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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Annual Report of The Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1949

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Annual Report of
The Social Welfare Branch
of the Department of
Health  and Welfare
For the Year ended March 31st
1948
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1948.  Victoria, B.C., December 1st, 1948.
To His Honour C. A. BANKS,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The Annual Report of the Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Health
and Welfare for the year ended March 31st, 1948, is herewith respectfully submitted.
GEO. S. PEARSON,
Minister of Health and Welfare.
Office of the Minister of Health and Welfare,
Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C. Social Welfare Branch,
Victoria, B.C., December 1st, 1948.
The Honourable G. S. Pearson,
Minister of Health and Welfare, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Social Welfare Branch
for the year ended March 31st, 1948.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
E. W. GRIFFITH,
Deputy Minister of Welfare. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Letter of Transmittal  3
Letter of Transmittal  4
Letter of Transmittal  7
Historical Review—
Introduction  8
Part I (1872 to 1942)  8
Part II (1942 to 1948)  20
Conclusion  29
Assistant Director of Welfare  32
Research Consultant  37
Family Division—
Social Allowances  38
Mothers' Allowances  44
Family Service  50
Old-age Pension Board  56
Medical Services Division  76
Child Welfare Division  77
Institutions—
Boys' Industrial School  91
Girls' Industrial School  107
Provincial Home  113
Division of Tuberculosis Control  116
Division of Venereal Disease Control  119
Psychiatric Division—
Provincial Mental Hospital  121
Child Guidance Clinics  123  REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH.
Victoria, B.C., November 26th, 1948.
E. W. Griffith, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Welfare.
Sir,—I have pleasure in submitting the Annual Report of the Social Welfare
Branch of the Department of Health and Welfare for the year ended March 31st, 1948.
In the following pages will be found the reports of the Assistant Director of
Welfare, the heads of the various divisions, and superintendents of institutions comprising the Social Welfare Branch. As in the past, these officials in dealing with their
administrations have emphasized the items which in their opinions warrant special
attention.
The year under review is the fifth since the formation of the Social Welfare
Branch, and in this Report will be found a brief historical review of the various divisions of the Branch. Much credit is due to our Research Consultant and Training
Supervisor who prepared this history. Read in conjunction with the year's reports,
it can be useful in assessing our activities over this five-year period. During this time
I think it can be said that we have " pioneered " in at least two phases of social service
work. I refer to our policy of a generalized case-load for each worker which was
determined five years ago and to the decentralization of supervision which became
effective in October, 1946. This latter development was of necessity somewhat limited,
but, from the experience gained, I believe it can be extended in the coming year. In
considering the functions of a public agency and the difficulties encountered in a Province as large as ours with its scattered population, I am convinced the policy of " generalized case-load " and " decentralization of supervision " was logical and sound.
For the first time the records of the year's activities of our Psychiatric Division,
Division of Tuberculosis Control, and Division of Venereal Disease Control are
included.    For various reasons it has been impossible to do this previously.
In view of the attention which has been and is being given to social welfare services in this Province, I am indeed pleased that it is possible to present a comprehensive
report for this year which gives an indication as to the many activities in which our
Branch is engaged. On occasion I have heard some criticism from the man-in-the-
street to the effect that the Government is becoming too protective. To this I must take
exception and would state that in my opinion the welfare of its citizens is a first concern
of a government. Our field staff is composed of trained officials whose desire and duty
it is at all times to determine the eligibility of an applicant for aid and to allay the fear
and anxiety which so often accompany the application for assistance and to preserve
the dignity of human personality. To this end I believe our social workers are making
a valuable contribution to the well-being of thousands of our citizens and which is
directly reflected in the economy of our Province.
During the past year all divisions have faithfully carried out their responsibilities.
The Old-age Pension Board received an unprecedented number of applications, which
placed a very heavy load on them as well as the field staff. It will be noted that in
addition to old-age pensions, there was considerable increase in case-load and costs of
social allowances and medical services. Mothers' allowances on the contrary again
show a decrease in case-load and costs.
In the endeavour to establish and maintain a satisfactory standard of social
welfare services in our Province, the co-operation of everyone concerned is essential.
It is a pleasure to gratefully acknowledge the assistance received from municipal
officials, divisional heads, regional administrators, supervisors, and social workers.
Respectfully submitted. q   ^r_ LUNDY
Director of Welfare.
7 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
A HISTORIC REVIEW OF THE SOCIAL SERVICES OF THE
GOVERNMENT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
INTRODUCTION.
The annual report of a department of government is primarily an account of
stewardship. In its pages are to be found audited financial statements and relevant
statistics which provide the Provincial Legislature and the general public with facts
concerning the use of public money and the extent of the services given by the paid
officials of that department of government.
Annual reports do more than this however. Read consecutively year after year,
they show growth and development and reveal changing trends, new theories and
philosophies underlying modern governmental services. Annual reports, in other words,
may be looked upon as chapters in the history of government as well as an account of
services rendered.
Believing that the history of the social services provided by the Government of
this Province depicts a growth toward a highly democratic conception of the individual
needs of its citizens and ways of meeting them, a historic review has been prepared
as a prelude to the 1947-48 Annual Report of the Social Welfare Branch. Part I of
this history reviews the development of the separate programmes created to meet
special needs as they arose from the time the Province entered Confederation. Part
II covers the period from 1942 to 1948, during which time a consolidation of these social
services was effected under a unified administration. It is hoped that a sympathetic
reading of this history will satisfy the reader that moneys voted by the Legislature
for social welfare services are being spent wisely and purposefully not only to relieve
destitution and suffering, but to prevent such suffering, to protect and enhance the
stability of family life, and to build self-reliant citizens for the future.
PART I (1872 TO 1942).
Indigent Relief and Unemployment Relief.
One of the first Acts to be passed after the entry of British Columbia into Canadian Confederation in 1871 was the " Municipalities Act." This Act set out the areas
of jurisdiction over which municipal governments would have autonomy. One of these
was " the relief of the poor." Amended many times since then, the " Municipalities
Act" has continuously placed this obligation upon the local organized areas, the
section of the present Act stating briefly: " It shall be the duty of every city and
municipality ... to make suitable provision for its poor and destitute." This provision did not make heavy or insurmountable demands upon the municipal purse for
many years.
The industrial growth of the Province was irregular in those early years, and
small settlements of people sprang up around isolated mining areas, logging camps,
fish-canneries, and so on. The population was often too thinly spread to make local
organization possible. To serve the very occasional instance of destitution in unorganized territory that came to the attention of the local representative in the Provincial Legislature, a Destitute, Poor, and Sick Fund was set up in the Provincial
Treasury in 1880. No legislation was passed to govern the administration of this
Fund, and until 1935 no investigation of circumstances or need was made other than
by the local member.    By 1931 the amount paid was 300 times that spent in 1880.
The municipal costs of destitution grew also as population increased and as social
and economic conditions changed. Not until the onset of the depression of the 1930's,
however, did this service become a major municipal problem, as, under the terms of
the " Municipalities Act," provision for the destitute was their obligation, and unem- REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 9
ployment was then considered to be a form of indigency. The Province, too, was faced
with this growing problem in 1929, and steps were taken early to provide a means of
meeting it.
The grave situation during the depression years necessitated the creation of an
Unemployment Relief Branch, under the Provincial Department of Labour. It was
charged with the duty of administering successive Federal Acts passed to relieve the
distress of the thousands of unemployed. It created policies and regulations to provide
needed relief on an impartial basis according to the funds at its disposal. It attempted
to bring a measure of uniformity in municipal policies of relief-giving, and the amounts
granted, extending assistance to the local governments through a sharing of costs.
It promoted work projects in co-operation with the Federal Government, and in
co-operation with other departments of the Provincial Government. It maintained
a staff of investigators throughout the Province, whose work, in so far as numbers
would allow, gradually included positive rehabilitative services.
As in all periods of depression, the voluntary movement of individuals and families
seeking work in other localities than their own complicated the problem still further.
Forced to apply for relief when jobs did not materialize in the " green fields," such
people were sent back to their place of legal residence. Their wanderings in search
of work often meant that they had lost that legal residence, and were stranded. To
offset this serious problem, the " Residence and Responsibility Act " was passed in
1935 (since amended), which stated that legal residence could be established in a local
area after one year's continuous residence without relief, or three years should relief
have to be granted. The responsible area—the person's place of legal residence—was
now obligated to pay the cost of relief given to the recipient until his residence was
established in the new locality. A Board of Arbitration was set up to handle all disputes arising, and was fully occupied in settling these disputes during the remaining
years of the depression.
The financial outlay necessitated by the relief programme forced many municipalities into bankruptcy and depleted both Provincial and municipal treasuries to
a near-breaking point. The Royal Commission appointed by the Dominion Government in 1939 to inquire into the effects of this decade on Provincial finance recommended sweeping adjustments in the Provincial indebtedness. When made by the
Dominion Government, these adjustments were passed proportionately along to the
municipalities. The passage of the Federal " Unemployment Insurance Act" in 1941
was a direct result of this Royal Commission inquiry, this being the first enactment
toward a full social security programme to provide for future unemployment crises.
The war of 1939 brought an abrupt end to conditions of unemployment, although
the need to provide for physically and mentally incapacitated persons remained. Mindful of the impoverishment of the municipalities, the Provincial Government in 1941
assumed 80 per cent, of the costs of direct relief to unemployable persons residing in
organized areas, paying 100 per cent, of this cost in the vast unorganized territory of
the Province. The policy established toward the end of the depression of granting
such assistance on a basis of need yet within a set maximum scale was continued.
In other words, individual consideration was given to individual situations, with the
objective of rehabilitation firmly in view.
Mothers' Pensions.
The " Mothers' Pensions Act" was passed by the Provincial Government in 1920
in response to well-organized public demands made on behalf of the working-mother
with small children. The broad intention of this Act was to provide a widowed
deserving mother with an income sufficient to allow her to give her children her undivided attention and care. P 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Essentially a child welfare measure, this Act was administered for a short period
by the Superintendent of Neglected Children, whose office came within the jurisdiction
of the Attorney-General's Department. Two years after its passage, however, it was
placed under the administration of the Workmen's Compensation Board, this impartial
body, it was considered, tending to remove the suggestion of charity associated with
the office of the Superintendent of Neglected Children.
Advisory boards in various districts in the Province had been created under the
Act to maintain certain control over applications and recipients, but in 1924 these
duties were transferred to a Provincial Mothers' Pension Board which considered all
applications. This Board was actually the existing Workmen's Compensation Board
plus one woman member. At this time six women were appointed to do the necessary
investigations, five of whom were stationed in Vancouver and one in Victoria. Cases
in rural areas were visited once a year by this staff, principally to check on eligibility,
but in remote areas this work was done by Provincial Police officers.
The number of families receiving mothers' pensions had increased by 1930 to the
point where a separate administration became a necessity. Accordingly the programme
was transferred the next year to the Provincial Secretary's Department, and a Superintendent of Welfare was appointed to administer the Act.
At this same time Dr. Charlotte Whitton, of Canadian Welfare Council, made a
study of the whole mothers' pension situation, her recommendations leading to a
number of new developments. Five new visitors, working under the supervision of a
professional social worker, established offices in four parts of the Province—Nanaimo,
New Westminster, Kamloops, and Nelson. Their work was enlarged beyond that of
checking continuing eligibility, and included services with respect to the health of the
family, the education of the children, and social problems that invariably arise when
one parent is carrying the whole burden of caring for children. This step marked the
beginning of the Provincial Government's social welfare programme. It was the first
attempt to bring helpful preventive and curative services to families throughout the
Province who were in receipt of this form of financial aid.
The Act remained unchanged until 1935. In that year an amendment was passed
providing for a pension to be granted in cases where the husband was totally incapacitated. A second amendment that year dissolved the local advisory boards, and in their
place provided for the creation of a single Mothers' Pension Advisory Board. This
Board has operated, with changes in personnel, from that time forward. Its functions
are consultative only, and it concerns itself with the broader issues involved in the
application of the Act.
The " Mothers' Pensions Act" was repealed in 1937, and a new Act passed to
replace it. The new " Mothers' Allowances Act" perpetuated the original intention of
the former Act, but indicated, in its name, a change in thinking over the years.
Rather than denoting a perpetual " pension," mothers' allowances denoted assistance
granted for the duration of the mother's need of it. It implied that efforts toward
self-keep and eventual rehabilitation, even before the children had reached the age of
16, were expected of the recipient. In this effort the social worker in the field stood
ready to help.
The new Act also provided that a near female relative, who met all other requirements of the Act, might receive the allowance if she were acting as the children's
foster-parent. The principal eligibility clauses of the old Act remained virtually the
same.
In 1939 a bursary fund was established to allow children over 16 years of age to
continue their education. This bursary plan was later written into the Act by amendment, which provides that an allowance may be continued on behalf of a child who is
making progress in his studies until he is eighteen years of age. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 11
The administration of mothers' allowances or mothers' pensions after 1931 proved
the saving to be achieved in terms of human values as well as money values through
the services of competent social workers. It set the pattern of individual consideration
of individual needs of families and children. It paved the way for the expansion of
these social services to other categories of need. In later years the broad concepts of
family case-work its administration had built up were absorbed fully in the policies
underlying the granting of all forms of social assistance.
Child Welfare.
The " Infants Act," the first of the child welfare legislation, was passed in 1901.
This Act provided for the legal transfer of guardianship of orphaned or neglected
children to the State and for the incorporation of Children's Aid Societies to give care
to such children. Guardianship could also be assumed by these societies under the
terms of this Act.
The problem of neglected children became acute enough in 1919 to warrant the
appointment of a Superintendent of Neglected Children to give greater force to the Act.
This official assumed the superintendency of the Boys' Industrial School, and for two
years was also charged with the administration of the " Mothers' Pensions Act."
The Superintendent's duties with respect to the " Infants Act " included the inspection of children's institutions, to all of which grants were made by the Provincial
Government. Children's Aid Societies were paid on a per diem per capita basis for
children from unorganized territory whose guardianship had been transferred to the
Government. Cities and municipalities were responsible for investigating charges of
neglect, in which the Superintendent was not concerned until the child had actually
been proved neglected by the Court. If no Children's Aid Society existed in that
municipality, the Superintendent was responsible for placement of the child in an
institution.
The passage of the "Adoption Act " in 1920 and of the " Children of Unmarried
Parents Act " in 1922 added the responsibility of their administration to the office of
the Superintendent. Because of lack of staff, the necessary investigations for which
these Acts provided were very cursory. Consents to adoption were given on application,
and although a few cases were charged in Courts under the " Children of Unmarried
Parents Act," none was followed up, a cash settlement usually being obtained from the
putative father in preference to an order for continual support of the child.
In 1927 a child welfare survey sponsored by the service clubs of Vancouver and
conducted by the Canadian Welfare Council resulted in far-reaching reforms. The
Children's Aid Society of Vancouver was completely reorganized, and to carry out the
progressive recommendations made in the survey, trained social workers were brought
from Eastern Canada. These moves, incidentally, also led to the first social-work course
being offered by the University of British Columbia.
A change in the Provincial administration of all social welfare Statutes was made
in 1931. The newly appointed Superintendent of Welfare (see section on Mothers'
Pensions) was also made Superintendent of Neglected Children. To assume responsibility for the detail involved in the child welfare legislation, the director of the
reorganized Vancouver Children's Aid Society was appointed as Deputy Superintendent
of Neglected Children. A staff of social workers was gradually built up to take care
of the increasing number of cases arising throughout the Province. In 1935 the
Children's Division, as it was then called, was made a separate entity—the Child
Welfare Branch—with a Superintendent and Deputy Superintendent in Vancouver.
Throughout this time the records pertaining to all cases were organized, and
a modern filing system and central index established. The mothers' pension visitors
in the four outlying offices throughout the Province were used by the Branch to obtain
social information and to take such action as the Superintendent ordered. P 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Much of the Deputy Superintendent's time during this period was taken up in
considering the problems of the Children's Aid Societies. Only the Vancouver society
had instituted, as a result of its reorganization after 1927, foster-home care for
children, and standards of existing institutional care were carefully studied. The
other two Children's Aid Societies in British Columbia gradually developed this
desirable foster-home programme, and institutional care of children was beginning to
die out by 1936. An important policy was established, moreover, which stated that
Children's Aid Societies should not in future be established unless the society could
appoint an official experienced in children's work to direct it. No new societies have
been created since that policy was adopted.
With the amendment of the " Infants Act " in 1934, making one of the duties of
a Children's Aid Society " the ameliorating of family conditions that lead to the neglect
of children," the preventive side of the work was legalized. The work done in the
Province by the mothers' pension visitors made this preventive work possible in the
territories this staff covered. This marked the first attempt to bring family case-work
services to others besides those receiving financial aid.
A start was made at this time to strengthen the administration of the " Children
of Unmarried Parents Act." The Magistrates' Courts gradually recognized the helpful
role of the social worker in cases heard under this Act, and by an amendment to the
Act the services of the Court Prosecutor were made available to an unmarried mother
who had to plead her own case. An effort was made by the Superintendent's office to
collect on all Court orders, which were followed up regularly. A form, of agreement,
to be completed by the Superintendent rather than a lawyer, was approved by the
Attorney-General, giving the Branch the opportunity to obtain a voluntary agreement
from the father rather than to prosecute him under the Act. Counselling services
to both parents was thus made possible. The development at this time of the staff in
the rural areas made possible a greater use of all child welfare legislation and more
extensive preventive and counselling services in all parts of the Province.
As a result of years of experience and study by child welfare agencies, a new Act
was passed in 1939 to replace the " Infants Act." This new Act emphasized the more
positive aspects of work with neglected children. Its title, the " Protection of Children
Act," denoted its general intention, and the negative title, Superintendent of Neglected
Children, was changed to the more appropriate one of Superintendent of Child Welfare.
Additional definitions of what constituted a neglected child were also added to the
terms of the Act.
Foster-home care in rural districts was promoted vigorously at this time. When,
in 1940, a call came for free homes for evacuated children from Great Britain, in a space
of four months 1,500 homes had been approved by the district workers and the
Children's Aid Societies.
Additional developments in this period added to the significance of the Provincial
Government's effort to protect children. A closer relationship was established between
the Child Welfare Branch and the Industrial Schools, and experimentation was made in
placing boys and girls discharged from the schools in foster homes when their own
homes were deemed unfit to receive them back. After-care services provided by the
field-workers was instituted in an effort to help rehabilitate the child. The Juvenile
Courts had found the field-workers' services of such assistance that the practice was
developed of notifying these workers of all delinquency cases to be heard in Court.
The "Adoption Act" administration was given greater strength as the public
became aware of the protection it afforded both adopting parents and child. Investigation and supervision required by the Act were seen to be necessary and decidedly
helpful. Private placements continued to be a problem, but licensed maternity homes
no longer advertised children for adoption, nor made placements. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 13
The Supreme Court recognized the value of the social investigation in relation
to the awarding of the custody of children in divorce and " Equal Guardianship of
Infants Act." At the request of the presiding Judge, such investigations were
conducted by the field staff and presented to the Court by the Superintendent.
The growth of child welfare services in the period from 1935 to 1943 was outstanding. Preventive family services throughout the Province ensured that every attempt
was made to correct situations which led to child neglect. When these efforts failed
and the child was committed to the guardianship of the Superintendent, substitute
family life in approved foster homes was provided the child rather than impersonal
institutional life. Placement of children for adoption became a matter requiring
a thorough study of the adopting home and parents, and of the child and his parents,
so that the right child could be placed in the right home. Work with unmarried parents
included counselling services aimed at helping unmarried mothers—and fathers—to
find more normal patterns of living for themselves, as well as planning with the mother
for the best care of her child. Delinquent children and their families were given the
help needed to correct the family and community problems which lead to anti-social
behaviour in children. To the extent staff and large case-loads allowed, all such
problems were treated by the field staff, with supervision afforded them from the Child
Welfare Branch. The groundwork was well laid for the treatment of the many
additional problems the war and its aftermath brought.
Old-age Pensions.
The Bill for old-age pensions, after more than ten years of discussion in the
Federal House, was passed in February, 1927, and received Royal assent on March 31st.
The Government of British Columbia had been keeping in close touch with the progress
of old-age pensions legislation at Ottawa, and even before the Act had actually reecived
Royal assent in the Dominion Parliament, the Premier of British Columbia, on January
19th, 1927, introduced a Bill to give the Provincial Government authority to enter into
an agreement with the Dominion Government for a joint scheme of old-age pensions
as soon as the latter had passed the necessary legislation. The Provincial Act became
effective on March 7th, 1927, though it did not become possible to accept applications
until September.    British Columbia was the first of the Provinces to take this action.
The administration of old-age pensions was vested in the Workmen's Compensation
Board, which was also administering mothers' pensions. The first investigator was
appointed in October, 1927; three small offices were set up in the old Mining Building
and a staff of six appointed to handle the influx of applications. Applicants for the
most part came to the office, where they were interviewed and each was reinvestigated
every six months. Most of them in the beginning were old pioneers. The amount of
the pension was $20 monthly, and pensioners were allowed outside income of $125
yearly.
The investigation of applicants outside Vancouver was done by the police, but
from 1931 investigators were sent out through the Province from the Vancouver office,
although the Provincial Police continued to do investigations when called upon. During
this time the matter of establishing the continuing eligibility of the pensioner was the
principal duty of the field investigators, and in the matter of treating the distress of
many of the pensioners, although recognized by the field-workers and administration
alike, there was no provision. This awareness of the particular needs of the aged,
however, led to the changes in administration in 1943.
Psychiatric Social Services.
The Director of Mental Hygiene and Provincial Psychiatry, with the co-operation
of the National  Committee for Mental  Hygiene,  negotiated  in  1929 for a trained P 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
psychiatric social worker to inaugurate a social service department in the Provincial
Mental Hospital. Paid by the National Committee of Mental Hygiene for an experimental year, this social worker demonstrated the benefit of such services to both
patient and hospital administration, and in the next year was appointed to a permanent
position on the hospital staff.
At first only special assignments were referred to the new social service department, as one worker could not attempt to meet the needs of all hospital patients. New
staff were gradually added, and the policy was created of making specialized training
in psychiatric social work a requirement for appointment. Five trained social workers
were helped during the next few years to obtain this training at recognized schools
of social work in the United States.
The social worker in the hospital assumed the important task of working with the
families of patients. In the first interviews with them, the worker obtained social
histories on the patient—data indispensible to the psychiatrist in diagnosing, treating,
and planning the rehabilitation of the patient. The social worker's interpretation of
mental illness, the kind of treatment given in the hospital, and the possibility of cure
helped the family to consider the patient's hospitalization in the light of treatment
rather than permanent custodial care. After the patient's discharge from the hospital,
the social worker could help the patient readjust to family and community life and to
become re-established, following the plans previously worked through by the hospital
and the family.
In all this work the welfare field service assisted, providing social histories, family
counselling, and after-care services for patients living in rural areas, under the
direction and supervision of the Provincial Supervisor of Psychiatric Social Work.
The creation of the Child Guidance Clinic soon followed. The child guidance
movement is indebted to outstanding social psychiatrists, who, over forty years ago,
were insisting on the study of the whole individual. With this goal in mind, the
Director of Mental Hygiene and Provincial Psychiatry and the Provincial Supervisor
of Psychiatric Social Service started a Child Guidance Clinic in Vancouver in 1932.
From very small beginnings the clinic soon developed into a large community
resource. This development was in the line of the purposes stated in this definition:
"A Child Guidance Clinic is an integrating, co-operating community agency in which
specialized workers combine their knowledge of emotional and social relationships in
order that they may assist the child in making a better social adjustment to his total
environment. It is an attempt to employ the resources of the community on behalf of
children who, because of their unsatisfied inner needs, are seriously maladjusted to
their environment and reveal this condition in unhealthy traits, unacceptable behaviour,
or inability to cope with social and scholastic expectations."
The use made during subsequent years of this highly specialized service, which
included the services of psychiatrist, psychiatric social worker, psychologist, and public
health nurse, proved the Child Guidance Clinic to be an essential service in the community. The firm base established during the depression years made later developments certain, although the advent of the Second World War, which created a shortage
of personnel, slowed up the plans for expansion.
Social Welfare Department.
Social conditions after the First World War and during the early years of the
depression aggravated many previously limited family and individual problems. Unemployment, desertion, divorce, delinquency, crime, disease, mental illness, child neglect,
and many other forms of social and personal difficulty grew rapidly. The costs in
terms of both human suffering and remedial treatment were obviously heavy. The
Provincial Government recognized the saving that could be effected, in both hidden REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 15
human values and actual money values, if social treatment were provided to ameliorate
and as far as possible prevent personal and family dislocation.
Hence, in 1935, within the Provincial Secretary's Department, all existing social
welfare administrations were drawn together under a Director of Social Welfare, and
within a short time new or expanded services were implemented.
Welfare Field Service.
One of the first moves to be made by this new administration was the expansion of
the field service in the rural parts of the Province. Six new visitors (who out of ninety
competitors passed a Civil Service examination to qualify) were appointed, four new
offices were opened, and a Supervisor of the renamed " Welfare Field Service"
appointed to direct its development. The work involved under this reorganization was
generalized, and included services with respect to mothers' pensions, the destitute, poor
and sick relief, child welfare, tuberculosis control, mental hospital, industrial schools,
institutional collections, and inquiries from other agencies.
These first years of the Welfare Field Service were pioneer years in every sense.
Social work itself was not understood by the general public, and the staff had to
interpret their job as they worked. The scope of the work to be done, the long distances to be travelled, and the staff's professional dedication placed heavy strains upon
them, but gradually their place and value in the community was recognized. New
offices were opened during the next few years, and additional appointments were made
as staff became available. Bursaries offered during these years enabled suitable persons to take social-work training at the University of British Columbia, thus augmenting the qualifications of the growing staff.
The Annual Report of 1939-40 describes the Welfare Field Service in this way:
" The set-up might be described as twofold. In the large urban centres of Vancouver
and Victoria, with their numerous private agencies, one finds a programme of specialized government services in which each worker is associated with only one Division of
the Welfare Services, be it Mothers' Allowances, T.B. Control, or Child Welfare. In
the twelve rural areas, the Welfare Visitor, as our worker is known, undertakes to put
into effect a programme embracing ten different divisions, several provincial institutions, as well as other incidental services, with the Visitor in the strategic position of
community worker and interpreter of social work development."
It can be said that the efforts of the Welfare Field Service, together with the
efforts of the rural staff of Unemployment Relief Branch, and the results they obtained,
proved to citizen and legislator the essential character of their work.
Division of Tuberculosis Control.
The Division of Tuberculosis Control was organized in 1935, under the direction
of the Provincial Board of Health. As a result of a conference of all organizations
interested in the programme to be evolved, a Central Council and After-care Committee
were set up. The Director of Social Welfare served on this Council, and the Director,
the Supervisor of the Welfare Field Service, and the Administrator of the Unemployment Relief Branch were members of the After-care Committee.
The early deliberations of these groups led to the appointment of a social worker
to the Tuberculosis Division. Thus, almost from the start of this programme, social
services were provided and considered to be an integral part of the treatment and
control of tuberculosis.
During the first year most of the social worker's time was taken up studying the
needs of the patient-group as a whole. The care of convalescent patients was a major
problem, particularly those in receipt of social assistance.    Readmissions to hospital P 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
from this group particularly were alarmingly high, and surveys through these early
years of the Division's development made many recommendations for improving this
urgent situation. The comprehensive social measures to be taken after 1943 have
been designed to correct these problems.
Co-operative plans were worked out early between the Provincial public health
nurses and the Welfare Field Service, so that their respective work in rural parts of
the Province with tubercular patients and their families would be integrated. Where
public health nurses were not stationed, the welfare visitor assumed responsibility for
periodic checks with the travelling tuberculosis unit, for teaching hygiene, and for
providing counselling services as well as social assistance.
The Vancouver Occupational Industries Shop was opened under private auspices
in conjunction with the Vancouver General Hospital in 1937. Here tubercular patients
were also given the opportunity to work under sheltered conditions and to receive
retraining in light occupations suited to their physical condition.
By 1938 the social service department of the Division consisted of the supervisor
and five social workers. Part-time social work was also being given in the Victoria
Tuberculosis Clinic, and in the next year a social worker was appointed to the unit at
Tranquille.
The role of the social worker in the treatment of tuberculosis was considered
essentially that of relieving the patient's anxiety regarding his family, his affairs, and
his future while undergoing treatment. The social worker in the hospital, through
her interviews with the patient, could offer assurance that his family was not in need
or in difficulty, as reports came to her from the field staff. The hospital worker, too,
by her understanding of the patient himself and the effect of this disease upon him,
could help the patient to face the present and the future realistically and with fortitude.
The combined efforts of all treatment services provided by the Division were thus
aimed to cure the patient of the disease and to so plan his future with him that the
cure would be permanently effective. In this rehabilitation the field staff participated
fully. Subsequent developments, as mentioned before, were based on this combined
health and welfare rehabilitative pattern.
Division of Venereal Disease Control.
Following World War I the incidence of venereal disease occasioned public concern.
The Provincial Government passed the " Venereal Diseases Suppression Act " in 1920,
and with the help of a Federal Government grant-in-aid, two clinics were opened—one
in Vancouver and one in Victoria. These clinics were staffed by part-time doctors, two
nurses, an orderly, and a clerk. When the Federal grant was removed in 1933, these
clinics carried on under a Provincial vote of funds.
Steps were taken in 1936 to improve this programme, and recommendations for
many progressive changes were submitted as the result of a study prepared for the
Provincial Health Officer by the Director of Social Welfare. These recommendations
resulted in the formation of a Division of Venereal Disease Control, under the Provincial Board of Health, staffed with physicians, nurses, orderlies, social workers, and
clerical workers.
The emphasis in the work of this new Division was on case-finding and case-
holding to ensure complete cures. The social worker played an important part in this
programme, in the first six months her activities bringing 64 per cent, of the new
cases to clinic. The primary purpose of a social worker in this clinic setting was,
however, to give counselling services which would assist the patient to regain both
social and physical health, work which gradually supplanted that of case-finding.
Rehabilitative services actually made slow progress, principally because of the
lack of resources, the plight of women and young girls giving the social worker par- REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 17
ticular concern. A small home was opened in Vancouver in 1938, which relieved the
situation only slightly. The work of clinical treatment itself was more satisfactory,
largely because of the better interpretation to the patient of his need for treatment
and better relationships with the clinic staff as a whole. Night clinics also were
opened, and provisions made for the patient's transportation to the clinic to be paid.
The problems of this disease were accentuated during the war years, and although
the Department of National Defence gave much attention to control measures among
the various branches of the armed services, the transient population, and particularly
the young girls affected, gave rise to much concern. Co-operation with the Police
Force Morality Division was solicited, and private agencies were used to the fullest
extent in an effort to meet the difficulties. This service of referral and social treatment comprised the essential role of the clinic social worker during the war years,
and following.
Boys' Industrial School.
The Boys' Industrial School was opened on February 1st, 1905, in Vancouver.
The first reports on the operation of this school, which was under the jurisdiction of
the Inspector of Gaols, indicate that it was considered to be a penal institution. However, the first superintendent was aware of the needs of the boys committed to the
school, and the emphasis reflected in the reports is upon the boy—the effect of the
sentence on him, the problem of changing his philosophy of life, his academic progress,
his participation in school activities, and so on. Great concern was expressed, too,
over the plight of the lad ready for discharge who had no home to go back to. Not
until the development of preventive family and child welfare services, after 1935, was
that problem satisfactorily met.
From 1920 to 1933 the school, now moved to its present site in Coquitlam, continued to be regarded as a custodial institution, with the boys in uniform, with locked
doors, and cell blocks in constant use. The building and grounds themselves were
vastly improved with boy labour, and great efforts were made to make the institution
a show place. Prize cattle, poultry, and garden produce were raised, their care being
the principal activity of the boys.
A survey of the school and its needs was made in 1933, and a new superintendent
appointed. With the new regime, uniforms were discarded, doors unlocked, more
emphasis was placed on school-work, on occupational training and recreational activities, and the Child Guidance Clinic was consulted in difficult behaviour problems.
Contrary to some expectations, run-aways did not increase. The boys' interests were
uppermost, and with the appointment of better qualified staff, the school experience
began to show results in the number of boys who, after discharge, took a normal useful
place in the community. A follow-up officer, appointed in 1936, assisted the boys to
obtain employment after leaving the school.
By 1938 the " Industrial School Act" had been amended, providing that an indeterminate sentence only should be ordered by the Juvenile Court Judge. It was now
left to the superintendent and his staff to decide when a boy had received maximum
benefit from his training, and recommend his release, subject to the approval of the
Juvenile Court Judge who committed the boy and the Superintendent of Child Welfare.
Another change in superintendent was made in 1938, the new policies being continued and expanded. A nurse-matron was appointed in 1939, and greater emphasis
placed on a health programme. Both academic education and occupational training
were enlarged, with additional staff added. A group-worker was appointed, and self-
governing hobby clubs were organized which gave the boys excellent training in group-
living. With the modern gymnasium, large swimming-tank, and playfields, the sports
teams from "Bisco" hold their own in competitive games with surrounding community
teams. P 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
As the school population increased, it outgrew its one building (the "cottages"
built originally had been transferred to the Provincial Mental Hospital many years
before) and a new wing was constructed, which gave proper space for isolation, detention when necessary, and for kitchen and dining-rooms. It was a great day for the
school when the old steel cages in the detention block were torn out and the space turned
over as a common-room for older boys. The last visible mark of the penal institution
was thus destroyed.
The change in philosophy and thinking behind the new school programme is voiced
by the superintendent in one of his annual reports:—
" It is evident that there exists a misconception in regard to the functions of the
Industrial School. We feel that our first duty is that of a training-school and that
those sent to us are patients for treatment. Treatment involves social growth and this
does not occur where there is no opportunity for choice. It necessitates the placing of
trust in individuals and involves the risk that the trust may be misplaced. ... It is
unfortunate that some are likely to judge us more upon the efficiency of our custodial
functions that upon the primary task of training in a way of life."
Girls' Industrial School.
The Girls' Industrial School was opened officially on March 1st, 1914, on its present
site, under the administration of the Attorney-General's Department. There was a
staff of seven—superintendent and matron, and five others, including a cook, teacher,
and gardener. The first annual report is dated November 30th, 1914, and states that
there had been twenty-two girls committed to the school up to that time and that twenty
of them, were attending the day-school, all in the first three grades. The juniors
attended school in the morning and the seniors in the afternoon; all the work of the
institution was done by the girls, under supervision. The rising-bell rang at 6.30 and
bed-time was 7.30, although the lights were left on until 8.15 and the girls were allowed
to read in bed, using books from "the useful and moral collection" in the library.
During the next two years mention is made of attempted and successful escapes
and of one transfer to Oakalla. It was at this time that the age-limit was changed
from 16 to 18, and there was a consequent rise in population.
On January 1st, 1918, the administration was changed and a new superintendent
was appointed. She made many immediate changes. She did away with what she
termed "the prison type of hairdressing," substituted more-becoming uniforms, did
away with the rule of silence in the dining-room, increased the school-hours, and substituted other means of punishment for the cells hitherto used. She felt that the school
was not so much a place of punishment as a place for a new start. She instituted a
rather complicated honour system in which girls could work up to be trusties and help
with the school discipline. During her regime the grounds were developed; barns,
hen-houses, and a piggery erected; and concentration was placed on outdoor jobs, such
as caring for animals and gardening. During the eleven years in which she was superintendent the city spread to the school area, and, instead of being in a country area,
it became part of the city. With her belief in outdoor training, she began to feel that
a new area outside the city should be obtained.
A third change in the superintendency was made in 1929. More emphasis was
placed immediately on school-work and household arts, and gradually the heavier
outdoor projects were discontinued. Gardening and chickens remained the two outdoor
interests. The honour system was modified and trusties done away with. Again the
uniforms were changed to a better type. One of the great problems in education in
the school had been the assimilation of girls into class-work at various times during the
term.    This problem was solved in 1937 with the use of correspondence courses—a REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P li)
system which is still in use. There is a teacher to help with the difficult problems, but
each girl works alone and can start and finish at any time.
The school population reached an all-time high with the advent of sixty-four
Doukhobors in 1933. Separate quarters were arranged for them, and they made a
fairly good adjustment because their prejudices and training were understood and
allowed for. Later their quarters were altered and used for the regular population of
the school, which went up as high as sixty at times.
All through the school history the need for segregation of "types" is discussed
again and again. The difficulty of dealing with the hardened girls and the mistaken
ones under the same roof and through the same programme is shown to be almost
impossible. The growth of the idea of the Industrial School as a training-school and
not a penal institution is most marked throughout its history, and showed that the
administration was keeping abreast of modern ideas on juvenile delinquency.
"Welfare Institutions Licensing Act."
The purpose of this Act, passed in 1937, is to authorize government control,
through a system of licensing, of institutions that provide service, with or without
charge, for underprivileged persons or persons in need of special protection. Previous
to the passing of this Act there had been no such control and a certain number of
questionable institutions had been known to be in operation which exploited inmates or
did not offer them the services they needed. A definite recommendation that such
legislation should be enacted was made by a special Commissioner in the report of his
investigations of the two branches of the Home for the Friendless in 1937.
There was also information in the hands of officials of the Department regarding
other institutions which were guilty of abuses. Homes which cared for children separated from their parents were considered particularly dangerous. The commercial
maternity home which advertised for its clientele and promised to arrange adoptions
had also been proved to give no proper protection either to the mother or the child
and to interfere seriously with good adoption procedures. Therefore all these types of
institutions and boarding-homes were included in the Act.
Under this Act, private welfare institutions may operate only as they have licences
issued by the Welfare Institutions Licensing Board, consisting of the Provincial Health
Officer or his deputy, the Superintendent of Child Welfare, and not more than three
other Civil Servants. Minimum conditions are laid down in the Act with which licensed
institutions must comply and certain practices are forbidden, such as the advertising
of children for adoption and the importation of destitute persons from other Provinces
or countries.
The first Inspector of Welfare Institutions was appointed in 1937. The first complete report is for the calendar year of 1939, when a total of eighty-nine cases were
dealt with. The first duty of the Inspector was the interpretation of the Act, as, quite
naturally, there was a great deal of antagonism, particularly on the part of those whose
standards did not conform to those deemed desirable. It is interesting to note that the
vast majority of the boarding-homes inspected, as well as several of the charitable
institutions, were failing to comply with the fire, building, or health regulations.
Up to the end of 1942 one hundred and forty-three institutions or commercialized
boarding-homes had been dealt with and only fifty-four licences had been issued. It
was stated in the Annual Report of this year that there were only three commercial
boarding-homes for children licensed, although there had been many of these in operation at the time of the passing of the Act. The commercial maternity home which had
exploited its inmates had also passed out of existence, and there were operating by the
end of 1942 only four licensed institutions for this type of care, all of which worked in
close co-operation with the child welfare agencies. P 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The office of the Inspector was, at the end of 1942, transferred to the Inspector of
Hospitals office, as it was felt that many of the responsibilities and implications, as well
as the problems encountered by the Board, were similar to those met in the administration of the "Hospital Act." The Inspector of Hospitals became Chairman of the
Licensing Board.
The development of local boarding-homes in communities throughout the Province
was undertaken by the Welfare Field Service, licences being granted on the basis of
the complete reports submitted by them to the Inspector of Hospitals. Such homes
provided much-needed care to homeless elderly persons who, while able to be up and
about, could not provide necessities and comfort for themselves. Used in conjunction
with the hospital clearance programme, the value of the boarding-home for chronically
ill persons who do not require bedside nursing care proved a boon to both patient and
hospital. That standards are watched carefully through periodic supervision during
the year, and an annual renewal of the licence, is an additional guarantee of the well-
being of those so cared for.
Hospital Clearance.
The hospital clearance programme was instituted because of the congestion in
British Columbia hospitals caused by the long stay of patients who, either by reason of
chronic disease or other factors, were unable to be discharged to a satisfactory environment. This programme, under the jurisdiction of the Inspector of Hospitals, used the
Welfare Field Service to interpret, investigate, and make recommendations. Definite
instructions were issued to the field staff in January and April, 1938, outlining the
initial step in entering a hospital clearance case and the type of information required in
the worker's report to the Inspector of Hospitals.
In 1940 another change of policy necessitated new instructions. This policy was
based on the assumption that, since the hospital had primary responsibility for the
discharge of its patient, it was the agency responsible to start proceedings for the
discharge of problem cases. Under a new regulation in the " Hospital Act," per capita
per diem, payments were limited to 300 days for any one patient, and therefore, in the
interests of hospital finance alone, it was necessary for the institution to take steps in
regard to discharge of patients who were exceeding this limit. The magnitude of the
problem is shown by the fact that in the first five years of the hospital clearance programme the hospitals in British Columbia gave 155,932 days' care to patients who had
exceeded the 300 days' stay allowed.
It is impossible to elaborate on the many changes and developments that took place
in the hospitals in the formative years of this programme. It is sufficient to say that
the hospital authorities were becoming more conscious of the value of social work and
interpretation. While proving that it was economically unsound to keep persons in
hospital that did not require such care, it was also proven that the hospital clearance
programme had considerable psychological worth to the persons concerned.
PART II  (1942 TO 1948).
Amalgamation.
An amalgamation of these several separately administered services was begun in
1942. There were many reasons for bringing about this unified administration. Maintaining separate field service staffs was extremely costly and resulted in much confusion
and overlapping. There was an obvious need for a co-ordinating office which would give
orderly direction and formulate uniform policies to govern all social services. The
increasing war-time labour demand had lessened the relief programme, except for those
who were chronically unemployable. There was support of the idea that a generalized
family service given by competent social workers was more suited to public welfare REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 21
administration than specialized services and would at the same time provide a more
efficient service to the people. Amalgamation thus meant that economy of administrative costs and desirable uniformity in administration were effected, and a start made to
bring a better service to the people.
The first step was taken in the month of October, 1942, when the Unemployment
Relief Branch, the Mothers' Allowance administration, and the Child Welfare Branch
were brought together under the Department of the Provincial Secretary. The new
office was named the Social Assistance Branch, the chief executive of which was given
the title of Assistant Deputy Provincial Secretary. The field staff of the Unemployment
Relief Branch and of the Welfare Field Service were immediately brought together
under this Branch.
To facilitate the orderly co-ordination of the two field staffs, five senior officials of
the former Unemployment Relief Branch were assigned to rural territories as Regional
Supervisors, the Province being divided into five geographical regions for this purpose.
Before assuming their territories, the Regional Supervisors were given a six weeks'
course to gain familiarity with the work of the Welfare Field Service. The co-ordination to be effected in the rural regions consisted of a reorganization of offices, the
transfer of records, and the assignment of staff to clearly marked districts in which one
staff member would be responsible for every type of social problem arising.
General Admin stration.
Numerous difficulties were encountered both in head offices and in regional offices
in the first few months of this co-ordinating effort. It became apparent that the
general administration required the creation of two additional directive offices, responsible to the Assistant Deputy Provincial Secretary, to assist with the mass of detail
involved in this move. The offices of the Superintendent and Assistant Superintendent
of Welfare were thus established.
The senior supervisor of the Unemployment Relief Branch was appointed to the
post of Superintendent of Welfare in February, 1943. His duties during the early
months of amalgamation had been those of administering the relief programme and
the " Mothers' Allowances Act." He continued to give these two categories of assistance his direction and, in addition, was given delegated authority to deal with the
many problems the field amalgamation presented with respect to public expenditures
and municipal relationships and responsibilities.
An Assistant Superintendent, a social worker with wide experience in a public
welfare agency, was appointed at that same time. Her duties included the management of personnel within the Branch, the organization of the rural offices, and, as a
professional social worker, the building and maintenance of the standards of service
given by the staff.
With these two appointments, the General Administration of the Branch was completed, and channels of authority established. Every detail implicit in the amalgamation was either dealt with under delegated authority or was funnelled through these
two offices to the Assistant Deputy for his decision or reference to the Minister. Thus
the General Administration became the highest co-ordinating body next to the Minister
and the Executive Council, responsible for social planning, for policy-making, and for
the orderly operation of the entire programme of Provincial social services.
Old-age Pension Board.
The inclusion of the Old-age Pension Board in this amalgamation had been planned
from the start. The work involved in this transfer took several months to accomplish,
however, and not until April 1st, 1943, were all the details completed.   The former P 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Administrator of Mothers' Allowances had, earlier than this, been appointed as chief
administrator—with the title of Chairman of the Old-age Pension Board—to accomplish
the transfer, after that date being responsible directly to the Assistant Deputy
Provincial Secretary.
The policies of the new administration of old-age pensions, and the principal reason
for bringing it under the Social Assistance Branch, placed a " social service " emphasis
upon the work of this Branch. The manifest social needs of the aged, apart from
financial support, were now to be given individual attention, in so far as possible. This
meant the addition of some 16,000 old-age pensioners to the load of cases carried by the
field staff throughout the Province. To provide professional direction and guidance to
the field staff in their work with the aged, a social service supervisor was appointed to
the staff of the Old-age Pension Board, and the field investigators of the former Old-
age Pension staff were now absorbed in the Field Service staff.
Nomenclature.
Certain changes in nomenclature were made at this time. The Social Assistance
Branch had become the name of the whole administration, and to conform to this line
of authority, the offices responsible for the direct administration of specialized Acts
became divisions of the Branch, responsible to the General Administration. The term
" social assistance " replaced the old stigmatizing term " relief," and to distinguish
between the categorical forms of social assistance—indigent relief and mothers' allowance—the former was renamed " social allowance." This term replaced the " destitute,
poor, and sick " term in the Official Estimates.
Services given.
To recapitulate, after April 1st, 1943, the Provincial social services, with respect
to their administration to the people who stood in need of them, was under one central
authority, the General Administration of the Social Assistance Branch. Supervision
and administrative direction with respect to the individual Acts, regulations, and
policies, were given to the field staff by the specialized divisions. In twelve district
offices, forty-three members of the Field Service staff were giving a generalized service
to the people within the territories to which they were assigned. This generalized
service included social and mothers' allowances; old-age and blind pensions; protection
of children, adoptions, unmarried parents, foster-home finding and supervision; work
with the juvenile delinquents and the Boys' and Girls' Industrial Schools; psychiatric
social work under the direction of the Social Service Department of the Provincial
Mental Hospital, which included the Child Guidance Clinic; medical social work with
respect to the Provinces tuberculosis and venereal disease control programmes; hospital
clearance, welfare institutions' licensing under the direction of the Inspector of Hospitals, and infirmary placement. In addition, the Department of National Defence was
beginning to use the Field Service staff for investigations related to the Dependents'
Allowance Board and the Dependents' Board of Trustees.
Clearly the burden placed on the existing field staff was onerous. Not only were
the number of cases carried by each worker exceedingly high—over 500 as a general
rule—but the staff was at the disadvantage of having to learn the vast amount of detail
in the categories with which they had previously been unfamiliar. The few district
offices made the distances to be travelled by each staff member very great, and this,
combined with the factors already mentioned, inevitably resulted in somewhat superficial, although conscientious, work being done. The burden was equally great upon
the divisions, for the professional supervisors guiding the workers, new to the separate
specializations, had to make their supervisory memoranda exhaustive.   The time-lag REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 23
in receiving reports from the field and the issuing of supervisory instructions and
advice slowed up the work of the field staff.
Building Standards of Service.
The problem of building standards of service was attacked realistically. First, it
was decided that the staff members formely attached to the Unemployment Relief
Branch and the Old-age Pension Board should have a period of training for the
generalized work. The staff of the former Welfare Field Service, practically all of
whom were professionally trained social workers, was considered able to absorb the
work new to them without additional training. A social worker was appointed to
organize and conduct this programme of in-service training which commenced experimentally in May, 1943. Four of such six weeks' training periods were conducted in
the twelve months following, in which professional theories and the actual routines of
the many separate services were taught, and practice-work was done under supervision.
Second, the staff was augmented by the appointment of as many trained social
workers as were available. War-time shortages of social workers, however, made it
necessary to recruit persons without professional qualifications, and these were given
a three months' in-service training course. During this course it was understood that
the recruit was under close observation, and upon his success in this training period
depended his employment. There have been an average of three such courses each year
since this plan was originated. Many of those given this training have since obtained
professional training at a university school of social work.
Third, it was an obvious necessity to open new offices in strategic locations to
economize on the money and time involved in the distances travelled. Three new offices
were opened in that year, the present number of Provincial offices being twenty-four.
Fourth, the volume of work in divisional offices necessitated the appointment of
professional staff to give administrative and professional direction to the staff in bringing the benefits of the social legislation to the people. Of particular significance was
the appointment of an experienced social worker as supervisor of the division responsible for administering social and mothers' allowances, her office relieving the Superintendent of Welfare of much of the administrative detail involved and providing professional direction in this important area of the work.
Fifth, to bring about a necessary cohesion in the staff supervision given through
divisional offices and to form a means by which conflicting policies might be integrated,
a Supervisors' Council, originally formed after the creation of the Welfare Field
Service, was reorganized to include the professional heads of each division. Meeting
monthly, this Council discussed matters related to inter-divisional policies, making
recommendations to the General Administration. The Assistant Superintendent of
Welfare chaired this Council, keeping the divisional representatives informed of
pertinent details of general administrative moves and passing their recommendations
on to the Deputy Minister. Methods of improving standards of service were thoroughly
discussed by this group of professional officials, and uniformly implemented as a result.
Sixth, the importance of orderly planning for future developments, and the
importance of analysing long-established services with a view to their improvement,
was recognized by the Minister and the General Administration. The office of Research
Consultant was accordingly established in 1944.
These many building, training, co-ordinating, and research measures have become
an inherent part of the operation of the whole Branch and are still effective, although
in slightly changed forms. The vision which inspired their early organization should
be especially mentioned, as to these many measures may be attributed the steady
growth toward the integrated, economical, and increasingly efficient service which is
now available to the people everywhere in the Province. P 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Development of Benefits.
During the years 1943 to 1945 these actual benefits provided to people were greatly
developed. The major service of providing social allowances to persons and families
unable to support themselves was placed on a firm administrative base, and services
related to the needs of recipients of social allowances were augmented. These social
assistance developments may be summarized as follows:—
Increases in the rate of allowances granted were made, which brought
this form of assistance up to the amounts granted to mothers' allowance
recipients. Medical services were made available to recipients of all forms
of social assistance, this necessitating agreements between local doctors and
the municipalities (or the Branch in unorganized territory), the Province
sharing these costs with the municipalities which entered into this agreement
on a 50-50 basis. The office of Medical Director was made responsible for the
operation of this service under the jurisdiction of the Superintendent of
Welfare.
The difficulties experienced during the depression years with regard to
establishing residence (for purposes of placing responsibility for paying the
costs of social assistance on the responsible local area) were greatly reduced
by amendments to the " Residence and Responsibility Act." One of these provided that residence in a local area for one year without social assistance
constituted " legal residence" in that local area. Fewer disputes arose
between municipality and municipality, or municipality and Province, as a
result of this amendment, and as a result, too, of the close association of the
Regional Supervisors with the various municipalities. Agreements now could
be reached more readily on the spot.
Establishing eligibility for social allowances became a matter of establishing the need for financial aid by means of a social investigation. The
theory was accepted that, once need was established, government aid for the
purpose of survival was the right of every citizen of the Province. The social
investigation establishing need was based on a simple means test—assurance
that the applicant was a resident of the Province and that he had no personal
resources such as savings, negotiable personal property, private income, or
other resources which could be used for maintenance. Each individual applicant was given individual consideration during this social investigation, and
the knowledge gained of the unique circumstances of each was recorded. The
needs of the whole family were considered, and apart from the financial aid
granted, the social worker, with the family's co-operation, made every effort
to open up opportunities for self-help, leading to eventual independence.
Rehabilitation through social treatment and the saving and building of family
life became the underlying philosophy of the administration of social assistance, as well as the key-note of the professional services rendered in every
other form of social aid provided by the Provincial Government.
In December, 1943, additional measures were taken in an effort to augment the treatment and control of tuberculosis. To the families of patients
treated in the tuberculosis hospitals, extra allowances on top of the basic
social or mothers' allowances were granted. These included extra dietary
allowances, granted at the recommendation of the tuberculosis medical staff,
for the patient discharged to his own home, and for the members of the
family for protective purposes; a payment of added rental allowance when
-necessary, enabling the family to remain in their home; nayment of instalments on necessary furnishings for the home where indebtedness existed;  and REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 25
payments of insurance premiums unless the policy had an " extended insurance " clause. Exemptions were also liberally made with respect to savings
and investments. Costs were distributed between Province and municipality
on the established 80-20 basis. These provisions were calculated to relieve the
patient who was the family's bread-winner from unnecessary worry during
his prolonged treatment, as anxiety of this nature had been found a decided
deterrent to a complete cure.
The high incidence of chronic illness in the Province was recognized in
the development of boarding-homes for single persons whose incapacity did
not cause them to be bedridden or to require nursing service.   The Province
assisted the municipalities in this regard by assuming a proportion of the cost
involved in providing such local care in privately operated, though Provincially
licensed, boarding-homes.
Though not exhausting the many measures taken in these years, this review indicates that a well-conceived programme for the care of dependent persons and families
was evolved.    Included in this development was the aid given to municipalities by the
Provincial Government to ensure that these services were extended uniformly throughout the Province.   The work of the Regional Supervisors in interpreting and promoting
this municipal endeavour did much to aid in establishing uniform practices, although
rising social service costs were viewed with alarm by municipal officials.
" Social Assistance Act."
This groundwork in establishing competent administrative and professional policies with regard to social assistance and related services was given legal recognition
by the passage of the " Social Assistance Act " in February, 1945. The Act itself
defined social assistance as financial aid to individuals and families, and financial aid
to municipalities and other corporate bodies which extended services to people dependent upon social assistance for their maintenance. Mindful of the rehabilitative
philosophy underlying the professional treatment of these recipients, social assistance
was also defined as health services and occupational training and retraining. Foster-
home or boarding-home care was included in this definition. Of particular significance
was the inclusion of " counselling services " in this definitive section of the Act, or
services given by social workers to preserve and strengthen family life, whether
financial aid was necessary or not. Another significant section of the Act set out
clearly that social assistance should be granted on establishment of need to residents
of the Province irrespective of race, creed, citizenship, or political affiliation. This Act
has been cited as one of the most advanced on the continent, and, in so far as its
administration is concerned, it is a flexible Statute protecting the right of the individual to public assistance when needed and at the same time ensures the wise use of
public money.
Under the terms of this Act, the Director of Welfare was given jurisdiction for
its administration. The titles Superintendent of Welfare and Assistant Superintendent
were accordingly changed to conform.
The regulations to this Act set standards for its administration. As the municipalities under the terms of the " Municipalities Act" are required to provide for their
destitute and sick residents, the new Act and regulations for the first time stated the
way in which such provision should be made. Municipal methods of administration
were now placed on a uniform legal base and became mandatory.
Municipal Administration.
Three methods of municipal administration were set out, two of which were
optional.   Municipalities of over 10,000 population, as at the 1941 census, were required P 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
to have their own social welfare departments. Vancouver and Victoria already had
such departments well established, and after 1944 the Municipality of Burnaby had also
developed a similar service. The few remaining cities or districts of over 10,000 population were set up in the same way as these three—that is, the administration of
Provincial Social Statutes was assumed by the municipality, and for every staff member
needed to serve the recipients of any form of aid, the Province provided a second staff
member. Outside of Vancouver and Victoria, where voluntary social agencies serve
children and families, these large municipalities were required to undertake the
generalized programme of the Social Assistance Branch.
Municipalities with a population of under 10,000 had two alternatives: either they
could set up their own departments or could purchase the services of the Provincial
Field Service staff. Under the first arrangement the Province agreed to pay half the
salary of the municipal social worker, provided that the qualifications of that official
met the requirements for Provincial staff—that is either professionally trained social
workers or in-service trained social workers. This in-service training was provided by
the Social Welfare Branch, and, except for municipal officials having a long term of
experience previous to 1945, new municipal appointees were thus screened by the
Branch.
The majority of smaller municipalities favoured the second method of " buying "
the services of the Provincial social worker. Under this arrangement the municipalities were required to pay 15 cents per capita of population per annum to the Province.
In return the Provincial social worker performed the necessary services within that
municipality with respect to all types of social problems encountered.
The passage of the " Social Assistance Act," and the implementing of its regulations—released in October, 1945—met with general approval in principle throughout
the Province, but it also served to focus attention on the fact that the administration
of social services, as reconstituted, was costly to the municipalities. Their revenues,
derived from a relatively restricted taxation base, were described by municipal officials
as inadequate to meet existing municipal services, and protests were made with respect
to this latest social welfare development.
Royal Commission on Municipal-Provincial Relations.
The Provincial Government responded to these protests by appointing in February,
1946, a Royal Commission to inquire into Provincial-Municipal Relations. H. Carl
Goldenberg, Montreal barrister and municipal authority, submitted his report in
February, 1947, his recommendations being promptly acted upon by the Provincial
Government.
The recommendations of the Commissioner with respect to social welfare advocated
that the Province reimburse the municipalities by 80 per cent, of the costs involved in
direct expenditures for all forms of social aid. Hence, since that date or shortly after,
the Province has paid 80 per cent, of the costs of social allowances, medical services,
emergency health aid, boarding- and nursing-home care, foster-home care for children
who may be either wards of the Superintendent of Child Welfare or under that official's
temporary guardianship, and for the tuberculosis allowances and special, more expensive boarding-home care that may be required for tuberculosis convalescents. This
ratio of sharing costs is nowhere equalled in Canada.
Thus the principal obstacle toward the goal of achieving uniformity of administration throughout the Province was removed, and the task begun of enforcing the terms
of the " Social Assistance Act " and regulations. Once again the interpretive functions
of the Regional Supervisors were called upon to make this enforcement one of co-operative endeavour, and, except in a few instances where old grievances perhaps died hard,
this task was well done.    In fact, interpretation must be considered as a continuing REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 27
process, demanding much of the time of the senior officials of the whole Branch and
making for smoothly working partnerships between Province and municipalities,
Province and other social agencies, this Province and other Provinces.
Department of Health and Welfare.
The crowning recognition of the growth and importance of the health and welfare
services came during the 1946 Session of the Provincial Legislature, when the Act
creating a new Cabinet portfolio and the new Department of Health and Welfare was
passed. Divided into two separate branches, the Social Welfare Branch (which
replaced the name " Social Assistance Branch ") with E. W. Griffith as Deputy Minister
of Welfare, and the Health Branch, formerly the Provincial Board of Health, with
Dr. G. F. Amyot as Deputy Minister of Health.
This Act was proclaimed on October 1st, 1946. To the divisions previously under
the former Social Assistance Branch were added the administration of the Boys' and
Girls' Industrial Schools and the Provincial Home at Kamloops.
The date of this new Act's proclamation also saw the realization of an important
objective toward which the General Administration of the Branch had been consciously
working for many years. This was the major move of decentralizing the administration of the various divisions in so far as legislation made this possible.
Decentralization of Administration and Supervision.
Decentralization was only feasible because by October, 1946, almost four full years
after the original amalgamation, the staff in the field had the knowledge and, without
question, the integrity to make decisions locally. The lines of authority, moreover,
were clearly drawn so that when decisions could not be made in the field, the channels
were there for passing problems up to the proper official for decision. Thus authority
for granting social assistance was delegated by the Director of Welfare to the regional
supervisors (now renamed regional administrators), and decisions with respect to the
social workers' planning with their clients was delegated to Case-work Supervisors.
In three of the regions, senior professional staff were transferred to the position of
regional supervisor, involving the over-all supervision of the professional work of the
supervisors and workers of that region.
This move meant that the costly practice of keeping duplicate records—one in the
district office and a copy in divisional offices—was discontinued. With decisions regarding appropriate action made now in the field, it was no longer necessary to wait for
mails to bring authority or counter suggestions for action on behalf of clients. Moreover, the possibilities for the development of staff that were opened up by having face-
to-face supervision from experienced social workers obviously would tend to increase
the standards of service from the staff as a whole.
There were, naturally enough, many problems associated with this progressive
move in its early stages. In May, 1947, a conference was called of all regional administrators and supervisors, and many of the difficulties were resolved as a result. Earlier
in that year a Policy Manual, the result of a full year's effort to clarify in writing
interdivisional policies, had been drawn up and released by the Director of Welfare to
the field staff. This Manual stated clearly the policies governing the adminstration of
every division, and besides being a guide to the social workers, its release realized the
goal set at the time of amalgamation to formulate uniform, co-ordinated policies within
the Branch itself.
Staff Development.
During this period from amalgamation to decentralization, the staff situation,
though subject to great turnover, due largely to war-time conditions, was constanly P 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
being built up. The staff had, in fact, practically doubled in five years, as had the
number of district offices. The growth of the University Department of Social Work
contributed to the fact that two-thirds of the staff by 1948 were professionally trained,
the rest having been recruited from among applicants deemed suited to the field of
social work and given in-service training.
Staff development generally was given its greatest impetus by the appointment of
case-work supervisors, although other methods of increasing the competence of the
staff were not neglected. The training supervisor's office, for example, was gradually
developed to include, besides the management of the in-service training programme,
the building of the Branch library and promotion of its wider use, and the publication
of a staff journal for purposes of staff education and integration. This journal,
" British Columbia's Welfare," is now published monthly and has a wide circulation as
an interpretive medium outside the Branch and outside the Province. The orientation
of new appointed trained staff became the responsibility of the training supervisor,
this duty extending also to visiting professional people interested in knowing the
organization of the Branch.
Personnel practices were developed during this entire period in conjunction with
the Civil Service Commission which resulted in very satisfactory labour relations. In
the matter of placing staff, the utmost consideration was given the individual social
worker, although terms of employment demand that the social worker accept the placement in which he can be of the greatest service to the Branch and to the people of the
Province.
Social Services in Related Divisions.
The development of the social services in the divisions not within the administrative jurisdiction of the Social Welfare Branch — the Tuberculosis and Venereal
Disease Divisions of the Health Branch, the Provincial Mental Hospital and Child
Guidance Clinics, and the Inspector of Hospitals' office—have not been specially highlighted, as, except for changes in personnel, their social-work programme proceeded
much as outlined in Part I of this review. It might be mentioned here, however, that
the social workers on the staffs of the Tuberculosis and Venereal Disease Divisions
were always employed by the Social Welfare Branch (or the Welfare Field Service
prior to amalgamation) and are part of the Field Service staff. In 1945 the social-
work staffs of the Provincial Mental Hospital and Child Guidance Clinic transferred to
become members of the Field Service staff. The Inspector of Hospitals, in the use
made by him and his staff of the Field Service staff and his close association with the
Director of Welfare, brought his work in certain areas into the whole set-up, and the
Deputy Inspector of Welfare Institutions, appointed in 1945, was a member of the
Field Service staff. Policies governing the social services in all these divisions are
released by the Director of Welfare.
So far as the correlation between the Health Branch and the Social Welfare Branch
is concerned, the two come together in matters of determining areas of service to be
covered by the professional staffs of each. The services given are well defined, and are
in practically every respect totally different in nature from each other. It is inevitable
to find, however, that public health nurses, in their work, are dealing with families in
which the Provincial social worker is also interested. Where this occurs, the two professional people work co-operatively, and, of course, each uses the other as a resource in
treating the types of problems encountered.
Public Recognition.
The Provincial social worker in the field has, over the years, succeeded in interpreting the work of the Social Welfare Branch in the cities and communities of the REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 29
Province. The local doctor, lawyer, police officer, Magistrate, clergyman, and schoolteacher have an increasing knowledge of the work done by the Field Service staff, and
they constantly refer individuals and families to the local Branch offices. The general
public, too, has an increasing awareness of the place of the social worker, a fact which
is borne out by the increasing number of people who come voluntarily to the social
welfare office seeking help.
Not only in British Columbia itself, but elsewhere in Canada and in the United
States, great interest has been evinced in the organization and work of the Social
Welfare Branch. Tangible recognition was given to the fact that British Columbia has
developed a modern social welfare programme compatible with the most enlightened
governmental and professional theories when E. W. Griffith, Deputy Minister of Welfare, was awarded in March, 1948, the Professional Institute gold medal. This award
is granted annually by the Professional Institute of the Civil Service of Canada to the
public servant who has made the most outstanding contribution to national or world
well-being. The honour thus conferred upon Mr. Griffith acknowledged, nationally,
both the qualities of leadership he possesses and the importance of social welfare as a
necessary service of government.
Three considerations underlie the present organization of the Social Welfare
Branch — sound legislation, unified administration, and professional service. These
three considerations make it possible to serve the people of British Columbia who are
in need, to bring the same service to them in an economical fashion wherever they may
live, and to effect wherever and whenever possible their restoration to self-dependent
satisfying ways of living. The pages of this Annual Report, and of those in succeeding
years, will tell the story of the success achieved in reaching toward these recognized
goals.
CONCLUSION.
The present organization of the Social Welfare Branch is, briefly, as follows:—
I. The General Administration, headed by the Deputy Minister of Welfare, has
jurisdiction over the operation and promotion of all social welfare services set up by
the Provincial Government. The Deputy Minister delegates authority to the Director
of Welfare and the Assistant Director of Welfare to assist him in the detail involved
in this unified administration.
II. Within the Social Welfare Branch the separate Statutes that make up the
Province's social legislation are administered by separate specialized divisions, responsible through the General Administration to the Deputy Minister. These divisions
are:—
(1) The Family Division is the head office in which the " Social Assistance
Act," the family services for which it provides, and the " Mothers'
Allowances Act " are administered, in so far as details of accounting and
special problems are concerned. This Division is in charge of a senior
social-work supervisor.
(2) The Old-age Pension Board, the third category of social assistance, is in
reality a " division " in which the detailed administration of the Federal
Old Age and Blind Pension Act is administered. The Chairman of the
Old-age Pension Board is the chief executive of this division, the Supervisor of Social Services being the Field Service staff's divisional contact.
(3) The Medical Services Division is a corollary of the over-all assistance
programme, in which expenditures for those medical services and drugs
outside the basic agreements under the existing medical plan are screened
by the Medical Director. All expenditures for medical services, including
ophthalmic and dental services and drugs, are channelled through this P 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Division.    Final authority for extraordinary medical expenditure rests
with the Director of Welfare.
(4) The Child Welfare Division is that Division in which the " Protection of
Children Act," the "Adoption Act," the "Children of Unmarried Parents
Act" are administered, in so far as legal regulations and extraordinary
problems are concerned. In addition, this Division is responsible for the
development and direction of the placement in foster-homes of children
who become wards of the Government. The chief official in this Division
is the Superintendent of Child Welfare, assisted by a staff of social-work
supervisors.
(5) The Boys' and Girls' Industrial Schools provide for treatment to boys and
girls committed principally under the "Juvenile Delinquents Act." In
addition to the usual staff necessary in the operation of such a training-
school, the Boys' Industrial School has a social worker on the staff. The
superintendents of these schools are responsible for the direction of their
respective schools.
(6) The Provincial Home, as a welfare institution catering to the needs of
older men, is under the direct authority of the Director of Welfare. The
superintendent of the home is responsible for its day-to-day operation.
III. Within the Health Branch, two divisions have social service sections as a part
of the over-all treatment given:—
(1) The Division of Tuberculosis Control has a staff of medical social workers
serving the social needs of patients in the various hospital units.
(2) The Division of Venereal Disease Control has a staff of medical social
workers attached to the clinics operated by this Division.
These medical social workers are employed by the Social Welfare Branch. Policies
with respect to the social services they give to patients are a part of the over-all division
administration, but policies with respect to patients' families and rehabilitation after
discharge are those of the Social Welfare Branch. The social-work practice in these two
divisions is under the supervision of the Provincial Supervisor of Medical Social Work.
IV. Within the Provincial Secretary's Department, which has jurisdiction over the
Provincial hospitals, the Provincial Mental Hospital and its mental hygiene programme
—the Child Guidance Clinics—have social services as an inherent part of the treatment
provided. Also, the Inspector of Hospitals uses the services of the Provincial social
workers in the field with respect to the hospital clearance programme, welfare institutions licensing, and Infirmary placement. For purposes of convenience in nomenclature, the Social Welfare Branch designates these programmes as follows:—
(1) The Psychiatric Division includes the social services given on behalf of
patients at the Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale, and the social services which form a major part of the work of the Child Guidance Clinics.
The psychiatric social workers who give this service are employed by the
Social Welfare Branch. The services with respect to patients' families
and follow-up treatment after discharge are governed by policies released
by the Social Welfare Branch. The supervision entailed in this work is
provided by the Provincial Supervisor of Psychiatric Social Work, who is
assisted by social-work supervisors at hospital and clinic.
(2) The Hospital Services Division uses the Field Service staff exclusively in
effecting alternative treatment for chronically ill patients who would
otherwise be confined to local hospitals. The Field Service staff submits
social histories supported by the doctor's report to the Inspector of Hospitals, who determines whether boarding-home or Provincial Infirmary
care is required.    A Licensing Board, on the recommendation  of the REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 31
Provincial social worker or the Division social-work supervisor, grants
and renews welfare institution licences.    The chief administrator of this
Division in the Inspector of Hospitals.
V. The Field Service staff, located in district offices in every part of the Province,
brings the benefits of the social Statutes and Provincially sponsored treatment programmes directly to the people who are in need of them.    The physical organization of
this direct work is as follows:—
(1) Region 1 is Vancouver Island, with district offices in Victoria, Duncan,
Nanaimo, Alberni, and Courtenay. In addition, the City of Victoria and
Saanich Municipality have social welfare departments serving the people
within their boundaries.
(2) Region 2 is the Lower Mainland, with district offices in Vancouver, New
Westminster, Abbotsford, and Chilliwack. The Vancouver City social
service department and the Municipalities of North Vancouver, Burnaby,
New Westminster, Surrey, Langley, and Chilliwhack have municipal social
welfare offices.
(3) Region 3 is the Okanagan and the Kamloops-Revelstoke area, with district
offices in Penticton, Kelowna, Vernon, Kamloops, and Salmon Arm.
Municipal social welfare departments are organized in Penticton, Kelowna,
Vernon, and Kamloops.
(4) Region i is the East and West Kootenays, with district offices in Nelson,
Trail, Grand Forks, Cranbrook, and Fernie.
(5) Region 5 is the northern part of the Province, with district offices in
Prince George, Quesnel, Williams Lake, Smithers, Prince Rupert, and
Pouce Coupe.
The administration of these regions is under a regional administrator, Region 2
requiring the services of an assistant administrator as well. The supervision of the
work done by the Provincial social workers—that is, the planning essential to adequate
professional treatment of problems encountered and recommendations with respect to
the expenditure of public funds—is provided by case-work supervisors. These officials
serve both Provincial and municipal staffs in more than one office, and are located in
Duncan, Nanaimo, Vancouver, Burnaby, New Westminster, Abbotsford, Penticton,
Vernon, Kamloops, Nelson, Cranbrook, and Prince Rupert. In Regions 1 and 3, regional
supervisors, having what amounts to divisional status, are present to give direction and
guidance to the case-work supervisors during the difficult early years of this decentralized administration.
The Provincial social worker remains the key person in this total operation, as in
the final analysis it is he who serves the people directly. The base of his service is that
of family case-work, in which he uses the legislation or programme of government most
appropriate to the needs of the family or individual. The use of these resources
demands an intimate knowledge of each, and skill and integrity are demanded in establishing need or meeting eligibility requirements, in using public money wisely and
economically, and in working toward the saving of family life and the building of self-
reliant citizens for the future. P 32
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF WELFARE.
It is a matter of satisfaction to everyone concerned in the operation of the Branch
to report the growing efficiency and smooth functioning of the Branch under decentralization. There are still problems related to divisional policies to be worked out, but
these are known and are under consideration. The highest tribute must be paid to
our field representatives—regional administrators and supervisors, case-work supervisors, and social workers—for the conscientious and co-operative way in which they
have achieved the growing stability of the Branch under decentralization.
DISTRICT OFFICES.
During the year under review four new offices were opened—three Provincial and
one municipal. The work entailed in the territory in and around the City of Grand
Forks and west to the boundaries of the Okanagan Region had been done for many
years by a worker from the Nelson office. In view of the number of cases carried by
that worker, the great distances travelled before reaching Grand Forks, and the need
for a continuous service there, an office was opened on June 23rd, 1947. Similarly the
work in the Cities of Trail and Rossland was covered from the Nelson office, and was
of such volume as to necessitate two social workers' full-time attention. An office,
therefore, was opened in Trail on September 22nd. In the north the inland territory
between Terrace and Burns Lake was handled by a worker from Prince Rupert, which
necessitated costly travel and only periodic services. The office at Smithers was
reopened on October 3rd to facilitate the work of the Branch in this area.
The City of New Westminster created its social welfare department in June, 1947.
A social worker was emplo5red by the city, and two Provincial social workers were
assigned to this office to work under the administrative authority of the municipal
clerk, A. G. Brine. All social workers, however, are supervised by the case-work
supervisor in the Provincial New Westminster district office.
In December, 1947, the City of Nanaimo withdrew its social welfare department
and from that date entered into agreement with the Branch on the per capita payment
basis, under which Provincial social workers do the necessary work for the city.
This brings the number of Provincial district offices to a total of twenty-four and
of municipal offices to fifteen, a total of thirty-nine.
PERSONNEL.
Appointments of staff made during the year totalled forty-four. There were,
however, twenty-eight resignations and one retirement, which makes the actual increase
of staff only fifteen. In addition, five members of the staff were given educational
leave of absence. The table set out below gives the total staff picture of the entire
Branch.
April 1st, 1947.
March 31st, 1948.
Men.
Women.
Total.
Men.
Women.
Total.
35
6
56
	
91
6
36
6
65
	
41
5
56
32
97
37
42
6
65
37
107
43
46
5
88
1
134
6
48
3
102
2
150
5
Totals 	
51
89
140
51
104
155
■ REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48.
P 33
The six regional administrators shown in the table includes the office of assistant
administrator held in Region 2. The work of this region, which has the largest
population and the greatest degree of municipal organization, demanded that the
regional administration be shared in this way.
DIVISIONAL OFFICES.
The total number of staff in divisional offices shown above are allocated in the
following manner (where case-workers are shown, these constitute the social-work
staffs giving case-work service to patients in Provincial hospitals and clinics) :•—
Administrative and
Supervisor.
Caseworkers.
Total.
General Administration	
Child Welfare	
Family Services	
Old-age Pensions	
Psychiatric Division (General)
Mental Hospital	
Child Guidance Clinics	
Medical Social Work (General)
Tuberculosis Division	
Venereal Disease Division-
Research Consultant	
Training Supervisor	
Welfare Institutions	
Boys' Industrial School	
Girls' Industrial School	
Totals	
MUNICIPAL OFFICES.
The fifteen municipal offices, over which the Branch exercises co-operative supervision to ensure uniformity of standards of service, are constituted as follows:
Amalgamated offices (where the Branch supplies a worker for every municipal worker
employed), 8; one municipal worker (where the Branch pays 50 per cent, of that
worker's salary), 7.
The balance of the municipalities have entered the third agreement possible under
the regulations to the " Social Assistance Act"—namely, the payment of 15 cents
per capita of population per year.
CASE-LOADS.
On the basis of monthly field service reports submitted from each district office,
the total number of cases carried as at March 31st, 1948, by the total staff, municipal
social workers included, was 34,740. This is an increase of 3,203. The following comparative table of a categorical breakdown of this total should be studied to account for
this increase:—
Family Division—
Social allowance  7,002
Mothers' allowance     759
Family services      908
Old-age pension	
Child Welfare Division _____
Public Health Branch—
Tuberculosis Division
8,669
22,822
2,791
60 P 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Hospitals and institutions—
Mental Hospital   204
Child Guidance Clinic  13
Hospital clearance  18
Welfare institutions  85
Provincial Infirmary  14
Collections  51
Federal services—
Family allowance  10
Others  3
Total  34,740
Although great increases are evident in the categories of old-age pensions, social
allowances, and family services, decreases in other categories suggest that it was possible to close cases in these other areas. However, under a new system of reporting
statistics, it has been possible to ensure fairly accurately that a case is not counted
twice. Hence the decrease in the number of tuberculosis cases, carried from 348 to 60,
means actually that a service with respect to tuberculosis alone is given in those 60
cases. An analysis of family services, social allowances, and mothers' allowances and
others would reveal that in a proportion of these families tuberculosis is a factor.
When this system of reporting statistics has been in operation for a full year, it will
be possible to show both the number of families and individuals served, and the types
of services given to these families by the generalized worker. In other words, many
families require two or more types of categorical aid.
The average case-load carried by each individual social worker during the year was
287, as against 272 at the beginning of that year.
SUPERVISORS' COUNCIL.
The co-ordinating work of this Council was continued successfully throughout the
year. In the early months of the year the need was expressed for the organization of
a second committee or council which would include the senior administrative officials of
all divisions. The purpose to be served by a committee was conceived to be that of
bringing the planning for the development of any one division before the responsible
officials of every division. It was felt that matters and policies affecting one division
often overlapped in the operation of other divisions. One central Branch Committee
for planning would thus make for greater integration. This Planning Committee was
therefore organized in January, 1948, meeting at first monthly and then on alternate
months with the Supervisors' Council. Recommendations from this planning group
were made to the General Administration for the Deputy Minister's decision.
The major study completed by the Planning Committee was a clarification of
interdependent policies existing between the Child Guidance Clinic and the divisions
most frequently served by the clinic. The study consolidates and records the functions
and purposes and methods of the Child Guidance Clinic, and forms an important
Departmental document. Other studies of a similar nature were commenced but not
finished during this fiscal year.
The work of the sub-committees of the Supervisors' Council should be specially
mentioned. The Recording Committee was responsible for developing a simplified,
more accurate way of keeping monthly statistics in the district offices. A new statistical card was prepared and changes made in the monthly Field Service report.
The Evaluation Committee completed its study of methods of evaluation, and a comprehensive guide now exists to make possible a regular evaluation of the social worker's
performance.    In this process the social worker himself takes an active self-critical REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 35
part. Such evaluations are a necessary part of professional development, and serve the
administration admirably when salary increments, promotions, educational leaves, or
terminations of employment must be considered.
STAFF DEVELOPMENT.
Day-to-day supervision of staff is considered the most important means of improving the calibre of staff and is in effect a continuation of professional training begun in
university schools or by means of in-service training. Realistically, in this second year
of decentralization, it has been possible for case-work supervisors to give only a minimum amount of time to the training aspect of supervision. The learning and teaching
of administrative detail, which is an important part of the skill of the social worker,
has been well done, although interrupted by the number of staff changes it has been
necessary to make.
Two in-service training courses were given during the year. From June 1st to
September 1st eight new recruits were given this training, six of whom were given
employment. From October 1st to December 23rd seven others were given this training, two of whom were recruited by the Vancouver City social service department.
The orientation of newly trained staff was also continued for purposes of acquainting
these people with the work of the entire Branch before they proceeded to rural offices.
The training supervisor, besides being responsible for the organization, teaching,
and final evaluations, the in-service training programme involved, is also responsible
for arranging orientation. In addition, the editing of the staff journal " British
Columbia's Welfare," serving on all Branch councils, committees, and conferences as
secretary, preparing interpretive material for interested persons outside the Branch,
and arranging the introductions for visiting officials from other parts of the nation and
world fall on her desk. In all these matters her services have been efficient and greatly
appreciated by all concerned.
PUBLICATIONS.
" British Columbia's Welfare " has developed into a distinctive journal, having a
circulation of 650 per month. The quality of the articles contributed by the staff has
been noteworthy, and these have served the purpose of reflecting to outside readers
the tone and quality of the work done by the Branch. It is not unusual to find other
journals—in Britain and in the United States—quoting from " British Columbia's
Welfare," and appreciative letters have been received from many sources outside the
Province regarding it. Essentially a medium of staff development and of keeping the
scattered staff in touch with each other, this journal has also developed into one of
general interpretation, making for good public relations.
LIBRARY.
The library continues to be a central and serviceable place for many types of meetings to be held. Books and pamphlets added to the shelves during the year number
138, bringing the total number of these accessioned to 598. Circulation was at an
average of 80 per month. A definite move was made during the year to augment
public documents, and a useful reference section has thus been built up.
CONFERENCES.
Three official delegates were sent from the Branch to the American National Conference of Social Work in San Francisco in April, 1947. This conference is one of
the outstanding professional gatherings on this continent. Returning from this conference, our delegates reported great interest in the organization and functions of the
Social Welfare Branch. P 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The First Western Regional Conference, consisting of delegates from the four
Western Provinces, met in Regina in April. Five delegates attended from this Branch,
each contributing a well-received paper. Progress was made at this conference in the
consideration of such matters as care of the aged, residence, adequate assistance allowances and methods of administration, personnel practices, mental hygiene measures,
and so on. In each of these areas British Columbia delegates offered considerable
leadership in the discussion.
Of greatest importance to the Branch, however, was the conference of regional
administrators and supervisors held from May 5th to 10th. The problems encountered
in the operation of decentralization were thoroughly discussed with the divisional heads
and General Administration present, and important decisions made. This conference
emphasized the fine co-operative spirit existing throughout the whole Branch, and the
quality of participation indicated the unmistakable ability and sincerity of all these
senior officials.
The West Coast Regional Conference of the American Public Welfare Association
was held in Seattle from June 5th to 7th. Our Branch has membership in this influential public welfare organization, and an invitation was extended to me, as an
individual member, to take part in this conference. Following it, the executive director
of the American Public Welfare Association, Howard Russell, visited Vancouver to
learn more of the organization of the Branch.
INTERNATIONAL VISITORS.
Besides Mr. Russell, mentioned above, three other distinguished visitors from
abroad were given an extensive view of the operation of the Social Welfare Branch.
Miss Sybil Clement Brown, lecturer at the London School of Economics and outstanding British social worker, spent a week in Vancouver, most of her time devoted to
observing and discussing the work of the Branch.
John Nembaris, of the Department of Reconstruction, Government of Greece, spent
two full weeks studying our methods. Later in the year Dr. Michael Goutos, also of
the Greek Government, spent two weeks studying selected fields of our work. Both
of these officials were travelling on a United Nations educational scholarship, their
visit to Canada arranged by the Department of National Health and Welfare.
STUDENT PLACEMENT.
The rapid growth of the Department of Social Work at the University of British
Columbia placed a growing importance upon the field instruction to be given students
in their practice-work. Student placements were made in the Vancouver and New
Westminster district office, and in the municipal office in Burnaby, where the case-work
Supervisor is a member of the Provincial Field Service. In addition, the University
supplied a faculty member in the New Westminster office, who devoted her full time
to student supervision.
A total of twenty-one first-year students received field-work training during this
year. In addition, two second-year students proceeding to their masters' degrees were
given field-work placement in the Child Guidance Clinic and one in the Child Welfare
Divisi0n- CONCLUSION.
During this year it has been possible to observe at first hand the work of all but
one region.    With decentralized methods well established, the objectives set for the
succeeding year emphasize the need to stabilize staff and to allow time, without further
changes, for a consolidation of the gains made during the past year.    Improving the
quality of the services given will be the key-note of succeeding years.
Respectfully submitted.
Amy Leigh,
Assistant Director of Welfare. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 37
RESEARCH CONSULTANT.
The Research Consultant begs to present the following report for the fiscal year
1947-48:—
At the close of the previous year a study of the overseas children who were sent
to British Columbia in 1940 under the Children's Overseas Reception Board was in
process of being made. This has not been completed, as another project was considered
to have priority.
This was a study of the problems relative to the incidence of tuberculosis in
families of marginal income, with special reference to the policies and the procedures
of the Division of Tuberculosis Control and the Social Welfare Branch of the Province
of British Columbia. This study took almost seven months to complete. Four hundred
records were read, and a sampling of twenty selected on which intensive research was
done. Charts on each of these twenty cases showed the incidence of infection in the
family, the cost of social assistance, and the cost of hospitalization. The general
introduction dealt at some length with the problems met with in hospitalization and
convalescence of the tuberculous patient.
On completion of this project a new study was started dealing with child-caring
facilities in British Columbia.
Isobel Harvey,
Research Consultant. P 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
FAMILY DIVISION.
SOCIAL ALLOWANCES.
The fiscal year at present under consideration was one of many contrasts. It was
a year of great industrial activity and expansion in the Province, with the construction
and building trades seeming to claim most attention. Many new industries are
reported to have been attracted to British Columbia, and various figures published
would indicate that all industries, old and new, worked to capacity when not hampered
by shortage of supplies or climatic conditions. Man-power shortages were even noted
in some sections of the Province.
In August, 1947, for the first time on record, employment figures in Canada
exceeded 5,000,000.* This situation was no doubt reflected in our Provincial totals,
but by February, 1948, the Provincial employment situation here had deteriorated
faster than at any time since the war. This slump was only seasonal, however, due to
temporary lay-offs and to a large influx of Prairie and Eastern workers for the winter
months.
In spite of man-power shortages in some areas and high employment rates in
others, there were frequent references to the problem of placing the older workers who
were having difficulties in obtaining employment.
It was a year of serious housing shortages, reflected in high rentals for existing
housing units, which created a problem for social assistance recipients, as well as a
year of a constantly rising cost of living.
From the point of view of administration of social allowance, the significant
contrast was, however, that while employment was maintained at a fairly high level,
with general economic conditions better than they had been for many years, the number
of social allowance recipients and the expenditures therefor should also increase.
It might be expected that the reverse would be the case, but the following comparative statements of case-loads and expenditures will serve to show the steady
increase.
Table I.—Case-load.
March, 1946.     March, 1947.     March, 1948.
Heads of families   1,517 1,853 2,075
Dependents  3,087 3,839 4,461
Single men and women  4,438 5,061 5,893
Totals  9,042 10,753 12,429
* Welfare Magazine, January 15th, 1948.    Quoted from Dominion Bureau of Statistics report. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 39
Table II.—Expenditure by the Province for Social Allowances,
Medical Services, etc.
(1) Cases  Who   are   the   responsibility   Of   a        Fiscal Year Fiscal Year Fiscal Year
••■;',*,                                                                                             1945-46.                       1946-47. 1947-48.
municipality   (80   per   cent,   paid  by
Province)        $897,595.06 $1,047,635.94 $1,329,993.91
(2) Cases who are the sole responsibility of
the Province   (100 per cent, paid by
Province)  :___      525,121.05      638,227.97      815,054.68
(3) Repatriation, transportation within the
Province, nursing-home care (other
than   T.B.),   special   allowances,   and
grants*   12,545.03 16,893.65 58,603.23
(4) Medical services—Provincial and municipal cases (social allowance, old-age
pensioners,    and   mothers'   allowance
cases)         146,269.89       185,973.68       335,073.61
(5) Emergency payments—such as where
family may lose their home by fire or
similar circumstances   608.17 967.91 4,704.34
(6) Municipal and provincial cases—
(a) Tuberculosis nursing-home cases __                    	
(6)  Tuberculosis private-home cases....       127,931.41       179,905.19       213,459.89
(c) Transportation   of  tuberculosis
cases    2,002.50 2,371.56 3,279.55
(d) Comforts allowance for tuberculosis
cases    3,315.00 6,358.40 8,926.40
(7) Dependents of conscientious objectors__ 1,179.30 422.40 209.20
(8) Allowances to Japanese persons  121.20 330.00       	
(9) Dependents of enemy aliens  871.91              	
(10) Allowances to Saskatchewan Mennon-
ites   856.52               	
$1,718,417.04 $2,079,086.70 $2,769,304.81
Less recovered by refund and payment
from Dominion Government—
Conscientious objectors   $1,179.30         $631.60
Allowance to Japanese persons  121.20         15.00
Dependents of enemy aliens  871.91               	
Less recovered from Province of Saskatchewan—Mennonite settlers ____ 856.52               	
Total refunds          $3,028.93        $646.60
Total expenditure by Province...... $1,715,388.11 $2,079,086.70 $2,768,658.21
(11) Hospitalization of indigents       254,164.76
Total of social allowance expenditure, 1947-48  $3,022,822.97
* Includes $5,153.98 expended in repatriating to other Provinces persons not eligible under section 5 (6) of the
Social Assistance Regulations made pursuant to the provisions of the " Social Assistance Act." P 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In looking for an explanation of the rise in the number of recipients it is difficult
to find a positive answer. There are, however, several factors which no doubt influenced the situation. One is the increasing population of the Province caused by the
arrival in the past few years of many individuals and families from the Prairie and
Eastern Provinces. Some, of course, were transient, but many remained to make their
home in this Province. Among these new settlers will be an average proportion of
people who will require social allowance at some time or other and a proportion in the
older age-group among whom the incidence of illness and unemployability will be high
and will increase. We are told that the proportion of older persons to the total population is rising, and it is likely that on this fact alone we can look for steadily rising
costs in social allowances.
Another factor is no doubt the general employment situation. We have noted the
difficulties presented for the older worker in obtaining employment—and the older
worker is usually defined as 45 years of age and over. If these groups are finding
difficulty in seeking employment, it is a logical conclusion that the physically or mentally
handicapped person is experiencing even greater difficulty. Where the handicapped
person might have found work in the past, no such opportunities are presented now
with so many able-bodied persons available to do the work. These physically or mentally
handicapped persons must then perforce be considered unemployable and will be forced
to apply for social allowance if they are in need.
It is reasonable to assume that many young couples with small children have been
hard pressed to maintain themselves on their income in the face of the high cost of
living, and their ability to contribute to their parents in need will be reduced. It is
possible, therefore, that many older persons who might normally have been maintained
within the family group without resort to public funds have found it necessary to apply
for assistance.
While gross figures are not available, in any review of applications for assistance
the incidence of deserted wives and families cannot be overlooked. These cases are no
doubt a cumulative product of the restlessness of the war and immediate post-war years.
Allied to this is the ample opportunity for employment in any section of the country
which does not encourage a person to remain with an assured job rather than risk the
possibility of unemployment in distant but apparently greener fields. With any tightening in the employment situation it is possible that the numbers of deserted families will
decrease, but over the past year it has been necessary for many of them to apply for
social allowance.
In addition to all of these factors, there is a changing concept of human need and
the basis on which assistance shall be granted to those in need. Public thinking has
gradually turned to the attitude that a person unable to maintain himself and his family
by his own efforts has a certain right to expect assistance to supply the necessities of
living. We no longer make it as difficult as possible to obtain assistance, recognizing
first of all that an expression of need is not necessarily an admission of defeat and
often regarding the assistance as a tool whereby the individual can be rehabilitated
and restored to independent living if rehabilitation is at all possible. For the permanently disabled no rehabilitation is possible, but our efforts are directed to developing
other strengths in the family unit to meet the economic, physical, and emotional needs
of the family.
Another consideration is that our services are becoming increasingly well known.
It is, therefore, likely that this will be reflected in an increasing number of applications
for those services.
On the financial side there are several explanations for mounting expenditures
in 1947-48, apart from the increasing number of applicants. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 41
It has been pointed out in a recent article by the acting officer in charge of the
Research Division of the Department of National Health and Welfare in discussing
public welfare expenditures in Canada that:—
" The magnitude of these outlays may be startling to some, but the cost
of protection against and prevention of disease—whether physical or social—is
less than the cost of its neglect.    Others may feel that the effect of such
large public  expenditures will  ultimately lead  to  individual passivity and
dependency, to social stagnation and servility.    Undoubtedly, in striving to
attain security and protection against social and economic hazards one problem
is to avoid infringement upon individual initiative and enterprise.    However,
through social security measures, each of which has emerged as the result of
basic social needs, democratic countries have sought to remove not only the
evils and adversity of the jungle but also to avoid the lethargy of the lotus
land."*
Effective  April   1st,   1947,   an   increase  of  $2.50   per  month  was   granted   for
individuals or heads of families.   Also on April 1st, 1947, many of the recommendations
of the Goldenberg Report, published in January, 1947, were implemented.   At this time
the Province undertook a greater share of certain costs, and agreed to share on an
80-20 basis with the organized areas in the costs of:—
(1) Boarding and nursing care up to $1.50 and $2.50 per day respectively:
(2) Medical care under existing arrangements:
(3) Drugs:
(4) Emergency health aid:
(5) Tuberculosis allowances;   and
(6) Municipal inmates in the Provincial Home at Kamloops.
Effective April 1st, 1947, the Social Welfare Branch also undertook to pay to
hospitals in receipt of statutory grants under the " Hospital Act " the sum of $3 per
day for every genuine in-patient who is in receipt of social assistance.
In May, 1947, the provision of comforts allowance at the rate of $3 per month
was extended to cover not only social allowance recipients in hospital, but to recipients
of social assistance (social allowances, old-age and blind pensions, and mothers' allowances) who might be in nursing or boarding homes. This was to be granted on an
80—20 shareable basis also.
In July, 1947, recognition was given to the prevalence of poliomyelitis in the
Province and the need for prompt and adequate hospital care for such patients. In
close co-operation with the Provincial Health Branch, approval was given for immediate authorization on a shareable basis of the costs of transportation of a patient to
a treatment centre, for all social assistance or border-line cases where it was clearly
indicated that the individual or family concerned was unable to meet the cost.
Also in March, 1948, the maximum rate to which the Province would contribute
80 per cent, for boarding-home and nursing-home care was raised to $55 and $90 per
month respectively.
Finally, the marked increase shown under items (3) and (4), Table II, in the
present fiscal year is accounted for by assumption of the Province of 80 per cent, of
the costs of boarding- and nursing-home care and 80 per cent, of the costs of medical
services, as against only 50 per cent, in the previous fiscal year.
This year in review therefore represents a progressive and increasing recognition
of the rising costs of care and maintenance and need for services, which is to a large
extent an explanation of the increased expenditures under social allowances. As our
provision for services and contributions to their cost increase in the future, it is
reasonable to anticipate that the expenditures for these services will increase proportionately.
* Canadian Welfare, March 1st, 1948:   " Public Welfare Expenditures in Canada," by Joseph Willard. P 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
As social allowance is granted only on the basis of unemployability for the most
part the recipients are unable to supplement their allowance to any appreciable extent.
There has been evidence of increasing pressure therefore for consideration of an
increase in social allowance rates in order that the recipients may cope with the
constantly rising cost of living and high rentals due to the acute housing shortage.
The fiscal year 1947-48 represents the first year in which complete decentralization to the local area in the administration of social allowance became effective. It
continues to be administered by the local area, municipal or Provincial, on a shared
basis for costs, with the Province accepting the total cost of social allowances granted
to those who are Provincial responsibilities and reimbursing the respective municipal
areas for 80 per cent, of allowances granted to municipal responsibilities. This percentage reimbursement is based on a maximum set up in the social allowance guiding
scale.
After a review of the total case-load for March, 1948, of 12,429 (see Table I),
the following distribution as to residence and responsibility is noted:—
Table III.—Place of Residence of Recipients (without regard to Responsibility
as determined by "Residence and Responsibility Act ").
Recipients residing in organized areas     8,666
Recipients residing in unorganized areas     3,763
Total   12,429
Table IV.—Place of Residence of Recipients on a Comparative
Percentage Basis, 1945-48.
March, March, March, March,
1945. 1946. 1947. 1948.
Per Cent.      Per Cent.      Per Cent.       Per Cent.
Residing in organized territory _____ 68.69        67.77        68.39        62.48
Residing in unorganized territory 31.31        32.23        31.61        37.52
It will thus be noted that there has been a slight decrease in the percentage of the
case-load residing in organized areas and consequently a relatively slight increase in
the numbers residing in unorganized areas. It is not possible to determine the reasons
for this shift in numbers, but among the factors might be the matter of lack of housing
and high rentals in the organized areas. It is apparent, however, that the greater
facilities for medical care in the larger centres has not attracted a large volume of
clients to those centres.
A further breakdown of the case-load of 12,429 is also possible on the basis of
financial responsibility as determined by the " Residence and Responsibility Act."
Table V.—Financial Responsibility of Social Allowance Recipients.
Municipal responsibility    7,980
Provincial responsibility      4,449
Total   12,429
Table VI.—Financial Responsibility of Social Allowance Recipients on a
Comparative Percentage Basis, 1945-48.
March,           March,            March, March,
1945.               1946.                1947. 1948.
Per Cent.       Per Cent.        Per Cent. Per Cent.
Municipal responsibility  64.87        63.74        63.82 63.40
Provincial responsibility  __- 35.13        36.26        36.18 36.60 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 43
From these figures it will be noted that there has been no marked change in the
distribution of the case-load on the basis of domicile and responsibility.
Relationship with Municipalities.
During the past fiscal year our relationship with the municipalities has been a
cordial one. Every effort has been made to solve any difficulties presented on a
mutually satisfactory basis, and the negotiations have been marked by a spirit of
co-operation and an attempt on the part of each to understand the other's problems.
In this year there has been a revision of our working arrangements with municipalities working on the 15 cents per capita basis, and three municipalities whose population and tax receipts now warrant such an arrangement have been added to the list
already participating under the arrangements as provided for in the regulations to the
" Social Assistance Act."
With only two basic qualifications for eligibility—namely, unemployability and
need as set out in the " Social Assistance Act"—this form of assistance is considered
by many to be the most flexible form of social assistance in the Province. It enables
the workers to meet many emergent situations that might have been difficult of solution
in the past. With the meeting of financial need the worker is then able to turn his or
her attention to other problems that may present themselves in the family. Every
effort is made toward rehabilitation of the family, with a view to re-establishing them
as an independent unit.
Under the regulations pursuant to the " Social Assistance Act," provision is made
for the appointment of a Board of Review on the application to the Director of Welfare
by any recipient or applicant in respect to any decision which he considers affects him
adversely. It might be noted here that since the passing of the " Social Assistance
Act" in March, 1945, only two such applications have been made. This in itself will
speak well for the careful and sympathetic administration of social allowances by all
officials in the field, municipal as well as Provincial.
One other phase of the work which merits mention in this report is the problem
of residence in interprovincial cases. While we have a reasonable working arrangement with several of the Provinces, in many individual cases we are confronted with
a serious problem caused by the variety of residence and settlement laws throughout
the Dominion. With the constant shifting of population and the hazards of ill-health,
unemployment, and housing, many of the families sooner or later find themselves in
need of assistance in a part of the country to which they do not belong—that is, where
they do not have legal domicile. It is possible for some of them even to have lost any
legal domicile for the purposes of social assistance. In many instances valuable time
and effort is expended in attempts to determine responsibility for these families or
individuals, as it is the present policy of most Provinces to arrange for the return of
these people as soon as possible to the place where they have legal domicile or to
arrange for reimbursement for any social allowance granted where the humane aspects
of the case dictate against repatriation.
In answer to this problem there is a bright ray of hope in the formation of a Public
Welfare Division of the Canadian Welfare Council in May, 1947. The various members
of this Division were circularized for an expression of opinion as to the problems giving
most concern and to which the Division might first direct their attention. It is
significant to note that the replies which came from all sections of the Dominion placed
the problems of residence and settlement high on the list. In the annual report of
this Public Welfare Division it is indicated that close study will be given to this
perplexing question in the near future. One would hope that out of the proposed study
will arise some standard for establishing residence and domicile on a uniform basis. P 44
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Under decentralization all files are maintained in district offices; therefore, in the
absence of a complete set of files in the divisional office, no picture can be drawn of caseload content or case-work services given. Every assurance can be given, however, that
our workers are prepared to deal with each case and its problems on an individual
basis and in a personal way in tune with a developing public consciousness of social
needs and rights. We are a far cry from the days when categories of human need were
treated in a mass way. To the workers and officers in the field, municipal and Provincial, great credit must be given for the success of the social assistance programme,
and to them we extend our appreciation for their efforts and co-operation.
J.  M.  RlDDELL,
Supervisor.
MOTHERS' ALLOWANCES.
A review of the mothers' allowances case-load for the fiscal year April 1st, 1947,
to March 31st, 1948, gives further evidence of a trend which has been apparent since
1940—namely, a consistent decrease in the number of applications for mothers' allowances as well as in the total number of allowances in pay and the expenditures therefor.
The following tables will illustrate this point:—
Statement showing per Capita Cost.
Fiscal Year.
Total
Expenditure.
Population
as at June of
Each Year.
Per Capita
Cost to the
Province.
Percentage
Change over
Previous Year
(Decrease).
Total Reduction from
Previous Year.
1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44
1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
$810,688.12
798,097.32
751,835.56
667,213.02
581,541.29
528,442.87
498,901.72
488,866.74
441,966.71
805,000 (1940)
818,000 (1941)
870,000 (1942)
900,000 (1943)
932,000 (1944)
949,000 (1945)
1,003,000 (1946)
1,044,000 (1947)
$0.99
.92
.77
.65
.57
.53
.49
.42
1.65
5.79
11.26
12.85
9.13
5.59
2.01
9.59
I
$12,590.80
46,261.76
84,622.50
85,671.73
63,098.42
29,541.15
10,034.98
46,900.03
Statement of Case-load for the Month of March during the Past Eight Years.
March, 1941..
March, 1942.
  1,697
 .. 1,552
March, 1943  1,194
March, 1944  _ 1,080
March, 1945
March, 1946
March, 1947
  940
  905
  863
March, 1948  751 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48.
P 45
Taken month by month, the following figures are given to show the case-load :-
Monthly Case-load, Fiscal Year April 1st, 1947, to March Slst, 1948.
Number of
Allowances
in Pay.
Number
of Persons benefited.
Month.
Mothers.
Children.
Incapacitated
Husbands.
855
848
836
819
806
789
787
777
773
763
756
751
855
848
836
819
806
789
787
777
773
763
756
751
1,827
1,811
1,778
1,767
1,735
1,693
1,683
1,666
1,656
1,652
1,631
1,608
201
199
191
July	
184
181
176
176
November	
December	
170
167
164
165
165
During the fiscal year under review 143 applications were received, as compared
with 199 applications for the fiscal year 1946-47. A total of 183 cases were dealt with,
as follows:—
Statement of Applications received.
Applications pending as at April 1st, 1947     40
New applications received in year  102
Reapplications received in year     41
Total   183
Statement of Cases dealt with in the Year.
Grants ..
Refusals
Applications pending as at March 31st, 1948_
Total 	
93
75
168
15
183 P 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The reasons for refusal were as follows:—
Statement giving Reasons for Refusal.
Reason for Refusal. Cases.
Remarried   1
Total income in the home  1
Husband not totally incapacitated  2
Responsibility of British Columbia Security Commission  1
Not a British subject  3
Personal property in excess . 21
Not resident in British Columbia for three years  7
Withdrawn    16
No child under 18 attending school  2
Not deserted two years  1
Social allowance preferable form of assistance  6
Disability which caused death arose outside British Columbia ____. 3
Husband obtained divorce   1
Mother's earnings in excess  5
Husband not committed to penitentiary  1
Unearned income   2
Divorce not two years standing  1
Unable to qualify under section 6 of " Mothers' Allowances Act "__ 1
Total  75
Cancellations for the year numbered 205, and the following table gives the reasons
for cancellation:—
Statement of Number of Cases cancelled and Reasons.
Reason for Cancellation. Cases.
Mother deceased  2
Mother remarried   30
Mother left British Columbia  5
Whereabouts unknown   3
Mother in hospital indefinitely  2
Mother's earnings in excess  39
Section 6 of the " Mothers' Allowances Act "  6
Husband not totally disabled  26
Husband released from penitentiary  5
Deserting husband returned  1
Only child removed from care  3
Only child 16 years of age and not attending school  1
Only child 18 years of age  19
Only child under 16 years left school  10
Only child under 18 years left school  21
Older children maintaining   8
Personal property in excess  2
Unearned income in excess  9
Withdrawn    13
Total  205
Of the above cancellations, the following shows the length of time on allowance:— REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48.
P 47
Statement of Length of Time on Alloivance of the 205 Cancelled Cases.
Years____    1     2     3     4     5     6     7     8     9   10   11   12   13   14   15   16   17   18   19
Cases.... 38   23   12   12   15   16   19     9   19   12     6     4     6     1     3     2     5     1     1
Total, 205.    Average length of time on allowance, 6.105 years.
20
1
A further review of the case-load as at March 31st, 1948, shows the status under
which mothers' allowance was granted and the number of children in the family
groups:—
Status and Number of Children of Families in Receipt of Mothers'
Allowance in March, 1948.
Number
of Children.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
1
1.
8.
1
9.      I     10.
Total.
187
6
3
56
7
1
8
4
2
166
6
3
57
9
15
1
2
91
5
4
22
2
4
27
4
16
3
1
9
	
1
?
	
	
3
	
	
6
1
4
1
2    1
1    1
     1
1    1
     1
     1
     1
     1
......    1
1
1
1    |
1    |
|
489
Insane	
Penitentiary	
Incapacitated Husbands..
23
11
165
18
2
33
6
4
Totals	
274
259
128
51
20
11
*    1
1
2
2     |
751
Number of individuals benefited, 2,524: Mothers, 751; husbands, 165 ; children, 1,608.
From this it will be noted that 36 per cent, of the case-load was one-child cases.
It should be pointed out that where the health of the mother permits, every encouragement is given her to strive toward independence for herself and family. This is particularly so in one-child cases. It is, however, always recognized that the age and
health of the child or children is an important factor in any such situation. Where
for any reason it is obvious that the mother must remain in the home, and of course
the primary purpose of mothers' allowance is to enable her to do so where necessary,
full recognition is given to this fact, and our efforts are directed toward building other
strengths in that home and encouragement given to older children to recognize their
responsibility to the home so that when they are employed and in a position to do so,
they will assume some, if not all of the responsibility, and thus aid the mother in
caring for younger members of the family.
It is a recognized principle that every child should have the right and privilege
to live in his own home. As every right usually involves a responsibility, it is therefore considered that the earning-child should be prepared to contribute something to
that home for the privilege he enjoys. This will not only develop his sense of responsibility, which will serve him well in later life, but also encourage an interest in, and
understanding of, what it costs to maintain a home.
During this fiscal year the policy and procedure dealing with exemptions and
deductions in relation to the earnings and income of the mother and older children
has remained essentially the same, although the broadest interpretation possible is
given in the light of the circumstances of the individual case.
There were no amendments or changes in the " Mothers' Allowances Act" during
this year. There was, however, a change effected in the procedure covering applications because of the total disability of the husband.
Under the present procedure a copy of the first investigation report, together with
the name of the attending doctor, is sent to the Director of Medical Services in order P 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
that we may have the benefit of his opinion concerning the husband's condition. This
serves two purposes. We can not only obtain the concurrence of the Director of
Medical Services as to the degree of disability, but it also enables the Director of
Medical Services, if he considers it advisable, to arrange for a complete medical examination to determine whether there is any remedial treatment available which will at
least improve the man's condition or, at the most, restore his health to the point where
he is able to take employment.
Mothers' Allowances Advisory Board.
The personnel of the Mothers' Allowances Advisory Board remained unchanged,
as follows: Mrs. W. R. F. Richmond, Chilliwack; Alderman M. Christie, Victoria;
P. Gomery, Vancouver; and H. Patterson, Vancouver, and continued under the able
chairmanship of Mrs. F. W. Smelts, of Vancouver.
During the year two meetings of the Board were held, and consideration was given
to several matters of concern.    Among these were:—
(1) The Goldenberg Report and its effect on mothers' allowances.
(2) Rehabilitation of disabled husbands in the light of an increasing willingness on the part of employers to employ disabled or handicapped persons.
(3) One-child cases, and the efforts made to encourage the mother to become
independent.
(4) Statutory requirement regarding separated and divorced wives who are
applicants for mothers' allowance. The Board was of the opinion that
no change should be made in the wording of the Act, which stipulates
that a mother must be the one to whom a divorce or legal separation is
granted.
(5) Advantages or otherwise of merging the Mothers' Allowances and Social
Allowance Acts.
(6) Prevailing mothers' allowance rates in the light of present higher living
costs.
Several resolutions arising out of discussion of the above topics were tabled and
passed for the consideration of the Minister of Health and Welfare.
The following financial statements are also presented for consideration:—
Financial Statement for the Fiscal Year April 1st, 1947, to March 31st, 1948.
Advance received from Minister of Finance  $446,700.00
Bank interest  9.81
Amount of Amount of
Month. Advance. Interest.
March        $0.53
April   $40,450.00 .39
May   40,000.00 .75
June   39,500.00 .70
July   39,000.00 .96
August  37,000.00 1.32
September   37,500.00 .94
October  35,750.00 1.18
November ...  36,350.00 .64
December   35,750.00 .87
January   35,500.00 .71
February  35,150.00 .82
March   34,750.00
$446,700.00 $9.81 $446,709.81 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 49
Financial Statement for Fiscal Year April 1st, 1947, to March Slst, 1948—Continued.
Brought forward  $446,709.81
Allowances paid as follows:—
Amount of
Month. Allowances.
April   $40,169.54
May   39,737.82
June   39,083.24
July   38,300.46
August  37,808.09
September   36,831.65
October   36,621.84
November  36,181.90
December   35,983.34
January   35,494.60
February   34,834.77
March   30,919.46
     441,966.71
Balance to be accounted for      $4,743.10
The books and records of the Mothers' Allowances Fund have been examined under my direction. I hereby
certify that the above statement is a true account of the Receipts and Disbursements of the Director of Welfare
under authority of the " Mothers' Allowances Act " for twelve months ended March 31st, 1948, according to the
information furnished me, and as disclosed by the books and records submitted for my inspection.
J. A. CRAIG,
Comptroller-General.
Refunds for the year reached a total of $4,961.75, of which $3,804.25 represented
a single refund made possible by a retroactive award of workmen's compensation for a
period of six and a half years during which mothers' allowance had been in pay to
the widow.
Comments.
In any study of the tables given in this report, the outstanding fact is the steadily
decreasing numbers of the mothers' allowance case-load. The conclusion that might
be drawn from such figures is that the need for assistance is decreasing because of the
prosperous times which prevail, thus presenting more opportunities to the mothers and
older children to obtain employment and become or remain independent of public funds.
This conclusion, however, is not compatible with the apparent trend in the social
allowance case-load, which shows increasing numbers for the same period.
The answer, therefore, must be sought elsewhere and may possibly be found in
a changing concept of the function of mothers' allowances. Originally a mother's
pension, or allowance as it is generally called now, was regarded as a " preferred form
of assistance " if one may use that term of reference. The allowance paid was on a
higher scale than relief or other forms of public assistance. It also represented an
achievement to the mother to be eligible for mothers' allowance, in that payment of an
allowance was a recognition of her ability as a home-maker and a mother. It carried
a stamp of higher qualification. With the rigid technicalities set by Statute for
eligibility, it sometimes, however, worked in reverse, in that the " worthy " (as the
original idea implied) mother might not be eligible due to some technical reason, while
the less " worthy " mother might be eligible on all technical grounds except the standard
of her home-making.
With the increase in social allowance rates to the point where they are now equal
to the mothers' allowance rates, the financial advantage to the mother in qualifying for
mothers' allowance no longer exists.    Along with this there has been a broadening P 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
of the concept of human need and the assistance that is granted to meet that need—
there is no longer the stigma attached to the receipt of public assistance—therefore the
receiving of social allowance or mothers' allowance has become equally acceptable in the
eyes of many applicants. We have evidence of this in our files, where a mother, having
ascertained that the allowance payable to her under social allowance will be in the
same amount, has stated she has no preference for mothers' allowance.
The one advantage which stands out at the present time bears no relationship
to the philosophy of mothers' allowance or to the attitudes of the clients, but it is
important and not to be overlooked or minimized. It belongs in the field of finance.
As mothers' allowances are a 100-per-cent. charge on the Province and social allowances
are 20 per cent, chargeable to the municipality of domicile, it is readily understood and
accepted that every effort will be made to establish a mother's eligibility for mothers'
allowance if she has municipal domicile under the " Residence and Responsibility Act."
A review of the active case-load at March 31st, 1948, showed that 80.83 per cent, of the
families had legal domicile in organized territory and that 85.35 per cent, resided in
organized territory.
The significant factor would still appear to be the steady decline during the past
eight years and might well indicate a need for further study and consideration in the
future.
J. M. RlDDELL,
Supervisor.
FAMILY SERVICE.
In submitting this annual report for the fiscal year 1947-48, it will perhaps be
helpful, as in any exposition, to repeat the definition of the term " Family Service."
This term is in one sense an over-all one which describes the generalized case-work
services which this Branch offers to the families of British Columbia residing outside
the two large urban areas. It is the basic service from which the specialized services
arise. It represents our efforts to help every family who may come to us for help
toward economic and social independence to prevent the development of more serious
family and behaviour problems which may require resort to statutory or monetary
provision, and be far more costly in their final outcome. Family Service, therefore, is
implied in all cases regardless of categorical description. In the strictest sense, however, for the purposes of statistical recording and for this report, the term covers that
group of cases in the general case-load where case-work services are required and given,
but where the problem is not primarily financial need, nor does it fall within the areas
of need for which statutory or specialized provision has been made.
In a period of relatively high employment, with most families experiencing the
greatest economic security they have known for some time, the view might be taken
that family problems might be at a minimum. It is true that adequate financial
resources may mitigate those stresses and strains in a family group which arise solely
from financial insecurity, but it does not lessen those problems which arise from
personality and behaviour difficulties, or social maladjustment, or physical or mental
health.
It is possible that, with financial security assured, these problems may remain
obscured or hidden and not brought to the attention of a social agency. This is
particularly applicable to a public welfare agency, as public welfare in the past has been
inevitably associated in the minds of many with the granting of monetary assistance
only.
By interpretation we are therefore endeavouring to alter this old impression, and
in our willingness to offer case-work services where the major problem is one of social REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 51
rather than economic maladjustment, we are striving to implement those services for
which we have statutory authority in the definition of social assistance given in the
" Social Assistance Act." Whether or not we have explored all the ramifications implied
in the term " Counselling Service " is one which will require further thought and study.
Family Service, however, is evidence of our efforts toward achievement of that goal.
A steady rise in the case-load indicates a recognition of the availability of this service.
A review of the case-load as shown by the monthly statistical returns from the
district workers gives the following totals:—
Table I.—Monthly Case-load.
As at April, 1947  759
May  777
June   804
July   826
August  797
September  787
October   798
November ..  817
December   852
January, 1948  868
February  852
March   908
It will be noted that the case-load has risen, with minor fluctuations, from 759
as at April, 1947, to 908 as of March, 1948. This represents an increase of 199 during
the fiscal year.
As explained in the previous fiscal report, under decentralization no complete
system of files is maintained in the divisional office, and the only record of the actual
case-load which may be compiled from this point is taken from the statistical cards
which are submitted from the field-workers. In order to give the cards meaning, brief
but concise information is asked for, but it is recognized that all information cannot
be obtained in a first interview. To do so might hamper the progress of the interview
and spoil the client-worker relationship. Several interviews may be necessary to obtain
adequate statistical information. Consequently the divisional office has recognized
the necessity of a time-lag between the opening of a case and submission of a card.
To insist on an absolute monthly balance of cases, listed by the field as active during
the month, and the cards received in the divisional office in that specific month would
place an unusual burden on the worker, and this we do not wish to do in the face of
large case-loads and other demands on the workers.
We have confined the figures and comments to follow, therefore, to the cards
received in the divisional office signifying an active case during the present year and
the problems as indicated on the cards. As at March 31st, 1948, we have received
a total of 1,233 cards.
From these cards, the case-load by region is shown to be as follows:—
Table II.—Case-load by Regions.
Region 1  292
Region 2  502
Region 3  250
Region 4  122
Region 5  67
Total  1,233 P 52
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
A study of the information available shows the type and incidence of the major
problems presented. In perusing these figures, it should be remembered that more
than one problem could be and, in many instances was encountered in any one family.
Therefore, the individual percentages given below cannot be added together to a cumulative total of 100 per cent., but rather are an indication of the frequency of the
different problems in all cases.
Table III.—Types of Problems.
Region.
Total.
Incidence
in Case-load
(1,233).
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
40
25
48
8
3
35
46
5 .
38
17
56
36
34
12
38
17
38
109
15
2
54
24
14
75
40
129
88
96
22
44
45
20
52
12
8
26
23
13
45
17
81
34
32
13
28
27
14
43
13
5
8
9
2
27
11
30
16
18
8
13
1
1
25
2
3
1
11
10
25
10
12
1
4
130
98
277
48
18
125
105
35
196
95
319
184
192
56
127
Per Cent.
10.5
7.9
22.5
Divorce or legal separation	
3.9
1.5
10.1
8.5
2.8
10.6
7.7
25.8
14.9
Mental illness or defect	
15.6
4.5
10.3
From these figures it will be noted that the problem of non-support occurs with
greatest frequency in the case-load. This type of case may be one where the parents
are separated and where support may be inadequate or non-existent. Among these
cases may be a number of true desertions, which it will be noted was listed in 7 per
cent, of the cases. The next problem in terms of frequency is listed as marital discord.
This would seem to be in tune with the times when we are told that the institutions
of marriage and family groups are becoming increasingly unsound, as evidenced by the
rising divorce rate, which has been the occasion for some alarm.
There may be some significance, too, in the similarity of the percentages of the
incidence of unsatisfactory home conditions and behaviour problems of children.
Although it can be assumed that any continuation of many of the other problems a rise
in behaviour problems will become evident.
It is the hope and aim of our Family Service that the basic problems may be
lessened or eliminated entirely in order that parents and children may be helped to
have satisfying and adequate lives.
The sources of referral of these family problems are interesting, too, and are as
Table IV.—Sources of Referral.
Region 1.
Region 2.
Region 3.
Region 4.
Region 5.
Total.
Client  	
71
100
14
1
8
58
9
1
2
5
19
127
172
45
7
15
22
62
8
3
17
7
17
58
66
17
2
13
17
38
10
4
6
3
16
34
28
9
9
2
5
14
6
8
1
6
18
15
1
3
6
17
2
2
3
Public agency	
Private agency -
381
86
58
35
8
35
16
61
292
502
250
122
67
1,233 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 53
From this it will be noted that one-quarter of the referrals are made by the clients
themselves, indicating a willingness on their part to seek the services offered by our
Branch. In addition, while over one-half were referred by police and other agencies,
public and private, who would ordinarily be expected to make such referrals, the balance, slightly under one-quarter, were referred by various professional and private
persons in the community. The variety of these latter sources, and their proportion in
the total referral list, might be accepted as a growing recognition of the service this
Branch is prepared to render to those whose social problems cannot be adjusted without
outside help.
Family Allowances.
The arrangement with the Department of National Health and Welfare has also
continued whereby all requests for investigations into family circumstances or changes
which might affect the payment of family allowances are directed through the Family
Service Section of the Family Division for referral to the field service or appropriate
agency.
Table V.—Requests from Family Allowances Division for Fiscal Year
April 1st, 1947, to March 31st, 1948.
Pending as at April 1st, 1947  100
Received during fiscal year April 1st, 1947, to March 31st, 1948,
by months—
April   45
May   40
June   41
July   36
August  42
September   28
October   48
November    32
December   33
January   36
February   42
March     30
— 453
Total case-load  553
Cases completed within fiscal year  480
Cases pending as at April 1st, 1948     73
The above inquiries might involve requests to one or more district officers and
other agencies.
The following table has been prepared showing the total volume of requests
referred to district offices and other agencies. P 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table VI.—Requests to Field Staff and other Agencies.
Pending as at April 1st, 1947  110
Sent out during fiscal year April 1st, 1947, to March 31st, 1948,
by regions—
Region 1     79*
Region 2   318+
Region 3      71
Region 4      32
Region 5     62
  562
Total number of requests    672
Requests completed within fiscal year, by regions—
Region 1      93
Region 2   345
Region 3      67
Region 4      31
Region 5      53
  589
Requests pending as at April 1st, 1948     83
* Includes requests to private agencies in Victoria.
f Includes requests to private agencies in Vancouver.
A record is kept in divisional office of all requests and completed investigations in
order that accounts may be submitted to the Department of National Health and Welfare, Family Allowance Division, for reimbursement for each completed inquiry.
British Columbia Youth Foundation.
As in the past, we have continued to serve as a clearing-house for the applications
to this fund which have been directed to this divisional office. During the year thirty-
two applications have been completed.    Following is a monthly count:—
Table VII.—Applications to Fund.
April, 1947   3
May   2
June   1
July   4
August   4
September   6
October   2
November   ... 1
December   1
January, 1948  2
February   4
March   2
Total  32
It will be noted that 50 per cent, were received in the two months preceding and
following the opening of school and university, which is the time when students review
their financial resources for continuing their education. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 55
This case-load was distributed on a regional basis as follows:—
Region 1     4
Region 2   25
Region 3 ...     2
Region 4      1
Region 5   	
Total  32
Number of applications carried over as at April 1st, 1947     3
Number of applications received  32
Total   35
Number of applications completed  33
Number of applications pending as at March 31st, 1948     2
The British Columbia Youth Foundation is a valuable resource in the Province
and one that will be used more and more as its services and function become known.
The workers in the field are on the alert for suitable applicants to this fund in order
that everyone who is eligible and has need of assistance within the purview of the
fund may benefit from it.
Conclusion.
While family services will of necessity continue to be, for the most part, given at
the generalized and environmental level rather than on an intensive case-work basis, it
is hoped that some cases in each case-load will be selected by the workers for some
intensive work which will challenge their knowledge of skills and techniques.
Such case-work services cannot always be apparent from a card index, such as
maintained in a divisional office under decentralization. However, it only requires
a reading between the lines of the short opening and closing summaries to appreciate
the multitude of problems that the workers are called upon to meet, and the many
services which they render.
At this time, some study is being given to a more satisfactory way of portraying
the picture of family services and what they mean to the individuals who seek these
services. It is hoped that out of this study will arise some method which will give
a better outline of the work of the field-workers in Family Service and the problems
they are facing, and give a greater knowledge of their achievement.
To the administrators, supervisors, and workers we extend our appreciation of
their unfailing co-operation with the divisional office.
J. M. RlDDELL,
Supervisor, Family Division. P 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
OLD-AGE PENSION BOARD.
GENERAL.
During the year 1947-48 another all-time high was reached both in volume of cases
handled and in amount of expenditure. There were 5,996 new applications received,
including both old-age and blind, as compared with 3,023 in 1946-47, and 5,012 pensions
were granted, compared with 2,788 the year before. As at March 31st, 1948, there
were 22,081 pensioners on the pay-roll, compared with 18,295 the year before. This
represents an increase of 20.69 per cent. Total expenditures, including pensions
proper and cost-of-living bonuses for both old-age and blind pensioners, amounted to
$9,357,915.91, compared with $6,469,235.34 in 1946-47. This shows an increase of
44.65 per cent. These increases resulted from the changes made in both the Act and
the regulations and the increase in the cost-of-living bonus. More detailed comment
on these changes will be found further on in this report.
The average number of new applications received per month now exceeds 500.
The actual number received in March was 566. The number handled per working-day
is between 20 and 23.
Deaths among British Columbia pensioners during the year, including both old-age
and blind, numbered 1,692, compared with 1,428 in 1946-47.
The number of estates against which claims were made was 94, as compared with
124 last year, and the total amount collected was $93,652.69, as compared with
$76,784.56 last year. The greater amount collected in 1947-48 is accounted for largely
by the fact that higher prices for real estate and a ready market made it possible to
clear a number of old claims that had been outstanding for some time.
Changes in the Act.
The Federal " Old Age Pensions Act" was amended in 1947, and the changes
involved were made effective as from May 1st of that year. Following is a brief outline of the more significant of these changes:—
(1) The maximum pension for both old-age and blind pensioners to which the
Federal Government would contribute was increased from $25 to $30 a
month.
(2) (a)  The maximum allowable annual income for a single applicant for
old-age pension was increased from $425 to $600.
(b) The maximum allowable annual income for a married applicant for
old-age pension was increased from $850 to $1,080.
(c) The maximum allowable annual income for a single applicant for a
pension in respect of blindness was increased from $500 to $720.
(d) The maximum allowable annual income for a married applicant for
a pension in respect of blindness with a sighted spouse was increased
from $925 to $1,200.
(e) The maximum allowable annual income for a married applicant for
a pension in respect of blindness with a blind spouse (both receiving
pension) was increased from $1,000 to $1,320.
The only class of blind pensioner who does not benefit under the amended
Act is the widow or widower with a child or children. Formerly such a
pensioner was permitted to have the same annual income as a married
person with a sighted spouse—namely, $925—but under the amended Act
he is allowed an annual income of only $920.
(3) Nationality as a factor determining eligibility for pension has been
removed. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 57
(4) The Provincial residence requirement has been deleted.
(5) The method of distributing the Provincial share of the cost of pension
among the Provinces where a pensioner has resided in more than one
Province has been simplified. Heretofore this cost was divided among
the Provinces on the basis of the number of years the pensioner had
resided in each Province during the twenty-year period prior to the grant
of pension. In future the whole of the Provincial share of the pension
will be paid by the Province in which the pensioner has resided for the
greatest number of days during the last three years he was present in
Canada.
(6) The residence requirements were relaxed to benefit a certain group who
were previously ineligible for pension. Many applicants who had resided
in Canada for the greater portion of their lives had not been able to qualify
as they had not lived in Canada sixteen years out of the last twenty or
since attaining the age of 50 years and resided in Canada for some time
at least twenty years prior to making application. It had also been
necessary for an applicant to have lodged within Canada on at least 700
days within the last three years immediately preceding the date of the
proposed commencement of pension. The amendments modify these residence requirements to the extent that it is now possible for an applicant
to be eligible for pension, as far as residence is concerned, if he has
resided in Canada prior to twenty years ago for a period equal to twice
the total of his absences from Canada during the past twenty years.
(7) Another change provided for paying pension to date of death if the
deceased pensioner left certain debts without sufficient assets in the estate
to pay them. The effect of this was to give legal sanction to a practice
already adopted by many of the Provinces, including British Columbia.
(8) The interest charge of 5 per cent, compounded annually when making
claims against estates was dropped. This had long been a sore point with
many people and was a welcome change.
(9) The procedure to be followed in cases where there have been transfers
of property was clarified.
(10) The eligible age of applicants for a pension in respect of blindness was
lowered from 40 to 21 years.
(11) Formerly the pension of a blind person who married another blind person
after the " Old Age Pensions Act" was amended in 1937 to provide for
pensions for blind persons was cut in half. This discrimination was
the target of much bitter criticism among blind people. The amended
Act removed this discriminatory clause.
CHANGES IN THE REGULATIONS.
A meeting of the Interprovincial Old Age Pensions Board was held in Ottawa in
November, 1946, and as a result of its deliberations the Board submitted numerous
recommendations for changes in the regulations to the Federal Government. These
were approved and came into effect on May 15th, 1947. The more significant of the
changes are as follows:—
(1) An applicant may now submit his application six months before reaching
the eligible age, whereas previously he had to wait until three months
before reaching that age.
(2) The regulations referring to residence were broadened to make allowances
for absences from Canada in certain circumstances. P 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
(3) The date of commencement of pension may now be made earlier than
formerly in certain circumstances.
(4) The period of absence from Canada which a pensioner is permitted to
have without his pension being suspended may be extended from thirty
days (as heretofore) to ninety days in any one year in certain circumstances where the pension authority approves.
(5) Contributions from children toward the support of their parents are no
longer required.
(6) Direct relief, or social allowance, need no longer be considered as income
for pension purposes.
(7) Contributions other than for ordinary maintenance made to pensioners
by relatives, friends, lodges, etc., need not now be considered as income
for pension purposes.
(8) The income from personal property originally charged against a pensioner
may be recalculated in certain circumstances.
(9) The age to be used when calculating the annuity value of an applicant's
personal property will now be 70 years in the case of an old-age pensioner
and 40 years in the case of a blind pensioner instead of the actual age as
heretofore.
(10)  Where there has been an overpayment of pension,  this may now be
liquidated in certain circumstances by reducing the pension over a period
of time instead of suspending it as heretofore.
Another meeting of the Interprovincial Board was held at Ottawa in January,
1948, and further recommendations for changes in the regulations to bring them into
conformity with the amended Act were submitted to the Federal Government, but as
these had not yet been given effect as at March 31st, 1948, they will not be dealt with
here.
COST-OF-LIVING BONUS.
Since April 1st, 1942, the Provincial Government had been paying a cost-of-living
bonus of $5 a month to all old-age and blind pensioners whose pensions were granted
in this Province. At the 1947 Session of the Legislature, however, a Bill was passed
entitled "An Act to appropriate a Part of Revenue Surpluses for certain Expenditures,"
and the expenditures specified included an increase of $5 a month in the cost-of-living
bonus paid to old-age and blind pensioners. Effect was given to this provision of the
new legislation by Order in Council No. 774, approved on April 25th, 1947, and the
increase was made payable retroactively as from January 1st, 1947.
As stated earlier in this report, the Federal " Old Age Pensions Act " was amended
at the 1947 Session of Parliament, and among other things the amending Act made it
permissible for a Province to increase the rate of pension from $25 a month to $30.
British Columbia agreed to grant this increase. Although the amending Act was made
effective as from May 1st, 1947, it was not proclaimed until September 9th. In view
of this increase of $5 a month in the pension, it became necessary for the Provincial
Government to consider whether the increase of $5 a month in cost-of-living bonus
referred to above should be continued, but after due consideration it was decided to
continue it. However, the Executive Council, through a memorandum written by the
Honourable G. S. Pearson, Minister of Health and Welfare, dated August 6th, 1947,
issued instructions governing the future administration of the bonus, including both
the original $5 bonus and the additional $5 authorized as from January 1st, 1947, and
these contained the following provisions:—
(1) To be eligible for the bonus in future a pensioner must have had residence
in British Columbia for a period of three years immediately preceding
the date of the granting of the pension. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 59
(2) The pensioner must also be residing in British Columbia or in another
Province with which British Columbia has a reciprocal agreement covering the payment of the bonus to be eligible.
(3) The bonus cannot be granted to a pensioner unless British Columbia is
responsible for the Provincial portion of the cost of his pension.
(4) Only those pensioners whose pensions were granted by the Old-age Pension Board of British Columbia while they were living in British Columbia may be granted the bonus.
(5) Any bonus already granted prior to the proclamation of the amending
Act of 1947 need not be discontinued, regardless of the foregoing provisions.
These instructions became effective with the proclamation of the amending Act on
September 9th, 1947.
Subsequently provision (1) above was interpreted as not excluding a pensioner
from receipt of the bonus merely by reason of the fact that he had made a bona-fide
visit outside the Province during the three years prior to the granting of his pension.
RECIPROCAL AGREEMENTS.
As a result of agreements made with Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and New
Brunswick, British Columbia pensioners who have transferred to any of those Provinces receive the British Columbia cost-of-living bonus just as our pensioners here do.
The costs are, of course, charged back to British Columbia by the other Provinces.
Alberta.
Since April 1st, 1942, British Columbia and Alberta have had a reciprocal agreement covering the payment of bonuses to pensioners. At the 1948 Session of its
Legislature, Alberta decided to increase its bonus from $5 a month to $7, and an agreement was later concluded between our two Provinces whereby British Columbia is to
commence paying this increased bonus to Alberta pensioners now living in British
Columbia as from April 1st, 1948.    The costs will be charged back to Alberta.
Saskatchewan.
Since 1945-46 there had been a similar reciprocal agreement between British
Columbia and Saskatchewan respecting the payment of cost-of-living bonuses. After
the pension wTas increased from $25 a month to $30, however, Saskatchewan temporarily
ceased paying a bonus to its pensioners, and by Order in Council dated October 7th,
1947, terminated our reciprocal agreement as from September 30th, 1947. On the
latter date, therefore, they ceased paying our bonus to British Columbia pensioners
living in Saskatchewan and we ceased paying their bonus to Saskatchewan pensioners
living here.
Subsequently, on January 7th, 1948, a new agreement was concluded with Saskatchewan, as a result of which British Columbia pensioners living in Saskatchewan
were paid our bonus of $10 a month retroactively as from October 1st, 1947, and British
Columbia agreed to pay a bonus to Saskatchewan pensioners living in British Columbia
when or if Saskatchewan should at some future date authorize such payment. British
Columbia pensioners in Saskatchewan therefore in the end did not suffer any loss by
the temporary cessation of bonus payments on September 30th, 1947.
Ontario.
At about the same time that the Federal amending Act of 1947 was passed, the
Province of Ontario announced its intention of increasing its cost-of-living bonus to P 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
a maximum of $10 a month, and shortly afterwards negotiations were commenced
between our two Provinces for the working-out of a reciprocal agreement. Just toward
the close of the fiscal year these negotiations were successfully concluded. As a result,
Ontario will commence paying our bonus of $10 a month to all British Columbia pensioners living in Ontario as from April 1st, 1948, and British Columbia will pay the
Ontario bonus to Ontario pensioners living in this Province in accordance with instructions received from time to time on individual cases from the Ontario Commission.
New Brunswick.
Although New Brunswick does not pay any bonus to its own pensioners, that Province agreed to pay our $10 bonus to British Columbia pensioners living in New Brunswick and has been doing so as from January 1st, 1948. The costs are, of course,
charged back to British Columbia. New Brunswick pensioners living in British
Columbia, like their fellow pensioners at home, do not receive any bonus.
SOCIAL SERVICE.
Due to decentralization in the Provincial set-up it has been possible for the Social
Service Division of the Old-age Pension Board to carry on without increased personnel.
The professional staff consists of two persons—the Provincial supervisor and the intake
social worker. The supervisor acts as a liaison person between the field representatives and the clerical staff in the Old-age Pension Board office and as a consultant in
matters related particularly to the social service aspect of the administration. She
also keeps in touch with community and Provincial developments relating to the aged.
The intake worker is responsible for all interviewing. During the past year there
has been an average of more than 200 callers a month at head office. Of these, 55
per cent, were pensioners and the remaining 45 per cent, other persons interested on
behalf of pensioners. Inquiries were made on every conceivable phase of old-age
pension administration.
Field Service.—Although a good many pensioners do find their way to the Old-age
Pension Board office for information of one sort or another in connection with their
pensions, no case-work services are available to them through this source. Such services are the responsibility of the city social service department in Vancouver and
of the field staff of the Social Welfare Branch elsewhere throughout the Province.
A recent analysis by one of the rural workers showed that pension cases comprised
60 per cent, of the total case-load in the district office. However, since many of these
do not require continuous service, it was estimated that not more than 50 per cent,
of the worker's time is spent on this group. While old-age pension work places a
heavy responsibility on the Provincial staff, case-workers, with the assistance of their
supervisors, are learning to plan and organize their work effectively. In such a setting
the old folk are not thought of as the " aged " or " pensioners " but as individuals or
members of families in need of help. In many instances, in which the need is largely
economic, the granting of a pension may be all the service that is required at the time.
Establishing Eligibility.—Obtaining a pension, however, is far from being a simple
matter for many an old person. The help of a member of the field staff is often
required and willingly given, the applicant frequently completing the required form in
the district office. This first contact lays the foundation for a continuing helpful relationship between worker and pensioner. Moreover, there is no doubt but that the
ready assistance of the workers and the convenient location of district offices are
important factors in speeding up the completion of applications. The past two years
have shown a decided improvement in this respect.
Reporting.—In addition to that made when pension is granted, at least one yearly
report is required to verify continuing eligibility.    Further contacts depend upon the REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 61
needs of individual pensioners. As time goes on, changes in regulations or in the
pensioner's situation are constantly taking place. During the year 1947, as already
intimated, there were several significant amendments to the Act and regulations.
These changes call for adjustments in pension rates. Under all such circumstances
first-hand interpretation by a member of the field staff is invaluable. The pensioner
has now come to look upon his worker as a " helper " and " counsellor " instead of the
" investigator " or " inspector " of former days. Because of the extensive area covered
by a district office, staff changes, and the increasing number of clients, it is impossible
for district representatives to keep as closely in touch with many of the pensioners as
they would wish. However, the fact that a social worker is within reach is beginning
to have real meaning for the old people and to increase their sense of security.
Legislation.—Among the resources which play an important part in the well-being
of the pensioners, we should not overlook those made available through Provincial
Statutes. We refer particularly to the " Social Assistance Act " (amended March,
1945) and the "Welfare Institutions Licensing Act" (amended March, 1945) as two
progressive pieces of legislation closely related to the welfare of the aged. The first
provides for many special services to pensioners and authorizes supplementation of the
pension in cases where special care is required. The second prevents exploitation of
old people by setting up standards for boarding-homes offering accommodation for
more than one aged person. These two Acts complement the " Old Age Pensions
Act " in such a way that they should be taken into account along with it as cornerstones in the foundation upon which we are building individual services. Each year
shows an increasing use of these provisions.
Accommodation and Care.—Foremost among the problems our workers encounter
is that of finding suitable living-quarters for older people. Statistics indicate that
only 25 per cent, of pensioners in British Columbia are living with their children and
more than 50 per cent, are obliged to find lodgings for themselves—the result of social
trends well known to most of us. Previous reports have outlined the deplorable conditions under which a large number of the aged are living and the disproportionate
amount of income they are forced to spend in rent. The year just completed shows
little, if any, improvement in this situation. When Miss A. was obliged to leave a
small suite she had occupied in return for light services, she could find nothing but
a room at $7.50 a week and eat out! Many a single man is having the same experience
as Mr. B. All he asks is to have his dilapidated cabin made habitable, so he won't have
to live in what he describes as a " flop-house " in a crowded city area. Some oldsters
look forward to a peaceful existence in a Home. Others will not be happy till they
find a place of their own " with a bit of a garden." There is no provision for old
couples to remain together, and after long years of married life the threat of separation is unbearable. So they stay on in the dilapidated old home, though the care of it
is often beyond their strength! The requirements of these old folk are not unreasonable, but they indicate clearly that not merely " houses " are required but various types
of " homes " to meet their varied needs.
Homes for the Aged in British Columbia.—Information concerning Provincial
institutions for older people will be found elsewhere in the report of the Social
Assistance Branch and of the Inspector of Hospitals. These are the Provincial Home,
Kamloops (for aged men); the Provincial Infirmary, with branches in Vancouver
(Marpole), Victoria (Mount St. Mary), and Haney (Allco) ; and the Home for the
Aged (senile) at Port Coquitlam.   These institutions are caring for 380 pensioners.
A forward step was taken by the Provincial Government in September, 1947, when
it announced that substantial financial assistance would be given to municipalities or
philanthropic groups interested in establishing homes for old people. This assistance
has proven most helpful in encouraging a large number of worth-while developments. P 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Besides those in Vancouver and Victoria, there are municipal homes in Langley, Surrey,
Kelowna, and Nelson. The latest addition is the Prince Rupert Pioneer Home,
established during the past year. At least three other municipalities have like projects
under way.
The Danish people established a home for their elderly folk in 1944. In 1947 the
Icelandic people followed suit. Swedish and Norwegian groups are well advanced with
similar undertakings. To the older people, these plans, on a national basis, offer
particularly congenial surroundings, and further developments along the same line
would seem to be sound social policy. Homes have also been established by several
religious denominations—namely, Salvation Army (Sapperton), Roman Catholic (Mount
St. Francis, Nelson), Jewish (Vancouver), and Mennonite (Fraser Valley).
These are all institutions of good standards and homelike atmosphere. Although
the standards generally have improved, the " room of one's own " for which old people
plead is still so uncommon as to be a decided luxury. (The possibility of a foster-home
programme for old folk should perhaps be explored.)
Accommodation for persons suffering from senile dementia is being increased
by a new unit of the Home for the Aged, at present under construction in Vernon.
The baffling problem of border-line cases, mentioned in previous Reports, still exists.
We have referred only to living arrangements for those who are " up and about."
There is, as well, the large group of " chronics " whose situation has not improved in
the past year. The provision of care and accommodation for the aged who are bedridden
or in need of some continuous nursing service is obviously a health problem closely
associated with that of hospital services generally. It is also of deep concern to the
social worker, lack of facilities proving a serious obstacle in the way of an effective
social welfare programme for the aged.
Medical Services.—The old folk in British Columbia have been relieved of much
anxiety since the inauguration of a Province-wide medical services plan in February,
1943. As at March 31st, 1948, all but eight municipalities were participating. This
means, however, that there are still a number of pensioners who are obliged to pay
their own way or go without medical attention.
The scope of the service has gradually been broadened, but since responsibility
for special services rests with the municipality, there is still a somewhat confusing
variation in relation to provision of glasses, dental services, and surgical appliances—
all extremely important to old people. Two other urgent needs which frequently come
to our attention are hearing aids and chiropodists' services.
Free hospitalization, already in effect, was put on a better footing when, during
the past year, the Government increased its grants to hospitals for this purpose.
One need only look at a day's mail in the Old-age Pension Board office to realize
the importance of medical services to old people.
Social Contacts.—The problem of the physical health of our pensioners has been
recognized. That of their mental health, so closely related, is a much more insidious
one which involves an understanding of the aging process as a whole. Of progress
in this part of our work, we have little of significance to report.
Reduced to their simplest terms, old folks' needs are found to be much the same
as those of younger people. They are summed up in the term " social security "—if one
looks at it in its broadest sense as the assurance that one may continue in the accepted
way of life and amidst surroundings such as those to which he has been accustomed.
For most of us this " way of life " includes affection, friendly intercourse, interests and
activities that make reasonable demands upon abilities and skills, quickly lost when
allowed to fall into disuse.
What means have we of helping the old prospector preserve, in some degree, his
sense of freedom and self-sufficiency? REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 63
What satisfactions are to be found for the older woman whose every thought and
action during the past forty years have been dictated by the needs of a family, no longer
seemingly having any need of her services—even as a grandmother!
To the man forced out of employment, what substitute is there for work—in his
world the symbol of worth-while living and achievement?
These are the questions with which our case-workers are constantly faced. They
cannot, of course, be expected to provide all the answers. We need, in brief, community
programmes of leisure-time interests and activities. In the large centre of Vancouver
there has been a small beginning. Elsewhere in the Province, evidences of community
interest and good-will have for the most part been confined to gifts and get-togethers
at the Christmas season. Prince Rupert was the leader in the Christmas-party idea
and is the only centre in which a committee has continued to give service throughout
the year. Successful gatherings have been organized for the old folk in a number of
communities. Conspicuous among these are New Westminster, Port Alberni, Kamloops,
and Kelowna.
Employment.—Now that pressures of war-time have been removed, social workers
repeatedly hear the same complaint from old people struggling to manage on their small
allowances.    " They just let me go—without saying why."    " Nobody will hire a man
of my age—I'm done."    " The Government doesn't want us to work so ."    In all
this one senses the expression of a deep dissatisfaction and frustration and realizes
the truth of the statement that " There is no greater tragedy for the aged than the
unnecessary sense of uselessness which society now imposes on them prematurely."
The tragedy is not for the old person only; it is, alas, for the community to which the
abilities and skills of mature men and women, acquired over a long period, are a
total loss!
Members of the field staff encourage pensioners who are able and so inclined to
accept work, explaining carefully its effect upon the pension and the procedure to be
followed to derive full benefit from it. We have at present on our files records of
pensioners doing light or part-time work as accountants, attendants (various types),
cooks, carpenters, cup-readers, dish-washers, gardeners, housekeepers, housemen,
janitors and caretakers, ministers, music-teachers, nurses (practical), real-estate
agents, saw-filers, salesmen, dressmakers (alterations), teachers (including coaching,
bridge, etc.), watchmakers, and watchmen. Recently a man of almost 80 inquired
about allowable earnings, as he has been for some months working on a land-clearing
project which offers steady employment. Many of our applicants come directly from
a job from which they are not eased off, but cut off in the midst of acceptable work.
Those old people who, under present conditions, find or retain suitable employment are
the lucky ones.
While we are aware of the broader implications, a close-up of this problem makes
one feel that it might be approached in two ways; first, by relaxing somewhat those
provisions of the Act which limit a pensioner's independent income so that it may be
possible for him to benefit more largely by his own efforts; second, by working toward
a plan whereby pensioners desirous of work and employers who have suitable jobs to
offer may get together.
There are many evidences of a growing awareness of the importance of this new
field of social work in both the large centres and throughout the Province. We should
like to include in the report an expression of appreciation to the many agencies and
community groups which, through their interested efforts, have added greatly to the
well-being of our senior citizens during the past year. Outstanding among these are
Alexandra Neighbourhood House, Canadian National Institute for the Blind, Canadian
Ladies' Golf Union, Canouver Club, Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver
(Committee on the Care of the Aged), Family Welfare Bureau, Gordon House Com- P 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
munity Centre, Lions' Ladies' Club, Rotary Club, Social Service Department of the
Vancouver General Hospital, Social Service Department of the British Columbia Cancer
Institute, Soroptimist Clubs, Travellers' Aid, Victorian Order of Nurses, Young
Women's Christian Association, and several broadcasting-stations which have contributed largely toward Christmas cheer for the old folk.
GRAPHIC PRESENTATION COVERING PERIOD SINCE 1927.
Opposite page 64 will be found a graphic presentation of the trends in old-age and
blind persons' pensions in British Columbia from the coming into force of the " Old Age
Pensions Act" in 1927 to the end of the fiscal year 1947-48.
The red-line graph shows the trend in cost of pensions, the unbroken black line
shows the trend in numbers of persons in receipt of pension, and the broken line shows
the trend in total population. These graphs may be compared one with another only in
general, as they are not based on any common unit of amount. The trend-of-costs
graph is based on 72,000 units to the square, the trend-of-number-of-pensioners graph
is based on 2,400 units to the square, and the trend-of-population graph is based on
240,000 units to the square. The graphs are made up from statistical records of the
Old-age Pension Board and population figures from Federal census records.
In our annual report of 1946-47 a rather complete interpretation was given of the
graphic presentation of the administration of old-age pensions in British Columbia for
the previous twenty years. In this present report we are making a detailed analysis
of only the last two fiscal years particularly, so that we may make clear certain unusual
features in the graphs that are due to the effects of recent changes in the Act and the
decision of the Provincial Government to increase the cost-of-living bonus from $5 a
month to $10. Both the unbroken black line showing the number of pensioners and
the red line showing the cost of pensions, but the latter especially, deviate markedly
from the normal trend.
As was explained in the previous annual report, there had been provided, at the
end of March, 1947, a second $5-a-month cost-of-living bonus in addition to the $5
granted by the Provincial Government in April, 1942. As this second $5 payment was
made retroactive to January 1st, 1947, the total amount of payments made just at the
end of the fiscal year resulted in a very steep rise in the graph of costs. This, of
course, would be expected to level out at a lower point. It will be noticed also that
both the cost graph and the graph of the number of pensioners show subsequent
irregularities and a trend toward much higher average levels, which is explained by
important changes in the Act and regulations.
One of the changes in the Act increased the allowable income which a single
pensioner might have from $425 a year to $600 a year and for a married couple from
$850 a year to $1,080 a year.
A second change in the Act made it unnecessary, hereafter, for a person to be a
British subject or Canadian citizen. Eligibility for pension was to depend on only
age, residence, and economic status. By this change a considerable additional number
of persons became eligible for pension, especially a rather large group of Chinese who
had never been able to secure citizenship standing.
A third change in the Act added an increase of $5 to the previous basic pension
of $25 a month.
One of the changes in the regulations had to do with the age used in calculating
an annuity income for the pensioner on the basis of personal property which he had.
Previously the annuity calculation was made on the basis of the actual age of the pensioner, but now, for all old-age and blind pensioners, the age taken was to be 70 years
or the actual age if it was lower.   The result of this change was to reduce the amount 6P6/
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of an annuity a pensioner could buy with his personal property, thereby permitting
payment of a greater pension.
Another change in the regulations removed the necessity of requiring children to
assist their parents, and this resulted in more and greater pensions.
On examining the graph in the light of these changes in the Act and regulations,
one will note that the cost graph as from April 1st, 1947, rises in step-like formation
and the trend of the number of pensioners commences a sharp rise. These are the
effects of the changes in the Act as related in points one and two above and the changes
in the regulations. The all-time high in the cost graph is directly related to the third
change in the Act cited above. The increase of $5 in the basic pension was made retroactive to May 1st. The weight of the accumulation of these payments made an exceedingly sharp rise in the graph at the end of October, though this also evens off later at
a normal level.
GRAPHIC PRESENTATION COVERING YEARS 1946-47 AND 1947-48.
In the long-term graph already described, a general picture is given of the trends
in the number of old-age and blind pensioners and the cost of pensions. Following page
65 is a column graph showing in more detail the activities of the years 1946-47 and
1947-48. As two years are shown, it is possible to compare not only one month with
another but one year with another. In addition, from an analysis of this graph and
a study of the statistical table given below a clear picture may be obtained of the
effects of the changes in the Act.
Activities of the Years 1946-47 and 1947-48.
Fiscal Year
Activities. 1946-47.
Applications received  2,937
Applications granted   2,971
Applications refused      322
Pensioners deceased   1,402
Pensions suspended       370
Pensions reinstated      232
The above table serves to emphasize further the difference between the activities of
the two fiscal years above referred to. From a study of this table and the column
graph it will be seen that there were approximately twice as many new applications for
pension received in 1947-48 as in 1946-47. The same ratio is noted when a comparison
is made in respect of the number of applications granted. When to the number granted
is added the number of pensions which for various reasons had been suspended and
then reinstated again during the year, as well as those transferred in from other
Provinces, the total gives the net number of pensioners added to the pay-roll. It will
be seen also that although the number of new applications received per year had
doubled in 1947-48, the number refused had remained approximately the same as in
1946-47. This is not necessarily due to more leniency on the part of administrative
authorities, but may be accounted for by the simplification in administration caused by
the changes in the Act and regulations previously mentioned.
A further analysis of this graph, confirmed by the table above, shows that the
number of pensioners who died during 1947-48 was considerably greater than the
number who died during 1946-47. Although no account is taken of mortality rates,
it may be inferred that the increase in the number of deaths is due directly to the
increase in the number of pensioners on the pay-roll.
This analysis also shows that although there were more pensioners on the pay-roll
in 1947-48 than in 1946-47, the number of pensions suspended was actually consider-
iscal Year
1947-48.
5,849
4,918
304
1,674
268
328 P 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
ably less. This is in large measure due to the easing of financial restrictions by the
changes made in the Act and regulations. These changes would also account partly
for a considerable increase in the number of pensions reinstated in 1947-48 as compared with 1946-47.
STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED MARCH 31ST, 1948.
OLD-AGE PENSIONS.
Table I.—Disposition of Applications.
Total to March 31st,
Current Year. 1948.
Number of new applications received  5,849 45,080
Number of new applications granted  4,918 40,278
Number of new applications not granted      304 	
Table II.—Miscellaneous.
Number of B.C. pensioners returned to B.C  94
Number of new " other Province " pensioners transferred to
B.C.    357
Number of B.C. pensioners transferred to other Provinces  145
Number of pensioners from other Provinces transferred out
of B.C. or suspended  370
Number of B.C. reinstatements granted  328
Number of B.C. pensions suspended  268
Number of deaths of B.C. pensioners  1,674
Number of deaths of " other Province " pensioners in B.C  201
Total number of pensioners on pay-roll at end of fiscal year... 21,621
Table III.—Reasons why Applications not granted.
Ineligible on account of age	
Ineligible on account of residence	
Ineligible on account of citizenship	
Ineligible on account of income	
Ineligible on account of assistance from children
Ineligible because other resources were available
Ineligible because of a transfer of property	
Application not completed	
Application withdrawn 	
Number.
Per Cent
75
24.68
28
9.21
8
2.64
95
31.22
20
6.58
5
1.65
2
0.66
71
23.36
Total      304
Table IV.—Sex of New Pensioners.
Number. Per Cent.
Males   2,617 53.20
Females   2,301 46.80
Total   4,918   REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 67
Table V.—Marital Status of New Pensioners.
Number. Per Cent.
Married   2,113 42.96
Single       600 12.20
Widows    1,184 24.07
Widowers       593 12.06
Separated        403 8.20
Divorced          25 0.51
Total   4,918
Table VI.—Birthplace of New Pensioners.
Number. Per Cent.
British Columbia      103 2.00
Other parts of Canada_____  1,141 23.20
British Isles   2,417 49.10
Other parts of the British Empire        49 1.00
United States of America      244 4.90
Other foreign countries      964 19.80
Total   4,918
Table VII.—Ages at granting of New Pensions.
Number. Per Cent.
Age 70   1,630 33.00
Age 71       673 13.68
Age 72       439 8.73
Age 73       362 7.46
Age 74       336 7.00
Age 75       260 5.28
Age 76 to 80      812 16.52
Age 81 to 90      380 7.71
Age 91 and up       26 0.62
Total   4,918 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table VIII.—Ages of Pensioners at Death.
Number. Per Cent.
Age 70   34 1.83
Age 71   67 3.60
Age 72   84 4.50
Age 73   74 4.00
Age 74   109 6.00
Age 75   103 5.50
Age 76   114 6.10
Age 77  92 5.00
Age 78   118 6.21
Age 79   85 4.54
Age 80   172 9.20
Age 81   119 6.30
Age 82   87 4.28
Age 83   99 5.30
Age 84   103 5.40
Age 85   73 3.90
Age 86    79 4.22
Age 87  46 2.56
Age 88   48 2.60
Age 89   28 1.49
Age 90   50 2.67
Over 90   91 4.80
Total   1,875*
* This total is made up of British Columbia pensioners and pensioners who have migrated to British Columbia
from other Provinces.
Table IX.—With whom New Pensioners live.
Number. Per Cent.
Living alone  1,267 25.77
Living with spouse  1,738 35.14
Living with spouse and children      266 5.31
Living with children      960 19.30
Living with others      599 12.18
Living in public institutions        58 1.70
Living in private institutions        30 0.60
Total   4,918
Table X.—Where New Pensioners are living.
Number. Per Cent.
In own house  1,797 36.54
In rented house     589 11.76
In rented suite      415 8.44
Boarding   1,280 26.13
In housekeeping room     419 8.52
In boarding-home       44 1.00
In institution       114 2.32
In single room (eating out)     260 5.29
Total   4,918 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 69
Table XI.—Economic Status of New Pensioners.
(a)  Holding real property of value—                            Number. Per cent.
$0   2,854 58.04
$1 to $250      386 8.00
$251 to $500      432 8.70
$501 to $750      411 8.36
$751 to $1,000      289 5.80
$1,001 to $1,500      341 7.00
$1,501 to $2,000      140 2.80
$2,001 and up        65 1.30
Total   4,918
(b)  Holding personal property of value—
$0  2,006 40.79
$1 to $250  1,359 27.60
$251 to $500       640 13.01
$501 to $750      272 5.56
$751 to $1,000      195 3.97
$1,000 and up      446 9.07
Total   4,918
Table XII.—Number of Pensioners living in other Provinces whose Pensions
were granted by british columbia and are paid wholly or partially by this
Province.*
Number.
Alberta    108
Saskatchewan      56
Manitoba     28
Ontario  *     79
Quebec     20
New Brunswick      11
Nova Scotia      18
Prince Edward Island        6
Northwest Territory	
Total  326
* At March 31st, 1948.
Table XIII.—Claims against Estates, Old-age and Blind.
Number of cases of deaths  1,674
Number of cases where claims were made       94
Number of cases where claims were waived or withdrawn in
favour of beneficiaries       48
Number of cases on which collections were made  (including
cases from former years)      177
Total amount collected—
Old age  $92,759.60
Blind   893.09
Total  $93,652.69 P 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table XIV.—Percentage of Pensioners to Population.*
Percentage of pensioners to the total population of the Province    2.07
Percentage of all persons over 70 years of age to the total
population of the Province     5.31
Percentage of pensioners to the population over 70 years of age 39.03
* Percentages based on population estimated as at June 1st, 1947, Dominion Bureau of Statistics.
Table XV.—Distribution of British Columbia Pensioners according to
the Amount of Pensions received (Basic Pension $30).
Pension. Per Cent.
$30.00   94.10
$25.00 to $29.99  2.80
$20.00 to $24.99  1.50
$15.00 to $19.99  0.90
$10.00 to $14.99  0.40
$9.99 and less . .  0.30
PENSIONS FOR THE BLIND.
Table I.—Disposition of Applications.
Total to
Current March 31st,
Year. 1948.
Number of new applications received  147 815
Number of applications granted     94 628
Number of new applications not granted     11 125
Table II.—Miscellaneous.
Number of B.C. pensioners returned to B.C  11
Number of new " other Province " pensioners transferred to B.C. 87
Number of B.C. pensioners transferred to other Provinces  18
Number of pensioners from other Provinces transferred out of
B.C. or suspended  56
Number of B.C. reinstatements granted  29
Number of deaths of B.C. pensioners  18
Number of deaths of " other Province " pensioners in B.C  9
Total number of pensioners on pay-roll at end of fiscal year  460
Table III.—Reasons why Applications not granted.
Number. Per Cent.
Not blind within meaning of Act  4 37.00
Ineligible on account of residence  	
Ineligible on account of citizenship    	
Ineligible on account of income  3 26.00
Ineligible on account of assistance from children.-. ____                	
Ineligible because other resources were available____ 1 9.00
Ineligible because of transfer of property  ____                 	
Application withdrawn   1 9.00
Application not completed  2 19.00
Total  11 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 71
Table IV.—Sex of New Pensioners.
Number.
Males                                               58
Per Cent.
61.70
Females                                                          36
38.30
Total                                                        94
Table V.—Marital Status of New Pensioners.
Number.
Married   28
Single                           38
Per Cent.
29.90
40.42
Widows  11
11.70
Widowers                               10
10.60
Separated             6
6.37
Divorced          _                            1
1.01
Total          _   __     .94
Table VI.—Birthplace of New Pensioners.
Number.
British Columbia ..                                                       11
Per Cent.
11.70
Other parts of Canada  32
British Isles             .                               21
34.04
22.34
Other parts of the British Empire  17
18.09
United States of America                              2
2.13
Other foreign countries        ..    ....         11
11.70
Total  94
Table VII.—Ages at Granting of New Pensions.
Number. Per Cent.
Age 21 to 39  18 19.15
Age 40 to 44  12 12.76
Age 45 to 49     3 3.20
Age 50 to 54     4 4.25
Age 55 to 59     5 5.32
Age 60 to 64  15 15.96
Age 65 to 69  14 14.89
Age 70 and up  23 24.47
Total  94
Table VIII.—Ages of Pensioners at Death.
Number. Per Cent.
Age 21 to 39    	
Age 40 to 44  	
Age 45 to 49  	
Age 50 to 54     2 11.10
Age 55 to 59    4 16.60
Age 60 to 64     3 22.30
Age 65 to 69     9 50.00
Age 70 to 90  	
Age 91 and up  	
Total  18 P 72
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table IX.—With whom New Pensioners live.
Number.
.__ 26
Living alone	
Living with spouse  18
Living with spouse and children  4
Living with children  11
Living with others  31
Living in public institutions  3
Living in private institutions  1
Total  94
Table X.—Where New Pensioners are living.
Number.
... 30
In own house	
In rented house  5
In rented suite  5
Boarding  20
In housekeeping room  24
In boarding-home  5
In institution  5
In single room (eating out)	
Per Cent.
27.70
19.14
4.25
11.70
33.00
3.20
1.01
Per Cent.
31.91
5.32
5.32
21.28
25.53
5.32
5.32
Total.
94
Table XI.—Economic Status of New Pensioners.
(a) Holding real property of value— Number.
$0  49
  18
     3
$1 to $250	
$251 to $500	
$501 to $750  11
$751 to $1,000  10
$1,001 to $1,500     3
$1,501 to $2,000	
$2,001 and up	
Per Cent.
52.21
19.15
3.20
11.70
10.61
3.13
Total.
(6)  Holding personal property of value-
$0	
$1 to $250	
$251 to $500_.__
$501 to $750_.__
$751 to $1,000_
$1,001 and up _
94
48
22
11
4
9
51.00
23.30
11.70
4.25
9.75
Total.
94 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 73
Table XII.—Number of Pensioners living in other Provinces whose Pensions
were granted by British Columbia and are paid wholly or partially by this
Province.*
Number.
Alberta      1
Saskatchewan   ____
Manitoba      1
Ontario      1
Quebec   ....
New Brunswick  .___
Nova Scotia	
Prince Edward Island  ....
Northwest Territory  .....
Total
* At March 31st, 1948.
Table XIII.—Distribution of British Columbia Blind Pensioners according to
the Amount of Pensions received (Basic Pension $30).
Pension. Per Cent.
$30.00  96.5
$25.00 to $29.99  0.2
$20.00 to $24.99  1.9
$15.00 to $19.99  0.2
$10.00 to $14.99  0.7
$9.99 and less  0.5
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR ENDED MARCH 31ST, 1948.
Table I.—Pensions.
Total amount paid pensioners in British Co-
.        , . Supplementary
lumDia  Pensions. Allowances. Total.
Old-age   $6,990,991.45 $2,175,853.32 $9,166,844.77
Blind         145,678.15 45,392.99       191,071.14
Totals  $7,136,669.60 $2,221,246.31 $9,357,915.91
Less amount of refunds from pensioners and
estates—•
From estates of old-age pensioners       $92,759.60              $92,759.60
From estates of blind pensioners  893.09         893.09
Overpayments refunded by old-age pensioners   4,070.05 $399.06 4,469.11
Overpayments refunded by blind pensioners                      	
Miscellaneous refunds from old-age pensioners   347.40 30.00 377.40
Miscellaneous refunds from blind pensioners                      	
Totals        $98,070.14 $429.06       $98,499.20 P 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table I.—Pensions—Continued.
Net amount paid pensioners in British Co-
,        i . Supplementary
lumoia  Pensions. Allowances. Total.
Old-age   $6,893,814.40 $2,175,424.26 $9,069,238.66
Blind         144,785.06 45,392.99       190,178.05
Totals  $7,038,599.46 $2,220,817.25 $9,259,416.71
Add amount paid other Provinces on account
of pensioners for whom British Columbia is partly responsible—
Old-age         $37,092.08       $21,317.80       $58,409.88
Blind   422.82 166.50 589.32
Totals        $37,514.90       $21,484.30       $58,999.20
Less amount received by British Columbia
on account of pensioners for whom other
Provinces are partly responsible—
Old-age       $362,592.74       $79,920.69     $442,513.43
Blind   7,749.72 1,200.33 8,950.05
Totals      $370,342.46       $81,121.02     $451,463.48
Less amount refunded by the Dominion Government—
Old-age   $5,171,017,31         $5,171,017.31
Blind        108,588.79               108,588.79
Totals  $5,279,606.10         $5,279,606.10
Total amount of pensions paid by British
Columbia—
Old-age   $1,397,296.43 $2,116,821.37 $3,514,117.80
Blind   28,869.37 44,359.16 73,228.53
Totals  $1,426,165.80 $2,161,180.53 $3,587,346.33
Table II.—Administration Expense.
Salaries and special services  $83,382.78
Office supplies, subscriptions, etc  14,506.04
Postage, telephone, and telegraph  11,398.70
Bank exchange  2,303.75
Travelling expenses   386.98
Incidentals and contingencies  1,223.85
Total     $113,202.10 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 75
Table III.—Supplementary Allowances.
Gross  amount  of  supplementary  allowances  paid  in
British Columbia   $2,242,301.55
Supplementary allowances refunded by other Provinces 81,121.02
Net supplementary allowances paid by British Columbia $2,161,180.53
Summary.
Total amount of pensions paid by British Columbia  $1,426,165.80
Administration expenses         113,202.10
Expenditure as per Public Accounts  $1,539,367.90
Supplementary allowances—
Paid from voted expenditure  $1,167,759.22
Less received from other Provinces 81,121.02
  $1,086,638.20
Paid from revenue surplus     1,074,542.33
    2,161,180.53
Total expenditure by British Columbia  $3,700,548.43
CONCLUSION.
In concluding this report I wish to express the sincere appreciation of the Board
for the loyal and efficient work of the staff at our own office during the year and for the
assistance of the field staff and all other divisions and branches of the Department, as
well as the many outside agencies that extended their co-operation so willingly.
J. H. Creighton,
Chairman. P 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
MEDICAL SERVICES DIVISION.
Please accept the following as a brief report of the Division for the fiscal year
1947-48.
One could describe the activities as reasonably satisfactory. We have been able
to channel them in the interests of all concerned and keep the relationship most
amicable.
The purpose of the Division is gradually orienting into its true light and assuming
its proper role.
During the year Departmental visits were made to the Okanagan, Upper Island,
and Powell River, where the doctors in the area were visited.
The revised Formulary was introduced throughout the Province and is now in
general use in prescribing for welfare cases.
A number of conferences and discussions have been held with various social
workers and regional administrators. These no doubt will prove educational and bear
fruit in the future.
The report on medical arrangements throughout the Province was completed and
presented to the Deputy Minister.
Several conferences have been held with the executive of the Economic Committee
of the British Columbia College and Medical Association. We hope the fruition of this
will make available to the welfare cases of the Province medical attention of the highest
order and will, for all time, wipe out the accusing innuendoes of bureaucracy.
The numbers on welfare roles have increased, and we no doubt will have further
increases in the future. In line with this and keeping pace with the general inflation
throughout the community, our costs have risen.
We would like to call your attention to the serious plight, from a medical viewpoint, of a certain cross-section in our Province—namely, the retired small pensioner
or superannuation individual who has a fixed income and no reserves. Daily, problems
are placed before your Director referring to this group. A goodly portion of retired
are financially able to attend to their needs and wants, but the greater number can ill
afford the extra expense. As the problems of registered welfare cases are solved, we
are of the opinion that this group will forge to the front. A study of their problems
would therefore appear timely.
COMPARATIVE EXPENDITURES FOR FISCAL YEARS
1946-47 AND 1947-48.
Service.
Medical  	
Prescriptions 	
Dental 	
Hospital 	
Optical 	
Transportation
Fiscal Year
1946-47.
Fiscal Year
1947-48.
$104,375.86
$185,613.57
65,690.53
123,913.10
6,457.75
13,008.82
2,876.33
3,602.90
1,821.06
2,615.64
4,752.15
6,319.58
Totals     $185,973.68        $335,073.61
J. C. Moscovich, M.D.,
Director. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48.
P 77
CHILD WELFARE DIVISION.
It is one year and six months since the Child Welfare Division decentralized to
the field certain areas of administration, and while it is too soon to say with certainty
what the next steps in this development should be, there are certain observations to
be made and certain conclusions which can be reached.
There has been a considerable decrease in mail received and handled as compared
with the days of centralization, but there is still a sizable portion coming in to the
Division for attention.
Number of Pieces of Incoming Mail for Period April 1st, 1947, to
March 31st, 1948.
April, 1947	
May 	
June 	
July 	
August 	
September 	
October	
November
2,237
2,505
2,369
2,490
2,395
2,756
2,628
2,301
December   2,669
January, 1948  2,652
February   2,551
March   2,808
Total
30,361
A comparison of the last four months' figures of this fiscal year with the same
period last year indicates further that the trend is toward an increase rather than
a decrease:—
1946. 1947.
December—■ December—
Correspondence   1,101 Correspondence   1,386
Miscellaneous       781 Miscellaneous   1,283
1,882
2,669
1947.
January—
Correspondence  1,377
Miscellaneous       640
2,017
1948.
January—
Correspondence   1,542
Miscellaneous   1,110
2,652
February—
Correspondence   1,361
Miscellaneous      605
1,966
February—
Correspondence   1,581
Miscellaneous       970
2,551
March—
Correspondence   1,525
Miscellaneous       623
2,148
March—■
Correspondence   1,861
Miscellaneous       947
2,808
N.B.—Miscellaneous includes money, placement slips, social service index, bills, and family allowance cheques. P 78 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
This rather sharp increase in mail, together with the increase in actual cases
known throughout the field, in which divisional office must assume some responsibility
under the present policies of decentralization, has made heavy demands on the
decreased divisional staff. It also presents a need to review these policies and determine whether or not we have reached the point where still greater administrative
responsibility can and should be released to the field.
A reorganization of our filing system has been partially effected this year with a
minimum upheaval, but our already limited housing made the change difficult and
meant operating a night shift of four clerical staff for several weeks. It is now in
process of completion, and we are indeed grateful for the help and direction given us
by Mrs. MacKenzie.
STAFF CHANGES.
There has been an unusually high turnover in staff this year, both among social
workers and clerical members. Miss R. Levinson, who has been a very able supervisor
in Protection since 1946, left to be married in July, 1947. She returned on September
17th, 1947, as Mrs. Ruth Moscovich, and remained with us until March 31st, 1948,
when her final resignation was accepted. Mrs. Elizabeth Ross, whose return we had
welcomed from the field to the Division as supervisor in the Unmarried Parents Section, left on June 30th, 1947, and is since the proud mother of twins. Miss Mary King,
well known to the Department and to the Children's Aid Societies of Vancouver and
Victoria, came to us on a full-time basis October 1st, 1947, and Miss Jo-Anne Brown
on December 15th, 1947, but during the intervening months only part-time and relief
appointments could be obtained.
There were eight resignations, each because of valid personal reasons, from
clerical staff members, and this loss and replacement has been a disrupting factor.
We have now, however, what appears to be a full and, hopefully, a permanent staff
to begin the new fiscal year.
"PROTECTION OF CHILDREN ACT."
The field staff reports working with 872 families throughout the year, and 93
children from 57 families were apprehended under the " Protection of Children Act."
Three of these children from one family were apprehended and ordered returned to
their home by the Court, only to be found in a serious condition of neglect in another
district a short time later. They were apprehended a second time and made wards
of the Superintendent of Child Welfare. This makes the total apprehensions in the
year 96, but the number of children involved, 93. In the previous fiscal year the
number of children apprehended under this Act was 59 from 41 families.
Children. Families.
Region 1   12 10
Region 2   37 20
Region 3   17 13
Region 4   9 6
Region 5   21 8
Totals   96 57 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48.
P 79
The disposition of the above apprehensions was as follows:-
Region 1.
Region 2.
Region 3.
Region 4.
Region 5.
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6
2
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1
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12
2
1
6
3
2
1
2
12
10
37
20
17     1     13
9
6
21
8
"JUVENILE DELINQUENTS ACT."
There were 17 children committed to the Superintendent by Judges of the Juvenile
Courts throughout the Province this year, which is an increase of 5 children over last
year.
Children.
...    4
Region 1  .	
Region 2  :  4
Region 3   1
Region 4   5
Region 5   3
Families.
3
4
1
3
2
Totals
17
13
In this group of 17 children there were 4 families of 2 children each committed,
and 9 children from 9 families.    Their ages were:— Boys.
9 years     1
10 years     1
11 years     5
12 years      1
13 years
14 years
15 years
16 years
17 years
Girls.
Totals  13 4
Fourteen of these children are in foster-homes as at March 31st, 1948; one is
still at home pending placement or adjustment in his own home. Another was returned
to his parents after a short period in care, and one 16-year-old girl placed in employment under the supervision of the district worker continues satisfactorily.
In addition to the children who were taken into care under the " Protection of
Children Act" and the " Juvenile Delinquents Act," there were 198 (or 45 more
children than last year) admitted as non-wards at the request of their parent or
parents who could not for a time plan adequately for them. Forty-two of these were
children of unmarried mothers, as were 41 of the non-wards last year. As will be
seen in our report on adoptions, more babies have been placed for adoption, and in
order that the unmarried mother can come to an unhurried decision about her child's
future, we have continued to offer alternative care for varying periods of time.    We P. 80
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
are satisfied that such a service strengthens our adoption placements and enables us
to give sounder help to the unmarried mother with her complex and difficult problems.
The graph opposite page 80 is a comparison of the numbers of children in each of
the five regions who have been removed from their homes under the " Protection of
Children Act," the " Juvenile Delinquents Act," or as non-wards during 1947-48 and
during the previous year:—
It is difficult to arrive at any one conclusion as to the reason for the general rise in
the numbers of children removed from their homes under the " Protection of Children
Act," the "Juvenile Delinquents Act," or as non-wards. In several instances there were
families with a large number of children involved, and this would account for some of it.
There has also been a marked increase in population in the Province the past few years,
and this, together with the fact that we have more workers in the field and are attempting to serve the entire Province, might indicate that we are in touch with children and
their families needing this kind of service who have not previously been brought to
our attention.
All these are valid and possible conclusions and undoubtedly have had a bearing on
the increased number of children removed from their homes. However, in order that
we may know with even greater assurance that the quality of our preventive work with
families is high, we should in the next year develop some means whereby field and
Division can share more closely in an evaluation of the work done. This would seem to
be a vital "next step" in decentralization, and would involve not only a delegation of
greater responsibility to the field, but also the creation of some channel of communication from the field to the Division, and vice versa, as to the standard of work and
uniformity of policy interpretation.
MUNICIPAL RELATIONSHIPS.
An interesting and progressive change in Government policy occurred this year,
and municipalities are now reimbursed out of Provincial funds for 80 per cent, of the
cost of ward care when residence is found to be municipal. This cost previously had
been carried in total by municipalities, and the changed policy has been a welcome and
timely relief to them. With this very substantial financial burden removed, municipalities will be freer, we feel, to participate in the over-all important prevention aspects of
our programme.
FOSTER-CARE FOR CHILDREN.
In order that comparisons can be made readily, we are presenting the following
figures regard
ing children
in care in the same form as we did last year:—
Children in Care during Fiscal Year.
Children in Care March 31st, 1948.
Wards.
Non-
wards.
CA.S.
Wards.
CA.S.
Non-
wards.
O.P.
Wds.*
Total.
Wards.
Non-
wards.
CA.S.
Wards.
CA.S.
Non-
wards.
O.P.
Wds.«
Total.
59
50
117
71
37
47
89
112
50
39
4
21
25
6
9
1
1
10
3
Ill
170
257
128
85
48
30
89
63
31
40
52
74
33
20
4
20
16
6
2
	
1
9
3
92
111
182
103
53
334
337
65
	
2
	
13
751
48
261
219
48
1
12
541
Less duplicates!
703
* "Other Province" wards (cost of maintenance refunded by responsible Province),
t Where a child was in more than one region or agency during the year. to
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S3  REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48.
P 81
During the year we asked a Children's Aid Society or another Province to care for
the following children:—
Wards
during Year.
Non-wards
during Year.
Wards,
Mar. 31,1948.
Non-wards,
Mar. 31,1948.
Total
in Year.
Total,
Mar. 31, 1948.
55
IS
27
4
108
18
34
2
42
10
23
4
63
9
22
2
163
33
61
6
105
Family Welfare and C.A.S.,
19
Catholic CA.S	
45
Other Province supervision....
6
Totals	
101
162
79
96
263
16
175
247
In addition to the children cared for throughout the regions and with other social
agencies, we had the following children in Provincial institutions during the year:-—■
Wards.
Non-wards.
Total.
Wards,
Mar. 31,
1948.
Non-wards,
Mar. 31,
1948.
Total,
Mar. 31,
1948.
7
1
1
1
2
7
1
1
1
2
1
4
1
1
1
2
4
1
1
1
2
School for the Deaf and the Blind ..
1
1
1
Totals	
12
1
13
9
1
10
Five of the children in the Boys' Industrial School had been committed previous
to April 1st, 1947, as were the two children in the Provincial Mental Hospital. The
remaining children in these institutions, however, were new admissions during this
fiscal year.
In total the  Superintendent of  Child Welfare  assumed  responsibility for 958
children during this fiscal year:—
Wards—
Of Superintendent  394
Of Children's Aid Societies     65
Of other Provinces     13
Non-wards—
Of Superintendent  484
Of Children's Aid Societies       2
Total  958
At March 31st, 1948, the Superintendent of Child Welfare had in care:—
Wards—
Of Superintendent  349
Of Children's Aid Societies     48
Of other Provinces     12
Non-wards—
Of Superintendent  316
Of Children's Aid Societies       1
TotaL.
726 P 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
We cannot but feel concerned over the five wards who found their way into correctional institutions during the year. Three were committed to industrial schools, one
to Oakalla, and one to the penitentiary. We may still be able to help them become
responsible adults, but for one reason or another we were unable to extend the protection and help they apparently needed during their growing years.
Many factors have a bearing on what we can do for children in our care. Sometimes they come to our attention too late for us to be of help. Sometimes, because of
heavy case-loads and the wide geographic areas which workers have to cover, it is not
easy for them to maintain the close relationship some children need. Some of these
children might have received more benefit from a group-living experience than from
a foster-home placement when they first came into care. There are only a few small
institutions in the Province which could be used as a resource in this connection, but
we have during the past two years, in a few carefully selected instances, made use of
the following:—
Name of Institution. Children. Families.
Loyal Protestant Home, New Westminster  1 1
Providence St. Genevieve, New Westminster  1 1
St. Ann's Convent, Duncan  3 1
Convent of the Good Shepherd, Vancouver  4 4
Indian Residential School, Kamloops  1 1
Lejac Residential School, Lejac  6 1
St. Christopher's School, North Vancouver  5 5
Totals  21 14
One child had been admitted to St. Christopher's School, North Vancouver (which
is a school for subnormal boys) during the previous fiscal year, as had two girls from
two families to the Convent of the Good Shepherd, and one part-Indian boy to the
Indian Residential School at Kamloops. The remaining seventeen children were placed
in these institutions during this fiscal year.
Living with a group of children in an institution where daily living must of
necessity be more routinized than in a family home, and where the relationships with
staff can be warm but yet less personal and demanding than those with foster-parents,
can in some instances provide a child with opportunity to sort out his own feelings,
and makes it more possible for him to take his place comfortably in normal home-living
later.
A vivid example of the good use of this kind of resource is the little 5-year-old girl
who came to our attention through complaints of neglect. She was an illegitimate
child whose mother's family decided to keep her at birth. The mother, however, proved
unable to plan wisely for her, and during her brief life she had been handed around
between relatives and neighbours so frequently that at 5 she belonged nowhere and was
described as a " confirmed run-away." Since all the adults in her life so far had failed
her, it was asking too much to expect her to settle down comfortably at once with foster-
parents. We therefore placed her in the Loyal Protestant Home, New Westminster, for
a few months. She became one of a group of several children her own age. She did
the things they did and received the same care and attention at the same time.
Her need to run away became less, and, as her confidence in adults increased, foster-
parents were introduced into her life, first as visitors and gradually as people deeply
interested in her. She is now, at her own request, a happy secure member of this
family group in their home. Her stay in this institution accomplished what we had
hoped for—an opportunity for this child to regain her trust in adults. With continued
help and love from her new parents, she will gradually lose the feelings of frustration
and hostility her early experiences created in her and which drive many children later REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 83
to do the destructive things termed delinquency which bring them to the doors of
our correctional institutions.
Foster-homes, when carefully chosen, offer much to the children who must be
reared apart from their own parents. But for some children, who have been badly
hurt by their parents and other adults, foster-home placement can be successful only
if some interim type of care is provided which will not make too many demands upon
their feelings and loyalties. The judicious use of the institutions which exist in the
Province can serve this purpose, and, in our use of them, we feel the institutional staffs
can also be helped toward a better understanding of their role in a total child-welfare
programme.
CLOTHING.
A total expenditure of $20,519.95 for clothing for children in care represents
an expenditure of $29.30 per child during the year. This is a sharp increase over
last year's total expenditure of $12,326.23, or $15.60 per child. Much of this increase
is accounted for by the similarly sharp increase in the purchase price of clothing
throughout the country, also, as has been shown, in the increase in the number of
children admitted to care. Despite this increased expenditure the per capita cost of
this item cannot be termed extravagant, and we feel much credit and appreciation is
due our foster-parents and workers for the generally economical manner in which
they have handled the unprecedented rise in cost of living which has taken place
this year.
MEDICAL CARE.
The cost of medical and dental care has also increased considerably. Last year
our expenditures were $2,730.67 and this year $5,230.44. This does not mean that
we have had an increase in illness—the children have generally been in good health.
It does indicate, however, a changing attitude on the part of local doctors and dentists
and a changing philosophy, perhaps, as to the responsibility of Government to pay for
services rendered. While we still have in many communities doctors and dentists
willing to serve our children without cost or at a minimum cost, more and more, workers
are meeting an insistence upon full rates. This " shopping for rates " is an embarrassing experience to the worker, and does not by any means ensure us a high-quality
medical and dental service. We have consequently been in consultation with the
Director of Provincial Medical Services and are hopeful that a more equitable arrangement can be made with doctors and dentists throughout the Province in the not too
distant future.
Following through with the suggestion made in our last report about the permanently physically handicapped child, we have endeavoured through a committee
composed of various Divisional heads and professional persons in the Department to
arrive at some conclusions as to what our goals should be, and we expect to make a
concrete submission early in the next fiscal year. In the meantime, Child Welfare
Division is being asked to plan for some badly crippled children and will try to place
them in carefully selected foster-homes. Until such time as suitable institutional care
is available, however, the cost of such foster-home care must of necessity be high.
FOSTER-HOME RATES.
During this year we have also had a committee, composed of members of staff
from Child Welfare Division, district Social Welfare Branch offices, and from the three
Children's Aid Societies, studying current foster-home rates. Their findings prove
without doubt that the amount paid by agencies for children does not cover the basic
necessities and that many foster-parents have been providing clothing and other articles
from their own funds.    This situation, we realize, is in many instances not to be P 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
discouraged and could be indicative of the foster-parents' atitude of love and acceptance
of the child in the home. In other instances, however, the inadequate rate paid might
penalize foster-parents and children, and we are hopeful that the recommendations of
the committee for increases and changes in policy regarding the purchasing of clothing
will be approved and effective early in the next fiscal year.
FAMILY ALLOWANCES.
As at March 31st, 1948, 294 children in Child Welfare Division foster-homes were
in receipt of family allowance through this office, and 235 were paid for direct through
foster-parents. During the year we received a total of $19,844.70 in family allowances,
and as at March 31st, 1948, have a sum of $4,217.10 in the children's individual trust
accounts. Workers and foster-parents appear to be making good use of the family
allowance in their work with foster-children, and we are pleased with the way in which
the trust accounts are being kept to a minimum.
EXPENDITURES—MAINTENANCE OF DEPENDENT CHILDREN
AND GRANTS TO HOMES.
Paid by Provincial Government to Children's Aid Societies for maintenance of children  $188,853.67
Cost of maintaining wards and non-wards in Child Welfare Division foster-homes     132,245.53
Paid by Provincial Government for municipal wards in
Children's Aid Societies and Child Welfare Division
foster-homes      153,888.92
Transportation  of children  in  Child Welfare  Division
care  '..         2,984.11
Grants to Children's Homes         1,300.00
$479,272.23
Less sundry collections       42,058.10
Total  $437,214.13
ADOPTIONS.
In a post-war world which has yet to achieve any great feeling of peace and
security, it is reassuring to observe in the citizens of British Columbia the consistent
and ever-growing interest in children for adoption. It somehow reaffirms a belief in
the soundness of family life, when so many people are willing and anxious to share
their lives with children who might otherwise be denied the advantage of a permanent
and secure home-life.
There were 537 adoption applications completed by Supreme Court orders this
year, which is 172 more than last year.   The distribution was as follows:—
Region 1  53
Region 2  95
Region 3  40
Region 4  42
Region 5  30
— 260
Children's Aid Societies, Vancouver and Victoria  275
British Columbia placements completed out of Province      2
Total     537 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48.
P 85
There are, as at March 31st, 1948, 762 adopting parents throughout the Province
who have given legal notice to the Superintendent of Child Welfare, as required under
our "Adoption Act," of their intention to adopt the child in their home.
An analysis of how and by whom these 762 placements were made seems to indicate
that out efforts to curtail private placements of children for adoption before an investigation of the proposed adopting home is made has brought some results.
Placed
by an
Agency.
Placed
privately.
One
Adopting
Parent is
Natural
Parent or
Relative.
Total on
Probation.
39
82
58
45
22
75
131
29
30
25
50
83
42
30
21
164
296
129
105
68
Totals   	
246
290
226
762
The Child Welfare Division placed seventy-two children in adoption homes this
year, as compared with sixty-nine last year. The increase is partly due to the fact that
more unmarried mothers are turning to our district offices for help in planning for
their child, but it is also because we have, over a period of time, achieved a greater
flexibility in our methods of determining the adoptability of children. We believe our
present policies in this regard ensure more permanent security for more children and
generally meet the needs of a larger number of adoptive parents than ever before.
To this end we are making use of the long-term placement—that is, a child whose
background is in some respects uncertain, but whose development as an infant is considered to be normal, will be placed with adoptive parents who accept his possible
limitations and understand that they will not proceed to completion of the adoption
until the child is old enough to be judged on his own merits. This usually implies a
probation period of two to three years. These placements are working out most satisfactorily, and as district workers become more able in their work with children, their
evaluations of prospective adoptive parents' abilities as parents will, we feel, enable a
further expansion of these policies.
Distribution of adoption placements made by Child Welfare Division is as
follows:—
Total.
Long-
term.
One-year
Probation.
Foster-homes
which became
Adoption
Probation
Homes.
13
25
22
5
7
10
14
16
1
4
2
11
3
3
2
1
3
1
1
72
45
21
6 P 86
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Distribution  of adoption  placements made by  Children's  Aid  Societies  is  as
follows:—
Victoria Family Welfare and Children's Aid Society.
Vancouver Children's Aid Society	
Catholic Children's Aid Society	
Totals	
Foster-homes
which became
Adoption
Probation
Homes.
51
In total there were 277 children placed for adoption by social agencies in the
Province during the year.   As at March 31st, 1948, there were 291 approved Child
Welfare Division adoption homes awaiting placement.
Total.
Region 1  58
Region 2  80
Region 3  76
Region 4  54
Region 5  23
Roman Catholic
Homes.
l
3
4
5
2
Totals   291 15
We have been pleased with the response received from members of the Roman
Catholic community this past year. We would like to express our sincere appreciation
to His Excellency Archbishop Duke for his help and co-operation in this matter. We
have been able to plan better for a greater number of Roman Catholic children, and we
are hopeful that this interest among Catholic families will not only continue, but will
become a meaningful and real resource to us in our work with children of that faith.
"CHILDREN OF UNMARRIED PARENTS   ACT."
Our statistics show a considerable increase in the numbers of unmarried mothers
known to social agencies, although there was not so great an increase in the total
number of children born out of wedlock in the Province during the year. This
comparison would seem to indicate that our services in district offices and in private
agencies are becoming more widely known and usable. More referrals have been made,
and, generally speaking, they have been made earlier in the mother's pregnancy, by
doctors, members of other professional groups, church officials, and other interested
persons in the communities. One concrete effort made to encourage such referrals was
that of a pamphlet prepared by the Children of Unmarried Parents' Committee of the
Council of Social Agencies, Vancouver, on which a member of the Child Welfare Division
staff served. This pamphlet was distributed to many professional and lay groups and
seems to have been well accepted. Our Provincial policy of approaching all unmarried
mothers upon receipt of notification of the birth of the children from the Inspector of
Hospitals' office has proven invaluable. Usually the worker can reach the mother to
offer her services before she leaves the hospital and before the urgency of the situation
forces her to make an unsatisfactory plan for herself and child.
Number of illegitimate births registered in the Division of
Vital Statistics during the fiscal year  1,226
Number of unmarried mothers known to social agencies in the
Province during same period      960
Number not known to agencies :      266 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48.
P 87
The distribution of the above new referrals was as follows:-—
Provincial Social Welfare Branch offices  451
Vancouver Children's Aid Society  361
Victoria Children's Aid Society  82
Catholic Children's Aid Society  66
Total
960
The distribution of new unmarried parents' cases, by regions, is as follows:-
,
New,
1947-48.
New
Orders.
New
Agreements.
58
180
100
61
52
17
3
1
3
	
27
8
6
2
3
Totals            	
451
24
46
In total there were 1,068 children of unmarried parents' cases known to district
offices during the year; 587 of them have been closed, and as at March 31st, 1948, the
districts report knowing 481.
Our contacts in divisional office with unmarried mothers and fathers, who have
been in touch with us over a period of years because of payments under the " Children
of Unmarried Parents Act," have led us to a further conviction that settlements are
generally more socially sound than payments on an order or an agreement over a long
period of time. During the year we have worked toward the closing of many of the
old cases in this way and have placed particular emphasis on this solution in instances
where the parents concerned are married to someone else and striving to establish sound
relationships in their own family group.
The maintenance and care of a child for an unmarried mother is a heavy responsibility, and irregular payments from the putative father over the years too frequently
only serves to increase her feelings of bitterness and vindictiveness. Generally speaking, their weekly incomes are small and, although the payment of family allowances has
helped, the extra cost of employing someone to care for the child during her absence at
work creates a real hardship to many unmarried mothers. In many instances we feel
it would be good preventive child welfare and sound social planning for the mother if
there were some form of financial assistance available to supplement her earnings apart
from what money she might look to receive from the putative father.
A survey of our collections suggests that there are few unmarried fathers who
really support their children, although this past year we have noted an improvement in
the active accounts and particularly in the newer ones. Agreements are in much better
standing than Court orders, which fact seems to substantiate our feeling that Court
action should be taken only as a last resort. More and more we are trying to place our
emphasis on the father's right and obligation to participate in the planning for the
child by encouraging him to assume a fair portion of the financial responsibility. If
settlement seems desirable for all concerned, we work toward this end.
We are not able to report a decrease in the total number of children born out of
wedlock in the Province. We believe that this will come only as we have a return to
a more stable pattern of family life here and elsewhere. We do feel, however, that our
services to unmarried mothers have improved and that we are, through these, affording
more security to the lives of children born out of wedlock which, in turn, will enable
them to grow up as emotionally mature and socially secure adults. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
A total of $26,744.68 was collected during the year, this being $889.17 less than
last year. Of the forty-six new agreements, seventeen were actually settlements, some
for medical expenses only and some for a lump sum for maintenance. Eleven cases
known over a period of years where there was an order or an agreement were closed by
settlement in agreement between the mother, putative father, and the Superintendent
of Child Welfare.
The following is a statement of the collectable accounts as at March 31st, 1948:—
Amount collectable on orders made prior to April 1st, 1947 $12,850.00
Amount collected (65.3 per cent.)       8,376.00
Amount collectable on twenty-four orders made during
1947-48        5,596.00
Amount collected (64.7 per cent.)      3,621.00
Amount collectable on agreements made prior to April 1st,
1947      11,009.00
Amount collected (73.25 per cent.)       8,065.50
Amount collectable on forty-six agreements made during
1947-48       5,342.00
Amount collected (89.5 per cent.)      4,784.00
OVERSEAS CHILDREN.
Our British overseas children group grows smaller each year.    As at April 1st,
1947, there were nine children under age and under our supervision, but by March 31st,
1948, this figure was reduced to four. The parents of two boys arrived in British
Columbia and have now established their own home. Parents of two girls came out but
returned with them to Britain. Another girl, now 17, is remaining with an aunt and
has been granted permanent status. Of the four remaining under our supervision, one
is a 13-year-old girl who, in agreement with her parents' wishes, is on adoption probation with the foster-parents with whom she has lived since coming to Canada. The
remaining three are all members of one family. The oldest girl has now entered
training for a nurse, and the two younger sisters are attending school. They, too, have
remained with the same foster-parents and have made a very happy adjustment to
Canadian life.
JEWISH OVERSEAS CHILDREN.
This year the British Columbia Government was given another opportunity to help
children who had suffered because of the war situation. We were approached by the
Canadian Jewish Congress, through the Federal Government, to assist in planning for
a group of European Jewish children who had been orphaned during the war and were
presently in displaced persons camps in Europe. The Jewish organization had been
granted permission to bring 1,000 of these children to Canada, and British Columbia's
share was to be 100. At our request, the Vancouver Children's Aid Society agreed to
handle the project, and plans, similar to those made for the British overseas children,
were made for this group of children with the active participation of the local Jewish
community. The first party of seven children arrived in January, 1948; the second
party of six children in February, 1948; and a third party of ten children in March,
1948. As at March 31st, 1948, there are twenty-three of these European children
placed in Jewish homes in and around Vancouver.
The group is composed of fifteen boys and eight girls in the following age-groups:—
Boys. Girls.
13 years  1 2
14 years  2
16 years  4 4
17 years  6 2
18 years  2
Totals :  15 ~8 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 89
These are children who have been exposed to many harmful experiences, and we are
pleased to see the majority of them settling down happily. The members of the Jewish
community are to be commended for the way in which they have given their wholehearted support to the project. They have assumed full responsibility to reimburse the
Provincial Government for all expenditures made for the care and maintenance of the
children, and their various professional and lay groups have given generously of their
time and skills in planning for them.
SUPREME COURT REFERRALS FOR INVESTIGATIONS RE  CUSTODY
OF CHILDREN.
This year twenty-one requests were received from the Supreme Court for reports
regarding the welfare of children involved in applications for custody. Eleven of these
were under the " Divorce and Matrimonial Causes Act" and ten under the " Equal
Guardianship of Infants Act." There is still no legal provision to authorize these
reports, but in our contacts with various members of the Bar Association and Courts
it is evident that the reports submitted have been of value. For this reason we have
continued to extend this service to the Court, and we are confident that in no instance
has the Department's position been open to adverse criticism.
IMMIGRATION OF CHILDREN.
We have had considerable contact with the Canadian Immigration Department this
past year with regard to applications received by them from persons wishing to bring
children into Canada from other countries. In all but one instance the children were
residents of Great Britain (one in the United States), and all but one were blood relatives of the persons applying. We have agreed to submit a report and recommendation
to the Immigration Department as to the plan for each child, and we are generally
pleased with the use made of these reports.
In total we have had twelve such referrals, involving eighteen children. All but
two were favourable recommendations, and four of the children (three in one family
and one in another) have already arrived in British Columbia. Four applications
involving seven children have been withdrawn because of changed circumstances within
the children's homes or the prospective new homes, and six applications involving seven
children are pending completion of plans.
We would like to see this kind of careful planning with local child welfare officials
carried through in each instance where a child is being brought into Canada separate
and apart from his own family. In this regard also there seems to be a need for some
clarification on the part of the Federal Government as to its policy in regard to immigration of children. The publicity about the plight of European children and some
children in Great Britain has aroused great public interest and concern throughout the
country, and it has been difficult to explain to lay groups why these children cannot be
brought to and cared for in Canada. To complicate the situation further, a few
children have been brought out, presumably on an adoption basis, to non-relative homes
through the special effort of certain individuals. Such placements have added to the
confusion about immigration policies, and unfortunately the plans made have not in
each instance proved to be satisfactory for the child nor the prospective adopting parents.
We learned a great deal about the difficulties inherent in " sight unseen " placements
during the war when the British evacuee group came to Canada, and we are presently
aware of these same difficulties in our work with the Jewish overseas children. Placement of a child apart from his family requires careful preparation of the child, his
family, and his prospective new family. When there is no opportunity given for this
kind of planning, the placement has little hope of being a happy one. P 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The contacts we have had with the Immigration Department this year in assisting
relatives to plan for these few children will, we hope, serve to establish a procedure and
policy which can be used by them when applications are received from either relative or
non-relative groups to bring children to Canada.
CHILDREN IN CARE OF CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETIES AS AT
MARCH 31st, 1948.
Vancouver Children's Aid Society.
Wards  656
Provincial responsibility   240
Municipal responsibility  415
Child over 18 (maintenance order expired)       1
Non-wards  249
Catholic Children's Aid Society.
Wards  258
Provincial responsibility     87
Municipal responsibility  171
Non-wards  166
Victoria Children's Aid Society.
Wards  101
Provincial responsibility      63
Municipal responsibility     38
Non-wards h...    87
N.B.—In addition to the above the three Children's Aid Societies have under supervision wards under the " Infants Act " whose maintenance order expired when they
became 18, but who are still under supervision until 21 years of age.
Vancouver Children's Aid Society  127*
Catholic Children's Aid Society     13f
Victoria Family Welfare and Children's Aid Society     lit
* Agency policy does not include these in above figures.
t Included in their ward totals.
We have tried to present in this report the major events in child welfare during
the year and to convey the fact that it has been a worth-while one in which at least
some of our goals were reached. The knowledge we have gleaned from our experiences
this year has brought a clearer understanding of the future of the Branch and of the
role of the Child Welfare Division in the total welfare programme of the Province.
We are appreciative of the heavy responsibilities carried by members of the field staff,
and our chief effort in the next fiscal year will be toward developments whereby they
will be strengthened and thus more able to give the highest-quality service possible to
families and children.
Once again we would like to extend our sincere appreciation to the Children's Aid
Societies and the private agencies and organizations throughout the Province who
have assisted us in our work this year.
Ruby McKay,
Superintendent of Child Welfare. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 91
PROVINCIAL INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR BOYS.
I respectfully submit herewith the forty-fourth annual report of the Provincial
Industrial School for Boys.
A total of 158 boys between the ages of nine and seventeen years were admitted
during the year. Twenty-nine of this number were recidivists and 129 new admissions,
constituting an all-time high in admissions for any one year since the school was
established and an increase of 89 admissions over the previous fiscal year.
Thirty-eight Juvenile Courts, representative of most areas throughout the Province, were involved and also that of Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, an agreement having
been reached whereby the Girls' and Boys' Industrial Schools care for delinquent
children committed by the Yukon Juvenile Courts.
Your attention is directed to the satistical records attached for a more complete
analysis of our year's admissions. It will be noted that eleven boys or 7 per cent, were
under the age of 12 years, twenty-seven boys or 17 per cent, were between 12 and 13
years of age, seventy-nine boys or 50 per cent, were between 14 and 15 years of age,
and forty-one boys or 26 per cent, were between 16 and 18 years of age.
Theft and breaking and entering and stealing were responsible for 105 or 66.6 per
cent, of committals, while morals charges were second with 18 or 11.4 per cent.
While all were not domiciled in the districts from which they came, for various
reasons, nevertheless it is interesting to note that thirty boys or 19 per cent, were
committed from Region 1, ninety-two boys or 58.2 per cent, from Region 2, eleven boys
or 7 per cent, from Region 3, eight boys or 5 per cent, from Region 4, fifteen boys
or 9.5 per cent, from Region 5, and two boys or 1.3 per cent, from the Yukon Territory.
It is natural, because of the greater populations, that Regions 1 and 2 should be the
heaviest contributors.
The charts following page 91 show the average monthly attendance, admissions, and
releases for the fiscal year 1947-48, and the admissions for the twenty-year
period 1928-48.
The large increase in admissions has necessitated our releasing boys after an
average of from five to six months in the school. This, we feel, is too short a period
to derive full benefit from our training programme. On the basis of our present intake,
equipment capable of housing 175 to 200 boys would be necessary in order to provide
facilities for an average twelve-month training period. We regret that the high cost
of construction and scarcity of materials have prevented the development of the new
school project at Wellington.
HEALTH.
As in previous years, we find that many of the boys admitted are in need of medical
and dental care. This has been given in each and every case at considerable cost to
the Government.
We realize that little can be accomplished in changing behaviour patterns if the
patient is ill, and our first consideration is that of health. Upon admission and within
the first month of his being in the school, every boy is subject to the following routine
tests, the results of which play an important part in planning for his training
programme:—
(a) Preliminary inspection by nurse and preparation of available medical
information for complete examination by attending doctor.
(b) Nurse performs h_emoglobin test and blood sedimentation test.
(c) Kahn test—sample to Provincial Laboratory.
(d) Urine sample to Provincial Mental Hospital laboratory for analysis.
(e) Chest X-ray at New Westminster clinic.
(/)  Dental inspection at out-patients' clinic, Vancouver General Hospital. P 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
(g)  Vaccination and immunization where permission is granted.
(h)  Neuropsychiatric examination at Child Guidance Clinic as appointments
are available to us.
(i)  Doctor examines patients and supervises the completion of above tests.
This year has been particularly heavy in the number of cases requiring hospitalization, as the following summary will show:—
Type. Cases.        Hospital-days.
Tonsils and adenoids     5 15
Appendectomy      6 59
Herniotomy     1 10
Circumcision     2 5
Finger amputation     2 18
Varicocele -     1 9
Repair of lacerated hand     1 7
Incision and draining of hand     1 4
Diabetic and epileptic     1 29
Rheumatic fever and acute pericarditis     1 52
Virus pneumonia      2 26
Iritis '     2 37
Perforated eardrum     1 3
Fractured leg      1 1
Chest condition     1 8
Swollen glands      1 4
Venereal disease     2 25
Observation     4 20
Totals   35 332
In addition to the above, a variety of ailments and accidents not requiring hospitalization were treated in the school infirmary.    These included the following:—
Type. Cases.
Pleurisy  3
Fractured hand   1
Fractured thumb   1
Fractured foot   1
Otitis media  2
Epilepsy  2
Lacerations requiring sutures  3
Lumbar puncture  3
Septic throat   4
Fractured nose  2
Sinusitis   2
Ringworm   1
Mumps  6
Influenza    23
Scabies  10
Nits   1
Conjunctivitis  6
Bursitis   1
Gastro-intestinal infection  1
Furuncle    3
Infected leg  3
Eczema     1
Total   80 Q
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fc  REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48.
P 93
During this year the results of the chest X-rays showed two boys suffering from
minimal arrested tuberculosis lesions and one boy with a healed lesion. Results of the
Kahn tests revealed two boys with positive reaction. These were treated at the Vancouver General Hospital under the direction of Provincial venereal disease clinic.
Specialists were consulted for twelve boys, and six were fitted with glasses.
Isolation of twenty-three mild cases of influenza was necessary during February,
1948, and our shortage of adequate isolation facilities was of major concern. Fortunately there was no prevalence of epidemic diseases during the year.
DENTAL SERVICES.
Dr. E. Jones, of New Westminster, and Dr. L. Alexander, of Haney, cared for the
dental requirements of the school in a most satisfactory manner, a total of 179 appointments being filled.
SOCIAL WORK DEPARTMENT.
There were 56 boys in the Boys' Industrial School at the beginning of the fiscal
year 1947-48. Twenty-nine boys were returned from parole and 129 new boys were
admitted, making a total of 214 cases handled during the year ended March 31st, 1948.
Supervision of the new admissions was assumed by the agencies as listed below:—
Cases.
Welfare Branch, New Westminster  3
Welfare Branch, Chilliwack  4
Welfare Branch, Prince Rupert  5
Welfare Branch, Nanaimo  2
Welfare Branch, Cranbrook  1
Welfare Branch, Courtenay  1
Welfare Branch, Burnaby  2
Welfare Branch, Victoria  1
Welfare Branch, Cloverdale  5
Welfare Branch, Pouce Coupe  3
Welfare Branch, Kelowna  4
Welfare Branch, Nelson  1
Socia!
Social
Socia
Socia!
Socia!
Socia!
Socia
Socia
Socia!
Socia
Socia!
Socia
Socia
Socia
Socia
Socia
Socia
Socia
Fami
Welfare Branch, Smithers       1
Welfare Branch, Trail      4
Welfare Branch, Penticton  2
Welfare Branch, Vernon  2
Welfare Branch, Vancouver District  1
Welfare Branch, Alberni. :  1
y Welfare Bureau  16
Victoria Probation Service  7
Vancouver Juvenile Court  30
Provincial Probation Service  2
Children's Aid Society, Vancouver  6
Children's Aid Society, Victoria-
Catholic Children's Aid Society-
Child Welfare Division	
Indian Agent	
Direct case 	
Supervision pending 	
TotaL
129 P 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Supervision of boys returned from parole was assumed by the agencies as listed
below:  Cases.
Social Welfare Branch, Victoria  4
Social Welfare Branch, Cloverdale  1
Social Welfare Branch, Pouce Coupe  1
Social Welfare Branch, Chilliwack  2
Social Welfare Branch, Burnaby  1
Social Welfare Branch, Creston  1
Social Welfare Branch, Victoria District  1
Social Welfare Branch, New Westminster  2
Vancouver Juvenile Court  5
Victoria Probation Service  5
Children's Aid Society, Vancouver  2
Catholic Children's Aid Society  3
Child Welfare Division  1
Total  29
As in the past, individual records were set up on each boy admitted throughout
the year. This meant a referral to the district Social Welfare Branch or private
agency, depending on the location of the boy's home. In this way the school maintained
continuous contact with the family through the social worker during the boy's stay at
the school.
Decentralization has brought the school closer to the district, and a better service
for the boy and school is the result. In many cases full social histories and reports are
received at the time of the boy's admission, which means that little or no time is lost in
planning our training programme for each boy.
During the boy's stay at the school, progress reports are exchanged between the
supervising agency and the school, and plans formulated for his after-care, the home
being prepared for his return and assisted (where necessary) in making adjustments
in order that his rehabilitation will be normal.
Upon release, our contact with the boy ceases officially and the supervising agency
takes over. We find it difficult to assess the value of our training programme, through
having no further contact with the boy, and if it were possible to assemble information
in this regard, it would be of considerable help to us.
The services of the Child Guidance Clinic were used extensively throughout the
year. A total of thirty-six boys were given complete examinations, and many interviews were given in addition. As in the past years, we have found this an invaluable
service in estimating a boy's capabilities and in planning for his future. During the
past year the majority of boys committed from the Vancouver area were examined
prior to committal. This has meant that the training at the Industrial School has been
a part of the entire plan of treatment. It is our hope that it may become possible to
have all boys admitted to the school benefit from this specialized service.
May we express our deep appreciation of the sympathetic understanding and wholehearted co-operation we have enjoyed in our relationship with the staff of the Child
Guidance Clinic and also those of the private agencies, who have shown a great deal of
interest in our programme and have undertaken a great many cases throughout the
year. It has been apparent that their high professional skill, co-operation, and interest
are responsible for a happier and more successful future for a number of our boys.
The Superintendent and Deputy Superintendent of Child Welfare are, of necessity,
very closely related to the work of our school. Their interest in our work, their understanding of our problems, and their full co-operation have made the heavy work of the
past year a pleasure indeed. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 95
EDUCATIONAL.
During this year our school enrolment reached the highest point in several years,
there being seventy boys attending classes.
Auditory and visual aids continue to play an important part in our educational
programme and do much to stimulate interest in the more routine forms of study. We
have secured recordings for music appreciation through the New Westminster library,
but, owing to the great demand, we frequently are unable to secure the desired records
and would like to build up our own library of recordings by the purchase of two recordings per month. By doing so, we would have a selection suited to our needs within
two to three years.
The number of Indian boys attending school is larger than usual. For the most
part these boys have had little academic education prior to coming here. Many of them
are over the compulsory school-age and their attendance is voluntary. They do remarkably good work and might well serve as an example to the other boys. Two 17-year-
olds had never been to school before, yet they could read and write quite well before
leaving and had grasped the fundamentals of arithmetic and spelling within one year.
Six of the eight enrolled in Grade VIII were promoted to Grade IX on approval of
the Inspector.
Three boys continued senior high-school studies by correspondence work—two in
Grade X and one in Grade XI. In addition, the following correspondence courses were
taken: Commercial Art, 1; Mechanical Drawing, 12; Industrial Mathematics, 1. We
express our appreciation of the fine co-operation we have received from Dr. Lucas and
her staff of the correspondence department of the Department of Education.
During the year Mr. Pattern, our Industrial Arts instructor, was forced to resign
owing to ill-health, and we were fortunate to secure J. Collinson to fill the position.
Under his guidance this department has made steady progress, and instruction has
been given in the following subjects: Woodwork, draughting, metalwork, and electricity. A class in motor mechanics, with F. G. Robertson as instructor, has become
very popular and much of the minor repair of school cars is taken care of by this group.
The school staff has not changed this year, E. W. Blagburn being principal, assisted
by J. A. Wicklund (Grades VI and VII) and Mrs. A. L. Arthur (Grades I to V), with
J. Collinson (Industrial Arts) and F. G. Robertson (Motor Mechanics).
Total enrolment of students for the year was 125—33 in Division I, 57 in Division
II, and 35 in Division III. Students were registered in classes for instruction in
Motor Mechanics.
Ages of boys attending school varied from 9 to 17 years, the average intelligence
quotient being 86.
RELIGIOUS TRAINING.
The religious training of our boys is in the capable hands of Rev. Father J. P.
Kane, the Salvation Army, the Sapperton Baptist Church, and Mr. Page of the Gideon's
Society. Both Catholic and Protestant services are held each Sunday, and opportunity
given during the week for the boys to meet with men representative of these organizations for discussion or study.
The boys appreciate these services, and their response has been most gratifying.
The kindly interest taken by these men and the fact that they are willing to give time
to visit the school so regularly is indeed encouraging, and we know that many of our
boys have been helped and influenced by their efforts. In expressing our thanks to
them, we realize that words are sometimes poor vehicles of expression, yet we know
and share with them the inner satisfaction that comes through this form of service
to our fellow-men. P 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
RECREATION AND ENTERTAINMENT.
In addition to regular periods of physical training, which include calisthenics,
gymnastics, and aquatics, group and team games are popular the year around. These
consist principally of soccer, lacrosse, baseball, volleyball, and basketball. School teams
compete with outside groups, such as church, school, and Y.M.C.A. teams. This form
of competitive sport helps our boys to appreciate good sportsmanship and fellowship
and adds interest to their school-life.
Through the generosity of the New Westminster Parks Board, groups of boys
are taken in weekly to witness professional hockey and lacrosse games and other
special features, such as ice carnivals, gymkhanas, circuses, etc. Attendance at these
special events is a privilege for good conduct and is greatly appreciated.
Various service clubs and organizations have been most kind in providing for
our boys when sponsoring special features and in bringing entertainment to the school.
At Christmas fifty-six artists combined to bring us a three-hour entertainment of
very high quality. These included the Vancouver Firemen's Band; Billy Jones and
his orchestra; Miss E. Calangis, feature violinist of CBR; the Rhythm Pals from
station CKNW; Dick Benz, marimba soloist; Calvin George and Jack Ansell,
announcers from station CKWX; W. Brown and G. H. Walker, from the Provincial
Mental Hospital staff. Our grateful thanks are due to these and many others for
giving so generously of their time and talent to bring healthful recreation and entertainment to the boys of our school.
On October 25th, 1947, a Boy Scout troop was organized under the leadership of
P. H. Cooper and has proved to be a very satisfactory interest. The official charter
was presented to the troup in January, 1948, by Provincial Commissioner T. W. S.
Parsons. We have received hearty co-operation in this new venture from the Provincial Boy Scout executive officers, and it is interesting to note that boys who have
been active scouts while in the school apply for transfer to other troops when the time
comes for their release.
Hobbies and handicrafts continue to hold the interest of many lads, and the Hobby
Club, under the leadership of W. Shogan, provides a natural outlet for all boys
interested in this spare-time activity. A variety of models and projects are always
at varying stages of completion.
Picnics, hikes, visits to points of interest, and weekly picture shows help to round
out an adequate programme of recreation and entertainment.
TAILORING.
Owing to the large enrolment this year, our tailoring department, under the
capable leadership of J. Henderson, has experienced a very busy year. While many
lads received some instruction, four selected this department as their major activity
and received training in the fundamentals of this trade.
Mr. Henderson's statistical record shows 25 pairs of tweed pants tailored, 173
pairs of denim pants tailored, 42 aprons, 151 pairs of shorts, 18 table-cloths, 55 tea-
towels, 28 suits cleaned and pressed, 11 pairs of pants cleaned and pressed. To the
above may be added dozens of repair jobs, such as patching and alterations.
This department also looks after the shoe-repairing, which is taken care of by
a local firm. Boots are checked over every week, and 274 pairs were repaired during
the year.
Upon admission a boy's personal clothing is checked in this department and taken
care of until he is released.
GREENHOUSE AND GARDEN.   '
D. W. Munro, gardening instructor, reports a very successful season in his department.    Most boys coming to the school spend some time under his guidance, and many REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48.
P 97
become quite expert in gardening procedure. Instruction is given and covers a wide
range of topics, such as the importance of cultivation, eradication of weeds, application
of fertilizers, combating garden pests, storage of vegetables, purchase of proper seeds,
seeding and transplanting, control of soil erosion, etc.
In addition to receiving instruction, the boys are able to apply their knowledge
in a practical way, and during the year produced 8 tons of potatoes, 4% tons of carrots,
1 ton of onions, three-quarters of a ton of ripe tomatoes, 2% tons of cabbage, 1 ton of
parsnips, 1% tons of beet-root, and 2,000 heads of lettuce, as well as a considerable
crop of cob corn, Swiss chard, green onions, radishes, cauliflower, brussels sprouts,
beans, and peas. Considering the size of our garden and the poor gravelly soil, we
are very pleased with the amount produced and feel that the therapeutic value alone
is worth the effort.
Our small greenhouse is a hive of activity and is used as a class-room. Here
field plants and flowers are propagated under the instructor's guidance.
MOVEMENT OF POPULATION, APRIL 1st, 1947, TO MARCH 31st, 1948.
Number in school, April 1st, 1947  56
Number on parole, April 1st, 1947  191
Number in Oakalla, April 1st, 1947  1
Number absent without leave, April 1st, 1947  2
Number committed for first time during year  129
Number committed for second time during year  1
380
Number released.
119
Number on parole, March 31st, 1948  153
Number in Oakalla, March 31st, 1948  3
Number on extended leave, March 31st, 1948  3
Number absent without leave, March 31st, 1948  7
285
Number in school, March 31st, 1948_
95
LIST OF NEW CASES COMMITTED FROM APRIL 1st, 1947,
TO MARCH 31st, 1948.
No.
Place of Birth.
Parentage.
Residence previous to
Admission to School.
British
Columbia.
Canada.
2364
2365
2366
2367
2368
2369
2370
2371
2372
2373
2374
2375
2376
2377
2378
Hafford, Sask	
Port Hammond, B.C	
Morden, Man	
Vancouver, B.C	
Vancouver, B.C	
Edmonton, Alta	
Vancouver, B.C	
Saskatoon, Sask	
Vancouver, B.C	
Queen Charlotte Islands, B.C
Calgary, Alta	
Vancouver, B.C	
Vancouver, B.C	
Vancouver, B.C	
Vancouver, B.C	
American-Canadian
Canadian (both)	
Canadian (both)	
Canadian (both)	
Scottish-Canadian....
German (both)	
Unknown-Canadian
Canadian (both)	
Canadian (both)	
Canadian-Indian	
Canadian (both)	
Irish-Scottish	
Canadian-English....
English (both)	
Yugoslavian (both).
Years.
3
Life
8
Life
Life
4
Life
1 day
Life
Life
13
Life
Life
Life
Life
Years.
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life BRITISH COLUMBIA.
LIST OF NEW CASES COMMITTED FROM APRIL 1st, 1947,
TO MARCH 31st, IMS—Continued.
No.
Place of Birth.
Parentage.
Residence previous to
Admission to School.
British
Columbia.
Canada.
2379
2380
2381
2382
2383
2384
2385
2386
2387
2388
2389
2390
2391
2392
2393
2394
2395
2396
2397
2398
2399
2400
2401
2402
2403
2404
2405
2406
2407
2408
2409
2410
2411
2412
2413
2414
2415
2416
2417
2418
2419
2420
2421
2422
2423
2424
2425
2426
2427
2428
2429
2430
2431
2432
2433
2434
2435
2436
2437
2438
New Westminster, B.C..
Vancouver, B.C	
Vancouver, B.C	
Vancouver, B.C	
Arran, Sask	
McLennan, Alta	
Rochfort Bridge, Alta....
Kaslo, B.C	
Vancouver, B.C	
Vancouver, B.C	
Vancouver, B.C	
Vancouver, B.C	
Vancouver, B.C	
Barrett, B.C	
Victoria, B.C	
Burns Lake, B.C	
Vancouver, B.C	
Coalhurst, Alta	
Vancouver, B.C	
Stoughton, Sask	
Regina, Sask	
Montreal, Que	
Courtenay, B.C	
Vancouver, B.C	
Chilliwack, B.C	
Pigeon Lake, Man	
Victoria, B.C	
Winnipeg, Man ,
Vancouver, B.C	
Enderby, B.C	
Moose Jaw, Sask	
Saskatoon, Sask	
Melville, Sask	
Westbank, B.C	
Penticton, B.C	
Islay, Alta	
Islay, Alta	
Lavington, B.C	
Lavington, B.C	
Fort St. John, B.C	
Winnipeg, Man	
Blairmore, Alta	
Dinsmore, Sask	
Detroit, Mich	
Vancouver, B.C	
Calderbank, Sask	
Westlock, Alta	
Hazelton, B.C	
Gleichen, Alta	
Vancouver, B.C	
Vancouver, B.C	
Lethbridge, Alta	
Nelson, B.C	
Nelson, B.C	
Westlock, Alta	
Calgary, Alta	
Vancouver, B.C	
Vancouver, B.C	
Nelson, B.C	
Vancouver, B.C	
Unknown-Finnish	
Canadian (both)	
Canadian (both)	
Scottish (both)	
Ukrainian (both)	
Canadian (both)	
Polish (both)	
Chinese (both)	
English-Scottish	
Scottish (both)	
Canadian (both)	
Canadian (both)	
English-Scottish	
Indian (both)	
Canadian (both)	
Canadian-American	
Polish (both)	
Canadian (both)	
Canadian (both)	
Unknown	
Canadian-Russian	
Scottish-English	
Canadian-English ,
Scottish-Canadian	
Chinese-Canadian	
Canadian (both)	
Scottish-English	
English (both)	
Polish (both)	
Indian (both)	
English (both)	
American-Canadian	
Swiss-Canadian	
Indian (both)	
Scottish-English	
Swedish-Danish	
Swedish-Danish	
Ukrainian (both)	
Ukrainian (both)	
Canadian-American	
Canadian (both)	
Czechoslovakian (both)..
Canadian (both)	
Unknown	
Canadian (both)	
English-Scottish	
Scottish (both)	
Indian (both)	
Canadian (both)	
Scottish-Canadian	
English-Scottish	
Scottish (both)	
Canadian (both)	
Canadian (both)	
American (both)	
Canadian (both)	
Scottish (both)	
Unknown	
Canadian (both)	
Canadian (both)	
Years.
Life
Life
Life
Life
2
9
5
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
3 mos.
Life
Life
Life
Life
5
Life
10
Life
Life
10
10
9
Life
Life
9
9
Life
Life
Life
8
2
4
1 mo.
Life
16
9
Life
4
Life
Life
3
Life
Life
1
10
Life
Life
Life
Life
Years.
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
1 mo.
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48.
P 99
LIST OF NEW CASES COMMITTED FROM APRIL 1st, 1947,
TO MARCH 31st, 1948—Continued.
No.
Place of Birth.
Parentage.
Residence
previous to
Admission to School.
British
Columbia.
Canada.
Years.
Years.
Life
Life
5
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
11
Life
Life
Life
2 days
2 days
Life
Life
10
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
5
Life
16
Life
6 mos.
Life
Life
Life
3
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
3
Life
11
Life
Life
Life
3
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
1 day
Life
Life
Life
4 mos.
Life
4 mos.
Life
10
Life
Life
Life
7
Life
Unknown
Life
3
Life
Life
Life
9
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
6 mos.
Life
Life
Life
15
Life
Life
Life
12
Life
1
Life
Life
Life
Life
Life
2439
2440
2441
2442
2443
2444
2445
2446
2447
2448
2449
2450
2451
2452
2453
2454
2455
2456
2457
2458
2459
2460
2461
2462
2463
2464
2465
2466
2467
2468
2469
2470
2471
2472
2473
2474
2475
2476
2477
2478
2479
2480
2481
2482
2483
2484
2485
2486
2487
2488
2489
2490
2491
2492
Vancouver, B.C	
Prince Albert, Sask	
Vancouver, B.C	
Victoria, B.C	
Banff, Alta	
Lytton, B.C	
Winslow, Wash	
Vernon, B.C	
Edmonton, Alta	
New Westminster, B.C..
Anyox, B.C.	
Edmonton, Alta	
Edmonton, Alta	
Edmonton, Alta	
Vancouver, B.C	
Ituna, Sask	
Kamloops, B.C	
Vancouver, B.C	
Edmonton, Alta	
Moose Jaw, Sask.	
Vancouver, B.C.	
Mannville, Alta	
Hazelton, B.C.	
Vancouver, B.C	
Victoria, B.C	
Vancouver, B.C	
Victoria, B.C	
Victoria, B.C	
Alert Bay, B.C	
Port Essington, B.C	
Port Simpson, B.C	
High River, Alta	
Vancouver, B.C	
Toronto, Ont	
Sudbury, Ont	
Medicine Hat, Alta.	
Vancouver, B.C	
1 Vancouver, B.C	
Rimbey, Alta	
Tuberose, Sask	
Nanaimo, B.C	
Saskatoon, Sask	
Prince Rupert, B.C	
Port Essington, B.C	
Telegraph Creek, B.C	
Telegraph Creek, B.C....
East End, Sask	
Old Church House, B.C..
Medicine Hat, Alta	
Vancouver, B.C	
Rapid City, Man	
Sault St. Marie, Ont	
Vancouver, B.C	
Vancouver, B.C	
Canadian (both)	
Canadian (both)	
Russian (both)	
Canadian (both)	
German-Canadian	
Indian (both)	
Indian (both) ,
Canadian (both)	
English (both)	
English (both)	
American-Unknown...
Russian-Ukrainian	
Canadian-English	
Canadian (both)	
Canadian-Swedish	
Canadian (both)	
Chinese-Canadian	
Canadian (both)	
American-Canadian...
Canadian (both)	
Scottish-American	
Ukrainian (both)	
Indian (both)	
Canadian-English	
Scottish (both)	
Scottish-Canadian	
English (both)	
Canadian-American....
Indian (both)	
Indian (both)	
Indian (both)	
Scottish-Canadian	
Portuguese-Unknown
Greek (both)	
Yugoslavian-Serbian..
American-Canadian...
Canadian-English	
Canadian (both)	
Welsh-Canadian	
Ukrainian-American..
Canadian (both)	
Unknown-Canadian...
Indian (both)	
Indian (both)	
Canadian-Indian	
Canadian-Indian	
Canadian-English	
Indian (both)	
American-German	
Canadian-Scottish	
Canadian-English	
Canadian (both)	
Canadian-English	
Canadian (both)	 P 100
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
NATIONALITY OF PARENTS.
American (both)   1
American-Canadian  4
American-German   1
American-Unknown  1
Canadian (both)   36
Canadian-American  3
Canadian-English   8
Canadian-Indian 	
Canadian-Russian
Canadian-Scottish
Canadian-Swedish
Chinese (both)   1
Chinese-Canadian   2
Czechoslovakian (both)   1
English (both)   6
English-Scottish  4
German (both)   1
German-Canadian   1
Greek (both)   1
Indian (both)   13
Irish-Scottish   1
Polish (both)   3
Portuguese-Unknown   1
Russian (both)   1
Russian-Ukrainian   1
Scottish (both)   6
Scottish-American   1
Scottish-Canadian   5
Scottish-English   3
Swedish-Danish  2
Swiss-Canadian  1
Unknown   3
Unknown-Canadian   2
Unknown-Finnish   1
Ukrainian (both)   4
Ukrainian-American   1
Welsh-Canadian   1
Yugoslavian (both)   1
Yugoslavian-Serbian   1
Total
Recidivists 	
129
29
158
COMPARATIVE STATISTICAL INFORMATION FOR THE
YEARS 1945-46, 1946-47, 1947-48.
Birthplaces.
1945-46.
_    15
Alberta 	
British Columbia  62
  1
  6
  3
England  	
Manitoba 	
Ontario  	
Quebec 	
Saskatchewan 	
United States of America
Unknown 	
19
5
1946-47.
11
42
4
2
1
1947-48.
24
78
5
3
1
16
2
Totals  111
Recidivists 	
69
129
29
158 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 101
Charges resulting in Commitment.
1945-46. 1946-47. 1947-48.
Theft      40 27 49
Attempted theft        2   2
Breaking and entering       3 2 7
Breaking and entering and stealing     38 21 33
Attempted breaking and entering and stealing      1            	
Robbery    1
Retaining stolen property       4 13
Arson        2            	
Assault   1         	
Indecent assault  2 7
Indecent exposure     1         	
Rape     1
Attempted rape    1
Sexual immorality    7
Armed robbery       2            	
Buggery       1            	
Murder       1  	
Violation of probation       4            	
Incorrigibility        7 7 8
Truancy     6
Unlawfully stopping mail    1
Infraction of " Railway Act "   1          	
Infraction of " Government Liquor Act "  1          	
Forgery        2            	
Being intoxicated     2          	
Possessing intoxicant   1          	
Attempt to defraud      3           	
False pretence       111
Vagrancy    1
Unlawful escape  1          	
Being a juvenile delinquent      1
Totals  111 69 129
Recidivists   29
158
Ages op Boys.
1945-46. 1946-47. 1947-48.
8 years   1          	
9 years        1   2
10 years       2 11
11 years -      2 17
12 years  -     11 6 11
13 years       9 11 13
14 years      19 11 25
15 years      30 14 39
16 years      26 13 19
17 years      11 11 12
Totals  111 69 129
Recidivists   29
PROVINCIAL LIBRARY,
VICTORIA, B. C.
158 P 102
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Length of Sentence.
1945-46.
Indefinite       93
Indefinite—not over 2 years      15
1 year        1
Not over 1 year       1
3 years 	
Until 18 years of age       1
1946-47.
66
1947-48.
127
Totals  111
Recidivists 	
69
129
29
Places of Apprehension.
Agassiz  	
Alberni 	
Alert Bay 	
Armstrong 	
Bella Coola 	
Brighouse 	
Burnaby 	
Campbell River
Chilliwack 	
Clinton  	
Cloverdale 	
Coquitlam  	
Courtenay 	
Cranbrook 	
Creston  	
Dawson Creek
Duncan 	
Enderby 	
Fernie  	
Fort St. John
Hammond 	
Haney 	
Hazelton 	
Hope 	
Kelowna 	
Keremeos 	
Kimberley 	
1945-46.
1
1
1
2
5
Kootenay, County of	
Ladysmith       2
Langley	
Lytton  	
Maple Ridge 	
Mission 	
Murrayville  	
Nanaimo  	
Nelson  	
New Westminster
1946-47.
2
158
1947-48. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 103
Places of Apprehension—Continued.
1945-46. 1946-47. 1947-48.
North Bend        1            	
North Vancouver       1 3         	
Penticton         2 2 1
Port Alberni       2  1
Port Coquitlam        2            	
Powell River       1 1         	
Prince George       2 2 2
Prince Rupert        3 15
Princeton        1   1
Queen Charlotte City       1           	
Quesnel        1           	
Quinsam        1           	
Revelstoke   1         	
Rossland        1
Sechelt        111
Sidney        1 1
Smithers  -       112
Squamish     1
Squirrel Cove     1
Trail         3 3 3
Transferred from Oakalla        1           	
University Hill     2
Vancouver  -    21 21 56
Vernon      1 1
Victoria      14 8 9
West Summerland        1            	
West Vancouver      2           	
Whitehorse, Y.T.   _____ 2
Williams Lake     1          	
Totals  111 69 129
Recidivists      29
158 P 104 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
1946-47.
1947-48
25
67
1
3
4
4
7
8
13
24
7
4
2
Parental Relationships.
1945-46.
With both parents living     55
With both parents dead       1
With father living and mother dead       2
With mother living and father dead       7
With both parents living but separated ____     22
With foster-parents      2
With mother dead and father married again____ 2
With father dead and mother married again ___ 8
With parents separated and father married
again         2 14
With parents separated and mother married
again       10 6 7
With parents separated and both married again   3 1
With mother dead and father's whereabouts
unknown  -  1 	
With mother living and father's whereabouts
unknown   1 .
With parents' whereabouts unknown    3
With   adoptive   mother   living  and   adoptive
father dead    2
Totals  111 69 129
Recidivists     29
158
Religion.
1945-46.
Agnostic   	
Baptist         5
Church of England      25
Foursquare Gospel   	
Fundamentalist   	
Greek Catholic 	
Greek Orthodox        1
Lutheran        2
Methodist        1
Nazarene   	
Pentecostal      3
Presbyterian      4
Roman Catholic    27
Russian Orthodox       1
Salvation Army       2
Seventh-day Adventist   	
United      17
Non-denominational      23
Totals __ .111
Recidivists
946-47.
1947-48
1
3
12
18
1
1
1
2
5
1
4
1
1
1
2
5
17
30
2
1
2
1
12
20
18
36
69
129
__    29 REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL WELFARE  BRANCH, 1947-48.
P 105
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oOJO P 106 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
CONCLUSION.
There are so many individuals, departments of Government, and agencies, both
public and private, with whom we work that we are apt sometimes to take their efforts
for granted. I would be remiss in my duty if I did not take this opportunity of expressing my thanks to each and every one for the many services rendered to the school on
behalf of our boys, and to tell them that while their names may not appear in print,
nevertheless their work and co-operation are deeply appreciated.
George Ross,
Superintendent. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 107
INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS.
During the period from April 1st, 1947, to March 31st, 1948, the regular programmes were carried on in the various departments of the school.
Generally speaking, the health of the girls has been good and has been maintained
under the close supervision of our staff nurse. Our school physician held a weekly
clinic, giving each new girl a complete physical examination. All girls appeared at the
chest clinic for X-ray. A weekly clinic continued to be held by the Venereal Disease
Division of the Provincial Board of Health. Dental appointments were arranged for
at the Capitol Hill Dental Clinic, and this was a great convenience. A number of
girls have been fitted with glasses. The result of these attentions has been a noted
increase in the ability and interest with which the girls approach their training.
Small numbers of girls and various changes in staff have made it difficult to
arrange advantageous training programmes. The sewing-room was able to produce
the necessary requirements for personal use, such as dresses, undergarments, and bed
and table linen, but maintenance fell below standard owing to the few girls who took
training in this department.
Kitchen training always seems to be the goal toward which girls cast longing eyes
and, of course, is a most important phase of training. Here the girls receive instruction in planning and preparation of meals, as well as canning and preserving.
Many of our girls plan to become waitresses, and I have always felt that training
in this work should be stressed. Our dining-room provides practice in setting of
tables, care of dishes, and serving of meals.
General housework is the theme of dormitory and main floors. The laundry is
a most important branch of training, as it fits our girls for congenial and suitable
employment upon release.
Handiwork classes have continued as usual, and all girls have received tuition
in work in which they show especial interest or ability, as well as learning to knit.
Each one has a sweater of her own work for use while here and to take with her
when she leaves.
During the winter a new department called the annex was opened in our well-
equipped detention-quarters. Here were placed in separate rooms those girls who
had found it impossible to adjust in the main floor group, and for whom segregation
was found necessary, both for their own good and that of the remainder of the school.
In a small school any other means of segregation was impossible, and the entire lower
floor was prepared for their use. During the day the group functioned as a unit,
with constant close supervision of sympathetic staff. And these girls showed an
immediate response, both physically and emotionally.
I will always remember the happy Christmas I spent with this group. They had
their own Christmas tree, small gifts they had made for one another, and the table
with decorations of their own manufacture was a joy to behold. Their own enjoyment
and happy faces were the best of all.
A programme of school-work, housework, handicrafts, and outdoor physical exercise and recreation was carried out.
Owing to unforeseen, unfortunate circumstances, this department was closed.
Our appreciation is extended to the various representatives of the Church of
England, United Church, Salvation Army, and Women's Christian Temperance Union,
who have consistently carried out their religious programmes on the various Sundays
each month, and to the ever-faithful groups, both Roman Catholic and Protestant, who
have continued their visits for religious training during the week.
During the winter months we continued to enjoy the delightful concerts and
entertainment provided by the Women's Musical Club, Women's Philharmonic Orchestra, and Lions' Club Orchestra. P 108 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The Child Guidance Clinic has provided most adequate assistance in planning for
the training and future of the girls.
Recreation hours were made enjoyable by a weekly movie, playing-field and
gymnasium facilities, various parties, library and radio.
The movements of the school classes were as follows:—
On roll, April 1st, 1947     7
Enrolled in correspondence courses during term     8
Attending classes, not enrolled in Correspondence Courses     8
—   23
Released during term     17
On roll March 31st, 1948      6
Of all these girls who passed through the school-room this year, only one girl
received a certificate of partial standing in Grade IX. With such a short time in this
institution, it is impossible for any student to make satisfactory progress unless she
has more time in classes. I trust that I shall be able to make some helpful suggestions
whereby greater advantage can be taken of the educational facilities of the school.
I wish to gratefully acknowledge the assistance received from various sources
during the year and the co-operation of the staff.
POPULATION OF SCHOOL, MARCH 31st, 1948.
On roll, April 1st, 1947  19
Girls admitted during year April 1st, 1947, to March 31st, 1948  25
44
Released on parole  27
Transferred to other institutions     1
Transferred out of British Columbia      2
— 30
Total in school, March 31st, 1948  14 REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48.
P 109
LIST OF GIRLS ADMITTED FROM APRIL 1ST, 1947, TO MARCH 31st, 1948.
No.
Place of Birth.
Parentage.
Residence previous
to Admission
to School.
British
Columbia.
Canada.
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
Armstrong, B.C	
Victoria, B.C	
Winnipeg, Man	
Fort St. John, B.C	
Winslow, Wash., U.S.A	
Vancouver, B.C	
Vancouver, B.C	
West Saanich Reserve	
Nelson, B.C	
Vancouver, B.C	
Fort St. John, B.C	
Vancouver, B.C	
American Bar, Hope, B.C..
Batoche, Sask	
Vancouver, B.C	
Squirrel Cove, B.C	
Calgary, Alta	
Wilmer.B.C	
Saskatchewan	
Lethbridge, Alta	
Alert Bay, B.C	
Leader, Sask	
Regina, Sask	
Vancouver, B.C	
Dawson, Y.T	
American	
Welsh-Canadian...	
Irish-English	
Scottish-Indian	
Indian	
Scottish, English-American..
English-German	
Indian	
Hungarian	
Scottish-Irish	
Irish	
French-Canadian	
Indian	
Half-breed	
Dutch	
Indian	
Scottish-Irish	
Indian	
Irish, American-Swedish	
English-Austrian	
Hawaiian, English-Indian	
Russian-Yugoslav	
American	
English -	
English-Danish	
Years.
17
15
14
16
12
15
13
16
16
16
15
12
15
1
15
17
10
12
5
15
14
4
12
17
6 mos.
Years.
17
15
14
16
12
15
13
16
16
16
15
12
15
17
15
17
17
12
15
15
14
15
14
17
17
NATIONALITY OF PARENTS.
American (both)   2
Dutch  (both)    1
English (both)   1
English-Austrian     1
English-Danish   1
English-German    1
English, Hawaiian-Indian. 1
French-Canadian   (both) ___ 1
Hungarian   (both)    1
Half-breed (both)   1
Indian  (both)    5
Irish  (both)   1
Irish-English    1
Irish, American-Swedish __ 1
Russian-Yugoslav  1
Scottish-Indian  1
Scottish, English-American 1
Scottish-Irish  2
Welsh-Canadian     1
Total.
25
WHERE GIRLS WERE BORN.
Alert Bay, B.C  1
Armstrong, B.C.   1
Batoche, Sask.   1
Calgary, Alta.   1
Dawson, Y.T.   1
Fort St. John, B.C.   2
Hope, B.C.   1
Leader, Sask.   1
Lethbridge, Alta.   1
Nelson, B.C  1
Regina, Sask.  1
Saskatchewan   1
Squirrel Cove, B.C.  1
Vancouver, B.C.   6
Victoria, B.C.   1
West Saanich, B.C.   1
Wilmer, B.C.   1
Winnipeg, Man.   1
Winslow, Wash., U.S.A.__.__ 1
Total  25 P HO BRITISH COLUMBIA.
AGES OF GIRLS.
11 years  1      15 years  6
12 years  2      16 years  5
13 years  1      17 years  6
14 years  4 —
Total  25
PLACES OF APPREHENSION.
Cranbrook  1 Powell River     1
Dawson, Y.T.  1 Vancouver   11
Duncan,  V.I  1 Vernon     2
Kamloops, B.C  1 Victoria     4
Maple Ridge  1 . —
New Westminster  2 Total  25
OFFENCES COMMITTED.
Sexual immorality     5 Theft     1
Intoxication      2 Supplying intoxicant to an
Vagrancy     3 Indian      1
Incorrigibility   13 ■—
Total  25
LENGTH OF SENTENCE.
Sec.   20,   Juvenile   Delin-                      Sec. 40, Government Liquor
quents Act, 1929:  16 Act, 1936     1
Industrial School for Girls'                     Sec.   16,   Juvenile   Delin-
Act     4 quents Act, 1908     1
Indeterminate     3 —
Total  25
RELIGIOUS STATISTICS.
Baptist     1 United Church     3
Church of England     8 Unknown      1
Presbyterian     1 —
Roman Catholic  11 Total  25
GIRLS AND THEIR PARENTS.
Number who have both parents living  19
Number who have father living, mother dead  1
Number who have mother living, father dead  2
Number whose parents are dead  2
Number who have mother living, father unknown  1
Total  25
Of the above, the parents of four girls are separated; the parents of one girl are
divorced;  six girls have stepfathers;  and three girls have stepmothers. .
REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 111
EXPENSES AND REVENUE STATEMENT OF SCHOOL,
MARCH 31ST, 1948.
Total inmate-days from April 1st, 1947, to March 31st, 1948  6,783
Per capita cost, one year     $2,136.71
Per capita cost, one day  5.8540
Operating expenditure by voucher—
Salaries   $22,927.30
Cost-of-living bonus      3,315.31
Office and school supplies, etc.—
Postage, office and school supplies  $262.98
Telephone and telegraph     172.85
  435.83
Travelling expenses  611.17
Farm operations          287.19
Furnishings, equipment, etc  823.30
Clothing—
Clothing  $673.29
Boots and shoes     303.11
  976.40
Janitors' supplies  301.60
Fuel, light, and water—
Fuel   $2,662.81
Water       459.75
Light and power        620.28
       3,742.84
Provisions—
Groceries   $3,315.47
Meat  1,064.16
Fish  97.32
4,476.95
Medical attendance, medical supplies, and dental cost—
Medical attendance  $572.00
Medical supplies      258.05
Surgery        70.00
Dental cost     359.00
Eyes examined and glasses provided       31.60
       1,290.65
Good Conduct Fund  163.93
Incidentals and contingencies  544.25
Total expenditure for year by voucher  $39,896.72
Maintenance and repairs (expended through Public Works Department)       2,453.18
$42,349.90
Inventory, March 31st, 1947  938.62
$43,288.52
Less board   $1,927.34
Less rent        398.88
Less credit for sale of garden produce        195.37
Less inventory, March 31st, 1948     1,059.23
       3,580.82
$39,707.70 P 112
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Reconciliation with Public Accounts.
Expenditure as per Public Accounts_
$37,375.13
Add Public Works expenditure      2,453.18
Deduct increase in inventory.
Expenditure as per above statement-
$39,828.31
120.61
$39,707.70
Ayra E. Peck,
Superintendent. REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL WELFARE  BRANCH, 1947-48. P 113
PROVINCIAL HOME.
I submit herewith the annual report of the Provincial Home, Kamloops, for the
year ended March 31st, 1948.
My appointment as superintendent became effective on May 1st, 1948, which indicates that the period under review pertains to the fiscal year prior to my assignment.
For that reason, I believe it would be presumptuous on my part to comment on the
year's operations. I sincerely trust, however, that at the end of the next fiscal year
I shall be able to submit an extensive and detailed report on improvements accomplished and contemplated.
I wish to commend the staff for their co-operation during my tenure of office.
James M. Shilland,
Superintendent.
HEALTH.
I beg to submit herewith a brief report of that phase of the operation of the
Provincial Home under my supervision during the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1948.
All persons in the sick ward and all others requiring medical or surgical attention come under my supervision. These patients are visited by the doctor once each
week, and who is available if called upon at other times. In day-to-day attention to
our patients in the sick ward and many other residents, it is found that they require
regular treatment for injured nails, corns, callouses, and to eyes and ears.
Approximately forty of the men in the home are chronic cases, requiring routine
care, according to their condition. All these men have meals served to them under my
direction.
Male orderlies do the bathing and perform general services to the patients.
I am pleased to report that we have had no serious epidemic of any form during
this year.
It is my constant endeavour to render every service I can and to make our patients
as comfortable and as happy as possible.
To that end, for the convenience of the staff and the institution as a whole, I trust
that from time to time I shall be able to make further suggestions and recommendations for more efficient and economical management.
Mary H. Aynsley, R.N.,
Matron. P 114 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
EXPENDITURE FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED MARCH 31st, 1948.
Salaries   $48,155.42
Less—
Board and rent deductions  $3,358.66
Charged to Provincial Police        790.80
Charged to Public Works     1,368.00
Compensation—H. Haffter   83.05
D.V.A.—G. Van Koughnett         154.14
       5,754.65
  $42,400.77
Cost-of-living bonus      $6,925.71
Less—
Charged to Provincial Police      $109.17
Charged to Public Works        163.76
  272.93
       6,652.78
Expenses—
Office supplies         $518.59
Less Unemployment Insurance deductions  118.76
399.83
Fuel, light, and water  $12,845.94
Less—
Charged to Provincial Police  $1,446.76
Charged to Public Works     1,587.95
       3,034.71
       9,811.23
Maintenance   425.00
Furnishings and fixtures      $1,348.13
Less J.V. 16—Hulbert Bequest Account         225.00
      1,123.13
Provisions     $21,076.93
Less—
Tobacco sales to inmates      $223.57
Farm sale of hogs        843.04
       1,066.61
20,010.32
Clothing      $3,022.35
Less refund—Perfect Fit  12.00
      3,010.35
Medical surgical supplies        3,725.90
Transportation of inmates        $454.68
Less J.V. 7—F. Mason, refund  2.90
         451.78
Carried forward  $88,011.09 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 115
EXPENDITURE FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED MARCH 31st, 1948—
Continued.
Brought forward   $88,011.09
Feed for live stock         778.44
Incidentals and contingencies   $11,498.39
Less—•
Rent for pasture-land        $12.00
Comfort money to pensioners     6,506.37
Comfort money to non-pensioners       661.00
Films         285.00
Radio installation         598.28
■       8,062.65
       3,435.74
Provincial Home expenditure   $92,225.27
Public Works expenditure       4,667.73
Total expenditure   $96,893.00
Moneys paid to Government Agent, Kamloops  $48,147.57
Reconciliation with Public Accounts.
Net expenditure as per Public Accounts  $37,055.46
Add—
Maintenance receipts   $55,169.81
Public Works expenditure        4,667.73
     59,837.54
Expenditure as per statement above  $96,893.00
Inmate-days.
Inmates in home, March 31st, 1947  146
Inmates admitted during the year     72
  218
Inmates discharged     41
Inmates died      32
    73
Total number of inmates, March 31st, 1948  145
Total number of inmate-days .  50,928
Total per diem per capita cost  $1,902 P 116 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
DIVISION OF TUBERCULOSIS CONTROL.
The Social Service Department in the Division of Tuberculosis Control was actually started in 1935, when Miss Johnson, a member of the Welfare Field Service staff,
was loaned to the Vancouver Division of Tuberculosis Control to start a programme of
social work. The department has grown gradually until now there are social workers
in all four hospital units of the Division. There are four workers and a supervisor
at the Vancouver unit, including St. Joseph's Oriental Hospital, one worker at Jericho
Beach unit, one worker in the Victoria unit, and, at the present time, one worker at
Tranquille. During the past year, at one period there were three workers at Tranquille, which is a more adequate number to cover the work. Over all these workers
there is the Provincial supervisor.
The number of cases dealt with by individual workers decreased slightly during
the year owing to two factors:—
(1) The social workers no longer do a 100-per-cent. review of all new cases
admitted to the hospital units. At the request of the Director of the
Division of Tuberculosis Control, the medical men are responsible, or the
nurses through the medical men, for being aware of patients' problems
and referring those needing help to the social worker.
(2) During the year three meetings were held with the supervisor of nurses,
Metropolitan Health Committee; the welfare director, Vancouver City
Social Service Department; a representative of the Medical Section, City
Social Service Department; and the Provincial supervisor and case-work
supervisor from this Department to discuss the question of co-operative
work with out-patients. It was decided that the City Social Service
Department would take major responsibility for case-work service with
patients and their families in receipt of social assistance. If patients
were not in receipt of assistance, the public health nurse, who would be
visiting regularly from the public health point of view, would be responsible for recognizing and referring patients who were needing case-work
help to the appropriate agency, which might be the Children's Aid Society,
the Family Welfare Bureau, or the Social Service Department of the
Division of Tuberculosis Control.
There are certain cases which the social workers of this Department feel are primarily cases for specialized service, which a medical social worker can give more
adequately. In these cases the major responsibility will remain with the social workers
of the Division of Tuberculosis Control, on consultation with the City Social Service
Department and the Metropolitan Health Committee, and the services of the public
health nurse or the City Social Service Department will be used as resources by this
Department. This policy has reduced to a great extent the pressure on our social
workers who were acting as go-betweens between the public health nurse and the City
Social Service Department without taking real responsibility for the cases themselves.
This lessening of pressure on the workers has meant that the quality of our work has
been improved.
The Provincial supervisor, the case-work supervisor, and individual workers have
all taken part in training plans for public health nursing students, student-nurse
affiliates, in-service training personnel, and have given time to new nursing-staff
members who are receiving orientation to the Division, or to new members of the
Social Welfare Branch Field Service. For instance, all public health nursing students
who do their field-work in the Division of Tuberculosis Control spend some time with
the social workers, who give them a brief interpretation of the role of the medical
social worker in general, and in a tuberculosis division in particular.   There are regular REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 117
lectures to each new group of student-nurses, who must affiliate in a tuberculosis unit
before they can graduate. They are also given interpretation as to what social work
is in general, and what social work in a hospital is in particular.
During the year, also the Provincial supervisor spent some time in giving formal
interpretation to the medical staff of the role of the social worker in a hospital unit
and. the ways in which the medical personnel could call on the social workers for help.
A staff-development programme for the social workers was instituted in the fall
by having Miss Leigh, Assistant Director of Welfare, come and discuss the ramifications
of the Social Welfare Branch. One of the staff doctors who has a great interest in
psychosomatic medicine gave a series of lectures on the emotional component in illness,
with particular reference to the cardiovascular system, and the sympathetic nervous
system and the effect of emotion on the physiology of the human body. We also
obtained social-case record material from the Montreal School of Social Work to give
a broader understanding of other aspects of medical social work than that to be found
in a tuberculosis unit.
Considerable time was spent on the collection of information for studies of various
phases of the work. For instance, one study was made of the boarding-home service
in Vancouver. The Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Control wished information
as to the incidence of infection, first, of marital partners of known patients and, later,
of marital partners of patients known to have positive sputa at the time they were
at home. It was most interesting, because it was found that the incidence of infection
in both groups was remarkably low.
One of the most difficult problems the social workers in the Division of Tuberculosis
Control have to deal with is that of the unco-operative patient, usually a single man,
who is an alcoholic or who is emotionally disturbed in other ways and creates a great
deal of trouble in the wards. It has been necessary, on occasion, for the directors of
the different units to discharge these patients immediately because of the disrupting
effect they had in the wards. The Provincial supervisor collected a number of case-
histories of such patients and presented them in a brief form to the Director of the
Division. He then presented this material to psychiatrists from the Mental Hospital
Division in an effort to find a solution to the problem. So far no adequate solution has
been found. However, since early in the year the service of a psychiatrist who acts
as a consultant to the social workers has been available, and we have been able to refer
some of our most difficult problem cases to him and have received a great deal of help
in our handling of these cases.
Also, during the year, the Research Consultant of the Social Welfare Branch spent
several months in the Department doing a study at the request of the Minister of
Health and Welfare. While it is true that the Research Consultant did the actual work,
it was necessary for the social workers to spend a great deal of time with her in going
over cases and discussing different aspects of the patients' problems.
Early in the year the British Columbia Tuberculosis Society had appointed a
rehabilitation director. The members of the Social Service staff were extremely pleased
with this development, as they had been attempting to help patients plan a rehabilitation
programme which would carry them from the first days in hospital until they were
placed in jobs. It was not possible to do an adequate job because understanding the
condition of the labour market and knowledge of skills and training needed for certain
types of jobs was outside our field. The rehabilitation officer has some training and
has a great deal of understanding of these problems, and is able to work along with us
in planning for our patients. A questionnaire which was prepared with help from the
social workers produced some extremely interesting information about the patient-group
and enabled a better type of planning and rehabilitation conference to be instituted. P 118 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Every patient in the unit is discussed at the rehabilitation conference, consisting
of the doctor in charge of the case, the nurse, the occupational therapist, the schoolteacher, the rehabilitation officer, and the social worker. In this way it is hoped that
useful training will be obtained for patients, that job counselling and placement will
be possible, and that the patient's individual preferences and emotional problems will
all be given consideration in any planning being done for him.
The greatest difficulty in the work of the Department is due to the fact that it is
hard to keep staff at the Tranquille unit. As we end the year with only one full-time
worker there, we hope that it will be possible shortly to find other trained workers who
will be available for duty.
Helen M. Sutherland,
Supervisor. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 119
DIVISION OF VENEREAL DISEASE CONTROL.
Until the end of 1944 the chief work of the social workers in the Division of
Venereal Disease Control was the epidemiology—that is, the case-finding and case-
holding. The case-holding programme was really one of case-work service because of
the nature and length of treatment. Patients needed a tremendous amount of understanding and guidance to enable them to continue attendance until the treatment was
completed. ,
By the beginning of 1945 two things had happened which completely changed the
picture. Firstly, entirely new short treatment techniques which utilized the new
drugs were adopted in British Columbia. This meant that the contact of the clinic
personnel, especially the social workers, was reduced to a few interviews with a patient
instead of consisting of a slowly developing relationship over a period of months.
Secondly, with the disturbed conditions caused by the war reaching a peak, the number
of new infections went up at an alarming rate. This necessitated a complete overhauling and strengthening of the case-finding services. It was apparent that this was
really a service for adequately trained public health nurses, as the problem could only
be tackled successfully on a health basis.
Provincial epidemiologists whose territories covered most of the Province were
appointed. As new epidemiological workers were appointed to the Vancouver clinic,
gradually they took over the duties formerly assigned to the social workers. By working closely with the senior epidemiological worker, a new system of referral of cases
requiring case-work help was established.
The cases to be routinely referred were: (1) All juveniles, whether they had new
infections or congenital conditions; (2) all pregnant women; (3) all persons needing
financial assistance; (4) such of the patients as the nurse felt to be emotionally disturbed, unco-operative, etc. This system has worked very well. The social workers
have been doing more case-work than before. Because of the short contact with
patients, they have developed greater skill in short contact interviewing. They also
have been able to do more intensive case-work with a few patients who have needed a
great deal of help.
During the year 1947 the Provincial supervisor of social work and the case-work
supervisor at the Vancouver clinic have been active participants in staff policy-making
meetings. The clinic case-work supervisor also played an active part in establishing
a new diagnostic and treatment service at the Police Court. She also acted constantly
as an interpreter of social-work functions to the medical and nursing staff.
One of the duties still assigned to the social worker which might be better assumed
by some other person on the clinic staff has been that of compiling and distributing
the statistical information on facilitation. " The facilitation process comprises those
community conditions associated with the direct or indirect, witting or unwitting
participation, usually for monetary gain, of third persons whereby individuals suffering
from communicable venereal disease are made accessible for intimate exposure to
healthy persons "—this definition is taken from the Canadian Journal of Public Health.
The compilation of the statistical reports in such a form that the immediate situation
can be seen at a glance has meant that the social worker has spent many hours doing
this kind of work. It is to be hoped that in the near future this responsibility will
be transferred to others more immediately concerned with the facilitation.
Early in 1947 a further meeting was held with the epidemiological workers, and
an expanded schedule for cases to be referred was adopted.    It is as follows:—
(1) All pregnant women, married or unmarried.
(2) All cases where there is an obvious social problem.    (Need of financial
assistance, legal advice, etc.) P 120 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
(3) Cases where the patient is emotionally upset but does not express why.
(4) Cases who are unco-operative and refuse treatment, etc. This will include
lapsed patients only when the epidemiologists have interviewed the
patients and exhausted their resources and there is still a need for a
patient to come for treatment.
(5) All patients who are juveniles under the " Protection of Children Act "
(17 years and under).
(6) Referrals to O.P.D. Where a consultant has indicated a patient should
be referred to O.P.D., patient should be sent to medical social worker,
who will discuss eligibility with patient and phone O.P.D. for the necessary appointment.
(7) Social Service should be notified of all patients who come to the clinic
referred by a social agency or who are known to outside social agencies.
There is still need for better statistical data on the actual case-work services given
to patients and more adequate recording. These two projects are among those planned
for the coming year.
Helen M. Sutherland,
Supervisor. REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL WELFARE  BRANCH, 1947-48. P 121
PSYCHIATRIC DIVISION.
At the beginning of the 1946 fiscal year, the personnel of the Psychiatric Social
Service Department came in line with the new policy developed and became members
of the Health and Welfare Department, Social Welfare Branch, but, for administration
purposes, are directly under the Director of Mental Hygiene and Provincial Psychiatry.
Due to war, the turnover of personnel, and the rapid growth of the Department,
the policies established for the psychiatric training of social workers had to be deferred
for a time. However, this can only be a temporary measure, as it is well recognized
that, in psychiatric social work, specialized training is necessary. In line with staff
development, the services of an experienced and specialized psychiatric social worker
were secured in 1946 to instruct graduate social workers who were specializing in the
psychiatric field.
Present staff consists of the supervisor of the psychiatric social work carried on by
the field staff of the Social Welfare Branch throughout the Province and six psychiatric
social workers—one of whom assists in the supervision of the field staff, the others
carrying case-loads within the Greater Vancouver area. The case-load must, of
necessity, be limited because these workers are receiving training in psychiatric social
work.
The services of the Department of Social Work extend to all branches of the
Mental Hospital—that is, Essondale, Home for the Aged, Saanich, New Westminster,
Child Guidance Clinics, and the Vista Rehabilitation Centre developed in 1948. There
are workers assigned to the Child Guidance Clinic, but the programme of training
is elastic so that training and knowledge of the total programme is available to all
social workers within the Psychiatric Division.
We are still of the opinion that social workers engaged in child guidance should
know the acute mentally ill person. To know this area, a social worker should have
a period of working with patients in the hospital setting, whether those patients require
hospitalization within the acute, chronic, aged, mentally defective, or in the realm of
rehabilitation of patients. For this reason, periods of working for orientation purposes
is part of the programme. The social worker within the hospital setting is part of
the team working for the patients' welfare.
WORK OF THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL SERVICE, ESSONDALE.
All new patients are referred to the Social Service Department, and social histories
are obtained either through the local workers or assigned to the field staff. There were
1,111 new cases referred to the Department in 1947-48. The social workers in the
Department of Social Service, Essondale, learn to know the patient within the hospital
setting, and discuss with and receive from the psychiatrist help in interpretation of the
patient's mental illness to the family in conjunction with the taking of the social history.
The social history is of assistance to the patient in the light of adequate diagnosis and
the establishment of treatment.
If the patient is an out-of-town case, the supervisor in charge of the psychiatric
social work in the field receives this direction and refers it on to the field staff in letter
form. If the patient comes from Greater Vancouver, the worker to whom this case is
assigned confers with the staff psychiatrist and learns to know the patient on the ward;
still keeping in mind the team participation, she confers with the psychologist and
nurse on the ward.
Use of Social Histories.
The social history is used by the psychiatrist throughout the patient's hospitalization and for that reason is embodied in the patient's unit file. P 122 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Work of the Department of Social Service with the Patient's Family.
The team continues to confer during the patient's hospitalization and treatment,
and the interpretation of the social implications is the responsibility of the social
worker attached to the Department. Some families require continuing treatment
throughout the patient's hospitalization. Others do not require such long service, and
such a case is not active with the Department of Social Service unless an occasion arises
indicating a renewal of service. However, all families are free to call on the Social
Service Department for assistance throughout the patient's hospitalization. This is
seen as a necessity, in the light of rehabilitation of the patient, to family and community. Good social case-work services with the patient's family assists materially in
the ultimate rehabilitation of the patient.
Probation Service.
All probation cases are referred to the Social Service Department. With the
psychiatrist's recommendations, these are then assigned to the workers of the Department who are carrying the cases. There were 400 probation cases carried by the
Department in 1947-48.
Case-work with the patients in their home settings is a most important function
of the Social Service Department. It requires special skill under close direction of the
psychiatrist. This is particularly important to ensure the continuance of the work
done by the team with the patient while in hospital.
-• Special Assignments.
From time to time during the patient's hospitalization, crises may arise either with
the patient or his family. The social worker is then called upon by the psychiatrist.
Often a crisis arises through misunderstanding of the patient on the part of his family,
or legal implications, etc.
Education within the Hospital.
The psychiatric social workers are called on to participate in community education
on hospital services as they relate to the community. They carry on an educative
programme by participation in interagency conferences, by public addresses to professional or lay groups in the community. Social workers have the responsibility of
interpreting their own work to other departments in the hospital setting.
Since our profession is young in years, we must have vision and forethought, and,
in other words, we must be research conscious, studying the sociological aspects of
newer treatment.
Rehabilitation.
The Provincial Secretary's Department took over the administration of the
New Vista Home at 3181 Second Avenue West in July, 1947. It is now known as
the Vista Rehabilitation Home. This home is used as the first step in giving certain
female patients an opportunity to adjust away from the hospital, preparatory to a more
permanent plan being made. Patients are considered " on leave " while in the home.
After a period in the home, the deputy medical superintendent reviews the case again
with the Provincial supervisor of psychiatric social work, and a decision for continued
treatment is made. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 123
Statistics, 1947-48, Provincial Mental Hospital and Home for the Aged.
Number of New Cases referred to Social Service Department.
In Vancouver       475
Out of Vancouver      636
Total :  1,111
The number of new admissions was increased by 231 during the past fiscal year.
Disposition.
Discharged on probation—
In Vancouver   157
Out of Vancouver  243
Total  400
This is an increase of 31 cases which were referred for probation services.
There were 157 probation cases carried by the Vancouver workers. This is an
intensive part of the follow-up programme, and each case is visited at least once a
month, but usually requires three or four visits during the first month and in diminishing numbers as the patient adjusts.
Report of Social Service Work carried out by Members of Social
Service Department at Essondale.
This  Department was  made  up  of  six graduate   (junior)   staff members who
received intensive supervision on a limited number of cases.
Initial interviews to obtain social histories—
In Vancouver       479
Out of Vancouver         10*
      489
Other interviews  entailing case-work,  such  as  consultations
with other social agencies (public and private), employers,
school authorities, and other resources in Vancouver  1,788
Out-of-town supervisory service by mail—
Letters to the Provincial field staff requesting social
histories and probation visits, and of a general
supervisory nature   1,731
Letters to other social agencies in and out of British
Columbia      336
  2,067
Incidental services of a supervisory nature      500
* Cases referred to our Department for special work by trained psychiatric social workers  under the direct
supervision of the psychiatrist.
There were orientation periods for twenty-four public health nurses, five postgraduate nurses, thirty field service staff, and seven other visitors.
CHILD GUIDANCE CLINICS.
Clinic Team.
The specialized workers who combine their knowledge within the clinics form the
clinic team. At present this team consists of a phychiatrist, two phychiatric social
workers, a psychologist, and a public health nurse.    The Child Guidance Clinics of P 124 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
the Government of British Columbia plan, in the near future, to bring the clinic teams
to full strength—namely, a psychiatrist, two psychologists, four psychiatric social
workers, and a public health nurse. These plans cannot be carried out until the
members of the present teams have completed their anticipated postgraduate study.
In the clinical study of the whole child, every member of the team contributes in
the light of the needs of the individual child, agency function, and community resources
available.
Staff.
The present staff of the Child Guidance Clinics of the Government of British
Columbia consists of two psychiatrists, a third psychiatrist on a part-time basis, one
senior psychologist, two psychological assistants, and two psychological interns. There
are at present five psychiatric social workers. During the past fiscal year the clinics
have benefited from the presence of two advanced students from the School of Social
Work, University of British Columbia. The clinic staff is further strengthened by
the presence of two public health nurses who function as part of the specialized team.
Number of Clinics.
The Child Guidance Clinics of the Government of British Columbia consist of
two stationary clinics—one situated at 455 Thirteenth Avenue West, Vancouver, and
the second at 515 Superior Street, Victoria. A team from the Child Guidance Clinic
in Vancouver also travels on regular schedule to Nanaimo on the first Wednesday of
each month. A partial team consisting of psychiatrist and psychologist travels at
present to Victoria on the second, fourth, and fifth Wednesday of each month. A psychiatric social worker is employed full time at this clinic. The third Wednesday of the
month is available for travelling to outside points. There is also a travelling clinic
service to New Westminster schools and the Chilliwack district on the third Wednesday of alternate months. The travelling clinic is thus available to the districts outside
Vancouver through the regional supervisors of the Department of Health and Welfare,
Social Welfare Branch, and through the local health units.
Types of Services rendered by the Stationary Clinics.
Looking broadly at the services rendered to the community by the Child Guidance
Clinics of British Columbia, they will be seen to fall into three broad groups:—
(1) The diagnostic and consultative service which is given to all who ask
it—namely, parents, private physicians, social agencies (voluntary and
public), public health agencies, institutions, public schools, educative and
custodial schools, and Courts.
(2) The continuing treatment service which is given to the private cases
referred to the Child Guidance Clinics. A private case may come to
clinic referred by parents or physician, etc., within the area of the city
of Vancouver or Victoria. When no other agency is active and when the
case comes within the functions of the clinics, the case is taken by clinic
as a private treatment case.
(3) The Child Guidance Clinics are carrying out a broad programme of education for mental hygiene which is basic to all their services. Through
this programme the clinics seek to co-operate with other agencies of the
community in advancing knowledge of the most promising methods of
preventing behaviour and personality disorders in children, and of dealing with them when they occur.
Tables I, II, and III give, with limitations, some indication of the activity of the
clinics, stationary and travelling, as they bring the aforementioned psychiatric services REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48. P 125
to the community. Each member of the clinical team—psychiatrist, psychologist,
public health nurse, and psychiatric social worker—brings his specialized knowledge
and makes a specific contribution to the study and treatment of the patient, his need
and his problem. The end to which each team member is directed is that of the conservation and development of human values.
Table I sets out the number, sex, and status of all patients receiving full clinical
examination at the Child Guidance Clinics during the fiscal year. Altogether 851
patients received full clinical examination. Seven hundred and eighty-six case conferences were given to interested health and social agencies; the conference contributes greatly in the study of the psychiatric problems of individual patients seen
at the clinics. Two hundred and twenty-five consulting conferences were given to
health and social agencies; the consulting conference gives agency workers valuable
assistance in understanding their clients' psychiatric problems. A total of 1,930
psychiatric interviews took place between the psychiatrists and their patients. One
hundred and eighty patients received a re-examination at the clinics.
Table II, the sources of all cases referred to the clinics, indicates that 61.09 per
cent, of patients receiving full clinical examination were referred by social agencies,
voluntary and public; 2.44 per cent, were referred by institutions; 6.65 per cent, by
medical and health agencies; 5.67 per cent, by schools; and 12.19 per cent, by the
Courts. Thus, in summing up, 88.9 per cent, of the clinics' total examination time
was given to social and health agencies, and 12.1 per cent, was given to their private
patients. These percentage figures have a further interpretation: 88.9 per cent, of
the clinics' time was spent in giving the community a diagnostic and consultative
service to the end of better understanding of the individual's psychiatric problems
and in the interest of a good mental health programme; 12.1 per cent, of all the
patients given a complete clinical examination were private referrals to the clinics
and were given continuous psychiatric treatment. Such a percentage breakdown
(12.1 per cent.) obviously cannot indicate the extent of the clinics' activity in treatment. It does not show, for example, the hours of treatment each patient received.
It does indicate, however, that the number of private patients treated in the clinics is
small (12.1 per cent, or 103 patients) compared with the total population of the Province. The field then for the private practising psychiatrist is wide, and at the same
time great room for expansion in this important government service is indicated.
Table III, problems and disorders presented by the new cases receiving full clinical
examination, tells an interesting story. There are differences of opinion regarding
the problems of child behaviour that necessitate study and treatment by child guidance
clinics. Dr. Paul L. Schroeder, Director of the Institute for Juvenile Research, Chicago, feels that deviations in mental status, trait, conduct, or habit do not of themselves necessarily constitute problems, nor do they always indicate the need for study
by a child guidance clinic. It is rather when the aforementioned are not adequately
dealt with, understood, or accepted within the family or by the persons who are caring
for the child, or when the aforementioned deviations cause present disharmony within
the child or family or point to future unhappiness or harm and are found to extend
beyond the remedial resources within the child's immediate environment. He feels
that child guidance clinics should have opportunities to study a wide variety of problems, even those encountered during pre-school years. He feels that a sound philosophy
of child guidance is applicable to children of any age. This philosophy considers the
child as he is, his nature, his needs, the forces of his present environment, his capacity
for growth and change, the ultimate development that should be aimed for (especially
in regard to good judgment, good tastes, wholesome attitudes, helpful interests, and
good habits), and the best means to use in training. In general, the best means are
the positive ones. P 126 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The types of problems referred to the Child Guidance Clinics of British Columbia are wide in range and variety. Table III first breaks down these problems into
primary behaviour disorders. They are called primary because they are not secondary
to any pathological condition. It will be noticed that the first behaviour disorders
considered are in relation to faulty habit formation, nail-biting, enuresis, masturbation, etc. In Child Guidance Clinic practice conduct disorders, along with habit disturbances and neurotic traits, form the large group of primary behaviour disorders.
Primary behaviour disorders develop in the child in reaction to the influences of the
environment, and become in varying degrees rather set behaviour patterns. Habit
disorder is frequently found to precede conduct disorder in Child Guidance Clinic
experience.
In reading Table III it will be noticed that 32 patients out of 673 patients receiving full clinical examination during the fiscal year had a habit disorder of varying formation degree; 18 were diagnosed as having a personality disorder involving the inner
processes and attitudes and in association with a conduct disorder, or a neurotic disorder; 21 presented neurotic disorder; 130 presented conduct disorder. It is usual to
speak of a conduct disorder whenever there is a deviation from the accepted code of
morals. Only 5 patients presented showed pre-psychotic tendency. Only 4 presented
were diagnosed psychoneurotic. Six were diagnosed psychopathic in character
development.
Another large group of patients were those showing an educational disability;
16 patients had an educational disability due to a mental deviation of a slow normal to
border-line degree; 13 patients had an educational disability due to writing, reading;
and arithmetical deficiency. The clinical psychologists in the Child Guidance Clinics
of British Columbia give remedial reading treatment to a selected group of patients.
There is room for the extension of this treatment service.
Another large group of patients examined were found to be mentally defective.
Some authorities question whether the mentally defective child should be referred to
clinic. It is obvious that this would depend on how well his needs were understood
and provided for by parents, school, and community. The clinics' function with the
mentally defective child is clearly one of parental education. It is now generally
agreed that the problem of caring for the mentally defective with emotional disturbance
or instability puts an exceedingly heavy responsibility upon family, school, Courts,
and community. Understanding family living gives the defective child opportunities
for sound physical and emotional development. It helps produce a happy child, free
to develop what capabilities he has to the full. It is to this end that the clinics continue
to carry on an educational programme for parents having defective children.
Nineteen patients presented problems resulting in mental retardation. This field
provides an interesting study. It is reassuring that some of these patients show
remarkable progress when given understanding care and treatment. The special
residential schools set up in England for special education and treatment for this
group of children have had remarkable success.
Of the remaining 255 patients, some presented disorders of conduct, habit, and
personality which were ascertained within the clinics. The problems of the others
were not ascertained within the clinics. However, their disorder led them to seek the
assistance of social and health agencies in the community. The Child Guidance Clinics
assisted these agencies in their understanding of 128 children about to be adopted into
families and thus given the security of happy family living. Twenty-six patients were
given vocational guidance. The clinics gave assistance to Borstal authorities in understanding the psychiatric problems of some fifty-nine young men.
Table IX is the psychiatric social workers' statistical report for the fiscal year
1947-48. REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL WELFARE  BRANCH, 1947-48. P 127
This report is broken down under two headings. The first presents the case-work
treatment services undertaken by the psychiatric social workers under the direction
of the psychiatrists.
Psychiatric social work is defined as " social work practised in relation to psychiatry."* This basic concept is the key-stone for psychiatric case-work with children.
Within the clinics the psychiatric social workers work with the psychiatrists, who are
diagnosticians and therapists. Through case-work skill they are able to add to, complete, or extend the treatment plans as evolved through the joint thinking of the
clinical team chaired by the psychiatrist.
In looking at these case-work services, we see that 294 private patients were given
continuous psychiatric case-work treatment. Table IV indicates that 103 of these
patients received full clinical examination during the fiscal year. Of the 191 other
patients undergoing treatment, the greater majority received full clinical examination
in the previous fiscal year. The remainder will likely proceed in the light of their
specific needs to full clinical examination in the following fiscal year. One hundred and
fifty-five of the patients treated during the fiscal year showed some degree of adjustment and were again able to cope with the problems of living in a happy and relaxed
way. Of the 41 patients referred to other social agencies after a period of treatment,
some went to family agencies for services in marriage guidance and family-living
counselling, others to child-placing agencies for placement, etc.
Ninety-eight private patients will continue to receive treatment through the following fiscal year. In bringing treatment services to these 294 patients, the psychiatric social workers gave 1,216 treatment interviews.
The second heading in the breakdown of Table IX is entitled " other than casework services," and indicates the direct participation of the psychiatric social workers
in the diagnostic and consultative service given by the clinic teams to social and health
agencies in the community. The psychiatric social worker contributed in 1,061 agency
conferences. One hundred and seventy private consultations of a treatment-directing
nature were attended by the psychiatric social workers in the interest of the private
patients receiving treatment in the clinics.
The psychiatric social workers co-operated in 434 case-work supervisory sessions
and helped in the clinics' educative programme by participating in the clinical orientation of fifty-four social workers, doctors, and public health nurses. One hundred and
eighty-five people within the community were contacted by the psychiatric social
workers in extending the treatment plans for the patients. One hundred and sixty-six
social-case histories were taken. The case-history affords an evaluation of the patient,
his problem and needs. Giving social-history data assists the patient-worker relationship which begins to grow within the intimacy of the procedure. Then, too, there is
a cathartic value to the patient in talking about his problem and sharing the onus and
burden of it with psychiatric social worker.
Services given by the Child Guidance Clinics of the Government
of British Columbia.
I. Continuous Treatment.
A limited number of patients are seen by the psychiatrists on a treatment-
interview basis. Treatment is also assumed by the psychiatric social workers and
psychologists under the direction of the psychiatrist. This service is available for
clinics' private patients and for patients referred by agencies on a co-operative base
handling basis.    The continuous-treatment case is one in which interviews are held
* Lois French : Psychiatric Social Work. P 128 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
with either the child, his sibling, parents, or with the child and parents for the purpose of guiding, aiding the growth of insight, supporting, and changing attitudes.
During the past fiscal year continuous treatment was given to more than 294
private patients (see Table VIII). The treatment was focused upon the parent-child
relationship. Of the 294 patients receiving treatment on a longer and deeper basis,
103 were given full clinical examination within the fiscal year (see Table IV). Of these
103 patients, 71 were males and 32 were females (see Table VI). Remembering that
the treatment of the child is the treatment of the parent-child relationship, it is
interesting to note that the ages of patients treated and clinically examined in the
clinics ranged from 1 to 34 years. However, the largest number (63) of patients
treated and examined fell into the age-group of 1-14 years (see Table VII). The next
large group to benefit from the clinics' treatment services were 26 adolescents ranging
in age from 15 to 19 years. Seven patients were seen between the ages of 20 to 24
years for vocational guidance, insight, and attitude therapy (see Table VII).
In looking at Table VI, it is interesting to note that of the 103 patients undergoing
treatment, 63 were within the range of normal intelligence. Twenty-seven of these
patients fell in the normal group of intellectual ability—I.Q. 90-109; 21 patients fell
into the superior group of intellectual ability; 13 fell into the very superior group;
and 5 fell into the genius group (see Table VI).   This table has a further interpretation.
It indicates that the Child Guidance Clinics of the Government of British Columbia
have efficiently educated the community as to their function, which is to treat children
rather than be largely an examination centre for mental deficiency. " The function
of a child guidance clinic is to study the whole child; to give guidance to family and
community in understanding the causes of children's difficulties; to give guidance in
understanding the basic needs of children; to give guidance to the child himself in the
light of his needs."
Twenty-one patients of the 103 treatment cases receiving full clinical examination
fell into the defective group. One may wonder what the clinics' function was in such
cases. Again it is clearly one of parental education in the emotional needs of the
defective child. Nine patients were in the slow normal group of intelligence (see
Table VI).
Table IV, source of referrals of the 103 private treatment cases examined in the
clinics during the fiscal year, indicates that 41 of the 103 patients receiving treatment
were referred by their own parents. This is as it should be and shows the acceptance
of the clinics' services by the community. It shows the value of the community
education undertaken by the clinics. Nineteen other patients were referred to clinic
by private practising physicians and indicates the acceptance of the clinics by professional groups in the community. Referral by private physicians shows a tendency in
medical practice which is observable to-day: that of interco-operation of professional
groups within the community. It shows also the private practising physicians' recognition of the need to treat the whole individual—body, intellect, and emotions—an
integrated whole function in a specific social milieu.
II. Diagnosis.
The second service given by the Child Guidance Clinics of the Government of
British Columbia is the diagnostic service. This service is one in which the child and
his situation has been studied in whole or in part, a psychiatric and psychosocial
diagnosis made, and possible solutions to problems contained within these areas then
presented. The Child Guidance Clinics, however, have no active part in the subsequent
progress of the case. The value of this service depends on the responsible agency
adequately equipped to make the social study, to make use of the clinics' findings, and
to carry out the clinics' psychiatric recommendations. In the diagnostic service,
treatment is delegated by the clinics' psychiatrists in conference to the referring agency. REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL WELFARE  BRANCH, 1947-48.
P 129
Table II indicates that the diagnostic service was used extensively by community
agencies during the past fiscal year. These agencies presented 795 patients for
diagnosis (see Table II). Of all patients examined by the clinics, 88.90 per cent, were
referred by community agencies. They, in a skilled professional way, have made use
of the clinics' diagnoses and treatment recommendations. They have given valuable
psychiatric help and treatment to their clients. These agencies have helped many of
their clients to better mental health. There were 786 case conferences given by the
clinics in delegation of treatment, (see Table I).
III. Consultative Service.
Consultation is the third service given by the Child Guidance Clinics of the
Government of British Columbia. The use of this service is undoubtedly one of the
most encouraging developments in the whole service. A consultation service is one in
which the clinics' services are given to any person interested in the child, but where
there may be no actual contact on the part of the clinics with the child. Social and
health workers have found it helpful to discuss the psychiatric problems of their clients
with the psychiatrist and the other members of the clinics' teams. In offering this
service the clinics assume a very important teaching role. Such teaching is of necessity
focused on the individual case presented by the agency and on the psychiatric aspects
of that case. The teaching carried out in the consultative service brings psychiatric
learning to interested professional groups which can be applied to the needs of other
clients.
Table I indicates that 225 consultations were given by the clinics to interested
agencies.
Statistics.
Table Ia.—Number, Sex, and Status of All Cases examined at Child Guidance Clinics,
April 1st, 1947, to March Slst, 1948.
Vancouver.
Victoria.
Travelling.
Total.
New Cases.
525
66
80
671
Males—
Adults	
77
4
1
82
Children	
248
40
49
337
Females—-
56
6
1
63
Children	
144
16
29
189
Repeat Cases.
136
27
17
180
Males—■
4
77
4
18
12
107
Females—
9
2
11
46
7
5
58
661
93
97
851
Table Ib.—Summary of the Clinics' Activities,
April 1st, 1947, to March 31st, 1948.
Vancouver.        Victoria.        Travelling,
Total.
Physical examinations..
Play-room observations
Case conferences	
Consulting conferences.
Psychiatric interviews..
516
174
640
198
1,651
51
15
178
95
12
101
694
174
786
225
1,930 P 130
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table II.—Sources of All Cases referred to Child Guidance Clinics
for Examination, April 1st, 1947, to March 31st, 1948.
Agency or Source.
Number of
Cases.
Total.
Percentage
Distribution.
137
268
66
1
8
39
1
1*
26
1
1
2
22
14
26
2
1
3
3
1
8
2
1
24
21
1
1
2
46
1
1
62
23
82
1
1
551
22
60
52
47
63
23
82
2
61.09
Y.M.C.A.                                                    ...           	
2.44
6.65
City Health Centre	
5.76
Public	
Other—
5.21
6. Adult Court	
6.98
7. Private physicians	
2.55
9.10
9.  Other	
0.22
Totals	
902
1
• Chinese Y.M.C.A. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48.
P 131
Table III.—Problems and Disorders presented by the New Cases given Full Examination by Child Guidance Clinics, April 1st, 1947, to March 31st, 1948.
Children.
Adults.
Total.
M.
F.
M.       I       F.
1.
Primary behaviour disorders—■
(a)   Habit disorders—
1
1      |
....      1
1
	
6
2
4
7
1
5
13
Masturbation	
3
9
2
3 [          1
4 |           1
1
1                   1
2
Other    	
4
(b)  Personality disorders—■
5
1
Day-dreaming	
2
l     1     ...-     !           1     	
1
Other	
(c)   Neurotic disorders—
6
1
4
1
2
4
1
3
12
1
15
1
28
2
3
1
4
10
2
2
3
1
.
2
3
2
2
1
1
3
10
3-
7
1
9
1
	
Stammering	
1
j          4
2      i
6
2
2
4
Claustrophobia	
1
1
Other	
(d)   Conduct disorders—
Truancy _	
4
15
1
29
4
37
        1               I       	
2
1
9
1
1           1
3
2
1
13
1
2       1       	
1
1
1
2
13
1
1
1
2
	
1
1
2
2
1
2
3
Other 	
3
2.
Psychotic and pre-psychotic—
4
With epidemic encephalitis	
1
3.
Psychoneurosis and neurosis—
1
3
4.
Convulsive disorders—
4
6 P 132
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table III.—Problems and Disorders presented by the New Cases given Full Examination by Child Guidance Clinics, April 1st, 1947, to March Slst, 1948—Continued.
Children.
Adults.
Total.
1                                !
M.       IF.              M.      I       F.
1                  1
6. Educational disability—
(a) Associated with dull normal or border-line intelligence.
(b) Special mental disability—
(1) Writing	
(2) Reading	
12
1
11
2
2
3
30
1
8
1
4
1
1
	
2
6
1
13
11
3
1
1
1
1
17
56
1
1
39
4
1
4
16
1
11
1
(4)  Other	
7. Behaviour disorder associated with somatic D—
1
8. Mental deficiencies—
4
8
2
3
1
45
1
19
10. No ascertained mental deviation—
4
2
(c)   Speech problems....	
2
6                   4
1
29       i         20
2
10
(/)   Social problems	
1
49
(2) Adoption	
(3) Other	
77
1
1
8
2
3
51
1
3
1
3
128
2
42
4
1
10
26
12. Borstal	
59
Totals	
337
190
83
63
673 REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL WELFARE  BRANCH, 1947-48.
P 133
Table IV.—Source of Referrals of Private Cases, April 1st, 1947, to March Slst, 1948.
Boys.
Girls.
TOTAL.
New.
Repeat.
Total.
New.
Repeat.
Total.
New.
Repeat.
Total.
17
11
11
2
2
3
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
6
3
1
1
23
14
11
3
2
1
3
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
12
4
1
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
14
5
1
2
2
3
2
1
1
1
29
15
12
4
4
2
3
3
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
8
4
1
2
1
1
37
19
3. Self	
12
4. Public    health    nurse    and
5
5. Father	
4
6. Family Welfare Association
and Children's Aid Society.
4
3
8. Bureau    of    Measurements,
3
2
10. Provincial    Mental    Home,
2
2
12. Mental Hygiene Clinic, City
1
1
14. School for the Blind	
1
1
16. Jewish    Family    Welfare
1
1
18. Clergyman	
19. Baby Clinic	
1
1
1
1
Totals	
60
11
71
26
6
32
86
17
103 Table V.—General Type of Problem of Private Cases as referred,
April 1st, 1947, to March 31st, 19U8.
Problem.
Male.
Female.
Totals.
New.
1
Repeat. 1 Total.
1
I
New. 1 Repeat. [Total.
1              1
New.
Repeat.
Total.
4
20
25
7
1
3
1
5
4
3
13
2
3
1
.     1
4
1
5
3
17
2
2
....
8
23
38
9
4
4
2
9
3
3
10
23
47
12
4
7
5
3
2
20
30
10
1
5
71
....    |    32
103
Problems and Disorders of Private Cases
as pound after examination.
Primary Behaviour Disorders.
1. Habit—
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
3
1
3
1
2
1
3
....
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
11
1
2
1
13
1
4
11
4
4
1
1
1
1
3
1
2
4
2
1
1
2
1
1
3
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
4
3
4
12
1
1
1
1
18
2
35
3
11
14
23
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
....
5
1
1
8
1
1
7
6
1
3
1
1
3
2
2
4
2
1
1
4
1
1
3
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
5
3
4
17
1
1
1
1
1
1
18
2
43
4
12
21
23
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2. Personal—
1
1        9.
1
2
2
1
3. Neurotic—
1
1
1
3
2
1
4. Conduct-
•>.
9
1
Stealing	
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
3
3
3
6
1
1
1
1
1
16
1
30
3
9
10
19
1
1
i
2
1
2
3
3
5
1
1
1
16
1
24
2
8
7
19
1
1
....
1
1
1
1
6
1
1
3
1
2
1
7
1
....
4
Psychotic and Pre-psychotic.
Hysterical	
Convulsive Disorders.
Educational Disability.
Associated with dull normal or border-line intelligence..
Mental Deficiency.
1                                                           No Ascertained Mental Deviation.
2
1
Summary.
11
1
3
7
4
2
1
4 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE  BRANCH, 1947-48.
P 135
Table VI.—Sex, Intelligence Quotient, and Case Status of Private Cases
at Examination, April 1st, 1947, to March Slst, 1948.
Full Examination Cases.
Intelligence Quotient.
Male.
Female.
Totals.
New.
Repeat.
Total.
New.
Repeat.
Total.
New.
Repeat.
Total.
0- 19	
2
1
3
1
6
1
4
4
6
5
6
9
4
5
1
2
1
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
3
3
9
1
2
1
5
4
6
6
6
9
4
5
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
3
3
1
3
1
3
3
4
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
3
3
2
1
3
4
2
5
3
6
3
1
6
5
8
6
9
12
5
5
1
5
1
4
2
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
20- 39	
5
40- 49	
50- 54	
6
5
55- 59	
5
60- 64	
65- 69	
70- 74	
9
75- 79	
80- 84	
85- 89	
90- 94	
95- 99	
1
4
2
7
5
100-104	
8
105-109	
110-114	
7
9
115-119	
12
120-124	
125-129       	
1
1
6
6
130-134 	
135-139	
140 and over	
1
5
Totals	
71
32
103
Summary.
0- 19	
3
4
6
1
19
15
10
2
1
2
4
2
2
4
6
10
3
21
15
10
2
3
4
3
6
6
1
3
4
2
7
4
3
6
6
3
3
6
8
6
4
25
21
11
5
5
2
4
2
2
«
....
20- 49    	
11
50- 69        	
10
70- 79        	
10
80- 89	
90-109    	
6
27
110-119 	
21
120-139     	
13
5
Totals	
71
32
103 P 136
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table VII.—Sex, Age, and Case Status of Private Cases at Examination,
April 1st, 1947, to March Slst, 1948.
Age at Examination.
Full Examination Cases.
Male.
New.     Repeat.     Total
Female.
New.     Repeat.     Total.
Totals.
New.      Repeat.     Total.
1 year	
2 years	
3 years	
4 years	
5 years	
6 years	
7 years	
8 years	
9 years	
10 years	
11 years	
12 years	
13 years	
14 years	
15 years	
16 years	
17 years	
18 years	
19 years	
20 years	
21 to 24 years	
25 to 29 years	
30 to 34 years	
Totals	
Summary.
1 to   4 years	
5 to   9 years	
10 to 14 years	
15 to 19 years	
20 to 24 years	
25 to 29 years	
30 to 34 years	
Totals	
9
20
9
13
5
2
2
11
27
10
14
5
2
2
3
15
4
3
1
4
16
5
5
2
2
3
4
3
7
7
6
11
4
1
4
2
2
4
4
2
4
3
3
1
5
2
2
12
35
13
16
6
2
2
2
3
1
5
2
5
2
9
7
1
7
2
13
3
7
1
2
4
2
1
3
4
1
5
2
1
5
1
4
103
15
43
15
19
7
2
2 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1947-48.
P 137
Table VIII.—Age and Intelligence Quotient charted, April 1st, 1947,
to March 31st, 1948.
Intelligence Quotient.
Age.
1-4.
5-9.
10-14.
15-19.
20-24.
25-29.
30-34.
140	
1
2
5
3
2
2
4
2
7
11
2
5
6
6
1
1
2
6
2
2
1
....
6
5
3
2
1
2
5
1
1
....
2
120-139	
110-119	
1
90-109	
1
80- 89	
70- 79	
50- 69	
20- 49	
0- 19	
Table IX.—Psychiatric Social Workers' Statistical Report, April 1st, 1947,
to March Slst, 1948.
Case-work services— Number.
Cases carried forward from previous fiscal year  94
Cases referred during year—
New   160
Reopened   21
Transferred in  . 19
Total number of cases carried      294
Cases closed during the fiscal year      155
Cases transferred out during fiscal year        41
Total number of cases closed during fiscal year      196
Cases carried forward to fiscal year 1948-49  98
Interviews, patient and family  1,216
Other than case-work services—
Conferences—
Agency  1,061
Private  170
Supervision ■_  434
Orientation   54
Other contacts  185
Histories taken   166
J. F. KlLBURN,
Provincial Supervisor, Psychiatric Social Work.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Don McDiakmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1948.
1,065-1248-6394   

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