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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF ATTORNEY-GENERAL Provincial Game Commission REPORT For the… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1948

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF ATTORNEY-GENERAL
Provincial Game Commission
REPORT
For the Year ended December 31st,
1946
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Don McDubmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesly.
1948.  To His Honour C. A. Banks,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
The undersigned has the honour to submit the Report of the Provincial Game
Commission for the year ended December 31st, 1946.
G. S. WISMER,
Attorney-General.
Attorney-General's Department,
Victoria, B.C., 19^7. Office of the Game Commission,
Vancouver, B.C., July 1st, 1947.
Honourable G. S. Wismer, K.C.,
Attorney-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—We have' the honour to submit herewith our Report for the year ended
December 31st, 1946.
We have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servants,
JAMES G. CUNNINGHAM,
FRANK R. BUTLER,
Game Commissioners. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Reports— Page.
Game Commission     7
Game Wardens, "A" Division  12
Officer Commanding " B " Division  14
Fishery Supervisor C. H. Robinson, " B " Division  19
Officer Commanding " C " Division—Game  29
Officer Commanding " C " Division—Game Fish  37
Officer Commanding " D " Division  39
Game Wardens, " E " Division  42
Interim Report re Moose Investigation, by James Hatter  44
Statistical Reports—
Comparative Statistical Statement of Revenue, etc., 1913-46, inclusive  53
Summary of Total Revenue derived from Sale of Various Licences, Collections,
etc., during Year 1946  54
Revenue—Sale of Resident Firearms Licences and Deer (Game) Tags  55
Revenue—Sale of Resident Anglers', Guides', Free Farmers', and Prospectors'
Firearms Licences  56
Revenue—Sale of Non-resident Firearms and Anglers' Licences and Outfitters'
Licences  57
Revenue—Sale  of  Non-resident  Ordinary  Firearms  and  Anglers'   (Minors)
Licences    58
Revenue—Sale of Fur-traders' and Taxidermists' Licences and Royalty on Fur 59
Comparative Statement of Revenue from Fur Trade, 1921-46, inclusive  60
Comparative  Statement  showing  Pelts  of  Fur-bearing  Animals  on  which
Royalty has been collected, 1921-46, inclusive  61
• Statement of Kind of Pelts of Fur-bearing Animals on which Royalty was
collected during Year 1946  62
List of Confiscated Fur, 1946, and Revenue from Sale of Confiscated Fur_  63
List of Confiscated  Firearms,  1946, and Revenue from  Sale of Confiscated
Firearms   64
Bounties paid, 1946  65
Comparative Statement of Bounties paid from 1922-46, inclusive  66
Revenue—Big-game Trophy Fees paid by Non-resident Hunters, 1946  67
Prosecutions, 1946  68
Hunting and Fishing Accidents, 1946  70
Statement—Trout Liberation, 1946  71
Statement—Returns from Holders of Special (Trapping) Firearms Licences,
Season 1945-46  82
Statement—Returns of Fur-farmers, 1946  82
Statement of Vermin destroyed by Game Wardens, 1946  83
Statement of Game-bird Liberations, 1946  84
Statement—Returns of Game-bird Farmers, 1946  85
Statement—Miscellaneous Receipts  85
List of Resident Gui'des and Non-resident Outfitters, 1946  86
Personnel of Game Department as at December 31st, 1946  95  Report of the Provincial Game Commission, 1946.
As was anticipated, the year under review has been a most trying one in game
management problems, and as a result every branch of the Department has been taxed
to its utmost to keep up with the steady and ever-increasing number of hunters and
fishermen, both resident and non-resident. The increased drain upon the wild-life
resources of British Columbia has been the cause of increased interest being taken in
game management affairs by the organized sportsmen of the Province.
The Department has had to assume many new and greater duties than ever before.
Perusal of the tables accompanying this report will show that the revenue for the year
1946 amounted to $609,912.97, being an increase of $153,433.17 over the previous year.
The non-resident revenue alone, which consists of trophy, hunting, and fishing licence
fees, amounted to $221,100 or more than a third of the total revenue of the Department
for the year. Some 15,102 non-resident angling and hunting licences were issued, an
increase of 4,481 over the previous year. This increase was made up principally by
anglers; this in spite of the fact that the non-resident anglers' licence fee had been
increased 100 per cent. The number of resident hunting and angling licences issued
also increased from a total of 85,521 for the year 1945 to 103,074 for 1946, making a
grand total of 118,176 resident and non-resident angling and hunting licences issued as
compared to 96,778 for 1945.
The East Kootenay, Cariboo, Lillooet, and Kamloops Districts were subject to the
heaviest hunting and fishing, with the Cariboo and Lillooet Districts receiving the
heaviest concentration of hunters and fishermen, which constituted a serious drain on
our game and fish resources. Keeping in mind these conditions, it was decided by your
Commission some time ago that, in the interests of proper game management, concrete
data must necessarily be obtained as to the quantity of game and fish being taken out of
these districts, with the result that a seasonal checking-station was established at Cache
Creek in order to contact all sportsmen returning from the Kamloops, Chilcotin, and
Cariboo Districts. This station was operating during the entire open season on moose,
and the information obtained was most valuable for game management purposes. In
addition to securing considerable knowledge on game conditions, the check-up resulted
in some sixty-four convictions for game violations. It will be necessary, we feel, to
carry on a similar check for a number of years if we are to obtain a complete and clear
picture of the annual game-crop that can be safely taken from these areas. This investigation and game check, conducted in conjunction with Mr. James Hatter in his
scientific investigation of the moose in the Province, is being carried out under the
supervision of the Department of Zoology of the University of British Columbia and
your Game Commission. The game check through the Cache Creek station consisted of
some 1,234 moose, 1,058 deer, 50 bear, 4 caribou, 3 wapiti or elk, 16 mountain-goat, and
12 mountain-sheep, or approximately 1,600 tons of game.
The statement of big-game trophy-fee payments in the statistical section of this
report will furnish an excellent idea of the amount of game taken by non-resident
sportsmen. We have no conception of the game taken by residents, except by the
records obtained at Cache Creek. It is our hope that by another season we will be able
to take some fact-finding move that will enable us to secure more accurate and complete
figures on the total game taken throughout the Province. However, we must have the
full co-operation of all sportsmen to complete any comprehensive picture of our annual
game-crop. A submission of returns by hunters on a voluntary or compulsory basis
seems each year to become more or less a necessity. DD 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Any increase in revenue is most desirable from a Departmental point of view,
but if these increases should possibly result in a depletion of wild life in any particular
district, then such increases must immediately be limited. Your Game Commission is
working in full co-operation with the Department of Zoology of the University of
British Columbia in order to ensure no serious depletion of our game in any section of
the Province.
During the year Mr. James Hatter, under the supervision of the Department of
Zoology mentioned and this Department, carried out a preliminary survey of the moose
situation throughout the Cariboo and Chilcotin Districts. A brief covering this investigation, which contains some very interesting and valuable information, will be found
elsewhere in this report. Speaking of scientific investigations, we would like to mention
that we are planning during the coming year to have a number of very important and
far-reaching scientific investigations carried out under the advice and guidance of Drs.
Ian McTaggart-Cowan and W. A. Clemens, of the Department of the University of
British Columbia previously referred to. These investigations will cover a study of the
relationship between coarse fish and trout, the advisability or otherwise of embarking
on a programme of fertilizing lakes, looking into the effects of lead-poisoning on
migratory wild fowl, and a continuation of the moose survey already mentioned, and
which will be carried out by Mr. Hatter.
The steady increase of big-game hunters and a consequent demand for accommodation and guiding service resulted in a great deal of dissatisfaction amongst hunters in
many parts of the more congested hunting areas. It was impossible to procure sufficient
experienced guides to cope with this unusual situation, and in a great many cases, due
to the scarcity of Game Wardens and the ever-increasing duties of these officials, many
applications for guides' licences were received, and licences were possibly issued without
proper investigation into the qualifications of the applicants. • This condition resulted
in our receiving several complaints, as the inexperienced guides employed did not give
satisfactory services to the hunters who engaged them. We sincerely hope that this
difficulty will be overcome, or at least greatly alleviated, in the not too distant future.
REGISTRATION OF TRAP-LINES
This system of control continues to be one of the most important services of the
Department. We have approximately 4,000 licensed white trappers, the majority of
which hold registered trap-lines. In addition to these trappers, there is probably an
equal number of registered Indian trappers. Under the trap-line registration regulations, we are reasonably assured that in this Province trappers will annually be able to
take a fair quantity of fur. A perusal of the comparative statement appearing on page
61 of this Report, in which is set out the number and kind of pelts taken during the past
twenty-six years, will show royalty collected on 155,279 pelts during 1926, while this
number was increased to 204,442 pelts (exclusive of squirrel pelts) in 1946. It will be
noted further that in spite of a decrease in the population of beaver throughout other
parts of North America, the number of beaver trapped in British Columbia during 1946
amounted to 22,899, as against 18,478 during 1926. We feel quite safe in stating that
these figures speak well for our system of trap-line registration.
The British Columbia Trappers' Association, under the leadership of Mr. Eric
Collier and Mr. E. W. Bobb, has been working in the interests of the trappers. These
gentlemen, through their Association, have been advocating the abolishment of firearms as a means of taking squirrels, muskrats, and beaver. Your Commission, however, has made an effort to attend all meetings of this organization, and while anxious
to introduce any legislation that will ensure protection to our game, we are not quite
prepared at the present time to recommend that such a drastic step be taken as that
suggested by Messrs. Collier and Bobb, particularly in view of much opposition against REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946. DD 9
any such proposal which is continually being received from trappers in many parts of
the Province. Enforcement of such a regulation would, we feel, be impossible, due to
the fact that the majority of fur passing through fur-auction houses in Vancouver
originates in Alaska, the Prairie Provinces, the Yukon, and Northwest Territories,
where regulations allow, and in fact we are advised that trappers are encouraged to
take their fur by means of, firearms in order to allow for a more selective crop. We
have it on good authority that one of the territories mentioned may possibly make the
taking of beaver and muskrats by the use of firearms mandatory.
The system of beaver-tagging has been in operation in British Columbia for the
past two years, and we believe has acted as a deterrent in the poaching of beaver, but as
is the case in respect to any new law, there would appear to be room for considerable
improvement in our beaver-tagging regulations. Possession of untagged beaver-pelts
resulted in several prosecutions during the year.
REGISTRATION OF GUIDES.
The guide regulations introduced in 1945 did not, we regret to state, begin to cope
with the guiding situation in the Province. As stated previously in this Report, the
demand for services of guides was so great that employees of this Department were
unable to examine properly all applicants for guides' licences in order to ascertain their
qualifications, with the result there were some dissatisfied hunters. To give an idea
of the work involved, we should make a proper examination of all applicants for guides'
licences. We need only state that the total number of such licences reached an all-time
high of 1,001 for 1946, as against 237 during the year 1944. Unfortunately the
majority of guides' licences are taken out just before, or at the commencement of, the
open season for hunting, and when the big-game hunters are in the field demanding
services. Some restrictions, no doubt, will have to be made in the number of guides
operating in different districts where there is probably some danger of over-shooting.
FUR-FARMING.
During the year steps were taken to transfer the control of fur-farming to the
Provincial Department of Agriculture. It is anticipated that the latter Department
will be in a much better position to provide the services and control necessary for this
specialized class of farming. Your Commission will naturally be pleased to co-operate
and assist in any way possible with the Department of Agriculture and the fur-farmers
in British Columbia in order to put the fur-farming industry on a sound foundation.
BOUNTIES.
As pointed out in our Report for 1945, the peak of the wolf cycle was reached in
1940, and since that time there has been a steady annual decrease in the wolf population
of the Province. During the year 1946 some 932 wolves were presented for bounty, as
against 1,659 during the year 1940. There was also a slight decrease in the number of
cougar taken in 1946, the figure being 461, as against 472 for 1945. The number of
coyote pelts presented for bounty was not as great as in 1945.
The bounty question is a most contentious one amongst stockmen, farmers, and
sportsmen, who generally are continually demanding increased bounties, while scientific
men throughout the United States and Canada definitely oppose the bounty system as
a means of control. These scientific men are all in favour of control when necessary
by means of specially trained and properly equipped predatory-animal hunters. Before
the close of another year we hope to have trained predatory-animal hunters operating
in sections of the Province where reports indicate predatory animals are doing the most
damage. It must be realized, however, that it will take some time before a staff of
trained hunters, sufficient to control these predators, will be available, and consequently DD 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
the Department will undoubtedly be expected to provide funds for the payment of
bounties for some time to come.
It was suggested in our Report for 1945 that the whole bounty question should be
thoroughly considered at the Interprovincial Wild-life Conference held at Ottawa in
order that a system of bounty payments could be equalized or standardized throughout
the Dominion, but it would seem that when the question was raised at the conference
mentioned, it was soon learned that many of the officials present were not interested in
this problem.
PUBLICITY AND TOURIST TRADE.
Your Commission has refrained from advertising outside of the Province, as satisfied non-resident sportsmen and their ever-increasing numbers do not in our opinion
warrant an expenditure of any money for advertising without the Province. The
money that we would possibly have spent in advertising was expended in an effort to
acquaint our own residents with our wonderful heritage in wild life, and their responsibility in keeping a tight rein on the annual cropping of our game. There is undoubtedly
a great field for a campaign of education along the lines of conservation, particularly in
our schools, where we have from time to time exhibited our wild-life moving pictures
and have endeavoured to bring home the need of strict conservation measures being
continually enforced in our Province.
There is one phase of tourist trade that has been causing your Commission some
concern, and that is in respect to the overcrowding of tourist resorts or camps in some
of our more important big-game districts. We have in mind an area where some
twenty-one permits to establish tourist camps were issued within a radius of about 10
miles of a lake, and in this area there are at least eleven new applications pending for
permits to operate. The area is situated well off the main Cariboo Highway, and about
all the existing resorts have to rely upon is the moose-hunting and trout-fishing available in the district. The question therefore arises as to how long the game and fish of
the district will last under such pressure. The excellent co-operation received from the
Department of Lands and Forests and from the Department of Trade and Industry is
very greatly appreciated. In all matters where we have had occasion to call upon these
Departments, and especially where we have recommended against the sale of public
lands detrimental to the sporting public, we have found these Departments wholeheartedly supporting our recommendations.
GAME PROPAGATION.
We have continued carrying out the programme established during the fall of 1944
by trapping some thirty-three blue grouse in the Campbell River district on Vancouver
Island and liberating these birds on Texada Island, where we have every hope of establishing blue-grouse shooting in the future. Returns received from Texada Island
indicate that our efforts are meeting with success.
During the year we purchased and liberated 9,223 pheasants from licensed game-
bird farmers in the Province. The majority of birds purchased were liberated on the
Lower Mainland, where we have some 18,476 licensed hunters depending upon the
artificial propagation of pheasants for their sport. Some dissatisfaction has been
expressed by a number of sportsmen in other parts of the Province over the liberation
of the bulk of pheasants on the Lower Mainland, but in making these liberations we
have felt that consideration must necessarily be given to the amount of available game
in other areas where the population is not so great in comparison with the large number
of licensed hunters on the Lower Mainland, where no other game is available other than
pheasants and a few ducks that pass through during the course of their migration. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946. DD 11
MIGRATORY GAME BIRDS.
As was the case during the year 1945, the migratory-bird season in 1946 was very
disappointing, due partly to the ever-increasing number of sportsmen hunting over an
ever-decreasing hunting territory, which has been caused through the draining of
practically all the farm land in the more settled portions of the Province, the breaking-
up of large holdings into small farms, and the change, especially in the Coastal area, to
that of dairy-farming from that of growing grain. These are factors that cannot be
overcome, and no doubt are the principal causes of poor migratory-bird shooting on the
Lower Mainland Coast. Throughout the Interior, duck-shooting was also disappointing.
Probably the brightest picture was in the Kootenay District, where we have fair
nesting-grounds, but in the Cariboo District conditions were poor because it was found
that ponds which had previously produced ducks were barren of migratory wild fowl
during the nesting season, due, no doubt, to the fact that there were insufficient
numbers of ducks returning from, the South over the fly-ways in this Province.
In 1946 a programme of feeding ducks on controlled game reserves or sanctuaries
was introduced, and this system resulted in retaining more ducks on the Lower Mainland. The feed for these game reserves was provided through the sale of " duck
stamps " throughout the Lower Mainland area, in co-operation with many prominent
sportsmen and under the supervision of a committee appointed by the organized
sportsmen of the Lower Mainland.
GAME-LAW ENFORCEMENT.
A perusal of the statement appearing on page 68 of this Report will show a total
of 819 prosecutions, as against 652 for the year 1945. These prosecutions resulted in
fines amounting to $10,921 being imposed. Many violations of the "Game Act" and
regulations were found through the check-up at Cache Creek, where some sixty-four
convictions were obtained.
GAME-FISH CULTURE.
From the standpoint of the majority of sportsmen, and especially from non-resident
anglers, this branch of the Department is probably the most important. This statement
is proven by the increase in non-resident anglers' licences, which reached a total of
12,116 in 1946, as against 8,585 for 1945 and 5,278 in 1944.
Trout-fishing in the Interior appears to be standing up very well considering the
heavy amount of fishing in that section of the Province. We feel that the results
accomplished by restocking and keeping up the supply of trout with the facilities at our
disposal has been all that could be expected, but we must make provision for future
expansion by constructing more modern hatcheries and by training more hatchery and
fishery officers. With this object in view, we have been planning for the construction
of a modern hatchery at Summerland, which we hope to have available for use some
time in the not too distant future. As mentioned in our Report for last year, an
examination of the various sites proposed by the various Game Associations in the
Okanagan for a location for a modern hatchery was investigated by Dr. W. A. Clemens,
and he favoured the site of the old trout-hatchery at Summerland. If materials are
obtainable, we expect to have this hatchery in operation to take care of the 1948
collection of rainbow-trout eggs.
It might also be mentioned that we are making preparations in our 1947 estimates
for the construction of an up-to-date hatchery on Vancouver Island, but, as usual, we
are experiencing a great deal of difficulty in locating a suitable site where water,
electricity, transportation, and a source of supplies can be obtained. Lack of a suitable
water-supply in the Nanaimo district, where we had hoped to acquire property, has DD 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
compelled us to look farther afield, and there is a possibility that we may be forced to
go as far north as Courtenay before we find the desired location.
The trout-hatchery at Stanley Park in the City of Vancouver had to be discontinued
due to the chlorination of the Vancouver domestic water-supply, but we are taking steps
to enlarge the capacity of the Smiths Falls Hatchery at Cultus Lake, and we hope to
have a battery of cement trout-rearing ponds in operation at this hatchery during the
summer of 1947.
As time goes on, and with operations expanding so quickly, there is considerably
more need than in the past for the employment of a scientifically trained fish culturist,
and we hope, with the co-operation of Dr. W. A. Clemens, to locate a suitable fish
culturist in the near future.
Investigation of the coarse-fish problem and fertilization of lakes are some of the
difficulties confronting this Commission. We hope to be able to provide in our estimates
for 1947 a sufficient sum of money that will permit us to commence investigations of
these problems.
A statement showing the trout and egg plantings during the past year will be
found on page 71 of this Report.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
We are most grateful for the very valuable assistance extended by all departments
of the Government. The officers and men of the British Columbia Police, under the
leadership of Commissioner T. W. S. Parsons and Deputy Commissioner John Shirras,
have been most co-operative. Dr. W. A. Clemens and Dr. Ian McTaggart-Cowan, of the
Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, have been most helpful and
have been ever willing to advise us in connection with our many problems. The
assistance these gentlemen have afforded us is most thankfully received, and we hope
that the " Game Act" will be amended in the not too distant future to provide for the
appointment of these gentlemen as scientific advisers to the Game Commission.
Again we have had the fullest co-operation from the Department of Lands and
Forests; the Department of Agriculture; the Department of Public Works; the
Provincial Department of Fisheries; the Federal Department of Fisheries; Mr. J. A.
Munro, Federal Wild-life Officer for British Columbia; Game Associations; Farmers'
Institutes; and many other organizations and individuals with whom we have come
in contact.
"A" DIVISION (VANCOUVER ISLAND, THE GULF ISLANDS, AND THE MAINLAND COAST FROM TOBA INLET NORTH TO CAPE CAUTION, INCLUDING THE ISLANDS ADJACENT TO THE EAST COAST OF VANCOUVER
ISLAND NORTH OF CAMPBELL RIVER).
"A" Game Division is supervised from Game Headquarters at Vancouver. The
following excerpts are from reports of the game and fishery officers of the Division,
along with observations made by members of the Game Commission.
Bear (Black).—Continue to be very numerous, and in some localities it has been
recommended that a bounty be provided for their destruction.
Bear (Grizzly).—Affords good sport at the heads of the inlets along the Mainland
Coast, particularly the inlets north of Bute.
Deer (Coast or Columbian).—Deer on Vancouver Island continue to be numerous
in spite of the heavy pressure from the Island sportsmen, as well as those from the
Mainland. Vancouver Island is becoming more and more the hunting-ground for the
Mainland Coast hunters. It is only a matter of time when limits and seasons will have
to be seriously curtailed on the Island. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946. DD 13
Wapiti (Elk).—The several small bands of elk on the Island never seem to increase.
They are found in many parts of the Island from Cowichan Lake north to the northern
end. There is the possibility that with the clearing-off of the timber,' more growth
suitable for elk will have a tendency to allow for an increase in numbers.
Fur-bearing Animals.
There is a fair stand of beaver in the Division, where the season is closed. On
certain registered trap-lines, where the operator has conserved his fur, permits are
granted by the Commission, on the recommendation of the Game Warden of the district,
after investigation of the stand of beaver, to allow the trapper to take a certain number
of animals. The beaver so taken must be tagged and cleared through the local Game
Warden before being sold. Under this method we have a fair control over the situation-
There, however, appears to be some leakage, through poaching, but it is hoped that the
tagging of beaver throughout the Province will give us a better check on the trapping.
Upland Game Birds.
Grouse (Blue).—The logged-off lands of Vancouver Island provide the finest blue-
grouse hunting in Canada. The wet hatching season caused the raising of smaller
broods this past spring, but at that there was some very fine sport, and the majority
of hunters obtained their limits during the opening week-end. The new regulation of
a possession limit of twelve birds worked well and, no doubt, assisted in conserving
many grouse.
Grouse (Willow).—These birds are not numerous and should be provided with a
further close season for a year or so in order that they may have a chance to come back.
Pheasants.—Unfortunately, owing to the densely populated areas at the south end
of Vancouver Island and the many complaints received in the past from the gardeners
and bulb-growers of the Cowichan district, this Commission has refrained from
liberating pheasants in these areas. The Courtenay district lends itself as a more
suitable one for the liberation of these birds, and some fine sport was obtained there by
sportsmen enjoying the privilege of hunting over the local farms.
Partridge (European).—According to Game Warden F. H. Greenfield, of Nanaimo,
the partridge liberated in the Cedar district are " holding their own with a possible
increase." Experimenting with European partridge is a costly affair, and with climatic
conditions as they are on the Coast, it is doubtful if they will ever prove successful.
We have, however, attempted to purchase additional birds in order to bolster up the
present limited stock, but have been unsuccessful in finding a source of supply.
Migratory Game Birds.
The north end of Vancouver Island affords excellent migratory-bird hunting, but
the southern and easterly areas are about on a par with the Lower Mainland, ducks and
geese being hard pressed by incessant hunting and scarcity of suitable feeding areas.
As usual, what few brant were obtained were killed during the last few days of the
season, but from then on until they migrated north, they were found along the coast
in very large numbers.
Predatory Animals.
Cougar bounties paid through the Government Agencies on the Island made a slight
increase of one animal over those for 1945, bringing the total to seventy-seven animals.
There was an increase, however, in the take of wolves, which reached the total of eleven
animals, the main increase being through the Cumberland Agency; but six of those
animals were taken up or near the Mainland coastal inlets. DD 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
"B" DIVISION  (KOOTENAY AND BOUNDARY DISTRICTS).
.    By C. F. Kearns, Officer Commanding.
Herewith I beg to submit annual report of game conditions in " B " Division during
the year 1946. Sport-fish matters are the subject of a separate report by Fishery
Supervisor C. H. Robinson.
Big Game.
Moose.—These animals, while not plentiful in any specific area, are well distributed
and continue to extend their range. However, the heavy toll taken of them, both by
resident and non-resident hunters, during the past two seasons should be carefully and
closely watched and controlled.
It is suggested that control can be effected by a shorter season, the closure of some
areas now open, and possibly an increase in the non-resident trophy fees. Moose in
this Division are confined to the Rocky Mountains, the adjacent Kootenay-Columbia
valleys, and some of the tributary watersheds. They are as yet only occasional in the
West Kootenays and the Upper Arrow Lakes section.
Wapiti (Elk).—Are found in the same areas as the moose, but are more plentiful,
and likewise continue to extend their range. The kill during the past season was quite
heavy, although shortening the 1946 season by two weeks was a wise move, as otherwise,
due to the heavy snowfall in late November, an undue number of these animals would
undoubtedly have been taken.   They are increasing in the Similkameen.
Caribou.—Widely distributed throughout the Selkirk and auxiliary ranges—
Kootenay Lakes area—from the United States Border northward, but not in the Rockies
or the Boundary-Similkameen areas. They are not hunted much, no doubt due to the
accessibility of other big game, but a few are taken each season by residents.
Deer (Mule-deer).—Are well distributed and fairly abundant throughout the
Division. Due to the heavy snowfall late in November they were very easy to bag, and
the kill was heavy. Most of the hunting was done adjacent to or actually from the
main highways.
A distressing number of deer were killed at this period by trains, more than 100
being destroyed between Nelson and Fernie in a single stormy night, the deer
presumably finding better travelling on the cleared right-of-way.
The prevailing impression of hunters and Game Wardens prior to the heavy
snowfall was that deer were not so plentiful as formerly. Nevertheless, the apparent
abundance after the snow was somewhat of an eye-opener, even bearing in mind that
the concentration represented most of the deer population.
White-tailed Deer.—The same comment also applies to these deer, but their
distribution is not so extensive. They are plentiful in the East and West Kootenays
and gaining in numbers in the Boundary and Similkameen.
Bighorn Sheep.—Have not recovered their former number in the Rocky Mountains
and, while increasing, cannot yet be classed as plentiful. Due to their elevated range
and the very limited numbers that are taken annually as trophies, there would seem to
be no reason to alter the present restricted season. These animals have undoubtedly
increased in the Similkameen district (Okanagan Falls and Ashnola River sections),
where a short open season should be permitted. Game Warden Monks, of Penticton,
has counted over 500 of these animals at one period, and this is too many for a range
that is grazed also by domestic stock.
Mountain-goat.—Plentiful in the East Kootenays but reported as not being so
numerous as formerly in the Rocky Mountains adjacent to Cranbrook. These animals
are well distributed in both the East and West Kootenays and are definitely increasing
in the Grand Forks-Similkameen areas. f
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946. DD 15
Bear (Grizzly).—These animals are well distributed throughout the Division but
are probably more plentiful in the Kootenay Lake area section from the United States
Border north. There are a fair number in the Rocky Mountains, and they are
comparatively scarce in the Boundary and Similkameen areas.
Black and Brown Bear.—Well distributed throughout the Division, and cause some
damage each year in the Kootenay orchards.
Fur-bearing Animals.
A slump of fur prices early in the trapping season was somewhat disconcerting
to the trappers, but it is probably a good thing for the conservation of fur-bearing
animals, as there was definitely a tendency to overtrap small lines due to the high prices-
Little criticism is heard from the trappers, who are very satisfied with our trap-line
registration system, and trap-lines are at a premium. It is interesting to note that
trap-lines in the Kootenays contiguous to fairly populous localities seem to yield as good
a catch as the more remote trap-lines. This fact is possibly the strongest argument in
favour of the present system of allotting specific areas to trappers on a permanent basis.
Marten, lynx, beaver, muskrat, weasel, mink, and red squirrels are the principal
fur-bearers, in order of importance.    Fisher, fox, wolverine, and otter are scarce.
Upland Game Birds.
Blue Grouse.—Well distributed, but all reports indicate they are not plentiful.
Ruffed (Willow) Grouse.—The cycle of these birds is again on the up-grade after
the low year of 1945, and it is expected that they will not be abundant for another
three or four years.
Franklin.—Well distributed but not plentiful, being in the same condition as the
ruffed grouse.
Sharp-tailed Grouse.—I observed a flock of 200 in the Cranbrook district during
the early winter of 1944. These birds were making quite a come-back at that time, but
reports from Game Warden Rauch in that vicinity last year does not indicate there are
as many as two years previously. Likely they are also subject to a cyclic decrease, but
it is hoped that they will continue to increase. One flock is reported in the Similkameen
area. The decline of sharp-tailed grouse is unfortunate, as at the turn of the century
they were definitely plentiful in the Boundary-Similkameen and in the East Kootenays.
Ptarmigan.—Well distributed from timber-line to the high peaks, but little sought
by hunters.
Pheasants.—A decline in the stand of pheasants is generally reported, and this
probably can be attributed to a concentration of hunters as well as sundry local
conditions, such as late rains, young birds drowned in irrigation-ditches, nests destroyed
by agricultural machinery, predators, etc.
Experiments throughout the Division for a number of years have definitely
established the Similkameen, Grand Forks, and Creston districts as suitable pheasant
areas which can be maintained by annual restocking. This also applies to the immediate
district surrounding Nakusp. Introduction of pheasants at other points which seemed
suitable have not been successful.
Partridge (European).—Fair stands in Creston, Grand Forks, Penticton-Oliver
districts.   These birds provide satisfactory sport during short open season.
Quail (California).—Limited to the Penticton-Oliver district, where they are in
fair numbers, and this appears to be the only part of the Division that is suitable for
these birds.
Migratory Game Birds.
Geese (Canada).—Are nesting in good numbers in the flood lands on either side of
the Columbia River from Invermere to near Golden, the sloughs near Creston, and on DD 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
the Duncan River north of Kootenay Lake, and also at the north end of the Upper
Arrow Lakes. In the latter place there is a large concentration of Canada geese, and
they are very difficult to hunt because of the open nature of the country. Goose-hunting
in the above areas during the season is quite good.
Ducks.—Conditions are normal regarding locally-reared ducks, particularly in the
section between Invermere and Golden, and the sloughs on the Duncan River north of
Kootenay Lake, which are the heaviest nesting areas. Creston is still good, although
the available locality has been restricted due to reclamation of many sloughs. Ducks,
of course, nest in sundry suitable spots all over the Division but not in any particular
concentration.
This winter some food has been put out for ducks on Kootenay Lake as well as the
Columbia River at Castlegar, as these ducks apparently did not intend to migrate and
were having some difficulty in obtaining food due to the icing of the shore-line.
Coots.—Are very numerous and not hunted.
Snipe (Wilson).—Are transitory in migration and are apparently not hunted at all.
Destruction of Vermin.
Eleven Game Wardens and one predatory-animal hunter destroyed 60 cougars,
68 coyotes, 3 bobcats, 82 house-cats, 98 injurious hawks, 30 owls, 460 crows, 167
magpies, 17 eagles, 14 ravens, and 22 wild dogs during the year.
Game-protection.
There were 103 convictions and 3 dismissals under the " Game Act" or Special
Fisheries Regulations during the year in this Division.
Game Propagation.
One hundred and sixty-four pheasants were released at points in the vicinity of
Penticton, 100 at Grand Forks, 12 at Nakusp, 12 at Castlegar, and 100 in the Grand
Forks district.
Game Resekves.
The Elk River Game Reserve, comprising portions of the watersheds of the White,
Bull, and Elk Rivers, is the most important reserve in this Division, as it affords
protection to deer, moose, elk, sheep, and goats during the open season.
Deer sanctuaries on the Kettle River in the Boundary District and along the
Wigwam River in the East Kootenay are natural concentration points for mule-deer
and give them respite during the open season, particularly when the snowfall is early.
Three Brothers Game Reserve, near Princeton, is beneficial during the early part
of the open season.
Game-bird sanctuaries at Vaseaux Lake, Penticton district, and on Kootenay Lake,
near Nelson, continue to meet with general approval.
Revelstoke, Glacier, Kootenay, and Yoho National Parks all lie within this Division,
and no hunting is permitted therein.
Fur Trade.
Very little fur is exported out of the Province directly, but goes to Vancouver via
local fur-dealers, of whom there are nine in this Division.
Fur-farming.
Mink and silver fox are the popular farmed fur-bearing animals, but eight farmers
are also rearing marten, which now seem to thrive in captivity and will no doubt be
a most profitable animal to raise. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946. DD 17
Fifteen fur-farmers specialize in mink exclusively, seven in silver foxes, one in
beaver, one in muskrat, and one in nutria. The remainder raise mink in conjunction
with marten or foxes.
Fur-farmers in general seem to be content with current operations and the ready
sale of ranch-raised pelts at a good price. Indications are that a further number of
people are interested in this business and will shortly enter into it. Some apprehension,
however, is felt at the recent sharp decline in fur prices.
Registration of Trap-lines.
This is the salvation of the fur-bearing animals of the Province beyond any shadow
of doubt. If the old haphazard methods of trapping prevailed nowadays, inevitably the
fur would have been trapped too heavily and a close season would be necessary, as has
happened in the past.
The demand for trap-lines continues and none have been available for some years,
other than those becoming vacant through death, old age, or failing health. During
the past two years a survey was made of the registered trappers to ascertain if any
wished to dispose of their trap-lines to returned overseas veterans, and a few mutually
agreeable transfers were approved and recorded.
Approximately 500 trappers, including Indians and trappers on private holdings,
operate in this Division.
Registration of Guides.
The system of grading guides received a severe test during the past hunting
season, and we have gained a great deal of experience which will be beneficial in
drafting out new regulations, which are sorely needed.
The influx of non-resident hunters to this Division rather overwhelmed us,
although we had anticipated quite a rush. The Game Wardens in the East Kootenay,
shortly after the season opened, found themselves acting as a liaison or clearing-house
between eager hunters and non-existent registered guides. The Wardens were energetic
in securing suitable competent men and persuading them they would find it profitable
to act as guides. Generally speaking, the results were satisfactory, but there were
a number of instances where the guide did not grasp fully what was required of him by
the hunter in the way of accommodation particularly.
We had several complaints of dissatisfied hunters, which were not altogether the
guide's fault, although we did have some instances of guides falling down on the job
very badly.
The whole guide set-up is applicable to this Division, and possibly this same
condition applies to other parts of the Province and should be revised. We should have
a more rigid policy of requiring a guide to give suitable guarantees that he is capable
of carrying out his contract with non-resident hunters, and we should provide a penalty
for his failure to do so. We should also require a guide to be licensed for a territory
with which he is familiar; that is, a licensed guide from one area should not be entitled
to go into an entirely strange district with his guide's licence as evidence that he is
capable in that area.
Special Patrols.
None could be classed as such, although routine patrols were made consistently to
remote areas by horse and foot in the summer and fall, and on snowshoes in the winter.
Hunting Accidents.
On June 19th, 1946, Orville Thomas, of Parson, B.C., was charged by a grizzly bear
which he shot twice before it knocked him down and mauled his right hand and forearm,
his left hand, and the right foot and ankle by biting.    Mr. Thomas was accompanied DD 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
by his dog, which attacked the bear and the bear chased the dog. Mr. Thomas was
able to make his way back to camp without being further molested. He subsequently
received attention in the Golden Hospital and took further treatment in Calgary, Alta.,
and has since fairly well recovered.
On July 14th, 1946, Peter Arishnikoff (aged 12 years), of Penticton, B.C., was shot
by a .22-calibre rifle in the hands of George Strukoff, aged 14. The bullet passed
through the muscles of Peter Arishnikoff's right leg below the knee. This shooting
happened near the Fruitova School at Grand Forks. Peter Arishnikoff subsequently
recovered, and the rifle in question was duly confiscated as a result of action by the
Provincial Police.
On November 3rd, 1946, Robert Lester Clayton, of Creston, B.C., was shot and
killed by a shot from a .35 Remington auto-loading rifle in the hands of Henry Gartland,
of Canyon, B.C. Evidence given by Henry Gartland at the subsequent inquest indicated
that he was deer-hunting and heard a noise in the bush, followed by movement. His
dog started to growl, and he was afraid it would scare the game so he fired and
immediately heard a man scream. He found he had shot Robert Lester Clayton in the
right leg, 6 inches above the knee, the bullet passing through into the left leg after
shattering the bone and separating the large artery in both legs. Robert Lester
Clayton was accompanied by his brother, William Clayton. First aid was given and
Henry Gartland immediately rushed for a telephone.
When Robert Lester Clayton arrived at the hospital approximately one hour later,
he had succumbed from shock and loss of blood. The deceased was 39 years of age
and left a wife and four small children. Henry Gartland is 23 years old and had
recently been discharged from the Air Force after more than four years' service in
Canada and overseas.
Resident Ordinary Firearms Licence (Farmer) No. 72281, issued to Henry Gartland, has been cancelled, and I am advised that the Provincial Police are proceeding
against Mr. Gartland on a charge of manslaughter, which will probably be heard at the
next assizes in May.
Summary and General Remarks.
The time has come to take stock of the game situation in " B " Division because the
influx of visiting hunters to this section last year caught us unprepared. This was in
no way a normal year where a certain number of hunters make arrangements in advance
with their guides and came into British Columbia for a definite purpose. Last fall we
had numerous parties who simply drove up from the States with the express purpose
of getting meat, and it was a headache for the Game Wardens at Fernie, Cranbrook,
Invermere, and Golden to arrange guides for them.
In previous years non-resident hunters came to Southern British Columbia for
trophies. During the past season they came for meat and were more concerned with
shooting edible young animals than any other feature. In nearly all cases the meat
was taken across the Border where, due to the high prices and shortages, it in many
cases paid' for the non-resident's hunting-trip.
The East Kootenay is a relatively small area and contains a more varied concentration of big-game animals than any similar locality on the continent. We must
control the killing of big-game animals herein. This area is also heavily hunted by
residents.
In my last annual report I mentioned how the situation was going, but did not
think it would be to the extent of this past season. The Game Wardens in the East
Kootenay points were so busy with details of office-work they had little time for their
regular patrols, although to their credit it is noted that they were energetic during the
hunting season, which means that in many cases their wives handled a lot of the details
of contacting guides, collecting licence fees and trophy fees, etc. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946. DD 19
On November 18th a heavy snowfall drove all deer animals down to the lower
levels, where they were killed by any hunter who wished to travel the main roads.
We have no authentic numbers of the bags, and it is something we should have a finger
on. It is to be hoped that we can work out some system whereby a check may be kept
on the annual kill. Checking-stations are one answer, or even big-game tags, but with
our present inadequate force of Game Wardens we cannot hope to carry out any such
measures. Possibly during the present year an increase in game expenditure may
provide for some such measure.
In previous years non-residents were not anxious to hunt deer, but they are coming
from the neighbouring States in increasing numbers, particularly in the Boundary
District. Non-resident big-game hunting licences, in the States that have big game,
are higher than ours, and they have a very good reason; namely, to discourage excessive
hunting and fishing. We are now at a period where it is no longer necessary or even
desirable to encourage non-residents to hunt big game in Southern British Columbia,
but rather to persuade them to go north where there is more room. The situation right
now is a matter of considerable concern if we wish to retain our good stock of big-game
animals.
In previous Annual Reports I have been optimistic with regard to our wild-life
stand, feeling that with our bag-limit we were in no danger of unduly depleting our
reserves. However, I have also included the menace of inclement weather as a potential
factor. This past winter we have had a combination of heavy hunting and very bad
weather, which is not good. The same condition prevailed the previous winter. Also,
while bucks only were legal game, the Wardens find far too many females and fawns
killed in the woods.   This situation can only be met by increasing our field force.
Our permanent Game Wardens are highly capable men, but they are tied up during
the hunting season by the necessity of supervising the issuance of licences, collection
of fees, and arranging for guides. This is not a condition that is conducive to
efficiency. Temporary assistance, both clerical and in the field, is necessary during the
open season.
To sum up briefly, we need to tighten up and control regulations respecting guides,
hunters, the open season and bag-limits on big game, upland game birds, and sport fish.
We still have a lot of fish and game, but modern transportation makes it accessible
overnight to a lot of people who want to hunt and fish. The situation may be different
in other parts of the Province, but from the Alberta Border as far as the Similkameen
Valley along the United States Border, which is " B " Division, now is the urgent time
for remedial and preservative measures.
Our cordial thanks are due to the Provincial Police, the Forest Branch, and Public
Works Department for much direct assistance and the use of equipment during
the year. The co-operation, advice, and timely assistance of many individual sportsmen, as well as of the various Game Associations in this Division, are gratefully
acknowledged.
Report of C. H. Robinson, Fishery Supervisor, covering Game-fish
Conditions in " B " Game Division.
I beg to submit herewith report covering a review and trend of the sport fisheries
of " B " Game Division for the year ended 1946.
Throughout the Division all lakes and streams accessible to auto travel were well
patronized by resident and non-resident anglers, and in some respects angling increased
in lakes of higher elevation. The latter was welcomed to balance the trout populations
to blend in with the available food-supplies. DD 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Generally, subject to seasonal conditions, most waters produced fair and average
catches of trout, except in certain areas where reports were not so favourable, due
possibly to excessive fishing.
The productive capacity of numerous accessible waters is such that action should
be taken forthwith to guard against serious depletions that will occur unless the catches
of trout are further regulated; namely, the number in possession or that can be legally
taken during one week, first, for the resident and, second, for the non-resident anglers
who may desire to fish for food and recreational purposes.
Favourable weather and precipitation conditions aided natural reproduction,
coupled with no serious losses of trout in streams affected with adverse water conditions.
While the interest remains fairly keen toward the development of trout-rearing
ponds by the organized sportsmen and individuals, the scarcity of cement slowed up
this work, except the part reconstruction of the Kaslo rearing-ponds by the local
sportsmen.
Trout distributions are covered in detail elsewhere in the report of the Game
Commission.
Similkameen and South Okanagan Waters.
Reports indicated that several lakes situated in the Princeton-Merritt areas did
not produce the desired number of trout in comparison to season 1945, although it is
possible seasonal conditions were the cause. In addition to the usual plantings of
eyed eggs and trout fry, Stoney and Crater Lakes received small allotments of fry;
these two small lakes were previously barren of fish life.
Average catches of trout were taken from Alleyne, Davis, Boss, Hornet, Murphy
(Bear), Missezula, Osprey, and Thalia (Square) Lakes. The latter lake produced
trout weighing up to IO1/,. lb.
The organized sportsmen of Princeton, numbering some 500 members, continued
their active interest and co-operation in experimental operations to reduce the numbers
of coarse fish in Wolfe, Lome, and other lakes. The construction and operation of
two fry-retaining pens to determine the suitability of rearing-ponds on leased land,
improvements effected to maintain suitable water-levels in Lost (Kump) Lake and the
inlet and outlet creeks to assist natural and artificial reproduction and conservation,
together with secondary road repairs to assist resident and non-resident anglers to
reach certain lakes, were some of the other work undertaken.
Angling for trout in the One Mile Creek chain of lakes did not improve, and in
consequence the organized sportsmen are inclined to favour the introduction of small-
mouthed black bass. Should this be requested, it should receive careful consideration,
in view of these lakes being tributary to the Similkameen River watershed.
Clearwater Lake.—Yielded fair catches of rainbow trout varying from 2% lb. and
less. The reported improved size and condition is probably attributable to the active
efforts of the organized sportsmen of the Nickel Plate camp by increasing the productive capacity of the lake with fresh-water weed-growth and the use of commercial
fertilizers.
Richter Lake.—This small land-locked lake of about 25 acres in extent, and
situated on the property of Frank Richter, produced excellent proportioned specimens
of Kamloops trout weighing 5 lb. and less, resulting from the allotment of 15,000 fry
released in the lake July, 1944, for public benefit.
Similkameen River.—Angling for rainbow trout remained fairly good throughout
the season. The control of concentrator-refuse has greatly assisted toward improvement of fishing.
Osoyoos Lake.—Situated partly in the State of Washington and British Columbia.
The yearly restocking of this lake with rainbow trout fingerlings has been reciprocally
arranged between the organized sportsmen of Oroville and Oliver-Osoyoos. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946. DD 21
Skaha (Dog) Lake.—In spite of the substantial yearly fry plantings in this lake,
the catches of Kamloops trout were only fair during the spring and fall. It is possible
the molestation and spearing of parent fish when spawning in Shingle Creek may affect
the supply, including the migration into Okanagan Lake during the spawning period,
etc.
Okanagan Lake (South End).—During the spring and fall the lake provided good
trolling for the Kamloops trout, mostly under 10 lb. in weight, together with some fly
and bait fishing from the shores. It is hoped that the Summerland Hatchery rearing-
ponds can be operated to increase fingerling liberations in place of fry.
The several small alpine lakes situated near Keremeos, Oliver, Penticton, Summer-
land, Peachland, and Naramata—namely, Cathedral, Bear, Allandale, Deer, Eneas,
Island, Big Eneas, Taylor, Glen, Baker, and Chute Lakes, etc.—produced the average
catches of rainbow trout. Munro Lake will probably supply good fly-fishing in 1947
as a result of fry planting in 1944-46. It is possible that more fishing in Cathedral
Lake would be beneficial.
Conkle (Fish), Bull, Copper, Collier, Clarke, Arlington, Williamson, and other
lakes, not very accessible, produced the average catches of rainbow trout, and in some
instances natural reproduction has reasonably maintained the supply of trout.
Kettle River, West Fork, and Boundary Creeks.—The additional protection afforded,
plus yearly replenishment of rainbow trout, has not solved the problem of producing
sufficient legal-sized fish for the resident anglers and the steady influx of American
anglers, to fish these fairly accessible waters.
Jewel Lake.—This one-time popular lake provided fair trolling and some fly-fishing
for Kamloops trout; the weight and condition of the trout has slightly improved, which
varied to 8 lb. and less. The American anglers fish the lake steadily, including Wilgress
(Loon), which provided good trolling in the spring and fall for Kamloops trout weighing
10 lb. and less.
Smelter Lake.—Artificially created and controlled for hydro-electric power purposes
some forty years ago, this lake was completely drained for safety measures by the City
of Grand Forks. Approximately 700,000 Kamloops trout eyed eggs and fry were
planted in the lake since 1927. Existing conditions restricted fishing in the lake,
although trout were taken weighing 16 lb. and over.
Lake Christina.—Some encouraging reports were received of improved fishing for
the Kamloops trout during spring and fall; the fish varied in weight to 18 lb. and
were mostly taken on baited lines. Numerous resident and non-resident anglers visit
and fish the lake, it being a popular summer resort. These fish remain fairly plentiful
and mostly frequent the north end of Lake Christina, where fair fishing is available for
those interested in this sporting variety of fish.
The kokanee, which is a valuable forage and sport fish which frequents Lake
Christina, continued to supply the needs of numerous fishermen, more particularly
during the summer months when the trout do not take the trolls freely. The kokanee
averaged about four to 1 lb. in comparison to five to 1 lb. in 1945. The late spawning of
the kokanee resulted in less than 1,000 lb. being taken by drag-seines for domestic use.
West Kootenay Waters.
Big Sheep, Little Sheep, and Beaver Creeks.—Yielded fair catches of Eastern brook
trout for the anglers of Trail and Rossland. Champion Lakes continued to produce
fair catches of Kamloops trout as a result of fingerling liberations yearly.
Columbia River.—The stretch of the river flowing between Castlegar and Waneta
yielded slightly improved catches of rainbow trout for the Trail anglers. The upward
migration of coarse fish from Roosevelt Lake is of concern to the local sportsmen, and
steps probably will have to be taken to reduce their numbers. DD 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Lower Arrow Lake. — Each year more anglers fish the lake, owing to its close
proximity to Trail. It is also fished by the people occupying the numerous summer
homes between Robson and Broadwater. Considering the heavy drain, fairly consistent catches of Kamloops trout were taken by troll and fly, mostly under 10 lb.
in weight.
Upper Arrow Lake.—Although to some extent glacial water conditions restrict
fishing during the summer months, reports received indicated fairly good Kamloops-
trout trolling in the vicinity of Nakusp and St. Leon, including a marked improvement
of catches taken in the vicinity of Galena Bay, possibly as a result of eyed-egg plantings
in Hill and MacKenzie Creeks and other creeks below Nakusp.
Whatshan Lakes.—This popular chain of lakes continued to provide good fly-fishing
in the early part of the season, and later for trolling. It has not been uncommon for
parties of anglers to leave the lakes with catches of rainbow trout up to 400 fish. It is
questionable just how long the supply will last.
Revelstoke Area.—The fifth substantial planting of cut-throat trout fry incubated
in the Revelstoke Hatchery was made in the chain of lakes west of Revelstoke—namely,
Summit, Victor, Three Valley, and Griffin Lakes—to replace the rainbow trout previously planted and suspected of migrating to Shuswap Lake. The possible results of
these cut-throat liberations remain obscure for the present.
Echo Lake.—A small land-locked lake south of Revelstoke, this was planted with
rainbow-trout fry in 1945. Reports indicate a successful planting to date. With the
co-operation of the organized sportsmen of Revelstoke, 100,000 rainbow trout eyed eggs
were also incubated in the hatchery and subsequently liberated in Summit, Victor,
Three Valley, Griffin, and Begbie Lakes, and Greely Creek-Illicillawaet River.
Trout Lake.—When weather conditions were favourable, the lake produced good
catches of Kamloops and Dolly Varden trout, mostly taken on the troll by the visiting
anglers from the Okanagan region and non-resident American anglers. The Kamloops
trout taken varied to 22% lb. and less. Most anglers who fish the lake expect to take
out large catches—for instance a party of seven people caught fifty-eight Kamloops
trout weighing from 8 to 13 lb.
Wilson Lakes.—South-west of Nakusp. Yielded fair catches of Kamloops trout
and kokanee (silver trout) for the numerous anglers, including an improvement in
catches of rainbow trout in Box Lake and less from Summit Lake adjacent to the
highway.
Slocan Lake.—Yielded good catches of Kamloops trout, taken by trolls, with some
good fly-fishing at the mouths of tributary streams. The fish were mostly under 10
lb. in weight, but it is possible much larger trout inhabit the lake according to reports
of lost tackle. The liberation of fingerlings and fry in nursery waters may have contributed to the improvement. After several years the condition of the Kamloops trout
in Cahill Lake has improved, and they now vary in weight to 8 lb. The trail improvement effected by the local sportsmen leading to Beatrice Lake may induce more angling
to balance the trout populations and scanty food-supplies.
Slocan and Kootenay Rivers.—These two streams, fairly accessible to auto travel,
provided fair fly, spinner, and bait fishing for rainbow trout, including Slocan Pool.
West Arm of Kootenay Lake.—Throughout the season this stretch of water provided fair trolling, bait and fly fishing for Kamloops trout and kokanee (silver trout).
The liberation of Kamloops-trout fingerlings (Gerrard stock) in the West Arm has been
questioned, in view of their possible outward migration to American waters (Roosevelt
Lake). However, extensive publicity and inquiries regarding the marked trout caught
does not s.ustain this theory.
Kootenay Lake.—Was fished extensively throughout the season. It is true there
was considerable variation in the catches of large Kamloops trout in the vicinity of REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946. DD 23
Kaslo, Queens Bay, and the Outlet, according to water and weather conditions. However, again during the season, the south end of the lake provided good trolling and was
confirmed by one approximate-creel census at one camp where 1,300 trout were recorded
varying from 18 lb. and less. Moreover, limit catches of smaller trout were taken
throughout the summer on baited multiple lures.
The Nelson Gyro Club conducted their Seventh Kootenay Lake Rainbow Trout
Derby, from May 1st to November 16th, inclusive. A total of 374 trout of 5 lb. and
over were recorded and weighed in. Total weight, 4,151 lb.; average was 11.1 lb. The
largest-fish winner of the competition weighed 23 lb. 6 oz. Compared to a similar competition in 1945 when 489 Kamloops trout were recorded weighing 5,940 lb., the largest-
fish winner weighed 23 lb. 14 oz. From a conservation standpoint, a derby staged over
a long period should be discouraged in view of unwarranted numbers of trout taken, etc.
Large-mouthed Black Bass.—These non-active fish did not appear so plentiful in
the sloughs and back channels on Kootenay Flats and in Kootenay River adjacent
during the summer. The bass serves a useful purpose for those anxious to fish during
the early spring and summer.
Goat River.—In the lower reaches below the canyon, the migratory Kamloops trout
(steelhead) are becoming less each year, hence the request of organized sportsmen,
which has been approved, to stock this section of river. The upper reaches of the
river above the canyon continued to supply good fly-fishing, more particularly toward
the West Fork. Meadow Creek, a tributary, yielded good catches of Eastern brook
trout from natural propagation and stocking.
East Kootenay Waters.
Cranbrook Area.—Reports indicated that generally fishing was only fair in the
various lakes and streams in comparison to former years.
Moyie River and Lakes.—These waters provided fair fishing for Kamloops, cutthroat, and hybrid trout varying to 15 lb. in weight. The somewhat large plantings
of eyed eggs, fry, and fingerlings over a long period is not all that could be desired
in these very accessible waters.
Munroe Lake.—This quite important lake continued to provide fair cut-throat
trout fishing considering the large amount of angling carried on. Mineral Lake adjacent did not supply the desired number of trout as in former years. It is possible
that sawmill operations might be the cause, although the analysis of water sample
taken indicated that the lake was free of deleterious substances.
Smith Lake.—Conveniently situated, failed to supply the desired numbers of Kamloops trout in comparison to previous seasons. It was suspected that numbers of
parent fish entered the outlet creek and did not return to the lake, hence the scarcity
of large trout;   yearling fish appeared plentiful.
Premier Lake.—Continued to yield the average catches of Kamloops trout, mostly
taken on the troll, varying to 8 lb. in weight. The kokanee (silver trout) introduced,
produced good fly-fishing and trolling—in fact these fish are equally as popular as the
Kamloops trout. The organized sportsmen of Kimberley take a very active interest
in this lake-site, including camp-sites and spawning-grounds, etc.
St. Mary Lake, River, and 'Tributaries.—Authentic reports indicate that the Kamloops trout fingerlings liberated commencing 1942 were fairly well established, and
some matured trout were observed spawning in tributary streams. Of course, the
native cut-throat trout supplied fair trolling and fly-fishing for the numerous resident
anglers.
Skookumchuck and Kootenay Rivers.—Subject to water conditions, these streams
supplied good angling for cut-throat and Dolly Varden trout. DD 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Horseshoe Lake.—After a brief closure of less than two years, this small landlocked productive lake provided excellent trolling and fly-fishing for Kamloops trout.
However, with the daily concentration of local anglers taking limit catches of trout,
the supply was soon reduced. The several small lakes and streams supplied fair catches
of Kamloops and cut-throat trout. The results of Eastern brook trout fry planted in
Echo Lake three consecutive years remains obscure at present.
Fernie Area.—As in other parts of the East Kootenay District, reports indicate
a definite change in the supply of trout in several lakes and streams. No doubt the
increasing amount of fishing is the cause of depletions.
Manistee and Loon Lakes.—Yielded good catches of Kamloops trout during the
spring and fall, varying in weight to 20 lb. The systematic stocking of the lakes has
maintained a reasonable supply of large fish, and probably contrary to a theory that
lakes which were previously barren will not produce large trout over a lengthy period,
in this instance of twenty-three years, and similarly in Silver Springs Lakes for twenty-
five years, these small alpine lakes continue to yield 5-lb. trout.
McBain's (Rosen) Lake.—Fishing for Kamloops trout showed some improvement
after yearly plantings of fry over a long period. The, lake is a popular summer resort
for the residents of the Fernie district.
North Star Lake.—The -introduction of Kamloops trout in this lake, commencing
the year 1937, was successful, but for reasons undetermined very few trout were caught
the past two seasons. Moreover, Tie and Burton Lakes supplied only a few trout.
The latter small lake is now infested with shiners illegally introduced. The several
other lakes, including Edwards, Surveyors, and Barnes Lakes, continued to provide
fair angling for Kamloops and cut-throat trout in the latter lake.
Grave (Emerald) Lake.—This lake supplied fair catches of Kamloops trout taken
by troll and fly, as a result of yearly plantings of fry. The lake is quite important
from a recreational and fishing standpoint and very creditable improvements have been
accomplished by the organized sportsmen of Michel-Natal in the form of a bridge over
the Elk River and a secondary road constructed leading from the bridge to the lake.
The change of direct transportation of fry to the lake is welcomed after using pack-
•horses for twenty-three years and wading the river under hazardous conditions.
Elk River and Tributaries.—These excellent cut-throat waters produced fair
catches of trout, including Dolly Varden (bull trout) in the South Fork or Wigwam
River, varying to 10 lb. in weight.
Columbia District.
Columbia Lake.—Although this lake is stocked annually with substantial allotments of eyed eggs, owing to the scarcity of boats and accommodation few rainbow
trout are caught. However, the plantings have greatly assisted to improve and maintain the supply of trout in Lake Windermere, which were originally established from
Columbia Lake.
Lake Windermere.—Reports were not quite so favourable as during the year 1945
with regard to the catches of rainbow trout, varying to 8 lb. in weight. The tourists
from the numerous summer camps fish the lake, hence the incentive to improve conditions by reducing the numbers of squawfish and the establishment of kokanee.
Summary of Hatchery Operations.
Summerland Hatchery.—Seasonal operations from May 15th to August 31st for
South Okanagan and Similkameen waters: Kamloops trout eyed eggs received from
Beaver Lake Hatchery, 600,000; Penask Lake Hatchery, 200,000; total, 800,000.
Resultant fry liberated, 765,355 in twenty-nine lakes and streams and one rearing-pond. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946. DD 25
Nelson Hatchery.—Yearly operations for East and West Kootenay, Boundary, and
Okanagan waters: Kamloops trout eyed eggs received from Penask Lake Hatchery,
1,200,000; resultant fry liberated, 479,396, and 679,840 eyed eggs; total, 1,159,236,
in thirty-four lakes and streams. Kamloops trout eyed eggs received from Gerrard
Hatchery, 120,000; resultant fry, 115,541, liberated in Nelson rearing-ponds. Eastern
brook trout eggs collected at Boundary Lake, 320,000; resultant fry and fingerlings
liberated, 289,888, in seventeen lakes and streams, as carried over from the fall of
1945. Kokanee eggs received from Meadow Creek operations, 1,868,000; resultant
eyed eggs planted, 1,340,000, in twenty-three lakes. Eggs on hand for fry liberations,
352,000, in three lakes in 1947.
Gerrard Hatchery.—Seasonal operations from April 1st to June 30th: Kamloops
trout eggs collected, 554,000; eyed eggs shipped to Cranbrook Hatchery, 120,000;
Nelson Hatchery, 120,000;   Kaslo Hatchery, 239,790;   total, 479,790.
Kaslo Hatchery.—Yearly operations: Kamloops trout eyed eggs received from
Gerrard Hatchery, 239,790; resultant fry liberated in Bjerkness rearing-pond, 50,000;
Kaslo rearing-ponds and hatchery troughs, 185,840; total, 235,840. Kokanee eggs
received from Meadow Creek, 128,000, for Kootenay Lake.
Meadow Creek-Lardeau.—Kokanee eggs collected, 2,000,000, for waters of the
Interior.
Cranbrook Hatchery.—Seasonal operations for East Kootenay waters: Cut-throat
trout eggs collected at Fish Lakes, 1,823,000; Munroe Lake, 15,000; total, 1,839,000.
Resultant eyed eggs planted, 1,426,125; fry, 314,095; total, 1,740,220, planted in thirty-
two lakes and streams and one rearing-pond. Hybrid eggs collected at Munroe Lake,
21,500; resultant fry planted in one river and one lake, 17,365. Kamloops trout eyed
eggs received from Gerrard Hatchery, 120,000; Lloyds Creek Hatchery, 200,000;
Penask Lake Hatchery, 350,000; total, 670,000. Resultant eyed eggs, fry, and fingerlings planted: Gerrard stock—fry, 11,564; advanced fry, 30,180; fingerlings, 74,264;
total, 116,008, in eleven lakes; Lloyds Creek and Penask stock—resultant eyed eggs
and fry planted, 537,704, in twenty lakes.
Revelstoke Hatchery.—Seasonal operations in conjunction with Revelstoke Rod and
Gun Club: Cut-throat trout eyed eggs received from the Cranbrook Hatchery, 170,000,
resultant fry being liberated in four lakes; Kamloops trout eyed eggs received from
Beaver Lake Hatchery, 100,000.    Resultant fry liberated, 98,500, in six lakes.
Summary of Rearing-ponds operated, etc.
Summerland Hatchery Rearing-ponds.—Fifty thousand Kamloops trout fry liberated in the ponds and held for a brief period, then released gradually into Okanagan
Lake.
Nelson Hatchery Rearing-ponds.—Kamloops trout fingerlings carried over from
1945 in No. 1 circular pond, 5,000. Resultant liberation April 1st to 23rd in West Arm
of Kootenay Lake, 4,815; coming 2-year-old fish 4 to 9 inches in length (marked by
removal of adipose and left ventral fins).
No. 2 pond: Lloyds Creek stock carried over from 1945, 18,191 fry; resultant
liberation of fingerlings in Kootenay River (Slocan Pool), February 10th, 11,959 3-inch
fingerlings.
Nos. 3, 4, and 5 ponds: Kamloops trout fry (Gerrard stock) released in ponds and
carried over from 1945—No. 3 pond, 31,200; No. 4 pond, 31,200; No. 5 pond, 31,200.
Resultant liberation of fingerlings, April 1st to 12th, coming 1-year-old fish, 3 to 5
inches in length, 75,945, weight count in West Arm of Kootenay Lake; 2,090, Champion
Lake; 5,000 transferred to No. 1 circular pond for retainment, spring 1947. Total
liberations, 83,035, from 100,000 eyed eggs received. DD 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Kamloops trout eyed eggs received from Gerrard Hatchery, June, 1946, 120,000.
Resultant fingerlings in ponds as at December 31st, 1946: No. 2 pond, 9,955; No. 3
pond, 28,509;  No. 4 pond, 37,107; No. 5 pond, 37,170; total, 112,741.
No. 1 circular pond resultant yearling fish from 5,000 released in pond as at
December 31st, 4,996.
Bjerkness Rearing-ponds.—Kamloops trout fry (Gerrard Stock) released in the
No. 1 pond August 16th, 50,000. Resultant liberation of fingerlings into Kootenay
Lake, October 16th and 17th, 26,475, 2 to 3 inches in length, weight count. Visible
losses extremely light—predator birds and insects probably account for heavy loss—
23,525.
Kaslo Hatchery Rearing-ponds.—Due to the reconstruction of the upper section of
the large pond at the expense of the organized sportsmen, coupled with extreme low
temperatures of water around 32 degrees and formation of ice, only small allotment of
2,500 fingerlings was carried in the pond for experimental purposes. Fry retained in
hatchery troughs, approximately 185,000. Resultant fingerlings liberated in Kootenay
Lake, November, 25,000. Approximate remainder of fingerlings in troughs as at
December 31st, 155,000.
New Denver Rearing-pond.—Operations suspended due to mining operations.
Matthew Creek Rearing-ponds.—The usual 30,00 cut-throat trout fry were released
in series of old abandoned beaver-dams, wherefrom the fish gradually enter St. Mary
River.
Fernie Rearing-ponds.—During June 10,000 cut-throat fry were released in No. 1
and No. 2 ponds, and resultant unrecorded fingerlings were released in the Elk River
adjacent during the fall. The ponds are operated by the organized sportsmen of Fernie
with fair success, but now require an overhaul for effective operation and results.
Grand Forks Nursery Waters.—As the intended improvements to the nursery were
not effected by the organized sportsmen of Grand Forks, the 3,000 Kamloops trout
advanced fry (Gerrard Stock) supplied August 9th were placed in the original retaining-
pen, and approximately 2,000 resultant fingerlings 2 to 4 inches in length were released
into Christina Lake on October 25th. The retainment of the fish under natural conditions was fairly successful. The remainder of the fingerlings will be released next
spring.
Princeton Rearing-ponds (Proposed).—In view of the possible development of
rearing ponds by the organized sportsmen of Princeton on a leased site adjacent to
One Mile Creek and 3 miles north of Princeton, two experimental retaining-pens 3 by
4 by 12 feet each were used to carry 5,000 Kamloops trout fry from July 20th to
November 7th with fair success. The resultant fingerlings were released in the two
small lakes leased, which will be improved upon next spring at the expense of local
sportsmen.
Five applications were received to purchase small allotments of trout fry for
liberation in ponds and small private lakes, which received favourable consideration.
Ova Collections.
In view of the heavy demand for Kamloops trout eyed eggs from the consolidated
operations at Lloyds Creek and Penask Lake Hatcheries to augment the supply of eggs
needed at the Nelson Hatchery, an unsuccessful attempt was made to collect a quantity
at Box Lake, near Nakusp.
The early freeze-up at Boundary Lake, Nelway, resulted in 170,000 Eastern brook
trout eggs being collected, in comparison to 320,000 in 1945.
High-water conditions in the Lardeau River, Gerrard, seriously curtailed the collection of Kamloops trout eggs, which amounted to 554,000, in comparison to 1,022,000
in 1945. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946. DD 27
Two million kokanee eggs were collected at Meadow Creek, Lardeau, for distribution
in lakes of the Interior, in comparison to 5,500,000 collected in 1945.
The collection of cut-throat trout eggs at Kiahko (Fish) Lakes, Cranbrook district,
amounted to 1,823,500, in comparison to 1,328,000 in 1945. Munroe Lake, 1,500, in
comparison to 119,500 in 1945. Munroe Lake hybrid trout eggs, 21,500, in comparison
to 204,250 in 1945.
In view of the quality of cut-throat trout eggs collected at Fish Lakes and under
ideal conditions to operate, a reserve was placed on the area of some 480 acres to protect
this valuable natural resource.
Hatcheries.
In addition to repairs carried out to the walls and base of the Gerrard Hatchery in
1946, the roof of the building was completely reshingled and minor repairs effected,
thereby making the building serviceable for a number of years.
The ground floor of the Kaslo Hatchery building, leased to the Department for a
period of twenty-five years, was completely modernized with concrete floor and gutters
and eighteen hatching-troughs 2 feet by 16 feet by 8 inches, equipped with jet arrangement water-supply. The modern set-up in use will comfortably carry 5,000,000 eggs
or 1,000,000 fry.
Taking full advantage of the unsurpassed water-supply, and as supported by the
organized sportsmen, the old hatchery building at Summerland will be replaced with a
spacious and modern building to take care of fish-cultural requirements in the Okanagan
region affected by irrigation, etc.
Miscellaneous Subjects.
Fertilization of Lakes.—The experimental use of commercial fertilizers to increase
the productivity of certain lakes mentioned in the report of 1945 is again referred to.
Clearwater Lake, Hedley: Elevation 6,000 feet. Fertilizer applied to selected
areas: 400 lb. of 4-8-5 and 400 lb. of 4-8-12 in the spring of 1945; 400 lb. of 4-8-12
toward the fall of 1946.
Authentic report received indicates beneficial results attained by the experiment
of larger trout and improved condition and weed-growth, etc.
Bear Lake, Zincton: Elevation 3,500 feet. Fertilizer applied: 1 ton of 4-8-12 in
May, 1945; 1 ton of 4-8-12 in July, 1945; 1 ton 4-8-12 in May-June, 1946, in selected
areas throughout. Report of experiment satisfactory from a standpoint of increased
growth and improved condition of mountain Kamloops trout, together with weed-
growth, etc.    Both experiments were conducted at the expense of organized sportsmen.
As during the season of 1945, fertilizer 4-8-12 was applied to No. 1 semi-natural
Bjerkness rearing-pond, with satisfactory results.
The future use of commercial fertilizers under investigation by qualified biologists
at Paul Lake, Kamloops, is awaited with interest.
Salvage and Transfer of Trout.—To conserve the food-supplies and to reduce the
numbers of surplus spawners at Fish Lakes, 360 male cut-throat trout were transferred
to Munroe Lake, 24 miles distant, without loss in transit.
As a result of abundant precipitation, there was no serious loss of stranded trout,
nor was it necessary to retrieve or transfer any from affected areas on Little and Big
Sheep Creeks, etc.
Destruction of Coarse Fish.—Reducing the numbers of these undesirable fish is
still a major problem to contend with, and some attempt was made at permanent traps
and others in the experimental stage, as referred to herewith.
Princeton Area: Lome Lake—squawfish, suckers, and chub, 936 (2,000 lb.) ;
Wolfe Lake—25 squawfish (100 lb.);  Otter and Frembd Lakes—50 suckers, 27 squaw- DD 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
fish, and 6 whitefish (150 lb.);  2,250 lb. taken in traps installed at the expense of the
organized sportsmen of Princeton.
Oliver Area: Madden Lake—32,340 shiners (Richardsonius balteatus) taken in
two traps installed at the expense of organized sportsmen of Oliver.
Okanagan Lake: Outlet trap—235 carp (625 1b.). High-water conditions prevent
the operation of other traps.
Lake Christina: Whitefish, 95 (80 lb.) ; carp, 32 (110 lb.) ; ling, 138 (6*85 lb.) ;
suckers, 265 (785 lb.) ;  total, 2,098 lb.
Windermere Lake and Sloughs: Squawfish, 650 (760 lb.); suckers, 345 (410 lb.);
total, 1,105 lb.
Kootenay Lake: Queens Bay—Experimental use of a drag-seine was not successful,
as the reported schools of squawfish did not return.
Columbia River: At the request of the organized sportsmen of Trail, the operation
of a drag-seine was attempted, but without success, due to the rugged nature of the
shore-line and only a few coarse fish present.
Trout Foods.—Three tons of stripped kokanee from Meadow Creek were placed in
cold storage at the Nelson Hatchery and 2 tons in cold storage at Kaslo to assist with
feeding of trout fingerlings retained in the Nelson-Kaslo rearing-ponds.
Fishways.—The five small fish ways installed in dams under 10 feet in height are
in fair condition and working order. Situated at the outlet of Okanagan Lake, Eholt
Creek, outlet of McBain's Lake, Alexander Creek, Crowsnest, and Paddy Ryan Lakes,
Windermere.
Cottonwood Creek, Nelson:  The replacement of old lumber with concave concrete
flume of approximately 600 feet in length was completed by the Canadian Pacific Railway at Nelson during the fall to afford free passage to all fish that frequent the stream.
The flume is equipped with staggered concrete stops spaced 4 feet apart and of 4- by
42- by 4-inch dimensions.
Obstructions.—Lardeau River: During the fall additional work was effected of
the recently formed obstruction in the north channel of river adjacent to the handy
log-jam, 1 mile below Gerrard, to allow free passage to the parent Kamloops trout from
Kootenay Lake to reach their spawning-grounds adjacent to Gerrard without delay
or injury.
Duncan River: The removal of a recently formed log and debris obstruction, 1 mile
north of the confluence of Meadow Creek, is receiving attention by the Federal authorities for navigation purposes. The removal will be beneficial to the future migration
of spawning trout.
Pollutions by Mining Industries.—Due to several mines closing down temporarily,
the pollution of streams frequented with fish has not been serious. Moreover, wherever possible, the operators are sympathetic in their endeavours to prevent serious
pollutions, as referred to herewith.
Similkameen River: This stream has been free of pollution, except the discharge
of ash from the Granby Mining, Smelting, and Power Company steam electric plant.
Remedial measures are now being taken for impoundment on suitable land adjacent to
the plant. The control of concentrator refuse by the said company and the Kelowna
Exploration Company and Mascot Mining Company, of Hedley, is now well taken
care of.
Columbia River: The discharge of refuse from the smelter and fertilizer plants
operated by the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company of Trail continued in this
river, and this situation is very difficult to avoid.
Salmon River and Sheep Creek: Mining operations have been suspended during
the year at the Sheep Creek Gold Mines, Limited, and the Gold Belt Mining Company.
In order to prevent recurrence of serious pollutions resulting from the discharge of REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946. DD 29
concentrator refuse, the management in each case has been consulted as to the control
and impoundment of refuse.
Salmon River (Upper Reaches) : In the event of the Trimetal Mining Company
operating the Golden Age mine, arrangements were effected with the management to
impound the concentrator refuse.
Sitkum Creek: During the spring this stream was seriously polluted with concentrator refuse (no chemicals) owing to a breach in the dam. At considerable expense,
the operators were most sincere in their efforts to impound and control the waste.
Seaton and Carpenter Creeks: The management of the Zincton Mines, Limited,
Sheep Creek, has taken the desired remedial measures to prevent the serious pollution
of streams mentioned by pumping and impoundment to protect the interests of a
hydro-electric plant and sport fisheries.
Summit Creek:  The Bayonne Consolidated Mines, Limited, suspended operations.
St. Mary River: The extensive precautionary measures taken by the Consolidated
Mining and Smelting Company has prevented the serious pollution of the river in
treatment of ores from the Sullivan mine.
Elk River: The control and impoundment of coal-sludge from the washing-plants
operated by the Crows Nest Pass Coal Company on Coal Creek and Michel has prevented serious pollutions.
Lumber Industries.—With the exception of two complaints of sawdust entering
Giveout Creek, Nelson, and the Salmon River, Salmo (rectified forthwith), operators
have complied with the fishery regulations in force.
Diseases.—During the year no mortality of sport fish was observed or reported in
" B " Game Division.
Ova Collections.—With somewhat restricted shipments of trout eyed eggs from
the consolidated operations at Lloyds Creek and Penask Lake Hatcheries to meet
demands of the Nelson Hatchery, further attention will be given to possible local
collections.
Co-operation.—During the year excellent co-operation was received from the
organized sportsmen, individuals, municipalities, Forest Service, and Water Rights
Branch, the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company, and scientific information
was supplied by Dr. W. A. Clemens and Dr. G. Clifford Carl, Director, Provincial
Museum, which is hereby gratefully acknowledged.
"C" DIVISION  (KAMLOOPS, YALE, OKANAGAN, CARIBOO, CHILCOTIN,
AND SQUAMISH DISTRICTS).
By R. M. Robertson, Officer Commanding.
I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report on game conditions in
" C " Game Division during the year ended December 31st, 1946.
Big Game.
Moose.—The increase over that of previous years in the number of non-resident
big-game hunters primarily bent on obtaining moose for a meat supply poses the
question as to what amount of hunting pressure this Province can stand before the
moose population proceeds on a downward scale. Up to 1945 the bag-limits obtained
showed no decrease. During 1946 hunting of moose maintained its steady pressure
both by resident and non-resident alike.
In recent years the movement of moose into new areas to the south and south-east
portion of the Province has been of a most conspicuous nature. With this southward
movement of moose, the wolf has also appeared. Additional information on this will
appear under the heading of predators. DD 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In the Kamloops area there appeared to be no immediate scarcity of moose
and the same applied to other Detachments in the Cariboo. Clinton Detachment
reports the majority of bulls taken last year were very young animals. One significant
feature of the Wells Detachment report is the apparent scarcity or disappearance of
moose from that district. My annual report for 1937 pointed out that moose were
first observed in the Bowron Lake area in 1901. The report describes the southward
movement of moose from 1901 to 1937. Both the former Game Warden and the present
officer have drawn my attention to this situation. It would appear that no further
intrusion of moose from the north is taking place in the Bowron Lake area. The field
survey on moose conducted by the University of British Columbia in 1946 by Mr. James
Hatter, will probably reveal some very interesting factual data of breeding areas to
the south, centring mainly in the lower portion of the Cariboo. If large areas to the
south of Bowron Lake favourable for breeding purposes are revealed, and are not
subject to hunter invasion, the welfare of the moose population is definitely assured.
Under such circumstances .the problem before us is one for careful gauging and regulation. To say that we can afford to take a greatly increased hunter invasion would
be to invite disaster. Non-resident hunters in the habit of coming here for years
would be the first to admit the fallacy of any such suggestion. Wardens have not the
time to conduct any intensive survey of actual game conditions but must leave this to
experts specializing in game management.
Caribou.—A report comes to hand from Bowron Lake that caribou have appeared
in the Bowron Lake Sanctuary. The closed season existing in the Clearwater terrain
of the Kamloops district should continue. The reported scarcity in various parts of
this Division is certainly not due to over-shooting. Returning for a moment to the
north again, word comes that three fairly large herds are concentrated in the Quesnel
Detachment and points east. A patrol will be made to ascertain their numbers and
conditions. From other areas no reports of interest are available. I would, however,
stress the importance of conducting an ecological study in relation to caribou welfare.
There is some mystery attached to the movement of this species, as most of the information available concerns their apparent scarcity and the expression " remnants of
a former large caribou population " is occasionally heard.
Deer.—The unfavourable season protected this animal. Snowfall during the latter
part of the year and, after that, frost made travel in the woods a noisy undertaking.
We need never feel any concern over the deer population in British Columbia. Ontario,
with many times the population of this Province, according to one authority at Ottawa,
has just as many deer as ever. In certain districts the ratio of bucks to does varies
from time to time, but over the years recovery soon takes place. Taken as a whole over
the entire Division, the odds were against the hunter, due to unfavourable climatic
conditions.
Grizzlies.—At the head of Texas, Whitecap, and Bear Creeks, in the Lillooet area,
there are opportunities for grizzlies. Unfortunately the trails are not kept open, and
much work would have to be done to enable hunters to reach the above grounds.
Bowron Lake is considered good grizzly country, but the type of hunting there is carried out mostly on foot and by boat. To hunt in this area, physical fitness is really
an essential requirement. Three Valley in the district to the east of Salmon Arm and
in the Revelstoke and Crowfoot Ranges are districts in which opportunities prevail if
the right guides are chosen. There is much to be said in favour of knowing just where
to go and who to employ as a guide. Black bears are still a menace to stock in the
Cariboo District and lower portions of the Province.   They are seldom hunted.
Mountain-goats.—Goats in the Lillooet area are not numerous. In Bowron Lake
they are also reported as being scarce, and none has been taken for several years. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946. DD 31
Williams Lake district reports are favourable. Actually very few goats are taken in
any of the districts.
Mountain-sheep.—West of the Fraser and on the Limestone Range in the Clinton
district reports state that this species is holding its own. In the Bear Creek district,
near Kelowna, three rams about 4 years old were observed. These rams are no doubt
overflow remnants of the Shorts Creek population on the west side of Okanagan Lake.
The area adjacent to Squaam Bay on Adams Lake received scant attention from sheep-
hunters. The closed season on mountain-sheep at Squilax should be maintained.
A census will be taken of those animals from time to time.
In the Yalakom district of Lillooet a band of wolves has moved in. No damage to
sheep has' been reported. There is a demand for a predatory-animal hunter to cope
with this situation.   We have been short of help in this respect.
In the Big Creek district of the Chilcotins a request has been made by a long-time
resident and guide in Which he draws to our attention the necessity for preserving the
limited-sized band of mountain-sheep in that district. Any suggested open season
covering limited areas should first be submitted for the consideration of the biologist.
There is no finer sight for a nature-lover or photographer than to watch these animals
grazing on the lower slopes of Shorts Creek, Squilax, Squaam Bay, and west of Williams
Lake and other areas to the south.
Fur-bearing Animals.
From Bowron Lake a report comes to hand of a parasite affecting muskrats. This
took place about three years ago and appears to have killed off large numbers. Rabbits in this area are numerous, and a corresponding increase in lynx has been noted.
Other fur-bearers are normal. Squirrels have apparently made a surprising comeback despite the heavy take over most of this Division. With the additional food-supply
for fewer squirrels over a period of years, one can readily look for some sort of increase.
In the matter of beaver-farming of trap-lines, much remains to be done. There
are, as mentioned in a previous report, too many loop-holes, not so much for the trapper
now that beaver-tagging has taken place, but for those engaged in the industry of
handling furs. Until changes for the better take place, it is indeed a difficult problem
trying to inaugurate a sound and fool-proof system of beaver conservation.
We are definitely short of help in the checking of registered trap-lines. The use
of aeroplanes during the winter months is an immediate necessity, especially for the
more inaccessible regions, as it would effect a great saving of time and money. Trappers get their food-supplies on their registered trap-lines well before winter sets in.
Where a Warden has to make long and arduous trips into the more remote regions, he
invariably has to back-pack his food-supply on the one trip. One special patrol made
recently took over two weeks. Creation of ponds, water-fowl projects, problems of
food as affecting the health and quality of fur-bearers, unusual predator action, trap-
line fur-bearing potential, and a host of other allied matters await the action of the
engineer and the biologist with extensive experience in the field. We have not yet
begun to scratch remotely the surface of this potential fur-bearing wealth. Unlike
mining, it can be renewed year after year with the prospects of an ever-increasing
harvest, provided scientific research is utilized as the tool for full development.
Game Propagation.
Twelve beavers were trapped alive at Bowron Lake and liberated in different parts
of this Division. Water-storage is too important for us to pass up, and the most
important and least expensive of all water-storage agencies lies within our reach.
More apparatus for live trapping of beavers is necessary. We are inadequately
equipped for extensive work.    The most brilliant example of what beavers can do DD 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
toward the increase of water-fowl in this Province can be seen on the trap-line of
Mr. Eric Collier. In addition, Mr. Collier's work with a shovel and scraper in the
damming-up of water from the melting snows and holding back the spring run-off is
well worth a visit of inspection. As a fur-farmer specializing in the raising of rats
at present on the large number of artificially created ponds plus the present additional work of beaver activity, he is now enjoying substantial dividends as a result of
honest and painstaking effort. While it is true that there may be off-years due to
disease and other factors, these problems could be largely overcome by the advice of
an expert on diseases of fur-bearers.
Fur-farming.
Very little activity prevails in this industry. It has reached a new low level in
British Columbia. Experimental farms are necessary if we are to hold our position
against outside competition. The Department of Trade and Industry could perhaps
provide an incentive in conjunction with the Dominion Government on better fur-
farming methods. It is officially reported that there is a scarcity of experts in this and
other fields.
Fur-traders.
The bulk of fur is sold in Vancouver by Interior trappers. Unfortunately we have
no direct access to the Vancouver records of these fur-buyers and therefore are not in
a position to know what trappers are actually doing. The returns from trappers at the
end of the season are not sworn affidavits.
Upland Game Birds.
European partridges are increasing along the Fraser River and in the Ashcroft
and Vernon districts. They are scarce around Kelowna. Quail, from reports received,
have to a very large extent disappeared from the Salmon Arm area. Around Kelowna
this game bird has increased. The Cariboo climate is too severe for quail. The
following Detachment reports are submitted on the grouse situation in this Division:—
Detachment. Blue Grouse. Willow Grouse.
Kelowna Slight increase. Scarce.
Vernon Not numerous. Not numerous.
Salmon Arm Decrease. Improving.
Kamloops Not increasing. Decrease.
Clinton More numerous. Slow increase.
Merritt Numerous on Very few seen.
upper ranges.
Williams Lake Scarce. Scarce.
Wells Not numerous. Improving.
Lillooet Increasing but Slight increase;
still scarce. recommend
closed season.
Quesnel Still scarce. Still scarce.
Taken as a whole the grouse situation in this Division does not present an optimistic picture. Perhaps a combination of disease and over-shooting has had much to
do with the situation. Prairie chicken fluctuate far too much in numbers to be taken
into serious account. These game birds are too often mistaken for grouse by the
careless hunter. Occasionally coveys are seen. Shorter seasons and smaller bag-
limits rather than closed seasons would be worth considering.
Regarding pheasants, reports to hand indicate a scarcity. Kelowna reports
pheasants very scarce.   The wet weather for the first three days of the open season REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946. DD 33
had much to do with the small bag-limits. There was little movement of the pheasant
population. Vernon had a daily bag-limit of four birds, while surrounding districts
cut down the bag-limit to two birds for the first three days. This situation served to
concentrate the hunters more around Vernon. Too much publicity of the actual stand
of game birds has its disadvantages. There is always a strong tendency for hunters
to gather at points of game concentration.
Sixty pheasants were liberated at Salmon Arm and 100 pheasants at Kamloops.
About 60 birds were liberated near Kelowna by a private citizen.
Migratory Game Birds.
It is worth while to show Detachment reports on the subject of migratory game
birds, especially ducks and geese:—
Detachment. Ducks. Canada Geese.
Kelowna Poor. Scarce; few killed.
Vernon Larger increase No report.
because of
closing of
military camp.
Salmon Arm Increase. No report.
Kamloops Not numerous. Only fair.
Merritt Very few taken. Fair in spots.
Clinton Numerous west Numerous.
of Fraser.
Williams Lake Scarce. Quite common
Lillooet Of little Pemberton Valley,
account. 300 geese.
Quesnel Dry weather; Poor, spotty.
poor, spotty.
Bowron Lake Poor. Plentiful in fall.
The above report is not a good one. The poor seasons, if continued, with an ever-
increasing army of hunters, both in Canada and the United States, may call for
drastic reductions.
Any mechanism of a war- or peace-time development capable of killing water-fowl
and not wounding is a step toward conservation. Far too many birds to-day are
brought down wounded and lost. These are unfortunately not included in the day's
take. Improved and effective killing should be encouraged rather than the present
ineffectual methods as followed to-day. If it were possible to take a census of ducks
wounded and lost, the figures over the entire continent would be of staggering proportions. We are evidently paying the price to-day for being too optimistic in the past.
Banding operations in spring and fall in Northern and Southern British Columbia
would teach us a great deal of any temporary diversion or change of route along the
fly-ways.
Vermin.
Eleven Game Wardens and one predatory-animal hunter destroyed the following
predators during 1946: 48 dogs, 13 bears, 171 coyotes, 751 crows, 475 magpies, 236
hawks, 157 owls, 171 cats, 26 eagles, 14 cougars, 39 ravens, and 4 wolves.
Reports made several years ago by a former Warden revealed, while following wolf
tracks on saddle-horse, that these animals usually followed a fairly definite route or
pattern by starting at one point and covering a considerable distance to report at
another. A recent aeroplane flight taken by one of the Wardens at Kamloops showed
a similar route taken by wolves as discovered by the rider operating as described above, DD 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
except for a slight variation. The aeroplane flight, however, enabled us to add to the
former report in that the wolves continued on in the form of a semi-circular route. If
it can be proven that wolves follow a definite pattern in their travels at all times, it
should be a comparatively simple matter to deal with overconcentrations or bands of
these predators. In the recent aeroplane flight and subsequent study of the route
taken by wolves, the writer checked the trap-line maps over which this band or bands
of wolves were operating. The tracks clearly crossed several trap-lines, and to confirm
what was seen from the aeroplane, letters were sent to the various trappers asking for
information of what they observed within their registered trap-line boundaries in the
form of wolf movements. Reports received from trappers confirmed to a very large
extent observations made from the air. Sketches were received which largely coincided with the sketch of wolf movements observed from the aeroplane while flying at
a very low altitude.
One Game Warden was detailed to make the first wolf-hunt from an aeroplane
operating from Kamloops. With the use of an automatic shotgun, one wolf was killed
on a fairly large lake and another badly wounded. This was done at an altitude of only
a few feet above the ice.
As an efficient means of destruction of predators, the killing of wolves from an
aeroplane leaves much to be desired. These animals are not lacking in boldness, as on
more than six occasions they were observed close to and within a farmyard in the North
Thompson area. Examination of the tracks by the writer several days after confirmed
this report.
Game Protection.
Two hundred and twelve prosecutions under the " Game Act" were recorded. Of
these, two were dismissed. Kamloops and Kelowna Detachments were most active in
this respect. The checking-station at Cache Creek revealed sixty-nine prosecutions
and convictions. There is a great lack of knowledge of the game regulations on the
part of hunters. Nearly all Detachments lacked sufficient help. The greatly increased
population of the Interior and the totally inadequate staff to cope with such large
numbers revealed the necessity for more assistance all over this Division. As a deterrent to offenders under the " Game Act," the temporary suspension of the hunting
licence plus a fine would do more to prevent deliberate violations than any other form
of action.
Game Reserves.
The Minnie Lake Game Sanctuary and the Bowron Lake and Tranquille Reserves
are primarily the main but limited areas for protection of fur-bearers and water-fowl.
Efforts have been made by Game Associations for the creation of additional sanctuaries
within settled areas, invariably without success, because of the opposition from private
land-holders.
Yalakom Game Reserve, where mountain-sheep roam, according to reports, has
been visited by packs of wolves. No information is available at present as to the exact
extent of this invasion. The waters of the North Thompson, South Thompson, and
Thompson Rivers opposite Kamloops were declared a closed area for the protection of
water-fowl, largely as a result of public interest. This project, right from the beginning, was a great success. When the open season on water-fowl took place, hundreds
of mallards and other water-fowl soon found out that they were not molested there, and
on the log-boom erected within this area, mallards were closely packed for protection.
It was a sight to behold. We have not enough of such areas. All progressive cities
invariably have, where possible, their water-fowl sanctuaries. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946. DD 35
Registration of Trap-lines.
The system at present in operation has stood the test of time. Combined with a
programme of education and greater supervision or inspection, the previous suggestions
as contained under the heading of " Fur-bearing Animals " could well be included to
bring this system to a state of perfection. Great and lasting credit is due Mr. Frank
Butler, one of our Game Commissioners, for organizing and putting this system into
effect. There is an old axiom which says, " Success is a continuous journey ... .
never can it be considered a destination."
Registration of Guides.
It has been observed by the Wardens that there is a badly unbalanced situation
under this heading. If the 460 guides now registered in " C " Game Division were
more evenly distributed, it would be better for big-game conditions generally. Far too
many guides are operating heavily hunted districts.
One possible solution is a system of registered areas for guides, providing a specific
number of guides to each area.
Guides are now arranging to take hunters to the areas farther afield by aeroplane
next year. I sincerely hope that adequate provision will be made to enable officers in
the field to move rapidly and keep pace with the new trend of travel. It would appear
that larger aeroplanes are more likely to be used by big-game parties, as to transport
moose carcasses by smaller plane would be a much more costly undertaking. Nothing
like the money paid out under the present system, along our highways, in our hotels and
camps, will be spent if aeroplanes are brought into full use to land within easy reach of
the hunting-field. It is the visiting hunter travelling along our highways and byways
who leaves the money behind. Only where there are no highways in the more remote
parts of the Province should aeroplanes be used, but only after a careful survey of its
actual wild-life wealth has been conducted.
Special Patrols.
A special patrol was made by Game Warden Gill, of Lillooet, into Lizza Lake area
and into the Shulap Mountains, checking the number of sheep in that area. Very few
sheep were found, but it is believed they had nearly all moved over into the Yalakom
Reserve and Red Mountain areas, as signs of bands moving that way were in evidence
on the divide.
Game Warden Hillen, of Quesnel, made a special patrol to the Nazko and Black-
water. He also patrolled to the Ahbau Creek and Lake country and in the Quesnel
River area.
Hunting Accidents.
William Hershey, Little Fort, B.C., was shot in the right leg between the knee and
the ankle, by Roger Eakin while they were tramping through the bush. Mr. Eakin's
rifle caught in a bush and accidentally discharged. The bone of Mr. Hershey's leg was
not damaged.    This is the only hunting accident recorded in " C " Division this season.
Summary.
The year 1946 was one of the busiest years we have ever had, both from the viewpoint of angling and big-game hunting. The latter attraction drew several thousand
resident and non-resident hunters, mainly to the Cariboo, where, like the year previous,
a heavy toll of big-game animals, mainly moose, was taken. As to how long the area
can stand that strain could best be answered by those responsible for the big-game
survey which was started and carried on throughout the year. DD 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Scientific research should proceed simultaneously with a programme of public
education. . Both are important and interdependent. A point of interest brought out in
the report from Wells is that moose have either decreased or have left the Bowron Lake
area, where they were first seen in 1901. If there are any similar records of a mass
movement of big game in the early history of British Columbia, it would be of considerable interest, as the recent invasion of the Cariboo District by tremendous numbers
of moose is a phenomenon worthy of note.
Other species of big game are in a comparative sense at a standstill. Caribou have
actually decreased, despite the very limited hunting. This situation partly applies to
mountain-sheep and mountain-goat, since there are very few reports of increase. In
places we know that it is impossible for mountain-sheep to increase and " overflow " as
many hunters would like, largely because the surrounding terrain is not suitable for
their propagation. Besides, the intrusion of agriculture has had a detrimental effect
on their winter range.
In the matter of fur conservation there is room for considerable improvement.
The use of a ski-equipped aeroplane for winter visits to registered trap-lines by flying
squads of trained Wardens with trapping experience would help considerably. These
flying visits could be of a mainly educational nature, and advice could perhaps be given
to the young trapper on a variety of wild-fur subjects. This system would effect a
vast saving of time and money, and would be much more efficient than the old method
of carrying out foot patrols, especially in the more inaccessible regions.
Upland game birds have not fared so well. This applies to almost every species.
I am optimistic enough to believe that they can be brought back, provided we take into
consideration the ever-increasing population of hunters in relation to the size of
the crop.
The season for migratory water-fowl was not a good one. Shorter seasons and
smaller bag-limits would appear to be the only way out of a seemingly complex problem.
Our shooting season in British Columbia is not of long duration, and much of the so-
called northern flight in the Interior simply does not exist or what does exist passes
overhead in the night on its way south. Without uniformity of regulation, which does
not exist either in Canada or the United States, there is not a great deal of hope at
present.
The most controversial subject on the calendar is the effect of the predator on wild
life. More friendship has been lost over this subject than all the other phases of wild
life put together. I am unable to understand why hunters demand to be paid to
improve their hunting. There should be a natural impulse to destroy where it is
desirable, especially if one feels that his hunting is being jeopardized. It is a problem
requiring intelligent study and guidance.
Better enforcement of game regulations was carried out during the open season.
The checking-station created by the Game Commission at Cache Creek on a largely
twenty-four-hour basis revealed that an astonishing lack of knowledge or partial disregard of the regulations is one of the main problems before us, then there is room for
the employment of a greater field staff.
The Game Associations are doing a wonderful work in drawing to the attention of
the general public the growing importance of our wild-life resources. The responsibility
for the increase or scarcity of these resources rests to some extent in the hands of the
active members of the wild-life associations. The showing of educational films on game
and fishery conservation provides a steady and ever-increasing attraction for old and
young alike.
The subject of game reserves is one of increasing importance in view of the advent
of the aeroplane, which affords greater accessibility and saving of time. The entire
Province can now be considered as a huge landing-field. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946. DD 37
The suggestion of designating areas over which no aeroplanes would be allowed to
land might well be considered. I would respectfully suggest the employment of aeroplane pilots as game officers operating out of Divisional Headquarters, but using their
own aeroplanes from the local flying-field. A great deal can be seen from the air which
could never be discovered by means of ground patrol.
Before the 1947 hunting season materializes, surely effective means will be found
to eliminate the unfortunate overcrowding of guides and hunters.
New Wardens (overseas veterans) and Wardens of long experience were untiring
in their efforts to carry out their duties under extremely trying conditions. It is to be
hoped that their work during the forthcoming year will be rendered easier for them by
the appointment of additional officers. To the Provincial Police, through Inspector
Gammon, and the Forest Service, through Colonel Parlow, and to other organizations,
I would like to extend my sincere thanks for their ready assistance, which was gladly
rendered at all times.
Game Fish.
Vernon. — Kamloops trout eggs and fingerlings were planted in the lakes and
streams of this Detachment by the staff of the Beaver Lake Hatchery.
One planting made in troughs in Coldstream Creek was very successful and fry
were observed in the creek later in the season. The water in this creek remained fairly
constant in flow all through the summer and fall, so that there should be little or no
loss from fry and fingerlings being stranded.
The coarse-fish trap on Otter Creek, flowing into Okanagan Lake at the Indian
reserve, was placed in operation early in April, and between that time and early in
May, when the extra-high water washed out one end of the trap, 1,500 lb. of carp were
taken from the trap plus some taken by the Indians and local residents, of which there
are no records.
The amount of trash coming down during the high water made it impossible to
keep the grills clean, so to save the trap from going out altogether, the grills were
removed till May 8th, when the water was running clean again.
From this time on there were plenty of carp in the stream above the trap, but only
approximately 500 lb. were taken from the trap.
A new coarse-fish trap was installed in the stream between Woods and Kalamalka
Lakes at Oyama, and was in operation on May 8th. Between May 20th and June 6th
approximately 5,000 lb. of suckers and squawfish were taken from the trap.
Very few carp, about 500 lb. were taken from the trap, although there were
hundreds lying off the mouth of the creek in Woods Lake. By the use of a drag-net to
close off the creek above the trap, another 1,500 lb. were taken. The total shipped out
by the Thorlakson brothers was 2,206 lb.
I believe that there were three factors that were against the successful operation
of this trap: it was installed too late; it was constructed of bright new lumber, and it
was located too close to the public road, in that the local residents were constantly
interfering with it.
Sugar Lake.—Is on the Upper Shuswap River in a setting of high, bare-topped
mountains with heavily timbered lower slopes. Used as a reservoir by the British
Columbia Power Commission, who have raised the water some 25 feet, which has spoiled
the foreshore in most parts. Good catches of Kamloops trout up to 2 lb. are taken on
both fly and troll. Dolly Varden up to 8 lb. are taken in the lake and river below the
falls early in the season. There is a lodge at each end of the lake, where boats are kept
for rent. Ten miles north of the Vernon-Edgewood Road by good gravel road from
Cherryville.
Echo Lake.—The lake averages less than a quarter of a mile in width and is 1%
miles long.    It has no natural spawning facilities but has been stocked with fry for a DD 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
number of years. Kamloops trout up to 8 lb. were taken last year on both fly and troll.
There are boats for hire and a lodge is to be built this year. Reached by a good gravel
road, 15 miles from Lumby.
Aberdeen Group.—Situated on the high plateau to the east of Kalamalka Lake at
the 4,500-foot level. Limit catches of Kamloops trout can be taken in nearly any of the
five lakes. Catches of 2y2-lb. fish were made last year. Very bad road; not advisable
to attempt the trip by car. Horses could be obtained from some of the farmers at
Lavington.    No boats available.    Most anglers use rafts and fish with fly.
Kelowna.—The new hatchery at Beaver Lake will no doubt prove to be very satisfactory, and good results are expected next year. The Kelowna Hatchery ponds have
been stocked with fry and the No. 3 pond will be drained in April of its 2-year-old
fingerlings.
Okanagan Lake.—Kamloops trout up to 18 lb. have been caught on the troll.
Several thousand fingerlings will be released this spring into this lake from the Kelowna
rearing-ponds.
Beaver and Dee Lake Chain.—Due to less fry being liberated, the size of the trout
has increased greatly.
Woods Lake.—Some of the finest kokanee (sockeye) silvers are taken from this
lake. Average weight, 1% lb. Coarse fish abound, and it is hard to plant trout fry
for that reason. We are planting several thousand fingerlings this spring from the
Kelowna rearing-ponds.
Oyama (Island) Lake.—Trout up to 15 lb. are taken in this lake. We have a fish-
trap there, where our fishery officer gathers some fine spawn which is transported to the
Beaver Lake Hatchery for eyeing and planting elsewhere.
Clinton.—Coarse fish taken in 1946: Bridge Lake, 2 tons; Crystal Lake, 1 ton;
Deka Lake, 2% tons. Suckers at Burns Lake appear to have been winter-killed. The
coarse fish taken were suckers, squaw, and chub. The coarse fish in the Bridge Lake
watershed are increasing.
Williams Lake.—Trout eggs were planted in the following lakes during the summer.
Williams Lake received three trays of eggs, which were planted in the creek at the north
end of this lake. One tray of trout eggs was planted in a small creek west of this lake,
but taking into consideration the very low water-level, I doubt if these eggs will amount
to very much. One tray of trout eggs was also planted in Tadd Lake under the same
conditions as Abel Lake.
Big Lake received 30,000 trout eggs, and the water was ideal for planting. This
was done in the creek about 200 yards from the lake-shore.
Rose Lake received 30,000 trout eggs, but this lake seems to be very difficult, in
that young trout find it hard to return to the lake. The Indian Department built a
dam at the west end of Rose Lake for irrigation purposes. During the high water in
the spring, mud and leaves back up for several hundred yards. This prevents the fish
from reaching the original spawning-ground. Game Warden Jobin is afraid that
fishing for trout in this lovely lake will be a thing of the past in the near future.
Lillooet.—Preparations have been made for a new dam to be installed at the outlet
of Pavilion Lake with a new fish-screen. This will be completed this spring, as soon
as weather conditions permit. This work is being completed by Mr. R. Benson, manager
of Spencer's Ranch at Pavilion. Six lakes were stocked with eyed eggs during 1946,
and all hatches were very successful. Crown and Pavilion Lakes were stocked with fry,
as there are no suitable creeks for planting eggs. Crown and Turquoise Lakes at
Pavilion are very heavily fished, and these will have to be stocked more heavily.
Summary.—Angling in this Division reached a new high during the past year,
especially for visitors. Thousands of non-resident anglers came specifically to enjoy
the sport, despite the additional licence fee. Many of the lakes which were " off-colour "
in 1945 came to life in 1946.    The occasional off-year for some bodies of water has a REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946. DD 39
revitalizing effect. No lake can be expected to produce endless bag-limits if heavily
fished and still maintain its weight of trout.
One lake in the Kamloops district last year, roughly 4 miles long by one-quarter
mile wide, had as high as from sixty to seventy boats with fishing parties on several
occasions. The greatly increased population in the Okanagan Valley at Vernon,
Kelowna, and Salmon Arm put an additional strain on heavily taxed lakes.
Kamloops and points in the Cariboo were crowded with new arrivals. Accommodation was and is still at a premium. Hundreds of new applications for lodge-sites for
fishing and hunting were received. These came to hand in a steady stream, which
indicated the growing popularity of this attraction as one of great potential value. To
all this there is, however, a limit, as the trend where lakes are heavily fished is to
produce fish or trout that are smaller in size.
In the matter of coarse fish and their alleged adverse effects on feed and plankton
growth, etc., not enough is known by the general public of what damage coarse fish do.
There is too much guessing and not enough observation or scientific research on the
vital subject. The use of aeroplanes and their effect on trout populations will require
careful study.
We are definitely in the realm of big business, and it is up to us to supply that
demand through scientific fish-culture and a synchronized educational programme for
the benefit of the rising generation of Canadians. The suggestion has been made of
creating purely fly-fishing lakes. We should digress from the orthodox methods of fish
conservation of other Provinces or countries unless it can be shown that they have
developed something of an outstanding nature for us to follow.
"D" DIVISION  (ATLIN, SKEENA, OMINECA, PRINCE RUPERT, FORT
GEORGE, PEACE RIVER, AND YUKON BOUNDARY DISTRICTS).
By T. Van Dyk, Officer Commanding.
Big-game Animals.
Despite the fact that both resident and non-resident hunters have greatly increased
in numbers in the past year, moose showed a smaller decline in numbers than was
anticipated. Reports are received to the effect that these animals are gradually
moving westward down the Skeena River valley, while increased numbers are reported
as being seen in the vicinity of Terrace, and still others have been seen on the Lower
Nass River, close to tidal waters.
The deer situation is, however, less favourable, as it would appear that animals
are fast decreasing, this having been observed in different parts of the Division.
Caribou also are on the decline, while mountain-goat and mountain-sheep appear to
be holding their own. Grizzly bears show no sign of any change, while black bears are
still rapidly increasing, and it is believed that the removal of the bag-limit on these
would result in their reduction to a point where they would not become a menace to the
domestic stock of farmers. Unless this action is taken, it is feared that requests will
be made to have black bears declared predatory animals, and this may result in a
movement being brought about to have a bounty paid on animals destroyed.
Reports are frequently received from farmers who claim that their live stock was
killed by timber-wolves, and upon investigation it has been found that the destruction
was brought about by black bears.
Fur-bearing Animals.
Exceptionally large catches of fur-bearing animals were taken by most trappers,
due to abnormally high prices which prevailed in the earlier part of the season. This
applied especially to beaver during spring trapping.    Since the prices have levelled off, DD 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
it is believed that smaller catches will be taken and fur-bearers will be permitted to
increase on most trap-lines.
Beavers have shown a further increase on the lines of most white trappers throughout the Division, but this does not apply in the case of most Indians, whose breeding
stock is fast being depleted.
The matter of establishing beaver preserves over Indian trap-lines should be
encouraged, and the appointment of a trap-line official by the Indian Affairs Department to supervise and instruct Indians in conservation and care of their trapping areas
should be considered.
Upland Game Birds.
The nesting period having been most unfavourable during the past spring, it is
found that willow grouse, Franklins, and prairie chickens are very scarce, and the
matter of closing the season on these throughout the Division should be given consideration. Ptarmigan remain fairly plentiful in the higher areas and are very seldom
hunted.
Migratory Game Birds.
From all parts of the Division reports reaching this office would indicate that ducks
and geese are on the decline, therefore a shorter season and greatly reduced bag-limit
would be advisable. This condition, no doubt, is partly caused by excessive hunting
in the south and unfavourable nesting seasons in the north, and some measure of
conservation will have to be adopted.
Vermin.
As in previous years, complaints have been received from farmers in various parts
of the Division that domestic animals have been attacked by wolves. In some cases the
complainant was issued a permit authorizing the use of poison, instructions as to
its use being supplied where necessary, and in many instances this resulted in the
destruction of a number of predators.
An increase in bounty would perhaps result in greater efforts being put forth by
all hunters to destroy these pests, but it is believed that the employment of experienced
full-time predatory-animal hunters would be advisable. Good results were shown by
the predatory-animal hunter who was operating in Tweedsmuir Park last winter, and
I would recommend that he be again employed during next winter.
Game Protection.
By reason of increased office duties it is believed that not enough time is spent in
the field by Game Wardens in this Division. It would perhaps be advisable to employ
clerks in some of the Detachment offices, especially during the hunting season, or make
arrangements with storekeepers in the area for the sale of hunting licences, thus
reducing the amount of time to be spent in the office.
The matter of employing additional Game Wardens to carry out periodical patrols
of highway-construction areas should be considered, as it is feared that this work will
be sadly neglected if it must be carried out by the present staff.
Game Reserves.
There are no game reserves in this Division, but several sanctuaries have been
established, and these are located at Prince Rupert, Smithers, Vanderhoof, and Prince
George. Periodical patrols of these sanctuaries are carried out, with the result that
they are frequented by many birds during the periods of migration.
The matter of establishing a game reserve in Tweedsmuir Park has been suggested
by various residents in that area. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946. DD 41
Fur Trade.
Reports are coming in from all Detachments in the Division that trappers have
ceased operating their lines early this season by reason of the greatly reduced prices
currently offered for fur, therefore it is anticipated that the fur £rade will show a
marked decrease in volume. This reduced trapping should result in an increase in the
number of fur-bearers throughout the Division and a greater volume of fur taken when
prices improve.
Fur-farming.
Only a very few fur-farms remain in operation as a result of a slump in prices.
This industry is fast becoming a thing of the past, and my previous suggestion of
experiments being carried out under the supervision of a Government pathologist to
revive this industry should be considered.
Registration of Trap-lines.
Completion of this work is greatly hampered by reason of the fact that accurate
maps of the northern portion of the Division are not as yet available, and the matter of
straightening out all trap-lines will receive attention as suitable maps are obtainable.
Registration of Guides.
A large number of resident and non-resident hunters now visit this part of the
Province, and it is anticipated that their numbers will increase each year. Complaints
of activities of unscrupulous guides have reached this office, and this condition will
grow worse with the increase in number of hunters.
Special Patrols.
No patrols of a special nature were undertaken last year, but numerous routine
patrols were carried out efficiently by Game Wardens and Provincial Police constables
throughout the Division.
Hunting Accidents.
I regret to report that several hunting accidents occurred, these being as follows:—
Mrs. Irene Joan West, South Hazelton, B.C., whilst out hunting in the vicinity of
Seaton, was fatally wounded on November 27th, 1946, by another hunter, Fred Spitzl.
The Coroner's jury returned a verdict " that Mrs. West came to her death from a
gunshot wound and we find that this shot was fired from the rifle in the hands of one
Fred Spitzl."
Fred G. McDonald, Prince Rupert, B.C., on September 15th, 1946, whilst out
hunting, was accidentally shot in the calf of the left leg by a gun in the hands of
Otto Quast. Both McDonald and Quast fired at a hawk, when the shell in Quast's gun
missed fire. A few minutes later the gun went off, with the result that McDonald was
injured.    He has fully recovered from the injury.
Harold Wesley, Indian, Prince Rupert, B.C., was accidentally shot in the fleshy part
of the shoulder by Philip Sankey whilst picking berries at North Pacific Cannery.
Wesley has completely recovered.
Stanley Garbitt, Moberly Lake, B.C., was accidentally shot and instantly killed on
May 31st, 1946, at Egg Lake, 20 miles west of Moberly Lake, when his sister, Vivian,
aged 10 years, picked up a loaded shotgun which had been laid on the ground by her
father, the charge striking the boy in the back. The Coroner ruled that no inquest was
necessary and no blame was attached to anyone. DD 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Game-fish Culture.
Rod and Gun Clubs in the Division were again supplied by the Department with
eyed trout eggs, the Prince George Rod and Gun Club receiving 100,000, which resulted
in a hatch of approximately 60,000 fish. The low hatch was caused by abnormally warm
water in the Nechako River, from which the water-supply is obtained, and approximately half of the fish perished when the C.N.R. power-line failed and it became
necessary to run chlorinated water into the hatchery. As a result of this, the club has
decided to move its hatchery to a more suitable site, and this will be done before
next season.
Bulkley Valley Rod and Gun Club at Smithers received 70,000 eggs. This resulted
in a good hatch, and various lakes in the district were again stocked.
Results obtained by the McBride Rod and Gun Club were not so encouraging, as
some unknown person tampered with the water-supply, which caused a loss of the hatch.
Before any eggs are supplied to a club in future, the application will be fully
investigated to see that adequate provisions have been made to properly handle eggs,
otherwise such application will not be recommended.
Sixty thousand kokanee eggs were received by the Prince George Rod and Gun
Club, of which 10,000 were planted in West Lake, the remainder being planted in a
creek flowing into Tatin Lake, near Endako. Good results from such plantings are
anticipated.
Summary and General Remarks.
As a result of an increase in the numbers of both resident and non-resident hunters
throughout the Division, it is felt that game animals will show a decrease in numbers
during the year. This applies especially to deer, which are becoming very scarce, these
animals falling an easy prey to predatory animals when the snow becomes deep.
The grouse population also showed a sharp decline, due to excessive hunting and
a most unfavourable nesting period. For this reason a close season on these throughout
the entire Division should be considered. During last year, hunting was prohibited in
the Prince George area, while the season remained open in other Detachment areas, and
this resulted in excessive hunting in districts which were open, and very little was
accomplished by such close season.
Game Wardens in " D " Division carried out their duties in a very efficient manner,
and I wish to extend my sincere thanks to members of the Provincial Police for their
kind co-operation, also to the other departments and the members of the various Rod
and Gun Clubs for their kind assistance.
" E " DIVISION  (MAINLAND COAST NORTH TO TOBA INLET AND
LOWER MAINLAND AS FAR INLAND AS NORTH BEND).
" E " Division comprises the Mainland Coast from Point Roberts to Toba Inlet and
as far inland as North Bend. This Division is also supervised from Game Headquarters
at Vancouver, and the following are excerpts from reports of Game Wardens and
Fishery Officers of the Division:—
Big Game.
Deer (Coast or Columbian).—While the Coast deer are fairly plentiful throughout
the Division, hunting is becoming more difficult owing to the fact that the logged-off
lands that had previously allowed fairly easy hunting have now been almost completely
covered with a dense growth of green timber. Throughout the Fraser Valley complaints
are continually being received of damage by deer to farmers' crops, and the density
of the woods adjacent to these farms makes the problem more difficult. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946. DD 43
Wapiti (Elk).—The elk herd at McNab Creek is just about holding its own. The
reports indicate that there is considerable poaching owing to the fact that the herd is
in such an isolated location.
Fur-bearing Animals.
We have several fairly good registered trap-lines in the Division, but the majority
of the fur is taken within the boundaries of municipalities on the Lower Mainland,
where the principal fur is the lowly muskrat. The red fox, while considered a fur-
bearing animal under the " Game Act," actually is a predator in so far as the Lower
Mainland is concerned. This animal is much too numerous in the area and is the cause
of severe depredation to the stock of game birds in the district.
Upland Game Birds.
Grouse (Blue).—The southern portion of the Division, with the exception of the
areas around Pitt Lake and north of Haney, is not a blue-grouse country. The areas
mentioned do produce a fair number of grouse, and they appear to be slightly increasing. The islands in Howe Sound, which in former years provided good blue-grouse
hunting, owing to the heavy growth of young timber over the previously logged-off
areas, are no longer considered suitable for this kind of sport.
Grouse (Willow).—Willow or ruffed grouse are not plentiful. The number of birds
in the Lower Mainland has been very disappointing. Their numbers do not seem to
have materially changed in the last three years along the Mainland coast, in spite of the
fact that they are very little hunted in the areas provided with an open season.
California Quail.—A. few quail are found in the Delta portion of the Division, but
not in sufficient numbers to warrant an open season.
Pheasants.—Many factors have a bearing on the stand of pheasants in the Division:
the area of the Lower Mainland is becoming so thickly populated, and large farms
formerly producing grain are now being broken up into small holdings and producing
vegetables or providing pasturage for dairy herds. With the ever-increasing hunting
population, poor nesting seasons, and the factors previously mentioned, it is becoming
more necessary to rely upon the artificial method of supplying pheasants, and that is by
liberating them in areas heavily hunted in order to at least provide some sport for the
hunters of the Lower Mainland.
Migratory Game Birds.
Ducks.—As was the case during the previous year, duck-hunting on the Lower
Mainland was very disappointing. The same conditions as mentioned in regard to the
pheasants apply equally well to our duck population. If we expect to hold ducks in the
Lower Mainland with conditions as they are, some further provision must be made
for their welfare. More resting or protected areas must be provided, and on those
areas food must be available. The experiment of feeding migratory game birds on
Government-controlled game reserves where proper protection and food was provided
proved to be a successful venture and was no doubt responsible for the retaining of
many thousands of ducks in the district throughout the winter. Feeding was conducted
long after the season had expired. Some criticism was heard over the system employed
in creating these game reserves, and it has been strongly suggested that many more
and smaller reserves should be created in the district.
Geese.—With the exception of a few geese at the heads of some of the inlets up the
coast, and probably Pitt Lake, the Division does not lend itself to good goose-hunting,
with the exception of the lesser snow-goose. These birds are winter residents around
the mouth of the Fraser River and number around 7,000.    During extremely cold or DD 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
rough weather the hunting of snow-geese provides fine sport for the man who has the
intestinal fortitude to hunt them.
Black Brant.—The Boundary Bay area provides the main hunting-ground for this
very fine game bird, but the district is so small as compared to the numbers eager to
hunt them that very drastic regulations are necessary in the hunting of brant in order
to provide some sport for as many as possible.
Band-tailed Pigeons.—While an open season on band-tailed pigeons is provided for
the latter half of September, the actual number of birds in the area or taken by
sportsmen is very small.   They appear to be more plentiful during the spring migration.
Predatory Animals.
The chief predatory animal of the Division is the red fox, and some of the Game
Wardens keep dogs for the purpose of controlling the numbers in areas where they are
most numerous. Red fox are mostly found in that portion of the Lower Mainland south
of the Fraser River from Rosedale to Ladner. From reports in the past, it appears
that these animals originated from stock liberated in the State of Washington many
years ago.
A few cougar are taken each year in the Division, but it cannot be claimed that
they are numerous. This could also be said of the coyote. A few animals put in an
appearance occasionally, the odd one being observed in the Municipality of West
Vancouver.
A SUMMARIZED INTERIM REPORT ON A STUDY OF THE MOOSE
OF CENTRAL BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1946.
By James Hatter.
During the seven months' field research on moose in Central British Columbia,
observation and investigation were directed along eight primary lines, and considerable
information was accumulated. This was embodied into a detailed preliminary report of
about 150 typed pages, including illustrations. The cost of reproducing this has made
it impossible to have the report prepared in entirety for widespread distribution. Also,
inasmuch as the study will continue, the printing or mimeographing of a large interim
report at this time is hardly worth while because much of the data will be included in
a final report when the study is concluded.
The Problems.
1. Determination of the distribution and seasonal movements of the moose.
2. Present and past numerical status.
3. Food conditions on the winter ranges.
4. Food preferences.
5. Decimating factors (factors responsible for losses).
6. Predation by wolves.
7. Parasites and disease.
8. Effect of recent hunting pressure.
Areas extensively studied.
The main localities extensively covered by the field-study lie within that area west
of the North Thompson and Clearwater Rivers to the Fraser River, the Quesnel area,
Burns Lake-Ootsa Lake, and portions of the Bulkley Valley. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946.
DD 45
Distribution of Moose in Central British Columbia.
The 54th parallel may be considered as an approximate frontier in central British
Columbia south of which moose were absent, except for possible stragglers, prior to the
settlement of British Columbia in the middle of the last century.
The first definite evidence of moose in the Bowron Lake area was the observation
of tracks at the mouth of the Upper Swamp River on Long Lake in 1905. In the west,
moose were first seen and killed near Francois Lake as early as 1905, and at Ootsa
Lake in 1912.
Since then moose have penetrated west as far as Kitimat and Bella Coola and south
to Pemberton. Even at Squamish moose have been seen. The most southerly record
is 10 miles north of Princeton. Moose have been recorded within recent years at
Ideal Lake and at Penask Lake.
Following are sight records marking the first appearance of moose at numerous
points south of latitude 54. The later dates for any one locality are probably indicative
of the time when moose became sufficiently numerous to be more readily observed in
these sparsely settled regions.
Locality.
Beaver Pass 	
Horsefly River
Horsefly River
Horsefly	
Williams Lake
Murtle River __
Year.
1912
1914
1910
1917
1923
1916
Lac la Hache __     1918-20
Forest Grove   1922-23
Horse Lake         1921
Bridge Lake         1916
Gustafsen Lake          1925
14   miles   north   of
Jesmond         1924
North   Bonaparte
River         1925
70-Mile House          1922
Port   Edward   (10
miles east of Prince
Rupert)           1944
Kurnitsa    (35   miles
west of Armsbury) 1945
Ootsa Lake         1912
South of Ootsa Lake       1913
Prince George          1910
Puntchesakut Lake____        1916
Riske Creek        1915
Hanceville        1920
Big Creek        1926
Beaver Lake  1912-13
Chilcotin River          1914
East of Lac la Hache 1920-21
Clinton   1921-22
Tranquille          1924
Upper   Deadman's
Creek          1920
Bonaparte Lake         1926
Locality. Year.
Loon Lake  1927-28
Loon Lake Mountain 1936
12   miles   south-east
of Bonaparte Lake 1930
Red Lake  1936
Munro   1945
7 miles east of Kamloops   1946
Nicola Lake  1932
Penask Lake  _: 1933
Ideal Lake (approximately 15 miles
east  of  Okanagan
Centre)   1940
10 miles north of
Princeton   1945
Barkerville   1906
Cottonwood   1911
Quesnel   1915
Baker Creek valley___ 1915
Muskeg and  Salmon
Rivers   1917
Nukko Lake   1910
Vanderhoof   1919
Endako   1920
Francois Lake   1905
Houston   1922
Telkwa   1922-24
Clore River  1931
Kitimat  1940
Williams Lake   1924
North Bonaparte  1910
Deadman's Creek  1920
40 miles north of
Pemberton  1929 DD 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Numerical Status.
Most persons questioned agreed that moose have increased steadily since their first
invasion of Central and Southern British Columbia. Furthermore, reports from widely
separated areas, interestingly enough, indicate that they first became noticeably
abundant about the same time;  namely, 1926.
There are, however, numerous reports of a decrease in the numbers of moose within
the past few years. Mr. Eric Collier believes that in his vicinity moose have suffered
a very heavy decrease since 1941. Mr. W. J. Sande reports that moose in the McGregor
River area have declined fully 75 per cent, in numbers since 1932. Reports of decrease
in Northern British Columbia are not unusual. At Lower Post moose are said to have
decreased since 1940. In the vicinity of Muskwa, according to Mr. H. Courvoisier,
moose have been on the decrease since 1936. At Bowron Lake moose have decreased
since about 1932. In the Bonaparte area both Messrs. S. E. Davis and Claude Johnson
believe that there has been a decrease in the past two years because too many bulls are
killed prior to breeding. Mr. S. Levick, at Fawn, states that in this area moose are
now on the decrease. At Jesmond, Mr. H. W. Caldwell reports that moose have
decreased in the past two years. In all, 22 per cent, of those commenting on the status
of moose indicated a recent decrease in the population.
Annual Migration.
Characteristic winter migrations occur at Ootsa Lake, west of Quesnel, and in the
Horsefly area. There is reason to believe that moose may travel as much as 50 or 60
miles from summer to winter range at Ootsa Lake.
Damage to Haystacks and Fences.
Recently moose have become a nuisance in certain agricultural districts, and there
are ample reports to demonstrate that they may cause considerable damage to haystacks
and fences. However, few persons have taken any trouble to protect their crops from
raiding moose. According to the successful results of some farmers, the average 5-foot
fence proves no obstacle to a moose. A 7- or 8-foot fence, constructed of heavy timbers,
is necessary in areas receiving little snowfall. Whether the fence be of the A-frame
type or merely a snake fence, the timbers must be of sufficient thickness to withstand
the impact of a moose. In the A-frame fence the diameter of the poles will depend
upon the distance between supports and may vary from 4 to 8 inches at the middle
point. A fence built close to the stack will prove more successful than one leaving a
space inside. Also, if two heavy rails be placed atop both of the A-frame posts, it may
not be necessary to build the fence so high. In areas receiving a heavy snowfall, the
height of the fence must be increased a proportionate amount because trampling will
pack down the snow to form a platform that will reduce the effective height of the
fence a corresponding amount.
Ranchers should keep their line fences free from growing vegetation because moose
may unknowingly run into such camouflaged fences. It is recommended that where
moose break down line fences, a heavy rail be placed on top of the posts to serve as
a reinforcement and also to make the fence more apparent.
Winter-range Depletion.
Evidence of overbrowsing was manifest in all areas wintering large numbers of
moose. This may be an indication of widespread impending food shortages over large
areas within the Province.
Range depletion was most evident at Ootsa Lake and in the area west of Quesnel.
However, even at Bridge Lake there is good reason to believe that the wintering moose REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946. DD 47
population is too great for the carrying capacity of the winter range. Other signs of
overuse were noted at Fawn, Ten Mile Lake north of Quesnel, in the Beaver Valley near
Horsefly, and at Quick in the Bulkley Valley.
List of the More Palatable Food Plants.
Heavy browsing upon these species will indicate a capacity population or overabundance: Red osier dogwood (Cornus stolonif era), paper birch (Betuta papyrifera),
upland willow (Salix sp.), trembling poplar or aspen (Populus tremuloides), mountain
ash (Pyrus sitchensis), bog birch (Betula glandulosa), saskatoon (Amelanchier florida),
lowland fir (Abies grandis), high-bush cranberry (Vibernum pauciflorum), false box
(Pachystima myrsinites), maple (Acer douglasii), horsetail (Equisetum sp.), sedge
(Carex sp.), yellow pond lily (Nymphasa polysepala).
The Problem of Forest Succession.
During the past fifty years much of Interior British Columbia was burned over.
This resulted in a temporary abundance of winter food plants such as upland willows,
birch, poplar, etc.; but gradually jack-pine forests are becoming dominant on the old
burns, with the result that the good food plants, high in light requirements, cannot
tolerate these thick forests. Therefore, reproduction of browse is at a standstill, except
in the more recent burns.
There is need for multiple land use in British Columbia which would involve the
setting-aside of selected areas of moose winter range and the manipulation of these
areas to maintain a lasting food-supply. The only practical method of increasing
browse on the winter range is by controlled burning of small selected areas. Such
burning should be undertaken only with the co-operation of the Forestry Department,
as indiscriminate burning may prove highly dangerous and detrimental to the wild
life in the area.
Some of the most successful moose guides in the Interior are those persons who
hunt over or in proximity to burns situated in favourable wintering areas. This is not
because moose are easier to see there, but because recent burns attract them due to the
abundance of nutritious browse.
Parasites and Disease.
The winter tick (Dermacentor albipictus) appears to be the most serious parasite
of British Columbia moose. Several persons have reported finding dead moose heavily
infested with ticks. Heavy infestations are occurring west of the Fraser River, at
Loon Lake, Savona, and in portions of the North Thompson area.
Food shortages on preferred winter range may prove to be an important factor in
forcing moose into tick-infested areas, as well as in reducing their ability to withstand
the infestations of this parasite.
Three internal parasites were discovered for the first time in the Interior moose.
These are the tapeworm (Moneizia), the hydatid cyst of Echinococcus granulosus, and
the leg-worm Onchocerca cervipedis. Echinococcus, which is a human parasite also,
was found at Ootsa Lake. Wolves are the alternate host. There is no reason at present
to assume that internal parasites, with the possible exception of echinococcus, are
affecting the welfare of moose.
Diseases.
Mr. Eric Collier has described a condition which seems to indicate a disease of the
respiratory system of moose. Similar symptoms are reported from Bowron Lake,
Lower Post, and Gold Bar. The colloquial name for the disease is T.B. or " rotten
lungs."    It is hoped that persons reporting on disease in the future will save specimens DD 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
of the tissue, preserved in formaldehyde.    The writer will supply this to anyone
interested.
Several persons have reported moose dead from unknown causes.
Other Decimating Factors.
In the northern districts, annually an unknown number of moose lose their lives by
breaking through the ice on lakes. This is especially so where lakes and river-courses
block annual migrations from winter to summer range.
Few bull moose appear to die from antler-locking or from injuries inflicted while
fighting.    Only one case of a broken leg came to the writer's attention.
Bog-holes cause the death of moose in some localities. Near Puntchesakut Lake,
for instance, there are some bog-holes in which quite a large number of moose have
become mired in the past eight years.
Crippling by hunters has been quite evident according to reports. Twenty-four
per cent, of the persons replying to the moose questionnaire attributed a number of the
moose carcasses found in the woods to crippling by hunters. Particularly was this the
case in the heavily hunted sections of the Cariboo. The lack of sporting ammunition
and the use of full metal-cased bullets during the war years probably increased the
crippling losses.
Wolf Predation.
There is a wide-scale agitation for increased bounties on wolves. This, however, is
largely because predation appears to be the obvious and simplest explanation for losses
among big game. Persons who so advocate intensified predator-control by the bounty
system do not realize that this system has failed all over North America. Furthermore,
the demonstrated need for predator-removal is quite local in British Columbia. Wolf
predation on moose has been overrated, and in some areas where predation is apparent,
the moose population is too large for the carrying capacity of the winter range.
Not one person could present any data by which wolf predation on moose could be
intelligently appraised.   A detailed account of a predator kill should include:—
(1) Age and sex of the prey.
(2) Depth of snow, and whether crusted.
(3) Abundance of palatable food in the area inhabited by the prey.
(4) Population density of the prey and abundance of the predator.
(5) Systematic autopsy of the prey and a knowledge of what to look for and
ability to interpret this.
(6) Identification of parasites and pathologies noted.
Approximately 80 per cent, of the wolf bounties in the past four years have been
paid to areas north of latitude 54. Predator-control in the ranching districts should be
carried on by trained predator hunters, for this would ensure the capture of those
individual predators of particular menace in the locality.
Hunting Pressure.
Preliminary data from one open season is hardly adequate to prove what effect the
recent heavy hunting is having upon the moose herds in the Cariboo. In 1946, 1,234
moose were checked at Cache Creek. Statistical data collected at this checking-station
would seem to indicate that over-shooting in certain areas is rapidly removing the older
mature bulls and that the non-breeding and young adult age-groups remain to receive
the brunt of the shooting. Excessive slaughter of young bulls will seriously impair
the quality of the future herds. Twenty-five per cent, of the moose killed in the
Bonaparte area in 1946 were yearlings. A large percentage of the remaining kills were
young animals in their third and fourth years. Large heads are becoming scarce in
the Bonaparte area. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946.
DD 49
The 1946 Moose Kill in Central British Columbia
classified according to antler spread.
(Based on 620 specimens measured at Cache Creek.)
Area 1.
Inches.
24.5 and less
(yearlings)  63
25-29.5  64
30-34.5  49
35-39.5  25
40-44.5  21
45-56  23
Total-- 245
Area 3.
24.5 and less
(yearlings)    	
25-29.5  21
30-34.5  28
35-39.5  51
40-44.5  22
45-49.5  11
50-55.5  6
Number.   Per Cent.
25.7
26.1
20.0
10.2
8.5
9.4
15.0
20.2
36.7
15.8
7.9
4.3
Area 2.
Inches.
Number.
Per Cent
24
?,R-
5 and
(year!
-29.5
-34.5
less
ings).__
17
9
34.0
18.0
30-
__    11
22.0
35-
-39.5
-44 5
__      4
8.0
40-
5
4
.__    50
10.0
45-
-50
8.0
Total
Area U-
24
ER
5 and
.year!
-29.5
-34.5.
-39 5
less
ings)___
12
9
21
17
__    14
14.4
10.8
RO
25.3
RS-
20.5
40-
-44.5
-49.5
-56 5
16.8
45-
6
__      4
7.2
50-
4.8
Total _____ 139
Total_____    83
Area 5.
Area 6.
24.5 and less
(yearlings)	
4
5.6
25-29.5	
12
16.9
30-34.5	
18
16.9
35-39.5	
14
19.7
40-44.5	
9
12.7
45-49.5	
11
15.5
50-52	
3
4.2
Total
71
Area 7
24.5-34.5	
35-39.5	
3
75.0
50.5	
1
25.0
24.5 and less
(yearlings) _
25-29.5	
30-34.5	
35-39.5	
40-44.5	
45-49.5	
50-50.5	
Total_____    14
Area 8.
24.5 and less
(yearlings)_
25-29.5	
30-34.5	
35-39.5	
40-51.5	
21.4
14.3
35.7
21.4
7.2
14.3
7.2
7.2
35.7
35.7
Total.
Total
14 DD 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Description of Areas.
Area 1.—Bridge Lake, Eagan Lake, Clinton, 100-Mile House, 70-Mile House, Green
Lake, Young's Lake, Bonaparte Lake, Loon Lake, Hihium Lake, Criss Creek, Vidette,
Deadmans Creek, Roe Lake, Deka Lake, Fawn, Horse Lake.
Area 2.—Canim Lake, Forest Grove, Lac la Hache, Timothy Lake, Buffalo Creek.
Area 3.—Quesnel Lake, Horsefly Lake, Horsefly, 150-Mile House, Ochiltree,
Miocene, Williams Lake, Meldrum Creek, Soda Creek, McLeese Lake, Macalister,
Hydraulic, Likely, Keithley Creek, Beaver Valley, Murphy Lake.
Area 4.—Quesnel, Alexandria, Narcosli Creek, Baker Creek, Cottonwood, Quesnel
River, Wingdam, Cinema, Moose Heights, Strathnaver, Hixon, Punchaw, Nazko,
Kersley, Australian, Ahbau Creek.
Area 5.—Big Bar Creek, Jesmond, Chilcotin River, Gang Ranch, Riske Creek, Big
Creek, Hanceville, Alexis Creek, Springhouse.
Area 6.—Taseko Lake, Chilko Lake, Tatlayoko Lake, Kleena Kleene, Charlotte
Lake, Atnarko River, Anahim Lake, Chezacut, Chilko River, Eagle Lake, Tatla Lake.
Area 7.—Clearwater River, Murtle Lake, Azure Lake, Blue River, McMurphy,
Little Fort, Vavenby, Barriere, Mahood Lake, Clearwater Lake, Wells Gray Park.
Area 8.—Prince George, Fraser River east of Prince George, Nechako, Drainage,
Bulkley Valley, and all British Columbia north of this line.
Norway, a country one-third the area of British Columbia, has produced 1,024.4
moose per year for forty-one years between 1889 and 1930, or a total of 43,026. Cow
moose are legitimate game there, and since 1889, 19,711 females have been killed as
against 23,315 bulls. In this way the Norwegians appear to have kept the sexes
balanced and the productivity up.
Some General Life-history Observations,
Shedding of Antlers.
Reports indicate that of recent years bull moose have shed their antlers earlier.
However, increased numbers of this animal in Central British Columbia have made
people more aware of its habits than was the case years ago.
Breeding Season.
Much still remains to be learned about the factors which govern the onset of
breeding and about the habits of both sexes at this time. No one has yet demonstrated
just how polygamous moose are. A knowledge of this, however, is very important
because productivity is probably related to the proportion of mature bulls to mature
cows. If the sex ratio becomes overbalanced in favour of the females, a condition may
arise where too few bulls are present to breed all the cows. If all the fertile cows are
not bred, then there remains a residual population that is adding nothing to the future
of the herd. This residuum of cows, nevertheless, consumes winter browse which is
often very limited in amount.
Julius Quanstrom first heard moose (sex unknown) calling on September 4th.
Johnny Hansen, at Bridge Lake, states that moose may begin the rut as early as the
10th or 11th of September. Wilfred Armstrong, of Quesnel, places the commencement
of the breeding season between the 12th and 15th of September. Fred Tibbies, of
Quesnel, also marks the date at about September 15th. Hansen saw the first moose-
wallows at Bridge Lake on September 12th, and according to him the rut was over by
October 12th.
Obviously the early season of the past few years has caused the removal of many
bulls prior to breeding. However, since it would be unwise to permit any further
increase in the moose herds, the effect of such hunting is not deemed serious. But
there is the possibility that the sex ratio in the heavily hunted areas has been set REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946.
DD 51
off-balance and some of the cows are not being bred.   These animals, as stated before,
may be depleting the winter range and furnishing nothing in return.
Average Antler Spreads for 1946.
Area 1_
Inches.
_  31.2
Area 2   30.5
Area 3   34.4
Area 4   34.9
Inches.
Area 5  36.2
Area 6  40.1
Area 7  39.2
Area 8  38.2
Sea; and Age Ratios obtained in 194-6.
Area.
No. of Moose
Recorded
(Duplication
present).
Percentage of
Males of all
Animals over
12 Months.
Percentage of
Females of all
Animals over
12 Months.
Percentage of
Calves of all
Females over
12 Months.
1,358
358
301
725
119
22.1
22.4
38.6
34.9
33.5
43.7
77.9
77.6
61.4
64.9
66.5
56.3
33.0
30.2
60.0
45.6
Cache Creek hunters' record (whole Interior)
Jasper National Park (no hunting)	
34.4
19.4
Proposed Future Studies.
It is deemed advisable to mention the problems requiring attention as the moose-
study is projected into the future. Persons interested in this research will therefore
have some idea as to the purpose of such a study, and also perhaps be more likely to
contribute facts that will assist in the possible solution of some of the problems.
Certain important phases of suggested future research are presented in outline
form as follows:—
1. Extensive reconnaissance of certain wintering areas not covered in the preliminary study.
(a) Winter range in the Pemberton area.
(b) Examination of winter range in certain areas west of the Fraser River
in the Chilcotin District.
(c) Winter range in the Clearwater River area.
(d) Winter range in the vicinity of Canim Lake.
(e) Additional range-studies in the Blackwater area.
(/)   Condition of winter and summer browse in the vicinity of the Bowron
Lake Game Reserve.
(g)  Range reconnaissance in the Salmon River area.
(h)  Additional range-studies at Ootsa Lake.
(i)  Winter range in the vicinity of Germansen Landing.
(j) Winter range east of Prince George in the vicinity of Hansard.
(k) Some information on the winter ranges near Telegraph Creek.
Purpose of the above winter-range studies:—
(1) To determine whether these important and widely separated ranges have
been overbrowsed by moose. This will indicate the general extent of
overbrowsing as studied in certain areas in 1946.
(2) Possible reasons for the rapid extension of the moose range during the
past forty years into the central and southern portions of the Province.
(3) Effect of normal forest succession on palatable winter browse. DD 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
(4) To determine if wolf predation is correlated with food shortages on over-
browsed winter range.
(5) Parasitism and disease as related to winter-food scarcity.
2. More information on the present and past numerical status of moose in the
above-mentioned areas. Confirmation of reported population decreases within recent
years.
Purpose:  That the moose population trends be more positively understood.
3. Additional information on food habits of moose.
Purpose: Additional data to account for presence and absence of moose in
various areas and possibilities for maintaining the moose herds in balance
with the available foods. . Recognition of key browse plants or indicators
of overbrowsing.
4. Predator coactions, with emphasis on the wolf. Intensive winter studies in an
area supporting an abundance of moose and where wolf predation is in evidence.
Purpose: To contribute knowledge on the subject of predation. The practical
application of this is in the need for predator-control under various
environmental circumstances.
5. Disease and parasitism in moose. The nature of these and of the contributing
factors.
Purpose: A better understanding of the possible causes, such as food, predators, climatic conditions, and population density.
6. Additional data on hunting pressure to serve as a check on that presented in the
present preliminary report.
Purpose: To positively determine what_extent the more accessible moose herds
will tolerate heavy hunting without definite evidence of abnormal ratios
and low productivity. Comparison of sex and age classes in relation to
hunting pressure. Ultimate application in the harvesting of moose on
a sustained basis.
7. General life-history data, such as:—
(1) Breeding habits.
(2) Infra-specific intolerance.
(3) Antler characteristics and growth.
(4) Seasonal movements and traditional behaviour in annual migrations.
(5) Habitat preferences.
(6) Home range.
(7) Parental care and behaviour of cow with calf.
(8) Orphaned calves.
(9) Fighting.
(10) Senses.
(11) Injuries.
Purpose: To acquire basic facts relating to life-history and ecology of the
British Columbia moose.
Ultimate purpose of the moose-study:—
(1) A contribution to knowledge.
(2) Factual basis for management and conservation of moose in British
Columbia.
Information on moose from any source in British Columbia will be gratefully
received by the writer. He may be contacted through the Department of Zoology,
University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946.
DD 53
STATISTICAL STATEMENTS.
Comparative Statistics, 1913-46, inclusive.
Prosecutions.
Revenue
derived from
Sale of Game
Licences
and Fees.
Revenue
Calendar Year.
Informations
laid.
Convictions.
Cases
dismissed.
Firearms
confiscated.
Fines
imposed.
derived from
Fur Trade.
1913   ..
188
294
279
127
111
194
267
293
329
359
309
317
296
483
518
439
602
678
676
538
498
477
454
451
585
613
547
440
446
409
356
379
652
819
181
273
258
110
97
167
242
266
312
317
280
283
279
439
469
406
569
636
625
497
474
454
438
436
552
574
526
419
430
392
342
372
632
798
7
21
21
17
14
17     •
25
27
17
42
29
34
17
44
49
33
33
32
51
41
24
23
16
15
33
39
21
21
16
17
14
7
20
21
5
36
46
74
44
24
24
43
39
47
29
54
33
40
37
22
4
19
14
20
42
21
18
9
27
18
8
30
39
$4,417.50
5,050.00
4,097.50
2,050.00
1,763.50
3,341.00
6,024.50
6,073.00
6,455.00
7,275.00
5,676.50
4,758.00
5,825.00
7,454.00
10,480.50
7,283.50
9,008.00
9,572.75
8,645.00
5,493.50
3,531.00
5,227.82
4,399.50
3,965.00
5,332.50
5,729.50
4,776.50
5,197.00
4,977.50
5,079.50
5,554.50
5,570.50
8,381.50
10,921.00
$109,600.80
92,034.20
72,974.25
66,186.97
65,487.50
75,537.00
116,135.00
132,296.50
114,842.00
127,111.50
121,639.50
125,505.50
123,950.50
135,843.50
139,814.00
140,014.75
142,028.22
147,660.00
137,233.31
141,269.55
135,876.94
149,955.11
148,689.64
157,647.30
177,771.33
192,024.07
193,170.53
188,605.20
213,267.67
205,451.71
207,661.72
238,902.36
352,228.85
502,555.25
1914 ..
1915 .. .
1916   .
1917	
1918	
1919
1920	
$5,291.39
1921	
24,595.80
1922	
51,093.89
1923-...	
60,594.18
1924	
56,356.68
1925	
56,287.78
1926	
62,535.13
1927	
71,324.96
1928	
58,823.07
1929	
47,329.89
1930	
45,161.11
1931....	
46,091.08
1932     ....
40,363.79
1933	
44,167.48
1934....           	
47,102.81
1935	
49,831.95
1936	
1937....          	
52,196.50
53,697.48
1938	
44,963.87
1939	
49,187.00
1940	
68,466.33
1941	
63,125.30
1942	
68,475.07
1943	
58,354.03
1944	
70,363.23
1945	
104,250.95
1946	
107,357.72
14,423
13,545
842
866
$199,387.07
$5,390,972.23
$1,507,388.47 DD 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Summary of Total Revenue derived from Sale op Various Licences, Collections,
etc., January 1st to December 31st, 1946.
Revenue derived from— Total.
Sale of resident firearms licences and deer-tags  $229,743.24
Sale  of  resident  anglers',  guides',  free  farmers',  and
prospectors' firearms licences  48,566.00
Sale of non-resident firearms and anglers' licences and
outfitters' licences  145,621.00
Sale   of   non-resident   ordinary   firearms   and   anglers'
(minors) licences  959.00
Sale of fur-traders', taxidermists', and tanners' licences,
and royalty on fur  107,357.72
Sale of confiscated and surrendered fur  1,932.30
Sale of confiscated firearms  58.50
Collection of big-game trophy fees from non-residents____ 74,520.00
Sale of lists of various licence-holders (miscellaneous) ____ 1,155.20
Total  $609,912.97 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946.
DD 55
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g c DD 56
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Revenue derived from Sale of Resident Anglers', Guides', Free Farmers', and
Prospectors' Firearms Licences, January 1st to December 31st, 1946.
Anglers.
Guides.
Free
Farmers.
Prospectors.
Total.
No.
Amount.
No.
Amount.
No.
No.
Amount.
1,026
241
555
1,591
514
1,809
1,057
854
200
297
207
2,263
234
1,770
244
440
1,787
2,309
417
6,789
374
1,751
707
1
3
844
14
350
1,484
932
7,119
1,723
2,321
111
311
$1,026.00
241.00
2
186
18
5
10
37
52
45
35
110
5
19
14
9
61
38
12
19
44
9
12
6
14
26
2
5
148
58
18
8
13
26
6
42
76
6
23
21
11
20
94
10
35
11
12
21
51
8
167
14
9
40
12
43
12
49
8
2
70
34
38
149
138
30
7
4
11
4
10
26
1
3
3
28
8
8
14
23
17
4
82
7
2
35
6
20
1
8
25
4
48
17
61
82
11
20
7
8
9
165
19
15
45
$2.00
1.00
3.00
1.00
1.00
2.00
1.00
5.00
1.00
4.00
2.00
$1,028.00
241.00
Atlin	
$16.00
1,050.00
125.00
15.00
555.00
1,591.00
514.00
1,809.00
1,057.00
854.00
1,605.00
Cranbrook	
1,716.00
514.00
Cumberland	
Duncan	
Fernie .'.	
25.00
42.00
245.00
285.00
271.00
175.00
1,834.00
1,099.00
1,099.00
286.00
200.00
297.00
207.00
2,263.00
234.00
1,770.00
244.00
440.00
1,787.00
2,309.00
417.00
6,789.00
374.00
1,751.00
471.00
472.00
207.00
Kamloops	
618.00
2,884.00
234.00
Kelowna	
23.00
100.00
1,793.00
345.00
440.00
1,787.00
75.00
2,385.00
417.00
6,791.00
374.00
Penticton	
53.00
395.00
1,804.00
396.00
707.00
1.00
3.00
844.00
14.00
350.00
1,484.00
932.00
707.00
Prince George	
253.00
90.00
100.00
320.00
80.00
259.00
93.00
Princeton	
944.00
335.00
Revelstoke	
430.00
1,484.00
75.00
28.00
95.00
173.00
10.00
17.00
800.00
356.00
1,007.00
28.00
95.00
Vancouver	
Vernon	
Victoria	
Williams Lake	
Windermere	
7,119.00
1,723.00
2,321.00
111.00
311.00
7,296.00
1,733.00
2,338.00
913.00
667.00
.Totals	
42,649
$42,649.00
1,001
$5,894.00
1,329
861
$23.00
$48,566.00 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946.
DD 57
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fSfS DD 58
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Statement of Non-resident Ordinary Firearms and Anglers' (Minors) Licences,
January 1st to December 31st, 1946.
Non-resident Ordinary
Firearms Licences.
Anglers' Licences
(Minors).
Total.
No.
Amount.
No.
Amount.
1
2
1
3
1
1
1
2
6
4
1
1
3
25
4
21
24
16
1
20
12
32
5
139
6
17
24
2
361
36
19
1
1
5
4
12
28
40
14
11
$1.00
3.00
25.00
4.00
21.00
24.00
16.00
1.00
20.00
12.00
32.00
5.00
139.00
6.00
17.00
24.00
2.00
361.00
36.00
19.00
$1.00
3.00
25.00
$3.00
7.00
21.00
6.00
3.00
24.00
22.00
4.00
Golden	
20.00
12.00
9.00
41.00
5.00
Kelowna	
3.00
142.00
6.00
3.00
3.00
20.00
27.00
New Denver	
2.00
361.00
36.00
19.00
6.00
6.00
1.00
1.00
5.00
4.00
12.00
28.00
40.00
14.00
6.00
11.00
1.00
1.00
5.00
4.00
12.00
18.00
12.00
28.00
Vancouver	
58.00
26.00
6.00
Windermere	
3.00
14.00
Totals	
23
$69.00
890
$890.00
$959.00 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946.
DD 59
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209.26
2,966.85
66.04
2.15
106.27
1.00
38.73
81.00
146.25
8.40
359.15
27.20
93.00
100.00
19,022.43
5,649.52
2,660.91
22.25
602.19
46.02
72.50
2,469.69
5.429.71
64,121.60
77.30
232.35
1,444.95
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BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Total Collections from Fur Trade, 1921 to 1946, inclusive.
Year.
Fur Royalty
or Tax.
Fur-traders',
Tanners', and
Taxidermists'
Licences.
Total.
1921                            	
$24,595.80
51,093.89
60,594.18
56,356.68
48,737.78
56,045.13
61,629.96
51,563.07
$6,195.00
6,365.00
6,930.00
6,090.00
7,550.00
6,490.00
9,695.00
7,260.00
6,560.00
4,730.00
4,925.00
4,110.00
4,575.00
4,405.00
4,845.00
6,010.00
6,440.00
5,540.00
4,949.00
5,721.00
6,370.00
5,299.00
6,232.00
6,951.00
10,559.00
8,591.00
$30,790.80
1922                            	
57,458.89
1923                            	
67,524.18
1924                            	
62,446.68
1925	
56,287,78
1926                            	
62,535.13
1927	
71,324.96
1928	
58,823.07
1929                                          	
40,769.89
40,431.11
41,056.08
36,253.79
39,592.48
42,697.81
44,986.95
46,186.50
47,257.48
39,423.87
44,238.00
62,745.33
56,755.30
63,176.07
52,122.03
63,412.23
93,793.40
98,766.72
47,329.89
1930    .           	
45,161.11
1931	
45,981.08
1932	
40,363.79
1933	
44,167.48
1934	
47,102.81
1935	
49,831.95
52,196.50
53,697.48
44,963.87
1936	
1937	
1938	
1939	
49,187.00
68,466.33
63,125.30
68,475.07
58,354.03
70,363.23
104,352.40
107,357.72
1940	
1941	
1942	
1943	
1944 :	
1945	
1946	
Totals.....	
$1,364,281.53
$163,387.00
$1,527,668.53 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946.
DD 61
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BRITISH COLUMBIA.
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p REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946.
DD 63
List of Fur confiscated under " Game Act," January 1st to
December 31st, 1946.
Confiscated from
Confiscated at
Kind of
Fur confiscated.
Date of
Confiscation.
>
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Jan.   14	
S. Heimstad	
W. S. Eel-ford	
Hixon	
9
21
1
1
l
2
1
1
25
2
6
1
4
17
11
3
110
3
12
4
4
„     23	
Feb.     7	
E. Falck	
3
„     19	
E. Meyers	
„     26.. .
„     26	
B. Griffiths	
Metchosin	
McBride	
Mar.   11 ...
3
„     21	
A. Kilback	
A.Klein	
8	
1
Lillooet	
9	
A. Dick and E. Paul	
E. G. McCorkell	
9	
Vancouver	
Vancouver	
Dashwood	
9	
E. G. McCorkell      	
1
9	
C. Ganske	
E. Frost	
M. Bright	
1
2
4
2
2
2
1
1
l
„     10	
June 18	
,,     20	
G. Reese	
„     21	
„     21	
A. R. Remington	
C. Koska	
July     2	
Mile 408, Alaska Highway
2	
„     23	
G. Guno	
„     25	
Prince Rupert	
Oct.    17	
„     20	
Dec.   16	
„     17	
R. Egstrom	
Totals	
47
l
5
34
4
6
164
7
Note,—The sum of $1,932.30 was received during 1946 from the sale of confiscated and surrendered fur. DD 64
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
List of Firearms confiscated under "
December 31st,
Game Act," January 1st to
1946.
Date of
Confiscation.
Confiscated from.
Confiscated at.
Kind of Firearms
confiscated.
Rifles.
Shotguns.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
l
1
1
1
9	
9	
E. Smith
„     14	
1
„     30	
Elk Valley                     	
Feb.      7	
"1
„     12	
J. Pollard	
Mar.   11	
„     11	
„     11	
„     11	
„     12	
May   31	
June     7	
J. Salkeld	
T. Ballantyne	
,,      20	
S. Chiveldeff    ....            	
July   22	
Eburne	
Nov.   19	
„     19	
1
„     19	
L. Plaunt	
„     19	
„     19	
C. Smith
„     19	
1
„     19	
J. HlookofE
„     19	
G. Strukoff and H. Popoff	
„     19	
R. McNeil                      	
Langley	
„     19	
„     19	
1
„     19	
Vancouver	
Vancouver	
„     19	
D. Walker                        	
29	
„      29     	
G. Sturt	
S. Nash	
„      29...	
Dec.      9	
13	
R. Griffiths	
1
„     13	
Alberni	
1
„      13	
N. Wadams and C. Wadams	
C. Hull	
1
„     30	
1
Totals	
30
9
Note.—The sum of $58.50 was received during 1946 from the sale of confiscated firearms. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946.
DD 65
Bounties paid during the Year ended December 31st, 1946.
Kind of Animals.
Government Agency.
Wolves
($10).
Cougars
($15).
Coyotes
($2).
Coyotes
($5).
Totals.
2
48
3
21
6
2
92
29
2
1
130
230
78
37
1
25
1
170
4
50
7
13
10
21
26
6
6
2
11
4
20
2
7
27
13
23
38
4
12
12
6
5
20
7
18
5
7
6
18
31
67   .
7
7
3
143
134
38
303
45
37
19
239
2
23
28
135
56
3
68
58
157
11
38
127
9
4
64
55
30
6
74
524
41
2
23
4
4
6
5
4
1
6
16
21
15
5
3
3
5
12
1
11
1
53
16
22
$125.00
Atlin	
Barkerville	
Clinton	
Cranbrook	
494.00
36.00
701.00
533.00
375.00
410.00
166.00
1,636.00
Golden	
140.00
269.00
123.00
1,088.00
39.00
151.00
Lillooet	
Merritt	
481.00
495.00
355.00
Nelson	
762.00
66.00
421.00
1,671.00
90.00
2,714.00
1,117.00
181.00
909.00
Revelstoke	
118.00
18.00
543.00
215.00
1,815.00
327.00
878.00
2,633.00
Windermere	
297.00
Totals	
932
461
2,481
239
$22,392.00 DD 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Comparative Statement of Bounties paid from 1922 to 1946, inclusive.
Calendar Year.
Wolves.
Cougars.
Coyotes.
Crows.
Magpies.
Eagles.
Owls.
Total.
1922	
303
162
195
291
336
344
452
411
312
310
372
195
173
137
183
372
444
530
491
701
8
628
572
430
599
423
384
366
285
196
261
265
301
472
461
1,092
1,687
5,175
7,276
14,070
20,192
3,672
1,881
1,544
2,864
53,443
2,246
70
2,487
3,427
7,095
20
89
17,625
172
$60',494.80
1923	
14,840.00
1924	
172
20,398.40
1925	
24,397.00
1926	
5,770
10,046
41,077.00
1927	
65,377.95
1928        	
1,025
1,389
403
1
50,709.25
1929	
42,122.00
1930	
36,090.25
1931               	
42,036.15
1932      	
80.00
1933	
1
221
561
837
828
915
1,159
1,659
1,002
1,039
1,017
1,321
1,202
932
6,285.00
1934      	
6,825.00
1935 	
1,877
1,950
1,400
2,094
1,971
2,038
1,924
1,546
1,221
1,259
5,506
2,720
12,374.00
1936                      	
20,350.00
1937
19,540.00
1938    	
21,018.00
1939              	
26,399.00
1940          	
23,131.00
1941      	
16,868.00
1942    	
17,397.00
1943    	
16,587.00
1944  _	
20,243.00
1945	
46,627.00
1946
22,392.00
Totals	
15,810
9,249
84,959
69,431
8.230     1     7.204
20,615
$673,658.80 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946.
DD 67
Big-game Trophy Fees paid by Non-residents, January 1st to
December 31st, 1946.
Species.
Name and Address
(Government Agency).
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3
3
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•   is
Amount.
Atlin	
3
3
1
11
4
9
1
1
9
4
35
6
7
1
1
13
7
4
2
1
5
2
5
11
25
1
4
2
20
9
15
13
2
1
1
1
6
5
4
5
1
35
6
4
1
16
2
16
24
61
1
15
2
31
65
10
342
207
8
6
5
8
5
2
13
23
4
3
31
3
19
1
23
19
5
68
1
1
12
7
49
10
4
1
18
3
2
44
4
44
12
48
39
80
7
1
2
697
145
42
1
32
2
61
1
1
5
7
12
3
20
8
2
4
2
1
2
8
37
15
4
1
19
47
34
2
1
2
2
$285.00
2,155.00
250.00
2,190.00
Cranbrook	
2,140.00
15.00
125.00
20.00
3,250.00
1,360.00
465.00
Golden	
5,245.00
305.00
45.00
275.00
15.00
75.00
33,805.00
9,130.00
4,665.00
165.00
Prince George	
Prince Rupert	
1,380.00
420.00
2,515.00
Revelstoke	
95.00
40.00
130.00
1,600.00
975.00
105.00
95.00
1,210.00
Totals	
119
135
60
821
83
224
1,310>
84
107
$74,545.00
1
25.00
$74,520.00 DD 68
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Prosecutions (Provincial Game Divisions), January 1st to
December 31st, 1946.
Description of Offence.
Divisions (See Foot-note).
-. a
. p
: a
cS
5i
Fines or
Penalties
imposed.
Game Animals.
Allowing dogs to run after or hunt deer	
Exceeding bag-limit on game animals	
Hunting game animals during night	
Killing, hunting game animals of female sex	
Killing, hunting game animals under 1 year of age	
Killing,   hunting or in possession  of big game during
close season	
Possession of deer from which evidence (sex) removed...
Possession of untagged deer	
Firearms.
Carrying firearms or hunting on game reserve	
Carrying firearms or discharging same in or from automobile	
Carrying or in possession of unplugged repeating shot-
Discharging firearms on or across highway in prohibited
Minors carrying firearms unaccompanied by an adult..
Using .22 rim-fire rifle to hunt big game	
Fur Trade and Trapping.
Allowing another person to trap his registered line	
Allowing traps to remain set after end of season	
Employing an assistant on line without a permit	
Exporting fur without a permit	
Fur-trader failing to keep proper record-book	
Fur-trader buying furs without transient trader's licence.
Fur-trader buying pelts during close season	
Interfering with registered trap-line	
Non-resident trading in pelts of fur-bearers without a
licence	
Possession of furs during close season..	
Possession of untagged beaver-pelts	
Resident trading in pelts of fur-bearers without a licence.
Setting poison for the taking of fur-bearing animals	
Snaring off his own trap-line	
Trapping furs during close season	
Trapping on other than his own trapping area	
Trapping or carrying traps without a licence	
Using game meat during close season for trapping fur...
Licences.
Furnishing false information to obtain licence	
Guiding without a licence	
Hunting big game without a proper licence	
Non-resident carrying firearms without a licence..	
Non-resident angling without a licence	
Resident angling without a licence	
Resident carrying firearms without a licence	
Using or loaning another person's licence   (guiding or
hunting)	
Migratory Game Birds.
Hunting migratory birds during prohibited hours	
Hunting migratory birds from power-boat	
Hunting migratory birds over baited area	
Hunting migratory birds with a rifle	
Hunting or in possession of migratory birds during close
season	
11
14
19
7
5
4
104
22
6
24
1
2
7
10
87
186
1
2
3
6
14
12
2
11
14       14
104
22
6
24
1
6
2
8
10
91
190
$10.00
150.00
560.00
335.00
375.00
515.00
25.00
150.00
460.00
1,006.00
200.00
50.00
30.50
10.00
20.00
55.00
50.00
10.00
110.00
150.00
50.00
760.00
10.00
60.00
275.00
25.00
150.00
175.00
95.00
315.00
60.00
30.00
30.00
110.00
245.00
100.00
725.00
1,561.00
50.00
495.00
65.00
100.00
161.00
Note.—"A" Division: Vancouver Island area and part of Mainland. " B " Division : Kootenay and Boundary
areas. " C " Division: Kamloops, Yale, Okanagan, Cariboo, and Lillooet areas. " D " Division: Atlin, Skeena,
Omineca, Fort George, Peace River, and Yukon Boundary areas. " E " Division: Vancouver, Coast, and Lower
Mainland areas. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946.
DD 69
Prosecutions (Provincial Game Divisions), January 1st to
December 31st, 1946—Continued.
Description of Offence.
Special Fishery Regulations.
Angling for trout during close season	
Fishing otherwise than by angling	
Possession or use of salmon roe in prohibited area	
Possession over limit of trout :....
Possession of undersized trout	
Taking trout or salmon on spawning-grounds	
Using gear designed to catch more than one fish	
Using more than one rod while angling	
Upland Game Birds.
Allowing dogs to hunt game birds during nesting season
Exceeding bag-limit on upland birds	
Hunting certain game birds with rifle	
Hunting, killing,  or possession of upland birds during
close season	
Hunting upland game birds during prohibited hours	
Miscellaneous.
Canning game before taking to place of consumption	
Failing to stop car to be searched by Game Warden	
Furnishing false information to Game Warden	
Guide submitting false report	
Killing game with spitzer-type bullets	
Non-resident hunting without a guide	
Possession of embryo of deer	
Possession of game on premises of logging camp	
Possession of more than one deer on Vancouver Island..
Refusing to be searched by Game Warden....T.	
Trespassing upon enclosed land	
Gaol Sentences.
Carrying unplugged repeating shotgun	
Interfering with registered trap-line	
Loaded firearms in automobile	
Possession of furs during close season _	
Trapping without a licence	
Totals	
Divisions (See Foot-note) .
: Q
m >
5   Q
71
2
2
232
: n
: S
12
12
o o
_, ri
20
2
27
2
1
2
3
1
1
6
1
3
1
2
20
Fines or
Penalties,
imposed.
$59.00
15.00
45.00
30.00
35.00
52.50
10.00
31.00
70.00
125.00
45.00
445.00
10.00
20.00
30.00
10.00
10.00
120.00
10.00
45.00
25.00
20.00
200.00
$10,921.00
Note.—"A" Division: Vancouver Island area and part of Mainland. "B" Division: Kootenay and Boundary
areas. "C" Division: Kamloops, Yale, Okanagan, Cariboo, and Lillooet areas. "D" Division: Atlin, Skeena,
Omineca, Fort George, Peace River, and Yukon Boundary areas. " E " Division: Vancouver, Coast, and Lower
Mainland areas.
Gaol sentences ranged from seven days to ninety days. ►.■
DD
70
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
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DD 71
Summary op Game-fish Distributions, showing Eggs, Fry, and
Fingerlings, 1946.
Kind of Game Fish.
Eggs.
Fry.
Fingerlings.
1,422,125
314,095
289,888
7,510
3,500,013
157,788
.
10,855
4,868,416
1,340,000
5,000
728,061
Totals	
7,646,396
4,269,294
728,061
Summary of Game-fish Eggs, Fry, and Fingerlings at Departmental
Hatcheries, December 31st, 1946.
Hatchery.
Eastern
Brook.
Kamloops.
Kokanee.
Eggs or Fry.
Fingerlings
or Fry.
Eggs or Fry.
134,700
157,609
148,120
117,281
101,075
135,404
149,419
116,210
136,155
353,834
Totals   	
136,155
943,608
470,044
Summary.
Eggs	
Fry 	
Fingerlings
Total distributions 	
On hand at hatcheries, December 31st, 1946.
7,646,396
4,269,294
728,061
12,643,751
1,549,807
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DD 81
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BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Returns from 2,751 Holders of Special Firearms Licences, showing Big Game,
Fur-bearing Animals, and Predatory Animals killed, Season 1945-46.
Bear 	
Caribou
Deer 	
Moose —
Beaver   11,648
Fisher   659
Fox  3,969
Lynx  1,147
Marten    7,558
Mink  6,539
Muskrats   36,258
Big Game.
503 Mountain-goat __
54 Mountain-sheep
1,154 Wapiti (elk) _____
396
Fur-bearing Animals.
Otter 	
86
15
27
311
2,352
159
Racoon 	
Skunk 	
Squirrels   182,674
Weasel   37,888
Wildcat   424
Wolverine   197
Cougar
Predatory Animals.
115 Wolves
337
Coyotes        2,984
Fur-farm Returns, 1946.
Kind of Animals.
Adult and
Young
(Reared)
Animals.
Animals
purchased
or received
by Trade.
Died or
killed.
Animals
sold
or traded
Alive.
Pelts sold
(including
all Pelts sold
in 1946).
Total Animals on Hand
as at December 31st, 1946.
Males.
Females.
7
49
2
3,054
202
48,888
4
13
1
23
2
1,879
25
27,652
1
5
6
21
4
6
12
Fitch         	
Foxes	
Marten	
Mink	
30
22
2,402
3
2
24
37
2,871
1,014
5
11,348
332
72
4,816
2
14
14
849
90
15,951
115
27
90
2
11
Cancelled permits, 47.
Eleven licensed fur-farmers have not submitted their returns
There were eight nil returns. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946.
DD 83
Statement of Vermin destroyed by Game Wardens during the Year 1946.
Kind of Animals or Birds destroyed.
Game Divisions.
Total.
" A."
" B."
" C."
" D."
" E."
Animals.
5
246
73
158
8
33
30
2
8
17
1
18
71
35
122
28
2
414
11
121
139
31
8
16
33
18
158
33
11
189
15
2
504
21
204
417
145
44
94
15
5
6
53
22
9
11
43
1
14
4
392
56
38
1,155
80
97
2
45
1
5
35
55
327
68
26
954
178
Fox	
38
2
Skunk	
2
Birds.
Crows	
2,284
142
464
Magpies	
Owls	
Ravens	
588
234
104
38 DD 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Summary of Liberation of Game Birds, 1946.
Area. Pheasants.
Vancouver Island—
Alberni   180
Courtenay  200
Nanaimo-Parksville   180
Victoria (North and South Saanich)  452
Total  1,012
Lower Mainland—
Agassiz   220
Chilliwack   680
Delta   900
'     Lulu Island  1,333
Mission (Hatzic, etc.)  893
Matsqui   340
Pitt Meadows   1,279
Sumas Prairie  842
Surrey   1,107
Total  7,594
Interior—
Castlegar  12
Creston   121
Grand Forks  100
Kamloops   100
Nakusp   12
Peace River  48
Penticton    164
Salmon Arm  60
Total      617
Summary.
District.
Vancouver Island  1,012
Lower Mainland   7,594
Interior      617
Total  9,223 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946. DD 85
Statement of Game-bird Farmers, 1946.
Number and Kind of Birds on Hand as at January 1st, 1946.
Pheasants      2,349 Ducks   2
Quail   27 Partridge   50
Number and Kind of Birds raised, 1946.
Pheasants   12,384 Partridge   18
Quail          11
Number and Kind of Birds purchased, 1946.
Pheasants        514 Quail          16
Number and Kind of Birds sold, 1946.
Pheasants  10,628 Partridge   31
Quail   5
Number and Kind of Birds killed or died, 1946.
Pheasants      1,805 Partridge   3
Quail   22
Number and Kind of Birds on Hand as at December 31st, 1946.
Pheasants      2,814 Ducks   2
Quail   27 Partridge   34
Note.—During the year 1946 there were 120 licensed game-bird farmers in the
Province, but during the year 1946 twenty-six of these farmers discontinued operations.
There was one nil return. Two game-bird farmers have not submitted returns.
Game-bird bands sold to licensed game-bird farmers during the year 1946 amounted to
$83.20 (832 bands at 10 cents each).
Miscellaneous Revenue, 1946.
Sale of Lists of Various Licence-holders, etc.
8 fur-farmers' at $3.50 per copy  $28.00
1 fur-trader's at $1.50 per copy_.  1.50
5 trappers'  80.00
385 trap-line transfer fees at $2.50 each  962.50
832 game-bird bands at 10 cents each  83.20
Total  $1,155.20 DD 86
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
LIST OF GUIDES AND NON-RESIDENT OUTFITTERS, 1946.
Definitions of Guide Licence Grades.
Grade "A" Guide is one who has been acting as a guide for at least three years,
and who has suitable equipment for outfitting any person desiring to hunt game.
Grade " B " Guide is a person who cannot qualify as a Grade "A" Guide, but who
acts as an assistant to a Grade "A" Guide, or whose activities as a guide are confined
to guiding in areas where, by reason of local conditions, there is no necessity to use
extensive equipment.
Grade " C " Guide is one who guides a person hunting, taking, or killing game birds
or angling for trout.
East Kootenay "A" (Cranbrook-Invermere-Golden Districts) .
Licence
Name and Address of Guide.      . Grade.
Anderson, Charles D., Windermere A
Appleby, Gordon, Invermere  A
Asimont, Horst, Athalmer  B
Avery, Williams, Golden B
Baldry, Alfred C, Windermere B
Ball, James, Windermere B
Barbour, George G., Wilmer  A
Bechthold, Richard, Golden . B
Bergenham, Peter, Beaver  A
Bjorn, Henry M., Fort Steele  B
Bond, Allan K., Kimberley B
Bradford, Barron, Skookumchuck B
Brogan, Alex., Canal Flats B
Brogan, Joseph, Kingsgate  B
Canning, Lester, Skookumchuck  B
Capilo, Louis, Golden B
Cooper, Albert, Invermere  B
Cretney, C. S., Fort Steele  A
Crookes, Harold C, Ta Ta Creek B
Dahl, Emil, Golden  B
Danniken, Joseph, Edgewater  B
Davies, Montie D., Fairmont  B
Desimore, Samuel H., Cranbrook A
Dilworth, James, Athalmer  B
Dobbie, Alex. J., Invermere  B
Dubois, Jack V., Windermere B
Eady, Clark, Golden  B
Edlund, John S., Golden  B
Engstrom, Sven F., Canal Flats  B
Fisher, Tony, Fairmont  B
Foyston, Fred, Invermere B
Galbraith, Arthur, Spillimacheen  B
Galbraith, Edward, Spillimacheen B
Gilbert, Frank, Field B
Goodwin, Cecil R., Invermere B
Goodwin, Elwood, Invermere B
Gold, Percy, Canal Flats  A
Hagen, Frank, Wynndel  B
Hamilton, Tom J., Ta Ta Creek B
Hammond, Lyle, Golden  B
Harrison, William, Edgewater  A
Hart, Clayton J., Kimberley  B
Hogan, Charles, Spillimacheen  B
Hogan, Morley, Parson  B
Hynes, Ben, Spillimacheen  C
Hynes, Telford, Spillimacheen  C
Johnson, Alex., Invermere  B
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Jones, Ken, Golden A
Joseph, Jerome, Fairmont  B
Kain, Isider, Wilmer B
King, Norman, Golden B
Lawrence, Charles, Golden  A
Lindberg, Axel, Golden  B
Lloyd, Garth K., Windermere  B
Lum, George, Fort Steele  B
Lum, Peter, Fort Steele A
McClain, Jess I., Spillimacheen  A
Mcintosh, Ewen M., Invermere B
McKay, Gordon, Invermere A
McKeeman, Robert, Parson  B
Markuson, Levi, Canal Flats  A
Michael, David C, Invermere  A
Mitchell, Robert, Brisco  B
Morigeau, Martin, Fairmont B
Nattrass, R. B., Golden   B
Nicol, Arthur H., Fort Steele A
Nixon, David, Invermere  B
Nixon, Fred, Golden B
Nixon, John H., Invermere B
Nixon, Walter (Jr.), Invermere A
Nixon, Wilbert, Parson __••_ A
O'Loughlin, Edward, Spillimacheen  B
Pagliaro, D., Golden B
Palmer, Howard, Wilmer B
Pelton, R. B., Cranbrook A
Petrie, Robert M., Cranbrook B
Phillips, Eclus, Windermere B
Phillips,   Frank   A.,   1551   St.   Andrews
Street, North Vancouver  A
Philipps, Olwyn P., North Vancouver B
Pommier, Emile, Skookumchuck  B
Rae, Drapper M., Windermere B
Reay, Charles D., Jaffray B
Richer, Lionel, Windermere  C
Richter, Frank, Invermere  B
Rutherford, Melville, Invermere  A
Scofield, Bernard, Canal Flats B
Seward, Arvid, Golden  B
Sheek, Wesley P., Parson A
Sinclair, Alex., Canal Flats B
Stewart, Charles, Spillimacheen  A
Stewart, David, Spillimacheen  B
Stewart, Douglas, Spillimacheen B
Strain, George, Spillimacheen  B REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946.
DD 87
East Kootenay "A"  (Cranbrook-Invermere-Golden Districts)—Continued.
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Sykes, Harry, Galena  A
Tegart, George, Edgewater  A
Tegart, Hiram W., Brisco B
Tegart, James, Brisco A
Tegart, Monte, Brisco  B
Thomas, Guy, Parson  A
Thomas, Orville, Parson A
Thomas, Robert G., Parson B
Thompson, James C, Brisco  A
Thompson, Lionel, Edgewater B
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Tyler, Graham, Invermere  B
Van Hoeren, Joe, Golden B
Washburn, Frank L., Flathead  A
Webber, Sidney, Golden  A
Weeden, Fredrick, Wilmer  B
White, James F., Fort Steele A
Wiedeman, Otto, Golden  A
Wilson, John, Spillimacheen B
Wolfenden, Winston, Brisco  B
Wood, Nello V., Brisco  A
East Kootenay "B" (Fernie-Natal Districts).
Anderson, Fred, Wardner  B
Arbuckle, John, Coal Creek B
Baher, Brian, Natal B
Baher, Martin C, Natal A
Baher, Mathias, Natal  A
Baher, William, Natal A
Barnes, Alfred, Corbin B
Barnes, J. N., Fernie A
Dvorak, Frank, Fernie B
Dvorak, Wenzel, Fernie  B
Eberts, Max, Natal  B
Eftoda, Gordon, Natal B
Fisher, Frank, Natal B
Gravelle, Nick, Flagstone  B
Heitman, John H., Natal  B
Hicks, Frank, Fernie A
Hicks, Philip, Fernie  B
Hyttsten, John, Natal B
Kaisner, George, Natal  B
Kaisner, Harry (Jr.), Natal  A
Larson, Charles A., Natal  B
McGinnis, Earl, Natal  A
McKim, Philip A., Fernie  B
Philips, Frank C, Flagstone  B
Phillips, Douglas, Flagstone B
Phillips, George, Flagstone  B
Porco, Albert, Michel A
Porco, Ralph, Michel  A
Rosicky, Anton, Wardner „ B
Rothel, Malcolm, Natal    A
Rothel, Robert A., Natal B
Siple, Alfred, Fernie A
Smolik, Rudolph, Fernie  B
Volpatti, Benjamin J., Natal  A
Whiting, Renal, Natal B
West Kootenay (Nelson-Slocan-Kootenay-Arrow and Trout Lakes Districts).
Brett, Artley, Wynndel  C
Cummings, Arnold, Boswell  C
Cummings, R., Boswell  C
Fletcher, C. C, Ainsworth  C
Gates, E. B., St. Leon via Nakusp  B
Hornseth, J. H., Sirdar B
Kachuk, John, Trout Lake
Law, Ian W., Nakusp
 B
 B
Oliver, George L., Gray Creek B
Rcrick, Clifford C, Upper Arrow Lakes.—A
Varney, C. E., Vallican  A
Varney, Roy, Vallican  A
Revelstoke-Salmon Arm and Okanagan District.
Bailey, Bruce G., Revelstoke  A
BischofF, Fred, Magna Bay  B
Bowman, John A., Three Valley  A
Churchill, J. D., Falkland B
Churchill, Thomas, Falkland  B
Coles, Henry, Revelstoke B
Daney, Seldon, Ferguson  A
Hanson, Charles E., Cherryville B
Johanson, J. A., Craigellaehie A
Krimmer, Nichols, Box 1375, Kelowna B
Laforme, George A., Revelstoke  A
Leslie, John F., Eagle Bay B
Mobley, Howard, Salmon Arm A
Nelson, Howard, Revelstoke  A
Ocean, Frank, Eagle Bay  A
Reid, Thomas, Ferguson  B
Ritchie, Kenneth G., Box 686, Kelowna_____ C
Smith, Lewis, Seymour Arm A
Stewart, Edwin, R.R. 3, Armstrong B
Similkameen (Penticton-Princeton-Keremeos) .
Armstrong, Henry G., Keremeos B
Burr, Gerald, Princeton  B
Davis, William E., Box 282, Penticton _.__.. B
Forbes, Arthur, Princeton B
Foster, William C, Keremeos  B
Garrett, Frank L., Naramata  A
Garrison, Stanley, Princeton  B
Gold, Robie B., Mazama B
Hugo, A. M., Penticton B
Henry, Thomas W., Penticton  B
Henry, Walter J., Peachland B
Ibbotson, Harry, Peachland B
Ivens, Lawrence W., Okanagan Mission.... B
Lacey, Edward (Jr.), Osoyoos B DD 88
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Similkameen (Penticton-Princeton-Keremeos)—Continued.
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
LaLievre, B. C, Penticton  B
Lewis, James W., Princeton A
MacGawne, Mr., Naramata  B
Manion, William, Tulameen  B
Reese, Richard, Penticton  B
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Richter, John, Keremeos  B
Saunier, E., Naramata B
Thomas, Charles W., Princeton  B
Tower, Stanley, Princeton  B
Wright, Brian, Princeton  B
Kamloops District.
Allen, Howard, Kamloops  B
Anderson, Dave, Clearwater  B
Archibald, David A., Clearwater B
Avery, Walter 0., Criss Creek B
Bagg, John W., Savona  B
Bergeron, Gordon A., Barriere  B
Boule, James E., Savona B
Boychuck, John, Douglas Lake  B
Brousseau, Clifford E., Savona  B
Burdett, George, Savona  A
Burdett, Loretta F., Savona  A
Cahoon, Charles R., Kamloops  B
Cameron, James B., Savona  B
Casey, Fred R., Kamloops B
Chester, Bertrand, Red Lake B
Chester, Horman, Red Lake  B
Christian, Douglas W., Savona  B
Clearwaters, Ralph, Westsyde  B
Cochran, W. P., Darfield  B
Cooper, Norman E., Savona  B
Cooper, Philip T., Westsyde  B
Cornwall, Gilbert, Kamloops  B
Deaver, James, Savona  B
Dever, Dolly, Vidette Lake, Savona  B
Dexheimer, John, Savona  B
Dick, Bruce A., Barriere  B
Douthwaite, P. L., McLure  B
F/akin, James, Little Fort B
Felker, Norman H., Clearwater  B
Gourlay, James R., Barriere  B
Grant, Charles, McLure  B
Grant, Gordon, McLure  A
Hagen, Harry 0., Barriere B
Harding, Leonard, Savona  B
Hardie, Alex. W., Red Lake B
Helset, Torbjorn, Clearwater A
Hey worth, Ted, Red Lake. B
Hogue, Henry A., Clearwater B
Hogue, John S., Clearwater B
Hoover, Eldred, McLure  A
Inskip, Harry G., Kamloops B
Irving, F. H., McLure  B
Jameson, Clarence, Clearwater  C
Johnson, Jack, Savona B
Johnson, Leonard C, Heffley Creek B
Johnson, Stewart, Criss Creek A
Kipling, John R., Black Pines  B
LaFave, Everett, Barriere  B
LaFave, G. E., Louis Creek B
LaFave, J. N., Agate Bay B
Langdon, Frank, Little Fort  B
Latremouille, J. L., Little Fort A
Lean, Theodore, B., Clearwater B
.A
B
Ludtke, Lawrence, Clearwater	
Ludtke, Charles D., Clearwater 	
MacDougall, Harold D., Darfield B
MacDougall, Roy, Barriere  B
MacDougall, Wallace I., Darfield  B
Majerus, Mike, Clearwater  B
McConnel, Kenneth R., Barriere B
McDiarmid, Garfield, Clearwater  B
McDonell, Gordon D., Sorrento  B
McGarrigle, W. J., Little Fort B
McLean, C. W., McLure,  A
Mitchell, John, Barriere  B
Morton, Alfred, Kamloops  A
Murray, George E., Savona  B
Nelson, Gerald, Black Pines B
Nelson, William L., Criss Creek B
Nord, Olaf L., McMurphy  B
Palmer, William F., Darfield B
Peel, Murril A., Pritchard  B
Philip, William P., Savona  . B
Potts, Bill, Sorrento B
Rainer, Karl J., Darfield B
Rawson, John C, Squilax  B
Reaugh, William H., Criss Creek  B
Riesterer, Charles A., Magna Bay  B
Sandiford, George, Kamloops C
Schmidt, Ernest, Barriere  B
Schreibus, Charles C, Darfield  B
Scott, Duncan, Barriere  A
Shook, Charles, Clearwater  B
Shopshire, L. W., Aspen Grove  B
Shopshire, V. H., Aspen Grove  B
Small, Reg, Clearwater  B
Sleeth, Edward, Savona  B
Smith, Allan E., Criss Creek B
Smith, Heber, Kamloops  B
Smith, John W., Red Lake B
Smith, William, North Kamloops  B
Sproule, Osbin, Sorrento B
Taylor, Stanley A., Clearwater B
Toop, Earl K., Savona  B
Thompson, Miles, Kamloops  B
Threlkeld, Harold, Savona  B
Threlkeld, Richard, Savona  B
Tupper, James J., Savona B
Turner, Harold A., Criss Creek B
Vinnie, Alexander, Kamloops B
Walters, Jack, Sorrento  B
Walters, June, Savona   B
Welland, John, Red Lake  B
Wilson, Frank W., Spences Bridge B
Woodward, Frank, Little Fort  B
Woodward, John, Little Fort B REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946.
DD 89
Grand Forks-Greenwood (including Kettle Valley).
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Abel, Cummine, Kettle Valley  B
Abel, W. Simpson, Westbridge B
Ackerman, Alfred W., Westbridge  B
Acland, John V., Rock Creek B
Anschetz, Chris, Rock Creek  B
Bohnett, James, Rock Creek B
Carey, Bertram C, Rock Creek B
Carey, Joseph, Westbridge  B
Carpenter, Walter E., Westbridge  B
Cochran, Flynn, Westbridge  B
Cochran, Freddie M., Westbridge  B
Fernstrom, John, Kettle Valley B
From, Gus W., Westbridge B
From, Helge, Westbridge  B
From, Ingvall N., Westbridge  B
From, Oliver, Westbridge B
Halcrow, Edward G., Beaverdell  B
Hall, David E., Westbridge  B
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Jupp, William H., Westbridge  B
Lockhart, Fred, Beaverdell  B
Lutner, Edwin C, Beaverdell  B
McKay, John R., Westbridge B
Noren, Arthur A., Westbridge B
Noren, Carl F., Westbridge  B
Noren, Carl S., Westbridge  B
Noren, Clarence W., Westbridge B
Peterson, Frank 0., Westbridge  B
Peterson, Morris, Westbridge  B
Peterson, Stanley G., Grand Forks  B
Silk, Bernard W., Rock Creek B
Smith, Howard J., Westbridge  B
Sommers, Marvin L., Westbridge  B
Wells, Kenneth B., Beaverdell B
Wolstenhome, Ronald, Westbridge  B
Wornock, Richard A., Westbridge B
Lower Mainland Coast and Fraser Valley.
Hyde, Kenneth E., Abbotsford B
McGregor, Charles, 277 1st Street, East,
North Vancouver B
Siebert, John, Sardis  B
Sing, Isaac, 1795 Beach Avenue, Vancouver  B
Wells, Gordon E., R.R. 2, Sardis A
Wells, Ray E., R.R. 2, Sardis A
Welmer, Wilfred A., Hope  B
Munro, James W., 1363 Kingsway, Vancouver  B
Vancouver Island.
Boyles, Thomas J., Cobble Hill  B
Gillespie, G. K., Lake Cowichan C
Gower, Terrance, Courtenay  A
Hancock, Art, Lake Cowichan  B
Hancock, Joseph A., Lake Cowichan  B
Handlen, Edward, Courtenay   ____ B
Kay-Nichols, Caesar, Sayward  B
Martin, Patrick, Courtenay  B
Pallisser, Charles H., Lake Cowichan  B
Pallisser, Verne, Lake Cowichan B
Pallisser, William, Lake Cowichan B
Parkin, Alvin, Campbell River  B
Pegler, Harry H., c/o R. Andrews, Maxwell House, Cowichan Bay C
Rossignol, Philias, Campbell River B
Sacht, Arthur, Sayward  B
Salmon, George E., R.R. 1, Langford B
Smith, Cecil, Campbell River  B
Vanstone, John, Campbell River  B
Walsh, Phil, Campbell River  B
Cariboo District "A" (100-Mile House South to Ashcroft and
including Canim Lake and Lillooet).
Agnew, Harlow, Clinton  B
Archie, Cassian, Canim Lake A
Archie, Charles A., Buffalo Creek B
Archie, George, Canim Lake  A
Archie, Jacob, Canim Lake A
Archie, Johnny, Buffalo Creek B
Archie, Sam, Canim Lake B
Baker, James A., Ashcroft B
Baker, J. C, Loon Lake,  B
Baker, R. M., Loon Lake B
Bates, Murray, Clinton  B
Bell, Darwin, 70-Mile House  B
Bishop, H. R., Clinton  B
Bishop, James A., Cinton  A
Birdsell, S. 0., Cinton  B
Bob, Edward, Forest Grove  A
Bob, Henry, Forest Grove B
Bones, Alex., Clinton  A
Bones, F., Cinton  B
Bones, Pete, Clinton B
Borthwick, Hector, Forest Grove  B
Bowden, George R., Clinton  B
Bowden, Ronald L., Clinton  B
Boyce, J. A., Canim Lake A
Boyce, Julian, Forest Grove B
Bradford, A. N., Bridge Lake  B
Bradford, H. J., Bridge Lake  B
Bradford, Robert, Bridge Lake  B
Brandley, E., 83-Mile House  B
Burgess, Ted, Deka Lake  A DD 90
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Cariboo District "A" (100-Mile House South to Ashcroft and
including Canim Lake and Lillooet)—Continued.
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Camille, F., 83-Mile House B
Candy, N., 70-Mile House  B
Carnegie, Albert, Forest Grove  B
Collin, Arthur, 100-Mile House  B
Chabara, Anna, 70-Mile House  B
Charlie, Jimmie, Forest Grove  B
Christopher, Peter, Canim Lake  B
Christy, Frank R., Moha  B
Cleveland, J. G., Eagan Lake  B
Cleveland, L. C, Eagan Lake A
Cleveland, R. M., Eagan Lake  B
Cleveland, W. L., Eagan Lake B
Coldwell, H. W., Jesmond  A
Collins, B., Cache Creek  B
Collins, E. M., Cache Creek  A
Cox, Leslie J., Loon Lake  B
Craig, N. F., Bridge Lake B
Cromer, Ben, Shalalth B
Cruickshank, George, Canim Lake  B
Cunningham, Charles, Bralorne  B
Currie, William D., Bridge Lake  B
Dahlgren, C. H., Bridge Lake  B
Daniels, George, Canim Lake  B
Day, W. A., 100-Mile House , B
Dean, James C, Bridge Lake B
Decker, English, Canim Lake  B
Donald, William J., Savona  B
Dougherty, Chris, Clinton B
Dougherty, T. H., Clinton  B
Dougherty, E. G., Loon Lake A
Dyer, Guy H., 70-Mile House B
Edall, I. K., Lone Butte B
Edall, Lute, Fawn  B
Eden, Donald, Lone Butte  B
Erickson, S. W., Canim Lake  B
Faessler, Charles J.  (Jr.), Fawn  B
Fenton, H., Jesmond  B
Fenton, Walter, Jesmond  B
Ferguson, James B., 16-Mile, Cariboo Lake B
Flaherty, R. J., 93-Mile House A
Forde, H. A., Clinton B
Fraser, Donald, Lillooet  B
Froste, F. T., Ashcroft  B
Gaines, Clinton, Lone Butte B
George, Charlie, Clinton  B
George, Henry, Cache Creek  B
George, Steven, Moha  B
Gibbons, Mil, Horsefly B
Graham, Robert, Horsefly B
Graham, W. J., Horsefly  B
Greenlee, E., Canim Lake B
Grice, Percy, Young's Lake  B
Grinder, Eddie, Jesmond B
Grinder, Isidore, Clinton  A
Grinder, J., Jesmond  A
Grinder, R., Clinton  B
Grinder, William, Jesmond B
Gunn, John M., Horsefly  B
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Gunn, Joseph, Horsefly  B
Hansen, J. F., Bridge Lake   A
Hansen, R. Lee, Heffley Creek A
Hansen, Wesley B., Bridge Lake B
Hendricks, Ike, Clinton  B
Higginbottom, A., Jesmond  B
Higgins, C, Bridge Lake  B
Higgins, Ed., Fawn  B
Higgins, Marion, Bridge Lake  A
Higgins, R., Bridge Lake  B
Hill, W. C, 70-Mile.House B
Hodges, E. W., Fawn B
Hodgson, W. A., Jesmond B
Holgate, L., Cache Creek  B
Hooke, John C, Clinton B
Horn, W. A., Fawn  B
Houseman, J. J., Buffalo Creek B
Huckvale, A. J., Fawn B
Illingworth, J. W., Kelly Lake B
Johnson, J. A., 100-Mile House  B
Johnson, Claude, Bridge Lake B
Johnson, O. M., 70-Mile House B
Johnson, Zale A., Bridge Lake B
Johnston, Vincent T., Bridge Lake B
Julseud, E. E., Fawn  B
Keary, Charles, Minto  B
Kent, Arthur G., Lytton  B
Kerp, A. H., Clinton B
King, C. J., Fawn B
King, Gordon B., Fawn B
Knauf, H. G., Fawn  B
Knudson, William, Lytton  B
Koster, Henry, Canoe Creek B
Kostering, C, Clinton  B
Krebs, Len, 100-Mile House B
Labordie, Eddy, Clinton  A
Labordie., Joe, Clinton  B
Land, Robert R., Moha _____ A
Larson, Jack O., Bridge Lake A
Larson, Karel, Roe Lake  B
Larson, Leonard, Roe Lake  B
Larum, Sigurd, Horse Lake B
Leavitt, F. W. (Jr.), Fawn  B
Lehman, Albert, Lillooet B
Levick; J. S., Fawn  B
Lord, E., Buffalo Creek B
Loring, Edwin, Clinton  B
Louis, Freddy, Canoe Creek  __  B
Lowe, Francis J., Loon Lake  B
Mackie, James C, Horse Lake B
MacLean, Donald, Fawn  A
Madden, E. E., Cache Creek B
Maddocks, Frank, 70-Mile House  B
Marriott, R., Clinton B
Matier, H, Clinton   B
McNeil, B. H., Canim Lake  B
McNeil, Donald, Goldridge  B
McNeil, Herbert M., Fawn  A
McNeil, Spencer B., Fawn .___. __.A REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946.
DD 91
Cariboo District "A" (100-Mile House South to Ashcroft and
including Canim Lake and Lillooet)—Continued.
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Michel, Thomas, Lillooet B
Miller, John C, Roe Lake B
Miller, Wayne, Fawn  B
Mobbs, A. J., Watch Lake  B
Mobbs, Ben H, Watch Lake B
Morrical, L., Clinton  B
Morris, L., Forest Grove B
Mulvihill, M., Jesmond  B
Murray, G. J., Loon Lake B
Nath, Carl G., Lone Butte  B
Nicholson, J. D., Fawn  B
Odian, E. J., Lone Butte B
O'Keeffe, Wallace, Bralorne B
Olafson, H. J., Lone Butte B
Parent, S. J., Sulphurous Lake  B
Park, Arlie H., Pressy Lake B
Park, Jack, 70-Mile House  B
Paul, Louis, Canoe Creek  B
Perrault, Joseph, Jesmond  B
Peters, Jacob, Shalalth B
Peters, Michell, Clinton B
Piarro, John, Cache Creek B
Pigeon, A., Clinton  B
Pigeon, C. L., Clinton  B
Pigeon, J. R., Clinton  B
Pigeon, P. F., Clinton  B
Pinchbeck, C, Cache Creek B
Pollard, J. H, Clinton  A
Powell, Henry, Fawn   B
Powell, Thomas G., Fawn A
Prydatok, S., 70-Mile House B
Reichmuth, M., Fawn  B
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Reinertsen, R. J., 70-Mile House B
Reynolds, A. J., Big Bar  B
Reynolds, H. D., Big Bar B
Roper, A. H., Forest Grove  B
Rosette, Augustine, Gang Ranch B
Roy, Harold C, Fawn  : B
Russell, Leonard J., Lillooet  B
Scheepbouwer, John C, 70-Mile House A
Scheepbouwer, William, 70-Mile House ____ B
Scott, Douglas, 100-Mile House  A
Sedman, Jack E., Sheridan Lake B
Smith, C, Fawn  B
Sporring, John, Bridge Lake  B
Stanislaus, P., Forest Grove  _' B
Striegler, Robert, Clinton  B
Thomason, David, Bridge Lake  B
Thorsteinson, Charles, Fawn  B
Tubbs, Clifford S., Forest Grove B
Turney, R. J., Lone Butte A
Umphrey, Sam, Fawn  : B
Van Horlick, Buster, 59-Mile Chasm B
Walsh, F. C, 70-Mile House  B
Watkinson, Robert, Lillooet  B
Wayne, D. T., Fawn B
Watt, James D., Kelly Lake B
Welyk, Hector, Fawn     B
Westman, H., Forest Grove    B
Wilkinson, Charles, Green Lake  B
Wrigley, E. W., 70-Mile House  B
Young, William, Clinton  B
Zimmerlee, E., Jesmond  B
Cariboo District " B
(from 100-Mile House North to Marguerite,
including Chilcotin).
Abram, Ernest, Lac la Hache  B
Adams, Gustave, Big Lake B
Alexander, Jack, Lac la Hache  B
Allen, Charles A., Likely B
Ash, Chris, Big Lake  B
Barker, Peter, Big Lake  B
Barton, Thomas, Lac la Hache  B
Bathgate, John, Lac la Hache  B
Bliss, William, Alexis Creek B
Bourelle, Philip B., Ochiltree  B
Bourelle, W., Williams Lake  A
Boyle, Frank, Williams Lake B
Bradley, A., Williams Lake B
Bryce, John, Big Lake B
Carson, Jack, Horsefly B
Church, R. H., Big Creek A
Collier, Eric, Riske Creek B
Cowan, Kenneth E., 150-Mile House  B
Cropley, R. H, Williams Lake B
Crosina, William W., Williams Lake B
Curtis, Rae, Williams Lake B
Davis, John, Hanceville  B
Dester, Batese, Kleena Kleene  B
Dick, Matthews, Alkali Lake B
Diehl, Leo, Big Creek  B
Dixon, E. F., Lac la Hache    B
Dorsey, Lester, Anahim Lake   B
Eagle, Clifford B., Lac la Hache  A
Eagle, John W., Lac la Hache B
Elkin, Thomas, Alexis Creek  B
Ellison, Creighton, Hanceville ____•_ B
Ewart, Dan, Lac la Hache    B
Felker, W. R., 150-Mile House B
Forbes, Cameron, Horsefly  B
Ford, Clair H., Horsefly  B
Forsterm, Hubert, Likely  A
Haller, August, Lac la Hache B
Haller, Clarence, Lac la Hache  B
Haller, Lester, Lac la Hache  B
Halskov, Eric, Big Lake  B
Hamilton, G. G., Williams Lake B
Hamilton, H. M., Lac la Hache B
Hamilton, J., Lac la Hache A
Hamilton, John R., Williams Lake B
Hamilton, Peter, Williams Lake  B
Hamilton, Rae M., Williams Lake B
Hamilton, Thomas, Williams Lake  B
Henderson, John, Tatlayoko  B DD 92
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Cariboo District " B " (from 100-Mile House North to Marguerite,
including Chilcotin)—Continued.
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Henry, Eagle Lake, Redstone  B
Henry, 0. C, Big Creek B
Herber, A., 150-Mile House B
Hinschy, Fred, Lac la Hache  B
Hockley, George, Horsefly  B
Holt, James, Hanceville  B
Hooker, F. C., Horsefly  A
Hooker, G. B., Horsefly B
Hubbard, I. H., Horsefly B
Hulme, A. W., Likely B
Hunison, Joy H., Williams Lake B
Jacobson, Alfred, Williams Lake B
Jacobson, John, Williams Lake B
Jefferson, Jesse, Big Lake  B
Jefferson, Lawrence, Big Lake  B
Jefferson, Theodore, Big Lake  B
Jenner, Ernest, Horsefly  A
Jensen, Pete, Likely  B
Johnson, Floyd, Lac la Hache B
Johnson, James E., Bridge Lake B
Johnson,. J. W., Riske Creek B
Jones, Fred, Horsefly B
Jones, Lawrence, Horsefly  B
Kelly, James, Soda Creek  B
Kelly, John, Soda Creek  B
Kennedy, William H., Horsefly B
Kiny, E. S., Horsefly B
Lee, T. C, Alexis Creek B
Lutz, George, Williams Lake  _.__ B
MacKenzie, William, 150-Mile House B
MacKill, Clarence, Kleena Kleene  A
Manley, D. V., Horsefly  B
Matheson, A. G., Soda Creek  B
Mayfield, Marvin, Lac la Hache B
McDonald, Harold, Big Lake  B
McDougall, Archie, Lac la Hache  B
McDougall, Robert D., Big Lake B
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
McMinds, B. 0., Likely  B
Mikkelson, Claus, Horsefly  B
Mills, Thomas W., Horsefly  B
Moore, George, Ochiltree  B
Moore, John, Ochiltree  B
Moore, Thomas A., Ochiltree B
Morgan, Ballas, Likely B
Mulvahill, R., Redstone  A
Neilson, Herman, Likely  B
Nicol, A., Horsefly  B
Nicol, Shelly, Horsefly B
Oak, Ernest, Horsefly B
Otson, James A., Horsefly B
Pillver, George, 150-Mile House  B
Quilt, Francis, Hanceville B
Rachen, Wilfred, Horsefly  B
Rafferty, Arthur, Riske Creek A
Rankin, Robert F., Soda Creek  B
Rawling, Arden L., Quesnel  A
Roberts, Charles F., Riske Creek B
Robertson, Irene (Mrs.), Miocene B
Robertson, K. H., Miocene  B
Sandy, Frank, Williams Lake  B
Sellers, Albert, Soda Creek  B
Sharp, William, Ochiltree B
Sharp, William A., Ochiltree  B
Speed, Russel, Likely        B
Sundman, John, 100-Mile House  B
Sutherland, Eagle H., Hanceville  B
Thygesen, Julius, Horsefly   B
Timothy, Kleena Kleene  B
Turner, George, Kleena Kleene   B
Veness, John, Horsefly B
Walters, Glen, Horsefly  A
Walters, Harry L., Horsefly B
Walters, Leonard, Horsefly B
Weber, James L., Williams Lake  B
Cariboo District "C" (Quesnel-Barkerville from Marguerite North).
Aiken, Edward F., Marguerite  B
Aitken, Leslie J., Marguerite B
Allen, George H., Quesnel A
Armstrong, Brazier, Quesnel  A
Armstrong, Wilfred, Quesnel  A
Becker, Fred W., Barkerville A
Boyd, Ambert, Marguerite B
Cochran, James D., Barkerville A
Coldwell, Reg, Punchaw  B
Cooper, Thomas, Quesnel  B
Dolvin, Edward, Quesnel A
Evans, Charles, Quesnel  A
Fleury, Alfred, Wells  B
Gerwien, Joseph, Quesnel  B
Greig, Ian, Quesnel  B
Hagen, Roy, Quesnel  B
Harrington, Alex. G., Quesnel  B
Hayward, Arthur M., Alexandria B
Hoffman, Peter, Cinema ._  A
Kirkendall, Floyd, Quesnel A
Lavington, Harold A., Quesnel  B
Lyngas, Hans, Quesnel B
McCort, Clarence, Alexandria  A
McKenzie, Frank, Cinema  A
McKenzie, James, Cinema  A
McKitrich, Arnold, Wells B
McKitrich, Roy, Wells _  _'_ B
Marsh, Ruric L., Quesnel A
Miller, Isaac E., Punchaw  B
Moffat, Ronald H., Alexandria  A
Moffat, Roddy R., Quesnel  B
Monkman, Erastus N., Narcosli Creek ____ B
Nelson, Olaf, Wells  B
O'Leary, Arthur, Quesnel  B
Paxton, H. E., Macalister B
Pease, C. A., Quesnel  B
Perry, Hugh H., Quesnel  B
Quanstrom, Carl, Quesnel  A
Quanstrom, Harry, Quesnel  B
Robertson, A., Macalister  B REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946.
DD 93
Cariboo District " C " (Quesnel-Barkerville from Marguerite North)—Continued.
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Robertson, A. H., Macalister  B
Simrose, Martin, Cinema  B
Tibbies, Fred, Quesnel    A
Tibbies, James, Quesnel  A
Name and Address of Guide.
Twan, Allan, Marguerite	
Twan, Dave, Marguerite	
Webster, Jim, Narcosli Creek
Licence
Grade.
 B
 A
 A
Prince George District "A" (East to Mount Robson).
Bell, Irving W., Prince George  B
Bergstrom, John, Hansard  A
Bricker, William, South Fort George A
Brooks, George, South Fort George A
Carr, Stanley J., Tete Jaune Cache  A
Chesser, Charles A., Mount Robson  B-
Corless, John D., Prince George  B
Corless, Richard F. (Jr.), Prince George__A
Cornell, Horace L., Prince George B
Felton, E. M., Dunster  B
Gagne, Joe C, Hansard  B
Giles, Charles J., Prince George  B
Hansen, Anund  (Sr.), Hansard  A
Hargreaves, Roy F., Mount Robson A
Hinkelman, Clifford, McBride  C
Hooker, Glen B., Dome Creek   ___. B
Hooker, James B., Dome Creek  A
Hooker, Kenneth N., Dome Creek B
Huble, Sam E., Prince George B
Jensen, Arne, Dome Creek A
Johnson, Howard T., South Fort George. B
Long, Fabian, McBride  B
Miller, Delmar N., Ware  A
Mills, Marshall, Tete Jaune Cache B
Mintz, Carl, Tete Jaune Cache  B
Monroe, Everett, McBride  . B
Neighbor, Herschel, Tete Jaune Cache B
Nevin, J., Croydon  B
Persing, H. B., Prince George  B
Sande, Walter J., Sinclair Mills A
Smith, James M., Loos  A
Yargeau, Jack, South Fort George  _A
Prince George District " B " (West to Hazelton).
Beaver, Albert E., Ootsa Lake A
Bennett, Clifford, Ootsa Lake  B
Bennett, Vernon, Southbank  B
Blackburn, Thomas H., Fort St. John A
Campbell, Ronald B., Vanderhoof B
Colons, Litta, Topley  B
Conlon, Henry R., Topley B
Cook, Ted, Vanderhoof B
Davidson, Charles B., Vanderhoof A
Donald, Jimmy, Burns Lake  B
Eakin, Samuel, Burns Lake  B
Gainger, Barry, Noralee  B
George, Leonard W., Telkwa  B
George, Thomas S., Telkwa  B
Harrison, B. R., Wistaria  A
Harrison, Orald A., Wistaria  B
Henderson, George W., Colleymount B
Henry, Stanley, Ootsa Lake B
Henson, Frank E., Marilla   __ B
Hindmarch, Floyd E., Vanderhoof  B
Hoy, David H., Fort St. James  C
Hoy, Robert D., Fort St. James  B
Johnson, G. M., Vanderhoof B
Jones, David L., Fort St. James __.._ C
Knox, John, Ootsa Lake B
Leon, Paddy, Topley Landing  B
Lord, Walter H, Tchesinkut Lake _  B
Loss, Helmar F., Topley B
Malgunas, Costo, Mud River  B
McKinley, Thomas, Ootsa Lake  B
McNeill, Clifford, Ootsa Lake A
McNeill, John W., Ootsa Lake A
Michell, Gabriel, Babine Lake  B
Miller, San Louis, Lake Pierre  B
Morgan, James E., Wistaria A
Munger, F. W., Walcott B
Nelson, John W., Noralee  B
Neurauter, Frank, Burns Lake  B
Nichols, Edmund B., Marilla  B
O'Brien, Walter, Vanderhoof B
Plowman, C, Endaka  B
Prince, John, Fort St. James  B
Prince, Teddy, Fort St. James  B
Rasmussen, Johnny, Fort St. James   B
Rasmussen, Peter, Mapes  B
Ray, Harvey L., Nithi River B
Ross, Arthur, Marilla B
Schorder, Ray L., Tatalrose B
Seyfarth, J. N., Fort St. James B
Shea, J. B., Telkwa  B
Smedley, John D., Fort St. James  C
Smith, Craig, Fort St. James  B
Smith, Richard, Fort St. James  C
Van Tine, Charles, Ootsa Lake  B
Van Tine, Edward, Ootsa Lake B
Van Tine, George, Ootsa Lake   B
Tourand, Peter, Wistaria  B
Winsor, William J., Isle Pierre  B DD 94
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Peace River (including Fort Nelson and Lower Post) .
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Bedell, Richard I., Arras  B
Belcourt,  Adolphus,  Mount  Valley  P.O.,
Alta.  . B
Belcourt,   Clarence,   Mount  Valley  P.O.,
Alta.  B
Belcourt, Francis, Goodfare, Alta.  B
Belcourt,   Magloire,   Mount   Valley   P.O.,
Alta.    B
Brown, Wesley J., Mile 175, Alaska Highway  A
Calliou, John, Kelly Lake  A
Calliou, Sam, Moberly Lake  B
Callison, Fred, Fort St. John B
Callison, Lynch, Rose Prairie  A
Cameron, Patrick, Moberly Lake B
Campbell, Harry, Kelly Lake B
Chatlar, Alfred, Kelly Lake  B
Courvoisier, Henry, Fort St. John  A
Couterrille, Fred, Moberly Lake  A
Dahl, Joel 0., East Pine B
Davidson, J. A., Fort Ware A
Desterlais, Louie, Moberly Lake B
Dhenin, Rene, Fort St. John  A
Dopp, Edgar, Fort St. John A
Durney, Laviral, East Pine  A
Durney, Milo, East Pine  B
Garbitt, Theophile, Moberly Lake  A
Gauthier, Alexie, Moberly Lake B
Gauthier,  Eugene,  Kelly  Lake-Goodfare,
Alta.  : B
Gibson, Harry B., Dawson Creek A
Gladu,    Isadore,    Kelly    Lake-Goodfare,
Alta.  B
Golata, Frank W., Dawson Creek  A
Gray, George D., Kelly Lake B
Licence
Name and Address of Guide. Grade.
Groat, Allen H., Sunset Prairie  B
Hambler, Albert, Kelly Lake  B
Hambler, George, Kelly Lake B
Hambler, Joe, Kelly Lake B
Houle, Joseph, Arras  B
Houle, Walter, Bessborough B
Jardine, Leonard J., East Pine  B
Johnson, Harold, Dawson Creek  B
Lamont, Alexander, Dawson Creek  B
Langerud, Brede, Dawson Creek  B
Letendre, Fred, Moberly Lake B
Letendre,   Roland,   Mount   Valley   P.O.,
-    Alta.  B
Longhurst, William J., Fort St. John A
McCusker, Knox, Fort St. John A
McDonald,    Charles,    Mile   442,    Alaska
Highway     A
McGarvey, Morris M., Taylor Flat  B
McLean, William, Little Prairie   B
McRae, Gordon C, East Pine  B
Millar, William E., Fort St. John  B
Napoleon, Felix, Moberly Lake  B
Neilson, Gordon, Fort St. John  B
Noskey, Narcisse, Kelly Lake  B
Oxford, Arthur, East Pine A
Peck, Donald, Hudson Hope B
Pitts, Ray, Hudson Hope B
Powell, Gary, Hudson Hope B
Ross, James, Dawson Creek  A
Rutledge, Leo, Hudson Hope A
Stubley, Claude E., Sunset Prairie  B
Thomas, John, Arras  B
Wananie, Paul, Kelly Lake  B
Watson, James H., Bear Flat  B
Cassiar (Telegraph Creek-Atlin District).
Callbreath, John, Telegraph Creek B
Campbell, Richard, Telegraph Creek B
Carlick, Walter, Telegraph Creek B
Carlick, Tom D., Telegraph Creek B
Day, Alfred, Telegraph Creek B
Decker, Lou, Telegraph Creek A
Dennis, Alex., Telegraph Creek B
Dennis, John C, Telegraph Creek A
Dennis, Tommy, Telegraph Creek B
Frank, Benjamin, Atlin  B
Gleason, Henry, Telegraph Creek A
Jack, Henry T., Atlin  . A
Pete, Jack, Telegraph Creek  A
Pete, Frank, Telegraph Creek  B
Williams, Johnny, Telegraph Creek B
Coastal Mainland to Prince Rupert.
Carter, Harold W., Bella Coola A
Meacham, Nello M., Hagensborg A
Mick, Clayton, Bella Coola  A
Nygaard, Martin, Bella Coola B
Oaks, George, Bella Coola B
Pierce, Albert H., Bella Coola  A
Skuce, Herb, Ocean Falls  A
Stanton, James R., Knight Inlet A
Ten Brocke, Lt.-Col. M., Bella Coola  B
Walker, Thomas A., Bella Coola A
Williams, Frank, Tulsequah   __ B
Wright, William C, Hagensborg  A
Non-resident Outfitters.
Callison, E. P., Carcross, Y.T.
Cowpar, Joseph, Mount Valley, B.C.
McBride, Raymond, Canmore, Alta.
Peinier, Abe, Wembley, Alta.
Phillips, Frank A., 1551 St. Andrews Street,
North Vancouver, B.C.
Pinkerton, C. R., Kintta Ranch, Trail Creek,
Montana.
Sunderman, Sidney, Hythe, Alta. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL GAME COMMISSION, 1946. DD 95
PERSONNEL OF GAME COMMISSION AS AT DECEMBER 31st, 1946.
Attorney-General (Minister) Hon. Gordon S. Wismer, K.C Victoria.
Game Commission (members) Frank R. Butler Vancouver.
James G. Cunningham Vancouver.
Headquarters.
Sergeant Game Warden R. E. Allan Vancouver.
Senior Clerk H. D. Simpson Vancouver.
Senior Clerk-Stenographer Miss I. Lawson Vancouver.
Intermediate Clerk F. R. Lobb Vancouver.
Senior Stenographer __.Miss N. Munkley Vancouver.
Stenographer Miss J. Smith Vancouver.
Game-fish Culture Branch.
Fishery Supervisor C. H. Robinson Nelson.
Fishery Officer E. Hunter Nelson.
Fishery Officer R. A. McRae Kaslo.
Fishery Officer F. Pells Cultus Lake.
Hatchery Officer A. Higgs Qualicum Beach.
Hatchery Officer J. D. S. Inverarity Victoria.
Hatchery Officer C. 0. Mellor Vancouver.
Hatchery Officer F. H. Martin Cultus Lake.
"A" Division (Vancouver Island and Portions of Lower Mainland) .
Game Warden G. C. Stevenson Victoria.
Game Warden   S. H. McCall Victoria.
Game Warden J. W. Jones Victoria.
Game Warden W. A. R. Lawley Alberni.
Game Warden F. H. Greenfield Nanaimo.
Game Warden R. S. Hayes _•_ Courtenay.
Game Warden A. L. Frost Courtenay.
Game Warden F. P. Weir Duncan.
" B " Division (Kootenay and Boundary Districts).
Inspector C. F. Kearns Nelson.
Clerk-Stenographer Mrs. E. H. Edgar Nelson.
Corporal Game Warden A. F. Sinclair Grand Forks.
Game Warden G. Haskell Nelson.
Game Warden N. Cameron Golden.
Game Warden G. A. Lines Creston.
Game Warden A F. Gill Princeton.
Game Warden W. H. McLean Uevelstoke.
Game Warden A. Monks Penticton.
Game Warden J. J. Osman _ Fernie.
Game Warden B. Rauch Cranbrook.
Game Warden J. W. Bayley Cranbrook.
Game Warden H. Tyler Invermere.
Game Warden P. D. Ewart Castlegar. DD 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" C " Division (Kamloops, Yale, Okanagan, and Cariboo Districts) .
Game Warden W. J. Hillen Quesnel.
Game Warden 0. Mottishaw Quesnel.
Inspector R. M. Robertson  Kamloops.
Clerk-Stenographer Miss H. Swadling ______ Kamloops.
Game Warden J. S. Hodgson (deceased) Kamloops.
Game Warden W. J. Ward _..Kamloops.
Game Warden _'_ D. D. Ellis Kamloops.
Game Warden E. Holmes  Wells.
Game Warden J. P. C. Atwood Vernon.
Game Warden D. Cameron Salmon Arm.
Game Warden W. A. H. Gill . Lillooet.
Game Warden L. Jobin Williams Lake.
Game Warden E. M. Martin Merritt.
Game Warden W. R. Maxson Kelowna.
Game Warden JR. S. Welsman Clinton.
" D " Division (Atlin, Skeena, Omineca, Fort George, Peace River,
and Yukon Boundary Districts).
Inspector T. Van Dyk Prince George.
Clerk R. J. Guay Prince George.
Game Warden H. C. Milum   Prince George.
Corporal Game Warden K. O. Alexander Fort Nelson.
Corporal Game Warden E. Martin Prince Rupert.
Clerk-Stenographer Miss E. Foster Prince Rupert.
Game Warden R. 0. Anderson Vanderhoof.
Game Warden A. J. Jank Prince George.
Game Warden A. W. Vinson Smithers.
Game Warden W. 0. Quesnel Dawson Creek.
Game Warden D. Roumieu Burns Lake.
Game Warden _._ J, W. Stewart Lower Post.
Game Warden J. D. Williams Fort St. John.
Game Warden (Special) B. Villeneuve Fort Nelson.
" E " Division (Vancouver, Coast, and Lower Fraser Valley Districts).
Inspector W. Kier Vancouver.
Game Warden W. I. Fenton Vancouver.
Game Warden R. S. King Vancouver.
Game Warden H. L. Rose Vancouver.
Game Warden C. E. Stevens  Vancouver.
Game Warden A. J. Butler Chilliwack.
Game Warden W. H. Cameron Ladner.
Game Warden P. M. Cliffe Mission.
Game Warden H. P. Hughes Cloverdale.
Game Warden  F. Urquhart Port Coquitlam.
Predatory-animal Hunter and Special Game Wardens.
C. Shuttleworth  Kamloops. J. Dewar  Alberni.
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Don MoDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1948.
1,315-248-9148

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