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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS HON. E. T. KENNEY, Minister, C. D. ORCHARD,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1949

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
HON. E. T. KENNEY, Minister C. D. ORCHARD, Deputy Minister of Forests
REPORT
of
THE FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST
1948
VICTORIA, B.C. :
Printed by Don McDiaemid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1949.  i-    J   -
- -  ' ■
^t*ftCxJ_«
The visibility mapper
m^m;,   -,,..-  Victoria, B.C., March 18th, 1949.
To His Honour Colonel C. A. Banks, C.M.G.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service of
the Department of Lands and Forests for the calendar year 1948.
E. T. KENNEY,
Minister of Lands and Forests.
The Honourable E. T. Kenney,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Forest
Service during the calendar year 1948.
C. D. ORCHARD,
Deputy Minister and Chief Forester.  CONTENTS.
Item. Page.
1. Introductory t     7
2. Forest Economics     9
Forest Surveys  9
Revised Inventory of Sayward Provincial Forest  9
Provincial Forests  11
Forest Research  11
Mensuration  11
Volume Tables  11
Growth Studies  17
Silvicultural Studies  21
Soil and Site-type Studies  24
Nursery Fertility Studies  25
3. Reforestation  27
Forest Nurseries  27
Seed Collections  28
Planting  28
Preparation of Planting Areas  28
Plantations  29
4. Parks and Recreation  30
Introduction  30
Administration and Development  30
Reconnaissance and Inventory  32
Planning  33
General  33
Mount Seymour Park  34
Manning Park  34
Miscellaneous  35
5. Forest Management  36
6. Forest Protection  38
Weather  38
Fires  39
Occurrences and Causes  39
Cost of Fire-fighting  39
Damage  40
Fire-control Research and Planning  40
Planning  40
Panoramic Lookout Photography  41
Fire-weather Studies  41
Weather-recording  41
Investigations  41
Miscellaneous Projects  42
Fire-suppression Crews  42
Aircraft  43
Mechanical Equipment  44
Automotive  44
Tankers  44
Tractors  46
Outboard Motors  46
Fire-pumps  46
Miscellaneous Mechanical Equipment  46
Mechanical Inspection  46 LL 6 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Item. Page.
6. Forest Protection—Continued.
Forest Service Marine Station  47
Building and Construction  48
Radio Communication  50
Slash-disposal and Snag-falling  52
Prevention  53
Co-operation—other Agencies  53
Fire-law Enforcement  54
Insect-control  54
7. Forest Insect Investigations  55
8. Forest Pathology Investigations  58
9. Forest Ranger School  61
10. Public Relations and Education  63
11. Grazing  66
General Conditions  66
Markets and Prices  66
Live-stock Losses  67
Range Reconnaissance  67
Co-operation  67
Grazing and Hay Permits  68
Range Improvements  68
12. Personnel Directory, 1949  69
13. Appendix—Tabulated  Detailed  Statements to  Supplement Report of  Forest
Service  75 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE.
The volume of work entailed in carrying on the diversified activities of the Forest
Service continued at a high level during 1948. Although there was some improvement
in available technical and non-technical personnel, supplies, and automotive and other
equipment, conditions are still difficult and the work is thereby hampered. In addition,
high wage-rates and costs of materials and equipment make operating expenses proportionately higher for the results achieved.
In addition to minor amendments to the " Forest Act" at the 1948 session of the
Legislature, provision was made in the Act for the establishment of farm wood-lots in
conjunction with bona-fide farmsteads. This legislation permits the extension to small
holdings of the principle of sustained-yield management of forest land and provides the
means whereby farm-owners may supplement their cash income from a forest crop.
At the same session an increase in moneys allotted to the Forest Protection Fund
over that of the previous year, amounting to $250,000, was made.
Increases in technical staff permitted the Economics Division to extend its survey
and investigative work. Four forest-survey parties were maintained during the summer, two working from vessels along the coast and two using truck transportation.
Surveys were completed on 3,593,428 acres. Studies in mensuration, growth and'yield,
damage resulting from logging in the Interior, seed production, thinning and pruning
of Douglas fir and red alder, rodent-control in direct seeding, and soil and site classification were carried out.
The Reforestation Division was seriously hampered in its spring programme by
late spring frosts and cold, wet weather on the nursery and planting sites, but achieved
its objective of 10,000,000 seedlings planted and seed-beds sown for 10,000,000 seedlings
for the 1950 planting season. Labour-supply was improved. Experiments in hemlock-
seed planting were instituted, and a site selected for a nursery in the yellow-pine region
of the Southern Interior.
Early indications of a good seed-year for Douglas fir failed to materialize due to
faulty pollination.
Following completion of spring planting, snag-falling was commenced on projected
planting-sites, 151,937 snags on 16,843 acres being removed. Unfavourable weather
hampered the road-building programme. Conversely, the above-normal precipitation
favoured establishment of the new plantations and survival checks indicate a better-
than-average percentage.
During the year the Parks Section of the Economics Division was segregated and
created as a separate Division of Parks and Recreation. This change in administrative
set-up formally recognizes the increasing public interest in the superb recreational
areas in the Province and acknowledges the magnitude of the task of developing the
potentialities of those areas to meet the needs of our growing population and tourist
traffic.
Values of forest production reached a record figure of $363,786,000, as compared
with $282,288,388 in 1947. All four major products—lumber, pulp and paper, shingles,
and plywood—showed increases. The average stumpage price, including royalty, was
$4.36 per thousand, the same as during the last six months of the preceding year.
Total cut during the year was 4,293,465 M—an all-time record. Douglas fir was
the leading species cut, with a total of 1,671,863 M feet, followed by hemlock, 874,515 M,
and cedar 804,478 M. The number of timber sales made was 2,612—only 15 short of
the 1946 record.
The number of operating sawmills increased during the year from 1,634 to 1,671,
but the 68 operating shingle-mills was 5 less than in 1947. LL 8 DEPARTMENT OP LANDS AND FORESTS.
Although short periods of high hazard occurred periodically in all forest districts,
the year was, generally, one of the most favourable ever experienced. The total of 799
fires recorded was the lowest since 1913 and represents only 51 per cent, of the past
ten-year average. Lightning was, once again, the agency responsible for the greatest
number of fires. Fires due to campers and smokers were in the usual ratio, but there
was a marked reduction in the percentage caused by railroad operations. The Forest
Service expended $36,050 on fire suppression and other agencies $80,872. The total
area burned was 384,356 acres, which represents an increase over the ten-year average,
but the high figure is accounted for by the inclusion of 371,501 acres of non-commercial
cover and non-productive site in the Peace River area. Total damage has been estimated
at $287,192.
Panoramic lookout photography was suspended due to lack of trained personnel,
but fire-weather investigations and other research projects were maintained. Thirteen
suppression crews were in operation. Aircraft patrol and transport was continued
under charter contract.
A " drop-on " tanker unit was designed, constructed, and placed in the field; thirty-
five initial-action suppression pumps were manufactured at the Marine Station, and
the usual diversified work of that unit maintained at a high level. The radio network
of the Service was expanded by establishing a number of new stations. There was a
large increase in the number of messages handled. Two new remote-control stations
were put into operation.
It is evident that spring slash-burning is finding increasing favour with the industry.    A total of 3,026 acres was burned over during the spring of 1948.
In British Columbia all basic research in forest entomology and forest pathology
is conducted by the Dominion Government. The assistance and unfailing co-operation
of the two Dominion services charged with the study of these problems in this Province
are herein recognized and acknowledged.
Through the courtesy and co-operation of the Victoria offices of Forest Insect
Investigations and Forest Pathology Investigations, Science Service, Dominion Department of Agriculture, it is possible to include reports on the situation in British Columbia
with respect to forest insect pests and fungous diseases. Of particular interest during
the year was the helicopter-spraying of an area in the East Kootenays to control false
hemlock looper in Christmas-tree stands. This is the first instance in Canada of controlling a forest insect by spraying from a helicopter.
During the year construction was commenced, and almost completed, of a new
Ranger School building on the Green Timbers Forest Station. New dormitory and
living-quarters were designed and a contract for their construction was signed. They
will be ready for occupancy early in 1949. A third class of twenty students completed
the prescribed course of study and a special ten-day course was given for the training
of lookout-men.
The adverse weather conditions in some areas curtailed hay production, and a
reduction in stock in those areas may be anticipated. However, the range crop was
excellent, and prices to the stockmen reached new records. Grasshopper damage was
less than usual. On one range a serious outbreak of blackleg occurred, necessitating a
radical change in range management to facilitate vaccination.
The programme of range reconnaissance was stepped up, and a total of 1,017,796
acres covered by intensive surveys. Forty Live-stock Associations are now operating
in the Province. The number of grazing permits issued and stock covered attained a
record high figure.
Weather conditions curtailed the range-improvement programme and reduced the
number of wild horses disposed of, in comparison with previous years.
All these varied activities of the Forest Service are treated in detail in the following pages. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948.
LL 9
FOREST ECONOMICS.
FOREST SURVEYS.
In the general field of map-making it has been recognized at all times that the
Forest Service was not attempting to usurp any of the functions of the Surveys Branch
of the Department of Lands, which is charged with the responsibility of producing
the official maps for the Province. The forest-survey maps are designed to show the
forest-cover but, at the same time, the boundaries of the various types must be related
to established surveys. For this reason, the first step in preparing a forest-survey map
is to obtain from the Surveyor-General the best base-map information available. By
reason of lack of adequately trained personnel it was not feasible for the Surveys
Branch to prepare all of the base maps required; consequently it was necessary for the
Forest Service to participate in these activities. Commencing in July of this year the
Surveys Branch assumed responsibility for supplying all the base maps for the forest-
survey programme, and our future map-making work will deal solely with delineation
of forest types and their description. This change necessitated transfer of certain
personnel from this Division to the Surveys Branch.
Four forest-survey parties were maintained throughout the field season, two of
which worked from launches and two used light trucks for transportation. Surveys
were completed on 3,593,428 acres, distributed by project as follows:—
Acres.
Completion of Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway Belt survey     412,800
Completion of Smith Inlet survey      108,000
Kyuquot survey      473,360
Upper Fraser survey      800,000
Kitimat-Douglas Channel survey  1,580,000
Princeton survey      219,268
The final maps, estimates, and reports for these surveys are being compiled and
will be available in due course. The Kyuquot survey having been completed, the West
Coast of Vancouver Island has been covered in full in recent years and, with the
revision surveys of the Sayward Forest and the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway Belt
at hand, it will be possible to issue a revised inventory of the forest resources of Vancouver Island in about one year's time.
REVISED INVENTORY OF SAYWARD PROVINCIAL FOREST.
The new estimate and forest-cover maps for the Sayward Provincial Forest and the
White River Valley have been completed and will be made available on request. The
total volume of merchantable timber as of December 31st, 1947, is estimated to be
6,869,450 M F.B.M., of which 36.9 per cent, is alienated by way of Crown grants, timber
licences, or timber leases and 63.1 per cent, is vacant Crown timber. All volumes are
considered accessible. The details of timber volumes (over 11 inches D.B.H.) are
as follows:—-
Species.
Crown-
granted.
Timber
Leases
and
Licences.
Vacant
Crown
Land.
Totals
(Thousands
of
Board-feet).
Douglas fir	
Western red cedar-
Western hemlock	
Sitka spruce	
Balsam (white fir)..
Yellow cedar	
Western white pine
Alder	
Broad-leaf maple	
Totals	
50,130
8,150
27,780
7,560
9,050
40
370
140
30
634,650
645,780
660,190
1,720
454,480
24,420
18,470
50
10
425,790
689,440
1,745,980
5,000
1,242,980
192,260
22,940
1,130
910
1,110,570
1,343,370
2,433,950
14,280
1,706,510
216,720
41,780
1,320
950
103,250
2,439,770
4,326,430
6,869,450 LL 10 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
The classification of areas is as follows:—
Productive forest land:
Mature timber: Acres. Acres.
Accessible  203,890
Inaccessible       Nil
Total  203,890
Immature timber:
1-    5 years  25,840
6- 10     „  29,630
11- 20     „       24,530
21- 40     „       22,030
41- 60     „       3,330
61- 80     „       720
81-100     „       570
Total  106,650
Not satisfactorily stocked:
Logged   9,480
Logged and burned  47,730
Burned   300
Deciduous   10,880
Coniferous  6,550
Total     74,940
Total sites of productive quality  385,480
Non-productive and non-forest land:
Cultivated and villages      2,280
Barren, scrub, and alpine  106,530
Swamp and water    23,690
Total non-productive sites  132,500
Total area  517,980
The previous survey of the Sayward Forest reported conditions as at the end of
1928 and estimated the stand of merchantable timber as being 274,900 acres carrying
12,207,020 M F.B.M. The revised inventory as at the end of 1947 indicates a reduction
of forest capital in the Sayward Forest of 6,387,500 M board-feet in nineteen years.
The average annual cut during the period 1935 to 1945 was 262,000,000 feet per year.
However, for the period 1943 to 1947, inclusive, the average annual cut has fallen off
to 132,000,000 board-feet per year, of which 105,000,000 was from alienated lands and
27,000,000 was cut from timber sales on Crown lands.
In 1928 it was recognized that the Sayward Forest was being heavily overcut, and
the new inventory clearly demonstrates the serious situation that can develop as a result
of harvesting more than the land can produce. In a period of nineteen years the forest
capital of this highly productive region has been reduced by 52 per cent. The impact
of this excessive drain on capital is emphasized if it is assumed that the average annual
cut from alienated lands will continue to be 105,000,000 feet a year, in which case the
operations on such lands will be cut out in eighteen years. After that time the entire
drain must come from Crown lands. At the conclusion of the 1928 survey it was estimated that the allowable cut from
the Sayward Forest could have been 147,000,000 feet per year on a continuous-production basis. The excessive cut over the intervening years has seriously reduced the
allowable cut so that, as of 1948, the allowable cut cannot be more than 106,000,000
board-feet. Present consumption, therefore, exceeds productive capacity by about
20 per cent. This situation is common to all of the forests in the Lower Coastal Region,
but it is particularly noticeable when new inventory figures are available. The problem
of overcutting was pointed out twenty years ago, and the longer the delay in adjustment, the more serious are the obstacles to reaching an equilibrium between rate of
harvest and productive capacity.
PROVINCIAL FORESTS.
During 1948 there were thirteen minor adjustments of the boundaries of Provincial forest reserves. Eleven of these were eliminations involving 766.7 acres,
required largely for commercial and industrial development. The remaining adjustments involved the addition of 356.5 acres of forest land, thereby reducing the net
loss in acreage of Provincial forests to 410.2 acres. In addition, one new forest
reserve was created in the Interior—-namely, the Slocan Forest—which is 1,200 square
miles in area. The system of Provincial forest reserves now consists of fifty-four
forests, comprising an area of 32,334 square miles. The summary of the forests to
date is as follows:—
Class of Forest.
Coast Region.
Interior Region.
Total.
Number.
Area.
Number.
Area.
Number.
Area.
20
Sq. Mi.
11,658
27
2
1
Sq. Mi.
20,411
233
28
47
2
5
Sq. Mi.
32,069
233
A
4
32
Totals	
24
11,662
30
20,672
54
32,334
FOREST RESEARCH.
Mensuration.
The programme of re-examination of permanent growth-study plots was maintained with the remeasurement of 37 standard plots and 160 line plots. An additional
5 standard plots and 92 line plots were established in the North Coast types and 48
line plots in the Upper Fraser.
Volume Tables.
During the year new volume tables based on cubic feet were prepared and are
presented herewith, as follows:—
Site-class Volume Table, Douglas Fir.
Site-class Volume Table, Western Hemlock.
Site-class Volume Table, Western Red Cedar.
Site-class Volume Table, Coast Balsam.
Site-class Volume Table, Sitka Spruce. LL 12
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
PRELIMINARY SITE-CLASS TABLE—MATURE DOUGLAS FIR  (PSEUDOTSDGA TAXIFOLIA).
(Gross merchantable cubic feet.)
Site Index.
D.B.H.
60.
80.
100.
120.
140.
160.
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14
16
18
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16
19
22
25
27
30
14
25
29
33
38
41
45
16
34
40
46
52
58
64
18
45
52
61
70
78
86
20
57
66
78
90
100
100
22
69
82
97
110
130
140
24
87
82
100
120
140
160
170
26
88
96
110
120
140
160
190
210
28
89
110
112
140
160
190
220
250
30
90
125
114
160
139
190
230
260
290
32
90
140
115
180
141
220
167
260
193
300
340
34
90
160
115
200
142
250
170
300
197
340
390
36
90
170
116
230
143
280
172
330
200
390
440
38
116
250
143
300
173
370
203
430
233
500
40
116
280
144
330
174
400
205
470
236
550
42
116
300
144
360
174
440
206
520
239
600
44
144
390
174
480
206
560
240
650
46
144
420
174
520
206
610
241
720
48
144
460
174
560
206
660
241
780
50
144
490
174
600
206
710
241
840
52
144
520
174
640
206
760
241
900
54
144
560
174
680
206
820
241
970
56
144
590
174
730
206
870
241
1,030
58
144
630
174
780
206
930
241
1,100
60
144
660
174
830
206
990
241
1,170
62
174
880
206
1,050
241
1,250
64
174
930
206
1,120
241
1,320
66
174
970
206
1,170
241
1,400
68
174
1,020
206
1,220
241
1,470
70
174
1,170
206
1,370
241
1,550
Gross volume merchantable cubic feet.
stand.
No allowance for breakage and decay.    Base site on dominant trees in REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948.
LL 13
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is shown.    Total height obtained from parabolic D.B.H.-height curves for each site.    Gross merchantable volume read from Table III,  British  Columbia Forest Service volume
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
PRELIMINARY SITE-CLASS TABLE—MATURE WESTERN RED CEDAR (THUJA PLICATA).
(Gross merchantable cubic-foot volume.)
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10.8
4.6
44
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46
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110
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11.4
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48
80
295
110
400
140
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169
610
198
710
11.7
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50
80
315
110
435
140
550
170
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199
770
12.0
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52
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200
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12.3
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54
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56
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12.9
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200
1,300
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110
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110
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1,390
200
1,610
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76
140
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200
1,690
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140
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1,530
200
1,780
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140
1,340
170
1,600
200
1,870
16.5
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140
1,670
170
2,000
200
2,330
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8.4
100
140
2,050
170
2,440
200
2,850
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Gross tabic?—no allowance for defect or breakage.   Base site on dominant trees in stand. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948.
LL 15
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LL 17
A series of age-site class volume tables based on total cubic feet, merchantable
cubic feet, and merchantable board-feet, B.C. Rule, was prepared for second-growth
Sitka spruce. _       ,. „.   ,.
Growth Studies.
A complete analysis of the data from permanent plots on the Coast and in the
Interior is being continued.
The following data were derived from growth-and-yield permanent plots estab-
li8hed 1948- NORTH COAST.
Plot No.
Plot
Type.
Number
of Subplots.
Age.
Site
Index.
Basal
Area.
Average
D.B.H.
Total
Volume.
Mean
Annual
Increment.
Kitimat Valley—Hemlock-Balsam Types.
322	
Normal
Empirical.
Empirical.
Empirical.
Empirical.
9
9
8
4
16
9
4
9
16
2
56
64
69
77
91
92
102
113
138
144
149
178
60
96
109
108
169
100
110
125
80
55
90
100
100
95
85
95
95
74
70
70
62
262
270
320
348
311
323
380
383
377
385
368
413
187
324
276
306
178
4.8
7.7
13.4
6.6
4.9
9.6
11.3
12.7
14.3
12.5
13.8
14.5
15.3
5.7
10.4
8.2
9.5
Cu. Ft.
6,655
7,711
14,345
9,682
6,975
13,419
15,876
16,218
17,171
15,291
16,635
19,688
7,883
9,534
8,483
9,363
5,346
119
326    	
120
321    	
208
327	
126
329   	
77
328 	
146
331       	
Normal
Empirical.
Normal
156
324              	
143
323	
124
333 ;    	
106
330      	
Normal
Normal
Normal
112
325                       	
111
332	
Kitimat—Cottonwood.
131
334
Lakelse—Hemlock-Balsam.
99
337           	
Empirical.
Empirical.
Empirical.
78
Lower
335
Kitsumgallum—Hemlock-Balsam.
87
336     	
32
Normal plots are single units, 0.4 to 1 acre in area, selected in well-stocked stands.
Empirical plots consist of a series of 0.1-acre units systematically distributed through
the stands so as to give average conditions. Volumes are based on entire stems inside
bark. These plots indicate the high yields of the areas sampled and variation due to
habitat toward the Interior.
Upper Fraser—Even-aged Spruce-Balsam Type.
There are considerable areas of even-aged spruce-balsam type in the Upper Fraser
drainage.
Here is the pertinent data from three empirical plots established in 1948. All
values have been reduced to 1-acre basis.
Plot
Plot
Type.
Number of
Subplots.
Age.
Site
Index.
Basal
Area.
Average
D.B.H.
Volume.
Mean Annual
Increment.
Total.
Merchantable.
Total.
Merchantable.
356
357
358
Empirical
Empirical
Empirical
8
8
11
5
7
9
100
100
100
100
111
111
90
75
100
85
100
90
238
195
225
201
228
213
•
9.0
8.0
9.6
8.3
•   9.8
7.5
Cu. Ft.
8,612
6,521
8,448
7,313
9,114
7,728
Cu. Ft.
7,381
5,433
7,421
6,107
8,158
6,822
Cu. Ft.
86
65
84
73
82
70
Cu. Ft.
74
54
74
61
74
61 LL 18
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
The sixteen sub-plots forming each main plot were subdivided into two site-class
groups for volume computation. The average mean annual increments for total and
merchantable volume are 77 cubic feet and 67 cubic feet respectively. These stands
have very little defect.
The following table is based on fifteen standard plots scattered through an uneven-
aged stand at Aleza Lake. These plots were established in 1928 and re-examined at
five-year intervals to 1948.
Increment per Acre—Total Cubic Feet.
1928-38.
1938-48.
19.28-48.
88.0
119.4
— 31.4
91.4
68.7
22.7
89.7
Mortality ,	
94.0
— 4.3
These uneven-aged, overmature stands typical of large areas are not even holding
their own in net total volume, and a further loss is due to hidden defect. They occupy
land capable of producing 80 cubic feet of wood per acre per year.
One of the standard yield tables for Douglas fir as compiled by the Forest Service
in the past does not show the merchantable cubic content of the stands for the diameters
7 inches D.B.H. and up. To assist in converting total cubic volume to merchantable
cubic volume in this table, a table of converting factors is presented as follows:—
PRELIMINARY TABLE—DOUGLAS FIR  (PSEVDOTSUGA TAXIFOLIA).
Per Cent, of
Average Stand Total Volume in
Diameter Merchantable
Trees 1 In. Trees 7 In.
D.B.H. D.B.H.
2.6.
3___
4_.
5_1
6___
7____
8____
9___
10 __
11____
12__.
13____
14___
15 __.
16___
0
10
21
33
44
54
63
71
77
81
84
86
88
89
90
(Based on 52 sample plots.)
This table indicates the large proportion of cubic volume of wood that is unmerchantable in the younger, immature stands. A part of this volume is in stumps and
tops, but the larger portion is due to trees which are below merchantable size.
Development of Lodgepole-pine Type in the Northern '
Interior following Selective Logging for Ties.
A series of nine permanent plots was established in 1926 and re-examined periodically until 1948. On the six plots selectively cut for hewn ties in 1926, horses were
used in yarding.    The other three plots were not cut over.    Increment borings were REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948. LL 19
made to determine the diameter growth for twenty years prior to logging. The growth
after logging was based on diameter-tape measurements. The stands at time of cutting
were 90 to 120 years old and growing on site class 70 to 80 based on British Columbia
tables.
The economic selective cutting of lodgepole-pine stands for hewn ties removed
20 per cent, of the pine in the 9-inch D.B.H. class, 45 per cent, in the 10-inch class,
and 93 per cent, of the trees in the 11- to 14-inch diameter classes. A further 10 per
cent, of all species in the residual stand was destroyed in logging.
The average diameter growth of the pine during twenty years before and after
logging was 0.84 inch and 0.70 inch respectively. Below 11 inches the residual pine
had grown slightly less following logging than they did for a similar period before
logging. Another economic cut for ties within thirty-five years depends on tie-sized
trees left at time of cutting rather than accelerated growth on the residual stand
of trees.
The residual spruce and balsam showed twice the increase in diameter after
logging than it did before logging. The average D.B.H. increase during twenty years
before logging was 0.85 inch, and for the same period after logging it was 1.68 inches.
A total volume of 1,500 cubic feet of spruce and balsam, all unmerchantable, in the
residual stand grew to 4,000 cubic feet in the forty years following logging. A normal
stand starting on bare land with immediate full stocking produces a volume of 1,500
cubic feet in forty-eight years and 4,000 cubic feet in sixty-seven years on a comparable
site. The normal stand takes only nineteen years to grow from 1,500 to 4,000 cubic
feet, compared to forty years for equivalent growth on the residual stand; hence the
initial forty-eight-year gain by conserving advance growth is reduced to twenty-seven
years by the time the stand volumes are 4,000 cubic feet. However, the residual stand
has passed through a stabilization period to complete restocking, and the twenty-seven-
year gain in growth should be maintained till the end of the rotation. It is noted that
no regeneration period was allowed for the normal stand which would increase the gain
and further emphasize importance of conserving advance growth in this type.
Lodgepole pine in these plots did not regenerate after the hewn-tie operation but,
where spruce and balsam were of seed-bearing size, these species continued to seed in
until the areas were well stocked.
This study indicates that where mature pine occurs in mixture with an understory
of spruce and balsam, the pine should be cut to the minimum diameter economically
possible so as to remove the mature overstory and create conditions favourable for the
growth of the potentially vigorous understory.
Logging Damage in the Spruce-Balsam Type of the Upper Fraser.
The conservation of advance growth is also the key to the perpetuation of the
spruce-balsam type in the Upper Fraser. On the average, the residual stands resulting
from unregulated cuts of the last thirty years have satisfied the barest minimum
requirements for stocking.
Recent trends toward heavier equipment, the use of tractors instead of horses, and
the practice of skidding long logs up to full tree lengths indicate that, without regulation, the minimum requirements may not be met in the future. With a view to
securing factual information on the problem, a preliminary study was undertaken to
estimate the damage to the residual stand caused by heavier equipment and tree-length
logging.
Five conditions were studied on areas logged by Companies A, B, and C. Each
condition, except C, was sampled by sixteen 0.1-acre plots. All values were reduced to
1-acre totals, spruce and balsam being the only species considered. LL 20
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
COMPARATIVE DAMAGE BY FIVE METHODS OF LOGGING.
Operator.
A.
B.
B.
B.
C.
16'
Horses
Summer
514
56
143
315
29.4
2.0
32'
D7 and pan
Summer
575
39
256
280
44.2
3.9
32'
D7 and pan
Winter
430
39
86
305
21.0
3.7
Tree length
D7 and pan
Summer
445
64
226
155
59.4
4.7
Tree length
D7 without pan
Summer
Equipment	
Based on  percentage values of sixteen  individual plots in each method the mean per
cent, destruction is	
90 (estimate)
The differences between any two pairs of comparable examples are highly significant; that is, they are real differences due to other factors than to sampling. Absolute
values are valid only for the operations studied, but the relative differences in damage
by the various methods of logging will probably hold for different operators.
The greater destruction caused by heavy tractors skidding long logs up to tree
lengths apparently reduces the limited stocks of advance growth in the spruce-balsam
type below the minimum requirements for a second cut. It has been shown for other
types in North America that measures—including educating woods workers, exercising
care in falling and bucking, limiting swamping to a minimum, limiting heavy caterpillar tractors to pre-located skidroads, and using drum winches, long chokers, horses,
or light tractors to bunch for heavier skidding equipment—can reduce destruction
by 17 per cent. It appears desirable on the basis of the information at hand to
restrict summer logging by tree lengths to ground conditions which demand special
consideration.
PERMANENT STUDY-PLOTS ESTABLISHED AND IN USE AS AT JANUARY 15th, 1949.
Number of Plots.
Description of Project. Project.        Group.
Growth and Yield Studies—
Coast forest types   659
Southern Interior types      42
Central Interior types   185
  786
Silvicultural Studies—
On cut-over land—
Seed dissemination from standing trees   14
Survival of seed trees   4
Artificial seeding   3
Growth of exotic trees   1
Competition between broom and Douglas fir   1
In young stands—
Thinnings   10
Prunings   7
Christmas-tree cuttings   1
In mature stands—
Selective cutting    4
Slash-disposal methods   6
  51
Total number of plots   837
Regional Studies— Number of 1
Natural regeneration in representative districts— Plots. Acres.
Alberni, Vancouver Island   1,200 4.8
Cowichan Lake, Vancouver Island      600 6.0
Alouette Lake,  Fraser Valley       500 5.0
Cumshewa Lake,  Queen Charlotte Islands        80 0.1
Totals     2,380 15.9 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948.
LL 21
SILVICULTURAL STUDIES.
This year, seed production was again studied on 108 sample trees on the margins
of stands at the Cowichan Lake Experiment Station. In that locality, Douglas fir bore
very variable crops on 61 per cent, of the trees. Eighty per cent, of the grand fir had
fair to good crops, and western white pine was low with 70 per cent, of the 75-year-old
trees bearing an average of thirty-six cones per tree. The crop on western hemlock
was very light, and on cedar it was fair. Germination tests on seed disseminated by
these two species showed it was under 40 per cent, viable. All these crops contrast
sharply with those produced by the same species in 1947. Of the fifty-one Douglas fir
trees that bore cones this year, twenty had fair to good crops, as compared to forty-
three bearing the excellent crop of 1945. In the intervening years, five trees had poor
crops in 1946 and none bore cones in 1947. This year the indicated crops, in the best
cone-class of trees in each age-group, varied, as follows:—
Height-class.
Best Cone-class.
Age-class.
Type of Crop.
Average Number
of Cones
per Tree.
200	
190
120
130
130
100
Good
Poor
Good
Fair
Fail-
14,500
200	
180
90	
4,870
50	
620
40            	
1,250
This Douglas fir crop suffered the usual heavy losses of fair and poor crops. The
three trees with the best crops in the 90-year class produced upwards of 5,000 cones
each. Comparative counts indicated that 16 per cent, of these cones were " wormy,"
or failed to develop, and 42 per cent, were taken by squirrels before and after seed
matured. The accompanying photograph shows the detritus from green cones eaten
as soon as picked by one or more squirrels perched on a branch of a Douglas fir tree.
The viability of seed from these trees was noticeably low. This was due largely
to parthenospermy, a condition producing empty seed by lack of fertilization. Suitable
seed-traps were set out to sample the seed-fall from a selected acre of forest on which
there were six trees producing crops of cones. Four trees, in the 200-year age-class,
had fair crops, while the remaining seed-bearing trees were from the 90-year age-class
and carried poor crops.    Twenty-four ^-milacre traps caught seed with viability, as
indicated below :  Seed caught     Germination
Period of Seed-fall.
September, 1948	
October	
November	
December	
(M per
Acre).
87
118
26
5
per Cent, in
Germinator.
6
31
33
10
In the Annual Report for 1947 mention was made of the initiation of two tests
in the study of direct seeding. One of these was the broadcast sowing of small-seeded
species, and the other was an effort to protectively treat Douglas fir seed for sowing.
In the former test, 20 acres of a 7-year-old logged and burned area were sown with
Tsuga heterophylla and Thuja plicata on May 1st, 1946. Two and one-half ounces of
seed were used per acre—namely, 1 oz. of hemlock seed, 57 per cent, viable, and l1/-; oz.
of cedar seed, 78 per cent, viable. There is little change from the survival reported
last year, but most of the surviving seedlings can now be considered established.
Satisfactory restocking (1,000 or more seedlings per acre) occurs on 56 per cent, of the area. An effort was made to use the minimum amount of seed; results indicate that
4 oz. of good-quality seed should be ample for artificial seeding with hemlock and cedar,
if the site is carefully selected.
The field-work carried out in connection with the treatment of Douglas fir seed
has, as its main objective, the finding of some repellent which could be applied to the
seed as protection against the deer-mouse (Peromyscus), which is present in great
numbers on logged-over lands. At the present time, direct seeding of Douglas fir is
mainly prevented by the attacks of this mouse on the seed. Forty-one organic and
inorganic treatments in different strengths were tested with replications as possible
repellents against the mice. They were both in liquid and solid form and were conveyed
to the seed by different means. The treated seed was sown on seed spots on three
areas logged and burnt at different times, and all attacks by rodents were noted. Only
one treatment has been found as yet which gives some evidence of being effective, but
results in this case are not conclusive. Further tests are being carried out with it.
This treatment is mink castor, which is embodied with the seed in a pellet. Pelletting
appears to be the best method of combining seed and repellent in such a way that the
repellent's strength remains constant. Some preliminary work was carried out with
seed-pelletting. The ingredients used are kaolin, sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, fly
ash, and collodion flexile, and germination has been obtained from seed pelletted with
these materials. Much work remains to be done in finding out the best composition of
the pellet so that it will not disintegrate till forced to by the germination of the seed
and will not delay or prevent germination. Field tests showed that mice attacks on
treated seed varied on different areas and were the most intense on an area logged
and burnt in 1947. Trapping showed that this area supported a relatively small
population, but there would be less food available than on areas logged some years
previously. Results of the field tests show that any promising repellent must be tried
out on as many areas as possible to thoroughly test out its effectiveness. Mice were
also studied in captivity and various cage tests carried out. These studies, together
with results of the field tests, show that the mice find the seed by their sense of smell,
which is developed to a very marked degree. It was found that the average nightly
consumption of Douglas fir seed by five mice kept separate on a seven-day feeding test
was 217. The highest number of seeds eaten in one night by a mouse was 349. Field
tests with treated seed were found to be more reliable than tests with captive mice.
Snap-back trapping was carried out on six different areas once a month, the areas
ranging from undisturbed forest, areas logged and burnt at different dates, to second
growth. The purpose of this study is to find out at what period of the year the mouse
population starts to drop and at what period it starts to rise again. This information
could have an important bearing on the time of year in which direct seeding should
be carried out. This study will be carried on till results of a full year's trapping are
obtained. Results already show that populations vary greatly on different areas, being
heaviest on areas logged some years ago. An area trapped three weeks after a slash
fire in May showed an even distribution of mice over the whole area. Fourteen mice
were caught in a trap-line of 190 traps. The population very quickly built up, and
twenty-four mice were caught in 184 traps one month later. Trapping to date shows
that populations rise steadily from May and June (when trapping started) to August,
with a sharp rise in September and October, decreasing in November, and falling
sharply in December. The rodent ecology project organized by the Johns Hopkins
University over North America is also being participated in, and results of simultaneous
trapping over a three-day period on an area logged and burnt in 1947, and in undisturbed forest, showed a larger population on the former area.
Two thinning experiments were commenced during the year—one in alder stands
of two ages, and the other in Douglas fir.    Both are at the Cowichan Lake Forest Forest Economics.
SILVICULTURAL STUDIES
j"***..*.
Debris from  immature cones eaten by
squirrels, at base of Douglas fir.
Aspect of crown canopy in 20-year-old red alder; height to base of green crown is 50 feet.
Before thinning. After removing 50 per cent, of total volume.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948. LL 23
Experiment Station. The pure stands of red alder there are characterized by a high
number of stems per acre. In such stands the production of economic quantities of
sawlog material is greatly retarded due to the slow rate of natural thinning in the
early stage of their development. However, studies of volume increment just completed showed rapid volume production in the first twenty years of growth and indicated
that a stand of merchantable timber can be obtained on a technical rotation of forty
years if controlled by thinning. Accordingly, a series of experimental thinning plots,
totalling 12 acres, were established in natural red alder stands 20 and 40 years of age.
Their purpose was to study the effects of three replicated thinning grades upon tree
development and to gain a working knowledge of the management of red alder stands
both from the economic and silvicultural aspect. Some of these aspects, based upon
observations in the 40-year age-class, are discussed more fully in Research Note No. 14.
Doubtless the preliminary suggestions in this publication will be liable to modification
because practical evidence of the cultural treatment will not be forthcoming until
studies now initiated in the 20-year age-class have been conducted for a further period
of time. The effect of one degree of thinning treatment upon crown density in the
20-year age-class is illustrated by the accompanying photographs. With regard to
intermediate yields from these experimental thinnings in the 40-year age-class, 30- and
40-per-cent. cuts realized 18 and 25 cords per acre (merchantable volume) respectively;
a 50-per-cent cut in a 20-year-old stand yielded 24 cords per acre (total volume).
An industrial tool, the dial indicator, has been adapted for measurement of tree
growth at the Experiment Station. The method was proposed in the United States a
number of years ago but, as far as is known, it has not been tested in practice. A mount
was designed to enable measurement of radial growth by readings within an error of
0.001 inch. During the grand period of seasonal growth in stands of young Douglas
fir, this experimental error is exceeded by daily increment. Preliminary experiments
with this instrument were reported last year (Report of Forest Service for 1947, page
21).    On the basis of further study, it seems desirable to enlarge upon its use.
The growth-indicator gauge has been used this year to measure and compare
growth responses after thinning as an aid in discovering better silvicultural techniques.
Radial growth is being measured by this method to supply information on three phases
of thinning treatment, and a study is also being made of daily growth, and an instrument check. All measurements are on Douglas fir trees in the 35-40-year fir type on
similar sites at the Cowichan Lake Forest Experiment Station. In order to study
daily changes in growth and to test the accuracy of measurements, three trees were
used. One was used to determine any correction that may have been necessary from
a physical standpoint, but the instrument and the method proved to be absolutely
reliable, showing no aberration or other errors. Two trees of the same age and each
7 inches D.B.H. were used to compare growth in the open and in a stand. For the
twelve-month period from October 1st, 1947, the tree with unlimited growing space
added 0.244 inches radial growth, while the stand tree added 0.154 inches. The curves
of growth showed no divergence to April 29th, then the open-growing tree increased
more rapidly and continued to increase to mid-September, about three weeks longer
than the tree in the stand. During this period, both trees were subject to daily fluctuations of similar pattern, and long-period deviations from trend which were not concurrent. Three phases of thinning practice are being studied by this method. These
are: (1) The amount and period of response compared for different treatments, (2) the
effect of excessive exposure on trees of intermediate crown-class, and (3) the responses
to thinning during the growing season compared to similar treatment during the
dormant period. Phase (1) is being studied on crown and low thinnings made in
July, 1947. On these plots the growth in October, 1947, was much greater than for
October, 1948, but as the untreated check-plot followed the same pattern, this stimulus LL 24 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
in October was not a result of treatment. However, the crown-thinned plot made
rapid growth during the following summer and totalled 0.142 inch of growth for the
year. As this is 30 per cent, more than the average growth in the low-thinned plot,
the resulting response, three to fifteen months after thinning, favours crown-thinning.
Phase (2) is a study of Class 3 (intermediate crown-class) trees that normally would
have been removed in a heavy low-thinning, but were left to protect natural gaps in
the stand. One such tree left in a gap appeared to suffer depression in growth, but
two other similar trees released from the oppression of dominant alder trees, and
thereby exposed to full light, grew faster but not more so than the stand left after
normal low-thinning. Phase (3) is still in its early stages, as thinnings were made in
June and November, 1948, and one more is in prospect for March, 1949. The immediate
effect of crown-thinning was very noticeable after these cuttings. In July the summer-
thinned stand grew more than twice as fast as the untreated stand and maintained a
relatively faster pace to the end of September, when diameter growth finished. In this
stand the average radial increment for the year was 0.085 inch in the untreated portion,
while the plot thinned in June added 0.142 inch. The latter increment was exactly the
same as current increment on the plot similarly crown-thinned in July, 1947, but, of
course, part of the response in the latter plot came before the current growth measurements started on October 1st. It is hoped to publish more details of this study shortly.
In a study of pruning plantations at Green Timbers Forestry Station (Report of
the Forest Service, 1942, 1946, and 1947) 13-year-old Douglas fir trees live-pruned in
July and September, 1942, healed 96 and 95 per cent, of their respective knot-areas by
September, 1944. These and other trees were pruned at 17 years of age in June and
September, 1946; these groups each showed 95 per cent, of knot-area healed by
August, 1948. Thus age made no difference to rate of healing, but the autumn-pruned
trees recovered somewhat faster than those pruned in the summer. The pruning in
1942 demonstrated that healing is facilitated when part of the living tissue forming
a collar at the base of branches is removed in pruning. It now appears detrimental to
remove much of the collar. Three groups of trees pruned in 1946 showed differing
rates of recovery, for no other reason than variation in the amount of branch-collar
removed in pruning.   The results for two years are as follows:—
Per Cent, of Total Knot-area occluded.
In One Year. In Two Years. Ratio of Area of Collar.
48 90   2.73
58 95   1.98
64 99   1.56
Comparisons in this table, though based on only forty knots, indicate that very
little of the branch-collar needs to be removed in order to obtain occlusion of knots in
minimum time. This study revealed that rate of healing was not affected by pruning
in different years, nor was there any difference in healing rate when pruning was done
in one stage and two stages, the latter four years apart.
Some work has been done on the measurements of introduced species of trees
planted in the Fraser Valley and near Sidney. The data obtained for these and other
plantings will shortly be published in a research note to make available information
showing the relative value of exotic trees growing in the Coastal climate.
SOIL AND SITE-TYPE STUDIES.
During May and June a study was made of site-types in second-growth hemlock
stands near Nootka on the West Coast of Vancouver Island. The P or sword-fern site-
type of the Douglas fir region was easily recognized in hemlock stands, though the
general plant community was slightly modified. Deer fern is often more abundant
than sword fern.   Beech fern, wild lily of the valley, salmonberry, and elderberry are Forest Economics.
SILVICULTURAL STUDIES.
Two views of indicator gauge developed to measure radial growth in trees.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948.
LL 25
also common. The intermediate PG and G site-types were difficult to recognize. Salal,
the most abundant plant of the Douglas fir region, is not conspicuous, except in understocked stands and along the shore-line. Tall blue bilberry, false azalea, and evergreen
huckleberry are quite common, but their value for site identification is doubtful. The
poorest site-types, G Pa and G U, could not be directly recognized, because, in general,
tree lichens were rarely found. However, a new, equivalent site-type was noted. It
contains salal, bunchberry, and sphagnum moss. It appears to be typical of shallow
soils in which pockets in the bedrock form permanent pools of water. The forest stand
consists of stunted hemlock and spike-topped cedar. Further study is needed, particularly in the poor sites, before adequate information is obtained on site-types for the
hemlock region.
In co-operation with a private company, an attempt was made to correlate site-
types with commercial cruises. The stand examined was overmature. It was found
that the site-type generally indicated a much better stand than actually existed. This
was due to the extent to which decay and wind-throw had reduced the original mature
forest-cover.
Assistance was given to a private company in organizing a site-type survey. No
previous attempt had been made to survey and map an area using the ground cover as
an indicator of site quality, consequently some valuable experience was gained. It was
found that a crew unfamiliar with botany was soon able to identify most plants of
indicator value and to correctly assess site values after three or four days' field supervision. For mapping purposes, compass lines 20 chains apart would appear to be a
maximum if site-types are to be reasonably accurately drawn. A few additional cross-
lines at key-points greatly increase the precision. A satisfactory scale for mapping
would appear to be about 20 chains to the inch. A topographic base map is an
assistance because to some extent, but not entirely, site quality and topography are
correlated. A standardized field sheet and legend is desirable, particularly if additional
information such as degree of stocking, age of stand, advanced reproduction, etc., is
needed. About 2 to 2% miles of strip can be covered in a day. This allows sufficient
time for careful work and additional notes that may be required.
NURSERY FERTILITY STUDIES.
As in previous years, soil and seedling samples were collected from each Forest
Service nursery for analysis. The purpose is to maintain a constant check on soil
fertility and seedling growth so that appropriate measures may be taken when deterioration becomes evident.
Seedling samples were taken from the fertilizer experimental beds established in
1947. Positive results were obtained at Green Timbers, while no results could be seen
from the Duncan and Quinsam experiments. Chemical fertilizers were applied at one
and two times the following basic rates: Ammonium sulphate, 150 lb. per acre; superphosphate, 600 lb.; and muriate of potash, 100 lb. The following statistics were
obtained at Green Timbers:—
Seedling Data.
Standard Error
of Mean
Difference.
Check.
NP.
NK.
PK.
NPK.
2NPK.
N2PK.
NP2K.
Average length of top (cm.)	
Average dry weight (gms.)
Average number of primary
±1.10
±0.13
±0.50
9.70
0.70
8.50
13.00
1.23
8.40
12.30
1.00
9.90
1
14.70    j 12.70
1.13    |    1.03
12.70
1.03
9.40
13.00
1.03
8.30
13.30
1.03
9.30 LL 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
In a second experiment at Quinsam the above fertilizers were applied to 1-0 stock
this spring.    The following results were obtained:—
Seedling Data.
Standard Error
of Mean
Difference.
Check.
NP.
NK.
PK.
NPK.
Average length of top (cm.)	
Average dry weight (gms.)	
Average number of primary roots
;1.90
--0.23
-0.80
14.30
1.37
6.20
19.70
2.03
8.40
19.00
1.73
7.90
18.70
1.60
7.50
21.00
1.93
8.50
Further experiments are being carried on this year so that, when the need arises,
there will be adequate information for fertilizer recommendations.
Some survival studies were undertaken this spring. The object was to try to find
out the seedling characteristics associated with high field survival; that is, the optimum
length of top, top to root ratio, etc. Six widely varying types of seedling were set out
in plots. However, due to the unusually cool, moist summer, survival was uniformly
high and little information was obtained.    Survival varied from 96 to 99.5 per cent. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948. LL 27
REFORESTATION.
FOREST NURSERIES.
The most important development of the year was the selection of a site near Elko
for a forest nursery in the yellow pine region of the Southern Interior. Experimental
seed-beds will be started immediately, but no permanent buildings will be erected until
standard forest-nursery techniques have been adapted to local conditions.
Production of 2-0 planting stock at the three nurseries on the Coast was reduced
to 10,000,000 trees due to the abnormal weather conditions of 1947 and 1948. Late
spring frosts followed by cold, wet weather delayed sowing new seed-beds for more than
a month, and it was the end of May before the ground could be worked. Precipitation
during the summer months was double the normal average, with a record rainfall in
November of 14.5 inches at Green Timbers and 16.8 inches at Campbell River.
Seed-beds were sown this year for 10,000,000 trees and, until circumstances
warrant an increase, it is proposed to maintain production at this level. The labour
situation eased off considerably during 1948, and essential work was accomplished
without the difficulty experienced during the past three years.
Records and experiments on soil-fertility were continued, and details of the work
done are given in the Economics Section of this Report under " Soil Surveys and
Research." The pathological and entomological services of the Dominion Government
also did considerable work in the nurseries on fungous diseases and insect enemies.
Experimental sowing of hemlock seed was carried on at all three nurseries in an
attempt to improve the production of hemlock planting stock. In the past considerable
difficulty has been experienced in carrying the seedlings through the first winter
without frost-heaving and the fact that hardwood sawdust did not give the same protection to hemlock as it does to Douglas fir. Varying proportions of the two species
were sown in seed-beds, and at present it appears that the mixture of equal numbers of
the two species will give the best results.
At Green Timbers 5,200,000 trees were shipped for spring planting and 500,000
for a fall planting project, leaving 3,500,000 seedlings available for planting in the
spring of 1949.
Improvements in the soil-spreading machine now make it possible to use damp soil.
The spreading of hardwood sawdust for winter mulch was accomplished with ease, and
it is anticipated that no difficulty will arise in spreading soil on seed-beds this spring.
As an improvement on the manually operated weed-burner, a trailer for the tractor was
fabricated on which three burners were installed, together with a 20-gallon tank. Air-
pressure is supplied from the air-pump on the power take-off on the tractor. The three
burners give a flame wide enough to cover the full width of the bed in one operation,
reducing the number of man-days for burning from 11 to 2%. An electric hedge-
clipper was purchased and operated from a portable generator. It trimmed all the
hedges around the nursery area in four days, instead of the usual twenty-nine man-days
required previously.
At Campbell River 4,159,000 trees were shipped to planting projects in the vicinity
of the nursery, and 5,000,000 seedlings will be available for planting in the spring of
1949. The white-grub infestation which appeared for the first time in 1947 is still
increasing and, up to the present time, no effective control measures have been established. Considerable improvement in the method of root-pruning was accomplished at
this nursery by attaching a stationary blade directly to the Farmall tractor.
At the Duncan nursery a new residence was constructed to provide suitable living
accommodation for the superintendent. An underground telephone cable was laid, and
considerable quantities of soil were hauled for levelling purposes. LL 28 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
One million trees were shipped to planting projects from the Duncan nursery in
the spring of 1948, and 471,000 in November for fall planting. This leaves 1,600,000
Douglas fir for the 1949 spring projects.
The Victoria laboratory of the Dominion Forest Pathology Investigations conducted
further experiments in the control of damping-off. No appreciable control was
obtained, although some treatments warrant further investigation.
SEED COLLECTIONS.
In the spring all indications pointed to a bumper crop of cones for most forest
species on the Lower Coast. However, due to weather conditions, pollination was not
complete and, except for the southern part of Vancouver Island, the seed did not develop
in the cones, and collections were cancelled. From the small quantities collected, 207
lb. of Douglas fir seed was obtained from 595 bushels, giving a yield of 0.35 lb. per
bushel of cones. Hemlock seed amounted to 3.6 lb. from 7 bushels of cones. Four pounds
of cedar seed was gathered by shaking the trees after the cones had opened. However,
this method did not prove successful with hemlock. Yellow pine seed was also obtained
for the new nursery at Elko.
In order to maintain a constant production of seedlings in our nurseries, large
collections of cones must be made whenever a good cone-crop occurs. In the past, considerable difficulty has been experienced in obtaining sufficient cones to assure us of
enough seed to carry over the intervening years. To facilitate this work, a cone-drying
shed was constructed at Courtenay to take green cones directly from the collectors for
storage until the peak of the collecting period is over. The shed, 84 feet long and 24
feet wide, is open on all four sides to give the maximum amount of air circulation, but
is covered with a wire screen as a protection against rodents and birds.
PLANTING.
Due to a late spring, planting did not get under way until the latter part of March
and continued on into May. In normal years, planting starts in February and finishes
the first week in April. The subsequent wet summer favoured this late planting, and
initial examination shows above-average survival.
A marked improvement in the labour situation resulted in more stability among
the planting crews, and most of the men remained for the duration of the project.
More interest was shown among the planters than in previous years. Some twenty-five
men employed on forest protection during the summer months as assistant rangers,
patrolmen, etc., were transferred to the Coast for winter work in planting camps. In
most cases these men were trained for planting-crew foremen.
The spring planting programme constituted nine projects, which planted 8,289,500
trees on 9,794 acres. Fall planting was carried on during the latter part of October
and November at two projects where 837,200 trees were planted on 770 acres. Fall
planting, as a rule, is done at high elevations where snow conditions prevent spring
planting. Logging companies planted 1,402,000 trees on 2,140 acres during the year.
The complete statistics for the 1948 projects and a summary of planting for the past
ten years will be found on page 78 of the Appendix.
No plantations were damaged by fire during the year, and total losses due to fire
are less than 1 per cent, of total planted.
PREPARATION OF PLANTING AREAS.
Snag-falling was carried on at 11 projects, and 151,937 snags were felled on 16,843
acres. Most of this work was done with hand-fallers working on an hourly wage.
Power-saw fallers contracted the falling of snags on one area and were paid by stump Reforestation
*'   ■ '-*••-'*.<_.,.
iwRP
Two-year-old Douglas fir trees in
seed-beds.
Trees being lifted and tied in bundles.
Planting logged and burned areas.
Five thousand trees being baled.
Four thousand trees heeled in, ready
for planting.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948. LL 29
scale (basal area). Another power-saw faller contracted to fall snags by the acre after
a thorough reconnaissance of the area had been made in company with a Forest Officer.
This latter method is the most desirable, but it is unfortunate that most falling contractors have not sufficient experience to appraise a snag-falling job nor the mobile
camp equipment which is necessary on most of these projects.
Road-building was hampered by an unusually wet summer and fall, and more time
was required on the maintenance of existing roads. A crawler-type compressor was
acquired, which proved to be very effective in ditching and digging out hard-pan. This
piece of equipment promises to be a valuable asset. A total of 31 miles of old logging
grade were converted for truck use, 3 miles of new roads were constructed, and some
130 miles of road maintained.
One forty-man and two twenty-man camps were moved to new sites. Building
material was in better supply and improvements were made to five camps.
PLANTATIONS.
Survival examinations were made in the 1945 and 1947 plantations, and new plots
were established in the 1948 planting. Mortality in the plantations was a little less
than the 25-per-cent. normal average. In view of the exceptionally wet year, indications are that the 1948 plantings will have a mortality of less than 10 per cent.
A number of road-signs were made and set up on the various plantations. These
signs will indicate to the public the reforested areas and the dates on which they were
planted. LL 30 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
PARKS AND RECREATION.
INTRODUCTION.
During the past twenty years a growing public demand for increased outdoor
recreation has placed new emphasis on the recreational use of forest lands and has
pointed to the need for specialized consideration of this phase of forestry. Efforts to
meet this need led to the establishment of a Parks Division within the Forest Service
in May, 1948.
From its beginning this new Division was charged with responsibility for the
administration, development, and operation of all parks created under the " Forest
Act " and, more recently, it has been required to assume responsibility for the adminis-
tratiomof recreation facilities in Provincial forest reserves.
Preliminary consideration of the park and recreation problems of British Columbia
revealed the magnitude of the task of adapting such vast recreational potentialities to
the uses and needs of a rapidly growing population and indicated a need for an
increased and reorganized staff. Accordingly, the work of the Division has been
broken into three phases: (1) Administration and Development, (2) Reconnaissance
and Inventory, and (3) Planning.
Specialized sections have been set up within the Division to cover these fields, and
the nuclei of their respective staffs have been assigned specific duties. This employment
of available personnel has produced a beginning in the assessment of Provincial recreational potentialities and a start in any analysis of our Provincial needs.
ADMINISTRATION AND DEVELOPMENT.
General.
Early in June the Parks Division began the problem of recruiting a suitable staff.
The Civil Service Commission provided office personnel and draughtsmen and, as far as
their numbers permitted, personnel from the former Parks Section of the Economics
Division filled key positions in the new Division. Initial efforts toward reorganization
have been complicated by a lack of trained park personnel and, to some extent, by difficulties of adapting accepted park and recreation practices to situations existing in
British Columbia.
For the time being it has been necessary to group administration and development
as a single section controlled directly by the forester in charge of the Parks Division.
However, the allocation of suitable officers to reconnaissance and inventory and planning sections has begun to distribute responsibility and has enabled a sound beginning
in the systematic development of adequate Provincial recreational facilities.
Administration.
While channels of communication and administrative procedures as established by
the older divisions of the Forest Service are being made effective, the shortage of
qualified personnel has tended to concentrate administrative problems in Division headquarters. This has delayed the clarification of some problems affecting policy and has
prevented an early enunciation of the principles to govern park and recreation administration in the Province. The matter of policy, as applicable to parks and recreation
areas, has, however, been given much study, and the Division has acquired extensive
material for consideration in the formulation of a practical statement of policy.
Development.
Construction which could be undertaken during 1948 was limited to that for which
detailed plans existed or for which such plans could be prepared at short notice. Noteworthy new developments were limited to widely varied projects in six scattered areas. Parks and Recreation
MOUNT SEYMOUR  PARK.
Grader on road-maintenance and clearing ditches.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948. LL 31
Mount Seymour Park.
Construction of the mountain highway, recommenced in 1947 and designed to make
Mount Seymour's sub-alpine attractions more readily accessible from Vancouver's
crowded thoroughfares, was continued and, except for gravelling of the last 2,000 feet,
was completed for a distance of 3.88 miles to " The Upper Parking Lot." Construction
of this highway is being carried out by contract.
Parks Division personnel have been employed, with the use of a newly acquired
yarder, in clearing and conditioning ski runs and trails and in running location surveys
for an additional 4% miles of mountain highway.
Peace Arch Park.
Development at this strategically located beauty spot is intended to encourage
increased day-use through the provision of all-weather picnic facilities and long-needed
toilet installations. The existing water system was extended approximately 800 feet,
and approximately 1,000 feet of drainage and sewage pipes were laid by day-labour
under staff supervision, while contracts were let for construction of a 30- by 60-foot
kitchen-dining building and modern 20- by 27-foot comfort-station building, complete
with requisite electrical equipment, plumbing fixtures, filter bed, and septic tank. Incidental to this new work has been the completion of arrangements for the substitution
of an underground conduit for the unsightly pole-line which has long carried electrical
power through the park to the Peace Arch and the International Boundary Commission's boundary marker. Progress throughout has been satisfactory, and there is every
indication that improved recreational facilities will be available for use early in 1949.
Manning Park.
The principal development undertaken in this important park during 1948 was the
construction of 3% miles of pack-trail, with one 60-foot 20-ton bridge across the
Similkameen River, to " Windy Joe Lookout." In addition,- one-quarter mile of highway
was built from the Hope-Princeton Highway to " Cambie Crossing " and one-quarter
mile of protection road was constructed to connect the Lightning Lakes Trail with
" Cambie Crossing." A similar connecting-link, approximately one-quarter mile in
length, was provided between the highway and the trail to " Windy Joe."
A 25-foot 15-ton bridge was built over a creek on the Lightning Lakes Trail, and
the old Cambie Bridge across the Similkameen was reconditioned by the renewal of
stringers and decking.
Approximately 2 acres were cleared and seeded to grass in preparation for future
development of an adequate administrative headquarters.
Wells Gray Park.
To continue the Dawson Falls Road, begun in 1947, a right-of-way was cleared and
a rough access road was grubbed and graded for approximately 1% miles.
Little Qualicum Falls Park.
During the summer a small crew constructed a 50-foot bridge, removed and burned
unsightly log-jams from the channel of the river, and excavated approximately 600 feet
of ditches to drain approximately 10 acres for possible future use as a camp-site area.
In October a relocation survey was run over the park-entrance road and, in the middle
of November, reconstruction of the road to provide for a 20-foot surface, improved
grades, and more direct alignment, was begun. A new roadway, 4,300 feet in length,
with required parking and picnic areas has been laid out, and approximately 1,000 feet
of subgrade, involving 3,500 cubic yards of excavation, have been completed. LL 32 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Langford Workshop.
Parks Division personnel are being used in the construction of a 24- by 50-foot
workshop on newly acquired property adjacent to the Langford Ranger Station. This
two-story building will be used as a shop for the construction of park furnishings and
equipment.
Maintenance.
Island parks were maintained throughout the season by employment of five park
attendants under the supervision of a full-time parks officer. Routine maintenance was
carried out by full-time Parks personnel in Mount Seymour, Manning, and Wells Gray
Parks. In Manning Park and Wells Gray Park this consisted largely of normal forest-
protection measures to minimize losses through fire and human use and included the
establishing of a lookout-man on " Windy Joe Lookout " in Manning Park, while in
Mount Seymour Park the chief consideration was continuous road and trail maintenance
and snow-removal. The latter problem has been considerably eased by the allocation of
a newly acquired Huber grader to this work.
RECONNAISSANCE AND INVENTORY.
General.
The purposes of reconnaissance and inventory within the Parks Division are to
enumerate and assess the recreational qualities of selected lands and to take detailed
stock of all other resources and other uses of these lands in order that the recreational
values may be balanced against these other resources and uses. Equally necessary is
the collection of detailed information pertaining to the location and facilities for existing recreation areas. The analyses of recreational needs and preferences of various
population groups must be studied in conjunction with the above.
Reconnaissance.
Two sources of information are being probed in search of the information on which
to base planning and future development. Through the years a wealth of data has
been compiled through earlier reconnaissances in Provincial parks and related areas.
Reports on such field-work are being studied, and pertinent information is systematically tabulated. Such research has resulted in the creation of a file system in which
approximately 200 parks, recreation reserves, and potential recreational areas are listed.
Distribution and natural features of these areas are indicated on a large-scale map.
At this time we have reports for only thirty of the areas mentioned above.
Chilliwack Lake, adjacent to the International Boundary and half-way between
Cultus Lake Park and Manning Park, and Tenquille Lake, near Pemberton on the
Pacific Great Eastern Railway, were inspected and reported upon. Pavilion Lake,
north-east of Lillooet, and Bowron Lake, east of Quesnel, were closely examined and
assessed from a recreational view-point, and McMillan Creek, near Prince George, was
visited and evaluated. Silver Star Park, in the vicinity of Vernon, was examined as a
potential ski-ing area, and the feasibility and desirability of undertaking winter-sports
development in this area is being considered. Similar examinations were made of Pilot
Bay, on Kootenay Lake, and of a proposed roadside reserve extending along the easterly
shore of Kootenay Lake from Pilot Bay toward Creston.
In addition to such field-work, considerable effort has gone into the search for lands
capable of filling present and foreseeable recreational needs. Large areas have been
statused along the west coast of Vancouver Island and in the vicinity of Cameron Lake,
Little Qualicum Falls Park, and MacMillan Park in an effort to locate suitable lands to
fill specific needs. Parks and Recreation
Bridge on " Windy Joe " Lookout trail.
,if.„-
:■ ■   ;
Portable unit for park furniture maintenance.  report of forest service, 1948. ll 33
Inventory.
This phase of park and recreational forestry must provide basically two things:
Firstly, we must enumerate and record all resources that lie within our parks and
forest reserves. A small beginning has been made in this regard, but it will be some
years yet before this important work can be brought up to date. Secondly, we must
complete a survey of recreational needs, present and future, as well as an inventory of
recreational resources or potential resources existing in parks and forest reserves. In
this regard, we were again only able to make a small start.
During 1948 our park inventory changed as follows:—
Class A Parks.
Kitsumgallum (vicinity of Terrace) reduced from 109 acres to 25 acres.
Little Qualicum Falls (vicinity of Parksville) increased from 130.3 acres to 206.86
acres.
McDonald (vicinity of Sidney)—a new park—5 acres.
Petroglyph (vicinity of Nanaimo)—a new park—3.84 acres.
Cultus Lake (vicinity of Chilliwack)—a new park—950 acres.
Class B Parks.
Tow Hill (vicinity of Queen Charlottes)—a new park—480 acres.
Class C Parks.
Nakusp Recreation (vicinity of Nakusp) reduced from 91 acres to 84.1 acres.
Special Parks.
Summit Lake cancelled, 7,200 acres.
The following is a general summary of parks as at January 1st, 1949:—
Class of Park.
A	
Number.
21
Acreage.
290,729.950
7,054,686.000
4,009.445
3,458,695.000
B	
5
C 	
28
Special 	
4
58
Totals	
10,808,120.395
PLANNING.
General.
From 1941 to 1948 a limited park staff was occupied mainly with general reconnaissances of park areas and meeting the various planning and supervision requirements that arose from small park projects. With increased emphasis on forest
recreation and a rapid expansion of park-development funds the need of detailed recreation plans became a necessity. Because the preparing of such plans for even a few
of the more important parks will take several years' work, it was necessary to limit
planning in 1948 to a few vitally important areas which are clearly indicated for early
intensive use. Mount Seymour and Manning Parks are outstanding in this respect,
and these areas were given attention.
Two survey crews were utilized for the specific purpose of doing the necessary
survey-work. One such crew of two students and two graduates spent the summer
months at Mount Seymour Park, and two other forestry students were assigned to
Manning Park. LL 34 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Mount Seymour Park.
A master plan, on which has been plotted present and future summer and winter
recreational-use areas and required development, was drawn up and supplemented with
a written explanatory report.    Actual " layout " plans were completed as follows:—
Surveys were made of chair tow-lift locations and main ski-runs. Most areas of
the park were covered with from 6 feet to 9 feet of snow when work started, so particular attention was given to making traverses of long ski-runs and possible ski-lift
locations. The same routes in the summer are very difficult to travel due to heavy
undergrowth and so rough as to make judgment of their possibilities subject to error.
A study of biting-insects and measures for their control was undertaken. It is
realized that all phases of summer recreation will be greatly limited unless these insects
can be controlled. Previous experimental work showed that large numbers of black-fly
larva? could be flushed out of the streams by the use of a water-miscible solution of
D.D.T. This work was continued in an effort to find out what strength of solution was
needed, how often the streams had to be treated, and how many streams carried insects.
Unfortunately, the extremely damp summer made comparative results with previous
years impossible of determination. From the past season's studies a fairly adequate
control plan can be initiated.
A number of bench-marks were established throughout the park to serve as control
points for various survey projects that may be undertaken from time to time. These
were established by staff compass traverses and elevations set by precise levels.
A contour map was made of the vicinity of the Administration Building. This
particular section of the park is highly important because of the number of improvements planned for it. To enable these to be shown in suitable detail, the map was made
with a scale of 1 inch equals 50 feet with 5-foot contours.
A site map was prepared of the vicinity of the Administration Building. This
structure should be completed next year. A major part of the work to be done is in
stairs, walks, drains, grading, and landscaping. To facilitate this, the map was prepared to a scale of 1 inch equals 4 feet, and with a 1-foot contour interval.
One of the not-too-distant necessities is a new ski lodge. A possible site has been
under study for several years, and this year a site plan was prepared after the whole
area had been topographically mapped.
To provide parking-space for 1,000 cars in a limited area so that snow-ploughing
is possible and, at the same time, the tall trees are not opened up enough to be wind-
thrown has posed a problem for some years. This main area has now been topographically mapped, together with an adjacent piece of bench land which is ideally suitable
for club cabins.
The survey line theoretically designating the height of land dividing Mount
Seymour Park from the Greater Vancouver Water District has been located decidedly
in favour of the latter concern. This greatly prejudices possible park improvements
which are concentrated along the ridge. A new line was run to take advantage of all
terrain that could be drained or graded to place it within the park. This new line will
now be inspected by the Water Board surveyor.
A botanical collection was made by a student who mounted specimens of the commoner trees, shrubs, and flowers to be found in the park. This collection will be kept
for reference at the Administration Building.
Manning Park.
Proposed improvements are so concentrated that a 2-foot contour map was made
for the site planning of the administration area and concession-site.
The main development area embracing ski-runs, pastures, swimming-lake, picnic
and camp ground, parking-lots, and various other improvements was covered with a
5-foot contour map. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948. LL 35
The survey crew did most of the location for the " Windy Joe Lookout " trail which
was built during the summer.
A reconnaissance of road and trail routes to Three Brothers Mountains was made
to check on possible routes, and the findings were recorded for future reference.
The principal drawback to summer recreational use is the lack of swimming facilities. Much of the planning depends on how and where this can be overcome. An old
river-bed appears to have definite possibilities for excavation and flooding. Detailed
survey information was obtained to guide a tentative design.
A 2-foot contour map is now available to guide further planning of the proposed
lodge-site and camp-ground area.
Miscellaneous.
From time to time various requests for advice or help are received from cities or
communities.    Where possible, their problems are investigated and suggestions made.
Advice was asked on the development of the Okanagan Lake water-front, and a
preliminary plan prepared. It was accepted almost in its entirety, and a great deal of
progress has already been made on the lake water-front as recommended.
Upon the request of the Summerland Ski Club, a short survey of their grounds
was made. A complete design and plan for a ski-jump was sent them and, during
the summer, work has progressed so favourably that this club has been awarded the
Okanagan Ski Zone Tournament. LL 36 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
FOREST MANAGEMENT.
Value of production estimated for 1948 reaches a total of $363,786,000. This
reflects the inflationary tendencies of the times and, thus, far exceeds all previous
figures. Total cut for the Province, it will be noted, is 4,293,000,000 board-feet, log
scale, the greatest volume in our history, and about 106,000,000 feet in advance of 1947.
Statistical tables in the Appendix of this Report supply details of management
activity. The comments which follow comprise the highlights of the data enumerated
in the detailed tables.
Paper production is about the same as the previous year, but pulp exports
increased.    Values are up with higher prices.
Water-borne lumber shipments dropped off in the latter part of the year due to
reduced shipment to the United Kingdom, which market far exceeded all others in
volume absorbed.    The reduction from 1947 is about 267,000,000 feet.
The Interior districts account for the gain in production volume, while the Coast
region shows a loss of some 20,000,000 feet.
Of the total production of 4,293,000,000 feet—all products in board-feet—Douglas
fir again leads in volume by two to one over hemlock and cedar. Spruce and balsam
follow, with larch next, over 100,000,000 feet in volume.
As to origin of the cut, timber sales again lead with 1,400,000,000 feet, with old
Crown grants a close second with 1,000,000,000 feet. Timber licences are again in
third place. Volume production in cubic feet shows an appreciable advance by reason
of the tendency toward closer utilization through relogging for salvage values.
Logging inspection reports increased with the wider logging activity and the
favourable fire season. Timber-sale operations are the leading type of logging activity.
There still exists a load of work in this field far beyond the scope of adequate supervision by the limited number of fieldmen employed.
Trespass cases increased slightly, but volume was lower than the previous year by
reason of earlier detection and closer supervision.
With decrease in pre-emptions and added field assistance by Land Inspectors, total
inspections number over 100 less than in 1947.
Lands examined for disposition under the " Land Act " remain at about the same
level as in the previous year. Increased population and better economic conditions tend
to maintain higher levels established. Increasing assistance through Lands Branch
Inspectors greatly facilitates this work.
Timber-sale activity is shown by a table indicating existing sales upwards of 6,500
in number, with new sales for the year 2,600, including cash sales numbering 450.
Some 1,603,000 acres are held under timber-sale contract with guarantee deposits in
excess of $2,000,000.
Stumpage prices on timber sales show a wide range due to inclusion of highly
competitive cases. It will be noted the weighted average price bid on all species
remains identical with the 1947 figure, based on comparative tables where royalty is
included as part of the stumpage price bid.
The number of sawmills throughout the Province showed a slight increase over
the number in 1947, but the 37 additional mills is small indeed compared to the 400-mill
increase of the previous year.    Shingle-mills were reduced in number from 73 to 68.
Log exports for 1948 almost doubled those of 1947, with increase of quotas by the
Federal Timber Control Authority. Eighty-four per cent, of the total originated on
Crown grants with the export privilege.
The value of minor products marketed outside British Columbia was $5,800,000,
slightly higher than 1947 and with the United States market retaining the lead by a
wide margin. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948. LL 37
With the increase in the total production, timber marks and draughting-office work
showed a marked advance over the normal activity in these two directions.
Maintenance of Forest-cover Maps.
Except in the Fort George Forest District, where forest-cover maps are revised
seasonally by temporary assistants, all forest district offices maintain their map records
on a current revision basis. In the course of the year 1,494 maps were revised, as
follows: Victoria, 409; district offices, 494; Rangers'offices, 591. Of the above total
maps, 80 are new replacements.
Instruction in forest-cover mapping and the organization of maps and plans was
given to sixty-six Forest Service personnel (at twenty-three points throughout the
Province), as follows:—
Ranger School, Green Timbers  20
Prince Rupert Forest District     2
Fort George Forest District     3
Kamloops     3
Nelson     8
Vancouver   30
Total   66
The fire atlas for the Province has been maintained from fire and slash hazard
reports. LL 38 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
FOREST PROTECTION.
WEATHER.
General weather conditions throughout the Province during the 1948 fire season
were the most favourable experienced in many years from a forest-protection point of
view. Short periods of high hazard occurred periodically in all districts, but these
were only of temporary duration, and at no time during the season was a serious hazard
build-up experienced.
In the Vancouver Forest District snowfall was above normal during pre-season
winter and early spring months, with run-off retarded into the early months of the fire
season. The summer which followed brought well-distributed rain and high humidities.
Precipitation was, generally, much above average, with one recording-station showing
150 per cent, over 1947 for the six-month period. Weather records taken at five
stations on Vancouver Island in the region south of Nanaimo show only eight days
throughout the entire fire season when relative humidity registered below 50 per cent.
The season definitely concluded with a general heavy rainfall in mid-September, 2.6
inches precipitation being recorded on September 14th in one particular region of the
district.
In the Coastal region of the Prince Rupert Forest District, the early part of April,
first half of May, and the first half of June proved hazardous in the Bella Coola region.
Low humidity and drying winds created periods of dangerous weather, more severe
than encountered in this region for several years. This condition also applied to some
extent around Prince Rupert during June. The Queen Charlotte Islands suffered one of
the driest seasons remembered, with creeks and wells, which previously gave year-
round flow, drying up for a short period. This was of comparatively short duration,
but winds from the west and north-west, which are particularly dry, increased the
hazard with low-humidity conditions. Other than during the periods mentioned, the
season was average for these parts of the district. In the Interior portion of the
district, snowfall during the winter of 1947-48 was greater than it had been for
several years. Spring run-off was late, with consequent flood conditions occurring in
all parts when the usual warm weather and rains prevailed in May and June. The
month of May and the first half of June were the only periods at all hazardous. The
balance of the season was wet, with fairly numerous electric storms, most of which,
fortunately, were accompanied by precipitation. The only exception was a local condition which existed within a small radius of Terrace, where one of the driest seasons in
many years was experienced. In this small localized region there were only 4 inches of
rainfall from April to mid-September.
In the Fort George Forest District a cold spring followed heavier-than-normal
snowfall on both sides of the Rockies and warm weather did not occur until about
mid-May. With the warmer weather, that portion of the district west of the Rockies
experienced a dry period of approximately six weeks, broken by rain on July 1st.
Subsequently, rainfall in this region was heavier than normal, and although a considerable number of electrical storms occurred, no serious outbreaks of fire resulted. East
of the Rockies the weather following the May warm-up was similar, but wet weather
extended further into the month of July. Generally speaking, the season was
favourable.
In the Kamloops Forest District the wet cycle of weather experienced for the past
several seasons continued, with even more prolonged periods of precipitation. Unlike
1947, however, the spring hazard proved negligible with actual arrival of the warm
weather several weeks later than the previous year. With the late spring, arrived
record flood conditions which prevailed until July. Fortunately, during this period of
serious flood, with many sections of the country isolated, very few fires occurred.    It is REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948. LL 39
notable that, in the Cariboo portion of the district, many hay meadows remained as
lakes all year, a condition which has not been experienced for many seasons. Relatively few electrical storms occurred in the District, and they were, for the most part,
accompanied by heavy rains.
Weather in the Nelson Forest District during the season was the wettest recorded
for that district. Winter snows were late in melting and, in common with the Kamloops
Forest District, serious flood conditions obtained as the warmer weather appeared.
During the period May 1st to September 30th, the longest period without rain was a
total of seventeen days between August 29th and September 14th. This is something
of a record for the district which ordinarily represents the most hazardous section of
the Province. It is interesting to note that during this same period rain fell on a
total of sixty-four days as compared to only forty-one days in the same period in 1947.
Electrical storms followed much the same pattern as last season. The more severe
storms occurred in the East Kootenay rather than in the Arrow and Kootenay Lake
Districts as is usual. Practically all storms were accompanied by heavy rain, and fire
occurrence was comparatively light.
FIRES.
Occurrences and Causes.
With only 799 fires recorded during the season, the year 1948 set a record low for
the past thirty-five years, 578 fires having been recorded in 1913. The season's occurrence represents also only approximately 51 per cent, of the past ten-year average of
1,555 fires. The record small number of fires occurring is directly attributed to the
outstandingly favourable weather obtaining.
As an indication of trend and for comparison with the tabulation which has
appeared in previous Reports, distribution of fire occurrence by forest districts for the
past ten-year period is indicated below:— Fire occurrence
during Ten-year
Period 1939-48, Percentage
Forest District. inclusive. of all B.C.
Vancouver   3,823 24.59
Prince Rupert  586 3.77
Fort George  1,360 8.75
Kamloops    4,750 30.56
Nelson  5,026 32.33
Totals  15,545 100.00
Peak occurrence during the year was earlier than average, with about 58 per cent.
of all fires in June and July. In an average year about that same percentage occurs in
July and August. The spring hazard, which is usually accountable for about 25 per
cent, of occurrence, was, in 1948, negligible and represented only 14 per cent, of all fires.
Dealing with causes, it is noted that, lightning was again responsible for more
fires than any other agency, roughly one-third of the season's outbreaks. This is
slightly under the past ten-year average because most of the electrical storms experienced were accompanied by heavy precipitation. Fires due to campers, smokers, etc.,
were about the same percentage.as the ten-year average, while those due to railways
operating showed a marked decrease from 1947 to a point slightly below the ten-year
average. There was a notable decrease in number of fires attributed to incendiarism,
which this year were practically negligible.
Cost of Fire-fighting.
Full detail under this head is indicated in Tables 53 and 55 on pages 112 and 113.
It should be pointed out that the total cost shown in Table 53 covers only expenditure LL 40 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
in wages, food, and transportation for crews actually fighting fire and does not include
items of forest-protection organization overhead such as seasonally hired personnel.
Also, the cost shown is only cost to the Forest Service and, for a figure of total expenditure on fire suppression for the Province, an estimated sum- of $80,872 (Table 42)
expended by other agencies must be added.
It must again be reported that cost of fighting lightning-caused fires represented
the largest cost in a breakdown by causes, roughly 35 per cent, of total expenditure
being represented under this head. Cost of fighting smoker-caused fires approximated
21 per cent, of total expenditure and indicates the need for continued prevention publicity with the general public.
The total cost of suppression, roughly $36,000, represents 23 per cent, of the
average over the past ten years. This is due almost entirely to the favourable weather
experienced during the season.
Damage.
Total area burned over in 1948 is estimated at 384,356 acres, roughly 80,000 acres
above the past ten-year average. Of this area, 371,501 acres occurred in the Fort
George Forest District and was roughly 75 per cent, non-commercial cover and nonproductive sites. Practically all of this large burn occurred in the Peace River area
east of the Rocky Mountains in country extremely difficult of access.
Total estimated damage from all forest fires during the year was $287,192, about
69 per cent, of the average for the past ten years. Here again, the largest percentage—
approximately 89 per cent.—occurred in the Fort George Forest District. Total damage to miscellaneous property is estimated at $284,272, about $60,000 over the ten-
year average. Sixty-four per cent, of this damage occurred in the Prince Rupert
Forest District and was directly attributable to several large operational fires, mainly
in the Queen Charlotte Islands.
FIRE CONTROL RESEARCH AND PLANNING.
Planning.
Fire-occurrence maps and fire-analyses ledgers of all forest districts, with the
exception of Prince Rupert, have now been compiled and brought up to date with
complete information as of the close of the 1947 fire season.
With limited supervisory staff, it was possible to put only two visibility mapping
crews in the field again this year. As has been the practice in the past, these crews
were recruited from Forest School students at the University of British Columbia and
were given a month of intensive training on Vancouver Island before proceeding to the
field. This year crews were employed in the southern Kamloops Forest District completing the project commenced last year and continuing up the North Thompson River
valley as far north as Valemont.
In addition to the sixty-seven points examined on this project last year, another
sixty-five possible lookout-sites were examined in detail this summer, and complete
maps and reports made on each. Based on the investigations of the past two summers,
a report has been drawn up for the southern Kamloops Forest District and the North
Thompson River valley. The report outlines a planned system of lookouts and recommends the development of sixteen new primary lookouts and the abandonment of five
existing lookouts that have not proven satisfactory. To supplement the primary
lookout network, during periods of reduced visibility and extreme fire danger, secondary points have also been selected and recommended for limited development. Commencement of development of the plan on the ground is proposed in 1949. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948. LL 41
Panoramic Lookout Photography.
Loss of trained personnel made it impossible to carry out any of the routine
panoramic lookout photography this season. However, a test was made to check the
practicability of using coloured film in this work. The results were disappointing;
besides being expensive, the coloured prints showed no penetration of haze and no
definition of distant detail.
Fire-weather Studies.
Weather-recording.
The trial fire-weather-recording system initiated in a portion of the Nelson Forest
District last year and described in the 1947 Annual Report was extended during the
summer of 1948 to include all the southern portion of that district. With the 1948 fire
season one of the wettest on record in the Nelson District, the recording- system did
not receive a fair test; however, indications are that it will prove of measurable
assistance to general forest-protection activities in the district, and the system is to be
put into effect again during 1949.
Investigations.
Investigations to determine optimum elevations for fire-weather stations in different types of topography were continued this summer with the selection of two
co-ordinated sites in the vicinity of Cranbrook in the Nelson Forest District.
The Cranbrook area is particularly well suited to a fairly intensive weather study
of this nature. With the weather reports from all the reporting Department of Transport stations of Western Canada and North-western United States available at the
Cranbrook Airport, and the daily Forest Service weather-station reports available at
the Ranger Station, it was hoped that additional information could also be gathered
on the location of source regions of our fire weather and the avenues of approach.
The local topography was also well suited to all phases of the proposed study. Near
Cranbrook the broad Kootenay Valley is joined by the comparatively confined Moyie
Valley, a situation particularly suited to a comparison of inversion levels in different
types of valleys and to a check of two possible main avenues of approach of fire weather
from the hot, dry regions to the south. It had previously been observed that weather
conditions in these two valleys often varied considerably, and it was felt that a comprehensive, co-ordinated study there should yield much valuable information.
To sample the weather, two open ridges with southerly exposures were located,
one on Moyie Mountain for the Moyie Valley and one on a shoulder of the Steeples
Mountain near Bull River for the Kootenay Valley. At each site a series of six weather
stations were strung out in open, southerly exposed locations at approximately equal
intervals of elevation up the mountain-side from the valley-bottom to the ridge-crest.
The elevations (A.M.S.L.) of the stations on Moyie Mountain were: Station 1, in
the valley-bottom, 3,050 feet; Station 2, 3,870 feet; Station 3, 4,530 feet; Station 4,
5,400 feet;  Station 5, 6,150 feet;  and Station 6, at the lookout, 6,720 feet.
The elevations of the stations near Bull River were: Station 1, on the bench land
some 300 feet above the river-bed, 2,800 feet; Station 2, at the foot of the mountain,
3,050 feet; Station 3, 3,730 feet; Station 4, 4,400 feet; Station 5, 5,100 feet; and
Station 6, 5,910 feet.
Each station was equipped with a recording hair-hygrograph, a maximum-minimum
thermometer, and a set of fuel-moisture indicator sticks and weighing balance. In
addition, Stations 1 and 6 of each series were equipped with a rain-gauge. Charts
were kept of the fuel-moisture readings, rainfall, and relative humidity.
The location and set-up was ideal for an intensive study of fire weather in this
East Kootenay area but, unfortunately from the standpoint of the experiment, the LL 42 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
summer yielded no period of appreciable fire weather—in fact, it turned out to be the
wettest summer that most of the local inhabitants could recall.
For this reason, the results of the study are rather meagre and disappointing and,
while previous concepts and theories seem to have been reaffirmed and a few new ideas
suggested, there was no opportunity for any new discovery of major proportions.
Miscellaneous Projects.
Fuel Moisture Indicator Sticks.—In an attempt to reduce the seasonal weight-loss
in fuel-moisture sticks, all possible reasons for the weathering were considered and it
was felt that the slightly rough surface of the %-inch dowelling could be responsible
for a large proportion of the weathering.
To test this idea, matched pairs of sticks were exposed for the season on Mount
Prevost and the amount of weathering checked at regular intervals. One set of each
pair was sanded smooth during the manufacturing process with very fine sandpaper
and the other set left unsanded. The results were rather unexpected—and as yet
a complete reason cannot be given—but, without exception, the sanded sticks showed
a greater weight-loss than the unsanded. With the sanded sticks, the weight-loss
seemed to be reasonably steady over the season, whereas the unsanded sticks showed
their greatest loss-of-weight rate toward the end of the season. At the end of the
season the total weight-loss was very nearly equal for both types, being slightly more
for the sanded sets.
Seeding Clouds with Dry Ice.—Through the co-operation of the United States
Forest Service, it was possible for this section to receive first-hand instruction from
the inventor of the cloud " seeding " principle, Vincent J. Schaeffer, of the General
Electric Schenectady Research Laboratory. Depending on the cloud-types present and
the amount of dry ice used in the seeding, a hole can be cut in the cloud layer to allow
the ascent or descent of aircraft; precipitation can be produced from suitable clouds;
and clouds can be stabilized. The prospects of using this last idea for killing potential
lightning-storms in their initial stages of development are being studied by Mr.
Schaeffer.
FIRE-SUPPRESSION CREWS.
A fire-suppression crew organization was again placed in the field in 1948, functioning for a period of approximately 100 days in mid-season. A total of thirteen
crews were in operation comprising, in all, about 135 men.
Four crews functioned on Vancouver Island in the Vancouver Forest District in
the form of three 8-man and one 10-man crews. Camps were located at Langford,
Nanaimo, Parksville, and Campbellton as being most centralized for most hazardous
areas. At these locations, permanent camps have been created to the extent that buildings are improved and proper water systems and general facilities of semi-permanent
form, installed.
In the Kamloops Forest District three 12-man and two 6-man crews were in
operation, with headquarters established at Princeton, Vernon, Kamloops, Penticton,
and Kelowna. The two 6-man crews were an adaptation from an original 12-man crew,
for flexibility in carrying out improvement-work during the season.
Nelson Forest District operated four 12-man crews, with camps established at
Elko and Lumberton in East Kootenay and Erie and Kettle Valley in the West Kootenay
portion of the district.
In each forest district, crew organization was under direction of a supervisor
whose responsibility included training, project supervision, and all business incidental
to the district suppression-crew organization. Twelve-man crews generally included
a sub-foreman to allow alternating half-crew on stand-by and project work.   All crews !
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LL 43
received training in fire-fighting methods, pump operation, etc., immediately camps
were opened and periodically throughout the season. Transport usually comprised
a V2- or 1-ton pick-up and a 2y2-ton truck per crew used as camp service and project
vehicles respectively. Crew men were again, for the most part, university or senior
high school students.
Due to the particularly favourable season, few fires were fought by the crews,
a total of only thirty-four outbreaks being attended. Due to the same factor, however,
a very much increased proportion of crew labour was expended on improvement
projects, much valuable work on new installations and maintenance of existing
improvements being accomplished during the season. As an example, one outstanding
project completed was construction of a remote radio receiving-station in the Kamloops
District. This project involved ditching and laying of underground cable a distance
of something over 2 miles.
As a comparison with the tabulation appearing in previous reports, the record of
suppression action for the season is indicated below:—
RECORD OF SUPPRESSION-CREW ACTION, 1948.
Number
of Fires.
Subsequent Spread (by Number of Fires).
Size of Fire when attacked.
x/4 Acre
or less.
Over
Vi Acre to
1 Acre.
Over
1 Acre to
5 Acres.
Over
5 Acres to
50 Acres.
Over 50
Acres.
20
98
1
2
1
1
Over 14 acre and up to 1 acre	
3
....   |   ....
i
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::   !   ::::
1
Totals	
34         1         as
S           1              1
1
1
AIRCRAFT.
The contract covering Forest Service charter flying negotiated with a commercial
air line prior to the 1946 season expired at the close of the 1947 season. Early in 1948
tenders were called and a new one-year contract subsequently negotiated. Under this
contract a total of six aircraft were furnished by the contracting company; two twin-
motored land aeroplanes were based in the Nelson Forest District; one twin-motored
land aeroplane and one light transport type float aeroplane in the Kamloops Forest
District; and two float aeroplanes in the Prince George and Prince Rupert Forest
Districts. All aircraft, while based at specific points, were available on call in cases of
necessity in other forest districts. During the year a total of approximately 500 hours
of flying were completed.
All aircraft were fitted with aircraft-to-ground radio equipment similar to that
in effect during the 1947 season. There was a notable improvement in air-to-ground
communications.
The season was such that the need for aircraft in protection was at a minimum.
Chief usage was in fire detection and light transport of men and supplies, and
parachuting of equipment was carried out to a minor extent. Servicing of some of the
more inaccessible lookouts and survey parties was also carried out in some districts
by parachuting.
From June onward, under the new contract, one of the new De Havilland " Beaver "
aircraft was placed in service by the operating company. This type of ship proved
particularly adaptable to forest-protection requirements; it operates at a reasonable
cost with good pay-load, and altogether gives the impression of being the type of ship LL 44 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
which has been sought for many years for general bush flying. Experience during the
summer indicated that this type of aircraft, for many purposes, was capable of handling
the work of at least two of other types of aircraft previously employed at a very
comparable cost ratio.
In addition to the group charter, local aircraft were hired to a limited degree to
cover emergency situations when charter aircraft were otherwise engaged. The
outstanding case of this nature during the 1948 season were operations in the Prince
Rupert Forest District, out of Terrace, to gain detection coverage over the territory
included in the recently negotiated management licence in the Kitsumgallum area to
the north during a temporary hazardous period in that area.
MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT.
A gradual but noticeable improvement in the mechanical equipment and supply
picture was experienced during the year.
In spite of the persisting steel shortage and the Federal austerity programme
involving restriction of imports from the United States, delivery was obtained on the
bulk of current and back-ordered items of mechanical equipment.
Automotive.
In the automotive field, only seven of the year's vehicle orders remain unfilled, and
factory representatives give assurance that full delivery may be expected in the near
future. This is a very much improved situation over that which obtained at this time
last year and for some years previous. Additions to the fleet during the year were
as follows:—
Sedans      7
Coupes  13
Coaches      2
Sedan deliveries     5
%-ton light deliveries .  30
1-ton light deliveries (for conversion to tankers)     2
Jeeps      6
1-ton Willys, four-wheel drive     1
Dodge power wagons     4
Heavy duty 2%-3-toH  10
Total  80
The 80 vehicles include a small number of 1947 back-orders on which delivery was
obtained between January and April of this year. Of the 80, 54 were replacement
units and the balance additions to the fleet which, at the close of the year, totalled
slightly over 400 vehicles of all types.
It is worthy of remark that passenger-type models now being manufactured are
increasingly unsuited to Forest Service needs. A large proportion of the car travel by
rangers and supervisory officers is on back roads, and the restricted clearance, full
fenders, and other refinements now being built into passenger cars are unsuited to
such use. Passenger-cars with high clearance are currently unobtainable from the
manufacturers and, presumably, will be off the market until the backlog of civilian
requirements is fully met.
Tankers.
For some years the Service has operated light tank-trucks in more hazardous
localities where water is at a premium and roadside fires predominate, or ready truck  BRITISH    COLUMBIA   FOREST SERVICE.
Drop-on "Tanker Unit for Installation on 1 Ton Truck.
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FILE:   OI436I5 Forest Protection.
DROP-ON  TANKER  UNITS.
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Two views of unit installed on standard 1-ton truck.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948. LL 45
access to fires is practicable. These tanker units, built to Forest Service specifications,
comprised tank, pumper equipment, and live reel grafted as a fixed unit to standard
1-ton trucks. The units, in so far as their function as tankers was concerned, proved
very satisfactory but, from a general transport standpoint, were not flexible, inasmuch
as the vehicle with a fixed pumping unit attached became a one-purpose vehicle. It was
realized that, for more flexible use, it would be desirable to have the tank and pumping
equipment designed as a " drop-on " unit which could be removed at the end of the fire
season and the vehicle used for general off-season transport purposes.
Accordingly, during 1948, the first " drop-on " tanker unit was designed, constructed, and placed in operation. It may be removed or replaced readily in a matter
of a few minutes with proper lifting tackle. The new tanker is illustrated by photograph and diagrammatic sketch elsewhere in this Report and following is a detailed
description of the complete unit.
The " drop-on " assembly is based on a sheet of 10-gauge sheet steel suitably
reinforced, 7 feet 5 inches long and 53 % inches wide, which is shaped to fit the floor
of the rear box. Two steel tool-boxes, 9% inches wide, 11% inches high, and 6 feet
long, are mounted on this, metal base at opposite sides and a 100-gallon tank, 53% inches
wide, 20% inches long, and 42 inches high, is attached to the front of the plate. Just
back of the water-tank, between the two tool-boxes, a metal base, 24% inches long and
33% inches wide, is installed on which is mounted a " Granco " 2-inch bronze-lined
pump with a capacity of 50 United States gallons per minute at 400 revolutions per
minute. A sprocket is fitted to the drive end of the pump, and this is coupled by a
chain to a special drive-shaft and sprocket located under the floor of the rear box,
coupled to a heavy-duty power take-off which is attached to the transmission gear-box.
Two 1-inch holes bored through the mounting plate and deck floor are used to lead the
driving chain from the pump to the sprocket on the shaft under the floor. A three-way
valve is also bolted to the mounting plate, with the spindle of the valve-body projected
vertically through a cover plate which is fitted over the pump assembly and attached
to a control handle which may be rotated in a horizontal direction. Three operation
positions are available—" fill tank," " straight pumping," and " pump from tank."
The suction pipe is brought to the rear of the assembly through the left tool-box
and is accessible by dropping the truck tail-gate. A 1%-inch discharge outlet is brought
through the metal sheathing built around the pump assembly, and a live reel containing
250 feet of %-inch garden hose is mounted just above the pump. For carrying a
10-foot suction hose, a tube is installed under the truck made of 2%-inch boiler tubing,
with a special 6-foot extension tube for the suction hose carried in brackets in the left
tool-box.
All necessary plumbing is contained in the " drop-on " unit, the only hook-up
between the unit and the truck, other than the four hold-down bolts, being the sprocket
chain which can be quickly removed by opening the master link. Plates were built into
the truck deck threaded to fit the four hold-down bolts, allowing for quick installation
or removal.
The 1-ton pickup-type trucks use a rear box fitted with fender wells. For this
reason, it is not possible to slide the tank assembly in and out of the truck. Accordingly,
three eyelets were fitted at suitable points and a special lifting chain fabricated which
lifts the tanker unit on a level plane.
With the favourable fire season experienced, the trial unit received only limited
usage in the field, but reports indicate that it functioned very satisfactorily. If further
trials indicate continued success, it is proposed to adopt, in future, this form of tanker
in lieu of the fixed-unit type. LL 46 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Tractors.
Delivery was taken during the year of two medium crawler-tractors with supplementary transport in the form of two heavy-duty trucks. These units were allocated,
one each, to the Kamloops and Nelson Forest Districts.
One unusual item acquired in 1948 was a crawler-tractor compressor. This unit
was placed in service with the Reforestation Division on development-work in preparation of planting-sites. The unit uses standard parts for the whole mechanism other
than the special cylinder heads; the engine, transmission, rear end, and hubs are
readily obtainable Ford parts.
Outboard Motors.
It was possible during 1948, for the first time since production was resumed, to
acquire outboards of all types. Delivery was delayed on some models, but all orders
were eventually filled. A total of fifteen units were acquired and placed in service,
comprising three 2.5-horsepower, one 5-horsepower, one 7-horsepower, two 9.8-horse-
power, four 16-horsepower, and four 22-horsepower units of various makes.
Fire-pumps.
During the year an additional thirty-five Bennett-MacDonald initial-action pressure
pumps were manufactured at the Forest Service Marine Station and supplied to the
field. These units are essentially the same as the initial model, with some slight
modifications which developed out of experience with the initial units. This small
pumper is finding great favour with fieldmen, particularly in those districts where
average fire-access is over difficult terrain and the packing-in of heavier pumping
equipment is precluded.
In addition to the Bennett-MacDonald pumps supplied to the field, sixteen commercially manufactured medium-weight pumps were acquired and placed in service.
Miscellaneous Mechanical Equipment.
A small number of chain-saws were supplied to the Forest Economics and Parks
Divisions and silvicultural crews working in the Kamloops and Nelson Forest Districts.
This type of equipment, in the lighter models, is proving of particular value in Interior
slash-disposal work involving limbing of down trees, tops, and such light work.
A road-maintainer was acquired for use of Parks Division and at present is in use
on the Seymour Mountain Park project in road-maintenance and snow-removal.
Also obtained for Parks Division use during the year was a gasoline-driven yarder.
The primary use of this equipment is in clearing ski-runs and general improvement-
work in connection with park-development.
Mechanical Inspection.
During the year mechanical equipment in all forest districts, except the Vancouver
District, was fully inspected by the mechanical inspection staff. Inspection of the
Vancouver District equipment is to be completed shortly after the first of the new year.
Loss of personnel during the year and spring floods with resultant impassable roads
slowed this work this year and was primarily the reason for deferring Vancouver
inspection until next year.
Inspection-staff vacancies have since been filled and will be supplemented by
additional personnel in the immediate future. With the completion of training and
breaking-in of the new staff, it is proposed to place resident Inspectors in the separate
districts functioning as part of the district organization and retain only the mechanical  8
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administration staff and one or two Inspectors at Victoria headquarters. This arrangement will only be possible when the new inspection staff has had the opportunity of
assimilating procedure and becoming fully familiar with the work directly under the
Mechanical Superintendent at Victoria.
FOREST SERVICE MARINE STATION. .
Work performed at the station during the year still maintained a high level, with
the usual launch-overhaul programme representing a fair average of past years and
extra-routine work, such as building prefabrication, construction of river-boats, renovation of newly acquired launches, manufacture of instruments, and equipment on the
pump floor, etc., showing a definite increase.
Staff averaged thirty-one, comprising the superintendent, fifteen permanent and
fifteen non-permanent personnel—an increase in permanent staff and about the same
number in the non-permanent group compared with 1947. The number of non-
permanent staff fluctuated over the year, depending upon the particular type and volume
of work going through the station.
It was possible to carry out a number of improvements to the station and ground
during the twelve months. This included installation of a blower system, to carry
away wood-waste from the carpenter-shop, which has made a considerable saving in
labour and clean-up at the close of the day's work. The installation has also materially
decreased fire hazard. An incinerator was installed well away from the buildings for
disposal of the waste. Drift from the river has always been troublesome in the launch-
storage well and ways, and this has been overcome to a large extent by the placing of
boom-sticks across the entry-openings to these parts of the station. It was again
necessary to carry out dredging to take care of silt deposits at the launch approach
to the station. These deposits were particularly heavy this year, due primarily to the
heavy flood conditions prevailing on the river in the spring. The dyke along the
north-western portion of the station property was also reinforced, and it is hoped that
the old trouble of periodic flooding at this point has now been overcome. The station
grounds in front of the main building and up to the road approach were landscaped
to some extent and, as time allows, this work is to be extended to both sides of the
entry drive in the new year. A major improvement carried out was completion of the
new marine ways, on which contract was let in the closing months of last year. This
set of ways will take the largest launches in the Service with ease and will very much
facilitate the general launch-overhaul programme which, in the past, has been held up
due to the limitation of ways. Tenders are now being called for the housing-in of this
new set of ways as a wing of the present station building. When completed, the new
wing will conform in appearance with, and actually form part of, the main station.
During the year, in the marine section of the station, the ways were occupied
forty-one times, including several major overhaul and rebuilding jobs. The acquisition
of a " swing boat " to rotate in service as relief for Ranger launches up for overhaul
has more than proven its worth, and a regular uninterrupted programme for overhaul
of Ranger boats is now possible, allowing the Ranger field-work to proceed without
interruption while the regular launch is in for repair. One of the major projects
undertaken in the marine section during the year was on the launch " Wells Gray,"
which was rebuilt from the ribs up and accommodation revamped to afford more space
and headroom. Three 26-foot cruiser-type launches purchased during the year were
remodelled to Service use and reconditioned for Interior lake purposes. Also, a 26-foot
hull purchased in unfinished condition was completed as a cruiser-type lake launch.
A pilot-house was prefabricated and subsequently installed on the Adams Lake landing-
craft in the Kamloops District.    Six 30-foot and one 22-foot river-boats were manu- LL 48 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
factured for Interior district use and eight new launch-dinghies were constructed for
use and stock. Construction of two new 35-foot blimp-type launches is well under way
as replacements for outworn Assistant Ranger launches in the Vancouver District.
These craft should be completed and ready for service early in the new year.
In the carpenter-shop and prefabrication-shed, twelve lookout buildings were
prefabricated and shipped to various forest districts. These are described elsewhere
in this Report. In addition to the buildings, seven complete sets of prefabricated
furniture for lookouts were manufactured and will be shipped to districts for service
during the coming season. Additional miscellaneous items manufactured in this section
of the station included four ship's tables and stools, two launch meat-safes, one office
stationery cabinet, and one launch refrigerator.
Work on the pump floor of the station during 1948 included overhaul and repair
of 109 fire-pump units and overhaul, repair, or rebuilding of forty-five outboard units.
In addition to this routine overhaul programme, thirty-five Bennett-MacDonald pumpers
were assembled and distributed for field use; a total of eighteen alidades for lookout
use were manufactured; and fifty standard-pump tool-boxes were completed and fitted
out for field use. In the experimental line, this section completed work upon a fire-
finder, incorporating both vertical and horizontal angles. There are several small
refinements yet to be made on this instrument, but details of these have been worked
out, and manufacture of an initial fifty units is to be carried out immediately. The
instrument was devised by M. K. Bennett, foreman-mechanic at the station, and will
be known as the Bennett fire-finder.
BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION.
In spite of rising costs of materials and labour, plus a continued scarcity of some
of the more essential articles, the ambitious construction programme commenced in
1947 was continued in the past year. It was considered essential that the programme
be maintained in order to keep pace with the heavy increase in general activities of
the Service, these, in the past foilr or five years, having seriously outgrown existing
accommodation both in office and warehouse space. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948.
LL 49
Following is a tabulation of major new projects undertaken during the year, giving
construction agency and progress to date:—
Location.
Type of Building.
Constructing Agency.
Progress to Date.
Forest Service project
Completion of Ranger residence	
Ranger office and stores building and four-
Ranger office and stores building and four-
Contract (labour only)....
Forest Service project
Ranger office and stores building and four-
Elko	
Ranger office and stores building and four-
Kelowna	
Alterations   to   Ranger   office  and   stores
building	
Work proceeding.
Forest Service project
Kettle Valley	
Ranger office and stores building and four-
Mission City	
Ranger office and stores building and four-
Ranger office and stores building and four-
Warehouse _ _	
Ranger office and stores building and four-
Sechelt	
Ranger office and stores building and four-
car garage
Forest Service project
Forest Service project
garage.
Forest Service project
Difficulty was again encountered in all districts in obtaining reasonable tenders
from private contractors on various construction projects. In some instances, where
need was outstanding, this difficulty was met, as in former years, by organization of
Forest Service construction crews.
The need for expansion of facilities at the Forest Service Marine Station has been
felt for some years and, during late 1947 and through 1948, a start was made on this
project. A new 100-ton ways and carriage was installed and tenders have been called
on housing this unit as a wing of the present building. Plans are in the making for a
new building to serve as a combination lumber-storage and prefabricated-woodwork
shop, eliminating several inadequate temporary structures at present on the property.
The year 1949 should see this latter project well under way.
To cope with the expanded building programme, it was found necessary during the
year to increase the structural design staff of the Division. The staff now includes a
supervising draughtsman, who serves also as a structural superintendent, and two
structural draughtsmen. New office-quarters at Victoria have materially bettered the
working conditions of the structural section.
Additional to these projects, during the year prefabricated lookout buildings were
constructed at the Forest Service Marine Station for distribution to various forest
districts. Seven of these buildings were of the standardized sectional-type plywood-
construction design established last year, two being cupola type and five single-story cabin design. The remaining five buildings were of a new-type lookout structure, being
an 8- by 8-foot cabin-type sectional building for use on towers or as an observation
post on a lookout peak where living-quarters, through necessity, had to be established
lower down the' mountain. This latter type of building was an adaptation of the
cupola portion of the standard single-story-with-cupola building. The prefabricated
lookout buildings- erected during 1946-47 have stood up to conditions remarkably well
and proven themselves from the standpoint of economy and general flexibility in use.
A further building programme is planned in these buildings for the coming year.
RADIO COMMUNICATION.
During the year, expansion of the network continued with the establishment of
a number of new stations and, although a particularly favourable fire season created
less-than-average demand upon radio communication, the number of messages handled
showed a marked increase over 1947. The volume of routine Departmental business
now being handled by radio is such that it is essential the network be kept at maximum
efficiency and all modern improvements within economic reach be incorporated.
New equipment acquired comprised thirty-five standard Forest Service-type portable SPF units and eight PAC electric trans-receivers. Additional to these, nine launch
receivers and one launch transmitter of a special type were built to Forest Service
specifications by manufacturers. In the Forest Service Radio Laboratory at Victoria,
construction was completed on three multi-channel, remote-control receivers, three
portable single-channel remote sets, and two headquarters eight-channel transmitters
of 200 watts output. In all, the network has been increased during the year by forty-
three transmitters and fifteen special-type receivers.
With the marked success of the first remote-control installation at Nelson headquarters in 1945, general policy has been to improve reception by removing receiving
equipment from the source of interference. This is a long-term project, but an excellent start has now been made.
The remote-control projects undertaken in 1948 were far more complex than were
previous installations. At Kamloops it was necessary to carry two wires across range
country up a steep hill to an elevation two miles south of the Government building.
Ordinarily, telephone-poles and open wires would have made this a comparatively simple
task, but these were impractical for several reasons, and it became necessary, therefore, to bury two miles of lead cable to the summit.
In Victoria, through co-operation of Federal authority, the " remote " site chosen
was upon the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory reserve at Little Saanich Mountain.
Here, the erection of ordinary poles was again impractical and both power and telephone
connections had to be carried over 800 feet of solid rock.
In Prince Rupert, installation-work is still proceeding, but the installation will be
complete before the end of the fiscal year. The project involves a telephone-line up
Mount Hays and establishment of a receiver at the Department of Transport's remote-
control house at the summit. Transfer of signals to the headquarters operating room
at the District Forester's office in Prince Rupert will be effected over 2 miles of Forest
Service telephone-line and 4 miles of leased Government telegraph-wire.
There is a continuing need for special equipment not obtainable in stock models.
This need is met as far as possible by construction in the Forest Service laboratory
in Victoria and by having equipment built commercially to specifications. For example,
with all Vancouver District launch receivers and transmitters now averaging 10 to 12
years in age, decision was made to first replace all receivers. There is no adequate
receiver on the market which will operate from battery and supply both medium
frequencies and broadcast bands. Special units were, therefore, built to our specifications, based on past experience with launch-work and taking into account future Forest Protection.
VANCOUVER  DISTRICT  HEADQUARTERS  RADIO STATION.
Building contains operating-room, repair-room, stock-room, and storage-space.
Masts are 70 feet high.
A
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Interior view of repair-room, showing completely equipped service bench.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948. LL 51
requirements. These receivers have five crystal-controlled medium-frequency channels
and the broadcast band. No extra batteries are required, and units are instantly
removable and replaceable by unskilled labour when repairs become necessary. This
type of set will, in future, be known as the RFL-MK-I and can be utilized on any launch
providing 32-volt power-supply.
None of the standard launch transmitters were replaced in 1948, but a new set
using 100 watts in lieu of 50 was constructed commercially to our specifications for the
Vancouver headquarters launch " Syrene." So marked was the improvement in signals
with the extra power that decision has been made to utilize 100 watts on all future
launch sets if it is possible to obtain a unit of that power.
In line with the general policy of increasing power on the network, two 200-watt
transmitters were built during the year by Forest Service technicians in the Victoria
laboratory — such sets being unobtainable on the market under $3,000 each. Just
before the construction of these units was completed, the Service was assigned three
extra frequencies in the higher-frequency channels, and the design of the new unit had
to be corrected. These two units, when completed, are each capable of transmitting
on nine channels up to 9.255 megacycles.
The allotting of additional frequencies to the Service has involved a complete
change in style of Forest District headquarters remote-control receivers. These now
require eight channels instead of four and employment of an improved control system,
allowing receivers to be operated singly, in groups, or all at once. Two of this type of
remote receivers will be in operation by the end of the year—one at Prince Rupert and
one at Victoria headquarters.
The Service is now in greatly improved position in respect to frequencies. With
recent allotment in our favour of 5915-, 7550-, and 9255-kilocycle frequencies, all suitable for long-distance work, it is possible to anticipate a marked improvement in operation of the network as compared to our previous operation on the old frequencies, the
highest of which is 3430 kilocycles.
Some experimentation was carried out on the 35-40 megacycle channel, FM, as a
preliminary to more extensive work on this band in the future. Results were good up
to thirty miles, but it was not possible to establish consistent contact between Victoria
and Vancouver.    Further FM tests are proposed on 152 megacycles.
With the continued increase in volume of traffic handled and the coincident expansion of network facilities involving stepped-up maintenance and construction of new
units, an increase in radio technical personnel was necessary during the year. This
involved employment of two additional technicians at Victoria and placing of operators
at headquarters stations to release the previous operator-technician at those points for
straight technical work.
The construction programme for 1949 includes the redesigning of three remote-
control receivers and four transmitters, the latter to be capable of transmitting on
eight frequencies each. In addition, in line with the policy of supplying high-noise-
level Ranger stations with small remote-control receivers, a number of these will also be
built at the Victoria laboratory for installation both on the Coast and in the Interior.
The 1949 programme includes work in connection with Coast Ranger launch
installations. With most launch transmitting units in continuous service for ten or
twelve years with a minimum of maintenance, it is proposed to replace these old sets
gradually with modern multi-channel units. The number to be replaced in the combined
Prince Rupert-Vancouver fleets is uncertain at this time, but five new sets are
anticipated. These sets will also allow ships to contact Coast telephone stations and,
through them, the headquarters office, giving an alternative communication system
when conditions prevent contact with their routine headquarters. LL 52 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
In the past, Assistant Ranger launches have not been radio-equipped and, consequently, have given less than optimum value due to inability to communicate direct
with their Ranger launches or headquarters. It is hoped that 1949 will see small
compact units constructed to operate from a 12-volt system installed on one or two
of these Assistant Ranger launches for test purposes. If these prove a success, all
Assistant Ranger launches in the Vancouver District will be so equipped in the future.
The possibility of making use of FM, as mentioned in a previous paragraph, is
not being neglected. However, until the present major changes planned in the existing
system have been completed, affording efficient communication for some years ahead,
no great expansion into the FM field is anticipated. Some experimental work is
planned in 1949, with the probability that results will allow at least one short-range
FM network in 1950.
At the close of 1948 the number of sets and types in use in the Service are:
Type SPF sets (portable), 271; type PAC sets, 53; type S-25 sets, 6; HQ transmitters
50-watt, 2; HQ transmitters 100-watt, 1; HQ transmitters 200-watt, 3; launch trans-
receivers, 15; HQ remote-receiver installations, 6; Ranger-station battery remote-
control receiver installations, 6.   Total, all types, 363.
As an indication of the expansion of traffic handled on the inter-district network,
it is interesting to note the marked increase in formal messages passed through
Victoria Headquarters Station CZ2F. Messages handled in 1945 totalled 1,330; in
1946, 2,558; in 1947, 2,923; and in 1948, 4,886. These totals do not include twice-
daily weather reports and weather-station data during the fire-season months, and
many hundreds of unnumbered messages and inter-district conversations. Formal
messages handled by district headquarters control stations during the year were:
Vancouver, 4,093; Kamloops, 2,029; Nelson, 1,523; Prince George, 1,640; and Prince
Rupert, 1,242.
SLASH-DISPOSAL AND SNAG-FALLING.
Slash-disposal operations in 1948 indicate that spring burning is finding increasing
favour with the industry, with sixty-nine operators conducting spring slash-burns as
compared to forty-one in 1947. A total of 3,026 acres was burned over during the
spring, as compared to 2,700 acres in the spring of 1947. Results obtained were
uniformly satisfactory.
The industry this year was able to function satisfactorily throughout the entire
fire season without interruption by industrial dispute, forest closures, or prolonged
dry weather. With a consequent maximum acreage logged over, conditions in the fall
sharply pointed the continuing need of long-range planning, timely preparation, and
prompt action in dealing with hazard abatement. In the most-favoured localities an
ideal set-up for broadcast slash-burning was presented only during the four-day period
September 9th to 12th, inclusive. On September 14th rainfall of 2.6 inches was
recorded. In spite of the fact that broadcast burning was thus terminated abruptly
and much earlier than usual, operators continued to spot-burn intermittently as weather
allowed until October 21st, when snow on the higher elevations coupled with rain at
sea-level halted activity in hazard abatement on practically all areas.
Average cost of disposal, based on figures supplied by operators and considering
the total acreage of slash burned during the year, is estimated at $1.46 per acre or
approximately 3.6 cents per thousand. Damage occurring through slash-burning is
estimated at only $477, comprising a small value in standing forest-cover destroyed and
the balance in property and cut products.
In recapitulation, a total of 76,667 acres of forest land was logged during 1948
in the Vancouver Forest District. Of this acreage, 56,778 acres were examined by
forest officers and reported upon in connection with hazard abatement.   The balance of   REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948.
LL 53
19,889 acres was logged subsequent to September 1st and slash-disposal requirements
will accordingly be dealt with in 1949.
Compensation for failure to comply with the provisions of section 113a was levied
during the current calendar year as follows:—
Number of
Cause. Operations. Acres.
Failure to dispose of slash as instructed     83 3,955.75
Failure to fall snags     39 1,765.00
Totals—.  122 5,720.75
Detailed statistics on all slash-disposal for the year 1948 appear on pages 107 and
108 of this Report.
In addition to snag-falling carried out by the industry concurrent with logging,
a Forest Service project in this work was completed during the year under the
supervision of the District Forester, Vancouver. This project involved cleaning up
scattered snags over an area of some 1,500 acres partially felled in 1947 and snag-
falling an additional area of 112 acres in the vicinity of Roberts and Mud Lakes in the
Sayward Forest. The project ties in with one recently completed by the Service in the
vicinity of the latter lake and establishes a snag break extending southerly through
reforested areas from Roberts to Trout Lakes.
PREVENTION.
With the exceptionally favourable fire season, no general closure proved necessary
during the year in the Vancouver Forest District. However, the Sayward Forest was
closed to travel for the period June 30th to September 18th, with entry allowed only
under permit. A new patrol-cabin and gate was established near Elk Falls to control
entry to the forest from the south. The old establishment at Duncan Bay was
abandoned. Menzies Bay traffic-gate was also manned throughout the period of closure.
The Sayward Forest pamphlet was revised and again distributed, and was well received.
In the Kamloops, Prince Rupert, and Prince George Forest Districts the wet season
obviated the necessity of any closures.
In the Nelson Forest District, only one closure was invoked under section 119 of
the Act—namely, Koch Creek area, which was closed for slightly over five weeks.
Later in the season in this district, a closure under authority of section 161 of the Act
was placed on the Upper Kootenay Valley roads. This area is one of the better
growing-sites in the district and is subject to heavy travel during the hunting season.
Following in tabular form, for comparison with prior Reports, is detail of the
1948 forest closures:—
FOREST CLOSURES, 1948.
Area.
District.
Effective
Date.
Date
suspended.
Vancouver
Nelson	
Nelson	
June 30th	
July 22nd
Sept. 20th
Sept. 18th
Aug. 27th
Upper Kootenay roads (closed under section 161, subsection (3), of the Act).
Nov. 23rd
CO-OPERATION—OTHER AGENCIES.
The usual excellent co-operation from honorary fire wardens and fire-prevention
officers must again be acknowledged with thanks and appreciation. In 1948 the
honorary fire-warden organization numbered 775 throughout the Province. These
public-spirited citizens voluntarily undertake duties in their local communities year after  year,  and  perform  a   most  valuable  function   in  the  forest-fire-suppression
organization.
Acknowledgment must also be made for the excellent co-operation again received
from the Royal Canadian Air Force and various commercial air lines and private pilots
in detecting and reporting of fires.
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT.
Information was laid in only sixteen cases during the year throughout the Province.
This is a very marked reduction over last year's figures and slightly over 50 per cent,
of the ten-year average. Of total prosecutions, convictions were obtained in all but
two cases, where charges were subsequently withdrawn. Half of the sixteen cases
were for burning without a permit and five cases were failure to maintain proper fire-
protection equipment. It is notable that not a single prosecution proved necessary
in the Nelson Forest District.
INSECT-CONTROL.
In the summer of 1947, patches of severe defoliation in Douglas fir were noted
throughout the area extending from Dutch Creek to Radium Hot Springs in the East
Kootenay region of the Nelson Forest District. Following examination and study by
forest entomologists of the Dominion Science Service, it was determined that the cause
was an outbreak of the false hemlock looper, covered approximately 17,000 acres, and
that control measures by the Forest Service in 1948 were required if extensive areas
of insect-killed forest were to be avoided.
The Province-wide flood situation disrupted all transportation facilities for the
greater part of the month of June, with the result that spraying operations did not get
under way until the morning of July 1st. The project was completed on July 24th, by
which time 11,180 acres had been sprayed, using 11,485 gallons of oil spray containing
1 lb. of D.D.T. in solution per gallon.
Spraying was done with a Bell helicopter, model 47B3, powered with a Franklin
6-cylinder opposed engine generating 178 horse-power. The machine was fitted with
20-foot spray booms, having thirty-two nozzles spaced 6 inches apart. The spray was
applied at the rate of 1 gallon per acre with a flying speed of 60 miles per hour.
Maximum load for the aircraft was 300 lb. operating at elevations of 3,200 to 3,600
feet above sea-level. The width of strip sprayed was 60 feet and marking was done
with the aid of hydrogen-filled balloons. A total of 466 flights were made, averaging
about 25 gallons per flight.
Operations were dependent upon the weather, and the best times for spraying
were found to be from .4.30 to 9.30 a.m. and from 7 to 9 p.m., when wind velocities were
less than 8 miles per hour.
From an operational point of view, experience indicates a helicopter used in
conjunction with a fixed-wing aircraft would have been more practicable for the type
of area involved. Such a combination would permit the helicopter to treat the broken
areas and the fixed-wing aircraft would deal with the large blocks of infestation. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948. LL 55
FOREST INSECT INVESTIGATIONS *
Definite steps were undertaken during the year on the long-deferred plans for
the development of Forest Entomology in British Columbia. Progress was made in
assembling a nucleus of technical personnel, as yet under training, as a foundation for
a service which will be enlarged and improved. This is essential for the comprehensive
treatment of the many complicating insect problems relative to the salvage and continuity of the timber resources of the Province.
During the year all forest insect-work in the Province was unified under a central
headquarters at Victoria, and plans were formulated for the building of an insectary
at Victoria. There will be, therefore, two forest insect-survey centres for the identification and rearing of living insect material—one in the Interior at Vernon and one on
the Coast at Victoria. The erection of the Victoria insectary is expected in time for
the 1949 season. In addition, alterations and the enlarging of the Cowichan Lake field
station were completed, thus providing more adequate facilities for field investigations
of specific research problems.
In addition, this plan entails the building of summer stations for forest insect
rangers in the various forest districts of the Province to serve as field headquarters
for insect rangers located in particular regions. A general survey for such buildings
was completed during the year. Personnel employed in 1948 totalled thirty-eight, of
which thirteen were insect rangers. In distribution, sixteen were engaged in the
Interior and twenty-two in the Coastal regions.
FOREST INSECT SURVEY.
Forest insect-survey collections increased greatly during the year, both in quantity
and distribution, as shown below.
Collections.
1948.
British Columbia Forest Service— 1947.
Vancouver District  236 275
Kamloops District  120 110
Nelson District   110 122
Prince Rupert District  95 91
Prince George District  134 86
Totals, Forest Service      695 684
Other collections  1,666 3,777
Grand totals   2,361 4,461
Results of the survey are set forth in detail in the Annual Report of the Forest
Insect Survey, copies of which are available on request at Victoria, Vernon, or Ottawa.
The following summarizes briefly the more important insect problems for the year.
Important Forest Insects for 19US.
The false hemlock looper (Nepytia canosaria Wlk.) was of extreme importance
during 1948 and produced extensive defoliation to Douglas fir in the Windermere area
of the Kootenay District. This outbreak covered an area from Salter Creek on the
west side of Columbia Lake to a point 10 miles north of Radium. The infestation
reached its peak during the year and collapsed during late summer. Despite this and
an aeroplane-spraying programme undertaken during the year, considerable damage
* This section of the Report has been prepared by the Forest Insect Investigations, Science Service, Dominion
Department of Agriculture, Victoria and Vernon Laboratories. LL 56 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
occurred over the infested regions. The Douglas fir tussock moth (Hemerocampa
pseudotsugata McD.) developed to heavy infestations over sections of the Kamloops
District, being most severe in the Oregon Jack region, Monte Creek, and Lower Hat
Creek which combined represent some 75,000 acres of severe damage. Many other
smaller areas of heavy defoliation occurred throughout the Kamloops District. This
outbreak apparently reached its climax during the year, and little evidence was found
of any residual population for 1949. The hemlock sawfly (Neodiprion tsugae Midd.)
showed a very marked increase over the Coastal area from the Nass River to the Lower
Mainland, and it constitutes one of the most active pests on the Coast at the present
time. The spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana Clem.) was recorded in several
small endemic infestations from the Alaska Border to the Kootenays. The European
larch sawfly (Pristiphora erichsonii Htg.) was in no instance serious, and several areas
showed a marked reduction in populations. The most active infestation was at McRae
Creek on the east side of Christina Lake. Hemlock looper (Lambdina fiscellaria
lugubrosa Hist.) was practically non-existent in those areas where much havoc was
wrought during the past few years. One area, however, may yet develop an active
infestation—namely, Bella Coola River—which will be closely surveyed in 1949. Bark-
beetles (Dendroctonus sp.) in pine inflicted killing in relatively limited outbreaks, the
most serious being at Downie Creek on the Big Bend of the Columbia River and in an
area near Bella Coola extending toward Tweedsmuir Park. Bark-beetles in Douglas fir
(D. pseudotsugse) became extremely active in the green timber adjacent to the hemlock-
looper-damaged areas, particularly at Wilson Creek on Vancouver Island. Several other
local outbreaks occurred throughout the Interior.
Detailed information on the many other forest insects recorded during the year is
set forth in the Annual Report of the Forest Insect Survey referred to above.
THE DETERIORATION OF HEMLOCK-LOOPER-DAMAGED TIMBER.
This study, in operation since 1946, aims at the determination of factors contributing to losses in timber values from both the entomological and pathological aspects
and at supplying information that can be used by the Province and the industry in
appraising the status of affected timber on occasions of future outbreaks. It was
expanded during the year, becoming a joint study of the forest pathologists and forest
entomologists. In its scope it includes such aspects as marginal defoliation beyond
which recovery is problematical, the relation of site, density, composition, and age-class
to resulting mortality, the development of rot and the relation of secondary attack to
the introduction of wood-decaying organisms. This study will progress over several
ensuing years.
FOREST INSECT-POPULATION STUDIES.
The quantitative measurement of populations of defoliating insects through frass
collections appears to offer much in the determination of population trends. This
project, in progress for two years, was initiated on the premise that there is a constant
relationship between the portion of a leaf giving rise to growth of the insect and that
voided as frass. This study, operated at Cowichan Lake, is too young for definite
conclusions, but it opens an important avenue for further study in the quantitative
analysis of defoliating insects. Its value is of special significance in the determination
of population trends in stands of big timber where the insect population is beyond reach
and out of sight of the observer.
REFORESTATION INSECT PROJECT.
During 1948, work undertaken on this project aimed at a fuller understanding of
such species as the spruce gall adelgid in both its spruce and fir host series; the white I
i
c
01
o
u  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948. LL 57
grubs; the soil insects generally, and general insects of the nursery; the sequoia pitch-
moth life-cycle, abundance, and effects; and a survey of seed and cone insects. Basic
studies were maintained on the Sitka spruce weevil on the Echo Lake and the Green
Timbers plots.    Certain lesser insects, such as the spruce aphis, were appraised.
Results to date indicate the spruce gall adelgid as a heavy check on rate of growth
and upon tree form in planted spruce. The sequoia pitch-moth has increased in incidence of attack from 24 per cent, in 1939 to over 80 per cent, currently, and has
extended, at Echo Lake, from the lodgepole pine to the western yellow pine. In the
latter about 20-per-cent. attack exists. The adjacent Douglas fir, although susceptible
as a species, is free at present, probably because of the close nature of the stand density.
In the nursery, white grubs are present at Campbell River, being dispersed over the
entire area to some extent. About 13,000 2-year-old trees are estimated to have been
lost from this insect in 1948, and possibly an equal number of 1-year seedlings in
addition. The Sitka spruce weevil incidence continued to decline at Echo Lake in 1948,
but review of plots at Green Timbers suggests that it has held an average population
level for some years past. Insects attacking seeds and cones are not seriously prevalent.
Collection of grand fir seed for the Danish Government, on Vancouver Island, was
discontinued by private collectors owing to the high incidence of attack to cones.
Examination of the seeds contained showed that actually only 12 per cent, of them were
affected.
AERIAL SPRAYING FOR CONTROL OF FALSE HEMLOCK LOOPER.
The experimental spraying by a helicopter of more than 11,000 acres of Douglas
fir was carried out successfully between July 1st and 24th, 1948, in the Windermere
district. The project was undertaken by the Provincial Forest Service to check the
outbreak of the false hemlock looper (Nepytia nr. canosaria), which was a serious
threat to the valuable Christmas-tree stands in the district. Officers of the Dominion
forest insect unit acted as technical advisers and checked on the effectiveness of the
spray. A D.D.T.-oil spray, in the proportions of 1 lb. of D.D.T. to 1 quart of solvent
plus diesel oil to make 1 gallon, was applied at the rate of 1 gallon per acre. Excellent
results were obtained on the areas treated, with practically 100 per cent, of the larva-
being killed.
The spray was factory-mixed and shipped by rail in 45-gallon drums to Invermere.
The drums were hauled by truck to the various landing-sites, and a Forest Service tank-
truck was used for loading the aeroplane. The aircraft was a Bell helicopter, model
47B3, equipped with spray booms. As the elevation of the area treated ranged between
2,700 and 3,400 feet above sea-level, the carrying capacity of the aeroplane was limited
to an average load of 24.6 gallons. The low capacity was offset by the ability of the
helicopter to land and take off alongside the supply truck on small fields close to the
stands to be sprayed.    Reloading time averaged only about two minutes.
Spraying was conducted, weather permitting, between the hours of 4.30 and 10
a.m. and also, on a few days, from late afternoon until dusk. Operation at other
daylight hours was impractical due to wind or thermal activity, which prevented proper
control of the spray. The width of the swath, as determined by glass slides, was set
at 60 feet. The number of spray flights totalled 466, with an average of approximately
160 acres being treated each flying-hour. LL 58 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
FOREST PATHOLOGY INVESTIGATIONS.*
DISEASES OF MATURE AND OVERMATURE FORESTS.
During 1948, major emphasis was placed on the problems of decay in mature and
overmature timber in British Columbia. This action was taken on the basis of the
consideration that pathological studies may contribute to the more adequate inventory,
utilization, and management of stands of this nature.
No additional studies were undertaken during 1948, but more extensive work was
conducted and additional information was obtained in the case of Douglas fir and
western hemlock on the Coast and northern spruce and black cottonwood in the Interior.
(1) Western Hemlock on the Queen Charlotte Islands.
A study of the decays and decay relationships of western hemlock was undertaken
on the Queen Charlotte Islands from 1945 to 1947 in order to provide essential decay
information for this portion of the north Coastal region. A sample of 2,318 trees of
merchantable size and an additional 3,072 trees below the present cutting-limit was
obtained through the detailed analysis of 183 sample plots representing an area of 47
acres.
Western hemlock was found to reach an advanced age in this region. Fifty-three
per cent, of the trees were contained in age-classes above 325 years and 7.9 per cent,
above 425 years. Because of the general overmaturity of the stand, appreciable loss
from decay was recorded.
Eleven and eight-tenths per cent, of the trees, containing 16.7 per cent, of the
total volume, were culled from decay. An additional loss of 10.6 per cent, was realized
in the residual trees of the stand. On a total-stand basis, decay losses amounted to
25.5 per cent, of the gross volume.
Scars provided the most frequent method of entrance for the major decays. It
was evident that the susceptibility of western hemlock to damage of this nature and
the resulting losses through decay constitute important factors to be considered in the
management of this species.
The maximum net periodic increment was obtained in the 30-inch diameter class.
At this diameter an average loss from decay of 17.8 per cent, was recorded. Thirty
inches was considered to represent the critical diameter in the case of priority cutting
schedules for this region.
Further information with respect to age and diameter relationships will be available in published form shortly.
(2)  Douglas Fir on Vancouver Island.
Studies relating to the inventory and management of this species were continued
during 1948. An additional 9 acres, involving 534 trees of merchantable size, were
sampled in the vicinity of Parksville. A complete analysis of the data will not be
undertaken until an adequate sample of the various age, diameter, and site-classes has
been obtained.
(3) White Spruce in the Upper Fraser Region.
Further sampling of white spruce in the vicinity of Aleza Lake has increased the
total area investigated to 6.3 acres. Six hundred and eighty-one spruce of pulp-wood
size, including 499 trees meeting the requirements of saw-timber utilization, have been
analysed.
* This   section   of  the  Report  has   been   prepared   by   the   Laboratory   of   Forest   Pathology,   Science   Service,
Dominion Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C. Tree Diseases.
Fungous diseases in nursery seed-beds.
Disease in insect-killed stands.
Diseased black cottonwood in the Interior
Decay in mature and overmature
western hemlock.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948. LL 59
On a cubic-foot basis the gross merchantable volume averaged 5,510 cubic feet or
55.1 cords per acre. The loss through decay in this material amounted to 11 per cent.
On a board-foot basis, the gross merchantable volume of sawlog material averaged
27,188 feet per acre.    Of this volume, 13.5 per cent, was destroyed through decay.
Over 73 per cent, of the total decay volume was associated with basal infections.
Additional losses from root-rot were noted in the case of wind-thrown trees. An appreciation of the susceptibility of spruce to losses of this nature will be necessary in the
future management of this species.
(4) Black Cottonwood in the Quesnel Area.
A preliminary investigation of cottonwood in the vicinity of Quesnel was continued
during 1948. To date 160 trees of pulp-wood size and 98 trees meeting the requirements of peeler stock have been studied.
A gross volume of 19,856 cubic feet has been analysed in detail. Total loss in this
material amounted to 17.6 per cent. Of this, 74 per cent, was attributed to decay. On
the basis of peeler standards, decay losses in board-feet amounted to 20.3 per cent.
Investigations will be continued during 1949 in order to provide information
relative to the management of this species.
DISEASES OF IMMATURE FORESTS.
In view of the increased interest in second-growth stands, plans were initiated
during the past year for further and more intensive investigations of the disease and
mortality losses in immature forests. Nine of the British Columbia Forest Service
permanent sample plots on Vancouver Island were studied in order to determine the
possibility of maintaining disease and mortality records. Since all of the areas examined showed evidence of loss from Poria Weirii and related root-rotting organisms it
is planned to re-examine plots of this nature in order to correlate disease mortality
with essential information relating to growth and yield.
DISEASES OF NURSERY AND PLANTATION STOCK.
The excessive mortality losses which reached the 50-per-cent level at the Duncan
nursery during 1947 were considerably reduced during 1948. This reduction was
attributed in large part to the decreased activity of the top-blight organism Fusarium
oxysporum. Information obtained during the past year, however, would indicate that
normal damping-off losses may be considerably higher than is generally recognized.
Studies are planned for 1949 to determine the biological requirements of the major
forest-nursery diseases in order to provide a more adequate basis for control.
ADDITIONAL STUDIES.
(1)  Deterioration op Insect-killed Timber on Lower Vancouver Island.
During 1948 a pathological analysis was initiated in the large area of hemlock-
looper-killed timber on Vancouver Island. Sample plots were established in the vicinity
of Lake Cowichan and in the Nitinat Valley in order to supplement those established
by the Division of Entomology.
A random sample of 140 western hemlock was obtained in the Alberni Canal region
in order to provide a basis for future work on this problem. It was found that 98 per
cent, of the trees contained measurable amounts of decay and that 81 per cent, of the
merchantable bole in this species contained rot which had entered subsequent to the
death of the tree. The average radial penetration of decay amounted to 1.5 inches,
though individual cases of incipient decay extending as much as 6 inches were recorded.
The mistletoe problem in this area was found to contribute appreciably to the falling LL 60 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
hazards. Owing to the reduction in strength following decay infection and insect penetration, an increased amount of breakage was noted over that resulting in living trees.
An analysis of the permanent sample plots will be undertaken during 1949 in order
to provide information relative to the maximum period the present dead timber will
remain in a salvable condition.
(2) Blister-rust of White Pine.
An intensive survey in the Garibaldi region was conducted during the past summer
in order to isolate disease-free white pine. Twenty-six trees of this nature were located
following a 100-per-cent. cruise of 65 acres in this area. Studies are planned to determine if the twenty-six trees are capable of withstanding blister-rust infection under
extreme conditions. Additional surveys will be conducted during 1949 in an effort to
isolate a strain of this valuable forest species resistant to the blister-rust disease. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948. LL 61
FOREST RANGER SCHOOL.
The third class to attend the Ranger School completed the six-month course of
study outlined below on December 18th and are back in their districts again with, it is
hoped, a better basic knowledge of various phases of forest administration and the
techniques needed in the field.
A, Operation— . No. of Hours.
1. Fire law and operation procedure  66
2. Meteorology, fire behaviour, and fire-detection planning  35
3. Public relations, law enforcement, and public speaking  22
4. Preliminary fire organization  28
5. Construction and maintenance of improvements  55
6. Operation and care of mechanical equipment  42
7. Fire-suppression methods and organization  60
B. Management—
1. Mathematics and surveying (lectures and field-trips)  140
2. Forest mensuration and cruising practice  140
3. Log scaling (theory and practice)  70
4. Stumpage appraisals and cost studies  40
5. Forest botany, pathology, and entomology  80
6. Forest management and general aspects of forestry  110
7. Grazing management  15
8. Office methods, use of air photos, and cover mapping  40
Four Rangers, three Acting Rangers, eleven Assistant Rangers, and two clerks
from district offices made up the class. These men came from the various forest
districts of the Province, as shown in the table given in the Appendix.
The Ranger School has now given specialized training in Ranger work to sixty
men, of whom only fourteen were experienced Rangers prior to attending the school.
Vacancies in the Ranger staff caused by promotions, resignations, retirements, and the
creation of new districts have been filled from the pool of qualified Acting and Assistant
Rangers who have graduated and been recommended by the school. Such vacancies
have, in fact, absorbed practically all of the men who passed through the school in 1946
and 1947. The building up of a reserve of trained Assistant Rangers, who will be
available for Ranger appointment in the event of a sudden and appreciable expansion
of the Ranger staff, really commenced with the class of 1948.
At the end of the regular spring term in April, a ten-day special course of instruction for lookout-men was arranged at the request of the Vancouver Forest District.
Seventeen men were given basic training in the details of the work expected from them,
and the District Forester, Vancouver, has since advised that the benefits of the training
have been very evident. In spite of the fact that a large percentage of the men were
new to the job, fire detection and reporting during the summer were of a high standard
and there was a minimum of trouble with this phase of fire organization.
As in previous years, the Dominion Meteorological Service provided a specialist for
a short course in meteorology; the Divisions of Forest Pathology and Forest Entomology
of the Dominion Department of Agriculture gave instruction in tree diseases and forest
insects; the Provincial Police Force gave a series of lectures on various phases of law
enforcement; and the St. John Ambulance Society provided an instructor for a course
in first aid. The school is indebted to these various organizations for the assistance
given and gratefully acknowledges it at this time.
During the year, work was commenced in earnest on permanent quarters for the
school. A contract for the administration and classroom building, boiler-house, and
car-shelter was awarded in the spring, and these buildings are practically completed. LL 62 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Unfortunately, there was some difficulty with respect to an oil-fuel supply, and the
contract for the heating unit was thereby delayed, which in turn has delayed the final
completion of the buildings. It is hoped that the offices and classrooms will be ready
for use by the end of January, 1949. The main building is an attractive, modern
one-story structure housing ample office accommodation, two classrooms, library-room,
workshop for instruction in mechanical and other equipment, supply-room, and a 20-
by 30-foot tool-cache.
A dormitory building was designed during the year, and the contract for its construction awarded in October. This is a two-story structure finished in varnished
vertical cedar siding and will provide individual bedrooms for twenty-one students and
a staff of three on the second floor, while the main floor has a suite of three bedrooms for
visiting lecturers, lobby and waiting-room space, dining-room, kitchen, main living-
room, and a games room. Construction is well advanced, and there is reason to anticipate that the building will be completed in February, 1949.
The new buildings will provide comforts and conveniences both within and without
the classrooms that should have an appreciable effect on the ability of the students to
absorb the intensive courses given. This is particularly true with respect to lighting,
heating, and ventilation in the classrooms. Also, the workshop area will provide room
for practical demonstrations not possible in the present temporary quarters. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948. LL 63
PUBLIC RELATIONS AND EDUCATION.
As a result of the addition of three members to the staff during the year, it has
been possible to advance the basic organization necessary for the development of the
public relations and educational work of the Service.
PRESS AND RADIO.
Forest Service protection advertisements and other forestry educational messages
were carried in ten daily, seventy-two weekly, and nineteen other publications as part
of the Service advertising campaign. This series of advertisements in the press was
composed of six different messages contained in a standard layout captioned " Talking
of Trees." The layout and copy was a product of this Division, with the art-work again
being done by the Government Printing Bureau. Although individual advertisements
of this series were used in a number of the nineteen miscellaneous publications mentioned, in many cases special layouts and copy were devised to suit the type of publication concerned.
The press again gave a generous amount of space, both editorially and in news
columns, to matters relating to forestry and forest protection. We are indebted to
them for this added impetus to our work of public education.
The radio-broadcasting stations throughout the Province, as in previous years,
co-operated by issuing fire warnings and other brief warning and educational matter
pertaining to forestry.
MOTION PICTURES AND PHOTOGRAPHY.
Motion Pictures.
The film library started the year with a stock of seventy-four subjects, sixty-six of
which were silent and the remaining eight sound. During the course of the year two
obsolete films were removed from circulation and four new sound and one silent subject
were added, which resulted in the library ending the year with a total of seventy-seven
films available for loan.
Circulation figures show the increased use resulting from the service rendered by
the film library. Outstanding increases were registered over the figures of the preceding year in number of film loans, showings, and the total number of persons to
whom our films were shown. Seventy-seven films were shown to 1,293 different audiences comprised of 21,633 adults, 20,455 children, and 42,900 mixed adults and children,
for a yearly total of 85,018 persons. Besides the considerable increase over the total
audience for 1947, the most significant feature is felt to be resurgence of adult interest
in the library.    The adult audience showed an increase of 13,624 persons this year.
Members of the Service participated in this phase of our work more than ever
before. A total of 172 film showings were given by Service personnel during the year.
The Kamloops District led all other divisions of the Service by giving a total of 72
showings to 5,171 persons. All other forest districts, with the exception of Prince
Rupert, made use of the film service, but it is felt that projection equipment attached
to each district office would do a great deal toward expanding this effective medium of
public relations.
Two blocks of National Film Board subjects were given a circulation outlet through
our library during the year. These films, thirty-four in all, were shown to a total of
9,181 persons not counted in our own circulation totals.
The three most widely shown forestry films were " Mount Robson Park " (shown
seventy-four times to 3,838 persons), "Garibaldi Park" (sixty times to 2,735), and
" Tweedsmuir Park" (fifty-three times to 2,387).    It might be of interest to point out LL 64 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
that ten of the above showings were given to 559 persons in England through the
facilities of British Columbia House, London, England, where one copy of each of these
three park films has been made available. We deeply appreciate the co-operation of
the Agent-General in arranging circulation and supplying us with these records.
The most distant points to which our films were sent on loan during the year were
Helsingsfors, Finland, and Sydney, Australia. Also, during the early part of the year,
seven film subjects were loaned to the School of Forestry, Yale University, and the
State universities of Connecticut and Maine.
A tabular statement on the stock and circulation of the film library appears on
page 115 of this Report.
Photography.
Subsequent to the addition of a writer-photographer to the staff of the Division,
a photographic dark-room was established in the late summer. Since that time an ever-
increasing volume of developing, printing, and enlarging of photographs, taken by all
headquarters divisions of the Service, has been channelled through this dark-room.
More than 300 new photographs have been taken by the photographer and added
to the photographic library. Included in this total are sixty illustrations taken for
inclusion in the Dominion Forest Service's new bulletin on the native trees of Canada
and thirty photographs of tree species were taken and forwarded to commercial publishers. Specialized photography was also carried out for all divisions of the Service.
In addition, the photographic dark-room and library has supplied quantities of illustrations to various publishing houses throughout the world.
Photography of an 850-foot motion-picture film of the Christmas-tree industry, in
colour, was completed by the Division, and this will be sounded early in the new year.
Six hundred feet of motion-picture film was taken of the spraying by helicopter of the
hemlock-looper infestation, and some footage of the disastrous Fraser River floods was
secured for future use.
PUBLICATIONS.
The Annual Report of the Forest Service for the year 1947 was edited and distributed. Assistance was given in the editing, producing, and distribution of the 1948
revised edition of Forest Service Publication B.37, Forest Management Licences. The
Division also co-operated with the Operations Division in the production of their 1948
forest-protection bulletins and with the Economics Division in reintroducing a series
of research notes and producing the first of a planned series of forest-resources bulletins. The Division produced a forest-protection booklet, B.39, Sayward Forest—Forest
Facts; a pamphlet, B.38, Forest Fire-Reforestation; five personnel news-letters; and,
with the assistance of the Reforestation Division, the 1948 Forest Service calendar.
Supervision of the production of these and a number of other printing jobs was the
responsibility of the Division.
EXHIBITS.
The two exhibits—one on reforestation and the other on forest fire-detection
methods—which had been assembled the previous year were enlarged and circulated.
During the late summer and early fall the reforestation exhibit was displayed, with a
member of the Division in attendance, at the Alberni and District Fall Fair and then
was shipped to the Interior for display at Rock Creek and Fruitvale. At these two
locations the Forest Ranger and staff were in attendance.
The fire-detection display, accompanied by a member of this Division, was shown
at the fall fairs held at Chase, Princeton, Armstrong, Kamloops, and Salmon Arm. At
Kamloops a special radio broadcast from the display was arranged with the attending
staff member taking part. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948. LL 65
The policy of only constructing exhibits which can be crated and easily handled by
three men again proved its worth this year.
During the meetings of the Western Forestry and Conservation Conference, held
in Victoria in December, a special display featuring the Bennett-MacDonald fire-pump
was arranged and installed by this Division outside the conference room.
PROTECTION AND DIRECTIONAL SIGNS.
Methods of design and prefabricating of the much-needed forest-protection signs
reached another step closer to completion. Sufficient Scotchlite material, Masonite
sheets, and pre-cut lumber were assembled to construct fifty 4- by 7-foot protection
signs. Due to a lack of time, staff, and suitable working facilities, the Division was
unable to complete this project prior to the commencement of the fire season. Arrangements have been made to have the assembling of these signs completed early in the
new year.
As time allowed, study was given to a plan of producing large numbers of Forest
Service directional signs.
ARTICLES, PAPERS, AND ADDRESSES.
A number of special articles were written for newspapers and trade journals,
together with papers, addresses, and scripts for presentation to service clubs, schools,
church groups, young people's gatherings, and other organizations or for radiobroadcasting.
CO-OPERATION.
A total of 781 honorary fire wardens were appointed in the five forest districts.
A letter of appreciation for their co-operation, over the Minister's signature, was sent
to each appointee and each was given a year's subscription to the conservation magazine, Forest and Outdoors.
Material, counsel, and assistance in editing manuscripts was furnished to a number
of writers and artists preparing material, articles, and books on forestry or the forest
industries for publication.
LIBRARY.
Work of the reference library continued to expand, and improvements were
introduced in the circulation of periodicals and photographs. The work of indexing
photographs and filing of clippings was brought up to date, thereby removing a backlog
of work which had been accumulating for some years. LL 66 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
GRAZING.
GENERAL CONDITIONS.
The range live-stock industry experienced many difficulties during the year but
emerged, on the whole, in a sound position. Prices reached record high figures during
the year and the range crop was excellent. Hay production was drastically curtailed
by adverse weather in some localities, and a sharp reduction in stock will undoubtedly
result in those areas. The lifting of the embargo on the shipment of beef cattle and
sheep to the United States and the continuing strong domestic demand indicate a good
market during the coming year.
Weather was mild and snowfall light in most range areas during the early part of
the winter of 1947-48. With the exception of the Cariboo and Chilcotin, feeding
commenced a little later than usual, and the prospects of stock coming through the
winter in good shape were bright. Although particularly low temperatures were not
experienced, snowfall was considerably above normal throughout the range country
during the latter part of the winter. Spring was extremely late, with grass growth
commencing from three to four weeks later than usual. Hay-supplies were practically
exhausted and serious shortages developed in the Cariboo and Chilcotin. Losses of
mature stock were not great, but the poor condition of the cows and adverse weather
conditions during the calving season resulted in a higher-than-normal loss of calves.
The abnormally high rainfall throughout the growing season resulted in the
heaviest growth of range forage in memory. Stock grew rapidly and fleshed out well
but in some cases lacked finish, probably due to a poor start in the spring and the soft
nature of the grass. The June floods damaged hay land in some areas and disrupted
range-management plans to some extent. Severe summer storms made stock difficult
to handle at higher elevations and, in general, the animals came down on to the fall
range earlier than usual.    Feed was abundant at lower elevations.
A heavy crop of hay was produced, but weather and water conditions were such
that harvesting was extremely difficult and much hay spoiled. Those ranches depending
on cultivated meadows managed for the most part to put up sufficient hay to see them
through the winter but, in cases where the chief source of hay is from natural meadows,
the situation is much less favourable. These wild meadows remained flooded throughout the summer in some areas, making the harvesting of hay impossible. The Cariboo
and Chilcotin were hardest hit in this respect, and many stockmen have been forced
to drastically reduce their herds.
Damage by grasshoppers was negligible and egg-laying appeared to be light,
indicating little trouble from this source next season.
Ranch labour seemed to be more plentiful this year but continues to be a big
problem, particularly in some areas. Some materials are in better supply but others,
such as wire, staples, and farm machinery, are still difficult to obtain. These factors
have a distinct bearing on the rancher's ability to properly manage the range.
MARKETS AND PRICES.
Throughout the year, British Columbia live-stock producers received excellent
returns, with prices reaching a peak immediately after the lifting of the embargo on
shipments to the United States in August. Prices eased somewhat in the last two
months but show signs of stabilizing at their year-end levels. The opening of the
United States market counteracted the depressing effect of the heavy fall shipments
of beef from the Cariboo and Chilcotin.
Some 95,000 head of cattle and 19,303 sheep and lambs were marketed from British
Columbia ranches during 1948.   The wool-clip from the range areas ran to 226,516 lb. Grazing.
A bunch-grass side-hill in good condition
in Mamit Lake area.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948. LL 67
Prices for good steers ranged from a low of $15 in March to a high of $23.35 in
September. Lamb prices averaged $19.23 and wool prices averaged 40 cents per pound.
All prices showed a marked increase over 1947 levels.
There were seven major live-stock sales during 1948. At the Elko sale, sponsored
by the Waldo Stockbreeders' Association, 671 head of cattle sold for $87,884.78. The
Quesnel sale moved 1,112 head of cattle for a gross of $140,482.69. The Thirtieth
Annual Provincial Bull Sale and Fat Stock Show held in Kamloops sold 110 bulls for
$45,110, and in the Fat Stock Section 237 head were disposed of at good prices. The
Southern Interior Stockmen's Association Sixth Annual Sale moved 1,127 head at an
average of $177.75 per animal. The Cariboo Cattlemen's Association held two sales
at Williams Lake, the first of which sold 2,488 feeders and fat stock for $352,672.45
and 32 bulls for $20,910. The second sale moved 2,462 head at slightly lower prices.
The Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale at Kamloops sold 245 head for $56,723.05.
LIVE-STOCK LOSSES.
Losses of stock on the range were about normal this year. Poisonous weeds were
responsible for somewhat more than the usual number of deaths, apparently due to the
soft, wet ground allowing such plants as larkspur and death camas to be pulled out by
the roots and consumed in quantity. Numerous reports of stock lost through predatory
animals were also received. Owing to the extremely high water, losses of stock in
mudholes were negligible. Losses of stock due to highway and railway traffic and
gunshot wounds were also reported. A serious outbreak of blackleg, a disease fatal to
cattle, occurred on one range and necessitated a radical change in range-management
plans to facilitate vaccination.
RANGE RECONNAISSANCE.
Our range-reconnaissance programme was stepped up considerably during the
year. A total of 1,017,796 acres was covered by intensive range surveys. The following
areas were mapped:— Acres.
Bridesville-Midway  109,800
Granby River-Christina Lake _'_  133,700
Soda Creek     69,400
Meadow Valley Stock Range ,  202,444
Mamit Lake      63,200
Springhouse and Chimney Creek Stock Range  192,257
Lac la Hache Stock Range (west of Cariboo Road)  141,508
Lolo Mountain Stock Range  105,487
The information compiled as a result of these surveys will greatly facilitate the
proper management of the range. The work was carried out by three field crews, each
crew consisting of a permanent forest grazing officer assisted by two temporary grazing
assistants selected from the School of Agriculture, University of British Columbia.
It is proposed to continue this range-survey programme during 1949.
In addition to the major projects listed above, extensive examinations were carried
out in the following areas: Upper Hat Creek, Cairn Mountain Alpine Range, sheep
range in the vicinity of Spius Creek, and the Promontory Mountain areas.
CO-OPERATION.
There are now forty Livestock Associations in the Province, some being combined
with Farmers' Institutes. In all, these associations reported 102 meetings, of which
92 were attended by forest officers.    As usual, much benefit derived from the close contact between the forest officers and range-users. Many problems were settled in
open discussion and much lengthy correspondence avoided. Improved range-management plans were also discussed and agreed upon in many cases.
Early in the year a print of the motion-picture film " Richer Range Rewards " was
obtained. This film, in colour with sound, outlines the principles of range management
and was shown to stockmen's meetings throughout the range area. The film promoted
much discussion and thought on range-management matters.
GRAZING AND HAY PERMITS.
The number of grazing permits issued and stock covered reached a record high in
1948. The increase is due largely to smaller operators increasing their stock to the
point where the use of Crown range, in addition to their own holdings, is necessary.
The tabulation on page 116 shows the volume of business for 1948 and the past ten
years. Although the number of stock under permit was higher than in 1947, the fees
billed and collected were down somewhat. This is due to the shorter grazing season
experienced and the fact that outstanding fees increased slightly. The table on page
116 shows the grazing fees billed and collected for the past ten years.
During the year, 231 hay-cutting permits were issued, authorizing the cutting of
2,405 tons of hay and 261 tons of rushes from Crown lands.
RANGE IMPROVEMENTS.
An exceedingly wet year, together with a shortage of labour and materials, made
it impossible to complete the programme of range improvements planned. The following is a list of those projects completed: Stock-bridges, 1; drift-fences, 6; cattle-
guards, 4; experimental plots, 2; holding-grounds, 5; mud-holes, 2; stock-trails, 11;
water-developments, 5; weed-control measures, 1. The total expenditure from the
Range Improvement Fund on the above projects was $4,447.11.
The horse-disposal programme was continued, with the Vernon, Belt, Cariboo, and
Cranbrook Grazing Districts being closed to horses during the winter of 1947-48.
During the closure 188 horses were shot and 148 rounded up and sold for slaughter.
The reduced number of horses disposed of, as compared with previous years, was due
partly to the heavy snow conditions and partly to the fact that this problem is largely
under control in the larger range areas. There are still considerable numbers of wild
and useless horses at large in some localities, however, and the programme is continuing during the winter of 1948-49. A total of $906 was paid in bounties from the
Range Improvement Fund on horses shot. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948.
LL
69
C. D. Orchard	
R. C. St. Clair	
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY, 1949.
VICTORIA OFFICE.
Deputy Minister and Chief Forester
Victoria.
Victoria.
Victoria.
Victoria.
Aleza Lake.
Victoria.
New Westminster.
Duncan.
.Campbell River.
 Assistant Chief Forester.
C. Cooper	
 Forest Counsel.
R. G. McKee	
 Forester i/c Operation Division	
P. Young
Assistant Forester.
D. W. Perrie	
W. C. Spouse	
 Meteorologist.
 Mechanical Superintendent.
A. B. Crowe
-Assistant Mechanical Superintendent.
J. H. Taylor	
G. A. Playfair	
H. E. Ferguson	
R. L. Fielder	
 Marine and Structural.
 Radio Superintendent.
 Assistant Radio Superintendent.
 Technical Forest Assistant (Fire Research)
L. Lucas  	
 Technical Forest Assistant (Fire Research)
A. Stringer
Senior Clerk.
E. B. Prowd	
 Forester i/c Management Division	
S. E. Marling	
G. M. Abernethy
"     A. E. Collins	
R. C. Telford	
E. H. Henshall
A. G. Mumford
S. F. Bankes	
R. G. Gilchrist	
 Forester.
 Assistant Forester.
 Assistant Forester (Forest-cover Maps).
 Assistant Forester (Management Licences)
Chief Clerk.
 Chief Clerk (Timber-sale Administration).
 Senior Clerk (Timber-sale clearances).
 Chief Draughtsman.
F. S. McKinnon
Forester i/c Economics Division	
J. L. Alexander	
R. H. Spilsbury	
H. M. Pogue
 Forester (Mensuration).
 Forester (Soils).
Assistant Forester (Surveys)..
D. M. Carey	
 Assistant Forester.
H. N. Cliff
Assistant Forester.
A. R. Fraser	
E. H. Garman	
L. A. deGrace	
W. G. Hughes	
A. L. Orr-Ewing
 Assistant Forester.
 Assistant Forester (Silviculture).
.Assistant Forester               	
Assistant Forester.
Assistant Forester,
G. Silburn	
G. C. Warraek	
 Assistant Forester.
 Assistant Forester.
J. M. Finnis ■	
 Forester-in-Training.
R. M. Malcolm	
 Forester-in-Training.
D. Macdougall	
C. J. T. Rhodes	
 Technical Forest Assistant.
 Supervising Draughtsman.
J. K. Frost	
L. L. King	
J. McCulloch	
 Senior Clerk.
 Ship's Captain.
 Ship's Captain.
J. Nutt	
H. G. McWilliams
Clerk.
 Forester i/c Reforestation Division	
E. G. Whiting..
T.Wells	
...Assistant Forester.
 Superintendent, Green Timbers Nursery	
J. R. Long	
W. Turner 	
N. G. Wharf	
 Superintendent, Duncan Nursery	
 Superintendent, Quinsam Nursery	
 Clerk.
Victoria.
E. G. Oldham	
 Forester i/c Parks Division	
C. P. Lyons	
 Assistant Forester.
D. M. Trew	
R. H. Ahrens	
T. R. Broadland
L. Brooks	
 Assistant Forester.
 Forester-in-Training.
 Forester-in-Training.
 Forester-in-Training.
D. L. Macmurchie
N. M. F. Pope	
J. M. M. Bailey
 Technical Forest Assistant.
 Technical Forest Assistant.
 Engineer-in-Training.
/ LL 70
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
R. G. Knight.	
E. A. McGowan..
C. J. Velay	
R. H. Boyd	
L. E. Cook	
VICTORIA OFFICE—Continued.
..Engineer-in-Training.
..Engineer-in-Training.
..Engineer-in-Training.
_Park Ranger_.
S. E. Park	
E. Druce	
P. W. H. G. Johnson.
Manning Park.
..Wells Gray Park.
..Park Ranger	
..Clerk.
-Forester i/c Public Relations Division_._.Victoria.
.Public Relations Officer (Photography).
D. R. Monk Public Relations Officer.
(Miss) N. M. Hughes Forest Service Library.
W. C. Pendray Forest Agrologist i/c Grazing Division.___.Victoria.
W. V. Hicks Inspector, Forest Accounts Division Victoria.
D. I. MacLeod Assistant Inspector.
W. C. Higgins Chief Accountant.
R. D. Greggor Forester i/c Ranger School_.
J. A. Pedley Assistant Forester.
J. G. MacDonald Superintendent, Forest Service Marine
Station Vancouver.
New Westminster.
DISTRICTS.
Vancouver.
E. W. Bassett.
-District Forester..
Vancouver.
D. B. Taylor Assistant District Forester.
C. E. Bennett Assistant Forester.
C. F. Holmes Assistant Forester (Operation).
J. S. Stokes _ Assistant Forester (Management).
A. H. Waddington Assistant Forester (Slash-disposal).
W. E. L. Young Assistant Forester.
G. R. Johnston Forester-in-Training.
J. McNeill Fire Inspector.
C. S. Frampton Supervisor.
P. R. Neil Technical Forest Assistant.
C. L. Armstrong Supervisor of Scalers.
A. C. Heard Assistant Supervisor of Scalers.
H. A. D. Munn____  Assistant Supervisor of Scalers.
J. A. Fetherstonhaugh..
J. H. Templeman	
E. P. Fox	
R.D. No.
1. J. A. Mahood	
2. J. H. Robinson	
.Inspector of Licensed Scalers.
..Inspector of Licensed Scalers.
.Chief Clerk.
G. G. Armytage_
S. C. Frost	
.Forest Ranger..
.Forest Ranger_
-Forest Ranger.
.Chilliwack.
.Mission.
North Vancouver.
5. R. W. Aylett..
6. K. M. Bell_	
7. W. Black	
.Forest Ranger Squamish.
-Forest Ranger_.
-Forest Ranger.
.Forest Ranger..
..Forest Ranger..
8. W. E. Jansen	
9. L. C. Chamberlin Forest Ranger_
10. H. Barker Forest Ranger.
11. A. C. C. Langstroth—Forest Ranger_.
12. J. 0. Little Forest Ranger.
13. C. D. S. Haddon Forest Ranger_
14. S. Silke Forest Ranger..
15. R. H. Morrison Forest Ranger..
16. P. E. Sweatman Forest Ranger       ....Duncan.
17. J. P. Greenhouse Forest Ranger Langford.
18. H. Stevenson Forest Ranger Alberni.
19. F. Tannock Forest Ranger Zeballos.
20. K. A. McKenzie Forest Ranger Cowichan Lake.
21. R. Little Forest Ranger Harrison Lake.
22. R. J. Glassford Forest Ranger Parksville.
23. M. H. Mudge Forest Ranger Alert Bay.
Sechelt.
Pender Harbour.
..Powell River.
Lund.
.Thurston Bay.
.Thurston Bay.
Alert Bay.
..Port Hardy.
.Campbell River.
-Courtenay.
Nanaimo. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948. LL 71
DISTRICTS—Cor.im.tec..
Prince Rupert.
M. W. Gormely District Forester Prince Rupert.
M. 0. Kullander Assistant District Forester.
L. B. B. Boulton Assistant Forester (Management).
J. P. MacDonald Assistant Forester (Operation).
J. A. K. Reid Assistant Forester (Management).
J. B. Scott Inspector of Licensed Scalers.
W. H. Murray Chief Clerk.
R.D. No.
1. S. T. Strimbold Forest Ranger , Burns Lake.
2. L. G. Taft Forest Ranger Hazelton.
3. S. G. Cooper Forest Ranger Terrace.
3. W. H. Campbell Forest Ranger Terrace.
4/7. J. A. Willan Forest Ranger Prince Rupert.
5/6. H. B. Hammer Forest Ranger Queen Charlotte City.
8. A. A. Antilla Forest Ranger Ocean Falls.
9. W. A. Antilla Forest Ranger Southbank.
10. C. L. Gibson Forest Ranger Smithers.
11. D. R. Smith Forest Ranger Houston.
12. J. Mould Forest Ranger Topley.
Fort George.
L. F. Swannell District Forester Prince George.
A. H. Dixon Assistant District Forester.
W. G. Henning Assistant Forester (Operation).
E. W. Robinson Assistant Forester (Management).
F. H. Nelson Supervisor.
A. H. McCabe Inspector of Licensed Scalers.
R. B. Carter Chief Clerk.
R.D. No. •
1. J. S. McAlister Forest Ranger McBride.
2. G. G. Jones Forest Ranger Penny.
3. A. F. Specht Forest Ranger Prince George (S.).
4. C. L. French Forest Ranger Prince George (N.).
5. A. V. O'Meara Forest Ranger Vanderhoof.
6. L. A. Willington Forest Ranger Quesnel.
7. H. T. Barbour Forest Ranger Pouce Coupe.
8. W. V. McCabe Forest Ranger Giscome.
9. N. Threatful Forest Ranger Fort  Fraser   (Vander
hoof P.O.).
10. R. Angly Forest Ranger Fort St. John.
W. N. Campbell Forest Ranger (Spare) Prince George.
Kamloops.
A. E. Parlow . District Forester Kamloops.
W. C. Phillips Assistant District Forester.
C. D. Grove-White Assistant Forester (Management).
D. H. Ross Assistant Forester (Operation).
W. W. Stevens Assistant Forester (Management).
H. K. DeBeck Assistant Forest Agrologist.
A. Paulsen Assistant Forest Agrologist.
M. T. Wallace Assistant Forest Agrologist.
J. B. Bruce Forester-in-Training.
R. Pringle Forest Agrologist-in-Training.
A. J. Kirk Fire Inspector.
W. P. Cowan Technical Forest Assistant.
C. R. Downing Technical Forest Assistant.
E. A. Charlesworth Inspector of Licensed Scalers.
C. Williams Inspector of Licensed Scalers.
H. J. Parker Chief Clerk. LL 72
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
R.D. No.
1. M. A. Johnson Forest
2. H. W. Campbell Forest
3. D. P. Fraser Forest
4. H. A. Ferguson..- Forest
5. H. G. Mayson Forest
6. J. Boydell Forest
7. J. A. Sim  Forest
8. E. L. Scott Forest
9. J. W. Hayhurst Forest
10. C. Perrin Forest
11. J. H. Dearing Forest
12. C. E. Robertson Forest
13. H. S. Noakes Forest
14. T. L. Gibbs Forest
15. R. B. W. Eden Forest
17. R. C. Hewlett Forest
18. C. M. Yingling Forest
19. H. C. Hewlett Forest
R. V. Williams Forest
DISTRICTS—Continued.
Kamloops—Continued.
Ranger__
Ranger.
Ranger..
Ranger_
Ranger_
Ranger_
Ranger .
Ranger.
Ranger_
Ranger..
Ranger..
Ranger..
Ranger..
Ranger..
Ranger_
Ranger_
Ranger..
Ranger..
Ranger_
Nelson.
-Vernon.
...Birch Island.
...Barriere.
-Kamloops.
...Chase.
-Salmon Arm.
...Sicamous.
—Revelstoke.
-Vernon.
-Penticton.
—Princeton.
-Clinton.
—Williams Lake.
-Alexis Creek.
.-Kelowna.
.-Merritt.
—Blue River.
—Enderby.
—Forest Grove.
H. B. Forse District Forester Nelson.
I. T. Cameron Assistant District Forester.
L. S. Hope Forester (Silviculture).
J. R. Johnston Assistant Forester (Operation).
G.W.Minns Assistant Forester (Management).
J. E. Milroy Assistant Forest Agrologist.
J. C. Payne Forester-in-Training.
E. R. Smith Forest Agrologist-in-Training.
J. H. Holmberg Fire Inspector.
I. B. Johnson Fire Inspector.
L. A. Chase Supervisor.
R. G. Gill Technical Forest Assistant.
S. S. Simpson Chief Clerk.
R.D. No.
1. J. L. Johnson Forest Ranger Invermere.
2. R. A. Damstrom Forest Ranger Fernie.
3. H. J. Coles Forest Ranger Golden.
4. R. O. Christie Forest Ranger Cranbrook.
5. A. I. Ross Forest Ranger Creston.
6. F. R. Hill Forest Ranger Kaslo.
7. L. E. Stilwell Forest Ranger Lardo.
8. G. C. Palethorpe Forest Ranger Nelson.
9. C. R. Tippie Forest Ranger New Denver.
10. H. L. Couling Forest Ranger Nakusp.
II. H. C. Nichols Forest Ranger Rossland.
12. E. W. Reid Forest Ranger Grand Forks.
13. J. F. Killough___ Forest Ranger Kettle Valley.
14. C. J. McGuire Forest Ranger Canal Flats.
..Forest Ranger_
..Arrowhead.
15. F. G. Hesketh-.
16. W. D. Haggart Forest Ranger Edgewood.
17. L. M. Quance Forest Ranger  Elko.
J. H. A.ApplewhaiteForest Ranger (Spare) Nelson. APPENDIX  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948. LL 75
TABULATED DETAILED STATEMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE.
CONTENTS.
General.
Table No. Page.
1. Distribution of Personnel, 1948  77
Reforestation.
2. Summary of Planting during the Years 1939-48  78
Forest Management.
3. Estimated Value of Production, including Loading and Freight within the
Province  79
4. Paper Production (in Tons)  79
5. Water-borne Lumber Trade (in MB.M.)  80
6. Total Amount of Timber scaled in British Columbia during the Years 1947-48
(in F.B.M.)  81
7. Species cut, all Products (in F.B.M.)  82
8. Total Scale (in F.B.M.) segregated, showing Land Status, all Products, 1948  83
9. Timber scaled in British Columbia in 1948 (by Months and Districts)  84
10. Logging Inspection, 1948  86
11. Trespasses, 1948  87
12. Pre-emption Inspection, 1948  87
13. Areas examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of the " Land Act," 1948  87
14. Classification of Areas examined, 1948  88
15. Areas cruised for Timber Sales, 1948  88
16. Timber-sale Record, 1948  88
17. Timber Sales awarded by Districts, 1948  89
18. Average Stumpage Prices as bid per M B.F. Log-scale, by Species and Forest
Districts, on Saw-timber cruised on Timber Sales in 1948  90
19. Average Stumpage Prices received per M B.F. Log-scale, by Species and Forest
Districts, on Saw-timber scaled from Timber Sales in 1948  91
20. Timber cut from Timber Sales during 1948  92
21. Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1948  93
22. Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1948  94
23. Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc., 1948  95
24. Summary for Province, 1948  95
25. Timber Marks issued :  96
26. Forest Service Draughting Office, 1948  96
Forest Finance.
27. Crown-granted Timber Lands paying Forest Protection Tax  97
28. Extent of Timber Land by Assessment Districts  97
29. Acreage of Crown-granted Timber Lands paying Forest Protection Tax as
compiled from Taxation Records   97
30. Forest Revenue   98
31. Amounts charged against Logging Operations, 1948  99
32. Amounts charged against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1947-48  100 LL 76 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Table No. Page.
33. Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1947-48  101
34. Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1947-48  102
35. Scaling Fund  102
36. Silviculture Fund  103
37. Forest Reserve Account, December 31st, 1948  103
38. Grazing Range Improvement Fund :  103
39. Forest Protection Fund, December 31st, 1948  104
40. Forest-protection Expenditure for Twelve Months ended March 31st, 1948, by
the Forest Service  105
41. Reported Approximate Expenditure in Forest Protection by other Agencies,
1948  106
Forest Protection.
42. Summary of Acreage logged, 1948, and dealt with under Section 113a, " Forest
Act"  106
43. Summary of 1948 Operations, Vancouver Forest District  107
44. Summary Chart A—Intentional Slash-burn  108
45. Recapitulation Slash-disposal, 1934-48  108
46. Fire Occurrences by Months, 1948  109
47. Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1948  109
48. Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years  109
49. Fires classified by Size and Damage, 1948  110
50. Damage to Property other than Forests, 1948  110
51. Damage to Forest-cover caused by Forest Fires, 1948  111
52. Fire Causes, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1948  111
53. Comparison of Damage caused by Forest Fires in Last Ten Years  112
54. Fires classified by Forest District, Place of Origin, and Cost per Fire of Fire-
fighting, 1948  112
55. Prosecutions, 1948  113
56. Burning Permits, 1948  114
Ranger School.
57. Enrolment at Ranger School  115
Public Relations.
58. Motion Picture Library  115
59. Forest Service Library.   116
Grazing.
60. Grazing Permits issued  116
61. Grazing Fees billed and collected  116 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948.
LL 77
<i)
Distribution of Personnel, 1948.
Forest District.
Personnel.
Vancouver.
Prince
Rupert.
Fort
George.
Kamloops.
Nelson.
Victoria.
Total.
Continuously employed.
Chief    Forester,   Assistant   Chief   Forester,    and
Division Foresters	
District Foresters and Assistant District Foresters....
2
5
2
24
5
65
10
2
1
4
60
11
2
2
3
9
1
2
13
3
2
2
1
11
1
1
1
11
....
2
3
3
2
20
1
1
1
3
16
4
3
2
2
3
18
2
1
3
16
3
8
21
1
1
2
10
26
89
3
19
84
4
18
15
8
11
36
6
8
83
9
65
1
10
4
Mechanical—Radio and Engineering Supervisor-
Technical Forest and Public Relations Assistants
Nursery, Reforestation, Parks, and Research Assistants	
15
26
89
3
Draughtsmen	
Clerks, stenographers, and messengers	
Superintendent and foremen, Forest Service Marine
32
200
4
18
14
Miscellaneous	
24
193
33
30
56
53
301
666
Seasonally employed.
34
13
18
20
41
6
3
4
4
14
5
10
5
2
1
2
21
10
12
4
2
2
1
3
23
27
20
16
48
2
4
4
2
29
19
34
19
50
1
4
5
10
....
400*
37
1
100
121
74
94
64
139
406
45
17
15
Miscellaneous	
117
Total, seasonal personnel	
143
39
55
146
171
538
1,092
336
72
85
202
224
839
1,758
* Peak employment. LL 78
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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LL 81
Total Amount of Timber scaled in British Columbia during the Years 1947-48
(6) (IN F.B.M.).
Forest District.
1947.
1948.
Gain.
Loss.
Net Gain.
3,098,865,842
187,121,710
3,091,275,786
175,108,525
7,590,056
12,013,185
3,285,987,552
3,266,384,311
19,603,241
84,585,211
234,806,453
316,602,732
265,834,251
100,372,636
297,219,261
334,671,933
294,816,878
15,787,425
62,412,808
18,069,201
28,982,627
901,828,647
1,027,080,708
125,252,061
4,187,816,199
4,293,465,019
125,252,061
19,603,241
105,648,820 LL 82
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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LL 83
(8)
Total Scale (in F.B.M.) segregated, showing Land Status,
all Products.
Forest District.
Vancouver.
Prince
Rupert,
Coast.
Prince
Rupert,
Interior.
Fort
George.
Kamloops.
Nelson.
1948.
Timber licences	
706,011,944
123,143,289
154,588,462
24,019,971
35,956,659
11,499
26,384,093
660,660,884
6,651,376
81,811,258
1,027,917,395
134,018,234
42,306,395
67,794,327
14,315,504
334,647
6,408,361
8,067,739
13,824,290
15,248,141
2,737,312
750,386,336
139,704,891
154,588,462
20,019,528
45,407,000
337,719
688,398
68,518,721
10,408,880
859,581
44,039,499
81,363,659
349,218
1,771,395
82,783,645
4,654,211
204,532,582
7,287,468
190,238,746
40,785,565
232,368,816
1,439,103,394
17,060,256
Pre-emptions, S.R., and
2,121,295
20,824,593
30,819
92,889
6,852,007
30,641,776
7,515,212
29,210,550
9,761,686
24,719,055
32,386,608
4,417,128
2,594,153
39,130,757
13,313,467
19,849,706
117,549,067
Crown Grants—
To 1887.. .
1,059,752,917
1887 to 1906	
1,299,543
10,085,720
3,167,931
210,397
6,879,623
6,271,634
184,513,506
1906 to 1914	
104,156,267
1914 to date	
160,111,982
Totals	
3,091,275,786
175,108,525
100,372,636
297,219,261
334,671,933
294,816,878
4,293,465,019
Timber from lands in the former Dominion Government Railway Belt which has passed over to the jurisdiction
of this Province is included under the various land-status headings shown above.
Only timber from Indian reserves and other lands still under the jurisdiction of the Dominion Government is
shown tinder the heading " Dominion lands."
Total Scale of Material in Cubic Feet included above segregated, showing Land Status,
all Products.
(Conversion factor : 1 cubic foot=5.7 board-feet.)
Timber
Licences.
Pulp
Leases.
Dominion
Lands.
Pr<^
emptions,
S.R., and
Miscellaneous,
Crown Grants.
District.
To 1887.
1887-1906.
1906-14.
1914 to
Date.
Total.
Vancouver....
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1,301,686  | 2,364,326  |        17,744
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1,967,537   1  7,926,460   |      565,628
1                        1
4,891
1
219,672  |  14,367,944
1 LL 84
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(10)
Logging Inspection, 1948.
Type of Tenure operated.
Forest District.
Timber
Sales.
Hand-
loggers'
Licences.
Leases,
Licences,
Crown Grants,
and
Pre-emptions.
Totals.
No. of
Inspections.
1,237
1,109
650
1,130
721
5
1,754
607
114
1,000
507
2,991
1,721
764
2,130
1,228
5,702
2,453
1,081
3,568
2,628
Totals, 1948     	
4,847
5
3,982
8,834
15,432
Totals, 1947	
4,428
5
3,190
7,623
13,876
Totals, 1946	
3,627
6
3,021
6,654
12,974
Totals, 1945	
3,492
9
2,852
6,353
11,901
Totals, 1944	
3,373
4
2,540
5,917
11,648
Totals, 1943	
3,259
11
2,519
5,789
12,110
Totals, 1942	
3,086
18
2,569
5,673
13,753
Totals. 1841 :	
3,207
18
2,833
6,058
11,438
Totals, 1940	
2,864
12
2,272
5,148
10,968
Totals, 1939	
2,770
10
2,068
4,848
11,295
3,494
10
2,785
6,289
12,539 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948.
LL 87
(ii)
Trespasses, 1948.
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37
26
102
67
330
140
244
1,455
893
3,745,896
1,832,843
1,365,044
3,347,750
1,447,322
47,632
20,962
116
429
157
2,752
115
618
2,127
1,116
14,350
190
10,985
2
1
1
4
$23,690.25
5,278.72
1,600
641
1,859
5,299.33
316,450
85,630
1,097
2,424
150
15,858.06
9,528.01
Totals, 1948 	
312
3,062
11,738,855
470,674
3,569
18,211
3,711
11,135
4,100
8
$59,654.37
Totals, 1947
316
5,132
17,234,601
659,621
5,599
5,235
15,416
439,554
17,506
15
$74,761.43
Totals, 1946	
226
2,568
7,084,343
1,760,574
1,469
2,900
10,148
41,377
35,997
8
$27,530.6$
Totals, 1945
267
3,313
24,322,556
516,960
1,910
9,902
2,438
10
$37,877.12
210
2,467
12,317,066
179,219
3,369
4,231
3,781
5
$29,198.16
Totals 1943
167
3,058
9,744,957
129,409
6,873
552
7,923
7
$23,725.29
Totals, 1942
180
1,159
4,413,906
365,861
4,757
490
1,512
15
$14,391.61
Totals, 1941...   ..
236
1,788
7,627,990
526,391
2,887
1,365
4,150
17
$24,253.10
Totals, 1940	
194
877
5,206,829
94,444
1,573
4,279
9,854
13
$14,088.24
Totals, 1939 ..   .
209
571
6,905,268
94,818
3,147
5,206
46,729
26
$17,725.00
Ten-year average, 1939-48	
231
2,399
10,659,637
479,797
3,516
5,237
10,566
13
$32,319.99
(W
Pre-emption Inspection, 1948.
Pre-emption Records examined by District.
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert
  22
  10
Fort George  62
Kamloops  170
Nelson -  44
(is)
Total.
308
Areas examined for Miscellaneous Purposes op the
" Land Act," 1948.
Forest District.
Applications for
Hay and Grazing
Leases.
Applications for
Pre-emption
Records.
Applications to
Purchase.
Miscellaneous.
Totals.
Vancouver	
No.
1
6
9
84
6
Acres.
160
1,823
1,030
77,447
1,604
No.
7
13
29
Acres.
397
1,824
4,218
No.
274
34
154
235
134
Acres.
12,644
3,250
14,086
14,865
9,429
No.
136
23
24
32
14
Acres.
1,732
1,209
2,055
2,058
617
No.
418
76
216
382
159
Acres.
14,933
8,106
21,389
31
4.253
98,623
5     |          720
12,370
Totals	
106
82,064
85
11,412
831
54,274
229
7,671
1,251
155,421 (14)
Classification of Areas examined, 1948.
Forest District.
Total Area.
Agricultural
Land.
Non-agricultural Land.
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Estimated
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Acres.
14,933
8,106
21,389
98,623
12,370
Acres.
3,066
1,545
10,698
7,893
2,653
Acres.
11,867
6,561
10,691
90,730
9,717
Acres.
2,686
142
962
463
MB.M.
63,492
2,296
9,160
3,506
155,421
25,855
129,566
4,253
78,454
(IS)
Areas cruised for Timber Sales, 1948.
Forest District.
Number
cruised.
Acreage.
Saw-
timber
(MB.M.).
Pit-props,
Poles, and
Piles
(Lineal Ft.).
Shingle-
bolts and
Cordwood
(Cords).
Railway-
ties
(No.).
Car-stakes,
Posts,
Shakes,
etc. (No.).
508
275
390
413
265
71,120
38,650
65,176
89,691
82,011
777,437
129,148
329,490
311,627
270,035
220,028
744,810
330,450
2,538,613
3,769,740
4,225
4,450
14,235
16,684
5,132
14,500
59,988
67,084
21,840
17,190
1,242,000
2,000
121,000
582,010
Totals, 1948	
1,851
346,648
1,817,737
7,603,641
44,726
180,602
1,947,010
Totals, 1947	
1,960
361,834
1,481,715
23,015,436
50,346
299,501
1,064,125
Totals, 1946	
2,059
362,587
1,230,716
40,760,769
90,078
216,892
2,718,706
Totals, 1945	
1,488
261,150
948,673
48,743,325
95,774
301,276
1,802,468
Totals, 1944	
1,476
334,729
1.205,308
8,166,829
137,737
483,363
1,345,439
Totals, 1943	
1,771
590,953
907,768
10,720,729
259,741
454,767
816,544
Totals, 1942	
1,469
305,222
794,676
8,562,739
100,232
381,106
743,500
Totals, 1941	
1,611
321,220
689,595
15,794,246
126,463
199,174
263,480
Totals, 1940	
1,620
300,480
572,562
11,309,288
72,157
314,644
512,042
Totals, 1939	
1.324
212,594
470,660
5.016,945
68,078
339,866
261,100
Ten-year average, 1939-48....
1,664
339,742
1,011,941
17,969,396
104,534
317,114
1,147,442
(16)
Timber-sale Record, 1948.
District.
Sales
made.
Sales
closed.
Total
existing.
Total Area
(Acres).
Acreage paying Forest
Protection
Tax.
Total
10-peiMjent.
Deposits.
Vancouver	
604
341
325
546
348
582
290
262
395
309
1,694
1,125
812
1,736
1,154
374,448
254,515
198,025
428,741
347,185
257,982
174,259
129,693
351,104
268,845
$1,028,513.38
233,649.82
242,353.86
328,880.88
278,501.95
Totals	
2,164
448
1,838
6,521
1,602,914
1,181,793
$2,111,899.89
Total sales	
2,612 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948.
LL 89
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LL 93
(21)
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1948.
Operating.
Shut Down.
Forest District.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
No.
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.M.
No.
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
Shingles, M.
No.
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.M.
No.
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
Shingles, M.
448
237
345
349
292
8,417
1,672
3,040
2,615
2,826
60
1
2
5
8,371
5
49
12
39
58
21
236
68
188
163
185
4
2
4
1
340
10
28
60
10
Totals, 1948	
1,671
18,570
68
8,464
179
840
11
360
Totals, 1947	
1.634
17.546
73
8,609
143
754
6
100
Totals, 1946	
1,228    [      15,256
59
8,656
115
741
8
165
Totals, 1945	
931             13.590
51
7,054
137
808
7
150
Totals, 1944	
807
14,974
51
6,695
110
702
16
581
Totals, 1943	
614
13,623
54
7,411
120
646
19
829
Totals, 1942	
551
13,197
70
8,874
149
1,206
11
135
Totals, 1941	
557
13,820
76
8,835
129
1,083
5
63
Totals, .1940	
542
12,691
77
8,585
141
1,432
18
307
Totals, 1939	
461
11,698
84
7,926
147
1,907
24
537
Ten-year average,
1939-48	
900
14,496
66
8,111
136
1,012
12
323 LL 94
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(22)
Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1948.
Species.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Totals.
41,703
8,142,621
4,586,838
17,216,568
22,793
9,144,174
18,057,381
21,329,118
628,052
66,381,370
22,685,922
46,688,307
650,845
1,176,002
76,701,546
16,367,096
16,367,096
15,504
398
97,220
44,950
63,609
270,664
176,333
316,012
3,864
15,262
9,102
28,228
Totals, 1948 	
9,380,092
31,127,805
106,739,296
16,367,096
163,614,289*
Totals, 1947	
7,156,095
21,100,803
52,368,152
7,552,386
88,177,436
Totals, 1946	
6,843,046
17,485,065
28,308,163
33,898,926
86,535,200
Totals, 1945	
3,852,321
20,696,800
24,903,105
32,624,170
82,076,396
Totals, 1944	
6,724,297
29,051,958
33,851,519
32,027,805
101,655,579
Totals, 1943	
2,809,744
17,720,743
28,863,804
29,261,754
78,656,045
Totals, 1942	
2,639,167
18,960,886
27,618,347
106,793,550
156,011,950
Totals, 1941	
8,549,320
63,485,278
43,165,973
191,879,335
307,079,906
Totals, 1940	
4,697,188
37,567,582
24,865,886
150,396,702
217,527,358
Totals, 1939	
6,383,398
111,155,799
66,870,882
128,323,383
312,733,462
5,903,467
36,835,273
43,755,511
72,912,511
159,406,762
* Of this total, 138,160,402 F.B.M. were exported from Crown grants carrying the export privilege;   25,453,887
F.B.M. were exported under permit from other areas. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948.
LL 95
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts,
<M> Railway-ties, etc., 1948.
Forest District.
Quantity
exported.
Approximate Value,
F.O.B.
Where marketed.
United
States.
Canada.
United
Kingdom.
Other
Countries.
Vancouver—
Poles  lin. ft.
Piling   lin. ft.
Fence-posts   pieces
Pulpwood   cords.
Stakes and sticks  lin. ft.
Shakes    pieces
Christmas trees  trees
Prince Rupert—
Poles and piling  lin. ft.
Posts  cords
Fort George—
Poles  lin. ft.
Hewn  ties   .ties
Posts   (fence)    cords
Kamloops—
Poles and piling  lin. ft.
Hewn  ties   ties
Fence-posts     cords
Mine-timbers    lin. ft.
Stubs    lin. ft.
Christmas trees  trees
Nelson—
Poles  lin. ft.
Piling  lin. ft.
Sticks and stakes  lin. ft.
Mine-props    cords
Fence-posts     ., cords
Cordwood cords
Hewn  ties   ties
Christmas trees  trees
Total value, 1948	
Total value, 1947	
3,818,043
824,774
45,358
14,429
431,000
6,382,003
81,175
2,038,379
60
380,185
131,797
1,474
6,167,168
62,855
1,869
1,641,477
8,330
885,903
3,539,513
304,223
124,000
2,449
16,553
42
83,613
1,162,091
$992,691.00
164,955.00
11,340.00
209,220.00
15,085.00
319,100.00
20,293.75
272,384.82
1,033.00
60,406.45
130,863.60
14,740.00
997,798.95
71,788.47
46,828.00
63,344.54
833.00
199,333.00
707,903.00
48,675.00
620.00
48,980.00
248,295.00
378.00
112,041.00
232,418.00
4,991,338.58
3,162,228
324,315
12,710
14,429
431,000
6,382,003
81,175
433,215
35,345
3,762,984
4
885,903
2,634,497
71,927
124,000
6,818
1,052,564
650,355
391,605
32,648
1,605,164
60
344,840
131,797
1,474
2,404,184
62,855
1,865
388,543
8,330
905,106
232,296
9,735
42
83,613
109,527
5,460
26,442
82,412
1,252,904
$5,842,491.33
(ti)
Summary for Province, 1948.
Product.
Volume.
Value.
Per Cent, of
Total Value.
Poles and piling 	
Hewn ties 	
 lin. ft.
 ties
17,072,285
278,265
42
14,429
45,358
19,956
1,641,447
2,449
8,330
555,000
6,382,003
2,129,169
$3,244,814.22
314,693.07
378.00
209,220.00
11,340.00
310,896.00
63,344.54
48,980.00
833.00
15,705.00
319,100.00
452,044.75
65.01
6.30
0.01
4.19
Fence-posts 	
 posts
0.23
6.23
 lin. ft.
1.27
0.98
Stubs 	
 lin ft.
 lin ft.
0.02
0.31
6.39
Christmas trees 	
 trees
9.06
Totals 	
28,148,733
$4,991,348.58
100.00 LL 96
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(25)
Timber Marks issued.
1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.
1945.
1946.
1947.
1948.
272
101
99
275
58
1
16
13
1,724
4
3
2
20
211
85
101
282
64
1
16
5
1,853
11
6
2
17
160
85
92
250
79
2
9
4
1,709
19
6
2
1
190
98
104
283
72
2
5
11
2,017
9
5
1
4
280
89
81
234
51
1
9
10
1,893
8
6
1
1
329
115
106
337
53
2
3
16
1,898
6
15
2
631
200
176
473
70
3
8
15
2,637
35
738
191
176
489
75
8
9
18
2,469
32
1
791
156
Crown grants, 1906-1914	
150
439
82
Pre-emptions under sections 28 and 29, " Land
Act "	
5
4
20
2,612
40
2
Totals              	
2,588
315
2,654
307
2,418
224
2,801
237
2,664
251
2,882
327
4,248
486
4,206
655
4,301
745
(26)
Forest Service Draughting Office, 1948.
Number of
Drawings prepared or Tracings made.
Number op Blue-prints
or Ditto-prints made
from Draughting Office
Drawings.
Timber
Sales.
Timber
Marks.
Examination
Sketches.
Miscellaneous
Matters.
Constructional
Works, etc.
Totals.
Blueprints.
Ditto-
prints.
Totals.
61
54
59
54
58
36
46
68
47
61
68
69
252
201
255
309
181
191
155
190
152
158
135
121
117
100
65
87
136
150
72
101
95
110
122
92
41
19
26
24
24
15
15
18
18
12
13
16
5
2
3
1
2
5
7
4
6
9
7
7
276
376
408
475
401
397
295
381
318
350
345
305
1,341
1,015
2,356
1,394
1,011
1,168
1,393
1,362
935
1,120
768
953
1,156
1,024
971
1,125
1,052
1,065
641
820
1,495
1,075
1,180
1,220
1,300
2,365
2,136
April	
May	
2,220
2,458
2,003
July    	
1,755
2,615
1,843
2,133
2,193
December	
2,324
Totals, 1948	
681
2,300
1,247
241
58
4,327
13,625
12,959
26,401
Totals, 1947	
500
2,223
1,238
290
55
4,306
12,026
9,844
21,870
Totals, 1946	
604
1,931
1,028
525
48
4,136
9,113
7,300
16,413
Totals, 1945	
569
1,193
693
684
75
3,214
6,495
6,701
13,196
Totals, 1944	
442
889
459
544
46
2,380
4,159
4,983
9,142
Totals, 1943	
356
937
396
293
93
2,075
4,009
3,448
7,457
Totals, 1942	
329
868
359
111
73
1,740
t
t
t
Totals, 1941	
247
1,087
468
150
70
2,022
f
t
t
Totals, 1940	
224
1,151
434
282
*
2,091
t
f
t
Totals, 1939	
231
943
408
269
*
1,851
t
t
t
Totals for ten-
4,183
13,522
6,730
3,389
518
28,142
49,427
45,235
94,479
Average for ten-
year period	
418
1,352
673
339
65t
2,814
8,238§|    7,539§
1
15,7471
* Prior to 1941, Constructional Works, etc., included in Miscellaneous Matters. f No record kept prior to
1943. t Average for eight-year period only. § Average for six-year period only. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948.
LL 97
(27)
Crown-granted Timber Lands paying Forest Protection Tax.
Year. Area (Acres).
1921  845,111
1922  887,980
1923  883,344
1924  654,668
1925  654,016
1926  688,372
1927 -  690,438
1928  671,131
1929  644,011
1930___  629,156
1931  602,086
1932  552,007
1933  567,731
1934  557,481
Year.
1935
Area (Acres).
.  535,918
1936  515,924
1937  743,109
1938  754,348
1939  719,112
1940  549,250
1941  543,632
1942  527,995
1943  543,044
1944  571,308
1945   591,082
1946  601,148
1947  596,900
1948  571,439
(28)
Extent of Timber Land by Assessment Districts.
Acres.
Alberni   79,870
Comox  109,630
Cowichan  95,491
Fort Steele  12,049
Gulf Islands  240
Kettle River  315
Nanaimo
133,487
Nelson	
Omineca	
Prince George
Prince Rupert
Acres.
1,998
160
1,193
21,164
Revelstoke      33,202
Slocan      37,842
Victoria      44,795
Acreage of Crown-granted Timber Lands paying Forest Protection Tax
(w) as compiled from Taxation Records.
Year.
Acreage
assessed as
Timber
Land.
Coast.
Interior.
Logged.
Timber.
Logged.
Timber.
1936      	
766,186
766,413
756,328
719,111
549,250
543,633
527,995
543,044
571,308
591,082
601,148
596,900
571,439
Acres.
92,892
96,598
106,833
89,209
103,486
105,541
112,834
125,313
134,194
142,504
146,331
153,072
158,120
Acres.
352,582
363,693
344,858
338,794
338,419
335,468
322,306
325,996
345,378
357,037
364,556
354,207
326,738
1
Acres.                Acres.
152.846        1        167.866
1937	
153,566
157,508
153,032
24,852
26,016
20,072
20,205
20,816
21,536
23,125
26,591
25,485
152,556
1938             _	
147,129
1939      	
138,075
1940	
82,493
1941	
76,608
1942	
1943	
1944	
72,781
71,529
70,920
1945	
70,005
1946	
67,136
1947	
1948	
63,030
61,096 LL 98
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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w                              Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1947-48.
Ten-year Average.
Timber-licence rentals   $384,337.09 $424,921.40
Timber-licence transfer fees  2,995.00 1,826.50
Timber-licence penalty fees  4,449.42 16,646.71
Hand-loggers' licence fees  100.00 100.00
Timber-lease rentals   47,933.65 56,848.06
Timber-lease penalty fees and interest 150.34 266.93
Timber-sale rentals   78,826.62 21,648.09
Timber-sale stumpage  3,359,351.61 1,310,733.89
Timber-sale cruising  30,943.17 15,596.49
Timber-sale advertising  6,816.45 3,124.59
Timber royalty  2,924,074.30 2,113,381.19
Timber tax  24,230.15 37,291.04
Scaling fees (not Scaling Fund)       231.80
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund).- 1,918.27 1,327.29
Trespass stumpage  74,697.66 31,108.77
Scalers' examination fees  1,000.00 1,094.00
Exchange  70.41 27.31
Seizure expenses ,  976.74 897.93
General miscellaneous  L__ 17,453.55 7,289.68
Timber-berth rentals, bonus, and fees.. 21,019.10 24,825.96
Interest on timber-berth rentals  132.45 138.70
Transfer fees on timber berths  368.00 108.90
Grazing fees and interest  28,194.79 28,085.91
$7,010,038.77       	
Taxation from Crown-granted timber
lands          253,345.02 $239,397.90
$7,263,383.79
- LL 102
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(Si)
Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1947-48.
Forest District.
Salaries.
Expenses.
Temporary
Assistance.
Totals.
$46,440.80
46,122.62
15,313.12
23,792.88
33,800.79
38,148.34
63,677.55
$46,440.80
Vancouver	
$80,497.11
47,225.69
45,168.68
81,573.02
75,781.73
155,722.39
126,619.73
$225.00
62,763.81
68,961.56
115,373.81
Fort George	
Kamloops	
113,930.07
219,592.12
192.18
Totals	
$485,968.62
$267,296.10
$417.18
$753,681.90
3,000.00
48,416.20
13,893.89
350,531.22
18,186.30
74,907.74
86,182.08
40,000.00
1,894.28
9,398.26
1,250,000.00
191,018.33
$2,841,110.20
* Contributions from Treasury to special funds detailed elsewhere.
N.B.—The above figures do not include amounts paid as cost-of-living bonus, totalling $118,954.46, made up as
follows:—
Salaries  $83,556.88
Temporary assistance  33.05
Expense  6,849.71
Forest management  3,769.28
Forest research  1,679.54
Reforestation  16,599.90
Provincial parks  4,427.57
Ranger school  1,991.44
Insect-control  47.09
$118,954.46
(S5)
Scaling Fund.
Balance, April 1st, 1947 (debit).
Collections, fiscal year 1947-48—
Expenditures, fiscal year 1947-48..
$97,594.21
375,125.53
$277,531.32
340,276.90
Balance, March 31st, 1948 (debit)     $62,745.58
Balance, April 1st, 1948 (debit)     $62,745.58
Collections, nine months, April-December, 1948     310,265.50
Expenditures, nine months, April-December, 1948_.
$247,519.92
282,113.91
Balance, December 31st, 1948 (debit)     $34,593.99 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948. LL 103
u>6) Silviculture Fund.
Balance forward, April 1st, 1947       $6,013.53
Collections, fiscal year 1947-48     106,618.37
$112,631.90
Expenditures, fiscal year 1947-48  Nil
Balance, March 31st, 1948  $112,631.90
Balance, April 1st, 1948  $112,631.90
Collection, nine months to December 31st, 1948     220,646.10
$333,278.00
Expenditures, nine months to December 31st, 1948       24,264.72
Balance, December 31st, 1948 (credit)  $309,013.28
<w Forest Reserve Account, December 31st, 1948.
Credit balance brought forward, April 1st, 1947  $482,354.31
Amount received from Treasury, March 31st, 1948 (under
subsection (2), section 32, " Forest Act ")     191,018.33
$673,372.64
Moneys received under subsection (4), section 32, " Forest Act"	
Expenditures, April 1st, 1947, to March 31st, 1948     219,244.41
Credit balance, March 31st, 1948  $454,128.23
Expenditures, nine months to December 31st, 1948       68,165.87
Balance, December 31st, 1948 (credit)  $385,962.36
<S8> Grazing Range Improvement Fund.
Balance, April 1st, 1947 (credit)  $33,922.69
Government contribution (section 14, "Grazing Act").. 10,351.87
Other collections   206.33
$44,480.89
Expenditures, April 1st, 1947, to March 31st, 1948         9,456.18
Balance, March 31st, 1948 (credit)     $35,024.71
Government contribution (section 14, "Grazing Act")__       9,398.26
Other collections  6.50
$44,429.47
Expenditures, April 1st, 1948, to December 31st, 1948—      15,777.77
Balance, December 31st, 1948 (credit)     $28,651.70 LL 104 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(s9> Forest Protection Fund, December 31st, 1948.
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1947      $215,013.71
Expenditures   $1,362,189.74
Less refunds  43,821.75
     1,318,367.99
$1,533,381.70
(See   detailed   summary   of  net   expenditure   on
page 105.)
Government contribution   $1,250,000.00
Collections, tax        277,474.26
Collections, slash and snags.__ $14,596.02
Less refunds     11,217.37
  3,378.65
 1,530,852.91
Balance (deficit), March 31st, 1948  $2,528.79
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1948  $2,528.79
Expenditures, nine months,
April-December, 1948 _ $877,388.76
Less refunds      22,443.11
  $854,945.65
Repayable to votes (approximately)     275,622.62
     1,130,568.27
$1,133,097.06
Collections, tax  $271,506.11
Collections, miscellaneous        i8,654.96
Government contribution  1,237,500.00
     1,527,661.07
Estimated credit balance, December 31st, 1948     $394,564.01 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948.
LL 105
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Reported Approximate Expenditure in Forest Protection by other
(il> Agencies, 1948.
Expenditures.
Forest District.
Patrols and
Fire-
prevention.
Tools and
Equipment.
Fires.
Improvements.
Total.
$163,166.67
3,149.00
$169,250.86
9,300.00
$43,191.54
31,092.12
3,010.45
2,694.45
883.15
'    $20,002.00
2,025.00
$395,611.07
45,566.12
3,010.45
2,694.45
26,583.15
500.00
24,000.00
1,200.00
Totals	
$166,815.67
$202,550.86
$80,871.71
S23.297 nn
_M7_t_L.SK 9_.
Ten-year average, 1939-48	
$60,086.00
$101,761.00
$141,785.00
1
$5,677.00    j    $309,309.00
1
<**> Summary of Acreage logged, 1948, and dealt with under
Section 113a, " Forest Act."
Acres.       Acres.
Total area logged, Vancouver Forest District      76,667
1948 slash covered by hazard reports  56,778
1948 slash logged after September 1st and carried over
to 1949  19,889
  76,667
1948 slash covered by hazard reports  56,778
1948 slash burned intentionally  17,309
1948 slash burned accidentally     1,066
1948 slash on which no burning was required  19,845
1948 slash on which additional time for burning has
been granted     1,037
1948 slash awaiting decision re compensation or additional time for disposal  13,599
1948 slash on which compensation has been assessed____ 23
1948 slash abated by lopping, land-clearing, etc  68
1948 slash in zone liable for snag-falling only     3,831
  56,778 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948. LL 107
(*a> Summary of 1948 Operations, Vancouver Forest District.
Total operations, Vancouver Forest District       1,535
Number of intentional slash-burns      320
Number of operations on which slash was disposed of
by lopping or land-clearing, etc        20
Number of operations on which slash was accidentally
burned         14
Number of operations not required to burn      448
Number of operations given further time for disposal 3
Number of operations not considered necessary to deal
with under section 113a      401
Number of operations on which compensation has been
assessed for 1948 slash         3
Number of operations pending decision re assessment
or further time for slash-disposal     296
Number of operations inactive in 1948       50
Number of operations snag-falling area only       37
Number of operations not advanced to a point requiring slash-disposal  7
Number of operations on which security deposit has
been posted       Nil
1,599*    1,535
* Difference noted above is accounted for by slash on some operations being disposed of by both accidental and
intentional means and some operators conducting both spring and fall burns.
Summary of Slash-hazard being carried for Disposal in 1949.
Acres.
Slash accumulated prior to 1948*  13,212
Slash accumulated in 1948 (exclusive of 3,831 acres on which
snag-falling only requirement)*  34,525
47,737
* Areas covered by assessment not included in this acreage. LL 108 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(u) summary Chart A—Intentional Slash-burn.
Operations conducting slash-burn  320
Acres slash-burned in 1948—■
Created prior to 1946        153
Created 1946     2,586
Created 1947  10,604
Created 1948  17,309
Total  30,652
Acres of forest-cover burned  62
Total acres burned         30,714
Net damage to forest-cover  $37.00
Net damage to property on operations  and cut
products  440.00
Total damage        $477.00
Cost of slash-disposal—
Operators     $44,960.00
Forest Service          Nil
Cost to operator based on stand of 40 M per acre 3.6c. per M
Cost to operator per acre  $1.46
(*s> Recapitulation Slash-disposal, 1934-48.
Acp.es of Slash burned.
Year.                                                                                                                Accidentally. Intentionally.
1934  4,927 15,935
1935  11,783 13,239
1936  1,340 7,691
1937  3,015 27,516
1938  35,071 50,033
1939  1,930 51,603
1940  2,265 33,034
1941  3,385 5,524
1942  4,504 80,226
1943 :  2,046 40,013
1944  5,121 27,278
1945  3,897 46,467
1946  2,174 25,498
1947  2,663 34,414
1948  2,215 30,652 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948.
LL 109
(46)
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1948.
Forest District.
March.
April.
May.
June.
July.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Total.
Per
Cent.
Vancouver -
1
2
5
1
8
13
12
32
25
10
80
21
81
50
12
71
8
36
43
61
30
10
13
56
72
5
2
2
17
17
202
56
169
192
180
25.28
7.01
21.15
Kamloops	
Nelson...	
24.03
22.53
Totals
1
19
92
244
219
181
43
799
100.00
0.13
2.38
11.51
30.54
27.41
22.65
5.38
100.00
1
57
179
151
552
454
152
9
1,555
0.0G
3.67
11.51
9.71
35.50
29.20
9.77
0.58
100.00
(47)
Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1948.
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77
56
8
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16
12
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202
25.28
Prince Rupert	
9
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11
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56
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36
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21
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Kamloops	
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Nelson	
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18
22
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22.53
266
105
113
140
39
5
45
5
58
23
799
100.00
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13.14
14.14
17.52
4.88
0.63
5.63
0.63
7.26
2.88
100.00
567
195
194
289
68
10
38
23
143
28
1,555
36.46
12.54
12.48
18.59
4.37
0.64
2.44
1.48
9.20
1.80
100.00
(48)
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years.
Causes.
1948.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
Total.
266
105
113
140
39
5
45
5
58
23
326
193
270
245
51
8
53
13
144
29
515
263
231
326
117
16
38
10
159
32
541
183
426
356
69
5
32
32
155
39
408
203
329
342
51
10
51
13
210
50
256
157
216
304
58
20
7
136
23
704
158
114
220
30
31
38
5
90
24
871
142
73
184
81
4
33
20
134
19
1,265
236
90
400
74
5
41
38
171
18
515
305
77
374
111
11
32
88
175
16
5,667
Campers	
1,945
1,939
2,891
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing)
Road and power- and telephone-line con-
681
103
383
231
1,432
273
Totals	
799
1,332
1,707
1,838
1,667
1,185
1,414
1,561
2,338
1,704
15,545 LL 110
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(49)
Fires classified by Size and Damage, 1948.
Total Fires.
Under Vi Acre.
% to 10 Acres.
Over 10 to 500
Acres.
Over 500 Acres
in Extent.
Damage.
Forest District.
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192
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166
83.66
51.78
49.11
59.89
92.22
30.07
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20.46
29.54
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20.71
30.21
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11.49
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15
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19.53
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1.67
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4
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10.65
2.10
6.45
22.58
58.07
12.90
195
49
146
186
178
15
5
1
7
7
8
1
1
Totals	
799
100.00
562
100.00
148
100.00
58
100.00
31
100.00
754
21
24
100.00
70.34
18.52
7.26
3.88
94.37
2.63
3 00
Ten-year average, 1939-48
1,555
853
458
193
51
1,443
74
38
100.00
54.86
29.45
12.41
3.28
92.80
4.76
» 44
..50.
Damage to Property other than Forests, 1948.'
Forest District.
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
Buildings.
Railway
and
Logging
Equipment.
Miscellaneous.
Total.
Per Cent,
of Total.
$38,891.00
117,489.00
6.30
18.00
$38,712.53
63,631.00
2,500.00
1
<u nnn nn      sri ens ....
520.00
2,609.00
181,640.00
18,660.30
68.00
2,300.00
$13,545.00
50.00
875.00
1,000.00
425.00
Totals	
$156,404.30
$14,470.00
$105,843.53
$7,554.00
$284,271.83
55.02
5.09
37.23
2.66
100.00
Ten-year average, 1939-48	
$85,382.00
$23,213.00
$89,436.00
$29,346.00
$227,377.00
37.55
10.21
39.33
12.91  I          inn.no
* Does not include intentional slash-burns.    For this item see page 108. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948.
LL 111
(si)
Damage to Forest-cover caused by Forest Fires, 1948—Part I.*
Accessible
Merchantable Timber.
Inaccessible
Merchantable
Timber.
Immature
Timber.
Forest District.
cd
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fH
<■*
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QJ
3-31
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Salvable
Volume of
Timber
killed.
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Present
Value.
Acres.
13
437
3,335
226
MB.M.
295
26,010
4,180
528
MB.M.
40
13,000
638
$
780
10,032
34,359
1,106
Acres
MB.M.
$
4
720
4
Acres.
435
2,022
60,175
327
3
$
5,370
2
240
12,536
30
1
1
147,119
697
10
3
Totals -	
4,011
31,013
13,678
46,277
32
252
728
62,962
165,725
1.04
99.19
44.10
16.11
0.01
0.81
0.25
16.38
Ten-year average, 1939-48	
27,055
141,079
21,606
190,653
4,862
12,059
6,533
52,388
158,691
8.81
92.13
15.31
45.73
1.58
7.87
1.57
17.07
* Does not include intentional slash-burns.    For this item see page 108.
c«>       Damage to Forest-cover caused by Forest Fires, 1948—Part II.*
Forest
District.
Not satisfactorily
restocked.
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"2 B
QJ fc,
bD 3
&DXJ
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Cover.
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Land.
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Grand Totals.
Acres.
2,215
726
523
Acres.
11
67
156
1
Acres.
1
760
8,090
1,112
$
266
654
2,220
278
Acres.
326
818
103,734
2,696
193
$
86
205
25,767
674
49
Acres.
23,303
73
20
$
1,165
4
1
Acres.
7
33
172,155
327
4
$
2
8
43,002
81
Acres.
3,008
4,863
371,501
4,762
222
MB.M.
295
26,012
4,420
528
10
$
6,504
23,439
254,352
2,844
Prince Rupert	
Kamloops	
Totals	
3,464
235
9,963
3,418
107,767
26,781
23,396 |1,170
172,526
43,093
384,356
31,265
287,192
0.90
0.06
2.59
1.19
28.04
9.33
6.09 | 0.41
44.89 j  15.00
Ten-year average, 1939-48
10,725
4,287
29,451
14,980
88,728
28,507
1
18,071 [1,437
71,363
16,143
306,930 1153,138 j   416,944
3.49
1.40 1    9.fin
3.59
28.91
6.84
K 89 1   n.34
_•» 9K 1     3 «7
	
_„...„
* Does not include intentional slash-burns.    For this item see page 108.
(52)
Fire Causes, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1948.
Causes.
No.
Per Cent.
Cost.
Per
Cent.
Damage.
Per Cent.
266
105
113
140
39
5
45
5
58
23
33.29
13.14
14.14
17.52
4.88
0.63
5.63
0.63
7.26
2.88
$12,572.29
2,984.16
81.02
7,611.52
547.15
22.79
1,819.53
13.60
10,273.37
124.45
34.87
8.28
0.22
21.11
1.52
0.06
5.05
0.04
28.50
0.35
$24,846.33
3,311.08
11.30
181,931.41
633.50
1,869.00
113,182.41
14.00
87,817.80
157,847.20
4.35
0.58
Smokers	
31.84
0.11
Road and power- and telephone-line con-
0.33
19.80
15.37
27.62
799
100.00
$36,049.88
100.00
$571,463.83
100.00 LL 112
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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U o aj REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948.
LL 113
(55)
Prosecutions, 1948.
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25.00
56.00 .
2
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2
Totals	
16
8
2
5
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11
$306.00
3
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29
24
$589.88 LL 114
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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5 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1948.
LL 115
(57)
Enrolment at Ranger School, by Years and Districts.
District.
Rangers.
Acting
Rangers.
Assistant
Rangers.
Clerks.
Total.
1946.
1
1
1
3
2
1
2
3
1
2
1
2
4
4
4
Totals	
2
1
2
2
3
9
9
3
5
4
1947.
4
5
6
2
3
1948.
Totals	
8
2
1
1
2
12
3
4
2
3
1
1
20
5
5
5
4
1
Totals	
4
2
12
2
20
(58)
Motion Picture Library.
Stock Records.
Year.
Totals,
1945.*
1946.
1947.
1948.
1945-48.
74
4
5
75
t
75
2
2
75
61
75
8
7
74
77
74
2
5
77
77
16
19
Circulation Records.
Number of loans made during year	
Number of film loans during year (one film loaned one time)
56
85
76
2,341
6,676
8,730
164
328
371
11,940
10,408
10,285
235
632
812
8,009
25,362
24,351
436
1,122
1,293
21,633
20,455
42,930
891
2,167
2,552
Number in audiences—
43,923
Children	
62,901
86,296
Totals	
17,747
32,633
57,722
85,018
193,120
* Recording of film circulation only commenced in 1945.
t No record. LL 116
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(59)
Forest Service Library.
ITEMS RECEIVED AND CATALOGUED.
Classification.
1939.
1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.
1945.
1946.
1947.
1948.
Ten-year
Average,
1939-48.
Bound volumes	
Government reports and bul-
28
218
83
15
283
95
5
153
36
9
120
29
10
85
32
12
49
63
13
80
61
12
126
79
14
231
90
39
123
140
16
147
Other reports and bulletins....
71
Totals	
329
393
194
158
127
124
154
217
335
302
234
Periodicals  and trade jour-
56
3,343
t-   00
55
6,259
43
1,962
45
1,170
50
1,175
48
1,294
51
1,523
72
1,798
72
3,543
54
2,535
(60)
Grazing Permits issued.
Number of
Permits
issued.
Number of Stock under Permit.
Cattle.
Hors
Sheep.
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Fort George	
Totals, 1948	
Totals, 1947	
Totals, 1946	
Totals, 1945	
Totals, 1944	
Totals, 1943	
. Totals, 1942	
Totals, 1941	
Totals, 1940	
Totals, 1939	
Ten-year average, 1939
325
34
1,328
1,322
1,379
1,378
1,320
1,221
1,130
881
790
738
1,180
105,923
9,503
1,707
117,133
105,723
106,273
109,201
101,696
93,497
84,788
77,774
74,404
69,447
4,193
1,217
116
5,526
5,513
5,035
5,064
4,862
4,844
4,797
4,180
3,958
2,758
4,654
29,599
1,945
120
31,664
26,189
31,274
39,235
40,858
39,921
36,962
39,552
37,132
38,357
36,115
(61)
Grazing Fees billed and collected.
Year.
Fees billed.
Fees
collected.
Outstanding.
1939	
$21,348.41
23,338.28
23,781.19
25,116.02
24,680.37
28,554.02
30,066.34
30,120.38
28,584.74
28,960.42
$22,027.05
38,146.48
29,348.82
30,802.23
31,148.36
31,000.34
31,465.28
31,412.24
29,203.74
27,089.74
$42,012.10
27,203.90
21,636.87
15,950.56
9,482.57
7,036.25
5,637.36
4,345.50
3,726.50
5,597.18
1940	
1941	
1942	
1943	
1944	
1945	
1946	
1947	
1948	
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1,295-549-9730

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