
1,600.00
5,254.75
1,800.00
15.00
275.00
1,427.50
5.00
2,500.00
25.00
68,570.00
17.00
1,800.00
15.00
Collections under " Coal Act, 1944 "—
275.00
1,427.50
5.00
Collections under " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1947 ''■—
2,500.00
25.00
68,570.00
17.00
Totals	
$279,859.02
$9,042.89
$288,901.91
Sundry Totals.
Collections under " Land Act '*  $207,412.66
Collections under "Coal and Petroleum Act"         8,669.75
Collections under " Coal Act, 1944 "  1,707.50
Collections under " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1947 "        71,112.00
Total  $288,901,91 X 18
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Table 4.—Summary of Land Revenue Collections for Ten-year Period
1939-48, inclusive.
1939  .'-  $143,508.90
1940    153,325.58
1941    175,787.02
1942    156,863.76
1943    173,251.99
1944  :   182,782.73
1945 J        199,042.61
1946         207,696.63
1947         262,760.93
1948   288,901.91
Total   $1,943,922.05
Ten-year average annual collections, $194,392.21.
Table 5.—Land Sales.
Collections under " Land Act " (Principal and Interest).
Victoria
Collections,
Agency
Collections.
Total
Collections.
Country lands—
$53,241.31
5,894.31
465.81
3,390.84
$153,021.30
105,537.61
205.46
48,241.82
125.00
$206,262.61
111,431.92
671.27
51,632.66
125.00
1,071.34
249.87
1,071.34
8.115.90
8.365.77
89.91                     89.91
Totals.:	
$64,313.48
SSI 5.337.fill      1     S379.650.48
Table 6.—Summary of Land Sales for Ten-year Period 1939-48, inclusive.
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
115
153
151
202
215
294
368
811
379
,495.16
,330.74
,663.91
,752.83
,458.04
409.40
,034.56
088.19
,752.23
650.48
Total   $2,778,635.54
Ten-year average annual collections, $277,863.55. REPORT OF  SUPERINTENDENT OF  LANDS.
X 19
Table 7.—Survey Fees, Sales of Maps, etc
Collections under Land Act."
Victoria
Collections.
Agency
Collections.
Total
Collections.
Surveys fees	
$1,020.98
6,605.74
3,700.01
984.35
2,180.50
2,226.88
$4,025.87
$5,046.85
6,605.74
3,700.01
984.35
2,180.50
2,226.88
Totals	
$16,718.46
$4,025.87
$20,744.33
Table 8.—Survey Fees, Sales of Maps, etc., for Ten-year Period
1939-48, inclusive.
1939   $10,309.82
1940   10,372.97
1941   11,646.30
1942  .  16,670.53
1943   18,751.40
1944   18,413.92
1945   25,080.57
1946  .  29,235.51
1947   28,512.34
1948   20,744.33
Total   $189,737.69
Ten-year average annual collections, $18,973.77. —
X 20
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Table 9.—Sundry Collections.    •
Victoria
Collections.
Agency
Collections.
Total
Collections.
Collections under " Soldiers' Land Act "—
Southern Okanagan Lands Project—
$48,186.45
5,185.79
1,005.51
254.05
600.00
20,951.49
28,622.55
Water rates—
$104,805.84
Houses, South Vancouver-
390.00
390.00
Collections under " Better Housing Act "—
494.04
5.96
44,722.29
1,885.19
1,728.72
34.45
16,220.80
79.25
22,670.47
5,043.26
8,204.84
690.98
14,278.68
11,658.49
19,538.71
18,557.39
15,466.33
500.00
Collections under " University Endowment Lands Administration Act "—
Land sales—
Lease rentals—
Loan repayments—
Local improvement taxes—
Repossessed houses—
i
146,756.13
Refunds—
34,023.72
Totals	
$286,475.69
$286,475.69
Table 10.—Sundry Collections for Ten-year Period 1939-48, inclusive.
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
$216,586.59
256,936.36
300,588.49
546,845.58
286,552.83
265,137.10
328,298.59
387.181.37
667,387.99
286,475.69
Total   $3,541,990.59
Ten-year average annual collections, $354,199.06. REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS.
X 21
h4
n
Oi
H
So
qj
P
o
r>
O
hH
(J
"<
HO
W
(j
HH
fc
<!
Sh
K
rt
PQ
~~
OJ
z
h3
m
H
HH
Q
hi
no's
s
to
s
Si
o
„.
to
09
■«*
in
■^
00
CN
t—
U3
CN
o
»H
o
t-
ia
U3
m
OJ   (N
i*
tr
t-
m
J
OJ
o
O
cs
■^
rH
iH
T-t
O   iP
■^
ee
co
CO
■<
tr-
Cv
"*
00
OJ
OO    CO
OJ
OJ
o
H
T3
-tf
irs
U3
CM
eo
m
co
CO
"Tfl
0
>
t-
CO
O
TJl
tp
CO
U3
-*    00
c-
o
CD
">*
60
■*
in
CO
CO
CO
CM    (N
CM
CO
OJ
CO
a
e«-
B
■<
«
a
00
CN
00
CO
CN
CO
CO
O    tP
^
t-
tP
CN
d
CC
CJ
CN
CN
«tf
in
IO    r-f
0G
t-
"*
U0
£
I—1
CN
r-
.—1
H
lH
rH
rP
<tf
rn:
\a
ia
O
io
o
o  O
o
LO
o
«
t>
IC
o
o
UO    ^
xr
H5j
OJ
i o
d
3
r-
r-
«
t-
t-
O    --H
^JH
OJ
id
OJ
H*
t-   "^
00
s^
"id
C
■^
fc-
(N
z
i>
CC
O
oo"
» Co
63
»
H g
•*3
rag
6
«
IC
CN
U3
1-1
'H    '-1
'H
^
o
"
Z
o
O
o
O
O
o
o
o o
c
o
o
o
o
O
o
O
O
o
o
o  o
c
o
o
o*
d
o
T-H.
o
,-1
IK
o
CO
O    CN
\c
o
to
IQ
1 .
CD
CD
to
w.
m
o
CO    OJ
CO
-tf
CM
«*00
CJ)
CN
CN
CO
o
CO
O    CO
\n co
CD
CN
CO
OJ
£«■
£<:
5 02
Eh
O
,-f
OJ
CN
CN
co
eo
t- o
cc
tH
•^
in
d
CO
CN
c>
CN
iP   CM
CN
CN
&
CM
C
CM
OS
CJ
m
■^t
00   CN
iC
^
O
CM
o
00
OC
CN
-*
iO
m
TJH    00
T—(
CO
CO
CD
d
J3
o
o
t—
O
OJ
■*#
IQ
o   t-
CT
1>]
CN
t*
HO
CO
m
CO
o
oo
00
00    -ff
CO
CO
"cd
■fl
00
CD
LO
-*
-cH
CN
O    OJ
OJ
Tf
■^t
CO
,_■
>
CD
■"*
r-l
,-|
CO
CD
,-1
OJ   Tr"
-*
00
eo
CO
cd
&o
CO
-*
k£
CO
CM
CO
iP   CN
CO
CO
-p
CO
O
«■
H
00
00
•*#
OJ
in
OJ
c>
CM    O
rt
U5
CO
.
d
CM
~v
O
o
CO
CO    OJ
C£
CO
CN
00
&
1-t
•"i
CQ
HH
1-1
C
o
o
|iO
o
IO
o
O   O
c
o
o
o
<
d
[3
o
Oj
■"*
t-
OJ
**
CD
o in
O
o
w
o
m
,—
r-i
OJ
\n
o
ua
•^
CO    OJ
CM
eo
id
CM
o
or.
•co
00
i-
S3
CN  in
CC
o
o
t-
a
cd
CD
Oi
CO
CO
co
t-
co   in
CC
eo
o
fc
d
>
CO
CC
t-
t-
t-
0"
CO  c-
-*
CO
t>
co"
hH
o
63-   r-l
CM
1-1
CO
60-
u
O
jo
f4
H
Z
IT
o
CO
CD
o
CN
00
03    .P
-*
CN
•*
d
M"
1G
•«.
"<*
CM
Oq
CN
-*
CO
o
a
CO
o
c
<N
rf
e*
c
00    CM
IT
t-
o
CM
c
O"
w
\c
-t*    CO
co
CO
CD
n£
d
_3
ey
la
OC
Tj
oc
OJ
C
t-   00
OJ
cd
in
C
-rt
O"
CO
o
c
m oo
^
L-
CD
OJ
CS
rt
OC
t-
t-
t-   CO
CO
in
^
i>
T
oc
■^
ir
c
in  t-
C
CN
cs
CO*
69-   i—
cc
CN
l-H    H
©
^
CM
o>
V»
QJ
>
cj
CO    DC
oc
K
if
t-
CN
CO   o-
C
t*
CO
P-t
d
CN
c
CC
CC
c
C
CM    CD
1C
it
00
iri
CO
oo
a
0
S
cd
4J
>
f-
t
P
B
P
>
E
fe
1
1
!
>
i
a
1=
>
P
H-
cc
t-
a
-c
E
a
a
CC
c
C
f-
a
1
c
z
1
!
c
C
c
E-
•h N m
O IM W   CO
J2 efi- 60- es-
«»■ cu d"  o
- r^ P      P
a* ,3 -3 x,
S crj cd   cd
Ti ■> >     >
..  CD   m   CD
w oi W co
qj g; V 4)
cd cd cd cd
co m cc to
H  H H H
'Ct*     -*    "*     "^
CI   CJ   OJ    OJ X 22
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Table 12.—Town Lots Sold, 1948.
Subdivision.
Number
of Lots.
Value.
Subdivision.
Number
of Lots.
Value.
Alberni	
Alice Arm	
Anaconda	
Athalmer	
Beaverdeil	
Bull River	
Burns Lake	
Campbell River	
Cascade	
Cedar	
Chase.	
Christina Lake	
Clinton	
Coalmont	
Comox	
Cowichan Lake	
Cobble Hill	
Cranbrook	
Cranberry Lake.	
Cumberland	
Edgewater	
Kndako	
Ferguson	
Fernie	
Fraser Lake	
Golden	
Grantham's Landing..
Grand Forks	
Grindrod	
Hazelton	
Hedley	
Hope	
Hosmer	
Houston	
Howser	
Huntingdon	
Invermere	
Kaleden	
Kamloops	
Kaslo	
Kimberley	
Kitchener	
Lardo	
Lillooet	
Lytton	
Marysville	
Masset	
Merritt	
Midway	
Moyie i.
McBride	
128
9
2
5
5
2
1
6
3
2
4
2
28
4
63
3
4
32
2
7
26
19
15
11
80
2
2
6
39
4
2
22
3
.50
20
40
53
17
18
2
188
4
1
9
8
10
$3,670.00
210.00
20.00
50.00
115.00
30.00
75.00
920.00
35.00
120.00
701.00
75.00
75.00
225.00
200.00
145.00
150.00
2,796.30
340.00
200.00
160.00
100.00
15.00
235.00
275.00
200.00
1,255.00
375.00
240.00
330.00
100.00
50.00
90.00
870.00
20.00
70.00
371.65
60.00
1.00
100.00
2,946.00
330.00
120.00
265.00
50.00
4,632.00
20.00
50.00
225.00
290.00
575.00
Nanaimo	
Nelson	
Newcastle	
New Denver	
Northfield	
Okanagan Falls '.	
Penticton	
Pitt Meadows	
Port Coquitlam	
Prince George	
Prince Rupert	
Princeton	
Qualicum Beach	
Queen Charlotte City	
Quesnel..	
Revelstoke	
Rock Creek	
Salmo	
Sandon	
Savona	
Seymour Arm	
Sidney ,	
Silverton	
Silver City	
Slocan....	
Smithers	
Squamish	
St. Mary's Lake	
Stewart	
Telkwa	
Terrace	
Topley	
Trout Lake	
Tulameen	
Union Bay	
Vananda	
Vancouver	
Vanderhoof	
Walhachin	
Wardner.	
Wellington	
Westview	
Willow River	
Wilmer	
Windermere	
Yale	
Zeballos	
Miscellaneous	
University Endowment Lands.
Totals..
29
107
4
3
2
3
14
204
3
11
64
26
88
3
4
11
2
2
3
1
7
3
5
29
57
24
2
2
25
10
10
19
59
27
1
32
3
10
11
4
17
13
10
1
1
48
10
2,071
$1,650.00
190.00
1,840.00
1,300.00
245.00
45.00
2.00
90.00
220.00
13,430.00
680.00
760.00
2,335.00
352.50
10,021.00
75.00
65.00
180.00
45.00
100.00
100.00
150.00
70.00
30.00
50.00
1,325.00
5,875.00
192.00
200.00
30.00
3,797.00
95.00
100.00
836.00
2,240.00
680.00
700.00
1,700.00
75.00
230.00
585.00
845.00
305.00
85.00
100.00
100.00
50.00
1,941.73
25,728.76
$106,413.94 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS.
X 23
Table 13.—Pre-emption Records, 1948.
Agency.
Pre-emption Records
allowed.
Pre-emption Records
cancelled.
Certificates
ments
OF   IMPROVE-
ISSUED.
Number.
Ten-year
Average.
Number.
Ten-year
Average.
Number.
Ten-year
Average.
19
8
6
6
1
106
14
9
1
1
0.3
26.0
1.6
0.3
14.2
5.4
9.7
2.9
0.8
6.3
4.6
89.1
24.4
1.4
31.11
4.0
3.9
0.1
2.0
3.7
0.2
1
27
6
16
6
17
4
4
15
4
56
34
6
28
1
4
7
1.5
0.1
20.3
4.0
1.0
14.5
6.7
14.5
0.2
4.7
1.2
9.5
7.7
79.3
29.0
2.8
30.2
6.8
4.9
0.1
3.6
2.7
0.9
5
6
2
14
1
1
3
1
50
2
1
13
3
4
1
1
0.1
Atlin	
0.1
Clinton	
12.0
1 3
Fernie	
0.2
9 0
Golden	
1.9
9.1
0.4
1.6
0.9
5.8
3.4
59.6
16.1
Prince Rupert..	
0.5
16.7
2.9
2.9
1.5
2.4
Victoria 	
0.4
Totals	
171
232.0
236
246.2
108
148.8
Clearances furnished for timber sales over reverted lands, 402.
Clearances furnished for Gold Commissioners to lease reverted mineral claims, 294.
Sundry leases under the " Land Act":   Number of leases issued, 333;   area, 113,600.07 acres. X 24
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
oo
HH
w
o
m
as
co
H
«
o
Ph
w
o
>-<
Eh
o
w
Ph
CO
hH
Q
h3
H
HH
m
<
rH
cocMOJcot-     icoirjOTf^cMH^rP     :  co co
co 10    : m cm t- co •*#
CO    ip        :    v—<    rH   CN
O    CD    CO
cj  cm     :  m  *#  in ■
o     :  w 10 co ■*
CO   CM   CM   t-H   CM   T-t
oo cm     : cm m cm     ; cd cj
h ■* 05     :  CN oo <■#  m
tCCJH^t-HNCOOOiH       :   00   N   N   W   N       :   ij   N   a
m     ;  r-     icocoiiocj     : t- h  t* h  n     : co -* cm
in n  h     :cooj     :  cm  m -c*  cj
CM    CO    t-
(CN^MHlOt-C-liiJ
O p" J
.5   p*  FJ  F
u   <u   o   o
-   cd   cd   oj   oj
?^^g'
5J    >   -J   31
oj  o'pTh1  3  £  F, IS  tf  3
<!<!OUfefeOI4M^^rH^^aKtBfH>>i> REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS.
X 25
P5
<
B
B
P
02
HH
Oh
H
H
O
w
hH
Ph
<h
Eh
00 10
o "^
r-l ^
CD O
-*    CD    OJ   00   -i   w'.
CN    CM    H    OJ    ^    O
CO   O   CO   CM   CM
no
CO
Cr-
CM
cm m
( 1
C.J
ip
■«*
O
CO
rH
CM
CC
tH
0
T»l
r^
in
CCl
CO
CJ
^r
h-
CN
03
CO
■"1
IN
(tj
on
CO
01
"*tl
O
CO
CM
CM
N
^
in
0
00"
<■_/.■
r-
(N
,_,
on
CJ
CO
■*
■*
CJ
1-
r-
co
fN
r-
CO
CO
10
00
r-
rH
c--
10  10  t-  "*
CM   O   Tp   CO   CM
IO
eo
T-i
IO
<r>
1*
,_}
CO
1—1
CN
OJ
n
oj oj 10 co o co 00
tp co co c- o t-
cn ^;  ,_; • o co
cm   cm o  i-T co"
-#    O CM    CO    CM
oj in cm"
CM   O OJ
CD OJ
60^ W
t-   CD    t-   CM
IO   Tf    CO Tt< CO    CO    CO
00   CD C- CO   -*    IP
^ eo ui cd ."«* *"**
co 10 in co o
rH rH Tf*   CM   CM
10 co co"
t- •* CO CO
-tf CM CM IO
r-i  t- in -a
r-l IO rH CO CO
tH O CD Hsf i-H
"sfl O rH O t-
rH CD rH CM rH
fc- cd" in
I   -#   00 CO CM O    t-
OJ    CM r-l O CM    CM
'H   CM CO 00 M.  W.
r-1 CD CM O    CO
CO 00 CM CM    rH
CO    O CM CO CJ    O
in r-t c- cj co 10
53   Hi » d ». ".
IO CM rH 00    IO
t- CD t- rH    rH
lo6odriwl
t-    CD    rH   O    CD
O    CM    CO    CM    rH
■«*  CO* cm"
CM   IO   rH
CO    CO
€«■  Se-
t-COCO CJ rH CO
CO   "*    CM rH O CO
53   O.   id CO "* °i
t-   O t- rH t-
^f    IO CJ CM rH
C- IO CM IO t-
rH CM O O CD
id Oi CD «", *1
ffi N O f h
IO 00 CO CM CM
CO
Eh
n3
El
0
to
•Eh
a
F
43
X)
a
X
OJ
np
«h
Pi
cr
_0"
OJ
T3
0 -p
a; CJ
a 2? «
m    2 cd m
CJ        » 01 __       1H
hp   5h to 'd   a>
„   cd   bo 3 G x
s S £ g * -^ I
Hp    «   4-J    p cd fe  £
1 -2 S 2 I I *
O      D O H Z
■g «
fi Sh
3 S
HO
"° H.
v Z
3 "
CO HH
3 S
!:'<(
3 <!
CU    to
J%    8
^    »  TJ  -?
ft   if*   fe
s ?.
SL>
Ph
W     -H
QJ  "3
QJ 3 9 tl
HH W C CJ
Is .2 S g
3 qj ct; -3
10 60 Jo 3
QJ S? HH co
q  E 3 S  «
hH   <!   hH   O x 26 department of lands and forests.
Table 16.—Crown Grants issued, 1948.
Pre-emptions   121
" Pre-emptors' Free Grants Act, 1939 "  15
Dominion homesteads  4
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act "  59
Purchases (other than town lots)  812
Town lots   801
Mineral claims  101
Reverted mineral claims  55
Supplementary timber grants  8
"Dyking Assessment Act"  18
" Public Schools Act"  20
Home-site leases  13
" University Endowment Lands "  24
Miscellaneous  12
Total  2,063
Crown Grants issued for Past Ten Years.
1939  1,108
1940  1,155
1941  1,102
1942  1,134
1943  1,421
1944  1,528
1945  1,817
1946  2,203
1947  2,577
1948  2,063
Total  16,108
Ten-year average, 1,611. REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS.
X 27
Chart 2.—Crown Grants and Pre-emptions.
RECORDS                                                             .                                                                                                                                                                RECORDS
ISSUED                                                                                                                                                                                                                    A          ISSUED
c
RC
w
\1
GF
^Ar
nT
s
ZE80
F
>Rf
r-F
Al
f M
>1U
PT
IO
Nc
)
RECOP
DS 15S
JED OU
RING Tt-
i Twer
TY YE,
\R PERI
0D
1680
192
3 to 18'
8  INCLL
SIVE
1580
I4B0
1480
1280
/
1280
1080
cj2
N!i——'
GBP££_-S
1080
\
/
180
PR
coJjgSS
Si. ■
^to
*o$
80
CE
iTIFICfi
TES ft
MfigSS
JEMEN-
:- —
--'-
---..
-----
7^-
^\
---
jj^C;.
~
c
c
s
c
s
cr
u-
if
cr
S
cr
cr
5
**-
cr
v£
¥
Table 17.—Total Area deeded.
Pre-emptions 	
" Pre-emptors' Free Grants Act, 1939 "_.
Dominion homesteads 	
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act"	
Mineral claims (other than reverted)	
Reverted mineral claims	
Purchases of surveyed Crown lands (other than town lots)
Supplementary timber grants	
Total .	
Acres.
18,187.30
1,576.70
632.80
4,978.38
3,972.49
1,684.40
52,128.66
1,923.24
85,083.97
Table 18.—Acreage Land Sales, 1948.
Acres.
Surveyed (first class)  16,113.95
Surveyed (second class)  25,222.74
Surveyed (third class)  20,591.19
Unsurveyed ....	
Repurchases (section 134a, "Land Act").
Total	
61,927.88
28,272.20
80.00
90,280.08 X 28
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Table 19.—Home-site Leases (not exceeding 20 Acres).
(For Calendar Years as shown.)
Year Leases issued.
Leases
carried.
Rentals
received,
1948.
Total rentals
received.
2
2
3
8
2
10
11
8
6
11
13
25,
20
13
15
10
10
17
38
12
>
$30,264.06
1929..          :	
	
$13.75
5.00
25.00
44.25
29.00
65.80
67.00
46.70
41.83
69.50
85.00
191.50
121.66
94.30
110.00
54.25
89.11
120.15
287.02
85.25
1930                                                      	
1931                                                                          	
1932	
1933    	
1934..           ..      .                   	
1935                                   	
1936                                                                          ...                  	
1937...                     	
1938                                                                                     	
1939                                                                          ..                   	
1940	
1941	
1942	
1943                                                                      	
1944	
1945             .                   ...                  	
1946	
1947	
1948	
1,646.07
As at December 31st, 1948	
236
12
619.67
$32,529.80
Leases cancelled during 1948, 8.
Table 20.—Certificates op Purchase issued,
Agency.
Alberni J	
L948.
Number.
        87
Atlin	
1
Clinton                	
64
Cranbrook 	
111
Fernie 	
18
Fort Fraser
Golden	
Kamloops ___
Kaslo 	
Nanaimo ,	
Nelson	
New Westminster
Penticton	
Pouce Coupe 	
Prince George 	
Prince Rupert	
Quesnel 	
Revelstoke 	
Smithers	
Telegraph Creek
Vancouver 	
Vernon 	
Victoria 	
64
32
48
50
110
31
42
68
118
161
46
116
31
52
159
29
35
Total
1,452 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS. X 29
Table 21.—Coal Licences, Coal and Petroleum and Natural Gas
Leases, Petroleum and Natural Gas Permits, 1948.
Leases under the "Coal and Petroleum Act."
Number. Acres.
Leases renewed     17 8,588.00
Licences under the " Coal Act, 19 kU."
Number. Acres.
Licences issued       5 2,677.00
Licences renewed       6 1,938.00
Totals     11 4,615.00
Permits under the " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1947."
Number. Acres.
Permits issued (geological)     10       1,326,594.76
Permits issued (geological and geophysical)  Nil Nil
Totals     10       1,326,594.76
Applications for extension of permits       2 511,289.00
Applications for new permits pending       4 497,664.00
LAND UTILIZATION RESEARCH AND SURVEY DIVISION.
By Donald Sutherland, B.S.A., Director.
GENERAL.
Land, with the soil, minerals, water, plant and animal life of which it is constituted,
is recognized to be the basic asset of every national economy. But all land is not
adapted to settlement and agricultural development. Disadvantages of either climate,
topography, soil, or location have served to handicap many hopeful settlers, as shown
by abandoned farmsteads in almost every settled area in the Province. These stand as
mute witnesses of futile years of struggle and hardship before the final decision was
reached that odds against eventual success were too great. Yet such land will have
other important economic and social values, such as for forest and wild-life crops,
watershed protection, or scenic and recreational returns.
In order to direct settlement away from these unsuitable sites and to determine
the preferred optimum uses for the undeveloped lands of the Province, the British
Columbia Department of Lands in 1942 instituted a programme of systematic land
classification surveys, under the direction of F. D. Mulholland. The techniques of
land-utilization surveys were developed by Mr. Mulholland, and in two field seasons
176,000 acres of land were surveyed in the Nechako Valley and maps completed and
published in colour covering 136,000 acres within the surveyed areas. Following his
resignation in 1944, the surveys were discontinued. The Division was reconstituted,
and the writer, in February, 1946, was appointed as Director. Instructions were to
proceed with the classification of Provincial Crown lands and, from the available land
considered suitable for settlement, to prepare plans for the subdivision of these in the
form of economic farm units. X 30 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
SURVEY PROGRAMME.
The experience gained in 1946 and 1947, and the availability of a nucleus of trained
field-men, made it possible to expand the scale of survey operations in 1948. Eighteen
selected graduate and undergraduate students undertook the field programme laid out
for the season. The Faculty of Agriculture at the University of British Columbia was
represented by students specializing in soils, agricultural economics, and agricultural
engineering; the Department of Geography, by three graduate students; and the
Department of Forestry, by one student. The men were divided into three parties, each
of which, in so far as it was possible, contained one or more representatives of the
various fields of training in order to ensure a broad basis of approach to the complex
problem of determining preferred uses for land.
Parties were sent again to Prince George and the Peace River, each consisting
of six land classifiers, a party chief, a draughtsman, and a cook. The third party
operated in the Kootenays on a smaller scale of four men.
Previous to the departure of the parties, all members attended a special ten-day
short course held at the University following the close of the spring term. The course
was arranged under the direction of Dr. J. L. Robinson, head of the Department of
Geography, and professors representing the Faculties of Agriculture, Forestry, Science,
and Geography contributed their time and knowledge. An intensive series of labs and
lectures were presented to cover the various factors concerned in land-classification
technique and which was followed by three days of field-mapping at Langley Prairie.
This preliminary training period achieved the objectives intended by providing a broad
general background for the work, establishing uniform methods of survey procedure,
and shortening the initial shake-down period in the field.
As a result of the two field seasons, a total of over a million acres of land has been
classified and mapped in the three main settlement areas. Final map-sheets are in the
process of preparation, but their publication will await completion of the three extensive
areas under study. Acres.
British Columbia Peace River      323,000
Prince George       492,000
Kootenay       380,000
Total  1,195,000
In addition, some 50,000 acres of land have been surveyed as special projects in the
Pemberton, Fraser, and Okanagan Valleys, the Rock Creek-Midway area, the Peace
River, and in the Cariboo.
A special land-use survey was made, in May and June, 1948, of the Similkameen
Valley.
In conjunction with the field-mapping of each area, information was gathered on
past and present development, climate, communities, industries, transportation, and
markets. The most successful farm operators were contacted in order to be able to
recommend proven farming practices for similar undeveloped soils. The Crown lands
considered suitable for development were set out in economic units considered adequate
for conditions in the particular area under study. The amount of arable land for a
unit varied in accordance with the intensity of prevailing farming practices of from
10 to 20 acres under irrigation in the fruit belt to a 60- to 80-acre mixed farm in the
dairy areas, and up to 320 acres of mixed-farming land in the Central Interior and
Peace River. Individual report sheets were made out for each parcel of Crown land.
A sketch-map and suitable headings ensured that pertinent facts* were obtained
concerning soil, topography, cover, and location with respect to services and amenities.
A summary rated the comparative suitability of each parcel for settlement. The primary purpose of the surveys was to place the particulars of the available
and suitable units with the Lands Department for the convenience of the present
population and for the guidance of incoming settlers, and to reserve from present
settlement, land classified as unsuitable for farming.
SURVEY METHODS.
The land classifiers operated in pairs, covering as much of their area as possible
by car, and the balance, and which was usually the major portion, by foot traverse.
Areas selected for classification were restricted, where possible, to those which have
been soil-surveyed in order to make full use of the descriptions of the various soil-types
and of the soil-maps. Notes were taken and transposed on to base maps of the area
on a scale of from 2 to 4 inches to the mile, depending upon the detail required. From
the particulars of soil, slope, drainage, and stoniness, a determination was made of the
relative suitability of each parcel of land for settlement, forest production, or wild-life
habitat.
A series of maps were developed from the original base map. One of these showed
land-ownership by separating land privately owned or leased from that belonging to the
Crown. Another indicated the relative suitability of the land for settlement and a third
showed present development and use. In the Peace River area a fourth map was
prepared showing the degree and length of slopes on each parcel as a guide to the
control of water and wind erosion to which this valuable area is particularly liable.
Notes were also taken as to the availability of water and of the density and nature of
the tree and plant growth as a guide to the amount of timber on the land and a measure
of the probable cost of clearing and development. The men made full use of aerial
photographs, and stereoscopic study of these previous to each field traverse enabled the
elimination of land obviously unsuited for development and concentration of effort upon
that which afforded greater possibilities. As a means of getting over the ground, the
well-known jeep proved to be invaluable. Many miles of slow and difficult foot traverse
were saved through this small and tough mode of transport, to the great satisfaction
of those directly concerned.
Farmers in the three settlement areas under study face common problems associated
with distance from markets and the time and cost required to turn raw land into
productive soil. Other problems are peculiar to each district owing to the differences
in soil and climate, existing between every farming area in the Province. It would
appear that agriculture has developed as a series of compartments formed and separated
by the chain of parallel north and south mountain ranges, and cut through at irregular
intervals by the drainage system. This serves to increase the difficulty of establishing
uniform administrative policies, and certain recommendations have to be formulated
that are specific for conditions found in each area.
PEACE RIVER SURVEY.
The survey party in the agriculturally important Peace River operated under the
direction of John Chapman, who is an assistant professor of geography at the University
of British Columbia, a graduate from Oxford University, and a specialist in the study
of climate. This extensive settlement area has developed rapidly in the twenty years
since the railway reached Dawson Creek and particularly after 1940 in response to
higher grain prices and the vast expenditures of money contingent on the construction
of the Alaska Highway. Dawson Creek and Fort St. John have changed from hamlets
into modern towns. Grain shipments out of the Block approach the 3,000,000-bushel
mark, and, in addition, crops of quality sweet clover, alfalfa, and grass seeds have
found ready markets.    Larger farm incomes are represented by modern farm homes X 32 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
and buildings replacing the log dwellings and barns of a few years back. Farms of the
more successful operators have enlarged from the original quarter-section pre-emption
to holdings of a section or more, and labour reduced to a minimum by a full line of
modern machinery. The survey party found much in the country and the people to
impress them. Yet here and there signs were observed which would indicate that some
changes will be necessary in prevailing farming practices if the good crop harvests
are to continue indefinitely.
The party operated out of Pouce Coupe, and during the season maps were completed
of twenty of the surveyed townships south of the Kiskatinaw River. It will require
another season to complete the remaining townships south of the Peace River and to
conduct reconnaissance surveys into adjoining unsurveyed lands. The primary purpose
of preparing additional farm units out of the remaining Crown land within the townships surveyed was largely negative in results. The classifiers discovered that out of
the 323,000 acres mapped, less than one-third was Crown land and a great number
of the quarter-section parcels concerned were unsuitable for settlement either because
of inferior soil, unsuitable topography, unfavourable location, or high clearing costs.
This was not unexpected, since, in the thirty years since settlement commenced, the
available parcels have been picked over by succeeding waves of settlers. Few areas
anywhere consist of an unbroken, uniform expanse of level, fertile soil, for the quality
of land will vary within every area. Many of the available parcels consisted of quarter-
sections that have been taken up and abandoned by a succession of optimistic land-
seekers. Positive results of the survey will be achieved through listing and reserving
these unsuitable parcels from further settlement endeavours until the demand for land
warrants the development of the less suitable sites.
While time did not permit the classification of all the surveyed land south of the
Peace River, it would appear that in the townships classified, the greater part of the
black and first-class grey-wooded soil areas have been taken up. While small scattered
blocks of good undeveloped soils occur within the various townships, the only fairly
extensive, undeveloped area of good soil found was in the Henshaw Valley. This area,
at present, lies too far distant from community facilities to be recommended for
settlement.
Results of the survey point to the conclusion that if suitable farm locations are
to be made available for any large additional number of settlers, then new areas must be
surveyed and opened up for settlement. General inquiries indicate that the most
suitable and readily available extensive area of undeveloped first-class soil lies north of
the Peace River above Clayhurst, extending north and east of Fort St. John to the
Alberta Boundary. Other potential settlement areas are believed to exist between the
Peace and Pine Rivers, at Little Prairie north of the Pine Pass highway, and at Hudson
Hope. In addition, there are extensive areas which, though not suited to grain-
growing, would provide suitable grazing for live stock. It is believed also that there
are extensive areas of potentially arable soils to the north and west, but owing to
distances from markets development will depend upon the opening-up of the north-west
and complete development of suitable lands to the south.
The kind of agriculture which is adopted in a new area is nearly always dictated
by natural conditions, combined with the factor of location in respect to established
markets. Soils developed under grassland are generally adapted to grazing or to the
production of cereal crops and cultivated grasses, depending upon the available moisture-
supplies. Soils developed under various degrees of tree cover, and which are usually
low in native fertility, are suited to succeeding tree-crops or else to mixed farming,
which tends to maintain and to increase soil-fertility levels.
The black-soil areas of the Peace River which were developed under a grass cover
are limited in extent.   The soils in the greater part of the Block were developed under REPORT OF  SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS. X 33
tree cover ranging from poplar to black spruce. While the best of the wooded soils are
only slightly inferior for continuous heavy cropping to the black soils, the inferior
grey-wooded soils cannot be cropped continuously without a progressive reduction in
yields, but respond to mixed-farming practices, using fertilizers and rotations which
include the seeding-down of the land at intervals to legumes and grasses. Associated
with the adoption of crop-rotations is the keeping of live stock as a means of marketing
the legume and hay crops planted to improve the soil. Alfalfa for seed seems to do well
on the poorer soils, but it is not regarded as sound practice to develop land which is
dependent upon the production of a single cash crop.
Because of the distance of the area from established markets, agriculture is limited
to the production of crops which are shipped in a concentrated form, either as cereal
grains and other seed-crops or harvested, and fed and sold in the form of live stock
and live-stock products. This, in turn, implies the farming of a fairly extensive acreage.
The minimum economic farm unit for the Peace River is accepted to be the half-section
farm, of which at least one-half the acreage is arable, permitting the economic
employment of mechanical equipment.
Live-stock production and the adoption of more permanent farming practices is
hindered, at present, through the lack of convenient and adequate water-supplies. The
drainage system is generally from 300 to 1,000 feet below the general level of the land,
and therefore the digging of wells is costly and uncertain of results over the greater
part of the area. The construction of dugouts for water-storage, located to catch spring
run-off and seasonal rainfall, would appear to be the most practical method of providing
stock-watering facilities. Until a solution is found for the water problem, the adoption
of sound farming practices will progress very slowly. The soils of the area are
particularly liable to water- and wind-erosion damage, which the present indiscriminate
removal of tree cover is bound to accentuate. The occurrence of severe sheet erosion
through which the valuable top-soil is washed down the slopes, and the development
of deep gullies in many fields and along roadsides, indicates a situation that without
remedial measures will grow progressively worse. Extensive areas cleared of all cover
leaves the land exposed to the drying action of the wind, and in time, as the fibre content
of the soil is reduced through cultivation, soil-drifting may become a serious problem.
In addition to the adoption of sound farming practices, consideration should be given
to the maintenance of timber-strips as windbreaks, the preservation of tree cover on at
least 20 acres of every quarter-section as a wood-lot, and the maintenance of tree cover
on the steeper slopes and along watercourses, streams, and rivers. In view of the rate
at which tree cover is being cleared and burned off, it is not difficult to visualize the time
when wood for fencing, fuel, and building purposes will have to be brought into the
settled communities from distant points.
It is usual for people in newly developed areas to look upon their residence as a
transitional period, and any hardships and inconveniences are endured in return for the
opportunity provided of making a quick stake. This, outlook leads to resource exploitation and soil-mining. It can only be overcome through the development of settled communities where social and economic amenities are available in keeping with living
standards obtainable elsewhere. Contrary to popular belief by those not in the
industry, the majority of people are farming not as a " way of life," but as a way of
making the best living possible, and therefore farming is primarily a business enterprise. For this reason, any programme designed to encourage better farming practices
should include rural electrification, water-development, community and farm-home
beautificatioh, adequate schools and hospitals, and the availability of convenient areas
for sport and recreation. The expansion of local markets through the encouragement
of secondary industries is also an important phase of any long-term programme.
An aggressive policy designed to exploit the possibilities of the area as a tourist S   ^
'.I       fc
co   —
CJ     TO
U   ■£    D)
0)    E;    C   —
^-     -J   —   ~7~,
h   o -*   ft
£ -5   o   y
t "* J2   ?
<L>   >>    . U-
-i-S'-SP
nj
ra «   £   £   o
E.EhH.5
a
—
3
TJ
CJ
>
0]
c
a
OJ
OJ
o
CO
c
IE
O
CD
C
c
q:
3
o
0.
C
S-
o
"0
(0
"O
CTJ
CJ
JZ
CO
nj
5
2.
ra
CJ
u
CTJ
CJ
a. REPORT OF  SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS. X 35
attraction would return dividends over the years. The very name of the Peace River
and the presence of the Alaska Highway provides a source of interest and attraction
to people in the populated areas to the south.
In addition to classifying the townships south of the Peace River, the survey party
undertook to survey, as a special project, the former Indian reserve near Fort St. John.
This block of virgin land is being developed as a Veterans' Land Act project. Details
of each farm unit were mapped, and recommendations set out for the future development of the area. Over a period of years it will prove of interest to compare the
progress of this area with that which surrounds the reserve, and which has been settled
and farmed for a number of years.
PRINCE GEORGE SURVEY.
The decision to base a survey party in the vicinity of Prince George was influenced
by several factors. A soil survey and map of a block of over 700,000 acres of land surrounding the city was published in March, 1946. A party then would have the great
advantage of technical descriptions of the various soil-types occurring in the area and
their relative value for agriculture. A soil-survey map accompanying the report showed
the general location of the various soil-types.
The Central Interior contains extensive areas of soils which are potentially agricultural. Soil-surveys have classified over 1,000,000 such acres adjoining the Cariboo
Highway from Woodpecker north to Prince George, and extending to Summit Lake,
and west of Prince George along the Canadian National Railway to Terrace. Additional
areas of suitable land occur in the vicinity of the Upper Fraser River. Only a small
proportion of the available acreage has been developed, and there is opportunity for the
location of hundreds of farm families whenever additional farm settlement is warranted.
Prince George is particularly suited to development because of its central location,
both geographically within the Province and as a central point for Interior transportation facilities. The city is located at the junction of the Nechako and Fraser Rivers.
The Cariboo Highway links the city with the south, and to the east and west extends the
territory traversed by the northern branch of the Canadian National Railway, and by
the highway west to Prince Rupert. Extending northwards is the Hart Highway,
which is in the process of construction and which, when completed, will link Prince
George with the great Peace River. Eastward lies the fertile valley of the Fraser River
and additional possibilities for development whenever a road is completed to Jasper, and
connecting up with the Trans-Canada Highway and also with the North Thompson
Road. Keeping pace with developments within this great area, the city has become the
commercial and administrative centre of a territory which has unlimited possibilities
for further settlement and commercial expansion.
The survey party operated under the direction of Charles Howatson, a graduate
in geography from the University of British Columbia.
The group operated from a base camp which was shifted to new locations at intervals to minimize the amount of travel necessary between the camp and succeeding
working areas. An unusually wet season aggravated the problem of surveying a
densely forested area where visibility extended only a few feet in from the roadsides.
Plotted foot traverses, stereoscopic study of aerial photographs, and the availability of
" jeep " transport enabled the party to cover an extensive area with a minimum of time
and effort. Figures as to the location and number of available and undeveloped farm
units await completion of the maps and report.
The rate of development of agricultural land in the Interior suffers through comparison with that in the Peace River Block. Problems of disposing of farm products
through distant markets are common to both areas. Although the Prince George area
is closer to the populated coast cities, it is much more heavily forested and, in addition, X 36 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
the climate is not as favourable to the production and harvesting of cereal crops. The
area, while productive, is restricted to mixed farming, based upon the production of
coarse grains and live stock, legume and grass crops for hay and seed, and hardy root
and vegetable crops. Costs of clearing and bringing land into production are higher
than in the Peace River, and the majority of the farms are limited in the extent of
developed arable acreage. The present Government land-clearing policy is to be
greatly commended, since it enables present occupants to increase their cultivated
holdings.
The minimum economic farm unit for the area, as defined by W. J. Anderson in his
study of " Land Settlement of the Prince George-Smithers Area," was 63 acres of crop
land and ten productive live-stock units. Additional crop acres and live-stock units
would be necessary to provide a surplus for amenities beyond a subsistence level and for
expansion. Because of the time and cost required to develop forested land, farm units
in the area could well be established on a basis of 320 acres to enable expansion of crop
land to 100 acres or more, and with supplementary acreages for grazing and to furnish
forest products from wood-lots systematically managed and harvested to supplement
the farm income.
Problems of water-development handicap the trend toward mixed farming and livestock production. Well-drilling is costly and uncertain of results. Adequate dugouts
would appear to be the solution for stock-watering facilities over most of this area as
well as in the Peace River.
The rate of settlement should conform to the development of secondary industries
which would enable farm incomes to be supplemented by outside employment and at the
same time provide larger local markets for produce.
The extension of the Government land-clearing policy to enable pre-clearing of
settlement-sites would seem worthy of consideration. Returns from forested land following clearing are very small for the first two or three years. People coming from
Europe are able to bring with them only limited amounts of capital. The settlement of
people in large numbers on forested land under present conditions would almost certainly inflict a peasant type of farming upon the area. A minimum acreage cleared and
broken would be necessary before the new settler could hope to obtain any immediate
returns from the land, and, in addition, some sources of supplementary income would
seem essential in order to furnish the necessary capital with which to establish and
equip the farm holding. Opportunity has been afforded to supplement farm incomes
through the expansion in logging and sawmilling along the railway line. But the
present ready market and price-level may not hold up indefinitely. Other sources of
income should be developed to cushion the effects of any marked recession in the forest
industry. This might be accomplished through the more complete development of
present holdings, an aggressive programme exploiting the great attractions of the area
for tourists and for recreation, the establishment of secondary industries as part of the
forest-management programme, the availability of heavy clearing and breaking equipment to the new settler, a water-development policy to assist in well-drilling and dugout
construction, and the development of more suitable tillage and harvesting equipment to
meet the particular soil and climatic conditions occurring within the area.
There are vast possibilities for greater expansion in the Central Interior. Resources
of minerals, coal, and water-power are present. The forest industry is becoming stabilized with the adoption of a forest-management programme. Plants for the production
of wood pulp and veneer products are under construction, and will permit a more complete utilization of forest products. Present highway reconstruction will serve to facilitate travel and to boost the tourist industry. However, for permanent farm settlement
some way must be found to assist settlers with limited capital to clear and break forested land. Returns from such land are limited in the initial years and development
costs are high. REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS. X 37
KOOTENAY SURVEY.
Water for power and irrigation is the key to the full development of the arable
lands within the extensive Kootenay area. The Kootenays are unsurpassed in scenic
and recreational opportunities, but farm settlement has progressed slowly owing to the
lack of local markets and the cost of shipping farm products to the Coast. The Prairies
would seem to afford the logical outlet for farm production, but in selling on this market
Kootenay farmers must compete with the Prairie farmer operating larger acreages at
lower cost and located closer to the large Prairie cities.
The Kootenay farmer would necessarily have to go into crops giving him some
natural advantage over the Prairie farmer. This would imply intensive production on
fairly small acreages, and in the Kootenays, in order to do this, natural moisture-
supplies must be supplemented through irrigation.
The survey party in the Kootenays operated under the direction of Dr. D. B.
Turner, with Neil T. Drewry in charge of the survey party.
In 1947 a survey was completed of the highly productive Creston area. Implementation of those features of the report dealing with the development of suitable
remaining Crown lands in the area surveyed are contingent on the availability of water
for additional electric power and for irrigation.
In 1948 the main survey objective was to classify and map lands north of the
United States Border which offered opportunity for future irrigable development in
order to reserve adequate water-supplies for the full development of the potential irrigable acreage. It was felt that if this was not done, the time would soon arrive when
waters flowing from British Columbia into the United States would be fully utilized in
irrigation developments to the south, limiting any future development of irrigable areas
in this Province.
The party first completed a survey of the Similkameen Valley extending from the
United States Border to Princeton. A total of 42,000 acres was classified and mapped.
Out of the area surveyed, approximately 32,000 acres were considered potentially
irrigable.
In the latter part of the season the party was based at Elko. A start was made of
a survey which eventually will classify and map the extensive area included in the
Rocky Mountain Trench. The area completed this season extended from the International Boundary to Wardner in the Rocky Mountain Trench, and included the Elk
River valley from its point of entry into the Kootenay Valley, up-stream to beyond the
Village of Natal.   Approximately 321,000 acres were classified and mapped.
Within the surveyed area a special study was made of lands in the Kootenay River
valley which would be flooded on completion of the proposed Libby Dam in Montana.
At the present time this valley land furnishes the bulk of the winter feed for the livestock industry in the surrounding area. Removal of this source of feed would imply
that if the present live-stock population is to be maintained, a correspondingly productive area of bench lands will have to be brought under irrigation.
Specific conclusions and recommendations are withheld pending the extension of
the area completed to include a larger portion of the extensive land area included in
the Trench.
OTHER ACTIVITIES.
Reference is warranted to the successful first British Columbia Resources Conference held in Victoria, February 11th, and attended by 100 representatives of the
various resource fields included in the economy of this Province. The undertaking was
sponsored by the Honourable E. T. Kenney, Minister of Lands and Forests, and organized by G. P. Melrose, Deputy Minister of Lands, who acted as conference chairman.
Organization details were completed by Dr. D. B. Turner, Assistant Director of this X 38 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Division. Following the success of the initial undertaking, arrangements are being
completed to establish a permanent British Columbia resources organization, and a two-
day conference under the same sponsoring arrangements will take place in Victoria in
February, 1949.
During the year various meetings and conferences were attended which concerned
aspects of land utilization in British Columbia.
While the surveys were in progress, the various chiefs of party were brought
together with the directing staff. This served to co-ordinate survey methods and
enabled those in charge to compare conditions in the respective areas. It is hoped, as
a result of these meetings, to produce a survey manual to act as a guide to those participating in future surveys.
Full opportunity was taken of enabling members of the directing staff to visit all
of the main settlement areas of the Province. This was felt necessary if joint discussions were to take place in planning future survey programmes.
STAFF.
During the year little change was made in the permanent directing staff other than
through the appointment of Neil T. Drewry, B.S.A., an honour graduate in soils from
the University of British Columbia in 1948. The policy of using selected graduate and
undergraduate students from the University for the field survey programme is being
continued. The policy is of mutual benefit, since it enables the employment of a highly
trained group of field assistants at a minimum cost, while they in turn are provided an
opportunity to familiarize themselves with settlement problems in various parts of the
Province. The permanent staff at the present time is, as follows: Director, D. Sutherland, B.S.A.; Assistant Director, Dr. D. D. Turner, B.S.A., M.A., Ph.D.; soils specialist,
Neil T. Drewry, B.S.A.; senior stenographer, Mrs. D. Rawlinson; draughtsmen,
Lindley J. Roach, Thomas L. Curtis, and E. L. McDonald.
PROGRAMME FOR 1949.
It is anticipated that surveys will be continued in the Peace River and Kootenay
areas. In the Central Interior, plans are as yet tentative. Industrial development at
Prince Rupert and at Quesnel suggests that agricultural settlement might be directed
to land adjoining Quesnel and to the Fraser River benches south of that city, and to the
Terrace area, which will be directly affected by enlargement of the Prince Rupert
market, and by the success of present efforts to ship farm produce to supply Alaskan
markets. The flat, lightly forested lands lying in the Fraser Valley between McBride
and Dunster also warrant study as offering opportunities for additional agricultural
settlement and development. Completion of a highway between Prince George and
Jasper would attract many people into this productive area.
Future surveys include a greater stress being placed upon the securing of land-
productivity data. Classification through physical features should be supported by as
many records as possible indicating the actual productive capacity of similar developed
soils. It is planned to augment the directing staff with an experienced agricultural
economist in order to accomplish this objective. REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS. X 39
LAND INSPECTION DIVISION.
By H. E. Whyte, B.Sc, D.L.S., B.C.L.S., Chief Land Inspector.
During the past year no increase Was made in the number of Inspectors employed
by this Division, and hence necessary inspections were continued to be made by officials
of the Forest Service as well as by ourselves. This arrangement will have to continue
as long as the volume of work does not decrease or until the number of Land Inspectors
is increased.
As was the case last year, I was able to visit all the Inspectors, with the exception
of D. E. Goodwin at Pouce Coupe. I was accompanied on various inspections by F. 0.
Morris, Chief of Surveys Division; R. E. Burns, Assistant Superintendent of Lands;
and R. Torrance, assistant chief clerk of the Lands Department. These officials, by
contact with Government Agents, Assessors, and Registrars of Title, etc., were able to
assist in solving many difficulties and problems, and, in addition, gained first-hand
information regarding local conditions.
Various inspections were made personally throughout the Province as hereunder:—
Foreshore applications  27
Applications to purchase     5
Encroachment on Crown land     1
Resubdivisions  . !__    2
Original area of Crown grant     1
Home-site lease     1
Industrial leases     2
Valuations ;     2
The Lands Branch has been employing a small temporary staff which has been and
is engaged on checking and bringing up to date the land registers for the Prince George
Agency. A set of reference maps has already been statused by this staff and forwarded
to the Government Agent. This work, when completed, will be of invaluable help to all
concerned with Crown land in this area and will be continued for other Agencies in the
Province.
I would like to express my appreciation for the assistance and co-operation given
me by the Regional Planning Division, directed by Andrew Graham. This Division is,
I consider, doing excellent work in the replanning of old, improperly laid out subdivisions, etc.—one example being the Port Edward Townsite near Prince Rupert. The set
of plans compiled by this Division of the North Arm of the Fraser River, I am sure,
will be of invaluable assistance in setting up a properly planned development in that
industrial area.
The Land Inspection Division received full co-operation and assistance from officials of all other Government departments, which is greatly appreciated.
Reports of the Land Inspectors follow.
C. T. W. HYSLOP, B.S.A., LAND INSPECTOR, PRINCE GEORGE.
Inspections made:—
Applications for pre-emption records  14
Applications to lease—
Industrial   6
Grazing  6
Homesite   3
— 15
Applications to purchase .  74
Applications for free grants under the " Veterans' Land Act "     8 X 40 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Land Settlement Board lands  30
Land-use permits     2
Park sites and reserves     2
Annual pre-emption inspections  19
Inspections of lands and buildings (War Assets and Department
of National Defence)  10
In addition, several valuations of town lots were made and a considerable amount
of statusing done.
In May of this year a party of Mormon settlers, presently established in the Fort
St. James area, were shown a large tract of Crown land lying north of Stuart Lake.
These people are the vanguard of a group of families who are emigrating from Utah,
California, Colorado, and Idaho with the intention of establishing a Mormon settlement
in the Stuart Lake area.
Several immigrant families have taken up land in the Fort George District in the
past year, and considerable assistance and information regarding Crown lands has been
furnished them.
H. L. HUFF, B.S.A., LAND INSPECTOR, NEW WESTMINSTER.
During the year now ended I visited (at least once) all parts of my territory
between Boston Bar and Pender Harbour. In addition, a week-long special boat trip
was made north of Pender Harbour to the top end of Bute Inlet. The Columbia Valley,
Bute Inlet area, Pitt Lake area (to the north end of the lake) and the Squamish Valley
were the principal new areas visited this year.
The fullest co-operation was extended by the Forest Rangers in all areas visited.
The  degree  of co-operation  and liaison  between  R.  R.  Howay,  the  Provincial
Assessor, and myself, in so far as it concerns valuations, etc., requested by the Department, has been further developed.    This liaison has proven to be mutually beneficial.
During the year the following inspections were made and reports thereon submitted :—
Concerning leases for—
Foreshore purposes (industrial, booming, etc.)  33
Foreshore purposes (oyster-beds)     1
Home-site purposes      5
Quarrying purposes -     1
Industrial purposes      7
Concerning land purchases for—
Home-site purposes   25
Agricultural purposes (of various natures)  11
Industrial purposes      1
Camp-site or resort purposes     4
Concerning areas suitable for reserving for the use and enjoyment
of the public     4
Concerning subdivision cancellation and proposed subdivisions     2
Concerning examinations of Crown land acquired through tax
sale—
In the New Westminster Assessment District  14
In the Vancouver Assessment District  35
Concerning one-quarter interest reversions   (section 73,  " Land
Act ")   -     1
Concerning assessments, valuation, or lease rates     4
Pre-emption inspections   10
Letters written - , 175 REPORT  OF  SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS. X 41
In addition to the above, a report on all lands, and the timber thereon, at the head
of Bute Inlet was submitted to the Department.
The Government Agent's records show no appreciable decrease in the number of
demands for Crown land. Small areas suitable for home-sites or light commercial
purposes, such as tourist camps, are especially sought after.
From information available it would appear that the demand for developed farm
lands in the Fraser Valley has very noticeably weakened. Some real-estate men believe
that the per-acre price asked for developed farm land will have to drop by as much
as a third before the market revives. In contrast to this, the demand for " view " lots
or water-front lots, suitable for home-sites or summer home-site purposes, even at
some considerable distance from metropolitan Vancouver, is still great.
Water transportation is one of the main problems confronting this district.
Except for one special trip to Bute Inlet last spring, I was unable, this year, to carry
out inspections on the islands in the Gulf of Georgia or in that portion of my district
lying north of Pender Harbour. Water transportation even in Howe Sound may be
more of a problem next year than what it has been this year because the Forest Service,
due to the pressure of their work, may not be able to accommodate me.
D. E. GOODWIN, B.S.A. LAND INSPECTOR, POUCE COUPE.
Inspection-work in the Peace River Land District was done mainly by the
Pre-emption Inspector (D. L. Cornock) and myself. J. T. Stubley, Pre-emption
Inspector, retired on superannuation at the end of June. As a result of Mr. Stubley's
retirement, the additional work along the Alaska Highway was placed with this office.
At the end of 1947 there were approximately forty applications on file awaiting
inspection. As of the above date, there are approximately fifty applications awaiting
inspection, forty of which were not received until October and November of this year.
As shown by the above figures, the number of applications and the number of inspections in 1948 were almost equal.
All requests for inspections come to my office from the Commissioner of Lands,
Pouce Coupe. Duplication of filing is thus avoided between the Pre-emption Inspector
and myself, also it is a help in keeping status maps correct. The field-work is then
divided equally between the Pre-emption Inspector and myself. The plan followed this
past year was exactly the same as in 1947, that being the doing of new applications and
more or less holding annual pre-emption inspections in abeyance. In this manner the
applicant obtains the land with the least possible delay. Annual inspections were made
only if they were close when we were doing new applications or if the pre-emptor had
made an application for a Crown grant.
The season suitable for field-work was quite short this year due to the late spring.
It was not possible to travel on the side-roads until the beginning of June. Snow had
fallen by the middle of November, bringing an end to the field-work.
Transportation problems were eased considerably this year with the delivery of an
automobile the latter part of May. Other methods of transportation in making inspections included boat, horseback, and aeroplane.
In the months when field-work was impossible, two major tasks were completed,
the first being that of completing a status of the district. Reference Maps 43, 43a, 43b,
43c, 44, 47, 49, and 99 were statused. These maps are brought up to date once a week
from the records in the Land Office. These statused maps have been of considerable
help to prospective settlers looking for vacant Government land; that is, an applicant
comes to the office wanting to know what land is available in a certain district. I am
able to make out plots giving him this information, along with any other information
which may be obtained on file in the Land Office. The applicant must then make a
personal inspection of the available land to determine the most satisfactory for his X 42 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
particular purpose. If necessary, I am then called upon to make the inspection. After
this the only contact made between the applicant and the Inspection Division is by way
of annual inspections of pre-emptions. Of course, many inspections are made where
one never comes in contact with the applicant.
The second major task completed was that of compiling, in book form, a list of all
pre-emptions in the district. This is an aid in field-work only to the Pre-emption
Inspector and myself. The book contains information such as legal description of the
land, name of the pre-emptor, number of pre-emption, date of pre-emption, section filed
on under the " Land Act," file number, date of last inspection, and a column for
remarks. There are approximately 525 pre-emptions in the district, hence it is impossible for two men to make annual inspections as well as keep up with new applications.
As pre-emptions are continually changing—that is, cancelled, abandoned, new preemptions, Crown grants—the book must continually be brought up to date to be of any
value. This is done weekly, the same time as map-statusing, from the records in the
Land Office at Pouce Coupe.
The following is a summary of the number and type of land inspections made
during the year 1948:—
Applications to purchase     51
Applications to lease—
Grazing       9
Agricultural       2
Business        8
Home-site          5
Applications to pre-empt     29
Annual pre-emption inspections     32
Building evaluations  __.L      4
Total  140
The Clayhurst district, as in 1947, had the greatest number of new applications.
This was followed by the Bear Flat-Cache Creek district.
F. M. CUNNINGHAM, B.S.A., LAND INSPECTOR, NELSON.
Work done:—
Pre-emption inspections   40
Assessment and land valuations  17
Leases—
Foreshore    2
Grazing   4
Commercial   1
Hay purposes   1
Application to purchase—
Agricultural usage   46
Home-site purposes   27
Commercial (auto camps, etc.)  10
Wood-lot   2
Application to pre-empt  3
Flood claims   1
Inspections requested by Superintendent of Lands  42
Total  196 By the end of November, 216 requests for inspection of applications to purchase
or lease had been received in the Nelson office. I was able to do ninety-seven of these
inspections and managed to visit all the Forest Ranger offices, including Revelstoke,
which is in the Kamloops Forest District. The majority of my work concentrated in
the Cranbrook-Creston districts, as it did last year. Cranbrook, however, nearly
doubled its inspection requests over last year, while Creston dropped off slightly. The
next greatest amount of activity was registered in Nelson, Nakusp, Edgewood, and
Kettle River. In these latter districts, as well as in Cranbrook and Creston, the
majority of applications received were for home-site purposes, while throughout the
remainder of the Nelson district the requests were generally for land additional to
present holdings. There has been very little activity in the Elko, Arrowhead, Grand
Forks, and Fernie districts. I managed to inspect all but six of the pre-emptions in
this district, the Rangers having already done the six which I did not do. In all
probability I will take the pre-emption inspections off the Forest Service's hands altogether next year. Of the total of fifty-seven pre-emptions in the district, only forty-six
require yearly reports. Five pre-emptions have been cancelled and four new ones
allowed in the past eleven months. The majority of pre-emptions in my district are
merely home-sites for which purpose a 20-acre home-site lease would serve the purpose.
In some cases an attempt is being made to farm the area pre-empted, but at the most
only 10 or 15 acres are ever brought under cultivation.
Office-work.
I have found very little time for map-work in the past year, except for last January
and part of February. The most I have been able to do is mark on my maps the
inspections as I do them. I have undertaken to status two small areas for my own
information in conjunction with two reports which I have sent in.
Commentary.
Regarding assistance given to prospective settlers in this district, I can only say
that my assistance has been very limited. This is due to numerous reasons—the main
one being that very few settlers have settled around Nelson itself, where my office is
located. Secondly, the largest percentage of settlers have settled in the Creston district
and have purchased from private property-holders. As I have mentioned before, there
is little or no agricultural land left, except for that occupied by the Doukhobors. I have,
however, aided potential property-buyers, where possible, in the various districts I have
visited and have answered to the best of my ability numerous correspondence regarding
land purchases and land problems in general.
A. F. SMITH, B.S.A., LAND INSPECTOR, SMITHERS.
In the winter and spring months, when travel was difficult, a status was made of
the settled areas in the district. This status later proved to be of immeasurable value
in the field, particularly as an aid to locating some of the more-isolated parcels of land
and prospective settlement areas.
During the course of the year a number of inspections, valuations, and assessments
were made for the Government Agents, the Provincial Assessor, and the District
Agriculturist.
After land examinations in this district were up to date, the writer went east whenever possible and worked in the Prince George district. Throughout the year, full
co-operation was received from both the Prince Rupert and the Prince George Forest
Service personnel. X 44 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
The land examinations and inspections carried out during the year may be listed
as follows:—
Applications to purchase  43
Applications to lease  5
Applications for pre-emption records  3
Annual pre-emption inspections  11
Proposed subdivision plan cancellations  2
Reserves for the use of the public  3
Land and property valuations  8
The demand for Crown land in this district has been surprisingly small over the
last year. This is attributed to the prevailing high wages offered by the logging
industry in bush mills. This is illustrated in the influx of ten Mennonite families into
the Cheslatta area during the last three months; these newcomers from the Prairies
found work in the bush within a few days of their arrival. As yet they have not
applied for any land, although they came out with the intention of farming in this
district.
A number of settlers, most of whom are from the Prairies, have purchased land
privately, but, here again, the number of sales has been low.
It is felt by all those who are connected with the sale of land that, when the price
of lumber falls or the markets tighten, there will be a sharp increase in the demand for
both private and Crown land.
Assistance to Settlers.
A number of letters were written in answer to questions of prospective settlers,
but, of these settlers, only one, to the knowledge of the writer, actually came north to
look for land.    This man has now purchased a farm privately at Quick.
Assistance was given to two couples in their search for land. The writer drove
them around the area they were interested in and accompanied them over Crown,
reverted, and private land which they thought might suit them. One couple moved on
without purchasing, the other has settled in the Vanderhoof area.
Many of the Dutch farmers who settled in the Houston area during the thirties
now have sons looking for farms of their own. A number of immigrants sponsored
by these farmers are also seeking land. These men are now interested in finding a new
area large enough to support thirty families in which to start farming.
The writer and the District Agriculturist took a party of these prospective settlers
up the Kispiox Valley in June to examine Crown and reverted land. A block of approximately 2,000 acres of reverted land had been selected as being worthy of special attention. The Dutchmen were favourably impressed with the area, especially so after a
comparison of the crops on neighbouring farms with those in Houston had been made.
Later in the summer a larger party proceeded alone to the Kispiox and went over
the area more thoroughly. They reported to the writer and the District Agriculturist
that, although the area was suitable from the standpoint of climate and soil, they felt
that there was insufficient acreage for their needs. It might be as well to mention at
this time that the area has no direct road access at the moment; it lies approximately
1% miles from a Government road. Further, no assurance could be given the Dutchmen that the Government land-clearing machinery would reach the area within the next
two years.
The Canadian National Railways colonization agent recently informed the writer
that a party of Mennonites from Abbotsford would be coming north in the spring to
look for land, and suggested that they be shown this area in the Kispiox Valley. REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS.
X 45
L. D. FRASER, B.S.A., LAND INSPECTOR, KAMLOOPS.
Introduction.
This was a year of heavy spring floods and more than average rainfall during the
summer. Damage was caused to homes, farms, and crops in parts of the district.
Considerable damage was evidenced in the Okanagan, Salmon Valley, and Kamloops
areas in particular. Heavy rainfall during the summer hay season caused a shortage
of hay, particularly in the Cariboo, where some ranchers have had to sell down their
herds to a bare minimum to prevent last year's repetition of starvation due to the lack
of feed. Late this fall many meadows were still under water. Floods and rains
hampered inspection-work, as many roads were impassable until late in the season.
Land Settlement.
It is rather difficult to gauge just what assistance has been given to prospective
settlers in this district, chiefly because there is a very urgent need for readily available
information regarding suitable land for settlement. This information can only be
made accessible through statusing and appraising the land.
Most of the applications received are for expansion of existing holdings or for
members of resident families. To my knowledge, very few newcomers to the district
have settled on Crown land.
A trip up the North Thompson was arranged in company with Harry Bowman,
Canadian National Railways colonization superintendent, Prince George, and two Netherlands immigration officials. They are interested in bringing in groups of at least
twenty families to settle in colonies. The Little Fort district appealed to them, since
it lends itself well to dairy and mixed farming. Unfortunately, there is relatively no
suitable Crown land left between Barriere and Little Fort for large-scale settlement.
Crown land is preferred by these officials, since the purchase price is more in line with
the immigrant's pocket-book as compared with improved land. Now that a road is
opening up the country between Little Fort and the Cariboo, there should be some good
land available for settlement in that vicinity.
Pre-emption Inspections.
Table 1.—Pre-emption Inspections.
No. and Ranger District.
Preemptions
recorded.
Inspected.
Crown
grant.
Cancelled.
Outstanding.
7
9
7
9
22
14
14
6
9
2
6
58
66
18
6
6
13
5
7
7
4
*
4
9
12
3
9
1
6
18
25
13
6
2
4
1
....
....
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
....
1
1
1
1
6
1
2
■
3
5
17
4
7. Sicamous	
8. Revelstoke	
1
1
12. Clinton	
33
13. Williams Lake	
40
14. Alexis Creek	
4
4
18. Blue River	
13
19. Enderby	
Totals..	
277
134
8
15
125 X 46
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
It is interesting to note that the greatest number of the pre-emptions recorded are
concentrated around the Bridge Lake area in the Cariboo. That is north-east of Clinton
and east of Williams Lake. This is about the only area within this district that offers
the greatest opportunities for pre-emptions. Three of the 134 inspections were made
by the Inspector. There is approximately the same number of inspections outstanding
as last year.
Land Examinations.
Requests for land dropped 25 per cent, from the previous year in the eleven months
in which this Report covers. Judging from the number of people visiting this office and
other Government officials for information relative to vacant Crown land, I would say
that the slump, to some extent at least, has been due to the lack of available information
to satisfy the customer. Applications to purchase are in brisk demand. Most of these
are for small home-sites and farms.
There has been a heavy turnover of ranches in the past season, thereby creating a
very complex situation when dealing with lease renewals. It requires a lot of time and
diplomacy in some cases to arrive at a workable solution. A number of small holdings
have been taken over by large concerns. Some of this change is reflected in the feed
shortage. The majority of large ranches are located in several districts, enabling them
to move their stock where feed is available or to move the feed where it is most likely to
be needed. When these changes take place, it is something like a jig-saw puzzle trying
to settle protests and to find out how the " little fellow " is going to be affected. On the
whole, the cattle population will have decreased only slightly throughout the district
from last year; that is, the breeding stock will be down roughly 1,000 head through
heavy culling.
Table 2.—Land Applications.
No. and Ranger District.
Requests,
1948.
Examined,
1948.
Outstanding,
Nov. 30.
Carry-over
from
1947.
1.  Okanagan Landing	
6
7
21
39
29
7
13
12
2
15
15
65
75
27
69
17
5
5
7
7
32
54
25
6
12
12
4
9
15
82
62
26
72
■     14
5
6
1
13
37
4
1
1
3
6
4
32
36
12
6
7
1
2
24
52
3
2
10. Penticton  	
4
12. Clinton 	
49
13. Williams Lake	
23
11
9
4
18. Blue River...	
19. Enderby	
2
Totals	
429
450
164
185
Over one-third of the requests for land come from the Cariboo. It could be safely
estimated that at least half of these requests from the ranching country include grazing
leases. The gain of 31 inspections over the 429 requests brought the carry-over from
last year down to 185. Of the 164 outstanding requests for inspections, 67 are for
grazing and other leases, 79 applications to purchase, 14 pre-emptions, and 4 free
grants.    The Inspector made 84 of the 450 inspections, as follows:— REPORT  OF  SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS.
X 47
Leases—
Grazing J
Foreshore
49
1
Home-site   1
Gravel-pit   1
Mill-site   1
Watershed   1
Total, covering 68,941.23 acres  54
Purchases—
Home-site   ■     3
Farming   10
Grazing      7
Wood-lot      1
" Veterans' Land Act " grant     1
Lodge      1
Total, covering 2,589.09 acres  23
Others—
Pre-emptions  .     3
Community  -.   	
Recreation     1
Park reserve     2
Land Settlement Board appraisal     1
Total, covering 1,039.30 acres     7
Grand total, covering 72,569.62 acres  84
Two grazing leases alone constituted over 26,000 acres.
Flood Claims.
The necessity for immediate action in rehabilitating those people who were unfortunate in having their homes and farms damaged by the floods required the services of
the Land Inspector to aid other Government officials in coping with the increasing
demand for assistance. The Land Inspector assisted with 101 claims out of the 390,
or more, received in the Vernon, Kelowna, and Kamloops areas. The above claims did
not include the City of Kelowna, which presented its claim on its own behalf. A number of claims were from farmers on the outskirts of Kelowna, but to my knowledge the
greatest damage occurred along.the Salmon River near Salmon Arm. North Kamloops
suffered its share of the damage.
Summary.
Even though the Land Inspector was handicapped somewhat during the season by
road conditions, influenced by the unusual spring floods and heavy summer rainfall,
over 72,500 acres of land were inspected in eighty-four examinations. This included
fifty-four leases, twenty-three purchases, three pre-emptions, one community recreational centre, two park reserves, and one land appraisal. Besides the actual requests
for land examinations, several appraisals of vacant Crown land were made to ascertain
their suitability for settlement.
Apart from land inspections, 101 flood claims were investigated.
To my knowledge, very few newcomers have settled on Crown land. The majority
of requests are for expansion of existing holdings or members of resident families. X 48
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
This could be taken as an indication, including new settlers being provided accommodation by subdividing existing properties, that the lumbering industry, which has been
to a great extent the stabilizing factor in the economy of the district, is tightening up
and people are beginning to look for a more stable means of livelihood. The high-rent
factor and cost of living in the cities is also encouraging a movement to the land.
I am happy to say that there has been very helpful co-operation from all departments of the Government in all phases of my work. With the continuation of this
environment, and the assistance of the Government land-clearing units, no difficulty is
anticipated in settlement as the land is made available.
LAND SETTLEMENT BOARD.
By Clara Stephenson, Secretary.
The Land Settlement Board was formed in the year 1917 under the provisions of
the " Land Settlement and Development Act." Having for its main purpose the promotion of agricultural production, it was empowered to advance money to farmers by
way of loans secured by mortgage. On the formation of the Canadian Farm Loan
Board in 1929, this phase of its operations was discontinued. It was also empowered to
purchase, develop, and colonize lands considered suitable for settlement and to declare
settlement areas, which are located in the Bulkley Valley, Nechako Valley, and the
Upper Fraser River valley, Prince George to Quesnel. The purpose of these areas was
to encourage settlement of a district, the progress of which was being retarded by
reason of lands being held for speculation. Only tracts which were found, after careful
inspection, to be suitable for agricultural or pastoral purposes were included in a
settlement area.
Development areas were also established at Merville, near Courtenay, in the Comox
district, Vancouver Island; at Camp Lister; and in the vicinity of Fernie, in the
Kootenay District. Settlement in these areas was confined to returned soldiers from
the First World War. Vacant Board lands in these areas are now available to any
bona-fide settler.
The Board has also under its jurisdiction the administration of the former Douk-
hobor lands, which were acquired by the Government under authority of the " Doukhobor
Lands Acquisition Act " of 1939. These lands are largely occupied by Doukhobors on
a rental basis, but are reserved from sale at the present time.
The Board's balance-sheets will appear in the Public Accounts of the Province, as
in the past. The following is a brief summary of the Board's activities and collections
for 1948 :—
During the year the sales made by the Board amounted to $51,848.20; fifty-four
purchasers completed payment and received title deeds, and thirteen borrowers paid up
in full and received release of mortgage.
Collections.
Loans  . : .  $21,639.58
Land sales <  62,350.97
Dyking loan refunds, etc  13,831.50
Doukhobor lands—
Rentals   8,404.84
Sales   3,224.07
Total  $109,450.96
Total proceeds received from the sale and leasing of Doukhobor lands to December
31st, 1948, amounted to $94,089.14. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 49
SURVEYS BRANCH.
By N. C. Stewart, B.A.Sc, D.L.S., B.C.L.S., P.Eng., Surveyor-General.
The work of the Surveys Branch has increased tremendously during the past year,
due chiefly to the expansion programme started two years ago and to the taking-over
from the Forest Service the work of their base-map section. Splendid office space was
obtained in the west wing of the new office building on Superior Street for the Air
Survey and Topographic Divisions.
The personnel of the Surveys Branch now numbers 113—Air Survey, 38; Topographic, 25; Surveys, 25; Geographic, 22; General Administration, 3. In 1946 there
were only 43. It is thought that there will not be a further large increase in staff
during next year as the organization is now about complete. However, certain requests
from other departments for mapping service, similar to that being provided for the
Forest Service, if acceded to, would necessitate a further increase in personnel in our
mapping sections.
During the summer the Air Survey Division, using two rented planes, covered by
vertical photography 24,000 square miles, and 4,000 lineal miles of trimetrogon photography, a slight decrease in comparison to work done in 1947, due entirely to adverse
weather conditions, which not only affected the Air Survey, but all other surveys undertaken this season by the, Surveys Branch. The Royal Canadian Air Force, using more
and better flying machines, covered approximately 63,000 square miles of the Province
by vertical air photography. The combined coverage, amounting to 87,000 square
miles, if continued each year, will complete the vertical air photography of this Province
in five years. The Air Survey Division is now almost completely organized to carry
out all aspects of air survey, from the repairs and calibration of cameras and other
instruments, flying operations, processing of the film, printing and making enlargements from the negatives, indexing, and to mapping from the photographs. In areas
of sparse ground control, the slotted-templet method of plotting is now being used in
this Division.
The acquisition of accurate plotting machines like the Multiplex projector is
urgent. A study is also being made of the feasibility of purchasing aeroplanes suitable
for the work of the Air Survey Division, for it is thought that having our own aeroplanes would decrease operating costs. The report of G. S. Andrews, chief of the Air
Survey Division, is appended.
The Topographic Division sent six parties into the field, but, on receipt of an
urgent call from the Dyking Commissioner, one party was recalled and transferred in
a unit to give much-needed technical help to the dyking authorities in the great flood
of this year on the Fraser River. It will be noted in the reports of the other topographic surveyors that their parties worked on the dykes until the emergency was over.
Approximately 2,200 square miles were controlled by the topographic field parties,
and the compilation of the maps is proceeding. These maps are contoured standard
1-mile sheets of a high order of accuracy, which receive numerous favourable comments
from other mapping agencies.
During the year a new survey camera, using films instead of plates, was designed
and tried out. Its advantages over the plate camera are due to its lightness and to
ease of loading.
A trial was made of the helicopter as a means of transporting men and equipment
to mountain stations. Also, in an effort to speed up field-work, supplies were successfully parachuted from an aeroplane to timber-line camps.
A. J. Campbell, acting-chief of the Topographic Division, retired on superannuation at the end of June. A. G. Slocomb, B.C.L.S., senior topographic surveyor, was
appointed to this position. X 50 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Mr. Slocomb's report and that of the five topographic field surveyors are appended.
F. 0. Morris, chief of the Surveys Division, in his report, which follows, states that
his Division has had a very active year, due to the great number of Crown lands and
subdivision surveys made by surveyors in private practice, and also to the work of an
increased number of private surveyors employed by the Surveys Division on Government surveys.
R. E. Chapman, B.C.L.S., was appointed to the staff of the Surveys Division to
aid in checking surveyors' field-notes and to make inspection surveys.
An increase in staff is required in the Surveys Division to keep up with the work,
for certain essential tasks are now being temporarily set aside, so as to take care of
more urgent work. Although it is now possible to obtain new men, additional office
space near the vault is not to be had, and this is a prime necessity if efficiency is to be
maintained.
The report of W. G. H. Firth, chief of the Geographic Division, also indicates an
increase in the work undertaken, and to the need of a few more draughtsmen, but, like
the Surveys Division, no office space is available.
The liaison between this mapping division and those at Ottawa has been very satisfactory, five new maps having been printed during the year by the Geographical Section
of the Department of National Defence from manuscripts supplied by us. A change
in mapping policy has been instituted. From now on all maps to be printed will conform to the National Topographic Series, instead of the present publications such as
pre-emption maps, which were usually based on cadastral surveys and access. The new
method will simplify filing and will conform to the maps compiled and published at
Ottawa.
A. J. Campbell, D.L.S., B.C.L.S., under instructions from the Boundary Commission, continued the survey of the boundary between British Columbia and Yukon Territory, completing the gap between the 1946 and 1947 surveys, a distance of 36 miles
(see report). During the summer F. H. Peters retired from the Boundary Commission
and was succeeded by Bruce Waugh, now Surveyor-General at Ottawa.
The investigation of the country immediately east of the Coast Mountains was continued north from Telegraph Creek to Atlin Lake. It was planned to photograph this
area by the trimetrogon method, but poor weather prevented the completion of the
project. However, control for the expected air photos was obtained by R. Thistle-
thwaite, D.L.S., B.C.L.S., by establishing the positions of sixteen points by astronomic
observation (sets report).
The writer made inspection trips to the Prince George area and the Alaska Highway in June. With the chief of the Air Survey Division a visit was made in July to
the topographic survey party in charge of G. C. Emerson, B.C.L.S., at Chilliwack,
when the helicopter was being tried out. In September a flight was made from White-
horse through Atlin to Telegraph Creek following some of the routes proposed for a
highway to the Yukon immediately east of the Coast Range. From Whitehorse the
return journey was made by bus down the Alaska Highway to Lower Post, where
A. J. Campbell was visited. Farther down the road Mr. Pollard and Mr. Wolfe-Milner,
surveyors employed by the Surveys Division, were likewise visited.
In 1851 instructions were issued by the Hudson's Bay Company to Joseph Despard
Pemberton, a colonial surveyor of wide experience, to survey certain sections of Vancouver Island. A copy of these instructions may be seen in the Provincial Archives.
After telling him where his surveys were to be made, the instructions read in part
as follows:—
" In making your surveys you will keep in view that they will form the material
or groundwork out of which an accurate map of the Island is afterwards to be constructed on the principle stated in the memorandum prepared by you, and as the main REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 51
object for which these surveys are undertaken is the colonization of the Island, you will
be careful to note the external features and geological formations of the several localities which you examins, mentioning the nature and qualities of the soil and subsoil,
the different kinds of timber and other vegetable productions and, in short, all such
particulars as it may be useful for settlers to be informed of."
Thus was started a system of surveying and mapping in British Columbia, mapping based on information obtained while making cadastral surveys. This method was
continued until 1914, when a division known as the " Photo-Topographic " was formed.
This Division commenced mapping as a work in itself, placing parties in the field to
establish control by triangulation and ground photography and compiling manuscripts
in the office during the winter months. The resulting maps are of a very high standard, but the areas mapped each year were far below the requirements, even from the
commencement of this Division.
A new tool that greatly added to the speed of mapping was invented during the
First World War—air photography—and a fourth division (which actually had its
beginning in the Forest Service in the years between the wars), known as the "Air
Survey Division," was added to the Surveys Branch in 1946. This Division not only
takes care of the Provincial air photography, but also is producing interim maps, which,
although not equal to the standard set for the Topographic Division, nevertheless take
care of the present requirements of many departments of the Government. The Forest
Service alone requires from us a coverage of this type of map of approximately 10,000
square miles per year. Other mapping requests will add an additional 5,000 square
miles per year.
The Air Survey and Topographic Divisions, together with the Geographic Division,
are purely mapping components of the Surveys Branch, which have been built up to
considerable strength during the past two years in an endeavour to meet the demand
for the proper mapping of the Province. Modern air transportation provides access to
what was, not so long ago, practically unknown territory; developments during the
war, like the Alaska Highway and various airports, have added new areas which need
to be mapped. The activities of new large-sized industries often reach into unmapped
areas. Agriculturists and others are investigating areas that will provide home-sites
and farms for the influx of new settlers—all these areas should be mapped. The
expansion of our mapping services is justified.
Although since the war there has been an increase in cadastral surveys due to the
same causes, the mapping divisions are demanding a great deal more administrative
effort than the Surveys Division. As the qualifications required for the head of the
mapping divisions is decidedly dissimilar to those of a Surveyor-General, whose^ duties
are woven into so many of our Acts, and as it is very unlikely that any one person
would have all of these dissimilar qualifications, it has been decided to change the title
of the head of the Surveys Branch to suit present requirements to " Director of Surveys
and Mapping " and to appoint a Deputy Director to aid in the administration of the
Branch.
AIR SURVEY DIVISION.
By G. S. Andrews, M.B.E., B.Sc.F., P.Eng., B.C.R.F., F.R.G.S.,
Chief Engineer.
The year 1948 marked considerable expansion in personnel and activities of the Air
Survey Division, with improved accommodation and amplified equipment. The amount
of new country photographed was somewhat less than was covered last year, and unit X 52 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
costs were slightly higher due to unfavourable weather—even worse than that experienced in 1947. Poor weather more than offset the normal increase in field efficiency
due to improved organization, equipment, and experience. It is believed that the Air
Survey Division is already on the threshold of recognition as a permanent and important
contributor to the economic life and growth of British Columbia. Certain problems of
staff, accommodation, equipment, and techniques still remain to be embraced in the
new year.
ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION.
A highlight of interdepartmental co-ordination was ignited last April, when, by
arrangement between the Deputy Minister of Lands and the Deputy Minister of Forests,
the work and personnel of the Forest (Air Photo) Base Maps Section was transferred
from the Forest Service to the Air Survey Division. The transfer involves a total of
eighteen persons, as follows: One Assistant Forester (in charge of Forest Base Maps
Section) ; eight Technical Forest Assistants, Grade 2; six Technical Forest Assistants,
Grade 1;   and three Junior Draughtsmen.
The Assistant Forester, William Hall, M.C., B.A.Sc, B.C.R.F., on transfer, was
given the new appointment "Assistant Chief Engineer" of the Air Survey Division, and
admirably fills the need mentioned in my report of last year. He brings to the Surveys
Branch an enviable reputation as an air-survey engineer, a professional forester, a
soldier, and a pioneer in the application of air photogrammetry to mapping and stocktaking of forest resources in this Province.
In accepting this very valuable addition of personnel from the Forest Service, the
Air Survey Division also accepted the responsibility of preparing from air-survey
photographs all the base maps required for the forest-surveys programme, not only at
the current rate of 3,000 square miles per year, but to step up the output to 9,000 square
miles per year by 1950. These maps are the " interim " type of map at 40-chains-per-
inch scale, about which further details appear in a later part of this report.
A new and much-needed part of the Air Survey organization was initiated in
March with the appointment of an instrument-maker, and the setting-up of a small
instrument-shop during the ensuing months.
With an increase of staff from ten people at the end of last year to the present total
of thirty-nine, a significant proportion of whom had no previous experience in the
specialized work of the Division, it became emphatically evident that we could not afford
to be without the services of anyone with proven technical and supervisory ability in air
surveys. We were therefore fortunate, last November, in having A. C. Kinnear,
B.C.R.F., return to employment in the Department, as air-photo analyst. Mr. Kinnear's
experience in photogrammetry in the pre-war air-survey section of the forest surveys
and in army air-photo intelligence in the Mediterranean and North-west European
theatres of war will be invaluable in helping to co-ordinate quality with quantity in
activities of the Division.
During the year the Division has not escaped its growing pains, a large amount
of time and energy had to be diverted from the technical and functional aspects in order
to build up the increased staff organization through negotiations with the Civil Service
Commission.
The following new positions were authorized in 1948: Chief Engineer (Air Survey) ; Assistant Chief Engineer (Air Survey) ; Air-photo Analyst; Chief Processing
Technician; Chief, Air-survey Flying Detachment; Air-survey Pilot; Air-survey
Technician; Instrument-maker (Air Survey) ; Technical Survey Assistant, Grade 4;
Technical Survey Assistant, Grade 3; Technical Survey Assistant, Grade 2; Technical
Survey Assistant, Grade 1. Only a few more vacancies remain to be filled, and one or two new positions to be
authorized to round out the structure. It is then proposed to stabilize on personnel
until the Division machinery is well broken in, after which an estimate of the established output may be used as a sound basis for such further expansion as may be found
necessary.
AIR-SURVEY FLYING OPERATIONS.
The deployment of flying effort and the general technique followed the broad
pattern set in 1947—namely, two aircraft detachments, one of which specialized on
vertical photography, the other on tricamera photography, with incidental vertical
assignments.    The weather was again the chief encumbrance to accomplishment.
Snow-survey Photography.
In connection with the snow surveys for pre-run-off flood prediction by the Water
Rights Branch, an attempt was made to synchronize a tricamera photo flight with the
ground measurements of snow at the end of February, March, and April. These flights
were to give oblique and lateral photo-cover of the same mountain ranges on which the
ground samples were taken. It was also specified that the photography should be timed
within a three-day margin of the ground sampling. The flight was to follow a course
to take in the heights-of-land to the west and east of Okanagan Lake. The photos were
to be studied with the object of applying the criterion of snow-line and snow density as
portrayed, and correlated to known conditions at the ground " sampling courses," to
adjacent areas by extra- and inter-polation. Although the tricamera aircraft, camera
installations, and crews stood by during each monthly sampling period, not once was
the weather suitable for a flight, although ironically during the middle of each month
sufficiently good photo weather occurred but had to be ignored because of the timing
specification. This experience confirms that, particularly for any type of high-altitude
air-photo reconnaissance, the technique of applying the photo intelligence must be such
that photos taken at the nearest weather opportunity before or after the specific date
will suffice, even if as much as two weeks " out of phase " with the optimum date. It is
simply impracticable in British Columbia, winter or summer, to hazard with any percentage of luck that a high-altitude photo flight may be made within a two-week margin
of a set date, due to our climate.
1948 Floods.
As preparations anticipating the normal flying season were almost completed, it suddenly became evident during the week-end of May 29th and 30th that the flood situation
in the Lower Fraser River valley had reached emergency proportions. The value of an
air-photographic record was realized, and a tricamera flight from the Strait of Georgia
to Hope was therefore made the next day, Monday, May 31st. This flight was at 17,000
feet above sea-level to try to include most of the river in the central vertical camera.
A full set of these photos, 176 in all, were dispatched to headquarters of the British
Columbia Flood Control Authority, Vancouver, on June 9th. Three succeeding tricamera flights of the same area were from 10,000 feet on June 5th and 27th and
July 14th. Photos from the flight on May 31st showed the waters pouring through the
Matsqui dyke, which had just broken earlier that day. A comparative view exposed
June 5th shows complete inundation behind the same dyke.
On June 7th a tricamera flight over the floods in the Interior was made, covering
the following " hot spots ": East Kootenay Valley, Canal Flats to Gateway, 17,500 feet
above sea-level; Lower Kootenay Valley, Creston to Bonners Ferry, 17,500 feet above
sea-level; Columbia River at Trail, 5,000 feet above sea-level; Similkameen River at
Hedley, 5,000 feet above sea-level; Similkameen River at Princeton, 5,000 feet above
sea-level. The value of the tricamera method of photography for emergency cover was well
demonstrated in the above instances. To have " covered " the areas exclusively with
vertical photography would have involved approximately three times as much flying,
and in consequence would have increased the adverse " odds " for weather opportunity
by the same multiple. In other words, the tricamera method enabled the emergency to
be " contained " by air-photo record in the very brief opportunity which our climate
somewhat grudgingly offers. It might have been well-nigh impossible to have finished
the job at all, while the floods were at their peak, with vertical runs, due to weather
interference. It was also possible, by flying at a suitable height, to include practically
90 per cent, of the inundation in the vertical photos of the central camera. The balance,
being contained in the foreground of the obliques, was shown at comparable scale. The
few vagrant lateral irregularities extending some miles off course were also contained
in th3 obliques. Special time- and weather-consuming runs would have had to be made
to have included these by purely vertical photography. The flood pattern, by nature a
level feature, is comparatively easy to map from obliques. Finally, a flood emergency
implies a great deal of negotiations between all the various authorities—international,
federal, provincial, municipal, and private interests. The oblique views characterizing
the tricamera method provide ideal illustrative material for appraisal and appreciation
of " what happened," especially by lay people who necessarily make up a significant
proportion of these negotiating bodies.
Basic Vertical Cover.
Detailed areas and costs may be found in the appendices. High-altitude vertical
photography (photo scale about %ifiso) covered a total of 21,350 square miles of new
country, mamly between the 120th and 140th meridians, from Hope north to Williams
Lake, with a few small outlying tracts—namely, West Kettle River, Knight and Bute
Inlets, and Stuart Lake. The policy was to work toward closing the unfinished areas
between the southern parts of the Province and the 53rd parallel of latitude. (See
Appendix 5.)
The unit cost of this work averaged somewhat higher than that of last year, $1.52
per square mile (as compared to $1.36), due partly to increased costs, but mainly to
adverse weather. Considerable expenditure is necessary to maintain the flying detachments in the field whether or not the weather provides the normal opportunity to get
on with the work, and poor weather leads to a higher proportion of dead-head flying in
search of cloud-free spots where some photography can be done.
Basic Tricamera Photography.
Exclusive of tricamera runs in connection with the floods already mentioned, and
of special low-altitude projects, a total of some 2,500 lineal miles of this type of photography were flown over widely separated parts of the Province. Here again, weather
seriously interfered with operations. (The 1947 total was 6,400 lineal miles.) In
general the network begun the previous year was intensified and extended. The tricamera traverses over potential Westerly Routes for a Highway to Yukon, which terminated last year at the Stikine River, were extended northward to the Yukon Boundary
at Teslin Lake. A flight of unusual interest was made along the British Columbia-
Alaska Boundary from Tarr Inlet (Glacier Bay) to the extreme north-west corner of
the Province, vicinity of 139° west and 60° north. Photographs of this flight reveal
the geography of one of the least-known parts of British Columbia and are classics in
the delineation of glaciers and ice-drainage. Two very useful runs on the southern
coast were completed—one along the west coast of Vancouver Island from 10,000 feet
above sea-level, especially to give the topographic surveyors a useful " on shore " view REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
X 55
of the seaward hills and slopes. The other was a run down the straits between Vancouver Island and the Mainland from Smith Sound to Howe Sound. This flight tied in
others coming down the various inlets to the Coast from the Interior. It contained all
the triangulated peaks on Vancouver Island in the south-west obliques, and in the opposite obliques shows the Mainland to the north-east over an extensive unmapped area of
the Province, now coming into prominence in connection with plans for water-power
utilization and for forest surveys.
PRINCE GEORGE.
Miscellaneous Operations.
Two low-altitude tricamera projects were completed for the Water Rights Branch,
namely: (1) On the Fraser River, Prince George to Quesnel, and Williams Lake to
Lillooet, from 5,000 feet above sea-level, and (2) the Kettle River-Mission Creek diversion scheme, from 6,000 feet above sea-level. These are to assist intensive large-scale
contouring surveys.    The aircraft course was set to include, as far as practicable, the X 56
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
main river (or route) in the vertical photos, with the obliques reaching out laterally to
pick up available outlying survey control, as well as important tributary valleys or
features which might flank the main route of the survey. As indicated in my report
for last year, it is possible to correlate, mathematically, into a rigid integrated unit any
or all rays from the air station contained in any or all three photos from that air
station. This provides a very strong, wide-reaching, and flexible photogrammetric
device for tying into established survey control, and correlating with it all the detail
information along the route recorded in the photos—drainage, topography, cultural
features, etc.
.■fall
-
Uf Iff
QUESNEL.
Our usual practice of taking low-altitude vertical photos of towns and settlements
which could be reached conveniently in the course of flying for main projects was
continued. In this way the following places are covered with large-scale vertical
photography from 2,000 feet above ground: Ashcroft, Chilliwack, Courtenay, Duncan,
Hedley, Hope, Kamloops, Keremeos, Merritt, Oliver, Osoyoos, Penticton, Prince George,
Spences Bridge, Summerland, Trail.    At the request of the Water Rights Branch a REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 57
special flight was made to the head of Bute Inlet to obtain similar cover of possible
townsites at the mouths of Homathko and Southgate Rivers.
At noon, June 8th, a special mosaic of the Victoria metropolitan area was made
from 5,000 feet above sea-level at an extreme low tide for the year. On every alternate
strip of this project, tricamera obliques were synchronized with the vertical camera,
and on the other alternate strips a second vertical camera containing infra-red film was
synchronized with the routine vertical camera which contained standard panchromatic
film. This project provided a new detailed mosaic of our capital city, with a maximum
of offshore hydrographic detail of interest especially to navigators of small craft. It
provided material for comparative studies between infra-red and standard panchromatic emulsions, within easy reach of head-office personnel. It also yielded an excellent
set of scenic oblique views of the area.
A roll of ektochrome colour film was exposed experimentally from the air and
processed in our own plant. A fair range of conditions was tested on this roll, which
yielded about 100 exposures. Verticals from various heights, obliques, and several
filter and exposure combinations were tried. While detailed interpretative studies have
yet to be made, the following conclusions have been drawn from a cursory review of
the colour photos:—
(1) Due to slow speed and narrow exposure latitude, colour film must be given
full exposure under optimum light conditions. In other words, for general use, compared to standard black-and-white photography, a high percentage of failures must be anticipated, unless photography is restricted
to a very narrow set of light and weather conditions.
(2) The costs of photo materials are about five times greater than with
standard panchromatic film.
(3) The film is not adaptable to ordinary mass production of reprints and
enlargements.
(4) Specification of exposure, filters, etc., to match chromatic character of
ground, sun illumination, and haze coefficient are extremely difficult to
make in advance for any assurance of undistorted natural colour rendition.
(5) In wide-angle photography, vignetting correction is imperative as the
differentia] illumination between centre and edge of photo is greater than
the sensitivity latitude of the colour film.
In conclusion the economic use of colour photography from the air with present
materials must be restricted to special projects where the value of colour justifies the
greater cost, high failure risk, severe limitations to multiple reproduction, and to
optimum light and weather conditions. It is safe to say that universal use of black-
and-white photography in the air with standard panchromatic film suffers no threat
from colour film in its present stage of development.
General Comment on 1948 Flying Operations.
The acquisition of two half-ton pick-up trucks by the Division provided each of the
two detachments with independent means of ground movement, both at and between
the various air bases. In former years we were dependent on the good graces of the
Forest Service for local transport, and, although much appreciated by us, the arrangement was nevertheless a makeshift.    No road accidents were sustained during the year.
The two Anson V photographic aircraft this year were again chartered for the
season from Aero Surveys, Limited, of Vancouver, and in them Government-owned
cameras and accessory equipment were installed. The air-crew organization was the
same as in the past—namely, chief of detachment, camera operator, and navigator
being Government employees, except that, this year, by special arrangement with the
company, one of the pilots was also a Government employee. The other pilot and the
two aircraft mechanics were company personnel. X 58 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
An interesting variation in flying procedure was successfully tried over the Lytton
Block by going up to 20,000 feet above sea-level for vertical photography. The country
contained high mountains lying between the Fraser River and Lillooet Lake and River.
The increased height over such high rugged country has definite advantages. The
extra time required for the aircraft to climb the additional 2,500 feet was more than
offset by the increased strip-width, with proportionately fewer strips required. Navigation was easier because landmarks could be seen at a greater distance, and the lateral
tolerance for limited deviation from course is greater. There is less atmospheric
turbulence at the greater height over mountains, which also contributes to better navigation. The intense cold, low atmospheric pressure and rarity of oxygen at 20,000
feet are noticeable compared to 17,500 feet, and special precaution must be taken in
heating of personnel and cameras, and with the oxygen-supply. The increased flying
height also has an advantage in that the maximum range of topographic elevation
differences becomes a smaller proportion of the average flying height above ground.
This improves the stereoscopic characteristics of the photos for photogrammetric compilation. We were frankly surprised that the Anson got up that high at all, but with
our normal photographic load the pilot reported that the response of the aircraft to
controls was quite satisfactory, although it is definitely approaching marginal performance as regards operational ceiling. It is the writer's opinion that the behaviour
of an aircraft, like that of a motor-car (and certainly a horse), depends a great deal
upon who is at the controls. A skilful and experienced pilot can accomplish feats which
could not be expected from the average. As a result of this trial, it is contemplated in
future operations we may specify a flying height of 20,000 feet above sea-level for
basic vertical photography over tracts of unusually high rugged terrain, but we shall
adhere to our standard of 17,500 feet for other areas and for tricamera photography.
Camera and Accessory Equipment;   Maintenance.
The Eagle V cameras acquired from War Assets Corporation in 1946 have completed their third season of air-survey operation in British Columbia. Thanks to the
facilities of the instrument-shop set up during the year, and after a thorough overhaul,
now in progress, they will be in better condition than when new.
By co-operation with the Federal Department of Public Works and the Victoria
harbourmaster, we have set up a permanent calibration site on the end of the Ogden
Point Docks, marked by a brass plug cemented in the concrete. This station commands
a " horizon " of seventeen permanent beacons painted on the facing wall of the breakwater. Angles subtended by these beacons at the camera station have been carefully
measured and recorded. After development of two plates exposed in the camera set up
over the station, carefully levelled and oriented, the measurement of the plates and
computation of the focal length follows a simple drill giving an accurate optical distortion curve for the camera concerned. Measurement of the beacon images in the plates
to within 0.01 millimetre has been done on special micrometers at the Dominion Astro-
physical Observatory, Little Saanich Mountain, by the kind permission of the Director.
Some progress has been made on the development of apparatus for testing and
calibrating camera-shutter performance, by which we hope, as mentioned in my report
last year, to control one of the few remaining loopholes in making air-survey photography an exact science. Efforts are being made to complete the apparatus in time to
have the shutters calibrated for next season's operations. The testing instrument is
based on the use of the cathode-ray tube in an oscilloscope. The a;-axis on the screen
is a time base, and the y-axis measures relative light intensity. The apparatus already
gives visual results, but we are contriving to set up an effective means of recording the
curves permanently for more deliberate and comparative study. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
X 59
This year one of our Eagle V air cameras made a trip to the Arctic Islands to
record topography there, in connection with an expedition sponsored by the Geographic
Bureau of the Department of Mines and Resources, Ottawa, to whom the camera was
loaned for the purpose. The camera has arrived home again in good condition after its
long excursion, but we are still awaiting an account of its performance and some sample
photographs.
Overhaul of field equipment for Topographic Survey Division in pr
'in instrument-repair shop.
Air Photographic Operations by the Federal Government.
The Federal Government, through the services of the Royal Canadian Air Force,
covered roughly 63,000 square miles of British Columbia territory with high-altitude
vertical photography during 1948. This huge total was distributed mainly in the Far
North adjacent to the Yukon Boundary, with smaller blocks east of Bella Coola, and in
the Yellowhead, Shuswap, Nakusp, and Fernie vicinities.
PROCESSING.
The necessity to install special air-conditioning in our processing laboratories in
the new building at 553 Superior Street delayed the move of the Processing Section
from the old makeshift quarters till mid-August. For personnel who spend their daylight hours toiling in darkrooms over smelly solutions, fresh conditioned air is essential.
The improved accommodation of three separate darkrooms and a workroom, together
with more complete and workable installations in the way of equipment, has been
reflected by an output treble that of last year, with only a slight increase in staff. The
new floor-space comprises 580 square feet, of which 42 per cent, is taken up with equipment, sinks, cupboards, etc., leaving for a staff of five 66 square feet free space per man. 	
X 60
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Output of Processing Laboratory.
Air film developed, rolls	
Glass plates developed	
Miscellaneous films developed	
Standard 10- by 10-inch prints	
Special enlargements (up to 6% diameters).
Miscellaneous enlargements	
Contact prints 	
Requisitions completed 	
Requisitions pending December 31st, 1948.—.
1947.
220
Nil
i
16,720
Nil
t
X
X
X
* Each roll 5L2 inches by 60 feet, average about 115 frames.
f For Topographic Surveys Division.
% No record for 1947.
§ All 1.8 diameter enlargements on fixed-focus projection printer.
j| New variable enlarger brought into operation during November.
[   1 u  J i    * *    J
1948.
190*
767t
8t
54,390§
52||
287f
48
392
26
k\
C'\ ~> BS       i    ',, M   •
_JHph* J L  >  L ^ L-o« L^i U  J tt^jj
b-.     A    k   J P-o-* V    Jl MM k.... JP
... ;
Corner in film-storage vault.
William Halkett, of The Victoria Daily Times, who previous to 1947 did all our
processing, has continued to help on many occasions during the year, taking care of
special rush and unusual orders which our own laboratory was not in a position to
handle either from lack of equipment or from preoccupation with routine work. Mr.
Halkett's work totalled 85 standard 10- by 10-inch prints, 182 special enlargements up
to 20 by 20 inches, 38 diapositives on 35-millimetre film, and miscellaneous S^-inch
lantern-slides. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 61
Processing Equipment.
Equipment installed includes the following:—
1 special fixed-focus enlarger, 5- by 5-inch negatives to 9- by 9-inch print.*
1 variable ratio enlarger, 5- by 5-inch air negatives to maximum of 33- by 33-
inch print.
6 " F-24 " spiral developing units for 5%-ihch by 60-foot air film.*
1 Morse electric film-processing unit (model B-5).*
1 Fairchild-Smith air film-drying unit (model F-32).*
1 " Pako " print dryer, 38-inch.
2 " Pako " print washers.
1 air film negative annotating table (U.S.A.A.F. type M-3).*
5 sinks (monel metal), hot and cold water.
1 dry-mounting press, electric*
* War surplus equipment, modified in some instances.
The fixed-focus enlarger, which we acquired in 1946 along with the Eagle V
cameras from the Canadian Army via War Assets Corporation, and which we modified
for concentrated arc illumination and in other details, has now produced an impressive
total of about 71,000 high-quality prints. It is still the " king-pin " of our printing
activities. Plans are entertained to build a second unit of the same type, but of more
compact and efficient design.
A new variable-ratio enlarger has been built in our instrument-shop, using the
chassis of a cheap commercial enlarger. The purpose was to produce high-quality
prints from our standard 5- by 5-inch air negatives up to 6X enlargement, the limit
imposed by the height of the darkroom and the projecting-lens. The illumination is
again the Western Union concentrated arc (100 watts) with condensers. The projecting-lens is a 9%-inch Ross Apo-process F/10. A special negative carrier was designed
and built. While the optics of this apparatus are excellent, and spectacular enlargements have been made with it, there are a few engineering " bugs " still to be ironed out,
particularly with regard to safeguarding against vibration by a rigid framework and
remote controls for film setting. This apparatus was somewhat compromised by trying
to produce it quickly and " on the cheap." It will serve operational purposes for such
time as is required to build a better machine based on more adequate engineering
design, more deliberately, and with necessarily more scope financially. The optics in
hand will be transferable to a new chassis, and the experience and ingenuity evolved
with the present model will be profitably exploited.
Printing air negatives by projection with concentrated arc illumination through
condensers does more than give razor-sharp definition of detail in the prints. It intensifies tone contrast to the extent that one grade softer paper must be used, and we have
found that negative density should be comparatively on the " thin " side. These aspects
of definition, tone, contrast, and negative density have modified our whole photographic
technique to great advantage. This is of special significance in British Columbia
where single air photographs so frequently include the whole gamut of contrast from
alpine snow-fields (blazing with actinic light) to sombre coniferous forest on lower
slopes and valley-bottoms. We are confronted with the paradox of trying, on a single
print, to show good detail in extreme highlights as well as in deep shadows.
The preference for thinner negatives has the practical effect of increasing film
speed. This in turn allows us to reduce the aperture of the lens in the air camera by
one stop, other things being equal, and it is well known among experts that the modern
wide-angle air-survey lens shows a marked improvement of photographic resolving
power when the aperture is reduced.    A thin air negative also affords the option of X 62 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
using developers which, at the expense of film speed, give a somewhat finer grain and
a softer gradation of tone values, both of which contribute to higher resolution of
terrain detail. In the same way, a softer grade of contrast in the bromide printing
paper augments this desirable effect. Finally the COS4 and vignetting characteristic
of wide-angle photo lenses, even when partially corrected by rhodiumized wedge filters,
is favourably influenced by the soft contrast technique in processing both negative and
print. The thin negatives also speed up printing time, favouring mass production of
high-quality photographs.
The fact that we have been able to produce with our new enlarger from the 5 by 5-
inch air negatives giant prints 33 inches square, representing a magnification of 6V2
diameters, which are phenomenal for sharp definition and wealth of detail, confirms that
all these aspects of air-photo technique, from procedure in the air right through the
stages of developing and printing in the darkroom, must be co-ordinated successfully
to the key feature of concentrated arc-condenser projection. The results also indicate
that installation of cameras in the aircraft have met with marked success in defying
the age-old vibration problem, our standard shutter speed being only yl00 second.
With the purpose of exploiting as fully as possible the advantages discussed above,
our processing laboratory has recently made a comprehensive development test with a
sample roll of routine high-altitude vertical air film, which included eight development
formulas—namely, DK 76, D 23, DK 60 B (soft, medium, and hard), DK20 with low
and normal agitation, and D 19 B. The results of these tests are now under study.
Last year our standard developer was D 23 and this year we used DK 76.
Printing Media for Air-survey Photographs.
A satisfactory low-cost medium on which to print air-survey negatives for photo-
grammetric map compilation is still a major desideratum. Ordinary commercial photo
paper is reasonably cheap and offers a good range of surfaces and contrast grades on
double-weight paper stock. It is fully adequate for " look-see " purposes—that is, for
good pictorial reproduction on paper of what the camera saw in the air—fully adequate
for qualitative interpretation. However, photogrammetric use of air-survey photographs requires not only an excellent photo image, but that image must be stable for
shape and dimensions. If, after receiving the photo image from the negative, the
paper stock which carries the photo emulsion changes its shape, even slightly, while
going through the various processing solutions, washing and drying, and by hygroscopic
reaction to variations of air temperature and humidity in the mapping office, then the
quantitive measurements, both angular and lineal, taken from that photograph are
distorted, false, and errors are propagated into the map. In photogrammetry, each
photograph is used literally as a scale and as a protractor. It must be true for dimension. A carpenter forced to use squares and rules warped after receiving the true
pattern or calibration at the factory would waste a lot of time and materials in building
a structure which, when finished, would be faulty, even if competent himself and using
excellent blue-prints. The photogrammetrist is confronted with the same trouble if his
photographs are distorted.
Generally speaking, in the case of ordinary commercial printing paper, the thin
coating of photographic emulsion, itself a gelatinous colloidal, is supported on the paper
card stock, which is a tangled mass of tiny cellulose fibres. Both the emulsion and
paper are extremely hygroscopic materials, swelling and shrinking vigorously in
response to changes in moisture content, imparted in liquid by the processing solutions
or in vapour from the atmosphere of the office. The results are complicated by the fact
that swelling and shrinking go on at different rates across or along the selvage or grain
of the paper stock, which give rise to serious distortions of the picture-shape. Due to
the difference in behaviour of the photo emulsion and paper stock, curling of the print 	
REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
X 63
takes place, and lack of homogeneity of the paper stock causes buckling, all of which—
distortion, curling, and buckling of the photographs—add to the exasperation and
defeat of the photogrammetrist in his aspiration for speed and accuracy in map
compilation.
One manufacturer offers a special mapping paper characterized by a water-proof
base, at about twice the normal cost. This paper has a very good emulsion and surface.
It is free from buckling, but we found its curling and distortion characteristics even
worse than ordinary low-cost materials. Another firm makes a similar water-proof
paper on heavier stock which is free from buckling, has no serious curl, a good surface,
but is only slightly better than ordinary paper for distortion.    It costs four times as
Air-photo library.
much as ordinary double-weight bromide, and it must be carefully handled to prevent
the emulsion chipping off. Before the recent war we used "Agfa Mapping Special,"
which excelled on all counts and costs the same as ordinary commercial paper. It is not
obtainable now. This material was simply a good emulsion and surface on a very good
quality hard double-weight paper stock, probably of German origin. Why an equal or
better paper cannot be produced cheaply by the preponderant industrial resources of
this continent in this day is hard to understand, especially when air-photo mapping
activities throughout Canada and the United States alone comprise an enormous market
for any industrial enterprise which can offer high-quality " mapping " paper stock for
coating with photographic emulsions.
AIR-PHOTO LIBRARY.
Details of functions and organization of the Provincial Government air-photo
library were given in my report for 1947. These have been similar during the current
year, but with appreciable increase in volume.    The new quarters occupied since mid- X 64
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
summer provide 700 square feet of floor area, of which roughly 30 per cent, is occupied
by fixtures, filing cabinets, tables, etc. The change-over from filing the air photos in
archaic cardboard boxes to standard letter-head size steel cabinets has been completed,
with improved access to the photographs and economy of storage-space. The capacity
of each four-drawer unit averages 6,000 photos, so that some forty cabinets will take
care of over 200,000 photos now in hand plus a backlog of 45,000 new photos not yet
received from Federal and Provincial sources.
Progress of Air Photography in British Columbia (Statistical).
Library Copies, Air Photos of British Columbia.
Source.
Federal.
Provincial.
Total.
In hand December 31st, 1947	
131,302*
3,094
134,396
35,275t
36,479
30,896
67,375
11,320
167,781
33.990
In hand December 31st, 1948	
201,771
46,595
Total photos of British Columbia available 	
169,671t                  78,695                  248,366tt
i
* Includes 7,800 photos from commercial sources.
f Approximate.
% All different photographs (exclusive of duplicates).
Area covered by Vertical Air Photography in British Columbia.
(Figures are approximate.)
Square Miles.
By Federal Government, gross  (since initial operations in
1926)    167,100
By Provincial Government, gross (since initial operations in
1936)     107,500
Total, gross  ,  274,600
Less revision photography included in above total     29,600
Total, net, vertical photography  245,000
Reference should be made to appended key-map "Air-photo Cover of British Columbia as of December 31st, 1948." The net total of 245,000 square miles covered by
vertical air photography in the Province includes, unavoidably, an approximate area
of at least 20,000 square miles of intricate territorial waters along the west coast,
which must be added to the official area of the Province, 366,255 square miles, for any
reasonable appreciation of the mapping task. In this sense it might be reasonable to
consider that about 60 per cent, of British Columbia is now covered with vertical
photography suitable for mapping.
Considerable additional areas of the Province have been covered by oblique photography in connection with the tricamera programme by the Provincial Government,
now in progress. However, we refrain from expressing quantitative figures for this,
in square miles, especially as those areas will eventually be covered with vertical
photography in the course of the standard mapping programme. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 65
Loan Traffic, Library Copies of Air Photographs.
Loaned. Returned.
Out on loan, December 31st, 1947  22,826  '
Loaned out during 1948  43,234 	
Returned during 1948      25,507
Totals, December 31st, 1948  66,060 25,507
Net photos out on loan, December 31st, 1948 (to
balance)    .      40,553
Totals   66,060 66,060
A constant stream of demands for the loan of official photos from the air-photo
library is dealt with, and numbered over 500 separate requisitions during the year.
Long-term loans are made to various Government departments for mapping and other
activities concerned with administration. Also, when the photos are available, short-
term loans are granted to outside users.    A breakdown of the 40,000 photos currently
OUt On loan  is of  interest:— Approximate Number
Government agencies— of *£££ on
Air Survey Division  (in compilation)  11,800
Forest Economics (surveys)      9,000
Topographic Division      8,100
Coal and Petroleum Controller  2,800
Federal Government agencies      1,600
Miscellaneous      1,400
  34,700
Private, industrial, and other—
Logging companies   2,000
Consulting foresters   2,000
Miscellaneous   1,300
     5,300
Total  1  40,000
One important stimulus to the use of photos in the air-photo library is the fact that
during the past three years air-photo cover of the Province has advanced appreciably
ahead of mapping, and our clients are learning that the photos, even if only roughly
located and oriented, give a valuable " look-see " over country of which detail maps are
not available. In other words, the raw air photos are pinch-hitting as piecemeal maps
in advance of our mapping programme.
Air-photo Reprint Traffic.
The demand for reprint duplicates of air photos of the Province on purchase has
reached a record volume during the year. Requests for Federal Government reprints
are now referred back to the source with the advice to apply direct to the national
air-photo library in Ottawa.    This practice averts duplication, especially accounting.
A gross of some 24,000 reprints from our own " BC " air negatives was produced
and delivered during the year, with repayment to Consolidated Revenue. The processing laboratory makes these prints, and the air-photo library handles all relevant correspondence, requisitions, checking and delivery, and accounting. Over 350 separate
requisitions were involved.    A breakdown of the traffic is tabulated below:— X 66
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Reprints from British Columbia Government Air-photo Negatives
supplied, 194-8.
(Figures are approximate.)
Provincial Government  Reprints.     l™   Requisitions.
Forest Service, Victoria  420 17
Forest Service Districts  4,800 2
Lands Department  4,000 40
Other departments   220 9
Duplicate copies for library  5,100 67
Federal Government  200 10
Flood authorities   2,220 10
Schools and universities  60 5
Totals  17,020 160
Private, industrial, and others—
Forest industries   3,460 54
Mining industries  1,520 8
Miscellaneous  1,500 103
Totals  6,480 165
Grand totals  23,500 325
Air-photo Index and Key-maps.
An essential service provided by the air-photo library is the preparation of suitable
index-maps of all air-photo cover of the Province. These indexes are normally at
4-miles-per-inch scale, and follow the national topographic system of sheet layout and
designation. Constant revision is necessary to maintain these indexes up to date, and
special photostat negatives are retained on file from which blue-prints may be supplied
immediately on demand to anyone interested, at nominal cost. A few special sheets
have been compiled at larger scale for ai*eas of unusual congestion. At the close of this
year, a total of forty-four standard, twenty-two special, and six tricamera sheets are
completed and available for distribution.
It will be obvious from the foregoing that interest in air photography of this
Province is increasingly lively and versatile. The appeals from large and small users
of air photos show surprising variety of interest. Educational institutions in British
Columbia, other Provinces of Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and a
university in Switzerland have asked for illustrative material to aid in teaching geography, geology, and physiography. A rancher requested air photos to study occurrence
of natural range land in the vicinity of property he is buying near the headwaters of
the Nazko River. The head of a timber firm called with his logging superintendent to
study access to a reputed body of timber up a side-valley and, in a few minutes' study
of the air-photos, was disillusioned as to the volume of timber available, and convinced
that the expense of putting a road into it through several miles of canyon was prohibitive in any case. A ski club borrowed photos to locate possible ski runs in its
vicinity. Hunters and trappers find the air views a rich source of valuable information
on local topography and game conditions. We note in low-altitude photographs of
residential areas, taken other than on a Monday, that each home where a " blessed
event" had recently occurred is conspicuously earmarked by the daily wash of white
napkins strung out behind the house.    Such air-photo " intelligence " should be valuable REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
X 67
to certain merchandizing organizations. One concern ordered several hundred dollars'
worth of reprints for reconnoitring the location of a gas-pipe line several hundred miles
in length.
Public Enlightenment.
It was mentioned in last year's report that the air-photo library is the normal
avenue of contact with the public. There is almost unlimited scope for enlarging this
valuable service, hardly touched as yet, other than routine mapping data with which we
are mainly preoccupied. There is a vast store of informative, illustrative, and aesthetic
material contained in our forty steel cabinets of air photos. To say that material for a
dozen Ph.D. theses is there would be understatement. We are making some effort to
build up cross-references and qualitative indexes, but eventually a small staff of
specialists working full time on analysis of these photos will be required. It is expected
that A. C. Kinnear, recently appointed as air-photo analyst, will be valuable in furthering efforts to render the intrinsic virtues of our air photos into more readily assimilable
form for general use.
The following extra-mural activities by members of the Division have contributed
to public appreciation of air-survey mapping during the year:—
Date.
Lecturer.
Organization.
Subject.
Feb. 6	
Feb. 13..
Feb. 20..
Feb. 27...
Feb. 27...
Mar. 4....
Apr. 8....
Apr	
Apr. 16..
May 6	
July	
Nov. 16..
Dec. 1, 2
Dec. 2	
Dec. 8	
W. Hall	
W. Hall	
W. Hall	
G. S. Andrews.
G. S. Andrews.
G. S. Andrews.
G. S. Andrews.
W. Hall	
G. S. Andrews.
G. S. Andrews.
W. Hall	
G. S. Andrews
A. C Kinnear.
G. S. Andrews
W. Hall	
Department of Forestry, University of
British Columbia
Ditto	
Foresters Club, University of British
Columbia
Department of Forestry, University of
British Columbia
Ditto	
Forest Service Ranger School, Green
Timbers
Engineering Institute of Canada, Victoria Branch
Land Utilization Field School, University of British Columbia
Rotary Club, Victoria	
Camosun Club, Victoria...	
Forest Service Ranger School, Green
Timbers
Ditto	
Western Forestry and Conservation
Association Special Air-survey Meeting, Victoria
Air-survey Mapping I, II.
Air-survey Mapping III, IV.
Air-survey Mapping V, VI.
Air-survey Photography I, II.
Air Survey.
Air-survey Photography III, IV.
Air-survey Photography V.
Use   of   Air   Photos   by   Forest   Rangers
(two-day course).
Application   of   War-time   Air   Survey   to
Mapping B.C.
Field Use of Air Photos (two lectures).
Mapping from Air Photos.
Properties of Air Photos for Mapping.
Use   of   Air    Photos   by    Forest   Rangers
(two-day course).
Flying for Air-survey Photos.
Air Survey and Photogrammetry in British
Columbia.
Equipment for projecting 35-millimetre slides stereoscopically on a screen for small
audiences has been acquired by the Air Survey Division. The method was made known
to us by Professor K. B. Jackson, Department of Applied Physics, University of Toronto,
who has used it extensively for teaching photogrammetry, geometry, and stereoscopy.
It employs the principal of projecting the two stereo-images onto the same screen by
horizontal and vertical polarized light, effected simply by placing polar filters on the
objective lens of each of two projectors. The screen is then observed through polaroid
viewers. An advantage of this method over the anaglyphic is that colour slides may be
viewed in full colour. A beaded screen cannot be used, however, as the beads depolarize
the light. We find a special aluminium paint the best. A library of 35-millimetre
stereoscopic slides is being collected, and rudiments of the art of taking them are being
learned.    Several private and one public demonstration were successfully given. X 68 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Three publications by members of the Air Survey Division appeared during the
year, namely:—
" Air Survey and Photogrammetry in British Columbia," by G. S. Andrews,
Photogrammetric Engineering, Vol. XIV, No. 1, pp. 134-153, March, 1948.
" The Essentials of Vertical Air Photography," by W. Hall, Special Publication
for Forest Rangers, Air Survey Division, December 1st, 1948, 26 pp.
" The Concentrated Arc Lamp as a Primary Light Source," by T.  H. Bell,
Photogrammetric Engineering, Vol. XIV, No. 4, December, 1948.
An international meeting on air survey and photogrammetry was held in Victoria,
B.C., December 8th, 1948, in connection with the convention of the Western Forestry
and Conservation Association, December 9th, 10th, and 11th. Some 250 delegates
attended the morning meeting and 160 the luncheon in the Empress Hotel. In the
afternoon many visitors made observational tours of various Government offices using
air photographs for mapping. Great interest was shown in the Air Survey Division,
and surprise was evidenced at the high standard of work in relation to paucity of
modern conventional photogrammetric equipment. A. H. Fagergren, photogrammetrist,
Simpson Logging Company, Shelton, Wash., was convener of the meeting, and the
writer acted as associate convener. Papers were given by N. C. Stewart, Surveyor-
General of British Columbia; Robert M. Colwell, University of California; W. Hall,
Assistant Chief Engineer of this Division; and R. W. Wilson, Pacific Northwest Forest
and Range Experiment Station, Portland, Ore.
MAP COMPILATION.
A year ago it was remarked that the picture-taking side of the Air Survey Division
business had been brought to a high level of volume and quality, but that photogrammetric activities were, however, as yet barely incipient, and due for vigorous expansion.
A major effort has, in fact, been placed on photogrammetric map compilation during
the current year. This development was given an all-powerful boost when the Forest
Service agreed to the amalgamation of their Air Photo Base Maps Section, under Mr.
Hall, with the Air Survey Division, and further facilitated expansion of the mapping
programme by financing the salaries of new personnel until we could take them over at
the end of the current fiscal year. Availability of space in the new Superior Street
building just about the same time was propitious, enabling us to house the enlarged
staff, spread out our tool-kits, and get to work on the enlarged programme.
Policy.
The general policy discussed in last year's report of interim-mapping large tracts
of country now economically important by use solely of air photos tied down to the best
control available has been approved as a main photogrammetric activity of the Air
Survey Division. This programme will use all the devices known or contrived to produce a reasonably accurate representation of the country from the air views, with an
intensity of detail appropriate for the scale adopted of 2 inches per mile (%i680). This
will adequately meet the requirements of the Forest Service and other Government
departments for an interim topographic base map on which to delineate forest and
other resources, and with which to administer them until overtaken by the more accurate but much slower standard topographic mapping programme. At present only
form-lines and heights-of-land are being attempted in addition to detailed planimetry,
but it is anticipated that 200-foot contours and possibly better may be included when
our methods and equipment are more fully rounded out and tuned up. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 69
Compilation Map Scales.
Photo-scale of the routine 9- by 9-inch prints of the basic high-altitude vertical
air-survey photos is approximately 2 inches per mile (%168o)- This scale has proven
to be the most satisfactory for map compilation and will be retained for the interim
programme embraced. A trial compilation at 80 chains per inch (V133360) °^ 3,000
square miles between Douglas Channel and the Skeena River was made, but did not
permit sufficient intensity of detail in proportion to the work involved. Certain densely
populated areas on Vancouver Island were compiled at 20 chains per inch in order to
show sufficient cultural and forest-cover detail. Results are satisfactory, providing
that special prints of the air photos are enlarged to the compilation scale and that sufficient ground control can be identified. The 20-chain scale, however, will be justified
only in special areas, comprising a very small proportion of the Province area.
Base Sheets.
Map compilation includes a Base Sheet Section of seven draughtsmen under E. P.
Creech, chief draughtsman (seconded from the Geographic Section). This Section
prepares all the base sheets with geographic grid, all existing ground-control cadastral
and any other available and reliable map data. Much of this information is obtained
already checked and balanced to the North American datum from the Base Maps
Section of the Geographic Division, but recourse to plats and original field-notes is also
necessary for detail, with the inevitable checking and double-checking. When ready,
tracings of the sheets are turned over to the photogrammetrists to receive the information compiled from air-survey photographs. The completed manuscript sheets are then
returned to the Base Sheet Section for fair-drawing, annotation, title, etc.
Base compilations are plotted at 40 chains per inch on aluminium-backed sheets,
each covering half of a standard " 1-mile" map of the National Topographic Series.
Change of dimensions of the aluminium-mounted " half-sheets " in reaction to temperature and humidity variations is negligible. Plotting is done with utmost care and
accuracy so that a finished sheet may serve as a base for all subsequent Departmental
mapping in the area covered. Tracings are taken off as required for air-photo compilation. The programme of the Base Sheets Section is oriented and maintained, as far as
is practicable, one or two years in advance of the air-photo interim-mapping programme.
Base sheets for which cadastral and available trig control have been compiled in
the manner described total thirty-eight. Tracings have been completed for fifteen
sheets. It may be remarked that the draughtsmen were largely inexperienced at this
type of work when Mr. Creech took charge during the summer.
Photogrammetry.
At present nine full-time photogrammetrists are divided into four project teams.
These are augmented as expedient by members of the air-survey flying crews, except
during the field season. A special team working on tricamera photogrammetry is at
present made up entirely of air-crew personnel.
A change-over from the old radial-line method of plotting to the slotted-templet
method has been going on since our acquisition of a slot-cutting machine during the
summer. The slotted templet, widely used in large organizations elsewhere, is a
mechanical device for automatically adjusting the radial resection net of a large number
of vertical air-photo units among themselves and to available but incidental control over
a very extensive area, more or less simultaneously. Our experience with this new
method is only brief, but we are making good progress. It appears that the work will
be appreciably accelerated, improved in accuracy, and require less specialist supervision
than under the old method. It appears, too, that if the flying is good—that is, no gaps,
no tilt, no short overlaps—the method works very well in rough mountainous country. X 70
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
A special requisite of the slotted-templet method is enormous areas of unobstructed
floor-space. To achieve the full velocity of map output required of us, we must have
a special building in which to take full advantage of this remarkable technique. The
present building is encumbered with structural supports every 12 and 15 feet. We need
clear areas of 40 by 60 feet. One project in hand now has been just squeezed into an
area 14 by 11 feet, but by sacrificing orientation rays into control in surrounding
country—a serious compromise. This represents, at the scale of 2 inches per mile,
a tract 66 by 84 inches, or about 5,500 square miles. The long sides of this particular
project are the Skeena and Nass Rivers and the short sides are Work Channel and the
Kitsumgallum trough. The area involves a gross of some twenty-five map-sheets 15'
latitude by 15' longitude or about 18 sheets net.
; .<•>
Slotted templet " lay down.
Tricamera Photogrammetry.
Lack of personnel, space, facilities, and pressure of other work has unfortunately
compromised our progress in developing a finished technique for making full utilization
of the tricamera photographs for propagating control and mapping. However, valuable
use of them has been made in fixing key-points well back in the entirely uncontrolled
area of the Seechelt project, but the technique used in this case did not fully exploit the
potential strength of the tricamera geometry.
A full-dress tricamera project is currently under way with multiple purposes of
(1) propagating control back into the Cascade Mountains between Smith and Jervis
Inlets, in anticipation of future routine mapping, (2) developing by practical trial
a workable drill, and (3) testing the accuracy limitations of the method.
A well-conditioned traverse of tricamera photos has been especially selected for the
test project. It runs south-east along the Mainland coast from Seymour Inlet to Howe
Sound. The left obliques give good cover of the unmapped Mainland country to the
north-east, the right obliques pick up a fair number of identifiable triangulated peaks REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 71
on Vancouver Island, as well as a good sea horizon beyond, and the foreground of the
obliques contain a large number of controlled points on the coast-line. Furthermore,
natural sea-level datum is conspicuous throughout the flight. Work with these pictures
already done indicates that the flying and photography were good, all forward overlaps
are full, and tilt appears to be negligible. We expect to gain a large amount of valuable
experience and information from plotting this flight, which later may be applied
generally and most profitably to our tricamera photography over other parts of the
Province where control is really scarce. The full exploitation of this technique depends
on having sufficient clear floor-space to reach out 50 and even 100 miles beyond the
boundaries of a slotted-templet project such as referred to above, all around it, to fasten
on to distant control. That is to say, 15 to 20 feet beyond the specific area, on all sides.
Hence the serious concern for adequate floor-space.
To illustrate only in a rough way, the potentialities of using tricamera oblique air
photos for heighting, it may be pointed out that a mountain-side representing, say
5,000 feet of elevation may, in the central part of an oblique photo, cover as much as
1 inch. We habitually make photogrammetric measurements to about one two-hundred-
and-fiftieths of an inch. The theoretical measuring error then for elevation difference
would be something in the order of 28 feet, which compares favourably with stadia,
abney, or aneroid reconnaissance levelling right on the ground, and, of course, the
number of spot elevations available in a photo is incomparably greater, and they can be
selected more strategically in relation to the topography. Further, an independent
determination of the elevation of most points may be made from each oblique photo
showing it from different air stations. The weighted mean value then should be that
much more accurate.
Output of Interim Mapping.
Since the post-war resumption of interim mapping from vertical air photos the
approximate totals of 6,600 square miles have been completed at 40 chains per inch,
3,000 square miles at 80 chains per inch, and 200 square miles at 20 chains per inch.
Photogrammetric Equipment.
After twenty years' use of air photos for mapping, the British Columbia Government is still employing procedures aptly described by a confrere of the survey of South
Africa as the " blunt pencil methods." Except for our recent innovation of the slotted-
templet technique (not a new process by any means), we are still using pencils and
straight-edges to do laborious, time-consuming, point-by-point plotting of planimetry
and contours. Aside from a few parallax micrometers and excellent locally made
stereoscopes, we have made no investment whatever in modern stereoscopic plotting
equipment. It is ironic that this Province has enjoyed world-wide acclaim for the
originality, ingenuity, and competence of her map-makers in the field of photogrammetry, and yet, figuratively speaking, she is content to let them poke along with " horse
and buggy " equipment, while other Provinces and countries are using jeeps, Rolls-
Royces, and aeroplanes.
There are now several standard well-known, well-proven, and widely used types of
semi-automatic stereoplotters, including the following, grouped roughly according to
reputed cost (and according to reputed precision capabilities) :—
Approximate Cost per Unit. Source.
" High cost " ($30,000 to $100,000) —
Stereoplanigraph Zeiss, Germany.
Autograph A 5 Wild, Switzerland.
" Moderate cost " ($15,000 to $20,000) —
Multiplex Bausch & Lomb, United States.
SP 3 (multiplex) Williamson-Ross, England. X 72 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Approximate Cost per Unit. Source.
" Low cost " ($1,500 to $10,000) —
Wernstedt-Mahan Ryker, Berkeley, Calif.
Autograph A 6 Wild, Switzerland.
KEK plotter United States.
Kelsch plotter United States.
Multiscope United States.
Of the aforementioned, the multiplex type plotter, originally made by Zeiss, in
Germany, and now produced in the United Kingdom and the United States, is the best
known and most widely used. It is capable of high precision for horizontal and moderate
precision for vertical fixes of photo-points and calls for only a moderate capital investment. A multiplex unit may be considered an essential part of a modern well-equipped
photogrammetric mapping plant, such as the Air Survey Division should be. It is not
contemplated, however, that, if installed, the multiplex would automatically displace
and completely revolutionalize our mapping methods to the exclusion of all presently
employed techniques. It would serve more to supplement, accelerate, and enhance
accuracy of the general photographic, slotted templet, and tricamera procedures now
developed and employed here. The multiplex would also be extremely useful for taking
care of special large-scale high-precision mapping such as is required for the Fraser
River development project.
Another serious gap in our photogrammetric equipment and map-production line
will be filled by simpler types of stereoplotters, relatively cheap for doing planimetry
and contouring on single controlled air-photo overlaps. They have adequate accuracy
for doing all the map detail in one overlap at a time, and will tie this to control
propagated to each overlap by other means such as phototop, slotted templet, tricamera,
and multiplex. We need a battery of ten or more of these simple plotters now. In this
connection we have already begun work on the design and production of a simple
stereoplotter of original design. It is hoped a working prototype will be built ready
for testing during the coming year.
Another batch of seventy-five stereoscopes of our own design was made and
delivered by a local firm just as the year closed. They will be distributed to various
Government offices, as follows:—• instruments.
Forest Service, Operation Division  21
Air Survey Division  10
Water Rights Branch _.     8
Land Utilization Survey     8
Topographic Survey Division     8
Forest Service, Parks Division     2
Department of Agriculture, University of British Columbia     2
Lands Branch     1
Geographic Division     1
British Columbia Research Council     1
Director, Visual Education     1
Department of Geology, University of British Columbia     1
Forest Service Ranger School     1
Reserve   10
These instruments have some refinements compared to the batch of fifty produced
in 1947, are equipped with either rhodium or chroluminum front surface mirrors, and
are delivered in a carrying-case complete with camel-hair brush. Although the cost was
slightly higher than last year, it is well below that of imported equipment. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 73
INSTRUMENT-SHOP.
The setting-up of a small instrument-shop during the year has filled a long-felt
want in the Surveys Branch, and was necessitated by the large amount of intricate and
precise air-camera equipment now in our possession and use. Although a few items of
equipment and special tools are being added as required from time to time, the main
essentials have been set up, including the following power equipment:—
For metal-work:   Lathe, Sheldon S56, ll^-inch swing by 35-inch centres,
1-horsepower motor;   milling-machine, Sheldon Model 3000, S^-inch by
20-inch table, 1-horsepower motor;  drill-press, Delta 17-205, 17-inch floor
type, %-horsepower motor;   grinder, International "A," 6-inch wheels,
Yi -horsepower motor.
For wood-work:    Table  saw,   Delta,   10-inch  tilting  arbor,   1%-horsepower
motor;    bandsaw,  Delta,   14-inch  metal  cutting,   %-horsepower motor;
jointer,   Delta,   6-inch  cut,   %
12-inch, wood and sheet metal,
A. R. Best was taken on the staff as instrument-maker in March, 1948, and has
selected and set up the equipment, tools, benches, etc. A. McNab was added to the shop
co-operatively by the Topographic Surveys Division, especially to work on overhaul and
adjustment of theodolites and survey cameras. Efforts are being made to add an
assistant instrument-maker for better utilization of the equipment and to increase
output of work.
One of the " first fruits " of the instrument-shop has been the building anu setting-
up of the variable-ratio enlarger for the Processing Section. A great deal of work was
done on this project, most of it being original in design. Although this apparatus has
been in operation, a few minor items on it are still to be completed.
Besides routine maintenance of the considerable stock of equipment, both field and
office, now in our possession, the agenda of new work expected of the instrument-shop
is almost shocking, and includes the following items: Andrews " stereoplotter "—design
and construction; electronic shutter calibrator; epidiascopes—three pulpit type, two
Emerson design, one Hall-Rodd type, one Andrews type; solar air navigating compass,
semi-automatic; stereoscope—base-lining, special for internal orientation tricamera
photos; fixed-focus projection printer; co-ordinate micrometer; slotted-templet arms—
special for tricamera plotting; slotted-templet cutter; colinator, and optical bench
accessories. X 74
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
APPENDICES.
1. Summary of Air-survey Operations, 1936 to 1948, inclusive.
2. Summary of Projects, 1948 Air-survey Photographic Flying Operations.
3. Distribution of Costs, 1948 Flying Operations.
4. Graphic Calendar of Air-survey Operations in Relation to Weather, 1948.
5. Key-map of Air Cover of British Columbia to December 31st, 1947 (Key-map
of Air-photo Indexes on Reverse Side).
Appendix 1.—Summary of Air-survey Operations, 1936 to 1948, inclusive.
1939.
1948.
Vertical   basic   cover
(sq. mi.)	
Average cost per square
mile above	
Tricamera photography
(lin. mi.)	
Average cost per lineal
mile above ,
Flying altitude
(ft./m.s.l.)	
Camera make	
Lens (focal length)	
Negative size	
Print size, routine	
Total number of photos
exposed	
Aircraft—
Number used	
Make	
Undercarriage	
Air speed (miles per
hour)	
Range (hours)	
Weather, number of days
utilized (net)	
Cost distribution—
Organization	
Flying	
500*
$2.22
Salaries	
Insurance	
Field expenses	
Depreciation    (equipment) 	
Film, developing	
Prints, 1 set	
12,000
X
12"
7"x 9"
7"x 9"
900
1
Waco
Floats
100
4%
X
' 65.8%
t
i
t
t
33.3%
10.9%
100.0%
2,400
$1.95
10,000
Eagle III
5"
5"x 5"
2,650
1
Waco
Floats
100
4%
10*
t
47.8%
12.2%
1.3%
6.7%
8.4%
12.8%
10.8%
100.0%
7,100
$1.72
6,600
$1.93
13,000
Eagle III
5"
5"x 5"
9,445
1
Waco
Floats
100
4y2
27
t
46.9%
8.8%
0.6%
4.6%
9.8%
17.4%
11.9%
17,000
Eagle III
5"
5"x 5"
9"x 9"
6,160
Fairchild
Floats
110
4%
24
t
59.6%
8.4%
4.0%
6.5%
3.3%
10.6%
7.6%
100.0%
100.0%.
5,400
$2.54
15,000
Eagle III
5"
5"x 5"
9"x 9"
4,158
Fairchild
Floats
110
4%
IS1/.*
68.2%
8.1%
1.1%
4.5%
4.5%
6.9%
6.7%
100.0%
19,500
$1.40
17,500
Eagle V
3y4"
5"x 5"
9"x 9"
9,500
Anson V
Wheels
150
6
29
10.3%
49.0%
15.0%
2.5%
2.4%
7.3%
6.6%
6.9%
100.0%
26,400
$1.36
6,440
$3.36
17,500
Eagle V
BM."
5"x 5"
9"x 9"
25,000
Anson V
Wheels
150
7
23
6.6%
51.2%
7.1%
2.8%
6.4%
8.0%
8.8%
9.1%
100.0%
21,400
$1.52
2,529f
$4.19
17,500§
Eagle V
3y4"
5"x 8"
9"x 9"
20,882
Anson V
Wheels
150
7
20
4.2%
49.7%
10.7%
4.0%
7.2%
9.4%
7.9%
6.9%
100.0%
* Full season not utilized.
t Equivalent to 11,100 square miles vertical photography plus oblique cover to horizon, but these areas have been
or will be in future covered by systematic vertical photography.
t Records incomplete.
§ One vertical project was done from 20,000 ft./m.s.l. and certain tricamera projects were done from 10,000
ft./m.s.l. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
X 75
Appendix 2.—Summary by Projects, 1948 Air-survey Photographic
Flying Operations.
Number
of
Photos.
Area
(Sq. Mi.)
Cost.
A. Basic vertical cover, 17,500 ft./m.s.l.—
1. Interior:   Alexis,* Big Creek,* Canim,* Carmi, Chilco,* Clinton, Dog
Creek, Francois,* Hat Creek, Horsefly,* Kamloops, Lytton.f Nicola,
8,364
346
20,700
700
$30,846.35
2. Coast: Bute,* Knight* blocks	
1,630.66
8,710
21,400
$32,477.01
Average costs, approximate—
3.73
1.52
Above vertical cover controlled by tricamera photography, namely:
710 lin. mi.,  1947 tricamera control   (@  $3.36 lin. mi.) ;   432
lin. mi., 1948 tricamera control (@ $3.69 lin. mi.)   (see below).
3. Reflying   1947   gaps    (including   cloud   obstruction)—Princeton,   See-
1,250
2,586
$4,928.26
Average costs, approximate—
Per photo	
3.94
1.91
B. Basic tricamera control—
1. Standard, 17,500 ft./m.s.l.—
993
1,519
2,037
Equivalent
Vertical
Cover
(Sq. Mi.).
1,620
2,478
3,483
$1,592.72
2,437.01
3,425.08
2,022 lin. mi	
4,549
633
723
7,581
571
2,942
$7,454.81
2.  Special, 10,000 ft./m.s.l., 207 lin. mi	
866.66
3. Special, Northern Highway, 300 lin. mi. (17,500 ft.)	
2,268.30
5,905
11,094
$10,589.77
Average costs, approximate—
1.79
4.19
C. Special projects—
1. Tricamera—
(a)  Fraser River flood, 17,500 ft./m.s.l. and 10,000 ft./m.s.l	
(6)   Interior floods, 17,500 ft./m.s.l	
(c) Upper Fraser surveys, 7,000 ft./m.s.l. and 5,000 ft./m.s.l	
(d) Kettle-Mission diversion, 6,000 ft./m.s.l	
1,500
360
1,663
427
225
24
(Lin. Mi.)
984
166
264
18
39
5
$3,104.33
1,242.08
2,037.93
510.08
297.38
81.19
4,199
1,476
$7,272.99
Average costs, approximate—
1.73
4.93
2.  Vertical—
(a)  Routine   townsites,   2,000   ft./ground:    Ashcroft,   Chilliwack,
Courtenay,  Duncan,  Hedley,  Hope,  Kamloops,  Keremeos,  Mer-
ritt, Oliver, Osoyoos, Penticton, Prince George, Spences Bridge,
330
15
101
$1,027.57
26.26
345
101
$1,053.83
Average costs, approximate—-
3.11
10.17
3. Experimental—
308
165
(Lin. Mi.)
21
$492.50
647.70
473
21
$1,140.20
5,017
ion
1,497§
$9,467.02
20,882
24,037*
4,026§
$57,462.06
1,001.10
        |        	
$58,463.16
* In part only.
t 20,000 ft./m.s.l.
t Square miles.
> Lineal miles. X 76 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Appendix 3.—Distribution of Costs, 1948 Flying Operations.
Per Cent.
Organization   $2,429.57 4.2
Flying 366.7 hours  28,881.55 49.7
Salaries  6,360.00 10.7
Insurance   2,315.70 4.0
Field expenses   4,147.77 7.2
Depreciation  (equipment)    5,540.50 9.4
Film, developing, annotation  4,644.67 7.9
Prints, 1 set 9- by 9-inch  4,143.40 6.9
Totals  $58,463.16 100.0 139°
138°
137°
136°
135°
134°
133°
132°
131°
13 0°
129°
128°
127°
126°
APPENDIX  5.
125°
124
123°
122°       121°
120°
119°
118°
117°
116°
115°
114°
113°
112°
111°
HO0
VERTICAL PHOTOGRAPHY
1926
1928
1928
1929
1929
Authority.
Dominion Government
Dominion Government
Dominion Government
Dominion Government
Dominion Government
Dominion Government
Dominion Government
Dominion Government
Dominion Government
Dominion Government
Focal Length
Height above    for 7" X9" and
Sea-llevel.        9"X9" Prints.
7,000'
10,000'
13,000'
15,000'
12,^00'
15,(loo'
15,000'
10,f00'
15,(00'
10,(00'
10,(J00'
10,000'
15,000'
12,000'
10,000'
10,000'
17,^00'
15,000'
15,000'
13,500'
8.27"
11.64"
11.64"
11.64"
1.71'
8.26"
9.77"
11.66"
8.21"
11.66"
8.25"
8.25"
5.96"
12.00"
9.00"
9.00"
5.90"
8.25"
8.25"
14.40"
9.00"
9.00"
8.25"
9.00"
5.96"
Approx.
Scale at
Sea-level.
1:10,200
1:10,300
1:13,400
1:15,500
1:12,800
1:21,800
1:18,400
1:11,200
1:21,900
1:10,300
1:14,500
1:14,500
1:30,200
1:12,000
1:13,300
1:13,300
1:35,600
1:21,800
1:21,800
1:11,250
1:17,300
1:20,000
1:20,400
1:20,000
1:28,600
1:28,600
1:15,000
1:22,500
:22,800
1:20,400
ScaLe of   miles
To accompany Annual Report of Surveys Br
Department of Lands and Forests
December 31st, 1948.
For  reprints of  Dominion Government photographs apply to National  Air Photo  Library,
Department of Mines and  Resources,  Ottawa.
For reprints of B.C. Government photographs, more detail index maps, and other information,
apply to Air Survey Division, Surveys Branch, Department of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
136°
135°
134°
133°
132°
131
130°
129°Longitudel28°   West    127°   from    126°Greenwichl25°
124
Geographic Div.
123°
122°
121°
120°
119°
118°
117°
116°
115°
58
57 139°
138°
137°
136°
135°
134°
133°
132°
131°
13 O0
129°
128°
127°
126°
125°
124
123°
122°
121°
120°
119°
118°
117°
116°
115°
114°
113°
112°
1110
HO°
AIR PHOTOGRAPHS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Many thousands of air photographs have been taken of various parts of British Columbia
•fpr mapping and special surveys. The photos are mainly "verticals"; i.e., views straight to
tjhe ground below, usually flown along consecutive overlapping strips to cover blocks as outlined
on the air-photo cover map (see reverse). " Oblique " photography is primarily embodied in
the tricamera runs, as indicated, which include a systematic combination of three cameras,
taking a vertical view coupled with simultaneously exposed lateral obliques to give continuous
photo cover to the horizons on either side of the lines of flight. A few incidental obliques
o|f a scenic nature (not shown on the cover map) are available of towns, peaks, dams, etc.
New areas will be photographed from the air each year and eventually the whole Province will
be covered.
Reprints of Air Photographs
While the air photographs are taken in the first instance for official surveys, the number of
reprints which can be made from the original negatives is practically unlimited. The negatives
are carefully preserved for this purpose. As these photographs may be of great value to ail
who are interested in the country covered, it has been the policy to supply reprints at the
nominal cost of printing. In this way every reprint which is put to worth-while use constitutes
a multiple return for the money expended on the original air survey.
Two Sources of Air Photographs
Air photography in British Columbia has been done almost entirely by two agencies:
(1) The Dominion Government, Ottawa; (2) The Air Survey Division of British Columbia,
Surveys Branch, Department of Lands and Forests. The Dominion Government numbers its
film rolls with the prefix letter "A," and also numbers each photo in the roll; for example,
'A 9532:77" means photo No. 77 of R.C.A.F. roll No. A 9532. The British Columbia Air
Survey Division numbers its film rolls with the prefix 4<BC"; for example, " BC 325:62"
means photo No. 62 of roll No. BC 325. The photo and roll numbers appear in the lower
left-hand corner of every photograph.
How to obtain Air-photo Reprints
On the air-photo cover map it can be determined if a particular place in the Province has
been photographed from the air, and whether it was done by the Dominion Government or by
the British Columbia Air Survey Division.
Orders and inquiries for Dominion Government photographs should be addressed directly to:
National Air-photo Library, Department of Mines and Resources, Ottawa, Ont.
Reprints of " BC " photographs and information relative to air photographs and air surveys
of British Columbia may be obtained on application to:
The price of standard 9- by 9-inch double-weight matte prints from the B.C. air negatives
is 40 cents each plus 3-per-cent. Social Security and Municipal Aid sales tax. Remittance
should be made in favour of the Surveyor-General, Department of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
If possible the roll and photo number should be quoted, but if these are unknown, the exact
locality should be described as closely as possible. For special purposes, enlargements up
to 30 by 30 inches in size from the B.C. negatives in Victoria may be obtained at cost.
136°
135°
134°
133°
132°
131°
130°
129°LongiLDdel28°   West    127°   from    126°Greenwichl25°
124°
123°
122
121°
120°
119°
118°
117°
116°
115°
J
48
Geographic Div. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
X 77
a
Z
a
HH
Ph
<
■ell,
do
Of
e?!
5ES
-p t>
rH   H)    p
II)   <D   h
&*0
o rt 3
TihO
A tDH
Clou
1*1
.C  O trj
PhJspj
O-P
■PrC c
CP-t   tD
OJ        o
u o oi X 78 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION.
By W. G. H. Firth, Chief Geographer.
The great influx of people to the Province and the resulting accelerated progress
in her economic development has presented a challenge to many Governmental departments to keep pace with ever-growing demands. It may be conceded that practically
a generation of potential professional and skilled workers was lost on account of war
conditions; further, by death and retirement, an excessive burden has been imposed on
the few remaining experienced key personnel during the last few years.
In common with other offices, these conditions have been experienced by this Division. However, a progressive betterment in skills acquired by new members of the
staff will afford a greater field for apportioning work, and thus alleviate the situation.
These difficulties, with patience and the will to meet them, can be surmounted, and
signs are not now lacking in this regard.
A study of the appendices to this report indicates a sustained demand for the
services and products of this Division. Apart from a host of miscellaneous work, the
main activities and attainments can be enumerated as follows:—
(1) By public and departmental demands over 28,600 maps were distributed
during the year.
(2) Thirteen new map-sheets, published under the aegis of the Department,
were received into stock.
(3) The revision and assembly of data for the new Geographical Gazetteer
of British Columbia has progressed favourably, and many controversial
subjects have been cleared up.
(4) A backlog of fourteen manuscript maps made by the Topographic
Division, and the resultant ten National Topographic Series printed
map-sheets made from this data, have now been completed.
(5) The editing, assembling, and distribution of the Department of Lands
Annual Report, 1947.
NEW GEOGRAPHICAL GAZETTEER OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Excellent progress was made during the last seven months of the year in compiling
the data for a new edition of the Geographical Gazetteer of British Columbia. The
Division was able to assign two members of the staff who are conversant with this
work, together with one temporary assistant and, by the courtesy of R. L. Fraser,
Dominion Hydrographer, Ottawa, able and expert assistance was received from the
Hydrographic Survey Office, Pacific Coast.
A meeting of the Canadian Board on Geographical Names, which the writer was
privileged to attend, was held in Ottawa on February 7th, 1948.
The desirability of proceeding with the compilation and production of a Geographical Gazetteer for all Canada (to be published by Provinces in nine or ten volumes),
and the ways and means of forwarding this work, were discussed at some length. The
writer was invited to submit a brief and make tentative proposals as to the format and
context.
As the matter now stands, there are some minor considerations to be made, but,
in the main, this Department has agreed to furnish a complete transcript of the place-
names of British Columbia and other geographical data, the printing of which will be
undertaken by the Canadian Board, and a requisite number of copies supplied to this
Department free of cost.
As much research and correction is involved, it is difficult to estimate a given time
for the completion of this work but, with the progress made to date, it is possible that
the complete transcript may be available for transmission to Ottawa by the autumn
of 1949. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 79
ORIENTATION OF PROVINCIAL MAPS.
The following is quoted, in part, from the Departmental Annual Report, 1946
(Geographic Division) :—
" Some undesirable features, will arise in almost any planned mapping scheme, and
more particularly in a high rugged country such as British Columbia.
" Consideration in the near future will be given to the desirability of adopting, at
least in part, the more rigid scheme laid down by the Dominion Government."
This refers to the National Topographic Series maps and the plan laid down for
the mapping of all Canada. Much thought and consideration has been given to this
important matter, and the consensus of opinion is now that the orientation of our
printed maps should in future be based on this plan, wherein the bounds of each sheet
are predetermined and governed by lines of latitude and longitude. Of the inherent
good qualities in the plan, the following may be mentioned:—
(1) Maps produced by the Department will conform to the scheme adopted
for the mapping of all Canada.
(2) By close liaison with Federal survey and mapping departments, duplication of effort will be avoided.
(3) The plan, in whole, or in part at least, will be similar to that adopted by
other countries of the Commonwealth.
(4) These sheets measure 24 by 30 inches, are easy to handle and read, and
facilitate printing in securing absolute fit of overprintings.
The present system will have to be maintained to meet demands, but the transition
will be made when feasible.
PRINTING FACILITIES.
It is understood that the Bureau of Printing and Stationery will install a rotary
lithographic press, capable of taking a sheet 29% by 42 inches, early next summer.
This will facilitate and expedite our map-reproduction work.
Accuracy is a dominant factor in all stages of mapping-work and applies to the
technical skill required in map printing, whereby the valuable data garnered from
topographical, cadastral, and air surveys are displayed to the best advantage and made
available for wide distribution.
It may be well to record here how fortunate the Division has been, over a long
period of years, in being able to avail itself of the highly efficient and skilled services
of a local lithographic printing firm and, in more recent years, of being able to call
for tenders.
RESUME.
With the younger members of the staff becoming progressively more effective, a
better distribution of work is possible and, with better facilities for map printing which
will be afforded in the near future, it is reasonable to predict that a considerable
increase in the production of printed maps can be achieved during the year 1949.
It may be permissible to reiterate the accelerated progress in the economic life of
this Province due to great resources developed, portended and latent. How fortunate
are they who are privileged to work and live in these parts. In whichever work or
job our lot is cast, it is worthy of our every effort to participate fully in her advancement. One of the highest occupations is that in the service of the State, and although
this Division occupies but a small niche in the service, nevertheless the maps produced
have materially assisted in the development of the Province.
Only a few years ago, no one could have hazarded a guess as to when complete map
coverage of the whole Province, say, on a scale of 4 miles to 1 inch or greater, could be
attained.    With  the  extensive  air-cover  data  now  available  and  contemplated  pro- X 80
	
	
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
grammes for control and topographical surveys, both Dominion and Provincial, it is
now possible to envision this desirable accomplishment.
For the assistance, loyalty, and consideration extended during the year by superior
officers of the Department and members of the staff, the writer is very grateful.
STATISTICAL.
Maps.
Published.
British Columbia showing Rivers, Railways,
Main Roads, etc....,	
British Columbia showing Land Recording
Districts	
British Columbia showing Mining Division
Boundaries	
British Columbia showing Electoral Districts...
British Columbia showing Counties	
British Columbia (small) showing Land Recording Districts	
Southerly Vancouver Island	
Northerly Vancouver Island	
Provincial Government Topographic Surveys
reproduced and printed in Ottawa under
the National Topographic Series.
Alice Lake	
Port McNeill	
Quatsino	
Shushartie	
San Josef	
Map No.
Ij
Uc
Ijd
Up
lJG
1CX
2a
2c
92-L/6
92-L/ll
92-L/12
92-L/13
102-1/9
Scale.
27 mi. to 1 in.
27 mi. to 1 in.
27 mi. to 1 in.
27 mi. to 1 in.
27 mi. to 1 in.
55 mi. to 1 in.
4 mi. to 1 in.
4 mi. to 1 in.
1 mi. to 1 in.
1 mi. to 1 in.
1 mi. to 1 in.
1 mi. to 1 in.
1 mi. to 1 in.
Date of Issue.
Mar., 1948
Mar., 1948
Mar., 1948
Mar., 1948
Mar., 1948
May, 1948
Aug., 1948
Nov., 1948
June, 1948
Mar., 1948
Mar., 1948
Feb* 1948
June, 1948
New edition.
New edition.
New edition.
New edition.
New edition.
New edition.
Reprint with corrections 1948 road information.
New edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
First edition.
In course of Compilation.
Powell Lake	
Bella Coola	
Fernie degree sheet	
Provincial Government Topographic Surveys
being reproduced and printed in Ottawa
under the National Topographic Series.
Lower Dease River	
Lower Post	
Bedwell	
Great Central	
Forbidden Plateau	
Oyster River	
Upper Campbell	
2D
2E
4d
4 mi. to 1 in.
4 mi. to 1 in.
2 mi. to 1 in.
104-P/15
1 mi
to 1 in
104-P/16
1 mi
to 1 in
92-F/5
1 mi
to 1 in
92-F/6
1 mi
to 1 in
92-F/ll
1 mi
to 1 in
92-F/14
1 mi
to 1 in
92-F/13
1 mi
to 1 in
New edition.
New edition.
New edition (awaiting air-photo information) .
First
First
First
First
First
First
First
edition,
edition,
edition,
edition,
edition,
edition,
edition. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
X 81
Canadian Board on Geographical Names, Naming, and Recording.
1943.
1944.
1945.
1946.
1947.
1948.
12
22
1,928
551
21
2,037
335
50
4,107
602
57
7,297
446
63
7,060
153
401
Geographical Work for other Departments and Public.
56
$734.25
37
$626.31
56
$1,221.73
81
$2,277.50
66
$1,306.39
71
Total value of work	
$1,051.00
Map Stock and Distribution.
Map issues to departments and public-
Maps received into stock	
Total value of printed maps issued	
15,776 |        15,598
12,805  j        12,453
1,901.37  | $4,815.33
I
20,973
20,800
j-,997.80
29,052
11,425
$10,848.45
28,755
19,942
$10,207.89
28,673
24,228
$9,935.33
Photostat.
1
3,279  [          3,620
$1,234.59 |  $1,865.75
3,330
$1,716.35
4,696
$2,259.60
5,692
$2,786.00
5,841
$2,738.68
Letters.
1,705
1,857
2,111
2,619
2,547
2,446 X 82
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
List of Lithographed Maps.
Map
No.
*1E
lH
lJ
UCA
1JO
1JD
1JB
1JP
UflL
UG
1JS
IK
1L
2A
2C
t2l>
|2e
2f
3a
3b
3c
3d
3k
3p
3g
3h
3j
3k
3m
3p
4a
4b
4c
t4D
4e
4p
4g
4h
4j
4k
*4l
4m
4n
4p
4Q
5b
5c
5D
MRMl
MRM2
MRM3
mrm4
mrm5
mrm6
mrm7
mrm8
PWD
Mi>
Year of
Issue.
1945
1948
1930
1943
1948
1923
1948
1948
1937
1948
1937
1948
1945
1925
1940
1948
1948
1949
1949
1927
1944
1942
1940
1937
1945
1934
1935
1947
1942
1938
1929
1924
1927
1946
1936
1949
1925
1947
1943
1926
1921
1923
1926
1927
1930
1946
1939
1929
1929
1929
1941
1927
1928
1928
1929
1929
1932
1934
1935
1946
1948
1930
Title of Map.
Geographic Series—
Wall Map of British Columbia.    In four sheets.    Roads, trails,
railways, etc	
British  Columbia.    In  one  sheet.    Showing  Land  Recording
Districts	
Kootenay, Osoyoos, and Similkameen (South-east B.C.)	
Northern British Columbia, Special Mineralogical Data	
British Columbia.   In one sheet.   Showing post offices, railways,
main roads, trails, parks, distance charts, etc	
Ditto
Ditto
Ditto
Ditto
Ditto
Ditto
Ditto
Ditto
ditto
ditto
ditto
ditto
ditto
ditto
ditto
ditto
and precipitation.
and Land Recording Districts	
and Mining Divisions	
and Assessment and Collection Districts	
and Electoral Districts, Redistribution 1938.
and Land Registration Districts	
and Counties	
and Census Divisions	
South Western Districts of B.C	
Central British Columbia (contoured 1,000-ft. interval)	
Land Series—
Southerly Vancouver Island	
Northerly Vancouver Island	
Powell Lake	
Bella Coola	
Queen Charlotte Islands, Economic Geography (preliminary)	
Pre-emptors' Series—
Fort George	
Nechako (contoured)	
Stuart Lake (contoured)	
Bulkley	
Peace River (contoured)	
Chilcotin	
Quesnel (contoured) ■.	
Tete Jaune (preliminary)	
North Thompson (contoured)	
Lillooet	
Prince Rupert	
Grenville Channel (preliminary)	
Degree Series—
Rossland (contoured)	
Nelson (contoured)	
Cranbrook	
Fernie	
Upper Elk River	
Lardeau	
Windermere	
Arrowhead	
Vernon (contoured)	
Kettle Valley (contoured)	
East Lillooet (contoured)	
Nicola Lake (contoured)	
Penticton (contoured)	
Lower Fraser Valley (preliminary)	
Hope-Princeton (contoured) :	
Topographical Series—
Howe Sound-Burrard Inlet (contoured), South sheet (special)...
,, North sheet (special)....
Stikine River (contoured)	
Revelstoke-Golden (Big Bend-Columbia River) (contoured)	
Mineral Reference Maps—Printed.
Slocan and Ainsworth	
Trout Lake	
Lardeau River	
Nelson-Ymir	
Rossland-Ymir	
Grand Forks-Greenwood	
Greenwood and Osoyoos	
Barkerville and Lightning Creek	
Miscellaneous—
Highway and Travel Map of B.C	
B.C. Mining Divisions	
Geographical Gazetteer of British Columbia	
Scale,
Miles, etc.
Per
Copy.
Per
Dozen.
1: 1,000,000
15.78 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1
7.89 m. to 1
15.78 m. to 1
27 m.
31.66 m.
27 m.
27 m.
27 m.
27 m.
27 m.
27 m.
27 m.
7.89 m.
15.78 m.
tol
to 1
tol
to 1
tol
tol
tol
to 1
to 1
tol
tol
4 m. to 1
4 m. to 1
4 m. to 1
4 m. to 1
4 m. to 1
3 m. to 1
3 m. to 1
3 m. to 1
3 m. to 1
4 m. to 1
3 m. to 1
3 m. to 1
3 m. to 1
3 m. to 1
3 m. to 1
3 m. to 1
3 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
2 m. to 1
% m. to 1
% m. to 1
5 m. to 1
4 m. to 1
1 m. to 1
1 m. to 1
1 m. to 1
1 m. to 1
1 m. to 1
1 m. to 1
1 m. to 1
1 m. to 1
20 m.to 1
50 m.to 1
$1.50
Free
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
<JJ—   .
.50
.50
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.25
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
$14.00
1.50
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
. 6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
Map Number " of map
with wooden
* Out of print. t In course of compilation.
Provincial sales tax, 3 per cent, extra.
Note.—To avoid misunderstanding, applicants for maps are requested to state the
desired.
Maps listed above can be mounted to order in the following forms:   Plain mounted;   cut-to-fold
bars top and bottom to hang, etc.    Prices upon application.
We can supply information concerning maps of British Columbia printed and published at Ottawa by the
Department of Mines and Resources.
Unless otherwise requested, maps will be sent folded.
Inquiries for printed maps—Address:—
Chief Geographer, Department of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.     December 31st, 1948.
.35 2.50
Free    I On ap.
1.00    I      8.00
I 	
REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 83
BASE MAPS, COMPUTING SECTION.
By W. H. Hutchinson, Mathematical Computer.
Triangulation Adjustment.
The work of this Section comes under four headings:—
(1) Calculation of positions and elevations of new triangulation stations from
surveyors' angular observations in the field.
(2) Adjustment of triangulation networks between fixed control-points, and
adjoining nets with one another.
(3) Collection  and  indexing  of  all triangulation  data  covering the whole
Province.
(4) Dissemination of triangulation control data, in response to requests.
New Triangulation.
Final returns covering the following triangulation surveys, the field-work for
which was undertaken in 1947, were completed:—    .
Topographic triangulation in the Muchalat Arm, Gold River area, by A. G.
Slocomb, B.C.L.S.
Topographic triangulation in the Rossland-Trail area, by A. H. Ralfs, B.C.L.S.
Topographic triangulation in the Terrace-Kitsumgallum Lake area, by G. C.
Emerson, B.C.L.S.
Geographic positions, bearings and distances, and elevations were determined for
each station, and the results recorded in the card-index.
Following the close of the 1948 field season, elevations and preliminary co-ordinates
were determined for all stations set by the topographic surveyors in the following
areas:—
Bridge River area, by W. R. Young, B.C.L.S.
Chilliwack area, by G. C. Emerson, B.C.L.S.
Terrace area, by A. H. Ralfs, B.C.L.S.
In all, preliminary co-ordinates for 204 stations and 183 station elevations were
determined, the latter involving the adjustment of 1,520 difference-of-elevation calculations.
Adjustments.
A least-square adjustment of the coast triangulation in Deer Passage, Pryce and
Homfray Channels was completed. This network is controlled at either end by stations
established by the Geodetic Survey of Canada, and comprises eighty-five triangles.
The field-work was undertaken partly by the Canadian Hydrographic Survey, the
remainder by British Columbia Government surveys.
In addition, least-square adjustments of sixty triangles in Beware Passage and Clio
Channel, seventy-eight triangles of the Canadian Hydrographic Survey in Quatsino
Sound, and sixty triangles in Retreat and Spring Passages have been completed, each
network being controlled by stations established by the Geodetic Survey of Canada.
Additional schemes in the Bridge River-Vancouver area and Douglas Channel-
Terrace area have been commenced.
Indexing.
All triangulation controls relating to the Province are indexed under an alphabetical card-index system, also under a quadrant-index system. In the alphabetical system
a card is written for each station, on which is recorded the following detail, where
available:   Names of surveyors occupying the station, with dates of occupation, and 	
X 84
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
numbers of field books and plans relating to same; description of mark; description of
access; latitude and longitude; elevation; distances and bearings to adjoining stations;
grid rectangular co-ordinates; ties to cadastral survey posts.
Under the quadrant system, a register, with pages for each quadrant of 30-minute
extent, lists all the stations contained in each individual quadrant. In this manner,
inquiries relating to triangulation in the Province can be attended to promptly.
Requests for Triangulation Control.
Requests for triangulation control data have been received from all Provincial
departments concerned with mapping, and the following Dominion departments: Canadian Hydrographic Survey at Victoria; Canadian Geodetic Survey at Ottawa; Canadian Naval Service at Esquimalt; Canadian Army Engineers at Work Point; Canadian
Geological Survey, Canadian Topographic Survey, and Department of National Defence
at Ottawa;  and Dominion Public Works at Vancouver.
In addition, there have been requests from British Columbia land surveyors in
private practice and from private individuals. In all, 115 inquiries were received and
attended to.
The following table gives comparisons with the previous five-year period:—
1943.
1944.
1945.
1946.
1947.
1948.
Ill
654
14
918
9,271
53
10
461
285
10
715
9,986
44
5
431
570
3
694
305
10,680
52
2
456
583
3
685
229
11,437
50
6
218
599
221
517
2
714
296
12,151
74
6
480
806
231
205
1
1,214
419
13,365
115
Standard base map, skeleton sheets compiled	
6
SURVEYS DIVISION.
By F. O. Morris, Chief of Surveys Division.
This Division deals with the general correspondence, the supply of survey information to land surveyors and the general public, preparation of instructions for
surveying, checking survey field-notes and plotting official plans therefrom, clearing all
applications, and many minor activities.
A blue and ozalid printing plant is maintained, rendering service to the various
Governmental departments.
Departmental Reference Maps. — In order to keep a proper graphic record of
alienations and inquiries, reference maps, generally on the scale of 1 mile to 1 inch,
and mineral reference maps on the scale of 1,500 feet to 1 inch, drawn on tracing-linen,
are maintained by the Surveys Division. There are now 202 reference maps and 82
mineral reference maps, making a total of 284 maps. The work of keeping these up
to date—(1) by adding new survey information as it becomes available, and (2) by
renewing same when worn out with constant use and handling in the blue-print
machines—forms a considerable portion of the work of the Division. During the year
six reference maps were recompiled. Tables B and C, attached hereto, give a list of
these reference maps.
Table A, which follows, summarizes the main items of work. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
X 85
Table A.—Summary of Office-work for the Years
Surveys Division.
Number of field-books received	
lots surveyed	
lots plotted 	
lots gazetted 	
lots cancelled	
mineral-claim field-books prepared	
reference maps compiled	
applications for purchase cleared	
applications for pre-emption cleared.
applications for lease cleared	
coal licences cleared	
water licences cleared	
timber sales cleared	
free-use permits cleared	
hand-loggers' licences cleared	
Crown-grant applications cleared	
reverted-land clearances 	
cancellations made	
inquiries cleared 	
placer-mining leases plotted on maps	
letters received 	
letters sent out	
Crown-grant and lease tracings made-
miscellaneous tracings made	
Government Agents' tracings made-	
blue-prints made	
Revenue received from sale of blue-prints	
Number of documents consulted and filed in vault.
?10;
1947 and 1948,
1947.
1948.
406
474
423
504
337
407
261
403
20
24
127
213
7
6
1,641
1,109
331
278
1,001
921
44
6
132
109
2,799
2,837
359
356
4
4
2,512
2,033
1,551
1,378
1,125
886
891
988
442
281
8,328
8,853
4,832
5,319
1,757
1,521
179
151
134
164
52,563
64,278
957.28
$21,734.55*
45,474
49,622
* Total value.
An analysis of Table A shows an increase in a number of the items on the list over
last year; among these is the number of lots surveyed and gazetted. The number of
timber sales that have cleared through this office have steadily increased, and the same
applies to the letters received and replied to. Returns from the blue-print room show a
great increase in the number of prints made.
FIELD SURVEYS.
The greater part of the field surveys of Crown land as well as privately held lands
in the Province are made by British Columbia land surveyors at the instance of and at
the expense of private parties. Such surveys of Crown lands are made under instructions from the Surveys Division, and every effort is made to assist the surveyor in his
work. This assistance mainly consists of the supplying of information as to prior
surveys and other details regarding the lands in the area concerned.
During the year 1948 considerable areas were surveyed by British Columbia land
surveyors in the employ of the Surveys Branch. Four parties operated through part
or all of the season along the Alaska Highway in the Peace River and Cassiar Districts.
In charge of these parties were A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S.; J. M. Campbell, B.C.L.S.;
A. C. Pollard, B.C.L.S.; and A. W. Wolfe-Milner, B.C.L.S. These surveys were made
primarily to define lease applications and areas required by the North West Highway System (Army) adjacent to the highway. Ninety-nine of these lease surveys were
completed. For the North West Highway System, surveys were made of forty gravel-
pits, sixteen bridge-site reserves, and eight maintenance and army camp-sites. In
conjunction with these surveys, nine Provincial park reserves were surveyed. Eight
of these are at river crossings, the ninth and largest, about 700 acres, in the vicinity
of the Liard River crossing at Mile 496, contains the hot springs located there.
Stretches of the highway on which these parcels faced were surveyed and monumented.
In this way, some 60 miles of the highway were accurately surveyed. This highway
survey has been designed not only to define the limits of the right-of-way, but also to
provide accurate control to which future cadastral surveys can be tied.
Further surveys were made by J. M. Campbell, B.C.L.S., and Duncan Cran,
B.C.L.S., in the Peace River District. These consisted of nine parcels under application in the vicinity of Moberly Lake, totalling 363.6 acres, and also forty-four sections
north of the Peace River and east of the Beatton River, mainly in the vicinity of the
Alces (Moose) River.
The Division also prepared proposed plans of subdivision for various Crown-held
parcels. The field-work and final plans of these subdivisions were done by privately
practising British Columbia land surveyors employed for the purpose. E. J. Gook,
B.C.L.S., made two small residential subdivisions—one in Quesnel and one in West
Quesnel; he also reposted three blocks of West Quesnel Townsite. On the Southern
Trans-Provincial Highway west of Hedley, a subdivision consisting of twenty-two lots
of 2 to 6 acres lying between the highway and the Similkameen River was made by
R. P. Brown, B.C.L.S. Another subdivision immediately south of Prince George containing 180 quarter-lots is being laid out by J. A. F. Campbell, B.C.L.S.
A system of adding a survey fee to the lease fee or price of the land, as the case
may be, is returning the cost of these surveys to the Department.
In June, R. E. Chapman, B.C.L.S., was added to the staff of the Surveys Division,
enabling us to extend our checks of survey returns and also the actual work in the field. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
X 37
Liard River from Liard Bridge, Alaska Highway.
Wy.'y
Hot springs near Liard River crossing, Alaska Highway. DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
fl
J
8
ej —   ^
0)
01
. o
M
.2 w ^
^   r2     CJ
c=i ■£   n
QJ     OJ  HH
p. h. h
K
m
Ph
<!
a
cj
s
CO
H
&
«
fi
HH
w
^    O    H       .
i   oj cs cj
r.e sj'-a
!ft*J
! SS >■
I  j- ^
1 r^   CJ    •*• .rt  t-
:hHboSc
*r< —       -
I pq
3 Ph
1 Ohh
OJ <H
M o   -
H. .3
o  >> ca
OJ hJ
H.      H
W(2:
• o .5 «
<  aj h. ca
cs oj *-J
i-5  P,
P. "
" ° s
to *> 6
■ HH    OJ OJ
H    « 1H
,3    0 0)
>   OJ   3
ca CJ ,qj
P. ^H       CJ
5?Ph
-h» S ■
•b s
P Co
o o
« rH   (
z«j
h2 £
HH»    CS
-   oj   !>
i V "O
i M «
I .- »
!^W
I oj -a
CJ cs j3 -a
i g-^ §
>.Sh2    H.
fltJ  flj  c
j H- c3 .5' °
i § >,:>,s
Ifl jA   rf   rt pit
■ co  tf  C
o cj o a) -A
.Jr;  to hj hj +3
«3     rH      O     O
*2
CJ   OJ
• -   ,s°
.m 1; ■«
01   -      "
QJ
otj£.m
S'o'2 g"S
HJ   5   (3U   w
3 Ph   g P. 5
U    •"-   S    S    H,
g0S0.H
►J Q S £ph
on win
3 ■ £ ■ j*
uoogoJadJjg
OOOoOOJOOJrtP
•a >
QJ «H
HH OS
3 w
H, M
cj    *
■H.'|1
■o >.S  .
oJhoPh,*
2 «£ 2
O    Li "h    M
-go i*0
OJ o_ Jf
OJ hh. 'TS H
H S  O'S
° ^ te p
H   c   0 O
•-    OJ        «    rH •   .
U   Oj   V   h   a)
h •'■*• «.h
cj Sm t«o 5 +3'
cj c p **3 P
j3 .S .s      o
to   P   P   !h   «
P hh ^3  rv
H=
M ^.             ■"'
5. "2 .§
-p> pi   U   O
If 3  ?  S
Ph  <5
Ph       O
■o S
§pi
<D   O   >
6oi5 .5
.hh   SaO
HO   3.S
to r»*'J3
CJ Eh   eS
P,
E
cc
o •
S
QJ    3
w
^
rJ^H3
■rf OjOoiOICIOjOOOOOOOOOOOWMCOWM
H    drH^HHHHHHHrPHHEHHtHtHHtHHEHr-iH
□     "7   eOTf^GO^OHWM^WtObCOOJOHNHWMTli
2     " rH rH iH  lH
I—I
2 ^f^
o o
2Ph
O cj s
O   h'J
PhPhN
Ph
«! &-<
H    H    m
fni   *   QJ
>g H
JO
h?hJ
"2 «wPh
A!  nt  P   %
ShH    «    I
{J    HH   H-.    H
K«   1h£
F>.HH     CJ   H
HH  Si  H3
fl)   HJ     2
Ph CO <
P X
3   "
a j3
:&*
CJ A( ^
QJ QJ oj
Fh   CJ    QJ
n h  h
O O
&-S fe
S fe I
J—   HJ       .
>H C3  j-^
2   ^S   H
P.   £».=.     01
P-^i        «    >
^■3 o?2
•a>HH
P     HH     QJ     „
«  «<jK
»     H?
B.S
Sj  ,Q
H-U
C3   H-">
rH       fi
QJ   c3
C   HP
•rH      CO
£§
T3   «
a)
0?   2   -
>   «   03
4)   .   ^~. Ui
^ o"2 oj
*"a 22
«•   P ii S
CJ  .S    "00
•° H _
jH-Ona-g
" j3 ■"
cc
s2
w   p
O   Cj
3!
MHH
° P ^
P cj cc
O u
« a
O  B
a
-."•Si
3
QJ -^
CJ CC
P f-
QJ CC
HH
rli
s S °-
MS
cc o
H. H
CI «H
P
•hh t3
B »
cj 'Sh
CJ   g •
X   O
E-i  «
oo.SH
1033
B S ^ s
«1   u,   4)
5 M «  ■»
CMNCMCMOOOOCO OOcOCO
COCOCOCOhHJ^hhJ Tj.rH.Tj.
MCOCOCOCOCOCO CC m co
EhchHHcHEhEh EhHH
©t-MOHWM Tt.^5CO
2 >>hj
J3 a f
la cc
tH
H
HHfQ
« <
H   O
Q
S3 p.£
S  QJ
Jl     P.HJ
2 3 » s"
2   H   JJ    U
aP3.B-C
a_Jj n cr
sl S.S
I lis
h§s£»
*3 cc       o
O
Oh
<<
Eh
H
Pi
<:
Ph
H
fi
O
Eh
CQ
M
HH
P3
in
P.M
o QJ
CJ   CJ
s5
MS
HIS
CJ Ph     .
JJ CC
h   OH.
O +» P
C S Si
o t> a
CO .H. <J
n PS
fl   hK     .
tU   1—1
■B «
Pi >
PS
p a
t> .2  CJ
Sh    >
0 S 'g .cj £?«l jg
h 3 *CJ '
*4> U
Oj   pj   m O
a|ijS
§CO.Mg
,   3 [S .5 T3
°2^ "•
>.s.cj e
C3   j,
J A!
cj
CL-hI
g CQ
3 .J   ®   h   S^
HhSX    O    H    JJ
CO S Ofl, Ph CO
5 *   £».
P g-a
..      P
hTh.cC
CJ    01    h.
>m> CS
3 a »J
cs ca S
o ca   ■
HJ CU    m
Si p 2
2 «o
o
a q ,
P. fe
h°/o -
DhJO
Q)  1—I
2 S S
1-1 jcT-o'
..  CJ   p
T3   CJ   CS
O   h:
OO.P
B rt c
OStH
■3 E
00
.5 (2 s
■**  ^ ■«
■H    S
hhhS    g
S cPh
p. g
cs QJ
'     H=    S
H      *H
Ph KP
cS-S
TJ QJ
CS   Jh
°Ph
B ..
.2  h
HJ    OJ
>> 2
2 5 P. p
■o"E 8 g
0   o  co   I*
MknOO
o
p
c^    ■
gs .<
P u >
"•d'a
.3
S C h3 ;
H    LHJ
•2 ° 5 -'
C8 0.M
JH QJ
M^hSW
M T3
ca
g   B
KCQ
ffl -o.
S
CS
o
0)
II
«*,*►>
» dj s
r-    Q)    *H    QJ
■O Ph   CJO'^
*«  .-.S   to ,
<B   H -S  9
•B  g  «h3
•H. .£ tS w
ci M o -S:
P.2 >> B 1
0 h P S 1
to   b.
*l
GJ    OJ
= °S
1 c p
i°  cs
i-B  P
Wg
5 cs
i Eh   ca
j*g
: «h=h
1  B^
i 3 5
i Oco
03
hS-S"
01 cj   >,
2 h «
CJOPh
» b. b
fl    1)    N
.3 OJ C
P.J3  cs
3 CQ Cc.
o ™
h.   M .-
(SS a
■§5-§
a o 2
>hPhPh
P    H.
HO
'n   ai hh
CJ
3
P
J3
■O
B
CS
■a oi     -S
h   H g
S^H^l
?* oj   o
Q)
a, w,
CO     CS   H"   ^H
W  CO  'H   .>
o        MfS
Cri 'O  cs
" PEh "O
•H   CS B
O *H    CS
^H<1      O
■P  01        01
a 2 a"«
•hVP.3M
•3 3 5 £ -5 >> S
(H hP   CS   O   CS £   to
EhcoEhIjhOSo
c5 h2
01
HO
QJ
cS .3
H .2
■a >
3 « *
S.HH    tO
Sf °
CJ 01   o
HJi  J3    3   HJ
i   S ca ,
H.    P    OJ    H.
JS u  TJ _5
&hhS§<
Ph  PhhPh
. B -o   .
gS§g
F* ,H r*
PhS^Ph
3  P^  3
(D    >   P    OJ
hS   o   H
OJ     S     rH     (S3
tl WEHph
r«
CJ
O
CJ-«
«i      L O
2 <1) Q)
.  ri K ^
!  .-«hW
!    CJ «H
,   >   w o
I pd|  qj to
I                 -P> rH
1 S § 5
3 P ca
cc        h*   j*   ca
HH    O    OJ   TJ    fe
rf      QJ      Ph
% s ■§
fe •-
5 u
cj   cj
fe pq
rt P-l   cj
a o w
O     HP
.1 2S
h   p -H  o
O Q co
.3 P
Sg
01 CO
.2 B  ci
«-2 .2 »
p k H •i)
3   O    o 3
O   P.   p, h.
>> 3 " 0
h5" j2 s
PQ to ^ u
a P.
OJ CO
s ft
IOt>t-ffi01fflC)003010l0301C)©05G050i03fflC}ffic)10iOOOOOOodood cd cd   cd cd   cd
lHlOlOCDCOtDCOTOCOCOCOCOeOCOCDCOeDCOCOCOCOCOCOCOC^ on 00   00 00   00
NNNNNNNNNNNNNWCINWNNNNNNINININWNINNWNWNWN W CM   fM (MM
HHEnHHhHHHhhhrHrHHrHRHhHHHhHHcHrHhHh^rHrHr^ Eh h H Eh H
OHNCOT|tlOl>OOffiOHCHWM'inW^aiCiOPNMTj<lOHNMW«Ot-OOaONCOHNCO^ IO CO   t- 00   o
T-i                                                                   rHtHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHT-HNCNINCNJOqtN                                                                  rHrHrH tH
OJ  X2
WSS
g  *£    'fi    HP
CD  CD *# -^
00 00 Oi OS
Eh Ep Eh E-t
rH  C\J rH CI Eh
P.
a
o
J3
H
REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 89
oi P
■a s
P 3
HJ U
s.
s.
Park.
dwate
• ■***        F*» d   oJ
-U   OJ           QJ    £   QJ
QJ   r—>             r-1      O   LJ
Jg  rP            r-«     CO  M
g   CS   ^   03 ,Q ^
S
w> ^iSl!
0)
H.   01 hh   oi TJ
°     >   h5      >     P      m
OJ
cCK^Ph  "  d
er\
ne
ver
ill
ley
Riv
xi ja pj "fi « cs
o
O ca       o i> tj
QJ
««sa h. 2
to
Ph
H
1 an
and
ancc
and
Rive
Alb
<
and Cana
r Skeena
and Kitv.
r Fraser
r Fraser
nnan anc
w
o
£
3
-g    P,   »    P,   P. HH
O   P.  ca   P.  Bh  CJ
(S13^Ph3S
w
fi
d
. -i a   . < n
rH
t- t- C- 00 00 00
h3
r^ HH  r-t hH  r^ r-\
11
H
fc
W
a
H
Ph
Hi
Ph
W
Q
.  cS
p
a  a-
jh-WhS>-    g        8 li-5       1    3* .-g Cw-SSg
^.s^t^^l.      Eg2«.   1   ^h-s |S^o|
5»J»C'i,^Sh'0>>»       S 3-SrjH-TJ      hh      "3  ca  ca hJ P  M   °  oj  «
gS^^p,>oic»ocaHHMoiHjso      P-capmoicjj-HpqfH-a^ 5 s ■- o a
,j?«T,ti^S2p2S-o|&24S9.[
ca
^^HiA!tahBoH,Or2H."3  3H.'CSgSHS«03H.c5H.!HOj-!«j-j3^«O!H,o)
cyjcOH^comfeWmfefcMfeaG'cytHH^SHqjamQhi-lfefe^
. H B   .   . < co   .<addn   . < to u   .. <in   . •<   .   . -< co cj   . h n   . < co cj   .   . H
0JC10JOHHHNNMNW«CCM«c0^HjHj.i0W(0t-t.t-t-C0CC«IOlCJClfflOrtH
HHHWMWHMW«MnWH«MNWnW«««MWH«WWMHWWWM«(0
j" HJ
[XH 01 CJ
•e fi
jd .2 cc
hj >» p CS
.S   HH. » hh J
7h "O Q   >h hh oi
ca   ch H  o . ca rv»
H  5 _   r" h. h Ph
3 h.Ph b >
3                           32'                                   5?     ■     •    ■    I'5               3 r                                                     & ■-■!                             S2
f5               i?2c?      2hS             3       g       "So             g      2 B                       S        0i>      >                      2TJ
f|B «5i S  s *-B    *■! 1 3 i! i-| I- 1  g^-ss
ci   °s,o     58-      c     4j      S P          g     h ^     J     'J'OjS*     ^      «     7H fi 3 g
■ ■§!:*lsgci-g^ fi|. .ail I a s-wJt| §  fiTj8|«ggg.2 .j
S»w^ss:|^hhS   g^i^l p11hhp--|^b|   s^^ll-g^fiilt
■S   ^■SsS^Scbhi^    PHgeco^l^ ScogOccBWco^H     Ma"s^|figal«g
8 & * 8 * • «* ^g«^5^gswg-oj^T3^§c^""w:z;
. <j «   .   . •< n u o   . < »   . <      moo   .<joao   ,^m   .   .   .   . ^       . < «   .   . <! pj o   .■<!   .-<;«
HHHNMC0«M«Tl"<tTl<LOlfl lClCl^tOtDCOCDI>I>t-00010rHrH: (NNWCO^-^TfTPlOlCCDCDCO
rHrHi-H rHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrHrH X 90
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
»—*
r.i
CJ
'5
s
>
s
rH
rH
II
B
II
B
Ph
Ci)       tp
•5      3
o
O
CO
Ph
<
H
O
Z
w
BS
E
Ph
yl
<
a
Eh
Ph
<
Ph
P
Ph
o
E    -1
HJ.„    «(3
■        oj_\™
>    CO TJ    P    5
cs ca
Ph
QJ       rH
> Ph
t" _.
HJ   hH
*     II
ca II
p. ci .
p.   MJ      HI      CJ.1,
Sin    rM«-
Ph
o  .". TJ
h h2 ca
S2 b>
QJ    03    QJ
'If 6
Ci    03 P"
<  ^J  MH *2    *
i «  3 <HH .»  s
3 TJ    .. O    h.    QJ
i    fi    g m    HM
X Ph "h hj
ra o o qj
p 44 43 _ o
QJ     QJ HJ   ^    O
hi   « J    »h
►,«s a Sa
JJH w Eh CO M hJ i
•XG
s w
CC
MTJ
c  B
HJ 5
Ph
hThJ
? 3 2.
' Ph   o
ca"'
fi   TJ
o c
CJ   c3
MhP
g .3
£2
p5p;
HH     S
to .a.
3 43 ■
cq  CS
ca tj t
oi fi .
TJ   "h    ^
fiP    P
,: CS   & .
J    H.    QJ tfi
.HJ    H H
. CO HH
!TJ    g ..
5PH ^
•2       E'
CPh
s QJ
: Hj.g:
i Ha
£■«
Ph^
~ r^   o  B   fe
H^h
QJ ,-.
>   hH    g  |
CS
h2 p
B -r"
„_,   g.nPn    ■IQ-JJ^^
C  h   S« « S  o  «P--J
H<     H.      O   HH      nTHHk ■"
H-J      -   H   .
QJ   QJ
2 h4   > ■
HJ    CC  V^   -
hj j Ph
3       .„
5 J TJ
b 8:
cag-
^22
hH     &
PS
SH     o
Xfi rQ
44
rH
1-1
QJ
>
£
«
rH
k«i
a
c
B
a
QJ   O
•%z .
• " >>--;
J    S-rS    B
™    rH     O     w
^>°KPh   fi
3 ^ -a
rP     OJ     B
CQ     H.
„!>«   O
s s
pp p c
ca ^
o .2 ca
E t>.S
(m v   •**!.«    O   O r-H
Ph;       PhOPh cjcj W
Ph   3   to .
rH      °      "
8 CO
fi oj
WrM
- s
H.   ca
cs ca
QJ      QJ
ca n
.       cj ^
H      rH      >      fi
'      g   h3     «
- r» pa
ikaS
3h3|§
HI-hMhU
ShJ
CO    QJ
P    g   TJ
CJ   CJ   E    „
EhOP3cqM
CS
QJ    Jh
cs .5
^Ph
C    QJ
>>2 "o
r2      5      C
a « «
cSS-i
PhPPh
QJ  TJ
r3      P
£«
to   ^
rfrS
| a
cd Eh
o
(-  TJ
QJ    S
P% od
S.SS
82 n
oco oj"
r5   -P^i
^2
O   03
hJ|x
5 h3
>> "J
rJ<
2  2   r«
fi r.
ts ca ca
p-'-SPh
£     S     r<
r.     a    QJ
o 2
acjrS
S^°
fl      C     rT
>i  03    QJ
QJ >
Mg2
QJ   .rH    +>
03 03
P [j fe
3    QJ
»o-
8 a S3
a    r.    CJ
"       W   .r.    "      CJ    HH
M CQ CO <) CQ hh
44     HH QJ
•go eq
5 2 2
43   >
^g
lis.
hS 43
3  3
HH      l. r
.CO    CJ   hh
8tj 2 4*?
A a o jh
«C82-S
-    Pi     O
•s» g a
r0   43      3
S fta5 "h
IS" S
° ^ 44   8
U     -   Q)   4J
^ 03   CJ   cj
^ S .» 2
oaztu
tDt-cdoioHNCC^'lOtdtHCOCldHMCO^WQJt-KCJJdHWCC^ljidtH   oo   oi
totO(0(Ot.t-^t-i>i>^^lHlHWccmcocomcoMojoDO)Cioicjmoiojoi as en
.B      Ph
a
o
Ph
hJ
Ph
<!
EH
K
s
co   03
3J
Ph_o
JH  j-J
QJ  *B
g;o
W rH
rJ O
TJ r5
O rrH
►Si
o o-
a d
.44
rH     O
.£      ^
S   HJ
m ca
TJ EH
0J
^rS
r4     CS
OH
HH ^
QJ    CJ
.  2  .Eh    §
5? 2 tj ca
pa Z ts
ca . 22
> cj -fi c
t* ^ 2
P   ° Ph  c"
t»    QJ  HH 43
^2  [^    CO TJ
.5      07     r,"        .
>QJ   .rH
-P»     r4
C    ^    g    ft
"gMra,
-«Ph-OCQ
"S   S§43
g ca hj J;
r2   ^      0   2
K Ph hJ Z
Ph
ca
.   to
tO    0J
rH   44
g   CO
• fcrJ
«B
JiJ   to
Ph
2 8
2 >
P3 2
CJ
rH 'S      ri
^O
.     rH      QJ CD rH
«>   rH   a "^ ft
p. ca cj
P. QJ 01
05 oJS
g a co
£h   h
II   oj
p    H    P.
to .3 D
P.
0 w g
Eh   . ca
O    03  HH
2 >> p
s.s g
apno
r5EH
HJ2
Ph
OJ      ,  TJ
ca cj o t.
HJ Ph .5
CJ TJ QJ
•S< pPq
W-r;    «VH
- p u °
g   ST-   h,
0>  h, B -S
.a o«5
R
43 .
O M
t-Z QJ
. QJ
HJ HI
CQ O
pa ,-,-a c Ph
.0 fe
oj Ph o
■grr.0
'3   R TJ
ca c
gPi       h^
Ph ■-        'K '
fi   ^   HJ
* L5 r ";
P   HI O
CQ .5
3   O   to
QJ
.      r*l
QJ    CJ
5 g  . I!
>   .a     rH    R
3 Qj   CJ .3
■4?
>,    03   -rH
"iJPh  ,
■3.5 2
>2 S
Jh-ShH
a a cj
j'bo   o
■3     s
^.        to
O   HH   CJ
O   fi <«   0J
HH..H       °-g
Erg      II      P^
2 pPi.*
hh b .a     3
g »HJ
pSpq
rn oj
« £
2ph
h? o
44
ca -0 -h
'■> s^
i        w
i Ph S es
'CO.
fi"
pints .01 ,
co   H
rH   .3
"Ph
B" g   §   R   «   g
:a ^ t: .9 h. cc
TJ
O o
to
TJ    ft
S E
u
■sil
1-
HJ    BH
QJ     ft
Enp
-3 K -6 .3
2 -: 3 Ph
Ph ghj"
>    -.&        CJ
S2ft«8l
TJ TJ
R fi
CS   cS
R
C   «
.2 .2
2 2 {
>. fe P
QJ 43   CJ
saa33«„
o    O    O    O r3    QJ    o
ZcJOPh Ph Png
3 fe.-g hj"
H ca .2 ca
Ph H.    H.    r.
fe R.2 2
03 ■^    C    OJ
^J ft CJ P«!
03 Ci       rQ           O
« 03 >
rTTj-ca
g   S h4
■h .9
Ph   P.2
is
CS
X   >>
03   cS
tS-gnb
TJ Ph £
B  HQ  '3
0>    "hj
§ S fi
0J   C   IS
Ph jl   o,
>> u   cS
5^3
CO Ph
M hh -p   B
Trj ^       ^
03    o  H->
MrH<J
03 a
QJ N V--
■ r-^a
Ph*tj
r-< Pi 03
HJ    m    QJ
w s t?
TJ « ft
R  >  TJ
°hJ
44     grS
».fe Ph
S«a
43     CS  QJ
°-rS
b     H.     O
o» cj S
2 &2
cj ft ca
Eh PCO
-o
fi   .
PH       rH
Hi       OJ
-a £
"SS
a
o
g r-
!H ca
H. QJ
Q W
to t- 00 00 00
CO  CO  CO  CO  CO
.H...H«0.^pQ0.<;	
OC10HMWN(MmncOM^iTjifltCH.COCJOH(NCCH*Ul   CD   t-
CO(WTHlTjlTj.HHlHHlHHlTHHHHlTH.HHlTHI^lHjlHHlT}lTrHH/U31C3WU5lCiin    1TJ    IO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
X 91
rH- TJ     M    8     S
o oi R a a
2 fe
fe. _
QJ xi
Ql   r-l
- M   .     fe.4H
h 3   " ^   o
ft CO   HJ  rH
ft p   R Eh 2
ca 3   CS g
TJ
O    R  TJ
c  o   CJ
ca cj ft
R
«
R
Pa
43
HJ
3
o
CO
P.44
CQffl
_, hh
Cj'   H.
QJ
<„ 2 c al ft   • oj n o
_ ca   ,P» <5 -« ca cj in
■0(1-^2^0,2,    too-
S5fe.>S"gg
8     g-S     rH      fiPHi     |j     £•£
rlr,    ^    C    H ^    CD ^
^2-6 15^2^
]^*"KgS.E>3
S   C3   qj- P _ CQ   ft
h.    44 ° a _ D
f.  44   J  a     Ca     RtJ    r     h
KHH,fe,cQ^r0c3c3caca
"Stj g g,
2 fe. w 3 5
cxj   PS   03 +_, TJ
03 O S    QJ
03                03 G Oj   r-H
Tj         -. -P 03
~" QJ qT
CS ■£ ^ ^   w
h q. os
> „       r-H QJ   r-.
£ -,-rQ rH     P3
" tQ    03 QJ   H-i
QJ   f>     ft
a   ~
oj oj
I 43   C   fi
! HJ   CJ
ca .
ca
s 3 a! fe> "
a    2 2 a< r
-v _i 's  0) fi
g-- - riT, ca
°s.
P   R
So-gog-assES
r fio^s bo%£z2M
330CJTJ0trto0o
RQ WZ&hPh^OOO
r^ojr^mr^tndcocJcNi
OOOICJOICIINNCJCO
I   I   I   I   I   I   I   I   I   I
t-t-t-t-COCCMHt-O
hHiHhHhH^HhHhHOJCNJCO
43 •-
Eh J
p, fi'
CI
CS
K   2 TJ- T)   3
43   «I   2   ^
-   H   03   ft-P
CU    >-i    u
L    O   H
2""2
l-gH
hj a *
ft ca e
OJJ°
a
CO
H
en
X  o   a,
0)         QJ
43
CC
o  c
-a
O
J3-°V3
B
'-
o   _.
C3
B   B  B
a
nile to 1 i
i prints ca
deep brow
CJ
hQ
a
s
a
a
Z
<
en
a
Z
<
-J
_      -       «-
HH     <     >
•HJ     N     «
oo-B
CJ
r-H
-a
HjW
ra
c
.s
o
«
"iP
OJ
c/.
.5
Q
-pi
p
J
03
, E 3
;£i°2
*_.    ^    03
rj-J     £      >i -p>
„    QJ      QJ   r^      P.
i ft^.S S
fig"
co       4
ft        <
CO     •   '
R   01
HH •"
0)    OirV^^    J.
fe B^tj  o
*   8  °   3   »
cu
a>
■oo
Hj^-gO
Z ..
B <
s s
H O
« H
H U
Q
o
Oh
a
0
en
"S     « J
_h     -a fi
*"*      '3 cj
II g-g
ph       Eh   o
•g^T-M      .
g S"3-g'S
oj ^a " 5 n
H. S    .2 cj
.A   *-< .       44 Ph Ph
S?  o oi hh -q,      w
c?o   ^2 ii g g a
22     pa2 b° g §
>«n;E2Hoi222
8-s.feH-
.5-oph
Hh*    tO
Ph   hi   ca .
2     HH   ,
fi    2 SO" •
■   O   to _   to
tO   HJ   -h   TJ    01
         TJ   HH   r-J     jH   ^
hh 2 S   " rS fi   - cs ca ca
Sr2k,23tjph
p ca 3 ^j « h ci       _
2   H~   — tO     H   r-H     tO   ..H
ra;>R    tjhh22°r
I^O^gcS^ggB
1 « S-SbS.oPh'IPh
S ,> -h.    tO    ca    h.
M t. h« fe.c ra 43
EPh
2 b 2
o ■«   fi
Ph-'
■o
S . c
ca to cs
43   ^
■      rH      fe   TJ
.a p oj a
Ph   ca 43 EH
-hh  Ph
ca oj o   h
. 44   hj   u   ca
^gr^l
^rlMcSgcS
S ,B  TJ  ^    «      "     *
pi   o3   pi   £ Th   p3 TJ
bp qj   o3   ^   p  ri
TiSoiiI
a   |.Sj|
■^  t> TJ
.2 s
- Ph   ^
03    03 ho
QJ     O     QJ
■ fe 2 fe :
TJ
R
ca" 43 _. S 44 S cj •« 2 -a 5 fe fe fe. ►* r2
^"Ph^Ph^^EhJ^
oi ,
■gllll'S^Ba
O capL,
B r=2tJ 5H3«Z
5 w2h 2 3 2 * o H g g Hg W. g O
£g-0^4,-gfi=ollEHfe2r044"g
ca    .CJ       o g^ S°  | 8 rtjtjM  "^ 5
0   ^^HSJJ.      J.«i"CC
oaSS'SSS^S^cacaHJ
«-- g .3.9 s ft b, c hh ^ t«
'fer^
3 Ph
ca ca
R P
r*.SJL2!2§Sca3£°Sca"S2
rama>raOr5!i3^pqMapOPHK
cs i
fe.-5
a K
a
C      P    Hf
5   ca hh   ca 2 2   «   tin j'O^TT'h^   Bhh.44
■H.prsC'S'r. ofe"1:a       H H-n e a o S
p   ft _QJ
ft oj
5 2
I CO CO TJi  IO
hh     C-jOC3C3oOOOOC3hHhHhHhHt-IhH
.2.2 "S SpfeSwa
hJ ,-] Ph Ph        ....
. £  ra  hC co
O Oj  Oi  OJ Oi
.1 .'      '      '     ' X 92 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
TOPOGRAPHIC DIVISION.
By A. G. Slocomb, B.C.L.S., Chief, Topographic Division.
After serving with the Topographic Division for twenty-three years, A. J. Campbell, B.A.Sc, D.L.S., B.C.L.S., Chief, Topographic Division, retired on superannuation
on June 30th, 1948. The writer took over that position July 1st, 1948. By that time
the field parties for the summer work were already in position—W. R. Young, B.C.L.S.,
in the Bridge River area; G. C. Emerson, B.C.L.S., in the Chilliwack area; A. H. Ralfs,
B.C.L.S., in the Terrace area; D. J. Roy, C.E., in the Prince George area; and A. G.
Slocomb, B.C.L.S., in the Kyuquot area. A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S., the former Chief,
was in charge of the British Columbia-Yukon Boundary survey. The administration
of the Division had been directly under the Surveyor-General. I returned to Victoria
during September and actively took charge of the Division. Our new quarters on
Superior Street were ready, the draughting-room staff having taken possession in June.
Although well lighted and suitable for our purpose and it was found possible to install
the complete staff in these quarters, we are crowded, and there will be no room for
further expansion and still keep the Division together as a working unit with our
present office-space. The temporary quarters at Work Point, used the previous season,
are now utilized as storage-space for the bulky boxes and stoves of our field equipment;
our instruments and sleeping-bags are still stored in the property-room. The motor-
vehicles of the Division are in the Department of Public Works garage at Langford.
As a further step in the expansion of the topographic mapping in the Province,
a fifth topographic party was put in the field this summer under D. J. Roy, C.E., who
was on loan to this Division from the Water Rights Branch. Our main difficulty'in
the way of further expansion is still a lack of trained personnel in this specialized
occupation. At present seven members of our staff are articled pupils and another
eight are studying for their preliminary examination next April. With this reserve
on hand of potential topographic assistants, we should soon be in a position to follow
a normal expansion programme. The main lack is senior personnel, which time alone
will remedy; at present no trained men of this calibre are available elsewhere. Our
draughting office, too, has now a full complement and, by the time the field parties are
up to strength, will be sufficiently trained to handle the additional work entailed.
The field control obtained by this summer's operations will enable eight map-sheets
to be compiled. This is at the rate of three-quarters of 1 per cent, of the total map-
sheets of British Columbia, so that at this rate it is an imposing task to produce topographical maps to cover the whole of British Columbia. These maps are in great
demand in many sections. The answer for increased production seems to lie in obtaining mechanical plotters and contouring machines, the use of which reduce the necessary
field control. By this means each field party could control two or more map-sheets and
during the office period produce a corresponding increase in area mapped.
Much of the work done in the field this summer was carried out under adverse
weather conditions, particularly in the southerly parts of the Province. With many
parts of British Columbia in the grip of the floods during the latter part of May and
early June, transportation for men and equipment was impossible; as a result, all
parties were late in getting into position. The balance of June and July were pretty
fair months, but August was very bad all over and September not much better. All of
the parties worked later this year than usual. With the exception of the Chilliwack
district, the surveyors were forced to leave their areas without completing what they
had planned.
In the Chilliwack area, controlled by G. C. Emerson, a helicopter was used experimentally to prove the feasibility of this type of transport for topographic survey
parties.    Although the weather interfered with a really successful result, as far as REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 93
the surveyor was concerned, it did prove that the helicopter transportation was practical.    The machine made thirty landings without mishap.
In 1886 the late Dr. E. Deville, of the Dominion Government, introduced a method
of mapping called the " photographic survey " into British Columbia; the first area to
be done was in the Rocky Mountains adjacent to the Canadian Pacific Railway. Since
then the Dominion has carried on this method of mapping almost continually. Another
section of the Dominion Government—the Geological Survey of Canada—mapped other
sections of British Columbia during the same period.
The making of topographical maps in British Columbia for the British Columbia
Government commenced in 1913, when the late R. D. McCaw made a photo-topographical survey along a portion of the Banff-Windermere Highway, then under construction,
for the Public Works Department. In 1914 he started work for the Surveys Branch
of the Department of Lands in the Okanagan region; this was the modest beginning
of the Topographic Division. It grew slowly with the addition of G. J. Jackson,
B.C.L.S., in 1920, who is still with us; A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S., in 1925, who has
recently retired; N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S, in 1930, now the Surveyor-General. The
surveyors in charge now all joined the staff as juniors and worked up to their present
positions.
The use of air photographs for map-making was first used in British Columbia
on a large scale in 1929 for the Pacific Great Eastern resources survey. N. C. Stewart,
B.C.L.S., was mainly responsible for this and was the engineer in charge of this section
of the resources survey. When Mr. Stewart joined the Topographic Section in 1930,
he carried out a control survey for plotting from air photographs. In 1931 the method
for producing topographic maps using the photo-topographic system of control for
air photographs was perfected within the section and put into effect, using photographs
taken by the Royal Canadian Air Force. This system, with some changes and improvements, is still in use. Many of the air photographs are now supplied by the Air Survey
Division of the Surveys Branch. The Royal Canadian Air Force still is taking large
numbers of photographs of British Columbia, but liaison between the flying sections
ensures no duplication of areas.
A brief synopsis of the work of a Topographic Division surveyor and his staff is
added here in an endeavour to give the sequence followed in the production of a map-
sheet.
Upon receipt of his written instructions as to area, policy to follow, and information on file available, the surveyor organizes and ships his instruments and equipment
to his starting-point, along with his crew. Once at work and in spite of all mod°m
inventions, his progress is largely a matter of hard work and initiative. He and his
crew must still endure the vicissitudes of the weather and the attacks of the black-flies
and mosquitoes. He carries forward either an existing triangulation net, or establishes one of his own, if the country is mountainous. If flat, he has to establish a
series of closed traverses. Both are for the same purpose—to establish a framework
for the control, both horizontally and vertically, for the air photographs.
The surveyor takes with him a complete set of the air photos of his area. These
photos are flown in strips with a 60-per-cent. fore and aft overlap between each photograph and a 25-per-cent. overlap between strips. He occupies a sufficient number of
camera stations and exposes photographic plates in panorama at each to provide horizontal and vertical control for these air photos. As each area has a completely different
set of conditions, such as size and shape and height of the mountain peaks, location of
mountain ranges and lakes, it would be impossible to lay down a set of rules of how to
obtain the control.
The importance of the part the surveyor and his assistant and instrument-man
plays in the making of a map, particularly as regards the field-work, cannot be stressed X 94 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
too much. Their choice of stations, their operation of camera and theodolite can make
or break the entire project. In addition, the surveyor has many a cross to bear, such
as the management of pack-trains and camps in areas miles from the nearest habitation, the climbs of several thousand feet to stations, the handling of instruments in
the face of 30-mile-an-hour winds at freezing temperatures, the heart-breaking disappointment of a long climb when fog and rain suddenly descend and necessitate a return
trip, and many others. Surveying in British Columbia has never been a pleasant
pastime. Working in mountainous areas calls for a degree of skill, initiative, and
sheer tenacity that few types of field-work demand.
When he has covered his area to his satisfaction, or, as sometimes happens, when
he is driven out by the early arrival of the winter's snow, he returns to Victoria to
compile his work and make his map. There, with his assistant and one or two instrument-men, he plots all stations on a manuscript sheet prepared for him by the staff
of the draughting-room. The computation of co-ordinates for these stations and the
elevations, too, are computed for him by the Base Map Section, under W. H. Hutchinson. Enlargements are made from all of the photographic plates, and the direction and
traces of these from each camera station are plotted. The flight strips of the aerial
photographs are prepared and plotted. Horizontal control-points are identified on both
ground and aerial photographs and plotted from the ground views, using the traces on
the manuscript. These control-points are used to place accurately on the map the
centre of each air photograph that is used to obtain detail or contours. Vertical
control-points are then picked on both horizontal and aerial photographs and the elevation of each point is computed; the altitudes of the horizontal control-points are also
computed. Contours are then drawn on the aerial views with the aid of a stereoscope,
using the altitudes of the vertical points as a guide. At the same time all rivers and
lakes, shore-line, buildings, etc., are marked. This information is then taken from the
aerial photographs and reduced to map scale and plotted on the manuscript. At present
we have one overhead epidiascope that does the latter two operations in one. It is
hoped to obtain more of these machines or an improved version in the near future.
As soon as all the water, roads, contours, buildings, railroads, etc., are down on the
manuscript, the draughtsman takes over under supervision of the surveyor, inks in all
the detail, and adds the finished printing. The Geographic Division has previously
checked a list of all the names and numbers it is proposed to show on the finished map-
sheet; it is now returned to them for a recheck. The map-sheet then is sent to the
Geographic Division for printing.
During the period 1914 to 1948 considerable new equipment has been added. The
original theodolites, reading to minutes, have all been replaced with modern Wild
Transits reading to seconds. We still use plate cameras patterned after the original
design of Dr. Deaville. G. C. Emerson, B.C.L.S., in the Chilliwack area, this year gave
our new roll-film camera a full test, and it proved very satisfactory. This camera, a
pilot model, built by A. H. Young, of Victoria, under the supervision of Mr. Emerson,
was designed by the members of the Topographic Division staff. It is hoped eventually
to have all our field parties equipped with camer.as of this new design. A feature of the
new camera besides the large reduction in weight is the offset lens to increase the field
of view in the foreground and reduce the amount of sky in the view. Other new office
equipment includes draughting-table units, stereoscopes, parallax bars, epidiascopes,
and a pantograph.
The purchase of the " B.C. Surveyor " for the mapping of the Coastal areas has
materially increased the amount of work done on these coasts. This past summer was
so stormy that only a boat of this size could have carried on.
It is hoped in the near future that it will be possible to have a multiplex projector
available for the compilation of our topographic maps.
The reports of the Chiefs of the field parties follow. .
REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
X 95
TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY OF WEST COAST OF VANCOUVER ISLAND.
By A. G. Slocomb, B.C.L.S.
The objective for 1948 was the completion of the topographical mapping on the
west coast of Vancouver Island and comprised Map-sheets 92-E/14, 92-L/3, 92-L/4, and
92-L/5. However, due to the extremely bad weather in August and September, the
Map-sheet 92-L/5 was not even considered, while 92-L/4 will need some additional
control along its northern boundary. The map-sheets completed comprise 92-E/14
(Port Eliza), bounded by the 127th meridian to the east and the 50th parallel of latitude
to the north; 92-L/3 (Kyuquot), bounded by the 50th parallel of latitude to the south
and the 50° 15' parallel to the north, to the east by the 127th meridian, joining Map-
sheet L/4 to the west; 92-L/4 (Brooks Peninsula), lying directly west of L/3. The
area covered was approximately 600 square miles.
1273o'
127 c
Sheet 92 V-i     .av^CM
50oo'-
Sheet 92 ^U
■50 c
-49-5
128oc
Fig. 1.
An accurate map will be produced at a scale of one-half mile to 1 inch, with a
contour interval of 100 feet, using the air photos taken and supplied by the Air Survey
Division. Our own ground control was obtained by photo-topographical methods. We
used many stations permanently marked by H. E. Whyte, B.C.L.S., in 1928, when he
made a triangulation survey in this area. We tied Mr. Whyte's stations to'our triangulation, and the balance of his network will be used for control. Those stations
established by the Dominion Hydrographic Service and permanently marked were also
used in a like manner. As many ties to cadastral surveys as possible were made, and
most of the lot corners mentioned in my instructions were located and tied to the triangulation. We used two of Mr. Whyte's main stations from which to carry our
triangulation forward.    The stormy weather made conditions very difficult for us by X 96 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
stripping our signals of cotton on two occasions, and, on another by blowing several
over and three completely away. The completion of the triangulation net was finally
abandoned in October after a storm had cleared off all the cotton on the main stations
in the vicinity of Brooks Peninsula. It was decided to pick up from there next
season and complete the work under more stable weather conditions.
The party organized at Victoria and left on the " B.C. Surveyor " on June 9th.
On board was the writer as chief of party; A. F. Swannell, assistant; R. P. Justice,
instrument-man; Capt. W. Davenport, skipper-engineer of the "B.C. Surveyor"; five
axemen and a cook. After an excellent trip north we established headquarters at
Chamiss Bay. From here we had seaplane communication with Vancouver six days a
week. The Queen Charlotte Air Lines operated this daily aeroplane service and by
courtesy carried our mail. Early in August we moved to the Brooks Peninsula and
used Kyuquot as our mailing address. In October we moved to Port Alice. The party
disbanded at Victoria on October 13th. A brief synopsis of the season's results show
39 camera or main triangulation stations occupied, 18 tie stations occupied, 11 miles of
trail cut, 34 dozen photographic plates exposed, 2,800 miles run by the " B.C. Surveyor,"
and 365 miles travelled on foot by trail.
Physical Features.
This area is just north of Nootka, where the first settlement on Vancouver Island
was located, so naturally it was one of the first parts of the Island to be explored. A
Spaniard, Lieut. Francisco Eliza, was commissioned in 1790-91 to undertake this work;
although records do not definitely state he visited our section, Port Eliza was named
after him. In 1861-62 Captain Richards of H.M.S. " Hecate " surveyed this part of
the coast, and most of the present names were adapted by him from the Spanish or
Indian originals. " Kyuquot " from " Cayuquet," which in turn, was obtained from
" Ky-u-Kwe," as an example. " Brooks Peninsula " was changed from " Puerto de
Brucks," as shown on Galiano and Valdez chart of 1795, Captain Duncan, a local trader,
having originally named an anchorage in Klaskish Inlet " Port Brooks." " Cape Cook "
was named " Woody Point " by Captain Richards who was then in charge of the surveying vessel " Plumper."
The Indian Village of Actiss, when visited by Captain Richards, numbered 800
souls and is the present location of the village now on Village Island, but the population
is down to approximately 100. These Indians travelled by canoe to Tahsish at the head
of Tahsish Arm, a distance of 14 miles, each fall, where they had a seasonal village for
the purpose of the salmon-fishing. It is interesting to note that when they made this
migration they practically demolished their homes at Actiss and carried the boards
along in their canoes and set them up at Tahsish, and vice versa. It was from these
two villages that Lieut. P. J. Hankin and Dr. C. B. Wood, R.N., of H.M.S. " Hecate,"
made an exploration trip across Vancouver Island from the head of Tahsish Arm to
the Nipkish River, using Indian packers.
The most prominent feature of the Port Eliza area is Eliza Ears in the north-east
corner. These are very prominent peaks and overlook most of the surrounding country.
We occupied the higher, the west ear, and used it in our triangulation net. The ridge
to the west of the Ears is very prominent at its northern extremity; the high point,
Anvil Mountain, being another of our main stations, runs almost directly south and
terminates in Eliza Dome.    Most of these peaks are used for navigational purposes.
The Kyuquot area is entered from the sea by Kyuquot Sound, with the two main
inlets, Tahsish to the east and Kashuttle to the north. The north half of the map-sheet
is the most prominent. Garibaldi Peaks, the high point of which is another of our
main stations, is a very steep-sided ridge running in a north-westerly direction. North
of Garibaldi Peaks the country is a mass of precipitous peaks and narrow valleys.    The REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 97
west half of the area is not so rugged and mainly timber-topped, our station " Easy "
being on the most prominent point. On the coast, Eliza Dome is used for navigational
purposes.
Brooks Peninsula is a landmark all by itself, with Cape Cook and Solander Island
at its south-western tip. It gradually gets higher and higher and more rugged, until
just close to Johnson Lagoon where it is extremely rugged and steep. There are some
very prominent peaks in the extreme north-east corner of Map-sheet 92-L/4, which we
were not able to visit due to bad weather. Between Naspartd Inlet and Ououkinsh
Inlet, Ragged Mountain, another of our main stations, was the most prominent. It
was timber-topped and had to be logged off.
The drainage of the Port Eliza area is all by local mountain streams, the run-off
being extreme during the spring and ordinary during the summer, some of the creeks
drying up then.
The north-east quarter of the Kyuquot sheet is drained by the Tahsish River.
Lieutenant Hankin, in his report of the trip across the island, travelled by canoe for 4
miles up this river. The Artlish River drains from the east into Tahsish Inlet about
2 miles from its head, while the Kaouk River drains into Fair Harbour also from the
east. Both these rivers went on the rampage during the rains in August and stained
Tahsish Inlet chalky with their sediment.
The Kauwinch River drains a large area in the vicinity of Garibaldi Peaks and
empties into Kashutl Inlet just opposite Easy Inlet. Large creeks complete the drainage
pattern down every valley;  it is a country of fast run-off.
To the west of the sheet the Malksope River drains westward into the inlet of the
same name, and the Ououkinsh River drains from the north into the head of Ououkinsh
Inlet. About 2 miles from the head of Ououkinsh Inlet on the north shore flows the
outlet of Power Lake. Power River drains from the north-west into the north end of
this lake, which is approximately 1% miles long.
The Brooks Peninsula sheet has one river—the Amos—running south-west to just
west of Clerke Point. There are numerous large creeks, the rock-strewn bottoms of
which give ample evidence of a great variance of depth during the seasons. One of our
fly-trip parties had an experience in August which caused them considerable discomfort.
On the way in from the boat to the fly camp, the party crossed over a creek which, at
the time, was only 8 to 10 inches deep, using large boulders as stepping-stones. After
an eight-day rain, they were forced to go out for supplies, but found it impossible to
cross the creek, then a raging torrent, and trees they dropped in an attempt to bridge
it were just carried away. They finally had to travel to salt water on the opposite bank
and swim for it at the mouth in a dangerous rip. A few days later the creek was
almost back to normal after the rain ceased.
About 2 miles from the head of Nasparti Inlet is the entrance to Johnson Lagoon.
About 3 miles in length and about 600 yards in width, it has a reversible falls, the only
time of entry being the few minutes around slack water. A large boulder made entrance
impossible for our big boat, but small fishing-boats could enter easily at high slack tide.
As the outlet is only 50 to 60 feet in width, there is a very fast rip there between tides.
Numerous small lakes dot the whole area, but there are none of any size, Power Lake,
mentioned before, being the largest.
Forest-cover.
Hemlock and balsam predominate the forest-cover, with the best stands in the
vicinity of Kyuquot and Deep Inlet. A few good stands of fir were seen around
Kyuquot Sound; generally the fir and cedar are scattered. There is some large spruce
along most of the valley-bottom, but not in any quantity. Scrub pine along with
hemlock and balsam and yellow cedar comprise the cover on the upper reaches of all the :	
X 98 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
ridges. The main trouble the loggers have in practically all but the valley-bottoms is
the steepness of the hillsides and the many rock cliffs. The Forest Service had a
timber-cruising party under George Silburn in the Kyuquot Sound section during
1947-48. A complete report could be obtained by anyone interested by writing the
Forest Service and referring to " The Kyuquot Survey, 1947-48." Gibson Brothers
have logged a large number of areas in the past few years around Kashutl Inlet and
Blind Channel. They use the A-frame method of logging and send their logs south to
their own mill at Tahsis, using a new rafting technique called the " Gibson raft."
During a recent storm on the west coast one of these rafts broke adrift from the tug.
Two or three days later it was recovered still intact, having survived the worst the west
coast could do to it.
The underbrush is heavy and difficult of access, particularly on the exposed shoreline, with a few exceptions farther inland where we encountered the odd place with
practically no underbrush. Salal, evergreen huckleberry, devil's-club, and wild rose
comprise the worst tangles, with many other less common varieties all adding to the
confusion. In some places on the coast-line we had to hack a way through. The heavy
rainfall in this area is responsible for the luxurious growth.
Wild flowers were plentiful on the higher ridges, a collection of which was taken
for the Provincial Museum.
Minerals.
Amai Inlet was the scene of considerable activity during the past few years when
a gold discovery was made on the south shore and to the north-west of Eliza Ears.
A group headed by W. H. Patmore put in a mill and tram-line construction. The 15-ton
mill, consisting of a crushing and sorting unit, a jig, blanket, and an amalgamation
barrel, was installed approximately 2,000 feet from salt water. There is a sawmill,
blacksmith-shop, bunk-houses and office, and a large float at tide-water. The mine itself
is another 2,000 feet up the mountain-side from the mill. The mill has so far not
operated, due to the present condition of the gold market.
In years past some staking was done up the Artlish River—a copper-iron property
—but there is no activity there now.
„ A copper prospect of the 1920's about 1% miles from the head of Kashutl Inlet was
discontinued after only preliminary work; the trail now has grown over and two
cabins, while still tight, will soon collapse. They were almost obscured by underbrush.
This whole section has been quite extensively prospected, and it is not expected much
else will be found.
Game.
Elk have frequented the Tahsish River section for many years. Lieutenant Hankin
mentioned their presence here in 1862, although he did not see any. Their trails are
well travelled, and we saw fresh tracks superimposed on our own on several occasions,
but, like the Lieutenant, we did not actually see any. Deer were seen—mostly does in
the flats and bucks up high—but in no quantity. This is not a good game area. Bear
frequent the valleys, but are scarce. Cougar visit the area. In September the caretaker of the Patmore mine shot one of the largest specimens seen for some time. Fur-
bearing animals include mink, marten, otter, and racoon, the latter being the only
species seen; there were no signs of beaver. Salmon, cod, herring, halibut, and tuna
are fished commercially. Dogfish and shark, as well as cod, are fished for their livers.
The pilchard again failed to make their appearance in any quantity. Grouse are not
plentiful; very few blue grouse and no willows were seen. Ducks are fairly plentiful
and large numbers of sea-gulls, surf-scoters, shags, and hell-divers abound on all the
islands. Many young and nests with eggs of those species were all over the rocks,
making it difficult at times to work without disturbing them.     Loons were fairly REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 99
common, particularly along the beaches at Brooks Peninsula. Some large flights of
wild pigeon in the vicinity of Deep Inlet were encountered, and from local reports they
are annual visitors.    Crows and eagles were seen everywhere.
Climate.
The weather this summer was reputed by local residents to be out of the ordinary
for August and September. Our synopsis gave 59 days with no rain, 53 days when
rain fell, 15 days of fog, total 127 days. We had two bad storms and several minor
ones during August and September. This section has over 100 inches of rain a year
and considerable snow in the mountains. Garibaldi had snow on it all summer. New
snow fell this year in September and appeared to be there to stay. Many of the days
recorded as fine were cloudy, the Brooks Peninsula in particular having a mantle of low
clouds or fog around the high points a great deal of the time. Fog gave us trouble on
numerous occasions, but only seldom stopped the boat from running, as it was the
patchy variety, giving us a look periodically to check on position. There is almost
always a swell running, and the landings on small islands were invariably difficult. On
more than one occasion we had to abandon the attempt to land when the sea got too
rough around that particular island.    The wind always freshened by afternoon.
Accessibility.
There are no roads in this area. All travel between the different small holdings is
by boat. The Queen Charlotte Air Lines runs an aeroplane from Vancouver to Chamiss
Bay six days a week, weather permitting and providing there are passengers. It is not
a mail run, although they gave us a courtesy service which was much appreciated. The
C.P.R. boat S.S. " Princess Maquinna " maintains an eight-day schedule with Chamiss
Bay, its northern terminal. All the Kyuquot mail and freight is unloaded here and
then moved by small boats to its destination. The two main stores at Kyuquot receive
all their supplies by fish-packer. The Canadian Fish Company has at least one packer
a week which runs from Vancouver, and the Kyuquot Trollers Co-operative Association
maintains a regular service from Victoria. The B.C. Packers also included Kyuquot in
their regular run.
There are very few trails, the only one in condition to use was up the valley east
of the Patmore mine, and was kept open in conjunction with another prospect. We cut
11 miles of trail during the summer. At Kyuquot even small children 4 or 5 years old
paddle around in boats, as there is no road and the only trail is not fit to travel during
wet weather. These children all wear life-belts as standard equipment. On fine days
it could be called the Venice of the west coast, judging by the number and variety of
the water-craft.
Industries.
Fishing and logging are the main industries, whilst mining will be a third when
the market allows the Patmore mine to be operated profitably. The Canadian Fishing
Company and the Kyuquot Trollers Co-operative Association each have very well-stocked
stores at Kyuquot and maintain fish-floats, as does the B.C. Packers. The Kyuquot
Trollers maintains a radio-telephone service, and there are oil-stations.
Gibson Brothers have a logging camp at Chamiss Bay, and run their men to work
around Kyuquot Sound in the company boats.    They, too, have radio-telephone.
The Canadian Fish Company and the B.C. Packers have fish-floats at Queens Cove,
and the Standard Oil maintains a station there.
There are a few nice gardens at Kyuquot, but they require a lot of attention.
Generally this area is not suitable for agriculture, and it seems destined to be only a
fishing section, as the logging will eventually be completed on those areas of easy access. .
Topographic Survey.
West Coast-, Vancouver Island.
J<yuquot.
ogging camp.
Making up
Gibson raft
in foreground.
Eliza Ears.
Patmore mine
in foreground. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 101
On Spring Island, just a few miles south-west of Kyuquot, there is maintained a
Loran station, the term- " Loran " being derived from the phrase " LOng RAnge Navigation." Loran utilizes accurate measurements of the time difference between the
arrival of two short radio signals transmitted by a pair of widely separated shore
stations. These stations are referred to as master and slave. They have an approximate range of 750 nautical miles in the day time and 1,400 at night, and are used for
air navigation as well as.sea. This station on Spring Island is a slave station. Signals
are transmitted twenty-four hours a day.
In 1907 the Pacific Whaling Company established a whaling-station at Cachelot,
which is at the entrance to Narrow Gut Creek. For fifteen years this station was a
very busy spot, but when the whales became scarce, it finally was sold and converted
into a reduction plant—first for pilchards, then for herring. It was abandoned in the
early thirties, and to-day there are only a few old piles and scattered boards mixed with
the rubble of the boilers to mark the spot which was once such a thriving village.
The whole shore-line along this section of the west coast is dotted with small islands
and reefs. The skippers of the fish-packers claim they know all these rocks intimately,
having made their acquaintance personally at one time or another. It is no place for
an amateur sailor.
TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY OF BRIDGE RIVER AREA.
By W. R. Young, B.C.L.S.
The following is a report on the field-work carried out under instructions from the
Surveyor-General in preparation for a topographic map of part of the Bridge River
watershed, comprising the east half of Map-sheet 92-J/15 and the west half of Map-
sheet 92-J/16. This area is bounded on the west by the meridian 122° 45' and on the
east by 122° 15'; it extends from the 51st parallel south to the 50° 45' parallel and
contains approximately 375 square miles.
Normally it is not the practice of this Department to map partial map-sheets, but
this year the work was being done primarily at the request of the Provincial Department of Mines and the normal practice was varied in order to include in one year's
field-work the area required by that Department.
The usual methods of control were employed, in order, with the help of air photographs taken and supplied by the Air Survey Division, to produce a topographic map
of 100-foot contour interval.
Unfortunately, extremely adverse weather conditions, which were general over
almost all of the Province, hampered the work throughout the entire season, and only
about 300 to 325 square miles were completed before the weather prevented further
work being done this year.
The party consisted of myself as chief of party, with two instrument-men, three
survey helpers, two packers, and a cook. The party was all formed and equipped ready
to move into the area any time from the last week of May on, but due to the abnormal
spring floods all routes of access were impassable and five members of the party worked
for two weeks on the Fraser River dykes.
One of the Department's half-ton pick-up trucks was used finally to transport about
half the equipment to Bridge River, leaving Victoria on June 12th and arriving at
Minto on June 15th. The balance of the equipment was shipped by Pacific Great
Eastern Railway and the men (with the exception of the packers who were bringing
the horses—fourteen this year—across country from Williams Lake) also came by
Pacific Great Eastern Railway, arriving in our first camp near the mouth of Tyaughton
Creek on June 16th. A further delay was caused, first by the fact that the Boad from
Manitou mine down Tyaughton Creek, together with all bridges, had been washed out X 102
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
and the creek itself was very high and too swift to ford with horses. Eventually five
horses were brought across by means of a long rope used after the manner of a ferry,
but, since the danger of drowning the horses was great, it was decided to abandon this
and the balance was taken over the divide to Liza Lake and then on a trail over another
divide to Bridge River, arriving in camp June 20th. The second cause of delay was the
failure of the balance of the equipment to arrive, due to a pile-up of freight at Squamish
which accumulated during the time the floods made the line impassable. However, it
did arrive on June 21st, and although some work had been done prior to that date, with
the arrival of the freight it was possible to move away from the road and commence
work as planned.
12245
122 15'
~jjra"?fs— 50 45'
hShalalth
122 45
122is'
Fig. 2.
Fifty-four stations were occupied during the season and 34 dozen photographic
plates were exposed. Six main triangulation stations were occupied, and ties to
cadastral surveys were made in four places, and a tie for a check on elevations was made
to a geodetic bench mark on the Pacific Great Eastern Railway some distance outside
the area. As has been previously stated, weather conditions were unfavourable continually throughout the season. Out of 107 days spent in the area, ready to work, it
rained heavily on 57 days and snowed on 10; of the remaining 40, though counted as
fine, many of them were either showery or overcast. As the season grew later, snow,
which had remained in the higher altitudes all summer, with fresh falls, was, at the
end of September, down to about 4,000 feet elevation, and with no apparent sign of good
weather returning, it was decided to break camp and return to Victoria. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 103
Physical Features.
Almost the whole area lies within the Bridge River watershed. The main Bridge
River divides it into two distinct sections almost equal in size, and except for a few
creeks in the south-easterly portion all drainage flows into either the main river or its
principal tributary—the Yalakom River.
Bridge River is large and carries a considerable volume of water below the junction
of several large tributary streams—namely, the Hurley River, Cadwallader Creek, and
Gun Creek and Tyaughton Creek. The valley-floor within the area controlled this year
is comparatively flat, and the river twists and turns greatly, almost doubling back on
itself in places. There are very many sloughs and overflow channels, and the river is
very subject to flooding in times of freshet.
The northerly part of the area—that is, all that part lying north-easterly of the
main Bridge River—consists mainly of the Shulaps Mountains. This range, which
divides the watershed of Bridge River from that of the Yalakom, is quite high and for
the most part very broken and rugged. About ten peaks were occupied this year which
were about 9,000 feet or over, and there were several more of approximately the same
height which were not occupied. The highest peak in the range is Shulaps Peak, which
is 9,440 feet, but it is not outstanding because in a fairly short radius around it are
several others well over 9,000 feet. Shulaps Creek, the largest stream on the northerly
slopes of this range, drains, as do all streams on this slope, into the Yalakom River.
Other streams on this slope are Retasket, Burkholder, and La Rochelle Creeks. There
are several lakes of from a quarter to half a mile in length on this slope, mostly glacier-
fed and lying in deep narrow valleys, and there are numerous smaller pot-hole lakes.
The south-westerly slopes are drained by Liza Creek at the northerly end, which
in turn drains Liza Lake, a lake about a mile long. This creek is a tributary of
Tyaughton Creek. Over a low divide to the south-east of Liza Lake is Marshall Lake,
about 1% to 2 miles in length, which is drained by Marshall Creek, flowing southeasterly to join the Bridge River and fed by streams on the south-west slopes of the
Shulaps Mountains, chief of these being Jim, Brett, and Hog Creeks. Other creeks on
the same slope of the range flow directly into the Bridge River; of these, Jones Creek
is probably the largest.
South of the Bridge River the area is, on the average, higher and considerably
more broken than in the Shulaps Range. The highest peak is known as Whitecap,
which is 9,552 feet, and there are several more over 9,400 feet. There are many
glaciers, and the creeks, most of which drain directly into Bridge River, are very steep,
lying in rocky gorges, and carry off a lot of water at nearly all times of the year.
There are many small lakes, most of which are unnamed and are difficult of access.
The largest, lying to the south-east of Bobb mountain, is Keary Lake and is drained
by the creek of the same name. Bobb Lake, on Bobb Creek, is also of a fair size and
is unusual in that it has been formed entirely by a very large landslide which has
blocked the creek-valley at a narrow point and has dammed the creek, forming a lake
of considerable depth. The main creeks on this slope are Ferguson, Truax, Williams,
Bobb, Tommy, Keary, and Nosebag, and, of these, Tommy Creek is probably the biggest
and longest. The easterly part of the south boundary lies on the Mission Ridge, which
separates the lower part of Bridge River from the valley of Seton and Anderson Lakes.
This ridge terminates at its westerly end in Nosebag Mountain (7,355 feet), the slopes
of which lead down into the valley of Whitecap Creek (formerly Portage Creek). This
is a large stream with many tributaries, draining most of the country beyond the headwaters of Nosebag and Keary Creeks and part of Tommy Creek; it flows into the
stream draining from Anderson Lake to Seton Lake through a narrow strip of land
between these lakes known as the Portage. I
X 104 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
There are many prominent mountains in this part of the area, only a few of them
named officially as yet. Chief of these are Whitecap (previously mentioned), Bobb
Mountain (9,450 feet), Truax (9,450 feet), and Williams (9,129 feet).
Forest-cover.
For the most part the forest-cover consists of jack-pine, scrub spruce, and mountain balsam, with a limited amount of poplar on some of the slopes and a scattering of
cottonwoods in the creek-bottoms and along the main river-valleys. However, in the
valley-bottom of the main Bridge River there has been a fair amount of merchantable
fir and yellow pine, but the greater part of it has been logged off. There was a very
fine stand of fir on the south side of the Bridge River between the mouths of Tommy
and Bobb Creeks, but last year a small sawmill was put in there and the stand is now
very nearly cut out.
A lumber company with a mill on the Tyaughton Lake Road and another smaller
one about 8 miles up-river from Rexmount have been operating for some years, cutting
both fir and pine on the timber limits lying between Minto and Tyaughton Lake and
also on many of those on the north slopes of the valley from just north of Minto to
within a few miles of Rexmount, but there are not many years of logging left in the
area in which the survey-work was carried out this year.
There is a sprinkling of good fir and pine and some spruce in the Marshall Creek
valley, but it is nowhere dense enough to make a commercial lumber enterprise profitable; though there is evidence that a considerable amount of timber was used years
ago, particularly in the lower end of the valley, for placer-mining projects. Good cabin
timber and timber for mine-development is available almost everywhere that such
development is likely to occur.
Berries are not plentiful, compared with many other districts. Only on the Mission
Ridge were blueberries and huckleberries found in any great quantity, and around
Marshall Lake wild raspberries were quite plentiful, also saskatoons, which were also
very plentiful in the main Bridge River valley. Some very fine wild strawberries were
found in patches, and soapberries were, of course, found in great profusion almost
everywhere. Wild flowers were found in profusion everywhere from snow-line down.
They were really amazingly prolific and continued to flower until unusually late, probably due to the wetness of the season.
Minerals.
A report on the minerals of this area, to be at all complete, would require more
space than is available for this report, and, furthermore, published geological reports,
both Dominion and Provincial, are available from as far back as 1912 and up to 1943.
G. B. Leach, of the Provincial Department of Mines, had a geological party in the area
this year and last year, north of the river, and his report, when available, will be much
more complete and accurate than any that this writer could give. Also, Dr. Stevenson,
of the Provincial Department of Mines, has done geological work in most of the area
south of the river. Very briefly, the area is heavily mineralized on the whole, and
there are a number of well-known producing mines adjoining the area and others within
that have been well known in their time—Pioneer, Bralorne, BRX, Congress, Wayside,
and Minto, to mention a few of them. The whole area has been and is still being extensively prospected. Many deposits of ore have been found containing many minerals,
including gold principally, but also silver, lead, zinc, nickel, chromium, etc., and just
west of the area, near Mount Dickson, one of our triangulation stations, is the site of
the much-publicized uranium strike this year.
The Bridge River was first discovered in the year 1858 and was then known as the
Fountain, later the main branch being called the Lower Fountain and what is now REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 105
known as the Yalakom River being called the Upper Fountain. Soon after its discovery
the river was prospected almost to its headwaters for placer gold and some mining done
throughout. Coarse gold was found for 10 miles up from the mouth and farther up
generally scale gold. It was first worked by whites and afterwards chiefly by Chinese
and Indians. In 1863 a man named John Cadwallader, of Lillooet, led an expedition up
the Bridge River, and his name has been perpetuated in Cadwallader Creek, the locality
of both the Pioneer and Bralorne groups of to-day.
In 1865 a Government-financed expedition under Andrew T. Jamison and known as
the Bridge River Exploring Expedition reported promising quartz outcrops at various
places in the valley. However, it was not until the placer-workings in various parts of
the country were worked out nearly thirty years later that any great interest was again
taken in the report, and the Bridge River goldfields were established. In 1897 the
Pioneer and Lome groups were staked, and with varying intensity the interest in lode
deposits in the area has continued. Marshall Creek has been extensively worked for
placer gold in days gone by and is still being worked on a small scale. Groups of
mineral claims have been staked in the Shulaps Range near the heads of Hog Creek and
Jones Creek and on Shulaps Creek; a very old property known as the Spokane group,
near the head of La Rochelle Creek, has been worked at different times. A property is
still being worked on the ridge between Marshall Creek and Bridge River opposite the
mouth of Brett Creek. Claims were surveyed this year on Tommy Creek, where two
mines, the Bristol and the Benboe, have been operated previously. It was also reported
this year that interest was to be revived on properties up Truax Creek.
Game.
Game in the area proved to be very scarce this year and the cause was not definitely
determined, though there appears no doubt that the severity of the winter last year and
the unusual snowfall were at least partly to blame. Excessive hunting, predatory
animals such as cougar and wolves, and disease were offered as explanations also, and
in all probability a combination of these is more nearly the true solution. Deer were
very scarce indeed; the usual groups of big bucks on the higher slopes during the
summer were almost entirely missing, and though a fair number of does were seen in
the bottoms, very few fawns were running with them. Mountain-goats were comparatively plentiful, some being seen in most parts of the area, in one's and two's, but
at the head of one valley a group of thirteen was seen on several occasions. A few
moose were seen during the season. In one place, but only in one place, were five
mountain-sheep seen together—three ewes, one lamb, and one ram. Evidence of a few
black bears was noticed in the Marshall Creek valley, and reports were that they were
plentiful. None, however, were seen all season by any members of the party. Grizzlies
are quite numerous on higher slopes south of the Bridge River and have apparently
been hunted so little during the war years that they are now getting bothersome to
prospectors. A generation from 4 to 6 years old has almost never been shot at and are
not afraid of man at all.
Grouse, though protected in the area, are still comparatively scarce. A few blue
grouse and fool-hens were seen generally over the area and a very few willow grouse in
the creek-bottoms, but the coveys of young were small. Probably this wet spring had
been hard on the nests.
No one in the party tried fishing in the Bridge River, as we were told locally that
the discharge from the cyanide plant at the mines killed the fish for some distance
down-stream. Whether this is a fact or not I do not know, but in any case the river
is very muddy, a great deal of silt being carried in from all tributary streams, though
they individually, being faster flowing, look fairly clear. Also, the river is so winding
and bordered by so many sloughs and backwaters that it is difficult to get out on the
main river. X 106 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Good trout-fishing may be had in both Liza and Marshall Lakes, also in Bobb Lake
and in some of the small lakes on the Yalakom side of the Shulaps Range. Tyaughton
Lake and parts of Tyaughton Creek are also well known to fishermen.
In the fall the Canada geese land on the sloughs and backwaters of the Bridge
River in fairly large numbers, and some good shooting can be obtained at times.
Accessibility.
The main route to Bridge River is via Pacific Great Eastern Railway to Shalalth
and then by the road over Mission Mountain to the valley. Cars can be driven to
Lillooet and then brought to Shalalth by gas-car on the railroad. A road passable for
cars, except in bad weather, leads from Lillooet through Moha and on up the Yalakom
to Blue Creek. The upper part of this road, which was only completed last fall, was
washed out by the floods this spring, but was opened again in the latter part of August.
The Bridge River road is in good condition and there is a lot of heavy traffic over
it; a good bus and stage service and several freight lines are maintained. The road
crosses the river at the foot of Mission Mountain and then leads along the northerly
side of the river. It crosses the river again just below the junction of the Hurley
River and climbs to Gold Bridge, Brexton, Bralorne, and Pioneer. It is passable in
the summer beyond Pioneer almost to Piebiter Creek for a truck with high clearance,
and from there a good trail leads to McGillivray Pass and down McGillivray Creek to
the Pacific Great Eastern Railway. This trail gives access to some of the southerly
part of the area referred to in this report.
North of the river good pack-trails lead into a large part of the area. One good
trail leads to Liza Lake, and there joins another good trail which leads to Marshall
Lake and thence following Marshall Creek to below Hog Creek. From there it goes
over a ridge and joins the main road again at the mouth of Jones Creek near Rexmount.
From the Marshall-Liza Lake Valley, trails lead up several of the larger creeks to
timber-line on the Shulaps Mountains. There is also a good pack-trail up Brett Creek
to the summit of the Shulaps Range and on down Shulaps Creek to join the Yalakom
River Road. There is also a trail, good part of the way, which leads up La Rochelle
Creek to timber-line. Another trail leads up Liza Creek to its head and over a high pass
into Blue Creek and so down to join the end of the Yalakom Road. A branch of this
trail goes over another pass into the head of the Noax Valley.
South of the river the trails are much steeper and for that reason not so good for
packing; also the valleys are very narrow, with a scarcity of feed. There is a bridge
across the Bridge River near the mouth of Tommy Creek. Trails lead up Bobb Creek
to Bobb Lake and up Tommy Creek beyond the Benboe mine.
A very old trail follows along the top of the Mission Ridge which could be used as a
pack-trail for about 10 miles west of where the road crosses the summit of the ridge,
and also for about the same distance to the east.
All the above-mentioned trails had to be cut out by members of the party this year
before they were passable, some of them involving a great deal of work, while on others
the only obstacles were the normal windfalls of the winter.
Good trails are reported to lead up into the vicinity of Truax Mountain by way of
Ferguson Creek and from a point across the river from Minto. Neither of these were
used by the party this year, so their condition is not known by the writer. Unfortunately, the bridge at Minto went out in the floods this spring, and though there was
talk of renewing it, it had not been done by the end of September.
Climate.
Normally the climate within the area is quite pleasant; the rainfall is not excessive
and the valley-bottoms are usually quite free of snow until fairly late in the year.
/ REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 107
In fact, some years the big snowfall does not arrive until on into March or even April.
Up in the higher altitudes it is, of course, a different story; quite violent storms with
rain, and often snow, are frequent during all the summer months, and very high cold
winds occur even when the weather is fine and warm lower down. No doubt the heat
of lower altitudes actually causes the winds up high, and since there is so much snow
and ice surrounding most of the peaks, it is no wonder that winds in that neighbourhood
are cold.
There are several ranches in the Bridge River valley. Until the spring floods
ruined his farm this year, one man was operating a place raising all varieties of
vegetables for consumption, principally within the valley at Bralorne and Pioneer.
Although the main valley-floor is only around 2,200 to 2,500 feet elevation, summer
frosts are a constant danger. There is some dairy stock in the valley, and in normal
times sufficient pasture is available and enough hay can be raised for winter feeding.
Potatoes and other roots do well, too, but outside of the main valley the climate is not
suitable for any type of profitable farming. This year, however, was exceptional, as it
apparently was in most other parts of the country; the spring floods, followed by the
unusually wet summer, interfered with haying and damaged other crops also. More
than normal snow up high, as has been explained earlier in the report, shortened the
working season for surveying to an extent that prevented us from completing the area.
Settlement and Industry.
Except for the main Bridge River valley there is practically no settlement actually
within the area mapped this year, but there is a fair amount in the immediate vicinity
of it. There are two ranches occupied in the Yalakom Valley just near the south-east
corner of the area, but hunting parties rather than ranching are their principal source
of income. There are several farms in the main Bridge River, as has been already
mentioned. Years ago, when all freighting to the mines in the valley was done by
wagon, there were staging-places every few miles, and these were usually ranches, but
now most of them are unoccupied, the land having been taken over by the Bridge River
Power Company, since it was in the area to be flooded when the dam would be built.
This dam, which is down the river a short distance from where the road over Mission
Mountain reaches it, was nearly completed in September. The British Columbia
Electric Railway Company, of which the Bridge River Power Company is a subsidiary,
is planning a large hydro-electric power project at Shalalth on Seton Lake, with water
from the Bridge River. A small plant has been operating there since the late 1920's
supplying power to Lillooet and the Bridge River, and plans have been in readiness for
some time for a proposed expansion to a plant of some 600,000 horse-power. The
original small plant at Shalalth was supplied with water pumped from the river to a
tunnel through Mission Mountain, with penstocks to the turbines on the Shalalth side.
For the last two years, however, the company has been building a diversion-dam in the
river at the tunnel entrance, and has also been building a new power-house at Shalalth.
This, I was told, is to be the first of four units in the completed project and was almost
ready to operate at the end of September. Power-lines lead from Shalalth to Vancouver.
The company is also building a large storage-dam at Lajoie Falls, on the Upper Bridge
River. This, too, was nearing completion when the party left the area. It is also
planned, though work has not yet commenced, to build a series of smaller dams in the
river in the vicinity of Minto. There are settlements at Minto, Gold Bridge, Brexton,
Bralorne, and Pioneer, with post-offices, hotels, and stores, etc., Bralorne being definitely
the largest, but though close to the area referred to in this report, they are not within
the boundaries. They all owe their existence to the mines in their vicinity, but, of
course, act as supply centres for all other industry in the valley. The lumbering in the
valley has already been mentioned, also the existence of several freighting companies. Topographic Survey.
Bridge River Area.
Shulaps Range.
Shulaps Peak
in foreground.
Marshall Lake.
Rex Peak in
background.
Liza Lake. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
X 109
Government telephone and telegraph serve the valley, as well as the British Columbia
Telephone Company. A considerable number of people in the vicinity are licensed
guides, and normally a great many hunting parties are taken out, but this year, due
to the scarcity of game, some guides were cancelling their parties because they feared
they could not guarantee success.
TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY OF LAKELSE LAKE AREA.
By A. H. Ralfs, B.C.L.S.
The portion of British Columbia covered by this photo-topographic survey consists
of approximately 375 square miles which lie to the south of the Village of Terrace on
the Skeena River. The actual boundaries of the resultant map-sheet (103-1/7) are
54° 15' to 54° 30' in latitude and 128° 30' to 129° 00' in longitude.
54 3o'_
54°3o'
4BSS +
|,THORNHILL
MTr-J.
54 is'.
Chist
5208'
Fig. 3.
The survey party was composed of myself, with M. S. Sheldon, a university
student in engineering, acting as assistant and J. M. C. Wade as instrument-man.
Four other helpers and a cook completed the crew of eight. Two of these, Messrs.
Ridley and Stewart, together with Mr. Wade, help to form the winter office staff.
The object of the survey was to obtain the necessary ground control to map the
area with vertical air photographs taken last summer by the Air Survey Division. The said ground control consisted mostly of a secondary triangulation network of
suitable points which we utilized as photographic stations. About 24 dozen panchromatic plates were exposed from these points during the summer. During the previous
season the map-sheet adjoining to the north had been surveyed by the same methods
by G. C. Emerson, of this Division. Besides connecting to his work, we had also to
establish a main triangulation network over our area. The base-line used was Shames-
Etanda, these points being geodetic precise traverse stations along the Canadian
National Railway and the same base-line used by Mr. Emerson. Our main network
extended south to the Kitimat River, where we connected to stations Wise and Chist,
established by P. M. Monckton, B.C.L.S., in 1925. The completed map-sheet will be
on a scale of one-half mile to 1 inch and will feature 100-foot contours.
As in the previous year in the Terrace-Lakelse Lake area, very few photographic
days were experienced during the summer. We were unfortunate, moreover, in being
unable to commence field operations until June 24th, this being due to the generally
drastic flood conditions in the Skeena Valley, as well as in other sections of the
Province.
During the time we were in the area, from June 24th to October 5th, we enjoyed
only twenty-three days suitable for obtaining the ground photographs, and many of
these days were only fair ones. Rain or else low clouds prevailed for the rest of the
period.
Because of weather conditions, we were unable to occupy six projected stations
in the mountainous south-westerly section.
Travelling here was mostly done on foot, with the most distant points to be
reached about 20 miles from our headquarters on Lakelse Lake. This situation,
together with the very infrequent good weather and the rough country, made it necessary for us to take advantage of the opportunity to use a seaplane for dropping
supplies to our crews camped above timber-line on the high ridges. The aeroplane
was a DeHaviland Beaver, owned by the Central B.C. Airways and on charter to the
Forest Service, Forest Protection Branch. We made our own parachutes with signal
cotton 9 feet square to support a load of about 60 lb. Smoke signals were used, and
the drops were made from altitudes of 200 to 300 feet above the ground; four drops
were made in all, with great success. More trips were planned, but did not materialize
for lack of flying weather. Even so, the assistance we were able to get in this way
enabled us to accomplish considerably more than we could have done otherwise.
Light, mobile camps were made on the high ridges within easy reach of our
projected stations. Living conditions in almost continuous rain were very grim up
there, but when the occasional fine day suddenly materialized, we were in a position
to take advantage of it and did not find ourselves packing in or out with, or for, food,
as would most likely have been the case under our normal set-up.
Our transportation consisted of a 1-ton Mercury Express which very conveniently
could accommodate our complete camp outfit. Main camp for the summer was established on Lakelse Lake, from which there is a road to Terrace, lying about 15 miles
to the north. Most of the road lies without the surveyed area. The main Prince
Rupert-Terrace Highway helped us in the small section we did to the north of the
Skeena, but, other than this, there were no other roads of any account and our travel
then became of the " back-packing " variety. We were equipped with a Johnson outboard and made very good use of this, travelling and crossing Lakelse Lake and
navigating a few of the creeks for short distances. Pack-horses could not be used
satisfactorily here because of the heavy trail-cutting that would have been necessary
and also because of the complete lack of horse-feed.
Survey operations came to a close on October 5th. Besides the main and secondary
triangulation stations we established, ties were made to two geodetic bench marks
and to three lot corners. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 111
The first snow fell on September 21st, and there were several other falls before
we left.    All of this disappeared in a few days, except from the higher ground.
Historical.
Most of the available history is concerned with the penetration of the white man
to the Skeena Valley and of various trips up the Skeena River dating back to the
1890's, gradually developing to the formation of the Village of Terrace, with a steamship service as far as Hazelton. The area to the south is more or less off the beaten
track, but it is known that for a good many years an overland route has existed connecting Kitimat Arm with the Skeena Valley.
It is reported that in very ancient times—probably a thousand years ago—an
offshoot of the Haida tribe of Indians established themselves at Kitimat and later
moved north over this route to settle at Kitselas on the Skeena. There followed numerous battles with the Coast Indians, and Kitselas Canyon became a regular battleground.
Then about 100 years ago a sailing-ship is reported to have called in at Kitimat and
traded off gunpowder and lead which were taken over the same route again to the
Kitselas tribe. This advantage finally led the tribe to a decisive victory, and at any
rate shows that the route was well established. About the time of the Yukon gold-
rush this same route was used to carry mail to the Interior. Later on it was surveyed
through as another terminus for the railway. To this end, considerable work was
done, commencing in the winter 1907-08, to make a proper tote road, and a small
stretch of the right-of-way was built or cleared at the Skeena River end. However,
this route was abandoned soon after, but the tote road is still travelled in parts.
Physical Features.
In the easterly half of the area is the Lakelse Valley, surrounding Lakelse Lake
which is at an elevation of 235 feet above sea-level. This section varies in width from
about 5 miles at the southerly edge to about 11 miles at the northerly edge of the
sheet where it intersects the main Skeena River valley. On either side of the Lakelse
Valley the mountains rise very sharply and are part of the Coast Range. In the
south-westerly section of the map-sheet they attain elevations up to about 6,500 feet.
The valleys here are very deep, with steep sides, and the ridges broken and sharp;
all bear evidence of much glaciation. In fact, numerous glaciers still persist on the
northerly slopes.
The Skeena River, which flows south-westerly through the northerly part of the
area, lies in a deep valley 1% to 2 miles wide. The river is quite muddy, and its
winding course has created many islands and sand-bars and left many old channels.
The flow is swift, for the river drops approximately 5 feet in a mile here. In past
years, and particularly this spring, flooding conditions have caused serious damage.
The highway and the Canadian National Railway in places run alongside the river
and thus are very vulnerable. In flood times, too, much land erosion has taken place
and is a constant source of worry to the farmers who occupy the rich farm lands
adjacent to the river. The Skeena drains nearly all the area surveyed, with the
exception of a small portion on the southerly edge which lies in the Kitimat River
watershed. The Wedeene River flows through this part for a few miles before turning
southerly to join the Kitimat farther south. A very low divide in a plateau-like area
separates the Lakelse and Kitimat watersheds.
Lakelse Lake is drained from the south end by the Lakelse (Trout) River, flowing
north-westerly for about 12 miles before emptying into the Skeena. Lakelse River
can be navigated with a light boat, with a few portages around log-jams. Coldwater
and Whitewater Creeks flow easterly into it, and have their source in the glaciers near
Catt Mountain, which point we used as a main triangulation station.    Remo Mountain X 112 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(6,344 feet) is the most prominent point in the area on the north side of the Skeena
River. From this section, several creeks, including Shames, flow southerly to empty
into the Skeena. These creeks are very steep and carry down great quantities of
boulders and gravel during the flood season.
Forests.
The area is very solidly timbered and consists generally of hemlock, spruce, cedar,
balsam, and cottonwood in that order of abundance. The best timber, hemlock, spruce,
and cedar grows in the Skeena River flats and along the Lakelse River, and much of
this land would yield 40,000 board-feet per acre. Lodgepole pine occurs on the gravelly
flats both north and south of Lakelse Lake. There is a good deal of balsam, too, south
of Lakelse Lake and extending down into the Kitimat watershed. Hemlock still predominates here, however, and in this section most of the timber is uneven-aged or overmature.    Timber-line is about the 4,500-foot level.
Cottonwood is found in considerable quantity in the Skeena flats, and the logs are
shipped to Vancouver for veneer peelers. Cedar poles and piling are important products, being shipped as logs. Most of the species are cut into lumber, however, and
there are seven mills in the area with capacities of 5,000 to 10,000 board-feet per day.
Two of these mills are at or near Lakelse Lake, with the remainder on the north side
of the Skeena in the vicinity of Remo and Amsbury. The lumber is shipped to Eastern
Canada, United States, and the United Kingdom.
Reproduction seems generally very good. Many of the old burns are fully
restocked. It is rather poor, however, in some of the flats where thimbleberry and
other brush tends to choke coniferous seedlings.
The area is fortunate in not having had a serious fire since 1922. This is due to
the fair amount of precipitation spread over the summer months and the heavy snowfall in the winter, as well as improved forest-protection methods. There is one forest
lookout at Thornhill, which commands a good view, but it has been found more practical to patrol the area by aeroplane during the dry periods.
Travelling in the country is rather difficult because of the generally heavy underbrush. Devil's-club grows very profusely in the valleys, and there is a great deal of
alder, which follows most of the creek-bottoms almost to their sources. Blueberries
and huckleberries are very thick, especially nearing timber-line, and slow up travel
considerably. Because of the overmature condition of the cover, especially in the
southern part, a lot of windfall was encountered, making trail-cutting more difficult
and being the reason for many of the old, trails being lost or rerouted.
Geology and Mineralogy.
The area surveyed lies to the west of a part of the eastern contact-zone of an
elongated body of intrusive rocks forming part of the Coast Range batholith. Rocks
bordering this zone are of the Triassic, Cretaceous, and Jurassic periods, the latter
being the most important, as they cover a large area.
The large, flat Lakelse Valley is covered by a thick deposit of river gravel and
sand, with bedrock rarely seen, and it is reported that a hole drilled near Terrace
passed through 450 feet of gravel. These facts support the contention that at one
time the Skeena and Nass and possibly the Stikine Rivers flowed over this country to
drain southerly into Kitimat Arm.
The initial discovery of gold and copper occurred in the vicinity of Usk in 1894.
However, little more was done for some twenty years. Most of the claims actually
lie outside of the area surveyed. Scheelite and molybdenite deposits do occur on
Thornhill Mountain, another of our main triangulation stations. In 1918 rich specimens of native gold were found here, and $4,000 was taken out in two weeks.   However, REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 113
this proved to be an isolated pocket, and most of the current properties are situated
in more favoured areas to the east and north of the section under discussion.
Near Amsbury on the Skeena River, a few hundred feet north of the railway, there
is an outcrop of finely bedded crystalline limestone and marble which is of considerable
thickness.
In the glaciated and mountainous area centring around Catt Mountain there
appears to have been little, if any, prospecting done. More complete information on
the portion of the area actually covered by reports can be found in Geological Survey
Publications Nos 2135 and 2433, published in 1927 and 1937, by J. R. Marshall and
E. D. Kindle respectively.
Climate.
Lying adjacent to the Coastal Belt the climate here is quite mild. The warmest
and driest month is August, and the coldest is January, with average recorded temperatures of 62° and 25° respectively. Temperatures rarely fall below zero, although
they have been recorded at —17°. The warm growing season is April to October.
Summer frosts do not occur in the northerly area, which is partly cleared and under
cultivation, and severe frosts are not encountered until November.
The average annual precipitation is about 47 inches, but has been higher in the
last few years. The only available figures were taken at the Village of Terrace, which
is known to be drier than the surrounding country. This seems to be confirmed in
that we experienced a wet summer in the area south of Terrace, as has previously been
mentioned.
Barometric pressures were found to be almost continually changing, and we never
usually enjoyed more than a few fine days at one time.
Snowfall is very heavy in the mountainous area. The average fall at Lakelse
Lake and also in the Skeena Valley near Shames is 5 to 6 feet, while about a 4-foot
fall is experienced in the section near Terrace.    Winters are generally wet.
Fish and Wild Life.
This is a fair country for game, but is more particularly known for its fish.
Cut-throat are the most plentiful of the trout and grow to about 4 lb. Dolly Vardens
are also caught in good numbers and average 3 to 4 lb. Brook trout are well represented, although rainbow and steelhead are fairly scarce. Also caught or seen were
suckers, squawfish, and grayling. We had most of our success in Lakelse Lake and
Williams and Coldwater Creeks, but it was noted that fishing was very poor when the
creeks were high and muddy after heavy rains.
The area provides a well-known spawning-ground for all varieties of salmon.
The main runs continue up the Skeena River, but a fair percentage of them are destined
for this area and can be seen spawning in practically all the creeks of any size. We
especially noted good runs of sockeye, humpback, and cohoe salmon. The seals, which
take a large toll of them, find their way up the Skeena as far as Hazelton, and several
have been seen in Lakelse Lake. The salmon runs vary in size from year to year.
The Fisheries Research Board of Canada maintains a crew on Lakelse Lake to count
and tag salmon and salmon fry.
Canada geese and ducks of most varieties nest here and are very plentiful in the
fall. Because of the salmon runs, a lot of them get fishy about October however.
White swans in fair numbers winter on Lakelse Lake.
Bald eagles were very numerous, and these also take a heavy toll of fish. Willow,
blue grouse, and ptarmigan were seen in fair numbers. Pheasants and partridges had
been introduced in the area some years ago, but never thrived mostly because of the
heavv snowfall. :<
X 114 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Of the game animals, none are found in great numbers here, although most species
are represented. Black bear are the most numerous, although only a few were seen.
No grizzlies were encountered, but a few signs were seen and several reported; they
are mostly the brown type, with the occasional silvertip. The past winter was a
severe one, with a heavy snowfall, and is thought to have accounted for a large part of
the bear population.    Mountain-goats are quite numerous on the high ridges.
There are a few deer scattered in the country and also a few moose, signs of the
latter being noticed particularly in the Kitimat section. Moose are definitely on the
increase, and are said to be coming in from the east. Several wolves were seen and
at the time seemed to be stalking goats. Rabbits, groundhogs, and squirrels were the
smaller animals occasionally seen.
The area is covered with registered trap-lines, there being at least twelve here.
Trapping is reported to be fair only, and the following are the fur-bearing animals
caught in order of abundance: Weasels, marten, beaver, mink, muskrat, fisher, and
wolverine.
Access.
The area is serviced generally by the Canadian National Railway running between
Prince George and Prince Rupert through Terrace. There are three passenger-trains
per week in each direction. The Trans-Provincial Highway, opened only in 1945,
covers the same route. Heavy snowfalls lower down the Skeena River necessitate this
highway being closed in the winter.
Terrace lies just outside the map-sheet area, but there is a fair road from there
southerly to Lakelse Lake. Another road leads to the airport which lies between the
lake and the Skeena River. The airport is of good size and, although built for the Air
Force during the last war, is still used occasionally. At Remo and Copper City, Government ferries operate, making river crossings possible at these points. Lakelse Lake,
about 5 miles in length, is a good landing-place for seaplanes. The greater part of
the area has little or no access apart from what has been mentioned. Trails are hard
to keep open because of brush and windfalls. The best trails are found between the
airport and Lakelse Lake, up Thornhill Mountain to the lookout station, down Lakelse
River, and between the south end of Lakelse Lake and the Kitimat River. We had to
do considerable work to reopen the latter.
Future Possibilities.
The lumbering industry employs the greater part of the population, but most of
this centres around Terrace and to the north. In the area, little evidence of logging
can yet be seen. Road-building is relatively easy in the flat extensive valley areas and
would open up valuable timber lands. A great boom is expected locally when the
Columbia Cellulose Company, Limited, commences logging and shipping operations.
They have acquired a good deal of timber here, which is particularly valuable for pulp
purposes.
With a mild climate and warm growing season, the rich bottom land in the creeks
and adjacent to the Skeena can be successfully farmed. Very fine samples of vegetables
and fruit were seen, which would compare favourably with those from other areas.
Land-clearing is expensive on an individual basis, for the best lands here are the most
heavily timbered; furthermore, there is the danger of flood damage in these parts.
Apart from such obstacles, it is very likely that farming will grow and prosper,
especially as some of the areas become opened up as a result of the logging operations.
Lakelse Lake is beautiful, with surrounding snow-capped mountains, and attracts
a considerable number of summer visitors, both for its scenery and its fishing and
hunting.   A series of hot springs exists close to the lake, and the main one is the second Topographic Survey.
Lakelse Lake Area.
Lakelse Lake and Terrace Airport.
■;:::,:,'.V.,. :■■:■..  ;",.-v. V.-".
■.  :;
Skeena River, looking down-stream from " Shames. X 116
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
largest in Canada, with a temperature of 186° F. in the centre, and certainly hot enough
to easily pipe to the lake. Two previous attempts have been made to establish a tourist
hotel and resort at or near the site of the hot springs. These have been unsuccessful,
but, at last reports, a third attempt was seriously being considered. With suitable
backing and a proper advertising programme, there should be a good chance to develop
this natural resource. The lake is a fine landing-place for seaplanes, and tourists could
easily be flown in if the longer car or train trip was thought a disadavantage.
TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY OF CHILLIWACK AREA.
By G. C. Emerson, B.C.L.S., D.L.S.
Under instructions from the Surveyor-General, the field-work for a topographical
map near Chilliwack was completed. This area, known as Sheet 92-H/4, and the
westerly half of 92-H/3, of the National Topographic Map Series, is bounded on the
north and south by parallels of latitude 49° 15' and 49° 00' respectively and on the east
and west by meridians of longitude 121° 15' and 122° 00' respectively, containing about
570 square miles. The area is covered by aerial photographs taken by the Air Force
in 1928, by the British Columbia Forest Branch in 1940, and the Air Survey Division
in 1947 and 1948.
Fig. 4.
The party was organized at Victoria on June 5th, aiding in the Fraser Valley
flood-control until June 16th, and, after completing the field-work, returned to Victoria
on September 30th. This party consisted of the writer, E. R. McMinn as assistant,
J. E. Curtis as instrument-man, a cook, and eight survey helpers, six of whom were
army personnel from the Army Survey Establishment at Ottawa.
The work progressed very slowly at first due to the valley flood (see Appendix A).
The main road was under several feet of water upon arrival and a long detour through
Yarrow was necessary. Numerous secondary roads were washed out, some of which
have not as yet been repaired. We were unable to cross the river until July 24th to
work on the north side of the Fraser River, as the ferry docks at Agassiz were
washed out.
Sixty-three stations were occupied, including forty-four photographic stations,
ten cadastral ties, and nine traverse control stations.   We also ran 93 miles of traverse REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 117
for photographic and cadastral control. Elevations for these stations were derived
from four geodetic marks along the Canadian National and Canadian Pacific railroads.
For transportation we were provided with one light-delivery truck and one jeep.
A second army jeep was supplied by the R.C.S.M.E. at Chilliwack for a one-month
period. In addition, a helicopter was engaged from the Okanagan Air Services,
Limited, for a limited period to test its usefulness for mountain transportation.
With this helicopter, piloted by Carl Agar, twenty-eight landings were made on
mountain peaks above 5,000 feet, the highest landings being at 6,729 feet.
A roll-film camera weighing 6V2 lb., designed and constructed especially for our
Division, was tested by the party this season. Before taking it into the field, tests
were made for resolution and distortion. The resolving power of the lens-film-paper
combination was found satisfactory for our degree of enlargements. A test for
distortion was made between two enlargements made from a half-plate camera and the
roll-film camera. The maximum distortion between the two prints was 0.025 inch over
a 10-inch photograph. Assuming equal discrepancy in both, this would reduce the
difference to 0.013 inch or an angular distance of 4 minutes. (This angular distance
is approximately equal to the width of an 8H pencil line at a distance of 13 inches.)
In the field twenty-five rolls were taken with remarkably good results, using a yellow
filter and a Super XX film.
Historical.
The first white man to visit the Chilliwack-Agassiz area was the great explorer
Simon Fraser, in the year 1808. After successfully negotiating the Fraser Canyon, he
beached his canoes at the mouth of what is now the Harrison River and was immediately
alerted by dugouts leaving the Indian village of " Chil-uk-wey-uk," on the south side
of the river. These Indians, although hostile, were soon pacified by the " Great White
Father " who continued his adventuresome journey. At " Chil-uk-wey-uk " the Indians
lived in large houses up to 600 feet long holding whole tribes. There were no Indians
on the Agassiz side in Simon Fraser's day, but old underground houses and middens
were in evidence, and it is thought they had all been killed off by the tribes to the south.
The first white man to realize settlement possibilities in the Chilliwack area was
Volkerk Vedder, of New York State, who arrived in 1856 after crossing the continent
by ox-team. He found much land to his liking along the river which now bears his
name, so he set out for his two sons in New York State, returning about four years later.
In 1858 many miners passed through Chilliwack in their search for gold up the
Fraser River; many returned to take up land. One of these was Jonathan Reece, who
pre-empted land about 1862. Another early settler was A. C. Wells, who passed through
in 1862 and returned in 1867 to pre-empt what is now " Eden Bank " farm, which has
one of the finest Ayrshire herds in the Dominion. Dr. and Mrs. Miller arrived in
1864, Mrs. Miller being the first white woman settler and their daughter the first white
child born in this vicinity.
The first village was " The Landing," where the river-boats docked, but two years
after the completion of the road to New Westminster in 1875 the town was moved to
the present position of the Five Corners, then known as Centerville.
The municipality of Chilliwhack, which derived its name from the Indian village,
was incorporated in 1873. It comprised the districts of Atchelitz, Sumas, and Chilliwhack, and was one of the first districts to assume township municipality status.
The settlement of Agassiz was named after Lewis Nunn (Captain) Agassiz, who
was one of the first residents there. Agassiz came around the Horn from Eastern
Canada in 1859 to California and to British Columbia in 1860. With his wife and
family he started up the Fraser in 1862 in search of gold, but accepted a position as
Government Agent at Hope instead.    In the same year, with two Indian guides, he 	
X 118 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
paddled a canoe down the river in search of farming land and stopped at the place which
now bears his name. He located the first farm there and called it " Ferny Coomb."
The name "Agassiz " was used for the first time as a Canadian Pacific Railway station
name with the completion of the railroad in 1886.
The building of the present village of Agassiz took place adjacent to this railroad-
station between the years 1888 and 1895, with the first school being built in 1891. The
Dominion Experimental Farm was established there in 1888, under the supervision
of Dr. William Saunders, on a portion of the original Agassiz farm.
Transportation in the early days was by the steamships " Reliance " and " Onward,"
and by the few trails through the heavily wooded country. These boats made trips
twice or three times a week as far as Yale. This situation was greatly improved by the
road to New Westminster in 1875 and the Canadian Pacific, British Columbia Electric,
and Canadian National Railways in the years 1866, 1910, and 1915 respectively.
Access to both sides of the river is of the best to-day. A first-class highway runs
to the west from Agassiz and to the east and west from Chilliwack. A ferry service
across the Fraser River connects these two highways, making an hourly trip during
the day. In addition, numerous secondary roads exist through the area. A hard-
surfaced road to the south connects Chilliwack to Cultus Lake and a poor road runs up
the Chilliwack River for about 15 miles. Beyond this point it is impassable, except for
specially constructed vehicles. The Silver-Skagit Logging Company has an excellent
gravel road from Hope to the United States Boundary. Travel over this road is strictly
private. Other essential traffic is allowed only by special permission during limited
hours. There is also an excellent airport at Chilliwack, with a 3,000-foot grass runway
capable of accommodating up to Dakota-type aircraft. There are twelve aeroplanes
stationed here, including three Sea-Bees, which carry passengers and freight mainly
to Harrison and Chilliwack Lakes, and two Ansons, one of which is owned by the
Pringle Chick Hatcheries and flies day-old chicks to numerous parts of Canada.
Physical Features.
With the exception of the north-west corner, the whole area is very mountainous,
and peaks range up to 8,500 feet in elevation. These mountains, with deeply serrated
tops, are comparatively accessible from the south and west sides, but are impossible
to negotiate from the north and east sides, as sheer cliffs up to 2,000 feet are found.
Some of these tops are so narrow they are impossible to traverse and in order to move
from one peak to another it is often necessary to return to the valley-floor. The
formidable masses of Slesse and Wahleach peaks are examples of this. The high point
of Slesse is as yet unclimbed, although many attempts have been made. Very few of
the many peaks of Wahleach are accessible. Due to its height and extent, Wahleach
presents a major hazard to air navigation, having caused two crashes and several
deaths to date. At the southern end of Chilliwack Lake a fine example of what is called
" tandem cirques " may be seen. In this case two stately amphitheatres occupy the
same valley, one above the other. The upper holds a true tarn; the lower is drained
by a series of cascades into the lake. On Pierce Mountain three tandem cirques exist,
with head-wall descents of 1,000 and 300 feet. Small glaciers are apparent, but none
are over one-quarter of a mile in extent.
The Fraser River with tributary rivers and streams drain all the area, except a
small portion of the south-east corner. The Fraser is fast, and muddy, varying in
width from one-quarter to 1 mile. The south-east corner is drained by the Klesilkwa
River, which flows into the Skagit, the latter being just east of the boundary of this
map-sheet. The three main tributaries are the Harrison River, Chilliwack River, and
Silver Creek.   The Harrison, which is very short and sluggish, is little more than the REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
X 119
narrowing of Harrison Lake and Bay. Chilliwack River is about 20 miles long, flowing
in a westerly direction. It is very swift, with large bounders in the river-bed, and is
fed by smaller streams, most of which flow in a north-west and south-east direction.
Near the headwaters of the Chilliwack River lies Chilliwack Lake, which is formed by
an unusual geological occurrence. This lake, which is 5 miles long and over a mile wide,
has been formed by a morainal dam. The moraine holding the water at the lower end is
about 2,000 yards long and 500 yards wide, being composed mostly of large granite
boulders. Although the actual depth of the lake is unknown, soundings to a depth of
44 fathoms are recorded a short distance from the shore. In the north-east corner of
the area Silver Creek flows in a north-west direction in the floor of a very deep valley
with extremely steep sides.
Very few minerals have been located in commercial quantities in this area,
although the possibilities are good from a geological point of view. In the late fifties
and early sixties of the last century the rich gravel-bars of the Fraser drew widespread
attention to the mineral wealth of .the Province. A large quantity of placer gold was
rapidly recovered, and the bars were soon exhausted. In more recent years, mineral
was located on Pierce Mountain, and a large quantity of high-grade ore was removed.
This has since been abandoned, as the supply became exhausted. Copper has been
reported north of Agassiz and on the easterly end of Wahleach Mountain, but it has
not been mined.     (See Geological Map 737a for a detailed construction.)
Forest-cover.
Originally the whole area was densely covered, but the level land has now been
cleared by the farmers. Many logging companies are marketing the timber, which
grows in merchantable quantities up to about 4,000 feet elevation. Timber-line varies
on different hills, the average being about 6,500 feet. This timber consists of 45 per
cent, fir, 25 per cent, cedar, 14 per cent, hemlock, and 10 per cent, balsam, with the
remaining 6 per cent, being an equally divided amount of Cottonwood, alder, maple,
and birch. About 60 per cent, of this timber is shipped to the coast mills where it is
cut into lumber, while the remaining 40 per cent, is cut locally. Insects are not affecting the stands in this area to any appreciable amount (one-tenth of 1 per cent.), but
conk and tree rot are noticeable. All major logging operations will be abandoned within
the next five years due to lack of timber. Small companies will probably continue for
a few years picking up the remaining timber that is easily accessible.
Climate.
The climate is very mild, with a moderate rainfall. Weather records have been
kept at the Experimental Farm at Agassiz for fifty-six years, the following being some
extremes that occurred during that period: In January, 1893, the temperature reached
13° below zero, and in August, 1898, 103° above zero; in August of 1901 no rain fell,
while in November, 1909, 20.8 inches was recorded, and 88.8 inches for the year 1913.
The month of August of this year, with the exception of five days, was completely overcast. The following information, supplied by the Meteorological Division, Department
of Transport, in Victoria, gives the average temperature and annual precipitation:—
Temperature.
December.
August.
Annual
Mean.
Annual
Precipitation.
Agassiz	
Hope	
Stave Lake.
Vancouver.
Victoria	
Degrees F.
37
32
39
38
42
Degrees F.
64
63
66
62
60
Degrees F.
50
48
51
50
50
Inches.
62
57
136
59
27 X 120 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Wild Life.
Although wild animals and birds were seen, they were not in abundance but
restricted to individual localities. Several deer were seen on Silvertip, Vedder, and
Thurston Mountains, and numerous black bear were seen around the refuse dumps of
the Silver-Skagit camps. A few goats roam the precipitous peaks, and sheep have
been reported but were not observed by any member of the party. A few trap-lines
are registered, from which mink, marten, fisher, beaver, squirrel, weasel, fox, otter,
and coyote are taken. All birds are very scarce in the area as a whole. Willow
grouse, blue grouse, spruce partridge, and ptarmigan were seen occasionally. Blue
grouse, however, appeared in abundance on Silver Mountain.
Fish, on the other hand, are easily caught in almost all the rivers and lakes.
The Vedder River is noted for steelhead, as is Silver Creek near Hope. Chilliwack
Lake has a great variety of fish—namely, Dolly Varden, rainbow, cut-throat, Kamloops,
and kokanee. Silver Lake, near Chilliwack Lake, has been recently stocked with
trout, but as yet they are quite small. A large fish-hatchery is located on the east
shore of Cultus Lake.
Industries.
The first three in order of importance are agriculture, lumbering, and the tourist
trade.
Both land and climate are ideal for the diversified farming activities in which
the Chilliwack area is engaged. The entire valley-floor is level, with just enough
good drainage from the many tributaries of the Fraser. The soil for the most part
is loam and reaches a depth of 10 feet. The climate is temperate, and extremes of
heat or cold are rare. In addition to these natural assets, the community is supplied
with running water and electricity to the majority of the farms. Although horses
are still used extensively, tractors are used in ever-increasing numbers.
Dairying is the most important agricultural industry, with many pure-bred Ayrshire, Guernsey, Holstein, and Jersey owned by the farmers. The annual milk production from these herds, 60 per cent, of which are milked by machine, is approximately 93,000,000 lb., the majority of which is sent daily to the Fraser Valley Milk
Producers' plant at Sardis. This plant, which covers over an acre, is the largest of
its type in Canada. The 1945 production of this plant was as follows: 3,337,460 lb.
of butter, 2,934,460 lb. of powdered milk, 309,427 lb. of casein, and 1,894,398 lb. of
cottage cheese, the latter representing 50 per cent, of the Canadian production.
Although cattle are more numerous, sheep, swine, and horses are in abundance.
Swine obviously do well in a dairy-farming community, while in recent years sheep
have become increasingly popular.
The sale of eggs brought in a return of over $850,000 to the farmers in 1945, to
which should be added $250,000 for sale of meat birds and hatching birds. Pringle
Chick Hatcheries has a modern plant near Chilliwack which specializes in day-old
chicks, sending these to many parts of Canada by air.
Small-fruit crops bring in a remarkable revenue per acre, with raspberries being
the principal crop, although strawberries and blackberries are grown successfully.
Although the climate and land are ideal, apples, pears, prunes, etc., are only grown
to a limited extent, except the Italian prune-plum crop, which yields about 500 tons
annually. The filbert nut is also important and 200 acres were in production in 1945.
Hop-growing is another important agricultural industry, with 1,500 acres under
cultivation. These gardens are situated at both Sardis and Agassiz, growing Fuggles,
Bramling, Cluster, and Kent hops. During the picking season between 6,000 and
7,000 people are employed. The majority of the hops are shipped out of the Province.
Two sun-aid (vita-glass) factories are now in operation. Several hundred acres are
being cultivated for their supply. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 121
Lumbering is second in importance to agriculture. In recent years, logging companies have employed nearly 1,000 men annually, with production values approximately
$4,000,000. When the pioneers first came to Chilliwack, the valley was densely wooded.
Since then this whole valley has been cleared, and the logging operations of to-day
take place on the slopes adjacent to the rivers and lakes of the region. The most
important logging development in recent years is in the Skagit River area, which has
been planned to bring out 600,000,000 board-feet of timber to the Fraser River via
Silver Creek. Camps are located on both sides of the International Boundary. When
logged off, part of this area is to be flooded by further development of power projects
by the City of Seattle. The trucks hauling these logs are reported to be the largest
in the world, having eighteen tires, a 16-foot bunk, and capacity up to 50,000 board-
feet per load.
The tourist trade is becoming increasingly important. In the immediate vicinity
of Chilliwack there are seven large auto courts and many smaller ones, while Cultus
Lake derives most of its revenue from travellers.
Appendix A.—Floods.
Serious floods are recorded as having occurred in the years 1874, 1876, 1887, 1894,
1896, and 1948. The one this year equalled, if not surpassed, that of 1894, which was
considered the worst on record. In 1894 the river-boat docked within three blocks
of the centre of what is now the City of Chilliwack.
Throughout the long holiday week-end of May 24th, 1948, the Fraser was rising
Steadily. The people of Agassiz were alarmed and spent the night adding sandbags
to the small dyke. All available personnel continued sandbagging until May 26th,
when the water began surging over the land and into the sloughs. It was then evident
the only answer was evacuation. Those that could, or would, left by hurriedly collected boats, and the remainder moved to higher ground. Most of the latter put up
temporary shelter at Mount View Cemetery, which occupies a plateau nestled against
Harrison Mountain and rises about 100 feet above the river-level. Here about 200
evacuees waited for the water to go down. By May 30th, Agassiz was completely cut
off. On the Chilliwack side, the first danger occurred at the Rosedale dyke. On May
24th the nucleus for an army of 3,500 men was formed to control the surging waters.
Eventually breaks occurred at the Semiault and Glendale dykes. This rush of water
was several feet deep over the road at Glendale and about 35 feet deep approximately
5 miles west of Chilliwack, cutting off the main road and railway to Vancouver. The
old road through Yarrow was brought into use and a new steel bridge was quickly
built over the Vedder to replace the old wooden one.
Hundreds of service personnel were used, with amphibious equipment for rescue
operations and delivery of essentials. The fish-packer " Salmon Queen " crossed the
river several times a day between Rosedale and Agassiz, bringing 13 tons of milk
daily. On one occasion the writer saw a cargo which consisted of passengers with
luggage, fresh fruit, sacks of potatoes, bales of hay, cans of milk, and one coffin.
About June 14th there were signs of the river subsiding, and within a few days
the people began returning to their homes. As the flood subsided, many problems
presented themselves. One was the swarms of mosquitoes that bred in the stagnant
pools. Another nuisance was the terrible stench which frequented the once flooded
areas, causing many homes to be closed by the medical board. These problems presented such a great threat to the health of the people that the area was completely
sprayed from aircraft with DDT and the majority of the population inoculated.  REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
X 123
TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY OF ISLE PIERRE AREA.
By D. J. Roy, B.Sc, C.E.
The area is designated as Map-sheet 93-G/14 of the National Topographic Series.
Bounded on the north and south by latitudes 54° 00' and 53° 45' respectively, it lies west
of Prince George between longitudes 123° 00' and 123° 30'.
I23°00'
■8
53 45'-
I23°30
Fig. 5.
The purpose of the survey was to establish horizontal and vertical control sufficient
for the compilation, from vertical air photographs, of a topographical map at a plotting
scale of 2 inches to the mile. Contour interval to be 100 feet. The terrain did not lend
itself to the photo-topographic approach, so horizontal control was established through
the medium of transit and tape traverses of third order accuracy. Main control was
provided by the existing triangulation stations and one secondary triangulation point
established by this survey. A tie for control was made to a traverse run by the
G.S.G.S. in 1942 for Sheet 93-G/15. Ties were also made to cadastral surveys where
possible.   The latter serves both as a check and to strengthen the cadastral surveys.
Vertical control was established by spirit levels from geodetic bench marks located
along the Canadian National Railway; trigonometric elevations carried on traverses
and by the use of barometers. The two-base method was employed in the latter
instance.    Vertical ties with the above-mentioned G.S.G.S. survey were also made. -
X 124 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
The area has enough roads so that traversing was not difficult. Transport was by
means of two trucks—a 1-ton express and a half-ton light delivery. The latter were
fairly satisfactory; however, one truck and a jeep would be a much better, more
versatile combination in this type of country.
The party consisted of myself, five assistants, and a cook. Work was commenced
near the end of May, terminating in the latter half of September. We were camped
under canvas at Isle Pierre for the most part.
During the course of the summer approximately 126 miles of traverse was run.
A level circuit from Bednesti along No. 16 Highway and in to Isle Pierre was closed.
Several permanent marks and bench marks were established, being in the main of
a semi-permanent nature to facilitate future extension of our survey. A number of lot
corner posts of the wooden type were replaced with the standard pipe post. One
secondary triangulation point was established near Dahl Lake. Toward the season's
end, work commenced on Map-sheet 93-J/3 to the north.
Physical Characteristics.
During pleistocene times the area was probably covered by two or more ice-sheets,
and evidence suggests that the last movement was from south-west to north-east.
The area is now one of mature relief. Surface features consist of a rolling till
plain, pierced here and there by a few rock knolls. Essentially the till plain exposes
nearly parallel ridges, drumlin-like, and elongated south-west to north-east. The ridges
contain till and gravel derived from till. Rock-outcroppings occur as prominences such
as Hutchison triangulation station and in the vicinity of Dahl Lake. There are a
number of these rock knolls north of No. 16 Highway in the west half of the area.
A portion of the north-east corner and easterly half of the area feature glacial-lake
basins overlying the till plain. All the productive farms are concentrated within these
basins. The area is deeply carved by the valley of the Nechako River, whose trench is
from 1 to 2 miles across, attaining a depth of as much as 300 feet below the surrounding
plateau. The valley is lined with a series of terraces, and bedrock is exposed in several
places along the river.
The four principal lakes are Cluculz, Bednesti, Norman, and Dahl. Cluculz drains
north to the Nechako River; Bednesti east to the same river. Norman and Dahl Lakes
drain south-east into the Chilako River. As well as the four mentioned, there are
numerous small lakes scattered throughout the area.
An esker, known as the Bednesti esker, consisting of a network of ridges 100 to 150
feet high separated by kettles and resting on top of the till plain but in part buried
beneath the silt and clay of the aforementioned lake basins, extends from the east end
of Cluculz Lake easterly past Bednesti Lake to a point one mile north-west of Bednesti
railway station.
The Chilako River cuts across the extreme south-east corner of the area. It is
meandering in a fertile flat-bottomed valley with precipitous sides.
Elevations along the Canadian National Railway run from 2,016 feet at Bednesti
to 2,153 feet at Wedgewood. High point on the road from Isle Pierre to No. 16
Highway, about one-quarter mile north of the highway, is 2,633 feet. Hutchison
triangulation point stands at 3,161 feet above sea-level. Elevation of Reid Lake corner
is 2,500 feet, while the intersection of Chief Lake and Reid Lake roads is 2,540 feet.
Cluculz Lake stands at 2,480 feet, Bednesti at 2,640 feet, Dahl and Norman at 2,695 feet.
Dahl triangulation station, on a rocky knoll generally overlooking the country, is 3,150
feet above sea-level. Elevation of the highway near Bednesti is 2,340 feet, while
opposite the east end of Cluculz Lake it stands at 2,800 feet above sea-level. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 125
Forest.
The main forest types are lodgepole pine, spruce, and poplar. A few Douglas fir
are scattered about the area, especially in the region of the Bednesti esker. Large
parts of the area have been burned over and are covered with a growth of poplar. The
older burns often have a cover of lodgepole pine. Areas of no burn are dominated
by spruce.
There are three or four sawmills operating in the area, making inroads in the
merchantable timber, while some logs are floated down the Nechako to the mills at
Prince George. Signs of tie-cutting activities, old and new, are to be seen everywhere.
The last few years have seen a considerable boom in lumber of any form, making
possible the operation of a number of ordinarily marginal sawmills. However, the area
is not one where the lumber industry is likely to be one of any significance, although
resources, if properly handled, could provide for local needs. The woods are fairly
open, although underbrush of alder and willow is often encountered. High-bush
cranberries and saskatoons are commonly seen, although by no means abundant. Blueberries and huckleberries are common and sometimes preserved by local residents.
Devil's-club is quite common.
Aside from the farmed area of Reid Lake, the area is forest-covered.
Minerals.
The area is not regarded as one of any significance with respect to mineralization.
Geological reports are scanty, published information consisting of Geological Survey
Paper No. 47-13 of Mines and Geology Branch, Department of Mines and Resources,
Ottawa. No signs of prospecting activities were observed. Local supply of gravel for
road-building activities is good.
Game.
Game is quite plentiful. Moose were abundant and often surprised in the bush.
Brown or black bear were also common, being frequently seen. Deer also were
frequently encountered. One porcupine was seen during the summer, along with
several coyotes, rabbits, garter-snakes, and, of course, chipmunks. Bird life was not
so much in evidence; a few Canada jays were seen, and ducks were occasionally
encountered. Grouse were very plentiful. An infinite variety of winged pests abound
in June and July and are very much in evidence.
Trapping in the area is carried on by a few local residents on a modified scale.
Residents of forty years' standing report a falling-off of fur-bearing animals. Fisher,
marten, mink, and some beaver are among the animals trapped.
Fishing can only be described as reasonable. Squawfish are the most abundant
and least desired. Of the fishing waters, Cluculz Lake is the best. One can generally
depend on a good catch of speckled and Kamloops trout during the course of a day's
fishing. On occasions, fish up to 25 lb. have been caught. The Prince George Fish
and Game Association goes to some trouble to keep the lake stocked. Bednesti Lake
is frequently fished with moderate success. Several of the lesser bodies of water will
yield small trout to the patient angler. The Nechako River is no good for sport-
fishing. Hours of effort were rewarded not at all in the case of this survey. During
the game-hunting season, sportsmen from the United States arrive in search of moose.
There are two or three licensed guides in the area who conduct these visitors.
Climate.
From May's end until the middle of July we enjoyed ideal survey weather, following which conditions gradually deteriorated into a very wet September. Frost was
not experienced until late in September. In general, the winters are cold and summers
mild, with a short growing season of long warm days and cool nights.    The reader is X 126 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
referred to Report No. 2 of the British Columbia Soil Survey, published in 1946 by
the British Columbia Department of Agriculture, for a general treatment of climatic
conditions in the area around Prince George.
Access.
The area is well served with transport facilities. The Canadian National Railway
main line to Prince Rupert crosses the area following the valley of the Nechako River,
while No. 16 Highway crosses the middle of the area from east to west.
Roads in the settled Reid Lake area follow land-subdivision lines and are adequate
for most purposes. In a wet season much trouble may be encountered on some of the
lesser thoroughfares, especially in the case of heavy trucks hauling lumber, etc. The
Chief Lake road provides entry to the area from the north-east corner, from where
an all-weather road leads to Isle Pierre on the Canadian National Railway, thence to
No. 16 Highway. Reference to this as an all-weather road would be regarded as news
by some of the local residents, the stretch from Isle Pierre to the highway being very
hazardous in some seasons. In the spring of the year, roads are generally bad, due
to frost-boils. Crossing of the Nechako is made via a reaction ferry, the landings for
which are a continual source of trouble. The ferry is maintained in year-round
operation. River transport is negligible. There are many old and new lumbering
trails, but few established trails.
Settlement.
The area is not thickly settled. The topography and surface geology for the
most part prohibit agricultural development. The north-east corner, referred to as
the Reid Lake area, is well farmed, however, and, with considerable success. This
section is located on one of the glacial-lake basins aforementioned. As well as the
successful farms, there are several deserted homesteads on which considerable work
was done at one time. Farming is not easy and taxes the industry of the settler to
the limit. Latterly the lumber boom has stimulated the country as a whole, making
hay a good selling crop, which is suited to the country. Many settlers depend on an
income from small sawmill operation to see them through. The Nechako River flats
provide ground for domestic gardens and in one case an attempt at market-gardening.
Isle Pierre with its post-office and general store serves as a rail centre for the
area, where lumber, ties, and pit-props are loaded. Seven families are located at
Isle Pierre and vicinity.
The Chief Lake area to the north-east is a thriving community with which the
people of the Reid Lake vicinity have much intercourse. Excepting at Isle Pierre,
the only people along the Canadian National Railway are sectionmen. A sawmill is
in operation at Nevada Lake, while farther along the trail to Dahl Lake is the cabin
of Louie Miller, trapper and settler of forty years' residence. Two local trappers
maintain domestic establishments at Dahl and Bednesti Lakes. On the shores of
Tamarac Lake there is another sawmill in operation.
Tourist Trade.
Two tourist camps are established on the north shore at the east end of Cluculz
Lake. Both do a good business during the summer, much of which is with people
from Prince George, with a fair number of Americans. Cluculz is a pleasant lake,
providing good swimming and fishing. During the fall season many Americans come
to this section of British Columbia to hunt big game. Almost invariably they go south
satisfied with a good hunt. Well managed, the tourist trade could no doubt be a
worth-while asset in this section of the country.
With regard to the country's potential, it should be noted here that at Isle Pierre
is located a rapids in the Nechako River where it is estimated that 47,800 horsepower could be developed. 139°        138°        137°        136°        135°        134°        133°       132°        131° 13Q°        129°        128°        127°        126°        125°       124°       123°        122°        121°        120°        119°     ~Tl8
LEGEND
*B.C. Provincial Government Surveys
Photo-topographic with Triangulation Control
f Dominion Government Surveys
Topographical Surveys
Boundary Surveys
Geological Survey
Department of National Defence
* Lithographed maps, or prints from manuscripts of these arc
are obtainable upon application to:
Surveyor-Genera I,
Department of Lands and Fcjrests,
Victoria, B.C.
58
57
ScHlf of   miles
December 31st, 1948.
To accompany Annual Report of Surveys Branch,
Department of Lands and Forests,
December 31st, 1948.
136°
135°
134°
133°
132°
131°
130° 129°Longit.j.del28°   West    127°   from    126°Greenwic-1125°
124°
123°
122°
121°
120°
119°
118°
117°
116°
115°
Geographic Div. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 127
ASTRONOMIC SURVEY AND RECONNAISSANCE IN THE
ATLIN-TELEGRAPH CREEK AREA.
By R. Thistlethwaite, D.L.S., B.C.L.S.
PART I.
Acting on instructions received from the Surveyor-General, under date of June
14th, 1948, a programme of astronomic position determination and general reconnaissance was carried out during the field season of this year. The general area covered is
that shown by the map.
The purpose of the work carried out is to provide horizontal control for trimetrogon reconnaissance aerial photography taken for the purpose of casting further light
on the conditions existing along certain routes proposed for the construction of a
highway linking the southern portion of the Province with the Yukon and Alaska.
Reports on these routes, on file in the Department of Public Works, were submitted by
J. M. Rolston, C.E., B.C.L.S., in 1930-31; T. E. Clarke, 1939; J. H. Mitchell, 1939-40;
and P. M. Monckton, B.C.L.S., in 1941 and 1947.
Such a highway would traverse and open up the large area lying to the westward
of the Alaska Highway and also possibly provide access to the area from the Pacific
Ocean. A further object of the field project was to record, in so far as possible from
aerial and localized ground reconnaissance, such information as might be useful in
evaluating the practicability of constructing such a highway.
The technical data and general information obtained are presented in two parts—
firstly, this report which covers the surveying operations carried out, and Part II,
containing a complete account of the general reconnaissance data and a number of
illustrative photographs.
It was decided that the most suitable method of providing horizontal control for
the proposed aerial photography, in view of the cost, precision required, and rapidity,
would be by astronomic means. Accordingly, a series of sixteen points was chosen,
fixation horizontally, of whose positions on the ground would sufficiently control the
proposed aerial photography. These points were so chosen as to be accessible by means
of aircraft, so that the transportation of the field party might be as efficient and rapid
as possible.
After outfitting and assembling the specialized equipment and instruments
required, the party took the field on June 24th, proceeding by air to Whitehorse, Y.T.,
and thence by rail to Carcross. At Carcross, arrangements were completed with
Northern Airways, Limited, for aerial transportation of the observing party, composed
of the writer and an assistant, to the initial observation point and thence from point to
point through the programme. The Northern Airways plant was made the base for
the observing party, and a Branch radio transceiver installed there to enable radio
intercommunication. The first point of the programme, RT-1 at Atlin Lake, was
reached by air from Carcross on June 29th.
The field programme then continued throughout July and August, during which
time sixteen points, as shown on the map, were occupied and the position of each
determined astronomically. The party returned to Carcross on August 28th, project
completed, and thence by rail to Whitehorse and air to Victoria on August 30th.
The operations carried out at each station are as follows:—
(1) Astronomic observations for the determination of the latitude and longitude of the point.
(2) Local Survey: A restricted planimetric survey was made at each station
to enable proper identification of the map or photograph position of the
point at which the astronomic observation was made. This includes a
stellar observation for the determination of azimuth. (3) Monumenting: At each station a monument was established for the purpose of perpetuating the site of the astronomic position determined.
(4) Reconnaissance: Illustrative and record photographs were taken at every
point, and where time and conditions permitted, forays were made for
the purpose of noting the characteristics of the surrounding terrain.
Methods.
The method used for the astronomic determination of position is that which is
known as the constant altitude method. This method is well known and widely used
for such purposes. Briefly, it consists in the observation of the chronometer times at
which a number of known stars cross a fixed almucantar or altitude circle (in this case
60°).   From thjs information may be deduced mathematically:—
(1) The latitude of the observer's position.
(2) The error of the chronometer on local time. The local time being so
determined, the longitude may be deduced by comparison with Standard
time, as obtained from Standard radio time signals.
Specifically, each observation consisted of the following operations:—
(1) Reception of Initial Time Signal.—A time signal is recorded at the
beginning of the observation. This process consists in recording on the
chronometer-chronograph combination the instant of each fifth second,
usually for about five minutes, of one of the Standard time signals. On
this project the transmissions of Station WWV, of the Bureau of Standards, Washington, were used almost exclusively. Alternatively, the transmissions of U.S. Naval Station NSS may be used. This operation yields
a series of about sixty comparisons between the Standard signal and the
observer's chronometer. The net result is a close determination of the
rate and correction of the chronometer.
(2) Star Observation.—This consists in recording the instants of crossing the
60° almucantar of roughly thirty known stars on the chronometer-chronograph combination. It was endeavoured to observe the crossings of a
minimum of six stars in each of the four quadrants, allowing for a final
minimum computed of five in each quadrant. Usually more were observed.
A Wild Universal theodolite with telescope clamped at 60° altitude was
used for the observations, and the vertical circle control level of the
instrument depended upon to define horizontally.
(3) Intermediate and Final Time Signals.—It was endeavoured in each case
to record an intermediate time signal during the period of the observation
as well as a final signal, so that the operation of the chronometer might
be well controlled throughout the period of the observation. The process
in each case is identical with that described under initial time signal
above. In most cases, sufficient time signals were recorded to satisfy the
above conditions.    In some, no intermediate signals were recorded.
The methods used for the local survey were standard and require no amplification,
except to point out that distances were determined by stadia or triangulation methods.
Bearings are controlled by observations of the pole star for azimuth. It was endeavoured in each case to tie in sufficient points in the vicinity of the observation site to
enable certain identification of one or more strategic natural features which would
appear on some one of the aerial photographs, so as to provide the necessary control
for the construction of a reconnaissance map. Also, in cases where the monument
marking the site could not be placed at the actual point of observation, a tie was made
which enables correlation of the geographical positions of the two points. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 129
To perpetuate the site of the observation, monuments were established in each
case. In all but two cases, standard rock posts, stamped with the appropriate number
of the series, RT-1 to RT-16, were set in bedrock or a suitable boulder. These were
supplemented by stone mounds and bearing trees in so far as practical. In one case
a wooden post had to be used and in another an existing lot corner was used as the
monument.
For the purpose of reconnaissance, the characteristics of the terrain traversed on
each flight between astronomic stations were noted as completely as possible. Also, as
conditions permitted, exploratory forays were made from each camp. Barometric
altitudes were determined for each camp by observing differences of elevation shown
by portable barometers, observations being made on departure from each camp and
arrival at the next. The barometers were also used to observe the elevations of certain
mountains and timber-line in a few cases. Numerous illustrative and record photographs were taken.
The sixteen astronomic fixes determined are considered to be satisfactory for the
purpose of controlling the proposed reconnaissance trimetrogon photography. While
some difficulty has been caused by an unexplained vertical creep of the telescope of the
theodolite used, the effect of this has been kept down as much as possible by the method
of computation. The one case which was reduced analytically, and which may be taken
to be representative, shows that the probable error of the fixes, on the basis of the
recorded residuals, is something less than one second of space in either direction.
The reconnaissance in general is not too specific, due to the limited time of observation allowed from a moving aircraft. More specific information was obtained on
ground forays, but it is limited in scope. The photographs obtained should be useful
as an aid to further evaluation of the conditions.
No opportunity offered for obtaining material of a historical nature. The only
persons seen during the season, except at Dease Lake, were two Indians at Teslin Lake,
whose principal preoccupation was shortage of fresh meat.
Botanical specimens were collected, and, while it is understood these are all typical,
they do afford valuable information concerning distribution of species.
In the writer's opinion no unusual difficulty should occur in the extension of a
triangulation through the area covered. Very large figures might be required for some
routes—for example Teslin River valley. Transportation would, as usual, be a controlling factor.
Some mention should be made of the successful use of radio communication and
aerial transport. Radio communication maintained over distances averaging about
125 miles (maximum 200 miles), using the small battery-operated Forestry-type transceivers. There were few days upon which contact was not established. Very little
time was lost waiting for transportation, and then only because of unsuitable weather
conditions. In general, the system of transport was very efficient and was a large
contributing factor in the rapidity of execution of the programme.
For purposes of reference, four lakes have been named, as shown on the map—
Zancudo, Calata, Camp Island, and Trapper Lakes.
PART II.
The initial flight from Carcross to point RT-1—Atlin Lake, via Tagish Lake,
Graham Inlet, and Atlin Lake to the mouth of the O'Donnel River—has little bearing
on the general problem of highway possibilities, but nevertheless pointed out the great
scenic beauty of the region. The vista to the south and west, over the Coast Range, is
awe-inspiring. The popularity of the White Pass and Yukon tourist excursions into the
Atlin and Taku region is readily understandable. There can be no doubt that a highway providing access by private vehicle would be much more attractive. While encamped at O'Donnel River, some opportunity offered for inspecting the
countryside at close range. The timber-growth is vigorous and consists of black and
white poplar, black and white spruce, balsam fir, willows, etc. Some logging has been
done in the vicinity. The black poplar reaches 18 inches diameter, and one was
observed to have a diameter of 4 feet.
Game is evidently plentiful. Signs were seen of black bear, wolf, fox, and
moose. Old and new beaver cuttings were seen near the O'Donnel River, and beaver
were seen.    Ptarmigan were observed also.
A point of interest at this camp is the abandoned telegraph-line which runs near
the lake-shore, the line is still standing at this point, although showing signs of decay.
The cableway crossing at the O'Donnel River was seen to be in poor condition, but
still erect.
The terrain in the vicinity is of moderate relief for several miles to the eastward
and offers little difficulty for the construction of roads; it is traversed by the existing
road network radiating from Atlin.
The astronomic work having been completed at RT-1, the party proceeded by air
to Taysen Lake, or Paddy's Lake as it is known locally.
The flight followed the valley of O'Donnel River as far as Dixie Lake, here joining and following approximately the highway route proposed by Mitchell in 1940.
The O'Donnel tributaries flow in rocky gorges, which fact probably favours the existing
road location farther to the north. The valley of the river is burnt over, while the
lower parts of the enclosing mountains are well wooded with spruce. Jack-pine is seen
in the valleys. There are some open meadows and muskegs. Proceeding easterly
to Bell and Taysen Lakes, the route proposed by Mitchell is seen to be feasible, following a moderately wide valley with flat side-slopes.
Here it might be pointed out that a good possibility exists for a highway route
northerly to Gladys Lake, leaving the Mitchell route at Bell Lake and crossing over
the low divide to the Gladys River valley, which flows at low gradient to Gladys Lake.
•    The character of the relief in the vicinity of Taysen Lake is moderate and offers
no obstacle to modern highway-construction.
The valley to the south-east is of moderate gradient, with easy side-slopes and
not heavily timbered. The timber is largely jack-pine and spruce in the valleys, with
some black and white poplar. Ascending the mountain-sides, all disappear but spruce
until timber-line is reached about 4,000 to 4,500 feet. Several kinds of willow grow
in the valleys. The timber here is not as large as that farther west, averaging about
8 inches, with occasional 12-inch specimens.    Many burns were noticed.
Game signs indicated the presence of moose, caribou, and bear, probably including
grizzly, and beaver were seen at work.
The soil is clayey, with 3 to 4 inches of leaf-mould cover at lower bed levels, with
many rock-outcroppings.
Leaving Taysen Lake en route to Gladys Lake, the Clarke-Mitchell route was
followed easterly as far as Hurricane Creek.
The stream carrying the waters of Ruth Lake, near Taysen Lake, to Nakina River
rapidly forms a deep gorge, with the slopes heavily wooded. The Nakina runs for the
most part in a deep gorge, and its tributaries also develop precipitous channels as they
approach it.
The flight here left the Clarke-Mitchell route and followed Hurricane Creek northerly over another divide, which is a muskeg area of considerable extent at an estimated
elevation of 3,500 to 4,000 feet, to Rapid Roy Creek and thence down-stream to the
south end of Gladys Lake.
Abandoned mine-workings were observed on Rapid Roy Creek, but the reason for
abandonment is not known. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 131
The area observed at RT-3 (Gladys Lake) is largely delta terrain where Gladys
River enters the lake. It is typical, being marshy and swampy. While the river
meanders through a flat, the confining topography to the southward is quite rugged.
To the northward, in the immediate vicinity of Gladys Lake, the relief is low, becoming
more accentuated to the westward. The soil is composed of coarse alluvial sands and
gravels in the delta area, while to the eastward moraine formations are seen.
Timber observed consisted principally of stunted spruce—maximum diameter
about 10 inches. Some jack-pine was also seen. There are several kinds of willow,
including red and silver.    Wild flowers were plentiful.    Large burn areas exist.
The flight from Gladys Lake to RT-4, Teslin Lake, follows a valley eastward from
the head of Gladys Lake over a low divide to the headwaters of Hitchcock Creek, and
thence southerly along Teslin Lake.
The valley entering Gladys Lake is a series of marsh and muskeg areas with no
well-defined drainage, being apparently confined by low moraine ridges. After crossing
the divide, the drainage becomes more apparent, and the area to the west of Teslin
Lake is fairly typical, consisting of numerous lakes and muskegs lying in rocky terrain of low or moderate relief.
The country in the vicinity of RT-4 on Teslin Lake is of considerable interest
from the scenic and sporting view-point. While the immediate topography is of
moderate nature, the lake itself is very attractive, and distant mountains provide high
scenic values. The Jennings River loops southward just to the north of RT-4, and at
this point is a very interesting rapid.
There are plentiful signs of moose, deer, and bear, and also indications of timber-
wolf, fox, and porcupine. There are many grouse and some ducks and loons. Teslin
Lake reputedly abounds in lake-trout. At the rapids on the Jennings River, grayling
rose to the fly with great avidity.
It was felt at the time of visiting this point that a finer spot for vacationing
sportsmen could hardly be found. Access would be easy to float-equipped aircraft,
camp-sites are plentiful, and the hunting and fishing possibilities most attractive—all
within easy reach of a camp on Teslin Lake.
The flight from Teslin Lake southerly to RT-5, Zancudo Lake, follows Teslin River
up-stream. Teslin River flows into a valley 10 to 15 miles wide, with low relief at about
2,300 to 3,000 feet elevation. There is considerable muskeg and numerous lakes. The
timber is largely spruce, with some poplar, and there are large burned areas.
On July 17th we flew from RT-5 to Prairie Lake, RT-6, following Teslin River
up-stream. ,
Here the Clarke-Mitchell route continues along Teslin River south-easterly. The
valley is roughly 10 to 15 miles wide and has the same characteristics as noted on the
previous flight—that is, low relief, numerous rocky knolls, and many lakes and muskegs.
Here there would be no unusual problems in the construction of a roadway, and the
usual practice employed in typical rock-lake-muskeg terrain would prevail. An over-all
rise from RT-4 to Prairie Lake, RT-6, of 400 feet is noted, in a distance of 24 miles,
a gradient over-all of about one-third of 1 per cent. There are many small streams
draining this area into Teslin River.
The next flight was from Prairie Lake, RT-6, following the Clarke-Mitchell route
south-easterly to Little Tuya Lake, RT-7.
Leaving Prairie Lake southerly, terrain having the same characteristics mentioned on the previous flight continues until the Nahlin River system is approached.
The terrain is quite open, of moderate relief, and there is considerable muskeg and
numerous shallow lakes, which have much aquatic vegetation.
Local reconnaissance at Little Tuya Lake indicates that the immediate area should
be a very attractive resort region.    The scenery is attractive, although not of truly X 132 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
mountainous character.    The timber consists of black and white spruce, balsam fir, and
white poplar.    There are many blueberries, and some strawberry blossoms were seen.
Signs of moose, bear, and caribou are plentiful, and there are some signs of deer.
Old beaver cuttings are seen. Grayling and trout abound in the outlet to the Tuya
River. The lake would provide enjoyable boating and fishing; the shores are rocky
but clean and there are numerous bays and islands, but no beaches were seen. No
signs of mineralization were observed.
From Little Tuya Lake, RT-7, to the south end of Dease Lake, RT-8, the flight left
the Clarke-Mitchell route at Little Tuya Lake and joined the Rolston route about 10
miles south-easterly.
The early part of the flight reveals the nature of the Tuya River at this point.
The valley is quite rough, and the banks of the river are apparently increasingly steep
down-stream. The river has been incorrectly mapped—its true course runs to the
east of Little Tuya Lake and it does not empty into the lake. There are many rapids.
The valley is lightly timbered with coniferous growth at this point.
Ground observation at Dease Lake confirms the ruggedness of the topography
on the west side of the lake.    Extreme slopes are encountered.
The timber consists of black and white poplar, spruce, and jack-pine, the latter
being somewhat scrubby.
Dease Lake settlement is the terminus of the road from Telegraph Creek and
consists of a store and a few residences. There is an Indian reserve and a Roman
Catholic mission on the east shore.
Snowfall in the district is said to average about 4 feet. Freeze-up occurs in
October, and break-up early in May.   The lake is generally clear of ice in June.
On our flight from Dease Lake via Rolston route north-westerly to Little Tuya
Lake and RT-9, Calata Lake, the only point worthy of note to that on the early portion
of the flight is the choppy nature of the terrain along the Rolston alternate route
leaving Dease Lake via Four Mile Creek and the high gradient along same, which forced
the pilot to circle to gain altitude before leaving Dease Lake. It was noted that the
watercourses leading into Dease Lake from the west have very deep ravines—almost
gorges.
Flying along the east side of the Tuya, it is seen that its tributaries run in deep
ravines also, although the Tuya itself apparently becomes less precipitous to the north.
Heading north-westerly here toward RT-9, it is seen that the region from this
point northerly for some distance is a moderately flat area with no very pronounced
relief, except for a few isolated small mountains; it probably forms the southern
portion of the Kawdy Plateau. The general elevation would be in the neighbourhood
of 4,000 feet, and as a consequence timber-growth is sparse. This region would be
favourable for the construction of a roadway.
There is heavy growth of moss and grass, although the timber is stunted. There
are many wild flowers. The vicinity of RT-9 is very wet—side-hill muskegs and
numerous small springs and streams are observed. It is probable that the precipitation
is quite high in this region.
There are numerous rock-outcroppings and also a good deal of gravel overburden.
Although no game was observed, game trails are numerous and one set of moose
antlers with 55-inch spread was found.    Small fish were seen in the lake.
Circling to the north of Level Mountain, the flight crosses the head of the Matsatu
River, which appears to divide Level and Meszah Mountains. This river flows in a
rapidly deepening gorge as it approaches the edge of the plateau.
The flight from RT-10, Camp Island Lake, to RT-11, Hatin Lake, following
Dudidontu Valley and Monckton route, provides an aerial view of the terrain traversed
by the route proposed by Mr. Monckton.    It is apparent that the conditions are quite REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 133
favourable in this particular stretch. The relief is moderate indeed for mountain
country and consists of low rocky ridges at the south end—mostly rounded—and
numerous small lakes, streams, and ponds. This area of moderate to low relief is
roughly 6 to 8 miles wide, extending northward from Camp Island Lake to Hatin Lake,
and provides ample scope for optimum detail location.
The overburden in this area is reddish clay, with high proportions of gravel and
rock fragments. Two distinct kinds of rock-outcropping were observed—one a rather
badly decomposed shale-like rock and the other a massive granitic rock. The streams
have gravelly beds. The area to the south-west of Hatin Lake is flatfish generally, and
quite sandy, with sloughs in the low areas. Vegetation here is confined to grass, scrub,
and small second-growth jack-pine and poplar. There is a small ranch-like establishment, not occupied at this date, about 1% miles to the eastward of Hatin Lake, on the
telegraph-line. Apparently horses have been kept at this ranch, and signs are seen
in the vicinity of Hatin Lake of their having grazed there.
Rainbow trout abound in Hatin Lake, which is a rather weedy lake. Fresh moose
signs were seen.    Ptarmigan are numerous, and there are signs of wolf.
The flight from Hatin Lake (RT-11) northward followed the Monckton route to
Gun Lake (RT-12).
The terrain along the Monckton route to the north of Hatin Lake has the same
general characteristics as noted under the previous flight, these conditions continuing
for some 4 miles. Northward of this the relief of the topography becomes more
pronounced and again typical rock-muskeg conditions prevail, with a fairly high
amount of highway curvature obviously required.
In the vicinity of Gun Lake there are numerous low rounded outcrops of granitic
rock, similar to that observed at Hatin Lake, interspersed with muskeg and small lakes.
The overburden is gravelly clay.
Moose were observed at Gun Lake, and while numerous fish were seen in the lake,
no specimens were taken and the kinds cannot be named.
From Gun Lake (RT-12) to Nakina Lake (RT-13) the initial 5 or 6 miles of the
flight, following the Clarke-Mitchell alternative north-westerly, traverses terrain of low
relief lying to the south-west of Gun Lake. This section provides good conditions
for highway-construction. The cover is gravelly clay, with numerous rounded rock
outcrops, some muskeg and shallow lakes.   The area is thoroughly burnt over.
The Nakina River, on leaving Nakina Lake, apparently flows in a rapidly deepening
channel—a marked deepening is noted in the few miles between the crossing of the
telegraph-line and Nakina Lake.
Nakina Lake may be said to lie at the eastern limit of the Coast Mountains. The
terrain in the immediate vicinity is of mountainous character—to the westward the
topography becomes very rugged and truly mountainous. One peak, 2 miles to the
south of Nakina Lake, has an observed altitude of 5,900 feet, approximately. The
overburden in the vicinity is reddish-brown to yellowish clay. There are evidences of
glaciation in the form of moraine deposits.   The shores of the lake are gravelly.
The flight from Nakina Lake (RT-13) to lake at RT-14, Trapper Lake, traverses
the rugged terrain of the Coast Mountains southerly to a medium-small mountain lake
which we have called Trapper Lake. The flight follows Yeth Creek, which falls rapidly
in a deep, rocky gorge with narrow portals at points, crosses over to the Inklin system
and thence across the mountains to Trapper Lake. The terrain traversed is very
precipitous and is of no interest at present for the purpose of highway location. The
Inklin River was observed to be narrowly confined by steep banks as far down as the
mouth of the Sutlahine, at which point it assumes the characteristics of a braided
stream, narrowly confined. At the mouth of the Sutlahine the flight turns southerly
over very rough country toward Trapper Lake.   The stream draining this lake is seen X 134 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
to run in a flatfish narrow valley which opens out toward the Nahlin and Sheslay
system to the north-east.
Trapper Lake lies quite low (2,500 feet) among the surrounding mountains and has
precipitous rocky shores. Snow-capped peaks rise from the lake, and several small
glaciers pour their waters directly into the lake. Evidence of active glaciation in the
vicinity is seen in the turbid, milky waters of the lake and affluent streams. An
unusually large amount of driftwood floats in the lake, preventing access to the eastern
shores from the lake. The terrain in the vicinity is very rough and rocky. The
overburden is a yellowish sandy clay with high proportions of gravel.
Forest-growth, below timber-line at 4,800 feet, is quite vigorous and includes
spruce (up to 2 feet in diameter), jack-pine, balsam fir, black poplar, and white poplar.
Blueberries are plentiful.
Moose were seen in the vicinity, as were beaver and their works. Bear signs also
were observed. No fish were taken; it is unlikely that the turbid waters would be
conducive to extensive fish life.
The flight from RT-14, Trapper Lake, to RT-15, King Salmon Lake, retraced the
previous one as far as the mouth of the Sutlahine River and there turns westward
along a draw to King Salmon Lake. As before, the terrain traversed is completely
mountainous in nature—road-construction could only be undertaken at very high cost
in rock movement.
King Salmon Lake is a very attractive body of clear water and has well-wooded
shores. The westerly end is swampy. It is surrounded by mountains, providing some
excellent views. Apparently the lake is a favoured hunting and fishing ground for
American visitors. At the site of RT-15, in a delta area, is a well-established camping-
ground, provided with platform cache and substantial tent basements. Rafts, fitted
for use with outboard motors, have been built, and trails have been cut out. Apparently
the custom is to fly into this lake for holiday sojourns. Evidence also exists of trapper
activity.
The forest-growth is considerably more luxuriant here than at previous camps and
consists largely of balsam fir, white spruce, and lodgepole pine. Alders grow at the
shore and in delta areas.    Timber specimens range up to about 30 inches in diameter.
There are many signs of bear and moose, and there can be no doubt that the lake
is well stocked with fish, although none was taken.
From King Salmon Lake to RT-16, Sloko Lake, the flight follows King Salmon
Creek in part north-westerly to the Taku River. The former creek descends rapidly
in a precipitous channel. The latter is observed to be a widely braided watercourse
below the mouth of the Nakina and would apparently provide a route for a roadway
westward to the Pacific. Several rock noses, which influence the course of the river,
were observed. These would no doubt be controlling factors in the location of a
roadway. The terrain on both sides of the Taku is mountainous and descends abruptly
to the river.
Looking up the Nakina from its mouth, the channel is seen to be steep-sided,
similar to that farther up-stream, and while minor benches will exist, it is certain that
considerable side-hill work would be involved in the construction of a roadway along
this course.
Proceeding up Sloko River to Sloko Lake it is noted that this stream lies in part
in a very deep and precipitous channel. There is vigorous growth of poplar in the
lower reaches and signs of extensive beaver activity. The channel is particularly
closely confined in the upper reaches. Just below Sloko Lake is seen an impressive
waterfall. This fall has an estimated height of 150 feet and has developed great erosive
power in the past. It is of great scenic interest, but difficult to approach from the
south side, due to the precipitous nature of the channel. Asfrofix stations 1948
Reconnaissance 1948. flying route
Reconnaissance surveys for western route by—
Clarke-Mitchell H  X   X   )(   X   )(   )(
alternatives ■*"*■ X X X   X
Moncton
Rolston
I    I    I—I    I     I    I     I
To accompany Annual Report of Surveys Branch,
Department of Lands and Forests,
December 31st. 1948. 95-
V.aP'
\&
Astronomic Survey
and Reconnaissance
Atlin - Telegraph Creek
Area
Gladys Lake, looking W. from R.T.-3
Moose Antlers, spread 55 inches, at R.T.-9. ——.	
X 136 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Paradise Peaks, lying to the eastward, and Llewellyn Glacier, to the westward,
provide much scenic interest.
Sloko Lake itself is not attractive. Its waters are turbid and the shores silt-coated.
The water is very cold. Landing aircraft on this lake is a matter of no little risk,
since reefs and other underwater dangers are hidden by the milky water.
The return flight, Sloko Lake to Carcross, via Atlin Lake and Tagish Lake, revealed
little of new interest, except a splendid view of Llewellyn Glacier and a fresh glimpse
of the beauties of the Atlin District. It is, for the most part, a retracement of the
initial flight from Carcross to RT-1.
BRITISH COLUMBIA-YUKON BOUNDARY SURVEY.
By A. J. Campbell, B.A.Sc, B.C.L.S., D.L.S.
The following is the report of the survey of the British Columbia-Yukon Boundary
during the 1948 season.
The Report for the year 1946 gives a brief history of the development of the
boundaries of the Colony of British Columbia, portions of which are repeated here.
When the Colony, in 1871, entered Confederation and became the Province of British
Columbia of the Dominion of Canada, there was no change in the boundaries, the description of which states that " British Columbia shall comprise all such territories as
are bounded on the south by the territories of the United States of America; to the
west by the Pacific Ocean and the frontier of the Russian Territories in North
America; to the north by the 60th Parallel of North Latitude and to the east, from
the boundary of the United States of America northwards by the summit of the Rocky
Mountains and the 120th Degree of West Longitude, and shall include Vancouver
Island, the Queen Charlotte Islands, and all other islands adjacent to the said
Territories."
The 60th parallel of north latitude was thus established as the north boundary of
the Province and remained as the boundary between British Columbia and the Yukon
when that territory was formed in 1898. In that year, due to the discovery of gold in
the Klondike and the consequent rush to and development of the country, questions of
jurisdiction arose between the Province and the Dominion. In response to communications from the British Columbia authorities calling attention to this, the Minister of
the Interior directed that the work be proceeded with at once. During the years 1899,
1900, and 1901, and again in 1907 and 1908, this work was carried on, and around 157
miles of the boundary were laid down on the ground. This work commenced on the
west side of Teslin Lake, and the line runs west from there in two sections. The first
a distance of 119 miles from Teslin Lake to Takhim River, then a break of 9 miles
between the Takhim and Hudson Rivers due to the mountainous country, and the
second a stretch of 38 miles to the west crossing of the Tatshenshini River. It was not
considered necessary to survey the 65 miles over the high glacier-covered mountains
from the Tatshenshini River to the Alaska Border.
There was no demand for the running of any further portions of the boundary
until the construction of the Alaska Highway in 1942 and 1943. It was known that
the highway crossed the 60th parallel several times. (It crosses seven times and comes
close to it in other places.) The necessity of running the boundary was brought to the
attention of the Surveyor-General of British Columbia by the Surveyor-General of
Dominion Lands in April of 1943. This resulted in Orders in Council being passed
by the Dominion and the Province, which read in part:—• REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 137
" That the route of the Alaska Highway, now under construction, crosses and
recrosses the sixtieth parallel of north latitude, which is the boundary between the
Province of British Columbia and the Yukon and Northwest Territories:
" That the resulting activity, in the vicinity of the boundary area, makes it necessary that the boundary line be surveyed and marked on the ground for administrative
purposes:
" That, in order to carry out the boundary delineation work, a Commission shall
be established."
In line with these Orders in Council a Commission was established consisting of
the Surveyor-General of Dominion Lands and the Surveyor-General of British Columbia, and instructions were issued to proceed with the work.
Preceding Reports have set out in some detail the method usually followed in
laying down a parallel of latitude. The method used on this survey is the same, with
some minor differences to that used on the 49th parallel where it is the boundary
between Canada and the United States. In this method the latitude of a series of
points, selected at intervals along the route to be surveyed, is established by astronomical observations. It is evident that these points will not be right on the parallel.
That would be impossible, but they are sufficiently close so that points on the parallel
can be established by the ordinary methods of survey with the transit and chain.
These points on the parallel are later joined by lines laid down according to the instructions and which have been described in some detail in former Reports.
Under instructions from the Commissioners, eleven of these astronomic points, or
astro-fixes, were established by two members of the Geodetic Survey of Canada during
the seasons of 1943 and 1944. Those in 1943, by J. E. R. Ross, D.T.S., were located
close to the parallel at five of the intersections with the highway. These were considered to be too far apart for the proper delineation of the boundary, and, accordingly,
in 1944 C. H. Ney, D.L.S., selected positions for five of his six fixations, at some distance from the road, between those already established. The sixth is located on the
Smith River, 200 miles east of Teslin Lake and 30 or more miles north of the highway.
The fixations for identification purposes are called R-l, R-2, etc., for those established
by Mr. Ross, and similarly N-l, N-2, etc., for those by Mr. Ney, all numbered from
west to east.
Early in 1945 instructions for the delineation of the boundary on the ground were
issued by the Commissioners. The methods to be used in connecting the astro-fixes,
how the line was to be cut out and marked, the special monuments to be used and how
they were to be numbered and planted, the spacing between the monuments, with
emphasis on their intervisibility, and many other requirements were included in detail.
Similar instructions have been issued each year and have been followed very closely by
the work in the field.
In 1945, N. C. Stewart, D.L.S., B.C.L.S., was in charge of the survey. Mr. Stewart
is now Surveyor-General of British Columbia and a member of the Boundary Commission. That year work was commenced on the west side of Teslin Lake, at a boundary
monument established in the survey of 1899. From here the lines were run east across
the lake and through R-l, near Morley Lake and Mile-post 775 on the highway, through
N-l on Logjam Creek to R-2 at the highway crossing of Swift River, near Mile-post
733.    Mr. Stewart submitted a full report on the work carried out during that season.
Since 1945 the writer has been in charge of the field-work of the boundary survey.
In 1946 instructions were received to commence the survey at astro-fix R-5, at the
eastern intersection with the highway and situated near Contact Creek and Mile-post
588. In that year the line was run west through N-5, on the Hyland River and 3 miles
north of the highway, through R-4, in the Liard Valley, and intersecting the highway
near Mile-post 626, crossing the river and onwards to astro-fix R-3, about 2 miles south .
X 138 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
of the highway near Mile-post 648. The 1947 instructions called for the work to start
where Mr. Stewart finished in 1945. The line was produced east, through N-2, near the
headwaters of a branch of Carlick Creek and 8 miles by trail south of Mile-post 719 on
the highway, through N-3, about 2 miles east of the Lord River, and 6 miles farther
toward N-4. Reports have been submitted and published in the Reports of the Deputy
Minister of Lands for those years.
In 1948 instructions were given to close the gap of 36 miles between the finish of
the work in 1947 and that of 1946. This survey was carried out this season, thus
completing 161 miles of the boundary from Teslin Lake east to Contact Creek.
The party this year had a total of sixteen men, more than half of them, including
all of the technical staff, being on the survey for the second season, and some of them
for more. F. H. Nash was again assistant in charge of running the line, his third year
on the survey. The head chainman was H. Ridley, his second year in that position and
his fourth on the survey, and Ed. Clark, front chainman, and R. 0. Hannah, picketman,
occupying those positions for the second year. Willard Freer, packer for two years,
had been packer for Mr. Ney in 1944, making it his third year in connection with the
boundary. The remainder of the party included six axemen, four of them in their
second year, an office-helper and monument-man, assistant packer, and cook and his
helper. There was no triangulation party. The necessary connections between the
astro-fixes for this year's work were made last year by the party under A. C. Pollard,
B.C.L.S.
The line-work was carried out exactly as in the preceding year. A wide sky-line
was cut out through the timbered sections, and the same system of blazing was followed. Incidentally the line is quite visible from the air and has been used as a guide
and landmark by more than one aeroplane. Monuments were planted at frequent
intervals and spaced so as to be intervisible. The specially designed bronze tablet for
use on the boundary was used. These were set in holes drilled in rock or cemented in
the top of the modified headless standard post set in the ground, with the top flush
with the surface. The monuments were marked with mounds, either earth or rock,
always north-west of the monument, and four pits were dug, unless quite impossible.
In timber the monuments were further referenced by bearing trees. All measurements
were checked, using two tapes 300 feet and 5 chains in length, and all slope angles were
read with a transit. Altitudes were carried forward by vertical angles read forward
and backward from the transit stations, and between them the altitude of the chainage
points was obtained from the slope angles. Azimuth observations on Polaris were made
at various points to check the bearing of the line.
By referring to the accompanying sketch-plan it will be seen that from Teslin
Lake to N-4 the astro-fixes were connected by triangulation, but between N-4 and R-3,
as stated in the Report for 1947, it was considered, after exploring the possibilities,
to be more practical to make the connection partly by triangulation and partly by
traverse along the highway. This is, admittedly, not as strong as by all triangulation,
so a further and, as it worked out to be, a positive aid was attempted. It was known
that N-4 was on the summit of a ridge considerably higher than any point to the east,
and from a study of aerial pictures, both vertical and oblique, of the area, it was
thought that there was a very good chance of N-4 being visible from a low ridge just
west of the small valley in which R-3 is located. To test this, a line on the calculated
boundary was run west from the boundary monument at R-3, and in a distance between
2 and 3 miles it was found that N-4 hill was plainly visible, nearly 20 miles away.
A large signal was erected here, which was called R-3 West and later sighted from the
boundary at N-4, giving great help and assurance in the final production of the line.
After completing this rather important work, a move was made along the highway
to Big Creek at Mile 674 and preparations made to move back and pick up the end of REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 139
the line cut out last year. In June of that year some trouble had been experienced in
fording the streams due to the usual high water, and to go back to the starting-point
for this year over the route used last fall meant fording two streams—the Rancheria,
a two-channel ford 150 feet wide with swift current and over 2 feet deep at normal
water periods, and the Tootsee, 200 feet wide with a similar depth of water. These
rivers were known to have bad fords in high water, so it had been planned to put in
another trail between Big Creek and the Little Rancheria River which would intersect
the trail close to the boundary which was cut by Mr. Pollard in his triangulation survey
of last year. This meant cutting out 10 to 15 miles of trail, but provided access to the
line well ahead of our work and will, more than likely, be used to reach an attractive area
of country for hunting and fishing parties. By using Mr. Pollard's trail west from
where our trail intersected his, a camp was established some miles east of the finish in
1947. Work was commenced immediately and proceeded satisfactorily, with a minimum
of delay due to weather, though there was a little rain, generally with some thunder,
almost every day in July. The line-work was started on July 8th, and the 15 miles
through an attractive and well-timbered country, with only one burnt-over area, to
the parallel point as established from N-4 was completed by August 6th. The closure
here was satisfactory, and work proceeded onwards to R-3. The signal erected on the
line west from R-3 was plainly visible and used to calculate the bearings on which the
line should be run for proper closing.
After the meeting of the lines at R-3 West, which was satisfactory, the survey
for the season was completed by planting several monuments, and the party returned
to Lower Post on September 25th.
PHYSICAL FEATURES.
In 1947 the boundary-line was run over a series of high ridges, some of them well
over 6,000 feet in altitude, and for long stretches the line was well above timber-line.
In the 6 miles of the line run east from N-3 parallel, on the way to N-4 parallel, the
line, as stated in last year's Report, was definitely through the mountains. This was
quite evident from the top of what was called the Last Hill, where the country ahead
for over 15 miles to the timbered ridge where N-4 is located was plainly visible.
There were timbered ridges ahead, but the line passed along the south side of a small
stream which broke through them in an interesting rocky canyon to join Big Creek.
Above this canyon the ridges opened into a plateau area extending for miles to the
north-west and also to the south of the line. This is an attractive stretch of country,
particularly to the south, where it reaches close to a range of mountains which appear
readily accessible and should prove to be a good hunting area.
After crossing Big Creek, a lovely clear-water stream 80 feet wide and nearly 2
feet in depth, the line passes over a low (under 300 feet), flat-topped ridge, then drops
slowly to pass through jack-pine flats and open meadows for 21/2 miles to reach the
Little Rancheria River. At one point the two streams are not over a mile apart, but
Big Creek is kept from joining its larger neighbour by a low rocky ridge which it
follows closely. At the highway they are 4 miles apart and, according to existing
maps, join only a short distance before emptying into the Rancheria River, flowing to
the Liard.
Leaving the Little Rancheria, which at the line crossing is a slow-moving stream,
110 feet in width and 5 feet deep, running through a meadow-studded valley, the
boundary passes through an extensive river-flat, then climbs for nearly 1,200 feet on
a somewhat rolling easy grade to the summit of N-4 ridge. This is a wide-topped
ridge, with many small knolls, which falls away to the north and rising to the south
to reach One Ace Mountain, an isolated and rather conspicuous mountain visible from
a large area of country. X 140 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
From N-4 ridge to R-3, 22 miles away, the boundary crossed only five small creeks,
all tributary to Albert Creek. The three larger ones lie in definite valleys, spaced at
intervals of 6 miles from N-4. In the 6 miles to the first valley there is a drop of
nearly 1,200 feet from the summit of the ridge. There are small differences in altitude in this and the other valleys, and conditions between are very similar. After
leaving the edge of one valley there is a long, very gentle rise to the summit, and
a long gentle slope down to the edge of the next. There is very little or no water on
any of these low ridges. To the south these plateau-like ridges extend for miles, but
to the north only for a short distance to drop into the valley of Albert Creek, which
more or less parallels the boundary. The altitudes along the line in this year's work
range from 4,000 feet at the start of the season to 2,825 feet at the Little Rancheria
River, then rise again to 4,030 feet at N-4, the highest reached. The first of the
creeks mentioned, 6 miles from N-4, has an altitude of 2,850 feet. The middle creek,
another 6 miles away, altitude 2,570 feet, is the largest, 30 feet in width, and of the
several creeks that join to form Albert Creek, should be considered the main stream.
FOREST-COVER.
It could be said that N-4 ridge is the dividing line between two types of country.
They are different in respect to the physical features, and the west is much better
watered than the east. It is also true when you consider the forest-cover, the country
west of the ridge is well covered with green bush, with only one burnt-over area,
while to the east it is almost entirely burnt over and in some places reburnt. This
burn is very extensive and extends for many miles to the south of the boundary and
north to the edge of the drop off to the Albert Creek valley. The fire has left, here
and there, strips of green timber, almost entirely lodgepole pine, more commonly
called jack-pine; reproduction of this species from 10 to 15 years old is taking place, but
in areas reburnt it is 5 to 10 years old. Some spruce is to be found along the streams
and in gullies, also a few clumps of poplar in favourable locations. Brush, principally willow and alder, is general, but not thick. To the west of N-4 ridge the bush
is more varied, consisting of spruce, lodgepole pine, and some balsam, with the spruce
predominating. As you go east, the proportion of pine increases, and along the
Little Rancheria Valley is almost entirely pine. Willow and alder brush are found
generally over this area. Another and quite decided difference was found in areas
to the west of the ridge where good grazing grass was plentiful, while to the east it
was scarce and poor, and only to be found along the small valleys. A number of
varieties of small fruits were seen, but in no place were they plentiful; these were
found in many places and included cranberries, raspberries, gooseberries, and some
blueberries.
MINERALS.
In contrast with last year, no prospectors were seen or heard of in the area. But
reports were heard that development-work was going ahead in the group of claims,
staked last year, straddling the boundary. The claims have been sold to a syndicate
which is carrying on exploratory development-work. In the McDame Creek placer-
mining area, the Macassiu Mining Company has installed and is operating a dredge.
Reports from this are that the results are not up to expectations, but they have a
considerable area of good ground mapped out and look for better returns. This mine
is served by the new road built last fall and winter, and partly by air. About 2%
miles from the highway this road passes within 300 feet of R-3, the easterly terminus
of this year's boundary survey.
GAME.
The reports of former years as well as the reports of other surveyors do not
claim this to be a good big-game country.    Our experience agrees with this.    During B.C-Yukon Boundary-line.
Big Creek Camp. X 142 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
the season only three moose, a similar number of deer, and a few black bear were seen.
From the evidence the bear are the most numerous. A brown bear which persisted
in coming around the camp caused a little excitement but did no damage. Grouse were
reasonably plentiful, and fool-hens, willow and some sharp-tailed grouse were seen.
One day in September thousands of sand-hill cranes, on their way south and flying
very low, passed over our camp. This was quite a sight and photographs were
attempted, some of which were very good. There was good fishing in Big Creek and
the Little Rancheria River, good catches of Dolly Varden, grayling, and " round " fish
being taken. In Albert Creek and lakes adjacent to it, pike were caught up to 9 lb.
in weight.
CLIMATE.
To any members of the party who were on the survey in 1947, there was considerably better weather during this season, but a comparison of the tables from the
Meteorological Bureau, as reported from Watson Lake, gives the precipitation for
June to September as 8.2 inches for this year and 6.8 for 1947. Undoubtedly this is
because last year our work was in the mountains, which could be seen this year from
many points on the line, and what was with us a rather gentle storm and little rain
was quite apparently much more severe back in the hills. Frost first appeared on
August 21st, and on any clear night after this date we could expect ice on the water-
pails in the morning. The mosquitoes, which had been fierce early in the season, had
eased off considerably by this time, but after the frost were finished for the season,
and the black-flies, which appeared during the warm part of the day, stayed with us
until the end.
ACCESS.
Along the boundary a pack-trail was cut out, never more than a mile away, and in
the burnt area to the east followed along the line for several miles. West of N-4 the
trail laid out by Mr. Pollard and his triangulation party in 1947 was improved and
followed. The line trail is connected with the highway at three points. A trail leaving
the highway at Big Creek, Mile-post 674, goes up between the Little Rancheria and
Big Creek for approximately 14 miles. This is a good trail and has been mentioned
earlier in this report. The middle trail leaves the highway between Miles 606 and 607,
following a trapper's trail, which was widened and cleared, for 3 miles to McKinnon
Lake and Albert Creek, and then for 3 miles up Albert Creek to the line trail, joining
it about 12 miles east of N-4. This was used for bringing in supplies. The third is
near Mile-post 651 and follows up a tractor-road for half a mile, then across Albert
Creek at its outlet from a lake, known as Albert Lake, and up a small creek-valley for
IV2 miles. It was by this trail the party moved out to the highway on the only wet
move of the season, and that day it rained and snowed and spoiled the year's record.
The boundary may also be reached by the McDame Creek Road, leaving the highway
near Mile-post 648. This crosses the line in 21/2 miles and about 250 feet west of R-3
parallel and Monument 361.
A word of explanation with respect to the monument numbers might be included
here. The monuments are numbered consecutively from the west, starting with the
number 201 at Teslin Lake. The numbers up to 200 for the boundary west of the lake
were run years ago. The consecutive numbering was carried forward by Mr. Stewart
in 1945 up to Swift River, and was carried on by the surveys in 1947 and 1948 up to the
first monument west of R-3, which is numbered 312. But the survey in 1946 was run
west from R-5 over Contact Creek. The monument numbers here commenced at 400
and ran consecutively downward through N-5 and R-4 to the monument at R-3 parallel
which is numbered 361;  hence there is a break in the numbering from 312 to 361. 132*3o'
132oo'
(j)   A/or-£h  3a.se
§    South £?a&e
Afor*/<sc/
La/co. S.
(S)  Weft
Q) //<3^-<s/ ///gr/7
(£) Cczmbr&y
<§) £>r77czrt:
(§) £3r-/'c/c?&
(») 3"0/^<st^
TFLTA.lSrCB'XJLA.TI OUST
®  Bush
Da//
Cornice
Cor/oou.
Pc/ram id
STA-TTOHSrS
®   3~/C2C7
® vS"^ a <g <e
§St & r- / i n Q
3 jo /-? /r-fx
■S/on/n gr^
@  Cam/o
■Strr* &a Ac
&r~/c/gr e
La /<<&/-> ill
/V ^.   ///// REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 143
MISCELLANEOUS.
The highway is beginning to lose the appearance of a new road through wild
country, and if the present rate of progress is maintained, it will not be long before
it will be entirely safe for motorists to travel along it without the necessity of carrying
extra gas. Accommodation such as hotels, camps, and restaurants is increasing, and
there are rumours of more. Contrary to reports heard from the outside that the road
was being let go to wrack and ruin, the maintenance crews are keeping it up and making
improvements at many places.    In the opinion of many it is better now than ever it was.
This year two buses a week, each way, from Dawson Creek to Whitehorse, were run
by the British Yukon Navigation Company, as well as regular freight-trucks. Many
other trucks travel up and down the road, but the number of private cars, though they
were considerable, was not as great as expected.
Several topographical survey parties of the Geographical Section of the General
Staff and also of the Geological Survey of Canada were working in the region and
covered a large area adjoining the boundary in the Yukon and British Columbia, east
of this year's boundary-work. To the west the geodetic survey was carrying along the
triangulation survey, extending it southerly along the highway.
As in former years, the authorities of the Northwest Highway System granted
privileges to the survey, and our thanks are also due to the foreman and others of the
maintenance crew for the assistance and courtesies extended to us throughout the
season. 	
X 144 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
WATER RIGHTS BRANCH.
By R. C. Farrow, M.E.I.C, B.C.L.S., P.Eng., Comptroller.
During the past year the increase in volume of work handled by the Branch which
came with the end of the war has been maintained. This was to be expected, since any
expansion in industry, agriculture, or power-development and increase in population
are immediately reflected in increased demand for 'that most basic natural resource—
water.
The expansion taking place in the Province is reflected in the constantly increasing
amount of work the Branch is putting out. Moreover, the public expects far more
to-day in the way of services and precise information than heretofore. The increased
work is noted in all our activities—more water licences dealt with; increasing inquiries
relative to power, irrigation, and waterworks; a large demand for our power reports;
increasing demands on the Government for water-resource surveys of one sort and
another; a greater and wider interest in our water-supply forecasts based on snow
surveys, which last year enabled us to put out the only public flood-hazard warning
which was issued well in advance of the floods. The floods superimposed an enormous
amount of extra work on the Branch, particularly on the engineering staff and district
offices. Much of the work of handling damage claims came through this office, which
also set up and handled their filing. The work of the engineers included actual flood-
fighting, reconstruction, and examinations and reports on damage all over the Province.
WATER LICENCES AND APPLICATIONS.
Dealing with these is a statutory requirement, and each application and licence
involves many hours of work for both the clerical staff and the district offices. The
backlog of final licence surveys which built up during the war years was again whittled
down for the second successive year; 543 final licences were completed, as compared
with 343 in 1947; 219 licences were cancelled, abandoned, or lapsed, which leaves some
11,000 on our registers, of which some 8,000 require the sending-out of annual rental
statements; 1,158 licences were issued during the year, this being an increase of over
50 per cent, since 1946; a breakdown of applications and licences handled during 1948
is as follows:—
New applications received      580
Applications pending   202
Final licences pending  350
      552
Licences issued—
Conditional   615
Final  543
  1,158
Licences cancelled, abandoned, or lapsed      219
In addition, on account of the increased activity in land transfers and subdivisions,
435 existing licences were dealt with for extension of time, changes of appurtenancy,
apportionment, change of works, etc.
The volume of work handled by the clerical staff generally has now increased by
over 50 per cent, since 1939 with no increase in the staff, which means that they have
been working under increasing pressure and, on a number of occasions, have had to
resort to overtime work; only their loyalty and conscientiousness have enabled them to
keep abreast. For this reason, two additional clerks are being asked for in next year's
estimates. REPORT OF COMPTROLLER OF WATER RIGHTS.
X 145
r
o
z
<
cr
op
h
r
cr
n
u
ul
H
fl
LI
or
2
Q
Z
<
oi
0
z
<
J
h
<b
r"
u
o
N
Z
<
cr
o
z
u
Z
UJ
Q
QJ
It]
J
J
0
D£
K"
a
I
o
0
o    u
at
;««    z
ui
iii    =
ul
Z
u S <     z
£   Z V  Id ,K
0
13   0   0   U h
Z
z z z z   '
Ul
u iu u - z
0  0   19   Z  „
j >- 2 w £
J
3
31   1-   ,,   III
<
<       °  n Z
a   z
1   /   U   U  ;
a   o
0 u> 1  k  ?
£ I
r<Ioy
iii
u.   a
»   6
I
5 <
0
i
oi z
i
H  I
u
I   I)
111
1-
1
0 ,uj
< w
«■ z
t
a ui
ID 1
fir
8> I
hJ       0
fi   3
ID
n   <
It
%  <*■
III
7
|°
Si
Z    £
i.
< J
I 1
15
z
II)   <
Z
?
h
p       z
a
I
0
<
I           li)
0           I
a z     t
ui
0
z
1
a
z
0
u 0      0
1l
y
<         2
1)
<
I
2         a
J
0
g       0
ui
19
5
HI
C
¥
0
a.
Ui
j
0
oi
0) o
3 z
It
u
r
U
o^o
a
u
ui
\l
5 5-
r'JJ
o 2.
5"v-'
i
li
u
w<fi
5*
to
D!
U
Z  1
ID   0
K
kJ
111 .
z 0
5 z
Itl If)
I-   ¥
" a
Q uj
r"
I)
m
<
o
h
ifl
i
ui
u    .
z  o
o z
Z   "
■H-J)
Q  IT
ui
ted
<
a
ui
y
z
0
Z
UJ
Ul
0
L
It
*Q
y   '
y  a)
gin
"J
li, Ul
£0.
Hh
jjvj-S    sa3AMvnbcvjH    viyoJ-oi/\
jjvj-s    easujo
XOI fci-LSIQ X 146 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS AND WATER-USERS' COMMUNITIES.
These are organized to enable water-users to combine and pool their resources.
Improvement districts take care of large communities and are operated by elected
trustees who have wide powers, including those of taxation, tax sale, and borrowing.
Water-users' communities are designed to take care of small groups of six or more
licensees, and their powers are relatively limited.
Three water-users' communities were incorporated in 1948 and 2 were dissolved,
making a total of 40 now operating; 14 improvement districts were incorporated during
the year, the letters patent of 11 others were amended, and 2 were dissolved, so that
there are now 111 districts in the Province.
The Water Rights Branch bears a somewhat similar relationship to the districts
and communities as the Department of Municipal Affairs does to the municipalities.
This involves considerable legal, clerical, and, in the case of debtor districts, engineering
work. Their organization, including the drawing-up of letters patent, is handled by
the Branch; their by-laws are registered by the Comptroller, and are of no legal effect
until they are. In many cases the by-laws themselves are drawn up by Branch officials,
as many of the districts are run by part-time officials they require a lot of detailed
guidance.
It is interesting to note that we now have more districts than municipalities, including villages, in the Province, which indicates the work involved.
DRAUGHTING AND MAPPING.
The report of the chief draughtsman for 1948 also reflects the increased volume of
work being handled, as follows:—
Water applications cleared and entered      580
Plats-
Conditional licence plats drawn      615
Final licence plats drawn      543
  1,158
Improvement district maps compiled        12
Water rights maps—
Drawn        26
Revised         24
        50
Licence clearances handled—
Changes of ownership  161
Cancellations   176
Extensions of time — 248
585
Land clearances—
Purchases, leases, cancellations, and reversions  3,912
Crown grants   2,398
6,310
In addition, considerable general mapping and compiling was carried out: 31
reference maps and 126 water rights maps were brought up to date and supplied to the
Kamloops office for setting up the Quesnel sub-office; 46 plans showing improvement
districts were prepared for the Kamloops Land Registry Office.
IRRIGATION AND IRRIGABLE LANDS.
Co-operation between the Provincial and Dominion Governments whereby the
Prairie  Farms  Rehabilitation  Administration  will  operate  within  the  Province  in REPORT OF COMPTROLLER OF WATER RIGHTS. X 147
developing reclamation and irrigation projects is now taking definite form, as foreshadowed in last year's Report.
In order to speed up this work by assembling and analysing all available data from
various sources and determining what further surveys are required, a co-ordinating
committee has been set up, consisting of representatives of the British Columbia Government, the Prairie Farms Rehabilitation Administration, the Dominion Farms
Experimental Service, and for projects in which they are interested, the Veterans' Land
Act. The writer is the Provincial representative and chairman of the committee. It
is planned to iron out all details so that when each project is presented to the respective
Governments there will be a maximum of assurance that they will be approved without
delay.
Two irrigation projects are under study at the moment — Cawston bench near
Keremeos and Nisconlith near Chase, while the Westbank project opposite Kelowna is
partly under construction. Several other potential projects are under study by engineers of this Branch preliminary to their going before the co-ordinating committee,
while the Pemberton Meadows reclamation and drainage scheme is proceeding as
planned.
CONSERVATION FUND.
The findings of Dean Clement's Report have been adopted by the Government and
apparently accepted by the debtor districts, and token payments on a generally reduced
scale are now being made.
REVENUES AND EXPENDITURES.
Revenues have risen from $42,002.06 in 1911 to $427,342.57 in 1948, while expenditures in the respective years were $38,023.44 and $167,154.17.
Revenues and expenditures for the fiscal years of the past decade are as follows:—
Fiscal  year  ending  Revenue. Expenditures.
1939  $310,451.12 $109,098.40
1940  324,210.04 105,236.66
1941 •  338,017.72 89,646.53
1942  341,535.46 84,462.94
1943  355,765.68 74,815.42
1944  363,901.98 77,475.36
1945  382,297.16 80,531.78
1946 ,  406,056.03 82,434.78
1947  441,165.99 122,688.53
1948  427,342.57 167,154.17
Average last ten years  369,074.38 99,354.46
Plate 2 shows graphically revenues and expenditures to date.
The bulk of the Branch revenue comes from water-power rentals; the distribution
of revenue from various sources is approximately as follows:— Percent.
Power   90
Irrigation    3
Industrial       2%
Mining (hydraulicking)      1
Miscellaneous, including domestic and waterworks     3% X 148
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
5
ctj
a
g
5
li
a
0!
0
IL
ILI
X.
a
5".S
a
>< in
< a
5*
z.
o
X.
(0
{
a
i
<0
j    I    I    I    I    |    I    1    !    I    |    I    I    I    I    |    I    I    I    I    |    I    I    I    I    |    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    M    |    I    I    I    1    |    I    I
I  I  I  I  I  I  I
in
0
"  in
1
£i£'ti
iU
L
3
fv iU
h
o —
§■-3
#__
o ^
3 r
"\   i
0.
i fl
t) lO
U  (T*
o -
in
o
It:
ON If)
<
u
intf
E
^
?<
mil
I    I    I    I    1    |    I    I    I    1    I    I     |    I    I    I    |
I    I    I    l    1    I    I    l    I    I    I    I    I    I    l    I   1i   I    I     I    I   ?}
o
0
o
0
o
0
o
0
o
0
m
?
#
0
o
0
o'
o
(U
y
r
11    {
< a REPORT OF COMPTROLLER OF WATER RIGHTS. X 149
TECHNICAL SERVICES.
Hydrometric Surveys.
The measurement of stream-flow, the rise and fall of lakes, ground-water, and
associated studies are carried out by the Dominion Water and Power Bureau of the
Department of Mines and Resources as part of a Dominion-wide service, to which we
make an annual financial contribution in return for which the Bureau is carrying out
on an ever-increasing scale all work of this nature required by the Branch. The
disastrous floods of 1948 disclosed many gaps in the network of stream-gauging
stations which the Bureau in consultation with this Branch is planning to fill.
Snow Surveys.
Three more snowcourses were laid out in 1948, completing a three-year expansion
programme of thickening up the coverage. Two of the courses will enable forecasts
to be made of the run-off of the Similkameen River. We now have fifty-three courses,
which, together with a number of United States courses, are used for forecasting
April-July or April-August run-off of the Columbia River and a number of its principal tributaries, as well as a number of Coastal streams. Snow-survey bulletins were
issued as usual as of February 1st, March 1st, April 1st, and May 1st, the main forecast bulletin being as of April 1st.    They are in constantly increasing demand.
Snow surveys are not designed particularly for flood forecasting, but last year,
with our specialized knowledge of snow conditions and their relationship to run-off,
a combination of conditions so clearly indicated a flood hazard that we issued a preliminary warning in the April 1st forecast and a more urgent one in that of May 1st,
which read as follows:—
" Flood Hazard.
" The flood potential reported as on April 1st has, however, been accentuated owing
to the lateness of the spring, and lack of any thawing to date of the snow at higher
elevations. This flood potential exists on most streams in the Province and must be
emphasized with respect to the Kootenay, Columbia, Thompson, and Fraser Rivers,
and their tributaries, as well as on coastal streams. Protracted warm weather or
warm rains could produce a flood hazard very quickly. Flood-prevention agencies
should therefore be on the alert."
This was given wide press publicity and undoubtedly alerted many local authorities. It is of interest to note that we were the only organization to forecast the
flood hazard.
In order to watch for a developing flood potential, snow sampling will in future be
carried out at a number of key points on May 15th and June 1st in addition to the
regular samplings.
Snow surveys, which correlate snow-water content with ensuing run-off, are still
a young offspring of hydrology and demand continued research in order to isolate
discordant factors and -improve forecasting technique. The writer and those of his
staff engaged on this work have given considerable time to such research with gratifying results.
WATER-RESOURCES SURVEYS.
These are designed to determine how the waters of the Province can be most
advantageously controlled and used for the development of power, irrigation, waterworks, and flood-control.
The importance of the systematic and co-ordinated control and development of our
water resources has been emphasized, if that were necessary, by formation of a joint
board to study and report on the development of the Fraser River and its tributaries, t>
**& m 	
K<"»5=rs P^S£  nbe-iKt-T'KS
frot1t SrcoW" CPHrse j^i" "-
Ml   J
ta^' T^r-L A -g ._rj <¥   ayp<3.r~s^0Lar\ 5
S:S;-:*"Sia™:,-::;S-?:*f
■::S.:::;i::¥:fi;:v:.ls::vi:,S:S;;:;i;::i:;
' -IK-.-:::-'
I ■&&&&$*■.. S^'
TRANSPORT ^OR °MPv
8»
 H
:*£»■::;;..
.CfOSS^rja       =*.    Cloa^C  T^\Jv4_C.\g
'   k
J-nzj
or""t--     oT    teipsrt.»,»le    p©WC, X 152
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
known as the " Dominion-Provincial Board, Fraser River Basin." It consists of ten
members, five each from the Dominion and Provincial services. The writer is a
member of the Board, as well as its secretary.
The Water Rights Branch has on file a large amount of data and numerous reports
which are available to the new Board, and will be carrying out further surveys and
investigations for them.
Power Surveys.
For many years power surveys were the chief concern of our water-resources
surveys, and some 183 sites have been reported on to date, varying in size from a few
thousand horse-power to over a million, and totalling in the aggregate over 4,000,000
potential horse-power. These resources have been publicized through the Press and
Government literature, and the power reports put out by engineers of the Branch are
widely known and recognized as authoritative.
We are in the fortunate position of having within our boundaries a number of
huge power possibilities which have no equal in Canada or the United States, and the
far-sighted policy of investigating and reporting on our power-sites is now bearing
fruit. They are attracting the attention of large potential industrial users from
Eastern Canada, as well as fi*om the power-hungry United States.
Hagwilget Canyon, Bulkley River, below power-site.
Of the power-sites reported on, an aggregate of 770,000 horse-power is now under
licence—some partly developed, others in course of development.
Our undeveloped power is estimated to be about 11,000,000 horse-power, which
represents a minimum, since this could be vastly increased by storage and by concentrations of head.
Our developed horse-power has now passed the million mark; its distribution by
principal uses are tabulated below:—
Installed Capacity.
Horse-power.
Central electric stations  538,817
Mineral and metallurgical industries  330,329
Pulp and paper  132,280
Miscellaneous industries  3,956
Total  1,005,382
The expansion in power-development noted in last year's Report has continued.
The British Columbia Power Commission brought in the second 28,000-horsepower unit
of their Campbell River development, while the British Columbia Electric Company
ushered in a new epoch when the first 62,000-horsepower unit of their Bridge River
development came into operation. Geographic Branch  b. c.
PLATE  3. BULKLEY RIVER
POWER SECTION
PLATE 4 REPORT OF COMPTROLLER OF WATER RIGHTS. X 153
Power   installations   completed   in   1948   and   under   construction   are  tabulated
below:—
Completed in 194-8.
Horse-power.
British Columbia Power Commission—Vancouver Island     28,000
British Columbia Electric Company—Bridge River     62,000
Small miscellaneous        2,745
Total j     92,745
Hagwilget Canyon, Bulkley River.     Old Indian bridge and first highway bridge.
Under Construction.
British Columbia Power Commission— Horse-power.
Vancouver Island   112,000
Whatshan Lake     33,000
British Columbia Electric Company—Bridge River  124,000
Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company—Brilliant     37,000
City of Nelson—Bonnington       6,750
Total  312,750
During 1948 engineers of the Branch continued the Fraser River power surveys at
the Prince George and Cottonwood Canyon sites; these were carried out on a more
ambitious scale than usual, the additional expense being met by the new Dominion-
Provincial Board.
Surveys were also carried out to determine how the waters of Goat River, which
joins the Kootenay at Creston, could be used for both power and irrigation. B.C.  POWER COMMISSION,  CAMPBELL RIVER.
■Ua,..    I  I
Diversion-dam above Elk Falls.
First section of power-house for two 28,000-horsepower units. -—-
REPORT OF COMPTROLLER OF WATER RIGHTS.
X 155
Irrigation Surveys.
Extensive surveys were carried out to determine the feasibility of irrigating the
Camp Lister area, south of Creston, from the Goat River, and whether this use could
be combined with further power-development.
A survey was also made to determine whether additional land could be brought
under irrigation in the Okanagan Falls area.
Waterworks Surveys.
Further work was done in connection with a waterworks scheme for the Village
of Tofino, V.I., and a reconnaissance was made for domestic water possibilities in the
McBride area.
B.C.  ELECTRIC CO.,   BRIDGE  RIVER.
Power plant from hillside;   erection of No. 1 penstock in progress.
I
Flood-work.
The 1948 floods threw a tremendous burden of additional work on to our engineering staff. The Comptroller and two engineers went to the Fraser Valley as soon as the
flood menace became grave, and two engineers remained there for two months on
flood-work. The Goat River engineering party went on to flood-fighting work as soon
as the Kootenay flats were endangered, and then after completing their Goat River
surveys the engineer-in-charge took over direction of dyke-reconstruction work, under
the general supervision of the Chief Engineer.
All these engineers received high praise from both the flood-fighting and military
authorities for the tireless zeal and technical capacity with which they carried out
their difficult and onerous work. B.C.   ELECTRIC CO.,   BRIDGE  RIVER.
Interior of power-house, No. 1 turbine being erected. REPORT OF COMPTROLLER OF WATER RIGHTS. X 157
The district offices also were inundated with extra work, and in all some 150
engineering examinations and reports were made in connection with flood-damage
claims and appeals for river clearance and protection.
The fact that nearly 90 per cent, of the engineering-work planned was carried out
despite the great extra load of flood-work reflects great credit on the engineers who
worked long hours tirelessly all summer.
TECHNICAL DRAUGHTING SECTION.
Plans completed for the following: Grandview Flats irrigation project, Ucluelet
waterworks project, Mission Creek power project, Stellako River power project, What-
shan Lake power project, Sooke Lake (Greater Victoria Water Board), and Fraser
River preliminary report.
Power reports revised as to hydrometric data: Tahtsa-Kemano project, Eutsuk-
Kimsquit project, Chilko-Homathko project,, Nechako-River at Isle Pierre (75,per cent,
complete), Babine-Stuart River (75 per cent, complete), Ash River (50 per cent,
complete).
Hydrographs and other plans for Fraser River Board.
Three snow-survey plats.
INSPECTION OF DAMS AND DAM-SITES.
The floods called for a great deal of extra inspection of dams to check on any weaknesses which might have developed under the strain of the phenomenal high water, as
well as to inspect those which had been damaged or had failed.
Considering the number of dams involved, there were fortunately few complete
failures, while a few more suffered some damage.
A costly failure was that of the spillway at Haddo dam, belonging to the Vernon
Irrigation District, but owing to prompt action the dam was saved and no damage to
private property resulted. The most serious failure was that of Devick Lake dam of
the Heffley Creek Irrigation District, which practically wiped out two farms, drowned
a man, and took out the Thompson River highway and the main line of the Canadian
National Railway.
The policy of inspecting earth dam-sites and testing foundation and proposed fill
material before approving plans, using the facilities of the soil mechanics laboratory
of the British Columbia Research Council, was continued. /
r-/
L
Fraser Valley floods, 1 948—aerial vi„    ,    , ■ '^ ^ ** Survey Division-»
^-SssstJr M*"qui *~"d "■-■ REPORT OF COAL, PETROLEUM, AND NATURAL GAS CONTROL.     X 159
GOAL, PETROLEUM, AND NATURAL GAS CONTROL.
By Thomas B. Williams, M.Sc, Ph.D., P.Eng., Controller.
PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS.
Introduction.
The year 1948 saw valuable progress made in the petroleum investigation of British
Columbia.
An Assistant Controller was secured, and contacts were made with the industry in
Alberta and with the general industry at a meeting of geologists in the United States.
Drilling activity within the Province was greater than during the preceding year.
Personnel.
During the year J. D. Lineham, who was born and grew up in the environment of
the petroleum industry of Alberta and who has worked in various phases of that industry both in Alberta and Trinidad, was secured as Assistant Controller. Mr. Lineham
graduated in January of 1948 with the degree of Batchelor of Science in petroleum
engineering from the University of Oklahoma.
General Activities.
The Controller visited the offices of the Alberta Conservation Board in Calgary and
discussed general policy with officials there. He also attended the annual meeting of
the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, the largest organization of its kind
in the world, in Denver, Colo. There many contacts were made and many others
renewed. Late in the year the Controller and the Assistant Controller visited the
Flathead petroleum area in the south-east corner of British Columbia and made a brief
visit to the Peace River area.
Operations.
Twenty parcels of land were held at the close of the year under permit or lease,
comprising a total acreage of 2,099,682 acres.
The areas covered are situated in North-western British Columbia, the Peace River
area, the Cariboo area, Flathead district, and the Lower Fraser Valley.
Actual drilling operations were conducted by four independent companies, namely:
The Peace River Natural Gas Company and Associates, Canadian Kootenay Oil Company, Border Oil Company, Royal City Oil and Gas Company.
In the Peace River area, geological test drilling was carried on at seven different
locations. These disclosed a small quantity of gas at locations near to a promising
gasfield on the Alberta side of the Interprovincial Boundary.
In the Flathead area, development has been by means of small drilling rigs, and
the operations have been slow and considerably interrupted. A new permit was taken
up there during the year and a second permit was staked, but the application was never
completed. On the Lower Mainland, the Royal City Oil and Gas Company acquired
some privately owned holdings and started a gas-well on Lulu Island. This operation
has not been completed.
The gas investigation in Alberta has brought the resources of British Columbia
into some prominence. The Peace River Gas Company has undertaken to lay out on
paper a projected gas-line from the vicinity of Pouce Coupe to the City of Vancouver.
Plans.
The Controller, the Assistant Controller, and the chief chemist are available for
inspections during 1949.    Field inspections will be more frequent than in the past. ..
	
X 160
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
With the increased activity will come much more field-work for the staff and the
examination of drill samples. A laboratory for this work will have to be set up, and
it is possible that an assistant geologist will have to be retained for the purpose of
preparing and examining samples. Present laboratory space will be entirely inadequate to meet the expected situation. The present laboratory is housed in a mess-house
loaned from year to year to the Control by the Department of Defence. Permanent
quarters for this important work are urgently needed owing to the insecurity of our
tenure and owing to the fact that the cost of installing and later dismantling and
moving a laboratory is high.
COAL.
Introduction.
The general results attained by the Coal Control during 1948 may be said to have
been:—
(1) The continuation of the routine administrative work of past years.
(2) The establishment of better contacts with the coal industry in general in
both the industrial and the scientific spheres.
(3) The rounding-out of work begun in 1946 and 1947 in the field and in the
laboratory.
It is believed that the general good of the British Columbia coal industry will be
best attained by interesting as many people as possible in our very excellent coal
deposits and by securing general co-operation in their development.
Field-work by two parties continued both south and north of Pine River from the
points where work ceased in 1947 and has added detail to the information which we
had obtained by then.
Certain members of the Legislature, coal research scientists from Ottawa and
Edmonton, the chairman of the British Columbia Research Council, representatives
from the railways and from the mining industry have visited our coal laboratory. Our
sphere of usefulness has widened, inasmuch as we now are doing all the coal analyses
sent to the Government laboratories here. In addition, analyses of the coal samples
taken by our field engineers are being turned our regularly. We send copies of some
of our results to other laboratories and receive copies of their results.
Personnel.
Gordon L. Kidd, mining engineer and mining geologist, who began work with the
Control in 1946, was again in charge of Party No. 1. A. L. Johnston, who came with
the Control in 1947, continued until midsummer. Kenneth North, an Englishman
recently graduated from Oxford and now on the staff of the University of British
Columbia, did acceptable work for the Control, first as assistant chief and, after Mr.
Johnston's retirement, as chief of Party No. 2. Meantime Niel D. McKechnie, a geological engineer, having graduated first from Queens University and later from the
University of British Columbia, joined the staff as Assistant Coal Controller. When it
was necessary for Mr. North to leave the field, Mr. McKechnie took over the operations
of Party No. 2. In the laboratory, Edgar Stansfield is still retained as consultant.
K. C. Gilbart is chief chemist in charge of the laboratory. Maurice B. Powley, who
graduated in the spring from the University of British Columbia as a chemical engineer,
joined the staff as assistant chemist. Dr. C. A. Robb, head of the Department of
Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, represented the Control on the locomotive
tests conducted on 30 tons of Hasler coal by the Canadian National Railways.
The Crow's Nest Pass Coal Company kindly supplied a fireboss and two miners for
the securing of a 30-ton sample of coal for locomotive testing. REPORT OF COAL, PETROLEUM, AND NATURAL GAS CONTROL.     X 161
As was the case during 1947, a number of students in mining and geology from
the University of British Columbia and from the University of Alberta were given
employment in the field.    Thus we are training future coal-men.
General Activities.
The Controller and K. C. Gilbart attended the Resources Conference, arranged
through the good offices of the Deputy Minister on February 11th, and presented a brief
statement of the function and activities of the Control. The Controller attended the
annual meeting of the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy held in April in
Vancouver and met mining-men from throughout the country-
In early December our Deputy Minister, the Deputy Minister of Mines, the
Inspector of Railways, and the Controller attended the inaugural annual meeting of
representatives of the Federal Geological Survey and the Department of Mines and of
the representatives of the various coal-producing Provinces. Later a meeting of the
representatives of the coal interests of all the Provinces was held. This meeting was
called by W. E. Uren, chairman of the Dominion Coal Board, and met in Ottawa.
Following these meetings, the Coal Controller did some preliminary work among the
coal interests of Toronto, particularly with the Ontario Fuel Dealers' Association, in
an effort to discover the attitude of Eastern markets toward Western coals and particularly those coals of higher rank.
Operations.
General coal routine in the Province resembled that of previous years. Enquiries
were received concerning Crow's Nest Pass properties.
The Peace River mining operations were retarded by the poor condition of the
roads.    Some activity occurred in the Princeton area.
A late spring delayed the commencement of field operations tributary to the John
Hart Highway, and high water added to our difficulties, particularly with reference to
Party No. 1, which is operating largely in muskeg country. It was found necessary to
install a 1-ton ferry in order that this party could cross Pine River. Operations took
place in the Falls Mountain area, in what is known as the Willow Creek field, and in the
area north of Pine River, to the west of the operations of 1947. Nineteen and a half
holes were drilled, for a total of 11,489 feet.
Again, as in previous years, trenching has shown locations where strip mining may
be economically done.
Field operations closed in the early part of December. The estimate of probable
coal in seams having a thickness of 4 feet or over still stands at 190,000,000 tons.
Laboratory.
Our laboratory now analyses all coal samples sent to the Government from various
parts of the Province. Our own field samples are analysed as they arrive. Ash-fusion
tests, which are of importance concerning clinkering of coal, are now being made, as are
also tests of capacity moisture of coal. Preparations are under way to make smoke
tests.
Shatter tests on coal were made for the Control by the mines laboratory in Ottawa,
and the Canadian National Railways ran three locomotive tests on coal from Hasler
mine on its line between Erie and Toronto, Ont.
The reports on the railway tests are to the effect that the coal is a high-grade,
short-flame bituminous coal, to which, however, the eastern locomotives are poorly
adapted.
Both the Federal mines laboratory and that of the Canadian National Railways
made proximate analyses on Hasler coal, which check well with our own. Coal Petroleum, and Natural Gas.
■■■■■■■MBMMMBI
Canadian Kootenay Oils, Flathead area.
Prospect in No. 7 trench, Willow Creek field, Falls Mountain area. REPORT OF COAL, PETROLEUM, AND NATURAL GAS CONTROL.     X 163
As a result of all this information, preparations are now under way to mine 125
tons of coal which will provide material for another railway test and for tests in boilers
having more suitable types of fire-boxes.
We are preparing to secure coal for tests in a new pulverized fuel jet locomotive
now being developed in the United States. It is considered that the purity, high thermo
value, and grindability of Pine River coal will make it rank high among all available
coals for this type of work.
As a result of recent information, it is' considered desirable to investigate the
suitability of one of the Pine River coals for the manufacture of carbon electrodes.
Such electrodes are much used in the metallurgical industry. They require a very
pure carbon.
In order, in the field, to distinguish one seam of coal from another, laboratory tests
are being undertaken, such as spectrographic examination of coal-ash, performed under
the supervision of Dr. H. Warren, of the University of British Columbia. Preliminary
results show some promise in this respect. Prof. Frank Forward, also of the University,
is at present testing certain other samples which we have sent to him.
The ash-fusion tests show a difference in the ashes from different seams. This
may be diagnostic. The Controller, some years ago, secured some promising results
from etched polished surfaces, and it is planned to continue this work as soon as there
is opportunity for doing so. Certain scientists have suggested additional tests, and we
are now in the act of preparing material to send to them.
Results from analyses made to date show that Pine River coal ranges in quality
from the almost smokeless low volatile variety desirable for domestic use, through
medium volatile coal, the most useful variety for power purposes, to high volatile
bituminous coal suitable for making the best coke.
Plans.
During 1949 it is intended that N. D. McKechnie will take charge of two field parties
in the Pine River Area, and the work which has been conducted thus far will be energetically continued. It is probable that some brief visits may be made to other
promising coal areas. X 164
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
DYKING AND DRAINAGE.
By Bruce Dixon, B.Sc, M.E.I.C, P.Eng., Inspector of Dykes,
Commissioner.
The year 1948 has taken its place in Fraser Valley history alongside that of the
year 1894. Numerologists may have an answer, but anyhow the vagaries of the Fraser
River established another epoch.
The climatic year commencing with October, 1947, according to statistics of the
Dominion Water and Power Bureau, was most peculiar. Run-off for the first four
months—that is, October, November, December, and January—was above normal at
Hope for the thirty-six years of record, but commencing with February run-off lagged.
For the months of February, March, and April run-off was 91 per cent., 87 per cent.,
and 61 per cent, of normal respectively. For May it jumped to 142 per cent, and for
June 159 per cent.
Reports of snow surveys made available by the Comptroller of Water Rights as at
February 1st were not alarming. The North Thompson Basin, for instance, showed
" a snow-cover whose water content is slightly above a five-year normal but still only
80 per cent, of last year's measurement." Ground-waters were somewhat high, but,
under the snow, were unfrozen in many places, which usually indicates an early exit.
Water-storage reservoirs in the vicinity of Vancouver at the date above mentioned were
filled to 76 per cent, of capacity, but receded to 61 per cent, on March 1st and 39 per
cent, on May 1st.
Precipitation from February 1st onward continued above normal, with unseasonal
weather conditions, so that much of the precipitation remained to increase the snow-
cover and the water content.
The combination of far above normal precipitation and far below normal run-off
brought about flood conditions at the end' of May and early June such as had only been
encountered once before in the memory of man. Contributing also was the fact that
the Thompson River, the main Fraser and tributaries fed by the Coast Range were all
in flood at the same time. The water-level in the Pitt River was actually 0.1 foot
higher than the record of the year 1894, while the official Dominion Water and Power
Bureau gauge at Mission recorded it as 1.07 feet lower than the year 1894.
So far as this report is concerned, the freshet height is important, but of considerable more importance is the time of duration. In the year 1894, although official
records are lacking, diaries of old-timers indicate that both the rise and the fall were
rapid. The peak for that year occurred on June 5th, and by June 11th it had dropped
3 feet or to the equivalent of 22.8 feet on the Mission gauge. In the freshet of 1948
the level remained above 24 feet on the Mission gauge for seventeen days, and above
20 feet—always regarded as the danger-point—for thirty-three days. The level
remained above normal throughout the summer, and on August 31st obtained an all-
time high of 14.69 feet for the time of year.
When it became obvious that high water might be encountered, organization within
the ability of each district for patrol and emergency work was speeded up. When the
task became too great for their resources, thanks to a benevolent Government and a
generous public, expanded organization kept pace. On May 25th a meeting of Army,
Air Force, and Naval officers with Government engineers and dyking authorities was
held to discuss military aid to civil powers, at which time the river registered 18.82
feet at Mission. By Sunday the river had risen a further 5 feet, and a general committee under the Red Cross banner and the chairmanship of Roland Gilley was set up as
the co-ordinating unit for all material and personnel. By midnight of May 31st the
Government of the Province declared a state of emergency and placed the Army in
control.    Both the Active Army and the Reserves were deployed.    The stand-down was REPORT OF DYKING AND DRAINAGE. X 165
a thinning-out process and occurred about June 15th, but many Reservists were away
from their jobs for thirty days, and their contribution, measured in terms of their
sacrifice, was immense.
We would like here to add our thanks to that already expressed by the Premier
and others of his Cabinet to the Army in all its ramifications, to the Navy, to the Air
Force, to the hosts of volunteers, both resident and non-resident, who served without
thought of rest or reward, and to the general public who reacted so generously to the
Red Cross appeal for funds. We would also like to take advantage of this opportunity
to refer to the helpful co-operation of all departments of Government and municipalities, and to thank especially the engineers of the Department of Public Works—Evan S.
Jones and J. L. MacDonald in particular—and R. C. Farrow, Jack Kendrick, and Duart
MacLean, of the Water Rights Branch, Department of Lands and Forests, for their
untiring efforts, so magnanimously contributed.
With the abnormally high freshet height and the long period of duration, the
earthen dyke embankments and their foundations began to show signs of saturation,
and many failures were encountered. Each of these is referred to later, but for the
record we would like to follow through with the matter of organization from a chronological point of view. Early in the first week of June an important Commission, composed of Maj.-Gen. B. M. Hoffmeister and the Honourable Eric W. Hamber, was
appointed to study the situation for both Federal and Provincial Governments. They
viewed the situation generally as coming within three categories—(a) emergency,
(b) relief, and (c) rehabilitation—and on June 17th made certain recommendations
to the Governments. Thereupon the Minister of Agriculture took on the responsibility
of feed for live stock, the Minister of Municipal Affairs that of restoring buildings to
their former condition, the Minister of Health all matters pertaining to general health
in flooded areas, and the Minister of Lands and Forests the direction of operations in
connection with removing water from inundated lands, removing debris, and the
complete reconstruction of dyking systems.
All through the terrible time the Premier seemed ever present. In the middle of
the night he would appear out of the rain on a piece of threatened dyke at Matsqui
and an hour after at Chilliwack or Sumas and perhaps later on the Pitt River, then
almost as if by magic he would telephone from Ottawa. Perhaps it was because of his
first-hand knowledge and his sincerity of purpose that he was successful in negotiating
with the Federal Government an agreement, the result of which will affect the economy
of the Fraser Valley for a generation. This was initiated on or about June 10th, but
legal authority was required before the Province could enter, and a special session of
the Legislature was assembled on July 7th. On July 8th five Bills were passed third
reading, and two of these bore directly upon this agreement. The " Flood Relief Act"
authorized the Lieutenant-Governor in Council to render aid in the mitigation of damage caused by flood and to enter into any agreement with the Government of the
Dominion with respect to provision for payment of a portion of the cost incurred on
or after May 15th, 1948. It also provided for financing and for the establishment of
such Boards as may be thought necessary, naming in particular the " Fraser Valley
Rehabilitation Authority," to consist of William Lyle Macken and Lieut.-Col. D'Arcy
James Baldwin, M.B.E. May we be permitted here to say that this Authority has done
and is doing a very wonderful job in very trying circumstances.
The other Bill—namely, the " Fraser Valley Dyking Board Act "—authorized the
payment of 25 per cent, of the total cost incurred by the Fraser Valley Dyking Board
constituted pursuant to the agreement above referred to and made certain provisions
to ensure the carrying-out of the agreement. The agreement is dated July 22nd, 1948,
to take effect when ratified by the Governor-General in Council and by the Lieutenant-
Governor in Council. Ratification was completed on July 27th and August 5th
respectively. X 166
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
The Fraser Valley Dyking Board consists of a chairman and two members. The
chairman, J. B. Carswell, O.B.E., C.E., was appointed by the Governor-General in
Council, with the concurrence of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, and assumed
control on July 19th. Of the members, one is appointed by each Government. F. G.
Goodspeed, C.E., Assistant Chief Engineer of the Public Works Department at Ottawa,
was the first Federal member. He arrived here on June 27th and worked long hours,
every day of the week regardless, until August 25th, when Victor Michie, C.E., took
his place. The Provincial Government did the writer the honour to ask him to act as
their representative.
This report, coming as it does from the Inspector of Dykes, Dyking Commissioner,
cannot logically deal with districts whose affairs have nothing to do with that official,
and, therefore, any further remarks will be confined to those districts. Liberties will
be taken with information in his possession as a member of the Fraser Valley Dyking
Board which should properly come from the chairman of that Board, but its use will be
restricted to generalities.
THE  1948 FRESHET IN RETROSPECT.
1. Coquitlam Dyking District, Maple Ridge Dyking District, Pitt Meadows No. 1
Dyking District, and Pitt Meadows No. 2 Dyking District.
These districts were once flood-plains of the Pitt River. The dykes are of clay,
constructed from a large borrow-pit or ditch on the inside by means of a floating
dipper-dredge some fifty years ago. The dykes total 38.09 miles in length and average
some 9 feet in height. Previous to this year's freshet, as is always the custom, some
700 muskrat holes or houses were dug from these dykes bordering the borrow-pits.
With the high sustained freshet, weaknesses developed, chiefly because of the borrow-
pits, in the nature of slips or slides. A crack along the dyke on the inside edge would
develop, and a longitudinal section would tend to settle into the borrow-pit. The dykes
were too narrow on top to admit vehicles, and emergency work was awkward and
expensive. A tremendous effort was expended by municipal authorities, ably assisted
by residents and neighbours from towns and villages near by, as well as the Army
and Navy. Duart MacLean, assistant hydraulic engineer, Water Branch, was placed
in charge throughout the emergency. He did a good job, and to him our thanks
are tendered. Success crowned their efforts, except in the case of Pitt Meadows No. 1
Dyking District where a breach about 65 feet wide was suffered. The break is
attributed to the operations of a pair of bank beaver whose presence had not been
detected before the freshet.    Damage was slight, as the area was not populated.
Considerable damage resulted from seepage water in all districts, as it became
necessary to minimize pump operations to provide a better balance between the outside
and inside water-levels, for, as stated elsewhere, the water-level in the Pitt River was
the highest in history.
The Fraser Valley Dyking Board has at this time (January 25th) eleven drag-line
excavating-machines of three-quarter cubic-yard capacity, or greater, each working two
shifts per day in widening these dykes io adapt them to a 12-foot wide all-weather
gravelled roadway. Borrow-pits will be filled by suction dredge, and it is hoped that
all except the latter operation will have been completed before the next freshet.
Additional pumping equipment is planned for the Coquitlam and Pitt Meadows No. 2
Districts.
2. Matsqui Dyking District.
This district, about 10,000 acres, was a flood-plain of the Fraser River. Several
attempts had been made to reclaim it by dyking, and three dykes were in fact built
before the present dyke was constructed in 1898.    Four failures had occurred to the REPORT OF DYKING AND DRAINAGE. X 167
previous dyke in 1896, and the present dyke was constructed to a somewhat larger
section and differing from previous dykes in that the material to build it was taken
from a borrow-pit on the outside of the dyke. This borrow-pit varied in depth, for
the dyke was built for the most part by a floating dipper-dredge, and it not only had to
excavate enough material with which to build the dyke but, when it came to ridges,
flotation for itself became essential. The material, generally speaking, is silt graduating to sand, but here and there, particularly on the extreme east and west ends, clay
overburden is encountered. The borrow-pit referred to above has always been considered a source of weakness, and its filling-in has been recognized as a pressing need
for some little time. This had been done piecemeal because of the limited resources of
the district, but a considerable start had been made upon it. The two Governments and
the Canadian National Railways were at times helpful and had assisted in the cost of
depositing 100,000 cubic yards of suction-dredge material in the borrow-pit. This
work was again prosecuted in 1947 and in the spring of 1948 by the use of bulldozers.
However, the sustained pressure, under saturated conditions, developed several weaknesses and a failure occurred about 7 o'clock on the morning of May 31st. Later, at
5.30 a.m. on June 7th, the south-shore pier of the Canadian Pacific Railway bridge
undersecured, and the plate-girder span which it supported fell to divert the current
and cause a second breach of the Matsqui dyke. A third breach was effected purposely
at a selected point to facilitate earlier run-off.
During the last week of May residents of the district and municipal officials worked
strenuously in strengthening weak sections. They were joined by a detachment of the
Active Army on May 29th and that night by a company of the Irish Fusiliers. Jack
Kendrick, hydraulic engineer for the Water Rights Branch, Department of Lands and
Forests, was placed in charge, and his untiring efforts were much appreciated. The
weaknesses referred to above were, in order of importance, the slough crossing at the
Skouge Road pump-house, the Indian reserve at the west end, and a section at the
Bassani farm midway between Sumas Mountain and the bridge. Generally speaking,
it was proven conclusively that the section adopted for the dyke in its construction was
inadequate for the material encountered. ■<.;
During early Sunday, the 30th, a slip occurred in a clay section at the extreme west
end, and during that day the slough crossing was threatened at Skouge Road. The
break which occurred early next morning was not anticipated by any of the patrol-men,
as the section was considerably stronger than the three sections referred to. A ditch
had been constructed in a field to lead seepage water to the slough by a farmer who had
only recently come to the district. He stated after that he had noticed water discharge
in increasing volume from this ditch but, through ignorance, was not concerned.
Regular patrol-men had crossed this section shortly before the break occurred, and a
flying officer named Bates, who was raised in the district, flying over this section for
the purpose of distributing sacks, noticed water blowing inside the dyke. The aeroplane is said to have turned at the bridge, approximately a mile away, for the purpose
of closer inspection, and upon their return discovered that the section had collapsed and
soon was beyond control. The Army ordered a general evacuation at about 11 o'clock
the morning of the 31st. The motors in the pumping-station nearest the break could
not be salvaged and remained immersed until the water lowered naturally. The motors
at the second pump-house were far enough removed to permit salvaging them before
becoming damaged.
The Fraser Valley Dyking Board, as soon as practical, started the repair of the
breaks referred to with the services of contractors. There remains to be attended to
the complete reconditioning of the Skouge Road slough crossing, material for which is
on the ground. An additional pumping unit is being supplied to this district, and
natural waterways, whose functions were injuriously affected by breaks in the dyke,
are being reconditioned.    River-bank protection is also being attended to. X 168
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Xxixi.U REPORT OF DYKING AND DRAINAGE.
X 169
Tj^rrTZrrrTT
jrrr^
46
,_,
"V,j   ■     lhJW      W    ..\.nrtWt>"ft
feT:
«.-
:W
'*" '*'
-
*   ll
>*'
•/*'.
It
N
C
1      *
Q.
E
CO-
"S  -*
CN
o
0_.
i_i_ X 170 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
3. Dewdney Dyking District.
This district, about 3,350 acres, north of the Canadian Pacific Railway main line
and bordering Hatzic Lake, had as its dyke the grade of the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company. The grade was a substantial double-track embankment, much larger than any
dykes in the valley, but it was not constructed of selected material. Two weak points
developed, one east of the Dewdney crossing where the Dewdney Trunk Road parallels
and adjoins the railway grade, and the other at the drainage-canal and flood-box upon
which the pumping equipment was located. The first weakness was attended to successfully, but before this was accomplished 6,000 cubic yards of road material were dumped
into the Lougheed Highway and disappeared by settlement. Meantime, residents of the
area were cautioned. The failure occurred at the second point on June 3rd at 9.20
a.m. with little or no warning when a piping process started under the flood-box which
spans the drainage-canal and upon which the double-track railway was carried. The
canal had a concrete lining which failed with the piping, and the destruction was so
rapid that the pumpman, Syd Burton, narrowly escaped with his wife and daughter.
Seven minutes from the time they left their home near the pumps, the house they had
left was undermined and was floated about half a mile up Hatzic Lake where it grounded
and still is. The pumps, flood-boxes, and transformers, as well as a heavy concrete
retaining-wall, have never been discovered. The railway-line was, of course, broken
and its repair required 90 feet of piling. In this area, railway officials, Public Works
officials, and the general public, including many Mission business-men, were untiring in
their efforts.
The Fraser Valley Dyking Board opened negotiations with the railway company
officials, and were told in no uncertain terms that the company would not again permit
the use of its grade as a dyke; in fact, the document which was the basis of the agreement stipulated that the railway company could at any time cancel the arrangement.
The owners of land south of the Canadian Pacific Railway and between it and the river,
whose lands were flooded on May 27th at 11 a.m., had as recently as April of last year
clamoured for better dyking protection, and with this in mind, together with the general
problem, the Fraser Valley Dyking Board proceeded to reconstruct the dykes apart
entirely from the Canadian Pacific Railway grade. This involves a dyke leaving the
high ground at Hatzic Station and proceeding generally up-river to Nicomen Slough.
A careful study was made of a suggestion that Nicomen Slough be crossed and the new
dyke join the main dyke of West Nicomen Island. This, however, proved unfeasible,
and a dyke was located up the north bank of Nicomen Slough to high ground at Suicide
Creek. While these investigations were being carried on, a construction company was
given the task of building the dyke from the main road at Dewdney, down the slough
road, and along the Fraser River. When the plans were available, bids were called for
the completion of the work on either end of this section, and contracts let. The completion date is set for April 15th.
4. West Nicomen Dyking District.
The West Nicomen Dyking District embraces approximately 4,125 acres of what
is known as West Nicomen Island. It lies between Quaamitch Slough on the east,
Nicomen Slough on the north and west, and the Fraser River on the south. It was
dyked by private enterprise in 1911-12. Difficulties were encountered through poor
construction for some little time. In 1928 the main Lougheed Highway was constructed
through this island, and the present dyke was constructed to protect the highway.
This dyke started at Queen's Island on the east and, utilizing dams previously constructed by the Dominion Government at slough crossings, followed generally the Fraser
River to the west end of West Nicomen Island.    The river slope in this distance is :——
REPORT OF DYKING AND DRAINAGE. X 171
approximately 5.7 feet, so that so long as Fraser waters were prevented from flowing
to Nicomen Slough, the slough attained backwater-level equal to the river-level at its
mouth. The Nicomen Slough dyke, therefore, differed from the Fraser dyke in that
as it proceeded up Nicomen Slough on a level grade, its crest was 5.7 feet lower than
where it joined the main Fraser River dyke at its upper end. On May 30th at noon a
bad breach occurred in the Fraser River dyke east of West Nicomen. This breach
attained a width of approximately 900 feet, and a large volume of water entered Nicomen
Slough at a point on the river slope about 3 feet higher than the eastern end of West
Nicomen Island. This water breached the old West Nicomen dyke on its eastern end,
which had not been reconstructed in 1928. On May 28th a breach had occurred in the
main West Nicomen Fraser River dyke on property owned by C. Buch. This dyke had
been constructed by the use of drag-lines excavating material for the embankment from
a borrow-pit on the river-side. A start had been made to fill this borrow-pit and, in
fact, would have been continued beyond where the break occurred except for the reason
that the Dominion Government had awarded a suction-dredge contract at the mouth of
Nicomen Slough, and this point was within reach of the discharge pipe-line. Because
of the freshet, suction-dredge material was not available. It would seem to be proof
enough that these borrow-pits are a point of weakness, for the break referred to
occurred exactly where filling operations had been suspended. Further than this, a
point always regarded as one of weakness at McDonald's Landing held where the
borrow-pit filling had been completed. The dyke was breached twice purposely, once on
Nicomen Slough and once on the Fraser, the latter useless and without authority.
The Fraser Valley Dyking Board arranged with a construction company to undertake repairs to these dykes. The larger break at East Nicomen had to be attended to
first and presented a real problem. It has, however, by now been completed, and the
work of strengthening and providing a 12-foot gravelled roadway is well in hand.
Filling of borrow-pits is recognized as a " must" by the Board, as well as considerable
river-bank protection.
5. Sumas Drainage, Dyking, and Development District.
The Sumas Drainage, Dyking, and Development District, comprising around 28,000
acres, is divided into two parts by the Vedder Canal and protected by two dykes on
either side. The west dyke, starting at the British Columbia Electric Railway at
Yarrow, ties into Sumas Mountain after crossing the Sumas River on a dam. The east
dyke ties into high ground east of Woodruffe Station on the British Columbia Electric
Railway in the south and east, running down the Vedder Canal to the Sumas River,
crosses McGillivray Creek on a dam, and thence by the old V.V. & E. Railway grade
almost joins the Canadian National Railways main line, and after paralleling it for
about a mile crosses it to tie into Chilliwack Mountain. Another dyke on the east
leaves Chilliwack Mountain and, following along the west bank of Atchelitz Creek, ties
into high ground. This dyke crosses the Canadian National Railway, whose grade is
lower than that required for extreme high water, and the crossing has to be barricaded
temporarily when the river-height makes it necessary. The area protected by these
last-named dykes was reclaimed after the freshet of 1921, but the other area was not
reclaimed until the following year. Both areas have become of real importance to the
agricultural wealth of the Province, and two thickly populated rural areas—Yarrow
in the west and Glendale in the east—have become established. In the patrol and
emergency work the residents of these areas, together with municipal officials, assisted
by Ernest Smith, since retired from the engineering staff of the Provincial Public
Works Department, did a wonderful job. Capt. Sam Potts, of the Army Engineers,
gave freely of his time and provided a liaison between the civil and military authorities. X 172 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
On June 1st a breach occurred in what is known as the Fraser River dyke near
Cannor Siding on the Canadian National Railway at a point along the V.V. & E. Railway
grade which had been adapted to use as a dyke. At this point a deep borrow-pit existed
on the river-side, but not as deep as at a point near by where the grade had crossed
Miller Slough. Two patrol-men had crossed this point a few minutes before. One of
these, Wilfred Nelson, lived inside the dyke almost abreast, and he stated that he
observed nothing out of the ordinary and had been down at the foot of the dyke on the
inside when making his rounds. He is sure that the failure occurred by piping, similar
to that described in the initial break at Matsqui.
This breach flooded approximately 5,900 acres of the east area and caused tremendous damage to property. Time did not permit the removal of the motors in the
pumping-station, and as these could not be duplicated, they were removed later by
divers and reconditioned, to be replaced as soon as practical. On the west area, efforts
were successful, and although the Army ordered an evacuation, this was only partially
carried out.
The Fraser Valley Dyking Board, as soon as practical, arranged with a construction
company to repair the break referred to, and this, together with the construction of
a roadway 12 feet wide on top, has been completed. A contract is in operation
strengthening the east and west Vedder dykes by using additional material obtained
from the Vedder Canal to flatten the inside slopes to 4 to 1. An additional pump is
ordered for this area, and the hauling of additional material to reinforce the inside of
the Fraser River dyke is now under way. There remains the filling of the borrow-pit,
which, it is hoped, will be undertaken as soon as river conditions permit. There is also
the matter of reconditioning and strengthening certain features around the main Sumas
River dams.
6. South Westminster Dyking District.
This is a comparatively small area fringing the south bank of the Fraser River.
It was reclaimed in 1924 by a small dyke which started near Port Mann and paralleled
the Canadian National Railway to the approach to the New Westminster bridge. This
section was in peat for the most part. From the approach to the New Westminster
bridge the dyke continued to the Timberland Lumber Company in very good material,
and then continued to where the elevator now stands, again in peaty material. In 1936
an extremely high tide had synchronized with the peak freshet, and the peat dyke had
been overtopped. In 1939 an arrangement was made with the Canadian National Railways to use its grade as a dyke from Port Mann to the approach to the New Westminster bridge, under which the dyking district provided four creosoted timber culverts
with flood-gates under their grade. The railway grade was then raised, but this year's
freshet again overtopped it. On the west end of the district from the Timberland
Lumber Company the dyke was completely overtopped in places, but the Army was able
to minimize the damage by holding the flood-waters at the Timberland mill and pumping
lavishly.
The Fraser Valley Dyking Board has received assurance from the Canadian
National Railways that their Port Mann yards and their entire grade elsewhere is to
be raised before the next freshet, and are proceeding to raise and strengthen the dyke
westward from the New Westminster bridge. The renewal of two flood-boxes and a
secondary drainage-culvert is being undertaken. Generally the dyke is being reconstructed to withstand a freshet 2 feet higher than that of last year, which, according to
New Westminster City records, was higher than that of 1894.
For purposes of record may it be stated that considerable flooding and damage was
done in the following districts entirely outside the jurisdiction of this office: Agassiz,
Harrison Mills, East Nicomen, Mission Flats, Silverdale Flats, Yennadon, North Pitt REPORT OF DYKING AND DRAINAGE. X 173
Meadows, Colony Farm, Fraser Mills, Lulu Island (New Westminster), Burnaby (Trapp
Road), Lulu Island (Richmond), Delta, Annacis Island, Port Mann, Westlang, Fort
Langley, Glen Valley, and Chilliwack.
CONCLUSION.
The valley and a future generation can profit from a calm appraisal of the events
hurriedly referred to here, and as a matter of fact a clause in the Dominion-Provincial
agreement, which underwrites the reconstruction, forces the issue.    It reads:—
" When the Board reports to British Columbia and Canada that the work of repairing, strengthening, constructing and reconstructing a dyke or a portion of a dyke has
been completed or that water or debris has been removed from any portion of the flooded
lands in the Fraser Valley, the Board shall thereupon cease to have any interest in or
responsibility for that dyke or that portion of a dyke or that portion of the land as the
case may be, and British Columbia shall thereafter make such provision as may be
necessary for administration and maintenance thereof."
Something happened, the like of which had not happened for fifty-four years.
There were those who expressed the opinion that we would never have another high
water, and there were those—oh, so many—whose chief complaint was that dyking
taxes were not always at a minimum. Both species are now extinct, but will they not
reseed in time? Luckily no human lives were lost, but there could have been. Public
health and public weal are involved, and it was adequately exemplified that henceforth
and for ever the mental standards of share-croppers must not influence decisions and
policies regarding the maintenance of any dykes unless they are strictly private and do
not to any microscopic extent affect the public weal. Responsibility for maintenance of
the works provided at the expense of both Governments should be placed squarely upon
those whose livelihood depends upon those works and who profit most, but there must be
a continuing, overriding, powerful authority whose duty it is to firmly and unswervingly
see to it that proper maintenance-works are timely undertaken. " Remember the
Maine " must be the watchword, and the torch must be kept alight so that fifty-four
years from now those works will have become stronger with the years. X 174 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT.
By D. W. Hodsdon, B.C.L.S., P.Eng., Project Manager.
GENERAL.
A gratifying increase in the amount of land placed under irrigation in 1948 has
enabled the irrigation rates to remain as set in 1947—namely, $10 per acre per year.
FLOODS.
No report of this year's activities would be complete without a description of the
disastrous floods which occurred in May and June. The cost to the Project was over
$9,000, of which something over $8,000 is anticipated to be returned to Project funds.
At 11.15 p.m., May 23rd, Mclntyre Creek, always a problem and which was being
closely watched, broke through its banks to the north of the inverted siphon which
carries irrigation-water under the creek.
On the morning of May 24th two bulldozers were hired to try to force the creek
back into its proper channel. This was accomplished by 1 a.m., May 25th. Some nine
concrete panels on the side of the canal were lifted out of place or broken by the flood,
and piles of debris deposited.on the floor of the canal.
Later, on May 25th, all panels were repaired, and the canal was cleaned out and
pitched. Three patrol-men were placed on continuous duty to make sure, if at all
possible, that no further trouble would occur, or, if it did, to speed to headquarters for
help.
On May 26th water was turned into the canal and held for a day at the head of
the main siphon in Oliver to allow the water to clear up. It was turned south on May
27th. All irrigation-pumps were started, but power went off at 4.45 p.m., and some
further delay was occasioned in the area served by pumps. On May 27th, also, a section
of the main highway south of the highway bridge washed out. The creek again
started to break into the canal to the north of the siphon, but a bulldozer, kept on duty,
averted any break-through.
In spite of all precautions taken, at midnight, May 27th, a flash flood occurred and
literally drove the patrolmen to safety. The creek then went on a rampage to the south
of its normal channel and filled the canal to a " check," one-quarter of a mile from the
river-bed, and the siphon half-way to its north entrance. A bridge over the canal, just
south of the siphon, was destroyed.
On May 28th Mclntyre Creek was completely out of control. The main highway
was inundated for 1,800 feet south of the highway bridge across the creek, and lands
lying to the east were flooded, so that it was impossible to reach the canal. This could
not be seen, in fact, for several hundred feet, as the raging waters of the creek covered
it completely.
On May 29th Hester and Testalinda Creeks were turned into the system to relieve
the situation to the south. As a result, water to a depth of 1.1 feet was made available
to the growers in Osoyoos. On May 31st a drag-line, obtained from Penticton the preceding day, commenced to dig a channel in order that the creek might be controlled and
the canal cleaned out and repaired.
In the meantime Okanagan River became excessively high, endangering the main
irrigation-siphon at Oliver. The siphon was cabled to adjacent trees, the bank of the
river sandbagged, and, to speed up the river discharge, a bar below the siphon was
blown out.
It was deemed unsafe to commence work in cleaning up the Mclntyre Creek trouble
until the creek was under control and until some information was obtained as to snow
conditions in the watershed.    To this end, while the drag-line was opening a channel, a REPORT OF SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT. X 175
helicopter survey of the catchment basin was made and some interesting information
was obtained—namely, the location of snowfields, with an estimation of their depth and
an evaluation of the general situation.
It was found that the highest ridges were swept bare, but solid snow continued to
lie in the open meadows. At lower elevations the meadows, bare of snow, were saturated and water was draining off. It was noticed that Mclntyre Creek canyon was full
of logs and debris. There is probably no doubt but that a jam occurred in the canyon,
suddenly cut loose and caused the flash flood which did so much damage. On the basis
of this survey it was decided that the creek could be controlled, provided that a warm
rain did not occur and that, therefore, the complete cleaning-out and the repairing of
the canal could be commenced.
On June 2nd four bulldozers were engaged, the drag-line was converted to a shovel,
and a team of horses and scraper were employed. The bulldozers acted in unison as a
team—namely, the bulldozer with the narrowest blade was put right into the ditch and
worked the bottom, while the heaviest machine with the widest blade was on top to
pick up the dirt supplied by the other three and push it out of the ditch and over the
bank. On June 5th a fifth bulldozer, the smallest of the lot, was put in behind the others
to make the final clean-up.   Water was turned back into the system at noon on June 6th.
Two things had been happening while the canal was being cleaned. First, two
pumps were being obtained from the West Kootenay Power Company and a transmission-line, which has been left standing, was being run to Gallagher Lake. Fortunately,
these pumps did not have to be used, but a gas-driven pump, obtained from the Black
Mountain Irrigation District, was put into operation at Gallagher Lake, with the lake
as its source of water-supply. At a later date, when No. 4 irrigation-pump motor was
burnt out, the gas pump served the Project well, since by directly connecting it to the
pump the situation was saved. Second, on June 5th the temperature rose and on June
7th it reached 98° F., the highest recorded in 1948. The sudden rise was, obviously,
hard on all growers when irrigation-water was in short supply.
On June 10th the undesirable happened. A very heavy, warm rain occurred.
Mclntyre Creek again went out of control, this time far to the north. Again debris
was thrown into the canal and three concrete panels were destroyed. Two small
bulldozers were rushed to the scene, but were too small to control the creek. The
Department of Public Works and the Interior Contracting Company provided two large
bulldozers, consequently by the early morning of June 11th the creek was under control.
The water was turned out of the system at 8 a.m. on June 11th. The panels were
repaired, the ditch cleaned out, and the water turned back into the system at 7.40 a.m.
on June 12th. All patrol-men, who had been on continual duty since May 25th, were
removed to more profitable work, as it now seemed certain that no further trouble from
the creek was to be anticipated.
An actual measurement taken along the main highway shows that Mclntyre Creek
broke loose and flooded an area some 2,000 feet north of its normal channel and 1,800
feet to the south—almost exactly three-quarters of a mile in extent.
It is apparent that this creek should be treated as it is proposed to treat various
other creeks, such as Penticton, Ellis, Shingle, Shatford, and Shuttleworth Creeks—that
is, it should come under the jurisdiction of the Okanagan Flood-control. The control-
work is obviously outside the field of the Project, since other factors are involved. It
is believed that this thought is shared by the Chief Engineer of the British Columbia
Department of Public Works.
The Department of Public Works, it may be added, had its own troubles, since the
main highway was washed out for hundreds of yards and had to be rebuilt.
An opportunity is here taken to thank not only the Project crew, who worked
without complaint as long as was physically possible, but also the local growers, who, Southern Okanagan Lands Project.
Mclntyre Creek
starting on
rampage.
Drag-line
endeavouring to
restore Mclntyre
Creek to some
semblance of
Concrete canal
filled with sand
and gravel to
south of siphon;
bridge across
canal destroyed. REPORT OF SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT. X 177
when it became essential to augment the crew to speed up the work, cleaned out Mclntyre Creek siphon. This was a twenty-four-hour job—one which had to be done
by hand.
Thanks are also due to the Oliver Sawmills and to the Department of Public Works
for the use of their respective bulldozers.
LAND SALES.
The total value of land sold was $30,142.80 for the twelve-month period January
1st to December 31st.    The land was, in the main, full-time farm lands.
REVOLVING FUND.
The Project manager made representation to the Department with reference to
the date that the moneys voted under the annual budget were made available to the
Project—namely, April 1st of the year following the close of the irrigation season.
The money is needed as soon as the system is closed down in the fall, and not the
following spring, since all main construction and repairs have to be made between
irrigation seasons. As a result of the above representations, a revolving fund was set
up, which makes the returns from irrigation rates available when required by placing
them in this fund rather than in Consolidated Revenue.
There is a possibility that by 1950 the Project may be put on a self-sustaining
basis—that is, the moneys received from these rates will maintain the system. A small
amount for land sales and general administrative purposes will be required from Consolidated Revenue.
POWER FAILURES.
The year 1948 was worse, if possible, than 1947 in so far as power-supply was
concerned. Shut-offs were much more frequent, voltage and power factor were out
of line, and one of our irrigation-pump motors was burned out as a result of power
inadequacies.
No. 4 pump motor burnt out on June 29th, more or less in the middle of the
irrigation season. It was necessary to rush to the pump-house the gasoline-engine
previously borrowed from the Black Mountain Irrigation District. Since it had already
been determined that the engine and pump revolutions were identical, it was possible,
within twenty-four hours, to make a direct connection, engine to pump, and resume
irrigation service. The burnt-out motor was shipped to Vancouver, rewound, and put
back in service one week from the date of shipment.
Many small motor-driven pumps, operated by individual owners for their sprinkler
systems, were burnt out by power variation. In addition, packing-houses were affected.
Publicity was given the situation by various newspapers and organizations.
RAW LANDS PLACED UNDER IRRIGATION, 1948.
During 1948 new land, all full-time farms, comprising 255 acres was placed under
irrigation.
ALTERATIONS TO CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE EQUIPMENT
AND PURCHASE OF NEW EQUIPMENT.
1. A new Ford half-ton pick-up was purchased for use by the general foreman. In
1949 the old truck, formerly used by our foreman, will be used by a new ditch-rider,
since our No. 2 division has now become so large that it has to be split.
2. Two second-hand London pumps were purchased, so that water from the flooded
Okanagan River could be kept from ditches during townsite pipe-laying in the lower
elevations.   These were obtained at a very reasonable price and have proved their worth. X 178 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
3. All of the equipment purchased or altered last year is in good shape and is as
useful as anticipated.
NEW SUBDIVISIONS, 1948.
At the request of the Veterans' Land Act and Soldier Settlement Board, six small
holdings were surveyed on the east side of Okanagan River and north of Tuc-el-nu-it
Lake. Water was laid on these six holdings, and they are now ready for the 1949
irrigation season. Three of these lots have already been sold and a fourth is being
negotiated for.
WORK DONE IN 1948.
1. Annual canal and flume cleaning carried out.
2. Essential repairs on all flume trestles done.
3. Part of No. 7 flume trestle rebuilt, eliminating the dangerous section as shown
in a photo included in the 1947 Report.
4. Booster-pumps installed in Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4 irrigation-pump houses.
5. Nine hundred and fifty feet of 22-inch wood-stave main pipe-line between No. 2
and No. 3 irrigation-pumps replaced.
6. Installed 15-horsepower pump and constructed pump-house to serve 54.9 acres
of land above the ditch at the head of Osoyoos Lake.    Wood-stave pipe-line installed.
7. Laid concrete pipe to serve ten new full-time farms. (Ten acres or more constitutes a full-time farm.) This concrete pipe, of necessity laid in readiness for the 1948
irrigation season, was in many ways unsatisfactory. It could not be tested for leaks,
since there was no water in the system. Furthermore, there was 22 inches of frost
in the ground, necessitating the use of a compressor, drilling and blasting before the
back-hoe could commence excavating the trenches.
8. " R " lateral, as it is called, serves a large area on the west side just south of
the head of Osoyoos Lake. This lateral, it appears, has always caused trouble, and
particularly since a road-fill was made which added to the load on the pipe. Construction
was entirely of concrete pipe. So many leaks occurred at the start of the season,
causing undesirable shut-downs, that it was decided to remove the worst section of concrete pipe and replace it with wood-stave pipe. The results were eminently satisfactory
and, due no doubt to the greater resiliency of the wood-stave pipe in withstanding shock,
no leaks occurred during the balance of the season.
9. It is interesting to note that during 1948 the Project has been approached in
several cases where growers who had previously supplied their own irrigation-water
from pot-holes requested that their water-supply be handled by the Project. Where
possible the Project acceded and, although this cost the land-owners an additional $50
per irrigable acre plus the irrigation rates, they appear to b