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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS HON. E. T. KENNEY, Minister C. D. ORCHARD,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1948

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
HON. E. T. KENNEY, Minister C. D. ORCHARD, Deputy Minister of Forests
REPORT
of
THE FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31st
1947
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1948.  Provincial Parks.
Trees, sky, and water in pleasing combination—
Manning Park.
Mount Robson—a fitting back-drop for the
swift-flowing Fraser River.  Victoria, B.C., April 9th, 1948.
To His Honour Colonel C. A. Banks, C.M.G.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service of
the Department of Lands and Forests for the calendar year 1947.
E. T. KENNEY,
Minister of Lands and Forests.
The Honourable E. T. Kenney,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Forest
Service during the calendar year 1947.
C. D. ORCHARD,
Deputy Minister and Chief Forester.  CONTENTS.
Item. Page.
1. Introductory    7
2. Forest Economics     9
Air and Forest Surveys     9
Provincial Forests  11
Inventory of Forest Resources  11
Forest Research .  11
Mensuration ,  11
Volume Tables  11
Scaling Studies  15
Growth Studies  16
Silvicultural Studies  19
Seed Crop  21
Soil Surveys and Research  24
Provincial Parks  26
3. Reforestation  28
Forest Nurseries    28
Seed Collections ..  29
Reconnaissance and Survey-work  29
Planting _  29
Preparation of Planting Areas  29
Plantations  29
4. Forest Management  31
5. Forest Protection  33
Weather  33
Fires  34
Occurrences and Causes  34
Cost of Fire-fighting _.  34
Damage ,  34
Fire-control Research and Planning  35
Planning  35
Panoramic Lookout Photography  35
Fire-weather Studies  36
Weather-recording  36
Investigations  36
Miscellaneous Projects  37
Fire-suppression Crews  38
Aircraft  39
Mechanical Equipment  40
Automotive  40
Railway Speeders  40
Outboard Motors  40
Fire-pumps  40
Mechanical Inspection  41
Forest Service Marine Station  41
Building and Construction  43
Radio  45
Slash-disposal and Snag-falling  46
Prevention  48
Co-operation—other Agencies  48
Fire Law Enforcement  49 6 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Item. Page.
6. Forest Insect Investigations  50
7. Forest Pathology Investigations  53
8. Forest Ranger School  55
9. Public Relations and Education  56
10. Grazing  59
General Conditions  59
Markets and Prices  59
Live-stock Losses  60
Range Reconnaissance  60
Co-operation  60
Grazing Permits  60
Range Improvements  61
11. Personnel Directory, December 31st, 1947  62
12. Appendix—Tabulated  Detailed  Statements to  Supplement Report  of  Forest
Service  67 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE.
The increased bulk of this report typifies the increases that are almost universal
in every phase of Forest Service activities during the year just past. Despite continuing difficulty in securing machinery, equipment, supplies, and staff, the volume and
diversity of work accomplished has probably never been equalled.
The year was marked by the resumption of the periodic Imperial Forestry Conferences after an interval of eleven years following the fourth conference in South
Africa in 1936. The fifth conference was held in London, Eng., in July and August last,
and Dr. C. D. Orchard, Deputy Minister and Chief Forester, attended as representative
of British Columbia.
The 1947 session of the Legislature marked the passage of an amendment to the
" Forest Act" providing for the creation of forest management licence areas, with the
object of facilitating the practice of sustained-yield management of the forest resource
by the forest industries. This outstanding piece of legislation further implemented
the recommendations of the recent Royal Commission on Forestry and ranks with the
formation of the Forest Service thirty-five years previously in importance as a progressive step in the development and perpetuation of our forest resource.
At the same session an increase of $250,000 was made to the Forest Protection
Fund. Unfortunately, increased wages and advances in the cost of machinery, materials, and equipment have seriously minimized the end value of the additional funds
available for forest-protection work.
It was possible, during the year, to extend appreciably the surveying and research
work of the Economics Division. The combined efforts of the Air Surveys and Forest
Inventory Surveys Sections resulted in the completion of field-work on 2,118,910 acres.
The measurement of experimental plots and the research programme in silviculture
were maintained, as was the programme of soil surveys and research. The Economics
Division produced a preliminary report on the forest site types of the Pacific Northwest. A number of volume tables and growth and yield tables were developed and
made available to the industry for use in conjunction with their planning for forest-
management licences. An increase in available funds enabled expansion of their
programme of Provincial Park development.
The work of the Reforestation Division on both nurseries and planting sites was
greatly hampered by shortage of labour and supplies. Inasmuch as labour shortage in
1946 had necessitated holding over several million 2-0 seedlings, which became 3-0
stock in 1947, the work of planting these larger seedlings was both arduous and slow.
The third Service nursery, at Duncan, V.I., turned out its first stock in the fall of
the year.
In view of the records established in management phases of Service work during
1946 it seemed most unlikely that any outstanding increases would be recorded during
1947. Contrary to this expectation figures for the year again soared. Important
increases will be noted in practically all the statistical tables accompanying this report.
As a single indicator, the timber-cut increased 1,000,000,000 feet, an all-time record
and an increase of more than 30 per cent, over the cut in 1946.
Total value of production increased accordingly. Lumber alone showed an increase
in value of over $68,000,000 (from $87,013,502 to $155,761,222) and pulp and paper
values moved upwards from $41,800,555 in 1946 to $57,145,678 in 1947. Shingle values
showed an increase of over 100 per cent., as did plywood. The total value of all products
was $282,288,388, as compared with $173,471,370 in 1946. The average stumpage
price bid on timber-sales was $2.80 per M, an increase of 41 cents per M or 17 per cent,
over 1946.
7 8 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Douglas fir again led the species cut with 1,652,193,732 F.B.M., hemlock ranked
second with 823,063,771 F.B.M., cedar third at 814,193,127 F.B.M., and spruce fourth
with 385,662,832 F.B.M. The aggregate cut was 4,187,816,199 F.B.M. comprising all
products. A total of 2,469 timber-sales was made during the year, 158 less than the
record set in the previous year.
There was a total of 1,634 operating sawmills, 406 more than in 1946, and 73
shingle-mills, an increase of 14.
Hazard conditions were the most satisfactory encountered in several years, with
resulting reduction in fire costs and damages. There was a total of 1,332 fires compared with a decennial average of 1,716. The total acreage burned was 142,765 (decennial average 339,676 acres) bearing 11,017,000 F.B.M. Aggregate damage to forest-
cover was assessed at $62,497 and damage to other property $266,466. As is usually the
case, July and August were the months in which the greater number of fires occurred.
The Forest Service expended $1,184,538.82 on forest-protection, and other agencies
reported an approximate expenditure of $374,746.18.
Thirteen fire-suppression crews were in operation throughout the fire-season.
Four aircraft were under contract for detection-suppression work. Two members of
the staff of the Forest Service Marine Station designed a new light-weight pump unit,
and twenty-one pumps were constructed and distributed throughout the Province.
In many other respects the year at the Marine Station was a busy and productive one.
Design and construction of special radio equipment was continued by the Radio
Section of Operations Division.
Slash-burning and snag-disposal operations were generally satisfactory, with a
total of 37,077 acres of slash burned.
The British Columbia Forest Service has never attempted to develop a staff in
forest entomology or forest pathology. During the formative years of the Forest
Service too many problems in forest management and forest fire protection demanded
immediate attention for the Service to develop these fields which, in any event, were
already occupied by the Dominion Government under what is now designated as the
Science Service of the Department of Agriculture.
Formerly the Dominion Government's activities along these lines were inadequate,
but, in recent years, these services have been largely increased. These two Dominion
Services, with Provincial headquarters in Victoria, have, for the past few years, been
doing a very valuable work and have operated in such close co-operation with the Forest
Service as, for all practical purposes, to constitute a Division of the Forest Service.
The Provincial Service is greatly indebted to the Dominion Department of Agriculture
for the valuable work done along these lines of forest entomology and forest pathology.
The Annual Report of the Forest Service would be incomplete without a record of what
is being accomplished, and we are glad to include, for the first time, a record of the
work of these two Dominion Government offices in this report for the year 1947.
A second group of twenty students attended the Forest Service Ranger School and
completed the six months' course in a satisfactory manner.
Grazing conditions on the range areas of the Province were good and, although
there was a slight reduction in the number of cattle and sheep under permit, with consequent reduction in fees, collections were most satisfactory, and the amount of outstanding fees was reduced to the lowest figure in ten years.
With an expanding industry and growing population, forest administration necessarily assumes, from year to year, an increasingly important place in Provincial affairs.
In keeping with this trend, an effort is made to make this Annual Report each year a
more complete and more concise record of activities and results. Details of these items
already noted, and of others of less outstanding interest, will be found in the following
pages. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947.
FOREST ECONOMICS.
AIR AND FOREST SURVEYS.
Despite acute shortages of experienced personnel and field equipment, such as topographic chains, aneroids, box compasses, and other instruments, four survey parties
were maintained for the entire season. It is worthy of record that, due to the inexperience of the personnel available, it was necessary to run a training school for cruisers
and compassmen for two weeks before the parties went into the field. This training
proved to be well worth while in that all personnel received the same training and the
crews were able to turn in a satisfactory length of strip from the start of operations.
Surveys were completed on 2,118,910 acres, distributed by project as follows:—
Acres.
Revision of Sayward Forest and Quadra Island survey  300,800
Revision of part of the E. & N. Railway Belt survey  521,920
Upper Fraser survey  303,490
Smith Inlet survey  190,800
Kyuquot region survey  801,900
Forest-cover and other required data for the above surveys were compiled from
vertical air photographs, which gave complete coverage for all areas. The field parties
were of the two-cruiser type and, in the case of the Smith Inlet and Kyuquot surveys, worked from the two forest-survey launches, the " B.C. Forester " and " Forest
Surveyor."
The final maps, estimates, and reports for these surveys are in the process of
compilation and will be available in due course.
Clayoquot Region.
The estimates and forest-cover maps for the Clayoquot region have been completed
and will be made available upon request. The total volume of merchantable timber is
estimated to be 16,512,290,000 board-feet, of which only about 6 per cent, is considered
physically and economically inaccessible. The details of timber volumes (over 11 inches
D.B.H.) are as follows:—
Species.
Crown-
granted.
Timber
Leases
and
Licences.
Vacant
Crown
Land.
Totals
(Thousands
of
Board-feet).
Douglas fir	
Western red cedar	
Western hemlock	
Sitka spruce	
Balsam (white fir)	
Western white pine	
Yellow cedar (cypress)
Totals	
29,250
223,120
122,340
26,600
66,910
3,100
440
1,467,980
1,431,330
1,241,160
49,450
562,180
50,370
25,040
913,840
3,277,020
3,830,150
128,070
2,680,810
133,720
249,410
471,760
4,827,510
11,213,020
2,411,070
4,931,470
5,193,650
204,120
3,309,900
187,190
274,890
16,512,290
The classification of areas is as follows :-
Productive forest land:
Mature timber:
Accessible 	
Inaccessible 	
Acres.
477,930
59,290
Acres.
Total
537,220 10 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Immature timber: Acres.        Acres.
1-   5 years old  2,180
6- 10     „       „  3,960
11- 20     „       „  1,330
21- 40     „      „  5,430
41- 60     „      „  1,590
61- 80     „      „  110
81-100     „      „  1,070
101 years plus  430
Total       16,100
Not satisfactorily stocked:
Logged  6,350
Logged and burned   9,890
Burned   570
Deciduous    3,200
Coniferous   4,010
Total       24,020
Total sites of productive quality    577,340
Non-productive and non-forest land:
Cultivated and villages      1,810
Barren, scrub, and alpine  583,040
Swamp and water     62,730
Total non-productive sites    647,580
Total area  1,224,920
The Alberni Canal was one of the earliest utilized inlets of Vancouver Island, and
undoubtedly ships' spars were cut along the foreshore from the days of the early
English explorers. In 1861 the "Anderson Mill" at Alberni cut its first lumber, and
thus was born the present flourishing forest industries of Port Alberni. Development
was slower on the more exposed parts of the West Coast of Vancouver Island, and it
was not until 1875 that a small mill was operated near Ucluelet. Then, in 1905, the
Sutton Timber and Trading Company established a saw and shingle mill at Mosquito
Harbour, Meares Island. Even this industry seems to have been ahead of its time and
active operations were discontinued in 1907. In 1925 the mill was largely rebuilt only
to be dismantled in 1943. Subsequently, in 1945, the first large-scale logging operation
in the western portion of the Clayoquot region got under way at Ucluelet.
In the eastern portion of the region, around Great Central and Sproat Lakes,
logging and milling became established in the late 1920's.
Climatic conditions are such that the factors affecting natural regeneration differ
markedly as between the east and west portions of the region. Douglas fir predominates in the drainages flowing into the Alberni Inlet north of Uchucklesit Inlet. In
the remainder of the region hemlock and balsam predominate on the upper slopes and
cedar on the lower slopes and flats.
Up to the present time practically all of the utilization has taken place in the
Douglas fir types. Logging has not developed on a large scale in the west portion of
the region, and the areas of cut-over land are small and, in most cases, the result of
high-grading. The condition of these small openings does not indicate the degree of
natural regeneration that can be expected in the future, when large-scale operations
open up extensive contiguous areas. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947. 11
Examination of clear-cut lands in the Nootka district, where timber types and
ground conditions are similar, show that the valley-bottoms are not restocking. Heavy
slash—part of which has been dragged off the slopes during yarding—and the extremely
dense growth of brush, ferns, and moss has resulted in a condition that will leave some
of the best growing-sites in the region idle for many years. Further, it is doubtful if
full stocking will ever occur under these conditions.
To obtain full reproduction on these bottom lands, either by natural seeding or
planting if adequate seed source is not available, it is evident that the accumulation of
heavy slash and debris will have to be burned. Weather conditions are such that, during
most years, successful fall burning will not be possible. Spring or late summer burning
may be the solution to this problem.
PROVINCIAL FORESTS.
No new Provincial forests were created during the past year, and only minor
eliminations made to permit sale for industrial purposes. The total number of Provincial forests remains at fifty-three, representing an area of 31,134 square miles.
INVENTORY OF FOREST RESOURCES.
Other than in the Fort George Forest District—where the forest-atlas maps are
revised seasonally by temporary assistants—all forest district offices maintain their
map records on a current revision basis. In the course of the year a total of 1,078
maps were revised, of which forty-nine were new replacements.
Improved mapping facilities, in the form of map cabinets and draughting tables
with light fixtures, were installed at twelve Ranger headquarters in the Prince Rupert,
Kamloops, and Nelson Districts. Instruction in forest-cover mapping was given to
ninety-two Forest Service personnel (at thirty different points scattered throughout
the Province) as follows:—
Ranger School, Green Timbers  20
Prince Rupert Forest District  12
Fort George Forest District    9
Kamloops Forest District  11
Nelson Forest District   40
Total   92
Reconnaissance work was confined to miscellaneous corrections to the type boundaries and descriptions shown on four of the maps in the Fort George District. The Fire
Atlas for the Province has been maintained from fire and slash-burning reports.
FOREST RESEARCH.
Mensuration.
The programme of re-examination of permanent growth-study plots was maintained, with the remeasurement of 22 plots including 113 line-plots. The line-plots
were enlarged to one-tenth acre each and all trees numbered. An additional 17
standard-plots and 40 line-plots were established. There is now a total of 616 yield-
plots throughout the Province.
Volume Tables.
During the year new volume tables were prepared, as follows:— 12
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Site-class Volume Table—Mature Western Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla).
(Net volume in 10-board-foot units, B.C. scale.)
Site
Index.
D.B.H.
60.
80.
100.
120.
140.
160.
(Inches).
Average Maximum Height = Height of Dominant Trees in Feet.
88.
110.
139.
168.
197.
225.
8
2
2
3
3
3
3
10
4
5
6
6
7
7
12
8
9
11
12
13
14
14
12
15
17
19
20
21
16
16
21
25
28
31
33
18
22
28
34
39
42
45
20
27
36
45
52
57
61
22
32
46
56
66
73
78
24
35
52
69
85
90
97
26
37
58
83
99
110
120
28
38
62
95
120
133
146
30
66
104
136
158
174
32
68
111
150
184
207
34
118
162
204
237
36
123
172
226
264
38
124
180
240
284
40
184
252
302
42
185
261
318
44
270
330
46
272
340
48
274
344
50
276
347
Site index is based on height of dominant and codominant trees at 100 years. The average maximum height of
stand at maturity is shown for each site class and may be used to determine site. The table gives net volumes
after making allowance for decay, breakage, and utilization losses. No allowance is made for merchantable logs left
in the woods. To use this table in cruising, tally all living trees and read net volumes directly from table. Because
the table gives tens-board-feet, multiply the values by 10 to determine the volume in board-foot units. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947.
13
Volume Table—Mature Coast Balsam (Abies sp.).
(Net volume in 10-board-foot units, B.C. scale.)
Short.
Medium.
Tall.
D.B.H.
(Inches).
Total Height.
Net Volume.
Total Height.
Net Volume.
Total Height.
Net Volume.
Feet.
Feet.
Feet.
12
80
11
96
13
112
15
14
83
16
101
20
118
24
16
86
23
105
28
124
35
18
89
31
110
39
130
47
20
93
41
114
52
135
61
22
96
52
119
65
141
77
24
99
64
123
79
147
95
26
103
77
128
97
153
115
28
106
91
132
113
158
136
30
109
105
136
131
163
158
32
113
118
141
149
168
180
34
117
134
145
167
173
200
36
120
149
149
186
178
218
38
123
160
153
199
183
234
40
126
172
157
213
187
249
42
129
180
160
221
191
260
44
133
188
163
228
194
269
46
135
192
166
234
198
275
48
138
182
169
220
201
258
50
141
165
172
198
203
231
52
144
137
174
165
204
191
54
146
92
176
111
205
128 ' ...
56
147
10
177
25
206
40
The table gives net volumes after making allowance for decay, breakage, and utilization losses. No allowance
is made for merchantable logs left in the woods. To use this table in cruising, tally all living trees and read net
volumes directly from table. Because the table gives tens-board-feet, multiply volumes by 10 td" determine volume
in board-foot units.
Volume Table—Mature Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis).
(Net volume in 100-board-foot units, B.C. scale.)
Short.
Medium.
Tall.
D.B.H.
Merch.
Net
Merch.
Net
Merch.
Net
D.I.B.
Length.
Volume.
Length.
Volume.
Length.
Volume.
Feet.
Feet.
Feet.
14
34
1
52
2
71
2
8.6
20
46
2
68
4
92
6
10.2
26
61
6
85
9
111
12
11.8
32
76
11
100
15
125
20
13.4
38
90
18
112
24
137
31
15.0
44
101
26
124
35
147
43
16.7
50
112
38
135
49
158
59
18.3
56
124
53
145
67
167
79
20.0
62
134
72
156
88
176
103
20.0
68
144
95
164
115
184
135
20.0
74
152
123
172
142
192
166
20.0
D.B.H. for trees over 50-inch D.B.H. was taken at stump height. Table gives net volumes after making
allowance for decay, breakage, and utilization losses. No allowance is made for merchantable logs left in the woods.
Tally all living trees and read net volumes directly from table. Because the table gives hundreds-board-feet, multiply
volumes by 100 to obtain volume in board-foot units. 14
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Preliminary Volume Table—Interior Spruce (Picea sp.).
(Net merchantable cubic feet.)
Site Index.
D B H
40.
60.
80.
100.
120.
Total
Height.
Net
Volume.
Total
Height.
Net
Volume.
Total
Height.
Net
Volume.
Total
Height.
Net
Volume.
Total
Height.
Net
Volume.
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
Feet.
45
49
51
51
51
52
52
6
11
15
20
25
30
35
Feet.
56
64
70
75
77
78
78
78
79
79
79
8
14
22
30
38
47
55
64
74
85
95
Feet.
63
74
83
90
95
100
101
102
102
102
103
103
103
9
17
26
37
48
61
73
86
99
112
128
144
160
Feet.
69
82
93
102
110
117
122
125
127
128
128
128
129
129
129
10
19
29
43
56
73
89
106
125
143
161
182
204
224
243
Feet.
74
88
101
112
122
131
138
145
149
151
155
156
156
156
156
11
20
32
46
63
82
101
124
147
171
198
225
250
275
298
Merchantable top D.I.B., 5 inches.
Average conversion factor: 1 cubic foot _= 4.55 board-feet. The site index is based on the heights of the
dominant and codominant trees at 100 years of age. Most of the spruce mixtures are uneven-aged. In these
stands determine the average maximum height of the veterans and derive the site index from the values under the
height column. Allowance for defect and the necessary deduction for same have been made in the foregoing table.
Therefore, tally all living trees and read net volumes directly from table.
Preliminary Volume Table—Interior Balsam (Abies sp.).
(Net merchantable cubic feet.)
Site Index indicated by Spruce.
D.B.H.
40.
60.
80.
100.
120.
D.B.H.
Total
Height.
Net
Volume.
Total
Height.
Net
Volume.
Total
Height.
Net
Volume.
Total
Height.
Net
Volume.
Total
Height.
Net
Volume.
8
10
Feet.
45
49
6
10
14
18
21
25
30
Feet.
56
64
70
75
77
78
78
79
79
79
79
8
13
19
26
33
40
46
52
58
64
70
Feet.
63
74
83
90
95
100
101
102
102
102
103
103
9
15
23
32
41
51
59
68
76
84
91
99
Feet.
69
82
93
102
110
117
122
125
127
128
128
129
10
17
26
36
48
61
72
83
94
105
114
124
Feet.
74
88
101
112
122
131
138
145
149
151
155
156
11
18
28
40
53
68
82
97
112
126
139
150
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
51
51
51
52
52
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
The table gives the net merchantable volume to a 3-inch top D.I.B. in cubic feet. Use the site class indicated by the spruce in the admixture. Tally all living balsam and read the net volumes directly from the table.
Loss from defect varies, and a variable percentage, depending on site and diameter, has been deducted in this
table to cover loss from this cause. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947. 15
Additional volume tables were prepared as follows:—
(1) Merchantable board-foot volume tables for western white pine of Upper
Arrow Lake:—
(a) Based on total height.
(b) Based on merchantable length.
(2) Merchantable cubic-foot volume table for cottonwood on the Skeena River.
(3) Volume tables for immature Douglas fir and western hemlock, Coast
region, based on tree diameters, stand age, and site classes in:—
(a.)   Total cubic feet.
.    (b)  Merchantable cubic feet.
(c) Merchantable board-feet.
Scaling Studies.
The use of the cubic foot as a basis of measurement is being adopted as rapidly as
conditions permit. Intensive studies with immature trees of several species indicate
that the formula V= %Bi/3H gives the total cubic-foot contents of the trees with a
high degree of precision, where V = volume in cubic feet, Bi/3 = basal area at y3 the
height, and H = total height of the tree. The use of this formula in cubing trees
results in a great saving of time over most methods in general use.
Intensive studies have been made to determine the relation between cubic-foot
scale, board-foot scale, and mill tally. These relationships vary with diameter and
length of logs, size of products manufactured, type of mill, and general efficiency.
The most equitable method of scaling is to measure logs in cubic feet and let the
manufacturer apply a factor to suit his plant and manufactured product.
Analysis shows that the solid wood content of bundles of logs assembled in cribs
and converted to a cord basis changes little with diameter of logs but varies from 75
to 90 cubic feet per cord depending on the length of wood forming the bundle.
A standard unit of 100 cubic feet has many advantages over the cord as a unit of
measurement. 16
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Growth Studies.
A complete analysis of the data from permanent plots is being continued. Below
is given part of a summary from one series of line-plots.
A summary of data from line-plots systematically distributed over an area of 1,500
acres that was logged by bull teams and now bears a 50-year-old mixed stand, 80 per
cent, hemlock, 15 per cent. Douglas fir, and 5 per cent, other species.
Basis
No.
Plots.
Trees per Acre.
Average D.B.H.
Basal
Area (Sq. Ft.).
Site Index.
Total
No.
Over 6.5 Inches.
All
Trees.
Over
6.5
Inches.
All
Trees.
Over 6.5 Inches.
No.
Per
Cent.
B.A.
Per
Cent.
120	
15
13
21
9
1,356
1,209
780
648
250
310
341
387
19
26
44
60
5.3
5.8
7.4
8.4
9.4
8.9
10.1
10.2
204
218
232
251
125
133
188
217
61
130 ;	
140	
62
81
150	
86
58
1,005
320
32
6.3
9.6
225
164
73
Total Volume,
Cubic Feet.
board-feet over
6.5 Inches.
Mean Annual Increment.
All
Trees.
Over 6.5 Inches.
B.C.
Rule.
Int.
%-inch
Rule.
Total
Cubic
Feet.
Trees over 6.5 Inches.
Cubic
Feet.
B.C.
Rule.
Int.
%-inch
Rule.
Volume.
Per
Cent.
120	
130	
5,620
6,790
8,220
9,820
4,080
5,200
7,100
8,840
73
77
86
90
13,100
17,700
25,300
30,900
20,700
27,300
38,900
51,200
112
136
164
196
82
104
142
177
262
354
506
618
414
546
140	
778
150	
1,024
7,470
6,160
83
21,300
33,500
149
123              426
670
* Weighted by number of plots.
The average periodic annual increment in total cubic feet for the last seventeen years is 215 cubic feet.
Although this area represents better than average site only 32 per cent, of the
total number of trees was over 6.5 inches D.B.H. However, these represented 73 per
cent, of the basal area and 83 per cent, of the total volume in cubic feet. The average
D.B.H. of the whole unit is 6.3 inches. An analysis of a similar stand indicated that,
if the stand were thinned to 1,000 trees at 15 years of age, this diameter would be
obtained at 30 years. A further thinning at 30 years to 280 trees per acre would give
an average D.B.H. of 12 inches at 50 years. Of the increase in average D.B.H. from
6.3 inches to 12 inches resulting from thinning, probably one-third is attributable to
actual growth and two-thirds to decrease in number of trees. It should be possible to
maintain an average growth rate of seven to eight rings per inch. The effect of heavy
thinning on natural pruning will be determined by experimental thinnings.
This 50-year stand will yield 2,000 cubic feet in pulp, poles, and piling in an intermediate cutting, and this amount could be periodically harvested every fifteen to twenty
years until the end of the rotation. Although the stand would yield 5,000 or 6,000
cubic feet of pulp, if clear-cut at this time, it is growing so rapidly that complete
harvesting would not be advisable.
The analysis of growth, increment, and mortality by diameter classes of various
species in admixtures is being continued. Methods of expressing stand density and
the changes which take place with age are also under investigation. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947. 17
The more important yield tables prepared by the Forest Service, with suggestions
for their application, have been assembled under one cover.
North Coast.
The study of forest-growth in the Northern Mainland section of the Coast region
was undertaken in conjunction with the forest survey of Smith Inlet. Permanent
growth-study plots were established in well-stocked stands of immature western hemlock, Sitka spruce, western red cedar, and red alder. Site qualities sampled, based on
the height of hemlock, ranged from site index 70 to 130. Also, one line of eight permanent one-tenth acre plots was established in immature timber growing on a slide
to determine empirical growth and yield and to study the effect of elevation.
The better growing sites are restricted to the valley-bottoms of the larger rivers,
and include most areas logged to date. Spruce is the predominant species, with lesser
quantities of hemlock and balsam. Many of these stands are overmature and tend to
be open-grown. The dense herbaceous cover tends to take over the ground completely
after logging and natural regeneration is often unsatisfactory. Average site quality
in this type is site index 130. Mean annual increment averages 125 cubic feet in
merchantable volume of age 100 years.
Most of the timbered area may be classified as side-hill type, in which western red
cedar predominates. On better sites, with good drainage, mixtures of spruce, hemlock,
and balsam are common, particularly where slides or other disturbances have removed
the previous stand. On poorer sites and at higher elevations yellow cedar is associated
with red cedar, and on the poorest sites lodgepole pine is common. The lowest site
quality considered merchantable under present conditions is site 70, and the average
site quality for the whole type is 100. A preliminary estimate of yield for second-
growth stands is 100 cubic feet per acre per year, with the mean annual increment in
merchantable cubic feet culminating at 120 years.
The natural transition of forest types in this region appears to be as follows:—
(1) Red alder.
(2) Hemlock-spruce-balsam.
(3) Red cedar.
Red alder comes in immediately after all slides which, under natural conditions,
are the commonest cause of change in forest type. On good sites spruce and hemlock
rapidly form an understory, with cedar on poorer sites and lodgepole pine on the lowest
sites. When the alder starts to break down at an age of 60 to 100 years, depending
on site, the coniferous understory is released and the stand becomes a hemlock-spruce
mixture. Balsam tends to enter the mixture at first as an understory. The change to
the climax cedar type takes place very slowly by infiltration of this tolerant species,
which takes over the poorer sites first. On the better sites the transition to cedar may
never take place, with the hemlock-spruce-balsam type becoming a hemlock-balsam
climax forest.
After clear-cutting, satisfactory regeneration of hemlock-spruce may be expected
except on the valley-bottom sites where the competition from brush is too vigorous.
Alder comes in only along sky-line roads.
The only satisfactory cedar reproduction found was on old burns. On the poorer
sites the regeneration following burns was pure cedar and, on the better sites, cedar
was found in mixture with equal quantities of hemlock and spruce. Burning after
logging may prove to favour the natural regeneration of cedar.
For the purpose of determining the total age of older trees when a ring-count is
made at a known height above the ground, an analysis was made of a number of
hemlock, spruce, and cedar seedlings growing on cut-over areas. The resulting data
are presented in the following table:— 18
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
HEIGHT-GROWTH OF HEMLOCK, SPRUCE, AND CEDAR.
North Coast.
Total Age (Years).
Total Height (Feet).
Hemlock and Spruce.
Cedar.
Poor Site.
Good Site.
Average Site.
1              	
3.0
5.5
7.7
9.7
11.7
13.5
15.2
16.8
3.0
4.3
5.2
6.0
6.7
7.5
8.2
9.0
9.7
10.5
4.0
2	
6.6
3              .	
8.4
4	
10.0
5	
11.4
6            	
12.7
7	
14.0
8                           	
15.5
9	
16.8
10	
18.0
A number of temporary plots were established in mature stands in order to determine the D.B.H.—height relationships for the different species for all sites on which
they grow. These data are being used in constructing site-class volume tables for
Coast species growing in mature stands.
The diameter growth of western red cedar on the better sites in the region was
studied by the analysis of stumps on cut-over areas. The results are presented in the
following table, which may be interpreted as follows:—
Given a 6-inch cedar, 40 years old, we may expect that, on the average, it will
attain 17.5 inches at 100 years and 36.8 inches at 200 years. Furthermore, it appears
that once a cedar has attained an age of 300 years its diameter growth is a constant
regardless of size.
DIAMETER-GROWTH TABLE—WESTERN RED CEDAR   (THUJA PLICATA).
North Coast.
Age in Decades.
1.   I     2.   |     3.
I I
4. I    5.
10.
11. I   12.      13.      14.
I I I
16.  I   17. I   18.       19. I   20.
I I I I
D.B.H., O.B., in
Inches
0.2
0.5
0.9
1.4
1.9
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
3.0
3.3
3.7
4.1
4.5
4.9
5.6
6.2
6.8
7.5
8.3
0.7
1.5
2.2
3.0
3.7
4.5
5.2
5.9
6.7
7.4
8.2
9.0
9.9
10.7
11.6
12.7
13.8
15.0
16.2
17.3
1.1
2.2
3.2
4.3
5.6
6.8
8.1
9.3
10.7
12.2
13.6
15.2
16.7
18.5
20.3
21.9
23.4
24.9
26.4
27.8
1.3
2.8
4.3
6.0
7.7
9.5
11.4
13.4
15.4
17.5
19.5
21.5
23.7
26.0
28.2
30.2
32.0
33.8
35.4
36.8
1.8
3.7
6.0
8.7
11.2
13.8
16.7
19.9
22.7
26.0
29.0
31.6
34.2
36.5
38.8
41.0
43.0
45.0
46.8
48.4
Age in Decades.
20.
25.
30.
45.
50.
55.
60.
D.B.H.
O.B., in Inches.
3.0
4.9
8.3
13.0
1
17.5      |
20.7
23.7
27.0
30.0
33.2
36.2
7.4
11.6
17.3
23.3
27.6
30.8
33.8
37.0
40.0
43.2
46.2
12.2
20.3
27.8
33.6
37.6
40.8
43.8
47.0
50.0
53.2
56.2
17.5
28.2
36.8
43.2
47.6
50.8
53.8
57.0
60.0
63.2
66.2
26.0
38.8
48.4
54.0
57.6
60.8
63.8
67.0
70.0
73.2
76.2 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947.
19
SILVICULTURAL STUDIES.
Silvicultural research in the Coast forest region during the year included work on
established studies to determine the best methods of stand improvement for young
growth, and collection of additional data basic to regeneration practices.
A third thinning was made on the Douglas fir plots established at Cowichan Lake
Experimental Station in 1929. Moderate low- and crown-thinnings resulted in the
removal of 20 per cent, of basal area before thinning (19 and 23 per cent, by cubic
volume) and heavy low- and crown-thinnings removed 25 per cent, of basal area (23
and 25 per cent, of cubic volume respectively). The low-thinning operation consisted
essentially of the removal of trees which were falling behind; the fastest growing and
most thrifty members of the stand being left for later cuttings. The crown-thinning
chiefly entailed removal from the dominant classes. Dominated stems were spared as
much as possible, with a view to maintaining soil quality. For each type of thinning
the proportions of each crown class removed are as follows:—-
Experiment Plots 66, 62, 64, 63, 283.
Crown Class.
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
5.                All.
Percentage of Trees removed from each Class.
Thinning method—
Heavy low-thinning	
7.4             21.7
2.2             24.3
21.5             30.5
13.5             31.7
66.6
60.9
11.8
9.1
97.7
97.8
20.0
4.5
100
100
100
100
44.7
39.2
Heavy crown-thinning	
28.8
27.3
Check-plot tree mortality (per cent.).
The results obtained show that the number of stems removed from each crown
class by the four thinning methods under study conform to accepted standards.
In the summary of stand data which follows, the results of each treatment are
outlined on a per acre basis:—
DOUGLAS FIR, 36 YEARS OLD, THIRD THINNING.
(Experiment Plots Nos. 62, 63, 64, 66, and 283.)
Main Crop.
Thinnings.
Mortality.
Increment.
Method of
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77.0
76.5
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7.0
7.3
7.6
6.8
6.6
159.0
161.7
139.0
147.0
191.0
8.69
9.80
10.50
7.63
7.8
5,730
5,444
4,676
4,518
6,150
4,566
4,845
4,162
4,081
5,474
158
136
317
311
1,470
1,340
1,236
876
1,320
1,153
1,123
815
35.5
41.0
18.0
24.1
44.0
4.4
5.1
2.5
3.1
5.7
4.8
5.8
5.4
5.4
4.2
273
328
269
262
229
183
188
H.L	
164
L	
149
Ch.
171
1
B.A.B.H. = Basal area at breast height.
Thinning methods :   L. = Low ;   H.L. = Heavy low ;   C. = Crown ;   H.C. = Heavy crown ;   Ch. = Check.
Mortality and increment  (per cent, and periodic annual):    Based on mean volumes of seven-year period since
last thinning.
Crown-thinnings permit the removal of a larger volume of material than low-
thinnings at this age. It is recommended that, up to about age 40, dominant trees
with wolfish tendencies or otherwise of poor form be removed by crown-thinning.
When the difficulty of retaining the lower canopy classes becomes apparent, at the age 20 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
of 50 years in stands where crown-thinnings have been practised, it will be necessary
to use low-thinning treatment to maintain stands in the best condition. At this stage
a greater proportion of trees in the intermediate crown class are removed, but the aim
is still to favour the elite of the main crop. It is of interest to note in the table above
that over 1,000 cubic feet per acre were removed by crown-thinning. About half of
this thinning will cut No. 3 sawlogs, approximately 2,000 F.B.M. per acre, disposable
on the log market at the present time. As it takes 115 cubic feet (O.B.) of standing
timber cut to a 3-inch top diameter to produce a cord of these thinnings, the heavy
crown-thinning will yield approximately 13 cords per acre of 4-foot material. The
removal of 25 per cent, of the volume on Douglas fir sites appears to be not only practicable but desirable. On very good sites, where increment and potential yield is high,
perhaps intermediate cuttings of 30 per cent, would not adversely affect the final cut.
Theoretically, all trees that are competing with other trees for full use of the productive values of site can be removed by thinning. These plots were underthinned in the
past, because the cuttings neither forestalled mortality nor relieved overdense conditions in the stand, as indicated by the slight differences in mortality per cent, between
the treated plots and the check-plot. The area having least density of stems also has
the least mortality. The loss by mortality on the untreated area is at present 6 per
cent, of the volume per year; such wastage is overcome only by an orderly, long-term
application of thinnings. Incidentally, crown-thinning should not be allowed to develop
into a high-grading operation, any more than low-thinning is an operation to remove
only dead members from the forest community. Thinning should be linked with
pruning treatment when a quality product, such as is now being cut from old, mature
timber, is the aim for the final cut of the next rotation.
As the management of young stands is improved, it is expected that pruning of
a limited number of the best stems will be one of the first practices to be introduced.
Douglas fir is a very poor self-pruner, and artificial pruning is necessary if clear
lumber is to be produced from young stands to come under forest management during
the next rotation. Pruning appears to offer satisfactory returns to the forest owner
of Douglas fir if dominant trees are pruned to 7 feet when 4 to 5 inches D.B.H., and
repruned in 12-foot lengths when diameter at pruned height becomes 5 inches. This,
in general, is the indication of recent studies of pruning methods at Green Timbers
Forestry Station and the study commenced at Cowichan Lake Experiment Station in
1930. In addition to the report last year (Forest Service Report, 1946, page 19) the
current work indicates several new features. The initial cost of pruning to 18 feet in
these plantations was 12.1 minutes per tree. When the stand is 100 years of age this
investment will produce 38 cubic feet or 300 F.B.M. of clear lumber on each of the one
hundred larger trees per acre on this good site. These tests have shown that cost of
pruning varies with the size and toughness of branches. Index figures based on the
area of pruned knots per tree were related to time-cost per pruned foot. It was found
that a good estimate of cost can be obtained by sampling the number and size of
branches to be pruned. From these measurements an average branch index, indicative
of the area of pruned knots per tree, is found and referred to a curve of pruning time.
A plantation pruned to 13 feet in two stages, at 13 and 17 years old respectively, on
a good site, took 0.57 minutes (34.5 seconds) per foot of pruned length. A similar
pruning in one operation on trees at seventeen years took 0.51 minutes per foot for
pruning. An additional 0.13 minutes per pruned foot must be allowed for walking and
cleaning saws. In these tests the handsaw-and-ladder method was used. Trees pruned
by this method healed faster than when tree-pruners or pole-saws were used, because
the branch is removed without leaving a stub. Pruning in winter resulted in rapid
healing during the following summer; production of clear wood was quickly obtained,
and no infection of the wounds was experienced.    The charts show that 80 per cent. S
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21
of the knot-area of saw-pruned trees healed in two seasons, on the basis of external
measurement of knots on sample trees. At Cowichan Lake pruned trees sectioned
after healing was complete showed faster occlusion of live-pruned knots than healing
over wounds made by removal of dead branches. Healing after live-pruning took one
to five years but after dead-branch pruning it took four to six years, and occasionally
over ten years, before the production of clear wood. Pellets of pitch collect in pockets
formed by new growth around ragged cuts, but the incidence of pitch inclusion was
very low on this plot because saw-cuts were smooth.
A preliminary study was made for the instrumental measurement of radial growth.
The aim is to develop a sensitive measure with which to compare growth response to
various conditions and to determine the features of seasonal growth. From measurements on control trees it was found readings are affected by variables related to the
time of day and stability of weather. It is planned to test the practicability of the
method in stands under cultural treatment.
Available measurements from all experimental plots were assembled to obtain
average values of initial height growth for reproduction and, also, to compare the
growth of artificial reproduction with natural seedlings. According to the data the
trends of initial height growth show wide divergence with site. On poor sites it
varies, for reproduction up to 10 years of age, between 30 and 40 per cent, of height
on good sites. Curves of height values on good and poor sites are given in Fig. 1.
In the field the appearance of sites with mixed types under 15 years old seemed to
indicate natural reproduction lagged in height growth as compared with growth on
artificially seeded areas, but an analysis of the data showed there was no difference
between the heights of trees of the same age when both the artificial and natural
growth was on the same site. Difference in height of the two types was due to earlier
re-establishment of a stand by artificial seeding rather than by natural regeneration.
In some cases variation from normal trend is caused by external interference with
growth. Two examples of biological interference illustrate this point. In one case
seed-spots were established on a good site later dominated by bracken, which killed
many seedlings by mechanical interference and suppressed the remainder to 43 per cent.
of normal height at six years. In the other case seedlings on a poor site were subjected
to severe browsing by grouse and deer which retarded initial elongation to 29 per cent.
of average for that site at ten years.
Seed Crop.
On Vancouver Island and in the Lower Fraser Valley the cone crop was not only
poor but occurred on widely scattered areas. On Vancouver Island one-third of the
trees studied on three cut-over areas with scattered seed-trees carried very limited
crops and, in fully stocked stands, there was no crop. Information regarding recent
cone crops on Douglas fir of Vancouver Island was given in the last report of the
Forest Service, and the following table brings it up to date:—■
SEED PRODUCTION FOR DOUGLAS FIR ON VANCOUVER ISLAND IN 1947.
Stand Type.
Percentage
of Treea
bearing Cones.
Average
Number of
Cones per Tree.
Average
Crop
per Tree.
Scattered mature, residual after logging on  medium sites of three
36
0
85
0
Poor
None
It is reported that Sitka spruce on the north end of Graham Island bore a good
crop of cones.    To the south the .crop was progressively lighter and became non- 22
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Fig. 1.
1
Initial   Heic
=..:•  Douc
    Good Sites (S.I. 170
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4 5 G 7
Age   in  Years.
10 existent on Moresby Island. There were no cones on ponderosa pine in the Southern
Interior of the Province. In the Shuswap Lake area collections were made from a very
good crop of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta latifolia).
Under the conditions of present methods of logging the seed-supply for natural
regeneration is an important factor. Preliminary work has been done to study the
type and disposition of seed trees left after logging. A study has now been initiated
in an effort to develop a method for determining the direction and amount of the seed
dispersal from residual seed sources left after clear-cutting in the Coast forests.
Direct seeding with hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and cedar (Thuja plicata) was
tested again in 1946 by a broadcast seeding on the north slope of Hill 60, Cowichan
Lake district. For this study the seed was thinly sown over 20 acres. For each acre
1 oz. of hemlock seed, 57 per cent, viable, and 1% oz. of cedar seed, 78 per cent, viable,
were mixed with 3 cubic feet of sawdust. This mixture was used in Cyclone seeders
of half-bushel capacity and was sufficient to seed one-quarter acre. Satisfactory
distribution of seed was obtained, but sawdust is not a fine enough carrier for use in
this machine. The site of the experiment was at 2,500 feet elevation, and a heavy
coverage of snow was late in melting. About three-quarters of the area was seeded
on the top of deep but rapidly melting snow on May 1st. Apparently it is not advisable
to seed on steep slopes immediately before the thaw or when the snow surface is
frozen hard. One end of the seeded block was dominated by a cover of willow, which
was prostrate under the snow at the time of seeding; the other end had a general
cover of plants, chiefly the low, mat-forming bunchberry (Cornus canadensis), with
scattered natural hemlock, cedar, and Douglas fir established on most of the area. The
site was logged and burned seven years before the study was initiated and plant cover,
together with considerable decaying wood, reduced the value of this area for seeding.
At the end of two growing seasons the broadcasted seed was represented by 650 hemlock and 500 cedar per acre, on the average, over the whole seeded block. In terms
of viable seed sown, this density was obtained from 6.5 per cent, of the hemlock and
2.5 per cent, of the cedar. It was found that survival, at the rate of 1,000 or more
2-year-old seedlings per acre, occurred on 57 per cent, of the area. Apparently seed
and seedling losses caused by external hazards are high, as survival was much better
for cedar under the shade and protection of cages. Seeding on this large plot was
done at the rate of 1 acre per man-hour, which is half the time-cost of our previous
experiments in broadcast seeding.
A preliminary field experiment was made with chemically treated seed to determine the value of the treatments as rodent repellents. An area logged and burned one
year previously was selected for the study, largely because the indicated mouse population was high (55 per cent, of the traps held mice after a one night's catch). The
Douglas fir seed was used in two lots, one without pre-treatment and the other after
stratification. The distribution and amount of germination, and period of germination, were similar for stratified and untreated seed and, therefore, the data for these
two lots were subsequently grouped together to increase the accuracy of analysis.
Part of each lot of seed was then enclosed with chemicals and peat in gelatine capsules,
part soaked in a kerosene-creosote solution, and the remainder used for controls. The
chemical-in-capsule treatment was tested on seed-spots replicated fifteen times with
dry seed, and similarly with seed stratified for twenty-eight days. The creosote treatment and control seedings were each replicated five times, one series of controls being
under the protection of seed-spot cages. Seed for the controls was planted (1) without treatment, (2) in capsules, and (3) in capsules with a mixture of moist peat and
soil. Anticipated depredations by rodents were not evidenced by disturbance on seed-
spots, and mouse population was erratic. Trapping at intervals of a few days during
the germination period indicated the population was successively high, low, and zero, 24 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
then high again, within the month. Germination of control seedings under cages was
twice as high as on unprotected seed-spots, indicating some loss of exposed seed to
mice. Germination was analysed for quantity in terms of viable seed sown, and for
distribution on the basis of the number of spots occupied. On exposed spots germination in the chemicals, and capsules, and in peat in capsules was similar to the
result for seed sown directly in the soil. On protected spots germination in the
chemical-peat mixture was good, being better than for seed germinated in mineral soil
only. Germination of creosoted seed was too low to determine the repellent value of
this treatment, and the experiment was not varied enough to show the effect of
treatment on germination. However, results warrant the use of these treatments to
test their repellence when fed to mice under controlled conditions. As another phase
of this experiment, mechanical protection of the seed was attempted by spot-seeding
with the seed held between the prongs of wooden pegs. Results are encouraging and,
with modification, the method holds promise for use in loamy soil.
SOIL SURVEYS AND RESEARCH.
During 1947 the field-work of previous years on plant indicators of site quality was
compiled as a report and published as " Forest Site Types of the Pacific Northwest,"
Technical Publication T30. The results of this study were described in the field to the
Vancouver Island section of the Canadian Society of Forest Engineers, and to students
at the Ranger School, British Columbia Forest Service.
Although one phase of this project on site studies is completed, much more information is required to complete and perfect the preliminary findings. During the past
summer field studies were directed to the vegetation under hemlock second-growth
stands and to fir-hemlock stands at elevations exceeding 1,500 feet. The results have
not been summarized but one finding will concern the light factor. It was found in
second-growth hemlock and in hemlock-fir-balsam stands of over 100 years of age and
of medium to poor site quality that salal, which should be vigorous and abundant, was
often entirely absent or limited to dying remnants of once vigorous plants. This condition is believed to be due, at least partially, to the severe filtering of light by the dense
crown-cover. On good sites ferns exhibit greater tolerance, for the vigour of their
growth is not greatly restricted.
In 1946 a preliminary study on nursery soil fertility was undertaken. The primary
object is to maintain a permanent check on soil fertility within the nurseries, so that
there may be no regression from the present high standards of stock produced. To
establish an adequate background a number of studies are necessary. Perhaps the
most important is a detailed knowledge of present field survival of stock from different
nurseries planted on different quality sites, for field survival is the all-important criterion of seedling production. Associated with this is the influence of fertilizers on
seedling growth and their ultimate survival.
During the past two years a survey has been made of soil fertility, chemical composition of seedlings, and growth characteristic of seedlings over each field of 2-0 stock.
This phase should be completed next year and should establish standards within the
nursery by which future trends may be measured. These standards will then be related
to field standards of survival to complete the picture. A summary of the data to date
is presented in the table following.
A preliminary study on how fertilizers influence seedling characteristics in each
nursery was undertaken during 1947. Various inorganic combinations of nitrogen,
phosphorus, and potassium fertilizers were applied to experimental beds. The response
to these fertilizers will be measured at the end of the second year's growth in 1948.
It is hoped that detailed field survival checks may be undertaken soon. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947.
25
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O O O G? Of Q 26 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
PROVINCIAL PARKS.
The Provincial Park system was increased by two new parks during 1947, and
these, together with additions to several other parks, accounted for 1,118.9 acres of
new park area. Cathedral Grove, a gift from Mr. H. R. MacMilian, C.B.E., was
gazetted as MacMilian Park. These 337 acres of primitive Coast forest are an extremely
valuable addition, in view of the virtual disappearance of representative roadside
stands of untouched timber. Roberts Creek Park, a Class " C " park, although only
2 acres in extent, is a welcome addition to the present recreational facilities enjoyed
by the communities of Sechelt and Gibsons Landing. The culmination of years of
negotiation came with the addition of 676 acres to Mount Seymour Park. This southward extension of the park boundaries gives adequate protection to the right-of-way
for the park entrance road. A further 84 acres were added to Kitsumgallum Park to
enlarge the recreational facilities there.
A recalculation of area in Mount Maxwell Park established 491.9 acres as the
correct figure instead of 472 acres.
The following table summarizes the Provincial Parks in British Columbia to
December 31st, 1947:—-
Classification. Number of Parks. Acres.
Class "A"  18 289,778.550
Class " B "   4 7,054,206.000
Class " C "  28 4,016.345
Administered under special Park Acts  3 1,656,455.000
Totals  53 9,004,455.895
or 14,069.4 sq. mi.
The year 1947 marked a turning point in the development of Provincial Parks.
The funds allotted to park work increased from $29,000 in 1946 to $75,000 in 1947,
thereby permitting the initiation of projects that had been held in abeyance for years.
A medium sized tractor and truck were purchased for road construction work but were
delivered too late in the season to accomplish much. However, a good start was made
and a substantial programme can be anticipated for next year. These new projects in
turn will require detailed technical planning, and every indication points to the fact
that the park supervisory and planning staff must be increased to meet the needs of
the coming year.
Except during the latter two months of the year, the Vancouver Island parks
received no major improvements. However, administrative problems were greatly
eased by the appointment of a Technical Assistant, who supervised the activities of the
park attendants. The purchase of a chain-saw proved of great value in supplying
firewood for the picnic sites and attendant's headquarters. A portable electric sander
also lightened the frequent task of resurfacing signs and tables.
The Island parks have long been regarded as the most favourable location for
winter projects. This theory became a reality with the establishment of a small camp
and the commencement of a road construction project in Little Qualicum Falls Park.
Emphasis will be placed on bringing permanent sections of the present road up to
modern standards and replacing sections of poorly located road.
The power project at Elk Falls limited public use of this park and no maintenance
was attempted. Englishman River Falls and Little Qualicum Falls Parks suffered in
attendance as a result of road construction in the vicinity of their entrances. Stamp
Falls Park, 8 miles from Alberni, had a very successful year, but is in urgent need of
camping facilities.    The much-criticized gravel road leading to John Dean Park has   been hard-surfaced and almost double the number of people who visited this park this
year can be expected next season.
The major improvement to the Peace Arch Park at the International Boundary
was the installation of sunken floodlights to illuminate the arch. Although a concrete
curb replacement programme was planned, the high cost of materials and labour made
a start impossible.
On two occasions in the past eighteen months bids were called for the construction
of part of the permanent Mount Seymour Road, but no satisfactory tenders were
submitted. Finally, in the fall of 1947, a contract was let for the construction of the
first 3.88 miles of road ending at what is now called the " Upper Parking Lot." The
completion of this section of highway will replace the old logging road now in use and
leaves the upper half of the project untouched.
A small work crew stationed at the administration building concentrated on
making various small improvements throughout the park. Two large culverts were put
in place and a portion of the Manning ski run graded. An instruction slope was
cleared and various ski runs widened and improved as safety measures. A bricklayer
and stone-mason were engaged to erect a fireplace and chimney in the administration
building. Although some minor carpentry work was done on the interior of the
building, this phase of activity was postponed for attention during the winter months.
Seventy-five trips were made up the mountain with the trail tractor and trailer
transporting supplies and material during the summer months.
With nearly 120 Park Use Permits extant in the park—about eighty covering
cabins under construction—the administrative problem has become greater than one
Park Ranger can efficiently handle. Increasing numbers of visitors must be taken
care of and a full-time assistant is indicated.
The long-delayed completion of the Hope-Princeton Highway has had an adverse
influence on developments in Manning Park. It was hoped the construction of the
commercial resort would have been started during the summer, but nothing has been
done to date. Lack of funds prevented any park improvements other than the erection
of a log barn.
A study was made of the protection problem in Manning Park and a number of
prospective lookout points were examined with a view to establishing adequate detection
facilities. One permanent site has been recommended and will probably be manned
next season. Study of the trail system was made for the purpose of co-ordinating
protection and recreation requirements.
A start on the opening up of Wells Gray Park was made with the commencement
of a 4-mile road to Dawson Falls. A small crew was employed during the months of
July to October and made excellent progress, despite the lack of machinery. Another
season's work should see the road through to Dawson Falls and the possibility of a
resort getting under way in this vicinity.
The recent increased public use of Clearwater Lake and the concentration of people
that may be expected at Dawson Falls make it imperative that camp-sites be provided
without delay.
An ever-increasing duty of the headquarters park staff is the examination of
proposed park areas. Although twelve such areas were examined during 1946, there are
still some examinations outstanding. A recreational-land-use questionnaire circulated
among the Rangers has given a picture of over-all requirements and will provide the
nucleus for several years' field-work. 28 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
REFORESTATION.
FOREST NURSERIES.
Weather conditions during 1947 were poor for the production of coniferous planting
stock. The average mean monthly temperatures were considerably below normal,
especially during the growing season. However, the only frost damage occurred at the
Duncan nursery, where a great deal of top damage was done to the trees wherever the
density of seedlings was not up to normal. The annual precipitation was well above
average in spite of an unusually dry period during the late summer.
Shortage of labour and materials added greatly to the problems of the nursery
superintendents but, in spite of these difficulties, they were able to accomplish the
essential work by working evenings with high school youths and employing women for
weeding the seed-beds. This same shortage of labour in 1946 had necessitated holding
over the 2-0 stock for an extra year at Green Timbers and Campbell River nurseries,
resulting in an excessive drain on the nursery soil which reduced the fertility to an
extremely dangerous point. In future it would be inadvisable to hold any stock in the
seed-beds for three years.
Initial steps were taken to set up a permanent annual record of soil fertility, and
experiments were started on the study of mineral salts in various densities and combinations and their effect on root and top growth. Details of this work are given
elsewhere in this report under Soil Surveys and Research.
At Green Timbers nursery 7,000,000-seedling production was maintained as the
objective, but normal losses have reduced the 2-0 stock to an estimated 5,260,000 trees,
and an excessive depredation by birds this spring has reduced the 1-0 seedlings to an
estimated 6,000,000. Experiments with the density of seedlings at this nursery indicate that standard stock can be produced up to 100 per square foot but that it is inadvisable to go beyond 60 to a square foot unless the practice of watering the 2-0 stock
is adopted. Except in the case of mare's-tail, the application of 2-4-D during the
summer of 1946 on various patches of weeds was very effective. The machine built
last year for the purpose of spreading soil was not efficient unless used with dry soil,
but the Royer compost-mixing machine exceeded expectations in riddling soil for the
seed-beds.
Campbell River nursery has 5,000,000 2-0 trees available for planting in the spring
of 1948 and 6,000,000 1-0 seedlings for 1949. A heavy infestation of strawberry
weevil in this 1-0 stock was checked by prompt application of earwig bait. The
presence of both larvae and adults of a white grub (Polyphylla sp.) indicates a new
infestation which is capable of doing serious damage to young seedlings. A nicotine
spray proved very effective and may be the solution to controlling this pest. The application of soil to the seed-beds after sowing was greatly improved at this nursery by
using a specially built trailer which hauls 5 yards of soil on each trip over the beds.
The first planting stock was lifted from the new nursery at Duncan in the fall and
was planted at the Hill 60 project. Owing to losses in the seed-beds during 1946, the
stock was unusually large and heavy culling was necessary. The 1947 seed-beds had
excellent germination but suffered severe losses from damping-off fungus during
the summer months. With the co-operation of the Dominion Laboratory of Forest
Pathology experimental work was carried on, and it is anticipated that some method of
control will be developed this coming year. Owing to shortages of material only a
fraction of the pipe required for 1948 seed-bed area was obtained. This shortage and
the excessive weed problem will curtail production at the nursery for another season.
The workshop and implement shed were completed early in the year but, due to the
high cost of materials and labour, all other construction work was abandoned. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947. . 29
With 400,000 trees planted in the fall, only 1,250,000 trees remain to be shipped
from the nursery in the spring of 1948. In spite of losses in the 1-0 stock, an estimated
2,750,000 seedlings of the 3,000,000 objective will be available in the spring of 1949.
SEED COLLECTIONS.
No collections of seed were made in 1947 because the cone crop on the Lower Coast
was a complete failure for all forest species. As a result of the large collections made
during the good seed year of 1945, there is still sufficient seed on hand for sowing the
required number of seed-beds in the spring of 1948 for planting projects in 1950.
RECONNAISSANCE AND SURVEY-WORK.
A crew of four men spent four months in the field making a reconnaissance of
79,000 acres of logged and burned areas on Vancouver Island. In addition to this
area, 76,000 acres were surveyed and detailed maps prepared for planting projects.
Of the 76,000 acres surveyed, approximately 30 per cent, will require planting, with
most of the remaining area being fully stocked with hemlock and cedar.
PLANTING.
The labour situation improved slightly in the spring of 1947, but planting projects
were curtailed due to the exceptional growth in the 3-0 stock. These trees were too
large for economical planting and it was to be expected that survival of seedlings would
be lower than with 2-year-old trees. With very heavy culling of all oversized stock in
the nurseries, planting costs were kept to a minimum and survival appears to be as
high as with 2-0 seedlings. Only three projects were in operation in the spring, and
one camp was opened in the fall where snowfall would prevent spring planting. During
the year 3,974,000 trees were planted by the Forest Service on 4,890 acres. Logging
companies also curtailed their planting programme and only 473,500 trees were planted
by industry on 490 acres. The complete statistics for the 1947 projects and a summary of planting for the past ten years will be found on page 70 of the appendix.
No plantations were destroyed by fire during 1946 and total losses due to fire
remain at 621 acres or 1 per cent, of total area planted.
PREPARATION OF PLANTING AREAS.
Shortages of materials made camp construction extremely difficult and in some
instances necessitated the use of poor quality salvage lumber. In spite of these difficulties one seventy-five-man camp and one twenty-man camp were constructed and two
seventy-five-man camps were moved to new locations. Towards the end of the year
sufficient materials were obtained to construct ten sectional, plywood huts, each housing
seven men. This work assisted in keeping the men employed during the slack winter
season at Green Timbers Forestry Station and the huts were shipped to different
projects to complete their housing facilities.
To make the planting areas accessible, 3 miles of new road were constructed and
39 miles of old logging-grades converted to truck trails. In addition 135 miles of
forest roads were maintained.
The felling of snags on and adjacent to plantable areas was carried on by hand sets
and two power-saw contractors. During the year 82,000 snags were felled on 13,000
acres.
PLANTATIONS.
Survival examinations were made in the 1944 and 1946 plantations in keeping with
the policy of making accurate estimates of mortality. Past records give an average
survival of 75 per cent, in 2-0 stock on all our plantations three years after planting. 30 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
The 3-0 stock planted in 1946 had only 66 per cent, survival, which was anticipated due
to its large size, whereas the 2-0 stock planted the same year had 77 per cent, survival.
As a check against any future possibility of insect infestation in our plantations, a
survey was made during the summer months by the Dominion Division of Forest
Entomology. No destructive insects were present in the planted areas, although certain
other minor ones were noted. It is the intention to make periodic surveys in future
so that any infestations may be checked before they reach epidemic proportions.  Management.
Trucking down a steep pitch
A truck-load of logs at the dump. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947. 31
FOREST MANAGEMENT.
Value of production as estimated for the year 1947 creates an all-time record at
$282,000,000. This is upward of $100,000,000 more than the total shown for the year
1946 and is due, in a great measure, to the unprecedented rise in the selling price of
lumber together with the upward trend, not only in volume but in value, in all other
items of forest production. It will be noted the 1947 cut throughout the Province
showed a net gain of nearly 1,000,000,000 board-feet log-scale.
Statistics of Management activity are shown in detail in the appendix accompanying this report.    A running commentary is offered as follows:—
Newsprint production showed an increase, while there was a slight recession in
the production of other papers. Likewise there was an increase in the tonnage of pulp
shipped out of the Province.
Water-borne lumber trade approached the levels of 1938-40, with the United
Kingdom taking the major proportion of the shipments. The increase over 1946 was
in the neighborhood of 400,000 M board-feet.
All forest districts showed an appreciable gain in production figures.
With a total cut—all products converted to board-feet—of upwards of four billion
feet, Douglas fir is the major species, with hemlock in second place in about half the
volume of the fir, followed closely by cedar. Spruce and balsam are next in importance
with regard to volume of production.
In regard to the origin of timber production, that from Crown grants made prior
to 1887 accounts for over 1,000,000,000 feet, with timber-sales slightly higher in
production.    Timber licences hold third place as a source of raw material.
Lineal footage approaching 45,000,000 feet includes a large volume of pit-props
shipped to the United Kingdom held over from former contracts. Hewn ties increased
somewhat in production with lucrative prices offered by the railroads; the total cordage
fell off somewhat due to the higher prices for sawlog output to meet the urgent demand
for lumber production.
Logging inspection again shows a growing volume, in the case of timber-sales
nearly 1,000 more inspections being recorded than the previous year. Inspections also
increased by about 200 in the case of alienated lands. Although a total of nearly
14,000 inspections were made, there is still not adequate staff for this most important
activity.
Trespass cases increased by about 100 with corresponding increase in acreage cut
over, sawlogs accounting for most of the material cut without authority. Here again
will be noted the importance of adequate field supervision in times of active market
demand when there is increased tendency to trespass upon Crown lands.
Pre-emption inspections increased slightly over prior levels, numbering somewhat
over 400.
The increase in the demand for acquiry of Crown lands under present economic
conditions is reflected in the total number of acres examined for acquisition under the
provisions of the " Land Act." A total of 177,000 acres shows an increase of 100,000
acres over the previous year. This work has been greatly facilitated by additional
inspectors supplied by the Lands Branch, but their number is totally inadequate to
cope with this activity which still places a tremendous burden on the Forest Service
staff in the field.
Timber-sales by number and acreage maintained former levels and, including cash
sales, approached a total of 2,500 for the year. It will be noted the total acreage under
timber-sale contract at the end of the year was in excess of 1,500,000 acres, with
guarantee deposits over $1,500,000. 32 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Timber-sale stumpage shows a wide range due to the highly competitive nature of
auction bidding. Exclusive of royalty, prices averaged $5.70 per M for white pine,
$3.63 for yellow pine, $3.08 for Douglas fir, with an over-all weighted average of $2.80
for all species. This compares with an average price bid on the same basis during
1946 of $2.39. The average prices bid and received for timber-sales throughout the
year are submitted in two tables, the first one from January to May, inclusive, and the
second from June to December, inclusive, the reason being that after June 1st, 1947,
royalty was included in the unit stumpage price.
The number of sawmills throughout the Province increased by some 400, in keeping
with the active demand for lumber at good prices. In the matter of log export the
total remained about the same as 1946 and was influenced by the authority of the
Federal Timber Control and the demand for local consumption.
Minor products shipped from the Province approached a total value of nearly
$6,000,000, with the United States our best customer. Christmas-trees showed a
material decrease by reason of weather conditions at the time of cutting and prevalence
of insect attack which caused early loss of foliage.
The total number of timber-marks issued held to practically the same level as 1946
and is ah indicator of the extreme activity in logging. The office burden in this respect
is noteworthy, when the Forest Service draughting record is read in conjunction
therewith.
In co-operation with the Dominion Science Service, insect-box collections increased
by about 100 over the previous year. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947. 33
FOREST PROTECTION.
WEATHER.
From a forest-protection view-point, weather throughout the Province during the
1947 fire-season was more favourable than has been experienced for some years.
Hazard build-ups occurred periodically in all districts but, generally speaking, were of
short duration, and timely precipitation nullified any very serious condition.
In the Vancouver Forest District precipitation followed generally the 1946 incidence with greater-than-average rainfall in June and July following a comparatively
dry May. Rainfall during the season, though lighter than for the same period in 1946,
was well distributed in, roughly, 10-day intervals through June to mid-September, when
one of the driest periods of the season developed. This lasted until October 1st, when
heavy rains occurred without warning and closed the season.
The coastal region of the Prince Rupert Forest District, including the Queen
Charlotte Islands, showed no hazard throughout the season. Cool, cloudy days with
almost continuous light rainfall were the rule, making for one of the easiest protection
seasons in many years. In the Interior portion of the district, east of Terrace, snowfall during the winter 1946-47 was moderate, with a rapid spring run-off creating a
moderate fire-hazard during the latter part of April. This was followed by cool weather
to mid-May when higher temperatures and light winds created the driest condition
experienced during the season. From June through to mid-September the hazard
remained low to dormant, with precipitation above average and distributed over a
greater number of days.    Lightning storms were rare throughout the season.
Weather in the Fort George Forest District, while generally favourable, varied
considerably between those portions of the district east and those west of the Rockies.
In the westerly area snowfall was slightly less than normal, and the spring developed
somewhat warmer and with more precipitation than the average year. The summer
months in this area also showed above-average precipitation and, from May to September inclusive, the longest period without some precipitation was seven days during
the latter part of May. East of the Rockies, in May and June, precipitation was only
29 per cent, of normal. Further, during the periods May 9th to June 6th and June 14th
to July 14th there was practically no precipitation, and periodic high winds occurred,
resulting in serious hazard conditions. Above-average precipitation in August brought
these conditions to a close and the season finished under fairly normal conditions.
The Kamloops Forest District presented a continuation of the wet cycle experienced
for the past several seasons. Precipitation on the average was in excess of 1946, with
the exception of the southern parts of the district where, fortunately, in the absence of
average rainfall, high humidities prevented any serious conditions. Throughout the
district protracted periods of hazardous weather were notably conspicuous by their
absence, and only a few lightning storms of minor intensity were experienced.
Weather in the Nelson Forest District was also more favourable than experienced
during the 1946 season. The early part of the season opened clear and warm, but by
mid-May had changed to partly cloudy with scattered rains and the spring hazard was
dissipated. In mid-June heavy rains occurred and cool, cloudy weather prevailed until
early July, when about three weeks of hot, dry weather was experienced, ending with
heavy rain over the entire district near the end of that month. There was another
short hazardous period during the first part of August but, by mid-August, general
rains again occurred and hazard was negligible from then until the close of the season.
Electrical storms were experienced over the district in somewhat less severity than
usual, but it is worthy of note that storms this year appeared to follow a different route.
Instead of the Arrow Lakes and Upper Kootenay Lake areas receiving the maximum
storm effect, the East Kootenay and Boundary areas of the district suffered the heaviest 34 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
storms.    General storms for the most part were accompanied by precipitation, and only
local electrical disturbances were dry with resultant heavier fire occurrence.
FIRES.
Occurrences and Causes.
From the standpoint of the number of fires the 1947 season was well below average,
with a total occurrence of 1,332 fires as compared to the previous ten-year average of
1,716 fires. As an indication of trend and a comparison with the table which has
appeared in previous reports, the distribution of fire occurrence by forest districts for
the past ten-year period is indicated below:— Fire Occurrence
during Ten-year    Percentage
Period 1938-47, of all
Forest District. inclusive. B.C.
Vancouver   4,285 25.00
Prince Rupert   681 3.96
Fort George   1,525 8.86
Kamloops  5,261 30.65
Nelson   5,406 31.53
Total   17,158
Although the season was particularly favourable, the months of July and August
as usual represented the peak from occurrence standpoint, approximately 60 per cent.
of all fires occurring in those months. The spring hazard in late April and May
accounted for about 24 per cent, of occurrence, which is considerably above average.
Briefly dealing with causes it is remarked that lightning, the only uncontrollable
cause, was again responsible for the origin of more fires than any other agency,
approximately 25 per cent, of the season's outbreaks being attributable to this source.
Actual occurrence this year from this agency is in the neighbourhood of 10 per cent,
below average and, as usual, was concentrated in the Nelson Forest District. Occurrence due to railways operating averaged about 20 per cent, of all fires and was up
approximately 7 per cent, from 1946 and about 9 per cent, over the ten-year average.
There was a noticeable decrease in number of fires attributable to brush burning due,
no doubt, to the wetness of the season.
Cost of Fire-fighting.
In explanation of Table No. 53 on page 106 the total cost shown therein covers only
expenditure in wages, food, and transportation for crews actually fighting fire and does
not include items of forest-protection organization overhead such as seasonally hired
personnel. Moreover, it is representative only of the cost to the Forest Service, and
for the figure of total expenditure on fire-suppression for the Province an estimated
sum of $101,863 (Table 42) expended by other agencies must be added.
It is notable once again that of the total cost of fire-fighting to the Forest Service
approximately 44 per cent, was incurred in fighting lightning-caused fires which, occurring invariably in inaccessible locations, afford little opportunity for other than costly
control measures.
Total cost of suppression for the season was the lowest for a number of years, being
slightly over 25 per cent, of the previous ten-year average. This is due almost entirely
to the favourable weather experienced during the season.
Damage.
Area burned in 1947 is estimated at 142,765 acres, a figure less than half that
burned over in 1946 and the lowest since 1943.    Total estimated damage from forest Forest Protection.
BULLDOZER AND TRANSPORT.
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Illustrating loading procedure.
:   -  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947. 35
fires was $309,234—approximately $50,000 less than the previous season. Of this total
roughly $62,500 represents damage to forest-cover, the remainder covering miscellaneous property including forest products, buildings, and railway and logging equipment destroyed incidental to forest fires.
About two-thirds of the total damage to forest-cover occurred in the Fort George
Forest District and was largely made up of non-commercial forest. The part of the
district east of the Rockies was the chief trouble spot, and one fire in that region
accounted for 76 per cent, of the total acreage burned over in the district.
Of the total damage to miscellaneous property slightly over 97 per cent, occurred
in the Vancouver Forest District. Chief losses were in cut forest products, and seven
fires were responsible for over 90 per cent, of the total damage in that district.
FIRE-CONTROL RESEARCH AND PLANNING.
Lack of technically trained staff continues to seriously restrict the activities of this
Section. The volume of detailed work necessary in compiling and analysing fire
statistics, in planning and surveying adequate detection and suppression measures, and
in conducting the research essential to establishment of a satisfactory network of
weather stations over the Province is of such magnitude that, until it is possible to
substantially supplement technical staff, the over-all annual accomplishment cannot be
other than a small part of this urgent and vitally important work.
Planning.
During the year concentrated effort was made in the office to bring fire occurrence
maps and fire analyses ledgers up to date to provide essential basic material in the
event that additional field staff became available. Something over 18,000 fires in the
Kamloops and Vancouver Forest Districts, dating back to 1930, were classified, plotted
according to size and cause, and the information necessary for control planning analysis
entered in analyses ledgers. To assist in assessing current lookout efficiency, over
14,500 daily lookout reports were condensed and summarized. It was also necessary,
as a basis for the summer's field-work, to prepare fuel type maps for some 48,000
square miles of the Kamloops Forest District. These fuel type maps were assembled
from information taken from forest inventory records.
With limited supervisory staff available, it was possible to put only two visibility-
mapping crews in the field during the summer. Men for this work were recruited
from forest-school students at the University of British Columbia and were first given
a month's intensive training on Southern Vancouver Island before proceeding to the
Interior. The crews worked in the southern portion of the Kamloops Forest District
assembling data essential to organization of a primary lookout network in that area.
In all sixty-seven possible lookout sites were examined in detail and the visible areas
mapped. An initial set of panoramic photos was taken, profiles drawn of the selected
point, and detailed report made describing accessibility, water-supply, height of tower
necessary, clearing required, and so on, for each point. Reports and maps are now
being analysed and will form the basis of a revised primary lookout network for the
southern Kamloops Forest District next season.
Panoramic Lookout Photography.
This work was continued in the Nelson and Kamloops Forest Districts over a
three-month period in the summer months, a total of thirteen lookouts being covered.
In the Nelson District photographing was completed on five new lookouts, three
previously photographed lookouts were rephotographed, and two secondary lookouts
covered.    In the Kamloops Forest District two previously photographed points were 36 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
rephotographed and one secondary point completed. Rephotographing becomes necessary following any appreciable change in seen-cover, such as might be occasioned by
large fires, where towers have been erected subsequent to the initial photography, or
following clearing at the summit.
The weather was not at all favourable and occasioned considerable loss of time
during the field-season. With the light fire-season experienced, however, smoke haze
was not a serious deterrent this year.
Infra-red film was again used and a duplicate set of negatives taken with
panchromatic. The photographic equipment used in 1946 was used again this year
and excellent results obtained.
Since 1936, the year panoramic lookout photography was first initiated in British
Columbia, and excluding the war years of 1944-45, a total of ninety-seven lookouts
have been visited and photographs completed. Of these, eleven have been rephotographed to acquire more recent and up-to-date photos of the seen area. It is proposed
to continue rephotographing lookouts at sufficiently frequent intervals to keep pace
with appreciable changes in forest-cover due either to extensive logging operations
or other changes as mentioned above.
In connection with this work, a new celluloid, transparent roamer, or overlay, has
been designed to assist the lookout-men in reading horizontal and vertical angles more
accurately on the finished photograph. A further development is a new book type
binding for the related group of panoramic photographs. It is expected that both
these improvements will be available to the field in the 1948 season.
FIRE-WEATHER STUDIES.
Weat her-recording.
The fire-weather recording system which was described in the 1946 Annual Report
as being in use in the Vancouver Forest District was considered past the experimental
stage this year and passed to the district for administration. Excellent results were
obtained and some expansion is planned for 1948.
In line with Vancouver District experience, a trial fire-weather recording system
was organized during the past fire-season in a portion of the Nelson Forest District,
with coverage of the south-western part of the district known as the Boundary area.
It was found necessary to lower the critical values for relative humidity and fuel
moisture sticks from those used on the Coast weather charts. Furthermore, as the
graduation from low to high hazard was generally less abrupt in the Interior, it has
been decided to use in future an intermediate stage of moderate hazard of from 50
per cent, to 40 per cent, relative humidity and from 10 per cent, to 8 per cent, fuel
moisture content. For purposes of charting, this intermediate band between the
blue-coloured low hazard and red-coloured high hazard will be coloured in yellow.
Very satisfactory results were obtained in the trial system and, if the necessary instruments can be procured, the network will be further expanded next year to cover other
portions of the Nelson Forest District.
Investigations.
To further investigate the basic factors responsible for fire-weather and where
and how to measure them, three weather studies were conducted during the summer:
one in the Nimpkish Valley towards the northern end of Vancouver Island; one in the
vicinity of Nicola, some 36 miles south-west of Kamloops; and the other at Sheep
Creek, 10 miles south-west of Rossland. Unfortunately, from a research standpoint,
no really intense period of fire-weather developed at any of these sites during the
summer, limiting considerably the useful information from these experiments.    All, however, added something to the growing knowledge of fire-weather in. British
Columbia.
In the Nimpkish Valley two complete weather-stations were installed: one on
a hill-top 2,000 feet A.M.S.L. and the other at the foot of the hill at 500 feet A.M.S.L.
Here the usual occurrence of temperature inversions was reversed on several occasions,
resulting in some " inverted inversions " where, during the night, the relative humidity
tended to remain lower and the temperature higher in the valley than on the hill.
This phenomenon was caused by the " Chinook " effect of an air mass spilling over the
fairly high mountains behind the weather-station and warming by compression as it
was forced to the valley-bottom. The results here serve also as a reminder against
too general application of weather study conclusions or closure policies.
At Nicola another departure from the now-looked-for inversions occurred. Here
a series of five complete weather-stations were located at equal intervals up the hillside,
from the valley-floor at 2,100 feet A.M.S.L. to the edge of one part of the plateau at
4,300 feet A.M.S.L. "These stations all recorded practically identical night-humidity
recovery, indicating lack of inversions and no optimum altitude for measuring inflammability. This would seem to indicate that the weather-stations were located in the
path of air drainage from the plateau. The cool air draining down the hillside from
the plateau during the night brought relief to the low daytime humidities. As a further
experiment, to endeavour to record inversion conditions on top of the plateau above
the Nicola experiment, a recording hygrograph and a set of fuel moisture indicator
sticks were installed at Swakum Lookout (5,650 feet elevation and some 300 feet above
average maximum elevation of the plateau) and a second set of fuel moisture indicator
sticks installed about 200 feet below the lookout. This was not a satisfactory location
for the second set of sticks but, in order that the lookout-man would not be too long
absent from his post, this set had to be located close at hand. It is felt that, if another
location further from the lookout and lower in elevation could have been used, inversion
conditions might have been recorded. At it was, there was no appreciable difference
between the readings at the two points.
The experiment conducted at Sheep Creek showed some very marked inversions,
which are so characteristic of that broken Boundary country. In this locality five
complete weather-stations were equally spaced between the valley-floor at 2,300 feet
A.M.S.L. and a summit at 4,800 feet A.M.S.L. The records show it was a quite common occurrence for the highest station to remain 20 degrees warmer overnight than
the lowest station. As an example, on the night of August 5th the temperature at the
valley-floor dropped to 34° F., while at the top station the lowest temperature reached
was 56° F., a temperature inversion of 22° F. On the same night the relative humidity
rose to 100 per cent, in the valley-bottom but only rose to 40 per cent, at the upper
stations. The results of these different night humidities were vividly shown in the
8 a.m. fuel moisture indicator stick readings of August 6th, the valley-bottom reading
being 19 per cent, and the hill-top reading 7% per cent.
Records were obtained from the Dominion Meteorological Station on Old Glory,
a 7,800-foot mountain peak within a few miles of the Sheep Creek weather experiment,
and correlated with the Sheep Creek readings to show that, although the intensity falls
off with altitude, the indication of fire-weather remains, confirming that fire-weather
is really a result of large air-mass movements.
Miscellaneous Projects.
Preparation of Fuel Moisture Indicator Sticks.
Early in the year 400 sets of fuel moisture indicator sticks were prepared for
distribution.    Each set consisted of four sticks dowelled together and weighing 100 38 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
grams when oven-dry. These sticks are now coming into wide prominence and are
being asked for by a steadily increasing number of agencies each season.
Fuel moisture indicator sticks are manufactured by the Service in co-operation
with the Dominion Forest Products Laboratory in Vancouver. In converting the
rough, green, ^-inch dowelling into the finished product a tremendous amount of
exacting calibration, conditioning, and weighing is involved. As an example, in the
preparation of the 400 sets in 1947 it is estimated that over 10,000 separate weighings,
each to within one-tenth of a gram, were made.
After manufacture, sets are carefully checked twice a day, under actual field conditions, over a period of from three weeks to a month, before being released for field use.
For convenience in shipping and to prevent breakage, light-weight cardboard cartons
were made up to hold each set. ,
Wetting Agents.
A few practical tests were conducted during the summer to determine the possibilities of using wetting agents for fire-fighting. One brand of wetting agent was
selected to represent the general action of all wetting agents and experiments were
conducted with this brand. In several respects results did not substantiate the claims
made by the manufacturers. The experiments did indicate that the wetting agent
solution was able to penetrate finely divided fuels, such as sawdust, much better than
ordinary water.
FIRE-SUPPRESSION CREWS.
Throughout the Province a total of thirteen fire-suppression crews were organized
for the season, with headquarters at locations most strategic from the standpoint of
fire occurrence and rapid suppression action. Distribution of crews by forest districts
and record of fires fought is indicated in the following tabulation:—
Number
Forest District. of Crews.      Fires fought.
Vancouver   4 44
Prince Rupert   1 Nil
Kamloops   4 24
Nelson   4 38
Totals  13 106
On the basis of past experience some changes were made in 1947 organization as
compared with former years. This year a number of the crews were increased to
twelve-man size, including a straw-boss functioning under the regular foreman.
During periods when the hazard was uncertain the crews were divided in half, one-half
proceeding with project work while the other half maintained stand-by. By alternating the separate halves of the crew on the two jobs, work was continued along both
lines and crew morale was maintained at a much better level. It is considered this
procedure is an improvement upon past organization and, in most locations, it is proposed to organize on a similar basis for 1948. Another innovation in two districts
during the 1947 season was the appointment of a suppression crew supervisor. This
man's sole responsibility was organization, training, and general supervision of the
crews functioning within the district, and it is considered that general efficiency was
measurably stepped up by the appointment.
Crewmen were again largely university or senior high school students, although
a somewhat higher proportion of adult crewmen was obtained than in past years.
Securing foremen and cooks was again a problem, primarily because of higher wages
and longer periods of employment available in private industry. Forest Protection.
LANDING-CRAFT.
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This type of craft, operating on some of the larger Interior lakes, serves as
speedy transport for fire-fighting crews and supplies.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947.
39
Over the season the thirteen crews took action on 106 fires. This is an increase
as compared with 1946, in spite of the fact that the past season was a particularly easy
one from the standpoint of general conditions in fire occurrence. This suppression
record comprises only the work of crews in the Vancouver, Kamloops, and Nelson
Forest Districts, as summer hazard again did not develop in the Prince Rupert Forest
District and the one crew organized in that area was not employed on any fires.
Complete record of suppression action is set forth in the following tabulation:—
Record of Suppression-crew Action, 1947.
Size of Fire when attacked.
Number
of Fires.
Subsequent Spread (by Number of Fires).
% Acre
or less.
% Acre to
1 Acre.
1 Acre to
5 Acres.
5 Acres to
50 Acres.
Over 50
Acres.
Spot (up to x/4 acre)	
Over Vi acre and up to 1 acre....
Over 1 acre and up to 5 acres....
Over 5 acres and up to 50 acres
Over 50 acres.....	
Totals	
68
17
14
6
1
64
12
5
AIRCRAFT.
Operations covering forest-protection requirements continued under the two-year
contract negotiated with a commercial air-line early in 1946. Two float planes based
in the Fort George District and two twin-motored wheel planes for the southern portion
of the Province, with bases at Kamloops and at Nelson, were again in service. All
aircraft, while based at specific points, were available on call in cases of special necessity in other forest districts. During the season approximately 391 hours of flying
were completed.
Usage was generally in fire-detection with light transport for men and supplies
carried out to a considerable extent in the northern districts and parachuting of equipment arid supplies effected in all districts. In regard to the latter, the 1947 season
represented the first time that parachuting of supplies has been used to any extent in
the southern part of the Province. This proved very successful and, in addition to
servicing fire crews, this method of delivery was made considerable use of in servicing
some of the more inaccessible lookouts. The small 6-foot-diameter chute obtained last
year was used almost without exception and has proven very satisfactory, consistent
with the type of aircraft being used.
On the basis of the tests of new type aircraft-to-ground radio equipment carried
out at the close of last season, all aircraft operating during 1947 were fitted with the
new equipment. Each aircraft carried the operating frequency of the forest district
to which it was assigned and a common frequency for use in the event it was removed
from one district to another. The new equipment proved efficient in operation and
effected much time-saving by making possible reporting of fires to the particular
Ranger headquarters involved immediately subsequent to detection of the fire from
the air.
In addition to the group charter, local aircraft were hired to a limited degree
to cover emergent situations when charter aircraft were otherwise engaged. This
procedure has the advantage of making available an aircraft immediately to meet the
particular need and is valuable in that respect, but the lack of radio facilities in such
planes, in so far as Forest Service contacts are concerned, to some extent diminishes
this value. 40 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT.
Automotive.
As in 1946 a continued shortage of automotive and tractor equipment has worked
a disadvantage in this very necessary class of equipment. At commencement of the
current fiscal year some fourteen vehicles of various types, ranging from x/2-ton express
up to 3-ton units, and inclusive of some passenger-cars, were still on back-order from
the previous year. During the spring additional orders placed brought this total to
sixty-three vehicles for delivery in 1947. Additional to this three crawler tractors
were also ordered. At this writing eighteen vehicles and two tractors are still to be
delivered.
Such delay in deliveries has meant considerably increased costs of maintenance
due to necessary continued usage of worn-out units, and in specialized equipment, such
as tankers and tractors, has considerably slowed up operations in the field. It is indeed
fortunate under these circumstances that the season was particularly light from the
standpoint of serious fire conditions demanding best possible equipment.
Railway Speeders.
Two Fairmont M.19 power-speeders were purchased during the year for the Fort
George District to replace old units no longer dependable.
Outboard Motors.
For the first time in a number of years it was possible to obtain delivery of
new units of various sizes. Requisitions were placed for thirty-five new motors and,
although some delay was experienced in obtaining delivery and some substitutions
proved necessary, eventually all orders were filled. This was particularly welcome,
both to the field and to the repair staff at the Forest Service Marine Station, as a
shortage of repair parts was still in evidence, and in order to keep the field organization
functioning it had been necessary to repair and return immediately to the field many
units which should ordinarily have been scrapped as worn out. This procedure, aside
from its costly features, entailed heavy loss of time at the repair station and considerable ingenuity, as many of the required parts, being unobtainable through usual sources,
had to be fabricated. Delivery of new units has measurably relieved some of this
pressure on the repair station and allowed of more consistent operation in the field.
Fire-pumps.
The outstanding development of the year under this head was manufacture by the
Forest Service of twenty-one Bennett-MacDonald initial-action pressure pumps. The
designing of this new light-weight unit was carried out by Messrs. J. G. MacDonald
and M. K. Bennett, superintendent and pump-floor foreman respectively at the Forest
Service Marine Station. The original test model was completed during the latter part
of April and, following tests and demonstration trials, various suggestions for minor
improvements developed. Ultimately manufacture at the Station of an initial twenty
units incorporating the suggested improvements was commenced. These were distributed to the field early in July and were in use throughout the season. All field
reports were extremely favourable and additional units are proposed for manufacture
next season.
In construction and application the B-M Pumper is designed primarily as an initial-
action one-man fire-fighting unit. It consists of pump fitted with relief valve set at
90 lb. to the square inch, with power provided by a %-horsepower 2-cycle 2,600-r.p.m.
engine and gasoline supply for three and one-half hours' operation, the whole mounted
on and protected with tubular aluminium frame.    The pump coupling is a Renold- Forest Protection.
INITIAL ACTION  PUMP.
>
The newly developed Bennett-
MacDonald initial action pressure pumper. (Described in detail on page  40.
The first twenty units of the
new pump manufactured at the
Forest Service Marine Station.  REPORT OF FOREST  SERVICE, 1947. 41
Coventry flexible coupling which allows for 5 degrees tolerance in alignment and end
play. Carburettor has only two adjustments which are set and seldom, if ever, need
be changed—one set for full load and all operating conditions. The complete unit, as
supplied, consists of pumper, 108 feet of 1-inch discharge hose, 6-foot suction hose,
nozzle with %-inch and %-inch tips, and suction strainer. All parts of the unit are
contained within a pack-sack with separate pockets for spark plug wrench, spare plug,
and 1-lb. tin of lubriplate, which are the only accessories required. Weight of the
engine and frame is 28 lb. and weight of the complete unit with suction hose, nozzle,
hose, and pack-sack is 43 lb. Eight feet of discharge hose is provided and permanently
attached to the pump for use on close fires. The usual 100-foot lengths of 1-inch hose
can be coupled direct to the end of this nozzle hose as required. First starting and
operating directions are embodied on a small brass plate attached permanently to the
side of the gas-tank on the unit. Illustrations of this new pumper appear elsewhere
in this report.
It is interesting to note that, since the original light-weight initial-action pumper
known as the MacDonald Pack Power Pump was brought out some years ago by this
Service, requests for supply from the field average about 80 per cent, for light-weight
pumpers. This demand, evidencing the value attached to the light-weight unit by the
man on the fire-line, was primarily responsible for the designing and manufacture of
the Bennett-MacDonald Pumper, which is a definite improvement over the previous
light-weight unit. Indications are that the trend for the future will be largely toward
this new type of light pumper.
Additional to the Bennett-MacDonald units manufactured and distributed to the
field, three Paramount Cubs and three Wajax of latest design were purchased and put
into use during the 1947 season.
Mechanical Inspection.
During the year one additional maintenance mechanic was added to the staff to
supplement general mechanical inspection and maintenance organization. Following
the usual initial training period at the Forest Service Marine Station, this man was
placed in the field and has added measurably to the general inspection-work. Staff is
still lacking in this line of endeavour and, in order to keep equipment up to the high
standard necessary for dependable operation, it is the intention to increase maintenance
inspection staff to the point where it becomes possible actually to supervise much of the
overhauling carried out by private garages in the districts. The ultimate hope and
expectation is that our automotive and tractor equipment shall operate on a continuous
maintenance basis rather than costly annual overhauls.
FOREST SERVICE MARINE STATION.
The year 1947 was an extremely busy one for the Forest Service Marine Station.
While the particularly favourable protection season occasioned less use of pumps, out-
boards, and other protection mechanical equipment than any year since the station went
into operation, the consequent break in general repair-work was more than offset by
specialized work undertaken.
With the increase in work it was necessary to step up personnel employed and
this was done for the most part in the non-permanent staff. Present staff at the
station numbers twenty-six, comprising superintendent, ten permanent and fifteen non-
permanent members, the latter group fluctuating in number slightly dependent upon
the particular type and volume of work going through the station. Labour distribution
is four employees on the pump and outboard floor, seventeen in the marine and specialized construction section, three watchmen, and two in the office and stores section. 42 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
During the year improvements effected at the station included hard-surfacing of
the entry drive and the drive leading to floats and launch-storage basin, the old plank
roadway having deteriorated to an extent that complete renewal was required. This
surfacing was carried out under contract and a very satisfactory job obtained. An
extension to the boat-lumber storage-shed was also carried out, utilizing station labour.
This has simplified storage by providing separate stalls for various types and sizes of
lumber and ready access to each stall. Painting the exterior of the station building
was completed, this work having been commenced late last year. A fully automatic
oil-burning unit was installed in the heating system in lieu of the previous hand-fired
coal-burning unit, and the old coal-storage shed was razed, some of the lumber being
salvaged for use in construction of the extension to the lumber-storage building.
Further levelling-up of the property has proceeded as fill material becomes available
from dredging of the launch-storage basin in the river. The silting-up of the storage
basin is an ever-present problem, and periodic removal of the accumulation is necessary
to effect safe mooring and storage of the launches.
During the closing months of the year plans were drawn, tenders called, and a
contract negotiated with a private construction firm for construction of a third set of
marine ways. These additional ways have been made necessary by the very much
increased work at the station which has resulted from new acquisitions to the launch
fleet, particularly the larger type of vessels now operating in connection with forest-
survey work on the Coast. It is anticipated that construction will commence early in
the new year, and this third set of ways will later be housed over by a projected wing
on the main building as laid down in original plans. Pile and cement footings as
foundation for the new wing are included and will be placed under the present contract.
During the year in the marine section of the station the ways were occupied forty-
five times, including several launches which it was found necessary to take up twice
over the twelve-month period. Additional to the routine annual repair and overhaul
work accomplished, two major launch-rebuilding projects were completed—namely, on
the Vancouver headquarters launch " Syrene," where new gum-wood stem was installed
from deck level to forefoot, and on the Prince Rupert launch "White Cloud," where
practically a complete rebuilding was carried out. Both of these large jobs entailed
complicated work—the " Syrene," because of a clipper bow, required all hand-work in
shaping of timber, and the "White Cloud," because of original construction in the
Orient with fastenings and methods different from standards on this Coast, which had
to be matched or substitutes devised when rebuilding.
Construction of one new launch was completed during the year. This is a sister
ship of the launch " Cherry II," constructed in 1946, and will go into operation as an
Assistant Ranger launch in the Vancouver Forest District under the name of " Douglas
Fir II." The craft is 35 feet over-all length, with 9-foot beam, and powered with an
83-horsepower General Motors marine diesel. Final trials have not yet been run, but
an improved performance is expected compared with her sister ship, in view of the
installation of 3 to 1 reduction gear instead of the 2 to 1 reduction in the earlier craft.
Another improvement in the power unit on the new craft is hydromatic clutch control
which, aside from convenience of operation, effected a considerable saving in installation
cost. Two small launches were purchased during the year and redesigned and refitted
at the station for lake use in the Vancouver Forest District. One was an ex-R.C.A.F.
tender in damaged condition purchased through War Assets Corporation. This small
launch was completely rebuilt, including raising of an abbreviated cabin structure, and
placed in use during the summer under the name of "Willow." It has a speed of
approximately 15 knots and is proving very satisfactory as a lake boat. The second
purchase was a navy-type captain's gig and this is currently being refitted at the station
for lake use. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947. 43
For some years, with the Coast launch fleet operating to capacity, the necessary
annual overhaul of individual Ranger boats badly disrupted field-work. When a major
overhaul was involved, the Ranger was dependent upon temporary replacement use of
a small Assistant Ranger launch, in which regular travel was precluded in bad weather,
and there was a generally unsatisfactory condition for the period that the regular
launch was undergoing overhaul. During 1947 an additional Ranger-type launch, now
named the " Maple," was purchased for attachment to the marine station. This craft
serves as a swing boat as Ranger launch overhaul work proceeds. Acquisition of this
boat has simplified the whole matter of arranging for launch transportation for individual Rangers during the overhaul season and has allowed an orderly programme of
overhaul work at the station.
Also acquired during the year and refitted at the marine station were two 36-foot
gas-driven landing craft. The first was reconditioned by mid-summer and shipped to
Nakusp, where it will serve for transportation of men and supplies on protection-work
along the Arrow Lakes in the Nelson Forest District. The second craft will be placed
on Adams Lake in the Kamloops Forest District for similar use.
In addition to design and manufacture of twenty-one units of the new Bennett-
MacDonald pump, described elsewhere in this report, work on the pump and outboard
floor during the year comprised overhaul and rebuilding of sixty-four fire-fighting
pump units. Comprised in this total were six complete rebuild jobs made up from old
worn-out units. Cylinder blocks from the old units were bored out at the station,
aluminium pistons cast oversized and machined and oilite fittings and new magnetos
installed, with the result that the rebuilt units on actual test developed more pressure
and volume and stood up better than many new units. Some thirty-one outboard
motors also passed through this section of the station for overhaul or rebuilding during
the year, involving a considerable portion of the time and effort of the section.
Additional to these routine duties of the pump floor staff, forty moisture content scales
for use with hazard sticks, thirteen alidades as lookout equipment, and over fifty circle
scales for Ranger office draughting use were manufactured.
With only a limited amount of spare time at the disposal of employees on the pump
floor, some experimentation with pump bearings was carried out and is currently being
continued. While full tests have not yet been completed, there is every indication that
such experiments may lead to a considerable reduction of some of the difficulties experienced in the past with pump bearings. A new compact model of pump box was also
designed at the station and subsequently approved by senior operation officers from the
districts at the annual operation meeting held at Victoria in the fall. This new type box
is to go into production as time allows at the station during 1948 as part of the complete
medium-weight pump unit.
Other specialized work undertaken at the station included construction of seven
prefabricated lookout buildings for shipment to various forest districts. A detailed
description of this project is set forth elsewhere in this report.
BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION.
Despite material shortages and high cost of labour it was considered expedient
during the year to proceed with certain new construction-work in the erection of
urgently required warehouse and office accommodation in various Forest Ranger
districts. These were projects which had been postponed from year to year during
and since the war and which, in view of the heavy increase in administration and
forest-protection activities coincident with a scarcity of suitable rental accommodation,
could no longer be postponed. 44
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Following is a list of major new building projects undertaken during the year,
giving construction agency and progress to date:—
Location.
Type of Building.
Constructing Agency.
Progress to Date.
Alberni	
Arrowhead-
Arrowhead..
Bella Coola-
Birch Island
Birch Island
Canal Flats..
Edgewood—
Edgewood—
Enderby	
Enderby	
Invermere... .
Kamloops	
Kaslo	
Lakelse	
Merritt	
Nakusp	
Oliver	
Parksville....
Princeton	
Sicamous	
Vancouver-
Vancouver...
Vancouver—
Vanderhoof.
Garage and storage-shed	
Standard Ranger station office and stores
building	
Alterations to Ranger residence	
Combination warehouse and car storage	
Standard Ranger station office and stores
building	
Standard Ranger residence	
Standard Ranger residence and temporary
office	
Floating boat-house	
Standard Ranger residence and temporary
office	
Standard Ranger station office and stores
building	
Standard Ranger station four-ear garage	
Standard Ranger station office and stores
building	
Two six-car garages.	
Standard Ranger station warehouse	
Boat-house  _	
Standard Ranger station warehouse	
Standard Ranger station warehouse	
Assistant Ranger office and stores building-
Standard Ranger station office and stores
building	
Standard Ranger station warehouse	
Standard Ranger station four-car garage	
Headquarters radio building	
Addition   to   lumber-storage   shed,   Forest
Service Marine Station	
Marine    ways    and    foundations    for   new
wing, Forest Service Marine Station	
Standard Ranger station office and stores
building	
Forest Service project.
Contract	
Contract	
Forest Service project-
Forest Service project.
Forest Service project.
Contract	
Contract _ 	
Forest Service project-
Forest Service project.
Forest Service project.
Contract	
Forest Service project
Contract	
Forest Service project.
Forest Service project.
Contract _	
Contract	
Forest Service project.
Forest Service project.
Forest Service project
Forest Service project.
Forest Service project.
Contract 	
Forest Service project
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Foundations completed.
Completion expected
March 1st, 1948.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Completion expected
March 31st, 1948.
Completed.
Completion expected
spring of 1948.
Completed.
Completed.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Work proceeding.
Completed.
Additional to these projects, during the year seven prefabricated lookout buildings
were constructed at the Forest Service Marine Station for shipment to the Nelson and
Kamloops Forest Districts. These buildings were standardized as sectional type plywood construction, 14 feet by 14 feet in size, with glass on all sides. Two types were
manufactured, with and without a second-story cupola. Five of the one-story buildings
were erected at various lookouts in the Nelson Forest District and one of the cupola
type in the Kamloops Forest District during the spring and summer months. They
have proven particularly well suited to the job, effecting a measurable saving in packing
and construction costs, which are always a heavy part of the expenses of lookout
construction. On the basis of prior experience with lookouts constructed from plywood, it is anticipated that they will stand up to the weather quite satisfactorily and
this feature will be reported on after several seasons' use. Illustrative photos of these
buildings during course of erection appear elsewhere in this report.
In the Vancouver Forest District two new lookouts of the standard United States
Forest Service type, 14- by 14-foot buildings with cupola, were completed. This type
of building is proving very satisfactory where the site is readily accessible by road.
A similar project was also completed on one lookout in the Prince Rupert Forest
District. Forest Protection.
STANDARDIZED  PREFABRICATED  LOOKOUT  BUILDINGS.
*rij
%£*
.■"'..  '""'"'::■■
~...;B.
•«•  •
- ,   >■ _».•<•..,._
. *> •
'
Stages in erection of standard single-story type, without cupola.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947. 45
RADIO.
During the year the first signs of a return to peace-time normalcy were evidenced
by a noticeable easing of the supply situation, enabling establishment of a number of
new stations.
From the standpoint of custom-made equipment, a total of forty-one new sets of
various types were ordered and, while delivery has not yet been obtained of all units,
it is anticipated that complete delivery will be effected before the end of the year.
As in past years construction of special type units was done at Victoria by Forest
Service personnel. These included three type RCR-HQ remote receivers and two type
RCR-SC single-channel units, the first mentioned being installed at Victoria, Vancouver, and Prince George headquarters' stations.
With installation of these remote sets, the ever-present problem of background
noises, though not entirely eliminated, has been reduced to a minimum at the points
mentioned. Experiments have shown that near large cities, such as Victoria and
Vancouver, completely quiet locations do not exist except at distances of 10 miles or
more. At Victoria, for example, with the remote location 5 miles from the city and
on the summit of Mount Douglas some noise remains. In Vancouver, although the
static level at the remote site is ordinarily low, intermittent noises still give some
trouble. However, in the case of every remote installation made, it may safely be said
the static interference is less than 25 per cent, of its original amplitude and improvement in reception is very marked. With steady increase in traffic handled, it is
considered that the comparatively small additional cost involved in remote receivers
at headquarters and key stations is money well spent and a policy that should be
continued.
During the month of August the Chief Radio Engineer had the opportunity of
attending, in Ottawa, an interprovincial radio conference with representation from the
majority of the Provincial Forest Services. The object of the meeting was to compare
Forest Service type radio equipment now in use and to discuss possible improvement
in the direction of increased portability and standardization. Representatives of the
Canadian Signals and Development Laboratory in Ottawa attended with a view to
possible future correlation of military and forestry needs. Out of the conference it
developed that the type SPF unit, which this Service uses to a large extent in
protection-work, is standard portable equipment and that no other set of comparable
efficiency has as yet been devised. It was also a unanimous decision of the conference
that medium frequency channels gave best all-round results for forestry communication. After consideration of frequency modulation on 40 megacycles as a substitute,
the conference, by a majority vote, rejected same. It is felt by this Service that this
type of communication can be made suitable as a partial substitute for medium
frequencies if adequate preparation and care is given to selecting station positions.
Experiments along this line are proposed during the next year or so as time and funds
allow.
During the year our position in regard to frequencies became unstable. With the
World Radio Conference meeting at Atlantic City in August, 1947, it is anticipated a
considerable revision of frequency allotment may be made during the coming year.
Representations have been made on behalf of the Service with the responsible officers
of the Department of Transport at Ottawa, and it is hoped that six medium frequencies
may be allotted together with one channel near 6,000 Kcs. for long-distance work.
At present the Service has three permanent channels only, and if the additional
frequencies are granted it will appreciably assist development and operation. One of
the first steps to be taken will be to place each forest district on its own frequency
with a special channel for inter-district and Victoria headquarters communication.
This change-over may not be entirely possible for the first year, but at least Prince 46 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Rupert Forest District, which suffers from the most severe interference problem, will
be changed to a suitable new frequency as soon as one becomes available.
The appointment during the year of permanent technician-operators to individual
forest districts has effected an outstanding improvement in maintenance problems.
The only district now without this assistance is Prince Rupert and, if plans develop,
an appointment will be made in that district during the next year.
For 1948 an active programme is planned, both in construction of special types and
purchase of new material. At Fort George and Kamloops headquarters obsolete two-
channel transmitters of 50 watts are to be replaced by modern 150-watt units. Also
at Kamloops, our most important relay point in the inter-district network, a remote
receiver will be installed to minimize the heavy interference now existing. At a
number of individual Ranger stations throughout the Province single-channel remote
receiver units are also proposed to restore reception where same has been swamped by
industrial expansion. In the Vancouver Forest District, providing suitable equipment
is available, it is planned to equip Assistant Ranger launches with two-way radio for
direct communication and continuous contact between the launch and respective Ranger
launch or Ranger station. In this district plans also call for replacement of the present
10-watt key relay station at Campbell River with a 50-watt unit.
At the close of 1947 the number of sets and types in use in the Service are: Type
SPF sets, 236; type PAC sets, 45; 25-watt sets, 4; HQ 50-watt sets, 4; HQ 300-watt
sets, 1; launch sets, 50-100-watt, 14; HQ remote receiver installations, 4; Ranger
station remote receiver installations, 4; VHF sets, 2; total, all types, 314.
As an indication of the expansion in traffic it is interesting to note the marked
increase in formal messages handled through Victoria headquarters Station CZ2F on
the inter-district network. Messages handled in 1945 totalled 1,330, in 1946, 2,558, and
in 1947, 3,923. These totals do not include daily weather reports during the fire-season
months and many hundreds of unnumbered messages and inter-district conversations.
SLASH-DISPOSAL AND SNAG-FALLING.
Ten years ago the Province was faced, in the Vancouver Forest District, with a
serious and continually increasing fire-hazard in the existence of large areas of logged-
over lands on which neither slash-burning nor snag-falling had received attention commensurate with sound forestry practice. The close of the year 1947 marked completion
of the first decade of orderly hazard abatement in this area under the requirements of
section 113a of the " Forest Act."
With initial enactment and enforcement of the legislation, approach to the problem
demanded prompt and first attention toward speedy liquidation of accumulated hazard.
The intensive programme of slash-disposal introduced at that time to some extent lent
colour to the charge that some areas were burned purely from a fire preventive point
of view and contrary to best forestry requirements.
After ten years, changes in logging methods, closer utilization of forest product
through relogging and salvage, and, above all, a keener awareness of all concerned in
the soundness of the hazard reduction programme have so changed the over-all picture
that areas of slash, which would of necessity have been burned heretofore, are, in more
recent years, now made ready for a new forest without burning or in some cases with
only spot-burning of slash congestion required. The gain in conservation of soil fertility, forest floor cover, and residual shade for seedling, sapling, and seed source is
cumulative. Because destructive forces to which the forest is subject are rapid and
at times spectacular, and because by contrast the constructive and regenerative processes are slow, the latter pass day by day with little notice. Exact surveys have not
yet been possible to compare the present condition of these logged areas with those
existing before 1938.    It may be reported, however, that preliminary surveys of lands Forest Protection.
RADIO EQUIPMENT.
;
::#Sip. .
Transmitter Type HQT-150. Designed and con- i<
structed by Forest Service technicians for District Head- "
quarters' use. (J
Front view, showing channel changeover wheel, centre; channel adjustment controls behind folding doors.
Rear view—note absence of visible
wiring and trunk-clip fastenings for
instantaneous removal of each chassis.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947. 47
burned over since the enactment of section 113a show remarkable and satisfactory
results. It is now generally agreed that our cut-over lands present a more favourable
appearance, are in a condition receptive to regeneration or reforestation, and are without the desolate outlook and impending fire danger imparted by miles of slash and snags.
During the year 1947 the objective of a greener and healthier state of logged-over
lands was again vigorously pursued.
Spring slash-burning commenced about mid-March and carried through until the
close of April without untoward weather or incident. Forty-one operators took advantage of spring weather and approximately 2,700 acres of slash were disposed of during
this period at a cost of around $1.35 per acre. Roughly, only $100 worth of damage,
comprising six acres of non-commercial cover and five acres of accessible merchantable
timber, was involved in the complete spring burning programme. All spring slash
fires were extinguished by April 30th without recurrence.
Fall slash-burning was carried out from the first of September through to October
8th, the last eight days of this period being suitable only for spot-burning or hand-
piling. With intermittent showers occurring during the first half of September,
conditions for broadcast burning were favourable on areas where rain had fallen and
operators who were ready and took advantage of the favourable weather obtained
excellent burns. On September 17th a north-easterly gale occurred, humidity fell below
20 per cent., and fires active at that time went out of control with suppression measures
required. From September 18th to the end of that month weather was clear with winds
generally light and hazard high. However, below elevations of 800 feet above sea-level
night dews and light fogs occurred and burning on level ground in these areas could be
carried out by using proper and reasonable care. Above 800 feet elevation humidity
remained low both night and day, fires ran through green timber on slopes and across
very clean old burns, making conditions in those areas extremely hazardous for slash-
disposal. On September 30th the weather showed signs of breaking and rain occurring
on October 1st was heavy and persistent, bringing to a close the broadcast-burning
season.
The labour situation, in so far as it affected the slash-disposal programme, improved
during 1947 in comparison with the previous year. In spite of this, however, a number
of operators overestimated their logging capacity and were not ready to burn slash
until late in September or early October. A number of this group, encountering the
adverse weather at that time, failed to obtain satisfactory burns.
In brief recapitulation a total of 74,567 acres of forest land was logged in 1947 in
the portion of the Vancouver Forest District to which section 113a applies. Of this
acreage a total of 48,297 acres was examined and officially reported on. The balance
of 26,270 acres was logged subsequent to September 1st and for slash-disposal requirements will be dealt with in 1948.
Compensation for failure to comply with the provisions of section 113a in respect
to 1946 and prior slash was levied during the year as follows:—
Cause. No. of Operations. Acreage.
Failure to dispose of slash as instructed  40 2,522.4
Failure to fall snags  41 1,722.9
Totals  81 4,245.3
Detailed statistics on all slash-disposal for the year 1947 appear in tabular form
on pages 101, 102, and 103 of this report.
During the year snag-falling crews functioning under the supervision of the
District Forester, Vancouver, carried on with the hazard reduction project south of
Roberts Lake in the Sayward Forest. A total of 21,740 snags were felled, cleaning up
an area of 1,500 acres at a cost of approximately $12 per acre.    This area is located DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
along the Menzies Bay-Salmon River Road and bears an excellent stand of young
growth. This stand has been materially improved and fire-proofed by the work carried
out. Moreover, the cleared area adjoins, on the south, a large plantation area and the
fire-protection features of that area have been greatly improved by elimination of the
snag hazard.
PREVENTION.
With the light fire-season no general closure proved necessary during the year in
the Vancouver Forest District. However, the Sayward Forest was again closed to
travel for the period June 25th to September 13th, with entry allowed only under
permit. Control was effected by manning the Menzies Bay and Duncan Bay gates on
a 24-hour basis, and all cars were stopped and cautioned regarding the danger of fire.
A prepared pamphlet entitled " Forest Facts," embodying information in regard to
the Sayward Forest, was distributed to tourists. The extensive plantations, naturally
reforested areas, and" mature timber values in this area well warrant continuation of
the policy of closing this area during the hazardous period of the year.
In the Kamloops Forest District only the Bear Creek area in the Tulameen region
was closed to travel.
In the Nelson Forest District twelve travel closures were invoked under section 119
of the Act for an average duration of three to four weeks during the most hazardous
period of the season. These closures all covered individual watersheds where existing
values placed the accent on prevention. One closure under authority of section 161
of the Act was placed in this district for the period September 11th to November 13th.
The area involved was the Upper Kootenay River valley, one of the best growing-sites
in the Nelson Forest District and subject to heavy travel during the hunting season.
No closures were invoked in the Prince Rupert or Fort George Forest Districts.
Following in tabular form are details of all 1947 forest closures:—
I
Forest Closures, 1947.
Sayward Forest :	
Koch Creek	
Bear Creek	
Lamb Creek	
St. Mary River -	
Anderson and Five Mile Creeks .'	
Sand Creek  	
Upper Kootenay area _	
Tiger, Cambridge, Gorge, and Casino Creeks _	
Blueberry, Poupore, Sullivan, Murphy, McNally, Hanna, and Topping Creeks
Pend d'Oreille River	
Marsh, Hudo, Beavervale, and Kelly Creeks and Champion Lakes	
Crawford Creek _ _	
Akokli Creek	
Upper Kootenay roads (closed under section 161, subsection (3), of the Act
Vancouver
Nelson	
Kamloops..
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Other prevention measures undertaken during the year in the districts included
timely protection messages by press and radio, addresses to service clubs and schools,
participation in local fairs by forest-protection exhibits, and posting of the usual highway and other fire-prevention signs.
CO-OPERATION—OTHER AGENCIES.
Again appreciation and thanks are due for the usual excellent co-operation received
from the honorary fire wardens and fire-prevention officers active during the season in all districts. These public-spirited citizens, who voluntarily undertake their duties
year after year, fill a key position in the protection picture in their individual communities and are a most valuable part of the suppression organization.
Excellent co-operation was again received from the R.C.A.F. and various commercial airlines in detection and reporting of fires. The pilots of these craft are most
co-operative, for the most part know their country well, and their reporting of fires
along the regular airline routes is a valuable adjunct to our protection system. A number of business concerns again voluntarily included the forest-protection message as
part of their advertising campaigns in press and radio and co-operation of this nature
is much appreciated.
FIRE-LAW ENFORCEMENT.
It was necessary to lay information in only twenty-seven cases during the year
throughout the whole Province. This is an appreciable reduction over last year's
figures and well under average for the past ten years. Of total prosecutions, convictions were obtained in all but four cases, two of which were dismissed and two wherein
charges were withdrawn. The greater proportion of prosecutions again came under
the heading of burning without a permit and refusing to render assistance in fire-
fighting and clearly indicates the need for stepping up public relations and education
in regard to governing regulations in this connection. The record for the year was
again clear in so far as any case involving contravention of a forest closure, and this
is particularly worthy of note as an indication of increasing public consciousness of
that form of prevention. 50 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
FOREST INSECT INVESTIGATIONS.*
SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1947.
During 1947 the following projects were conducted in the Province by the Forest
Insect Unit of the Dominion Department of Agriculture: (1) Mortality and deterioration of hemlock looper-damaged timber on Vancouver Island; (2) natural control of
the hemlock looper, particularly in relation to virus diseases; (3) plantation and nursery
insect problems; (4) forest insect survey in British Columbia; (5) false hemlock looper
(Nepytia canosaria Wlk.) in the Windermere country; (6) lodgepole pine needle miner
(Recurvaria milleri Busck.); (7) bark-beetle control through chemical injection; (8)
Douglas fir tussock moth (Hemerocampa pseudotsugata McD.) ; (9) spruce-balsam
stands in relation to the spruce budworm hazard; (10) European larch sawfly (Pristi-
phora erichsonii Htg.).
Personnel included six technical officers, eight student assistants, fourteen insect
rangers, three extra labourers, and one boat captain.
(1) The mortality and subsequent deterioration of timber damaged by the hemlock looper was studied on sixty-eight one-fifth-acre permanent sample plots and two
marked strips located in the Nitinat, Wilson Creek, Sarita, and Klanawa River valleys.
Due to the irregular nature of heavy attack, sample plots in themselves do not give
the over-all average condition for a valley as a whole. Only a thorough cruise of
a region could be regarded as indicative of the average condition of any large area.
From these data several conclusions are evident. First, it may be said that most of
the mortality of timber in those areas of extreme damage has now occurred. There
remains, however, a considerable amount of marginal or doubtful timber still green but
among which a certain amount of dying will probably develop during the next year or
two. The over-all mortality figures cannot be derived from anything less than a cruise
of the area concerned, but in regions it ranges from 50 per cent, to 100 per cent, of
the stand affected. Marginal timber recorded on the plots averaged (hemlock only) :
Lower Nitinat 3 per cent., Wilson Creek 11 per cent., Sarita 25 per cent., and Lower
Klanawa 25 per cent. This marginal timber will produce an abundance of dead tops,
some of it will die unquestionably, and there will be, no doubt, complete recovery in
some instances. During 1947 there was a marked recovery of some of the heavily
defoliated Douglas fir, but this was extremely localized. The greatest kill occurred
among the hemlock. The defoliation class among which the majority of dying occurred
was 90 per cent, to 100 per cent., but some trees succumbed to defoliation as low as 80
per cent. This study will continue through the future years as long as data can be
procured from the plots.
(2) Virus disease of the hemlock looper was investigated at a field station established at Poett Nook on the Alberni Inlet. This was the first attempt at such an
investigation in British Columbia. While preliminary in nature some extremely
valuable data was procured, not the least of which was the matter of techniques and
methods suitable to pursuing further virus investigations in the field. Techniques
were correlated with similar studies on the spruce budworm in Ontario through a two-
weeks visit by Dr. Kenneth Graham from the virus investigations in Ontario. This
research is planned to continue as a permanent project.
The hemlock looper outbreak subsided during the year both on the Coast and in
the Big Bend region of the Interior.
(3) Plantations at West Thurlow Island, Deep Bay, Nanaimo River, Timberlands,
Skutz Falls, Cowichan Lake, Robertson River, and a section of Hillcrest plantings were
* This  section  of the  report has  been  prepared  by  Forest  Insect  Investigations,   Science  Service,   Dominion
Department of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C. Forest Insects.
A fully grown larva of
the hemlock looper.
Hemlock looper pupa—the stage of
transformation between the larva and
the adult moth.
CV ^m^^V; II
The adult moth of the hemlock looper.
W."     -^
Large hemlock-trees completely
stripped of foliage through the feeding
of the hemlock looper.
A group of Douglas fir in the process of being denuded of their foliage
by feeding hemlock looper larvae.  REPORT OF FOREST  SERVICE, 1947. 51
systematically traversed for state of health of seedlings with respect to insects. While
Douglas fir is the principal species being planted, examinations were made of all
previous Sitka spruce plantings, which latter species is extremely subject to attack by
the Sitka spruce weevil and the spruce gall aphid. These investigations, together with
annual studies conducted for the past seven years at Echo Lake, show that 1945 was
the year of heaviest weevil attack and that 1947 was the lightest attack thus far
recorded. Something of a cyclic nature of weevil attack is suggested, which may prove
of practical value when further data is at hand. No serious insect problem was noted
on any plantation but important insects in minor intensity were recorded as follows:
Spruce gall aphid on Douglas fir, hemlock aphid on hemlock, Sequoia pitch moth on
lodgepole pine on both planted and natural regeneration, this insect being the most
abundant at Echo Lake. The most prevalent disturbance of all appears to be the shoestring root rot (Armillaria mellea Vahl.). Saplings seemed more subject to the disease
especially in the denser stands.
In the nurseries aphides, white grubs, and the strawberry root-weevil were
implicated in restricted injury, particularly in the Quinsam nursery. More detailed
qualitative population studies are planned for the three nurseries in 1948.
(4) The Forest Insect Survey in the Province made notable strides during the
year, due partly to a more adequate staff and better facilities and to the advantage
afforded the work through instruction at the Green Timbers Ranger School. Collections
by Forest Service personnel according to districts were:— collections.
Prince George       134
Prince Rupert         95
Vancouver      236
Nelson      110
Kamloops      120
Total Forest Service      695
Other collections   1,666
Total   2,361
During the year the Forest Insect Unit's boat, M.V. " J. M. Swaine," was remodelled
to provide laboratory and living accommodation and operated on the Coast as a survey
boat carrying a crew of five to seven men. It was in operation from May 20th to
November 20th. During the season it travelled the East and West Coasts of Vancouver Island and the Mainland north to Knight Inlet. All principal forest areas were
sampled for insect populations. Contacts were made with the operators and Forest
Service personnel in the regions worked.
Personnel engaged exclusively on survey-work in the Province at the close of the
year included fourteen insect rangers equally divided between the Coast and the
Interior. In their placement two each were assigned to districts as follows: Kamloops,
Nelson, Prince George, Vancouver Island, Lower Mainland, and the balance operated
from the "J. M. Swaine." Vernon remained the receiving laboratory for all survey
material, with the Trinity Valley station as the rearing centre due to inadequate facilities for this work at the Coast.
Participation of the Forest Insect Unit at the Green Timbers Ranger School was
aimed toward furthering an understanding of the place of forest entomology in scientific management of forest resources and the relationship of the Forest Insect Survey
to the whole. Four half days were devoted to these classes during the spring term and
a one-day field-trip was conducted in the hemlock looper infestation of the Lower
Nitinat, Vancouver Island. 52 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Details relative to insect abundance in the Province are provided in the Annual
Report of the Forest Insect Survey obtainable from the Forest Insect Laboratories at
Vernon or Victoria.
(5) The false hemlock looper developed as a serious threat to Douglas fir in the
Windermere country during the year. This in the first record of an outbreak by this
insect. Damage to the Christmas-tree crop and annoyance to the tourist industry
caused considerable concern to the inhabitants. A survey was made for distribution,
extent of damage, and appearance of natural control factors with a view to possible
aeroplane spraying in 1948.
(6) Lodgepole pine needle miner investigations were conducted in the National
Parks due to its greater prevalence there. The infestation covers some 300 square
miles and constitutes a threat to the pine in that portion of the Province in view of
killing inflicted in outbreaks elsewhere in the west. No mortality has occurred thus
far from this insect in British Columbia.
(7) Tests on the effectiveness of chemical injection of bark-beetle infested trees
as an alternative control procedure to the practice of cutting and burning were undertaken and the method was used by the Forest Service to control successfully a small
outbreak in spruce at Palling Lake.
(8) The Douglas fir tussock moth reached its peak during the year, inflicting
severe defoliation in restricted areas of the Kamloops and Okanagan regions. Pupal
mortality from disease was extremely high and egg-laying on many areas was practically nil.    As a result a marked decline will follow in 1948.
(9) Studies of the relation of cutting methods in the Interior spruce-balsam stands
to spruce budworm hazard were continued during the season.
(10) The European larch sawfly investigations conducted during the year show
that this species reached its lowest population level since it was first reported in British
Columbia in 1933. Introduced species of parasites appear to be largely responsible
for this decline. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947. 53
FOREST PATHOLOGY INVESTIGATIONS.*
SUMMARY OF STUDIES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1947.
Diseases in Mature and Overmature Forests.
Continuing past work in obtaining information in respect to management and
utilization, pathological investigations were completed in western hemlock and balsam
fir in the Franklin River area and western hemlock on the Queen Charlotte Islands.
The information gathered on western hemlock and balsam, fir in the Franklin
River area will shortly be published in a technical bulletin. Twenty-six and one-tenth
acres containing 963 hemlock and 719 balsam were analysed in detail. The western
hemlock, averaging 246 years of age, was culled 19 per cent, of the volume for decay.
Balsam fir, averaging 240 years of age, was culled 14.2 per cent. The average hemlock
contained 1,362 board-feet to a 10-inch top, and balsam 862 board-feet. Gross, decay,
and net volumes on age and on diameter breast height and net periodic increments have
been computed.
On the Queen Charlotte Islands 2,318 western hemlock have been analysed on 47
acres since 1945. The trees averaged 287 years of age, with an average gross volume
of 1,293 board-feet. The average cull for decay was 25.5 per cent. A report on the
findings will be issued in 1948.
New studies have been started on three species. Northern spruce in the Upper
Fraser region is being investigated to complete the pathological picture of the northern
spruce-balsam stands. A study of Douglas fir on the East Coast of Vancouver Island
has been started, and in the Quesnel region black cottonwood is under study to determine the pathologic rotation of the species in relation to management.
In the study of northern spruce, 409 trees on 2.7 acres have been analysed in detail
to date. Insufficient information has been gathered to compute net periodic increment.
Of the 409 trees, those of pulp-wood size were culled 6 per cent, of the cubic volume
for decay, while the remaining 292 of these trees, which contained saw timber, were
culled 8 per cent, of the board-foot volume.    The cull was almost entirely butt rot.
The study of decay in relation to management of Douglas fir on the East Coast
of Vancouver Island will require a very large sample of trees to determine regional
differences if any are present. To date 540 trees have been analysed on 8 acres. No
information is available on the extent of decay at the present time.
The black cottonwood investigation is of considerable interest, as the decay complex and rate of development have not been studied in British Columbia hardwoods
previously. The first part of the study, now nearing completion, is to determine the
fungi causing the decay and the extent of the spread of the organisms beyond the
advanced decay stage. This step is essential to determine the culling practice that
will be used when scaling the timber.
Diseases in Immature Forests.
A survey of the extent of white pine blister rust in the Nelson Forest District was
continued to determine the extent of the damage caused by the disease, and to determine the feasibility of any possible control of the disease. Approximately 2,870 acres
were surveyed on land where pine was one of the major crop trees. The survey was
a detailed 10 per cent, cruise of the stand, and a 100 per cent, cruise for wild currants
and gooseberries, the alternate hosts of the disease. In some areas of young growth
infection was found on as high as 90 per cent, of the reproduction.    Two areas con-
* This section of the report has been prepared by the Division of Botany and Plant Pathology, Science Service,
Dominion Department of Agriculture, Victoria. B.C. 54
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
taining a high percentage of white pine, one west of Revelstoke, and the other northwest of West Arrow Park, were the only stands which were relatively free of blister
rust, but the rough topography, small size of the forests, and ownership of the timber
make any expenditure to control the disease impractical. In the light of high costs of
controlling the disease, it is felt that emphasis should be placed immediately on an
attempt to find a rust-resistant strain of pine for reforestation.
To study the development of the white pine blister rust disease in various parts
of the Nelson Forest District five series of sample plots were established. Accurate
information will be gathered from these plots on the growth of white pine in the region
and the development of and infection by blister rust.
Root rot of Douglas fir, caused by the fungus Poria Weirii, has warranted further
attention. An area of 80-year-old pole-sized Douglas fir was reported as wind-thrown
near Skutz Falls, Cowichan Valley. On investigation it was found that the roots of
all wind-thrown trees had been damaged by Poria Weirii. The trees had become
heavily infected, chiefly through basal fire scars. It is thought that, if the stand had
not been exposed through felling of adjacent timber for poles, the trees would have
stood through a rotation with minor loss in long-butting to remove the decay. An
article in the February issue of the " B.C. Lumberman " summarized the findings on
this disease up to the time of this investigation.
Disease in Seedlings.
A disease attacking Douglas fir seedlings in the Duncan forest nursery was investigated and found to be caused by one of the damping-off fungi, Fusarium oxysporum.
The disease was most damaging two or three months after germination of the seed
and, unlike the well-known damping-off, attacked the woody-stemmed seedlings, killing
them back from the top'. This fungus appeared to be most active during the hot
summer months. During the 100-day period of study, from June to September, 49.9
per cent, of the seedlings were killed by this disease alone. A number of experimental
control methods were tried by the nursery superintendent. Of different seed-bed
rolling pressures, chemical additions to the soil surface, cover-soil treatments, and soil
treatments tried, only two showed appreciable control of the disease. The two effective
treatments were the application of hardwood sawdust to the soil surface and the cultivation of hardwood sawdust into the soil. Further investigations will be carried out
using other soil treatments and cheap sprays in an attempt to control the disease at
little or no extra cost over regular nursery practice. Tree Diseases.
Blight of Douglas fir seedlings at
the Duncan nursery destroyed 50 per
cent, of the germinates.
I
White pine blister-rust has spread
throughout the commercial range of
white pine.
Root-rot of  Douglas fir caused extensive damage at Skutz Falls.
Studies   of   decay    in    relation    to
management receive major emphasis.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947. 55
FOREST RANGER SCHOOL.
The second class of students at the Ranger School graduated in December, 1947,
after two three-month terms devoted to intensive study of the following subjects:—
A. Operation. Hours'
1. Fire law and operation procedure  60
2. Meteorology, fire behaviour, and fire-detection planning  31
3. Public relations, law enforcement, and public speaking  46
4. Preliminary fire organization  35
5. Construction and maintenance of improvements  50
6. Operation and care of mechanical equipment  42
7. Office methods   20
8. Fire-suppression methods and organization  70
B. Management.
1. Mathematics and surveying (lectures and field-trips)  124
2. Forest mensuration and cruising practice  118
3. Log scaling (theory and practice)  70
4. Stumpage appraisals and cost studies  30
5. Forest botany, pathology, and entomology  78
6. Silviculture (applied to British Columbia forests)  80
7. Forest management and general aspects of forestry  86
8. Grazing management  20
The class was composed of twelve Rangers and Acting Rangers together with
eight Assistant Rangers. There were four men from the Vancouver District, five
from the Kamloops District, six from the Nelson District, three from the Fort George
District, and two from the Prince Rupert District.
As in the previous year most of the courses were given by the school's staff of
two instructors. Where it was possible to obtain the advantages of instruction from
Departmental specialists, arrangements were made for short courses to be given by the
specialists concerned, and in four subjects — namely, meteorology, law enforcement,
forest pathology, and forest entomology—assistance from sources outside of the Department was obtained through the co-operation of the Dominion Meteorological Service,
the Provincial Police Force, and the Divisions of Plant Pathology and Forest Entomology of the Dominion Department of Agriculture. Also, a course in first aid was
arranged during the spring term through the co-operation of the local branch of the
St. John Ambulance Society, which supplied an instructor one evening per week.
For the second year the school was housed in temporary quarters at the Green
Timbers Forestry Station. However, some progress was made in the matter of acquiring better accommodation as the access roads to the permanent school-site at the Green
Timbers Station, together with main drains, were put in under contract and a firm of
architects are presently drawing up the necessary plans and specifications for suitable
permanent buildings. 56 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
PUBLIC RELATIONS AND EDUCATION.
Through the acquisition of additional staff in the last quarter of 1946 and an
increase in funds for this phase of Service activities during the current year it has
been possible to increase both the volume and type of work in the Division.
PRESS AND RADIO.
Forest Service advertisements carrying protection and other forestry educational
messages were placed in ten daily, seventy-two weekly, and twenty-seven other publications. The advertisements in the newspapers comprised a series of six messages,
layouts and copy being planned and prepared by this Division and the art work being
produced by the Government Printing Bureau. Individual advertisements of the
series were utilized in a number of the other publications, but in many cases special
layouts were designed.' As in the past the press devoted a generous measure of space—
in both editorial and news columns—to forestry matters and this assistance to our
efforts is gratefully acknowledged.
A number of scripts were prepared for radio broadcasts and members of the
Service participated in some of the broadcasts. In addition, the radio networks
co-operated, as in previous years, by devoting time to forest-fire hazard announcements
and news items in respect to various phases of forestry work.
MOTION PICTURES.
At the beginning of the year the motion-picture library contained seventy-five
subjects. Throughout the year seven new sound films were added and eight obsolete
subjects were removed, resulting in the library ending the year with a stock of seventy-
four subjects. One print of each of the three park films—Tweedsmuir, Garibaldi, and
Mount Robson—was deposited with the Agent-General in British Columbia House,
London, England, for circulation in the United Kingdom.
A Janette rotary converter was purchased by the Division late in the year to
facilitate the use of Service projection equipment and films in areas of the Province
where only direct electrical current is available. A manual covering the operation of
this unit is being compiled.
Members of the Service gave a total of fifty-three film showings during the year.
Of this number sixteen were by members of the Division staff, twenty-two by other
personnel of the Victoria head office, and fifteen by district personnel. All districts,
except Fort George, participated in this phase of our work and, from the reports submitted when films were returned to the library, it is evident that there is an opportunity for material expansion of this activity. There is no question that a projection
unit could be kept in almost continuous use in all districts, and the question of purchasing such equipment should be given serious consideration. In the case of most
showings by Service personnel an address was also given by the officer in attendance.
Circulation records of the film library during 1947 show a marked increase over
the 1946 figures in number of loans, number of films loaned, showings, and the number
of persons in the audiences. Seventy-seven films were shown to 812 different audiences comprising 8,009 adults, 25,362 children, and 24,351 both adults and children,
for a total of 57,722 persons. This represents an increase over 1946 of 441 showings,
or 102 per cent., and 25,089 audience, or 77 per cent., and brings the cumulative total
audiences for the last three years to 108,102 persons.
During the year the Division compiled and published a comprehensive catalogue
of the films available which was given wide distribution. Through this medium the
film library has been brought to the attention of forestry organizations, libraries, Public Relations.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947. 57
schools, service clubs, and other groups throughout the Dominion, many of which were
unaware that such films could be secured. This partially accounts for the 43 per cent,
increase over the preceding year in the number of individual loans made.
The three most widely distributed forestry films were " Garibaldi Park " (shown
forty-four times to 3,278 persons), "Tweedsmuir Park" (shown fifty-nine times to
2,400 persons), and " Forest Farming " (shown fifteen times to 2,222 persons). It is
interesting to note that the latest film produced during the year by the Parks section
of the Service, " Mount Robson Park," was shown twenty-five times to 2,131 persons
in the six months it was in circulation. The most distant point at which our films
were shown was the Forest Protection School at Duchesnay, Quebec. A tabular statement on the stock and circulation of the film library appears on page 110 of this report.
PUBLICATIONS.
The Annual Forest Service Report for 1946 was edited. Assistance was furnished
to the Economics Division in editing Technical Bulletin T. 30—Forest Site Types of
the Pacific Northwest—and a booklet describing the work of the Cowichan Lake Forest
Experimental Station, and to the Operations Division in editing their 1947 series of
forest-protection bulletins. The Division also assisted in editing two papers written
for presentation to the Fifth Imperial Forestry Conference, and two issues of a new
series of bulletins entitled " Forest Topics." The Division produced five personnel
news-letters. Supervising the production of all these publications and a number of
minor printing jobs by the Government Printing Bureau was the responsibility of the
Division.
EXHIBITS.
Two exhibits were assembled—one on reforestation and the other on forest-fire
detection methods. The former was displayed at the Pacific National Exhibition in
August and has been made use of on other occasions since that date. The fire-detection
exhibit, accompanied by a member of the Division staff, was circulated in the Nelson
Forest District in September and has been used once in the Vancouver District since
that time. A third exhibit, planned for use this year in the Vancouver Forest District,
was deferred owing to the difficulty of securing requisite materials and lack of staff.
ARTICLES, PAPERS, AND ADDRESSES.
Several special articles were produced by the Forester in charge and his assistant
and placed through various trade and other publications and the newspapers. A number of press releases were also issued. A paper on the relationship of forests and wildlife was prepared and presented at the annual conference of Fish and Game Clubs held
at Harrison Hot Springs in May. Addresses were made before various schools, clubs,
service organizations, church groups, and others, either with or without the accompaniment of motion pictures.
CO-OPERATION.
Honorary fire wardens, to the number of 722, were appointed in the five forest
districts. A letter of thanks for their co-operation and interest was sent to each, over
the signature of the Minister, together with the conservation magazine " Forest and
Outdoors " for a period of one year.
The Division co-operated with the Boy Scout and Girl Guide Associations by
instructing in tree identification and other forestry subjects, leading to the award of
forestry badges to members of those organizations, and by examining candidates.
Revised requirements for this badge were draughted and submitted to the Girl Guides
Association. 58 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Co-operation was extended to the National Film Board by the loan of a number of
motion picture subjects from our library for projection in their theatre at the Pacific
National Exhibition when the Board devoted one entire day to forestry films. The
Division Forester was in attendance throughout the day and introduced the programme
at hourly intervals.
The Division furnished material and rendered assistance in a critical and advisory
capacity to numerous individuals preparing articles and books on forestry or the forest
industries for publication.
MISCELLANEOUS EDUCATIONAL MEDIA.
The customary Service calendar (1948) was produced in its usual format from
material supplied by the Reforestation Division. The number procured exceeded any
previous supply of this article and it is satisfactory to report that stock was sufficient
to meet all demands for the first time in some years. The small surplus which remained
after primary distribution is gradually being used up in response to frequent inquiries
as to the extent of planting activities in the Province.
One fire poster was designed and produced and preliminary steps taken toward
securing a supply of Scotchlite signs for roadside display in 1948.
The manuscript of a booklet suitable for distribution to children from 6 to 9 years
of age was purchased and arrangements for printing are under way.
LIBRARY.
The work in the reference library and photograph section of the Division showed
an increase over previous years and now demands the unremitting attention of the
librarian in charge. In particular requests for photographs depicting the various
phases of forestry activities have attained considerable volume. Additional book- and
photograph-index drawers were secured and sufficient space for the orderly expansion
of this department during the next two or three years is now available. Additional
shelf space is required for book storage. The part-time services of a junior clerical
assistant are essential if indexing of photographs and clippings is to be maintained in a
satisfactory manner, and a request for such assistance in the next fiscal year has been
submitted. A tabular statement of library operations during the past ten years appears
on page 111.
OTHER ACTIVITIES.
By virtue of its work and interests the Division is being called upon to an increasing degree, and it is felt that satisfactory development and growth has followed its
inception just over two years ago. The increased work has, regrettably, tended to tie
the two senior officers to work in the head office and has prevented the establishment
and maintenance of closer contact with activities in the field. It is hoped to remedy
this deficiency during the coming year but it has pointed up the need for public relations
officers in each forest district. The need for a competent writer-photographer is also
urgent, together with junior clerical assistance as previously outlined. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947. 59
GRAZING.
GENERAL CONDITIONS.
In general, live-stock producers enjoyed a good, although at times a rather perplexing, year. Prices remained high and range and hay crops varied from fair to good.
A continuing shortage of competent labour and materials has impeded most aspects
of the business, including range management. A number of difficulties, including a
packing-house strike, were successfully weathered but not altogether without loss by
some stockmen. The recent renewal of the British beef contract and continuing strong
domestic demand indicate a good market during the coming year.
The winter of 1946-47 could be regarded as average. There were short periods of
rather cold weather interspersed with heavy thaws, with heavy snows in some districts.
The snow melted somewhat earlier than usual in the spring. There followed several
weeks of cold, dry weather, so that the grass crop was slow in starting. Plentiful
rainfall in June and for the balance of the summer produced a forage crop which proved
to be one of the best in many years. These conditions were fairly uniform with the
exception of one or two localities where rainfall was insufficient to produce good grass.
An unusually mild fall and early winter has been experienced, there being no severe
weather at all up to the end of the year.
In most cases the 1946 hay crop proved adequate to carry stock over the winter
and cattle came out of the feed yards in fairly good shape. Some stockmen are still
inclined to turn their cattle out too early in the spring before the spring range is ready,
but where better management practices prevailed and the rancher did not gauge his
turn-out merely by the state of the snow-line cattle did not fall off in flesh early in the
season. From the middle of the season on some stock was shipped directly from the
range and was in excellent shape.
Grasshoppers caused very little damage to either range or hay crops this year.
This was probably due to the prevailing weather conditions and the ravages of parasites
during the previous year. Over $5,000 was spent on control measures in the Nicola
Grasshopper-control Area.
The labour situation seems to have improved somewhat, in quantity at least,
particularly in the southerly portions of the Province. The shortage remains acute in
other areas, notably the Cariboo and Chilcotin. A large percentage of the men hired
only stay with the job for a short period before moving on. This makes it extremely
hard to operate efficiently, particularly as most of the hands are inexperienced, and
renders it difficult for the rancher to carry out necessary range improvements and
handle his stock properly on the range.
MARKETS AND PRICES.
British Columbia live-stock producers enjoyed another year of good returns,
although marketing received a severe setback due to the strike in the larger packinghouses during September and October. It was notable, however, that the independent
packers who continued to operate did not take advantage of the situation and fair prices
were received by the stockmen for that stock which they were able to sell. The market
was able to absorb the heavy offerings at the end of the strike without any depressing
effects being noted. It is difficult to assess the actual loss to the rancher caused by the
strike. Some cattle undoubtedly went down in grade owing to inadequate pasture,
while in other cases badly needed spring and fall range had to be sacrificed to hold the
beef in good shape.
Some 45,648 head of cattle and 25,008 sheep and lambs were shipped during 1947.
The 1947 wool-clip ran to 238,227 pounds of wool, a decrease from the 1946 figure. 60 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Average beef prices ranged from a low of $12.80 in January to $15 in June. Lamb
prices averaged $14.28 per hundredweight, and wool prices increased to 29 cents per lb.
There were four major live-stock sales during 1947. The sale at Elko held by the
Waldo Stockbreeders' Association disposed of 465 head at an average price of $73. The
Twenty-ninth Annual Provincial Bull Sale held at Kamloops sold 104 bulls with a high
of $1,700. The Interior Stock Association's annual sale was scheduled to take place at
the time of the strike and had to be postponed and, when finally held, only 794 head of
commercial cattle were disposed of. The Tenth Annual Cariboo Feeder and Fat-stock
Sale at Williams Lake cleared 1,763 head, and the Christmas Fat-stock Show and Sale at
Kamloops sold 290 head of cattle for $56,726.91, a very considerable increase over 1946.
The boys' and girls' section of the show was very strong. The grand champion brought
a record of $2.05 per lb. At Quesnel there were 576 head of cattle sold at an average
price of $94.63.
LIVE-STOCK LOSSES.
Losses of stock were about normal during 1947. As pointed out last year the
principal cause of loss is due to predatory animals. Bears, wolves, and coyotes continued to be responsible for losses of sheep and cattle and the wolves appear to be
moving further south and east all the time. All ranchers' and farmers' organizations
are continuing to press for the payment of higher bounties on these predators and
several associations are paying bounties of their own and assessing their membership.
Live-stock losses from poisonous weeds were lighter this year due to the good grass
crop.
RANGE RECONNAISSANCE.
The past year saw the continuation of our range reconnaissance programme.
A total of 567,000 acres was covered by intensive range surveys. In the Clinton area
313,800 acres were mapped, completing that portion of the Clinton and district stock
range lying between the old Cariboo Road and the Fraser River. In the Lac la Hache
area 238,900 acres were covered, which completes all that portion of the Lac la Hache
stock range lying to the east of the Cariboo Highway. A reconnaissance of the Tat-
layoko area covered some 104,300 acres, which will aid materially in settling disagreements on range matters in that area. Extensive examinations were also carried out in
the following areas: Harp Mountain alpine range, west side of Coldwater River from
Midday Creek to Brodie, Upper Tulameen area, Tom Cole Mountain and Murray
Mountain areas. It is proposed to continue this range-survey work during 1948 as it
is found that such reconnaissance information is essential to the sound management of
Crown ranges.
CO-OPERATION.
There are now thirty-eight Live-stock Associations in the Province, some being
combined with Farmers' Institutes. In all eighty-five meetings of these associations
were held, of which seventy-four were attended by forest officers. These meetings
form an excellent opportunity for the forest officer to contact the range user and, by
attending meetings, it is frequently possible to settle problems and questions without
correspondence. The forest officer is in a position to explain the aims and objects of
grazing administration to a number of interested people at the one time, and it is felt
that this advances the objectives of proper range management.
GRAZING PERMITS.
The number of grazing permits dropped off during 1947. This has been due partly
to consolidation of range holdings and partly to some ranchers having expanded their
private holdings so that it is not now necessary for them to use Crown range.    The   REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947. 61
tabulation on page 111 shows the volume of business for 1947 and the past ten years.
As fewer stock were on the range during 1947, the fees billed and collected dropped to
some extent. However, a further reduction was made in outstanding fees. Among
the outstanding accounts there are some that were incurred ten to twenty years ago and
collection in many cases is quite impossible as the debtors have died or moved from the
Province. The table on page 111 shows the grazing fees billed and collected for the
past nine years.
RANGE IMPROVEMENTS.
A continuation of the programme of range improvements was planned but, due
to labour and material shortage, it was again impossible to accomplish as much as
desired. There are still many stock trails and drift-fences to build, mud-holes to
protect, and watering places to be developed but, until labour is more plentiful, no
great progress can be expected along this line. The following is a list of the projects
completed during 1947:—
Cattle-guards    4 Holding-grounds   6
Drift-fences   7 Stock trails   8
Mud-holes    3 Water developments   5
The total expenditure from the Range Improvement Fund was $3,386.18.
The wild-horse disposal programme continued. The Vernon, Cariboo, and Belt
districts and the range of the Waldo Stockbreeders' Association were closed to horses
from December 15th, 1946, to March 15th, 1947, and, during that period, 655 horses
were shot and 160 horses rounded up and sold. In addition to this, many owners
rounded up and took off the range, temporarily at least, horses which belonged to them.
The programme is continuing during the winter of 1947-48. 62 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY, DECEMBER 31ST, 1947.
Victoria Office.
C. D. Orchard Chief Forester Victoria.
R. C. St. Clair Assistant Chief Forester Victoria.
E. W. Bassett Forester—Operations Victoria.
R. G. McKee Forester Victoria.
J. R.Johnston Assistant Forester Victoria.
J. H. Blake Marine and Structural Engineer Victoria.
W. C. Spouse Mechanical Superintendent Victoria.
G. A. Playfair Chief Radio Engineer Victoria.
H. E. Ferguson Radio Engineer Victoria.
D. H. Owen Technical Forest Assistant Victoria.
E. B. Prowd Forester—Management Victoria.
G. M. Abernethy Assistant Forester  Victoria.
F. S. McKinnon Forester—Economics Victoria.
J. L. Alexander Forester Victoria.
R. H. Spilsbury Forester Victoria.
D. M. Carey Assistant Forester Victoria.
H. N. Cliff Assistant Forester Victoria.
A. E. Collins Assistant Forester Victoria.
A. R. Fraser Assistant Forester Victoria.
E. H. Garman Assistant Forester Victoria.
W. Hall Assistant Forester Victoria.
J. W. Ker Assistant Forester Victoria.
C. P. Lyons Assistant Forester Victoria.
H. M. Pogue Assistant Forester Victoria.
G. Silburn Assistant Forester Victoria.
R. C. Telford Assistant Forester Victoria.
D. M. Trew Assistant Forester Victoria.
G. C. Warrack Forester-in-Training Victoria.
P. D. Bragg Technical Forest Assistant Victoria.
A. M. Clarke Technical Forest Assistant Victoria.
A. Gordon Technical Forest Assistant Victoria.
D. Macdougall Technical Forest Assistant Victoria.
C. P. Mellander Technical Forest Assistant Victoria.
J. W. Shaw Technical Forest Assistant Victoria.
S. G. Smith Technical Forest Assistant Victoria.
J. H. Warwick Technical Forest Assistant Victoria.
R. H. Boyd Acting Forest Ranger Victoria.
H. G. McWilliams Forester—Reforestation Victoria.
A. H. Bamford Assistant Forester Victoria.
E. G. Whiting Supervisor Victoria.
T. Wells Superintendent, Green Timbers Nursery__.New Westminster.
W. Turner Superintendent, Campbell River Nursery Campbell River.
J. R. Long Superintendent, Duncan Nursery Duncan.
Eric Druce Forester—Public Relations Victoria.
D. R. Monk Technical Forest Assistant Victoria.
R. D. Greggor Forester—Ranger School New Westminster.
J. A. Pedley Assistant Forester New Westminster.
J. G. MacDonald Superintendent, Forest Service Marine
Station Vancouver.
S. W. Barclay Royalty Inspector Victoria.
H. H. Smith Chief Accountant Victoria.
R. G. Gilchrist Chief Draughtsman Victoria.
Districts.
Vancouver.
C. J. Haddon District Forester Vancouver.
M. W. Gormely Assistant District Forester Vancouver.
I. S. Mahood Assistant Forester Vancouver.
J. S. Stokes Assistant Forester Vancouver.
D. B. Taylor Assistant Forester Vancouver.
A. H. Waddington Assistant Forester Vancouver. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947. 63
Vancouver—Continued.
C. L. Armstrong Supervisor of Scalers Vancouver.
A. C. Heard Assistant Supervisor of Scalers Vancouver.
J. McNeil Fire Inspector Vancouver.
C. F. Holmes Supervisor (Slash) Vancouver.
R. Murray Supervisor Vancouver.
G. G. Armytage Forest Ranger North Vancouver.
K. M. Bell Forest Ranger Pender Harbour.
W. Black Forest Ranger Powell River.
E. T. Calvert Forest Ranger Mission.
L. C. Chamberlin Forest Ranger Thurston Bay.
E. W. Cowie Forest Ranger Nanaimo.
C. S. Frampton Forest Ranger Lake Cowichan.
S. C. Frost Forest Ranger Squamish.
R.J. Glassf ord Forest Ranger Qualicum.
J. P. Greenhouse Forest Ranger Langford.
C. D. Haddon Forest Ranger  Campbell River.
W. E. Jansen Forest Ranger Lund.
A. C. C. Langstroth Forest Ranger _■ Alert Bay.
R. Little  Forest Ranger Harrison Hot Springs.
J. A. Mahood Forest Ranger Chilliwack.
S. Silke Forest Ranger Courtenay.
H. Stevenson Forest Ranger Alberni.
P. E. Sweatman Forest Ranger Duncan.
R. W. Aylett Acting Forest Ranger Sechelt.
J. 0. Little Acting Forest Ranger Port Hardy.
K. A. McKenzie Acting Forest Ranger Zeballos.
J. H. Robinson Acting Forest Ranger Thurston Bay.
E. P. Fox Chief Clerk Vancouver.
Prince Rupert.
J. E. Mathieson District Forester Prince Rupert.
M. O. Kullander Assistant District Forester Prince Rupert.
J. A. K. Reid Assistant Forester Prince Rupert.
S. G. Cooper Forest Ranger Terrace.
C. L. Gibson Forest Ranger Smithers (City).
J. B. Scott Forest Ranger Queen Charlotte.
D. R. Smith Forest Ranger Prince Rupert.
S. T. Strimbold Forest Ranger Burns Lake.
L. G. Taft Forest Ranger Southbank.
H. W. Campbell Acting Forest Ranger Ocean Palls.
W. H. Campbell Acting Forest Ranger Hazelton.
W. H. Murray Chief Clerk Prince Rupert.
Fort George.
L. F. Swannell District Forester Prince George.
A. H. Dixon Assistant District Forester Prince George.
E. W. Robinson Assistant Forester Prince George.
W. G. Henning Fire Inspector Prince George.
F. H. Nelson Supervisor Prince George.
A. H. McCabe Inspector (Scalers) Prince George.
H. T. Barbour Forest Ranger Pouce Coupe.
W. N. Campbell Forest Ranger Prince George.
G. A. Forbes Forest Ranger Prince George.
A. J. Kirk Forest Ranger Vanderhoof.
J. S. Macalister Forest Ranger McBride.
L. A. Willington Forest Ranger Penny.
C. L. French Forest Ranger Prince George.
R. G. Cranston Acting Forest Ranger Fort St. John.
I. B. Johnson Acting Forest Ranger Quesnel.
W. V. McCabe Acting Forest Ranger Giscome.
A. V. O'Meara Acting Forest Ranger Vanderhoof.
R. B. Carter Chief Clerk Prince George. 64
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Kamloops.
A. E. Parlow District Forester Kamloops.
W. C. Phillips Assistant District Forester Kamloops.
I. T. Cameron Assistant Forester Kamloops.
W. C. Pendray Assistant Forester Kamloops.
W. W. Stevens Assistant Forester Kamloops.
J. P. MacDonald Fire Inspector Kamloops.
D. H. Ross Fire Inspector Kamloops.
E. A. Charlesworth Inspector (Scalers) Kamloops.
J. Boydell Forest Ranger Salmon Arm.
J. H. Dearing Forest Ranger Princeton.
R. B. W. Eden Forest Ranger Kelowna.
H. A. Ferguson Forest Ranger Chase.
J. M. Fraser Forest Ranger Merritt.
J. W. Hay hurst.—  Forest Ranger
R. C. Hewlett Forest Ranger
M. A. Johnson Forest Ranger
H. G. Mayson Forest Ranger
J. W. McClusky Forest Ranger
C. Perrin Forest Ranger
C. E. Robertson Forest Ranger
E. L. Scott Forest Ranger
J. A. Sim Forest Ranger
C. Williams Forest Ranger
C. M. Yingling Forest Ranger
D. P. Fraser Acting Forest Ranger.
T. L. Gibbs Acting Forest Ranger..
H. J. Parker Chief Clerk .__
.Vernon.
... Birch Island.
___ Enderby.
..Barriere.
—Vernon.
... Penticton.
__ Clinton.
__ Revelstoke.
.— Sicamous.
—Kamloops.
—Williams Lake.
—Blue River.
_.Alexis Creek.
.—Kamloops.
S. E. Marling__
H. B. Forse..
Nelson.
.District Forester	
..Acting District Forester..
P. Young ___     Assistant District Forester..
H. K. DeBeck Assistant Forester	
C. D. Grove-White Assistant Forester	
L. S. Hope Assistant Forester	
G. W. Minns Assistant Forester	
J. H. Holmberg Fire Inspector	
T. W. Brewer Supervisor	
G. T. Schupe Inspector (Scalers)	
J. H. A. Applewhaite Forest Ranger	
H. J. Coles Forest Ranger	
R. A. Damstrom Forest Ranger _
W. D. Haggart—
J. L. Johnson	
J. F. Killough______
C. J. McGuire—
H. C. Nichols	
G. C. Palethorpe_
G. T. Robinson	
R. 0. Christie	
H. L. Couling	
F. G. Hesketh—
F. R. Hill	
E. W. Reid	
..Forest Ranger _
..Forest Ranger...
..Forest Ranger...
..Forest Ranger..
..Forest Ranger..
.Forest Ranger_
_ Forest Ranger	
.Acting Forest Ranger..
.Acting Forest Ranger..
..Acting Forest Ranger..
.Acting Forest Ranger-
Acting Forest Ranger__
C. R. Tippie Acting Forest Ranger_.
S. S. Simpson Chief Clerk.
.-Nelson.
-Nelson.
-Nelson.
Nelson.
-Nelson.
-Nelson.
-Nelson.
-Nelson.
-Nelson.
-Nelson.
Creston.
-Golden.
.Fernie.
Edgewood.
Invermere.
...Kettle Valley.
-Canal Flats.
-Rossland.
..Nelson.
Kaslo.
-Cranbrook.
-Nakusp.
-Arrowhead.
-Waldo.
-Grand Forks.
.New Denver.
..Nelson.   REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947. 67
TABULATED DETAILED STATEMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE.
CONTENTS.
General.
Page.
69
Reforestation.
ie Years 1938-47	
     70
Table No.
1. Distribution of Personnel, 1947
Forest Management.
3. Estimated Value of Production, including Loading and Freight within the
Province  71
4. Paper Production  (in Tons)  71
5. Water-borne Lumber Trade (in M.B.M.)  72
6. Total Amount of Timber scaled in British Columbia during the Years 1946-47
(in F.B.M.)  73
7. Species cut, all Products (in F.B.M.)  74
8. Total Scale (in F.B.M.) segregated, showing Land Status, all Products, 1947__ 75
9. Timber scaled in British Columbia in 1947 (by Months and Districts)  76
10. Logging Inspection, 1947  78
11. Trespasses, 1947  79
12. Pre-emption Inspection, 1947  79
13. Areas examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of the " Land Act," 1947  79
14. Classification of Areas examined, 1947  80
15. Areas cruised for Timber-sales, 1947  80
16. Timber-sale Record, 1947  80
17. Timber-sales awarded by Districts, 1947  81
18. Average Stumpage Prices as bid per M.B.F. Log-scale, by Species and Forest
Districts, on Saw-timber cruised on Timber-sales in 1947  82
(a)  January to May, inclusive  82
(o)  June to December, inclusive  83
19. Average Stumpage Prices received per M.B.F. Log-scale, by Species and Forest
Districts, on Saw-timber scaled from Timber-sales in 1947  84
(a) January to May, inclusive  84
(b) June to December, inclusive  84
20. Timber cut from Timber-sales during 1947  85
21. Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1947  86
22. Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1947  87
23. Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc., 1947-__ 88
24. Summary for Province, 1947  89
25. Timber-marks issued  89
26. Forest Service Draughting Office, 1947  90
27. Forest Insect Survey, 1947  90
Forest Finance.
28. Crown-granted Timber Lands paying Forest Protection Tax  91
29. Extent and Assessed Value of Timber Land by Assessment Districts  91 68 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Table No. Page.
30. Average Assessed Values of Crown-granted Timber Lands paying Forest Pro
tection Tax, as compiled from Taxation Records  92
31. Forest Revenue  93
32. Amounts charged against Logging Operations, 1947  94
33. Amounts charged against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1946-47  95
34. Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1946-47  96
35. Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1946-47  97
36. Scaling Fund  97
37. Silviculture Fund  98
38. Forest Reserve Account  98
39. Grazing Range Improvement Fund  98
40. Standing of Forest Protection Fund, December 31st, 1947  99
41. Forest Protection Expenditure for Twelve Months ended March 31st, 1947—By
the Forest Service ._,  100
42. Forest Protection  Expenditure for Twelve  Months ended  December 31st,
1947—Reported Approximate Expenditure by Other Agencies  101
Forest Protection.
43. Summary of Acreage logged, 1947, and dealt with under Section 113a  101
44. Summary of 1947 Operations, Vancouver Forest District  102
45. Summary Chart A—Intentional Slash-burn  103
46. Recapitulation Slash-disposal, 1934-47  103
47. Fire Occurrences by Months, 1947  104
48. Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1947  104
49. Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years _.  104
50. Fires classified by Size and Damage, 1947  105
51. Damage to Property other than Forests, 1947  105
52. Damage to Forest-cover caused by Forest Fires, 1947  106
53. Fire Causes, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1947  106
54. Comparison of Damage caused by Forest Fires in Last Ten Years  107
55. Fires classified by Forest District, Place of Origin, and Cost per Fire of Fire-
fighting, 1947  107
56. Prosecutions, 1947  108
57. Burning Permits, 1947  109
Ranger School.
58. Enrolment at Ranger School  110
Public Relations.
59. Motion Picture Library  110
60. Forest Service Library ,  111
Grazing. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947.
69
(i)
Distribution of Personnel, 1947.
Forest District.
Personnel.
Vancouver.
Prince
Rupert.
Fort
George.
Kamloops.
Nelson.
Victoria.
Total.
Continuously employed.
Chief   Forester,    Assistant   Chief   Forester,   and
2
4
3
22
4
30
25
7
1
1
3
58
11
1
2
1
8
1
1
12
3
2
1
2
11
1
1
1
10
2
6
2
18
1
1
1
3
15
5
3
4
2
17
1
1
3
15
8
23
1
3
7
8
92
3
8
63
4
14
8
8
District Foresters and Assistant District Foresters....
11
39
9
77
8
31
25
7
4
Mechanical-^Radio and Engineering Supervisors
11
8
Nursery, reforestation, and parks	
92
3
Draughtsmen	
19
173
Superintendent and  foremen—Forest Service
4
14
14
Miscellaneous	
14
172
28
29
54
46
242
571
Seasonally employed.
34
11
16
16
42
3
2
4
1
14
5
10
5
9
1
1
2
15
13
12
4
2
2
1
3
24
27
18
16
48
4
2
1
33
16
32
19
44
2
5
3
8
1
250*
22
17
31
120
73
88
60
143
250
29
14
28
46
129
47
52
140
162
321
851
301
75
81
194
208
563
1,422
* Seasonal average. 70
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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PI REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947.
73
Total Amount of Timber scaled in British Columbia during the Years 1946-47
(6) (in F.B.M.).
Forest District.
1946.
1947.
Gain.
Loss.
Net Gain.
2,394,825,986
124,855,987
3,098,865,842
187,121,710
704,039,856
62,265,723
2,519,681,973
3,285,987,552
766,305,579
62,580,526
184,613,649
201,613,808
225,175,176
84,585,211
234,806,453
316,602,732
265,834,251
22,004,685
50,192,804
114,988,924
40,659,075
673,983,159
901,828,647
227,845,488
3,193,665,132
4,187,816,199
994,151,067
994,151,067 74
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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> REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947.
75
W
Total Scale (in F.B.M.) segregated, showing Land Status,
all Products.
Forest District.
Vancouver.
Prince
Rupert,
Coast.
Prince
Rupert,
Interior.
Fort
George.
Kamloops.
Nelson.
Totals,
1947.
Timber licences	
Timber berths	
Timber leases	
Pulp leases .'	
Pulp licences	
Hand-loggers' licences	
Dominion lands	
Timber-sales	
Pulp-timber sales	
Pre-emptions, S.R., and
miscellaneous	
Crown grants—
To 1887	
1887 to 1906	
1906 to 1914	
1914 to date	
Totals..:	
667,525,685
157,618,648
191,945,099
55,734,228
16,286,864
54,474
25,557,613
631,028,915
8,684,956
28,884,958
1,083,468,146
116,828,855
42,709,089
72,538,312
24,883,181
25,045,997
24,786,467
360,520
397,752
62,911,077
28,551,552
1,159,789
2,299,066
14,284,218
2,442,091
809,900
68,514,326
1,739,697
85,544
6,562,577
6,516,119
3,098,865,842
187,121,710
84,585,211
5,554,779
169,604,344
22,476,517
103,692
289,494
5,738,256
31,039,371
234,806,453
4,618,678
17,824,621
2,589,505
195,626,277
6,156,125
29,147,792
10,595,145
19,515,205
30,529,384
16,648,783
3,452,038
51,185
4,695,999
160,563,617
5,701,496
3,105,645
36,396,835
15,529,980
19,688,673
316,602,732
265,834,251
719,588,154
178,895,307
191,996,284
80,780,225
41,073,331
414,994
34,050,769
1,288,248,556
37,236,508
66,118,582
1,115,825,275
166,494,939
104,339,325
162,753,950
4,187,816,199
Timber from lands in the former Dominion Government Railway Belt which has passed over to the jurisdiction
of this Province is included under the various land status headings shown above.
Only timber from Indian reserves and other lands still under the jurisdiction of the Dominion Government is
shown under the heading " Dominion Lands."
Total Scale of Material in Cubic Feet included above segregated, showing Land Status,
all Products.
(Conversion factor: 1 cubic foot-= 5 board-feet.)
Forest District.
Special
Timber
Licences.
Pulp
Leases.
Pre-emption,
S.R., and
Miscellaneous.
Crown
Grants,
1887.
Total.
Vancouver	
110,498
641,347
10,785
704,487
1,467,117 76
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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E- 78
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(io)
Logging Inspection, 1947.
Type of Tenure operated.
Forest District.
Timber-
sales.
Hand-
loggers'
Licences.
Leases,
Licences,
Crown Grants,
and
Pre-emptions.
Totals.
No. of
Inspections.
1,061
1,048
619
1,064
636
1
4
1,493
328
130
666
573
2,555
1,380
749
1,730
1,209
4,534
2,586
1,072
3,351
Nelson	
2,333
Totals, 1947	
4,428
5
3,190
7,623
13,876
Totals, 1946	
3,627
6
3,021
6,654
12,974
Totals, 1945	
3,492
9
2,852
6,353
11,901
Totals, 1944	
3,373
4
2,540
5,917
11,648
Totals, 1943	
3,259
11
2,519
5,789
12,110
Totals, 1942	
3,086
18
2,569
5,673
13,753
Totals, 1941	
3,207
18
2,833
6,058
11,438
Totals, 1940	
2,864
12
2,272
5,148
10,968
Totals, 1939	
2,770
10
2,068
4,848
11,295
Totals, 1938	
2,674
23
1,804
4,501
10,828
Ten-year average, 1938-47	
3,277
12
2,567
5,856
12,079 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947.
79
(ii)
Trespasses, 1947.
OJ
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Quantity cut.
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39
49
84
71
452
190
398
1,929
2,163
7,844,377
2,753,375
1,455,823
3,782,301
1,398,725
19,875
55,104
121,496
210,023
253,123
132
553
3,819
279
816
669
927
1,655
1,984
602
349,554
4
2
2
2
5
$35,325.70
7,967.51
90,000
8,600.50
7,997
6,817
10,863.91
17,506
12,003.81
Totals, 1947	
316
5,132
17,234,601
659,621
5,599
5,235
15,416
439,554
17,506
15
$74,761.43
Totals, 1946	
226
2,568
7,084,343
1,760,574
1,469
2,900
10,148
41,377
35,997
8
$27,530.63
Totals, 1945	
267
3,313
24,322,556
516,960
1,910
9,902
2,438
10
$37,877.12
Totals, 1944	
210
2,467
12,317,066
179,219
3,369
4,231
3,781
5
$29,198.16
Totals, 1943	
167
3,058
9,744,957
129,409
6,873
552
7,923
7
$23,725.29
Totals, 1942	
180
1,159
4,413,906
365,861
4,757
490
1,512
15
$14,391.61
Totals, 1941	
236
1,788
7,627,990
526,391
2,887
1,365
4,150
17
$24,253.10
Totals, 1940	
194
877
5,206,829
94,444
1,573
4,279
9,854
13
$14,088.24
Totals, 1939	
209
571
6,905,268
94,818
3,147
5,206
46,729
26
$17,725.00
Totals, 1938	
149
816
4,309,030
203,195
3,014
1,185
7,530
10
$9,653.86
Ten-year average, 1938-47	
215
2,174
9,916,655
453,049
3,460
3,534
10,948
13
$27,319.94
(12)
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert
Fort George ___
Kamloops 	
Nelson 	
Pre-emption Inspection, 1947.
48
35
106
184
50
Total
____ 423
(is)
Areas examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of the
" Land Act," 1947.
Forest District.
i
Applications for      Applications for
Hay and Grazing  j      Pre-emption
Leases.                      Records.
Applications to
Purchase.
Miscellaneous.
Totals.
Vancouver	
No.
2
8
9
83
6
Acres.
194
2,698
1,248
58,907
10,783
No.
3
11
27
36
1
Acres.
2.41
1,538
3,719
4,779
158
No.
222
54
156
243
154
Acres.
17,679
5,369
16,983
23,855
17,709
No.
151
21
13
58
14
Acres.
2,986
1,351
427
5,472
633
No.
378
94
205
420
175
Acres.
21,100
10,956
22,377
Kamloops	
Nelson	
93,013
29,283
Totals	
108
73,830
78
10,435
829
81,595
257
10,869
1,272
176,729 80
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(U)
Classification of Areas examined, 1947.
Forest District.
Total Area.
Agricultural
Land.
Non-agricultural Land.
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Estimated
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Acres.
21,100
10,956
22,377
93,013
29,283
Acres.
3,582
2,738
12,057
8,382
3,842
Acres.
17,518
8,218
10,320
84,631
25,441
Acres.
1,326
162
1,191
2,620
15
MB.M.
25,572
2,622
14,478
15,445
145
Totals	
176,729
30,601
146,128
5,314
58,262
(IB)
Areas cruised for Timber-sales, 1947.
Forest District.
Number
cruised.
Acreage.
Saw-
timber
(MB.M.).
Pit-props,
Poles, and
Piles
(Lineal Ft.).
Shingle-
bolts and
Cordwood
(Cords).
Railway-
ties
(No.).
Car-stakes,
Posts,
Shakes,
etc. (No.).
657
304
313
424
90,241
45,818
67,789
108.275
767,223
123,224
272,198
194,609
124,461
985,545
834,700
611,630
5,259,111
15,324,450
5,154
3,487
9,990
23,173
8,542
478,200
70,039
142,055
65,805
21,602
4,500
121,050
262     j       49,711
460,375
Totals, 1947	
1,960
361,834    [ 1,481,715
l
23,015,436
50,346
299,501
1,064,125
Totals, 1946                       	
2,059
362,587    | 1,230,716
40,760,769
90,078
216,892
2,718,706
Totals, 1945	
1,488
261,150    j    948,673
48,743,325
95,774
301,276
1,802,468
Totals, 1944	
1,476
334,729
1,205,308
8,166,829
137,737
483,363
1,345,439
Totals, 1943	
1,771
690,953
907,768
10,720,729
259,741
454,767
816,544
Totals, 1942	
1,469
305,222
794,676
8,562,739
100,232
381,106
743,500
Totals, 1941	
1,611
321,220
689,595
15,794,246
126,463
199,174
263,480
Totals, 1940	
1,620
300,480
572,562
11,309,288
72,157
314,644
512,042
Totals, 1939	
1,324
212,594
470,660
5,016,945
68,078
339,866
261,100
Totals, 1938	
1,486
325,403
482,680
5,747,765
126,329
804,240
169,900
Ten-year average, 1938-47....
1,627
337,617
878,435
17,783,808
112,694
379,483
969,731
(16)
Timber-sales, 1947.
District.
Sales
made.
Sales
closed.
Total
existing.
Total Area
(Acres).
Acreage paying Forest
Protection
Tax.
Total
10-per-cent.
Deposits.
Vancouver	
689
305
310
436
332
342
233
216
384
242
1,672
1,074
749
1,585
1,115
389,221
253,223
181,803
384,021
314,559
228,003
152,203
98,174
270,872
205,891
$736,615.44
205,408.15
158,488.29
229,445.53
194,382.13
Nelson	
Totals	
Including cash sales	
2,072
397
1,417
6,195
1,522,827
955,143
$1,524,339.54
Total sales	
2,469
1 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947.
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(21)
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1947.
Operating.
Shut Down.
Forest District.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
No.
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.M.
No.
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
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Shingles, M.
No.
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
MB.M.
No.
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
Shingles, M.
486
205
329
367
247
8,543
1,288
2,961
2,161
2,593
62
1
6
4
8,508
5
29
9
53
28
24
158
52
265
124
155
3
1
2
95
5
56
40
Totals, 1947	
1
1,634    j      17,546
73
8,609
143     |             754
6
100
Totals, 1946	
l
1,228            15,256
59
8,656
115
741
8
165
Totals, 1945	
931     1       13.590
51
7,054
137
808
7
150
Totals, 1944	
807
14,974
51
6,695
110
702
16
581
Totals, 1943	
614
13,623
54
7,411
120
646
19
829
Totals, 1942	
551
13,197
70
8,874
149
1,206
11
135
Totals, 1941	
557
13,820
76
8,835
129
1,083
5
63
Totals, 1940    	
542
12,691
77
8,585
141
1,432
18
307
Totals, 1939	
461
11,698
84
7,926
147
1,907
24
537
Totals, 1938	
481
12,159
88
8,184
126
1,406
19
315
Ten-year average,
1938-47	
781
13,855
68
8,083
131
1,069
13                 318 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947.
87
(22)
Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1947.
Species.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Totals.
18,582
6,577,490
3,261,308
13,248,983
3,922
4,311,093
5,954,529
12,734,065
631,799
32,803,041
9,234,419
32,560,538
635,721
529,531
37,643,665
7,552,386
7,552,386
25,074
.     4,001
250,585
21,115
20,614
41,540
979
181,585
296,273
66,656
979
1,417
3,797
186,799
Totals, 1947	
7,156,095
21,100,803
52,368,152
7,552,386
88,177,436*
Totals, 1946       	
6,843,046
17,485,065
28,308,163
33,898,926
86,535,200
Totals, 1945         :	
3,852,321
20,696,800
24,903,105
32,624,170
82,076,396
Totals, 1944    	
6,724,297
29,051,958
33,851,519
32,027,805
101,655,579
Totals, 1943	
2,809,744
17,720,743
28,863,804
29,261,754
78,656,045
Totals, 1942	
2,639,167
18,960,886
27,618,347
106,793,550
156,011,950
Totals, 1941	
8,549,320
63,485,278
43,165,973
191,879,335
307,079,906
Totals, 1940	
4,697,188
37,567,582
24,865,886
150,396,702
217,527,358
Totals, 1939          	
6,383,398
111,155,799
66,870,882
128,323,383
312,733,462
Totals, 1938	
4,386,370
98,637,490
74,650,653
81,998,569
259,673,082
5,404,095
43,586,241
40,546,647
79,475,658
169,012,641
* Of this total, 82,057,256 F.B.M. were exported from Crown grants carrying the export privilege;   6,120,180
F.B.M. were exported under permit from other areas. DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts,
(**) Railway-ties, etc., 1947.
Forest District.
Quantity
exported.
Approximate Value,
F.O.B.
Where marketed.
United
States.
Canada.
United
Kingdom.
Other
Countries.
Vancouver—
Poles  lin. ft.
Piles    lin. ft.
Pulp-wood   cords
Fence-posts   posts
Mine-timbers    lin. ft.
Mine-props    cords
Christmas trees    trees
Shakes    pieces
Prince Rupert—
Poles and piling  lin. ft.
Posts    posts
Fort George—
Poles  lin. ft.
Piles lin. ft.
Hewn ties   ties
Mine-props    cords
Fence-posts   cords
Kamloops—
Poles and piling  lin. ft.
Hewn ties  ties
Fence-posts   cords
Mine-timbers    lin. ft.
Stubs    lin. ft.
Christmas trees    trees
Nelson—
Poles  lin. ft.
Piles    lin. ft.
Sticks and stakes  lin. ft.
Mine-props  cords
Fence-posts  cords
Cordwood    cords
Hewn  ties    ties
British pit-props  cords
Christmas trees    trees
Total value, 1947	
Total value, 1946	
3,104,524
1,362,126
2,138
35,289
180,525
170
41,178
8,574,982
1,672,574
4,144
284,536
2,570
138,219
3,702
1,795
8,401,675
47,774
3,155
7,517,676
10,210
792,444
5,288,309
134,713
187,500
6,962
33,606
54
97,287
6,057
722,711
$776,131.00
408,638.00
32,070.00
8,822.00
5,117.00
2,890.00
10,295.00
290,297.00
284,337.00
1,036.00
44,292.01
334.10
137,082.98
64,789.91
17,950.00
1,322,883.65
53,025.81
83,023.25
230,736.26
1,021.00
150,564.36
899,011.00
21,554.00
938.00
139,240.00
504,090.00
405.00
115,831.00
105,998.00
130,088.00
$5,842,491.33
|$5,689,985.52
2,191,696
829,758
2,138
9,112
41,178
7,954,314
561,175
38,490
18
5,256,950
792,444
3,893,792
18,754
187,500
18,038
613,131
911,748
188,784
26,177
620,668
1,111,399
4,144
246,046
2,570
138,219
1,777
3,144,725
47,774
3,155
141,893
10,210
1,336,413
115,959
6,962
15,568
54
97,287
243,059
180,525
170
1,080
100,525
7,375,783
58,104
6,057 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947.
89
(tt)
Summary for Province, 1947.
Product.
Volume.
Value.
Per Cent, of
Total Value.
Poles and piling 	
 lin. ft.
20,251,027
283,280
54
2,138
39,433
38,556
7,698,201
10,834
10,210
187,500
8,574,982
1,556,333
6,057
$3,757,180.76
305,939.79
405.00
32,070.00
9,858.00
605,063.25
235,853.26
206,919.91
1,021.00
938.00
290,297.00
290,947.36
105,998.00
64.31
5.23
o.oi
0.55
0.17
10.35
 lin. ft.
4.04
Stubs 	
 lin. ft.
3.54
0.02
 lin. ft.
0.02
4.97
Christmas trees 	
British pit-props 	
 trees
 cords
4.98
1.81
Totals     	
38,658,605
$5,842,491.33
100.00
(t5)
Timber-marks issued.
1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.
1945.
1946.
1947.
272
101
99
275
58
1
16
13
1,724
4
3
2
20
211
85
101
282
64
1
16
5
1,853
11
6
2
17
160
85
92
250
79
2
9
4
1,709
19
6
2
1
190
98
104
283
72
2
5
11
2,017
9
5
1
4
280
89
81
234
51
1
9
10
1,893
8
6
1
1
329
115
106
337
53
2
3
16
1,898
6
15
2
631
200
176
473
70
3
8
15
2,637
35
738
Crown grants, 1887-1906    	
191
Crown grants, 1906-1914	
176-
489
75
Pre-emptions under sections 28 and 29,
8
9
18
2,469
32
1
Totals	
2,588
315
2,654
307
2,418
224
2,801
237
2,664
251
2,882
327
4,248
486
4,206
655 90
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(26)
Forest Service Draughting Office, 1947.
Month.
Number of Drawings prepared or Tracings made.
Number of Blue-prints
or Ditto-prints made
from Draughting Office
Drawings.
Timber-
sales.
Timber-
marks.
Examination
Sketches.
Miscella-      Construc-
neous             tional
Matters.     Works, etc.
Totals.
Blueprints.
Ditto-
prints.
Totals.
31
174
92
28
22
16
26
21
9.7
2
7
9
2
7
327    •
295
371
362
449
407
415
390
352
302
308
328
1,031
797
854
1,419
1,519
1,206
1,154
891
874
753
739
789
520
480
681
651
710
1,551
1,277
1,535
2,070
2,229
34
125
107
38
33
33
232                85
220                74
252               141
30
230               113
July	
46
44
46
46
57
69
218               120
93         i              R
980  1    2,134
945  |    1,836
935       1,809
965       1,718
1,100  |    1,839
1,272  |    2,061
August	
September	
194
176
135
142
19K
118
97
103
82
106
32
22
14
25
34
2
11
4
2
1
November	
Totals, 1947	
500      |    2,223
604       1      1 931
1,238
1,028
693
459
396
359
468
434
408
340
290
525
684
544
293
111
150
282
269
316
55
48
75
46
93
73
70
*
*
*
4,306
4,136
3,214
2,380
2,075
1,740
2,022
2,091
1,851
1,947
12,026
9,113
6,495
4,159
4,009
t
t
t
t
t
9,844  j  21,870
Totals, 1946	
Totals, 1945	
Totals, 1944	
Totals, 1943	
Totals, 1942	
Totals, 1941	
Totals, 1940	
Totals, 1939	
Totals, 1938	
569
442
356
329
247
224
231
268
1,193
889
937
868
1,087
1,151
943
1,023
6,701
4,983
3,448
t
t
t
t
t
13,196
9,142
7,457
t
t
t
t
t
Totals for ten-
year period	
|
3,770      j  12,245
5,823
3,464
460
25,762
35,802
32,276
68,078
Average for ten-
year period	
377      |    1,225
582
346
66±
2,576
1                1
7,160§j     6,455§    13,616§
1                  1
* Prior to 1941, Constructional Works, etc., included in Miscellaneous Matters. t No record kept prior to
1943. t Average for seven-year period only. § Average for five-year period only.
(27)
Forest Insect Survey, 1947.
Forest District.
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert.
Fort George ___.
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Insect-box
Collections
made.
.___ 236
___ 95
___ 134
___ 129
... 120
Negative
Reports.
13
1
Nil
6
Nil
Totals
714
20
Information received from Annual Report   (1947)   of Forest Insect Survey, Division of  Entomology,  Science
Service. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947.
91
(28)
Crown-granted Timber Lands paying Forest Protection Tax.
Year.
1921_
Area (Acres).
__ 845,111
1922  887,980
1923  883,344
1924  654,668
1925  654,016
1926  688,372
1927  690,438
1928  671,131
1929  644,011
1930  629,156
1931  602,086
1932  552,007
1933  567,731
1934  557,481
1935  535,918
1936  515,924
1937  743,109
1938  754,348
1939  719,112
1940  549,250
1941  543,632
1942  527,995
1943  543,044
1944  571,308
1945  591,082
1946  601,148
1947  596,900
Average Assessed
Value per Acre of
Timber Land.
$10.33
11.99
11.62
15.22
40.61
39.77
39.01
38.62
38.41
44.74
43.77
43.73
41.18
37.25
37.13
36.61
23.32*
23.05
22.73
27.70f
26.99
26.34
25.15
25.28
26.32
26.64$
25.01§
* From 1937 forest protection tax has been charged on areas assessed as timber land in their entirety, in
accordance with section 119 of the " Forest Act '* and section 33 of the " Taxation Act" ; previously the levy was
on the timbered portion only.
t Approximately 155,000 acres assessed as timber land reverted to the Crown in 1939.
t That is, 169,456 acres logged-off land at $2 per acre, and 431,692 acres timber at $36.31 per acre.
§ That is, 179,663 acres logged-off land at $2 per acre and 417,237 acres timber at $39.22 per acre.
Extent and Assessed Value of Timber Land by Assessment Districts.
Assessment District.
Acreage,
1947.
Increase or
Decrease over
1946.
Average
Value
per Acre.
Change in
Assessed Value
since 1946.
Alberni	
Comox	
Cowichan	
Fort Steele	
Galiano	
Kettle Valley....
Nanaimo	
Nelson	
Omineca	
Prince George-
Prince Rupert..
Revelstoke	
Slocan	
Victoria	
Totals
79,522
118,895
104,193
12,969
240
315
139,792
1,997
160
1,233
21,164
33,203
39,744
43,473
596,900
— 102
— 13,845
+2,636
-5,659
— 640
+3,340
—14,358
$37.18
26.46
37.90
4.69
11.53
10.37
29.76
6.37
4.15
15.71
12.43
10.58
2.60
36.62
28.02
+81.41
—.66
+ 3.53
—.06
—1.97
-.23
+.46
-4.72
+.01
+6.62 92
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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M
•A 96 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
('*)                            Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1946-47.
10-year Average.
Timber-licence rentals   $390,624.89 $440,391.14
Timber-licence transfer fees  4,190.00 1,609.00
Timber-licence penalty fees  3,644.46 19,156.07
Hand-loggers' licence fees   100.00 415.00
Timber-lease rentals  50,571.87 54,413.63
Timber-lease penalty fees and interest 58.71 283.14
Timber-sale rentals   69,407.32 16,575.08
Timber-sale stumpage  1,935,489.32 1,030,722.28
Timber-sale cruising  23,945.85 13,410.18
Timber-sale advertising   5,003.75 2,600.16
Timber royalty   2,245,971.48 2,009,032.95
Timber tax   13,132.72 37,677.68
Scaling fees (not Scaling Fund)        255.40
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund)__ 1,372.64 1,144.86
Trespass stumpage   65,046.54 25,565.19
Scalers' examination fees  1,010.00 1,057.50
Exchange   50.15 37.97
Seizure expenses   1,647.75 854.02
General miscellaneous   16,196.81 6,489.74
Timber-berth rentals, bonus, and fees _ 21,615.91 22,777.66
Interest on timber-berth rentals  19.10 170.06
Transfer fees on timber berths  78.00 75.11
Grazing fees and interest   31,055.62 27,674.80
$4,880,232.89     	
Taxation from Crown-granted timber
lands        237,506.83 $237,814.00
$5,117,739.72 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947.
97
(S5)
Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1946-47.
Forest District.
Salaries.
War Service,
Temporary
Assistance.
Expense!.
Temporary
Assistance.
Total.
$15,862.80
37,909.47
17,761.77
11,034.56
17,324.00
17,217.37
77,021.10
$15,862.80
$76,499.67
37,998.46
37,402.12
72,596.63
64,483.86
136,065.01
$3,229.48
203.00
117,638.62
Prince Rupert	
$975.00
56,938.23
48,436.68;
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Victoria	
2,177.50
1,000.00
5,405.85
92,098.13:
750.00
2,230.68
83.451.2S
220,722.64
Totals	
$425,045.75
$12,015.83
$194,131.07
$3,955.68
$635,148.33
Canadian Forestry Associ.
2,000.00
23,989.87
22,808.66
169,014.34
8,927.52
28,812.78
29,848.01
3,395.35
20,000.00
Grazing range improveme
nt*	
10,533.90
1,000,000.00
111,604.71
$2,066,083.47
* Contributions from Treasury to special funds detailed elsewhere.
N.B.—The above figures do not include amounts paid as cost-of-living bonus, totalling
follows:—
Salaries  $49,490.56
Temporary assistance _  665.62
War service, temporary assistance  1,898.29
Expense  6,413.30
Forest management  1,915.04
Forest research  1,510.55
Reforestation  16,215.61
Ranger school  2,682.08
Provincial parks _.  2,945.13
,736.18, made up as
Scaling Fund.
Balance, April 1st, 1946 (debit)
Collections, fiscal year 1946-47 _.
Expenditures, fiscal year 1946-47
Balance, March 31st, 1947 (debit)
Balance, April 1st, 1947 (debit) 	
Collections, nine months, April-December, 1947 —
Expenditures, nine months, April-December, 1947
Balance, December 31st, 1947 (debit) 	
$81,620.99
219,122.27
$137,501.28
235,095.49
$97,594.21
$97,594.21
291,144.56
$193,550.56
239,258.94
$45,708.59 98 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
<") Silviculture Fund.
Collections, calendar year 1947     $63,801.03
Expenditures, calendar year 1947         Nil
Balance in Fund as at January 1st, 1948     $63,801.03
<**) Forest Reserve Account.
Balance brought forward, April 1st, 1946  $386,867.32
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1946 (under
subsection (2), section 32, " Forest Act")     111,604.71
$498,472.03
Moneys received under subsection (4), section 32, " Forest
Act"	
Expenditures, fiscal year 1946-47     143,606.52
Balance, March 31st, 1947 (credit)  $354,865.51
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1947 (under
subsection (2), section 32, "Forest Act")     127,488.80
$482,354.31
Expenditures, nine months to December 31st, 1947     145,082.84
Balance, December 31st, 1947 (credit)  $337,271.47
Grazing Range Improvement Fund.
Balance, April 1st, 1946 (credit)  $31,810.97
Government contribution (section 14, "Grazing Act")___ 10,533.90
Other collections  32.03
$42,376.90
Expenditures, April 1st, 1946, to March 31st, 1947         8,454.21
Balance, March 31st, 1947 (credit)     $33,922.69
Government contribution (section 14, "Grazing Act")      10,351.87
Other collections  65.53
$44,340.09
Expenditures, April 1st, 1947, to December 31st, 1947        4,870.45
Balance, December 31st, 1947 (credit)     $39,469.64 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947. 99
(to) Standing of Forest Protection Fund, December 31st, 1947.
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1946     $354,190.59
Expenditure  $1,223,792.78
Less refunds         39,253.96
     1,184,538.82
$1,538,729.41
(See detailed summary of net expenditure on page 100.)
Government contribution   $1,000,000.00
Collections, tax       291,189.93
Collections, slash and snags... $36,154.27
Less refunds        3,628.50
  32,525.77
     1,323,715.70
Balance (deficit), March 31st, 1947     $215,013.71
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1947      $215,013.71
Expenditure, nine months, April-December, 1947      $786,036.95
Repayable to Votes (approximately)        284,292.76
     1,070,329.71
$1,285,343.42
Collections, tax      $263,812.59
Collections, miscellaneous         14,380.02
Refunds of expenditure  32,590.25
Government contribution  937,500.00
     1,248,282.86
Estimated deficit, December 31st, 1947        $37,060.56 •'
100
DEPARTMENT OF
LANDS AND FORESTS.
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> REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947.
101
Reported Approximate Expenditure in Forest Protection by other
(i2> Agencies, 1947.
Expenditures.
Forest District.
Patrols and
Fire-
prevention.
Tools and
Equipment.
Fires.
Improvements.
Total.
$102,579.00
900.00
$133,493.00
1,461.00
$84,264.36
1,207.00
11,482.63
2,613.97
2,295.22
$6,100.00
700.00
$326,436.36
4,268.00
11,482.63
2,613.97
1,500.00
24,150.00
2,000.00
29,945.22
Totals	
$104,979.00
$159,104.00
$101,863.18
$8,800.00
$374,746.18
Ten-year average, 1938-47	
$75,847.00
$91,592.00
$136,534.00
$4,480.00
$308,453.00
<w   Summary of Acreage logged, 1947, and dealt with under Section 113a.
Acres.
Total area logged, Vancouver Forest District    	
Total area logged in hazard area, Vancouver Forest
District     	
1947 slash covered by hazard reports  48,297
1947 slash logged after September 1st and carried over
to 1948 (including 4,274 acres on which snag-
falling only is required)  26,270
1947 slash covered by hazard reports	
1947 slash burned intentionally  18,519
1947 slash burned accidentally     1,756
1947 slash on which no burning was requested  10,170
1947 slash on which additional time for burning has
been granted          456
1947 slash awaiting decision re compensation or additional time for disposal  17,339
1947 slash on which compensation has been assessed  19
1947 slash abated by lopping, land-clearing, etc  38
Acres.
76,313
74,567
74,567
48,297
48,297 102 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(tt) Summary of 1947 Operations, Vancouver Forest District.
Total operations, hazard area, Vancouver Forest District      1,280
Number of intentional slash-burns      308
Number of operations on which slash was disposed of
by lopping and scattering or land-clearing, etc  6
Number  of  operations  on  which  slash  accidentally
burned  :        31
Number of operations not required to burn      302
Number of operations given further time for disposal 3
Number of operations not considered necessary to deal
with under section 113A      307
Number of operations on which compensation has been
assessed for 1947 slash  1
Number of operations pending decision re assessment
or further time for slash-disposal      243
Number of operations inactive in 1947        64
Number of operations snag-falling area only        36
Number of operations not advanced to a point requiring slash-disposal         12
Number of operations on which security deposit has
been posted   2
1,315*    1,280
* Difference noted above is accounted for by slash on some opera'tions being disposed of by both accidental and
intentional means and some operators conducting both spring and fall burns.
Summary of Slash-hazard being carried for Disposal in 1948.
Acres.
Slash accumulated prior to 1947*     7,215
Slash accumulated in 1947 (exclusive of 4,274 acres on which
snag-falling only requirement)*  39,791
47,006
* Areas covered by assessment not included in this acreage. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947. 103
(iS) Summary Chart A—Intentional Slash-burn.
Operations conducting slash-burn  308
Acres slash-burned in 1947—
Created prior to 1945     1,233
Created 1945        975
Created 1946  13,687
Created 1947  18,519
Total   34,414
Acres of forest-cover burned  1,741
Total acres of area burned  36,154
Net damage to forest-cover  $3,865.00
Net damage to property on operations and cut products..__ $3,001.00
Cost of slash-disposal—
Operators   $84,970.00
Forest Service   Nil
Acreage hazard abated, 1947  34,414
Cost to operator based on stand of 40 M per acre  $0.06 per M
Cost to operator per acre  $2.47
Total damage   $6,865.00
(■*«■> Recapitulation Slash Disposal, 1934-47.
Acres of Slash burned.
Year.                                                                                                              Accidentally. Intentionally.
1934.  4,927 15,935
1935  11,783 13,239
1936  1,340 7,691
1937  3,015 27,516
1938  35,071 50,033
1939  1,930 51,603
1940  2,265 33,034
1941  3,385 5,524
1942  4,504 80,226
1943  2,046 40,013
1944  5,121 27,278
1945  3,897 46,467
1946  2,174 25,498
1947  2,663 34,414 104
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(tr)
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1947.
Forest District.
March.
April.
May.
June.
July.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Total.
Per
Cent.
1
3
3
24
6
8
11
12
58
19
27
110
47
38
4
11
27
22
107
1
31
123
206
117
5
10
73
118
49
1
6
41
13
394
39
93
385
421
29.58
2.93
6.98
28.90
• 31.61
Totals	
7
61
261
102
468
323
110
1,332
100.00
0.53
4.58
19.59
7.66
35.13
24.25
8.26
100.00
1
62
203
173
589
489
190
9
1,716
3.67
11.83
10.08
34.32
28.50
11.07
0.53
100.00
(ts)
Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1947.
M .
a >.
•H c.
Sis
P.-2 6
i
to »
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0)
a
o
Forest District.
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27
39
115
103
23
5
29
4
47
2
394
29.58
Prince Rupert	
3
5
6
4
15
2
3
1
39
2.93
25
38
8
6
1
5
1
7
2
93
6.98
46
98
48
83
7
1
4
3
75
20
385
28 90
225
13
107
45
11
1
3
12
4
421
31 61
Totals	
326
193
270
245
51
8
53
13
144
29
1,332
100 00
24.47
14.49
20.27
18.39
3.83
0.60
3.98
0.98
10.81
2.18
100.00
610
228
190
328
82
10
42
35
161
30
1,716
35.55
13.29
11.07
19.11
4.78
0.58
2.45
2.04
9.38
1.75
100.00
	
(w
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years.
Causes.
1947.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
Total.
326
193
270
245
51
8
53
13
144
29
515
263
231
326
117
16
38
10
159
32
541
183
426
356
69
5
32
32
155
39
408
203
329
342
51
10
51
13
210
50
256
157
216
304
58
8
20
7
136
23
704
158
114
220
30
31
38
5
90
24
871
142
73
184
81
4
33
20
134
19
1,265
236
90
400
74
5
41
38
171
18
515
305
77
374
111
11
32
88
175
16
703
442
72
524
180
4
77
121
238
51
6,104
2,282
1,898
3,275
822
102
415
347
1,612
301
Campers	
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing).
Road and power- and telephone-line con-
Totals	
1,332
1,707
1,838
1,667
1,185
1,414
1,561
2,338
1,704
2,412
17,158 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947.
105
(so)
Fires classified by Size and Damage, 1947.
Total Fires.
Under %
Acre.
Vt, to 10 Acres.
Over 10 to 500
Acres.
Over 500 Acres
in Extent.
Damage.
^  .
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Vancouver	
394
29.58
253
64.21
32.69
112
28.43
28.14
27
6.85
18.88
2
0.51
11.76
372
8
14
39
2.93
23
58.97
2.97
10
25.64
2.51
6
15.39
4.20
38
1
93
6.98
43
46.24
5.56
25
26.88
6.28
17
18.28
11.89
8
8.60
47.06
84
6
R
385
421
28.90
31.61
147
308
38.18
73.16
18.99
39.79
153
98
39.74
23.28
38.44
24.63
78
15
20.26
3.56
54.54
10.49
7   1.82
41.18
366
414
16
4
3
Nelson	
3
Totals    	
1,332
100.00
774
100.00
398
100.00
143
100.00
"1	
100.00|1,274
35
23
100.00
58.11
29.88
10.73
1.281 	
 J95.64
2.6311.73
Ten-year aver
age, 1938-47
1,716
902
521
249
44
1,577
91
48
100.00
52.56
30.36
14.51
2.571	
 |91.90
1
5.3012.80
(51)
Damage to Property other than Forests, 1947.*
Forest District.
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
Buildings.
Railway
and
Logging
Equipment.
Miscellaneous.
Total.
Per Cent,
of Total.
$166,383.20
161.50
55.60
584.00
8.00
$4,330.00
$69,416.92
$217.50
$240,347.62
161.50
70.60
1,564.00
4,594.00
97.41
0.07
15.00
170.00
386.00
0.03
610.00
4,200.00
200.00
0.63
1.86
Totals	
$167,192.30
$9,140.00
$69,616.92
$788.50
$246,737.72
100.00
67.76
3.70
28.22
0.32
100.00
$111,219.00
$30,647.00
$93,441.00
$31,159.00
$266,466.00
41.74
11.50
35.07
11.69
100.00
* Does not include intentional slash-burns.    For this item see page 103. 106
DEPARTMENT OP LANDS AND FORESTS.
(52)
Damage to Forest-cover caused by Forest Fires, 1947—Part I*
Accessible
Merchantable Timber.
Inaccessible
Merchantable
Timber.
Immature
Timber.
Forest District.
rt
cy
tt
■3m
_U  QJ
as
01
Salvable
Volume of
Timber
killed.
01
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CO
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SB s
AanA
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01
fc.
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o
HH    S-Tj
oi
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0
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01   P
Acres.
336
70
855
334
357
MB.M.
4,600
128
3,243
397
1,646
MB.M.
2,688
92
1,053
5
8
$
3,337
91
6,418
803
2,030
Acres.
60
MB.M.
900
$
650
157
Acres.
398
41
1,477
3,984
225
$
4,178
104
5,259
59
103
5,194
256
1,952
10,014
3,846
12,679
119
1,003
807
6,125
14,991
1.37
90.90 j      38.41
20.29
0.08
9.10
1.29
4.29
23.99
60,291
57,483
194,325
* Does not include intentional slash-burns.    For this item see page 103.
(52)
Damage to Forest-cover caused by Forest Fires, 1947—Part II.*
Not satisfactorily
Noncommercial
Grazing or
Pasture
Nonproductive
Grand Totals.
Cover.
Land.
Sites.
Forest
District.
TJ
"S c
*S   -o
60
oo
bfl
CO
OO 3
MX)
£      QJ
a     qj
rt
s
__.  "
ig P
rt
£
__. 0
rt
S
rt
a
rt
QJ
d
ci
rt
S
o p
13 O j0
5 3
5 3
*_: 3
hJ p
iJ rt-Q
ffl c,S
Q
■3.5
p
<J5
Q
<3.q
Q
<
a
Q
Acres.
2,663
1
188
429
431
Acres.
207
10
4
402
3
Acres.
70
39
5,733
2,533
605
$
507
27
1,479
1,359
330
Acres.
143
7
102,050
7,099
100
$
120
2
25,937
1,796
23
Acres.
41
261
7,137
2,056
47
$
2
53
1,697
122
3
Acres.
313
1
50
1,153
793
$
65
13
288
197
Acres.
4,231
430
117,494
18,049
2,561
M B.M.
5,500
128
3,243
500
1,646
$
8,859
277
40,803
9,719
Nelson	
2,839
Totals	
3,712
626
8,980
3,702
109,399
27,878
9,542
1,877
2,310
563
142,765 j  11,017
62,497
Per cent	
2.60
0.44
6.29
5.92
76.63
44.61
6.68
3.00
1.62
0.90
100.00 1   100.00
100.00
Ten-year average, 1938-47
11,915
94,221
32,831
19,819
1,522
61,165
15,288
339,676 '[254,766
543,810
* Does not include intentional slash-burns.    For this item see page 103.
(5S)
Fire Causes, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1947.
Causes.
No.
Per Cent.
Cost.
Per
Cent.
Damage.
Per Cent.
Lightning	
Campers	
Railways operating	
Smokers	
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing)	
Road and power- and telephone-line con
struction	
Industrial operations	
Incendiarism	
Miscellaneous (known causes)	
Unknown causes	
Totals	
326
193
270
245
51
53
13
144
29
1,332
24.47
14.49
20.27
18.39
3.83
0.60
3.98
0.98
10.81
2.18
100.00
$26,127.89
7,767.08
107.11
4,708.69
16,277.60
375.01
856.70
3,346.29
56.96
43.82
13.02
0.18
7.90
27.30
0.63
1.44
5.61
0.10
$6,570.54
11,702.09
1,077.61
12,478.26
35,165.35
42.75
226,720.25
81.45
10,185.40
5,211.02
$59,623.33
100.00
$309,234.72
2.12
3.78
0.35
4.04
11.37
0.01
73.32
0.03
3.29
1.69
100.00 REPORT OP FOREST SERVICE, 1947.
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(56)
Prosecutions, 1947.
Forest District.
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xi
1
Vancouver.	
Prince Rupert	
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals	
Ten-year average, 1938-47
10
$100.00
25.00
100.00
100.00
150.00
17
$475.00
26
$624.28 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1947.
109
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ft 110
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(58)
Enrolment at Ranger School, by Years and
Distric.
CS.
District.
Rangers.
Acting
Rangers.
Assistant
Rangers.
Clerks.
Total.
.....
1
1
1
3
2
1
2
3
1
2
1
2
5
4
4
3
4
Totals ..
2
1
2
2
0
9
3
5
4
20
19t7.
4
5
6
2
Fort George	
3
3
Totals     	
8
2
1
1
2
12
3
4
2
3
1
1
20
19tS.
5
5
5
4
1
4
2
12         I           2
20
(«M Motion Picture Library Stock and Circulation Records.
Stock Records.
Year.
Totals,
1945.*
1946.
1947.
1945-47.
74
4
5
75
t
75
2
2
75
61
75
8
7
74
77
14
14
138
Circulation Records.
56
85
76
2,341
6,676
8,730
164
328
371
11,940
10,408
10,285
235
632
812
8,009
25,362
24,351
455
Number of film loans during year (one film loaned one time)
1,045
1,259
Numbers in audiences—
22,290
42,446
43,366
Total                    	
17,747
32,633
57,722
108,102
* Recording of film circulation only commenced in 1945.
t No record. REPORT OF FOREST  SERVICE, 1947.
Ill
(60)
Forest Service Library.
Classification.
ITEMS RECEIVED AND CATALOGUED.
1938.
1939.
1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.
1945.
1946.
1947.
Ten-year
Average,
1938-47.
Bound volumes	
Government reports and bul-
118
405
87
28
218
83
15
283
95
5
153
36
9
120
29
10
85
32
12
49
63
13
80
61
12
126
79
14
231
90
24
175
Other reports and bulletins....
65
Totals	
610
329
393
194
158
127
124
154
217
335
264
Periodicals  and  trade  jour-
54
3,277
56
3,343
47
4,278
'  55
5,259
43
1,962
45
1,170
50
1,175
48
1,294
51
1,523
72
1,798
52
2,507
(61)
Grazing Permits issued.
District.
No. of
Permits
issued.
Number of Stock under Permit.
Cattle.
Horses.
Sheep.
Kamloops	
1,000
291
31
94,978
8,594
2,151
3,867
1,538
108
24,145
1,040
104
Totals, 1947	
1,322
1,379
1,378
1,320
1,221
1,130
1,064
881
790
738
1,122
105,723
106,273
109,201
101,606
93,497
84,788
77,774
74,404
69,447
72,774
89,549
5,513
5,035
5,064
4,862
4,844
4,797
4,180
3,958
2,758
2,248
4,326
26,189
Totals, 1946	
31,274
Totals, 1945	
39,235
Totals, 1944	
40,858
Totals, 1943	
39,921
Totals, 1942	
36,962
Totals, 1941	
39,552
Totals, 1940	
37,132
Totals, 1939	
38,357
Totals, 1938	
37,060
36,654
(62)
Grazing Fees billed and collected.
Year.
Fees billed.
Fees
collected.
Outstanding.
1939	
$21,348.41
23,338.28
23,781.19
25,116.02
24,680.37
28,554.02
30,066.34
30,120.38
28,584.74
$22,027.05
38,146.48
29,348.22
30,802.33
31,148.36
31,000.34
31,465.23
31,412.24
29,203.74
$42,012.10
1940 '..	
27,203.90
1941	
21.636.87
15,950.56
9,482.57
7,036.25
5,637.36
4,345.50
3,726.50
1942	
1943	
1944	
1945	
1946	
1947	
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1948.
1,315-348-9231     

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