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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Department of Education PROVINCIAL MUSEUM of NATURAL HISTORY and ANTHROPOLOGY… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1949

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Department of Education
Report for tfie Year 1947
Printed by Don MoDiahmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1948.  To His Honour C. A. Banks,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
The undersigned respectfully submits herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial
Museum of Natural History and Anthropology for the year 1947.
Minister of Education.
Office of the Minister of Education,
Victoria, B.C. Provincial Museum of Natural History
and Anthropology,
Victoria, B.C., June 28th, 1948.
The Honourable W. T. Straith,
Minister of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—The undersigned respectfully submits herewith a report of the activities of
the Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology for the calendar year 1947.
I have the honour to be,
Your obedient servant,
The Honourable W. T. Straith, Minister.
Lieut.-Col. F. T. Fairey, Superintendent.
G. Clifford Carl, Ph.D., Director.
George A. Hardy, General Assistant.
A. E. PlCKFORD, Assistant in Anthropology.
Margaret Crummy, B.A., Secretarial Stenographer.
Betty C Newton, Artist.
Sheila Grice, Typist.
Arthur F. Coates, Attendant.
(a) To secure and preserve specimens illustrating the natural history of the
(b) To collect anthropological material relating to the aboriginal races of the
(c) To obtain information respecting the natural sciences, relating particularly to
the natural history of the Province, and to increase and diffuse knowledge regarding
the same.
(Section 4, " Provincial Museum Act," R.S.B.C. 1936, c. 231.)
The Provincial Museum is open to the public, free, weekdays, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.;
and on Sunday afternoons, 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. CONTENTS.
Report of the Director  7
Exhibition and Preparation  7
.    Special Exhibitions  7
Field-work  7
Publications  8
Motion-pictures  9
Education  9
Museum Lectures  9
Other Lectures  9
School Loan Materials  10
Research  10
Attendance  10
Staff Changes  11
Report of the Botanist  12
Activities  12
Acknowledgments  12
Miscellaneous Notes  13
Report of the Entomologist ■  13
Report of the Anthropologist .  14
Accessions  15
Article:  "Archaeological Excavation of Indian Middens," by A. E. Pickford  20
Article:  " Notes on Plants collected in 1947, chiefly in the Rocky Mountain Trench,
between the Rocky and Selkirk Mountains of British Columbia," by J. W.
The varied activities carried on by the Provincial Museum during the year 1947
are outlined on the following pages.
The rearranging and relabelling of the Indian exhibit, which was undertaken in
1946, was completed early in 1947, and many favourable comments have been received
concerning the improvements in the display.
The exhibit of living animals on the main floor was augmented during the summer
months by a display of living insects collected and arranged by Mr. Ron Forbes.
Included in the exhibit were aquatic insects of various kinds, beetles, crickets, termites,
and other common forms. A colony of bees contributed by Dr. J. B. Munro, Deputy
Minister of Agriculture, received considerable attention.
Temporary exhibits have included the skull of an Indian woman of high degree
(judging by copper ornaments found in association with the remains) and a sea-otter
skin on permanent loan from the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
The Sixth Annual Exhibition of British Columbia Indian Arts and Crafts was
opened by Lieutenant-Governor Charles A. Banks on June 10th. Sponsored by the
British Columbia Indian Arts and Welfare Society, the display featured the work of
Miss Judith Phillis Morgan, a Tsimshian student at the Alberni Residential School,
who was awarded the society's scholarship of $150. Other paintings included those
by Bernard George, Henry Jones, Wilson Bob, and other students from both the Alberni
Residential School and the Christie Indian School at Kakawis.
An exhibition of wild-flower paintings by Miss Emily Sartain, of Victoria, was
opened on July 10th under the segis of the Society for the Preservation of Native
Plants. The collection of seventy-six water colours attracted considerable attention on
the part of Museum visitors during the period of greatest attendance.
During the period April 12th to 17th the Director accompanied officials of the
Dominion Department of Fisheries on a trip to Knight and Kingcome Inlets where
sea-lions congregate each year at the time of the eulachon run. Motion-pictures and
still photographs were obtained of sea-lions in action and of the local Indians gathering
and processing eulachons. Grateful acknowledgment is made of the assistance of
Mr. J. F. Tait, Fisheries Supervisor at Nanaimo, who made this trip possible, and of
the crew of the C.G.S. " Kitimat," in the charge of Capt. C. W. Earnshaw, who added
much to the success of the venture.
From May 28th to June 8th field-work was carried on in the Skagit Valley in connection with the survey of Manning Park, which was commenced in 1945. The party
consisted of G. C. Carl, G. A. Hardy, and a temporary assistant, J. D. Yarwood. By
kind permission of Mr. F. Schlickeisen, project manager of the Silver-Skagit Logging F 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Company, we were able to travel over the company logging road to the old Whitworth
ranch, where Mr. Harold Fletcher, caretaker, kindly permitted us to make our headquarters. From this point a short general survey was made of a portion of the area
which will eventually be flooded by a power project on the Skagit in the State of
Washington and an overnight trip was made to Lone Goat Mountain on the Skyline
Trail through Manning Park. The specimens and data collected will be combined with
those collected in Manning Park on the previous occasion.
During the period August 26th to 31st a "field-party, consisting of G. A. Hardy,
J.- D. Yarwood, and F. L. Beebe, made a collecting-trip to the Jordan Meadow area,
north-west of Victoria. The results of this trip are reported upon elsewhere in this
At other times during the year collecting-trips have been made to the Lost Lake
area by Mr. Hardy, who is conducting an intensive study of plant-animal relationships
in this district.
The following publications have originated from the Museum during the year:—
By G. Clifford Carl—
" The Alaska Fur-seal Industry and Canada's Interest."    Report of the Provincial Museum for 1946, pp. 21-24, 1947.
" Natives of the Pribilof Islands."    The Native Voice, Vancouver, B.C., Vol. 1,
No. 2, January, 1947.
" The Provincial Museum and its Relationship to Wildlife Conservation."
Report of the Proceedings of the Game Convention, B.C. Game Dept.,
pp. 52-54, 1947.
" Mammals of Vancouver Island."    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 4-9,
" The Pacific Leatherback Turtle."    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 4, No. 4, p. 47,
By G. A. Hardy—
" Two Interesting Fungi from John Dean Park."    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 4,
No. 5, pp. 54, 55, 1947.
" Fourth Annual Fungus Foray."    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 4, No. 5, pp. 56,
57, 1947.
By A. E. Pickford—
" Prehistoric Cairns and Mounds in British Columbia."    B.C. Hist. Quarterly,
Vol. 11, No. 4, October, 1947.
By J. A. Munro (Dominion Wild-life Officer for British Columbia) —
" Observations of Birds and Mammals in Central British Columbia."    Occ.
Paper No. 6, B.C. Prov. Museum, pp. 1-165, figs. 1-52, January, 1947.
By J. W. Eastham (Provincial Plant Pathologist, Vancouver) —
" Supplement to  ' Flora of Southern  British  Columbia'   (J.  K.  Henry)."
Special Publication No. 1, B.C. Prov. Museum, pp. 1-119, 1947.
By J. A. Munro (Dominion Wild-life Officer for British Columbia) and I. McTag-
gart Cowan (Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia) —
"A Review of the Bird Fauna of British Columbia."    Special Publication
No. 2, B.C. Prov. Museum, pp. 1-285, figs. 1-42, December, 1947.
The type-script of " The Fresh-water Fishes of British Columbia," by G. C. Carl
and W. A. Clemens, was almost completed during the year; it is planned to publish this
material in the handbook series. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1947.
F 9
The motion-picture film based on material collected on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska,
in 1946 was augmented by the addition of several hundred feet of film obtained from
Dr. Georges Prefontaine of the University of Montreal, to whom the Museum is much
indebted. We now have a 1,600-foot duplicate film which has been of considerable use
in public lectures.
Through the generosity of the Fouke Fur Company, of St. Louis, Missouri, a short
reel of film was obtained showing the birth of seals on St. Paul Island.
The films obtained of the Indian eulachon fishery are being combined with others
to make a motion-picture " short" featuring the eulachon in Indian life. Further
material is also being gathered concerning whales and other sea-mammals.
Museum Lectures.
The following programme of Saturday morning lectures was presented to schoolchildren of the Greater Victoria area during February and March:—
" Birds "	
Mr. J. A. Munro, Dominion Wild-life Officer, Okanagan Landing, B.C.
Mr. George Winkler, Mining Engineer, Victoria, B.C.
Mr. John Kyle, Night-school Instructor in Art, Victoria, B.C.
February 22
March 1	
March 8	
" Mountain Building "	
" How to Paint a Picture "	
" Sea-shore Animals"	
" Fur Seals of the Pribilofs "
" The Insect World "	
March 22.
March 29	
Dr. Ian McT. Cowan, Department of Zoology, University of British
Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.
Total attendance, 3,041.
We are again pleased to thank here the various outside speakers who contributed
to the success of this series and also the British Columbia Electric Railway for again
granting special travelling privileges to school-children attending the lectures.
This year a new plan was inaugurated in the form of a motion-picture programme
offered to the general public on Sunday afternoons. On each Sunday, during the
period in which lectures were given to school-children, films were shown in the Museum
to audiences varying in size from 40 to 150 people. The response has been so encouraging that the programme will be continued in other years.
Other Lectures.
During 1947 lectures and film-shows have been given by members of the Museum
staff to the following organizations: Royal Oak Parent-Teacher Association, Victoria
Women's Canadian Club, Victoria West Parent-Teacher Association, Outdoors Club,
Belmont Church Men's Club, Victoria Natural History Society (Zoology Group), Victoria Rotary Club, Fairbridge Farm School, Ladysmith Lions Club, B.C. Alpine Club
(Vancouver Section), Burrard Lions Club (Vancouver), Kitsilano High School (Vancouver), Rest Haven Hospital (Sidney), St. Mary's Church Men's Club (Victoria),
Kelowna Rod and Gun Club, Kelowna High School, Kamloops High School, Kamloops
Section of University of British Columbia Alumni and Outdoors Club, Senior Zoology
Students (University of British Columbia), Women's Auxiliary of Fairfield United
Church (Victoria), Vancouver Rotary Club, New Westminster Rotary Club, Nanaimo
Gyro Club, Brechin School (Nanaimo), Duncan Consolidated School, Victoria Horticultural Society, Victoria Electric Club, Women's Canadian Club (Vancouver), Saanich
Playground Club, Victoria Summer School, Sidney Nature Club, Empress Hotel staff, F 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Women's Canadian Club (Alberni), Alberni Indian Residential School, Canadian Club
(Courtenay), Courtenay High School, Women's Canadian Club (Nanaimo), Canadian
Club of Cowichan (Duncan), St. Michael's School (Victoria, two lectures), Mount St.
Mary Hospital (Victoria, two shows), Canadian Society of Forest Engineers (Victoria),
Agricultural Institute of Canada (Victoria Section), Canadian Phyto-pathological
Society (Victoria Section), British Columbia Game Convention (Harrison Lake).
In addition to these, numbers of school classes and other groups have been guided
through the Museum and have been given instruction by members of the staff, particularly in connection with the display of Indian arts and crafts.
Several demonstrations were also given to the junior members of the Victoria
Natural History Society, who meet in the Museum on Saturday mornings during the
fall and winter months.
Also under this heading may be noted the Museum and staff facilities extended to
Miss Judith Morgan, Tsimshian artist, working under a scholarship awarded by the
British Columbia Indian Arts and Welfare Society. The instruction received by Miss
Morgan was under the direction of Mr. George Sinclair, art instructor at the Indian
Residential School, Alberni.
School Loan Materials.
A further addition to the material used in teaching Indian life in schools is in the
form of a cardboard diorama depicting the interior of a Coast Salish " long-house,"
prepared by Miss Betty Newton. In addition to this, Miss Newton has prepared copies
of the following dioramas or panels:   " Skidegate Village " and " Cowichan Potlatch."
A number of these loan materials were circulated among schools of the Greater
Victoria area during the spring months through Miss Marian James, Director of
Kindergarten Primary Education.
Mr. A. E. Pickford has continued his researches into early Indian life in connection
with the series of type-scripts being prepared for school use. Those now completed
include the Coast Salish, Interior Salish, Nootkan, Haida, Kootenay, Sekani, Tsimshian,
and Kwakiutl.
Mr. G. A. Hardy has been collecting further material relating to the ecology and
plant succession as found in a relatively undisturbed area in Saanich, as well as
material of a general nature relating to plants of the Province. The life-histories of
certain local insects have also been studied in detail.
The number of visitors to the Museum during 1947 is summarized as follows:—
Month. Registered. Estimated.
January   1,621 2,027
February   2,038 2,690
March  .  2,081 2,875
April   2,273 3,642
May   2,603 3,480
June   4,127 6,800
July   7,554 9,530
August  8,280 11,110
September   5,178 7,850
October   2,267 2,783
November  1,225 1,640
December   1,217 1,360
Totals   40,464 56,587 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1947. F 11
In addition, there were 3,041 children who attended the Saturday morning lectures,
over twelve school classes, twenty Junior Naturalist classes, four groups of naval
officers, and one British Columbia Police class, making an estimated total of over
Compared with former years, the estimated attendance is less than that of 1946 by
7,000 and under that of 1945 (a record year) by 16,000 persons.
The attendance record for the month of July, as shown by the entries in the
visitors' register, has been analysed by Mr. Coates as follows :—
Residence. Registration. Residence. Registration.
British Columbia   1,465           Washington   1,775
Alberta  :_ 405           Oregon       703
Saskatchewan   376           California  1,205
Manitoba   265           Alaska        13
Ontario   199           Other States       907
Quebec   65            Great Britain         67
New Brunswick  4            Other countries        72
Nova Scotia   16           Country not stated          6
Prince Edward Island ____ 5                                                         	
Newfoundland   4 Total   4,748
Yukon Territory  2
  Grand total   7,554
Total   2,808
Compared with a similar analysis of the attendance for July, 1946, the registration
during this month was slightly higher in 1947. The various Provinces and States were
represented in approximately the same proportion as in the former year, indicating
that tourist travel has remained about the same.
By a special arrangement the Museum regained the services of Mr. A. E. Pickford,
who retired in the fall of 1946. This allowed him to complete the rearranging and
relabelling of the Indian exhibit commenced in 1946 and also to prepare further typescripts for school use, as mentioned elsewhere. We are indeed fortunate to have
obtained this extension of time.
In December Mr. G. A. Hardy was made general assistant on the Museum staff.
He will continue to be in charge of the botanical and entomological work and will take
on other administrative duties in addition.
During the summer months Mr. Ron Forbes was associated with the Museum as
student-assistant. During this period he installed and maintained an exhibit of living
insects and related forms, and completed the resorting and fumigation of stored
As field assistant, we obtained the services of Mr. J. D. Yarwood, a senior university student, who accompanied us on two field-trips. Mr. F. L. Beebe, Vancouver
artist and biologist, was a volunteer assistant on one of these expeditions. F 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The routine work of accessioning, mounting, and naming specimens and caring for
the herbarium has continued throughout the year without abatement. Additional
storage-space, always a problem, has now become a major requirement.
Recorded accessions number 948 sheets, excluding fungi, lichens, and mosses.
Over and above these, 700 plants were brought in for identification or for other
Considerable headway has been made with the mounting, labelling, and filing of
specimens with the help of Miss S. Grice. A total of 2,633 sheets have thus been
completed for shelving as soon as space can be found.
As in previous years, the seasonal wild-flower exhibit has been maintained and
shows no lack in interest to the visiting public. Advantage of this space is taken to
stress matters of current interest—poisonous plants, garden weeds, edible berries,
and so forth.
It is found that an interest in natural-history subjects is increased where there is
a periodical change of subject-matter, such as obtained with the seasonal wild-flower
case, for it is known that several visitors regularly follow up the cycle of the flowers
as it progresses through the year. During the winter months evergreen trees and
shrubs replace the flowers of spring, summer, and autumn.
A percentage of the botanist's time is taken up with the preparation and delivery
of lectures, talks, and demonstrations to schools, teachers' organizations, and similar
groups and institutions.
Two field-excursions of a general biological nature were undertaken, in which
botanical investigations formed an essential part of the activities. One was to the
Skagit Valley, contiguous to the western boundary of Manning Park, where a series
of plants was collected, partly as a continuation of the park survey and partly to assess
the flora of the Skagit Valley before it is flooded by the projected construction of a
dam. The second field-trip was to Jordan Meadows, west of Shawnigan Lake. It is
felt that a permanent record of this area is desirable while still in the primeval condition and before the encroachments of civilization have changed its native economy.
In addition to the larger excursions, a certain amount of local field-work was undertaken, chiefly arising from the need to supply the wild-flower exhibit with fresh
material. During these it was found possible to include observations of a general
biological nature. By concentrating on a particular area, a week-by-week record of
its wild life may be obtained and later may prove to be of some value as a basis of
comparison in a study of the fluctuating numbers of the native fauna and flora,
especially in regard to their reactions to a changing environment. Material gathered
on these occasions will be used as a basis for future publication. A manuscript on
the willows and certain birds has already been completed.
As in other years, the co-operation of survey parties and private individuals has
continued, resulting in very desirable additions to the herbarium. By this means also
much valuable information concerning the plants of this Province is obtained. The
northern portion of British Columbia is still a botanical terra incognita, and no organized work has yet been undertaken to bring what is known into one publication. Much
of this area is still in need of more intensive study before it can be said to be thoroughly
known. While various collections have been made by parties outside British Columbia,
much of this material is not represented in our herbarium. Until representative
specimens are obtained, our collection cannot be said to be sufficiently authoritative to
supply a basis for a full knowledge of our botanical resources. It is by helping to fill
these gaps that the collections made by members of the survey parties are so much
Among those who contributed in this manner are G C. Emerson, of the Topographic Surveys, who contributed an excellent series of plants from Terrace; A. G.
Slocomb, of the same department, with plants from the West Coast of Vancouver
Island; J. A. Munro, Dominion Wild-life Officer, who collected a nice series of plants
from the Creston area.
I would like to take this opportunity of thanking those friends of the Museum
who have provided fresh material for the wild-flower case. Through their kindness
many species of flowers have been on view that would otherwise not have been shown.
I wish to express my thanks and appreciation also to the following for their kindness in determining difficult species: Dr. C. R. Ball, Plant Extension Service, United
States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.—Salix; Mr. J. W. Eastham,
Provincial Plant Pathologist, Vancouver, B.C.—Juncacese, Graminese, Cyperacese; Dr.
Leon Kelso, Washington, D.C.—Castilleja; Mrs. H. Mackenzie, Victoria, B.C.—Bryo-
phytes;  Mr. A. E. Porsild, National Museum of Canada, Ottawa—Composite.
The following record is an addition to those given in the " Flora of Vancouver and
Queen Charlotte Islands," 1921:—
Acer circinnatum Pursh.    Cowichan.    E. H. Garman.   August 28th, 1945.
The following plant is not known to have been previously recorded from British
Bidens Beckii (Torr) Green.    Creston flats.   J. A. Munro.   August, 1947.
The major activity in the entomological department is connected with the routine
inspection and fumigation of the collections. Much of this work was efficiently done
by Mr. Ron Forbes, who was on the Museum staff for the summer months.
The general public continues to show a marked interest in insects in general and
of insect pests in particular. Every effort is made to satisfy all inquiries, either by
direct information or by reference to sources of a more specialistic nature.
Reports of insect occurrences of any nature are encouraged, for in this way much
valuable information has come to hand, the results of which have often proved to be
worth publishing under various headings, according to the species involved.
During 1947, for instance, in the group of the long-horned beetles, two species new
to Vancouver Island and two rarely seen species have been reported. These records
will be published in the British Columbia Entomological Society proceedings.
Among recent contributors of material are Mr. G. Stace Smith, of Creston, who
donated a collection of Coleoptera of various orders, and Mr. R. Guppy, of Wellington,
who supplied a number of named Diptera. We are indebted to Mr. Hugh B. Leech,
California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, Calif., for identifying aquatic Coleoptera and, through him, to Dr. E. C. Van Dyke for naming Carabidse. To Mr. J. R.
Llewellyn Jones, of Cobble Hill, we are indebted for a similar service in the Lepidoptera. F 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In the Annual Report for 1946 it was shown that the rooms in which the anthropological collections are displayed were redecorated, after which a rearrangement of the
exhibits had been made. Due to the retirement of the anthropologist in September,
this work was discontinued until the opening of the new year when Mr. Pickford
resumed his duties with the Museum.. Finishing touches were then added to the
exhibits, and the important work of labelling was undertaken in such a manner that
the exhibits are now largely self-explanatory.
Projects of archaeological field-work during the year included a preliminary study
of the traces of native fortifications and associated burial cairns on Southern Vancouver
Island. In this work Mr. Cecil French lent valuable assistance. Due to Mr. Pickford's
visit to the hospital in July and August, the work was not carried to a conclusion.
A field-study of ancient Indian pictographs in the Lillooet and Seton Lake areas was
made available to the Museum through the excellent work of Major H. F. Tasker Taylor.
The land on which these interesting relics were found proved to be Crown property,
therefore representations were made to the Lands Department and the area was set
aside in perpetuity as a historic site. Similar action was taken in regard to the
well-known petroglyphs at Nanaimo. Mr. Bruce McKelvie approached Mr. H. R.
Plommer, general manager for the Canadian Collieries, on whose land these petroglyphs
were situated and, through a representation of these gentlemen, a deed of the land to
the Provincial Government has now been prepared. Co-operation in this way by
members of the public is much appreciated by the Museum authorities.
Lectures on anthropological subjects were delivered to several groups, including
a group at the Christ Church Memorial Hall, the Community Workers' Club, the Grey
Lines personnel, and others. On the floor of the Museum the local Parent-Teacher
Association was addressed, as were several of the local schools and groups of interested
Publications of the season include the appearance in the British Columbia Historical Quarterly of an article prepared some time ago by Mr. Pickford on the
prehistoric cairns and mounds in British Columbia. In the field of publicity much
time of the Museum staff was taken up in supplying information to sections of the
press and to the growing school of free-lance writers who, finding the public very
receptive of articles on native life, are devoting their energies to stimulating this
branch of education. In conjunction with the pictorial panels designed for use in the
local schools (as to which see Annual Report, 1945) two more scripts were added, each
of about 15,000 words. In the script series now prepared are the following: (1) The
Haida of the Queen Charlotte Islands, (2) The Tsimshian, (3) The Nootka, (4) The
Coast Salish, (5) The Interior Salish, (6) The Kootenay, and (7) The Sekani, the
latter tribe being a northern section of the nomadic Dene or Athapascan people of the
Every effort is made by the Museum to stimulate interest in the Indians native
to British Columbia. To this end assistance was extended to the Vancouver Art Gallery
at the time of their Christmas exhibit, when certain material was loaned. Letters
received at the Museum indicate that interest is growing in anthropological matters.
In appreciation of this interest much time is spent in supplying information to
correspondents, special attention being given to prospective tourists.
The policy of the Museum to increase public interest in the social welfare of the
Indians has been continued, the staff of the Museum working in co-operation with the
British Columbia Indian Arts and Welfare Society, with the Inspector of Indian
Schools, and with teachers and others working in the Indian field. In line with this
policy the spring exhibit of arts and crafts sent in by the Indian schools was again held, and won great appreciation from the many who were present to view the pictures and
other works of art. In August Mr. Pickford was selected to judge the Indian exhibits
displayed at the Pacific National Exhibition held in Hastings Park at Vancouver.
Of the ancient lore of the Indian much remains to be written, and no effort is
spared to make the most of opportunities to add to this store of knowledge. To this
end—by sympathetic treatment—some of the older Indians lend themselves quite
readily by acting as informants. Interviews with surviving pioneers, such as Mr.
Frank Partridge, who is over 90 years old, are also recorded.
During the summer a visit was paid by Dr. Marius Barbeau and Mr. Arthur Price,
both from the National Museum at Ottawa. A great many photographs were taken by
the visitors, and several excellent drawings were made by Mr. Price. Miss Helmi
Juvonen, a prominent artist from Seattle, also paid a similar and even more prolonged
visit; her work in this connection, we understand, is now in the Seattle Art Museum.
In each of these instances the staff of the Museum has been at considerable pains to
supply the demands of the visitors.
During 1947 the following specimens were added to the catalogued collections
(figures in parentheses indicate the total number on December 31st, 1947): Indian
material, 164 (6,516); plants, 948 (20,678) ; mammals, 80 (5,307); birds, 21 (9,284);
reptiles, 7 (282);  amphibians, 3 (558);  fish, 10 (693).
Authentic specimens of ancient Indian handicrafts are becoming increasingly rare.
In late years many specimens of great value, from point of view of anthropological
record, have been lost by fire and other hazard. Thus many private owners have seen
the desirability of placing their specimens in the permanent collections of this Museum,
where they will be carefully preserved for the study of aboriginal life by students of
generations to come.    Such contributions include the following items:—
The F. J. Barrow Collection.— (Gift.) In 1944 a large collection of artifacts
passed to this Museum under the will of the late F. J. Barrow, of Sidney. During the
past season certain additions were made to this donation by Mrs. Barrow; these include
a life-sized human figure of Kwakiutl origin, also a number of bone and stone implements, chiefly arrow and spear heads from the Gulf Islands.
The D. Clayton Collection.—(Purchase.) An important addition was made to the
ethnological material from the Bella Coola district in a purchase from Mr. D. Clayton
of specimens collected by his father while in charge of the Hudson's Bay post in that
area. Among the masks in the collection are included examples from the hands of some
of the best carvers on the Coast. Also included are a shaman's apron of unusual design
in goat's wool, some aboriginal wood-carving tools, spirit whistles, a " copper," and
some large painted storage boxes.
The Mrs. Maurice Proctor Collection.— (Gift.) This collection consists of archaeological material and is chiefly composed of small stone and bone artifacts from Lytton,
including decorated concretions and pestle-hammers. There are also a few bone
implements from the local shell-mounds.
The Capt. L. A. Peck Collection.— (Gift.) Captain Peck has been a generous donor
to this Museum for several years and has now added a number of interesting specimens
to his donations. Among these items is one truly remarkable circular stone pile-driver
of a black glossy rock, deeply engraved with a human face bearing the patina of great
antiquity.    Also included are some rare arrows collected many years ago in the F 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Tsimshian area, also wooden and horn spoons, Haida baskets and numerous other
baskets from various sources.
In addition to the above groups, the specimens shown in the following summary
have been added to the accession lists:—
By gift—
Skin-scraper of bone.    See Mrs. Maurice Proctor donation.
By gift-
Two walking-sticks, carved human hand holding snake;   sea-bear's head and
tribal designs.    Mrs. A. S. Robertson, Victoria.
Model canoe, painted aboriginal designs.    C. W. Kinlock, Victoria.
Two black slate pipes (broken).    B. W. Pearse, Victoria, courtesy Provincial
Baskets, etc.    In Capt. L. A. Peck donation.
Human skull.    Commissioner of British Columbia Provincial Police.
By purchase—
Two pipes and one totem-pole, carved in black slate, each with intricate
representations of human and mythical animal figures.
Rattle, globular, carved human face, etc.
Goat-horn spoon, carved totemistic design.
Large cedar-bark mat, painted animal figure, etc.
• Tsimshian.
By gift-
Arrows, baskets, etc.    In Capt. L. A. Peck donation.
By gift-
Large totem-pole (erected in Thunderbird Park).   His Honour the Lieutenant-
Pile-driver and baskets.    In Capt. L. A. Peck donation.
Carved wooden figure (life size).    In F. J. Barrow donation.
Human skull and skeletal remains  (Mesocephalic), Nimpkish;   human skull
(Dolichocephalic), Bute Inlet.    The Commissioner of British Columbia
Provincial Police.
By gift-
Large whaling-canoe   (displayed  in  Thunderbird  Park).    His  Honour the
Baskets.    In Capt. L. A. Peck and Dr. G. Clifford Carl donations.
Coast Salish.
By gift—
Jadeite chisel.    J. Duff, Sidney.
Netting-needle.    Mrs. A. S. Robertson, Victoria.
Open-weave basket.    Mrs. A. S. Robertson, Victoria.
Pestle-hammer, stone.    Col. C G. Seymour Bagot, Victoria.
Whale-bone war club.    L. Callahan, Denman Island.
Bark-lifter.    Mrs. E. G. Posgate, Victoria.
Wooden grave memorial.    Miss Josephine Crease, Victoria. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1947. F 17
Two food-dishes.    Miss Y. E. V. Mesher, Victoria.
Two canoe-paddles, painted.    Miss Y. E. V. Mesher, Victoria.
Large stone anchor.    P. E. Wilford, Victoria.
Hammer stone.   Walter H. Ford, Ganges.
Model cradle in basketry.    In Capt. L. A. Peck donation.
Archaeological material.   In F. J. Barrow and Mrs. Maurice Proctor donations.
Human skulls and skeletons.    H.  R.  Lacon,  Denman Island.    Mrs.  E.  C.
Posgate, Victoria.    Commissioner of British Columbia Provincial Police,
By purchase—
Tump line, hand-woven.
Basket-makers' needles and materials.
Tray in coiled basketry.
Interior Salish.
By gift-
Berry basket, with slings.    Mrs. A. S. Robertson, Victoria.
Three worked concretions.    Mrs. A. D. Muskett, Victoria.
Black soapstone pipe.    Mrs. A. D. Muskett, Victoria.
String of copper beads, found in association with human remains.   A. W. A.
Phair, Lillooet, through courtesy of Vancouver City Museum.
Archaeological material.    In Mrs. Maurice Proctor donation.
Human skulls and skeletal remains from Victoria and Lillooet areas.    Commissioner of British Columbia Provincial Police.
Bella Coola Salish.
By gift-
Human skull with (associated) twisted copper neck-piece and four bracelets
to match.
By purchase—
Fine collection of masks, etc.    In D. Clayton purchase.
By gift—
Birch-bark basket.    In Capt. L. A. Peck donation.
By gift—
Seal-spear, ivory point.     (Anon.)
Model kyak.
By purchase—
Birch-bark basket with floral design in porcupine quill.
By gift-
Stone hammer, rounded and grooved.    J. E. Hastings, Victoria.
D. Flynn, Victoria, one; W. H. Forrest, Victoria, one; 0. C. Furniss, Alberni,
one; Miss M. Legget, Langford, two; J. A. Munro, Okanagan Landing, collection of
plants from Kootenay Flats; F. P. Newcomb, Victoria, one; J. F. Palmer, Alberni,
one;   Mr. Putnam, Lulu Island, one;   Mrs. A. Simpson, Winnipeg, Man., collection of F 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Vancouver Island mosses; A. G. Slocomb, Victoria, collection of plants; L. F. Solly,
Westholme, one; H. Toms, Vancouver, collection from Ashton Creek; J. W. Bruce
Wagg, Uxbridge, Ont., collection of plants.
By gift—
W. B. Delahunt, per F. Weir, Duncan.    One wolf specimen.
Gordon Hardy, Victoria.    One brown bat.
John B. Heal, Victoria.    Whalebone specimen.
Inspector Larsen, per K. Ulrich, Victoria.    Skull of muskox.
A. Olson, Lake Cowichan.    Four wolf specimens (skins and skulls).
A. E. Wale, Millstream.    One cougar.
By the staff  10
By gift-
Mr. Fraser, per Roger Monteith, Victoria.    One golden eagle.
R. C. W. Lett, Victoria.    One humming-bird's nest.
Mrs. F. Ray, Langford.    One bald eagle.
Lieutenant-Colonel Miles, Victoria.    One penguin egg from Falkland Islands.
By the staff  11
By gift-
Dick Brumwell, Victoria.    One skipjack.
W. Egeland, Sidney.    One grunt-fish.
Denis Gaunt, Duncan.    One steelhead.
John B. Heal, Victoria.    One wry-mouth.
R. W. Hull, Victoria.    One sculpin.
Kyuquot Trollers, Victoria.    One albacore.
G. H. Smith, Victoria.    One sculpin and one pompano.
William Stevens, Deep Cove.    One cut-throat trout.
J. H. Todd & Sons, Victoria.    One soupfin shark.
Sandys Wunch, per F. Weir, Duncan.    One brown trout.
Amphibians and Reptiles.
By gift-
Dan Leavens, Cultus Lake.    Two giant salamanders (Dicamptodon).
D. P. O'Connell, Penticton.    One western skink.
G. Stace Smith, Creston.    One western skink.
Bob and Ron Starkey, Victoria.   Two newts.
Pat Stroyan, per Dan Leavens, Cultus Lake.    One tailed toad.
Mrs. T. L. Thacker, Hope.    One salamander.
By the staff      1
By gift-
Ted Brown, Ganges.   Twelve ticks.
Mrs. A. M. Caron, per R. C. W. Lett, Victoria.    One hornets' nest.
Miss Susan Crease, Victoria.   Two cases of butterflies.
R. D. Cumming, Ashcroft.    Collection of fresh-water snails. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1947. F 19
R. Frost, Victoria.   Two crab-spiders.
F. Goerty, Vancouver.    One sea-shore earwig.
Miss.Ann Hanley, White Rock.    One tiger-moth.
V. B. Harrison, Nanaimo.    One beetle and one Ichneumon fly.
F. T. Humphries, Victoria.    One larva of spiny wood-borer.
Miss M. Jackson, Victoria.    One spider.
Mrs. L. Little, Victoria.    One eyed hawk-moth.
H. A. Munson, Sidney.    One beetle.
F. Raynbaird, Royal Oak.   Two polyphemus moths.
C. A. Roberts, Victoria.    One banded borer.
Miss E. Sartain, Victoria.    One caterpillar.
Bob and Ron Starkey, Victoria.    One water-bug.
S. A. K. White, Victoria.    One California prionus.
By gift—
A. D. Crease, Victoria.    Fossils from Cowichan Lake.
A. Heighes, Victoria.    Marine fossils.
By gift—
J. Duff, Sidney.    Sixteen lantern-slides of prehistoric art.
Dr. A. L. Aylmer, Victoria.    One publication, "A Description of the Character
of the Whistling Swan," by Thomas Cook, published in 1823. F 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
By A. E. Pickford, Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C.
In the world at large there is a growing interest in archaeological excavation. In
late years people have become increasingly aware of the extent to which the results of
such excavations throw a great new light on the origins of human race and culture.
We begin to understand ourselves and our fellow men much better as this light
increases. It is natural, therefore, that we should wish to find out about these things
for ourselves and to obtain at least some knowledge at first hand. In British Columbia
opportunities for such work are manifold, thus we find many well-meaning persons
engaging in what, when reduced to tangible results, is merely " digging for Indian
The object of this paper, however, is to point out that much harm is being done by
untrained persons engaged in such digging, and to urge that, when opportunities
occur, amateurs can render the best service to science by merely recording the existence
of sites and mapping them. Unless sites are threatened by building projects, or by
destruction from other causes, the information should be supplied to the Provincial
Museum or the University of British Columbia, and the sites left undisturbed. Persons
who have thus shown interest will then be contacted, and the possibilities of excavation
will be discussed with them.
Here the question of the ownership of the land arises as a governing factor.
Important sites on Crown land can be made the subject of an application to the Honourable the Minister of Lands and Forests for a reservation to be made setting the site
aside for sufficient period for a scientific examination to be made. In case of private
ownership, if a person is unable to restrain the impulse to dig on his own land, we urge
that he shall adhere to some such principles as those which follow, then he will have
the satisfaction of knowing that his work is well done and, when brought into focus
with similar undertakings, will help to build up that sound foundation of knowledge,
without which the correct story of the early population of this country cannot be
The value of an excavation is estimated from the amount of knowledge gained
from the work. The artifacts which come to light in the process of digging are only
valuable in so far as they add to the sum of that knowledge. A crime is committed
against society when unscientific people who, knowing of a site, exploit it for relics,
which they either sell or hold on to on account of their imagined or fabulous monetary
value. The crime is that an irreplaceable volume of scientific information is destroyed
in such a digging. If a penalty could be imposed for such a crime, it should be
assessed according to the paucity of notes taken on the spot and failure to enlist the
co-operation of persons trained to undertake such work.
The science of archaeology is now in adolescence as compared with the swaddling
child which represented it in the late nineteenth century. On the American continent,
knowledge of the most advanced methods of the science is very largely confined to
university graduates. But in the Old Country, where archaeological opportunities
occur in abundance, a great many well-informed people are gathered in archaeological
societies to excavate, or to assist professional archaeologists in such a way that the
maximum of information is placed on record and that the artifacts and other relics are
preserved and presented to public view in the best possible manner.
In what follows, space does not permit more than the briefest enumeration of
principles, so what we have to offer here is merely a condensation of essentials directed
to a particular branch of study—namely, the examination of shell-mounds by the
sampling method of excavation. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1947.
F 21
Archaeological excavation is directed toward the securing of facts such as will
throw light on the lives of prehistoric people. In the minds of average citizens the
idea of archaeology is too much associated with death and dust. But in the mind of
the true scientist this association rests rather with life and the ways of living, even
though they be, as they inevitably are, of the past. Thus the evidence for which we
look may be expected to bear upon any one of the following cultural aspects: Racial
and cultural origins, foods, housing, clothing, industries, and techniques in peace and
war. Each new study should be approached as if it were a book from which valuable
information is to be obtained. He who digs for relics alone may be likened to the child
who tears a book apart in order to secure the coloured plates which it contains, being
the while all unaware that in scattering the printed pages to the wind he is losing for
ever a valuable source of information about those same plates and the life which they
1. A map must be drawn to a scale of feet to show the limits of the area under
examination. With this should be included a key map to show the relation of the area
to existing land lines.     (See Fig. 1.)
Scale 1O0 ft.
to 1 Inch
Fig. 1.
2. A bench-mark, or point of elevation to which all variations in levels are referred,
should be established in the vicinity where it will not be disturbed by the work.
3. From this bench-mark, and by use of an Abney or other level, a contour map of
the surface of the site should be made, in which the contours are taken at even intervals
chosen in accordance with the nature of the site. This contour information, together
with fences, buildings, escarpments, and the like, should be plotted on the map drawn
in accordance with paragraph 1, F 22
4. To determine the proper place for a sampling trench, test-holes, related to a
gridiron subdivision of the site, should be dug at regular intervals. Indications of
strata should be noted in these test-holes, so that, if possible, a cross-section diagram
may be drawn to indicate the trends of these strata. The term " bedding stratum " in
this work shall be used to define that original surface of the soil below which no human
workings have penetrated.
5. All excavation done must be related to: (a) a horizontal plane and (6) a vertical plane. The former is established by reference to the bench-mark above mentioned.
The vertical plane (b) is established by driving at least three pegs in one straight
line, which shall correspond to the middle line of the sampling trench (Fig. 2).
Bench     k
iMd/tkr        J
on Tree J
II 1
"       ^j^BW
Jd<sn tff/cation
- Stake.
4. FT. TO
shoal a^v
Fig. 2.
6. The lateral limits of the sampling trench must next be pegged out upon the
ground in two parallel lines. It is recommended that the distance between these two
lines should be in even multiples of feet.   At a point selected by critical judgment, a line REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1947. F 23
joining the parallel lines, and at right angles to them, must be marked by pegs set in
the ground to establish that line, which for the sake of convenience, we shall refer to as
" the base line of Trench No. 1."
To establish a right angle on the ground, using only two measuring-tapes, proceed
as follows:—
On any base line AB fix a point C, 16 feet from B.
Fix the zero end of one tape at C.
Fix the zero end of the other tape at B.
Hold the tape from C at 20 feet.
Hold the tape from B at 12 feet.
Swing the tapes—taut—until these two points meet at the point D.
Then the line BD is at right angles to AB.
7. From this base line and proceeding in the direction of the centre of the area,
the space between the parallel lines must be marked on the ground by pegs set to define
a number of regular squares with sides 2,4, or 6 feet in length, according to the requirements of the site. This gridiron must be plotted on the map and on the detailed
enlargements thereof (as to which see later), whereon each square must be assigned
a distinguishing letter or number. In view of the multiplicity of the numbers and
letters used in these records, it is recommended that the gridiron series be designated
by roman numerals. In order further to distinguish these areas on the ground, solid
stakes, at least 2 feet high, and bearing the number of the sector must be set up midway of the sector and about 2 feet outside of extreme line of the area to be excavated.
8. The next step is to establish a " base of horizontal reference " or arbitrary
plane, to which all annotations as to levels shall be referred. This is done by establishing a secondary bench-mark close to the work in hand from which measurements may
be taken either by foot-rule or by shots from the Abney level reading on the levelling
staff. In actual practice a succession of these secondary bench-marks is set up as the
work proceeds, the one falling into disuse as the digging progresses beyond it. But
each of these secondary bench-marks must be on the same relative level, as a requisite
for which the original and more permanent bench-mark has been established. In the
notes this constant arbitrary plane must be referred to as (the) zero (level), all levels
below this zero are recorded as minus levels, and those above it as plus levels.
9. Now the work is about to commence. A vertical " cut " or face must be exposed
along what we have referred to as the " base line of Trench No. 1," care being taken
to leave the face of the cut as clean and even as possible. A close study of the strata
thus exposed must be made, and the indications thus observed must be compared with
those of the test-holes above referred to. This is an important phase of the work, for
clear intelligible notes will depend much upon the identification and following through
of the governing strata. As soon as governing strata are thus determined, or as others
may be found as the work proceeds, each should be given a name and distinguishing
sign, and, under this name and sign, should be described as fully as possible in the
notes. The distinguishing signs may be set up in an index of strata, in which, by
means of small rectangular blocks or picturization, those conventional markings are
shown which are used by geologists and soil experts. There is nothing amiss with
setting up one's own series of conventional markings if greater clarity of record may be
attained thereby.    But, since other people will be interested to examine your work, it is
. F 24
urged that, in these markings, standard practice should be adhered to as closely as
possible. For small-scale work, coloured pencils offer economy of effort in records of
strata; when these pencils are used, the index of strata should carry a sample of the
colours so employed—this is done by filling in the colour in a small square next to each
of the rectangular blocks with conventional markings above referred to.
10. We are still at the vertical cut along the base line of Trench No. 1. We have
identified our strata in situ with an agreed record of conventional signs. Our next
step involves the use of cross-section (or squared) paper. A bound cross-section book
is more convenient than loose sheets—it stands up better to the rough usage inevitable
in a digging, and sequences are less apt to get mixed. There will be quite a number of
these cross-section drawings such as you are about to make, so plan your space accordingly. Sketch in the strata to scale from the humus of the surface to that bottom
which we have agreed to call the " bedding stratum." Mark on the face of this cross-
section the position of any artifact, bone, or other object of interest which may appear.
SUBSECTION   "a"   o$
Seal *fnw
yttele JP/6
Sczle 1"= 1ft.
F 25
All artifacts and such bones as are worthy of keeping for identification must be given
a number, which must be marked on the face of the sketch as well as upon the article
itself, which latter must be immediately placed in a safe container. For small artifacts, coin-pockets are used as containers, upon which the serial number of the artifact
is marked. Nothing is worse for the work than to have a pile of unnumbered bones
and relics piled along the crest of the cut, " waiting to be numbered "; confusion is
bound to occur sooner or later unless this practice is checked right from the start. It
is desirable to have an independent series of numbers for (1) the artifacts and (2) for
the bones and associated material. This may be accomplished by prefixing an " X "
and period before the numbers of the second series (e.g., X.267). In the sequence of
these numbers a record should be kept showing a brief description of each, as to which
record see the following paragraph 11.    (See Fig. 3.)
11. The work now proceeds until a spot is reached where another cross-section
must be drawn.    It is well to space these cross-sections on the ground at regular
Plan   of
No 1, Trench Nal.
1 Foot lb 1 InCH
intervals, laid out in multiples of the gridiron distance. Bones and relics found in the
intervals between these two faces will be numbered in sequence with the others. The
position of each, as viewed from above, will be marked upon the detailed enlargement
of the map of the section under examination; for this purpose a small circle is used
with the number of the object contained within it. Alongside of this circle is marked
the depth of the object in its relation to the zero level—this depth is shown in feet and
inches.    (See Fig. 4.)
12. As a check on these entries, an inventory will be kept in which the number
assigned to each gridiron square shall appear (each in turn) as a major caption. Subsidiary to this caption in each case shall be columns to show: (a) The number assigned
to the excavated object, (o) its depth in relation to the zero level, (c) a brief description of the object, and (d) remarks as to relations to strata or other findings. It may
be convenient in this record-book to have the left-hand page reserved for artifacts and
the right-hand page for associated material.    (See sample'of inventory page.)
13. It is with some trepidation that we have first of all to mention the pick and
long-handled shovel. We have seen these instruments used with such abuse to the
project in hand that one gets to hate the thought of their extended use in scientific
work. But they are essential, not only for preliminaries, but also for keeping the job
clean as the work proceeds and for playing fair with the landscape in general after the
work is over. In close work a bucket and a small short-handled hearth-shovel are
useful adjuncts.
14. For penetration of the face of the cut we have used a small hand-fork with
advantage, but each phase of the development must be adjudged on its own merits, and
where finer and safer work is required, a small plasterer's hand-trowel with an acute
point is generally used. This latter tool has the advantage of laying bare the maximum
of exposure with the minimum risk of breaking the artifacts which may be encountered.
The eyes must be continually on the alert for the first signs of buried objects of bone
or stone, on the appearance of which a very careful picking around, together with the
use of bellows or clothes-whisk, must proceed until the object is released.
15. But in our last words as above we are ahead of ourselves in that, in cases
where the importance warrants, photographs should be taken of objects in situ. Do
not spare the camera; as a means of record it has a place that no amount of descriptive
words or skilful arrangement of data can fill.
16. When working along a face extending from humus to bed-rock in a typical
shell-mound on the British Columbia Coast, I have found it convenient to work from the
bottom of the trench up. By this means one goes into the face of the exposure to a
horizontal depth of from 4 to 6 inches, teasing the soil away with the point of the trowel
so that it falls down. If this is done gradually, there is little chance of artifacts or
bones escaping notice, since their ends protrude from the newly exposed face where,
due to the lack of accumulated debris, they can readily be seen. By this method there
is a minimum use of the sieve. The only legitimate use of this latter is to test the
debris from the digging; this test should be applied from time to time to prove that
nothing is getting past your observation. Items of interest found in the screenings
under this method must be counted as " errors," or proof of bad technique;   the fault REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1947. F 27
lies in the fact that such articles cannot be properly placed in their relation to the
strata in which they were originally lodged.
17. Although the method above indicated has been found to be of the utmost
service in many instances, yet occasions may occur where the topography, the type of
midden material, the future use of the ground, or some other factor may prompt an
alternative approach. Here again we urge the taking of advice from a competent
authority so that the variation of the method shall not prejudice the ultimate record
and yet shall be chosen to suit economy of labour and practical time-limits.
18. Human remains are seldom found in the shell-mounds of Vancouver Island,
but are more frequent on the Mainland. The study of modes of burial throws an
important light on the cultures of the people concerned, therefore this type of exhumation warrants very special care both in the stripping of the soil and in the photographic
and other records taken. The subject is worthy of a much more extended discussion
than is possible to give within the scope of this article. But in case such encounters
are made, the one important point to bear in mind is that we should use every opportunity of familiarizing ourselves with the identity of the individual bones of the human
skeleton. This is necessary because in many cases the identity of the bone first coming
to light will indicate the " lie " of the skeleton as a whole and will thus give direction
to the digging as will enable proper photographs to be made, or a reconstruction of the
burial to be accurately drawn. In this work it is always desirable to bring the work to
that pitch where there is a maximum exposure of the bones with a minimum disturbance
of their position in situ. This type of exhumation will be discussed in more extended
form in a later publication.
19. It is suggested that Drucker's monograph "Archaeological Survey on the
Northern Northwest Coast" (Smith. Inst. Bur. Amer. Eth. Bull. 133, 1943) shall be
used as a preliminary basis for the classification and reporting of artifacts in this
region. It is also suggested that Duncan Strong's "Archaeology of the Dalles-Deschutes
Region " (Univ. Cal. Pub. Amer. Arch., Vol. 29, No. 1, 1930) shall be used in like manner
as a preliminary working basis for such implements as are not treated by Drucker.
These suggestions are made in the realization of the necessity for the ultimate preparation of an extended and consolidated system of typology for the Province as a whole.
20. Never fail to vary digging technique where a change of approach promises
better results than the more general practice.
21. At all times keep the bottom of your trench clear, and keep the faces of your
digging as trim as possible.
22. In a cross-section of strata laid down by human hands, whether wholly or in
part, you must expect to find short disconnected bands of soil; it is very difficult to
make sense out of these. In fact they are in many cases quite haphazard, but remnants
of posts or of buried prehistoric trenches may give the key to the layout. Do not be
disappointed if your results are not outstanding; it is on the cards that you may try
half a dozen times before you will be able to make a worth-while contribution to
knowledge. F 28
23. Keep your imagination on the alert, but temper this imagination with your
experience and do not let it run away with you. With too free an imagination one is
apt to be looking all in one direction; when you have a working hypothesis—as you
should—seek rather to disprove its theory than to build your evidence around it. If
there is anything in this theory, its conclusions will be all the stronger for the severity
of your tests on the negative side. Do not come to conclusions before your evidence is
brought to bear in comparison with similar undertakings in adjacent fields.
Sections Nos. I and II.
Subsection " a."
s °
Depth below.
O oj
a ■ ■
o aj
H,  >
6.0 1.0
7.2 2.2
8.3 3.3
6.5                  1.5
6.3                  1.3
7.5                  2.5
9.1 4.1
* N.B.—If no better can be done in the way of a sketch, lay the object on a sheet of plain paper and trace
around the edges with a sharp pencil point.    Show inventory number against each such sketch. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1947. F 29
By J. W. Eastham, Provincial Plant Pathologist (Retired).
Agropyron dasystachyum (Hook.) Scribn.—Found quite frequently from the Montana boundary north to Invermere, often in alkaline soils. It was not seen west of
Cranbrook, although there is a specimen in the Copley herbarium from Merritt.
Andropogon scoparius Michx.—First collected by the writer in 1939 and found to
be quite abundant on the same site at Fairmont Hot Springs in 1947. However, no
other site was found, so it may have been introduced by human agency. It has a wide
range east of the Rocky Mountains, including Alberta.
Calamagrostis montanensis Scribn.—First collected by the writer on the range at
Invermere in 1943. In 1947 careful observations were made to determine its range.
It was found to be abundant in the Invermere area and to occur at Wilmer, both on the
west side of the Columbia Valley. On the east side it extends from north of Fairmont
to some distance south of Edgewater. The ranges here have mostly been heavily overgrazed, but in a small protected area above Windermere Beach it formed the dominant
grass. As it is common in Alberta and occurs in Kootenay National Park, it may have
migrated along the passes through which the Banff-Windermere Highway runs and
then extended north and south.
Calamovilfa longifolia (Hook.) Scribn.—This grass, which does not seem to have
been previously recorded from British Columbia, was first brought to the writer's notice
by Mr. DeBeck, of the Grazing Commission. It was observed for perhaps 15 miles
north of the Montana boundary east of the Kootenay River, often forming large beds
from the strong scaly creeping rhizomes and in the driest sandy soil.
Festuca idahoensis Elmer.—One of the important range grasses on Tobacco Plains
and St. Mary's Prairie, Cranbrook. The northern limit was not observed, as it had
passed the flowering stage by the time we moved north to Fairmont. It was also found
on the benches at Creston.
Festuca scabrella Torr.—Also a conspicuous grass, from the Montana boundary at
least as far north as Skookumchuck Prairie.
Muhlenbergia glomerata (Willd.) Trin.—This name has usually been regarded as
a synonym of M. racemosa, but Fernald has recently revived its distinctness (Rhodora
4.5: 231-235, 1943). It was found growing in the warm effluent from the bath-house
at Fairmont Hot Springs. According to J. R. Swallen, of the United States National
Herbarium, who made the identification, this appears to be the first record of it in
British Columbia.
Panicum Scribnerianum Nash.—Found sparingly in rocky ground at the edge of
town in Grand Forks, and very abundant in the sandy " gulch " above East Trail. It
does not seem to have been recorded previously in British Columbia from east of the
Poa Canbyi (Scribn.) Piper.—Found sparingly on St. Mary's Prairie.
Poa juncifolia Scribn.—Found, in soil probably alkaline, at Cranbrook and Doyle
and abundant on a dry flat between Michel and McGillivray in the Crowsnest Pass.
Setaria verticillata (L.) Beauv. var. ambigua Pari.—Abundant around the railway-
station and along sidewalks in Kamloops, also in the city park. J. R. Swallen, who
confirmed the identification, states that it forms the first record of this variety from
Canada in the United States National Herbarium. There is a specimen in the Copley
herbarium, collected in a garden at Kamloops in 1933, and identified by A. S. Hitchcok
simply as the species.    This may represent the origin of this infestation, but the F 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
specimen is not immediately available to be checked for this variety. (Introduced from
Sphenopholis intermedia Rydb.—One plant of this was found at Canal Flats, the
first time the writer has collected it.
Carex Crawei Dewey.—Found to be very abundant in a clay swamp by the highway
about 1% miles west of Golden. It is also very abundant in marshy ground around
Kinbasket auto camp on the Big Bend Highway. A few plants were also found along
the old canal at Canal Flats, our most southern record.
Carex Parryana Dewey.—A few plants were found in a wet spot by the road near
Windermere, the first time the writer has collected it.
Juncus longistylis Torr.—Abundant with Carex Crawei near Golden; also found
at Cherry Creek, near Kimberley, and at Canal Flats.
Juncus Torreyi Cov.—Found around a hot-spring basin at Fairmont Hot Springs.
Allium Schoenoprasum L. var. sibiricum (L.) Hartm.—Very abundant on the flood
plain of Kinbasket Lake, Big Bend. A solitary plant was also found on the lower slope
of the forest-fire lookout mountain near McGillivray in the Crowsnest Pass; altitude,
about 4,500 feet.
Calochortus apiculatus Baker.—Occurs from the Montana boundary north to Windermere, being commoner in the south. Westward, it extends continuously to Wynndel,
and appears to reach its greatest development in the Creston area. It was found east
of Michel, but not observed in the Fernie district. It was also plentiful, at about 3,500
feet, about 15 miles up the Kootenay Valley north-east of Canal Flats.
Eriogonum flavum Nutt.—Occurs frequently from the Montana boundary to the
northern end of Skookumchuck Prairie, on the hottest, driest spots, often forming large
beds in gravelly soil.    It was not observed west of Cranbrook or east of Elko.
Silene Cserei Baumg.—Found first in the Coal Creek Valley, Fernie. Later it was
found on the site of the coal-dump of the now abandoned Fernie mine, and especially in
the railway-yards, where the long ranges of derelict coke-ovens bordering the yards
were covered with abundant growth. It seems probable that this is the source of the
infestation in the railway-yards at Prince George, since it is said that it was first
observed there in the siding used for unloading coal.
Braya humilis Robins, and Physaria didymocarpa Gray.—Found on the walls of
the " gulch " at the foot of Mount Kinbasket, Big Bend.
Lepidium perfoliatum L.—A large patch was noticed above the lake-beach close to
the town of Osoyoos. As this plant has long been abundant in Oroville, Washington,
its appearance here was to be expected. In fact, H. Groh reported finding it both at
Osoyoos and Cranbrook. In Cranbrook it is abundant in waste ground at the east end
of the main street and occurs for some miles along the Wardner road.
Tellima grandiflora (Pursh) Dougl.— Found in the woods along Fairy Creek,
Fernie, a considerable extension of its known eastward range. It was previously
known from Rossland and Kootenay Lake. It does not seem to be given from east of
the Cascades in United States " Floras."
Astragalus goniatus Nutt.—Found frequently in the southern part of the Trench,
being collected at Cranbrook, Marysville, Doyle, and Elko.
Hedysarum alpinum L. var. americanum Pursh.—Found sparingly at McGillivray
in the Crowsnest Pass.
Hedysarum. Mackenzii Richards.—Collected twice, both times in river shingle beds,
in a creek about 16 miles up the Kootenay Valley from Canal Flats and in the Kicking
Horse River at Golden.
Hedysarum sulphureum Rydb.—Recorded by Piper from Okanogan County, Washington, but in British Columbia, so far as known, it is confined to the Rocky Mountain
region.    It was first seen about 10 miles west of Cranbrook on the Creston road, and REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1947. F 31
occurs from Roosville on the Montana boundary to Golden. It appears to range into
Alberta both through the Crowsnest Pass and Yoho Park.
Euphorbia Helioscopia L.—A patch of this was found along the roadside about 9
miles south of Golden, which is not surprising as it is well established around Windermere, farther south.
Sphssralcea coccinea (Nutt.) Rydb.—A few years ago some hillsides at Windermere
were brilliant with the flowers of this plant. Overgrazing, especially with sheep,
appears to have destroyed it, at least temporarily.
Sphssralcea Munroanum Spach.—The only site known to the writer was a gravel-
bed along the road south of Oliver. Here it was very abundant and, when in bloom,
could be noticed long before coming to it. A house and garden now stand on this site,
and a solitary plant by the road was all that could be found.
Angelica Dawsoni Wats.—This was fairly plentiful in a moist hollow at about 6,000
feet on the forest-fire lookout mountain at McGillivray, Crowsnest Pass.
Primula Maccalliana Wieg.—Found growing in thousands in marshy ground
around Kinbasket auto camp, Big Bend. Only a small percentage of plants appeared to
have flowered in 1947.
Phlox rigida Benth.—Abundant on dry banks and overgrazed range on Tobacco
Plains. It was not observed north of the Elko-Cranbrook line. Apparently it flowers
early, as all plants were past flowering by mid-June.
Asperugo procumbens L.—Found sparingly at two places in the town of Cranbrook.
It has long been established in the North Okanagan, Henry recording it from Vernon.
Cynoglossum officinale L.—Found sparingly at Shuswap and Jaffray, and abundant
around the settlement of Bull River.
Hackelia floribunda (Lehm.) Johnst.—Common along the highway through the
Crowsnest Pass.
Agastache fceniculum (Pursh) Ktze.—A small colony of this was found at about
500 feet above the Columbia River, along a logging-road at Canyon Creek, south of
Golden; it was also abundant along the Big Bend Highway for some distance, about 18
miles west of Golden.    Plants here were very vigorous, reaching a height of 5 feet.
Orthocarpus tenuifolius (Pursh) Benth.—Occurs frequently, sometimes forming
large patches, especially on dry gravelly soils, from the Montana boundary north to
Skookumchuck Prairie. It flowers and dies down early. It was not seen west of Cranbrook or east of Elko.
Penstemon eriantherus Pursh.—Has much the same range as the last, but extends
farther north. It occurs sparingly at Fairmont, and there is a specimen in the Provincial Museum from Brisco, at the northern limit of the Arid Transition Zone. A large
bed of it was seen on a gravel-bank north of Newgate, where the masses of bright
pale-blue flowers were very showy.
Symphoricarpos occidentalis Hook.—Very common in the Rocky Mountain Trench
from the Montana boundary at least as far north as Windermere. It was also collected
at Lytton.
Agoseris glauca (Pursh) Greene.—Very common on the ranges of St. Mary's
Prairie, Cranbrook, and Tobacco Plains, north of the Montana boundary, sometimes
forming large beds on overgrazed land. A. scorzonersefolia was found much less commonly in this region.
Agoseris heterophylla (Nutt.) Greene.—Abundant on a moist rocky outcrop, probably becoming dry later.    This is the only time the writer has found it.
Arnica gracilis Rydb.—A large patch of this was found in a moist side-ravine just
south of the bridge over the Elk River at Phillipp's Canyon, south of Elko, the only
time it was seen. F 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Aster stenomeres Gray.—Plentiful in a small area, at about 3,300 feet, on a dry
knoll on St. Mary's Prairie, Cranbrook.
Cirsium Hookerianum Nutt.—Along the highway through the Crowsnest Pass
from Hosmer east to Alberta.    The altitude of the road here is from 3,400 to 4,400 feet.
Filago arvensis L.—This introduction from Europe, previously known from Erickson and Moyie, was found to be very abundant in places from Elko south, especially on
the overgrazed range at Dorr and Tobacco Plains.
Tragopogon dubius Scop.—Met with from Spuzzum east, to the Rocky Mountains
through the Okanagan and Boundary Districts. Some hundreds of plants were examined and referred to this species by the writer. In some places it was very abundant,
a vacant lot in the town of Cranbrook being a solid mass.
Printed by Don McDiaemid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.


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