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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Department of Agriculture FORTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT 1948 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly [1949]

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Department of Agriculture
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1949.  To His Honour C. A. BANKS,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit herewith for your consideration the Annual Report
of the Department of Agriculture for the year 1948.
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., January 3rd, 1949.  TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Report of the Deputy Minister      9
Report of the Statistician     22
Report of Provincial Apiarist     28
Report of the Markets Branch      30
Report of the Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes     39
Report of the Superintendent of Women's Institutes     42
Report of Soil Classification Branch      48
Report of Horticultural Branch      60
Report of Plant Pathology Branch     89
Report of Field Crops Branch     95
Report of Live Stock and Veterinary Branches  105
Report of Recorder of Brands  145
Report of Dairy Branch  148
Report of Poultry Branch    153
Report of Extension, Land-clearing, and Farm Labour Branches  164
Report of Supervisor of Boys' and Girls' Club Work  203
No.   1. Estimate of Honey-crop  211
No.   2. Summary of Inspectors' Work  211
No.   3. Threshermen's Report  212
No.   4. Report of Movement of Grain Screenings  213
No.   5. Slaughter-house Licences  214
No.   6. Hide-dealers' Licences  214
No.   7. Stock-dealers' Licences  215
No.   8. Miscellaneous Licences  216
No.   9. Boys' and Girls' Clubs  217
No. 10. Dairy Premises inspected and graded  222
No. 11. Average Prices for Cattle  223
No. 12. Statement of Beef branded  224
No. 13. Average Prices for Lambs  225
No. 14. Average Prices for Hogs   225
No. 15. Inspected Slaughterings of Live Stock  226
Minister of Agriculture:
Honourable Frank Putnam.
Minister's Secretary:
Miss Sheilagh Kennedy.
Deputy Minister:
*J. B. Munro, M.B.E., M.S.A., Ph.D.
Miss A. E. Hill, Victoria, B.C.
Assistant Deputy Minister and Provincial Horticulturist :
*W. H. Robertson, B.S.A.   •
Administrative Division:
*E. 0. MacGinnis, M.H., Markets Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
George H. Stewart, Statistician, Victoria, B.C.
*C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
*J. S. D. Smith, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
N. L. Camsusa, Chief Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
Miss F. L. Brooks, Assistant Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
A. J. Hourston, General Assistant, Victoria, B.C.
J. S. Wells, Clerk, Victoria, B.C.
J. A. McDiarmid, Clerk, Victoria, B.C.
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, Victoria, B.C.
Mrs. Stella E. Gummow, Superintendent of Women's Institutes, Victoria, B.C.
*Miss E. Lidster, B.S.A., Supervisor of Boys' and Girls' Clubs, Vancouver, B.C.
W. H. Turnbull, Senior Apiarist, Vernon, B.C.
A. McNeill, Inspector, Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Plant Industry Division:
*N. F. Putnam, M.Sc, Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
*C. H. Nelson, Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
*E. W. White, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
E. C. Hunt, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Nelson, B.C.
*G. E. W. Clarke, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
*Ben Hoy, B.S.A., Supervising Horticulturist, Kelowna, B.C.
*J. L. Webster, B.S.A., Horticulturist, Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
H. H. Evans, District Horticulturist, Court-house, Vernon, B.C.
*R. P. Murray, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Penticton, B.C.
*G. R. Thorpe, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Creston, B.C.
*M. P. D. Trumpour, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.
*A. W. Watt, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, West Summerland, B.C.
*J. A. Smith, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Kelowna, B.C.
W. Baverstock, Assistant District Horticulturist, Court-house, Vernon, B.C.
*R. M. Wilson, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Kelowna, B.C.
*W. D. Christie, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
*D. A. Allan, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Oliver, B.C.
J. E. Swales, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Nelson, B.C.
*F. G. Moffat, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Pentiction, B.C.
*A. J. Bodaly, B.S.A., Assistant District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
V. Tonks, Secretary, Horticultural Branch, Victoria, B.C.
*W. R. Foster, M.Sc, Plant Pathologist, Victoria, B.C.
♦I. C. MacSwan, Assistant Plant Pathologist, Vancouver, B.C.
* Member of the British Columbia Institute of Agrologists.
Animal Industry Division:
*W. R.  Gunn,  B.S.A.,  B.V.Sc, V.S.,  Live  Stock  Commissioner and Chief Veterinary
Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
John C. Bankier, B.V.Sc, Veterinary Inspector and Animal Pathologist, Victoria, B.C.
G. M. Clark, B.V.Sc, V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
J. J. Carney, M.R.S.L., Veterinary Inspector, Nelson, B.C.
A. Kidd, D.V.M., D.V.P.H., Veterinary Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
I. D. C. Clark, D.V.M., Veterinary Inspector, Penticton, B.C.
C. F. Morris, D.V.M., Veterinary Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
J. A. Fischer, D.V.M., Veterinary Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
*F. C. Clark, M.S.A., Live Stock Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
*U. Guichon, M.S.A., Live Stock Inspector, Quilchena, B.C.
P. J. WEIR, Clerk, Live Stock Branch, Victoria, B.C.
F. C. Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
F. Overland, Dairy Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
G. Patchett, Dairy Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
*G. D. Johnson, Dairy Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
*H. Riehl, B.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
G. H. Thornbery, Superintendent, Cow-testing Associations, Victoria, B.C.
*G. L. Landon, B.S.A., Poultry Commissioner, New Westminster, B.C.
*W. H. Pope, Poultry Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
Thomas Moore, Brand Recorder, Victoria, B.C.
A. J. Duck, Brand Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
Extension Division:
*Wm. MacGillivray, Director, Agricultural Development and Extension, Victoria, B.C.
*J. E. Beamish, B.E. (Agr.), Agricultural Extension Engineer, Vancouver, B.C.
George L. Calver, B.E. (Agr.), Assistant Agricultural Extension Engineer, Vancouver,
H. Barber, Clerk, Land-clearing Division, Vancouver, B.C.
*G. A. Luyat, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
*S. G. Preston, M.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Box 639, Prince George, B.C.
*J. S. Allin, B.S.A., Supervising Agriculturist, Creston, B.C.
*W. B. Richardson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Box 999, Duncan, B.C.
*R. L. Wilkinson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Courtenay, B.C.
*D. Borthwick, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Court-house, New Westminster, B.C.
*A. E. Donald, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Box 1100, Chilliwack, B.C.
*M. J. Walsh, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, B.C.
*J. L. Gray, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Quesnel, B.C.
*K. R. Jameson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Smithers, B.C.
G. A. Muirhead, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.
*T. S. Crack, District Agriculturist, Pouce Coupe, B.C.
*R. W. Brown, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Fort St. John, B.C.
*J. F. Carmichael, M.Sc, District Agriculturist, Grand Forks, B.C.
*J. W. Awmack, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cranbrook, B.C.
*A. M. Johnson, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Vanderhoof, B.C.
N. C. McKinnon, B.S.A., Assistant District Agriculturist, Pouce Coupe, B.C.
S. B. Peterson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Creston, B.C.
George W. Hayes, B.S.A., Assistant District Agriculturist, Box 639, Prince George, B.C.
* Member of the British Columbia Institute of Agrologists.   Report of the Department of Agriculture.
J. B. Munro, M.B.E., Ph.D.
The Honourable Frank Putnam,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the report of the Department of
Agriculture for the year ended December 31st, 1948. One of the serious agricultural
undertakings this year was brought about by the flooding of much of the arable lands
in the Lower Fraser Valley. This necessitated the holding of a special session of the
Legislature on July 7th.
Your officials had foreseen the high waters that came upon many farm lands during
late May and early June, but they were unprepared for the devastation which the floods
of early summer precipitated. Much of the time of your Extension, Live Stock, and
Horticultural employees was taken up with the rehabilitation of many of these rural
families and with the reseeding of their crops. There was much loss caused, particularly
in the Fraser Valley, but the loss was much smaller than it would have been without the
close co-operation between officials of the Department of Agriculture and the Fraser
Valley Rehabilitation Authority. This matter will be dealt with in the report of the
Director of Agricultural Extension, who had much to do with providing hay and other
necessities for the dairy cattle in this vicinity.
During the third session of the Twenty-first Parliament of British Columbia
several amendments to agricultural legislation were considered and the " Contagious
Diseases (Animals) Act," replacing the former enactment entitled "An Act to prevent
the Spread of Contagious Diseases among Horses and other Domestic Animals " which
was repealed, was also passed. This piece of legislation is a very much extended
" Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act." It contains fifty-five sections and deals with
the duties of Inspectors, owners of diseased animals, quarantine of diseased animals,
disinfection of premises, penalty for malicious information, summons to show why
diseased animals should not be killed, power of Court to order isolation or killing of a
diseased animal, and other matters of importance to the live-stock industry.
It also deals with tuberculosis and brucellosis and indicates the duty of the owner
to report either of these diseases and states the duties of the person applying either
the tuberculin test or the brucellosis test. It also places on the person who sells or
furnishes any tuberculin within the Province to report to the Minister any sales.
This Act provides the penalty for obstructing an Inspector, limits the powers to define
areas of the Province, and gives to the Lieutenant-Governor in Council authority to
make regulations.
The " Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act" is an important piece of legislation.
It has been given wide publicity and is available upon application for reference
purposes by live-stock organizations.
The amendments which were passed at the third session of the Legislature include
the " Codling-moth Control Act," which was rescinded, and the " Farmers' Land-
clearing Act," which was amended to provide for the filing of information regarding
unpaid balances and legal descriptions of the properties to which the certificate relates.
The amendment to the " Creameries and Dairies Regulations Act" was amended
to define " Dairy Commissioner " and provide for licensing of creamery or dairy operations. This amendment further prevents the erection or establishment of a creamery
or dairy building without first submitting plans and specifications to the Minister.
It also prescribes the fees to be charged for a certificate of proficiency to a butter-maker,
cheese-maker, ice-cream maker, or pasteurizer operator and restricts the use of dairy
equipment that is unsuitable.
An Act to amend the " Natural Products Marketing (British Columbia) Act"
provided for the addition of certain words to clause (g) fixing the price or prices at
which the regulated product may be bought or sold in the Province, and it further provides for section 9, clause (/) of subsection (2), to provide for the disposition of the
assets of any marketing board where appointment or authority is annulled.
Other amendments were made to such Acts as the " Drainage, Dyking, and Development Act," the " Horse-racing Regulation Act," and the " Motor-vehicle Act," but
they are not referred to in the report of the Department of Agriculture. Their administration comes within the scope of other Departments.
At the special session of the Twenty-first Legislature called for July 7th, 1948,
there was passed the " Flood Relief Act," which gives to the Lieutenant-Governor in
Council power to institute and carry out such measures as may be considered practical,
necessary, and advisable for the rendering of aid in the mitigation of damage caused
by flooding. It further provides for the Lieutenant-Governor in Council to direct
expenditure from Consolidated Revenue, gives power to borrow and repay loans, and
provides for municipalities to enter into agreements and boards to carry out provisions
of the Act. At this session there was also "An Act respecting the Fraser Valley
Dyking Board," under which authority was granted to pay 25 per cent, of the cost
incurred by the Fraser Valley Dyking Board in carrying on the work of repairing,
strengthening, constructing, and reconstructing dykes on the Lower Mainland. This
Act further gave authority for the expropriation of land and payment of compensation
respecting such properties.
This year we have seen the Eightieth Annual Exhibition held at both Cowichan
and Saanich where the Agricultural Associations were organized in 1868. They have
continued throughout the past eighty years as beneficial agricultural endeavours. In
Saanich the annual fair is recognized as a community project where the population of
the City of Victoria and the Municipality of Saanich meets with friends from all of the
southern parts of Vancouver Island as well as the adjacent Gulf Islands on Labour Day
to view the agricultural and industrial matters of community interest.
The grounds of Saanich have been expanded until now they cover 18 acres. The
fair grounds now have two judging areas, and the groups are able to disperse into
different corners of the grounds. The sports are held in the south-eastern corner.
The Scottish piping and dancing takes place just in front of the Pioneer Museum. The
riding-horse section is exhibited at the north-west corner of the grounds and the main
live-stock exhibits are shown just back of the main building. In the main exhibition
building the produce of the field, orchard, and garden is well displayed along with
domestic science classes.
One point worthy of mention is the fact that two families who became pioneers of
Saanich—the Michell family, who came to Saanich in 1862, and the Turgoose family,
who became established here in 1865 — joined in presenting the Michell-Turgoose
cup commemorating the two original families whose descendants are still active in the
community. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948. R 11
It is the Cowichan, Saltspring, and Chemainus Agricultural Society that was
established on October 17th, 1868, that is still holding its annual exhibition at Duncan,
B.C. The first directors of this venerable Agricultural Association were Archdeacon
W. S. Reece, president; John Morly and Wm. Drinkwater, vice-presidents; Harry
Mariner, recording secretary; J. C. Jones, corresponding secretary; and Edward
Mariner, treasurer. The executive committee included Joseph Drinkwater, D. W.
Mainguy, Wm. C. Duncan, Thomas J. Skinner, James Leach, John Pimbury, and
J. Booth.
Corresponding to the minute-book of this first year, a resolution was passed
naming a committee which was appointed to select an eligible site in the Cowichan
community suitable for an agricultural hall and other purposes of the society, and
shortly thereafter a request for a portion of land near Maple Bay was transmitted to
the government by the summer of 1869. A motion was made that the sum of $50 be
placed at the disposal of the members' committee for the fencing in of 2 acres of the
society's reserve, and further it was decided that $30 was to be placed at the disposal of
the committee for the purpose of erecting a tent and tables. Previous to 1869 the fair
was staged as a " harvest festival" and was under church auspices.
It was over this small beginning that the society grew during the next few years
until by 1874 it had approximately seventy-five members paid up in full, and twenty-
four members from the city of Victoria. These had all paid the membership fee of
from $2 to $5 each. The area included within the agricultural district served by
this Association included Cowichan, Saltspring, Chemainus, Somenos, Quamichan,
Komiaken, and Shawnigan. There were three members of the executive from each of
these seven districts.
After the exhibition in the Cowichan district had been held for two years, at a
meeting held on October 29th, 1869, a letter from the Commissioner of Lands and Works
granting 20 acres to the society was read and a motion was passed " that the present
site of Maple Bay be considered as a permanent one," but it was further moved and
seconded " that while retaining the site of the present show-yard as the ultimate centre
of the Cowichan, Saltspring, and Chemainus Agricultural Society, and making such
exhibitions as may be within our power to improve the said site, that the executive
committee be instructed to select the site for the show of 1870 in the neighbourhood
of Cowichan Bay."
Perhaps some reference to Komiaken is worthy of note, for just at that time
Father Rondeault was inspiring his Indians to build the first stone church on Vancouver Island. The old stone church still stands on the great Komiaken Hill overlooking
the flat delta of the Cowichan. Though now in disrepair, it is the picturesque monument to the efforts of that devoted missionary who brought Christianity to the savage
people. Many stories are told of the old stone structure and the surrounding hills on
which many native battles were fought. One of these stories tells of how Bishop
Modeste Demers effected a lasting peace between the Quamichan and the Komiaken
tribes by reasoning with them on the slopes of Komiaken Hill.
It is interesting to remember that this old stone church, which was opened in
November, 1870, by Bishop Demers, stimulated the development of the dairy industry
throughout the Cowichan district. It is said that Father Rondeault, in addition to
being a missionary, was also a farmer and a carpenter. He operated a very successful
dairy-farm in the community, and with the proceeds from the sale of butter which he
produced on his farm this missionary paid the workmen who built the church. For
this reason the picturesque old building became known as " the butter church." The
construction of this building began in 1869. The stone was quarried by the Indians
from Komiaken Hill and carried to the church site by them. So it seems only natural
that an effort should be made in those early days for the fall fair to be held somewhere R 12
in the vicinity of that permanent building. However, the majority wish prevailed and
the active executive of the Cowichan, Saltspring, and Chemainus Agricultural Society
decided " that a building 35 feet by 25 feet and 10 feet high be erected on the
Society's reservation at Maple Bay," but also concluded that " consideration of the
question of the erection of an agricultural hall should be deferred until after the
first of June, 1870," so it is believed that this pioneer agricultural society continued to
hold its fall fairs in the vicinity of St. Peter's Anglican Church between Duncan and
Maple Bay, where a splendid site was available among the oak trees that are still
standing at that place.
Old stone church near Cowichan.
This agricultural society had more than ordinary difficulties in arranging for
erection of its hall. The early minutes of 1870 show that 12,000 shingles at $3 per M
were delivered at Maple Bay on August 1st, 1870, and that the tender for delivering
lumber at $13 per M was accepted but that the flooring, which was first-class tongue-
and-groove, was $25 per M. By the fall of 1871 the member committee was instructed
to proceed with the completion of the Agricultural Hall. However, the difficulty of
getting together the necessary material and the prevailing bad weather prevented the
work commencing until the next spring when " the contractor was left to put in five
pairs of windows and one pair of doors, weatherboard the hall and build stairs and
make benches." After the work had proceeded for some time, the workmanship was
found to be unsatisfactory and another contractor had to be secured.    It was during DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948. R 13
these times of construction that William Smithe became active in the Cowichan Agricultural Society. He had for several years been a resident of the community, coming
here from Northern England to Somenos about 1865. He became corresponding secretary for the Association and was at that time a member of the Legislative Assembly.
Later on, about 1883, he became Premier of British Columbia. In looking over the
ancient minute-books, it is not to be wondered at that the Provincial Government in
those days gave a fairly generous grant to this Cowichan Fall Fair. In fact financially
it was more generously assisted in those days than it has been since that time.
The Cowichan, Saltspring, and Chemainus Agricultural Society has, during the
past eighty years, continued to be of great benefit to the agricultural efforts of this
community. It also considered the Cattle-branding Ordinance and set up a committee
to consider what steps ought to be taken with reference to said ordinance. It also
passed the following understanding motion " that in the opinion of the executive committee it is highly advisable that choice kinds of seeds, roots, etc., be imported direct
from England to be open to purchase by members of the Association at cost price on
arrival." It arranged for the annual fair to sell stock and produce in connection with
agricultural exhibitions. According to the agricultural discussion which took place
on March 6th, 1874, there was correspondence with officials dealing with cattle-brands
in Oregon for the purpose of ascertaining the price of bulls; also " to ascertain the
tumtum of the members of the society with regard to funds for the purchase" and
report at next meeting. They were an enterprising lot of pioneers and spoke in the
Chinook tongue among themselves, and evidently by October 9th, 1878, they had ascertained the tumtum and appointed a committee to draft a resolution embodying some
feasible scheme for getting pure-bred short-horn bulls into the settlement through the
agency of the Cowichan, Saltspring, and Chemainus Agricultural Society.
There is much to be recorded of genuine interest to British Columbia and the
residents of Cowichan during the following seventy years as the first ten years'
minutes indicate.
When the above-mentioned Cowichan, Saltspring, and Chemainus Agricultural
Society was slowly developing and pioneer farmers in the vicinity were producing the
butter that paid for the construction of the first stone church at Komiaken, an effort
to find a substitute to relieve the starving people of France was reported. This butter
substitute was scarcely of interest to the early patrons of the Cowichan Creamery, but
they have learned in the years that have intervened since 1869 that the use of this
butter substitute is likely to make progress here in Canada.
It is said that margarine, which was first introduced in 1869 in response to the offer
of prizes for a spread for bread, was developed by Mege-Mouriez. In this early experiment, finely chopped beef suet was heated with water, potassium carbonate, and freshly
minced sheep's stomach. The pepsin from the sheep's stomach dissolved and separated
the animal tissue from the oil, which was then removed, slowly cooled, and a portion of
it in the form of stearin was crystallized. A portion of this fat was churned with a
small amount of milk and water, and a trace of a colour substance was added. Ever
since that time, oleo oil, which had been rendered from the finest of beef fats and
possessed a natural desirable flavour, has been used in many European countries and
some of the neighbouring States; however, its manufacture and sale in Canada has
been illegal almost continuously since 1886. From December 1st, 1917, to February
29th, 1924, oleomargarine was admitted to our Canadian market and we consumed
51,922,250 lb. Prohibitory clauses were suspended as a war measure from December
1st, 1917, to August 31st, 1923. R 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
This question, however, has been up before the House of Commons and the
Canadian Senate for several years, and it was recently referred to the Supreme Court
of Canada for a decision. The decision made December 14th, 1948, found section 5 (a)
of the " Dairy Industry Act " to be ultra vires. It is interesting to note that Prince
Edward Island has definitely opposed permission being granted for the manufacture or
sale of oleomargarine in Canada's most easterly Province.
At the same time in British Columbia some dairymen have been endeavouring to
invoke the " Dairy Industry (British Columbia) Act " of 1935, by which they feel that
the dairy industry can still have the necessary protection; however, at the end of this
year it seems likely that this matter may be dealt with by the Legislature which will
shortly be in session.
The main effort that has been made by representatives of the dairy industry thus
far is to show that oleomargarine, if manufactured and sold in British Columbia, should
be under its natural colour, to which no artificial colouring can be added. Dairy-
farmers in many remote sections of British Columbia, feeling that the burden of caring
for, feeding, housing, and milking their cattle, are not receiving sufficient labour income,
and claim that they will not tolerate the butter substitute being made with artificial
butter colouring being used.
This is one of the important agricultural questions requiring early settlement.
" The Current Review of Agricultural Conditions in Canada" in the October
issue, 1948, sets forth the agricultural situation in the various Provinces as noted by
the Economic Division, Marketing Service, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, in
co-operation with the Agricultural Division of the Dominion Bureau of Statistics.
This issue reviews agriculture in 1948 and it was prepared as background material for
the Dominion-Provincial Agricultural Conference, which was held December 6th to
8th, 1948. In conjunction with this conference were meetings of the Continuing
Committee on Agricultural Statistics attended by G. H. Stewart, Statistician of the
Department of Agriculture, whose report appears herewith.
The annual conference of the Dominion-Provincial Farm Labour men was held
immediately following the Agricultural Conference and was attended by Wm. MacGil-
livray, Supervisor for British Columbia. On the 9th and 10th of December, Deans
of Agriculture and Deputy Ministers for the majority of the Provinces met for two
days at a general meeting of the National Advisory Committee on Agricultural Services, where numerous problems affecting agriculture in Canada were considered. The
writer represented British Columbia and also the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of British Columbia at this gathering, where the problem of soil conservation
was a main topic for consideration.
World Food Production.
It was pointed out that the supply of food available for consumption in 1947-48
was greater than in the previous year. In every major region of the world, with the
exception of Western Europe, however, the total supply of available food comprises
only part of the picture. Availability per person is another major factor, and the
world's population has been increasing at different rates in different regions. These
population increases over the eleven-year period from 1936-47 vary from 3.5 per cent,
in Europe to 24 per cent, in Latin-America. As a result the per capita food-supplies
have fallen more rapidly compared with pre-war years than the absolute quantities
of food produced. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948.
R 15
In tabular form the peak as far as available food-supplies per person are concerned is shown as follows:—
Food-supplies available per Person* 1934-38, 1946-47, and 1947-48.
Far East	
Europe (excluding U.S.S.R.)	
* Based on data for fifty-three countries which include 85 per cent, of the world's population.
t 1935-39=100.
t Base period for Australia, 1936-39 ;   New Zealand. 1935-39.
As this table shows, in North America live-stock products have been comparatively
plentiful, whereas in all other regions consumers have had to increase the proportion
of crop products in their diet. The food-supply of any single country would be nutritionally inadequate even if distributed evenly throughout the population. As it is, the
inequality of distribution results in certain sections of the population fairing much
worse than the national average suggests.
Changes in consumption levels are related closely to changes in production, since
for the staple products only a small part of the world's food output enters international
trade. The food production in 1947-48 was higher than in the previous year in
Canada and the United States particularly, as the following table indicates, but in
Europe it was decidedly below normal.
Index Number of Volume of Production of Food Products in 1946-47
and 1947-48. F_
Area. 1946-47.
Far East   90
Europe (excluding U.S.S.R.)     76
United States and Canada*   135
Latin America   114
Australia and New Zealand^   96
Africa and Near East   	
World  (excluding U.S.S.R.)     95
* Base period is 1935-39.
t Base period in Australia is 1936-37 to 1938-39 ; in New Zealand, 1935-39.
The important fact brought out in the " Current Review " for October is that the
world is still producing less food than before the war, although the population continues to increase. A remarkable contrast exists between the expansion in the Western
Hemisphere and the severe decline in Europe.
The observation was made that the sugar situation has changed materially during
the past year and the world production of sugar in 1948 was slightly above the 1934-38
pre-war average; on a per capita basis it is still 7 per cent, below the pre-war average.
At about the end of 1947 sugar was released from the war-time restrictions in Canada,
and our fruit-growers were relieved of the necessity of finding means of sugarless
processing of their raw materials for future use. R 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Agricultural Finances.
The financial assistance to Europe for the first year of the European Recovery
Programme, amounting to about $5,000,000,000, is providing for the purchases in
Canada of foodstuffs and basic raw materials. These are generally items which the
United States is not in a position to supply. In cases where individual agricultural
products are declared to be in surplus supply in the United States, the Economic
Co-operation Administration is directed to confine its purchases of such products to
that country. This makes it rather difficult for us in Canada to find a place abroad
for our supplies because in many lines the Canadian products are the same as the
American surpluses; for example, our eggs, fruit-pulp, etc., cannot be sold under this
arrangement because there are similar American goods available in surplus quantity.
However, apart from the influence of E.C.A. purchases the demand for Canadian
exports in 1948 is strong.
Machinery and Lime.
It is interesting to note that the available supply of farm equipment in 1948 is
about 25 per cent, greater than in 1947. Imports of tractors have been 34 per cent.
higher this year than in the same period of 1947, and for all of Canada the farm
tractors in use approximate 43,000 units as compared to approximately 33,000 units
in 1947.    The prices paid for farm machinery in 1948 have risen by about 12 per cent.
The use of fertilizers in Canada has become more widespread. In the period from
1927-47, inclusive, there was a fourfold increase in the physical volume of sales—from
169,564 tons to 657,282 tons. The price of commercial fertilizers has risen by about
5 per cent, during 1948, and since the end of the war they have increased by 11 per cent.
The use of agricultural lime, now receiving encouragement both in Eastern Canada
and in British Columbia, is achieving its objective. The Dominion and Provincial
Governments are co-operating in paying subsidies on the use of agricultural lime as
a soil amendment. The 1948 aggregate sales were about 500,000 tons, of which British
Columbia's 15,000 tons looks decidedly small. The Fraser Valley is using the majority
of this tonnage in British Columbia.
Post-war Population.
The post-war pattern of agricultural production resembles that of the pre-war.
There is a slightly greater output of live stock and considerable emphasis has been
placed on specialty crops. Both mechanization, which has made great strides, and the
use of commercially prepared fertilizers and feeds has increased significantly.
There have been changes in the regional distribution of population, and the industrial regions of British Columbia have shown substantial gains in urban population.
Much of the farming in British Columbia is done in the valleys, where there are some
4,000,000 acres in farms. The number of farms increased from 17,000 in 1911 to
26,000 in 1941, and the average area for British Columbia is given as 153 acres per
farm.    Large numbers of part-time farmers now exist on Vancouver Island.
There is competition for rural and urban use of land in the agricultural areas of
the Okanagan and Fraser Valley as well as on Vancouver Island. The clearing and
development of the Peace River area for agricultural use is one of the important " land-
use " developments in British Columbia. The flood control, drainage, and land-clearing
are important activities in many sections. Dykes now being repaired in the Fraser
Valley will, it is hoped, prevent crop damage in future years.
The population of British Columbia has been growing rapidly and the Prairie
Provinces have provided a large number of our new residents during the past two
years. The population has increased by nearly 100,000 to a total of well over 1,000,000
residents. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948. R 17
Specialized Production.
In British Columbia, seed production, which showed a spectacular increase during
the war years, is somewhat reduced but is still very much larger than before the war.
Production of certified seed potatoes has shown a steady increase, and an example of
more intensive land-use is the production of Vita grass for use in poultry and other
mashes. This Fraser Valley and Okanagan land produces as much as eight cuttings
a year.
It is worthy to note that in this region where 2,696 farm tractors were reported
on farms in 1941 the further sales amounted to 3,886 tractors. These machines provided the means of working the lands in the various sections of British Columbia and
greatly reduce the need of farm horses. In addition, land-clearing with the use of
heavy implements has been developed on a systematic basis.
Grain and Forage Crops.
British Columbia, though not a grain-exporting Province, is very much concerned
with the production of wheat, oats, barley, and mixed grains in the Prairie Provinces,
because we are an importing area and require large amounts of concentrates and grains
for the maintenance of our pigs, poultry flocks, and dairy herds. Therefore, we are
interested in the fact that effective April 1st, 1948, an increase of 20 cents per bushel
was made in the initial payment to Canadian wheat producers. This increase raised
the initial payment of No. 1 Northern to $1.55 a bushel in store at the Lakehead. This
payment was made retroactive to August 1st, 1945. At present wheat is being supplied
to the United Kingdom at $2.05 per bushel for the same grade at the same shipping-
point. To offset the effect of this increase on the domestic price of flour and bread
the Government of Canada announced at the same time a refund of 45 cents per bushel
to Canadian millers, and on September 1st, 1948, this refund was increased to 46V2
cents per bushel.
There is wide argument at the present time with reference to this United Kingdom Wheat Agreement, under the terms of which Great Britain is to receive 140,000,000
bushels in the form of wheat or wheat flour during each of the crop-years of 1948-49
and 1949-50. Wheat prices to countries other than the United Kingdom are established by the Canadian Wheat Board, and the average of recent monthly quotations
indicates that No. 1 Northern wheat was $2.40 a bushel for the product stored at the
In British Columbia our wheat acreage, which averaged 65,500 acres in the 1935-39
period and 94,168 acres in the 1943-45 period, and had reached 108,400 acres in 1946
and 130,100 acres in 1947, had decreased by 1948 to a total of 116,000 acres. This
reduction in wheat acreage in British Columbia is difficult to reconcile with this Province's ability to grow either fall or spring wheat, either of which gives a high yield.
We have need of the grain, and with a home market existing for this product there
should not be a reduction in the acreage grown.
It is also true that in oat production British Columbia has not grown the area
of this crop that was expected. The area sown to oats in 1948 is, for Canada, slightly
higher than in 1947, but British Columbia's yield of grain was far below what it was
anticipated. This Province, which during the five-year period of 1935-39 was 111,600
acres, had dropped during the 1943-45 period to 75,900 acres and gradually worked
up through 1946 to 81,000 acres, and in 1947 was 84,200 acres, showed a sharp reduction in 1948 to the lowest point in the past fifteen years, being only 75,800 acres. It is
in these two commodities, wheat and oats, that the feeders of British Columbia are
particularly interested, and it is expected that with the possible expiry of the free-
freight policy of the Dominion Government after July 31st next the farmers of British
Columbia may be expected to produce more of these valuable feed-grains. R 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Our barley production of 15,500 acres and mixed-grain area of 8,400 acres has
been slightly increased during the past year, but our production of eggs, bacon, and
dairy products is dependent largely upon the importation of feed-grains from the
Prairie Provinces. For the future, when this source of animal concentrate is not
available, our feeders must rely on the product of our own farms.
One of the problems confronting British Columbia poultrymen, dairymen, and
hog-raisers particularly has to do with the necessity of feed concentrates, and at the
present time linseed-meal is necessary to improve the quality of the various mashes
that are used in these feeds. The recommendation was made during the Ottawa
Conference that the surplus of linseed-oil now accumulated at many of the seed-crushing plants should be used for the painting and improvement of homes and other farm
buildings. It was suggested that this surplus of linseed-oil, which is acting as a glut
on Canadian markets, might be made available to farmers at a reduced price so that
the crushing-plants might again commence work using our surplus flax-seed. This
suggestion is being advanced to approximately thirty District Agriculturists, who
come in closer contact than others with the rural farm-houses of British Columbia.
The suggestion that was made to the effect that Canada might inaugurate a " European
Recovery Plan " at home did not appear to receive very serious consideration at the
Dominion-Provincial Conference. It was looked upon as a matter for Provincial action
rather than a Dominion-wide scheme. British Columbia could well assist farmers in
the use of good-quality paint for which we have the raw materials available.
Live-stock Production.
The most notable change in the live-stock situation during the past year has been
to reduce the output of live-stock products in North America and Western Europe.
This was largely due to the poor corn-crop in the United States in 1947, and the
general failure of crops in Western Europe caused by drought.
The war seriously injured the live-stock industry in Europe. The damage was
even more serious in Eastern than in Western European countries. Recovery has been
very slow, partly because of unfavourable weather and partly because Government
policy has emphasized crops for direct human consumption. The present level of output is only about 65 per cent, of pre-war.
During the war the United Kingdom for shipping reasons relied more heavily on
supplies from North America, Argentina, and Uruguay. It is now reverting to prewar sources of supply. The United Kingdom currently takes all the exportable surplus
of meat and dairy products from Australia and New Zealand and is beginning to
resume imports from Europe, particularly Denmark. Imports from Australia and
New Zealand are maintained at a steady level, but they continue to include a little
more cheese and less butter than pre-war.
This has had its effect on Canada's economic situation, which is rather seriously
affecting the agricultural industry of British Columbia. During the past year butter
production has been seriously impaired and, in an effort to secure a butter substitute,
our dairy industry has been called upon to forego the protection that it has enjoyed
for many years against the manufacture and sale of oleomargarine. This matter is
currently before the Supreme Court of Canada and the outcome will be greeted with
opposition by either the dairy industry or the consuming public. From a study of
the " Current Review " and knowledge gained at the Dominion-Provincial Conference
it is quite evident that the peak prices of the war years have been reached and past.
In spite of all that Canada and the United States have done to hold off a recession in
values of agricultural products, fear was expressed in December that a levelling-out
of farm values could be expected, but discussion of this eventuality properly belongs
in next year's report. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948. R 19
This year's conference has differed from those of the war years in that we have
not now any definite guide by which to lay plans for the 1949 production of export
commodities. Britain is now in a position where she can receive imports from several
European countries, as well as Australia, New Zealand, and Canada. Her financial
structure does not permit of a continued expansion of imports from non-sterling countries. It is mainly through the European Recovery Programme, otherwise known as
the " Marshall Plan," that our eggs, bacon, cheese, and other commodities have found
willing European buyers in recent months, and present indications are that we may
not expect a demand for any commodities which may be declared surplus in the United
States. It was, therefore, considered that the 50,000,000 lb. of Cheddar cheese and
46,000,000 dozen eggs and 160,000,000 lb. of bacon which Britain has contracted to
purchase from Canada during the coming year provides the best outlet that we can
expect for our commodities.
The prices for bacon and cheese shipments will remain the same as in 1946, but
the egg price will be slightly lower. As A. M. Shaw, C.M.G., chairman of the
Dominion-Provincial Agricultural Conference, said in summing up the discussions,
" We must realize that we are out of the war period. We have an agricultural industry
that has become highly organized and our farmers are now in a sounder position than
they have been in the memory of many of us here." Agriculture was faced with the
prospect of lower prices and might have to accept them.
The bacon contract made a year ago for 1948 delivery called for 195,000,000 lb.,
and the egg agreement, which was more than filled in 1948, was for 74,000,000 dozen
The 1949 egg agreement is for the equivalent of 46,000,000 dozen, covering the
eleven-month period from February 1st to December 31st, 1949. The previous agreement was for the twelve-month period of February 1st, 1948, to January 31st, 1949.
Shipments for 1949 will be for 19,500,000 dozen eggs in the shell, 3,000 tons of dried
egg, and 4,000 tons of frozen egg.
While the 1949 egg prices are slightly below those of 1948, it is expected that a
major portion of the reduction can be met through economies and processing costs
and that the necessary reduction in egg prices paid to producers will be relatively
small. Such reduction should be compensated for to a certain extent by the partial
removal of restrictions on exports to other markets, the Right Honourable J. G. Gardiner stated.
The new egg prices are 52% cents per dozen for storage eggs, $1.36 per lb. for
dried egg, and 32% cents per lb. for frozen egg. The 1948 prices were 54% cents per
dozen for storage eggs, $1.46 per lb. for dried egg, and 35 cents per lb. for frozen egg.
Egg Prices and Feed Costs.
The egg contract announced in 1947 with Great Britain, covering the period from
February 1st, 1948, to January 1st, 1949, called for the shipment of 80,000,000 dozen
eggs, but early in 1948 this was reduced to 74,000,000 dozen. Present indications
announced in December, 1948, are that the total that was supplied under this contract
will approximate 70,000,000 dozen eggs. The contract also called for 23,000,000 dozen
eggs in dried form, of which 21,000,000 were supplied. The minimum contract quantity
of frozen eggs was 10,000,000 lb. and shipments amounted to 10,300,000 lb. Shipments
of storage eggs were 647,000 cases against the contract figure of 650,000 cases. The
contract also provided for 24,000,000 dozen fresh eggs, which are at present being
shipped and deliveries of which will continue until the end of January, 1949.
With the reduction in egg contracts for 1949 to 46,000,000 dozen, the announcement
has been made that the price to the producer will be decreased by 2% cents per dozen.
This indicates a gradual decline in agricultural prices for Canada because the price R 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
received on these contracts is followed fairly closely by the domestic price. At the same
time the cost of the production of eggs remains high owing to the price of feeds
purchased. The outlook for 1949 will be governed by the trend of feed prices. At the
Dominion-Provincial Conference it was pointed out that there are two agricultural
groups interested in the prices of feed-grains—one is the Prairie farmer who produces
the grain, the other is the feeder who consumes it. One group is looking for the highest
prices available, the other group looks for the lowest possible cost.
In British Columbia we have to consider both groups, and on August 1st the price
of feed-wheat was increased by approximately $16 a ton. The Feed Manufacturers'
Associations endeavour to point out to the Wheat Board that the spread (or discount)
on No. 5 wheat is too narrow. The No. 5 wheat sold at approximately $1.42 a bushel,
while the No. 1 Hard wheat was $1.55 a bushel one year ago. Now with No. 1 Hard
wheat selling at $2.05 a bushel, the No. 5 feed-wheat is $1.92 and the consumer group
are reluctant about paying this very high price for such a low-grade product.
Some farmers argue that an " open market," which would set the price for No. 5
feed-wheat, would be much more satisfactory to the feed buyers, for the cost of
No. 5 feed-wheat is dependent on how much of the crop was of feed grades. These
arguments are still going on and many feeders are at present debating whether they
should liquidate their flocks or depend on possible Federal Government action to bring
about a reduction in feed-grain prices. The Federal action in 1948 forced the price of
wheat upwards by nearly $16 a ton and, in addition, ceased to pay the price subsidy
of 25 cents a bushel. The farmer to-day is paying approximately $25 a ton more than
he paid up till July 31st, 1948. This price increase is made up of the basic price of
No. 5 feed, which was $1.42 per bushel prior to July 31st, and since August 1st, 1948,
has been $1.92, showing an advance of 50 cents per bushel. Formerly the wheat-grower
received a subsidy of 25 cents a bushel so that now the total cost is higher by 75 cents,
making the increased cost about $25 per ton.
Freight Subsidy.
One encouraging feature is that till July 31st, 1949, the Dominion Government
will continue to pay the freight subsidy on feed-grains from the Prairie Provinces, but
it is a rather unsatisfactory situation that confronts the many egg producers, including
war veterans, who have put their all into their poultry business. They are confronted
with the certainty of reduced export markets, falling prices, and uncertainty of feed
Feed-grain Imports, December 1st, 1947, to November 30th, 1948.
Wheat   99,813
Oats   52,430
Barley  24,238
Mill-feed  22,178
Total  198,659
A number of car-loads, mainly of feed oats, were purchased from the Prairie
Provinces and brought into the beef-raising areas of British Columbia with the
assistance of the freight subsidy. Many agricultural organizations took advantage
of this policy to provide the necessary feed for wintering the breeding stock, owing
to the difficulty of putting up adequate hay this season.
The following appointments were made by the Civil Service in 1948: Miss D. M.
Furtney, January 1st;   R. P. E. Hammond, January 1st;   H. E. Cox, January 5th; DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948. R 21
Miss A. Hacking, March 15th; W. D. Kitzel, April 1st;   J. E. Swales, April 1st;   Miss
F. J. Mutrie, April 7th; Miss H. M. Davis, April 7th; Miss J. M. Somerville, May 1st;
Miss M. E. Wimperley, May 1st; I. C. MacSwan, May 3rd; H. Riehl, May 3rd; C. H.
Nelson, May 4th; N. C. McKinnon, May 17th; I. B. Peterson, May 31st; Miss Farion,
May 25th; R. L. Wilkinson, May 31st; J. A. Fischer, June 1st; Miss S. Kennedy,
June 1st;  G. W. Hayes, June 8th;  I. D. C. Clark, June 16th;  C. F. Morris, June 22nd;
G. L. Calver, June 28th; F. G. Moffat, July 1st; Miss V. V. Cookson, July 20th; A. J.
Bodaly, August 1st; Miss M. Borge, August 1st; Miss E. Dahell, August 1st; J. A.
McDiarmid, August 1st; D. B. Robertson, September 1st; Miss B. DeGraves, September
15th;  Miss B. Hanneson, November 2nd.
The following resignations were made in 1948: Miss G. H. Gagne, January 15th;
Miss H. Hellaby, January 31st; Miss J. R. J. Fontaine, February 29th; Miss A. C.
Marks, March 13th; R. P. E. Hammond, March 31st; Miss A. Hacking, May 29th;
D. S. Gibbons, May 31st; Miss R. Bertschi, June 30th; R. D. Archibald, July 15th;
Mrs. I. M. Miller, July 15th; D. P. Graham, September 15th; W. D. Kitzel, September
15th;  Mrs. G. F. Iverson, October 31st.
The following superannuations were made in 1948: M. S. Middleton, June 30th;
J. Travis, June 30th;   G. Pilmer, September 30th.
During the year just ended, four of our superannuated civil servants have passed
away. On July 18th, 1948, J. D. Macdonald, V.S., died, and his funeral was held from
the St. Michael's Church and his remains were interred in the churchyard. His funeral
was well attended by members of the Civil Service who had served with him since he
began work for the British Columbia Department of Agriculture on April 8th, 1919.
Dr. Macdonald was retired on September 30th, 1945.
Lancelot Todhunter, who had worked with our Soil Survey Branch in the Okanagan,
Central British Columbia, the Fraser Valley, and Vancouver Island since 1931, and had
reached superannuation age in June of 1948, was given an extension of three months
to permit him to complete the map of the Saanich area, which is being considered as
a possible irrigation area. At the end of his extended term he was a sick man and
instead of reporting to the Department of Agriculture he went to the Kelowna hospital
where he died on October 6th. Not having any known relatives in British Columbia,
his funeral was held at Kelowna under the auspices of the Canadian Legion. Very little
is known of the late Lancelot Todhunter as he was a quiet, unassuming individual who
kept his private affairs to himself.
On the evening of Thursday, November 18th, F. W. Laing, B.A., who had joined
the staff of the Department of Agriculture as secretary to the Honourable E. D. Barrow,
then Minister of Agriculture, in 1917, passed away. He served under the Honourable
Wm. Atkinson and Honourable K. C. MacDonald until superannuated on December 31st,
1937. Mr. Laing was an early graduate of Toronto University and, following his
arrival in British Columbia early in 1892, he took a very keen interest in matters
pertaining to the history of this Province. Early colonial and Provincial history was
a hobby of his, and after his retirement he devoted much time to the securing of
information which he assembled in manuscript form on the early history of land
recordings in British Columbia. This book was typed and five copies were made
available to various organizations and individuals in Canada, including the B.C.
Historical Society; Major J. S. Matthews, archivist at Vancouver; and J. B. Munro,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture. This volume is well worth publication as a dependable
treatise on land recording in the days preceding the establishment of a Province west
of the Rocky Mountains. As a writer, Mr. Laing's ability was shown during the years
when he edited the Agricultural Journal of British Columbia, the publication of which
was suspended when the Agricultural Instruction Act grant of the Dominion Government ceased to operate in 1923. Mr. Laing's funeral was held in Vancouver on Monday,
November 22nd, 1948. R 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The following month on December 19th, 1948, W. J. Bonavia, former secretary
of the Department of Agriculture, died. He was born December 24th, 1876, and he
entered the service of the Department of Agriculture on August 1st, 1911. With the
appointment of the present Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Mr. Bonavia was made
executive assistant in January, 1929, and owing to ill-health he was superannuated
on January 1st, 1932. Following superannuation, he was restored to comparatively
good health and carried on for the past fifteen years as secretary to the Advisory
Board of Farmers' Institutes. The expressions of regret which have been received
following his death indicate the high esteem in which he was held by agricultural
organizations throughout the Province.
During the past twelve months this Branch has received 3,700 letters requesting
information on agricultural subjects. We have, during the same period, distributed
49,088 bulletins to the public, mimeographed 96,663 stencils for the various branches
of the Department, and received 66,500 copies of new, revised, and reprinted publications
from the King's Printer.
The following is a list of new and revised publications printed in 1948:—
Forty-second Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture.
Statistics Report 1946
Apple-aphids  H.C. 39
The Woolly Apple-aphid H.C. 34
The Imported Cabbage-worm  H.C. 37
Diseases of Fruit-trees H.C. 73
Grasshopper-control H.C. 63
Oyster-shell Scale  H.C. 41
Climate Report 1947
Peach-twig Borer H.C. 31
Potato Diseases  F.C.C. 15
Some Facts about British Columbia No. I
Fruit-spray Calendar.
Soap Solutions for Spraying H.C. 40
Strawberry Culture H.C. 58
Milk-pasteurizing Plant, Floor Plan and Elevation for Farm _.. D.C. 59
G. H. Stewart, Agricultural Statistician.
The agricultural production of the Province of British Columbia reached its highest
level of all time in the year 1947. The gross value of production is estimated at
$134,508,415. This is an increase of $16,516,343 or 13.9 per cent, over the revised total
for the preceding year.
Increases are recorded in the value of farm animals, eggs, poultry meat, dairy
products, small fruits, vegetables, potatoes, grains, fodders, honey, and hops. These
increases are in part offset by decreases shown in the value of wool, tobacco, seeds,
apples, and other tree-fruits. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948. R 23
The total value of imports is placed at $64,801,208, as compared with $49,786,126
in 1946, an increase of $15,015,082 or 30.1 per cent. The gain in imports was particularly marked in the case of live stock, dairy products, and feed-grains.
Imports from other Provinces are valued at $59,458,330, as compared with
$45,392,967 in 1946, while imports from foreign points increased from $4,393,159
in 1946 to $5,342,878 in 1947.
The total value of exports is estimated at $31,217,149 in 1947, as compared with
$33,054,715 in 1946, a decrease of $1,837,566 or 5.5 per cent.
Winter conditions were, on the whole, satisfactory for all small- and tree-fruit
plantings in the horticultural areas of the Province. Short periods of below-zero
weather were recorded at some Interior points, but no damage was done as there was
a satisfactory ground-cover of snow in practically all districts. In the Coast areas
there was more snow and rain than usual, particularly in January and early February.
The spring was cool and at some Interior points extremely dry, resulting in the slow
germination and growth of spring-seeded crops. Nevertheless, the season might be
considered as slightly earlier than that of 1946.
Summer temperatures were not so high as usual, with the result that heat-loving
crops such as tomatoes and cantaloupes were retarded. Dry conditions prevailed in all
coastal areas, while in the irrigated sections there were occasional heavy rains, which
supplemented quite materially what earlier in the season gave every indication of being
a shortage of irrigation-water. The fall was cool and excellent weather prevailed for
the harvesting of all horticultural crops.
The apple-crop was not so heavy as that of 1946, which was the largest crop on
record. There was a general reduction in 1947 of over 20 per cent, in apple production
as compared with 1946. A feature of the 1947 apple-crop was its quality, both from
the standpoint of colour and freedom from disease and insect pests. Harvesting was
completed under satisfactory conditions and the general movement of apples to both
domestic and export markets was good.
The pear-crop was somewhat below that of 1946, while the crop of prunes, plums,
cherries, and apricots was about the same as that of the previous year. The peach-crop
was much heavier than that of 1946, with an estimated increase of approximately
14 per cent. Some loss occurred in the harvesting of cherries due to wet weather.
Other stone-fruit crops, however, were marketed satisfactorily.
Small-fruit production for the year 1947 showed a marked increase over that of the
previous year. This applies particularly to strawberries and raspberries, both of which
show an increase in acreage in the last four years.
Harvesting conditions were excellent for all small fruits in the various small-fruit
districts, with one exception; in the Island area the loganberry-crop was not so large
as originally estimated due to dry weather at picking-time. Prices were well maintained
for all small fruits during the current season and compared favourably with those of
the previous year.
The total production of all fruits in 1947 amounted to 461,934,000 lb. valued at
$25,783,485, as compared with 553,726,000 lb. valued at $27,649,029, in 1946, indicating
a decrease of 91,792,000 lb. or 16.5 per cent, in volume and $1,865,544 or 6.7 per cent,
in value.   The greatly reduced crop of apples was largely responsible for the decrease.
The total production of apples for 1947 is estimated at 325,934,000 lb. of a value
of $14,223,718, as compared with 423,958,000 lb., value $17,207,232, in 1946. R 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Production of peaches in 1947 amounted to 37,914,000 lb. of a value of $1,842,302,
as compared with 33,474,000 lb., value $1,854,109, in 1946.
The quantity of strawberries produced in 1947 amounted to 12,390,000 lb., as
compared with 7,480,000 lb. in 1946, an increase of 4,910,000 lb. or 65.6 per cent.
The production of raspberries in 1947 is estimated at 18,420,000 lb. of a value of
$2,939,224, as compared with 12,280,000 lb., value $2,001,594, in 1946, an increase of
50 per cent, in quantity.
The production and value of other fruit-crops grown commercially in the Province,
with comparable data for 1946 in brackets, is as follows: Pears, 27,150,000 lb.,
$1,496,880 (32,586,000, $1,765,959); plums, 4,204,000 lb., $184,565 (4,298,000, $197,548);
prunes, 16,026,000 lb., $703,038 (18,628,000, $944,597); apricots, 5,824,000 lb., $326,646
(7,374,000, $445,604); cherries, 8,564,000 lb., $1,211,245 (7,686,000, $1,045,552);
blackberries, 1,058,000 lb., $117,611 (1,364,000, $142,302); loganberries, 1,414,000 lb.,
$212,506 (1,636,000, $222,029); bush-fruits and grapes, 2,644,000 lb., $184,704
(2,604,000, $180,983).
Vegetable acreages for the current year show on the whole little change from those
of the previous year. The few changes that might be noted are onion acreage—a slight
reduction. The same also applies to cantaloupes, while tomatoes show an increase
of about 20 per cent, in acreage. Onions were harvested under excellent fall conditions
and were quite sufficient to take care of market requirements. While the tomato-crop
showed an increased acreage, the production was short in so far as the pack of canned
tomatoes is concerned. On the other hand, the market for green-ripe and semi-ripe
shipments was fairly well supplied.
The broccoli-crop was materially shortened on the Coast due to the cold weather
of the previous fall and unsatisfactory weather conditions in February and March.
A very satisfactory cauliflower-crop was harvested in the late fall.
The following vegetable-crops showed an increase in volume of production over the
previous year: Asparagus, beans, celery, corn, lettuce, peas, spinach, and turnips.
On the other hand, such crops as beets, cabbage, cantaloupes, cauliflower, and parsnips
showed a decrease.
The aggregate of all vegetable-crops for the year 1947 was 99,886 tons of a value
of $7,869,430, as compared with 88,995 tons of a value of $7,179,543 produced in 1946,
an increase of 10,891 tons or 12.2 per cent, in quantity and $689,887 or 9.6 per cent,
in value.
The production of forced rhubarb is estimated at 60 tons of a value of $15,000, as
compared with 74 tons valued at $18,652 in 1946.
An increase of 34 tons is recorded in the quantity of field rhubarb produced. The
1947 crop amounted to 1,002 tons valued at $67,788.
The production of hothouse tomatoes in 1947 amounted to 1,932 tons valued at
$785,848, as compared with 1,824 tons valued at $703,758 in 1946.
Field tomatoes produced amounted to 27,400 tons, as against 17,956 tons in 1946,
an increase of 9,444 tons or 52.5 per cent.
Decreases of 237 tons and 83 tons respectively are recorded in the production
of field cucumbers and hothouse cucumbers.
At the end of June the general crop outlook in the Province was very good with
the season generally well advanced. Weather conditions during the July-September
quarter were variable, but in most areas satisfactory crops were harvested. Yields
of wheat and coarse grains, while generally below the levels of last year's excellent DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948. R 25
crops, were still close to or above the long-time average. A period of hot weather late
in July and early in August adversely affected pastures and ranges, but a better-than-
average yield of hay and clover was obtained over the Province as a whole. The
second cut of alfalfa was stored under ideal conditions and, due to an increase in
acreage, total production of alfalfa this year exceeded that of 1946.
The weather was generally excellent during the latter part of August and most of
September, although heavy frosts on August 19th and 20th caused severe damage to
grain-crops in the Prince George and Vanderhoof districts. At the end of September
it was apparent that the potato yield would be well above average, although both yield
and total production were expected to be lower than last year's levels. Dry peas
yielded somewhat below average.
The gross value of the principal field crops produced in 1947 on British Columbia
farms is placed at $30,488,000, as compared with $28,738,000 in 1946, an increase of
The total area of field crops in 1947 is estimated at 627,300 acres, as compared with
591,200 acres in 1946, an increase of 36,100 acres.
Wheat production in 1947 is estimated at 2,966,000 bushels from 130,100 acres, a
yield per acre of 22.8 bushels, as compared with 3,089,000 bushels from 108,400 acres
or 28.5 bushels per acre in 1946. Oats yielded 3,915,000 bushels from 84,200 acres,
as compared with 4,447,000 bushels from 81,000 acres in 1946, yields per acre of 46.5
bushels and 54.9 bushels respectively. The yield of barley is estimated at 507,000
bushels from 14,900 acres, or 34 bushels per acre, as compared with 542,000 bushels
from 14,200 acres, or 38.2 bushels per acre in 1946. Rye is estimated to have yielded
19,000 bushels from 1,000 acres, as compared with 29,000 bushels from 1,300 acres in
1946, yields per acre of 18.7 bushels and 22.1 bushels respectively.
The production of mixed grains is estimated at 368,000 bushels from 8,700 acres,
or 42.3 bushels per acre, as compared with 348,000 bushels from 7,900 acres, or 44.1
bushels per acre, in 1946. The yields of other grain-crops, in bushels, are as follows,
with the 1946 figures within brackets: Peas, 172,000 (208,000); beans, 15,000 (21,000);
flax-seed, 16,800 (25,700).
The production of all grains in 1947 amounted to 7,978,800 bushels valued at
$7,569,000, as compared with a production of 8,709,700 bushels valued at $7,177,000 in
The total yield of hay and clover in 1947 amounted to 492,000 tons from 229,000
acres, or 2.15 tons per acre, as compared with 511,000 tons from 227,000 acres, or 2.25
tons per acre in 1946.
Alfalfa yielded 241,000 tons from 87,800 acres, or 2.75 tons per acre, as compared
with 233,000 tons from 79,100 acres, or 2.95 tons per acre, in 1946. Fodder corn
yielded 37,400 tons from 3,600 acres, or 10.40 tons per acre, as compared with 45,000
tons from 4,400 acres, or 10.15 tons per acre, in 1946. Grain-hay is estimated to have
yielded 75,100 tons from 38,500 acres, as compared with 72,000 tons from 36,000 acres
in 1946, yields per acre of 1.95 tons and 2 tons respectively.
The production of all fodder-crops in 1947 amounted to 845,500 tons valued at
$16,606,000, as compared with 861,000 tons valued at $15,492,000 in 1946.
The total yield of potatoes in 1947 was 106,900 tons from 17,100 acres, as compared
with 120,650 tons from 19,000 acres in 1946, the yields per acre being 6.25 tons and 6.35
tons respectively. Other field roots yielded 19,550 tons from 1,900 acres, or 10.30 tons
per acre, as compared with 19,950 tons from 1,900 acres, or 10.50 tons per acre, in 1946.
The average prices up to December 31st received by growers at the point of production for the 1947 crops are estimated as follows, with the revised prices for 1946
within brackets: Cents per bushel—wheat, 121 (113); oats, 65 (52); barley, 91 (78);
rye, 325 (190) ;  peas, 276 (252) ;  beans, 360 (265) ;  mixed grains, 80 (69) ;  flax-seed, R 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
527   (297).    Dollars per ton—hay and clover,  20.91   (19.25);   alfalfa,  21   (19.44);
fodder corn 7.50 (6.60);  potatoes, 53.20 (46) ;  turnips, etc., 32 (26).
The total value of dairy production in 1947 is placed at $25,588,000, as compared
with the revised total of $20,290,000 in 1946, an increase of $5,298,000 or 26.1 per cent.
Higher fluid-milk and butter-fat prices in 1947 were largely responsible for this gain.
The survey of June 1st placed milch-cow numbers at 95,500, no change from the
total at June 1st, 1946.
Total production of milk on farms in 1947 is estimated at 628,157,000 lb., as compared with 636,468,000 lb. the previous year, a decrease of 8,311,000 lb. or 1.3 per cent.
Of this amount approximately 51 per cent, was used as fluid sales, 20 per cent, in the
manufacture of creamery butter, 8 per cent, in the manufacture of evaporated whole
milk, and the remaining 21 per cent, in the manufacture of Cheddar cheese, ice-cream,
dairy butter, farm-made cheese, and includes milk consumed on the farm and fed to
live stock.
The butter output of creameries in 1947 was 4,436,000 lb., as compared with
5,332,000 lb. in 1946, a decrease of 896,000 lb. or 16.8 per cent.
Factory cheese production in 1947 is estimated at 533,000 lb., as compared with
689,000 lb. in 1946, a decrease of 156,000 lb. or 22.6 per cent.
The production of dairy butter amounted to 1,697,000 lb., up 64,000 lb. from the
total for the year previous.
The production of ice-cream reached an all-time high. The 1947 production is
estimated at 2,487,000 gallons valued at $3,233,000, as compared with 1,525,000 gallons
valued at $1,906,000 in 1946, indicating an increase of 962,000 gallons or 63 per cent, in
Evaporated milk production in 1947 amounted to 24,286,000 lb., as compared with
the 1946 output of 23,554,000 lb.
Fluid-milk sales are estimated at 324,442,000 lb. in 1947, as compared with
325,321,000 lb. in 1946, a decrease of 879,000 lb.
The per capita daily consumption of milk in the Province for 1947 is placed at 0.72
pints, as compared with 0.75 pints in 1946.
Last winter was a more favourable one for the range cattlemen and it may be said
that there were fewer losses, at least from the standpoint of disease. The calf-crop
on the whole was well up to average.
Prices generally were very good. The marketing of beef cattle in the Province
was hampered considerably by the packing-house workers' strike, which was evidently
timed to embarrass the industry and force their demands sooner. Plain- cattle still
bring proportionately higher prices than the better grades. This is without a doubt
traceable to the scarcity of meat on the world market.
Sheepmen have had a very good year but more and more flocks have been sold out.
The reason for this no doubt is that other types of farming offer greater opportunities
and again the sheepmen continue to be bothered with predators in ever-increasing
There seems to be somewhat more interest being taken in swine production, but
the increase is not very great and probably will not show for some time. There is
a definite scarcity of breeding stock of the quality and soundness which breeders
Cattle numbers in the Province at June 1st, 1947, totalled 358,700, as compared
with 389,500 for the year previous. This represents a decrease of 30,800 or 7.9 per
The number of horses on farms this year is placed at 53,300, a decline of 6.3 per
cent, from the total of 56,900 in 1946.
On June 1st, 1947, the number of hogs on farms in British Columbia totalled
76,600, as compared with 67,300 a year earlier, an increase of 9,300 or 13.8 per cent.
Sheep-breeders reduced their flocks during 1947 by 18,800 head or 15.1 per cent.
The June 1st survey indicated 105,900 sheep on farms, as compared with 124,700 in
There was an increase of 7.7 per cent, in all poultry on farms on June 1st, 1947,
as compared with June 1st, 1946, the total this year being 4,910,400 head.
Domestic fowl (hens, cocks, and chickens) were 4,715,000 birds, as compared with
the 1946 figures of 4,427,000, an advance of 7 per cent. Turkeys were 162 per cent,
of the 1946 numbers, being 175,400 birds of all ages. The numbers of geese and ducks
showed little change from those of the previous year.
Production of eggs in 1947 totalled 34,890,000 dozens, as compared with the
revised figures of 30,226,000 dozens produced during 1946, an increase of 4,664,000
dozens or 15.4 per cent. The value of the eggs sold and used for consumption and for
hatching in 1947 amounted to $13,715,000, while in 1946 the revised value was
Total production of poultry meat in 1947 amounted to 22,260,000 lb. of a value
of $6,175,000, as compared with 15,415,000 lb., value $4,372,000, in 1946.
The season was generally favourable in so far as hops are concerned, which
resulted in a crop of record proportions. Production for 1947 is placed at 2,320,000
lb. from 1,619 acres, as compared with 2,205,000 lb. from 1,581 acres in 1946, yields
per acre of 1,433 lb. and 1,395 lb. respectively. The 1947 crop averaged 79 cents per
pound, as compared with 77 cents per pound the year previous.
Tobacco yielded 121,000 lb. valued at $31,100 from 118 acres, as compared with
170,000 lb. valued at $55,000 from 151 acres in 1946, the respective yields being 1,025
lb. and 1,126 lb.
Total wool production in 1947 amounted to 458,000 lb. valued at $126,000, as
compared with 538,000 lb. valued at $147,000 for 1946. The very significant decline
in wool production in 1947 reflects the decrease in sheep numbers.
The 1947 honey-crop was the largest on record. Production for the year is placed
at 1,805,000 lb., an increase of 561,000 lb. or 45 per cent, over 1946. Price controls
were relaxed during the year and the average price per pound to the grower rose from
17 cents in 1946 to 22.5 cents in 1947.
The total value of flower, vegetable, and field-crop seed production for 1947
amounted to $1,583,600, a decrease of $481,300 from the 1946 total.
The value of bulb production for 1947 is estimated at $332,800, as compared with
the 1946 estimate of $368,600.
The revenue derived from fur-farming in 1947 is placed at $864,000, as compared
with a value of $534,000 for 1946. R 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
W. H. Turnbull, Senior Inspector.
The season of 1947-48 was very mild and the bees wintered very well. The
weather was cold enough to keep them semi-dormant, and mild enough that they did
not have to use an abnormal amount of stores during the colder parts of the winter.
The latter part of the winter and early spring was quite mild, and brood-rearing
started early, with the colonies building up very rapidly, and in fruit-growing areas
they were in excellent shape for pollinizing when the blossoms were ready.
As the dandelion-flow was later than usual, following immediately after the fruit-
bloom, the colonies kept right on with brood-rearing to full capacity. This led, in
many ways, to colonies being overcrowded, and the bees consequently swarmed very
badly in some districts. This was noted more especially among beginners, who did
not realize conditions. Commercial bee-keepers, however, took full advantage of this
condition, and materially increased their apiaries by dividing and supplying new
The package bees, of which we had a record importation, built up very rapidly,
and were in good shape for the honey-flow, which started about June 15th. This flow
was not in any way spectacular but was steady, and all operators reporting on July
16th claimed a bumper crop in sight.
Between July 16th and July 20th the weather turned damp, and continued that
way for six weeks, with the result that no nectar was gathered in that period and the
bees were forced to use stores gathered in the early part of the season to feed the
large numbers of larvse in the colonies when the damp season started. Practically no
surplus was gathered after July 16th.
This state of the weather worked a real hardship in the Prince George area
(which is almost a month later than the Coast and Southern Interior Districts), as
the bees used the early flow to build up to storing strength, and as there was no late
flow many colonies were starving in August.
The weather conditions such as I have described did not apply to the Peace River
Block, and the bees in that area stored a bumper crop of honey, many colonies averaging over 300 lb. each.
With sugar being removed from the ration list, a large number of beginners who
purchased a colony of bees to help out in the shortage of sweets disposed of their bees
or discontinued keeping them.
At least 50 per cent, in the non-producing areas of Vancouver and New Westminster dropped out, a total of 516. In the rest of the Province the drop wa^ not
nearly so big, in all about 7 per cent., and as we had a new registration of 219, it cut
the loss to 4.7 per cent. This situation was to be expected, and as those dropping out
averaged one and a half colonies each, the loss in honey to the Province was practically
nil, as commercial producers held their apiaries at practically the same numbers as
last year. The industry at this time is in a very healthy condition, as most people
keeping bees are keeping them for a profit and not as a hobby.
Some radical changes were made this year. V. E. Thorgeirson took over the whole
of the Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island. He was " on call " wherever a report
was made that disease was suspected. He covered the district well, and visited every
part of it. Although he did not examine so many apiaries as last year, he examined
more colonies of bees. Then, too, it is worthy of note that for five weeks, while the
flood was at its worst, he was busy every day and many nights assisting bee-keepers
in the Fraser Valley to move their bees and hives to safety. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948. R 29
It was due to his work that the loss of bees was kept at a minimum; in fact, not
one report of loss of bees by flood in the Fraser Valley was made.
There was some loss, however, in the Pitt Meadows district, caused after the flood
by systematic dusting by plane with D.D.T. for mosquito-control.
The newly appointed bee-masters were used this year, and Messrs. H. Boone
(South Okanagan), C. C. Heighway (Central Okanagan), and C. B. Twigg (Creston)
carried on part-time work, and it was most satisfactory. Your Senior Inspector carried
on much the same as last year, taking care of all reported cases of disease in the North
Okanagan and Kamloops Districts. Visits were also made to Creston, Nelson, Trail,
and Grand Forks. A trip was made into the Cariboo and Prince George Districts,
where meetings were held and every assistance possible was given to beginners and
commercial producers. While at Prince George, a visit was made to Fort St. John and
Dawson Creek in the Peace River Block. R. W. Brown, District Agriculturist at
Fort St. John, took me over the district, which was from Fort St. John to Clayhurst
Crossing on the Peace River, practically every bee-keeper being visited. This district
is making a remarkable showing, and we have answered many inquiries as to locations
for commercial production.
A large number of meetings were held this year in all parts of the Province, and
the same spirit of co-operation was shown, as we have had in the past, from the
fourteen divisions of the B.C. Honey Producers' Association, which is now covering the
Province.   The two latest divisions are the Vancouver Island and Peace River Districts.
I have attended the annual meetings of the Alberta and Saskatchewan Beekeepers
Association, as well as the annual meeting of the Canadian Beekeepers' Council. It is
the plan of the Apiary Division to have a man attend the annual meetings of each
division of the Honey Producers' Association, in so far as it is possible to do so.
It is with regret that we must record the passing of A. S. Homersham, of Nelson,
who did valuable work for us in the Kootenays for many years.
No losses were reported from poison sprays this year, with the exception of the
loss mentioned in Pitt Meadows.
. In the handling of American foul-brood the educational campaign being carried
on by this Division seems to be showing good results, as every district shows a decrease
in the percentage of disease found in apiaries inspected. The summary of Inspectors'
work attached shows a drop of more than 1 per cent, of disease for the past year.
This, we think, is due to the increased vigilance of the bee-keepers, who are keeping
a closer watch on any appearance of suspected cases of American foul-brood and are
reporting them to this office or destroying them at once. This, together with the
feeding of sulfathiozole, half gram to a gallon of sugar syrup, both fall and spring,
is going a long way to both reduce the losses from the inroads of American foul-brood
and to promote a better bee-keeping practice that will eventually give us a real control
of the disease. The use of the sulfa drug as a preventive seems to be justified. Some
15,000 (7% grain) tablets were distributed to the bee-keepers at cost by this Department in 1948. As reported last year, the use of sulfathiozole is becoming part of our
regular apiary practice.
The office-work for the year just passed has been unusually heavy. We have to
report 1,156 letters received and 2,570 mailed during the past season. When the
systematic inspection of apiaries was discontinued and the " on call" system substituted, it was felt that contact must be kept with individual bee-keepers in all districts,
and with this in view, a bulletin was prepared under the heading of " Bee-Wise." R 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
This was mailed to all bee-keepers wishing to have it, as well as to all members of the
B.C. Honey Producers' Association. The demand for it increased each month, and the
work of preparing and mailing 750 to 1,000 copies was no small task, which was handled by Miss Joan Trehearne, who mailed out seven issues, in addition to the regular
office-work. In this connection, too, I would like to express my thanks to Tom Leach,
of the C.B.C., who has given us valuable assistance in distributing " Bee-Wise."
This was carried on as in the past by the inspection staff, ably assisted by A. W.
Finlay, J. W. Winson, and Dr. W. H. Hill.
Thanks are due to the different District Agriculturists in the Province for the
excellent co-operation and help they have given this Department at all times, and
I would like especially to thank R. W. Brown, of Fort St. John, for the very systematic
and thorough method in which he arranged transportation for me in the Peace River
Block in the short time I had at my disposal.
The thanks of this Department are also due to the bee-masters of British Columbia,
of whom we now have thirty-six, for the valuable assistance they have given in the
past year.
We would also like to mention the co-operation of C. B. Gooderham, Dominion
Apiarist, whose advice has been of great value to us in the year just past.
Ernest MacGinnis, Commissioner.
The year just closing was remarkable for several things, one being that domestic
price-levels were well sustained and markets accepted agricultural products in good
volume. Producer organization campaigns, emphasizing the value of high-quality
goods, continued to pay dividends in fruit, vegetables, fibre, and seed crops through
their ready acceptance in Canadian and such export markets as were available.
In view of the constantly changing marketing scene in so far as markets are
concerned and the impact of these changes upon the whole disposal problem, consideration is given to trends of production and supply and to the presentation of summaries
of these, which will be of value in visualizing the over-all picture.
Under the Marketing Act, the British Columbia Fruit Board has designated B.C.
Tree Fruits, Ltd., Kelowna, as its agency to market all tree-fruits produced in the area
in which the Board operates.
Apples have always formed a large proportion of Canadian fruit exports to
Britain. In 1937, 5,514,900 bushels of apples, and in 1938, 8,421,535 bushels, were
shipped to the United Kingdom from Canada. This dropped to 682,921 bushels in
1943-44 and 1,033,970 in 1944-45, increasing to 4,492,400 in 1946-47 and dropping to
nothing in 1947-48.
" Current Review " of agricultural conditions in Canada, in Volume 2, No. 9, has
assembled some interesting tables showing trends from which extracts will be made to
complete this record. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948.
R 31
Apple Production by Provinces, 1935-48.
'000 Bu.
'000 Bu.
'000 Bu.
'000 Bu.
'000 Bu.
Supply Situation (Crop-year July 1st to June SOth).
'000 Bu.
'000 Bu.
'000 Bu.
'000 Bu.
'000 Bu.
224      |              75
3,872                5,409
Available for domestic use	
7,050      |        8,229
To November 20th, British Columbia had exported over 1,000,000 boxes of apples,
compared with 1,400,000 on that date last year.
The pear-crop was short in all three producing Provinces, the reduction from 1947
averaging 20 per cent. As a result of this smaller supply, processors will put up a
smaller pack.   The non-availability of imports reduced the supply of fresh fruit.
The prices of fresh pears on the eastern markets were substantially higher in 1948
than in 1947. When the crop came on the market at the end of August, prices were
more than double those of the preceding year, and by October they still showed an
increase of 25 per cent.
Pear Production by Provinces, 1935-
'000 Bu.
'000 Bu.
'000 Bu.
'000 Bu.
•000 Bu.
477 R 32
Supply Situation (Calen
iar Year j
'000 Bu.
'000 Bu.
'000 Bu.
'000 Bu.
'000 Bu.
* Less than 500 bushels.
The plum and prune crop in 1948 was 18 per cent, less than that of 1947. Smaller
crops were produced in each of the three producing Provinces. However, there has
been a marked increase in production of these fruits since before the war. Although
the amount available for processing in 1948 was below that of recent years, it was
greater than in 1935-39.
In both Ontario and British Columbia, prices in 1948 were higher than those in
1947.    This was particularly evident at the beginning of the marketing season.
Peach Production by Provinces, 1935-48.
'000 Bu.
'000 Bu.
'000 Bu.
'000 Bu.
'000 Bu.
Supply Situation (Calendar Year).
'000 Bu.
'000 Bu.
'000 Bu.
'000 Bu.
'000 Bu.
Total supplies ,
367      |            986
1.235       1        1.601
The 1948 cherry-crop was slightly larger than that of 1947. The amount processed
was less than the high levels attained in the previous two years, and the division
between this use and the fresh market was nearly equal.
With the exception of the early part of the British Columbia crop, 1948 prices for
cherries were about the same as those for 1947. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948.
R 33
Cherry Production by Provinces, 1935-48.
'000 Bu.
'000 Bu.
'000 Bu.
'000 Bu.
'000 Bu.
The marketing of berries is carried on by various co-operative and independent
shippers and canners, centring in the Fraser Valley for the principal tonnage. The
year just closing has been a very difficult one; floods undoubtedly caused great damage
to the crops and hundreds of tons of both raspberries and strawberries are reputed to
have been washed down the Fraser River. Excessive moisture conditions at picking-
time tended toward mould and breakdown in fresh berries shipped. No exports to the
United Kingdom, which has constituted a valuable outlet for heavy tonnage in the past,
complicated the supply condition, of which this estimate of raspberry-crops will give a
picture: 1939, 2,272 tons; 1943, 2,532 tons; 1945, 4,450 tons; 1947, 8,700 tons; and
estimated 1948, 13,500 tons.
The strawberry-crop was good in all areas. The 1948 production exceeded that of
1947 by 9 per cent, and also surpassed the pre-war levels. Both the amount exported
fresh and the amount processed were at near-record levels. The S02 pack, which
accounts for the bulk of the processed product, is usually exported in considerable
volume. However, with the United Kingdom market closed, stocks on hand are above
normal this year. Prices in Eastern Canada were slightly lower than in 1947, while
sales in British Columbia were at somewhat firmer prices.
Strawberry Production by Provinces, 1935-48.
'000 Qt.
'000 Qt.
'000 Qt.
'000 Qt.
'000 Qt.
7.766       1         3.719
Supply Situation (Calendar Year).
'000 Qt.
'000 Qt.
'000 Qt.
'000 Qt.
'000 Qt.
28,667               15,748
3,185                     139
5,337       |         4,552
27 869
11 689 R 34
A high level of raspberry production was maintained in 1948. Long-time trends
show that declines in all Eastern Provinces are more than offset by increased production in British Columbia. High-yielding varieties having a less desirable flavour for
consumption as fresh fruit have made up a large proportion of recent plantings. For
this reason, processing outlets have become more significant in the disposal of the crop,
even though large overseas markets are now closed by the dollar shortage. Domestic
prices were slightly lower in 1948.
Raspberry Production by Provinces, 1935-48.
'000 Qt.
'000 Qt.
'000 Qt.
'000 Qt.
'000 Qt.
Supply Situation (Calendar Year).
'000 Qt.
'000 Qt.
'000 Qt.
'000 Qt.
'000 Qt.
Available for domestic use	
6,785                 6,033
3,719                 4,789
* Negligible.
Some idea of the uncontrollable variation in agricultural yields is observed in this
Canadian potato acreage in 1945 was 508,000 acres, producing 60,000,000 bushels;
this year the same acreage is estimated to produce 85,711,000 bushels—the same acreage and over 40 per cent, more tonnage.
Certified seed is not controlled by Marketing Boards, but finds markets through
local associations. Potatoes and other vegetables are controlled by two Boards, one on
the Coast and one in the Interior.
Potato Acreage by Provinces, 1935
British Columbia	 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948.
R 35
Floods and blight notwithstanding, the British Columbia yield was higher than
average. Considerable tonnage, more than double 1947 to the same date, has found
export markets, mostly in the Orient.
The deal in early potatoes was checked when flood and other weather conditions
combined to delay maturity to the point that competitive areas were shipping to normal
British Columbia markets weeks before their normal movement would take place.
Certified seed-potato growers find themselves in a dilemma, with heavy tonnages
sold in the United States and awaiting storage-space there, which will be available
about January 1st. As at November 20th, Canadian exports of potatoes were 2,093,196
bushels this year and 1,042,921 bushels in 1947. Of this 1948 total, British Columbia
contributed only 71,900 bushels, all culinary and mostly to the Orient.
The 1948 acreage, harvest, and pack of the principal vegetable canning-crops have
all been higher than in 1947. In. the case of peas and tomato-juice, records were
probably reached. Higher prices to the producers and the increased production have
been for the most part a reflection of domestic demand, as exports generally have not
recovered to pre-war levels.
Beans (Green and Waxed).
The 1948 pack increased slightly from the high level of 1947.   A continuous increase
is noted in Quebec, Alberta, and Manitoba.   The market is essentially within Canada,
and demand appears to be growing.
Green and Wax Beans Supply Situation (Crop-year July 1st to June SOth).
Stocks at July 1st.--	
Total supplies	
Available for domestic use.
Domestic utilization	
Carry-over at end of year..
'000 Cases.
'000 Cases.
'000 Cases.
'000 Cases. | '000 Cases.
300      j 409
1,411      |        1,600
The corn-pack increased substantially in 1948, as compared with 1947.   Ontario
production accounts for most of this increase, but increases in acreage have occurred
also in Quebec and Alberta.
Canning-corn Acreage by Provinces, 1943-48.
Av. 1943-45,
.     25.677
51,000 R 36
There is a general increase in production of peas in all areas except British
Columbia.   The 1948 production is a record, with well over a ton to the acre being
harvested in many areas of Ontario.
Canning-peas Supply Situation (Crop-year July 1st to June 30th).
'000 Cases.
'000 Cases.
'000 Cases.
'000 Cases.
'000 Cases.
3,199                 4,349
46                       90
317                     707
* Less than 500 cases.
The 1948 pack of tomatoes was very large, but the shift to juice production continued. This may be explained in part by the fact that labour is a big factor in tomato-
canning. Although labour procurement was more satisfactory than in several years,
the pack of tomatoes from the bigger crop attained only pre-war levels. Pre-war
export markets for tomato products have not been reclaimed completely.
Tomato-supply Situation (Crop-year July 1st to June 30th).
'000 Cases.
'000 Cases.
'000 Cases.
'000 Cases.
'000 Cases.
There were 31,850 bee-keepers in Canada in 1948. This is a decline of 19 per cent,
since 1947 and a continuation of the trend of the past three years. The production of
honey in 1948 amounted to 43,938,000 lb., an increase of 18.5 per cent, since 1947. This
increase was all Provinces, with the exception of Quebec, Saskatchewan,
and British Columbia, where declines of 22, 19, and 18 per cent, respectively occurred.
The increased crop was due to a production per colony of 77 lb., as compared with 63
lb. in 1947, since the number of colonies showed a 3-per-cent decline in 1948.
The average wholesale price for all grades of honey produced in Canada in 1947
varied from 19 cents per pound in April to 27 cents in September. Throughout the fall
months of 1947 the average wholesale price for all Canada remained steady at 34 cents.
In April, 1948, the average price declined to 31 cents, and has continued to decline to
26.6 cents at the end of September, 1948. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948.
R 37
Farm Egg Production by Provinces, 1935-48.
'000 Doz.
'000 Doz.
'000 Doz.
'000 Doz.
'000 Doz.
Egg-supply Situation.
Stocks, beginning of year..
Total supplies	
Available for domestic use.
Stocks, end of year	
'000 Doz.
'000 Doz.
228,658      |    339,514
7,223 70,683
'000 Doz.
'000 Doz.
'000 Doz.
The two-year contract with the British Ministry of Food covers the period between
February 1st, 1947, and January 31st, 1949. It is expected that the contract, which
calls for the shipment of 2,466,000 cases of eggs in 1948, consisting of fresh and storage
shell-eggs, egg-powder, and frozen melange, will be filled. During 1948, eggs also
moved freely to Alaska, Newfoundland, and the British West Indies.
Domestic consumption of eggs has dropped slightly since September owing to consumer resistance to the higher seasonal retail price. Pullet eggs, which moved slowly
at first, are now moving into retail channels in greater volume.
Special Products Board Egg Purchases, 1945-
(Cases of 30 Dozen).
by Calendar Years
to Sept. 30.
122,995 R 38
The price of eggs announced by the Special Products Board, the Dominion Government agency which purchases eggs for'export under the United Kingdom contract,
serves as a floor for the domestic market. The Board price on October 1st for Grade A
large eggs, export packed, at Montreal, was 53 cents per dozen. Wholesale prices for
Grade A large eggs on the Montreal market increased from 42 cents in January to
74-75 cents in October, as compared with a low of 35 cents in January, 1947, and a
peak price of 55 cents in October, 1947.
Poultry-meat production in 1948 is estimated at 290,000,000 lb., as compared with
301,000,000 lb. in 1947 and a yearly average of 198,000,000 lb. for the period 1935-39.
Market poultry has moved into both domestic and export market outlets with a
readiness which should lend encouragement to the industry. To meet the 1948 export
demand, it was necessary to draw on stocks stored from the 1947 production. The
heavy exports of live poultry during 1948 will also result in a reduction in stocks in
storage for 1949 consumption.
Farm Poultry-meat Supply Situation.
Stocks, beginning of year..
Imports, estimate	
Total supplies	
Available for domestic use.
Stocks, end of year	
'000 Lb.
•000 Lb.
'000 Lb
273,400      |    259,919
22,041 31,054
'000 Lb.
'000 Lb.
273,004      |    262,973
34,973 25,000
Total exports of poultry in 1948 will be well above those of 1947. This is due in
part to the reduction in the United States tariff under the Geneva Trade Agreements.
During the first nine months of the year 21,800,000 lb. of live poultry were exported
to the United States. Exports of dressed poultry totalled 12,600,000 lb., of which
11,800,000 lb. were sold in the United States.
Prices for market poultry during 1948 have been considerably higher than in 1947.
The average price to shippers for Grade A milk-fed chicken, 4 to 5 lb., on the Montreal
market, was 42 cents on October 1st, 1948, as compared with 35 cents on the same date
in 1947. These higher prices are a reflection of the strong demand for Canadian
poultry on both the domestic and export markets.
Interest is being developed by poultrymen in a Commodity Board under the
" Natural Products Marketing (British Columbia) Act." Two Turkey Improvement
Associations are functioning very satisfactorily, one on the Island and the other in the
Fraser Valley. A fine business in the export of turkey-eggs for hatching has been
developed and much turkey-meat exported to United States. Local hatchery-men are
following egg demands as closely as are poultry producers themselves, as without continued export markets the only alternative would appear to be reduced poultry flocks.
Through this weekly medium, the Branch has attempted to act as liaison and to
place on record important world changes in production and marketing of commodities
of interest to British Columbia growers. In addition, each week it quotes current
prices on feeds, live stock, eggs and poultry, etc. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948.
R 39
Pick-up Prices at Vancouver.
Nov. 24.
Jan. 19.
Apr. 19.
June 14.
Aug. 17.
Oct. 18.
Nov. 22.
The kindness of those who make these quotes available is much appreciated.
During the year it has been possible to attend a number of producer's conventions.
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent.
At the close of the year 1948 there were 194 Farmers' Institutes in British
Columbia, with 11 of these inactive. The 183 Institutes that filed reports for the year
1947 showed a membership of 8,456. The Farmers' Institute districts, with number of
active Institutes and total membership, are as follows:—
District. Institutes.
"A"—Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands  21
" B "—Skeena and Bulkley  20
" C "—Nechako Valley :_~ 15
" D "—Kamloops and North Thompson  19
" E "—Lower Fraser Valley r  30
" F "—West Kootenay   19
" G "—Okanagan and Shuswap  14
" H "—Cariboo      12
" I "—East Kootenay      14
" J "—Peace River      19
The year 1947 showed a considerable increase in business done by Institutes over
the past two years.   Totals for the years 1945 and 1947 are as follows:—
Expenditures   499,150.40
Assets   152,583.27
Liabilities  24,614.56
Stumping-powder,   caps   and   fuse   purchased for members  50,458.95
Feed purchased for members  298,431.87
Seed and fertilizer purchased for members 27,903.37
Miscellaneous commodities purchased for
members   80,457.00
The Advisory Board met in Victoria at the call of the Minister of Agriculture,
from March 15th to 17th, for the purpose of dealing with the resolutions sent in from
the ten District Institutes.
During the meeting, three officers of the British Columbia Federation of Agriculture met with the Advisory Board for the purpose of discussing joint representation
to the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture. After considerable discussion, it
was resolved that the Board issue an invitation to the three officers of the British
Columbia Federation of Agriculture to attend with the Advisory Board their meeting
with the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture to discuss resolutions of a similar
The Board and Federation met the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture on
March 17th and placed before them ten resolutions. Following this meeting, and later
in the session, Thomas King, Chairman of the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture, presented the report of his Committee to the Legislature, which was as
Mr. Speaker:
Your Select Standing Committee on Agriculture begs leave to report as follows:—
The Select Standing Committee on Agriculture held several meetings and heard representations from the Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes conjoined by a representation
from the British Columbia Federation of Agriculture and begs to report as follows:—
(1) That the Provincial Government continue to support artificial insemination of cattle
and to further its assistance and broaden its field so that all parts of the Province, where it is
reasonably possible to do so, may profit by this method of improving the live-stock herds.
(2) That again the Government be requested to establish a school in some central point
in the Interior similar to the Agricultural School at Olds, Alberta, and recommends a site
near Tranquille where the already established farm in connection with the sanatorium there
could be used for a practical training-field.
(3) That the "Motor-vehicle Act" be changed so as not to work such a hardship on
farmers who help out neighbours by doing work for them with their tractors and must use
the highway for short spaces of time while taking the machine to and from the places.
(4) That the Government inquire into the feasibility of assisting in the development by
irrigation from Adams River of lands lying between Salmon Arm and Lytton.
(5) That increased bounties and assistance by more Government-employed hunters be
granted so as to deter the ravages of such predatory animals as coyotes, wolves, and cougars.
Bounties recommended are $5, $50, and $40 respectively.
(6) That the assistance in land-clearing given at present by way of allowances on stump-
ing-powder be broadened so that it be given on any amount of powder that a bona-fide farmer
might use in any one year, instead of just ten cases as at present.
(7) That before daylight saving be again put into effect, a plebiscite be taken at the first
general election to establish the desires of the people in this matter.
(8) That the Committee recommends that the laws and regulations against the importation of oleomargarine be continued.
(9) That the Government continue its interest in the Pacific Great Eastern Railway with
the view of continuing its extension to Dawson Creek.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
Thomas King, Chairman.
After considerable difficulties due to weather conditions, floods, and a polio
epidemic, all districts, except the Peace River, eventually were able to hold annual
meetings. The Superintendent was able to attend seven of the nine meetings held and
found all meetings well attended and a considerable increase in the number of resolutions submitted for consideration. Resolutions of a local nature were passed for
immediate'action by the directors, while those of a Provincial or Dominion nature were
endorsed and passed to the Advisory Board. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948.
R 41
The place and date of each meeting held, together with the names of the president,
secretary, and Advisory Board member elected, are shown in the following table. As
District "J" was unable to hold a meeting, the officers elected in 1947 will carry on in
their respective positions until the next annual meeting.
Officers elected.
" B "... .
June 29-30	
secretary,   East   Wellington;    A.   Mdntyre,   Advisory
Board, R.R. 2, Victoria.
"C "	
June 23-24	
George Brandon, Telkwa.
"D " . .
Prince George;  T. E. Gerhardi, Fort Fraser.
W.   F.  Palmer,  Heffley  Creek;   J.  E.  Fry,  359  Victoria
" E "	
New Westminster..
December 3	
November 20	
May 27	
July 3	
Street, Kamloops;  William Harrison, Pritchard.
" F "	
760, New Westminster ; A. H. Peppar, Ioco.
R. H. Street, Salmo;   B. Holiday Smith, Box 45, Nelson;
" G "	
Kenneth Wallace, Boswell.
" H "    .
Woodburn, Salmon Arm.
" I "	
Canim Lake.
W. H. Dicken, Fernie;   A. B.  Smith, Cranbrook;   A. B.
" J "	
Smith, Cranbrook.
A. H. Dunn, Sunset Prairie.
With the increase in population in British Columbia and the settlement of districts,
more requests are being received for the constitution of pound districts. During the
year, fourteen petitions were received for new pound districts and three were received
requesting that boundaries of existing pound districts be enlarged to include settled
areas.    These were as follows:—
New Districts.
Sorrento—constituted March 17th.
Galiano Island—constituted April 9th.
Cranberry (South Wellington)—constituted May 18th.
Nanaimo River—constituted May 18th.
Nechako River (Prince George)—constituted July 10th.
Progress—constituted July 10th.
Westbank—constituted July 14th.
Upper Stoddart Creek—constituted November 17th.
Quadra Island—constituted November 22nd.
Vesuvius Bay—constituted November 23rd.
Jordan River—not completed.
Coombs and Hilliers—not completed.
Pine View—not completed.
Districts enlarged.
Montney—July 10th.
B.X.—July 21st.
South Dawson—not completed. R 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Mrs. Stella E. Gummow, Superintendent.
The Women's Institutes are continuing to grow in strength and numbers, and now
total 210. Nine new Institutes have been organized this year and two reorganized.
The new Institutes are Granite Road and Kinnaird in the Kootenay; Renata in the
Arrow Lakes; Silver Creek and Westwold in the North Okanagan, and Salmon Arm;
Circle Three in the East Kootenay, south of Cranbrook; Roe Lake in the Cariboo;
Uncha Valley in the Bulkley-Tweedsmuir; and Little Qualicum in the Vancouver Island
District. Poplar Manor in the South Fraser District and Strawberry Vale in the
South Vancouver Island District have been reorganized, while Pritchard and Upper
Camp have been dropped from the roll.    The membership total for 1947 was 4,804.
There is only one Junior Women's Institute, that of Winfield. There has been no
effort made to organize more, as the work of the Girls' Clubs, with Miss Echo Lidster
as Supervisor, is being backed by many of our Women's Institutes. With the support
and encouragement of the women, the Girls' Clubs function most successfully as a year-
round club, with their most active work taken up in the winter months. There are
twelve of these sponsored by Women's Institutes at the present time.
Because of the visit of your Superintendent to Holland last year, attending the
world conference of the Associated Countrywomen of the World, great interest has been
taken in personal impressions of Holland and England. A variety of other groups, as
well as the Women's Institutes, have been addressed during the year. Some of these
were the Women's Canadian Club, the Business and Professional Women's Club, the
Local Council of Women, the Agricultural School at Creston, the Hand Weavers' Guild,
and a number of church groups of different denominations. The first Provincial meeting of the Indian Arts and Welfare Society was attended at the University of British
Columbia in April, and the Federation of Agriculture meeting at Vancouver in November. These meetings, along with the ever-expanding work of the Women's Institutes,
have made it a very busy year.
The Provincial conference of the Women's Institutes was held in spite of the
serious flood conditions, which reached their peak just at the time the meeting was
held. Due to transportation difficulties and floods, the attendance was smaller than
had been expected. However, 101 Institutes had official delegates present, and there
were 197 delegates, officials, and guests present at the dinner given by the Government of British Columbia the first day of the meeting.
The meeting-place was the University of British Columbia, held there for the first
time, and accommodation was obtained at the Youth Training and Acadia Camps. All
sessions were held in the Youth Training Building and the banquet in the Brock Hall
lounge. The place of meeting proved to be a happy one, as the women from the rural
areas were particularly delighted to be able to see the University and visit the buildings
at first hand.
A feature of the conference was the announcement of the prizes in the better-
housing contest which had been conducted by this Department, and was open to all
Institutes in the Province. The enthusiasm for the project was shown by the large
number of entries received, seventy-eight in all. The prizes were given out by A. Jones,
of the Central Mortgage and Housing Company, with the first prize going to Hazel-
mere Women's Institute at Cloverdale, the second to Kalamalka at Oyama, third to DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948. R 43
Beresford at Kamloops, and honourable mention to Cannor, Haney, Pemberton, Some-
nos, Summerland, and Terrace.
The address by H. L. Campbell, Assistant Superintendent of Education, on " Education for Citizenship," proved of much interest, while a talk by Dr. J. H. Booth,
Associate Director of Marketing, Department of Agricultural Economics, on " World
Food Problems," stimulated the interest in this wider field. Miss Charlotte Black,
Director of Home Economics at the University of British Columbia, stressed the value
of the work women could do in rural areas in home economics, while Miss Amy Leigh,
Director of Social Welfare, gave an informative talk on this branch of community work.
Officers elected were as follows: President, Mrs. J. H. East, Keremeos; vice-
president, Mrs. R. W. Chalmers, Thrums; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. R. Doe, Salmon
Arm; directors, Mrs. A. A. Shaw, Vancouver, and Mrs. E. Glover, Victoria; Federated
Women's Institute representatives, Mrs. J. H. East and Mrs. R. W. Chalmers.
Provincial conveners appointed by the new Board were: Agriculture, Mrs. T.
Olson, Terrace; Home Economics, Mrs. E. J. Greer, New Denver; Citizenship, Mrs. E.
Tryon, Parksville; Handicrafts and Industries, Mrs. V. S. McLachlan, Hope; Social
Welfare, Mrs. D. Fines, Fort St. John.
Eleven of the twelve districts held annual meetings and ten of these were attended
by your Superintendent. The Peace River District was unable to hold its meeting,
planned for July, because of the polio epidemic.
Reports from the individual Institutes given at these meetings showed a variety
of community work undertaken and accomplished, fall fairs and flower-shows sponsored,
great interest in the farm-house competition, newcomers and new Canadians welcomed,
showers given for brides, the sick and aged visited and helped, educational and recreational improvement aided and sponsored, hospitals and solariums helped by substantial
cash donations, Christmas and Hallowe'en parties for children arranged, well-baby
clinics held, community and Institute halls built, restored, and kept in running order
as community assets. The interest of the meetings was kept up by demonstrations
in handicrafts, speakers on a variety of subjects of interest, showing of films, and
The main projects discussed in these different districts is indicated by the following report of meetings as they took place during the year:—
North Vancouver Island Meeting at Courtenay, March 11th.—This meeting had
been postponed from the previous fall, and proved most successful, the first one-day
district meeting. The main discussion centred around plans for a home for the aged,
a project being started by the Women's Institutes who were concentrating on a home
to be build at Courtenay for the whole district. The use of old army buildings was
suggested, and following the meeting a delegation from the executive interviewed the
Courtenay Council, with satisfactory progress reported.
Officers elected at this meeting were: President, Mrs. E. Clowes, Courtenay; vice-
president, Mrs. H. Morgan, Qualicum; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. T. H. Williamson,
Courtenay; directors, Mrs. J. Isbister, Courtenay, and Mrs. M. M. Theis, Qualicum.
Institutes in this district are as follows: Bow-Horne, Courtenay, Denman Island,
Gabriola Island, Hornby Island, Lazo, Little Qualicum, Parksville, Quadra Island,
Qualicum Beach, Sayward, and Whaletown. Bow-Horne and Gabriola Island are just
over a year old and have completed a very successful year. Little Qualicum is starting
out as a new Institute, with a good membership and enthusiastic support.
South Okanagan and Similkameen at Rutland, April 29th. — This was a well-
attended meeting in spite of heavy spring rains which, with road-work on the highways, made some of the roads almost impassable.    However, in spite of this there R 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
were 100 women present. A most interesting display of handicrafts was on view by
the hostess group. Reports showed their interest in home management, better houses,
schools and equipment, social services, and a better deal for Indians discussed. Mrs.
A. K. McLeod, of Summerland, succeeded Mrs. E. Pixton as president, with a secretary to be appointed. Institutes in this district are Cawston, East Kelowna, Kala-
malka, Kelowna, Keremeos, Naramata, Okanagan Centre, Okanagan Falls, Oliver,
Osoyoos, Peachland, Penticton, Rutland, Summerland, Westbank, Winfield, and Winfield Junior.
North Okanagan and Salmon Arm at Vernon, May 1st.—A home for the aged was
discussed at this meeting, and the Vernon Women's Institute was authorized to
approach their Council in an effort to get started in this project. Resolutions asked
for school dentists, better roads, old-age pensions at 50 without the means test.
Westwold and Silver Creek were two new Institutes welcomed.
The election of officers resulted in the following: President, Mrs. W. Annala,
Tappen; vice-president, Mrs. H. Farmer, Salmon Arm; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. R.
Doe, Salmon Arm; director, Mrs. A. Grant, Vernon. Institutes in this district are
Armstrong, Beresford, Birch Island, Canoe, Chase, Clearwater, Coldstream, Golden,
Grindrod, Little Fort, Lumby, Magna Bay, Mount Ida, North Shuswap, Pavilion,
Salmon Arm, Sicamous, South Canoe, Star Lake, Silver Creek, Tappen, Valley, Vernon,
Westsyde, and Westwold.
Central Interior at McBride, June 24th.—Mrs. R. Nicholson presided and gave an
informative account of the Provincial conference, which she attended. Resolutions
were passed asking for a travelling dental clinic, completion of the road from Dunster
to Jasper, veterinary service in the district, and a home for the aged in the Prince
George area.
Officers elected were: President, Mrs. R. Nicholson, of Northside, Vanderhoof;
vice-president, Mrs. B. Channel!, Dunster; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. E. Peterson, Chief
Lake. This is one of the newer districts and is made up of the following Institutes:
Cariboo, Dunster, Fort Fraser, Fraser Lake, McBride, North Fraser Lake, Northside,
Nukko Lake, Prince George, Sinkut, and Woodpecker. Nukko Lake and Sinkut were
organized last year.
Cariboo at Lone Butte, July 3rd. — Meeting at the same time as the Farmers'
Institute of District " H," the morning session was a combined meeting. Speakers
were the two Superintendents; H. Greenlee, Advisory Board member; District Agriculturist J. Gray; and Mrs. F. Vernon, president of the district Women's Institutes.
Both lunch and supper were served to those attending by the local Farmers' Institute
and Watch Lake Women's Institute, and the afternoon meetings were held separately.
The sponsoring of Girls' and Boys' Clubs was a feature in reports, while money
was being raised to build new community halls. A public rest-room at Quesnel was
mooted. Resolutions asked for travelling dental clinics, better-equipped rural schools,
and that daylight-saving time should be abolished.
Officers elected were: President, Mrs. F. Vernon, Bouchie Lake; vice-president,
Mrs. S. Eden, Watch Lake; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. P. Booth, Bouchie Lake. Institutes included in this district are Alexandria, Bouchie Lake, Buffalo Creek, Dragon
Lake, Forest Grove, Horsefly, North Bridge Lake, Roe Lake, and Watch Lake.
This is a new district and most of the Institutes have been organized within the
last two years. Buffalo Creek appears to have lived a short life and is unable to continue, but the others are flourishing,- Alexandria being particularly outstanding in
membership and community enterprise.
Bulkley-Tweedsmuir at Houston, July 7th.—All ten of the Institutes were represented at this meeting. Boys' and Girls' Clubs were a featured activity, sponsored
by the older group.    Resolutions were varied and some of them controversial, the one !«^M^   ••    =S   =
on oleomargarine particularly so. These asked for electrification for rural areas; an
improvement in the quality of wool, with samples showing how the natural length and
strength of the wool was destroyed in the manufacture; that the $1,000 fee for dentists outside the Province be waived because of the shortage of dentists; that travelling vans for home economics and manual training be sent out to schools that have no
such instruction; that twenty-four-hour telephone service should be given; that a
travelling eye, ear, nose, and throat clinic be sent to the rural areas; that daylight-
saving time should be abolished;   and that better roads should be built in the district.
Officers elected were: President, Mrs. E. Scott, Telkwa; vice-president, Mrs. H.
Wearne, Quick; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. E. Dungate, Houston; directors, Mrs. T.
Olson, Terrace, and Mrs. G. Funnell, Francois Lake. Institutes in this new district
are Forestdale, Francois Lake, Glenwood, Houston, Palling, Perow, Quick, Telkwa,
Terrace, Topley, and Uncha Valley, the latter newly organized. The majority of these
Institutes have been organized in the last three years.
Arrow Lakes at Edgewood, September 11th.—This was a most successful meeting,
with 106 registered. Resolutions asked for exemption from the 3-per-cent. tax on soap
and canning needs. They also asked that money for roads should be obtained by floating a loan similar to the Victory Loan.
Officers elected were: President, Mrs. J. Porter, Burton; secretary-treasurer,
Mrs. M. Orr, Burton. Institutes in this district are as follows: Arrow Park, Burton,
Edgewood and Inonoaklin, Fauquier, Maple, Nakusp, Needles, New Denver, Renata,
Silverton, and Slocan City.    Renata was welcomed as the baby Institute.
Kootenay at Kaslo, September 14.—Two outstanding contributions to the community were given in the reports from Crawford Bay and Greenwood, the former
paying the transportation of all children regularly to Creston for dental attention, and
the latter has included Japanese women into the Institute and also holds classes in
English for them.
This district has the benefit of the Mary E. Davidson Fund, given to them by the
late William K. Esling, M.P., in memory of his sister. This fund is used for all
children in the district who need eye treatment or glasses, and is administered by
a board set up by the Nelson Institute. Originally $1,000, a further addition to the
Fund was left in the will of the late Mr. Esling.
Officers elected were: President, Mrs. R. A. Custer, Nelson; vice-president, Mrs.
E. A. Hankin, Willow Point; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. C. F. McHardy, Nelson;
directors, Mrs. E. J. Roylance, Greenwood, and Mrs. H. Somerfield, Creston.
Institutes in this district include: Balfour and Queens Bay, Bonnington and South
Slocan, Circle Three (Jaffray), Crawford Bay, Creston, Fruitvale, Granite Road,
Greenwood, Harrop, Kaslo, Kinnaird, Lister-Huscroft, Main River, Midway, Nelson,
Robson, Rock Creek, Salmo, Tarrys and Thrums, Trail, Triangle, Willow Point,
Windermere, and Wynndel.
A visit was paid into the East Kootenay in September, when Circle Three was
organized at Jaffray. As this district is so large, it is hoped that an East Kootenay
District can be formed, taking in the Windermere Valley, Golden, and south to the
boundary-line. The new Institutes of Kinnaird and Granite Road, organized by Mrs.
R. W. Chalmers, were welcomed at the time of the district meeting.
South Fraser District at Cloverdale, October 4th and 5th.—This was a two-day
meeting, largely attended the first day, with a smaller crowd the second. This has the
largest number of Institutes of any district, and they have a good membership and are
well organized. Resolutions were passed asking for a reconsideration of the whole
hospital insurance plan in order to provide doctor and dental services and better
security; that the 3-per-cent. sales tax should be taken off; that a clinic for the
diagnosis of cancer should be established by the Provincial Government similar to the R 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
one for tuberculosis; that women be asked to volunteer to register to help care for
invalids after they return from hospital; and that an annual educational campaign
be held in order to help women to a better understanding of prenatal care for mothers.
It was decided to have a one-day meeting in 1949 and hold it in April, as being
a better time of year. Officers elected were as follows: President, Mrs. D. McDougall,
Langley Fort; vice-president, Mrs. E. J. Roberts, Otter; secretary, Mrs. S. Murchison,
Cloverdale; directors, Mrs. K. Brown, Hazelmere, and Mrs. F. Mulligan, Langley
Institutes in this district are as follows: Atchelitz, Beaver, Cannor, Chilliwack,
Coghlan, Delta, East Chilliwack, Hazelmere, Hope, Huntingdon, Langley Fort, Langley
Prairie, Mill Lake, Otter, Patricia, Peace Arch, Pine Grove, Poplar Manor, Fort Kells,
Rosedale, Ryder Lake, St. Elmo, Strawberry Hill and Newton, Surrey, Upper Sumas,
West Langley, and White Rock.
North Fraser at Vancouver, October 6th and 7th.—This meeting had been originally
planned for Agassiz, but because of the aftermath of the flood they were unable to
provide for billets. This meeting was not so well attended as usual, but a keen interest
was shown in matters relating to community activities and rehabilitation after the
flood.    One resolution was passed asking for abolition of the sales tax on school books.
Officers elected were: President, Mrs. S. H. Copping, Vancouver; vice-president,
Mrs. M. Baumgartner, Port Coquitlam; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. W. L. Lindeman,
New Westminster; directors, Mrs. J. W. Peace, Mission, and Mrs. D. D. Albertan,
Pitt Meadows. Institutes in this district are as follows: Agassiz, Bella Bella, Bracken-
dale, Burquitlam, Burrard, Coquitlam, Haney, Hatzic, Howe Sound, Lasqueti Island,
Mission, Nicomen Island, North-east Burnaby, Pemberton, Pitt Meadows, Point Grey,
Port Hammond, Port Moody, Squamish, and Whonnock.
The new Institute of Nicomen Island was one hard hit by the flood. The Fraser
Valley flood and stories of flooded homes and untold hardship reached far and wide,
and help was sent from all over Canada, with letters of sympathy pouring in from
overseas. Money was sent to the Women's Institute Flood Relief Fund, which,
with contributions from our own Women's Institutes, totalled $2,050.42. Towels were
sent from the Quebec Women's Institutes, and these were distributed. A quick trip
through the Fraser Valley in August was taken, and the contrast to that taken in April,
when individual Institutes were visited on a two weeks' tour, was pointed. Homes
were visited on both sides of the river, and individual stories of hardship and loss heard.
But the courage shown by these women in rebuilding and their gratitude for the help
received were an indication of the strength of their purpose and their faith in the
South Vancouver Island at Victoria, October 12th and 13th.—This was a well-
attended meeting, with a good representation of Institutes present. The possibility
of establishing craft centres on Vancouver Island was discussed, and the opportunity
that Women's Institutes have in promoting a better deal for the Indians stressed.
The work of citizenship in the Institutes was voiced by Mrs. J. H. East, president,
in an address, and the Honourable Frank Putnam, Minister of Agriculture, also stressed
the importance of the work the Institutes are doing in this regard.
Officers elected were: President, Mrs. E. Gibson, Shawnigan Lake; vice-president,
Mrs. A. Sutherland, South Saanich; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. D. J. DeRochie, Sooke;
directors, Miss D. Worthington, Brentwood, and Mrs. D. A. Sim, Cedar. Institutes
in this district include Brentwood, Cedar, Cobble Hill, Colwood, Cowichan, Craigflower,
Esquimalt, Koksilah, Lake Hill, Langford, Luxton and Happy Valley, Pender Island,
Royal Oak, Saltair, Shawnigan Lake, Shirley, Somenos, Sooke and North Sooke, South
Saanich, South Saltspring, Strawberry Vale, and Victoria. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948. R 47
The Provincial Board met in the office of the Superintendent on November 22nd and
23rd, with all members present. Plans for the future were discussed, with a study
of the Indians and their problems a project for Citizenship. In Agriculture a greater
interest in fall fairs and more use of the Experimental Farm and Government services
to improve agricultural practices was advocated. In Home Economics the Provincial
Scholarship Fund was reported as being $5,700, and a drive to bring it up to $8,000
by April 30th is to be launched. If this succeeds, a scholarship can be given for the
next term at the University.
In Social Welfare the spending of the yearly interest on the Othoa Scott Trust
Fund was arranged. Four children are to be helped—two boys at Celista, a girl at
Vanderhoof, and a wheelchair bought for a crippled incurable child at North Pine.
Home-nursing classes through St. John Ambulance Association are to be sponsored.
Resolutions asking for travelling dental clinics, rural electrification, and a contributory
old-age pension scheme were sent on to the Federation of Agriculture for their
In Handicrafts, Institutes are urged to send more exhibits to the Pacific National
Exhibition, of which Mrs. A. Shaw was appointed representative in charge of the
Women's Institute display.
To fill a much expressed need, a handbook for the use of Women's Institutes has
been prepared and sent out to all Institutes. This gives a short history of the
international, national, and provincial work, as well as a chapter on procedure.
The monthly News Letter is sent out regularly to all Institutes, giving the latest
news and suggestions from Board members and conveners.
Mrs. Alfred Watt, M.A., M.B.E., passed away at Montreal, November 29th, at the
age of 80 years. Her contribution to the Women's Institute and countrywomen
movement will give her a place as one of the great women of our generation. She was
the first secretary of the Advisory Board of the Women's Institutes of British
Columbia, in 1911. When she went to England in 1913, she wrote back and secured
her information regarding Women's Institutes from the Department of Agriculture
in this Province. The value of the Women's Institutes in the Old Land has been proved
by their success, and they are called " Canada's Gift to the Motherland." The international group which followed as a result of Mrs. Watt's further work became the
Associated Countrywomen of the World, 5,000,000 in membership, and with Mrs. Watt
as their founder and first president. This woman of vision and leadership will be
greatly missed, but will live on in the organization which she led so successfully from
a small beginning to a strong international group of countrywomen.
The key-note of Women's Institute work for the year seems to be one of increasing
unity of purpose and a better understanding among rural and urban women. One of
the most satisfactory aspects of the work is that many of the new Institutes have been
formed in the more scattered farming districts. This new interest has been a very fine
thing for the women, and the reports of the Institutes show the value of the work they
are doing.    What the service clubs do in the cities is being done by the Women's R 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Institutes in the country. The cash value of their contribution to community welfare
and the general good would be hard to determine, while the community spirit which
is promoted makes their work a vital contribution to the life of our Province.
C. C. Kelley, B.Sc, Soil Surveyor.
Field-work undertaken in 1947 was brought to useful condition in the office during
the winter months. Other winter work consists of land drainage, miscellaneous soil
problems of tree-fruit growers, testing soil samples, lectures, and arrangement of
material for publication. Co-operation with the Regional Development Division,
Department of Trade and Industry, was continued. Proof-reading of a soil-survey
report describing the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys was completed, and this
report has gone to press.
The minor field jobs of 1948 were the Saanich Irrigation Proposal, enlargement
of the Westbank Irrigation Proposal, the Shuttleworth Creek Irrigation Proposal, and
soil-survey of the Creston and Camp Lister localities. As major undertakings reconnaissance soil surveys of the East Kootenay District and the Peace River Block were
continued.   A study of plant ecology in the East Kootenay District was completed.
A land-utilization survey of Saanich Municipality, based on a previous soil-survey,
was undertaken in co-operation with municipal authorities. The purpose of the survey
was to find the total irrigable acreage by separation of the non-irrigable land classes.
The Pacific inshore climate is characterized by high winter precipitation, followed
by summer dryness. In the Saanich area, rainfall is reduced in winter and summer by
the strike of the mountainous spine of the Island. The bulk of the precipitation occurs
on the western mountain-slopes, thus reducing the fall of rain and snow along the
east shore of the Island. This factor provides for less precipitation in winter than
would otherwise occur, and an intensified summer drought. The south-east shore
of Vancouver Island has a more intense summer drought than any other coastal area
in British Columbia.
In comparison with the irrigated South Okanagan Valley, from Kelowna to
Osoyoos, the Saanich area averages 2.07 inches rainfall in June, July, and August,
whereas the South Okanagan receives an average of 2.54 inches. In addition to the
South Okanagan precipitation, about 2 acre-feet of irrigation-water is used, with
furrow irrigation, to maintain production. Sprinkler irrigation takes about one-third
less water.
At the present time, farms receiving 2.07 inches rainfall in the Saanich area compare with farms receiving 18 to 26 inches combined rain and irrigation in the South
Okanagan. This comparison is intended to show the extent to which Saanich agriculture is limited. The Saanich area is confined to early-ripening crops, and the crop-
growing potential of the months having the most heat is wasted.
The soils of the Saanich area are end-products of glaciation. Their textures are
clay, clay loam, sandy clay loam, sandy loam, and loamy sand. Scattered areas of peat
also occur. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948. R 49
Excepting peat, a feature common to all soils is a pan layer situated from 20 to
24 inches beneath the surface. The pan layer is important, as it stops the downward
movement of water and lessens the irrigation-water requirement. It will create seepages in depressed areas when excess irrigation-water is used, but such places can be
Taken as a whole, all soil-types are worth irrigating, where topography and other
considerations permit the installation of irrigation-works. The duty of water should
be about 16 acre-inches per acre, and a sprinkler system should be built to deliver
about 8 acre-inches per acre per month.
In a total classified area covering 35,812 acres, potentially irrigable land amounts
to 20,106 acres. This includes cemeteries, golf-courses, and greenhouses, in addition to
several kinds of farm acreage. Cleared farm land, classed as irrigable, amounts to
12,520 acres. This category will require first attention at the initial stage of development. Uncleared farm land, 5,183 acres, and peat, 617 acres, are regarded as temporarily non-irrigable, but provision for watering this acreage may be necessary. Areas
of scattered rock-outcroppings, 1,415 acres, are a separate grouping containing considerable acreage of cleared, irrigable farm land and uncleared, temporarily non-
irrigable farm land.
A more detailed report and a series of ten large-scale maps describing the Saanich
Irrigation Proposal were submitted in December, 1948.
Before construction of irrigation-works could be undertaken in the Westbank
area, it was necessary for the Department of Veterans' Affairs to have title to the
land included in the project. Extension of the original soil-survey was made necessary
by failure to get title to a parcel covering about 200 acres.
As a measure of co-operation with the " Veterans' Land Act," a detailed soil-
survey preceding purchase was made of seven district lots. About 1,260 acres were
examined, and 512.3 acres were classed as irrigable.
A detailed soil-survey of lands tributary to Shuttleworth Creek, near Okanagan
Falls, was undertaken at the request of the Department of Lands and Forests.
The chief valley-filling deposit in this area consists of the terminal moraine of a
mountain glacier that descended Shuttleworth Creek valley. Morainal debris extends
from the toe of the mountain-slope on the east to Okanagan Falls and Vaseaux Lake.
This till-heap dams the Okanagan drainage. Okanagan River was pushed to the
west side of the valley and the present level of Skaha Lake was established. In post-
Glacial time, Shuttleworth Creek carved a deep channel through the moraine, emerging
on the north-west side. Post-Glacial fan deposits of the creek have filled the area,
which includes Okanagan Falls Townsite. The trench of Shuttleworth Creek divides
the area under consideration.
The moraine consists of glacial till containing variable but generally abundant
amounts of big stones and boulders, mixed with rather fine-textured material. Parts
of the area are excessively stony. From a depth of 2 feet the unweathered till is
impervious to the downward movement of water.
During the active stage of glaciation, great blocks of ice came free from the
glacier and were buried in the till-mass. The melting of these ice-blocks caused collapse
of the surface and the formation of large kettle holes which pock the south-west part
of the area. R 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The soil derived from the stony till has been mapped as Kelowna Stony Sandy
Loam, an excessively stony phase also being differentiated. Washing and sorting by
run-off water around the north and south rims of the moraine produced fringing sand
deposits, classified as Oyama Loamy Sand.
North of Shuttleworth Creek, on the east side of the valley, McLean Creek spread
its post-Glacial fan apron over the morainal till. The till lying beneath the fan is
impervious to water, hence a water-table is established in the overlying fan stratum,
causing restricted drainage in the shallow parts of the fan. Irrigation of the fan area
has increased the height of the water-table to the stage where the land is best suited
to shallow-rooting crops. The Nisconlith Sandy Loam, derived from the McLean
Creek fan, is recommended for mixed farming until drainage conditions are improved.
The Kelowna, Oyama, and Nisconlith series, mentioned above, are fully described
in the bulletin Soil Survey of the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys, now in the hands
of the King's Printer, Ottawa, Canada.
Land Utilization.
A total of 1,276 acres were classified as potentially irrigable. Of this amount, 145
acres are regarded as temporarily non-irrigable, owing to excessive stone content.
With the assistance of the Okanagan Reclamation Committee, the potentially irrigable
land was divided into: (a) Acreage suitable for hardy tree-fruits plus peaches and
apricots, 334 acres; (b) acreage suitable for hardy tree-fruits only, 259 acres;
(c) acreage suitable for mixed farming, 537 acres. Discounting land already planted,
the area available for new orchards amounts to 509 acres.
A combined soil- and land-utilization map, containing a proposed subdivision into
farm units, and Reclamation Committee Brief No. 5 were produced and submitted on
June 30th, 1948.
A soil-survey reconnaissance was undertaken in the Creston locality. Purposes
were to increase soil knowledge in this area and continue partly completed survey-work
between Wynndel and the border of Idaho.
About 20,566 acres were classified in 1948, of which 16,064 acres are potentially
arable and 4,492 acres consist of non-agricultural land. Added to past survey-work at
Wynndel (935 acres), Alice Siding (5,266 acres), and Kootenay River Flats (39,900
acres), the total area now surveyed in the Creston district amounts to 66,657 acres.
The parent materials of the Creston-Camp Lister bench soils have two sources,
both of which had their origin in the glacial epoch.
The main soil-farming deposit consists of a heavy, gray, limy clay-till containing
scattered granite boulders. This deposit extends from Wynndel to Bonner's Ferry,
Idaho, and its clay content is enormous. No comparable deposit has been found
associated with the till of the southern Purcell Mountains. It is concluded that the
grey clay-till is a product of the main Cordilleran glaciation, and its accumulation in
the Creston area was the work of a glacier which moved from the north and over-
deepened the Purcell Trench. The source of material was probably a mass of unconsolidated sediments which floored the depression now occupied by Kootenay Lake.
The topography resembles a ground moraine, with boat-bottomed depressions and
drumlin-shaped clay hills surrounding rock-outcroppings. Kettle holes occur and the
area is scarred by tributary stream-channels. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948. R 51
The soil derived from the clay-till consists of its weathered surface to a depth of
about 20 inches. It is medium to heavy clay, almost neutral at the surface, with pH
8.4 at the limy contact with the impervious, unweathered parent till.
This type is potentially fertile. Since adequate moisture is not supplied by precipitation, an irrigation system is required. In the Camp Lister area the agriculture
under irrigation will be partly tree-fruits and in part mixed farming, the deciding
factor being air drainage. In this locality the orchard land will be confined to the
slopes of large drumlins, the depressions between them being used for the production
of more hardy crops.
The second important soil-forming material is a yellowish-brown fine-textured till
abraded from the sedimentary rocks of the Purcell Mountains. This till occurs along
the mountain-slopes between Wynndel and the Goat River. In the vicinity of Goat
River it underlies most of the Erickson orchard locality, due probably to an ice-tongue
that descended the Goat River valley. Up-stream from Erickson, the Goat River valley
was temporarily laked during the decay of glaciation. Lacustrine stratified clays
eroded from the yellowish-brown till occur as remnants of a valley-filling deposit along
the main road toward Kitchener for several miles.
The tree-fruit and strawberry acreage of the Creston and Wynndel localities are
chiefly on soils derived from the yellowish-brown till. This is due to favourable location for irrigation and lighter soil texture. Sandy loam, loam, clay loam, and light
clay are textures common to the yellowish-brown till of the southern Purcell Mountains.
A second feature distinguishing the two tills from one another is the reaction of
the soils derived from them. The clay-till is limy and the soil above is nearly neutral.
On the other hand, the yellowish-brown till is low in lime and its soils are slightly acid.
Reports of acid soils at Creston were traced to the yellowish-brown till soils. The
range of reaction of all Creston soils, and their chemical composition, is being
Taken as a whole, the Creston soils derived from till are productive, and with
more acreage under irrigation the Creston locality will become an important agricultural community. The soil-survey work in the Purcell Trench forms part of a general
soil-survey of agricultural land resources in the Columbia River drainage system.
The soil-survey reconnaissance of the Rocky Mountain Trench, in the East Kootenay District, was continued for three months in 1948. Field mapping was extended
from Wardner to Kimberley, and the flood-plains of the Kootenay River were examined
between the American Border and Skookumchuck Prairie.
The area classified amounts to about 220,000 acres, of which approximately 20,000
acres are Kootenay River bottoms. Not counting the river-bottom lands, about 87,000
acres may be considered for irrigation. This compares with 153,000 acres classified
in 1947, of which about 103,900 acres are in the potentially irrigable category.
History of the Area.
The first white man to enter the district was David Thompson. Seeking new
territory for the North West Fur Company, he left Rocky Mountain House, Alta., in
1807. After ascending the North Saskatchewan and Howse Rivers, he crossed Howse
Pass and descended the Blaeberry River to its junction with the Columbia, about 10
miles north of Golden. In 1807 the trading-post " Kootenae House " was built in the
vicinity of Invermere.    McGillivray's River  (the Kootenay River)  was explored in
1808, and for the next fifty years the chief interest of the white man in the region
was centred on the fur trade. R 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The second stage of development had its source in the California gold-rush of
the 1840's, which concentrated a large population of adventurers. As opportunities,
declined in California, the prospectors fanned northward, finally reaching the Yukon
in the 1890's. The important Wild Horse Creek gold-strike, near Fort Steele, was
made in 1863, the creek being named after a wild horse seen near by. Subsequent
strikes were made on Findlay Creek, Perry Creek, and at other points in what is now
the Cranbrook locality.
Placer-mining continued with varying degrees of intensity to the time of railway-
construction, which had the effect of diverting attention to lode-mining and lumbering.
Between 1890 and 1895 the North Star, Stemwinder, St. Eugene, Sullivan, and other
prospects were staked. During this period, river navigation served the area between
Fort Steele and Jennings, Mont. The first ore was taken by river to Jennings, and
from there shipped by railway to Everett, Wash., for smelting.
By 1895 the extent of coal deposits in the Crowsnest Pass had been estimated and
the silver-lead ores of the Cranbrook locality looked important. Similar mining-
development was taking place in the West Kootenay District. These events required
improvement of transportation and gave promise of profitable railway operation.
The Crowsnest Pass railway, from McLeod, Alta., to Kootenay Landing, started
building in 1897 and was completed to Kootenay Landing in 1898. With Cranbrook
the division point, branch lines were built to Kimberley in 1899 and to Golden in 1908,
the Canadian Pacific Railway being the operator. Connection was made at Yahk by
the Spokane International Railway in 1907.
From small beginnings, railway-construction and following development brought
a revolution in lumbering. Large sawmills were established, their market being satisfied by local building and the export business. As with the boom in gold, lumbering
declined when the easily available timber was removed, although virgin timber still
supports a modest industry.
The history of this country to date is a story of plunder—a taking-away without
replacement. The fur-trader was after loot, and so were the prospector and the lumberman. Since fur, gold, and timber were limited resources, they helped the pioneers,
but little remains for succeeding generations. The present population is supported
chiefly by lode-mining, which is also a wasting asset.
Agriculture never got beyond a start, owing to the scanty range, river-bottoms
subject to floods, and the need of irrigation. However, the development of the latent
agricultural and water resources is necessary in order to consolidate the railways,
roads, towns, and services now existing, and to ensure a brighter future for the East
Kootenay District.
Soil Origin.
In the surveyed area the Rocky Mountain Trench is floored by a drumlinized till-
plain, through which the Kootenay River occupies a median trough. The plain is
scarred by glacial river-channels and the channels of tributaries. Small areas of till
are buried under glacio-lacustrine silts.
It is evident that the till-plain is the product of a second stage of the glacial epoch.
In the first stage an ice-field developed without movement, thus protecting the Kootenay River channel and other pre-Glacial surface deposits. The ice-field declined to
a system of mountain glaciers, which, in the second glaciation, expanded vigorously
in the form of ice-tongues from the Rocky Mountains. A multitude of moraines spread
across the ice-protected bottom of the Rocky Mountain Trench, reaching the foot of
the Purcell Mountains. In the Cranbrook locality the movement appears to have
fanned from the north or north-east, above Skookumchuck Prairie. As the ice decayed,
the morainal system subsided, forming the present topography. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948. R 53
Excepting a narrow fringe of acid Purcell till at the foot of the Purcell Mountains, the trench is floored with limy till from the Rockies, and the Kootenay River
bottoms are composed of fine-textured limy materials from the same source. Unable
to use the ice-blocked Kootenay River channel during some stage of deglaciation, the
bulk of the melt-water reduced parts of the till-plain, thus producing a system of
flat-bottomed, gravelly, glacial river-channels. In the surveyed area the glacio-
lacustrine silts are confined chiefly to the general vicinity of St. Mary River.
The soil-types consist of soils developed from the limy till and its water-sorted
products. The latter are the soils derived from the gravelly and sandy deposits in
the glacial river-channels and the soils derived from the lacustrine silts.
The forest and range vegetation is stunted throughout the till-plain area because
the limy soils intensify the effect of drought. While forest and range production is
below average under the natural precipitation, the soils are productive when irrigated.
Since elevations range from 2,600 to 3,500 feet above sea-level, the type of irrigated
agriculture will be mixed farming.
Kootenay River Bottoms.
The 20,000 acres of river-bottoms between Skookumchuck Prairie and the border
of Montana are of interest, owing to storage dam-sites at Libby, Mont., and at Wardner. The proposed Libby dam would flood the river-trench in British Columbia northward to Wardner, and a dam at Wardner would flood the remainder of the 20,000 acres.
In this area the Kootenay River trench is noteworthy for the absence of a continuous system of terraces formed where a river is eroding its channel. This is taken
as evidence that the river-trench was occupied by stagnant ice during the glacial epoch,
and when the ice melted, the river built up its bed to the present elevation. Borings
from the dam-sites reveal up to 200 feet of stratified sands and gravels before bedrock
is encountered, and this is regarded as a post-Glacial accumulation.
Existing terraces along the river are confined chiefly to the entry points of tributaries, which in places may have temporarily dammed and laked parts of the channel.
Laking flattened the grade, the ultimate product being a slowly moving stream which
deposits fine sands and limy silts in the freshet season.
From Skookumchuck to Wardner the river-trench has considerable width, and the
bottoms have the appearance of flood-plains, similar to those at Creston. There is
a levee along the river-bank supporting conifers and cottonwood. Inward from the
levee is a gentle loss of elevation, and the tree-growth changes to willows. Farther
in the surface-approaching water-table limits natural growth to sedges, and finally
a bullrush swamp occurs near the inner margin of the flood-plain.
The swamp and sedge areas are normally subject to the annual freshet, which often
invades the willows, but the levee is generally above high water. Natural breaks in
the levee permit invasion of swamp and sedge areas by the freshet, and a temporary
lake is thus formed. The fine silt and clay, carried at the surface of the freshet, is
brought in to settle from the quiet water of the flood-plain lake. The sedge and swamp
areas accumulate the fine sediments of the river-load, whereas the levees are formed
from sandy material.    Clay soils are derived from the sedge and swamp areas.
Parts of the bottoms between Skookumchuck and Wardner are combinations of
flood-plain, first and second bottoms. Below Wardner the river-trench narrows and
the lands consist chiefly of second bottoms connected to the sides of the trench, islands
at second-bottom height, and first bottoms.
In the bottom-land area there are thirty-eight farmsteads and about 2,846 acres
under some form of cultivation. Some of the higher ground on the larger bottoms
could be dyked, but the greater part of the acreage is low and wet. While it may be
necessary to sacrifice this whole area for river-control and power-development, the
gain will very likely be greater than the loss. R 54
The soil-survey was continued in the Peace River Block during the 1948 field season
on the same basis as in previous years, with the Provincial and Dominion Departments
of Agriculture co-operating. Since the work of previous seasons had covered the
majority of the subdivided lands south of the Peace River, operations during the 1948
season were confined to the soils north of that river. A headquarters camp was
established 3 miles north-west of Fort St. John, near Stoddart Creek, and the work
directed from there. As the season progressed and the areas of survey became more
remote, temporary accommodation was found for individual survey parties in farm
homes and in camps. The survey crew consisted of the men whose names follow:
H. F. Fletcher, G. R. Webster, W. 0. Crow, and F. D. Cook, all of the Provincial
Department of Agriculture, and T. M. Lord and J. S. Clark, of the Dominion Experimental Farms Service. The field operations were under the direction of L. Farstad,
of the Dominion Experimental Farms Service, and Dr. C. A. Rowles, of the University
of British Columbia.
The methods and scale of survey were similar to those mentioned in the Annual
Report of 1947. During the field season, some 292,500 acres were surveyed, bringing
the total area surveyed in the block during the past three seasons to about 914,500 acres.
All or portions of the townships listed below were covered during the past season
Township 82, Ranges 16, 17, and 18;   Township 83, Ranges 16, 17, 18, 19, and 20
Township 84, Ranges 17, 18, 19, 20, and 21;   Township 85, Ranges 17, 18, 19, and 20
Township 86, Ranges 18 and 19;   Township 87, Ranges 18, 19, and 20, all west of the
6th meridian.
Since all the soils in the block have not yet been surveyed, final correlations,
classification, and naming of the soils have not been done. Therefore, only a brief
progress report dealing with the area north of the Peace River is justified at this time.
Climatic information for the area is reasonably good, information being available
from recording-stations at Hudson Hope, Taylor, Baldonell, and Fort St. John. Thus,
from Baldonell, the mean annual precipitation, summer precipitation, and mean annual
temperature are reported as 18.1 inches, 7.5 inches, and 36° F. respectively. It is
evident from these figures that the climate is sub-humid, with a high proportion
of the year's precipitation falling during the growing period. On the basis of the
Thornthwaite system, the climate would be classified as transition between grass land
and forest. Such a classification is confirmed by the native vegetation and the soils,
the latter showing in some profiles an interesting combination of grass-land and forest
The values which follow were calculated by Dr. V. C. Brink, University of British
Columbia, and indicate the nature of the frost-free period for two stations in the area,
as compared with those for several other points:—
Average Frost-free
Period (Days).
Longest Frost-free
Period (Days).
Shortest Frost-free
Period (Days).
32° F.     1      26° F.
32° F.     1      26° F.
32° F.      1      26° F.
100                  14.3
137        j        193
125                  170
165                  252
264                  359
Fort St. John (old site)	
The figures show that the growing period of the area is limited. Attention is also
drawn to the very important local climatic differences associated with different locations,
elevations, and topographic positions within the area, significant differences being
noted often between the tops of knolls and depressions a few hundred yards away.
Climatic information is incomplete with respect to rainfall intensity, although observations reveal that sudden and intense storms are common during the summer and that
this is an important factor associated with the serious water erosion evident on many
The surveyed area is in the aspen-grove, mixed-wood, and foot-hills sections of
Boreal forest region, as described by W. E. D. Halliday, Dominion Department of Lands
and Forests, 1937. It is characterized by areas of open grass land surrounded by
forest vegetation consisting mainly of aspen, balm of Gilead, white birch, and pine
on the better-drained soils, and spruce, larch, and willow on the less well-drained sites.
The open grass lands are associated with degraded black soils and the forest
vegetation mainly with grey wooded soils. The settlers have shown a distinct
preference for the degraded black soils, and consequently very limited areas of these
soils remain uncultivated within the surveyed area, except on the Fort St. John Indian
Reserve, recently opened for settlement by the " Veterans' Land Act." All future
development will be on the grey wooded soil, which requires light to heavy clearing.
A wide variety of soils occur in the area, and among them are soils developed from
two distinct glacial tills and at least two types of bedded clays, suggesting that the
territory has been glaciated at least twice, followed in each case by laking.
The till that appears to have resulted from the earlier glaciation is generally
dark-brown in colour, rather hard and compact, and carries little or no free lime in the
matrix, although it does contain numerous limestone pebbles. Only very limited areas
of soil were observed developed on this till, which apparently had its origin to the west.
Soils developed from bedded clays that apparently overlie the till just described
occur in various places, notably along the St. John, Indian, and Roseland Creeks. These
bedded clays are often characterized by black colour, waxy consistency, and fine texture.
The soils developed from them vary, but in general they are dark brown to black in
colour, vary in texture from clays to heavy clays, and have compact, impervious
sub-soils.   Their physical condition is inferior and should receive special study.
These soils are associated mainly with grass-land vegetation and are comparatively
stone-free. They usually have gently sloping topography, and this, coupled with their
physical properties, makes them, susceptible to erosion by water.
Considerable acreages of soil occur that apparently developed from glacial till
deposited later than the bedded clays described above. Three important differences
distinguish this younger till from the older till mentioned previously; namely, that
it is less compacted or cemented, contains much free lime dessimated throughout the
matrix, and carries a different variety of pebbles and stones. This would suggest
a different origin, probably to the east of the surveyed area.
Boreal forest vegetation and grey wooded soil development are mainly associated
with these glacial tills, although, as a result of differences in topographic position and
drainage, a wide variety of related soil profiles are developed. Many of the virgin
soils occurring in better-drained positions are characterized by having A0 horizons
to 3 inches in depth, shallow Ax horizons ranging in depth from y2 to 2 inches, and
deeper A2 horizons, usually between 4 to 6 inches, consisting of grey fine sandy loam.
The B-l and B2 horizons are usually compact and range in texture from clays to heavy
The glacial soils just discussed vary in stoniness from slight to very stony. Their
topography is also variable, but they frequently occur in long ridges that are apparently
associated with the surface features of the underlying bedrock. Often along the tops
of these ridges the till is very thin, and the soil is developed almost directly from the
underlying sandstone.
For the most part, these soils are of inferior natural fertility and show a marked
need for organic matter, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Their physical properties also are
inferior and require special consideration. As a result of these factors, together with
their forest vegetation, these soils have been, and will continue to be, slow in developing
agriculturally, and considerable acreages must be considered as marginal or sub-
marginal for cultivation. The soils of this type, when cultivated, are best suited to the
production of legumes and grasses for seed and forage.
Soils developed from bedded clays that appear to post-date the till soils just
discussed occur at numerous points in the area. These clays are distinctly bedded,
contain moderate to high amounts of free lime and scattered stones and pebbles. They
also contain an appreciable amount of material similar to the black waxy clays
previously mentioned.
Open grass land and park-like vegetation and degraded black soils are characteristic
of these lacustrine clay areas. A wide variety of soil profiles occur, depending upon
local topographic and drainage conditions. Soils on the better-drained positions are
characterized by well-developed dark-brown to black At horizons, 4 to 6 inches in depth,
indistinct grey-brown A2 horizons, 2 to 4 inches in depth, and dark-brown moderately
compact Bx and B2 horizons of clay and heavy clay texture.
Occasional stones occur in most areas, and topography is mainly gently sloping.
In some places unusual formations are evident that give the soils a somewhat rolling
topography. These soils are extensively developed and produce a considerable proportion of the grain grown in the area. Although they have the highest natural fertility
of the soils observed in the area, they require careful handling, and special consideration
should be given to the maintenance of organic matter, the maintenance and improvement
of their physical properties, and the control of erosion.
In addition to the soils discussed, organic, alluvial, and various other soils were
observed. However, a consideration of all such soils of limited occurrence and agricultural significance is beyond the scope of this progress report.
(Reported on by J. W. Eastham, B.A.)
According to the vegetation below 3,500 feet altitude (the limit of observation),
the trench may be divided into three sections, which may be distinguished as Southern,
Middle, and Northern, the transition being more or less gradual, and available soil-
moisture being the dominant factor.
Southern Section.
The area from the Montana Boundary, north to and including Canal Flats, bounded
by Cranbrook on the west and Elko on the east, forms a fairly definite vegetation-zone.
The altitude of the valley-floor is indicated by those of the following points: Canal
Flats, 2,653 feet; Cranbrook, 3,013 feet; Elko, 3,000 feet; Newgate, practically on
the International Boundary, 2,800 feet.
The surface is much broken up with rocky knolls and ridges, river and stream
valleys, and some deep canyons, giving a great variety of drainage and exposure, with
consequent changes in the composition of the vegetation. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948.
R 57
Precipitation, as shown in the following table, is intermediate between that of
Vernon and Kelowna, at the northern extremity of the Okanagan Dry Belt:—
6 Mos.
12 Mos.
The vegetation is that of the upper and moister levels of the Arid Transition Zone,
modified perhaps by much severer winters than in the Okanagan and Kamloops areas.
Sage-brush (Artemisia tridentata) and cactus (Opuntia sp.), conspicuous plants of
the Western Dry Belt, do not occur. Rabbit-brush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus) and
balsam-root (Balsamorhiza sagittata) are found only here and there on hot, dry,
usually southern, exposures.
Although, as mentioned above, there are local variations in the character of the
vegetation, there is little evidence of zonation, either regional or altitudinal, within our
terms of reference, except that conditions become much moister and the vegetation
more mesic at the base of the mountains. This is particularly well seen along the
south-eastern edge of the area, where rain-storms originating in the Crowsnest Pass
apparently debouch at Elko and follow the mountains south. Elko itself, at the
entrance to the pass, has an annual precipitation of 19.38 inches, while as far south
as Flagstone the vegetation is of a mesic type, streams are common, irrigation and
mixed farming occur, with even an occasional orchard.
In addition, there is a slight general change in the vegetation, not noticeable to
the ordinary observer in travelling from south to north, due to the varying degree to
which certain plants of southern origin have been able to extend themselves northwards. Thus the reed-grass (Calamovilfa longifolia) only occurs for a few miles north
of the Montana Boundary; Eriogonum flavum, Orthocarpus tenuifolius, and Phlox
rigida extend as far as Skookumchuck and Wasa, while the antelope-bush (Purshia)
stops about 10 miles south of Kootenay River Crossing at Canal Flats.
Two general types of vegetation have to be considered; namely, forest and climax
grass land.
1. Forest.—This at one time has covered most of the area. Whitford and Craig
(1), 1918, state that the area was second only to the Coast in the value of its lumbering. Since that time, logging has been carried on so intensively that most of the
larger mills have had to close down. It is, therefore, not easy to reconstruct the
original picture. The most characteristic tree of the area is the yellow or bull pine
(Pinus ponderosa), which is abundant to Canal Flats, north of which it ceases abruptly.
It occupies the hottest, driest areas, where it may form practically pure stands, as at
Rampart, Waldo, and parts of Tobacco Plains. More usually it is mixed with Douglas
fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia) in varying degrees, which may also form almost pure
stands. Western larch (Larix occidentalis) occurs typically in somewhat moister conditions, but between Cranbrook and Kimberley, as well as elsewhere, all these may be
seen growing in the same clump. Spruce (both white and Engelmann's) occurs chiefly
along creeks and river-flats, where there is abundance of moisture, but at St. Eugene
Mission yellow pine and spruce may be seen growing side by side. Rocky Mountain
Juniper (/. scopulorum) occurs occasionally throughout.
The forest-type produced by these trees is mostly open (savannah) with a thin
ground-cover, chiefly of grass, but with some forbs and dwarf shrubs. Where it has
been logged and burned and there is perhaps a little more moisture, the typical dense R 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
stands of lodgepole pine (P. contorta) may occur, as is well seen along the road from
Wardner to Jaffray. Along creek-bottoms, also, there is often a very dense stand of
moisture-loving trees and shrubs—Cottonwood, aspen, willows, alder (Alnus tenuifolia),
and mountain maple (Acer glabrum). Aspen (Populus tremuloides) is also found
throughout in moist hollows amongst the conifers.
The most characteristic shrub is the antelope-bush (Purshia tridentata), which
occurs throughout, except in the moist belt at the foot of the mountain. It reaches
its maximum development, both as to numbers and size of individuals, on logged-off
land south-west of Elko. In the Western Dry Belt this plant penetrates into British
Columbia for perhaps 40 miles north of the International Boundary, in the Southern
Okanagan and Similkameen, in what is generally regarded as the Upper Sonoran Zone.
It is associated there with sage-brush, which, however, extends much farther north.
Why it should penetrate 80 miles north in the Rocky Mountain region, where sagebrush apparently cannot exist at all, is as yet unexplained. Other common shrubs are
roses (Rosa sp.), choke-cherry (Prunus demissa), mock-orange (Philadelphus Leivisii),
bearberry (Arctostaphyos uva-ursi), and snow or wax berry (Symphoricarpos, chiefly
2. Areas of climax grass land are small, the two most important being St. Mary's
Prairie, between Cranbrook and Marysville. and Tobacco Plains, adjoining the Montana
Boundary. These were noticed by the early explorers and travellers. Both, but especially the latter, have been excessively overgrazed, and it is not easy to infer the nature
of the original vegetation. Relatively undisturbed patches are small and not typical
in situation of the general area. However, in such places blue bunch-grass (Agropyron
spicatum var. inerme) is usually the dominant grass, and, as this is one of the best
forpge grasses, it seems probable that it at one time occurred over the whole area and
disappeared through overgrazing. Rough fescue (Festuca scabrella) is also frequent
throughout, as also is Idaho fescue (F. idahoens;s), which seems to stand overgrazing
better and is often dominant on St. Mary's Prairie. All these are important forage
grasses. (Some local agriculturists consider rough fescue a poor grass, avoided by
stock, but its abundance in protected areas such as the railway right-of-way, in comparison with the open range, indicates it has been eaten out on the latter.) Other
abundant grasses are Koeleria cristata, Poa secunda, and Stipa columbiana. Associated
plants are dwarf Erigerons, silky lupin (Lupinus sericeus), poison milk-vetch (Astragalus serotinus), Antennaria parvifolia, alum-root (Heuchera glabella), poison camass
(Zigadenus venenosus), and many others, some peculiar to the Rocky Mountain region.
It seems, therefore, that the original vegetation here was the Agropyron-Festuca
association or Upper Grass-land Zone, as described by Tisdale (2) and Spilsbury and
Tisdale (3). It differs from this form as described from the Western Dry Belt of
British Columbia in the much greater abundance of Idaho fescue.
While the above applies apparently to most of the area, there are " islands " of
considerable size, especially on Tobacco Plains, which are almost pure stands of needle-
grass (Stipa comata) or downy brome (Bromus tectorum), or mixed with Poa secunda.
Tisdale (I.e.) considers such associations as derived by overgrazing from what was
originally Middle Grass-land Zone, so this zone may also have been represented in the
hotter drier areas  (chiefly on gravel).
Where overgrazing has been the worst, grass may have almost disappeared, and
other vegetation taken its place. In some cases, patches of many square yards are
occupied by the false dandelion (Agoseris glauca), a tap-rooted perennial. An annual
woolly composite, Filago arvensis, introduced from Europe, and not known to occur
elsewhere in North America, has almost taken possession of the overgrazed range at
Dorr and is abundant on much of the range south of Elko. It appears to be avoided
Skookumchuck Prairie is a small level area of gravel. The grass cover is almost
pure Stipa comata with some Bromus tectorum and Koeleria in places. Forbs are
abundant, Erigerons, pasture wormwood (Artemisia frigida), Antennaria parvifolia,
bitter-root (Lewisia rediviva), Phlox rigida, Eriogonum flavum, woolly plantain
(Plantago Purshii), etc.
A considerable area of prairie at Wasa seems to be of the same character. Both
are apparently derived from Middle Zone grass land by overgrazing.
Correlation between Soil Formation and Plant Cover.
Attempts to correlate the plant cover with the underlying soil formation were not
successful. Local variations of exposure, drainage, and precipitation apparently outweigh the difference between soil-types. This is well seen in observing the tree cover
on the Elko Gravelly Soil Association from the old Newgate Station to the present
Flagstone Post-office and northwards. Almost pure stands of yellow pine change to
Douglas fir, become mixed with lodgepole pine and western larch, and along the base
of the mountains with aspen, alder, and mountain maple. In other words, the complete extremes of forest-cover in the whole southern trench may occur on the same soil
formation. In the case of the grass land the situation is further complicated by overgrazing and secondary associations. It is possible that an extensive series of quantitative analyses of the vegetation on a large number of sites might show some degree of
correlation, but no such difference could be established from our observations.
Certain plants, in addition to the grasses previously mentioned, are indicative of
specially hot, dry situations. Eriogonum flavum, a perennial restricted in British
Columbia to this section, is one of them. A bed of its bright yellow flower-clusters,
often conspicuous at a distance, is an almost certain indication of a gravel soil. The
less common Penstemon eriantherus likes a similar habitat, while the lesser paint-brush
(Orthocarpus tenuifolius), an annual, is very common in such places, maturing and
dying down early.
As elsewhere in the Dry Belt, alkali-grass (Distichlis striata) and the poisonous
arrow-grass (Triglochin maritima) were found to be indicative of moist alkali spots;
for example, low meadows around the ponds at Rampart and flood-plain of the Kootenay
River at Doyle. Rush-leaved meadow-grass (Poa juncifolia), not uncommon in the
area, is supposed to indicate alkali in drier situations.
Transitional Areas.
On the east the southern section of the trench ends abruptly against the Rocky
Mountains, except at the entrance to the Crowsnest Pass, where Elko is located. Even
here, however, the change is abrupt. Within a mile, travelling east from Elko, all
the characteristic plants of the trench have disappeared and been replaced by vegetation of the moister Canadian Zone.
On the west, from Cranbrook, the change is more gradual. The antelope-bush
(Purshia) does not extend much beyond Cranbrook, at least along the main highway;
the last of the characteristic Rocky Mountain plants, Hedysarum sulphurescens, disappears about 8 miles west. Before reaching Moyie, bracken fern appears, together
with bunchberry (Cornus canadensis), thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus), and other
plants of the Canadian Zone, but the yellow pine persists more or less to Kingsgate.
Between Yahk and Kitchener the highway lies mostly in the Canadian Zone; larch,
hemlock, and cedar are all common; balsam fir, frequent; and white pine, occasional.
Thimbleberry and bracken are abundant. The cultivated bench lands of the Creston
district are once more in the upper levels of the Arid Transition Zone. R 60
(1) Whitford, H. N., and Craig, R. D.:   Forests of British Columbia, 1918.
(2) Tisdale, E. W.:   The grassland of the Southern Interior of British Columbia.
Ecology 28:346-382, 1947.
(3) Spilsbury, R. H., and Tisdale, E. W.:   Soil-plant relationships and vertical zona-
tion in the Southern Interior of British Columbia.    Scientific Agriculture
24:395-436, 1944.
(I have nothing significant to add to or modify in the account of the middle and
northern sections of the trench as given in the printed Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture for 1947. Bad weather and flooded roads slowed down the work
in the southern section. As this is the area which seems to hold most possibility for
future agricultural development, it was thought best to do this as fully as possible.
In consequence, all that could be done in the more northern sections was to check the
observations made in 1947.)
Ecology of the Columbia Valley from Revelstoke to Arrowhead.
This valley, lying between the Selkirk and Monashee Ranges, is very narrow, and
much of the valley-floor is occupied by the channels and islands of the Columbia River.
Possibilities for further agricultural development do not appear to be great. The
annual precipitation at Revelstoke (average of forty-four years) is 39.72 inches, and
the aspect of the vegetation throughout indicates an abundance of moisture. Although
the trees are smaller, the density of the forest-cover, including shrubs, is probably 75
per cent, or more of that of the Lower Fraser Valley. Extensive logging operations
over many years are no doubt responsible for the fact that few trees of commercial
size are left anywhere along the highways.
The flora is that of the Canadian Zone. Of conifers, red cedar and Douglas fir
(both small) and hemlock are abundant; of deciduous trees, alder, birch, and mountain
maple are plentiful. The dense shrub undergrowth is composed of thimbleberry, hazel,
willows, red osier dogwood (Cornus stolonif era), and devil's-club. Goat's-beard spiraea
(Aruncus Sylvester) is abundant. Ferns are plentiful and various—bracken, oak-fern,
maidenhair, bladder-fern (Cystopteris fragilis), and the rather uncommon beech and
ostrich ferns. The variety and prevalence of introduced weeds indicates long
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist.
The winter was generally mild in all horticultural sections, with only a few short
periods when the temperature was below zero in the Salmon Arm and Kootenay areas.
A satisfactory snow coverage and well-ripened trees prevented any winter-injury.
In the Okanagan there was little snowfall on the lower levels, while in the Coast sections there was a light snowfall but a somewhat higher rainfall than is usual at this
time of the year.
The spring was late in all districts, varying from two to three weeks and depending upon location. Blossoming dates give a very good indication of the season, and
the following comparative dates for the Kelowna area may be taken as a fair indication
of the season for all sections:—
Apr. 20
Apr. 27
Apr. 29
May 10
Apr. 22
May 1
May 6
May 15
Apr. 16
Apr. 26
Apr. 29
May 7
Apr. 16
Apr. 22
Apr. 26
May 5
R 61
As this table indicates, cool weather resulted in the later blossoming varieties
being ten days to two weeks later than normal.
Heavy rainfall and floods resulting from the melting of snows in the mountains
also materially affected agricultural production in many districts. The summer was
cool in all districts, with no extended periods of high temperatures and accompanied
by unprecedented rainfall. These conditions affected all crops. Cool weather and
unusual rainfall continued until early fall, followed, during the month of October, by
little rainfall and generally satisfactory weather for harvesting. The late fall and
early winter period experienced heavy rains, snow in many districts, and at points,
particularly on the Coast, high winds.
Tree and Small Fruits.
While tree-fruits of all kinds early in the season gave indication of a crop larger
than that of the previous year, there was a gradual decrease in the estimated production
as the season advanced. The final estimate as at November 1st, and as tabulated below,
indicates a decrease in apples, pears, peaches, and cherries. This decrease in apples
was undoubtedly due in part to poor pollenization at time of blossoming, followed by
poor seasonal conditions throughout the growing period, which resulted in unsatisfactory sizing and the production of a large quantity of small-sized fruit. Pears show
only a slight decrease as compared with 1947. Peaches, cherries, and prunes also show
a decrease due, in part, to the general distribution of peach leaf-curl and brown-rot.
These two diseases are not usually of outstanding significance, but under the weather
conditions that prevailed during the past season caused a considerable loss. Heavy
rains also caused severe cherry splitting, thus reducing the crop and increasing handling
and picking costs. Of the various stone-fruits, apricots alone showed a marked increase
in production over the 1947 crop.
The following table gives the actual production for 1947 and the estimated
production for 1948 for both tree and small fruits:—
5 700
The flood conditions prevailing in the Fraser Valley during June destroyed many
plantings of small fruits. Nevertheless, the total tonnage of all small fruits produced
during the 1948 season was on the whole larger than that of the previous year.
Furthermore, the demand for and sale of all such fruit, with the exception of raspberries, was most satisfactory.    Loganberries were particularly outstanding, as the R 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
abundant supply of moisture during the harvesting period brought the total production
well up in line with earlier estimates.
The biennial small-fruit survey, which has been carried out with almost unbroken
regularity since 1920, was not undertaken this year, due to unsettled conditions in the
Fraser Valley.
The following table shows the estimated acreage of a few of the most important
vegetable-crops for 1947 as well as for 1948:— Estimated       Estimated
Acreage Acreage
Kind. 1947. 1948.
Tomatoes  '  4,011 3,740
Onions .:  1,196 1,179
Lettuce        800 882
Celery  __,      544 663
Cucumbers       406 348
Cabbage      826 837
Cantaloupe       213 193
Over a period of years there has been little change in the vegetable acreage.
Some seasons, however, are better suited to maximum production. This was perhaps
on the whole one of the worst.
A late, cold spring, followed by a wet and cool summer, delayed the early ripening
and shipping of tomatoes, cucumbers, and cantaloupes. Furthermore, the delay in
shipping brought competition on the Prairie markets from their local-grown as well
as Ontario produce of a similar nature. Late blight also attacked the tomatoes, with
the result that the crop was lighter than in previous years. Onions also were attacked
by mildew, which materially reduced the size of the bulb and therefore lessened the
total yield. Potato acreage was badly blighted and, while not reducing the yield, has
increased the storage hazard.
The production of mushrooms still shows an upward trend. The greater portion
of the crop is grown in the Fraser Valley in the Greater Vancouver area and amounts
to nearly 400 tons this year.
Flower-bulb Production.
The major portion of the acreage in the Province devoted to flower-bulb production
is located in the Fraser Valley and on Vancouver Island. On Vancouver Island bulb-
growers who were marketing flowers had a somewhat difficult season, as conditions were
the opposite of 1947 when the season was early and the Easter season was late. On the
other hand, the fall bulb sale has been generally good.
Bulb-growers have formed the B.C. Bulb Growers' Federation, which should be
of assistance to them. Furthermore, the Dominion Government has put into effect
an inspection and certification plan, which should tend to improve the general quality
of bulbs offered for sale.
Seed Production.
The supervision of seed production in British Columbia is undertaken by J. L.
Webster, of your Horticultural Branch. As his annual report for the current year
contains a great deal of valuable information, certain sections are herewith submitted
as a part of the report of this Branch:—
" Trends in Production and Marketing of Vegetable Seed.—The acreage of vegetables planted in 1948 was up quite noticeably from 1947, and early expectations were
that the yield and value of the 1948 vegetable-seed crop would total considerably more
than in 1947. In other words, we expected that 1947 would be the low point in
production and that a noticeable upward trend would commence with 1948.    Among DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948. R 63
the seed-crops in which acreages showed a substantial increase over 1947 were onion,
carrot, mangel, beans, tomato, cucumber, and corn, and most of the other crops were
about on a par with that of the previous year, while only a few lesser items showed
a reduction.
" With an average season, total values for 1948 should have been up at least
$100,000 in total value from 1947, whereas the situation as it stands is that the total
will be down at least $300,000 below that of the low year, 1947. Most contracts are
having to be prorated, some only as high as 20 per cent. This procedure is not popular
with buyers.
" The outlet or potential market for British Columbia grown vegetable seed, as
was pointed out in our last year's report, was considerably reduced by the closing-down
of the Special Products Board at Ottawa and the discontinuation of the ' mutual aid '■
or ' lend-lease ' plan.
" The policy of the United Kingdom continues to be one of purchasing principally
in the sterling countries and from the dollar countries only when certain kinds and
varieties are urgently needed.
" However, some sizable orders have been obtained from the Seeds Import Board
in Great Britain, which is the only outlet for seed to that country.
" While forming only a small part of the United Kingdom requirements and only
a fraction of the orders received through the Special Products Board during 1940-45,
they were nevertheless well worth while and may be expected to increase as the monetary
situation improves. It undoubtedly will be several years yet before there is normal
resumption of trading between Canadian and United Kingdom firms.
" It is interesting that Holland, normally one of the world's most important
exporters of vegetable seed, should be purchasing in British Columbia quite large
amounts of seed of onion and beans. Dutch firms apparently are able to obtain import
licences for Canadian seed more freely than some other countries.
" France, also, chiefly because of winter-injury in 1946 and drought in 1948, has
been in the market for some British Columbia grown seed, chief of which was 100,000
lb. of Eckendorfer mangel, 1948 crop. It may be possible to increase this type of
business, providing our growers can deliver sizable contracts at reasonable prices.
" South Africa, which has been purchasing small amounts of quite a range of kinds
and varieties, has unfortunately now placed an embargo on Canadian seeds in favour
of seeds from the sterling countries.
" Only a very limited amount of business has been secured from South American
countries, in spite of considerable efforts to obtain a portion of this trade.
" Considerable seed is being sold in the United States and our British Columbia,
firms are enjoying more confidence in that market than in the past. The business
is somewhat spasmodic and is often a case of jobbing to certain large firms as a result
of a shortage in a certain kind or variety. However, some very satisfactory contracts
and repeat orders are being received on such items as Early Yellow Globe onion, Delcrow
cucumber, Nantes carrot, and various other single items.
" Sales in other domestic or Canadian markets, which fell off after the war, are
beginning to pick up again. We believe the larger firms in Eastern Canada should
place a greater proportion of their business in British Columbia. There are undoubtedly
still certain prejudices in the minds of Eastern buyers regarding the quality of our
seed and the trading position of our British Columbia firms. We are happy to note that
there is now evidence of increasing good-will between the firms concerned, which in
turn will mean more business in the near future.
"Estimates of 1948 Vegetable-seed Yields in Comparison with Yields for 1946
and 1947.—The following data show the production of the various vegetable-seed items
in 1946 and 1947, together with the 1948 estimate as at November 1st:— R 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
1946. 1947. (Estimated).
Kind. Lb. Lb. Lb.
Asparagus    300 245 250
Beans (broad)   24,973 24,000 12,500
Beans (others)   170,677 219,214 524,500
Beets    38,300 49,674 17,000
Brussels sprouts   1,000            	
Cabbage   10,065 1,700 1,459
Carrots   174,300 32,448 76,200
Cauliflower   1,189 992 590
Citron   380 400 	
Corn  (sweet)    22,950 16,500 30,000
Cress  995
Cucumber   5,700 5,457 16,300
Leek   700 1,130 600
Lettuce   65,350 20,254 25,626
Muskmelon    270 320 250
Onion   224,000 79,595 36,925
Onion sets  38,000 40,000 20,000
Parsley   17            	
Parsnip    11,500 2,500 700
Peas   3,469,700 2,804,942 401,200
Pepper   35 63 55
Pumpkin    505 604 2,000
Radish   87,800 24,860 10,450
Spinach   14,100 16,651 10,100
Squash   2,000 1,200 1,250
Swiss chard   1,000 10 600
Tomato   1,010 1,314 1,190
Turnip  (swede)    9,100 7,973 13,200
Vegetable marrow   6,900 6,098 300
Watermelon   75 150 500
Totals   4,382,891 3,358,294 1,203,745
" The tremendous drop in the estimated total poundage of seed for 1948 can largely
be attributed to peas, which generally form about two-thirds of the volume of the
total vegetable-seed crop.
" In addition, of course, several other volume items show a reduction, but beans'
and corn show a substantial upward trend.
" With regard to total values, which will not be compiled until the final crop figures
are available, it is apparent that vegetable seed will be reduced very considerably and
probably will not exceed $300,000, or less than 50 per cent, of the 1947 totals.
" Competing Crops tend to cause Reduction in Seed Acreage.—Following the reduction in the price of most vegetable- and flower-seed items in 1945 and 1946, and the
recent rise in the prices of other farm commodities such as vegetables, potatoes,
tomatoes, canning crops, etc., it became evident that growers in many cases were
obtaining a higher return per acre from many of such crops than from many of the
seed-crops. As a consequence many growers reduced their acreage of seed and
increased their acreage of other farm crops.
" It gradually became harder to get certain farmers to accept contracts at prevailing prices for seed, and a few of the older experienced growers and quite a number
of the more unsuccessful growers gave up seed-growing altogether. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948. R 65
" Difficulties have been experienced in placing out lower-priced seed-crops such as
beans, corn, and peas in competition with alfalfa. A good stand of alfalfa will, at
prevailing prices and after considering the labour costs, return about as much revenue
as the above seed-crops.
" With onion bulbs selling at $50 to $60 per ton, it is doubtful whether there is
much profit in growing onion seed at $1.25 per lb., especially at this time when the
danger from mildew of onion is considered. In the same manner it can be shown that
carrot, beet, and parsnip seed are not as profitable as formerly. It can be agreed
that more money can be made by farmers growing the crop for market than by growing
the seed.
" When vegetable prices (and other agricultural commodity prices) decline somewhat, we would judge that it will be very much easier to again increase the acreage of
seed grown—in fact there may be great competition between growers to secure any
available seed contracts.
"Effect of 1948 Floods on Seed Production.—With the exception of the loss of
a reported 3,000 acres of peas in the Creston Valley, the losses of vegetable seed from
floods were not great.
"A total of about 20 acres of various small lots of cabbage, turnip, and mangel
were destroyed in the Fraser Valley, and possibly up to 25 acres in the Grand Forks
district, chiefly of onion and carrot. A small acreage of lettuce and beans was lost at
" We have no definite information on the losses of peas in Creston other than the
report above. The acreage of peas in that area is composed of seed peas for garden
and canning use and also a quantity of field or commercial peas.
"Among the field seed-crops affected, red clover suffered by far the greatest loss.
However, although there was a tremendous acreage of clover destroyed by the flood,
most of it was in areas where little is cut for seed. The heavier-producing sections
in the Delta and Cloverdale districts were not flooded. It can be stated, therefore,
that the flooding of red clover in the Hatzic, Matsqui, Fort Langley, Pitt Meadows,
and Sardis-Chilliwack areas did not directly reduce the crop by more than a few
hundred acres. Indirectly, however, the loss of much-needed hay caused many red
clover seed-growers in other parts of the valley to attempt to harvest a second crop
of hay instead of seed. Neither of the above factors was as important as the unfavourable August weather referred to elsewhere in this report.
" Notes on Flower-seed Production.—The acreage of flower seed and the number
of kinds and varieties grown in 1948 showed a reduction from the previous year.
While early summer prospects for a crop were good, the heavy precipitation of July
and August, with accompanying disease and lack of pollination, seriously reduced the
yields and delayed the maturity of many kinds and varieties. Some kinds such as
zinnia and sweet peas were almost a total loss, probably due principally to botrytis
attacking the blooms and young seed-pods. Harvesting was late and was hampered
by second growth, weeds, and bad weather. It was found exceedingly difficult to dry
a lot of the crop, and the need for some type of artificial drier on certain farms was
very evident.
" Pansy seed, the most important single item on Vancouver Island, was affected
by disease and lack of pollination and, according to reports, yielded only about 30 per
cent, of a normal crop. On a small acreage in the Southern Interior, where conditions
are usually not as suitable as at the Coast, yields were much better than average.
" Other crops which did poorly in almost all areas were African daisy, Geum, and
sweet peas.
" Comments on the Market for Flower Seed and Methods of Contracting and Marketing.—The market for flower seed continues to be highly competitive as a result of R 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Californian and Dutch competition. In fact, according to reports, there has been
a minor price war amongst certain California firms, with its accompanying depressing
effect on prices. Apparently Dutch firms are competing very strongly for business
in kinds and varieties of flowers which do well under cooler conditions and which
require considerable hand labour. California, on the other hand, excels in large-scale
production of heat-loving crops and produces these crops at prices which are very
difficult to compete with.
" There are apparently two separate policies being carried out by British Columbia
grower-firms in so far as production and marketing are concerned. One firm attempts
to produce and supply practically a complete line of kinds and varieties (315 items).
This firm has built up an enviable reputation for high-quality seed. It does, however,
have considerable difficulty in maintaining profitable production in all these lines.
The operations of this firm, with production chiefly on Vancouver Island, but also with
growers at the Coast and in the Interior, has provided valuable information on available
methods of production and also on the areas best suited to the various kinds. Much
of this information has been recorded in our Bulletin No. 14 in the Seed Production
" The two other grower-firms do not attempt to produce a complete range of kinds
and varieties, but more or less concentrate on growing those kinds best suited to our
British Columbia climate and soil conditions and which it is hoped can be economically
produced in face of foreign competition.
" The amount of flower seed entering commerce at wholesale values is a relatively
small item, as may be judged by the fact that something less than $100,000 worth of
flower seed is purchased annually by Canadian firms. We have no definite figure on
retail sales of flower seed in Canada, but it has been suggested that this may approach
$1,000,000, indicating that the retail value or mark-up is very considerable.
" In face of the relatively small total wholesale value of flower seed consumed
annually in this country, it should be kept in mind that our British Columbia production is very substantial and represents at least 90 per cent, of the flower seed produced
in Canada. It is also very evident that to expand or even to maintain our production
at present levels British Columbia growers and firms are very much dependent on the
export market, which is at present confined almost entirely to the United States. The
ban on the importation of flower seed into the United Kingdom from Canada still continues and there is little hope that this important market will be open for some time
to come."
Pruning Demonstrations.
There are many new settlers coming into the Province and taking over orchards,
who have very little knowledge of pruning methods. Your Horticultural Branch has
each year conducted pruning demonstrations with the idea of giving these prospective
growers the information they require. Such work is appreciated and the meetings,
on the whole, well attended. The following table outlines briefly this demonstration-
work for the past season:— Number
of Demon- Number
District. strations. of Pupils.
Vancouver Island  .  17 660
Lower Mainland     7 219
Okanagan   24 606
Kootenay   14 164 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948. R 67
Demonstration-work with Selective Weedicides.
This demonstration-work is a continuation of the work carried out in 1947 and
was again under the supervision of J. L. Webster, Horticulturist, who reports as
" Weedicides for Flower-seed Crops.—It is of interest to record that a flower-seed
grower in Grand Forks has observed zinnia plants to be highly resistant to Varsol, a
cleaning fluid somewhat similar to stove-oil. He had been using this material as
a weedicide on carrots and accidentally found that volunteer zinnia plants were not
killed by the oil. As a consequence he immediately commenced to spray his zinnia
crop with the Varsol and obtained good control without damage to the zinnia plants.
The same grower last year found Portulaca to be resistant to 2-4-D and as a result
this material has promise as a weedicide in commercial crops of Portulaca.
" Oil and Related Materials.—The use of stove-oil and several other more highly
refined oils and cleaning fluids as weedicide sprays on carrots is now quite common
amongst commercial producers of carrots in British Columbia. In another year we
think this method will be standard practice amongst all vegetable-growers.
" The following are the oil products offered for control for weeds in carrot, parsnip,
celery, parsley, etc.:—
Stove-oil:   Of various specifications.
Varsol:   Resembles cleaning fluid.
Stoddard Solvent:   Resembles cleaning fluid.
Agricultural Weed Killer No. 1:   More highly refined oil.
"As reported in 1947, the cost of weeding carrot-crops with oil solvents has been
at all times very much less than by hand. The fact that growers can handle a larger
acreage and still have more free time to devote to other crops is another marked
"Although several hundred gallons of stove-oil were used on early market carrots
at Cloverdale in 1948, it did not prove quite as effective as the solvents, although considerably cheaper. The class of stove-oil being sold in British Columbia apparently
does not kill the weeds quite as effectively as that used in the United States. Possibly
a more effective type could be obtained from the United States if there was sufficient
volume used to warrant bringing it in.
" Stove-oil can always be purchased by the smaller gardener in remote areas where
the solvents are not usually available. If applied only in the early stages of growth
it is usually quite satisfactory.
" Varsol and Stoddard Solvent, two similar cleaning solvents, are becoming the
most generally used. They seem to be very similar, if not identical. Cost per gallon
is up slightly from that reported in 1947. However, the rate and cost per acre appear
to be working out about the same or lower than last year. F. Rady, Kelowna, reports:
' I find, in carrots, if cultivated between the rows and weeds not more than 3 inches
high, 10 gallons will do an acre (cost, $3.30 per acre). But if not cultivated between
the rows and the weeds are high it takes from 70 to 75 gallons per acre (cost, $21 to
$23 per acre). The weeds have to be thoroughly saturated with oil to be burnt and
result in a good job.'
" Mr. Hadden, foreman for Matt Kennedy, of Cloverdale, reports slightly less than
one barrel of oil (45 gallons) per acre to spray the entire surface of the ground when
the carrots and weeds are very small. Later applications he found to take considerably
more material.
"Agricultural Weed Killer No. 1 is a much more highly refined material than Varsol
or Stoddard Solvent. It apparently has the advantage of more rapid killing of weeds,
less toxicity to the carrot plants and, according to reports, imparts little or no odour R 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
to the carrot roots. It was used by several Chinese and white growers in the Cloverdale area on carrots later in the summer and gave excellent results.
" We regret the lack of experience with these materials on celery. We would
judge, however, that the latter highly refined material might have good possibilities
on this crop and, if effective, would accomplish a great saving. (Note.—We prepared
a mimeographed circular on Weeding Carrots with Oil, which has been distributed to
seed-growers and a number of vegetable-growers.)
" Dilute Sulphuric Acid as a Selective Weedicide on Onions.—Sulphuric acid 60°
Baume at the rate of 2 gallons per 100 and 3 gallons per 100 was tried out by Pearson
Bros., Vernon, in co-operation with our Department.
"A brass knapsack-sprayer was purchased by our Department and as much assistance as possible given to the above growers.
" They very effectively controlled weeds on 2 acres of onions and reduced weeding
costs considerably by spraying every two to three weeks. They found that all weeds
were killed when very small or before second-leaf stage, but that purslane and lamb's-
quarter were not killed if more than 2 inches high. They varied the strength of the
application from 2 per cent, to 3 per cent, according to the temperature—the higher
percentage when temperatures were low and the lower percentage when temperatures
were 80° or over, and did not cause appreciable burning.
" Unfortunately the crop was attacked by onion mildew in early August and latter
part of the experiment ruined.
" They found that the acid could be safely handled if care was taken to use rubber
boots and rubber gloves.    Splashing caused some damage to clothing.
" The brass sprayer was not seriously affected by the acid, although a few metal
parts had to be replaced.
" It was found that one-half acre could be covered in ten hours with the single
knapsack-sprayer.    Costs for acid were less than $5 per acre for each treatment.
" The grower at Grand Forks was all ready to start spraying with acid when his
onion field became flooded. As a consequence no trials with acid were made in that
"Aero Cyanate as a Selective Weedicide on Onions.—Although we endeavoured to
obtain this material in time for earljr treatments on onion seedlings, the shipment was
delayed until July due to floods. Immediately after its arrival it was distributed to
eight onion-seed growers and the Experimental Station at Summerland with complete
instructions for use.
" Two growers reported good control on all small weeds and no burning of onion
plants. Several growers did not get equipment ready in time to apply the material.
Pearson Bros, report good control of small purslane plants and no burning. W. May,
Experimental Station, Summerland, who made trials on half-grown onions infested
with large purslane plants, reports that strengths from 1 per cent, to 5 per cent, caused
no burning of onion bulbs when the spray was deflected toward the base of the leaves
and bulbs. He noted that 5 per cent. (252.5 grams per gallon water) was necessary
to kill large purslane plants.
" The manufacturers claim that 1 per cent, strength be used when onions are at
seedling stage and 2 per cent, when plants are 6 inches or taller.
" The material is undoubtedly extremely promising and its effective use may
greatly reduce labour costs in onions. Extensive trials will be undertaken in 1949 and
work will be done on onion-seed fields."
Greenhouse Tomato Trials.
The following trials were carried out on Vancouver Island. They were under the
supervision of E. W. White, Supervising Horticulturist.    His report follows:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948. R 69
" Seed of a new greenhouse tomato named Kondine Jubilee was secured from Mr.
Page, gardener on the estate of the late S. G. Blaylock, Willow Point, Nelson, B.C.
This variety was a cross between Kondine and Vetomold.
" Seed was given to Riddle Bros., 800 Seymour Street, Victoria, and Peters &
McGuire, R.M.D. 4, Victoria, for trial.
" Germination of the seed was excellent and the plants made good growth. However, the plants were not any more resistant to mould disease than V. 121. The fruit
was very similar to V. 121 in shape, colour, and quality. The yield per plant was also
equal to V. 121. However, what the greenhouse growers are looking for is a plant
highly resistant or immune to the mould disease.
" On October 16th, 1948, a letter was written to 0. J. Robb, Assistant in Research,
Ontario Horticultural Experiment Station, Vineland, Ont., regarding any new strains
of greenhouse tomatoes which might be available for trial. Mr. Robb replied on
October 18th and forwarded seed of three new varieties for trial. One V. 473 was sent
out last year. It is reported as having more resistance to mould than V. 121. This
summer two new strains, V. 4802 and V. 4803, were sent out for grower trial.
" This seed was handed to Riddle Bros, on October 30th and the three varieties
will be grown as a spring crop and also as a fall crop next year and compared with
V. 121."
Red Stele Demonstration-work.
The major portion of the demonstration-work in connection with red stele of
strawberries has been carried out in the Fraser Valley. The work in question has been
under the supervision of G. E. W. Clarke, Supervising Horticulturist, and his assistant,
W. D. Christie, working in co-operation with W. R. Foster, Provincial Plant Pathologist.   The following is the report on this project as prepared by Mr. Clarke:—
" Variety Resistance Test.—In the spring of 1946 the varieties listed below were
set out in a portion of a field where the original British Sovereign planting showed
heavy red stele infection. Observations were made on these plants from time to time
with regard to red stele resistance and general characteristics and results as observed
during 1947 and 1948 are listed below:—
Variety. 1947. 1948.
Heals Seedling Severely infected  Died out.
Corvalis 40 per cent, infection 90 per cent, infection.
Cooper Severely infected Died out.
Chesapeake Severely infected Severely infected.
Starbright   Severely infected Died out.
North Star Severely infected Died out.
Red Star. ■ Severely infected Died out.
Temple Resistant Slight infection.
Pathfinder T__ Resistant Slight infection.
Aberdeen Resistant 25 per cent, infection.
U.S. 3374 Resistant Removed.
U.S. 3205 Resistant Removed.
U.S. 3378 Resistant 90 per cent, infection.
U.S. 3203  Resistant „ Removed.
S. 67  Resistance doubtful Died out.
Pitt Resistant Slight infection.
" The above results and observations of general plant characteristics indicate that
of those tested the only varieties which might possibly prove useful in the Fraser
Valley are Temple, Pitt, Pathfinder, and U.S. 3378.    Of these four the Pitt is the only R 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
one which has been grown commercially and has stood up fairly well under conditions
of heavy red stele infection.
" The Temple variety, although not completely resistant, gives promise of being
a useful berry where red stele renders the growing of British Sovereign impossible.
The berry is of good quality and a moderate cropper. Pathfinder is slightly more
susceptible to red stele than Temple and the berries are inclined to be rather soft.
The variety also has the fault of continuing to bear fruit late in the season.
" The U.S. Variety 3378 showed up very well in 1947, being very vigorous and a
good cropper. By the spring of 1948, however, the plants had been almost entirely
killed out by red stele. It is possible that this variety on account of its vigour and
quality might possibly prove useful in areas where red stele is not a serious factor.
" The remaining resistant varieties, including Aberdeen, U.S. 3374, U.S. 3205, and
U.S. 3203, are not of sufficient merit to warrant further investigation as commercial
" Ridge-planting on Infected Land.—In the spring of 1945 arrangements were
made with W. R. Redman, Bradner, to make an exaggerated ridge-planting of a part
of one field, which was to be planted to British Sovereign. The ridges were formed
6 feet apart and were raised to about 18 inches above the field-level. Width at the top
of the ridges was 18 inches. On these ridges the plants were set out in April, 1945,
at a distance of 12 inches apart. The balance of the field was planted in the ordinary
" Observations were made during the years 1946 and 1947 in order to determine to
what extent losses from red stele had been reduced. It was concluded that plants
grown in this way could be grown so as to produce a fairly good crop even though
red stele disease was present.
" It would seem, therefore, that the efficient drainage provided by ridging allows
the infected plants to develop and retards the development of the red stele organism.
This was further borne out by the fact that runner plants growing at the base of the
ridges were generally showing signs of red stele infection.
" During the 1948 season this ridge-planting was again observed, with the purpose
of comparing yields obtained by this method with yields obtained from plants grown
on the level in the ordinary way.
" The ridged plants produced a somewhat lower yield than plants grown on the
level. One explanation of this is that during a period of dry weather the ridges would
naturally dry out somewhat sooner than the soil in a normal field. It is probable,
therefore, that water-supply to the plants may prove to be a limiting factor in the production of strawberries on ridged plantings.
"A further large-scale planting has been set out during 1948, and yields obtained
from this field during the next two years should give a fair indication as to the crop
which can be expected from ridged plants. Slight ridging to improve winter drainage
is becoming general with a large number of growers.
" Temple Variety Resistance to Red Stele.—In 1947 an acre of Temple strawberry-
plants were set out by P. Nedemovich, Matsqui, on a piece of low-lying peat soil with
very restricted drainage. Pitt strawberries on this same piece of land showed evidences of red stele in 1948, and in the early spring of 1948 the Temple variety, which
had been allowed to produce runners, showed no evidence of red stele.
" In April, however, two small areas within the Temple planting showed a definite
stunting and reddening of the foliage. On examination, red stele was found to be
present in these plants.
" From this, it would seem that although Temple strawberries have been grown
in other districts where red stele was known to be present, adequate drainage still
remains a factor in preventing the development of red stele in varieties which are
usually classed as resistant.
" Strawberry Certification.—Red-stele disease in strawberry-plants as identified by
W. R. Foster, Provincial Plant Pathologist, is a serious disease factor in strawberry
plantings, and upon requests from growers, plans were made in the spring of 1946
to inspect nursery plantings of strawberries in the spring of 1947.
" In 1948 the strawberry inspection was continued and approximately 1,371,000
plants were certified for sale.
" This work is being continued and at the present time indications are that orders
are being received by growers for export to the United States in 1949."
Apple-scab Control.
Not for a number of years has apple-scab been as bad in the northern Okanagan
and Kootenay orchards as it was this past season. The control of this disease is a somewhat controversial matter and results of the demonstration-work undertaken in the
different areas does not by any means definitely settle the question. Some of this work,
however, as carried out by the different officials, is well worth reporting.
In the Salmon Arm district the apple-scab control programme was under the
supervision of M. P. D. Trumpour, District Horticulturist, Salmon Arm. His report
" The year 1948 was the worst for apple-scab since 1942. This disease accounted
for heavy losses, especially of the Mcintosh Red apple-crop, in the Salmon Arm-Sorrento
area.    It appeared only very occasionally at Kamloops.
" There was an early and rapid build-up of primary infections on both foliage and
newly set fruit. This primary infection, coupled with the humid conditions that
prevailed during July and August, was sufficient to bring about widespread pin-point
type of infection. While most growers realized what was happening and applied extra
fungicidal sprays, they seemed to wait too long and did not get a protective covering
on in time.
" There continues to be a number of growers who discredit the efficacy of iron
carbamate for the control of apple-scab. There is another group who argue that the
higher cost of iron carbamate over lime-sulphur does not warrant its use. However,
there are just as many growers who are satisfied with this material. Further, when
reference is made to results obtained from experimental work done this year, there
is justification in maintaining that there is no significant difference between the
efficacies of iron carbamate and lime-sulphur.
" Following is a summary outline of the project with results obtained:—
" Variety:  Mcintosh Red, over 20 Years old.
" Plots and Spray Schedules:—
(1) Eight trees. Lime-sulphur, 1-40 in pink, 1-60 in calyx and cover (21
days after calyx).
(2) Eight trees. Iron carbamate, 1 lb., plus wettable sulphur, 3 lb., per 100
gallons.    Pink, calyx, and cover.
(3) Eight trees. New Zealand colloidal sulphur, 3 lb. per 100 gallons. Pink,
calyx, and cover.
(4) Remainder of orchard grower-sprayed. Lime-sulphur 1-40 in pink and
1-60 in calyx; iron carbamate, 1 lb., with wettable sulphur, 3 lb., per
100 gallons, in cover. R 72
" Results-
of per cent.:—
-Counts were made at harvest time and are tabulated as follows in terms
Plot 1
Plot 2
Plot 3
Plot 4
Per cent, clean fruit	
Per cent, scab*	
Per cent, culls due to scab	
75.9                   80.2
22.4                   16.8
1.7                    3.0
* Less than half inch aggregate scab.
" Discussion.—While it was not the principal object of this test to compare the
efficacy of lime-sulphur with iron carbamate for the control of apple-scab, nevertheless
that became the most significant outcome of this test. From the foregoing results
it is apparent that the New Zealand colloidal sulphur failed to provide any control and
is not worthy in its present form of further consideration.
" The use of the iron carbamate-wettable sulphur schedule (Plot 2) resulted in
a higher percentage of clean fruit but also a higher percentage of culls due to scab
than did the lime-sulphur schedule (Plot 1). At that, the differences are so small that
they can hardly be considered significant. It might be added, however, that there was
less pin-point type of infection and healthier looking foliage in the iron carbamate-
wettable sulphur plot. Accordingly, these results appear to substantiate former experimental results that iron carbamate is just as effective as lime-sulphur in the control
of apple-scab.
"Apart from the experimental aspects, there is an indication, when results of
Plot 4 are compared with the results of Plots 1 and 2, that growers do not spray as
thoroughly as they might.
"(This project was carried out in collaboration with Dr. H. R. McLarty of the
Dominion Plant Pathology Laboratory, Summerland, B.C.)"
In the Kootenay District the apple-scab control-work on which the following report
is based was undertaken by E. C. Hunt, Supervising Horticulturist, and J. E. Swales,
District Horticulturist, at Nelson.    This report follows:—
"Apple-scab has been more prevalent and caused more damage to the commercial
apple-crop here in the Kootenay District than all the other apple diseases and insects
put together. There was this year almost a 50-per-cent. loss to the commercial apple-
crop in the Kootenay Horticultural District from this disease. Mcintosh and Delicious
suffered most, although all varieties showed some loss from the disease, Cox's Orange
and Ontario being the least affected. One of the main factors that makes the disease
so difficult to keep under control is the shortage of spray equipment, growers not being
able to spray their trees often enough during a bad season for the spread and development of apple-scab, as was the case this past year. With good spray equipment and
where growers have put on the recommended sprays as to time and thoroughness of
application, the results on the whole have been quite satisfactory, even under such
trying scab-weather conditions as were experienced this year. It is not always so
much the question of materials recommended as it is the application of these materials
in the control of apple-scab. As the results of some work that was carried on this
year for the control of apple-scab, it is not likely that there will be any general change
in the spray programme this coming year for the control of this disease. Fermate
will certainly not be recommended in combination with wettable sulphur for the control
of apple-scab in the Kootenay and Arrow Lakes sections, and even at Creston, where
Fermate-wettable sulphur gave much better control than here on Kootenay Lake, the DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948.
R 73
indications are that a split schedule will be the general recommendation: Lime-sulphur
for the pre-pink or pink and the calyx and Fermate-wettable sulphur material for the
cover-sprays. It is hoped to test out the Fermate-wettable sulphur material further
this coming year for the control of apple-scab, but it is likely to be in areas where the
scab is not so prevalent and where it appears that some damage is being caused to
fruit-trees from smoke. The idea is to eliminate lime-sulphur injury to the foliage,
which will give us a better idea as to how much damage, if any, is being caused by
smoke fumes.
" With a view to testing out different materials for the control of apple-scab under
Kootenay conditions in 1948, a demonstration was carried out in the Lepitzke orchard
at Harrop. The trees used in the work were, in general, fairly vigorous and in satisfactory condition. Varieties used in this spray experiment included Mcintosh, Jonathan, and Wagener. The trees were divided into three plots. Three Mcintosh trees
and two or three trees of both Wagener and Jonathan were in each plot. Trees on
either side of these plots served as checks and received no spray. Sprays used on the
various plots are as follows, with the date of each application being noted:—
" Materials used to combat Apple-scab.
Date of Application.
Spray Materials used (with
Concentrations shown).
May 18th	
May 28th	
Lime^sulphur 1—40.
Lime-sulphur 1-60 plus calcium arsenate,
4 lb. per 100 gallons.
Lime-sulphur 1-40.
Lime-sulphur 1-40,
All  sprays lime-sulphur 1-100  plus  3 lb.
June 26th	
July 9th	
May 18th	
May 28th.
June 14th.
June 26th.
July 9th.
May 18th	
All sprays 1 lb. Fermate plus 3 lb. wet-
May 28th.
June 14th.
June 26th.
July 9th.
" For the late pre-pink spray on Plot 1 lime-sulphur 1-40 was to have been used.
However, going on the owner's advice, measurements were based on a 100-gallon spray-
tank. It was discovered later that the tank had a 160-gallon capacity, making the
spray mixture approximately 1-60 instead of 1-40.
"At the time the so-called pre-pink spray was applied, Mcintosh bloom was at an
early pink stage with the flower-stalks just beginning to separate. By May 28th, the
time of the late pink spray, approximately 75 per cent, of Mcintosh bloom was out.
" None of the Mcintosh were thinned, as it was felt that thinning might somewhat
affect results. At harvest time all the fruit from one Mcintosh tree in each plot as
well as that from one check tree was counted and sorted into two classes. Apples free
of scab were classed as clean, while those showing any sign of scab were classed as
scabby. The Mcintosh trees from which the sorted fruit was picked were fairly
uniform in size and appeared quite uniform with respect to blossom showing. Mcintosh, being more susceptible to scab, was the only variety on which fruit-counts were
made; the fruit of the other two varieties being merely observed and compared on the
trees.    Results of these fruit-counts are shown in the following table:— R 74
Fruit-counts made at Harvest Time to determine the Degree
of Scab Control obtained.
Plot No.
Total Number of
Apples counted.
Number of
Clean Apples.
Number of
Scabby Apples.
Per Cent.
Per Cent.
(19 % Bxs.*).
(21 Bxs.*).
(13% Bxs.*).
(2 Bxs.*).
(12% Bxs.*).
(15 Bxs.*).
(Approx. % Bx.*).
(6y2 Bxs.*).
(6 Bxs.*).
(13y2 Bxs.*).
(2 Bxs.*).
* Bxs. refers to loose orchard-run boxes.
" From this table it can be seen that in none of the plots was very satisfactory
scab control obtained. However, fair control was obtained in Plots 1 and 2, which
were sprayed with lime-sulphur and lime-sulphur 1-100 plus 3 lb. of wettable sulphur
respectively. The scab-count would undoubtedly have been much lower had the fruit
been thinned on a commercial basis, as almost all scabby fruits would have been
removed. In Plot 3, where the spray consisted of 1 lb. of Fermate and 3 lb. of wettable sulphur per 100 gallons, control of apple-scab was practically nil, with both
foliage and fruit being severely infected.
" Indications are that if Fermate is to be used successfully for control of apple-
scab, sprays would have to be applied more frequently than has been done in this work.
However, more work along this line would have to be done before this material could
be either recommended or rejected for apple-scab control-work.
" It might be noted that scab control was a much greater problem this year as
weather conditions throughout the growing season were very favourable for the
development and spread of the disease, the season being unusually wet."
In the Okanagan the following scab-control work was undertaken with the idea
of comparing results obtained by the new type of sprayers and the standard types at
present in general use. The details of the past season's work are submitted in the
following report by H. H. Evans, District Horticulturist, Vernon:—
" This was a co-operative project with the Dominion Pathological and Entomological Branches for comparative results in control of fungous diseases, using the
hydraulic atomizing machine and the conventional power-sprayer of the grower.
" C. D. Osborn Orchard, Lavington.
" Varieties.—Mcintosh, Transcendent crab.
"Tree Stage.—Pink, application May 18th; calyx, application June 4th; first
cover, application June 18th;   second cover, application August 9th.
" Materials used were lime-sulphur and wettable sulphur. Calcium arsenate or
D.D.T. were added to cover-sprays for insect control.
" Weather conditions at times of application were good, with the exception of the
calyx period when windy conditions prevailed. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948.
R 75
Plot Set-up and Results.
First Cover.
Second Cover.
Fruit Checks.
Per Cent.
Per Cent.
Check (grower-sprayed)..
L.S. 1-10
L.S. 1-10
L.S. 1-40
L.S. 1-10
L.S. 1-10
L.S., % gal.
W.S., 5 lb.
Water, 100 gal.
W.S., 12 lb.
Water, 30 gal.
W.S., 20 lb.
Water, 35 gal.
W.S., 5 lb.
Water, 100 gal.
L.S. 1-20
L.S. 1-20
W.S., 4 lb.
Water, 100 gal.
" Machines used.—Plot 1: Okanagan experimental machine, hydraulic; Plot 2:
Okanagan experimental machine, hydraulic steam; Check-plot: Growers' standard
Hardie machine.
"Abbreviations.—L.S., lime-sulphur; W.S., wettable sulphur.
" The August application was made to control a pin-point scab infection which was
just getting started. Good protection was obtained from this spray. The hydraulic
steam-generator machine gave promise of satisfactory performance in application
of fungicide concentrates."
Coryneum-blight Control.
Coryneum blight is becoming more general in both the Okanagan and Kootenay
Horticultural Districts. In the Southern Okanagan a brief mention is made of this
disease by D. A. Allan, District Horticulturist, Oliver:—
" Coryneum blight has often been found in this district on apricots although in
most orchards it was so slight that no spray was applied. This year, however, it became
quite severe in several peach blocks as well as apricots. Previous to this year the
disease was noted in only one peach block in the Okanagan Falls area.
" Due to the severity of this disease, a campaign was conducted to inform the
growers of the situation so that adequate measures could be taken. Almost 100 per
cent, of the growers have co-operated, applying the necessary fall spray, and preparing
to apply the required sprays in 1949."
In the Kootenay District E. C. Hunt, Supervising Horticulturist, Nelson, reports
fully on the work done during the past two years in establishing certain control
" This disease is serious on peach and apricot trees in many sections of the
Kootenay District where these fruits are grown. The disease affects the twigs and
smaller branches at the buds, causing a canker by killing the adjoining tissue. These
cankers enlarge, often girdle the twigs, and cause a swelling and gumming of affected
tissue. This kind of injury reduces the fruiting wood, weakens the tree, and renders
it more likely to winter-injury. The fungus also attacks the leaves in severe cases and
causes a spotting and later a shot-hole condition. Fruit infection is common on both
peaches and apricots but more common on apricots than peaches. When the fungus
attacks the fruit it causes spots to appear which will gum.. These spots later look like
scale infestations. It has been apparent in all tests that the most effective spray is
the one applied before the fall rains. When applied as soon as the peach harvest is over,
usually the last week in September, Bordeaux Mixture 6-9-40 (on the basis of hydrated
lime) has proven effective in cleaning up in a single year serious cases of limb cankering, twig blight, and blighting of new shoots.    So far no spray programme has been R 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
found completely effective in controlling apricot- and peach-fruit infections in a severe
season, although the early fall spray as given above and a spring fall-of-husk spray of
Bordeaux mixture 4-6-40 reduced the severity of the fruit infestation. These early
fall Bordeaux mixture sprays have considerable value in the control of peach leaf-curl.
A fall application in 1946 gave almost complete control of the peach leaf-curl, while in
1947 it made the difference between complete defoliation and good commercial control
of the disease.
" The Dominion and Provincial Departments of Agriculture have been co-operating
. for two years in a series of spray tests in an effort to work out a satisfactory spray
schedule for the control of cornyeum blight for both peaches and apricots.   The results
of these tests for the past season covering the work in the Nelson area are as follows:—
" This project, carried out in co-operation with the Dominion Laboratory of Plant
Pathology, Science Service, Summerland, was undertaken in the Fredriksen-Jensen
orchard on the north shore across from the city of Nelson. This is a continuation of
work begun in the fall of 1946. Trees used in the work were peach and apricot, both of
which were quite severely infected with coryneum blight. Rochester was the main
peach variety although a few trees of Vedette were included. Wenatchee Moorpark
was the apricot variety. A total of sixteen apricot and forty peach trees was used.
Sprays were applied on September 23rd, 1947, and again in the spring when peaches
were at the fall-of-husk stage. Bordeaux 6-9-40 (on basis of hydrated lime) was the
fall spray, while Bordeaux 4-6-40 was used in the spring. Apart from these two sprays
no other fungicidal sprays were used. A total of seven apricot and twenty peach trees
received both the spring and fall sprays, two apricot and eleven peach trees were
sprayed in the fall only, and four apricot and six peach trees were sprayed in the
spring only.    Three apricot and three peach trees were left unsprayed.
" Just prior to harvest time 100 fruits were counted on each of a number of representative trees. These fruits were sorted into three different grades according to
degree of blight infection. Those free of blight ' scab ' were classed as clean, while
those with a moderate degree of infection were classed as slight. Fruits severely
infected and of little or no commercial value were classed as severe.
" It would have been more desirable to make these counts after the fruit was
harvested and count all fruits from each tree. However, the fruit ripened unevenly
on the tree and to make counts in this manner would entail unnecessary work as several
pickings are required, sometimes possibly only a dozen or less fruits being picked from
a tree. Nevertheless, the figures in the following table will serve as an indication of
the degree of infection on the fruits or, in other words, the degree of coryneum-blight
control obtained. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948.
R 77
Counts made at Harvest Time to determine the Degree of Coryneum-blight
Control obtained in respect to Fruit Infection.
Tree No.
op Fruit Infection.
No spray	
Spring spray only	
13 '.	
24f -	
Fall spray only	
Fall spray only	
Fall spray only	
18. ,
* No crop.    Leaf-curl severe.
t All these trees were of the Vedette variety and had very light crops.    Leaf-curl was fairly severe on these
trees, although not so much as on unsprayed trees or on trees of the Rochester variety sprayed in the spring only.
" From the above table it would appear that the fall spray alone is of little value
for controlling coryneum-blight infection on the fruit of apricot. The spring spray
gave control comparable to that of the fall and spring sprays combined. However, the
two sprays are probably most desirable, since the fall spray very likely reduces the
amount of infection on the limbs and young shoots of the trees.
" What effect the spring spray may have had on coryneum blight on peaches cannot
be determined from this work, as practically all fruit on the unsprayed and spring-
sprayed trees failed to develop due to a severe attack of peach leaf-curl. It is of interest
to note that, at least with the Rochester variety, quite satisfactory control of peach
leaf-curl was obtained with the fall Bordeaux spray. Although the fall spray alone
controlled coryneum blight on the peach fruits fairly well, it would appear that results
obtained by use of both the fall and spring sprays are somewhat more consistent.
Therefore, the grower would probably be well-advised to apply Bordeaux 6-9-40 (on
basis of hydrated lime) in September and Bordeaux 4-6-40 again in the spring at the
fall-of-husk stage."
Apple Powdery-mildew Control.
Powdery mildew of pears can be controlled satisfactorily, but the control of this
disease on apples presents a problem that up to the present has not been solved.
A report on the work done in the Penticton district is submitted by R. P. Murray,
District Horticulturist:— R 78
" Following up the work done in previous years, further trials were conducted this
year using what new materials were available. As a result of former trials such
materials as Zerlate, Fermate, Puritize, and Phygon have been discarded. Last season
it was felt that some progress was being made, but as will be seen from the table
below, the problem is far from solved. Lime-sulphur is still the standard recommendation but gave very poor results this season, even with an extensive spray programme.
" The following is a tabulation of the work done on apple powdery mildew on the
Hohenadel orchard at Penticton:—*
Plot No.
Early Delayed Dormant.
Per Cent. Control.
L.S. 1-80	
Wettable S., 4 lb. per 100..
L.S. 1-12	
L.S. 1-4..
L.S. 1-4..
4 lb.
Precipitated L.S.
PEPS, 21/. lb.
L.S. 1-80 (grower)
4 1b.
L.S. 1-80
2% lb.
341-C, 1 qt.
IX  L.S. 1-80 (grower)
Check-trees grower-sprayed, pre-pink, pink, and calyx	
W.S. 2 lb.
2]/2 lb.
341-C, 1 qt.
Miticide No. 6
(Newtown )
* In co-operation with the Dominion Plant Pathological Laboratory, Summerland.
" Machines used:—
Plots I, II, VII, VIII, and IX:  Standard.
Plot III: Niagara Liqui-duster.
Plot IV:  Okanagan experimental sprayer using hydraulic principle.
Plot V:   Okanag-an experimental sprayer using steam generator.
Plot VI:   Niagara for precipitated lime-sulphur, standard for lime-sulphur
and wettable sulphur.
Grower-sprayed Checks:  Standard (Hardie).
" Sprays were applied on the Following Dates:—
Early Delayed Dormant:   Plots  I,  II,  III, April  14th;   Plots  IV and V,
April 16th.
Pre-pink:  Plots I to VII (inclusive), April 22nd.
Pink: Plots I to VIII (inclusive), May 8th.
Calyx:   Plots I, II, III, VI, VII, VIII, IX, May 27th;   Plots IV and V,
May 31st.
" Materials:—
Wettable sulphur used was Green Cross.
Precipitated lime-sulphur was prepared by adding 3 lb. oxalic acid to 24
gallons water followed by 1M> gallons lime-sulphur.
PEPS: Polyethylene polysulphide.
341-C: 2 Heptadecyl Gloxalidine.
Miticide No. 6 made by Carbide & Carbon Chemicals Company.
" Some Facts bearing on Results.—The rainfall in July, recorded at Summerland,
was 1.93 inches and for August, 2.98 inches. The average rainfall for July for the past
thirty-two years was 0.75 inch and for August, 0.626 inch. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948. R 79
" On Plot III, using the Niagara machine, relatively weak concentrations were
used to avoid burning; e.g., at 1-12, % gallon of lime-sulphur was applied to each tree;
at 1-16, Vio gallon per tree; at 1-20, Vn gallon per tree; as against % gallon per tree
when applied with a standard machine at 1-80.
" On Plots IV and V, using the Okanagan experimental sprayer with hydraulic and
steamer respectively, the 1-20 concentration used for the pink spray was very weak.
The 1-80 spray used at calyx was applied with the standard machine because the Okanagan experimental sprayer was not available and the Niagara machine was unserviceable.
" On Plot VI the precipitated lime-sulphur spray was discontinued after the pre-
pink because it was too hard on the rubber piston cups of the Niagara machine. The
oxalic acid was not available in time to use on the early spray.
" On Plots VII, VIII, and IX the materials were not available in time to apply the
full schedule.
" Wherever percentages are given in the table for more than one variety in one
plot, the figures apply to the total apples counted for that variety."
Since the introduction of D.D.T. as an insecticide, codling-moth as a major orchard
pest has been brought well within the bounds of satisfactory economic control. Efforts
are now being centred on the establishment of the maximum number of sprays necessary as well as the most satisfactory type of equipment for this work. The following
report covers the work carried out during the past season in the Westbank area:—
" This demonstration was planned with two objectives, first to determine whether
or not the Okanagan experimental sprayer would give adequate control of codling-moth
under Okanagan orchard conditions and, second, to find out to what extent the number
of cover-sprays could be safely reduced when D.D.T. was the material used.
" Workers.—R. M. Wilson, Assistant District Horticulturist, Kelowna, and A. W.
Watt, District Horticulturist, Summerland, of the British Columbia Department of
Agriculture, Horticultural Branch, and the staff of the Dominion Entomological Laboratory, Summerland.
"Materials.—D.D.T. was Penco 50 W. Stove-oil. Sodium lauryl sulphate was
(technical) material.
" Equipment.—The Okanagan experimental sprayer was used to apply spray to two
plots. This machine consisted of a steam-generator unit, a Hardie pump, an air
turbine having a fish-tail outlet, all mounted on a low-slung trailer and powered by a
Wisconsin air-cooled engine. On one side of the fish-tail unit a bank of standard spray
nozzles carried the dilute insecticide under pressure from the Hardie pump into the
air-blast, where the air atomized the spray and carried it to the tree. This method of
application was called hydraulic. On the other side of the fish-tail, two fan nozzles
carried steam and insecticide from the Besler steam generator into the air-blast. This
method of application was called steam. Either steam or hydraulic methods of application could be employed, and the change-over effected easily by adjustment to the
" The Okanagan experimental sprayer carried a 50-gallon tank (American measure), delivered 200 to 250 lb. pressure at the Hardie pump, and produced an air-blast
of approximately 100 m.p.h. velocity at the fish-tail.
" The conventional type of orchard sprayer was used to apply spray to a third plot,
which was used as a check against the two plots sprayed with the experimental machine.
The machine used was a Hardie two-gun machine having 240 gallons capacity and
delivering 500 lb. pressure at the pump.    Discs %4 inch were used.
" Procedure.—A block of 100 mature Mcintosh trees was selected on the Reece
orchards at Westbank.    These trees were planted 25 feet apart on the square, were R 80
large trees, giving a fairly dense orchard to spray. Codling-moth infestation was estimated by entomologists to be 15 per cent, in 1947.
" Two blocks of twenty trees each were selected for spraying with the experimental
sprayer, and a third fifteen-tree block immediately adjoining was sprayed with the
conventional outfit. All sprays were applied as nearly as possible at the same time.
Both experimental-sprayed and conventional-sprayed plots received similar schedules.
The experimental sprayer was driven at a speed of approximately 1 m.p.h., or as slow
as the Ford tractor would move without stalling.
" For the second portion of the experiment five other plots ranging from fifteen to
ten trees in size were selected, and these were sprayed with 50 per cent. D.D.T., using
the conventional machine. A maximum number of four cover-sprays was used, with
other plots receiving less sprays down to a minimum of one spray for the entire season.
" The first cover was applied on June 8th, the second cover on June 24th, the third
cover on July 8th, and the fourth cover on August 13th.
" Materials applied in the first and second cover with the experimental sprayer
were D.D.T. 50 per cent. (W), 8 lb., plus one-half gallon stove-oil in 25 gallons water.
In the third cover the same materials were used, but the D.D.T. was cut down to 6 lb.
per 25 gallons.
" Materials applied with the conventional machine in all covers were D.D.T. 50 per
cent. (W) at 1.6 lb. per 100 gallons plus 1 quart stove-oil per 100 gallons. The stove-oil
was included only in Plot No. 3 and was omitted from the schedule for the remaining
plots done with the conventional spray machine.
" Table 1, below, shows actual treatments applied to each plot and gives results.
Table No. 1.—Reece Orchard, Westbank—Codling-moth Records at Harvest.
Plot No.
Treatment   (conventional  sprayer) :    First and second cover/first brood—
D.D.T.   (50%), 27 lb. per acre applied in each cover
Treatment    (conventional   sprayer) :     First   cover/first   brood   and   first
cover/second brood—D.D.T.   (50%),  27  lb.   per  acre applied in  each
Treatment    (conventional   sprayer) :     Second   cover/first   brood   and   one
second brood, August 13th—D.D.T.   (50%), 27 lb. per acre applied in
each cover
Treatment   (conventional sprayer):    First cover only—D.D.T.   (50%),  27
lb. per acre applied in each cover
19 8
R 81
" Table No. 1.—Reece Orchard, Westbank—Codling-moth Records at Harvest—
Plot No.
Treatment (conventional sprayer) : First, second, third cover/first brood—
D.D.T.   (50%), 27 lb. per acre applied in each cover;   1 quart stove-
oil per 100 gallons
Treatment (conventional sprayer) :   First, third cover/first brood and first
cover/second  brood—D.D.T.   (50%),  27  lb.   per  acre  applied in  each
Treatment (Okanagan experimental sprayer) :   First, second, third covers/
first  brood — D.D.T.   using   steam;    D.D.T.    (50%),   28   lb.   per  acre
applied  in  first and  second  covers;   21  lb.  per acre  in  third  cover-
spray;   one-half gallon stove-oil per 25 gallons
3 8
Treatment  (Okanagan experimental sprayer) :   First, second, third covers/
first brood—D.D.T.  using hydraulic;   D.D.T.   (50%),  28 lb.  per acre
applied in first and second covers and 21 lb. per acre applied in third
cover-spray;   one-half gallon stove-oil per 25 gallons
3 4
Treatment  (steam-generator unit) :    2, first brood, and 1, second brood—
daylight;   steam temperature,   350°~400° ;   D.D.T.   (50%),   15 lb.  per
acre applied in each cover-spray
* Steam-generator unit by grower.
" In addition to the above data, Ralph Miles, chemist with the Division of Science
Service at Summerland, has analysed samples of the sprayed apples to determine the
actual concentrations of D.D.T. being applied to the tree and the uniformity of spray
coverage.   Table 2 below gives the results:—
"Table 2.—D.D.T. in Spray Residues, Reece Orchard.
Method of Spraying.
Time elapsed
between Last
Spray and
Pounds of 50 Per Cent.
D.D.T. applied
per Acre.
D.D.T. Deposit (Micrograms per Sq. Cm.).
of Trees.
of Trees.
Okanagan   experimental   sprayer    (hydraulic
Okanagan experimental sprayer (steam unit)..
6 weeks
6 weeks
6 weeks
28 in first and second covers,
21 in third cover
28 in first and second covers,
21 in third cover
"Discussion.—The results of this experiment were quite definite. They showed
that for an equivalent amount of material applied the Okanagan experimental sprayer
gave control equivalent to that given by conventional machinery. It was also evident
from the analyses of spray residues that even though less actual D.D.T. was applied
with the experimental sprayer than with the conventional machine, the amount of spray
deposited on the tree was far greater from the experimental sprayer than from the
conventional machine. Another striking difference was in the amount of time required
by each machine to do the work. It took the experimental sprayer about 12 minutes
to spray twenty trees whereas with the conventional outfit it required approximately
45 minutes to do the same number of trees.
"Conclusions.— (1) Okanagan experimental sprayer gave control equivalent to
conventional machine.
"(2) Both Okanagan experimental sprayer and conventional sprayer gave control
superior to that of steam-generator unit when used by grower.
"(3) Three first-brood D.D.T. sprays were definitely superior to either two sprays
or one spray.
"(4) Three sprays, two in the first brood and one in the second brood, gave equivalent control to three first-brood sprays.
"(5) One spray in first brood followed by one in the second brood appeared slightly
superior to either one or two sprays, first brood only.    Significance here was doubtful.
"(6) The Okanagan experimental sprayer deposited more actual D.D.T. on the
tree than did the conventional sprayer, although a smaller quantity of actual D.D.T.
was pumped from the tank of the experimental sprayer than from the tank of the
conventional sprayer. The deposit from the experimental sprayer was not as uniform
as that given by the conventional machine, being approximately two and one-half to
three times greater at the bottom of the tree than at the top."
Buffalo Tree-hopper Control.
The following report by H. H. Evans, District Horticulturist, Vernon, constitutes
the fourth year of work on this project and a final check on previous work:—
" The block consisted of 5 acres of three- to six-year-old trees divided into three
plots composed of pears, Delicious, Winesap, and Mcintosh Red apples.
" There had been heavy injury to the trees in previous years. Cover-crop was part
alfalfa and weeds.    Material used, D.D.T. 50 per cent, wettable at 2 lb. per 100 gallons.
Incisions per Limb.
Plotl:  Spring application, May 31st;   fall application, September 2nd     3.1
Plot 2:  Fall application, September 2nd     5.0
Plot 3:  Spring application, May 31st     5.8
Check: Grower-sprayed for codling-moth  10.0
" Method of recording was to check five limbs on five trees per plot and average the
total per limb for each plot.
" Spring emergence, approximately June 8th. On October 13th trees were checked
for incisions. No adults were in evidence at this time, indicating oviposition was
" On the grower plot, sprayed for codling-moth with D.D.T., it appeared partial
control was obtained when number of 1948 incisions were compared with the previous
Peach Twig-borer Control.
R. P. Murray, District Horticulturist, Penticton, submits the following report on
the peach twig-borer control as carried out in his district during the past season:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948.
R 83
"Although lime-sulphur 1-10 in the pink stage has always given good control of
peach twig-borer, it is an expensive spray and unpleasant to apply. This season an
orchard was chosen that ran very high to twig-borer injury last season. Some of the
newer insecticides were used against the usual lime-sulphur spray. However, only two
are worthy of further trials. In the Parathion trials the trees were small and carried
a very light crop, so results from this material cannot be taken too seriously. The
reason for not using the Okanagan experimental sprayer at the same time as the hand-
type sprayer was used was because it was undergoing some repairs at the time and
there were not sufficient trees left in the plot to duplicate the work with a hand-sprayer.
"Peach Twig-borer Plots, Wiltse Orchard, Penticton.
Material per 100 Gallons.
Fruit-counts at
BHC, diesel oil, Velsicol AE-50
BHC, dormant oil, Velsicol AR-50.
0.25 lb. Y BHC, 1 gallon diesel oil,
1 pint Velsicol, 1 lb. soya flour
0.25 lb. Y BHC, 1 gallon dormant
oil, 1 pint Velsicol, 1 lb. soya
3 gallons lime-sulphur,   1  gallon
dormant oil, 1 lb. soya flour
10 gallons lime-sulphur   (applied
by grower)
Approximately 2 lb. 15 per cent.
Approximately 3 lb. 50 per cent.
April It
April   It
April It
April 23J
April 23$
April 23J
127   (6.08%)
66    (4.74%)
90    (6.42%)
31    (1.51%)
1    (0.56%)
8   (0.42%)
223 (11.22%)
Okanagan Experimental Sprayer,
Hydraulic Unit.
* In co-operation with the Dominion Entomological Laboratory, Summerland.
t Late delayed dormant.
% Late pink.
§ Total number of fruit counted too low for significant results."
Red-mite Control.
Demonstration-work undertaken in 1948 in the control of red-mite was carried out
in the various sections of the Okanagan Horticultural District. The work undertaken
in the Vernon area under the supervision of H. H. Evans, District Horticulturist, is
outlined in the following report:—
"Materials used per 100 Gallons:—
Dormant: Lime-sulphur, 5 gallons, plus 220 vise, oil, 2 gallons.
Cover-sprays:  Dinitro-cyclohexylphenol, 6 oz.; dinitro-cyclohexylphenol, 5 oz.,
plus monocthanolamine, 1 oz.; Neotran C-800, 2 lb.
" The dormant application was made with the Provincial Departmental power
machine and the hydraulic-steam machine operated by the Dominion Entomological
Branch under Dr. J. Marshall.    Summer sprays were all applied with the Vernon power
" In the dormant spray effort was made to apply comparable amounts of concentrates per acre. R 84
* Plot Set
Dormant Spray.
Mixture (Gallo
Amounts per Acre
Concentrate Materials in Gallons.
L.S.      j       Oil.
22                   11
Hydraulic and steam _	
Power hand-sprayer_	
17                      8.5
20                      8
Notes.—Control of mite eggs in all plots was excellent.    Spray coverage in all plots very good.    In Plot 1 some
oil-injury occurred through excess oil deposit.    None was observed in Plots 2 and 3.
" Summer Applications.—A few scattered mites were seen on the plot trees at the
first cover-spray period and a miticide was applied to all plots. A second application
was made at the second brood codling-moth spray period.
"Spray Periods and Materials used per 100 Gallons.
First cover, June 9th Plots 1 and 3. Dinitro No. 1 Dry, 5 oz., plus
monocthanolamine, 1 oz.
Plot 2 Dinitro No. 1 Dry, 6 oz.
Second and third covers No miticide.
Second brood cover, Plot 1 Dinitro No. 1 Dry, 5 oz., plus
August 10th monoethyl, 1 oz.
Plot 2 Dinitro No. 1 Dry, 6 oz.
Plot 3 Neotran C-800 at 2 lb.
" Notes.—In the demonstration-plots few mites were observed all season. Summer
applications were made as protection sprays.
" In the grower block no dormant spray was applied. The first summer application
of a miticide was not made until the second cover period, June 23rd to 26th; by this
time mite population was becoming heavy. By mid-July this block showed serious
foliage-injury from mite activity.
"At the second brood spray period, August 10th, though mite population was
reduced, foliage-injury was serious enough to affect both size and colour of the fruit.
" In contrast the demonstration-plots showed normal green healthy foliage and
fruit in all plots.
" In heavy mite infestations dormant sprays for control will well repay the
San Jose Scale Control.
The year 1948 saw considerable spraying undertaken for the control of San Jose
scale. In view of the fact that the presence of scale on fruit is an important factor in
the fruit-export trade, a certain amount of inspection-work is undertaken in the packing-houses by the Inspectors of the Division of Plant Protection of the Dominion
Department of Agriculture. This inspection is a joint programme paid for by the
Dominion and Provincial Departments of Agriculture and the growers' organization—
namely, Tree Fruits, Limited.
H. F. Olds, of the Division of Plant Protection, under whose supervision this work
is carried out, reports as follows relative to the 1948 work:—
" Continuing the policy established in previous years, an annual survey was undertaken in the Okanagan Valley to determine the amount of San Jose scale and the
effectiveness of control measures applied by the growers to reduce the infestation. In
turn this work provides the Plant Protection Division with the necessary information
which enables them to permit the export of apples to advantage. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948.
R 85
" The survey was carried on in two phases—an orchard survey in Osoyoos and a
packing-house grader inspection in Osoyoos-Oliver, Keremeos, Penticton, and Kelowna.
" The orchard survey, while sufficiently complete, was not considered to be entirely
satisfactory. In most cases orchards found to have only a few trees infested failed to
show this infestation on the grader, thus such properties had to be declared " slight "
and not withheld from export.
" On close observation of the graders the Inspectors found a great improvement in
the amount of scale present. Properties where scale was severe a year ago showed a
light infestation this year, and properties where, in the last survey, scale was light, it
was practically impossible to find this time. Where only one or two infested fruits were
found in a lot of several boxes, the record of the scale was kept but the fruit was not
held or withdrawn from the export market.
" In general a vast improvement has been noted over the scale situation of 1947.
The spray effort on the part of the growers has been well worth while. Still some
growers have not done as complete a job as they might, either due to inferior equipment
or indifference in handling of the matter by spray-gun operators. These growers, where
scale has been found in some quantity, are to be notified of these findings and are to be
advised that the situation must be corrected. Where scale has been noted as slight,
these growers will be advised of the situation so that they will realize that they must
not relax their spray-control efforts. As a general policy, spraying for San Jose scale
is being advocated throughout the whole of the Okanagan Valley again this coming
Fire-blight Inspection.
All districts report a general increase in fire-blight, undoubtedly due to climatic
conditions as well as to the fact that there are many new growers who are not familiar
with the necessity of inspection of all trees for fire-blight cankers. A careful survey
will be made this winter with a view to checking with growers relative to the eradication
of hold-over cankers.
The following table indicates briefly the fire-blight inspection-work as carried out
in 1948:—
Nursery-stock Inspection.
All fruit nursery stock produced in the Province is inspected, either at time of
digging or previous to shipment. Such inspections are undertaken with a view to
ascertaining the freedom of such stock from diseases and insect pests. All stock not
passing inspection satisfactorily is condemned and destroyed. R 86
The ensuing table indicates the results of the 1948 inspections:—
Fifty-two inspections made;   1.4 per cent, of inspected stock condemned.
In connection with the inspection-work outlined above, it should be pointed out
that, under the " Plant Protection Act," during the current year 125 licences were
issued to nurserymen and nursery agents.
The following report compiled by B. Hoy, Supervising Horticulturist, Kelowna,
contains considerable information relative to the working of this committee and its
objects in connection with fruit shipments:—
" The Better Fruit Committee, composed of representatives from the British
Columbia Department of Agriculture, Dominion Experimental Station, B.C. Tree
Fruits, Ltd., B.C.F.G.A., and the Okanagan Federated Shippers, adopted the following
packing and handling programme for 1948:—
(1) That Mcintosh, Delicious, Golden Delicious, Grimes Golden, and Bananas
be moved from orchards to packing-houses within 24 hours, if possible,
or 72 hours at maximum.
(2) That Mcintosh and Delicious be packed and shipped or cold-stored
(packed or loose) within 72 hours of receipt at the packing-house.
(3) That packing-houses concentrate on the packing of Mcintosh for the
first sixteen days after the 'start-pick' date for Mcintosh, as set by the
District Horticulturist in the respective areas, and providing, of course,
that fruit is available from deliveries being made from the orchards.
(4) It was agreed that packing-houses with D'Anjou pears would have to
arrange for the packing of these pears during the sixteen-day period
provided for Mcintosh.
(5) That packing-houses concentrate on packing of Jonathans and Delicious
for nineteen days following the expiration of the sixteen-day packing
period mentioned for Mcintosh and, further, that Jonathans be given
priority handling during those nineteen days.
(6) That all packing-houses schedule their packing with a view to packing
within fifty-seven days the following varieties: Mcintosh, Jonathans,
Delicious, Golden Delicious, Grimes Golden, Bananas, Snows, and other
early sundries.
(7) It was agreed that Grimes, Bananas, Golden Delicious, Snows, and other
early sundries should be packed as requested by B.C. Tree Fruits,
(8) That a committee of three (one from B.C.F.G.A., one from B.C. Tree
Fruits, Limited, and one from Okanagan Federated Shippers' Association) be appointed by the organizations mentioned to provide for any
desirable variation in this programme and to report to the Better Fruit
Committee on the observance of the plan.
" Note.—Reference to days means ' packing-days.' DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948. R 87
" The Mcintosh picking dates set by the District Offices throughout the valley for
general picking were:—
Osoyoos—September 10th.
Kamloops—September 10th.
Keremeos—September 14th.
Salmon Arm—September 20th.
Vernon, Oyama, and Winfield—September 20th.
Kelowna—September 20th.
Summerland, Westbank—September 20th.
Penticton, Naramata, Kaleden—September 20th.
Lavington, Armstrong—September 23rd.
" B.C. Tree Fruit officials believe the work of the above committee has been of
direct benefit in improving the quality of Mcintosh delivered to the market. The
representatives of the Horticultural Branch of the British Columbia Department of
Agriculture on this committee are R. P. Murray, Penticton, and B. Hoy, Kelowna."
In the Annual Report for 1947 attention was drawn to the use of mulching material
in the growing of various fruit-crops. Further observations are submitted by E. W.
White, Supervising Horticulturist, in his report for the current year:—
" The use of mulching material continues to be of interest among growers.
" The Gordon Head grower mentioned in previous reports with the one-eighth
acre of Latham raspberries again had an excellent crop, equalling his 1947 yields.
Mulching material of old hay and straw was again used.
" The Duncan grower who has been experimenting with various types of mulches
for several years had practically all his small-fruit plantings of strawberries, raspberries, loganberries, Boysenberries, blackberries, and currants under sawdust mulch
this year. Results have been excellent and no detrimental effects have been evident.
This property has been sold and the new owners, while interested in mulches, are also
interested in compost, and some of the mulching material has been gathered up for
" The previous owner has established himself at Goldstream and is carrying on his
mulching experiments. In the fall of 1947 about an acre of very deep sandy loam soil
was manured, put in good tilth, and planted to ever-bearing strawberries. The whole
area was then mulched with sawdust, even the young plants were covered up. By spring
of this year all the young plants were showing green and healthy and an excellent crop
was harvested this fall.
"A commercial dahlia grower of Duncan also used sawdust mulch this year on his
dahlia plantings with excellent results.
"A Saanich grower who had excellent yields with a straw mulch in 1945, 1946, and
1947 on a strawberry planting, set out a new plot of one-eighth acre in the spring of
1947, which was kept clean-cultivated until October and then mulched with sawdust.
This planting, while a little later in maturing, gave an excellent yield this year.
"Another Saanich grower has had a three-quarter-acre planting of loganberries
under mulch since the spring of 1946. Weed-growth has been practically eliminated
in this planting. Weeds such as couch-grass and Canada thistle have their root system
so close to the surface that they are very easily pulled by hand.
" This grower also has a half acre of strawberries under sawdust mulch. Half of
the planting was set out in the fall of 1946 and went through one of the worst winters
experienced for some years. The other half was planted in the spring of 1947. This
planting was somewhat uneven this spring, but this was attributed to variable soil R 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
conditions and not to the mulch.   Where the plants were in more favourable soil, they
were excellent in both the fall-planted and spring-planted plots.
" Still another Saanich strawberry grower set out an acre in the spring of 1946.
This planting was handled in the orthodox way, until after the 1947 crop was harvested.
After the necessary cleaning up was done the whole area was mulched with sawdust.
This planting produced a good crop this year.
" One of the features of sawdust mulching is the elimination of cultivation costs
and the control of weed-growth.
"As mentioned last year, a Saanich grower started alternate contour-strip farming
in a small way on his property. This practice has been continued this year with good
results. The object is to work in a heavy sod to improve the humus content of the soil
and to prevent erosion.    It is working very effectively.
"The Dominion Experimental Station at Saanichton has several mulch projects
in progress."
Up until 1947 agricultural lime was in short supply. The supply situation has now
been remedied and, while there have been increased quantities sold during the past two
years as compared with previous periods, it is still considered by officials of this
Department that a much greater quantity should be used.
In the past this Department, in conjunction with the Dominion Department of
Agriculture, paid a subsidy of $1 a ton to purchasers of lime for soil amendment
purposes. One dollar a ton was also paid to the producers as an inducement for them
to lower their price to prospective buyers by this amount. At the beginning of the
present fiscal year the subsidy to purchasers was increased to $1.50 a ton, the Dominion
Department paying 60 per cent, and the Provincial Department 40 per cent.
The following table indicates the general increase in sales of lime during the past
five years:— Tons.
January 1st to December 31st, 1944     3,830
January 1st to December 31st, 1945     5,210
January 1st to December 31st, 1946     5,636
January 1st to December 31st, 1947  13,104
January 1st to November 30th, 1948 (11 months)  14,344
While no new horticultural publications were issued during the past year, those
that are available for distribution were revised and reprinted as the supply on hand
became exhausted.
Radio broadcasts were continued in the Okanagan during the summer period.
These broadcasts dealt with pest control and were issued in co-operation with the
British Columbia Fruit Growers' Association.
The Horticultural News Letter was issued every two weeks from May 22nd to
September 25th, 1948, a total of ten issues. This News Letter contained not only
information relative to general growing conditions but also estimates of possible
production of the various fruit and vegetable crops.
In co-operation with the Statistics Branch fruit-crop estimates were issued during
the months of June, July, August, September, and October.
Meetings at which horticultural subjects were discussed were held throughout the
winter by the various officials of this Branch. An outstanding series of meetings of
this kind and similar to those held in past years was again held in the Okanagan
in co-operation with officials of the Dominion Department of Agriculture and Tree
Fruits, Limited. A total of thirty-six meetings were held in the Okanagan with an
attendance of 2,401 growers. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1948. R 89
M. S. Middleton, Supervising Horticulturist for the Okanagan, was superannuated
in July and this vacancy was filled by Ben Hoy, who was District Horticulturist at
Kelowna. At the same time the headquarters for the Okanagan Horticultural District
was changed from Vernon to Kelowna.
Other changes included the transfer of John A. Smith, District Horticulturist
at Oliver, to Kelowna and the transfer of D. A. Allan, Assistant District Horticulturist,
from Penticton to Oliver.
New appointments made during 1948 were three Assistant District Horticulturists—namely, A. J. Bodaly, Vernon; F. G. Moffat, Penticton; and J. E. Swales,
Your Horticulturist would like at this time to express his appreciation for the
co-operation which he has received at all times, not only from members of his own staff,
but also from other officials of this Department. Acknowledgment is also made of the
assistance extended to this office by the various members of the Dominion Department
of Agriculture as well as by members of the staff of the University of British Columbia.
W. R. Foster, M.Sc, and I. C. MacSwan, B.S.A.
The much wetter than usual weather during the four main growing months in
1948 favoured the development of many diseases of plants. The following diseases
were much more severe than usual: (1) Fire-blight of pears in the Kootenays and
Okanagan; (2) scab of apples and pears in the Kootenays, Northern Okanagan, and
Coast; (3) coryneum blight of peaches and apricots in the Kootenays and Okanagan;
(4) peach leaf-curl in the Okanagan; (5) brown-rot of stone-fruits; (6) late blight
of potatoes at the Coast and most of the Interior; (7) downy mildew of hops in the
Kamloops area; (8) downy mildew of onions in the Grand Forks, Northern Okanagan,
and Coast; (9) late blight of tomatoes at the Coast, Kootenays, and Northern Okanagan; (10) late blight of celery; (11) red stele of strawberry on Southern Vancouver
Island;  and (12) leaf spot or shot-hole of cherries in Kootenays and Coast.
The damage from bunt of wheat was slight, less than it has been during any of
the previous three years. A new kind of smut called dwarf bunt was found for the
first time in Canada in the Northern Okanagan. Potatoes continue to be virtually
free of bacterial ring-rot. We appear to be freer than any other potato-producing
Province or State in North America. Little cherry was not found in the Okanagan
or in the following places which come in between the Kootenays, the badly affected
area, and the Okanagan: Grand Forks, Edgewood, and Needles. For the first time
in British Columbia a clover plant with symptoms resembling witches'-broom was
found in the Cariboo by Dr. J. B. Munro, Deputy Minister of Agriculture. The
virus may be the same as the witches'-broom of alfalfa, which is fairly common in
the Interior. Considerable progress has been made in the reducing of the main
source of infective material of black-knot of plums in the Fraser Valley.
It was more general and widespread than ever before, and many growers' crops
were severely damaged.    The disease was general on Vancouver Island, Fraser Valley, R 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Kamloops, Northern Okanagan, and the West Kootenays. It was found for the first
time in the Cariboo. Fortunately dry periods during September and October curtailed the disease to some extent.
Considerable publicity was given to late blight, beginning in June with a report
over the radio, CBR, that the late blight had been found and had started to spread.
An article, " Handling Potato Crops affected by Late Blight," was compiled by I. C.
MacSwan with the help of H. S. McLeod and N. S. Wright of the Dominion Department of Agriculture, and sent to all newspapers at the Coast, District Agriculturists
and Horticulturists, agents of the Marketing Boards, etc. Another article on " Prevent Late-blight Tuber-rot " was sent to nearly all newspapers in British Columbia.
The growing of blight-resistant varieties is becoming of increasing importance.
During this year's epidemic, Calrose, Sebago, and Great Scott appeared to have fair
resistance, Epicure and Netted Gem slight resistance. The following varieties were
susceptible: White Rose, Green Mountain, Columbia Russet, Wee McGregor, Gold
Coin, Sir Walter Raleigh, and Warba. The following list of blight-resistant varieties
was given to the Field Crops Branch, with the recommendation that they be introduced for trial:   Ashworth, Chenango, Essex, Placid, and Virgil.
The beneficial effect of spraying with copper fungicides was very evident at
Courtenay and district. The success in this district was partly due to increasing the
strength of the proprietary products used and more frequent applications. Often the
proprietary products are recommended and used at too weak a strength. The few
growers who did not spray obtained low yields of about 2