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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Provincial Department of Fisheries REPORT WITH APPENDICES For the Year ended… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1949

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Provincial
Department of Fisheries
REPORT
WITH APPENDICES
For the Year ended December 31st
1947
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Don McDiakmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1948. I To His Honour Charles Arthur Banks,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I beg to submit herewith the Report of the Provincial Department of Fisheries for
the year ended December 31st, 1947, with Appendices.
LESLIE HARVEY EYRES, .
Minister of Fisheries.
Department of Fisheries,
Minister of Fisheries' Office,
Victoria, B.C. Honourable Leslie H. Eyres,
Minister of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial
Department of Fisheries for the year ended December 31st, 1947, with Appendices.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
GEORGE J. ALEXANDER,
Deputy Minister. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Value of Canadian Fisheries and the Standing of the Provinces in 1946      7
Species and Value of Fish caught in British Columbia  8
Value of British Columbia Fisheries in 1947  8
Capital, Equipment, and Employees  9
The Canned-salmon Pack for British Columbia, 1947  9
British Columbia's Canned-salmon Pack by Districts  10
Review of British Columbia's Salmon-canning Industry, 1947  17
Other Canneries (Pilchard, Herring, and Shell-fish)  18
Mild-cured Salmon  18
Dry-salt Salmon  19
Dry-salt Herring  19
Pickled Herring  19
Halibut Production  19
Fish Oil and Meal  20
Net-fishing in Non-tidal Waters  22
Condition of British Columbia's Salmon-spawning Grounds  22
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon.   (Digest.)    (No. 33.)  22
Herring Investigation  23
Shell-fish Investigation  25
International Fisheries Commission, 1947  25
APPENDICES.
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon. (No. 33.) By
W. A. Clemens, Ph.D., Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia,
Vancouver, B.C     29
Results of the West Coast of Vancouver Island Herring Investigation,
1947-48. By A. L. Tester, Ph.D., and J. C. Stevenson, M.A., Pacific Biological
Station, Nanaimo, B.C     41
Records of Clam Production. By Ferris Neave, Pacific Biological Station,
Nanaimo, B.C     87
Report on Investigation of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries
Commission for 1947.   By B. M. Brennan, Director    90
Salmon-spawning Report, British Columbia, 1947. By A. J. Whitmore, Chief
Supervisor of Fisheries    93
Statistical Tables  1°°  Report of the Provincial Department
of Fisheries for 1947.
VALUE OF CANADIAN FISHERIES AND THE STANDING OF
THE PROVINCES, 1946.
The value of the fisheries products of Canada for the year 1946 totalled $121,-
124,732. During that year British Columbia produced fisheries products to the value
of $43,817,147, or 36.2 per cent, of Canada's total.
British Columbia in 1946 led all the Provinces in the Dominion in respect to the
production of fisheries wealth. Her output exceeded that of Nova Scotia, the second
in rank, by $9,546,386.
The market value of the fisheries products of British Columbia in 1946 was
$714,711 less than in the year previous. There was a decrease in the value of salmon
amounting to $1,078,471.
The capital invested in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1946 was $39,264,083
or 45.9 per cent, of the total capital employed in fisheries in all of Canada. Of the
total invested in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1946, $21,773,297 was employed
in catching and handling the catches and $17,490,786 invested in canneries, fish-packing
establishments, and fish-reduction plants.
The number of persons engaged in British Columbia fisheries in 1946 was 19,744
or 21.2 per cent, of Canada's total fishery workers. Of those engaged in British Columbia, 13,655 were employed in catching and handling the catches and 6,079 in packing,
curing, and in fish-reduction plants. The total number engaged in the fisheries in
British Columbia in 1946 was 414 more than in the preceding year.
The following statement gives in the order of their rank the value of fishery
products of the Provinces of Canada for the years 1942 to 1946, inclusive:—
Province.
1942.
1943.
1944.
1945.
1946.
British Columbia. 	
$38,059,559
15,297,482
7,132,420
4,194,092
4,135,205
3,577,616
1,639,539
492,182
585,782
$32,478,632
21,684,435
11,128,864
5,632,809
5,292,268
4,564,551
2,860,146
795,000
1,154,544
$34,900,990
23,662,055
11,968,692
5,361,567
4,938,193
3,681,795
2,598,975
929,887
1,482,223
$44,531,858
30,706,900
13,270,376
7,727,222
7,261,661
4,263,670
3,076,811
1,450,502
1,286,361
112,131
3,138
$43,817,147
34,270,761
16,419,983
7,927,022
6,296,658
4,871 037
4,470,877
1,399,083
1,148,886
558,264
5 014
Alberta  - -
Saskatchewan— _—  	
3,056
2,495
3,131
$75,116,933
$85,594,544
$89,427,508
■1
$113,690,630
$121,124 732 M 8                                                     BRITISH COLUMBIA.
SPECIES AND VALUE OF FISH CAUGHT IN BEITISH COLUMBIA.
The total marketed value of each of the principal species of fish taken in British
Columbia for the years 1942 to 1946, inclusive, is given in the following table:—
Species.
1942.
1943.
1944.
1945.
1946.
$22,419,881
1,985,705
243,113
8,223,754
2,016,607
$14,740,298
2,517,038
244,062
7,809,630
2,756,416
$15,623,223
2,679,657
257,288
6,758,626
2,222,181
780
1,353,900
174,673
414,753
52,495
271,231
10,451
149,754
$25,424,954
3,042,390
275,825
8,423,136
1,439,145
$24,346,483
3,708,819
300^303
9,574,643
213,753
Halibut       	
Herring  ._._.  	
676,903
155,965
193,840
104,021
42,670
7,222
57,862
978,973
148,226
399,923
34,743
49,320
10,417
82,318
1,600
72,619
150,551
9,792
736
3,526
271
5,932
9,504
21
1,296,639
206,045
368,408
77,958
438,219
24,025
105,596
6,370
90,786
284,759
16,174
5,076
6,521
5,802
4,685
24,091
50
1,319,501
349,804
446,008
217,792
848,004
40,431
258,964
150
25,765
214,882
15,970
10,326
6,070
3,705
4,486
11,337
180
Soles      -	
Flounders    	
24,829
51,375
8,042
2,562
1,965
390
5,235
8,960
7
132,136
284,828
13,741
3,278
3,915
1,444
5,866
16,456
540
Smelts— —_   	
Skate   	
Grayfish, etc.—
23,250
1,178,242
31,135
60,872
178,667
18,982
2,028,875
16,756
41,857
92,890
60,930
3,661,131
8,263
21,136
10,634
2,337,267
12,258
1,098,569
Whales  -	
Fur-seals  ,    _   	
730
50
261,160
93,373
12,564
323,068
620
Anchovies  -   -
80,295
11,483
5,760
21,045
158,184
82,545
319,404
6,548
187,866
2,679
18,531
615,106
122,892
4,375
37,625
1,199
7,127
42,194
165,966
Shark-liver oil  - -	
68,040
56,216
29,429
Totals	
$38,059,559
$32,477,964
$34,900,990
$44,531,858
$43,817,147
VALUE   OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  FISHERIES   IN   1947  SHOWS   INCREASE*
The total marketed value of the fisheries of British Columbia reached an all-time
high point of $58,764,950 in 1947.    This was an increase of 34 per cent, over the 1946
value, but it should be observed that part of the increase was due to the canning in
1947 of cold-storage salmon caught in 1946.
Salmon was the principal species, its marketed value of $35,692,625 accounting for
61 per cent, of the total for all species.    Landings of salmon were nearly 9 per cent.
above those of 1946.    Herring came next, with a marketed value of $12,094,582 or 21
per cent, of the total, and halibut was third, with $5,943,944 or 10 per cent, of the total
marketed value.    Landings of herring were 21 per cent, and those of halibut 34 per
cent, higher than those in 1946.
The total quantity of fish and shell-fish landed was 4,756,489 cwt, an increase
of 11 per cent, over the 4,293,881 cwt.  recorded for 1946.    The landed value was
$22,354,374, an increase of 4.6 per cent, over that of 1946.
* These  figures  are taken  from th
Bureau of Statistics, Department of Tr
_   Advance Rep
ade and Comm.
ort   on   the   Fis
rce.
leries  of  Briti.
h   Columbia,   1947,  Dominion REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. M 9
CAPITAL, EQUIPMENT, AND EMPLOYEES.
Capital.—The capital employed in the primary fishing industry—that is, the actual
catching and landing of the fish—amounted to $26,801,434, an increase of 23 per cent,
over the 1946 figure of $21,773,297. Of these totals, vessels and boats accounted for
$22,666,175 in 1947 and $17,490,786 in 1946, or 85 per cent, and 80 per cent, respectively.
Employment.—Total employment dropped from 19,744 persons in 1946 to 17.934
in 1947, or by 9 per cent. In the primary industry the number of men employed was
12,461, a drop of 6 per cent., and in the processing section there was a drop of 10 per
cent, in total employment, 3,456 men and 2,017 women being reported. The number of
women employed decreased by 28 per cent, from the 1946 figure.
THE CANNED-SALMON PACK FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1947.
The canned-salmon pack for British Columbia in 1947 amounted to 1,533,478 cases,
according to annual returns submitted to the Provincial Department of Fisheries by the
licensed canners. The 1947 pack was greater than the pack of the previous year by
185,340 cases and was greater than the five-year average by 138,137 cases. The 1947
pack was composed of 286,497 cases of sockeye, 10,025 cases of springs, 3,260 cases of
steelheads, 146,293 cases of cohoes, 600,787 cases of pinks, and 486,615 cases of chums.
In all instances the half-cases have been dropped.
A breakdown of the figures by species indicates that the sockeye-pack in 1947 was
disappointingly small. The pack of this species for British Columbia for the previous
year was 543,027 cases. It must be remembered, however, that the large pack in 1946
was considerably higher than the average for recent past years. The 1947 sockeye-
pack was 27,729 cases less than the average annual pack of this species in British
Columbia for the previous five years.
The spring-salmon pack in British Columbia in 1947, amounting to 10,025 cases, was
greater than in the year previous when 8,100 cases were packed, but less than in 1945
when the pack amounted to 12,801 cases. It should be distinctly understood that the
canned-salmon pack figures for this species are no indication of the size of the run,
as spring salmon are canned only incidental to the canning of other species. Most of
the spring-salmon catch proper is disposed of in the fresh, frozen, and mild-cured trade.
While steelheads are not salmon, a few are canned each year, caught incidental to
fishing for other species.    In 1947 the pack of steelheads amounted to 3,260 cases.
The cohoe-pack in 1947 amounted to 146,293 cases. This was 46,139 cases greater
than the pack for this species in 1946 when 100,154 cases were canned, but was less
than the cycle-year 1944 by 35,253 cases. While the 1947 cohoe-pack was considerably
greater than the small pack of the previous year, it was still, however, 20,280 cases less
than the average annual pack for this species for the previous five-year period.
While the 1947 pink-salmon pack in British Columbia, amounting to 600,787 cases,
was 224,726 cases less than in the cycle-year, it was, however, considerably greater than
the pack in the year previous, which amounted to 116,607 cases. The 1947 pack of pink
salmon was 108,229 cases greater than the average annual pack of this species in
British Columbia for the past five years.
Chum salmon were canned in British Columbia in 1947 to the extent of 486,615
cases. While this figure represents a pack of 89,518 cases less than were canned in
1946, it was, nevertheless, 80,295 cases greater than the average annual pack for this
species for the previous five-year period.
In comparing the canned-salmon pack figures of any of the species of salmon
canned in British Columbia, the reader is referred to the text in the next section of
this Report for a breakdown of the figures for each species by districts. The reader
should  also take  into consideration the  escapement to the  spawning-beds.    In  the M 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Appendix to this Report there will be found a report on the spawning-beds of British
Columbia, supplied by the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for the Federal Government.
BRITISH COLUMBIA'S CANNED-SALMON PACK BY DISTRICTS.
Feaser River.
The total canned-salmon pack in British Columbia from Canadian-caught fish on
the Fraser River in 1947 amounted to 171,302 cases of all varieties. This was rather
disappointing when compared with recent past years. In 1946 the pack was 413,542
cases or 242,240 cases more than were canned in 1947. The 1947 pack was the smallest
since 1944, when 130,883 cases were canned. The 1947 pack on the Fraser River was
composed of 33,952 cases of sockeye, 1,455 cases of springs, 178 cases of steelheads,
6,105 cases of cohoes, 113,136 cases of pinks, and 16,475 cases of chums.
It will be noted from these figures that the sockeye-pack on the Fraser River in
1947 was most disappointing. The pink-salmon pack of 113,136 cases, while better
than the previous cycle-year, must be considered reasonably satisfactory.
Sockeye Salmon.—In 1947 Canadian canners produced a total pack of sockeye
salmon from Fraser River caught fish amounting to 33,952 cases, according to returns
supplied to the Provincial Department of Fisheries. In addition, American gear took
sockeye salmon amounting to 6,760 cases, according to figures supplied by the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission. The 1947 pack was 569,806 cases less
than the combined United States-Canadian pack in the year previous. The 1947 catch
was divided between Canadian and American fishermen as follows: 6,760 cases were
caught by American gear and 33,952 cases were taken by Canadian gear. This represents a percentage catch of 16.60 per cent, for American gear and 83.40 per cent, for
Canadian gear. The sockeye-pack figures for 1947 should be compared with the pack
figures for 1943, the cycle-year for most sockeye salmon running to the Fraser River.
In this latter year there were canned a total of 51,091 cases, 31,974 cases of which were
caught by Canadian fishermen and 19,117 cases were caught by American gear.
It will be recalled that under the Sockeye Salmon Fisheries Convention between
Canada and the United States, the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission
is charged with regulating the catch in such a manner that, as near as practicable, the
catch will be distributed 50-50 between the nationals of Canada and the United States.
Apparently there were circumstances beyond the control of the Commission which
prevented the Commission from regulating the catch on a more equitable basis in 1947.
For convenience the percentages for the Fraser River sockeye catch by American and
Canadian fishermen are tabulated below covering the years 1931 to 1947, inclusive:—
American. Canadian.
Per Cent. Per Cent.
1931  68.00 32.00
1932  55.00 45.00
1933  71.00 29.00
1934  72.00 28.00
1935  47.00 53.00
1936  25.00 75.00
1937  38.00 62.00
1938  42.00 58.00
1939  44.50 55.50
1940  37.50 62.50
1941  39.30 60.70
1942  37.20 62.80
1943  37.42 62.58
1944  29.77 70.23 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. M 11
1945      __    	
American.
Per Cent.
  39.90
Canadian.
Per Cent.
60.10
1946    __ __    ___
43.90
56.10
1947	
  16.60
83.40
Spring Salmon.—The 1947 pack of spring salmon in the Fraser River district,
amounting to 1,455 cases, was slightly above the pack of this species for 1946, but was
considerably lower than the packs of this species on the Fraser River in recent past
years. However, the small pack in all probability reflects a more brisk market in the
fresh- and frozen-fish trade than any diminution in the runs of this species. The
spring-salmon pack on the Fraser River in 1946 was 1,096 cases, while in 1945 the pack
of springs amounted to 6,130 cases, and in 1944, 12,577 cases of spring salmon were
canned on the Fraser River.
Cohoe Salmon.—The Fraser River produced a pack of 6,105 cases of cohoes in 1947.
This was some 3,000 cases less than in 1946, when 9,168 cases of cohoes were canned.
The 1947 pack was most disappointing when compared with the packs for this species
in recent past cycle-years. In 1944 the Fraser River produced a pack of cohoes
amounting to 15,564 cases, while in 1941 the pack was 28,265 cases. The 1947 cohoe-
pack for the Fraser River was smaller than in any year previous to 1930.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon run to the Fraser River every second year. There
were 113,136 cases of this species canned from Fraser River caught fish in 1947, the
cycle-year for pink salmon. This pack is compared with that of the Fraser River for
1945 when the pack amounted to 95,748 cases and with 1943 when the pack was 29,860
cases. The pack in 1941 amounted to 102,388 cases. From these figures it will be
observed that the pink-salmon pack on the Fraser River in 1947 was 25,874 cases
greater than the average pack of this species for the previous five cycle-years.
Chum Salmon.—The Fraser River in 1947 produced a pack of chum salmon
amounting to 16,475 cases. This was the smallest pack on the Fraser River, outside
of 1944, since 1931. The 1947 pack was 13,675 cases less than the Fraser River pack
of this species for the previous five-year period. The small pack of chums on the
Fraser River in 1947, however, is not altogether indicative of the run of this species to
the Fraser River because during the fall fishing season the Federal Government
removed the embargo on the export of fresh salmon to the United States, which had
been in effect during the war years, and as the American market was able to absorb
large quantities of chum salmon at much higher prices than Canadian canners could
pay, the result was that quite large quantities of chum salmon were shipped to Washington State, where they were canned.
When using the canned-salmon pack figures for any species as an index of the run
to any river system, other factors should be given equal consideration—namely, the
escapement to the spawning-grounds and the quantities of the species under consideration finding a market in other outlets, as has been mentioned in the case of chum
salmon finding an outlet in the United States market.
For a detailed statement of the escapement to the spawning-beds by the various
species, the reader is referred to the salmon-spawning report for British Columbia,
which will be found in the Appendix to this Report.
Skeena River.
The Skeena River in 1947 produced 79,718 cases of all varieties of canned salmon.
This was 26,194 cases less than were packed in 1946, which, up to that year, was the
smallest total pack on the Skeena River in any of the recent past years. The total
pack on the Skeena River in 1947 was 58,410 cases less than the average annual pack of
this river system for the previous five years and was most disappointing.    The pack M 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
was composed of 32,534 cases of sockeye, 2,113 cases of springs, 2,044 cases of steelheads, 21,600 cases of cohoes, 13,190 cases of pinks, and 8,236 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The canned pack of sockeye salmon on the Skeena River in 1947
amounted to 32,534 cases. This was 24,707 cases less than the average annual pack of
sockeye salmon for the Skeena River for the past five years and was only slightly better
than the cycle-year 1943, when 28,268 cases were canned, or the five-year cycle 1942,
when the canned-salmon pack of sockeye for the Skeena River amounted to 34,544 cases.
The sockeye-pack on the Skeena River in 1947 was most disappointing.
The writer has consistently pointed out the very small pack of canned salmon from
Skeena River caught fish in recent past years. The sockeye production has been very
much below normal, and the disappointing pack of 1947 is no exception. The Fisheries
Research Board of Canada has been conducting an inquiry into the salmon runs of the
Skeena River for the past four years, and it is sincerely hoped that these scientists will
have some effective recommendations to offer for the rehabilitation of this river system.
An examination of the pack figures for the Skeena River before the period of low
production will indicate that this river is capable of producing very much larger packs.
. Spring Salmon.—The Skeena River in 1947 produced a pack of 2,113 cases of
spring salmon. This is probably a normal pack of this species for this river system
and is compared with recent past years, as follows: 1946, 2,439 cases; 1945, 2,382
cases;   1944, 1,500 cases;   1943, 1,783 cases;   and 1942, 6,374 cases.
Again the reader is reminded that spring salmon are canned in British Columbia
only incidental to the canning of other species, as spring salmon find an outlet principally in the fresh, frozen, and mild-cured trade.
Cohoe Salmon.—There were canned on the Skeena River in 1947, 21,600 cases of
cohoes. This was 6,950 cases less than the average annual pack of this species for the
Skeena River for the previous five years, and while the cohoe-pack is never a large one
on the Skeena River, it is felt that the record of this river would indicate that the
stream is capable of producing a much larger pack. In the cycle-year 1944, if cohoes
are considered a three-year fish, the pack was 20,191 cases, but in the cycle previous to
that—that is to say 1941—the Skeena River produced a pack of 50,605 cases, while in
1938 the pack amounted to 52,821 cases.
Pink Salmon.—The pink-salmon pack on the Skeena River in 1947, amounting to
13,190 cases, was almost a failure when compared with the packs of pinks for this
cycle-year. The 1947 pack of this species was less than half the average annual pack
for the previous five years and was 43,461 cases less than the average cycle-pack for
the previous five cycles. This very low pack on the Skeena River was most disappointing, and when it is realized that the pack in the immediate cycle-year 1945 amounted to
69,783 cases, one cannot help but remark on the very small pack for 1947.
Chum Salmon.—The Skeena River is never a large producer of canned chum
salmon, and the year 1947 was no exception. In this year the chum-salmon pack on the
Skeena amounted to 8,236 cases. This was less than were canned in 1946, when the
pack amounted to 11,161 cases, and is compared with 8,741 cases canned in 1944 and
6,597 cases canned in 1943, the cycle-year.
While it has been stressed in the pages of this Report that the canned-salmon packs
are not always indicative of the run of salmon of the various species to the different
rivers in British Columbia, nevertheless they can be taken as a very close measure of
the runs, particularly in respect to sockeye, pinks, and chums. A comparison of the
canned-salmon pack figures of these three species for the Skeena River in recent past
years cannot help but raise the question as to what is wrong with the Skeena River.
Nass River.
The total canned-salmon pack on the Nass River in 1947 amounted to 29,450 cases.
This was the smallest pack for this river system for many years and was 17,784 cases REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. M 13
less than the average annual pack for the Nass River for the previous five-year period.
The 1947 pack consisted of 10,849 cases of sockeye, 398 cases of springs, 156 cases of
steelheads, 4,075 cases of cohoes, 5,047 cases of pinks, and 8,925 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The 10,849 cases of sockeye salmon canned on the Nass River in
1947 was quite disappointing. The 1947 pack was 1,102 cases less than the average
annual pack for the previous five years, and, compared with the four-year cycle, the
pack in 1943 was 13,412 cases, while the five-year cycle produced a pack of 21,085 cases.
Compared with recent past years, the 1947 pack would seem to indicate that this river
system has entered a period of low production, although the sockeye-salmon runs to the
Nass River have fluctuated widely from year to year and from run to run.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are never a large factor in the canned-salmon
pack of the Nass River, and 1947 was no exception, there being 398 cases of this species
canned, compared with 472 cases in 1946, 202 cases in 1945, 681 cases in 1944, and 1,002
cases in 1943.
Cohoe Salmon.—In 1947 the Nass River produced a pack of cohoe salmon amounting to 4,075 cases. This is compared with 4,239 cases in 1946, 3,895 cases in 1945, and
6,102 cases in 1944, the cycle-year, if cohoes are considered a three-year fish. The pack
in 1947 was considerably smaller than the average cohoe-pack for recent past years on
this river system.
Pink Salmon.—Based on the pink-salmon pack in 1947, amounting to 5,047 cases,
the run of this species to the Nass River was a failure because in 1945, the cycle-year,
the pink-salmon run to the Nass River produced a pack of 35,918 cases, while in 1943
the pack amounted to 17,669 cases. In 1942 the pink-salmon pack amounted to 49,003
cases.
Chum Salmon.—The Nass River is never a heavy producer of chum salmon, and
1947 was no exception. In that year the chum-salmon pack amounted to 8,925 cases,
while in the year previous 13,810 cases were canned. The pack in 1945 amounted to
4,981 cases, while in 1944 there were 9,143 cases of chum salmon canned on the Nass
River.
The reader is again reminded that the conditions of the spawning-beds should be
taken into consideration when using the canned-salmon pack as a measure of the size
of the runs to any of British Columbia's salmon-streams.
Rivers Inlet.
The total canned-salmon pack on Rivers Inlet in 1947 amounted to 168,935 cases.
This was the largest pack for Rivers Inlet in recent past years and was most encouraging. The pack consisted of 140,087 cases of sockeye, 475 cases of springs, 293 cases of
steelheads, 5,182 cases of cohoes, 9,025 cases of pinks, and 13,873 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-pack on Rivers Inlet in 1947 amounted to 140,087
cases. This was 62,622 cases greater than the five-year average for the immediately
preceding five years. Rivers Inlet sockeye are four- and five-year-old fish, the percentage of four-year-olds slightly exceeding the five-year-olds. The fish composing the
1947 pack are, therefore, the progeny of the escapements in 1942 and 1943. In 1942
the Rivers Inlet sockeye-pack amounted to 79,199 cases, while the pack for this inlet
in 1943 amounted to 47,602 cases. It would seem from the numbers available to the
fishermen in 1947 that conditions on the spawning-beds and the survival of these two
brood-years were exceptionally favourable.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are caught in Rivers Inlet incidental to fishing for
other species. In 1947 there were canned in Rivers Inlet 475 cases of spring salmon.
This figure is compared with 1,108 cases in 1946, 119 cases in 1945, and 805 cases in
1944.    As pointed out previously, the spring-salmon pack is not indicative of the run. M 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Cohoe Salmon.—Rivers Inlet is never a large producer of cohoes, but the 1947 pack
was smaller than usual. The 5,182 cases of cohoes packed from Rivers Inlet caught
fish in 1947 is compared with 9,524 cases in 1946, 17,516 cases in 1945, 13,921 cases in
1944, and 11,466 cases in 1943.
Pink Salmon.—The run of pink salmon to Rivers Inlet is never a large factor in
the canned-salmon production for this area. However, the 1947 pack of 9,025 cases
was about the same as the cycle-year 1945, when 9,916 cases were canned. In the
previous cycle-year 1943 the canned-salmon pack of pinks for Rivers Inlet amounted
to 8,347 cases. Pink salmon in Rivers Inlet are caught incidental to fishing for sockeye, and consequently no great importance is attached to the pink-salmon runs to this
area.
Chum Salmon.—Previous to 1935 chum salmon were not fished in Rivers Inlet,
except those caught incidental to the sockeye fishery. Since 1935, however, Rivers
Inlet has continued to produce an increasingly larger quantity of canned chum salmon.
In 1947 the inlet produced 13,873 cases of chums. However, in 1946 the pack of chum
salmon credited to Rivers Inlet was 37,395 cases. The 1947 pack was 2,550 cases less
than the average for the previous five years, although this average is somewhat distorted due to the large pack in 1946.
Smith Inlet.
Smith Inlet in 1947 produced a total pack of canned salmon amounting to 46,172
cases. This amount was considerably larger than the total canned-salmon pack for
this inlet in recent past years. The 1947 pack consisted of 36,800 cases of sockeye,
43 cases of springs, 21 cases of steelheads, 348 cases of cohoes, 1,050 cases of pinks,
and 7,910 cases of chums.
From the above it will be noted that the salmon-pack in Smith Inlet is largely a
sockeye-pack. As a matter of fact, Smith Inlet is to all intents and purposes a sockeye-
fishing area, other varieties caught and canned in this area being caught incidental to
fishing for sockeye.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-pack in Smith Inlet in 1947 amounted to 36,800
cases. This was the largest pack of sockeye salmon in Smith Inlet since 1933, when
37,369 cases were canned. The 1947 pack was 19,939 cases above the average sockeye-
pack for Smith Inlet in the previous five-year period.
Spring Salmon.—There were 43 cases of spring salmon caught and canned in 1947
from Smith Inlet, compared with 45 cases in 1946, 26 cases in 1945, 66 cases in 1944,
and 118 cases in 1943.
Cohoe Salmon.—Smith Inlet, like Rivers Inlet, is principally a sockeye-fishing area.
In 1947 there were 348 cases of cohoes canned from Smith Inlet caught fish. This
figure is compared with 177 cases in 1946, 560 cases in 1945, 343 cases in 1944, and
541 cases in 1943.
Pink Salmon.—The 1947 season produced 1,050 cases of pink salmon in Smith
Inlet, compared with 235 cases of this species in 1946, 2,362 cases in 1945, 498 cases in
1944, and 556 cases in 1943.
Chum Salmon.—In recent years there has been some fall seining for chum salmon
in Smith Inlet, although Smith Inlet is primarily considered a sockeye-fishing area.
In 1947 the chum-salmon pack in Smith Inlet amounted to 7,910 cases. This figure is
compared with 8,369 cases in 1946, 3,692 cases in 1945, 2,122 cases in 1944, and 5,693
cases in 1943.
Queen Charlotte Islands.
Pink and chum salmon for canning purposes are the two principal species fished
for and caught in the Queen Charlotte Islands district, except in certain years when
a considerable number of troll-caught cohoe are canned.    In 1947 there was a total REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. M 15
canned-salmon pack of 15,688 cases from Queen Charlotte Islands caught fish. This
was made up of 14,096 cases of chums, 1,200 cases of pinks, and 392 cases of cohoes.
Pink salmon frequent the waters off Queen Charlotte Islands only in the even-numbered
years. The pack of pinks credited to the Queen Charlotte Islands in 1947 was caught
incidental to fishing for chums.
Cohoe Salmon.—The 392 cases of cohoe salmon caught off the Queen Charlotte
Islands in 1947 represent the catch incidental to fishing for chum salmon and are not
to be confused with the production of troll-caught fish which, in some years, find an
outlet in the canneries. In 1946 the cohoe-pack from the Queen Charlotte Islands
amounted to 1,192 cases, while in 1945 the pack was 1,108 cases.
Pink Salmon.—As pointed out in a previous paragraph, pink salmon frequent the
waters off the Queen Charlotte Islands only in the even-numbered years. In 1947 the
total pink-salmon pack for this district amounted to 1,200 cases. This figure represents
the number of pink salmon caught incidental to fishing for chums.
Chum Salmon.—The chum-salmon pack from Queen Charlotte Islands caught fish
in 1947, amounting to 14,096 cases, was somewhat disappointing when compared with
the run of four years previous which produced a pack of 81,916 cases. The pack in
1946 was 32,414 cases and in 1945 it amounted to 12,132 cases.
In considering the canned-salmon packs for the Queen Charlotte Islands, one should
make due allowances for the quantity of cohoes and chums which usually find a market
in the fresh- and frozen-fish trade, as well as in canning. The current packs should
also be considered in conjunction with the numbers of fish reaching the spawning-beds,
particularly if one is using the canned-salmon pack figures as an index of the size of
the runs.
Central Area.
For statistical purposes the Central Area comprises all of the salmon-fishing areas
off the coast of British Columbia between Cape Calvert and the Skeena River, except
Rivers Inlet. In 1947 the total canned-salmon pack from this area amounted to 440,951
cases. This pack was composed of 17,343 cases of sockeye, 514 cases of springs, 469
cases of steelheads, 28,778 cases of cohoes, 101,241 cases of pinks, and 292,604 cases of
chums. The total canned-salmon pack in 1947 in the Central Area is compared with
337,333 cases for this area in 1946 and 574,080 cases in 1945. The same area produced
303,626 cases in 1944 and 445,900 cases in 1943.
Sockeye Salmon.—The principal sockeye-salmon fishing-grounds in the Central
Area are Fitzhugh Sound and Burke and Dean Channels. Some sockeye are taken
annually in the vicinity of Banks Island and Principe Channel, and a small gill-net
fishery, which is much less important, is conducted in Gardner Canal.
The total sockeye-salmon pack in the Central Area in 1947 was 17,343 cases.
Assuming that sockeye are four-year fish, this figure is compared with 21,101 cases in
1943, the cycle-year, while in the previous cycle—that is the year 1939—the pack
amounted to 26,158 cases. The 1947 pack was 4,233 cases less than the average annual
pack of sockeye in the Central Area for the previous five-year period.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are caught and canned in the Central Area to
some extent, but, as in other areas, the canned spring-salmon pack is made up of fish
caught incidentally while fishing for other species and is not a measure of the size of
the run. In 1947 the spring-salmon pack amounted to 514 cases, while in the year
previous 656 cases of this species were canned. The pack in 1945 was 542 cases, and
643 cases were canned in 1944.
Cohoe Salmon.—The pack of cohoes in the Central Area in 1947, amounting to
28,778 cases, was considerably above the 19,589 cases packed in the year previous, but
was only slightly larger than the 25,823 cases of cohoe packed in 1944, the cycle-year M 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
for this species. The 1947 pack of cohoes in the Central Area was 481 cases less than
the average annual pack of this species for the previous five years.
Pink Salmon.—The Central Area has always been considered a good producing area
for pink salmon. The pink-salmon pack for this area in 1947, amounting to 101,241
cases, while considerably better than the pack in the year previous, was, nevertheless,
disappointing when compared with the 364,385 cases of this species packed in 1945, the
cycle-year, and the 288,109 cases packed in 1943, which was also a cycle-year. The 1947
pack was 98,420 cases less than the average annual pack for the previous five-year
period. The 1947 pack of pink salmon in the Central Area was 92,832 cases less than
the five-year average pack for the cycle-years.
Chum Salmon.—The Central Area in 1947 produced a pack of 292,604 cases of
chum salmon, which is compared with 221,958 cases in 1946 and 138,992 cases in
1945. In 1943, the cycle-year for this species, the pack was 109,101 cases. The 1947
canned-salmon pack of chums was 123,914 cases greater than the average annual pack
of this species in the Central Area for the previous five-year period.
Vancouver Island.
The total canned-salmon pack from fish caught in the Vancouver Island district in
1947 amounted to 552,940 cases. The pack was made up of 14,543 cases of sockeye,
4,942 cases of springs, 99 cases of steelheads, 77,684 cases of cohoes, 355,992 cases of
pinks, and 99,679 cases of chums. Vancouver Island, like the Central Area, supports
numerous races of salmon running to the different watersheds. In this breakdown no
attempt is made to deal with the races separately. It probably should be mentioned,
however, that sockeye salmon caught in the Sooke traps are not credited to Vancouver
Island, but are credited to the Fraser River, where most of them are known to migrate.
Sockeye Salmon.—The total sockeye-salmon pack credited to Vancouver Island
caught fish in 1947 was 14,543 cases. This figure is compared with 35,381 cases of
sockeye canned in this district in 1946, 5,988 cases in 1945, 5,288 cases in 1944, and
7,185 cases in 1943. As pointed out above, these figures do not include the sockeye
caught in the Sooke traps. While the 1947 sockeye-pack for Vancouver Island was 866
cases above the average annual pack for this species for the five years immediately
preceding, it was, nevertheless, 15,784 cases less than the average annual pack for the
years 1938 to 1942.    On this basis the 1947 pack must be considered as disappointing.
Spring Salmon.—Large quantities of spring salmon are caught each year by trolling in the waters off Vancouver Island. Most of these fish, however, find a market in
the fresh- and frozen-fish trade or as mild-cured salmon. The trap-caught spring
salmon on the lower west coast of Vancouver Island also find a market principally as
fresh, frozen, or mild-cured. Because of these other outlets the canned-salmon pack
figures for spring salmon in the Vancouver Island district are not indicative of the
catch of this species. In 1947 the spring-salmon pack amounted to 4,942 casess while
in 1946 the pack was 2,283 cases. In 1945, 2,323 cases were canned, and 3,068 cases
in 1944.
Cohoe Salmon.—Vancouver Island produced a canned-cohoe pack in 1947 amounting to 77,684 cases. This is compared with 29,983 cases in 1946, 104,528 cases in 1945,
and in 1944, the cycle-year for this run, 79,813 cases were packed. The 1947 pack of
Vancouver Island caught cohoe was 4,513 cases above the average annual pack for this
species for the previous five-year period.
Pink Salmon.—In 1947 the pink-salmon pack credited to Vancouver Island was
355,992 cases. This was 113,402 cases greater than were packed from Vancouver
Island caught fish in 1945, the cycle-year for this species, and is compared with 130,825
cases in 1943, the preceding cycle-year. The pink-salmon pack is largely a measure
of the catch. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. M 17
Chum Salmon.—Vancouver Island produced a pack of canned chum salmon in 1947
amounting to 99,679 cases. This is compared with 190,313 cases of this species packed
for Vancouver Island in 1946 and 132,843 cases in 1943, the cycle-year, if this species
is considered a four-year fish.
In the pages of this Report for 1946, attention was drawn to the comparatively
small packs of chum salmon canned from Vancouver Island caught fish in recent past
years. Actually the pack in 1947 indicates a continued downward trend. For the
information of the reader a table is included showing the canned-salmon packs of
chums from Vancouver Island caught fish for the years 1934 to 1947, inclusive:—
Cases. Cases.
1934  210,239 1941  593,016
1935  143,960 1942  383,005
1936 :  347,951 1943  132,843
1937  203,900 1944     56,029
1938  266,566 1945  136,724
1939  212,949 1946  190,313
1940  279,064 1947     99,679
It will be observed that in recent past years the pack shows a definite downward
trend.
In comparing the Vancouver Island pack figures for recent past years with the
pack figures for this area in pre-war years, two important factors must be considered:
First, the heavy demand of the freezers for Vancouver Island caught chum salmon,
particularly during the latter years, and, second, previous to the war large quantities
of Vancouver Island chum salmon were salted and shipped to the Orient. Notwithstanding these two factors, however, the trend indicated is definitely downward.
REVIEW OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-CANNING INDUSTRY, 1947.
In 1947 the Provincial Department of Fisheries licensed thirty salmon-canneries
for operation, all of which operated. The total number of canneries operated in 1947
was one less than in 1946.   The operating canneries were located as follows:—
Queen Charlotte Islands	
Skeena River      7
Central Area      4
Rivers Inlet      1
Johnstone Strait     3
Fraser River and Lower Mainland  12
West Coast of Vancouver Island     3
Nass River 	
It will be noted from the above that the canneries operating in 1947 were located
similarly to the operating canneries in 1946, except that, whereas in 1946 there were
thirteen operating canneries on the Fraser River and Lower Mainland, in 1947 only
twelve canneries operated in this area. There were no canneries operated in the Queen
Charlotte Islands or on the Nass River. This is the third consecutive year in which no
canneries have been operated in the Queen Charlotte Islands or on the Nass River. The
salmon-catch from both of these areas was transported to salmon-canneries operating
in other areas.
In this section of previous Annual Reports of this Department, attention has been
drawn to the fact that, during the war years and in the immediate post-war years,
fewer salmon canneries have been operated in British Columbia than in the years
immediately preceding the outbreak of World War II. It would appear that this trend
is continuing.    Since the conclusion of the war, economic conditions in British Colum- M 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
bia have tended to raise production costs, and the salmon canners have been forced
to continue to use every effort to reduce production costs. One way of doing this was
to cut down overhead by consolidating their operations in as few canneries as possible.
Different companies have made mutual agreements amongst themselves to can each
other's fish in certain instances and, in other cases, companies operating more than one
cannery in an area have tended to close one or more of the operating canneries and
consolidate canning operations in near-by canneries, using modern fast packers to
transport the fish from the area in which they were caught, sometimes for quite long
distances, for canning at a central location.
During the war years the Provincial Government refused to permit the operation
of salmon dry-salteries and the Federal Government also placed an embargo on the
export of fresh salmon in certain categories, except under export permit. These steps
were taken to divert as much of the salmon-catch as possible to the canneries because
of the heavy demand for canned salmon by the British Government and the armed
forces. In 1947 this policy was continued up to September, when the Federal Government removed the embargo on the export of fall fish. Owing to the high prices
obtained for canned salmon on the United States market and the fact that British
Columbia canners are forced to pay a duty of 25 per cent, ad valorem to the American
Government if they wish to share in the United States canned-salmon market, the
American buyers were able to outbid the Canadian canners for fall fish. As a result of
these higher prices paid by the Americans, many of the British Columbia canners were
forced to close down due to lack of raw fish, as the catch was exported in a raw state
for canning south of the Border. It is estimated that fish sufficient to fill 150,000
cases were shipped to canneries in the State of Washington for processing. This
export of raw fish, of course, had a serious effect on the canned-salmon pack of British
Columbia.
OTHER CANNERIES   (PILCHARD, HERRING, AND SHELL-FISH).
Pilchard.—Four plants were licensed by the Provincial Department of Fisheries
to can pilchards in 1947, but only three of these operated. This was four less than
operated in 1946. The pack of canned pilchards in 1947 was 2,656 cases, compared
with 4,359 cases in 1946. In addition to the canning of pilchards, two plants operated
on anchovies. These two plants, together with the pilchard canneries, produced a total
pack of 36,823 cases of combined pilchards and anchovies, while the combined canned
pilchard and anchovy pack in 1946 was 34,305 cases. The small pilchard-pack in 1947
was again due to the almost complete failure of the pilchards to make an appearance
in British Columbia waters.
Herring.—-There were eighteen herring-canneries licensed to operate by the Provincial Department of Fisheries in 1947, two of which did not operate. The remaining
sixteen plants produced a canned herring-pack of 1,283,670 cases. In this connection
it might be well to mention that the herring-catch in 1947 was one of the largest on
record in British Columbia. The canning of herring in British Columbia has increased
immensely since the outbreak of World War II, and in the immediate post-war years
the demand for a high-protein food, such as canned herring, has continued to rise;
consequently the operators have had little difficulty in finding a ready market for
canned herring.
Shell-fish Canneries.—There were eleven shell-fish canneries licensed to operate in
1947. Only eight of these operated, however. These eight plants produced 5,977
cases of crab, 5,331 cases of clams, 284 cases of abalone, and 527 cases of shrimps.
MILD-CURED SALMON.
There were seven plants licensed to mild-cure salmon in British Columbia in
1947, compared with ten plants licensed in 1946.    In 1947, however, only six plants REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. M 19
operated, while in 1946 there were seven plants actually in production. The total
number of tierces produced in 1947 was 1,542, compared with the 1946 production of
2,208 tierces.
DRY-SALT SALMON.
Previous to 1939, various amounts of chum salmon were dry-salted in British
Columbia for shipment to the Orient. In some years the production of this product
reached fairly large proportions. During the war years the Provincial Government
declined to issue licences for salmon dry-salteries in order to divert as much of the
salmon-catch as possible to the canneries and freezers. In 1947 there were two
salmon dry-salteries licensed, but no operation was conducted in either of these plants
and in both cases the licence fees were refunded.
DRY-SALT HERRING.
Herring were dry-salted in large quantities in British Columbia previous to
World War II, the product being shipped to China. Since the outbreak of the war,
however, the bulk of the herring caught in British Columbia has been canned or
reduced to meal and oil.
In order to divert as much as possible of the herring-catch to the canneries, no
herring dry-salteries were permitted to operate in British Columbia during the war
years. However, in 1945 U.N.R.R.A. requested a certain amount of dry-salt herring
for relief food in China. Again in 1947 herring dry-salteries were permitted to
operate, and in this year six plants were licensed but only five actually got into
production.    These five plants produced a pack of 3,084 cured tons.
PICKLED HERRING.
During the war there was considerable interest shown in pickled herring, due
to the fact that the United States supplies of pickled herring were cut off. This
business, however, has been gradually becoming less as European sources of supply
get into production, and in 1947 only one plant was licensed to pickle herring and this
plant virtually had no operation.
HALIBUT PRODUCTION.
The halibut-fishery on the Pacific Coast of North America is regulated by the
International Fisheries Commission under treaty between Canada and the United
States of America. The fishery is shared in by the nationals of the two countries.
The Commission regulates the fishery on a quota basis, and on that account there is
very little fluctuation in the total amount of halibut landed from year to year, except
when the quotas are changed for any reason. For the purposes of regulation, the
Coast has been divided into four areas. The principal areas from the standpoint of
production are Areas Nos. 2 and 3. Area 2 comprises the waters off the Washington
and British Columbia coasts from the approximate vicinity of Willapa Harbour in
the south to Cape Spencer in the north. Area 3 comprises the waters from the
northern boundary of Area No. 2 to the Aleutian Islands. The other two areas, Nos. 1
and 4, from which production is small, comprise the waters south of Area No. 2 and
the Bering Sea, respectively.
In 1947 the catch-limit set by the Commission for Area No. 2 was 24,500,000 lb.,
and for Area No. 3, 28,000,000 lb. These were the same quotas as were in effect for
the respective areas in 1946. In 1947, for the first time, Area No. 4 had a quota of
500,000 lb. These quotas are all exclusive of any amount of halibut which may be
caught incidentally when fishing for other species with set lines in the areas closed
to halibut-fishing in accordance with the Commission's regulations. M 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The total landings of halibut by all vessels in all ports in 1947 amounted to
55,982,000 lb., including halibut caught incidentally when fishing for other species.
This was 4,409,000 lb. less than the total landings in 1946. Of this total, Area No. 2
produced 27,642,000 lb., while Area No. 3 produced 27,828,000 lb.; 511,000 lb. were
produced in Area No. 1, while in Area No. 4 the production amounted to 1,000 lb.
in 1947.
The total halibut-landings by all vessels in Canadian ports in 1947 was 26,442,000
lb. Of this amount, 17,293,000 lb. were caught in Area No. 2, while Area No. 3 produced
9,149,000 lb. These figures are compared with 22,284,000 lb. landed by all vessels in
Canadian ports in 1946. Canadian vessels landed in Canadian ports, in 1947, 23,823,000
lb. of halibut; 16,869,000 lb. came from Area No. 2 and 6,954,000 lb. came from Area
No. 3. Canadian vessels also landed 270,000 lb. of halibut in American ports in 1947.
All of this latter amount was caught in Area No. 2. The total landings by American
vessels in Canadian ports in 1947 were 2,619,000 lb. This latter figure is compared
with 4,384,000 lb. of American-caught halibut landed in Canadian ports in 1946.
The average open-market price paid for Canadian halibut in Prince Rupert in
1947 was 18.5 cents per pound, and for all Canadian landings in all of the British
Columbian ports the average price was about the same.
Halibut-livers have been a source of revenue to halibut-fishermen for a number
of years because of their high vitamin content. The value of the halibut-livers to
United States and Canadian fishermen in 1947 was $1,435,000, compared with $1,801,130
in 1946. Of this amount, Canadian fishermen received $449,000, compared with $261,750
for the Canadian fishermen's share in 1946. The United States fishermen's share of
halibut-livers in 1947 was $986,000.
In addition to the halibut-livers marketed by halibut-fishermen, halibut-viscera
has been sold to pharmaceutical houses for the production of medicinal products. In
1947 halibut-viscera had a market value to the Canadian fishermen of $181,000, while
the United States fishermen sold viscera to the value of $407,000. The total value of
viscera to the halibut fleet in 1947 was therefore $588,000.
The statistical information in connection with the Pacific halibut-fishery quoted
above has been supplied by the International Fisheries Commission and is hereby gratefully acknowledged.
FISH OIL AND MEAL.
Fish-oil and edible fish-meal have been an important branch of British Columbia's
fisheries production for a number of years. Previous to the war, pilchards and herring
were the principal species used for the production of oil and meal. Since the outbreak
of the war and the consequent increase in the demand for natural sources of vitamins,
other species have been found to yield oils of higher vitamin content, and the increased
demand for these products has stimulated activity in this field. The various fish-
livers, cannery waste, and the viscera are all utilized for the production of fish-oil,
much of which finds a market in the pharmaceutical trade. In addition to the high
vitamin oils used in the medicinal field, British Columbia fish-oils of lower vitamin
potencies find an outlet in many manufacturing processes. Other vitamin-bearing
fish-oils produced in British Columbia are sold in large quantities for the feeding of
poultry and live stock.
Fish-liver Oil.—Fish-liver oil production in British Columbia since the outbreak
of the war has reached quite important proportions. It has been known for some time
that the livers and viscera of certain Pacific fishes were valuable as a natural source
of vitamins, and the increasing demand for vitamin A has been the chief cause for
the continued rise in the production of fish-liver oil. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. M 21
In 1947 seven plants were licensed to operate by the Provincial Department of
Fisheries to process fish-livers. All of these plants operated. These seven plants
processed a total of 3,772,528 lb. of livers, which produced a total of 11,109,063 U.S.P.
units. In previous Reports of this Department the production of vitamin oils has
been reported in imperial gallons. This, however, was contrary to the usual means
of measuring the production of high vitamin oils, and commencing with this Report,
this production will be reported henceforth in U.S.P. units. In 1946 there were nine
plants licensed to process fish-livers, and these nine plants processed a total of 3,724,804
lb. of livers. It will be noted from these figures that the quantity of livers processed
in 1947 was just slightly greater than the total quantity processed in 1946. However,
there is no means of comparing the total production from this raw material as the
production for 1946 is in imperial gallons, whereas the production in 1947 is reported
in U.S.P. units.
Pilchard Reduction.—Five plants were licensed to reduce pilchards in British
Columbia in 1947, only two of which operated. The run of pilchards to the British
Columbia coast in 1947 was almost a failure, and as a consequence the two plants
operating processed only 380 tons of raw fish, which produced 67 tons of meal and
12,833 imperial gallons of oil.
This is the third consecutive year in which the pilchard runs to British Columbia
have been practically a complete failure. The biologists charged with investigating
this fishery are not optimistic that this condition will materially improve in the near
future.
The reader is referred to more specific reports on this fishery for details as to the
future possibilities. It might be indicated here that the immediate future is not
bright.
Herring Reduction. — The herring-fishery in British Columbia is an important
branch of our winter fishery, the season running from October through to March,
although a few herring are caught previous to October. The reduction of herring to
meal and oil has become an important part of the over-all herring-fishery picture.
This branch is expected to assume greater proportions now that the war demand for
canned herring has lessened. Reference to this Report covering the war years will
indicate the large quantity of British Columbia caught herring which were canned in
that period. During the war years herring were caught in British Columbia waters
all the way from the south-east shores of Vancouver Island to the Alaska boundary.
The fishery now includes the whole British Columbia coast, and, with the lessened
demand for the canned product, it is natural that a continually increasing quantity will
find an outlet in the reduction plants.
In 1947 there were fourteen plants licensed to reduce herring to meal and oil,
compared with thirteen plants licensed in 1946. In the latter year, however, only
twelve of these plants operated. The fourteen plants operating in 1947 produced
18,949 tons of meal and 1,526,826 imperial gallons of oil. These figures are compared
with 1946 when 7,223 tons of meal and 484,937 imperial gallons of oil were produced.
Whale Reduction.—There was no licensed whale-reduction operation in British
Columbia in 1947; the last licence issued covering an operation, of this kind was in 1944.
Miscellaneous Reduction. — Dogfish and fish-offal reduction plants are licensed
under miscellaneous reduction. These plants operate on cannery waste and from the
carcasses of dogfish, and produce meal and oil for various purposes. The oil produced
from the carcasses of dogfish is not to be confused with the oil produced from dogfish-
livers, the latter being a high-potency oil which is reported in another section of this
Report. In 1947 there were eighteen plants licensed, seventeen of which operated.
The seventeen plants produced 3,929 tons of fish-meal and 519,802 imperial gallons
of oil. M 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
NET-FISHING IN NON-TIDAL WATERS.
Under section 23 of the Special Fishery Regulations for British Columbia, fishing
with nets in certain specified non-tidal waters within the Province is permissible under
licence from the Provincial Minister of Fisheries. This fishery is confined almost
exclusively to the residents living within reasonable distance of the lakes mentioned.
In the Appendix to this Report there again appears a table showing the name and
number of lakes in which net-fishing has been permitted, together with the number
and approximate weight of the various species of fish taken from each lake.
It will be noted that there are three different kinds of fishing licences issued for
net-fishing in the non-tidal waters of the Province—namely, fur-farm, ordinary, and
sturgeon. In 1947-48 there were twenty-three licences issued to fur-farmers, compared with thirty in the year previous. The coarse fish taken under these licences
are used for feeding fur-bearing animals held in captivity.
There were one hundred and ten ordinary fishing licences issued in 1947-48, compared with ninety-nine in 1946-47. Two sturgeon fishing licences were issued in the
1947-48 season, compared with three in the year previous.
The total number of fish taken by licensed nets in the non-tidal waters of the
Province in the 1947-48 season was 89,427 of all species permitted, with an approximate weight of 105,258 lb.
For a more detailed account of the fish taken by licensed nets in the different
waters of the Province, the reader is referred to the table above-mentioned appearing
in the Appendix.
CONDITION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-SPAWNING GROUNDS.
Owing to this Department having discontinued making inspections of the various
salmon-spawning areas of the Province, we are indebted to the Chief Supervisor of
Fisheries, and the officers of his Department who conducted the investigations, for
furnishing us with a copy of his Department's report. His courtesy in supplying us
with this report is gratefully acknowledged.
The Chief Supervisor's report on the condition of British Columbia's salmon-
spawning grounds will be found in full in the Appendix to this Report.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
(Digest.)     (No. 33.)
There will be found in the Appendix to this Report, Paper No. 33 in the series
"Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon." This paper is again
contributed by Dr. W. A. Clemens, Department of Zoology, University of British
Columbia.
In commenting on the sockeye-salmon runs to the various river systems covered
by Dr. Clemens' paper for 1947, he points out that the bright side of the picture was
the outstanding and exceptionally large run of sockeye to Rivers Inlet, producing, as it
did, a pack of 140,087 cases, particularly when this is considered in relation to the
large escapement. The 1947 run to Rivers Inlet consisted almost entirely of five-
year-old fish and was therefore derived from the spawning of 1942. The other side
of the picture shows poor runs to the Skeena and Nass Rivers, with commercial packs
of 32,534 cases and 10,849 cases respectively, with relatively small escapements.
With specific reference to the Rivers Inlet run, Dr. Clemens points out that
climatic conditions during the spawning and incubation periods must have been particularly favourable, resulting in an exceptional production of fry. The 1947 pack of
Rivers Inlet sockeye was the second highest in the history of Rivers Inlet,  being REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. M 23
exceeded only in 1925, when the pack amounted to 159,554 cases. In 1948 the run
will be the product of the spawnings of 1943 and 1944. In the former year the pack
was 47,602 cases and the escapement was reported as fair. In the latter year the
pack was 36,852 cases and the escapement reported as light. Dr. Clemens suggests
that unless climatic conditions were unfavourable for the 19.43 brood-year, there should
be a fair production of five-year-old fish in 1948.
In commenting on the Skeena River sockeye-pack in 1947 Dr. Clemens suggests
that the pack of 32,534 cases was about all that could be expected from the brood-years
of 1942 and 1943. Commenting on the return in 1948, it is pointed out that this run
will be the product of the 1943 and 1944 spawnings. In the former year the pack
was 28,268 cases, with an escapement relatively small. There should be a good percentage of five-year-old fish from the 1943 spawning, but since the escapement was
not large, the return cannot be expected to be large. In 1944 the pack was 68,197
cases and the escapement relatively large. The return of four-year-old fish from this
spawning will probably be small. The combined run, therefore, in 1948 is expected to
be small, producing a pack of probably between 30,000 and 40,000 cases.
With regard to the run to the Nass River, Dr. Clemens points out that the
Dominion fishery officers report that the escapement to Meziaden Lake was " good
medium," which was " slightly better than average." However, he fears that some
mortality of eggs may result through drying and freezing. The return in 1948 should
be derived from the brood-years of 1943 and 1944. In both these years the escapements were reported as average, therefore there would seem to be no indication of
a large run in 1948.
In examining these various figures and the possibilities of runs predicated on
the pack and escapement, one should make due consideration for the crying lack of
information which would seem to be necessary to predict what the run is likely to be.
For a full account of Dr. Clemens' analyses of the samples of sockeye from these
three river systems, the reader is referred to Paper No. 33 in the series " Contributions
to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon," which appears in the Appendix to this
Report.
HERRING INVESTIGATION.
The herring investigation in 1947-48 was continued by Dr. A. L. Tester, J. C.
Stevenson, and their associates, of the Pacific Biological Station, with financial aid
from the Fisheries Research Board of Canada and the Provincial Department of
Fisheries.
West Coast of Vancouver Island Herring Studies.
In 1947-48 the intensive investigation of the west coast of Vancouver Island
herring population entered its second year. The results are given in the Appendix
to this Report. The study aims at determining (1) the causes of natural fluctuations
in abundance, (2) the relationship between spawning potential and recruitment, and
(3) the average minimum spawning stock necessary to produce maximum sustained
yield. Knowledge' of these factors will permit scientific appraisal of the utility of the
quota system in regulating the catch, and thus it is expected to lead to the formulation
of an efficient management policy for all the herring-fisheries of British Columbia.
Five principal lines of research were pursued intensively: (1) Following the
progress of the fishery and securing accurate catch statistics; (2) recovering tags
from the catches and conducting tagging operations in the spawning season; (3)
sampling the catches and the spawning runs adequately; (4) determining the extent
of the spawnings, and studying egg mortality, bird predation, etc; and (5) studying
the abundance and distribution of the larvte and the schooled young. M 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Three tag detectors, located at Steveston, Kildonan, and Nootka, and magnets in
several reduction plants recovered a total of 2,224 tags, as compared to 736 recovered
in 1946-47. Analysis of the tag returns showed that the amount of mixture between
fish of the West Coast and the Lower East Coast Sub-districts was relatively small,
as in past years, but that emigration of fish from the west coast was relatively greater
than immigration to the west coast, a reverse situation to that which obtained in
1946-47. A considerable intermingling of fish was again observed between the various
west coast areas, and the tendency noted in 1946-47 for fish to wander to the southeastward was observed in the past season.
The rate of exploitation, calculated from tag returns, was 2.7 times greater in
1947-48 than in 1946-47. In view of the lowered catch (45,200 tons as compared to
59,000 tons) and the increased fishing effort in the past season, it appears likely that
the decreased abundance, indicated by a decrease in availability, was due primarily to
the small recruitment of a relatively less abundant year-class  (the 1945 year-class).
The tagging programme in the spring of 1948 resulted in 31,947 fish being tagged
on the west coast, as compared to 30,401 in 1947.
A total of 133 samples were taken from the west coast fishery and spawning runs
in the past season. The age composition of the catches showed that the 1945 year-
class was dominant, but constituted only slightly more than half the fish in the
catches. Comparison of the actual numbers of fish present in the catches of the past
three seasons indicated that the 1945 year-class provided less recruits to the fishery
than the 1944 year-class, which in turn was less productive than the year-class of
1943. If the very poor showing of the 1946 year-class (as two-year fish) in the
1947-48 fishery is indicative of the relative strength of the year-class, a further decline
in the west coast catch is to be expected next season. However, the year-class showed
up considerably better in the spawning runs than in the fishery, suggesting that the
new recruits were possibly late in entering the mature runs.
As in the previous year, new influxes of fish entered inshore waters to spawn
after the close of the fishing season, providing a spawning in 1948 equal to or perhaps
slightly better than that of 1947. The spawning intensity was less in 1948 than in
1947, but the total mileage was about one-third greater. The sampling of the west
coast spawning-grounds indicated a relatively small average egg mortality, although
it was greater than that encountered in the 1947 survey. Data were obtained suggesting that on some spawning-grounds heavy losses of spawn were caused by bird
predation.
An intensive study of the young herring on the west coast was carried out over
a ten-week period in the spring of 1948. Only a small part of the data has as yet
been analysed, but in general the results seem to confirm the major findings of the
preliminary survey. Immediately after hatching, larvae were obtained in great abundance in the inshore spawning localities, but as the larvae became larger, they gradually
dispersed from the vicinity of the spawning-grounds. Offshore hauls in the open sea
resulted in extremely few or no larvae, suggesting very little intermingling of larvae
between the major areas. After schooling, young metamorphosed larvae were captured with limited success. Considerable attention was given to the development of
efficient larval sampling equipment in the 1948 survey.
Other Herring Studies.
In order to assess properly the effect of unrestricted fishing (except for closure
date) on the west coast population, studies were continued on the lower east coast
population where quota restrictions were imposed on the catch. Thus, in the latter
population, collection of catch statistics, tagging studies, sampling of the catches and
of the spawning runs, and fishery officers' reports of the extent of spawning has been REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. M 25
carried on to provide data comparable to those taken in connection with the west coast
investigation. Moreover, in so far as finances and man-power allowed, these studies
were extended also to all other British Columbia herring populations.
As a result, collection of catch statistics and sampling of the catches were maintained in 1947-48 for all major populations which developed a fishery. Exclusive of
the west coast, a total of 248 samples were examined from the catches. Fishery
officers' reports on the extent of spawning were obtained from all the sub-districts.
Tagging studies were continued in the Strait of Georgia in order that the extent of
mixture between the lower east coast and the west coast populations could be determined, and for the purpose of determining mortality rates for comparison with the
west coast.
Experiments were continued on the mortality of tagged fish in the spring of
1948, but the l-esults have not yet been completely analysed.
Observations were made on a small herring trawl fishery of an experimental nature
which developed on the lower east coast in the winter of 1948. It is planned to continue
and expand the scientific observation of future herring trawl fisheries.
A moderate degree of accuracy was again obtained in predicting the expected
abundance of herring on the various fishing-grounds for the 1947-48 season.
SHELL-FISH INVESTIGATION.
The largest total catch of butter-clams in many years was recorded in 1947, more
than half of which were taken in the Prince Rupert area. The catch of butter-clams
per unit of effort has fluctuated greatly, and it is difficult to point out as the cause any
one of many possible factors.
In 1947 the Seal Island beds were again dug under supervision and 100 tons were
taken. There has been a marked decline in production per unit of effort, and there
appears no doubt that the dense population present in 1942 has been greatly reduced.
The cause is due mainly to insufficient seeding over the last ten years. However, the
size of the adult stock is relatively large and an improved showing of young clams is
now in evidence.
The production of razor-clams in 1947 on the north shore of Graham Island was
only half that of the previous year. The yield per man-tide has fallen continuously
since 1942, but in view of the history of the exploitation of these beaches, the cause of
the decline is mainly biological.
INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES COMMISSION, 1947.
The International Fisheries Commission continued the regulation of the Pacific
halibut-fishery, as provided in the treaty of 1937 under which it -operates. It continued its observations of the fishery and of the stocks of halibut to determine the
effect of past regulations and to provide a sound basis for those of the future.
Members of the Commission were the same as at the end of 1946, namely: G. W.
Nickerson and A. J. Whitmore for Canada and Edward W. Allen and Charles E. Jackson for the United States. Mr. Allen and Mr. Nickerson served as chairman and
secretary respectively.
Following its meeting of November, 1946, with the Halibut Conference Board,
composed of representatives of the United States and Canadian halibut fleets, the
Commission made necessary changes in the regulations. The revised regulations were
duly approved by the Governor-General of Canada and the President of the United
States and became effective on March 17th, 1947. They were essentially the same as
in 1946, except for a redefinition of the boundary-line between Areas 3 and 4 and the
setting of a catch-limit for the latter area in anticipation of a fishery for halibut
developing there. M 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The halibut-fishery regulations for 1947 divided convention waters into five areas:
Area Ia, south of Cape Blanco Light, Oregon; Area Ib, between Cape Blanco and
Willapa Bay, Washington; Area 2, between Willapa Bay and Cape Spencer, Alaska;
Area 3, between Cape Spencer and a line running true west from Cape Sarichef on
Unimak Island;  Area 4, the part of Bering Sea north of the Cape Sarichef line.
The catch-limits of 24,500,000 lb. and 28,000,000 lb. for Areas 2 and 3 respectively
were continued, and a limit of 500,000 lb. was placed on Area 4. Areas lA and 1b,
where the catch of halibut is relatively inconsequential, were allowed to continue without catch-limits. Provision was made for the opening of the fishing season in all areas
on May 1st, and for the subsequent closure of each area. The closure dates of Areas
2, 3, and 4 were contingent upon the attainment of their catch-limits, or in in the case
of Area 4, upon the earlier closure of Area 3. The closure date of Area 2 was applied
to Area IB and the closure date of Area 2 or Area 3, whichever was later, was applied
to Area lA.
Other provisions of the regulations included: A minimum-size limit of 26 inches
heads on or 5 lb. heads off for halibut; the closure of two nursery areas, one off Masset
in northern British Columbia and one off Timbered Islet in south-eastern Alaska; the
prohibition of the use of dory gear and of nets of any kind for the capture of halibut;
the termination of permits for the retention of halibut caught incidentally during
fishing for other species in closed areas on November 16th; the beginning of the winter
closed season on December 1st if it had not previously begun through the earlier
attainment of the catch limits.
Areas 2 and 1b were closed at midnight on June 8th and Areas 3, 4, and lA at
midnight on August 17th on the basis of the estimated dates of the attainment of the
Area 2 and Area 3 catch-limits. The fishing season was the shortest in the history of
the fishery.
Landings of halibut on the Pacific Coast in 1947 amounted to 55,982,000 lb., of
which 511,000 lb. were caught in Areas Ia and 1b, 27,642,000 lb. in Area 2, 27,828,000
lb. in Area 3, and 1,000 lb. in Area 4. They were 4,000,000 lb. less than in 1946, in
which the catch-limits in Areas 2 and 3 were exceeded by unjustified amounts due to
circumstances beyond the control of the Commission. Landings were 1,300,000 lb.
greater than in 1945 and the second highest since 1915.
The halibut-catch of the Canadian fleet in 1947 was 24,084,000 lb., an increase of
approximately 5,500,000 lb. over 1946. Canadian vessels landed 17,130,000 lb. or 62
per cent, of the Area 2 catch and 6,954,000 lb. or 25 per cent, of the Area 3 catch.
The sharp increase in Canadian landings was caused by the almost complete cessation
of fishing by the Seattle section of the United States fleet during May and June, due
to a dispute between vessel owners and fishermen.
The Commission maintained its customary close contact with all branches of the
fishing industry during the fishing season. However, it did not hold its customary
meeting with the Halibut Conference Board in November or December. At the request
of the fleets, this meeting was moved forward to the early part of January, 1948. The
time of the Commission's annual meeting was altered to correspond.
The programme of investigations upon which the Commission bases its management policies was continued by the Commission's staff. Statistical and biological data
showing changes in the fishery and in the condition of the stocks were collected and
analysed.    The collection of biological data made the operation of a vessel necessary.
The abundance of halibut as indicated by the average catch per standard unit of
fishing effort was 2 per cent, above the 1946 level in Area 2 and Area 3. It was 144
per cent, greater in Area 2 and 89 per cent, greater in Area 3 than in 1930. The
catch per unit of effort in Area 2 was higher than in any year since 1915, though still REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. M 27
considerably below that prevailing in earlier years of the fishery. In Area 3 the
improvement partially offset the moderate declines that occurred in 1945 and 1946.
Study of the changes occurring in the size and age composition of the marketable
stock in Area 2 was carried forward. Approximately 9,000 halibut were measured
from ten trips during the Area 2 season and otoliths for the determination of age were
taken at the same time from 1,600 of these. The short season and an abnormal distribution of landings, resulting from the tie-up of the Seattle halibut fleet, reduced
the amount of such data collected.
Analysis of these market measurement data showed that " chicken " halibut, from
5 to 10 lb., were less numerous than in the preceding three years but made almost as
great a contribution to the catch because of their greater average size. " Medium "
halibut, from 10 to 60 lb., were more numerous than in any recent year and more than
offset the reduction in chicken halibut. " Large " halibut, over 60 lb., constituted a
normally insignificant part of the catch.
Age-composition studies showed that the reduction in the abundance of chickens
was due to a small production of young in the 1939-40 spawning season or to a poor
survival of young from that spawning season. Older halibut, derived from the four
spawnings immediately preceding that of 1939-40, were average or above average in
number and indicated a continuance of the current high level of abundance during the
following fishing season.
Investigations of the otter trawl fishery for other species on important halibut-
grounds between the northern end of Vancouver Island and Dixon Entrance, which
were begun in 1946, were continued. The otter-trawl vessel " Santa Maria I " was
chartered and operated for five weeks in May and June for this and other purposes.
During the operations seventy-eight hauls were made on halibut-grounds. Data were
collected concerning the distribution of small unmarketable halibut, the numbers and
sizes of halibut caught by trawls on different grounds and the mortality of the halibut
caught by trawl under various conditions. Biological materials for age, growth, and
maturity studies were collected, and 3,500 halibut were tagged and released for the
determination of migrations and the study of natural and fishing mortality rates.
Analysis of the data collected during trawling investigations in 1946 and 1947
showed that trawl catches of halibut vary greatly in amount and composition from
ground to ground. The trawl, of the mesh used commercially on the Pacific Coast,
catches a much higher proportion of undersized and unmarketable halibut than does the
long-line gear used in the halibut-fishery. The mortality of trawl-caught halibut is
directly proportional to the total catch in the individual hauls, ranging from practically
zero in small catches to almost 100 per cent, in large catches. Results confirmed the
Commission's belief that indiscriminate trawling on halibut-grounds would be very
injurious to the halibut-fishery and to the Commission's conservation programme.
A biological observer was placed upon a trawler, making a two-month exploratory
crab-fishing trip to the Bering Sea region, to ascertain the nature of the halibut stock
there and to mark and release live halibut in order to study the relationship of the stock
in Bering Sea to that south of the Alaska Peninsula. The catch of halibut was small
during the trip, suggesting the presence of a very limited stock of halibut in Bering
Sea.    A total of 287 halibut of marketable size were tagged and released alive.  REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. M 29
APPENDICES.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
(No. 33.)
By W. A. Clemens, Ph.D., Department of Zoology, University
of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.
INTRODUCTION.
In looking at the bright side of the sockeye-salmon picture in 1947, the outstanding feature was the unexpected large run to Rivers Inlet, producing a pack of 140,087
cases and a large escapement. The run consisted almost entirely of five-year-old fish
and were derived, therefore, from the spawning in 1942. The dark side of the picture
shows poor runs to the Skeena and Nass Rivers, with commercial packs of 32,534 and
10,849 cases respectively and relatively small escapements.
DESIGNATION OF AGE-GROUPS.
Two outstanding features in the life-history of the fish have been selected in
designating the age-groups—namely, the age at maturity and the year of its life in
which the fish migrated from fresh water. These are expressed symbolically by two
numbers, one in large type, which indicates the age of maturity, and the other in small
type, placed to the right and below, which signifies the year of life in which the fish
left the fresh water.    The age-groups which are met most commonly are:—
3V 4X—the " sea-types " or fish which migrate in their first year and mature
at the ages of three and four respectively.
32—" the grilse," usually males, which migrate in their second year and
mature at the age of three.
42, 52—fish which migrate in their second year and mature at the ages of
four and five respectively.
5a, 6g—fish which migrate in their third year and mature at the ages of five
and six respectively.
64, 74—fish which migrate in their fourth year and mature at the ages of six
and seven respectively.
1. THE RIVERS INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1947.
(1) General Characteristics.
As stated previously, the return of sockeye to River,s Inlet was unexpectedly large,
producing a pack of 140,087 cases and an excellent escapement. The run was the
product of the spawning in 1942, when a good escapement was reported. Climatic
conditions during the spawning and incubation periods must have been particularly
favourable, resulting in an exceptional production of fry. The pack in 1947 is the
second highest in the history of Rivers Inlet, being exceeded in 1925, when the pack
was 159,554 cases.
The return in 1948 will be the product of the spawnings of 1943 and 1944. In the
former year the pack was 47,602 cases and the escapement was reported as fair. In
the latter year the pack was 36,852 cases and the escapement recorded as light. Unless
climatic conditions were unfavourable for the 1943 brood-year, there should be a fair
production of five-year-old-fish in 1948. M 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
(2) Age-groups.
The material for this year's analysis consists of twenty-four random samplings
of the commercial catch from June 30th to July 26th, inclusive, representing 2,360 fish.
The 42 age-group is represented by 60 individuals or 3 per cent., the 52 by 2,292 or 97
per cent., the 53 by 7 individuals, and the 63 by 1 fish. The outstanding feature is the
very high percentage of five-year-old fish (Table I).
One representative of the 62 age-group occurs, a male, 25% inches in length and
7% lb. in weight.
(3) Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths and weights of both sexes in the 42 and 52 age-groups are low.
In the latter age-class the average length of the males is 24 inches, which is the lowest
on record, and of the females 23.5 inches, which is the second lowest on record. The
average weight of the males is 6.4 lb., the second lowest on record, and of the females
5.9 lb., the lowest on record (Tables II, III, IV, and V).
(4) Distribution of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 852 and of females 1,508, percentages of 36 and 64 respectively. In the 42 age-group the males greatly predominate,
with a percentage of 72, while in the 52 age-group the females predominate, with a
percentage of 65. This distribution of the sexes is not unusual for this river system
(Table VI).
2. THE SKEENA RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1947.
(1) General Characteristics.
The Skeena River sockeye salmon produced a pack of 32,534 cases, but the escapement was relatively good. The run was all that could be expected from the brood-years
of 1942 and 1943.
As a result of the investigations of the Fisheries Research Board, there is now
available rather definite information on the escapements to this river system. The
following figures are given as the most probable escapements: 1944, 620,000; 1945,
1,360,000;   1946, 680,000;   1947, 690,000.
The return in 1948 will be the product of the 1943 and 1944 spawnings. In the
former year the pack was 28,268 cases and the escapement was relatively small.# There
should be a good percentage of five-year-old fish from the 1943 spawning, but since the
escapement was not large, the return cannot be expected to be large. In the latter year
the pack was 68,197 cases and the escapement was relatively large. The return of four-
year-old fish from this spawning will probably be rather small. The total return in
1948 therefore should be small, producing a pack probably between 30,000 and 40,000
cases.
(2) Age-groups.
The material for this year's analysis consists of twenty-nine random samplings
taken from June 30th to August 15th, inclusive, representing 1,941 fish taken in the
commercial fishery.
The 42 age-group is represented by 277 individuals or 14 per cent., the 52 by 1,592
or 82 per cent., the 53 by 59 or 3 per cent., and the 63 by 13 or 1 per cent. The run thus
consisted largely of five-year-old fish, which were the progeny of the 1942 spawning.
The tendency in recent years has been toward an increasing preponderance of 52 fish
(Table VII).
In addition to the usual age-groups, representatives of the 32 age-class occur as
follows: Male—14% inches, 1 % lb.; 16 inches, 2 lb.; 15y2 inches, 1 % lb.; 17% inches,
2% lb.    These four fish have not been included in the calculations. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. M 31
The fishery officers report exceptionally large numbers of these " grilse" or
" jacks." On the Fraser River a high percentage of three-year-old fish presages the
appearance of a large run of four-year-old fish in the following year. Whether a
similar phenomenon may occur on the Skeena River remains to be seen.
(3) Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths and weights of the males and females in the various year-
classes are shown in Tables X and XI and present no unusual features, except that the
lengths and weights of the 6-, fish are slightly above the averages of the past years of
record (Tables VIII, IX, X, and XI).
(4) Distribution of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 651 and of females 1,290, percentages of 33 and 67 respectively. The representation of males is low and is identical
with the condition in 1942. In the 42 age-group the percentages of the sexes are equal,
but in the 52 age-group the percentage of males is only 29 (Table XII).
3. THE NASS RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1947.
(1) General Characteristics.
The pack of sockeye salmon from the Nass River was 10,849 cases.
The Dominion fishery officer reports that the escapement to Meziadin Lake was
" good medium "—that is, " slightly better than average." He states that the water-
level of the lake was abnormally high and the sockeye were spawning high on the beach.
He fears that some mortality of eggs may result through drying and freezing if the
lake-level drops before the fry emerge.
The return in 1948 will be derived from the brood-years of 1943 and 1944. In the
former year the pack was 13,412 cases and in the latter 13,083 cases. In both years
the escapements were reported as " average." There is no indication, therefore, of a
large run in 1948.
(2) Age-groups.
The material for 1947 was obtained from 798 fish taken in ten random samplings
from July 2nd to July 30th, inclusive. The 42 age-group is represented by 121 individuals or 15 per cent., the 52 by 98 or 12 per cent., the 53 by 448 or 56 per cent., and
the 63 by 131 or 17 per cent. The percentage of 53 fish is low, but that of the 63 fish
is correspondingly high (Table XIII).
(3) Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths and weights of the males and females are shown in Tables
XVI and XVII and present no unusual features. The distributions of the lengths and
weights are shown in Tables XIV and XV.
(4) Distribution of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 448 and of females 350, percentages
of 56 and 44 respectively. The representation of males is particularly high. In the
53 and 63 age-groups the percentage of males is the highest on record (Table XVIII). M 32
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table I.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs.
Percentage of
Individuals.
Year.
42
52
h
63
1907 (87,874 cases)  	
21
80
35
13
26
39
57
46
5
49
81
74
43
23
59
81
55
77
49
53
67
44
77
57
53
60
27
67
69
59
8
8
76
57
37
3
79
20
65
87
74
61
43
54
95
51
18
24
54
77
38
16
40
18
48
44
27
55
20
41
46
37
70
32
28
40
91
91
23
41
63
97
i
2
2
2
3
4
3
2
2
5
1
2
1
1
3
1
1
3
1
1
2
1908 (64,652 cases)   	
1909 (89,027 cases)     	
1910 (126,921 cases)	
1911 (88,763 cases)	
1912 (112,884 cases)	
1913 (61,745 cases) 	
1914 (89,890 cases)  	
1915 (130,350 cases)  	
1916 (44,936 cases)	
1917 (61,195 cases)	
1918 (53,401 cases)            	
1919 (56,258 cases)	
1920 (121,254 cases) 	
1921 (46,300 cases) 	
1922 (60,700 cases)	
1923 (107,174 cases)   	
1924 (94,891 cases)   	
1
1925 (159,554 cases)	
1926 (65,581 cases)	
1
1927 (64,461 cases)  	
1928 (60,044 cases)   	
1
1929 (70,260 cases)        	
2
1930 (119,170 cases)	
1
1931 (76,428 cases)	
1
1932 (69,732 cases)	
1
1933 (83,507 cases)          	
1934 (76,923 cases)	
1
1935 (135,038 cases)	
1
1936 (46,351 cases)	
1937 (84,832 cases)	
1938 (87,942 cases)	
2
1939 (54,143 cases)	
1941 (93,378 cases)	
1942 (79,199 cases)	
1
1943 (47,602 cases)	
1
1944 (36,852 cases)	
1945 (89,735 cases)	
1946 (73,320 cases)	
1947 (140,087 cases)	 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
M 33
Table II.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1947, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Length in Inches.
4
2
52
h
63
Total.
It
F.
M.           F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
19% 	
6
14
7
10
4
2
1
7
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
7
20                                	
2
5
6
17
58
79
91
91
84
89
114
75
60
27
7
14
29
127
171
295
231
262
194
122
32
8
1
1
23
20%            :	
15
21               	
31
21%	
50
22              	
192
22%            	
252
23   	
389
231/2	
323
24      	
347
24%    	
284
25                 	
236
25%	
107
26                   	
68
26%	
28
8
43
17
805
1,487
4
3
1
2,360
20.6
20.7
24.0
23.5
1
22.9     1   22.7
23.0
Table III.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1947, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Number of
Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
4
2
h
h
63
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
3            	
1
13
17
5
5
2
8
5
2
2
3
9
29
90
136
129
110
109
73
67
34
15
1
3
21
76
220
365
321
237
148
74
18
3
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
28
4               	
52
4%               	
115
317
5%	
505
6	
452
6%	
347
7     	
257
7%	
147
8    	
85
8%	
37
9             	
9%	
10                	
10%	
43
17
805    | 1,487
4
3
1
2,360
4.1
3.9
6.4     1      5.9
SO      I       11
5.5 M 34
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table IV.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of the 4% o,nd 52
Groups, 1912 to 1947.
42
h
Year.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41	
22.4
21.6
21.9
20.5
21.1
20.9
20.6
20.6
22.4
21.6
21.3
21.1
21.0
21.2
21.1
20.7
25.4
24.6
25.0
24.3
23.5
24.2
25.1
24.0
24.7
23.9
1942                            	
23.8
1943                             ....              	
23.7
1944	
1945                                                                      	
23.3
23.9
1946	
24.1
1947	
23.5
Table V.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of the 4% and 52
Groups, 1914 to 1947.
42
52
Year.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41	
4.9
4.8
7.0
6.5
1942	
5.1
4.6
7.2
6.4
1943	
4.1
4.6
4.4
4.4
6.8
6.2
6 3
1944	
6.0
1945	
4.3
4.4
6.6
6.4
1946	
3.9
3.9
7.2
6.2
1947 :. ._.,.
4.1
3.9
6.4
5.9
Table VI.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1947.
Year.
42
52
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Total
Females.
63
61
62
67
70
79
72
37
39
38
33
30
21
28
34
35
34
33
39
37
35
66
65
66
67
61
63
65
50
38
36
59
57
53
36
1942	
62
1943	
1944	
41
43
47
64
1945	
1946	
1947	 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
M 35
Table VII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs of
Successive Years and Packs.
Percentage of Individuals.
Year.
42
52
h
63
1907 (108,413 cases)	
57
50
25
36
34
57
51
27
15
69
70
56
23
51
62
62
51
62
39
40
44
57
58
49
67
45
64
50
80
39
36
39
37
20
13
14
43
50
75
64
38
29
34
60
71
22
16
29
69
45
26
28
39
30
52
30
37
36
34
31
20
40
15
35
15
52
54
39
52
63
70
82
13
9
9
9
6
6
12
8
7
3
9
9
7
6
8
28
7
5
7
18
11
11
16
11
4
8
7
16
7
12
8
3
18
5
6
4
8
3
2
7
1
1
3
1
3
2
1
2
12
2
1
2
2
4
5
4
1
1
3
6
4
5
9
1
1908 (139,846 cases)	
1909 (87,901 cases)	
1910 (187,246 cases)	
1911 (131,066 cases)	
1912 (92,498 cases)	
1913 (52,927 cases)	
1914 (130,166 cases)	
1916 (116,553 cases)	
1916 (60,923 cases)	
1917 (65,760 cases)	
1918 (123,322 cases)	
1919 (184,945 cases)	
1920 (90,869 cases)	
1921 (41,018 cases)	
1922 (96,277 cases) 	
1923 (131,731 cases)	
1924 (144,747 cases)    	
1925 (77,784 cases)	
1926 (82,360 cases)	
1927 (83,996 cases)	
1928 (34,559 cases)	
1929 (78,017 cases)	
1930 (132,372 cases)    	
1931 (93,023 cases)    	
1932 (59,916 cases)  	
1933 (30,506 cases)	
1934 (54,558 cases)	
1935 (52,879 cases) 	
1936 (81,973 cases)	
1937 (42,491 cases)	
1938 (47,257 cases)           	
1939 (68,485 cases)	
1940 (116,507 cases)    	
1941 (81,767 cases)	
1942 (34,544 cases)	
1943 (28,268 cases)	
1944 (68,197 cases)	
1945 (104,279 cases)     	
1946 (52,928 cases)    	
1947 (32,534 cases)   	 M 36                                                   BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table VIII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1947, grouped by Age, Sex
and by their Early History.
and Length,
Length in Inches.
Number of Individuals.
Total.
42
52
h
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
18                            	
1
1
3
2
4
2
8
14
27
24
21
19
10
2
1
2
2
3
5
2
6
5
2
1
1
2
5
7
6
7
1
1
1
1
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
2
5
11
24
52
98
160
240
266
348
268
229
98
63
47
18
4
2
1
18%                        	
1
6
14
29
36
31
12
5
2
1
1
4
11
23
63
72
112
57
53
42
17
2
1
1
2
25
90
187
213
266
189
112
40
9
1
19                            	
19%                        	
20                            	
20%                          	
21                              	
21%               	
22                            	
22%                          	
23                              	
23%                        	
24                              	
24%    .                    	
25                              	
25%                          	
26                              	
26%                          	
27                              	
27y2                          	
28                              	
28%                          	
139     [    138
458
1,134
28
31
10
3
1,941
22.3
22.0
25.1
23.8
23.0    J   22.4
26.3
25.8
Table IX.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1947, grouped by Age, Sex,
and by their Early History.
and Weight,
Weight in Pounds.
Number of Individuals.
Total.
42
52
53
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1%                           	
1
1
5
2
15
37
30
•25
16
6
1
1
22
59
35
12
6
2
1
1
2
4
6
7
4
2
1
1
5
4
13
6
2
1
1
1
5
4
54
178
266
369
369
303
179
107
63
27
7
8
2                               	
2
14
31
73
105
74
72
51
22
7
7
10
72
168
288
266
185
101
32
9
3
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
2%                           	
3                               	
3%                           	
4                               	
4%                 	
5                               	
6%                           	
6                                	
6%    .                      	
7                               	
7%                           	
8    ..                         	
8%	
9	
9%                           	
Totals	
139
138
458
1,134
28
31
10
3
1.941
4.9
4.7
6.9
5.9
5.3
5.0
7.7
6.8
- REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
M 37
Table X.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1947.
Year.
4
2
5
2
h
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41	
23.7
23.0
22.6
21.9
22.4
22.6
22.7
22.3
23.1
22.4
22.3
21.9
21.7
22.3
22.0
22.0
25.8
25.1
25.2
25.1
24.8
24.9
25.4
25.1
24.9
24.2
24.3
23.9
23.9
24.1
24.3
23.8
24.2
23.5
24.1
23.3
22.5
23.3
23.9
23.0
23.4
22.7
23.7
22.6
21.7
22.6
23.2
22.4
25.8
25.1
26.3
25.8
25.0
26.0
25.5
26.3
24.8
1912-41 (conversion)	
1942	
24.1
24.9
1943	
24.7
1944	
23.7
1945	
24.3
1946	
24.4
1947	
25.8
Table XI.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1947.
42
5
2
53
6
3
Year.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41    	
5.4
4.9
4.7
5.1
5.2
4.7.
4.9
5.0
4.7
4.6
4.6
4.9
4.2
4.7
6.8
6.7
6.8
7.0
6.7
6.9
6.9
6.1
6.0
5.9
6.1
6.1
5.8
5.9
5.7
5.8
5.5
5.3
5.6
5.8
5.3
5.1
5.4
4.9
4.6
5.0
5.1
5.0
6.8
7.2
7.3
7.1
6.7
7.0
7.7
6.0
1942....        :....
6.6
1943	
6.1
1944	
5.8
1945...          	
6.2
1946	
6.1
1947	
6.8
Table XII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females, 1915 to 1947.
4
2
5
2
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
Total
Females.
Year.
M.
F.
M.
F.
48
42
50
54
41
50
50
52
58
50
46
59
50
50
43
25
31
34
35
32
29
57
75
69
66
65
68
71
46
33
43
43
38
38
33
54
1942                  	
67
1943	
57
1944...      	
57
1945	
62
1946	
62
1947	
67 M 38
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table XIII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Principal Age-groups
in Runs of Successive Years and Packs.
Year.
Percentage of Individuals.
1912 (36,037 cases)
1913 (23,574 cases)
1914 (31,327 cases)
1915 (39,349 cases)
1916 (31,411 cases)
1917 (22,188 cases)
1918 (21,816 cases)
1919 (28,259 cases)
1920 (16,740 cases)
1921 (9,364 eases)..
1922 (31,277 cases)
1923 (17,821 cases)
1924 (33,590 cases)
1925 (18,945 cases)
1926 (15,929 cases)
1927 (12,026 cases)
1928 (5,540 cases)..
1929 (16,077 cases)
1930 (26,405 cases)
1931 (16,929 cases)
1932 (14,154 cases)
1933 (9,757 cases)..
1934 (36,242 cases)
1935 (12,712 cases)
1936 (28,562 cases)
1937 (17,567 cases)
1938 (21,462 cases)
1939 (24,357 cases)
1940 (13,809 cases)
1941 (24,876 cases)
1942 (21,085 cases)
1943 (13,412 cases)
1944 (13,083 cases)
1945 (9,899 cases)..
1946 (12,511 cases)
1947 (10,849 cases)
15
4
19
9
10
30
7
8
10
6
11
4
23
12
8
30
25
28
10
28
35
13
11
16
22
21
14
23
37
22
5
15
46
13
15
27
12
41
14
17
15
16
22
14
7
2
12
7
6
9
15
17
4
7
9
10
7
4
4
13
8
7
7
13
15
11
12
12
63
71
45
59
66
71
45
65
72
75
91
77
91
67
63
81
61
60
54
67
61
55
74
73
67
68
70
66
59
52
66
67
32
37
72
2
2
10
2
2
13
4
3
6
3
6
7
3
4
6
10
6
5
7
10
4
5
15 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
M 39
Table XIV.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1947, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Length in Inches.
4
2
52
h
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
201/-                  	
9
7
10
10
13
4
1
1
2
3
10
6
18
12
3
1
4
2
5
9
11
9
7
3
1
6
8
17
4
8
2
1
1
6
9
28
39
52
48
34
10
3
10
19
54
44
41
28
17
4
1
1
4
3
3
13
16
23
19
12
8
2
2
2
3
5
2
6
3
4
1
21                                     	
2
21%     	
3
22             -	
30
22%        	
39
23                	
97
23%	
103
24	
122
24%    .            	
103
25        	
90
25%	
55
26    	
41
26%  	
32
27      	
34
27%                             	
22
28	
12
28%    	
8
29    	
2
29%                              	
2
Totals    	
61
60
1
51     [      47
230
218
106
25
798
23.4
22.9
25.9     1   24.1
24.5
23.6
27.0
25.6
Table XV.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1947, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
4
2
52
h
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
4                 	
2
13
12
18
9
5
2
5
6
15
23
6
4
1
3
5
7
10
15
6
1
3
1
4
7
9
17
9
1
2
2
14
37
55
48
38
25
6
3
1
19
50
65
54
18
7
2
2
1
2
13
19
16
22
16
3
1
1
7
11
2
3
8
4%                   - -
29
5                         	
97
5%                              	
145
6                         	
148
6y.            	
113
7                          	
90
7%             	
62
8            	
42
8%                                  	
9                      	
17
9%                 	
7
10                 	
6
10%  	
3
61
60
51
47
230          218
106
25
5.8
5.3
7.7
6.2
6.3
5 6
8.1
6.9 M 40
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table XVI.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1947.
Year.
42
5
2
h
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41
24.5
23.8
23.9
22.8
23.5
23.4
23.4
23.4
23.7
23.0
23.2
22.2
22.7
22.8
22.4
22.9
26.3
25.6
26.1
26.1
25.7
25.0
26.3
25.9
25.2
24.5
24.9
24.8
24.6
24.4
24.9
24.1
26.1
25.4
24.9
24.1
24.8
24.7
24.9
24.5
25.3
24.6
24.3
23.5
23.8
24.0
23.9
23.6
27.7
27.0
26.9
27.1
26.8
25.1
28.1
27.0
26.4
1912-41
194!!
(conversion)	
25.7
26.0
1943	
25.8
1944	
26.8
1945	
25.5
1946	
26.0
1947	
25.6
Table XVII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1947.
42
5
2
53
6
3
Year.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41	
6.0
5.8
5.2
5.7
5.7
5.6
5.8
5.4
5.1
4.7
5.0
5.3
4.9
5.3
7.3
7.1
7.6
7.7
7.0
8.1
7.7
6.4
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.4
6.7
6.2
6.9
6.2
5.9
6.7
6.5
6.5
6.3
6.2
5.6
5.3
5.7
5.9
5.4
5.6
8.0
7.5
7.9
8.2
7.2
8.9
8.1
7.0
1942	
6.7
1943	
6.9
1944	
7.1
1945	
7.1
1946	
7 0
1947             	
Table XVIII.—iVass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1947.
42
52
h
63
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Total
Females.
49
42
51
,53
37
62
50
51
58
49
47
63
38
50
47
48
67
45
37
59
52
53
62
33
55
63
41
48
45
44
47
39
38
45
51
55
56
53
61
62
65
49
63
70
74
60
53
75
81
37
30
26
40
47
25
19
47
45
54
50
38
50
56
1942                  	
1943	
46
50
1944	
1945	
1946	
1947	
44 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. M 41
RESULTS OF THE WEST COAST OF VANCOUVER ISLAND
HERRING INVESTIGATION, 1947-48.
By A. L. Tester, Ph.D., and J. C. Stevenson, M.A.,
Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
CONTENTS.
Page.
Introduction  41
The 1947-48 Fishery  44
Tagging and Tag-recovery  46
Tag-detector Recoveries, 1947-48  46
Magnet Efficiency Tests  48
Tags recovered by Plant Crews, 1946-47  49
Tags recovered by Plant Crews, 1947-48  50
Population Statistics from Tag-recoveries   51
Differences in Relative Recovery between Taggers  52
Tagging during 1948 Spawning Season   53
Sampling of the Catches   53
Age Composition   54
Sex Ratio and Stage of Development   56
Average Length and Weight   57
Spawning-ground Surveys   57
Extent and Intensity of Spawning   57
Sampling of the Spawning-grounds   59
Young-herring Investigation  59
Summary  62
Acknowledgments  64
References  65
INTRODUCTION.
In 1946-47 an investigation of the herring of the west coast of Vancouver Island
was begun with the primary objects of determining the causes of natural fluctuations
in abundance, the relationship between spawning potential and recruitment, and the
average minimum spawning stock necessary to produce maximum sustained catch
(Tester, MS.). In conjunction with this investigation a catch-limit or quota, formerly
25,000 tons, was discontinued, thus leaving a prescribed date of closure of February
5th as the only major restriction to fishing effort. The immediate and practical object
of the investigation was to determine whether or not catch restrictions were necessary
to prevent a progressive downward trend in the abundance of the population. For
comparative purposes, the population supplying the lower east coast of Vancouver
Island fishery was to be subject to a fixed quota of 40,000 tons. The ultimate object
was to formulate a management policy for all herring-fisheries of British Columbia
which would assure maximum utilization of the resource without endangering its
perpetuity.
Most of the data and results obtained during the 1946-47 season have already been
published (Tester and Stevenson, 1947). This article, the second in a series of annual
reports, deals chiefly with the data and results obtained during the 1947-48 season. M 42
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Fig. 1. Map showing districts, sub-districts, and areas. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
M 43
Fig. 2. Map of the West Coast Sub-district showing the location of places
mentioned in the text. M 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
However, it also includes an analysis and discussion of tags recovered by plant crews
during 1946-47, information which was omitted from the previous report.
The locations of districts, sub-districts, numbered statistical areas, and places
along the west coast of Vancouver Island which are referred to in the text are shown
in Figs. 1 and 2.
THE 1947-48 FISHERY.
Herring-fishing on the west coast of Vancouver Island started during the latter
part of October when three seiners encountered scattered schools in Sechart and
Imperial Eagle Channels of Area 23. After November 5th, 1947, when the lower east
coast of Vancouver Island quota had been reached, these three were joined by some
forty seiners which thoroughly scouted most of the west coast areas during the
remainder of the season.
During the first half of the season—that is, until the Christmas lay-off period—
fishing tended to be sporadic in the West Coast Sub-district. In Area 23 scattered
schools in the more open waters of the westerly portion of Barkley Sound continued
to provide a few sets. Good fishing for a short period following November 11th was
encountered in Effingham Inlet, where a large body of fish consisting of mixed herring,
pilchards, and anchovies was located. On November 21st echo sounders revealed the
presence of several large schools in " outside " waters in the vicinity of Florencia
Island and good fishing took place for the next few days, during which time ideal
weather conditions prevailed. Although Area 24 was scouted during the first part of
the season, no fish were found. In Area 25 fair catches were made for a few days
during the middle of November at Queen Cove, Tahsis Inlet, and Nootka Sound.
However, these initial bodies of fish were soon used up and several of the boats departed
for other areas. On November 30th a large body was discovered at the entrance to
Nootka Sound and many of the boats returned to the area. Good catches were made
off Nootka Light for the ensuing week, particularly on December 5th and 6th, but
stormy weather then put a stop to this " outside " fishing. In Area 26, periodic
scouting during November and December revealed scattered schools off Kyuquot and
Crowther Channels and Ououkinsh Inlet, which provided a few good sets but no
consistently good fishing.   Although Area 27 was visited, fish were not located.
On December 12th or 13th most of the seine-boats left the West Coast Sub-district
to participate in a fishery in Area 14a. After the quota in this area was reached, they
tied up for the holiday period.
Fishing during the second half of the season began on January 4th. In Area 23
excellent catches were made in Sechart Channel, Mayne Bay, and Effingham Inlet for
a few days, following which they declined. Apparently influxes of fish to inshore waters
during the holiday period had resulted in an accumulation of stock, which was gradually
reduced by the fishery. Small bodies were then found in Coaster Channel, Trevor
Channel, and Uchucklesit Inlet, which provided fair fishing for two or three days each.
In Area 24 small catches were made on January 20th and 21st at or near the entrance
to Matilda Inlet. In Area 25 excellent catches were made at Port Eliza and in the
vicinity of Queen Cove during the first few days of the second half of the season, but
the supply was soon exhausted. Fish were then located within Nootka Sound, and good
fishing took place during the second week and fair fishing during the third week at
scattered points. Catches were also made at intervals in Tahsis Inlet during the first
and second weeks. Area 26 was scouted occasionally during January, but only one
catch was recorded.    No fishing took place in Area 27.
By January 24th all of the seine-boats had left the west coast of Vancouver Island
to participate in a fishery at Ogden Channel (Area 5). Thus fishing ceased twelve days
before the prescribed closing-date of February 5th. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
M 45
An outstanding feature of the 1947-48 fishing season was the " outside " fishing
off Florencia Island, off Nootka Light, and, to a lesser extent, off Kyuquot and Crowther
Channels during late November and early December. The successful exploitation of
these exposed grounds may be attributed, firstly, to the fact that echo sounders enabled
the fish to be found and, secondly, to the fact that unusually favourable weather
conditions enabled the fish to be caught. Normally the seiners would have had to wait
for the schools to move into protected waters within the sounds and inlets.
A second feature of the 1947-48 season was the large number of small herring
in their first year of age which were present in inshore waters. They were particularly
abundant throughout the waters of Area 23 and in Tahsis Inlet of Area 25. Several
sets were made on large schools of small herring, but in most cases the fish managed
to escape through the meshes before the seine was " dried up." Although many of the
small fish would probably lose their scales while passing through the seine, it seems
likely that the majority of those which escaped would survive. On some occasions,
however, particularly in Tahsis Inlet, sets were made on mixed schools of small and
large herring. When this happened, the large fish tended to block the meshes of the
seine, thus preventing the small fish from escaping, and in consequence many tons of
the latter were caught. Most of the fishermen voluntarily refrained from fishing in
Tahsis Inlet, preferring to operate in places where small fish were not abundant.
At the present time no satisfactory explanation for the unusual presence of large
quantities of small herring on inshore fishing-grounds during the winter can be offered.
Catch, effort, and availability for each area separately and for the sub-district
as a whole are given in Table I. The catch by area is estimated from various sources,
including plant records of landings. The total number of active fishing-days expended
by all seiners, a measure of effort, is compiled from daily records of fishing as submitted
by seine-boat captains, adjusted to compensate for the fact that daily records were
incomplete and comprised but 86 per cent, of the total catch. The availability, or catch
per unit effort, which is a measure of the success of fishing, was also compiled from
daily catch records. These statistics may be compared with those for the two previous
years in the following schedule:—
1945-46.
1946-47.
1947-48.
27,500
576*
48*
69,000
777
76
45,200
948
48
* Adjusted (compare Tester and Stevenson, 1947, p. M 47).
The catch in 1947-48 (officially given as 45,161 tons) was about 14,000 tons less
than that of 1946-47, the first year in which the quota was removed. However, it was
about 18,000 tons greater than that of 1945-46, when a quota of 25,000 tons was in
force. Fishing effort in 1947-48 was higher than in 1946-47 and still higher than
in 1945-46. The availability in 1947-48 was considerably less than that in 1946-47
and was equal to that in 1945-46. Thus the abundance of fish during the 1947-48
fishing season was less than in 1946-47, but similar to or perhaps higher than that of
1945-46, the last statement allowing for a lowered availability because of increased
competition between gear with higher fishing effort (more seines) in 1947-48.
A progressive decline in the abundance of that portion of the stock which had been
allowed to accumulate during the holiday lay-off period is shown by weekly availability
figures for both Area 23 and Area 25, the two main contributors to the 1947-48 catch:—
Week of— Area 23. Area 25.
January 4th to 10th  138 127
January 11th to 17th     74 60
January 18th to 24th      17 30 M 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
When the boats finished fishing in the West Coast Sub-district, fear was again
expressed, as in the previous year, that practically all the fish had been caught off and
that spawning would be very poor. The foregoing table certainly indicates that the
portion of the fishable stock entering inshore waters during the fishing season had been
considerably reduced in abundance as a result of fishing effort. However, it was hoped
and expected, as happened in 1946-47, that new influxes of fish would appear after
closure to supply the spawning-grounds. That a large influx to Tahsis Inlet (Area 25)
occurred soon after fishing ceased is shown by echo-sounder records made on January
30th, 1948, by the " Sharon M," a vessel chartered by the Fisheries Research Board of
Canada for investigational work during the fishing season. The records revealed a body
of fish which extended over a distance of 2 miles along the inlet. That further influxes
occurred to other areas will be evident from the results of spawning surveys which will
be given in a subsequent section of this report.
TAGGING AND TAG-RECOVERY.
Tagging, using internal metal tags, and tag-recovery, using both electronic tag
detectors in the fish lines of canneries and reduction plants and magnets in the meal
lines of reduction plants, was continued during the 1947-48 season.
In the spring of 1946, 28,148 tags (10-series) and in the spring of 1947, 30,401
tags (11-series) were used in the West Coast Sub-district. These, along with those
used in other areas and years (Tester, 1946; Tester and Stevenson, 1947) were liable
for recovery during the 1947-48 fishing season.
Three tag detectors were used. An old-type detector (Tester, 1946) at the
Imperial Cannery, Steveston, operated on fish from both the lower east and the west
coasts of Vancouver Island as well as from other sub-districts, and gave very satisfactory performance. A new-type detector at Kildonan, Area 23, operated mostly on fish
from the West Coast Sub-district. It gave much more satisfactory performance than
in the previous year, but its over-all efficiency was still considerably lower than that
of the Steveston detector. Another new-type detector was operated at Nootka, Area 25.
Although it recovered a few tags, its over-all efficiency was very low, primarily because
of erratic performance caused by a short in the " pick-up " coil.
Interest was again stimulated among plant crews in the recovery of tags from
magnets and from plant machinery by visiting the six west, coast plants at intervals
during the season, inspecting magnets, collecting tags, and conducting magnet efficiency
tests. As in the previous year, a reward of 25 cents was paid for the recovery of test
tags and 50 cents for the recovery of bona-fide tags. It is reasonably certain that the
difference in value of the reward would not introduce a bias in the number of recoveries
of the two types of tags. Most plant workers are sufficiently interested in retrieving
tags and in determining the efficiency of the magnets to submit all test tags, whether
or not a reward is paid.
Tag-detector Recoveries, 1947-48.
Tag detectors recovered 562 tags, as follows: Imperial, 420; Kildonan, 127; and
Nootka, 15. These are shown according to area of tagging and area of recovery in
Table II. For each tagging, the place, date, and number of tags used is included in
Table IX. Fishing-grounds in each potential recovery area are as follows: Area 5—
Ogden Channel; Area 12—Kingcome Inlet, Clio Channel, and Knight Inlet; Area
13—Deepwater Bay; Area 14a—Baynes Sound; Area 14b—Nanoose Bay; Area 17—
Trincomali Channel and Porlier Pass vicinity; Area 18—Swanson Channel and Satellite
Channel; Area 23—Barkley Sound, off Florencia Island, off Forbes Island, Mayne Bay,
Sechart Channel, Effingham Inlet, Trevor Channel, and Uchucklesit Inlet;   Area 24— REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. M 47
off Matilda Inlet; Area 25—Nootka Sound, off Nootka Light, Tahsis Inlet, Esperanza
Inlet, and Port Eliza; Area 26—in and off Crowther and Kyuquot Channels, and
Ououkinsh Inlet.
From Table II it will be seen that there was an interchange of tagged fish between
the West Coast and the Lower East Coast Sub-districts. Two tags originally used in
the Lower East Coast Sub-district (Areas 14b and 17) were recovered from the west
coast (Area 23), and 38 tags originally used in the West Coast Sub-district (Areas 23,
24, and 25) were recovered from the lower east coast. Before considering the extent
of this interchange, certain adjustments to the raw data of Table II are desirable.
In Table III is given the probable total number of tags from each tagging in the
catches from each area. These data were calculated from knowledge of the efficiency
of the detectors in recovering tags, the tonnages examined from each area, and the
total catch in each area. For example, the probable total number of 11M tags in
Area 17 catches was 2 (the number recovered) times 100/90 (to correct for Imperial
detector efficiency) times 8,200/1,815 (tonnage caught divided by tonnage examined),
or 10 tags.
Based on tests conducted in previous years, the Imperial detector was assumed to
have an efficiency of 90 per cent, while in effective operation. The Kildonan detector
recovered 127 tags from 3,259 tons which passed through it while in effective operation
during 1947-48, or 0.039 tags per ton. The Kildonan magnets recovered 123 tags from
3,718 tons which were reduced, most of which had already been searched for tags by
the detector. As the average efficiency of the Kildonan magnets in 1947-48 was 83
per cent, (discussed later), the total probable number in the reduced fish was 148.
To this should be added the number recovered by the detector, making 275, or 0.074
tags per ton. Thus a rough approximation to the efficiency of the Kildonan detector
while in effective operation was 0.039X100/0.074, or 53 per cent. For the small
tonnage examined by the Nootka detector, this same efficiency, 53 per cent., was
assumed.
The results of Table III may be summarized, in part, as follows:—
Area of Tagging.
Area of Recovery.
West Coast.
Lower
East Coast.
Totals.
2,598
8
159
267
2,767
275
2,606
426
3,032
It will be observed that of the tags in the lower east coast catches, 37.3 per cent.
(159/426) were originally used on the west coast, and that of the tags in the west coast
catches, 0.3 per cent. (8/2,606) were originally used on the lower east coast. However,
this comparison does not give a true picture of the extent of mixture between the two
sub-districts because of the fact that many more fish were tagged on the west coast
than on the lower east coast.
It will be found that 5.8 per cent. (159/2,757) of the recoveries of tags originally
used in the West Coast Sub-district were taken from lower east coast catches, and that
2.9 per cent. (8/275) of the recoveries of tags originally used in the Lower East Coast
Sub-district were taken from west coast catches. Assuming that the tagged fish were
uniformly distributed in each and that the rates of exploitation were similar in both
populations, it may be calculated, that about 3,000 tons of west coast fish were caught
on the lower east coast (total catch about 40,000 tons) and that about 1,000 tons of M 48
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
lower east coast fish were caught on the west coast (total catch about 45,000 tons).
These rough calculations serve to show that the amount of mixture between fish of the
two sub-districts was relatively small. The results differ from those of last year in
that, in 1946-47, immigration to the west coast was relatively greater than emigration
from the west coast, whereas in 1947-48 the reverse was true.
In considering mixture between west coast areas, the recoveries of tags used in
1946 (10-series) and in 1947 (11-series) have been segregated with the following
results:—
Area of Tagging.
Area of Recovery—10-Series.
Area of Recovery—11-Series.
23.           i          25.
[
26.
1                       1
23.          [          25.                    26.
1                         1
23    	
21         |         	
1                 !
1,436                     101                  	
24    	
20                         43
                      16
287                     244                         9
25        	
107                     314                  	
1                    !
Considering Tagging Areas 23, 24, and 25 and Recovery Areas 23 and 25 (only
a small catch was made in Area 24 in 1947-48; no tags were used in Area 26 in 1947),
the average extent of dispersal from the area of tagging may be calculated at 63
per cent. (63/100) for the 10-series and 30 per cent. (739/2,489) for the 11-series.
These results are in agreement with those of former years in showing considerable
mixture between areas. It is noteworthy that the dispersal of fish which were at
liberty for almost two years after tagging (10-series) is greater than those at liberty
for almost one year (11-series).
The results show that there was movement between areas in both a south-easterly
and north-westerly direction, the former being more pronounced, as was also the case
last year. For example, of the recoveries of Area 23 tags of the 11-series, only 6.6
per cent. (101/1,537) came from Area 25 catches, whereas of the recoveries of Area 25
tags, 25.4 per cent. (107/421) came from Area 23 catches.
A detailed analysis of the detector returns (Table II) from various fishing-grounds
of Area 23 (off Florencia Island, Forbes Island—Sechart Channel—Mayne Bay, Effingham Inlet, and Uchucklesit Inlet) showed no significant heterogeneity between the
relative numbers of returns from the various taggings and areas. Therefore it may
be assumed that the runs to these particular fishing-grounds were all part of a general
run to Area 23, mixture of tagged fish from the various taggings having taken place
prior to the appearance of the run in the fall. However, it will be shown later that
fish caught in Trevor Channel had not mixed uniformly with the main Barkley Sound
run. Detector recoveries for Area 25 were too few to warrant a similar analysis of
the returns to particular fishing-grounds within the area.
Magnet Efficiency Tests, 1946-47 and 1947-48.
In 1946-47 several so-called magnet efficiency tests were conducted (Tester and
Stevenson, 1947). Each test consisted of tagging about fifty dead herring and scattering these at random in the fish-bins. The fish were then reduced to oil and meal
and the tags were recovered in due course from magnets in the meal line or from plant
machinery by the plant crew. During 1947-48 twenty-five of the 1946-47 test tags
were returned. One of these (used December 6th, 1946, at the Port Albion plant)
was labelled  " February,  1947," and therefore should have been  included with the
. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
M 49
1946-47 returns.    The remaining twenty-four were listed as coming from fish processed in 1947-48 and were distributed as follows:—
Plant.
Date of Test.
Reported Date of Recovery.
Number
recovered.
Dec. 16 or 17, 1946	
Dec. 6, 1946	
Oct. 31, 1947 	
1
Nov.-Jan., 1947-48 '.	
5
Dec. 17, 1946	
Jan. 8, 1947	
Nov.-Jan., 1947-48 	
8
Jan., 1948 	
7
?
Jan., 1948 	
1
Dec. 10, 1946	
Jan.20,1947	
Dec. 1, 1947 	
1
Nov. 24, 1947 	
1
For all west coast plants except Hecate and Port Albion there was a " hangover "
of tags from one season to the next, although for Kildonan, Nootka, and Ceepeecee
only one tag was involved in each case, and this was recovered with the first loads of
fish processed at the beginning of the second season. The summer of 1947 was unusual
in that no pilchards were caught; usually herring-tags would be cleared from the
plants during summer pilchard-processing.
The " hang-over " in the Ecoole plant involved an average of 14.7 per cent, of the
test tags originally used, and increased the over-all efficiency of recovery from 32.9
per cent., as reported last year, to 47.6 per cent. The 1946-47 test tags were recovered
throughout the 1947-48 season. Obviously with this plant it will be difficult to decide
with a reasonable degree of certainty the locality, or even the season, in which a bona-
fide tag originated.
The results of tests conducted during the 1947-48 season are given in Table IV
and are summarized here:—
Area 23.
Number
of Tests.
Kildonan     2
Ecoole      2
Port Albion     2
Average
Percentage
Recovery.
83.0
77.6
93.9
Area 25.
Nootka   2
Hecate  2
Ceepeecee  2
Grand average	
57.9
52.6
76.0
73.5
All plants except two showed an increase in efficiency of recovery over that of last
year, the grand average being 73.5 as compared with 63.6. This is due mostly to
increased interest among the plant crews in recovering tags.
Table IV shows that for most of the plants the majority of the tags were recovered
within five days of plant operation after the test. For two of the plants, the data
included with the returns were not sufficiently detailed to accurately trace the time-lag.
Tags recovered by Plant Crews, 1946-47.
A total of 380 decipherable and 7 undecipherable tags were submitted during the
1946-47 season, but were not analysed and discussed in last year's report. A summary
of the results is included in Table V. The probable or certain areas of recovery are
unbiased interpretations  based on knowledge  of magnet time-lag,  catch-history of M 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
fish passing through each plant, and detector recoveries. In many cases the locality
of recovery is broad, including several possible areas. In some cases no interpretation
is offered.
In general, the results agree with those obtained from tag-detector recoveries
(Tester and Stevenson, 1947). Fifteen tags from "outside" areas were recovered
from west coast catches, including one from Campbell Island (Area 7), three from
Cramer Passage (Area 12), and the remainder from the Strait of Georgia (Areas 14
to 18). No west coast tags were interpreted as being recovered from " outside " fish,
but the opportunity for recovery was limited.
To calculate the probable total number of 10-series west coast tags in the catches,
it has been necessary to arbitrarily assign tags recorded from more than one locality,
or of questionable origin, to a particular locality. This was done by considering the
numbers of probable or certain recoveries from particular areas and assigning the
doubtful tags in proportion. Calculations were based on the numbers of 10-series
tags presumably recovered from each area by each of the west coast plants (except
Ecoole), the tonnage of fish from each area processed by each plant (arbitrarily including half of the tonnage canned to represent the offal which was reduced), the efficiency
of the magnet as determined by tests conducted during the 1946-47 season, and the
total catch from each area in 1946-47. For example, Kildonan, Port Albion, and
Nootka are presumed to have recovered respectively two, eight, and one 101 tags from
Area 23 fish which were reduced. The probable numbers, adjusting for magnet
efficiency, are 2.7, 8.9, and 1.3. To the Kildonan recoveries must be added one tag
taken by the detector from reduced fish. The probable number is therefore 13.9 tags
from 7,969 tons of fish reduced by the three plants. The total probable number of
101 tags in the 28,000 tons caught in Area 23 is therefore 13.9 X 28,000/7,969, or 49.
A similar calculation for Area 25 gives a probable number of two tags, making a total
of fifty-one 101 tags in West Coast Sub-district fish.
The results, calculated in the above manner, are included in Table VII and will be
discussed later.
Tags recovered by Plant Crews, 1947-48.
During the 1947-48 season, 1,662 decipherable tags were submitted by the crews
of fourteen reduction plants, as follows:—
Plant
Number
Plant
Number
Code.
Plant Name.
of Tags.
Code.
Plant Name.
of Tags.
A. Imperial       4 I. Port Edward       6
B. Namu      27 K. Alert Bay     44
C. Port Albion  311 L. Gulf of Georgia  221
D. Kildonan  123 M. Hecate      79
E. Ceepeecee  170 N. Ecoole   424
F. Nootka   199 O. Redonda Bay     18
H. Butedale      34 P. Phoenix      2
The distribution of the tags according to area of tagging and probable or certain
area of recovery, the latter based on unbiased interpretations as previously explained,
is given in Table VI. A tag recovered off the coast of Washington, not included in
the table, will be given special consideration.
A total of 1,384 tags originally used on the west coast of Vancouver Island were
submitted and, of these, 1,358 were interpreted as having come from west coast
catches. Of the remaining twenty-six, eighteen were taken with fish caught in either
the Discovery Passage or Lower East Coast Sub-districts (Area 13, 14, 17, or 18),
two were taken along the Central Coast-line (Area 7), and six may have come from
the Central, Upper East Coast, Discovery Passage, or Lower East Coast Sub-districts
(Areas 5 to 18). REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. M 51
Ten tags originally used in outside areas were recovered with west coast of Vancouver Island fish, as follows: One used at Union Passage (Area 5), one at Gunboat
Passage (Area 7), one at Campbell Island (Area 7), one at Cutter Creek (Area 12),
one at Skuttle Bay (Area 15), and five at Departure Bay (Area 14b).
The results are thus in essential agreement with those from tag-detector recoveries
in 1947-48 and with those from both detectors and magnets in past years in indicating
that the west coast population is essentially discrete. They show, however, that the
limited mixture which takes place is somewhat more widespread than would be judged
on the basis of detector returns only.
Calculations of the total probable number of west coast tags in west coast catches
were made in a manner similar to that described in the previous section; the results
are included in Table VII. As before, calculations were based on five of the six west
coast reduction plants (omitting Ecoole), with one exception, which involved the 10J,
11F, and 11G taggings. These taggings were all made in the vicinity of Banfield
Inlet of Area 23. From the returns submitted by plant crews, it was obvious that
two plants (Ecoole and Gulf of Georgia) which had operated on a small quantity of
fish caught from January 15th to 19th in Trevor Channel (off Banfield Inlet) returned
relatively large numbers of tags from these three taggings. Therefore, it was assumed
that these tagged fish had not mixed uniformly with the general run to Area 23, and
calculations of the probable total number in the catches for the 10J, 11F, and 11G
taggings were based partly on the returns from these two plants. The results will be
discussed in a section to follow.
One tag (JSSJ) of the 11M series, used at Mayne Bay (Area 23) on March 16th,
1947, was recovered in early September, 1947, with pilchards caught 15 to 20 miles
off Grays Harbour, Washington, U.S.A., and was submitted by the Bay City reduction
plant, Grays Harbour. The recovery is interesting in demonstrating that some, at
least, of the west coast of Vancouver Island herring wander southward to offshore
summer feeding-grounds adjacent to the coast of Washington.
Population Statistics from Tag-recoveries.
In Table VII are given the probable total numbers of west coast of Vancouver
Island tags in west coast catches of 1946-47 and 1947-48, based on calculations made
from tags recovered by both detectors and by plant crews as already explained. The
probable number in the 1946—47 catch, as calculated by detectors and already presented
(Tester and Stevenson, 1947, Table IV, p. 64), has been recalculated to adjust for
detector efficiency.
For the 10-series tags recovered in 1946-47 it will be observed that the probable
total number as calculated from detector recoveries (853) is close to that calculated
from magnet recoveries (880), suggesting that the data are generally reliable. For
both the 10-series and 11-series tags recovered in 1947-48, the probable total numbers
as calculated from detector recoveries (100 and 2,498) are less than those calculated
from magnet recoveries (260 and 3,333). This discrepancy is partly due to the inclusion of larger numbers of 10J, 11F, and 11G tags, as explained in the previous section,
and to more complete sampling of the catches from Areas 25 and 26 by the latter
method of recovery. Accordingly, it is believed that the calculations based on detector
returns are somewhat less representative than those based on magnet returns, even
though there is doubt concerning the exact origin of tags recovered by the latter
method. No attempt has been made to calculate the fiducial limits of the estimates,
although they are doubtless broad.
Comparison of the probable percentages of 10-series tags in the 1946-47 catches
and of 11-series tags in 1947-48 catches indicates that the rate of exploitation in
1947-48 was about three times that in 1946-47 (8.22/3.03 or 2.7 for detector calcula- M 52
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
tions and 10.96/3.13 or 3.5 for magnet calculations). Omission of 101 and 10J taggings (not necessarily representative of the spawning stock according to Tester and
Stevenson, 1947) and of the 11F and 11G taggings (tags not randomly distributed in
the catches) places the rate of exploitation in 1947-48 at about 2.7 times that in
1946-47. It was previously shown that fishing effort in 1947-48 was 948 as compared with 777 active fishing-days in 1946-47, giving a ratio of 1.2/1. Ricker (1940
and 1944) has demonstrated that with uniform recruitment an increase in fishing
effort produces a less than proportional increase in rate of exploitation. Therefore,
it seems likely that the decreased abundance of the fishable stock in 1947-48 (availability was 48 tons/seine/day as compared with 76 tons/seine/day in 1946-47) was
due primarily to decreased recruitment—that is, a relatively less abundant year-class
entering in force at Age III.
The rate of decrease in population abundance from 1946-47 to 1947-48 may be
estimated from the probable number of 10-series tags recovered in the two years at
753/853 or 0.88 for detector recoveries and 620/880 or 0.70 for magnet recoveries, the
latter being considered the more reliable. However, the estimate will be low because
of the increase in rate of exploitation in 1947-48.
The above statistics are presented in order that comparisons may be made with
similar data obtained in future years.
Differences in Relative Recovery between Taggers.
Various taggers have differed considerably in both experience and speed in tagging.
While the need for careful tagging to avoid unnecessary injury to the fish and loss of
tags has been constantly stressed, nevertheless there exists the possibility that there
are differences between taggers in the extent of mortality which is induced or in the
number of tags which are shed which might constitute a source of error in the interpretation of the results. It may be pointed out that tagging is a delicate operation in
which precautions must be taken to avoid unnecessary injury or loss of scales while
the fish is being held, to make a small, neat incision, to avoid pushing scales into the
incision with the tag, to avoid unnecessary injury to the internal organs while the
tag is being pushed through the incision, to make sure that the tag is completely
inserted in the body-cavity, and, while taking these precautions, to work fast in order
that the fish may be returned to the water as soon as possible.
In Table VIII are shown the total number of recoveries (magnet plus detector,
unadjusted) and the percentage recovery for each of a series of pairs of taggings
which were made by two taggers, tagging simultaneously—that is, at the same place
and over approximately the same time-interval. While differences in relative recovery
occur between taggers for each series of pairs, they are not statistically significant.
In the following table the results are combined to compare the recoveries according to more or less experienced taggers:—
Moke Experienced.
Less Experienced.
Tagger.
Number
used.
Number
recovered.
Per Cent,
recovered.
Tagger.
Number
used.
Number
recovered.
Per Cent.
recovered.
A.L T	
4,638
491
1,028
4,652
4,132
44
29
131
313
113
0.96
5.91
12.74
6.73
2.73
R.W	
3,506
503
524
4,266
3,989
29
23
71
256
98
0 83
A.L.T	
A.G.P	
4 57
A.G P	
G.G	
A.G P	
D.S	
J c.S                	
L.T	
Although there is a tendency for a relatively higher recovery with the more experienced taggers in four out of five cases, this could readily have arisen by chance.
. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. M 53
From the above results it may be concluded that if there is a difference between
taggers in the extent of mortality or tag-shedding induced by differences in technique,
the difference is small and does not constitute a serious source of error in the interpretation of the results.
Tagging during 1948 Spawning Season.
The catching and tagging of herring on or near spawning-grounds in the Strait of
Georgia and along the west coast of Vancouver Island during the 1948 spawning season
was facilitated by the loan of three seine-boats by fishing companies. One boat operated in the Strait of Georgia from March 1st to March 15th and on the west coast of
Vancouver Island from March 16th to March 26th. The time of the other two boats
was devoted exclusively to the west coast, one operating from February 16th to March
24th and the other from March 3rd to March 29th.
The methods of catching and handling the fish and of tagging were similar to
those of previous years (Fig. 3). Data on the taggings which were made are included
in Table IX (12-series). The identifying code letters for each lot of tags and the
date and place of tagging are given in Table XVII, which is placed at the end of this
report for easy reference.
In all, 45,577 herring were tagged, 4,502 in the northern part of the Strait of
Georgia (Areas 14a and 15), 9,128 in the southern part of the Strait of Georgia (Areas
14b and 17), and 31,947 on the west coast of Vancouver Island (Areas 23 to 27). West
coast tagging was particularly satisfactory, with 9,219 fish tagged in Area 23, 5,579 in
Area 24, 9,017 in Area 25, 3,558 in Area 26, and 4,574 in Area 27. Tagging in Area
27 was conducted for the first time since 1941 in the vicinity of Forward Inlet and for
the first time on record in Klaskish Inlet.
The tags used during the 1948 spawning season, along with those of previous
years, will be liable for recovery during the 1948-49 fishing season.
SAMPLING OF THE CATCHES.
The herring sampling programme is designed primarily to investigate fluctuations
in the abundance of the successive year-classes of fish and their influence on the catch.
In addition, data are obtained on sex ratio and development, length and weight at each
age, etc. Details of the sampling procedure were outlined in the 1946—47 report
(Tester and Stevenson, 1947).
A more intensive sampling of the west coast population was undertaken in 1947-48
than in the previous season—a total of 133 samples (13,234 fish) in the former and
a total of 99 (9,772) in the latter. The distribution of the sampling is shown in the
following tabulation (with comparable data for 1946-47 in parentheses):—
Number op Samples.
Area. Fishery. Spawning Runs.
23  61 (50) 6 (8)
24    (8) 2 (2)
25  45 (25) 5 (6)
26  11 (--) 2 (__)
27 (._._) 1 (_)
The sampling intensity of the fishery in the two years can probably be best
determined by relating the number of samples taken to the total catch. In 1947-48
one sample was obtained for every 386 tons of herring caught, whereas in the previous
year the ratio was one sample to 711 tons.
A complete list of the samples, with pertinent data, is given in Table X. M 54
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Age Composition.
The average percentage age compositions of west coast catches are given in the
following tabulation for the last three fishing seasons, the age composition for each
area being weighted to the number of fish caught in that area:—
Year.
In Ybak op Age.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII-XI.
1945-46	
+
+
11.1
5.0
2.4
74.0
53.0
58.2
10.0
32.1
27.8
2.8
6.0
8.5
0.9
2.5
2.1
1.2
1946-47	
1947-48	
1.4
0.9
The age composition of the west coast fishery during the past five years has been
characterized by a dominance of fish of Age III. In 1946-47 and 1947-48 the Ill's
(representing contributions of the 1944 and 1945 year-classes respectively) formed
slightly more than one-half of the total catch, whereas in 1945-46 the entrance into the
fishery of the abundant 1943 year-class resulted in Ill-year fish constituting almost
three-quarters of the catch. In estimating the actual numbers of herring which the
year-classes have provided the fishery, it has been calculated that the 1944 year-class
contributed 284.1 millions as Ill's in 1946-47 and the 1945 year-class contributed 240.2
millions at the same age in 1947-48 (Table XI and Fig. 4a). In comparison, the more
successful 1943 year-class contributed only 189.5 millions of Ill-year fish in 1945-46
(cf. last year's report, page 52, in which the calculation was based on average weight
of fish at each age over a ten-year period rather than for the current year), due to the
low fishing effort and the small catch resulting from the then-existing quota regulations.
The 1946 year-class (IPs in 1947-48) made a very small contribution to the past
season's fishery. Since 1944-45 when IPs (of the 1943 year-class) comprised slightly
more than one-quarter of the catch, fish of Age II have gradually become relatively less
numerous in the catch. During this period the year-classes have become progressively
less productive; the 1944 year-class was less abundant than that of 1943, but apparently
more abundant than the 1945 year-class. This suggests that during recent years
(while a high sampling intensity of the catches was maintained) the occurrence of IPs
was indicative of year-class strength.
Immature herring of Age I (1947 year-class) were encountered in unusually large
numbers, especially in Effingham Inlet (Area 23) and in Tahsis Inlet (Area 25).
Since it was neither practical nor economically profitable to fish them, the sampling of
the runs in which the I's were numerous was not sufficiently adequate to permit an
estimate of the proportion that the I-year fish formed of the total fishing population.
Samples obtained in mid-January in Tahsis Inlet showed that I's comprised from 41 to
72 per cent, of certain schools. The significance of the large numbers of these small
fish on the regular fishing-grounds is not as yet known. It might be that the unusually
large number of I's among the older fish presages an abundant year-class or that it is
the result of an unusual inshore migration induced by aberrant oceanographic or other
factors.
A comparison of the age composition of samples from catches in individual areas
is shown in Table XII and Fig. 4b. Herring of the 1945 year-class (Ill's) dominated
the catches in Areas 23 and 25 and in about one-third of the Area 26 catches. In the
majority of the samples from the latter area, fish of the 1944 year-class (IV's) were
slightly more numerous than those of the 1945 year-class. The 1944 year-class (Ill's)
dominated catches in all areas in 1946-47. As in past years there was a tendency for
older fish to be relatively more numerous in areas to the north-westward.    Thus, Fig. 3. Catching spawning herring prior to tagging. The small purse-
seine was let out over the stern of the skiff as the latter was being towed by
the small power-boat. The photograph shows the seine pursed and in the
process of being " dried up." The fish were then transferred to a live
pound, from which they were tagged.  REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
M 55
O
tn
o
0.
_>
o
o
LU
o
<
LU
<
\-
2
LU
o
cc
LU
250
225
200
175
150
125
100
75
50
25
0
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
50
40
30
20
10
0
40
30
20
10
0
■
A
1947     1946      1945     1944     1943     1942      1941       1940      1939     1938     1937
YEAR CLASSES
-
B        '
AREA   23
—
-
AREA   25
7A
"
VY
YA
AREA    26
-
I ||        III        IV V        VI       VII       VIII      IX        X       XI
IN   YEAR   OF   AGE
Fig. 4. Diagrams showing the total number of fish in each year-class
caught by the commercial fishery in 1947-48 (a), and the average percentage
composition of samples from the commercial catches in Areas 23, 25, 26 (B). M 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
whereas the percentages of II- and Ill-year fish progressively decreased from Area 23
to Area 26, generally the percentages of IV-year and older fish progressively increased.
Herring of Ages V and VI (1943 and 1942 year-classes respectively) made notable
contributions to the Area 26 catch, possibly related to the absence of a 1946-47 fishery
in that area.
In 1947-48 the average percentage age composition of the spawning runs (Table
XII) differed appreciably from those of the commercial catch only in the relative
numbers of H-year fish (1946 year-class). For the west coast as a whole they were
about four times as numerous in the spawning samples as in the samples from the
fishery, whereas in 1946-47 the IPs were less numerous in the samples from the
spawning runs. More IPs were present in the Area 24 spawning runs than in those
of any other area, and in most areas the percentage of II-year fish varied greatly
between samples. In Area 23 a sample from the spawning run to Banfield Inlet
contained over 20 per cent. IPs; the fact that the age composition of this sample closely
resembled that of a sample taken from the catch in that locality during the fishing
season suggests that the Banfield Inlet herring constituted a discrete group which had
not mixed uniformly with the main population. The plausibility of this suggestion
is strengthened by tagging results which showed a distinct tendency for Banfield Inlet
tags to be concentrated in fish caught adjacent to Banfield Inlet (Trevor Channel).
Spawning samples from Area 25a (Nootka Sound) contained about one-third as many
IPs as those from Area 25b (Esperanza Inlet). This suggests that younger fish tend
to concentrate in greater quantities in the former area than in the latter—a possibility
to which evidence of previous years lends support. In both 1946-47 and 1947-48 the
dominant age-group of the commercial catch coincided with the age-group which
contributed most heavily to the respective spawning populations.
The reduced population abundance in 1947-48, as compared with that of the
preceding season, appears to have been the result of the 1945 year-class being less
productive than the 1944 year-class. Considering similar data from previous years,
a relationship between year-class strength and the size of the population is fairly well
established. Thus it is evident that in order to determine the prospects for the 1948—49
fishery some advance knowledge is necessary with respect to the strength of the 1946
year-class, which as Ill-year fish in 1948-49 can be expected to yield its greatest
contribution to the fishery. Much of the information regarding year-classes is as yet
of little or no use in assessing year-class strength, for example: The amount of spawn
deposited on the spawning-beaches bears no known relation to the abundance of the
resultant year-class, and the occurrence of I-year fish in the fishery cannot with any
degree of certainty be interpreted in terms of year-class strength. Since larval studies
were not undertaken until 1947, no information is available on the larval abundance
of the 1946 year-class. However, as mentioned previously, the occurrence of IPs in the
west coast catches of recent years appears to be suggestive of year-class strength.
The 1943 year-class, the most productive to enter the fishery in the past ten years, made
up 27 per cent, of the catch as IPs in 1944-45, whereas the poorest year-class in that
period, that of 1940, formed only 2.7 per cent, of the catch as IPs in the 1941-42 season.
Since the 1946 year-class constituted only 2.4 per cent, of the catch when it entered the
fishery at this age in 1947-48, a relatively small catch appears probable in the 1948-49
season. However, fish of this year-class showed up much more prominently in the
1948 spawning runs than in the 1947-48 fishery, which might signify that the new
mature recruits were merely later than usual in joining the main population.
Sex Ratio and Stage op Development.
Sex ratios (number of females divided by number of males) and stages of development (immature, mature, and spent) are summarized in Table XIII.   The average sex REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
M 57
ratio of samples from the commercial catch showed more females than males, whereas
that of the spawning samples showed that the males were more numerous. This
difference may be at least partly accounted for by a difference in the respective age
compositions. The proportion of males to females is generally greater in younger fish
and, as pointed out above, II-year fish were more numerous in the spawning runs than
in the commercial catch.
Immature fish constituted an average of 4.3 per cent, of the commercial catch, as
compared with no immature fish in the spawning runs. These results are comparable
to those obtained in the 1946-47 season (Tester and Stevenson, 1947).
Average Length and Weight.
Data on the average length and weight of the year-classes are used to trace the
effect of environmental factors, such as food conditions on the summer feeding-grounds,
which influence growth. Average weight is also used in calculating the number of fish
of each age in the commercial catches. The average lengths and average weights of
herring in samples from the commercial catches are given in Table XIV and the average
lengths of the fish in samples from the spawning runs are given in Table XV.
A comparison of the average length (A, in millimetres) and average weight (B, in
grams) in samples from the 1946-47 and 1947-48 fisheries, given in the following
tabulation, shows a similarity in the size of the herring in the two seasons, suggesting
that food conditions were comparable in the spring and summer feeding periods of
1946 and 1947.
Year.
In Year op Age.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
A 1946 47 .    	
166
161
57
53
187
188
86
90
203
201
113
110
213
210
133
129
222
220
151
150
228
226
170
164
233
233
183
179
235
1947 48	
236
B 1946-47.   	
177
1947 48	
185
The average lengths of fish in the 1948 spawning runs showed close resemblance,
at each age, with the average lengths of the fish of the same age in the commercial
catch.
SPAWNING-GROUND SURVEYS.
Extent and Intensity of Spawning.
It was pointed out earlier that by the time fishing ceased in the 1947-48 season
(January 24th), the catches had dropped off considerably, indicating that few schools
of fish were left in inshore waters. Spawning-ground surveys conducted by scientific
investigators during tagging operations in the latter part of February and in March,
and by fisheries inspectors during January to April, were designed to provide some
measure of the extent of spawning and thus of the quantity of fish which entered
inshore waters after the close of the fishing season.
A list of the spawnings according to area, date, place, intensity, and extent is given
in Table XVI. Some of the records are based entirely on the reports of fisheries
inspectors, supplemented by measurements of extent from special charts with which
they were provided to mark the positions of the spawning-grounds. Others (marked
with an asterisk in the table) are based on observations by scientific investigators
supplemented by those of the fisheries inspectors. The dates of spawning are approximate and in some cases have been estimated from the stage of development of egg M 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
samples. The intensity estimates are roughly quantitative, but are subject to personal
bias, although attempts were made to standardize them in terms of the numbers of eggs
per linear or square inch of vegetation. The estimates of extent, in statutory miles of
shore-line, are reasonably accurate, but are not entirely comparable between spawnings
because of variation in the width of the grounds. As in last year's data, where
spawning has covered an area of considerable width (for example, off Nuchatlitz Village
in Area 25), the area estimate has been converted to a length estimate based on the
average width of other spawning-grounds.
A summary of the extent of spawning in 1948 and, for comparison, in 1947 is
included here:—
Extent in Miles.
Area. 1947. 1948.
23  13.15 10.93
24  6.05 8.45
25  9.32 12.84
26  2.50 2.04
27  1.45 9.73
Totals  32.47 43.99
It will be observed that while the 1948 spawnings were slightly less extensive in
Areas 23 and 26 than in 1947, they were more extensive in Areas 24, 25, and 27. The
total extent for 1948 was about one-third greater than in 1947. The intensity of
spawning was, in general, less in 1948 than in 1947 (light and very light spawnings
constituted 41 and 28 per cent., whereas heavy and very heavy spawnings constituted
20 and 37 per cent, in 1948 and 1947 respectively). It seems reasonable to assume that
the amount of spawn deposited in 1948, and therefore the tonnage of spawning fish,
was at least equal to and perhaps slightly greater than that of 1947, and therefore close
to the average over a ten-year period. It may be concluded that the spawning-grounds
in 1948, as in 1947, were replenished by new influxes of spawning fish which entered
inshore waters after the close of the fishing season.
Spawning in 1948 followed a similar pattern to that in 1947, with early spawnings
taking place in the vicinity of Macoah Passage and at Useless Inlet (Area 23), at the
entrance to Nuchatlitz Inlet (Area 25), at Malksope Inlet (Area 26), and at Klaskish
Inlet (Area 27). These were followed by general spawning on customary grounds
during March. Unusually late (April) spawnings took place at Mayne Bay (Area 23)
and at Leeson Harbour and Holberg Inlet (Area 27). Apart from the late date (about
April 15th), the spawning at Holberg Inlet is unusual in that herring rarely spawn
toward the heads of the long inlets which indent the west coast of Vancouver Island.
Data were obtained during the larval herring survey which indicated that spawnings sometimes occurred and were not reported. It appears that these unreported
spawnings are usually small and in places not regularly frequented by the spawning fish.
However, on April 14th a considerable number of larvas were taken in Shelter Arm, near
Steamer Cove (Area 24), pointing to a spawning of moderate size having occurred in
late March in that vicinity. The last time a spawning was reported in that locality was
in 1941, in Riley's Cove.
A considerable abundance of herring was noted in both Areas 23 and 25 during the
spawning period. At Kendrick Inlet, in the latter area, the fish were churned to the
surface by the propellor of a scout boat used in connection with the surveys. Large
concentrations were also observed in the vicinity of Queen Cove and Port Eliza. It is
interesting to note that subsequent reports (June) have disclosed the presence of large
bodies of spent herring off Clayoquot Sound (Area 24) and Esperanza Inlet (Area 25). REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. M 59
Sampling of the Spawning-gkounds.
In an effort to gain precise information on the mortality of spawn during the incubation period, on the amount of spawn taken by birds, and on the accuracy of the field
estimates of the intensity of spawning depositions, a total of 133 samples of spawn were
taken from all major west coast spawning-grounds at various depths. Laboratory
study of the samples revealed an average egg mortality of 5.6 per cent., as compared to
that of 2.9 per cent, in 1947. Further analysis of the data, as given in the following
tabulation, showed (1) that greater egg mortality occurred in samples which were in
the later stages of development than in those in early stages, and (2) that mortality in
the later stages was considerably less around the zero tide-level than either in deeper
water or higher up on the beach:—
Stages in Development.
Depth in Relation
to Zero Tide (Feet).
f 11.0 to     +1.6	
Early.
Per Cent.
    1.9
Late.
Per Cent.
11.6
+1.5 to     —1.5	
    2.0
3.3
—1.6 to —24.0	
  4.8
6.8
Fairly intensive sampling of three major spawnings (at Cypress Bay, Refuge Cove,
and Macoah Passage) suggested that some spawnings have considerably higher egg
mortalities than others. During the later stages of development the mortality at
Cypress Bay (11 per cent.) was almost twice that at Refuge Cove and four times that at
Macoah Passage. An early spawning in Macoah Passage probably suffered total
destruction by the action of heavy seas. Along 1,600 yards of beach opposite Forbes
Island, between 11 and 15 feet above zero tide, dead eggs on eel-grass were piled up in
a ridge one-half foot to 3 feet high and 5 to 20 yards wide (Fig. 5).
Preliminary work on the mortality of spawn through predation by birds, although
not yielding conclusive results, pointed to the probability that heavy losses of spawn
might be caused by this source of mortality. Spawn and vegetation were removed from
accurately measured 6 square inches of beach and preserved (Fig. 6). In the laboratory
the number of eggs was counted and the weight of vegetation was obtained for each
sample. These data were compared with those from samples taken in the same manner
and on the same portion of the spawning beach at a later date (Fig. 7). At Cypress
Bay, when the spawn was in a late stage of development, the quantitative sampling
revealed a 68-per-cent. decrease in the number of eggs in seven days. Hatching
accounted for some of the decrease, estimated at 33 per cent., pointing to a 35-per-cent.
loss of spawn by bird predation. In the same period the amount of vegetation decreased
by 37 per cent. In feeding on the eggs, the gulls, ducks, etc., uproot vegetation, which
floats away with the tide. A similar set of data was obtained in Queen Cove while the
spawn was in a very early stage of development. The egg counts showed a 26-per-cent.
loss in three days, but no significant reduction in the amount of vegetation was found.
One of the purposes for which the spawn samples were taken was to determine the
accuracy of field estimates of spawning intensity. Prior to the spawning survey the
numbers of eggs per linear or square inch of vegetation was determined for very light,
light, medium, heavy, and very heavy spawnings. Each sample taken during the survey
was categorized in the field as to its estimated intensity. Later, in the laboratory,
actual egg counts were made on representative parts of the sample and a laboratory
estimate of intensity was obtained. It was found that in 69 per cent, of the samples
the field estimate coincided with the laboratory estimate and in 29 per cent, of the
samples the difference between the estimates was only one category.
YOUNG-HERRING INVESTIGATION.
The study of the larval herring, initiated in the spring of 1947 (Tester and Stevenson, 1947;   Stevenson, 1947), was more intensively pursued this year.    The main M 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
purpose of this research is to obtain information (1) on the causes of natural variation
in the mortality of the early stages in the life-history and (2) on the relative and possibly absolute abundance of young emerging from the spawn in succeeding years. The
amount of spawn deposited (as determined from spawning surveys) and the apparent
abundance of the fishable populations produced by the spawn (as derived from the
analysis of age composition and catch records) have shown no definite correlation.
This suggests that from the time the eggs are deposited on the spawning-beaches until
the time that the resulting year-class enters the fishery a variable natural mortality is
operative and that possibly during certain periods in the early life-cycle the young are
especially likely to be radically reduced in numbers by unfavourable oceanographic
conditions, excessive predation, etc.
The 1948 survey was carried out over a ten-week period extending from April 7th
to June 14th and covered Areas 23 to 27 of the West Coast Sub-district. In four cruises
along the coast, studies were made of the progeny from, virtually every spawning which
had taken place in the sub-district. As in the 1947 survey, the abundance and distribution of the larvae were investigated in relation to three main types of locality—(1)
inshore localities immediately in the vicinity of herring-spawning grounds, (2) intermediate localities within the sounds and the inlets but away from the spawning-grounds,
and (3) offshore localities out to 3 or 4 miles from the coast-line. The seine-boat
" Dominion No. 1," with its 18-foot tender, was loaned by the industry for the survey.
Several methods were used to sample the larval and post-larval young. Conical
nets, 4 feet long and 2 feet in diameter at the mouth were towed in pairs from the scout
boat. One of the pair of nets was consistently towed at the surface (in the upper 4
feet), while the other sampled at deeper levels, depending on the amount of cable let out
and the steepness of the cable angle. These nets, made of silk bolting cloth (thirty-eight
meshes to the inch), were used extensively in the inshore localities, where during the
first two cruises the larvae were numerous. On occasions vertical hauls were made with
the silk nets in inshore localities. This involved pulling a net vertically at constant
speed from a predetermined depth to the surface.
Larval sampling of intermediate and offshore localities was largely accomplished
by means of two specially designed metal nets, which were pulled at full speed (about
9 knots) behind the seine-boat, and by using a pumping system, whereby water was
pumped from the sea at a known depth and strained through silk bolting cloth. The
metal nets (Fig. 8) were 5 feet in length and composed of three main parts soldered
together—(1) a short funnel-shaped anterior part of solid brass about 1 foot in length,
enlarging from a mouth 6 inches in diameter to a diameter of 1 foot, (2) a central
cylindrical portion 3 feet long and 1 foot in diameter, and (3) a funnel-shaped sump,
about 1 foot in length decreasing from 1 foot in diameter at the cylinder to about 2
inches in diameter where a solid brass bucket was attached. The central portion and
the sump were made of brass screening, a fine mesh (thirty to the inch) on the inside
and a coarse protective screen (four to the inch) on the outside. Attached to the
cylinder was a keel of painted iron (% by 3 inches) to which a set of adjustable
diving-vanes were attached. In spite of the apparent sturdiness of the nets, they had
to be reinforced from time to time. Difficulty was experienced by the chemical interaction of the sea water, brass mesh, and the solder used to attach the mesh to the
frame and the coarse mesh to the fine mesh. The solid blanket of algse which frequently
collected on the inner screen necessitated the use of a stream of water from a force-hose
in order to clean the samples from the nets. This practice hastened the disintegration
of the mesh initiated by the chemical reaction mentioned above. The diving-vanes were
effective in forcing the net below the surface. Greater depth was attained by paying
out more cable until a depth of about 3 fathoms was reached, at which point further Fig. 5. Eel-grass bearing dead herring-spawn piled up in a ridge 3 feet
high by heavy seas at Macoah Passage (Area 23). Subsidence of the storms
caused some of the detached eel-grass to lie scattered lower down on the beach
(right foreground), but even there mortality in the spawn was very high. fc, «/:-■■■,,, ,w ;*t l
^g+/-*-     ;  '
U   ?.••■     *-  ST'-' •   ^^fflE*
■■:■■ ■    ■■ .■/.   . ■ '■ ' ■■
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m
m
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•    . • f,
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••  '.£■*;
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'*&>tf-4ft'>*/&*\» •*•
r«-.*_
' -
.  ' *_! ' ~'-' ■ "■   ''■•'■ "'"■
Fig. 6. A " very heavy " deposition of herring-spawn on
rock-weed at Cypress Bay (Area 24) on March 12th, 1948.
The 6-inch wooden square enclosed about 83,000 eggs. _,;*:-2r:>----.
'.feS
3) '/ ••
■■■■■ "  ■■       . :.        : ,   ■:■       ' .:■■ '■. ' ■     ■ ■      ■     .    ■■■ r~       ■■■■ ;        '        ■        ■
■fifo**1
a;
lilfiJT
V
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P#S*
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1 f
•.* >•,'   •-••'* ..     ¥.cj'■ii. jkiw htodlTi      *_>__4____
■t ■rT_MHK-S_»i___i S
*■■%
Fig. 7. The same spawning-ground as pictured in Fig.
6 one week later. The number of eggs in the 6-inch
square was reduced to 28,000 ("medium" deposition), due
chiefly to bird predation and hatching. The decrease in the
amount of rock-weed was caused by the birds detaching
it while feeding on the eggs and allowing it to float away. Fig. 8. Metal net used in sampling larval herring. A meter-wheel (upper
left) measured the length of cable. The hook attached near the front of the
net was used in hoisting the net aboard after a haul. m't
Fig. 9. Pumping system used in the sampling of larval herring.    The pump
discharge was strained through a silk net placed in a wooden barrel.  REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
M 61
release of cable did not give a corresponding greater depth due to the increase in the
resistance of the water against the cable.
The pumping assemblage (Fig. 9) consisted of a 2-inch portable pump, driven by a
gasoline-motor, an intake-hose connected to a 2-inch iron pipe fixed to the side of the
boat and projecting into the water, and an outlet-hose emptying into a silk net fitted
into a wooden barrel. The pipe was kept at a depth of 3 feet during most of the survey.
Efforts were made to stream-line the pipe so that depths down to 20 feet could be
sampled while the seine-boat was under way at full speed, but the aluminium streamlining, although showing promise in experimental tests, did not stand up to rigorous
everyday usage.
Both new methods were proven capable of capturing larva?, but the larvse were
damaged considerably more than those taken by the silk nets. Apparently the churning
of the water inside the metal net and the impact of the pump impellors on the larvse
were chiefly responsible for the damage. In all three larval sampling methods, technical improvements are planned, but the extent of the changes necessary will not be
fully known until the data are completely analysed.
Attempts were made to sample the young herring after they had schooled by using
a purse-seine, 2 fathoms deep and 20 fathoms long, and by attracting them to a 100-watt
light submerged just below the surface of the water. The former method proved
unsuccessful, but moderate success was attained by the latter. Scouting trips were
made at various hours of the day and night to locate the schools.
Field-work done in the course of the survey may be summarized as follows :■—
Method.
Time op Day.
Total.
Day.
Dusk.
Night.
Dawn.
84
86
67
13
1
1
15
5
6
12
9
265
15
63
51
26
3
16
2
1
1
10
1
380
17
155
124
27
38
11
1
252
47
423
31
753
Since it will be several months before the analysis of the large amount of data
is complete, only general remarks on the results of the survey can be made at the
present time. The fact that the 1948 survey was begun about ten days earlier than
that of 1947 resulted in the finding of tremendous concentrations of larva? in certain
inshore spawning localities. In some ten-minute silk-net hauls, up to 30,000 or more
larvse of one week or less in age were obtained. During April and the first part of
May the larvse in the inshore localities decreased in numbers until by the beginning of
the third cruise (May 20th) the standard methods of larval sampling collected no
larvse in most localities.
As the larvse dispersed from the inshore localities, hauls in near-by intermediate
localities showed their presence. As in 1947, dispersal from the spawning-grounds
was greater in Area 23 (Barkley Sound) than in any of the other areas. In offshore
localities very few or no larvse were obtained, corroborating the evidence of the 1947
survey, which indicated no significant movement of larvse between the major statistical
areas. M 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Night hauls consistently provided larger numbers of larvse than day-time hauls.
By the first week in May, larval herring had practically disappeared from the day
samples. The data relating to the depth distribution will need to be worked up before
any definite results can be given, but in general it appears that, as in 1947, the 2-4-
fathom zone contained larger numbers of larva? than the zones above and below.
In 1947 the survey did not attempt to investigate the young herring after schooling
had taken place. During the third and fourth cruises (May 20th to June 12th) of the
1948 survey, efforts were made to get information on their distribution, size, and habits.
Also it was hoped that data could be obtained which could be used in estimating their
relative abundance from year to year. They were encountered in large schools on only
three occasions despite intensive searching—once at dusk near Union Island (Area 26)
on June 10th, and twice at dawn near Nuchatlitz Village (Area 25) on May 31st and
June 10th. No schools were found in either Areas 23 or 24. There was evidence to
suggest that possibly schools of young herring were less numerous in the spring of 1948
than in the preceding spring. One report (June 12th) obtained from a member of a
boat crew stated that this time last year many schools of young herring were seen in
Area 23, whereas none had been observed this year.
The schools showed a tendency to appear at the surface at dusk and at dawn.
When the water was perfectly calm, they were observed to flip at the surface. When
sufficiently numerous, the reflection or " flashing " of their silvery sides was observed
and their flipping resulted in a characteristic " crackling " sound. As a result of the
difficulty in approaching them, it was found to be impossible to obtain specimens with
the purse-seine. The method involving the use of a submerged light was more effective,
resulting in the capture of up to 100 young in a night. Preliminary study of the young
herring caught in this way, about twelve weeks after hatching, showed an average
length of 35 millimetres.
SUMMARY.
This is the second annual report on an intensive investigation of the herring on
the west coast of Vancouver Island initiated in 1946-47. The primary objects of the
study involve determining the causes of natural fluctuations in abundance, the relationship between spawning potential and recruitment, and the average minimum spawning
stock necessary to produce maximum sustained yield. From the practical standpoint
the results of the investigation will permit scientific appraisal of the utility of the quota
system of regulating the catch. Ultimately the results of this study will be used in
attempting to formulate an efficient management policy for all the herring-fisheries of
British Columbia.
The total herring-catch on the west coast of Vancouver Island amounted to 45,200
tons in the 1947-48 season, 94 per cent, of which was taken in Areas 23 and 25. Sporadic fishing characterized the first half of the season (November 5th to December
13th), small schools providing good fishing for short periods until they were exhausted.
Favourable weather conditions permitted good fishing to take place in " outside " waters
off Areas 23 and 25a in late November and early December respectively. Excellent or
good fishing occurred in Areas 23 and 25 during the first two weeks of the second half
of the season, apparently as a result of an accumulation of stock during the Christmas
lay-off. After a short period of fair to poor catches the fishing fleet ceased fishing in
the sub-district on January 24th, twelve days before the prescribed closing-date of
February 5th. No satisfactory explanation can be given for an unusual occurrence of
large numbers of 1-year herring on the fishing-grounds during the 1947-48 season.
The 1947-48 catch was 23 per cent, less than the catch in 1946-47, but the fishing
effort expended in making it (number of fishing-days for all boats) was 22 per cent,
greater. Hence availability (average catch per seine per day's active fishing) was considerably reduced, equalling that of 1945-46, the last year of quota regulation. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. M 63
Tags from the 1947 and previous taggings were recovered by tag detectors located
at Steveston, Kildonan, and Nootka, and by magnets in fourteen reduction plants. An
analysis of the tag recoveries made by the detectors in 1947-48 and by the plant crews
in 1946-47 and 1947-48 is included in this report.
As in previous years, tag-detector returns showed a considerable intermingling of
fish between the various west coast areas. Separate analysis of tags which had been
at liberty almost two years (1946 tagging) and those which had been out almost one
year (1947 tagging) indicated much greater dispersal for the former (63 per cent.)
than for the latter (30 per cent.). The tendency noted in 1946-47 for more fish to
wander to the south-eastward was also observed in 1947-48.
In 1947-48 the amount of mixture between the fish of the West Coast and Lower
East Coast Sub-districts was relatively small. Emigration from the west coast was
relatively greater than immigration to the west coast, a reverse situation to that which
obtained in the previous year.
In 1946-47 and 1947-48 decipherable tags submitted by the plant crews of the
reduction plants totalled 380 and 1,662 respectively. Data from the recoveries are in
general agreement with those obtained from the tag detectors in showing the west coast
population to be essentially discrete. Calculations of probable number of tags in the
catch based on the former are believed to be more representative than those based on
detector returns, but they contain a source of error—doubt concerning exact origin of
tags—which is not involved in the calculations based on the tag-detector data. However, the similarity obtained in the total probable number of tags (in the catch) from
the two sources of returns suggests general reliability of the data.
Comparison of the probable percentages of tags in the catch after the tags have
been out almost two years and after they have been at liberty for almost one year gives
a rate of exploitation in 1947-48 about 2.7 times greater than that of 1946-47. In
view of an increase in fishing effort in the past season it appears likely that the
decreased abundance, indicated by a decrease in availability, was due primarily to a
small recruitment from a relatively less abundant year-class—namely, that of 1945.
No significant difference was found in the number of recoveries from taggings done
by different taggers at the same time and in the same place.
The tagging programme in the spring of 1948 resulted in 31,947 fish tagged on
the west coast (as compared to 28,148 in 1946 and 30,401 in 1947) and 13,630 fish tagged
in the Strait of Georgia. Tagging was conducted in every west coast area, including
Area 27, where no tagging had been carried out since 1941.
Intensive sampling of the 1947-48 west coast fishery, resulting in the collection and
study of 117 samples, showed that the 1945 year-class (as Ill's) constituted slightly
more than half of the fish in the catch. The age composition was similar to that of the
1946-47 fishery, but calculations of the actual numbers of fish in the catch showed that
although the dominant 1944 year-class in 1946-47 (as Ill's) comprised about the same
percentage of the fishery as the 1945 year-class in 1947-48 (also as Ill's) the former
contributed 18 per cent, more fish to the fishery than the latter. Thus it appears that
the 1945 year-class provided less recruits to the fishery than the 1944 year-class, which
in turn was less productive than that of 1943. Since there are indications which
suggest that the 1946 year-class will be no better and perhaps poorer than the 1945
year-class, a decline in the west coast catch is probably to be expected. An alleviation
in the situation is suggested by the fact that the 1946 year-class (IPs) entered the
1948 spawning runs much more strongly than it showed up in the commercial fishery.
The average length and average weight of the fish in the commercial catches and
in the spawning runs showed remarkable similarity in the two seasons, pointing to the
existence of comparable food conditions in the spring and summer feeding periods of
1946 and 1947. M 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In the spring of 1948, as in the previous year, new influxes of spawning fish entered
inshore waters after the close of the fishing season, with the result that the 1948
spawning was good—at least equal to and perhaps slightly better than that of 1947.
In general the intensity of spawning was less in 1948 than in 1947, but the total mileage
was about one-third greater.
Samples of spawn taken in connection with the spawning survey indicated an
average egg mortality of 5.6 per cent., almost twice as great as that obtained in 1947.
Data were obtained suggesting that heavy losses of spawn are caused by bird predation.
During a ten-week period in the spring of 1948 an intensive study of the young
herring on the west coast of Vancouver Island was carried out, following up the
preliminary survey undertaken in 1947. Only a small part of the data has as yet been
analysed, but in general the results seem to confirm the major findings of the preliminary survey. Immediately after hatching, larvse were obtained in great abundance
in the inshore spawning localities. As the larvse became larger, they gradually dispersed
from the spawning-grounds. Dispersal occurred more rapidly in Area 23 than in other
areas, due apparently to the more open nature of the area. Offshore hauls in the open
sea resulted in extremely few or no larvse, suggesting very limited intermingling of
larvse between the major areas. After schooling, some success was achieved in capturing the young metamorphosed herring. Considerable attention was given to the
development of efficient larval sampling equipment in the 1948 survey.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
It is again a pleasure to acknowledge the whole-hearted support and co-operation
of herring fishermen, fishing companies, and Government departments during the
1947-48 season.
The daily records of catch submitted by herring fishermen through the medium
of pilot-house record books have enabled the investigators to follow the course of the
fishery and to compile statistics on catch per unit effort. Daily landing statistics
furnished by plant book-keepers have provided accurate information on catch by area
and have assisted in the interpretation of tag-recoveries. Reduction-plant crews have
assisted greatly by searching for tags and returning them along with the requested
information. Managers and staffs of various plants have arranged for the collection
of herring samples, their storage in freezers, and their shipment to the Station when
required. In this latter connection we are also greatly indebted to W. G. Calderwood,
field technician on the staff of the Fisheries Research Board's trawl investigation, for
collecting and handling some of the samples from the northern fisheries.
British Columbia Packers, Limited, again permitted the installation and operation
of tag detectors at their Imperial and Kildonan plants, and the respective managers,
K. Fraser and W. Mackenzie, and crews have given every assistance to the work.
Canadian Fishing Company, Limited, also permitted the installation and operation
of a tag detector at their Nootka plant, and similar co-operation was received from
the manager, A. Lovdal, and crew. With assistance from British Columbia Packers,
Limited, the vessel " Sharon M " was chartered during the 1947-48 fishing season for
use in general supervision of the scientific investigation.
Nelson Brothers Fisheries, Limited; Francis Millerd and Company, Limited; and
Canadian Fishing Company, Limited, loaned the " B.C. Pride," " Great Northern 3,"
and " Pacific Sunset" respectively for spring tagging and spawning-ground survey-
work. In addition, British Columbia Packers, Limited, loaned the " Dominion No. 1 "
for larval-herring surveys during two and one-half months in the late spring and early
summer of 1948. To these companies and their staffs we wish to express our sincere
thanks. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. M 65
As in the previous year, the Dominion Department of Fisheries has co-operated
in the collection of catch statistics and in many other ways. The spawning-ground
observations which have been made by Fisheries Inspectors have been of great
assistance in assessing the extent of spawn deposition.
In a comprehensive investigation such as the one being undertaken, there must
be both a division of responsibility among the staff and close co-operation between
members in the various phases of field-work. The senior author has been responsible
for general supervision of the investigation and for the sections of this report dealing
with catch statistics and tagging and tag-recovery. The junior author has been in
charge of sampling and young-herring investigations and for the sections of this report
dealing with those phases.    Other sections have been written in collaboration.
J. H. Glover, junior biologist, has been largely responsible for age estimation from
scales and also conducted most of the sampling of lower east and west coast catches.
J. A. Lanigan, junior biologist, has assisted in age estimation, operated a tag detector
at Kildonan, and conducted a preliminary analysis of magnet returns with interpretation of the probable locality of recovery. R. G. McMynn, junior biologist, has
undertaken laboratory examination of egg and larval-herring samples. R. S. Isaacson,
field technician, has been responsible for the collection and analysis of catch statistics.
A. G. Paul, field technician, has operated a tag detector at the Imperial plant, and has
been in charge of one of the tagging expeditions, as well as undertaking the upkeep and
repair of field equipment. J. H. Larkman, field technician, has been responsible for
maintenance and repair of electrical equipment and was field contact man on the
" Sharon M." The Nootka detector was operated by G. A. L. Thompson and later by
J. W. Clark, temporary field technicians. Practically all members of the investigation
have assisted in the field-work of sampling, tagging, spawning-ground, and larval-
herring surveys, and in the routine office-work of summarizing the data which have
been collected during the course of the season. Stenographic and clerical work has
been ably performed by Miss A. Bravar.
The investigation has been jointly financed by the British Columbia Provincial
Fisheries Department and the Fisheries Research Board of Canada. To G. J. Alexander,
Deputy Minister of Fisheries, and to Dr. R. E. Foerster, Director of the Pacific
Biological Station, we wish to express our sincere thanks for general supervision,
advice, and assistance.
REFERENCES.
RiCKER, W. E. (1940) : Relation of " catch per unit effort" to abundance and rate of
exploitation.    Journ. Fish. Res. Bd., Canada, Vol. V, No. 1, pp. 43-70.
   (1944) :   Further notes on fishing mortality and effort.    Copeia, No. 1, April
21, 1944, pp. 23-44.
Stevenson, J. C. (1947):   Preliminary survey of larval herring on the west coast of
Vancouver Island, 1947.    Progress reports (Pacific), Fish. Res. Bd., Canada, No.
73, pp. 65-67.
TESTER, A. L.   (1946) :   Tagging of herring  (Clupae pallasii)  in British Columbia:
insertions and recoveries during 1945-46.    Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept.,
1945, pp. 43-66.
  (MS.):   The efficacy of catch limitations in regulating the British Columbia
herring fishery.
Tester, A. L., and Stevenson, J. C. (1947) : Results of the west coast of Vancouver
Island herring investigation, 1946-47. Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1946,
pp. 42-71. M 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table I. — Catch (Tons), Fishing Effort (Total Number of Active Fishing-days
expended by all Seine-boats), and Availability (Average Catch per Seine per Day's
Active Fishing) for West Coast Sub-district Areas during 1947-48 Fishing Season.
Area.
Estimated
Catch.
Fishing
Effort."
Availability.
23	
25,000
300
17,700
2,200
464
19
394
71
53.9
24	
15.9
25	
44.9
26	
31.1
27	
Totals   	
45,200
948
47.7
* The total number of active fishing-days is calculated to the nearest whole number from estimated catch and
availability based on incomplete data. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
M 67
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BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table III.-
-Probable Number of Tags in the Catches during the 1947-48
Season, based on Detector Returns.
Tag-
Tagging Code.
Area op Recovery.
Area.
13.    !   14a.
1
14b.
17.
1
18.    I     23.
1
1
25.    1     26.
1
12
9J 	
145
	
5
9
9
5
41
5
32
45
100
5
9
14
5
3
3
10
3
14
14
30
3
30
3
17
3
3
7
5
5
5
5
15
5
10
5
4
8
25
13
30
58
34
25
4
4
4
8
42
8
13
13
13
13
4
4
4
4
12
9
24
4
419
108
133
281
63
345
59
12
8
162
125
52
17
30
8
27
16
42
16
27
16
112
132
16
47
27
54
101
85
...
9
13
7J	
5
9F	
9
11A	
12
14a
10D	
5
10E	
56
11B	
12
15
10G	
46
110	
16
10F.	
288
14b
9C	
33
IOC	
13
11D	
78
17
10B	
66
HE	
84
18
9D	
30
10A	
4
23
101	
12
10J	
11F	
24
11G	
4
HH	
HI	
11J	
175
UK	
11L	
11M	
384
UN	
80
24
10K	
10L	
10M	
HP	
294
11Q	
279
25
ION	
HR	
US	
44
11T	
11U	
4
11W	
11X	
Totals	
145
284
1
143
55
1
327     11 879
718
9
3,560 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
M 69
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Eh M 70
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table V.—Number of Tags recovered by Plant Crews, according to Area of Tagging
and Probable Area of Recovery, for the 1946-47 Fishing Season.
6a—Surf Inlet; 6b—Poison Cove ; 14a—off Cape Lazo ; 25a—Nootka Sound and Tahsis Inlet; 25B—Esperanza Inlet.
Tag
Tagging
Code.
Probable Area of Recovery.
ging
Area.
1
!   5-
5.   1   6b.
1
6a.
12.
1           1  13- 1
14a.  1   18.  I   18.  1   23.
1           1           I
23- 1
24.  1   24.
1
24- 1
25. 1 25a.
\
25b.
23-
25.
1
Total.
5
9P	
2
5
1
3
4
5
9Q	
10
6
9N	
2
7
1
I
3
10
90	
3
7
9L	
1
2
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
4
9M	
7
10
9K
2
12
7K	
1
2
1
2
8J	
2
8K	
1
1
9G	
6
  1 	
1
7
9H	
16
   1  	
4
19
91	
3
3
9J	
1
1
2
10H	
6
1
2
8
13
9F	
10S	
1
2
1
2
14a
10D
10E	
1
	
1
1
4
1
1
1
1
1
9
15
8D	
1
10G	
3
1
5
1
1
3
5
16
10F   	
8
14b
9C	
1
IOC	
1
1
2
17
10B	
	
1
1
2
18
10A   	
1
1       1
2
23
101	
. 6
4
1
2
1
14
10J	
14
1
1
1
1
1
5
4
16
24
8N	
12
10K	
17
7
3
5
6
38
10L	
8
3
1
1
6
2
21
10M   	
17
1
g
25
ION	
3
1
2
10
16
10P	
3
2
1
42
26
10Q	
1
1
1
1
21
5
30
10R	
5
1
1
34
1
27
5W	
Totals....
1
8
6
21
36
3
5  j    16
1
80
21
9
5
2
113
44
11
380 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
M 71
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BRITISH COLUMBIA.
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M 73
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BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table VII.—Number of West Coast Tags used, and Probable Number and Percentage
in the 1946-47 and 1947-48 West Coast Catches, according to Calculations based
on Recoveries by both Detectors and Plant Crews.
Tag
Tagging Code.
Number
used.
Probable Number
in Catches.
Probable Percentage in Catches.
ging
Area.
Detector
Returns.
Plant
Returns.
Detector
Returns.
Plant
Returns.
23
Tagged,1946 ; present in 1946—47 Catches.
101                              	
3,914
3,545
2,941
2,947
1,574
3,542
3,961
3,182
2,542
38
106
87
87
61
67
157
100
150
51
72
151
79
124
60
122
111
110
0.97
2.99
2.96
2.95
3.88
1.89
3.96
3.14
5.90
1.30
23
10J                                             	
2.03
24
10K 	
5.13
24
10L                  ..           	
2.68
24
10M          .                  	
7.88
25
ION                                                          	
1.69
25
10P       	
3.08
26
10Q	
3.49
26
10R    	
4.33
Totals '.	
28,148
853    |        880
3.03
3.13
Tagged 1946 ; present in 1947-48 Catches.
101                           	
23
3,914
3,545
2,941
2,947
1,574
3,542
3,961
3,182
2,542
12
9
12
35
16
16
10
74
21
21
4
17
51
33
29
0.31
0.25
0.41
1.19
1.02
0.45
0.26
23
10J	
2.08
24
10K                                      	
0.71
24
10L	
0.71
24
10M	
0.25
25
ION..                    	
0.48
25
26
26
10P	
10Q	
10R	
1.29
1.04
1.14
Totals          	
28,148
100
260
0.36
0.92
Tagged 1947 ; present in 1947-48 Catches.
llF...-	
11G	
23
23
2,087
499
2,670
1,017
2,074
2,637
994
2,191
1,011
3,499
3,084
2,021
1,005
1,011
1,011
2,622
968
24
4
446
124
175
281
63
361
59
274
266
99
44
54
131
93
394
53
367
132
174
361
99
345
121
459
354
132
37
15
15
192
83
1.16
0.80
16.70
12.19
8.44
10.66
6.34
16.48
5.84
7.83
8.63
4.90
4.38
5.34
5.00
9.61
18.88
10.62
23
HH	
13.75
23
HI
23
HJ	
8.39
23
11K	
13.69
23
11L	
9.96
23
11M	
15.75
23
HN	
11.97
24
HP	
13.12
24
11Q	
11.48
25
11R	
6 53
25
IIS	
3.68
25
11T	
1.48
25
11U	
1.48
25
11W	
7.32
25
11X	
8 57
Totals	
30,401
2,498
3,333
8.22 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
M 75
Table VIII.—Tagging and Recovery Data for Taggings conducted simultaneously
by Two Taggers at One Time and Place.
Tag.
Tagger No. 1.
Tagger No. 2.
ging
Code.
Tagger.
Code
Letters.
Number
used.
Number
recovered.
Per
Cent, recovered.
Tagger.
Code
Letters.
Number
used.
Number
recovered.
Per
Cent, recovered.
HA
ALT
KYYK
1,063
2
0.19
RW
KZZK
1,001
4
0.40
11C
ALT
KSSK
1,058
12
1.13
RW
MAAM
501
2
0.40
11D
ALT
MJJM
500
12
2.40
RW
MUM
496
14
2.80
HE
ALT
KTTK
1,013
8
0.79
RW
KUUK
1,011
5
0.49
HE
ALT
KWWK
1,004
10
1.00
RW
MDDM
497
4
0.80
11L
ALT
MSSM
491
29
5.91
AGP
MPPM
503
23
4.57
11F
AGP
KCCK
1,028
131
12.74
GG
IJJI
524
71
13.55
11K
AGP
JIIJ
466
42
9.01
DS
JHHJ
517
29
5.61
11K
AGP
JLLJ
544
48
8.82
DS
JKKJ
591
40
6.77
HM
AGP
JOOJ
593
50
8.43
DS
JNNJ
526
34
6.46
11M
AGP
JSSJ
513
45
8.77
DS
JPPJ
559
51
9.12
HP
AGP
IPPI
516
36
6.98
DS
ISSI
535
29
5.42
HP
AGP
IXXI
516
26
5.04
DS
JBBJ
529
23
4.35
HP
AGP
JEEJ
440
16
3.64
DS
JDDJ
479
29
6.05
HQ
AGP
KAAK
1,064
50
4.70
DS
INNI
530
21
3.96
HN
DS
MOOM
504
26
5.16
RW
MNNM
507
26
5.13
HR
JCS
KEEK
1,048
31
2.96
LT
KIIK
973
23
2.36
IIS
JCS
LAAL
509
10
1.96
LT
JZZJ
496
7
1.41
11T
JCS
LBBL
506
3
0.59
LT
LCCL
505
4
0.79
HU
JCS
LEEL
506
5
0.99
LT
LDDL
505
3
0.59
11W
JCS
KBBK
1,068
48
4.49
LT
KDDK
1,037
37
3.57
11X
JCS
JYYJ
495
16
3.23
LT
JXXJ
473
24
5.07
Table IX.—Data on Taggings referred to in Tables and Text.
Tagging
Code.
Tagging
Area.
Place and Date of Tagging.
Number
used.
5W
60
7J
7K
7M
7N
8D
81
8J
8K
8L
8N
9A
9C
9D
9F
9G
9H
91
9J
9K
9L
9M
9N
90
9P
9Q
10A
27
12
13
12
7
12
15
13
12
12
9
24
19
14b
18
13
12
12
12
12
10
7
7
6
6
5
5
18
Browning Inlet; Mar. 13, 1941	
Kingcome Inlet; Mar. 30, 1942	
Deepwater Bay ; Mar. 17-18. 1943	
Clio Channel, Bend Island ; Mar. 22, 1943	
Gunboat Passage ; Mar. 31, 1943	
Chatham Channel; Apr. 6, 1943	
Skuttle Bay ; Mar. 2-3, 1944	
Deepwater Bay ; Mar. 31, 1944	
Retreat Passage; Mar. 6, 1944	
Retreat Passage ; Mar. 27, 1944	
Rivers Inlet, head ; Mar. 18, 1944	
Matilda Inlet; Mar. 26-27, 1944	
Sooke; Oct. 10, 1944	
Departure Bay ; Mar. 10-12, 1945	
Prevost Island, Selby Creek ; Mar. 13, 1945	
Deepwater Bay ; Apr. 3-4, 1945	
Viner Sound ; Mar. 19-20, 1945	
Cutter Creek ; Mar. 22, 1945	
Retreat Passage ; Mar. 9-12, 1945	
Cramer Passage ; Mar. 7-15, 1945	
Takush Harbour, Angle Inlet; Mar. 26, 1945	
Brown Narrows, Campbell Island ; Apr. 1, 1945	
Gunboat Passage ; Mar. 20-21, 1945	
Parsons Anchorage ; Mar. 25, 1945	
Racey Inlet, head ; Mar. 26, 1945	
Union Passage ; Mar. 30, 1945	
Principe Channel, Anger Island ; Mar. 27-28, 1945
Prevost Island, Selby Creek ; Feb. 16, 1946	
1,989
1,776
2,989
1,000
3,493
2,978
3,830
3,999
2,997
3,026
3,121
4,220
1,409
3,555
3,227
3,319
3,155
3,177
2,754
2,893
3,172
1,895
4,310
3,450
1,523
3,010
3,039
1,570 M 76
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table IX.—Data on Taggings referred to in Tables and Text—Continued.
Tagging
Code.
Tagging
Area.
Place and Date of Tagging.
Number
used.
10B
17
14b
14a
14a
16
15
12
23
23
24
24
24
25
25
26
26
13
13
14a
15
14b
17
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
24
24
25
25
25
25
25
25
14a
14b
14b
14b
15
17
23
23
23
23
23
24
24
25
25
25
25
25
26
26
27
27
Ladysmith Harbour ; Mar. 6-8, 1946    	
4,506
IOC
3,952
10D
1,060
10E
3,148
10F
2,754
10G
Skuttle Bay ; Mar. 16, 1946	
3,085
10H
1,691
101
Pipestem Inlet; Feb. 26-27, 1946 	
3,914
10J
Banfield Inlet; Feb. 28-Mar. 1, 1946	
3,545
10K
Herbert Inlet, Whitepine Cove ; Mar. 19, 1946	
2,941
10L
Refuge Cove ; Mar. 19-20, 1946	
2,947
10M
Refuge Cove ; Mar. 30, 1946	
1,574
ION
10P
Ewin Inlet; Mar. 8-9, 1946	
Queen Cove; Mar. 5-6, 1946	
3,542
3,961
10Q
Clanninick Cove; Mar. 13, 1946	
3,182
10R
Clanninick Cove ; Mar. 15, 1946	
2,542
10S
Cahnish Bay ; Apr. 30, 1946	
1,617
HA
11B
Cortes Island, Quartz Bay ; Mar. 15, 1947 .•	
2,564
496
11C
Skuttle Bay ; Mar. 5, 1947	
2,557
11D
HE
Departure Bay ; Mar. 17, 1947	
Kulleet Bay ; Mar. 8, 1947	
2,008
3,525
11F
Banfield Inlet, head ; Feb. 17, 1947	
2,087
11G
Grappler Inlet, Port Desire ; Feb. 21, 1947	
499
HH
Macoah Passage ; Feb. 24, 1947	
2,670
HI
1,017
2,074
HJ
11K
Toquart Bay ; Mar. 15, 1947	
2,637
11L
Tociuart Bay ; Mar. 20, 1947	
994
11M
Mayne Bay ; Mar. 16, 1947	
2,191
HN
Mayne Bay ; Mar. 19-20, 1947	
1,011
HP
Refuge Cove ; Mar. 12-13, 1947 ,
3,499
11Q
Sydney Inlet, Flores Island ; Mar. 7-8, 1947	
3,084
HR
US
11T
11U
11W
Ewin Inlet, near entrance; Mar. 17, 1947	
Kendiick Inlet, head ;  Mar. 15, 1947	
Kendrick Inlet, lagoon at head ; Mar. 15, 1947	
Kendrick Inlet, lagoon at head ; Mar. 16, 1947	
2,021
1,005
1,011
1,011
2,622
11X
12A
2,514
1,513
2,028
2,538
1,988
3,049
1,511
1,053
2,082
2,025
2,548
3,063
2,516
1,986
2,019
1,503
1,985
1,524
2,043
1,515
1,381
3,193
12B
12C
12D
12E
12F
12G
Banfield Inlet; Feb. 23, 1948	
12H
Macoah Passage ; Feb. 20, 1948	
121
12J
Macoah Passage ; Feb. 27, 1948	
12K
Toquart Bay ; Mar. 9-10, 1948	
12L
Herbert Inlet, Whitepine Cove; Mar. 19, 1948	
12M
Refuge Cove ; Mar. 14-15, 1948	
12N
Ewin Inlet; Mar. 16, 1948	
12P
12Q
12R
Esperanza Inlet, Gillam Channel; Mar. 1-2, 1948	
12S
Queen Cove ; Mar. 14, 1948	
12T
Union Island, Kyuquot Channel; Mar. 3, 1948	
12U
Malksope Inlet; Mar. 20, 1948	
12W
Klaskish Inlet; Mar. 6, 1948	
12X
Forward Inlet, Matthews Island ; Mar. 8-9, 1948	
— REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
M 77
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BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table XI.—Number of Fish (in Millions) of each Age in West Coast Catches of
1947-48; Numbers of Fish in Total weighted to Numbers of Fish caught in each Area.
In Year of Age.
Total.
Area.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
23   	
0.13
+
1
8.45  J145.50
0.06        1.61
1.50  | 86.59
0.02   1     6.4R
69.10
0.76
47.54
7.20
18.88
0.23
13.37
2.68
3.43
0.06
4.36
0.48
0.02
1.54
0.29
0.01
0.75
0.05
0.04
+
0.40
0.05
+
0.04
0.03
236.29
24*	
2.76
25	
156.13
26 :	
0.90
0.20
17.59
Totals	
0.13
10.03
240.18
114.60
35.16
8.76
2.24
1.10
0.49
0.04
0.03
412.76
* Estimated ; no samples obtained.
Table XII.—Average Percentage Age Composition of Samples from Commercial
Catches and from Spawning Runs during the 1947-48 Season.
COMMERCIAL CATCHES.
In Year op Age.
1.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
23	
0.05
3.58
0.96
0.10
61.58
55.46
36.87
25.01
30.45
40.92
7.99
8.56
15.24
1.45
0.20
0.12
0.48
0.29
0.02
0.25
0.30
0.02
25	
2.79    |    0.99
5.15    |    1.14
0.02
26    	
All	
0.03
2.43
58.19
27.76
8.52
2.12    |    0.54
1
0.27
0.12
0.01
0.01
SPAWNING RUNS.
23	
10.35
21.10
8.82
7.14
55.64
60.61
52.64
48.80
67.35
22.87
24.24
29.37
33.06
28.57
9.42
3.54
4.68
6.25
2.04
1.54
0.51
2.65
2.61
1.02
0.17
1.02
2.14
1.02
0.61
0.20
24	
25	
26	
27	
All	
10.17
53.95
26.70
6.35
1.86
0.71
0.19
0.06 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
M 83
Table XIII.—Average Sex Ratio (Females/Males) and Stage of Development for
Samples of Commercial Catches and Spawning Runs during 1947-48 Season.
COMMERCIAL CATCHES.
Area.
Sex Ratio.
Percentage.
Immature.
Mature,
unspent.
Mature,
spent.
23	
1.07
1.13
1.17
3.8
5.5
0.9
96.2
94.5
99.1
25	
26	
All   .
1.11
3.4
96.6
SPAWNING RUNS.
23	
24                 	
i
0.69
0.56           |
0.86           |
1.02           |
1.70
48.8
59.0
89.6
89.5'
100.0
51.2
41.0
25	
10.4
26	
10.5
27 	
All	
0.83           ]
1
71.0
29.0
Table XIV.—Average Length (Millimetres) and Average Weight (Grams) for each Age
in Samples from Commercial Catches, with Numbers of Fish on which Averages
are based indicated in Parentheses.
AVERAGE LENGTH.
In Year of Age.
Area 23.
Area 25.
Area 26.
All Areas.
I	
(3)     76.7
(210)   160.0
(3,569)   187.3
(1,430)   199.2
(456)   208.6
(82)  215.8
(11)   221.0
(7)   230.6
(1)   223.0
(3)     76.7
(253)   160.5
(6,389)   188.Z
(3,193)   201.0*
(991)   210.4
(258)  219.5
(66)   225.S
(31)  233.0
(15)   236.3
(1)   225.0
(1)   224.0
(433)   196.3
II	
(42) 163.4
(2,436)   189.5
(1,336)   202.0
(375)  211.5
(122)   221.1
(43) 226.9
(21)   235.1
(11)   237.9
(1)   225.0
(1)  224.0
(112)   197.8
(1)   146.0
(384)   188.7
(427)   203.6
(160)   213.4
(54)  221.6
(12)   226.2
(3)   223.3
(3)   234.7
Ill	
IV	
V	
VI    ....                 	
VII	
VIII               	
IX	
X	
XI	
1
(276)   194.7
(45)   202.0
AVERAGE WEIGHT.
I                       	
(3)    13.7
(175)    52.4
(3,046)     88.7
(1,221)   107.0
(362)   124.6
(67)   139.0
(11)   148.0
(7)  171.3
(1)   159.0
(3)     13.7
(216)     52.9
II    ....            	
(40) 55.4
(2,330)     90.5
(1,277)   111.2
(362)   130.6
(113)   153.3
(41) 167.2
(21)   183.2
(10)   187.7
(1)   170.0
(1)   186.0
(104)   104.6
(1) 42.0
(355)     91.0
(385)   117.1
(143)   138.3
(48)   156.5
(9)   168.4
(3)   165.3
(2) 187.0
Ill   	
(5,731)     89.6
IV     .             	
(2,883)   110.2
V                           	
(867)   129.4
VI                     	
(228)   149.7
VII	
(61)   163.9
VIII                   	
(31)   178.8
IX                       	
(13)  185.4
X                           	
(1)   170.0
XI                                   	
(1)  186.0
?                                                             	
(251)     98.9
(43)   114.7
(398)   102.1 M 84
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table XV.—Average Length (Millimetres) in Samples from Spawning Runs, with
Numbers of Fish on which Averages are based indicated in Parentheses.
In Year of Age.
Area 23.
Area 24.
Area 25.
Area 26.
Area 27.
II	
(61) 169.23
(327) 187.22
(134) 201.53
(55) 215.00
(9) 221.89
(1) 259.00
(42) 153.55
(100) 179.56
(48) 196.12
(7) 206.71
(1) 215.00
(43) 162.37
(257) 186.37
(143) 202.57
(23) 211.30
(13) 219.15
(6) 225.80
(3) 231.00
(1) 235.00
(12) 196.58
(13) 163.62
(88) 185.24
(61) 200.64
(12) 211.58
(5) 225.00
(4) 224.25
Ill	
(66) 187.76
(28) 200.18
(2) 213.00
(1) 214.00
(1) 224.00
IV	
v.. .           	
VI                 	
VII	
VIII	
IX	
?
(13) 200.23
(2) 197.50
(7) 201.86
(2) 174.50
Table XVI.—List of Spawnings which occurred on the West Coast of Vancouver Island
in 19Jf8, including Intensity and Extent of each.
VL=Very Light.    L=Light.    M=Medium.    H=Heavy.    VH=Very Heavy.
Approximate
Date.
Location of Grounds.
Intensity.
Statutory
Miles of
Spawn.
Jan.16-18	
Feb. 12-16	
Feb.20-29	
Feb. 21-25	
Feb. 24-26	
Feb. 26-28	
Feb. 26-28	
Feb. 28-Mar. 1..
Mar. 8-10	
Mar. 12-14	
Mar. 12-14	
Mar. 13-18	
Mar. 18-20	
Apr. 3-6	
Feb. 28-29.
Mar. 5-9	
Mar. 5-9....
Mar. 5-9....
Mar. 18-19.
Mar. 18-19.
Mar. 18-19.
Feb. 20-23.
Feb. 20-29.
Feb. 25-28.
Mar. 19-20
Mar. 19-20.
Mar. 19-20.
Mar. 19-20
Mar. 20-21
Mar. 24-26
Mar. 24- ?..
Mar. 24-28.
Area 23—Barkley Sound Vicinity.
Maggie River	
Toquart Bay to New York Point	
Maggie River to Cabbage Point	
Useless Inlet	
Toquart River and flats	
Banfield Inlet, head	
Banfield Inlet, off island near head	
Toquart Village to Maggie River	
Toquart River and flats	
Useless Inlet, small bay	
Useless Inlet, Mud Bay	
Hilliers Point to telegraph station	
East of New York Point to Maggie River	
Mayne Bay	
Area 24—Clayoquot Sound Vicinity.
Cypress Bay, including Quait Bay, etc	
Refuge Cove, bay on east shore	
Refuge Cove, head	
Refuge Cove, west shore	
Refuge Cove, east shore	
Refuge Cove, west shore	
Bay west of Whitepine Cove	
Area 25—Nootka Sound Vicinity.
Port Langford	
Nuchatlitz Village vicinity	
Rosa Island and vicinity	
Queen Cove, east shore	
Harbour Island, north-east shore	
Queen Cove, inside island	
Queen Cove, outside island	
Queen Cove, bay on west shore	
Kendrick Inlet, lagoon at head	
Kendrick Inlet, head and west shore	
Ewin Inlet, west shore	
L
O.06
M
1.70
L-M
2.73*
VL
0.01
VL
0.28
L
0.11*
M
0.10*
L
0.50
M
1.70*
VL
0.03*
VL
0.33*
M
0.40*
H
1.82*
H
1.16*
M-H
3.98*
M
0.23
M-H
0.04
L
0.34
H
1.73*
M-H
1.25*
VL-L
0.88*
10.93
8.45
H
0.29
L-M
7.71*
H
0.72
M-H
1.70*
VH
0.45*
H-VH
0.06*
H
0.07*
H
0.23*.
M
0.23*
H
1.15
L-M
0.23
12.84
* Spawning grounds inspected by scientific investigators. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
M 85
Table XVI.—List of Spawnings which occurred on the West Coast of Vancouver Island
in 1948, including Intensity and Extent of each—Continued.
VL=Very Light.    L^Light.    M=Medium.    H—Heavy.    VH= Very Heavy.
Approximate
Date.
Location of Grounds.
Intensity.
Statutory
Miles of
Spawn.
Feb 25 29
Area 26—Kyuquot Sound Vicinity.
M
M
VL
L
M
L
VL-L
VL-L
M
VI^L
VL
L
VL
L
H
L
M
L
M
Mar. 3 8
Mar. 10 14
Mar 13 14
Mar. 24   ?
0 23
Area 27—Quatsino Sound Vicinity.
Feb 18
2.04
0 12*
Feb 17
0 71
Feb 17
0 58
Feb. 25
0.45
Feb. 25
086
0 58*
0.71
0.34*
Mar. 9-10	
North Harbour, west shore....	
0.71
Mar. 9-10    	
0.29
Mar. 15-17	
North Harbour, toward head	
0.58
Mar. 15-17 ...
0.34
Apr. 7-8	
0.58
2.88
9.73
43.99
* Spawning grounds inspected by scientific investigators.
Table XVII.—Tags inserted during 1948 Spawning Season.
Code
Letters.
Tagging
Code.
Area.
Place.
KMMK
KNNK
KOOK
LHHL
LIIL
LJJL
LKKL
LMML
LNNL
LOOL
LPPL
LSSL
LTTL
LUUL
LWWL
LXXL
LYYL
LZZL
MTTM
MUUM
MWWM
MXXM
12T
12T
12X
12H
12H
1.2G
12G
12G
121
121
121
121
12J
12J
12J
12J
12R
12R
12R
12R
12W
12W
26
26
27
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
25
25
25
25
27
27
Union Island	
Union Island	
Forward Inlet	
Macoah Passage.
Macoah Passage.
Banfield Inlet	
Banfield  Inlet	
Banfield Inlet	
Macoah Passage.
Macoah Passage.
Macoah Passage.
Macoah Passage.
Macoah Passage.
Macoah Passage.
Macoah Passage.
Macoah Passage.
Esperanza Inlet.
Esperanza Inlet.
Esperanza Inlet.
Esperanza Inlet.
Klaskish Inlet	
Klaskish Inlet	
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Feb.
Feb.
Feb.
Feb.
Feb.
Feb.
Feb.
Feb.
Feb.
Feb.
Feb.
Feb.
Feb.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
3, 1948
3, 1948
8, 1948
20, 1948
20, 1948
23, 1948
23, 1948
23, 1948
25, 1948
25, 1948
25, 1948
25, 1948
27, 1948
27, 1948
27, 1948
27, 1948
1, 1948
2. 1948
2, 1948
2, 1948
6, 1948
6, 1948
1.056
987
1,127
502
551
503
507
501
498
506
508
570
505
503
512
505
512
499
511
463
456
464 M 86
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table XVII.—Tags inserted during 1948 Spawning Season—Continued.
Code
Letters.
Tagging
Code.
Area.
Place.
Date.
No.
MYYM
MZZM
NAAN
NBBN
NCCN
NDDN
NEEN
NHHN
NUN
NJJN
NKKN
NLLN
NMMN
NOON
NPPN
NSSN
NTTN
NUUN
NWWN
OAAO
OBBO
OCCO
ODDO
OEEO
OHHO
OHO
OJJO
OKKO
OLLO
OMMO
ONNO
OPPO
OSSO
OTTO
OUUO
OWWO
OXXO
OYYO
OZZO
PAAP
PCCP
PEEP
PHHP
PHP
PJJP
PKKP
RAAR
RBBR
RCCR
RDDR
REER
RHHR
RIIR
RJJR
RKKR
RLLR
RMMR
RNNR
ROOR
RSSR
RTTR
RUUR
RWWR
RXXR
RYYR
12W
12X
12X
12X
12X
12P
12P
12P
12S
12S
12S
12N
12N
12P
12N
12N
12U
12U
12U
12B
12B
12B
12D
12D
12D
12D
12D
12A
12A
12A
12A
12A
12E
12E
12E
12E
12C
12C
12C
12C
12F
12F
12F
12F
12F
12F
12K
12K
12K
12K
12K
12M
12M
12M
12M
12M
12L
12L
12L
12L
12L
12L
12Q
12Q
12Q
27
27
27
27
27
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
26
26
26
14b
14b
14b
14b
14b
14b
14b
14b
14a
14a
14a
14a
14a
15
15
15
15
14b
14b
14b
14b
17
17
17
17
17
17
23
.23
23
23
23
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
25
25
25
Klaskish Inlet	
Forward Inlet	
Forward Inlet	
Forward Inlet	
Forward Inlet	
Kendrick Inlet	
Kendrick Inlet	
Kendrick Inlet	
Queen Cove	
Queen Cove	
Queen Cove	
Ewin Inlet	
Ewin Inlet	
Kendrick Inlet	
Ewin Inlet	
Ewin Inlet	
Malksope Inlet	
Malksope Inlet	
Malksope Inlet	
Departure Bay	
Departure Bay	
Departure Bay	
Hammond Bay	
Hammond Bay	
Hammond Bay	
Hammond Bay	
Hammond Bay	
Bayr.es Sound	
Baynes Sound	
Baynes Sound	
Baynes Sound	
Baynes Sound	
Malaspina Strait	
Malaspina Strait	
Malaspina Strait	
Malaspina Strait	
Departure Bay	
Departure Bay	
Departure Bay	
Departure Bay	
Ladysmith Harbour.
Ladysmith Harbour.
Ladysmith Harbour.
Ladysmith Harbour.
Ladysmith Harbour
Ladysmith Harbour
Toquart Bay	
Toquart Bay	
Toquart Bay	
Toquart Bay	
Toquart Bay	
Refuge Cove	
Refuge Cove	
Refuge Cove	
Refuge Cove	
Refuge Cove	
Whitepine Cove.	
Whitepine Cove.	
Whitepine Cove	
Whitepine Cove	
Whitepine Cove	
Whitepine Cove	
Kendrick Inlet	
Kendrick Inlet	
Kendrick Inlet	
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
6, 1948
8, 1948
8, 1948
9, 1948
9, 1948
12, 1948
12, 1948
12, 1948
14, 1948
14, 1948
14, 1948
16, 1948
16, 1948
12, 1948
16, 1948
16, 1948
20, 1948
20, 1948
20, 1948
3, 1948
3, 1948
3, 1948
4, 1948
4, 1948
4, 1948
4, 1948
4, 1948
5, 1948
5, 1948
5, 1948
5, 1948
5, 1948
6, 1948
6, 1948
6, 1948
6, 1948
10, 1948
10, 1948
10, 1948
10, 1948
11, 1948
11, 1948
11, 1948
11, 1948
11, 1948
11, 1948
9, 1948
9, 1948
9, 1948
10, 1948
10, 1948
14, 1948
14, 1948
14, 1948
15, 1948
15, 1948
19, 1948
19, 1948
19, 1948
19, 1948
19, 1948
19, 1948
25, 1948
25, 1948
25, 1948
461
521
520
513
512
505
504
513
509
512
.503
508
481
497
492
505
512
501
502
502
497
514
518
507
505
507
501
60S
499
498
507
502
503
506
509
470
512
504
509
503
501
516
508
513
504
507
506
508
520
507
507
497
510
501
499
509
476
499
510
544
527
507
504
494
505 RECORDS OF CLAM PRODUCTION.
By Ferris Neave, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
BUTTER-CLAMS.
Commercial Production.
Statistics relating to this fishery were again obtained in 1946-47 through the cooperation of clam-buyers and officers of the Department of Fisheries in submitting
reports on the forms provided by the Biological Station.
The increasing exploitation of butter-clams, which was apparent during the two
previous seasons, was continued and accelerated in 1946-47, resulting in the largest
total catch recorded in many years. According to reports received, the geographic
distribution of this catch was as follows:— io,;. .. „.,„_„
1945-46. 1946—47.
Area. Lb. Lb.
Northern British Columbia  (excluding
Queen Charlotte Islands)  1,989,848 3,378,852
Queen Charlotte Islands  325,489            	
Central British Columbia  179,560 1,175,810
Queen Charlotte and Johnstone Straits  337,374 1,108,461
Northern Strait of Georgia (including Seal
Island)  270,999 186,747
South-east Vancouver Island  917,960 464,803
Totals  4,021,230 6,314,673
The above breakdown indicates that more than half of the total catch was produced
in the northern district, centring on Prince Rupert, an area which was little exploited
until recent years.
Since 1939-40 an attempt has been made to estimate the availability of butter-clams
in the more important districts by calculating the average catch made by a digger
during one low-tide digging period. It is evident that the figures obtained in different
years do not always accurately represent fluctuations in the actual abundance of
commercial-sized clams. Apart from variations in the accuracy of records, figures
are liable to be influenced directly or indirectly by market conditions, changes in the
efficiency of diggers, competition between diggers, and other causes.
The following table shows the calculated averages, without consideration of the
above-mentioned factors:—
Average Catch (Pounds) per Man-tide.
Area.
1939-40. 1 1940-41. 1 1941-42.
1                 1
1942-43.
1943-44.
1944-45.
1945-46.
1946-47.
1
     1     	
     1     	
|    182.7
200.7    [     198.2
120.0    j     124.7
138.0    1    149.9
558.1
272.3
186.7
153.8
159.1
352.2
287.4
248.2
175.2
202.4
300.6
282.1
274.7
198.0
218.9
418.9
259.1
280.5
212.2
229.3
289.5
341.2
341.4
216.0
311.9
253.9
198.6
South-east coast of Vancouver
Island—
174.8
280.5
Investigations at Seal Island.
The butter-clam beach at Seal Island, near Comox, was opened to commercial exploitation in January, 1942.    Digging operations have been supervised and controlled by
the Pacific Biological Station and have been limited to one or two favourable sets of low
tides each winter.    During the seven seasons for which these conditions have obtained, M 88
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
the beach has yielded a total of 733 tons of butter-clams. The subjoined table shows
that during the past four years there has been a marked decline in the production per
unit of effort, as measured by the average catch per man per tide or per hour. This
decline may be due in part to changes in the average efficiency of the diggers involved.
There is no doubt, however, that the very dense population of legal-sized clams which
was present in 1942 has been greatly reduced during the seven-year period. There is
no evidence that this decline in the stock is due to overexploitation, and it is, indeed,
possible that if the beach had remained closed during these years, the present population
would be no greater than it is after the removal of clams worth $40,000 or $50,000
to the digger. The decline can be ascribed mainly to the poor seedings which have
occurred in many of the last ten years, with a resulting deficiency in new year-classes
available to the fishery. A somewhat improved showing of clams below legal size is
now apparent. The present population of legal-sized clams is still relatively high in
comparison with the average level of beaches in the Strait of Georgia and should
provide an entirely adequate breeding stock for future production.
Year.
Man-tides.
Man-hours.
Catch.
Average Catch.
Per Man-tide.
Per Man-hour.
1942	
393
394
264
484
442
529
813
1,586
1,588
1,160
2,108
1,918
2,789
3,313
Lb.
235,757
236,825
209,211
207,160
196,072
186,035
196,287
Lb.
599.89
601.08
792.57
435.60
443.60
351.67
241.44
Lb.
148.64
1943	
149.09
1944    .                      	
180.38
1945      	
98.26
1946	
102.23
1947	
66.70
1948	
59.25
RAZOR-CLAMS.
Records of razor-clam production from the beaches of the northern shore of Graham Island were again provided by the Masset Co-operative Association for the digging
season of 1947 (March 19th to June 21st, inclusive). A comparison between the catches
of 1943, 1944, 1945, 1946, and 1947 is presented below:—
Year.
Man-tides.
Production.
Average Catch
per Man-tide.
1943    	
North Beach.
1,518
2,661
1,787
2,507
1,799
806
458
173
308
109
1,631
1,303
518
775
282           |
3,955
4,422
2,478
3,590
2,190            |
Lb.
118,400
147,300
104,675
146,769
85,245
82,350
30,450
8,803
18,833
4,462
189,075
120,650
31,382
50,975
8,589
389,825
298,400
144,860
216,577
98,296
Lb.
78.0
1944	
55.4
1945	
58.5
1946    	
58.5
1947   	
47.4
1943  	
Middle Beach.
102.2
1944	
66.5
1945    ....                                 	
50 9
1946	
61.1
1947  	
40.9
1943
South Beach.
115 9
1944	
92 6
1945                            	
1946	
65 8
1947 	
30 5
1943 	
All Beaches.
98 6
1944	
67 5
1945                      	
58 5
1946	
1947              	
44.9 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. M 89
A continued decline in the production per man-tide is apparent. The trend appears
too definite to be attributed to variations in meteorological conditions or efficiency of
diggers, and a real reduction in the population of legal-sized razor-clams must be
suspected. In view of the exploitation which these beaches have sustained in former
years, it seems unlikely that overdigging will provide an adequate explanation for the
present situation. An investigation of the conditions attending spawning and early
life-history and of the representation of different year-classes in the beaches would
seem desirable. M 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
REPORT ON INVESTIGATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL PACIFIC
SALMON FISHERIES COMMISSION FOR 1947.
By B. M. Brennan, Director.
The International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission again regulated the commercial fishery in convention waters, conforming to the terms of the treaty, this being
the second year of regulation by the Commission.
Four meetings were held by the Commission in 1947. The first meeting was held
in Vancouver, B.C., on January 17th and 18th and was devoted to a review of the 1946
programme and preliminary plans for rehabilitating the Quesnel sockeye runs. The
second meeting was held in Bellingham, Wash., on April 2nd, 3rd, and 4th, at which
time the Advisory Board was in attendance. The results of the 1946 regulations and
their influence on the commercial sockeye-catch in treaty waters, as well as on the
escapement to the spawning-ground, were reported on to the Commission and the
Advisory Committee. After the discussion with the Advisory Committee, the regulations for the 1947 season were adopted by the Commission on April 4th.
The third meeting was held on August 9th and 10th, with the Advisory Committee
present, to consider possible changes in the 1947 regulations. Due to the small escapement in the previous cycle, 1943, and the size of the salmon-catches made up to August
10th, the Commission resolved to leave unchanged the regulations adopted on April 4th.
The final Commission meeting of the year was held on November 24th and 25th in
Bellingham, Wash. The Quesnel rehabilitation programme was approved by a resolution of the Commission. It was also resolved to request the Dominion Department of
Fisheries to make a thorough survey of ppllution in the Lower Fraser River.
An Enabling Act (Public Law 255—Eightieth Congress, chapter 345, First Session) was passed by the Congress of the United States in 1947 which gives the force of
law to the Commission's regulations in treaty waters within the United States boundaries. This Act, signed on July 29th, 1947, became effective thirty days later, on
August 28th. It provides penalties for infractions of the provisions of the treaty or
of regulations regularly adopted by the Commission for the protection, preservation,
and extension of the Fraser River sockeye. It also provides penalties for failure to
keep accurate statistical records of the catch. Enforcement of the regulations in the
United States treaty waters is to be carried out by a Federal agency designated by
the President of the United States. This agency in turn may authorize officers and
employees of the State of Washington to enforce the provisions of the Convention and
of the Act as well as the regulations of the Commission.
A total of 592,000 sockeye were taken in treaty waters from the 1947 run, of which
243,000 sockeye salmon were landed by the United States fishermen, while Canadian
fishermen landed 349,000.
Although the 1947 cycle is the lightest of the four years on the Fraser River,
increased escapements were noted in all of the upper river spawning areas. From a
count of 14,000 spawning sockeye in Chilco River and Lake in the brood-year, a return
of 55,000 was found in 1947. The Stellako River showed the largest increase, from
9,000 in 1943 to 56,000 spawners in 1947. The Stuart area, including runs to the
streams tributary to Middle River, increased from 3,000 in the brood-year to 15,000,
the Bowron River from 6,360 to 23,995, and the Adams River had a run of 190,000
in 1947.
The Lower Fraser runs also showed large increases. The Upper Pitt River and
tributaries had 90,000 spawning sockeye, Harrison River Rapids 16,000, and the Birkenhead River 120,000, of which 29 per cent, were three-year-old jack males.
The increase in number of spawning sockeye resulted from the operation of the
fishways at Hell's Gate and Bridge River Rapids, combined with the delayed opening REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. M 91
of the commercial fishery. These increases, although promising, however, show that
none of the early up-river runs can yet be considered of a size sufficient to support a
significant fishery.
In 1947 the Indian fishery on the Fraser River and tributaries took 42,275, as
compared to 27,042 in 1943. Most of this increase came from early runs that were
protected from the commercial fishery.
A detailed biological survey was continued of the Quesnel-Horsefly area in search
of a location suitable for the establishment of an experimental hatchery. While this
investigation was under way, an eyeing-station was established on the Upper Bowron
River, and approximately 750,000 eggs were taken from spawning fish captured on the
spawning-grounds. These eggs were reared to the eyed stage at the small station on
the Bowron. With the co-operation of the Washington State Department of Fisheries,
the eyed eggs were flown from Bowron Lake to Bellingham, Wash., in the Washington
State Fisheries Patrol aeroplane and placed in the Sammamish Hatchery. Before
hatching, all but 60,000 were transferred to the Washington State Department of
Fisheries hatchery at Marblemount on the Skagit River. The remaining eggs were
transferred to the University of Washington to be used in an experiment in accelerated
growth. The young fish from both Marblemount and the University of Washington
will be returned to the Quesnel-Horsefly district for planting. This operation was a
temporary expedient undertaken in order to get an early start toward the rehabilitation
of the Quesnel runs.
By the end of the year a site had been located on Horsefly Lake, where the Commission has authorized the construction of a small experimental station which will
form the real basis for rebuilding these runs.
The results of the gill-net mesh investigation demonstrated clearly that the 8-inch
minimum mesh prescribed in previous years by the Commission during the season
closed to sockeye fishing was valid, and that smaller meshes could not be permitted
without a decided effect on the fishery. The nets having a mesh of 7% inches were
found to take significant numbers of large male sockeye. Widespread use of such nets
would not only decrease the size of the fish escaping to the spawning-ground, but would
also tend to upset the balance between sexes.
The large run of sockeye into the South Thompson district in 1946 presented
opportunity for study of the early-life history of the sockeye. Development of the
eggs in Adams and Little Rivers was followed by sampling the eggs, digging them out
of the various nests throughout the winter and spring of 1947. The movements of the
young fry as they emerged from the gravel were followed closely until it was no
longer possible to capture them in Shuswap Lake.
The Hell's Gate fishways operated successfully throughout the year within the
water-levels for which they were constructed. The right bank high-level fishway was
completed by the Commission forces. This fishway parallels the principal structure,
and extends the upper range of operating level on the right bank to elevation 70 on the
Hell's Gate gauge.
The two fishways at Bridge River Rapids operated without interruption during
1947. Required sloping of the banks and adjustments to these fishways have been
completed.
At Farwell Canyon on the Chilcotin River, five baffle-type fishways were under
construction. By the end of the year the construction-work had been carried to 80
per cent, of completion.
The Commission deeply regretted the loss that occured when two of the older
members of the Commission passed away. Fred J. Foster, a United States Commissioner and secretary of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, passed M 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
away on November 11th, 1947.    His great background in fisheries administration made
him most valuable to the Commission.
Alvah L. Hager, the grand old man of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries
Commission, passed away Friday, January 16th, 1948, while still active as the Commission's chairman. His untiring efforts to further the work of the commission will
be an everlasting tribute to him.
Mr. Foster was succeeded on the Commission by Albert M. Day, chief of the Division of Fish and Wildlife Service of the United States. Mr. Hager's successor is Olof
Hanson, former member of Parliament, who has been very active in the fishing industry.    Membership on the Commission as of this date is as follows:—
Canadian   Commissioners:    A.   J.   Whitmore,   secretary;    Tom  Reid,   M.P.,
member;   Olof Hanson, member.
United States Commissioners:   Milo Moore, chairman;   Edward W. Allen,
member;   Albert M. Day, member. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. M 93
SALMON-SPAWNING REPORT, BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1947.
By A. J. Whitmore, Chief Supervisor of Fisheries.
GENERAL SUMMARY.
Sockeye.—Good supplies spawned in the Nass system. A moderate seeding
occurred in the Skeena, a feature being the unusually high percentage of jacks present.
Excellent escapements to Rivers and Smith Inlets were composed mostly of fish of the
larger sizes. Due to the retarded opening-date for sockeye-fishing in the commercial
areas and improved migratory conditions for ascending salmon, resulting from the
programme of fishway installations at Hell's Gate and Bridge River Rapids by the
International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, there was a significant increase
in the number of spawners in all the upper areas of the Fraser system over the very
light escapement in the cycle-year 1943. The general over-all seeding of this species
for this cycle of the Fraser run still remains inferior to that of the other three cycles.
Springs.—There was a fairly good spawning of spring salmon in the Fraser
system, particularly so in the Prince George area, indicating in general an increase
over the seeding of the brood-years. Supplies in practically all other areas of the
Province were satisfactory.
Cohoes.—The migration of this species to the systems of the Province was below
normal proportions, and with few exceptions the spawning stocks of this variety were
light in all districts.
Pinks.—-In comparison with the brood-year 1945, the run of pinks to all portions
of the northern Mainland areas, with the exception of the Bella Coola sector, was disappointingly light. The seeding in the Skeena and Grenville-Principe areas was light.
Moderate supplies spawned in the streams of the Butedale and Bella Bella areas.
There was a fairly heavy escapement to the Kimsquit River and a satisfactory seeding
of the Bella Coola system. A medium to heavy escapement occurred to the Mainland
streams of District No. 3; with few exceptions, the spawning in Vancouver Island
streams was light. The escapement to the Fraser was not in the same abundance as
in the parent year 1945; it was in general substantial, heavy in some streams and
moderate in others. This condition unquestionably reflected the unusually heavy toll
claimed by commercial operations en route and raises speculation as to whether the
time has not arrived to consider bringing pinks under the international control now
provided for sockeye by the Fraser treaty if adequate protection for the maintenance
of this highly valuable run is to be assured. Squamish and Indian Rivers received an
excellent seeding.
Chums.—Supplies in the principal chum areas over the Province were satisfactory.
Streams in Skidegate Inlet and the east coast of Moresby Island were well stocked.
Masset Inlet and Naden River and the grounds on the west coast of the Queen Charlotte Islands received a medium seeding. The escapement to the Butedale, Bella Bella,
and Bella Coola areas was moderately heavy, the larger streams being well stocked,
while the smaller streams in many cases were only lightly seeded. In the east coast
section of District No. 3 the escapement, with few exceptions, was fairly heavy to all
spawning streams; in the west coast section the escapement was particularly good in
Quatsino, fairly heavy in Alberni, moderate in Kyuquot and Nootka, and below average in Clayoquot. Moderate supplies spawned in the Fraser system. The escapement to the Squamish River was only fair. M 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
IN DETAIL.
Masset Inlet and Northern Coast of Graham Island Area.
Cohoe-supplies were light in all streams. Pink salmon were not observed in the
area, it being the off-year for this variety. In general, the seeding of chums over the
area was moderate. In Masset Inlet chum-supplies reached Ain River and McClinton
Creek in medium volume; elsewhere stocks were light. The grounds in Naden River
were fairly well covered with chum spawners. This is the only stream in the Naden
Harbour locality in which chums were present.
Skidegate Inlet and West Coast of Graham and Moresby Islands Area.
The seeding of cohoe was light. With the exception of the Tlell River, where a
light to medium run occurred, there were few pink salmon in evidence, it being the
off-year for this species. Good supplies of chums reached the streams tributary to
Skidegate Inlet, but the run of this variety to the streams on the west coast was disappointing; the fish were late in arriving and with few exceptions the grounds were
seeded only moderately.
East Coast of Moresby Island.
Cohoe were observed in the streams of this area in light to medium numbers,
showing some improvement in comparison to the brood-year. Few pinks were present, it being the off-year for this variety. The seeding of chums was generally satisfactory. Good supplies of this species were observed on the grounds in Atli Inlet,
Juan Perez Sound, and Skincuttle Inlet, while medium to heavy supplies reached the
Cumshewa Inlet, Selwyn Inlet, and Darwin Sound spawning areas, as well as the
streams flowing into Louscoone Inlet and Flamingo Harbour..
Nass Area.
There was a satisfactory escapement of sockeye to the Meziaden Lake area, the
principal spawning-grounds for this variety in the Nass system. Stocks were somewhat greater than in 1943, but not so heavy as in 1942. Medium supplies of spring
salmon reached the different grounds over the area. With few exceptions the escapement of cohoe was light. A good seeding of pinks occurred in the streams tributary
to the Nass River, but the number of spawners on the grounds of the coastal streams
was small. Fairly satisfactory supplies of chums were present, especially so in the
Kitsault and Illiance Rivers, flowing into Alice Arm.
Skeena.
Babine-Morice Area.—The escapement of parent sockeye to all spawning-grounds
in this area was of moderate proportions, somewhat below brood-year expectations; a
noteworthy feature was the the unusually high percentage of jacks present. Spring-
salmon supplies were satisfactory. The moderate cohoe-seeding was lighter than
brood-year indications. Pink salmon were present in light to medium numbers only,
a noticeable decrease from the seeding of the parent year 1945.
Lakelse Area.—Supplies of sockeye in the Lakelse and Kalum Lake watersheds
were below normal, a short supply being particularly noticeable in Williams Creek,
flowing into Lakelse Lake, one of the principal sockeye-streams in the area. The escapement of spring salmon was light. Stocks of pink salmon were light, particularly so
when compared to the parent year 1945.   A normal seeding of chums occurred.
Lower Skeena Area.
A medium escapement of sockeye occurred to Shawatlans Creek, but supplies in
the Ecstall and other areas were light.    There was a satisfactory seeding of spring REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. M 95
salmon. Cohoe-supplies were moderate, in common with the escapement of this
variety in general to the Skeena watershed. Stocks of pink salmon in the coastal
streams were fairly satisfactory, although considerably below proportions of the brood-
year 1945.    The chum-salmon seeding was normal.
Grenville-Principe Area.
While the commercial catch of sockeye was not heavy, the escapement of this
variety was satisfactory. An adequate seeding of cohoe occurred over the area,
particularly so on the west coast of Banks Island. Although unusual conservation
measures were undertaken to protect pink salmon, the number of parent fish present
in the streams, with few exceptions, was light, a sharp decrease from the brood-year
1945.    Chum-supplies were of average volume.
Butedale Area.
Stocks of sockeye were satisfactory. There was a light to medium escapement of
cohoe spawners to the larger rivers in approximately the same numbers as in the
parent year, but the seeding of some of the smaller streams, particularly those in the
Laredo Inlet and Aristazabel Island areas was poor. The migration of pink salmon
to this area was disappointingly light when compared with the brood-year 1945. As
a result of unusual conservation measures undertaken, a moderate seeding materialized,
with the best spawning occurring in the streams in Matheson Channel. There was a
fairly good escapement of chums to all the larger rivers in the area, with the exception of Poison Cove, where supplies were light.
Bella Bella Area.
Sockeye-stocks were normal. Supplies of cohoe were moderate and below brood-
year expectations. The escapement of pink salmon was medium, it being heavy to
some streams and light to others; in general, considerably lighter than the seeding of
the parent year. Pink-supplies in Koeye River were the lightest in many years.
Chum-stocks were generally good. Neekis, Howyet, Gullchuck, and Klatse Rivers were
well seeded, and the escapement to other main streams was normal. The early run to
Roscoe Inlet did not materialize in the same numbers as in 1946.
Bella Coola Area.
Supplies of parent sockeye generally were below normal. Moderate numbers,
below par, were observed in the Kimsquit Lake area. A medium seeding took place in
the Bella Coola-Atnarko system. The main spawning-grounds between Tenas and
Lonesome Lakes were fairly well covered with parent sockeye of fair size, while in the
lower streams the percentage of jacks was noticeably high. Although the early run
of cohoe was light, supplies from the late run resulted in a fair seeding in the Kimsquit, Dean, and Bella Coola Rivers. A fairly heavy escapement of pink salmon
occurred to the Kimsquit River, while satisfactory numbers spawned in the Bella
Coola-Atnarko system, concerning which the local officer states:—
" They made their first appearance at Atnarko on August 25th and the run was of
considerable size. A heavy run lasted for over five weeks and inspection in late
September still revealed excellent showing up to the foot of Lonesome Lake."
A medium spawning of pinks occurred in the coastal streams. Chum-supplies
were generally good in nearly all streams in the area.
Rivers Inlet Area.
Three inspections of the Owekano Lake spawning-ground were carried out, the first
commencing August 20th;   the second, September 6th;   and the third, October 17th. M 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Supplies of sockeye were reported to be the best in many years, all streams tributary
to the lake being Well seeded. The escapement was composed mainly of large-sized
fish. Runts or jacks were not noticeably abundant. A rather heavy freshet on September 13th apparently affected only the major streams of the large watershed and
occurred early enough to permit of a subsequent heavy spawning. In the opinion of
the inspecting officer, no extensive damage resulted. Good stocks of spring salmon were
observed in Whannock River; supplies in the Waukwash and Indian Rivers, however,
were small. Cohoe-supplies Were light. There was a good escapement of pinks to the
limited pink-salmon spawning-grounds in the area. Chums were present in satisfactory numbers. The escapement of this variety to Draney Inlet was exceptionally
good, and in Whannock River the seeding was equal to that of 1946.
Smith Inlet.
There was an exceptionally good escapement of sockeye. Both the Geluck and
Delebah Rivers received a heavy seeding. Fish of larger sizes were predominant.
Pink-supplies were fair. Cohoe and spring salmon were scarce. The seeding of
chums was better than average, rather heavy to the grounds at the upper end of Smith
Inlet and fair in the Takush River.
Alert Bay Area.
Sockeye-supplies were satisfactory; the escapement to Nimpkish River was particularly good, considerably better than the brood-year. An increase in escapement
was also noted in Glendale Creek and the small lake area tributary to Kleena-Kleene
River. Normal seedings occurred in Mackenzie, Nahwitti, Shushartie, Kahweekan,
Quatsi, and Fulmore Rivers. Spring-salmon stocks were satisfactory. The seeding
of cohoe was only fair and below brood-year indications. Pink-salmon supplies were
fairly satisfactory in Glendale River and other streams in Knight Inlet, and moderate
in Thompson Sound, Bond Sound, and other streams along the Mainland. The streams
on the Vancouver Island side had about the same light escapement as in the brood-year
1945. The seeding of chums was generally good, showing improvement over the brood-
years.
Quathiaski Area.
The escapement of sockeye to Phillips River was fairly good, an increase over the
brood-years, while supplies in Hayden Bay Creek were only fair. Spring-salmon stocks
in Campbell River were very satisfactory in comparison with previous years, but the
number of spawners in Phillips River was below average. The cohoe-seeding was light
and below expectations. The escapement of pink salmon to the streams on the Mainland side was good, considerably better than during the brood-year; elsewhere the
seeding was light, it being the off-year. There was a fairly heavy seeding of chums,
an appreciable increase over the brood-year supplies.
Comox Area.
The seeding of spring salmon in Puntledge River was average. Supplies of cohoe
over the area were normal. There was a fairly heavy escapement of pinks to Tsolum
River, medium to Oyster River, and light to French Creek and Puntledge River.
Chum-supplies were better than for several years—fairly heavy in the Big and Little
Qualicum Rivers, Waterloo, Cougar, and Cook Creeks, and good in other streams, with
the exception of Nile Creek and Tsolum River, where supplies were light.
Pender Harbour.
Sockeye-supplies in the Saginaw Lake area were again light, and the usual small
run occurred to Tazooni River at Narrows Arm.    The seeding of spring salmon was REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. M 97
average. Good supplies of cohoe reached the Toba Inlet area, but elsewhere the
spawning was light. Pink-salmon stocks were satsifactory over the area, particularly
so in Jervis Inlet vicinity. The seeding of chums throughout the area was good, stocks
in most of the streams were heavier than in the brood-year.
Nanaimo-Ladysmith.
The seeding of spring salmon in Nanaimo River was somewhat below average.
Cohoe-supplies were satisfactory. Pink salmon do not frequent the streams in this
area in any quantity, but numbers in the Nanaimo River were greater than in several
years.    The seeding of chums was highly satisfactory on all spawning areas.
Cowichan.
Spring-salmon stocks were the lightest for a considerable number of years. The
number observed on the spawning-ground was estimated not to exceed 5,000. The
seeding of cohoe was fair, somewhate better than the brood-year. Chum-salmon
supplies were the best in many years.
Victoria Area.
The seeding of cohoe was fairly good and equal to that of the brood-year. Chums
were present in all spawning-streams in satisfactory numbers.
.   Alberni-Nitinat.
There was a good escapement of sockeye to the Somass River system, much
greater than the brood-year. Supplies of this variety reaching Anderson River and
Hobarton River compare favourably with the brood-year. Spring-salmon stocks were
the best for some years. Good supplies of cohoe reached the streams over the area.
Most of the spawning-streams were well supplied with chums. The seeding of this
variety was the best for several years.
Clayoquot Area.
Sockeye-supplies in the Kennedy Lake system and Megin River were light—somewhat lighter than in the brood-year. The seeding of spring salmon was lightest in
the past five years. With the exception of Tranquil Creek and the Kennedy Lake area,
cohoe-supplies were light. Although the number of parent chums varied greatly in
the different streams, the general over-all seeding was not satisfactory and below
expectations.
Nootka Area.
Spring-salmon supplies were average. Cohoe do not run heavily to this area.
The seeding of this variety, although light, compares favourably with the brood-year.
Chums generally were moderate and below expectations, and with the exception of a
few of the large streams the seeding was somewhat less than brood-year levels.
Kyuquot Area.
Spawning spring salmon were present on the grounds in normal numbers. The
seeding of cohoe was light to moderate, but on the whole somewhat lighter than the
parent year. The early runs of chums to the area were disappointing. Conditions on
the spawning-beds, however, improved considerably with the arrival of the late run.
A moderate seeding resulted.
Quatsino Area.
The quantity of parent sockeye reaching the several streams in this area was
greater than usual.    Fair supplies of spring salmon appeared in Marble Creek, the M 98 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
main spawning-grounds of this variety; stocks in other streams frequented by this
species were normal. In general, the seeding of cohoe was average, fairly heavy in
some streams and moderate in others. Few pinks were present, as it is the off-year
for that variety. The seeding of chums was particularly good in all spawning-streams,
considerably heavier than in the brood-year.
Fraser River.
Prince George Area.—There was an increase in the number of parent sockeye
appearing on the grounds of this area in comparison to preceding cycle-years. Stocks
in the Francois-Stellaco watershed of approximately 1,446 spawners in 1939 increased
to 9,000 in 1943 and to 40,000 in 1947. In the Stuart Lake watershed supplies of 550
sockeye in 1939 increased to 3,100 in 1943, and to 7,500 in 1947. All grounds frequented by spring salmon were satisfactorily stocked.
Quesnel Area.—Approximately 74,000 sockeye were observed on the grounds over
this area, compared to 16,300 in the brood-year 1943. About 25 per cent, of the
50,000 sockeye reaching the Chilcotin system were immature jacks. The spawning
population of this species in that watershed in the brood-year 1943 was 10,000. The
supply in the Bowron River system, numbering 24,000, was the largest in a great many
years, a notable feature being the many new grounds frequented by spawners this
season. As was expected, no sockeye appeared on the Quesnel spawning areas.
Spring-salmon stocks over this area were only fair.
Kamloops Area.—There was an increase of some note in the number of parent
sockeye observed on the spawning grounds in this district. In Raft River in the
North Thompson area there was an exceptional increase over the brood-year. The
early run to Seymour River consisted of 7,000 spawners compared to 250 in the brood-
year. Between 60,000 and 70,000 late run sockeye reached Adams River in comparison
to 5,000 in 1943. The seeding of Little River, South Thompson River, and Scotch
Creek, however, was light. Supplies of spring salmon, although only fair, were an
improvement over the brood-year, notwithstanding the greater number of jacks present.    The seeding of cohoe was light.
Lillooet Area.—Upwards of 135,000 sockeye spawned in the Birkenhead River.
Jacks were numerous, comprising perhaps 25 per cent, of the run. Approximately
50,000 spawners were observed on these grounds in 1943. The supply of this species
reaching the Seton-Anderson system was light, very similar in numbers to the spawning of the brood-year. There was a fair seeding of spring salmon in the Squamish
system and Tyaughton Creek tributary to Bridge River. Elsewhere spawning was
light. Cohoe-stocks over the area were light. An interesting feature was the supply
of 1,500 pinks that spawned in the Seton system. This is the first time in a great
many years that this species has reached these streams.
Yale-Lytton Area.—Very few salmon have frequented the streams in this area for
many years. It is therefore of note that 500 pink salmon spawned in Anderson Creek,
and that smaller supplies were present off the mouths of other streams in the area.
Chilliwack-Yale Area. — Approximately 8,500 sockeye reached the spawning-
grounds of Cultus Lake watershed, a decrease in comparison to the spawning in the
parent year. Spring-salmon supplies were light. Cohoe appeared in medium numbers
in the Chilliwack system, otherwise the seeding was light. Good supplies of pink
salmon were in evidence but not in such abundance as in the cycle-year. There was a
fair showing in all streams above Chilliwack—Jones, Lorenzetti, and Succer Creeks
being heavily seeded. The Chilliwack system received a medium seeding. Chum-
stocks were moderate.
Mission-Harrison Area.—There was an increase in the number of parent sockeye
in Douglas, Spring, and Hatchery Creeks, tributary to Harrison Lake, while approxi- REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT. M 99
mately 8,000 spawners of this species were present in Weaver Creek. Spring-salmon
and cohoe supplies were light. Although stocks of pinks were fairly heavy, they were
somewhat below the brood-year level. The seeding of chums was fairly good, better
than the average in recent years.
Lower Fraser Area.
The upper tributaries of the Pitt River received the best seeding of sockeye in
many years. Spring-salmon supplies were normal. The number of cohoe on the
grounds was disappointingly light, particularly so in the streams west of Mission.
Good supplies of pinks were in evidence, the best spawning occurring in the South
Alouette and Coquitlam Rivers. The chum-salmon seeding was below normal. Fair
supplies were present in the North Alouette, Blaney, and Silver Creeks, while stocks in
Whonnock, Kanaka, and West Creeks were disappointing.
North Vancouver Area.
Cohoe-supplies were light in all streams. Good stocks of pinks and chums spawned
in Indian River.    Elsewhere the seeding was light.
Squamish Area.
Squamish River system at the head of Howe Sound was well seeded with pink
salmon.    Chum-supplies were only fair. M 100
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
STATISTICAL TABLES.
PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON, SEASON 1947, SHOWING THE
ORIGIN OF SALMON CAUGHT IN EACH DISTRICT.
District.
Sockeye.
Springs.
Steelheads.
Cohoe.
Pinks.
Chums.
Total.
33,9521
1,455
178
6,105
392
4,075
21,6001
5,182
348
28,778
77,6841
2,128
113,1361
1,200
5,047
13,1901
9,025
1,050
101,2411
355,992
905
16,4751
14,096
8,925
8,236
13,873
7,910
292,6041
99,6791
24,816
171,3021
15,688
Nass River	
10,849
32,534
140,087
36,800
17,3431
14,543
388
398
2,113
475
43
5141
4,9421
84
156
2,044
293J
21
469
99
29,450
79,718
168,9351
Smith Inlet	
46,172
440,951
Vancouver Island and adjacent
Mainland	
Packed out of  cold-storage
552,9401
28,321
Totals	
286,497
10,025
3,2601
146,293
600,7871
486,6151
1,533,4781
NOTE.-
:,545 cases of bluebacks are combined with cohoes in this table for Vancouver Island.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL SALMON-PACK BY SPECIES
FROM 1939 TO 1947.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
286,497
10,025
486,6151
600,7871
146,293
3,2601
543,027
8,1001
576,1331
116,6071
100,1541
4,1151
329,0011
12,801
350,1885
825,513
218,8861
2,922
247,714
19,362
255,3161
389,692
181,5461
3,9261
164,889
10,658
363,3471
530,189
186,043
3,095
666,570
24,7441
633,834
270,622*
211,138
4,649
455,298
51,593
926,801
427,774
430,513
3,454
366,402
17,740
643,441
213,904
224,522
1,207
269,887
16,098
386,590
Pink
Cohoe 	
245,097
796
Totals	
1,533,4781
1,348,1381
1,739,3121
1,097,5571
1,258,2211
1,811,558
2,295,433
1,467,216
1,539,063
STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL SALMON-PACK OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA BY DISTRICTS.
Total packed by Districts in 1939 to 1947, inclusive.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
Fraser 	
Skeena  —
171,3021
79,718
168,9351
46,172
29,450
552,9401
456,639
28,321
413,542
105,9121
123,304
23,177
38,313
264,922
378,968
221,3511
221,4711
135,412
21,682
54,9801
492,2811
592,1331
130,8831
149,9481
59,391
6,1941
61,096
193,459
496,587
126,5411
133,589
79,6971
21,942
52,3331
347,7101
496,407
549,617
152,4181
105,539
23,777
100,1421
536,8031
343,2601
431,299
200,497
138,650
32,109
71,330
985,835
398,152
46,561
152,363
195,355
88,665
33,998
60,441
419,579
516,815
199,241
205,604
83,502
28,727
55,946
590,736
375,307
Nass River 	
Vancouver Island and
adjacent Mainland....
Grand totals ._
1,533,4781
1,348,1381
1,739,3121
1,097,5571
1,258,2211
1,811,558
2,295,433
1,467,216
1,539,063 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
M 101
TABLE SHOWING THE TOTAL SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE FRASER RIVER,
ARRANGED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE FOUR-YEAR CYCLE, 1895-1947.
British Columbia  1895— 395,984 1896— 356,984 1897— 860,459 1898— 256,101
Washington  65,143 72,979 312,048 252,000
Total  461,127 429,963 1,172,507 508,101
British Columbia  1899— 480,485 1900— 229,800 1901— 928,669 1902— 293,477
Washington  499,646 228,704 1,105,096 339,556
Total  980,131 458,504 2,033,765 633,033
British Columbia  1903— 204,809 1904—    72,688 1905— 837,489 1906— 183,007
Washington  167,211 123,419 837,122 182,241
Total  372,020 196,107 1,674,611 365,248
British Columbia  1907—    59,816 1908—    74,574 1909— 585,435 1910— 150,432
Washington  96,974 170,951 1,097,904 248,014
Total  156,789 245,525 1,683,339 398,446
British Columbia  1911—    58,487 1912— 123,879 1913— 719,796 1914— 198,183
Washington  127,761 184,680 1,673,099 335,230
Total  186,248 308,559 2,392,895 533,413
British Columbia  1915—    91,130 1916—    32,146 1917— 148,164 1918—    19,697
Washington  64,584 84,637 411,538 50,723
Total  155,714 116,783 559,702 70,420
British Columbia  1919—    38,854 1920—    48,399 1921—    39,631 1922—    51,832
Washington  64,346 62,654 102,967 48,566
Total  103,200 111,053 142,598 100,398
British Columbia  1923—    31,655 1824—    39,743 1925—    35,385 1926—    85,689
Washington  47,402 69,369 112,023 44,673
Total  79,057 109,112 147,408 130,362
British Columbia  1927—    61,393 1928—    29,299 1929—    61,569 1930— 103,692
Washington  97,594 61,044 111,898 352,194
Total  158,987 90,343 173,467 456,886
British Columbia  1931—    40,947 1932—    65,769 1933—    52,465 1934— 139,238
Washington  87,211 81,188 *128,518 352,579
Total  128,158 146,957 180,983 491,817
British Columbia  1935—    62,822 1936— 184,854 1937— 100,272 1938— 186,794
Washington  54,677 59,505 60,259 *135,550
Total  117,499 244,359 160,531 322,344
British Columbia  1939—    54,296 1940—    99,009 1941— 171,290 1942— 446,371
Washington  *43,512 *63,890 110,605 263,458
Total  97,808 162,899 281,895 709,829
British Columbia  1943—   31,974 1944—    88,515 1945—   79,977 1946— 341,957
Washington  *19,117 *37,509 *53,055 *268,561
Total  51,091 126,024 133,032 610,518
British Columbia  1947—   33,952
Washington  6,760
Total  40,712
* These figures are corrected aecordingjo latest advice from the Department of Fisheries, State of Washington,
dated May 22nd, 1947. /ROVlNClAL   LTBRAtfV
VICTORIA. B. c M 102
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES.
Fraser River, 1932-47, inclusive.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
Sockeyes _ 	
Springs 	
33,9521
1,455
16,4751
113,1361
6,105
178
341,957
1,0961
60,713
429
9,1681
178
79,977
6,130*
27,610
95,7481
11,615
2701
88,515
12,577}
13,803}
130
15,564}
293
31,973}
3,505}
52,149
29,860}
8,809
244
446,371
9,688
82,573
134
10,542
309
171,290
34,038
95,070
102,388
28,265
248
99,009
4,504
35,665
Pinks  	
12
13,028
Steelheads	
145
Totals	
171,3021
413,542
221,3511
130,883}
126,541}
549,617
431,299
152,363
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
Sockeyes .._
54,296
5,993
30,150
95,176
13,557
69
186,794
4,308
58,778
63
27,127
14
100,272
5,444
20,878
94,010
11,244
184,854
15,126
31,565
62,822
9,401
8,227
111,328
24,950
139,238
16,218
104.092
2,199
11,392
52,465
5,579
34,391
92,746
13,901
65,769
28,701
14,948
Pinks
385
Cohoes    _	
28,716
16,815
23
Totals
199,241
277,084
231,848
260,261
216,728
273,139
199,082
126,641
Skeena River, 1932-47, inclusive.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
Sockeyes _	
10,849
398
8,925
5,047
4,075
156
52,928
2,439
11,161
10,737
26,281}
2,366
104,279}
2,382
9,264
69,7831
34,201}
1,561
68,197
1,5001
8,741}
48,837
20,191}
2,481
28,268}
1,783
6,597
54,509
40,479}
1,952
34,544
6,374
11,421
52,767
44,0811
3,231
81,767
4,985
10,707
50,537
50,605
1,896
116,507
6,118
4,682
Pinks   __.  	
47,301
20,614
133
Totals	
29,450
105,912}
221,471}
149,948}
133,589
152,418}
200,497
195,355
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
68,485
4,857
7,773
95,236
29,198
55
47,257
4,318
16,758
69,610
52,821
42
42,491
4,401
10,811
59,400
15,514
21
81,973
4,551}
15,297}
91,389
25,390
33
52,879
4,039
8,122
81,868
23,498
14
70,655
8,300
24,388
126,163
54,456
114
30,506
3,297
15,714
95,783
39,896
267
59,916
Springs	
Chums	
Pinks	
28,269
38,549
58,261
48,312
404
Totals 	
205,604
190,806
132,638
218,634
170,420
284,096
185,463
233,711 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
M 103
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES—Continued.
Rivers Inlet, 1932-47, inclusive.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
140,087
475
13,873
9,025
5,182
2931
73,320
1,108}
37,395}
1,641}
9,524}
314
89,735
1,191}
16,793
9,916
17,516}
260
36,582}
805
2,705
5,289}
13,921
88
47,602}
765
11,448
8,347
11,466
69
79,199
985
15,874
954
8,467
60
93,378
1,692
15,442
4,807
23,202
129
63,469
1,226
9,025
3,329
11,561
55
Pinks               —	
Totals	
168,9351
123,304
135,412
59,391
79,697}
105,539
138,650
88,665
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
54,143
745
5,462
12,095
10,974
83
87,942
1,209
7,759
9,063
16,285
105
84,832
917
9,415
7,536
6,012
70
46,351
581}
11,505
6,432}
7,122}
19
135,038
429
7,136
4,554
8,375
39
76,923
436
895
2,815
4,852
79
83,507
449
677
5,059
3,446
82
69,732
Pinks  	
3,483
7,062
Totals 	
83,502
122,363
108,782
72,011}
155,571
86,000
93,220
81,709
Smith Inlet, 1932-47, inclusive.*
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
Sockeyes _ _
Springs  —
36,800
43
348
1,054
7,910
21
14,318
45
177
235
8,369
33
15,014
26
560
2,362
3,692
28
3,165
66
343
498}
2,122
666
15,010
118
541
556
5,693
24
15,939
8
1,813
527
5,490
21,495
124
1,955
749
7,741
45
25,947
142
1,102
755
6,015
37
Pinks 	
Totals  _
46,172
23,177
21,682
6,194}
21,942
23,777
32,109
33,998
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
17,833
215
3,880
3,978
2,771
50
33,894
68
1,058
1,761
8,076
64
25.258
21
241
483
9,494
5
12,788
30
310
65
1,653
42
31,648
216
1,201
4,412
12,427
24
14,607
164
3,941
6,953
15,548
43
37,369
354
5,068
19,995
8,841
87
25,488
48
273
1,148
165
20
Pinks             __ 	
28,727
44,921
35,502
14,888
49,928
41,256
71,714
27,142
* Previously reported in Queen Charlotte and other districts. M 104
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES—Continued.
Nass River, 1932-47, inclusive.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
Sockeyes 	
10,849
398
8,925
5,047
4,075
156
29,450
12,511
472
13,810
7,147
4,239
134
9,899
202
4,981}
35,918}
3,895
84}
13,083
681}
9,143
31,854
6,102
232}
13,412}
1,002}
10,146}
17,669
9,768
335
21,085
1,515
12,518
49,003}
15,487
534
24,876
519
6,246
22,667
16,648
374
13,809
1,716
5,461
29,278
10,060
Steelheads —  	
117
Totals .  	
38,313
54,980}
61,096
52,333}
100,142}
71,330
60,441
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
Sockeyes _ _
Springs. _ —    ■■■
24,357
708
2,500
26,370
1,996
15
21,462
773
15,911
61,477
14,159
188
17,567
1,251
10,080
8,031
12,067
46
28,5621
2,167
20,620}
75,887}
11,842
496
12,712
560
17,481
25,508
21,810
143
28,701
654
2,648
32,964
9,935
311
9,757
1,296
1,775
44,306
3,251
49
14,154
4,408
14,515
44,629
7,955
10
55,946
113,970
49,042
139,575}
78,214
75,213
60,434
85,671
Vancouver Island District and Adjacent Mainland, 1932-47, inclusive.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
14,543
4,9421
99,679}
355,992
77,684}
99
35,381}
2,283}
190,313
6,8091
29,983
151}
5,988
2,323
136,724
242,5901
104,528
128
5,288}
3,068}
56,029}
49,092
79,813}
165
7,185
2,937
132,843
130,825
73,846}
74
51,961
5,407
383,005
14,474
81,837}
119
40,273
8,038
593,016
177,292
166,908
308
15,177
2,454
279,064
88,885*
214
Totals.  	
552,940}
264,922
492,281}
193,459
347,710}
536,803}
985,835
419,579
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
16,259
2,889
212,949
235,119
123,388
132
27,965
4,254
266,566
70,108
89,471
190
25,427
2,359
203,900
318,780
52,244
88
32,696}
6,340
347,951
82,028}
90,625
105
22,928
6,525
143,960
191,627
104,366
21
27,282
1,630
210,239
54,526
78,670
18,397
4,875
96,642
172,945
60,019
147
27,611
10,559
70,629
33,403
63,637
Springs . 	
Pinks...
Totals.—- _
590,736
458,554
608,798
559,746
469,427
372,347
353,025
205,930
* Bluebacks are included with the cohoe-pack for Vancouver Island. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
M 105
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES—Continued.
Queen Charlotte Islands, 1938-47, inclusive.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
157
20
81,916
90,993
19,615
1
53
1
38
43,801
83,329
16,935
41
149
236
76,745
524
27,421
11
16
62
164,911
44,966
8,897
1
36
45,519
2,123
3,020
179
4
12,132
4,809
1,108
66
Chums.	
Pinks
Cohoes	
14,096
1,200
392
32,414
8,024
1,192
5
35,370
313
14,488
40,882
57,952
16,616
Totals..
15,688
41,635
18,053
192,702
50,224
144,145
105,086
218,862
50,699
115,695
Central Area, 1938-47, inclusive.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
Sockeyes
17,343}
514}
292,604}
101,241}
28,778
469
12,611}
656
221,958
81,584}
19,589
934
24,109
542
138,992
364,385
45,462}
690
32,715
643
80,793
162,986
25,823
666
21,101
547
109,101
288,109}
26,645
397
17,470
723}
79,152
69,434
31,274
355
20,854
460
111,587
66,130
45,218
330
32,042
1,518
135,802
54,478
49,886
506
26,158
655
79,384
150,498
44,426
392
36,178
540
Chums	
Pinks  .
Cohoes	
Steelheads ...
127,089
130,842
56,716
433
Totals..
440,951
337,333
574,080}
303,626
445,900}
198,408}
244,579
274,232
301,513
351,798
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS, 1932 TO 1947, INCLUSIVE.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
33,952}
32,534
140,087
36,800
10,849
14,543
17,3431
388
341,957
52,928
73,320
14,318
12,511
35,381}
12,611}
79,977
104,279}
89,735
15,014
9,899
5,988
24,109
88,515
68,197
36,582}
3,165
13,083
5,288}
32,883
31,973}
28,2681
47,6021
15,010
13,412}
7,185
21,437
446,371
34,544
79,199
15,939
21,085
51,961
17,471
171,290
81,767
93,378
21,495
24,876
40,273
22,219
99,009
116,507
63,469
Smith Inlet        	
25,947
13,809
Vancouver Island and adjacent
15,177
32,484
Totals	
286,497
543,027
329,001}
247,714
164,889
666,570
455,298
366,402
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
54,296
68,485
54,143
17,833
24,357
16,259
34,514
186,794
47,257
87,942
33,894
21,462
27,965
36,357
100,272
42,491
84,832
25,258
17,567
25,427
29,989
183,120
81,973
46,351
12,788
28.562}
34,430}
27,584
62,822
52,879
135,038
31,648
12,712
22,928
32,417
139,238
70,655
76,923
14,607
28,701
27,282
20,438
52,465
30,506
83,507
37,369
9,757
18,397
26,106
65,769
59,916
69,732
Smith Inlet         	
25,488
14,154
Vancouver Island and adjacent
27,611
21,685
Totals  ...
269,887
441,671*
325,836
414,809
350,444
377,844
258,107
284,355
216 cases of Alaska sockeye packed in British Columbia canneries are not shown in the above table for the year 1936.
* 5,779 cases ot Alaska sockeye packed at Skeena Eiver are not shown in the above table for the year 1938. M 106                                                    BRITISH COLUMBIA.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SPRING-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA, BY DISTRICTS, 1936 TO 1947, INCLUSIVE.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1,455
1,096}
6,1301
4
202
2,382
1,1911
26
542
2,323
12,577}
20
681}
1,500}
805
66
643
3,068}
3,505}
9,688
38
1,515
6,374
985
8
7231
5,407
6
398
2,113
475
43
514}
4,942}
472
2,439
1,108}
45
656
2,283}
1,002}
1,783
765
118
547
2,937
Smith Inlet
84
Totals   	
10,025
8,100}
12,801
19,362
10,658
24,744}
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
34,038
236
519
4,985
1,692
124
460
8,038
383
1,118
4,504
62
1,716
6,118
1,226
142
1,518
2,454
5,993
36
708
4,857
745
215
655
2,889
4,308
66
773
4,318
1,209
68
540
4,254
5,444
140
1,251
4,401
917
21
1,641
2,359
15,126
227
2,167
4,551}
581}
Skeena River     —
Smith Inlet                                                  	
Central Area  „ ,	
830
6,340
Packed out of cold-storage stocks	
51,593
17,740
16,098
15,536
16,174
29,853
STATEMENT SHOWING THE COHOE-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA, BY DISTRICTS, 1936 TO 1947, INCLUSIVE.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
6,105
392
4,075
21,600}
5,182
348
28,778
77,684}
9,168}
1,192
4,239
26,281}
9,524}
177
19,589
29,983
11,615
1,108
3,895
34,201}
17,516}
560
45,462}
104,528
15,5641
19,615
6,102
20,191}
13,921
343
25,823
79,813}
173
8,809
14,488
9,768
40,479}
11,466
541
26,645
73,846}
10,542
16,935
15,487
44,081}
8,467
1,813
31,274
81,837}
701
Smith Inlet                          	
Alaska    ....
2,128
Totals  _  	
146,293
100,154}
218,886}
181,546}
186,043
211,138
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
28,265
27,421
16,648
50,605
23,202
1,955
45,218
13,028
8,897
10,060
20,614
11,561
1,102
49,886
88,885
20,489
13,557
3,020
1,996
29,198
10,974
3,880
44,426
123,388
14,658
27,127
16,616
14,159
52,821
16,285
1,058
56,716
89,471
26,828
11,244
4,631
12,067
15,514
6,012
241
25,009
58,244
527
28,716
19,920
11,842
25,390
7,122}
310
45,824
Smith Inlet	
Alaska      	
31,187
39,104
90,625}
Packed out of cold-storage stocks	
Totals ._ .___	
430,513
224,522
245,097
301,081
133,489
229,750 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
M 107
STATEMENT SHOWING THE PINK-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA, BY DISTRICTS, 1936 TO 1947, INCLUSIVE.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
113,136}
1,200
5047
13,190}
9,025
1,050
101,241}
355,992
429
8,024
7,147
10,737
1,641}
235
81,584}
6,809}
95,748}
4,809
35,918}
69,7831
9,916
2,362
364,385
242,590}
130
90,993
31,854
48,837
5,289}
498}
162,986
49,092
12
29,860}
313
17,669
54,509
8,347
556
288,109}
130,825
134
83,329
49,003}
52,767
954
Smith Inlet 	
527
69,434
14,474
905
Totals — —  	
600,7871
116,607}
825,513
389,692
530,189
270,622}
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
102,388
524
22,667
50,537
4,807
749
66,130
177,292
2,680
12
44,966
29,278
47,301
3,329
755
54,478
33,785
95,176
2,123
26,370
95,236
12,095
3,978
150,498
235,119
63
57,952
61,477
69,610
9,063
1,761
130,842
70,108
94,010
13
8,031
59,400
7,536
483
97,321
318,780
89,355
75,887}
91,389
6,432}
Smith Inlet                                             	
65
246,378
82,028}
Totals	
427,774
213,904
620,595
400,876
585,574
591,535}
STATEMENT SHOWING THE CHUM-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA, BY DISTRICTS, 1936 TO 1947, INCLUSIVE.
1941
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
16,475}
14,096
8,925
8,236
13,873
7,910
292,604}
99,679}
60,713
32,414
13,810
11,161
37,3951
8,369
221,958
190,313
27,610
12,132
4,9811
9,264
16,793
3,692
138,992
136,724
13,803}
81,916
9,143
8,7411
2,705
2,122
80,793
56,029}
63
52,149
35,370
10,146}
6,597
11,448
5,693
109,101
132,843
82,573
43,801
12,518
11,421
15,874
Nass River—   _   _ 	
Smith Inlet
383,005
24,816
Totals      	
486,615}
576,133}
350,188}
255,316}
363,347}
633,834
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
95,070
76,745
6,246
10,707
15,442
7,741
111,587
593,016
3,908
6,339
35,665
164,911
5,461
4,682
9,025
6,015
135,802
279,064
2,816
30,150
45,519
2,500
7,773
5,462
2,771
79,384
212,949
82
58,778
40,882
15,911
16,758
7,759
8,076
127,089
266,566
20,878
72,689
10,080
10,811
9,415
9,494
110,493
203,900
31,565
69,304
20,620}
15,297}
11,505
1,653
99,592
347,951
Smith Inlet                                         	
Totals„   _	
926,801
643,441
386,590
541,819
447,760
597,488 M 108                                                    BRITISH COLUMBIA.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF PILCHARD PRODUCTS
PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1930 TO 1947.
Season.
Canned.
Meal.
Oil.
1930-31
Cases.
55,166
17,336
4,622
2,946
35,437
27,184
35,007
40,975
69,473
7,300
59,166
72,498
42,008
94,512
78,772
79,536
4,359
9 656
Tons.
13,934
14,200
8,842
1,108
7,628
8,666
8,715
8,483
8,891
906
4,853
11,437
11,003
15,209
8,435
5,812
699
67
Gals.
3,204,058
1931-32 . _. .                                                                                	
2,551,914
1932-33                                                                        	
1,315,864
1933-34                                     _             -   .
275,879
1934-35 	
1,635,123
1935-36   _	
1,634,592
1936-37  — _    	
1,217,087
1937-38                                    . „                    	
1,707,276
1938-39 _   _	
2,195,850
1939-40   _ - _	
178,305
1940-41      	
890,296
1941-42   _ -~ _ _	
1,916,191
1942-43	
1,560,269
1943-44      -	
2,238,987
1944-45   	
1,675,090
1945 46   	
1,273,329
81,831
1946-47	
1947-48                      	
[                                 1
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF HERRING PRODUCTS
PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1935 TO 1947.
Season.
Canned.
Dry-salted.
Pickled.
Meal.
Oil.
1935-36   —	
Cases.
26,143
20,914
27,365
23,353
418,021
640,252
1,527,350
1,253,978
1,198,632
1,190,762
1,307,514
1,634,286
1,283,670
Tons.
14,983
16,454
10,230
7,600
7,596
5,039
Tons.
892
779
502
691
26
100
129}
1
Tons.
5,313
10,340
14,643
18,028
22,870
10,886
8,780
4,633
7,662
9,539
5,525
7,223
18,948
Gals.
1936-37   __	
786,742
1,333,245
1937-38	
1938-39   —  _	
1939-40	
1,677,736
923,137
594,684
323,379
1940-41    —	
1941-42 	
1942-43    - _ _	
1943-44  __  __	
512,516
717,655
521,649
484,937
1,526,826
1944-45- _ -	
1945-46	
1946-47            	
302
1947-48	
2,988
The above figures are for the season, Octc
ber to March 3
st, annual!
y. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT.
M 109
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF MEAL, OIL, AND FERTILIZER
PRODUCED FROM SOURCES OTHER THAN HERRING AND PILCHARD,
1935 TO 1947.
From Whales.
From
Fish Livers.
From other Sources.
Whalebone
and Meal.
Fertilizer.
Oil.
Oil.
Meal and
Fertilizer.
Oil.
1935-36
Tons.
211
332
268
273
181
270
130
62
Tons.
354
687
527
512
434
561
Gals.
426,772
763,740
662,355
543,378
Gals.
Tons.
2,226
2,857
2,445
2,059
3,559
4,998
5,410
4,768
4,332
2,721
4,560
4,208
3,929
Gals.
260,387
1936-37
356,464
1937-38             	
266,009
1938-39             	
186,261
1939-40
331,725
1940-41                 	
361,820
619.025
415,856
1941-42                  '
405,340
1942-43.- _ 	
1943-44             -
205                   255,555
90           i         134.553
916,723
822,250
545,736
445,858
211,914
11,109,063*
338,502
60,000
1944-45      	
	
301,048
1945-46        	
513,442
1946-47	
453,008
1947-48                 	
..       ..
519,802
* Fish-liver oil, formerly reported in gallons, is now reported in U.S.P. units. M 110
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
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SJ-*al3§S*ifi8g VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Don McDiaemid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
194S.
1,315-1148-6105

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