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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Department of Agriculture FORTY-SECOND ANNUAL REPORT 1947 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1948

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Department of Agriculture
-FORTY-SECOND
ANNUAL REPORT
1947
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Don McDurmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1948.  To His Honour C. A. BANKS,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit herewith for your consideration the Annual Report
of the Department of Agriculture for the year 1947.
FRANK PUTNAM,
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., January 2nd, 1948.
_  TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of the Deputy Minister       9
Report of the Markets Commissioner   25
Report of Provincial Apiarist  31
Report of Supervisor of Boys' and Girls' Club Work  33
Report of Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes  42
Report of Superintendent of Women's Institutes  45
Report of Statistician  49
Report of Soil Classification Branch  54
Report of Horticultural Branch i  60
Report of Plant Pathologist  86
Report of Field Crops Branch  95
Report of Live Stock and Veterinary Branches  106
Report of Recorder of Brands  123
Report of Dairy Branch  126
Report of Poultry Branch  130
Report of Extension, Land-clearing, and Farm Labour Branches  135
Appendices—
No.   1. British Columbia Commercial Fruit Production, 1940-46  174
No.   2. Estimate of Honey-crop    174
No.   3. Summary of Inspectors' Work  174
No.   4. Disposition of Boys' and Girls' Clubs  175
No.   5. Competitions at Toronto and Achievement of B.C. Teams   177
No.   6. Boys' and Girls' Clubs in British Columbia, 1931 to 1947  178
No.   7. Statement of Grain threshed    179
No.   8. Movement of Grain Screenings «  180
No.   9. Average Prices for Cattle  181
No. 10. Statement of Beef branded  182
No. 11. Average Prices for Lambs  183
No. 12. Average Prices for Hogs  183
No. 13. Inspected Slaughterings of Live Stock  184
No. 14. Dairy Premises inspected and graded  186
No. 15. Slaughter-house, etc., Licences  187
No. 16. Cattle and Hide Shipments  189  BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
DIVISION AND STAFF MEMBERS, 1947.
Minister of Agriculture:
Honourable Frank Putnam.
Minister's Secretary:
Mrs. I. M. Miller.
Deputy Minister:
*J. B. Munro, M.B.E., M.S.A., Ph.D.
Secretary:
Miss A. E. Hill, Victoria, B.C.
Assistant Deputy Minister and Provincial Horticulturist:
*W. H. Robertson, B.S.A.
Administrative Division:
*E. 0. MacGinnis, M.H., Markets Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
George H. Stewart, Statistician, Victoria, B.C.
*C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
*J. S. D. Smith, B.S.A., Assistant Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
W. J. Lyle, Chief Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
Miss F. L. Brooks, Assistant Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
A. J. Hourston, General Assistant, Victoria, B.C.
J. S. Wells, Clerk, Victoria, B.C.
H. A. Davie, Clerk, Victoria, B.C.
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, Victoria, B.C.
Mrs. Stella E. Gummow, Superintendent of Women's Institutes, Victoria, B.C.
*Miss E. Lidster, B.S.A., Supervisor of Boys' and Girls' Clubs, Vancouver, B.C.
W. H. Turnbull, Provincial Apiarist, Vernon, B.C.
A. McNeill, Inspector, Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
L. Todhunter, Agricultural Annex, Victoria, B.C.
Animal Industry Division:
W.  R.  Gunn, B.S.A., B.V.Sc, V.S., Live  Stock  Commissioner and  Chief Veterinary
Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
John C. Bankier, B.V.Sc, Veterinary Inspector and Animal Pathologist, Victoria, B.C.
G. M. Clark, B.V.Sc, V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
Dr. J. J. Carney, Veterinary Inspector, Nelson, B.C.
A. Kidd, D.V.M., D.V.P.H., Veterinary Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
F. C. Clark, B.S.A., Live Stock Inspector, New Westminster, B.C.
U. Guichon, B.S.A., Live Stock Inspector, Quilchena, B.C.
P. J. Weir, Clerk, Live Stock Branch, Victoria, B.C.
F. C. Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
F. Overland, Dairy Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
G. Patchett, Dairy Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
J. D. Johnson, Dairy Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
G. H. Thornbery, Superintendent, Cow-testing Associations, Victoria, B.C.
*G. L. Landon, B.S.A., Poultry Commissioner, New Westminster, B.C.
W. H. Pope, Poultry Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
George Pilmer, Brand Recorder, Victoria, B.C.
Thomas Moore, Assistant Brand Recorder, Victoria, B.C.
Major A. J. Duck, Brand Inspector, Kamloops, B.C. R 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Extension Division:
Wm. MacGillivray, Director, Agricultural Development and Extension, Victoria, B.C.
*J. E. Beamish, B.E. (Agr.), Agricultural Extension Engineer, Vancouver, B.C.
H. Barber, Clerk, Land-clearing Division, Vancouver, B.C.
*G. A. Luyat, B.S.A., Supervising District Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
*S. G. Preston, M.S.A., Supervising District Agriculturist, Prince George, B.C.
*J. S. Allin, B.S.A., Supervising District Agriculturist, Creston, B.C.
*W. B. Richardson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Duncan, B.C.
D. S. Gibbons, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Courtenay, B.C.
D. Borthwick, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, New Westminster, B.C.
*A. E. Donald, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Chilliwack, B.C.
M. J. Walsh, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, B.C.
J. L. Gray, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Quesnel, B.C.
*K. R. Jameson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Smithers, B.C.
G. A. Muirhead, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.
*T. S. Crack, District Agriculturist, Pouce Coupe, B.C.
R. W. BROWN, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Fort St. John, B.C.
*J. F. Carmichael, M.Sc, District Agriculturist, Grand Forks, B.C.
*J. W. Awmack, B.S.A., Assistant District Agriculturist, Cranbrook, B.C.
R. D. Archibald, B.S.A., Assistant District Agriculturist, Creston, B.C.
P. D. Graham, B.S.A., Assistant District Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
*A. M. Johnson, B.Sc, District Agriculturist, Vanderhoof, B.C.
Plant Industry Division:
James Travis, Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
*N. F. Putnam, M.Sc, Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
M. S. Middleton, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
*G. E. W. Clarke, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
E. C. Hunt, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Nelson, B.C.
*E. W. White, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
J. L. Webster, B.S.A., Horticulturist, Vancouver, B.C.
H. H. EVANS, District Field Inspector, Vernon, B.C.
Ben Hoy, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
*R. P. Murray, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Penticton, B.C.
G. R. Thorpe, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Creston, B.C.
M. P. D. Trumpour, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Salmon Arm, B.C.
*A. W. Watt, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, West Summerland, B.C.
*J. A. Smith, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Oliver, B.C.
W. Baverstock, Field Inspector, Vernon, B.C.
R. M. Wilson, B.S.A., Field Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
*W. D. Christie, B.S.A., Field Inspector, Abbotsford, B.C.
D. D. Allan, B.S.A., Field Inspector, Penticton, B.C.
V. Tonks, Secretary, Horticultural Branch, Victoria, B.C.
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc, Plant Pathologist, Vancouver, B.C.
*W. R. Foster, M.Sc, Assistant Plant Pathologist, Victoria, B.C.
* Member of the British Columbia Institute of Agrologists. Report of the Department of Agriculture.
REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER.
J. B. Munro, M.B.E., M.S.A., Ph.D.
The Honourable Frank Putnam,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
SIR,—I have the honour to submit herewith the report of the Department of Agriculture for the year ended December 31st, 1947. In it you will note that the Extension
Service has been created during this year as a distinct branch. It was formerly a
division of the Live Stock Branch. All District Agriculturists have furnished their
reports through the three Supervising District Agriculturists to the Director of
Extension, who presents a complete report regarding extension, farm labour, and land-
clearing in its appropriate place. By the rearrangement of duties it has been possible
for our district officials to devote more attention to the land-clearing activities of the
Department.
NEW LEGISLATION.
At the second session of the Twenty-first Parliament of British Columbia several
Acts of prime importance to the agricultural industry, together with a number of
amendments to existing agricultural legislation, were passed. One of the interesting
items of legislation was the "Agrologists Act." In accordance with the provisions
of this Act the practice of agrology now becomes a recognized profession because
" agrology " means engaging in a professional capacity in advising on, investigating,
experimenting in, teaching or demonstrating scientific principles and practices relating
to agriculture. It provides for the incorporation of agrologists and makes certain
provisions regarding membership. The first Council has completed its initial year's
work, and already the first certified agrologist in British Columbia is carrying on his
duties under this Act. The Council of Management of the Institute of Agrologists has
in its membership Mr. G. A. Luyat, B.S.A., and your Deputy Minister of Agriculture
is a Councillor by authority of section 10, subsection (2) of the "Agrologists Act." The
registrar of the Institute of Agrologists is William H. Hill, of 504 Federal Building,
Vancouver, B.C. This Act was passed on April 3rd, 1947, and the by-laws which were
approved and passed by the Council of the British Columbia Institute of Agrologists
on April 26th, 1947, came into effect on the 1st of June. The present certificated
membership of the Institute is 141 agrologists qualified to practise agrology.
The Act respecting Fur-farms, being chapter 39 of the Statutes of 1947, provides
that the officer in charge shall be the Live Stock Commissioner and interprets a " fur-
farm " as a place in which two or more fur-bearing animals are kept in captivity.
By " fur-bearing animals " is meant any animals whose pelts are commonly used for
commercial purposes and, although wild by nature, are kept in captivity. Regulations
have already been passed under this Act, which was proclaimed on November 25th, 1947.
By this Act fur-farms must now be licensed under Provincial regulations, and a scale
of the licence fees is contained in a Schedule to the Act.
An Act to facilitate the Growing of Certified Seed-potatoes, being chapter 72 of the
Statutes of 1947, was also assented to on April 3rd. In this Act an owner may be any
person who is (a.) registered as the owner of land in the books of the Land Registry
Office; (b) a purchaser of land under an agreement for purchase registered in the books
of the Land Registry Office, and who is by the terms of the agreement liable to pay the
taxes on the land;   or (c) a pre-emptor, homesteader, purchaser, or lessee of any land
9 R 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
from the Crown. The seed-potato control areas may be any area for seed-potato control
constituted under this Act, and any five owners of land within an area may by public
notice call a meeting of the owners of land within that area at a time and place stated.
The Act gives authority for the presentation of the petition to the Lieutenant-Governor
in Council containing a description of the proposed seed-potato control area, the
varieties of seed proposed to be produced in the area, and the names of three persons
whom the petitioners desire to have appointed as members of the seed-potato control
committee. This Act further states the powers of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council
and suggests the means of constituting the committees. It also provides for the
dissolution of the control area and committee. Provisions are made for making such
regulations as are considered necessary or advisable for defining the seed-potato control
areas, prescribing the powers and duties of committees, regulating the times of
meetings, authorizing varieties to be grown, compelling owners and occupiers of land
within any control area to rogue defective plants that might become injurious to any
seed grown in the area, and such other regulations as may be necessary.
In the " Milk Act Amendment Act, 1947," section 10 is amended by striking out
the subsection that was enacted by chapter 45 of the Statutes of 1946, and substituting
the following as subsection (4) : " The power conferred by clause (h) of subsection (1)
shall not be exercised by any municipality to which the ' Municipal Act' or the ' Village
Municipalities Act' applies."
The "Apiaries Act Amendment Act, 1947," has extensively affected former beekeeping legislation in British Columbia. By this amendment the Minister is authorized
to give a certificate of bee-mastership to any bee-keeper whom he belives to be competent
and suitable. Already advantage of this Act has been taken, and ten new bee-masters
have been created. It provides for examinations to be conducted by the Provincial
Apiarist and a person representing the British Columbia Honey Producers' Association.
It also authorizes the Minister to employ, temporarily, any person holding a bee-master's
certificate for the inspection of apiaries suspected of having American foul-brood, and
it gives such person authority to enter any premises for the purpose of inspection. The
Inspector also by this Act has certain authority to burn bees and equipment that are
suspected of having American foul-brood. It also requires every person who reasonably
suspects the existence of American foul-brood in his apiary to immediately report his
suspicion and his reasons for them to the Department of Agriculture. This Act further
provides that on recommendation the Minister may by regulations define any area in the
Province as a bee quarantine area, and no person shall bring any bees into a bee
quarantine area without first obtaining a permit in writing to do so. This Act provides
that every person who sells bees in British Columbia shall within sixty days after the
sale furnish to the Provincial Apiarist the name and address of the person to whom the
bees are sold.
The " Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance Act Amendment Act, 1947," was passed
to authorize the payment by every person, including every co-operative association, of
30 cents to the Minister of Agriculture for each bull, steer, or female of the bovine
species other than a cow exported for slaughter. This amendment applies particularly
to the Peace River District and the Columbia-Kootenay Valley cattle, which are largely
disposed of in Alberta. ■
The " Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Act Amendment Act, 1947," was amended
this year to permit that moneys borrowed or raised under this Act shall, after payment
of discount, commission, brokerage, and other expenses of every loan, be paid into the
Consolidated Revenue Fund, and shall be paid therefrom by the Minister of Finance
into the Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Fund.
There is created an account in the Treasury, to be known as the " Farmers' Land-
clearing Assistance Fund," which shall consist of (a) moneys raised or borrowed under DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 11
this Act; (6) such sums as may be appropriated by or under the authority of the
Legislature for the purpose of this Act; (c) all sums collected pursuant to any of the
provisions of this Act or by reason of the sale or disposal of machinery.
Moneys standing at the credit of the Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Fund may
be used at the discretion of the Minister for (1) the purchase of machinery and equipment suitable for the clearing and development of land for agricultural purposes; (2)
the housing, maintenance, repairing, and renewing of machinery and equipment;
(3) the clearing and development of land in accordance with the provisions of this
Act; (4) the operation and transportation of machinery and equipment; (5) the
payment of all expenses for labour and services connected with land-clearing.
It further provides for the repayment to the Consolidated Revenue Fund on account
of advances which have been made and all of the provisions of the amendment are
retroactive as if originally contained in the " Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Act."
In addition to these legislative enactments and amendments, there have been
several others passed during the last session of the Legislature which are of interest to
farmers, such as the Act to amend the " Dogwood Protection Act," the Act to amend
the " Richmond Drainage and Dyking Act, 1936," and the Act to amend the " Horse-
racing Regulation Act," but these Acts do not come under the direct administration of
the Department of Agriculture.
PROVINCIAL-FEDERAL CO-OPERATION.
The Federal Department of Agriculture has continued to co-operate with the
British Columbia Department by the administration of many of its measures connected
with live-stock and field-crop matters. In some particulars, such as soil-surveys,
fertilizer-control, lime distribution, live-stock transportation, and providing of purebred sires, this assistance has been of real value. This co-operation is very much
appreciated. It is believed that this year the assistance on lime distribution will exceed
that of any previous year, and various organizations within the Province have already
made arrangements that will permit of agricultural lime being used in future years in
larger quantities than has been possible in the past.
REMOVAL OF CONTROLS.
This year has been a momentous one for farmers. We have seen the removal
of most Federal Government controls which affected dairy products primarily.
Requisitioning of cheese for export to Britain was continued until November 30th,
1947, and certain export permits are required on produce being shipped out of Canada,
but on March 31st last orders controlling the manufacture of ice-cream and processed
cheese were withdrawn, and the sale of whipping cream and table cream were no longer
prohibited by Federal restriction.
Dairy-farmers throughout British Columbia are now confronted with the possibility
of the lifting of the ban against the importation and manufacture of oleomargarine.
Measures to this end are said to be now before the Federal House of Commons and the
Senate of Canada. In spite of the protests lodged by the Federation of Agriculture
and other agricultural bodies, a few Chambers of Commerce and Boards of Trade in
British Columbia have favoured the free access to Canada of oleomargarine.
SUBSIDIES AND CEILINGS WITHDRAWN.
Following a spring conference at Ottawa, at which your Deputy Minister represented
British Columbia and in which representatives from all parts of Canada participated,
on April 30th the payment of butter subsidies and cheese subsidies were discontinued,
and the ceiling price of butter was increased by 10 cents a pound at that time, and on R 12
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
June 9th butter and evaporated milk were both removed from the list of rationed
commodities. At the same time the ceiling prices on all remaining dairy products were
discontinued.
This removal of price ceilings and subsidies of several kinds has greatly affected
the agricultural economy of Canada. Shortly after the middle of October, 1947, the
announcement was made that feed-grain subsidies had been discontinued and all ceilings
had been removed from coarse grains. At that time—the last three days of October—
delegates to the Advisory Agricultural Committee from all parts of Canada again met
in Ottawa and discussed this serious feature connected with the live-stock and poultry
industries. The cancellation of subsidies and ceilings on oats and barley caused a double
rise in the cost of these grains to farmers; therefore it was argued there must of
necessity be an increase in the price of food products to the public unless some way is
found to alleviate the situation. It was decided by those delegates that farmers simply
cannot continue to produce meats, butter, and other products with such heavily increased
feed costs. This attitude was also fairly well expressed in most cities where milk prices
have increased by 1 or 2 cents a quart practically across Canada. British Columbia
prices are about on a par with the rest of the Dominion.
One large dairy group in the Lower Fraser Valley advised us that the following
wire had been directed to Federal authorities in December:—
" On behalf of the independent milk producers of the Fraser Valley area, we
urgently request that you bring essential dairy feeds back under control immediately
and reduce prices on these feeds to the level of two months ago.
" We have had three sharp raises recently, and these raises are forcing milk
producers to sell their cattle. These cattle in most cases are going to the United States
or for beef to the permanent detriment of the industry."
The recommendation was made by delegates representing all Provinces at Ottawa
that coarse grains should be placed under the control of a board set up for the purpose,
that the price of coarse grains should be stabilized within a floor and ceiling range, and
that the Federal Government should effect an increase in prices of live stock and poultry
products, which would establish the same relationship with the prices of coarse grains
which prevailed immediately prior to October 20th, by either revising or subsidizing
British contracts, particularly eggs and bacon, or by permitting exports to the American
market. These suggestions were made to the Federal Government, and as an alternative
it was suggested that subsidies or draw-backs on coarse grains should be re-established.
The situation in the fall of 1947 looked very gloomy from the production standpoint
because poultrymen claimed that they would require at least an additional 5 cents per
dozen on export eggs to compensate for the increased price of wheat, oats, and barley.
Although British Columbia is not a heavy grain-producing portion of the Dominion,
we are rather proud of the fact that in 1947 our acreages had been increased as
follows:—
Table of Grains for British Columbia.
1935-39.
1943-45.
1946.
1947.
Wheat               	
Average Acreage.
65,500
111,600
13,600
4,400
153,900
50,400
Average Acreage.
94,168
75,900
18,834
6,167
222,600
73,000
Acreage.
108,400
81,000
14.2:00
7,900
227,000
79,100
Acreage.
130,100
Oats     	
84,200
14,900
8,700
229,000
87,800
Hay     	
Alfalfa	
With the exception of oats, which have decreased in acreage, this indicates a fairly
strong trend in the production of cereal grains, but in spite of British Columbia's DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 13
increases there have been some serious reductions in the quantities of grains produced
by other grain-growing Provinces to whom we have long looked for our feed-supplies.
The result of these reductions is that the production of wheat for the whole of Canada
is down to 341,000,000 bushels. Of oats, it is down to 282,700,000 bushels, and barley is
down to 141,500,000 bushels, as compared with last year's crop of 414,000,000 bushels
of wheat, 371,100,000 bushels of oats, and 148,900,000 bushels of barley.
From these figures it is indicated that British Columbia poultrymen, dairymen, and
live-stock feeders generally may find it advisable to increase their acreages of cereals
and other grains very materially if they intend to stay in live-stock and poultry
production. It must be remembered that the usual harvest of pilchards did not
materialize in 1947. This means we are short of animal proteins, which are important
in poultry-feeding. It may be advisable in British Columbia to put forth a special
effort to grow small acreages of such high-yielding crops as corn, kale, mangels, and
other roots, which will to some extent replace purchased feeds. Even small plots of
such crops are of considerable importance on poultry-farms.
The following feed-grain imports for eleven months from December 1st, 1946, to
November 30th, 1947, indicate how heavily we are depending on the Province of Alberta
for our feed-grains and how much we are indebted to the free-freight policy of the
Federal Government.
Tons.
Wheat  107,028
Oats  61,095
Barley  46,298
Mill-feed  i  33,865
Total  248,286
The freight bill on this amount of feed totalled at least $1,500,000, all borne by the
Federal Government, and at the present time it looks as though this form of subsidy
may be continued only until the next harvest season arrives.
FREIGHT ASSISTANCE.
The British Columbia office of the Feeds Administration was closed on December
31st, 1947, and effective January 1st, 1948, all correspondence and claims in connection
with the freight-assistance policy must hereafter be addressed to the Regional
Administrator, 711 Stock Exchange Building, Vancouver, B.C. All farmers and feeders
who during the past six years have taken advantage of the Federal freight-assistance
policy are deeply appreciative of the work that has been done in their behalf by
R. M. Bryan, Director, Feeds Administration.
EGG-MARKET PROSPECTS.
The egg-hungry markets overseas have created a good demand for Canadian eggs,
and British Columbia's quality commodity has found satisfied customers in the British
Isles. Poultrymen are secure in their present British contracts, and they are hopeful
that these may be continued for the coming year. There seems to be good possibility
of the demand continuing as long as our producers maintain the high quality of our
eggs and can keep their production costs down to a reasonable level. The whole poultry
industry, which has expanded so rapidly during the past three years, is dependent on
Prairie feed-grains and the continuance of Federal freight assistance.
The egg market has been fairly good this year, and British Columbia has shared
with the rest of the Dominion in an increase in its poultry flocks. The Special Products
Board has, for the period from September 1st, 1947, to January, 1948, paid 5% cents R 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
per dozen over the price prevailing in the same period in 1946-47. The removal of the
ceiling from eggs on March 17th, 1947, had only a small effect on the market because
eggs were in surplus supply and the Special Products Board prices provided the floor.
Domestic egg consumption remains high, and it is said that the increased sugar ration
has been a factor in increasing the use of frozen melange, yolk, and albumen in bakery,
candy, and other foodstuffs. It is expected that the British contract for eggs both in
shells and in frozen form may continue. Only the recent increase in the price of grains
and mash causes worry to the poultrymen at the present time.
KOCH INVESTIGATION CONCLUDED.
In the summer of 1944 the Department learned that the use of the Koch glyoxylide
in the treatment of dairy herds around the Chilliwack area, affected with mastitis, had
been followed by results which were so good that an important development in the
control of the disease by the use of this new treatment seemed probable. Upon this
being brought to the attention of the then Minister, he requested that Dr. D. H. Arnott,
of London, Ont., from whom the material had been obtained, be asked to provide the
Department with the fullest possible information. Dr. Arnott supplied copies of
the books published by Dr. Koch and the five pamphlets which he himself had written
on the use of the Koch treatment on farm animals.
After careful study of the literature the Minister decided that an entirely new
approach to the study of disease and its treatment had been disclosed, and in response
to an invitation extended to him by the Minister, Dr. Arnott came to British Columbia
in September, 1944, to discuss the subject, as the result of which, at the urgent request
of the breeders of the Lower Fraser Valley, the Minister named a committee to carry
out accurate investigations, upon the results of which he could base an opinion.
In each succeeding year since 1944 the British Columbia Department of Agriculture
has reported on the progress of investigations of the Koch treatment of farm animals.
These investigations have been carried on with a number of different types of diseases,
and in every instance we have been able to confirm and corroborate the outstanding
clinical results reported by Dr. Arnott in his publications touching on the successful
treatment of these various pathological states. In 1944 we recorded the results of
treating seventy-one cases of mastitis, and the following year this investigation was
continued and twenty-nine cases of sterility or infertility were treated. In both years
the results of the investigations were satisfactory, and while some cases failed to
respond completely to the treatment, the majority of them did so. In all our work the
Department of Agriculture found Dr. D. H. Arnott to be most co-operative and helpful.
Last year we indicated that animals showing clinical symptoms of Johne's disease
were innoculated in May with glyoxylide treatments and reinnoculated a week later.
Now, after eighteen months' observation, Dr. W. R. Gunn, Live Stock Commissioner
and Chief Veterinarian, states that this herd which at the request of the owner was
given the glyoxylide treatment in May, 1946, is apparently in good health. On October
22nd, 1947, he stated: "At that time, out of a herd of between twenty-five to thirty
milking cows, there were four clinical cases, with one in the very advanced stages of
the disease. Checks made periodically since that date have shown that all clinical
cases recovered. The general over-all production of the herd has shown, by cow-testing
records, to be up to a very high standard. The cattle are all in very satisfactory
condition, and from the standpoint of disease for which they were treated not a single
additional case of Johne's disease has appeared, and the owner is highly satisfied."
Since reporting the above, Dr. Gunn has discovered that two additional cows which have
been added to the herd are showing clinical symptoms of Johne's disease. At the
owner's request he has administered the necessary injections of glyoxylide. These cases
also are being closely followed up because it is evident that contamination remains
on the premises. '
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 15
Because of the way in which Dr. Arnott and Dr. Campbell corroborate our findings
in this connection, we reproduce below their statement as shown on pages 10 and 11 of
" The Cure and Prevention of Mastitis and Contagious Abortion ":—
" In concluding, we have thought it well to place on record here, authentic clinical
data concerning an infectious, contagious disease for which today, except for the Koch
treatment, ' There is no known cure for this disease after symptoms develop, and there
is no available method to immunize cattle against this infection. Treatment must,
therefore, be restricted to preventive measures. It is consequently in the best interests
of the owner to slaughter animals showing symptoms with the least possible delay.'
(Department of Agriculture, Dominion of Canada, Bulletin No. 167.)
" The disease now conquered for the first time in the history of veterinary surgery
is known as Johne's disease.
" It is a chronic dysentery in cattle; a pseudo-tuberculous enteritis caused by
mycobacterium paratuberculosis.
. " Mycobacterium is the term given to a genus of bacteria which includes tuberculosis, paratuberculosis and lepra.
" Here is what happened:
"An outbreak of a fatal unidentified disease in a herd brought an investigation by
the staff of the Ontario Veterinary College. To assist this work they slaughtered
another sick cow and the disease then was identified by post mortem examination to be
Johne's disease. Under supervision of a member of the staff of the Ontario Veterinary
College, tests were made which revealed the presence of the disease in eight other cows.
" The experts who had made the diagnosis of Johne's disease advised the owner to
dispose of all affected animals, to protect the rest of the herd. However, he decided to
try the Koch treatment.
" On April 19th, 1943, the Koch treatment was injected, and repeated twice, at
weekly intervals.
" No other treatment was employed, and nothing further was done.
.£ " Six weeks later the entire herd again was given the clinical test. Another
animal was found positive to the test. Of the eight found positive at the first test, and
subsequently given the Koch treatment, four were found negative, and therefore should
be regarded as having been cured of the disease. They have improved in condition
and are milking well."
In our Annual Report for 1945 it was pointed out that " life is promoted, sustained,
and reproduced by the use of food. For good health the supply must be adequate in
amount and variety. For the best normal results it is necessary that the food be well
digested, and also that the potential energy contained therein be transferred into living
energy throughout the body at a vigorous rate, burning the food properly in each
individual cell where it unites with oxygen for this purpose. This living chemical
reaction is spoken of by medical science as ' internal respiration,' and it must take place
continuously because Nature has provided the body with no reservoir wherein oxygen
may be stored to be drawn upon at will or in time of need. It is upon the degree
approaching perfection with which food is thus turned into living energy consistently
that conditions requisite for good health are best maintained, that disease is best
resisted, that life is best reproduced.
" It is Dr. Koch's belief that certain carbon compounds perform an important
intermediary step in the living chemistry by which food is turned into life itself; and
should the supply of these compounds fall below that requisite for the best conditions,
life may continue, but vigorous good health may be lost.
" It is Dr. Koch's belief that a normal supply of these essential carbon compounds
often can be renewed by the hypodermic administration of the reagents which he
discovered." (Annual Report, Department of Agriculture, British Columbia, 1945,
page 24.) R 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The Department of Agriculture, after making its investigation of different diseases, is inclined to agree with this claim. We have reached our favourable conclusions
on the Koch treatment through a carefully planned method of obtaining practical firsthand information in actual field-work among dairy-herd owners. Our observations have
established the fact that various pathological states sometimes were present in one
animal, all of which cleared up promptly following the administration of the Koch
therapy. It seems only right that we should accept the explanation furnished by
Dr. Koch that these and other serious diseases stem from the breakdown of the
oxidative mechanism upon which effective natural immunization to disease primarily
depends. Some of the papers referred to in this rejport tend to support our acceptance
of this theory.
We wish also to express appreciation to Dr. D. H. Arnott, whom we have found to
be most useful, co-operative, and able in carrying out this work. His action in making
available the Koch treatment without delay has been of material benefit to our live-stock
men. In fact, at a meeting of the Joint Dairy Breeds Association of British Columbia
recently held, the following resolution has been passed:—
" The Joint Dairy Breeds Association of British Columbia wishes to express its
appreciation of the effort made by the British Columbia Department of Agriculture to
determine the merit of the Koch treatment in controlling and curing diseases of dairy
cattle, and request that the Department of Agriculture continue to make available the
Koch treatment to owners of dairy cattle."
The Koch Investigating Committee, which since its appointment on October 4th,
1944, has studied cases and received reports from dairy-herd owners, believes it has
now completed its duty and is able to state that the question of the usefulness of
glyoxylide has been thoroughly studied. Our findings have been used by such men as
W. Bruce Richardson, B.S.A., who in April, 1947, presented to the University of British
Columbia, as his essay in partial fulfilment of the requirements for his degree in
agriculture, " The Koch Treatment and the Use of It on Dairy Cattle in the Chilliwack
Area." This excellent and readable essay is now available to farmers and others who
are interested in the study. In the preparation of this essay Mr. Richardson had access
to much of the material made available by Prof. S. N. Wood, D.V.M., Department of
Animal Husbandry, College of Agriculture, University of British Columbia, a member
of our committee, who in March, 1947, published an article in Butterfat, the organ of
the Fraser Valley Milk Producers' Association at Vancouver. This article was entitled
a " Preliminary Appraisal of Merits of the Koch ' Glyoxylide ' Treatment for the
Correction of Mastitis, Sterility and Other Functional Diseases of Dairy Cattle."
A further article published in the B.C. Farmer and Gardener in the June, 1947, issue
deals with "Acetonemia," by G. F. R. Barton, D.V.M. These and other articles will
appear in a symposium to be published in Volume 4, No. 1, January, 1948, issue of the
Common-tater, published in Vancouver.
These items that have appeared in the farm press of British Columbia within the
past year all indicate the serious attention that has been given to the investigation of
this new type of veterinary therapy in this Province, together with the profitable and
increasing rewards gained through the use of the knowledge acquired.
EXHIBITIONS AND FAIRS.
William J. Bonavia, secretary, Fairs Association, has prepared the following
statement which is of interest to agricultural exhibitors in all districts:—
" This year has seen a considerable revival in the holding of exhibitions and fall
fairs in the Province. During the World War, owing to absence overseas of large
numbers of individuals from agricultural areas and also to the occupation of grounds
and premises, in many cases by the military authorities, fair matters inevitably fell DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 17
to a low ebb. In 1945, for instance, only two exhibitions and twenty-two fall fairs were
held; in 1946 two exhibitions and thirty-one fall fairs, while this year the figures
increased to four exhibitions and forty fall fairs.
" At Vancouver, the Class ' A' exhibition, now entitled ' Pacific National Exhibition,' reopened most successfully after a lapse of five years; large sums had been spent
on buildings and improvements, and the attendance during the week was 586,000.
Exhibitors totalled 1,617, with more than 7,000 entries. Excellent Class ' B' exhibitions were held at Chilliwack, Armstrong, and Kamloops, the latter making a successful
start after being closed down since 1939.
" Of the rural or Class ' C ' fairs, very favourable mention should be made of the
following: Saanichton and Coombs on Vancouver Island; on the Lower Mainland—
Mission, Abbotsford, Cloverdale, and Langley Prairie; in East Kootenay—Invermere;
and in Central British Columbia—Prince George. Good weather and excellent gates
were noted at most events, with much interest shown by exhibitors and the general
public."
EXHIBITION SUCCESSES.
This year the appropriation for international, national, and provincial exhibits
has been discontinued, but in August last, when the Pacific National Exhibition
reopened following the war, we were assisted in placing a Departmental exhibit by
A. H. Shotbolt, who had lately retired as Exhibition Specialist. His assistance was
very much appreciated.
It is also pleasing to note that at the Toronto Royal Winter Fair British Columbia
farmers have won new honours. This time the Canadian title for hard red spring
wheat was won by Mrs. Amy Grace Kelsey, of Erickson, B.C. She also won the premier
award for twenty ears of field corn for Zone No. 5. She had formerly won the premier
award at the Chicago International Hay and Grain Show in 1946, and in 1947 had
secured second prize for her exhibit of Marquis wheat. The Ross brothers, of Pem-
berton Meadows, B.C., won the championship trophy with their Netted Gem variety
of potatoes at the Toronto Royal, and were given the premier award on the occasion
of the banquet held by the B.C. Coast Vegetable Growers' Association at Vancouver,
B.C., on December 10th, 1947, by E. K. Hampson, Canadian manager of the American
Potash Institute.
In addition to the Ross brothers, of Pemberton Meadows, B.C., winnings included
the first six prizes in the Netted Gem class. They were Ronayne brothers and John
Decker, of Pemberton Meadows, B.C.; D. B. Butchart, of Salmon Arm, B.C.; J. B.
Markell and C. A. Pennoyer, of Grand Forks, B.C. Also among the leaders in the
White Long class were Ronayne brothers, Pemberton Meadows, B.C.; E. Smith, Courte-
nay, B.C.; W. Willenbank, Merville, B.C.; and Ross brothers, of Pemberton Meadows,
B.C. In the Rose class, A. D. Heywood, of Salmon Arm, B.C., scored third place.
One of the consistent and high winners for Trebi barley, Montcalm barley, White oats,
and winter wheat was Bert Young, of Koksilah, B.C.; and John Decker, of Pemberton
Meadows, B.C., with his field peas scored a premier award and headed the winners of
this class both at the Toronto Royal Winter Fair and the Chicago International Hay
and Grain Show.
JUNIOR COMPETITIONS.
As usual the Boys' and Girls' Clubs have brought honour to this Province in the
National Judging Competition held in Toronto. In November, 1947, the highest award
tor the potato project was won by a British Columbia Potato Club. These two competitors, Miss Audrey Kidd and Douglas Bose, of Cloverdale, B.C., scored first, with
eight teams competing. The Beef Club won second, the Poultry Club won third, the
Swine and Dairy Cattle Clubs both won fourth places.    In view of the very stiff com- R 18
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
petition our teams were facing, we are well pleased with the results. Junior Club
work was this year placed directly under the Deputy Minister, who had formerly been
Canadian president of the Junior Club organization. With the valuable assistance
of Miss Echo R. Lidster, B.S.A., it is planned that work on Junior Clubs will in future
be placed with organizations such as Farmers' Institutes, Women's Institutes, and
agricultural societies for organization and local direction. Assistance in coaching the
boys and girls will be contributed by the Field Crops Branch, Live Stock Branch, and
Extension Branch, when possible, but it is felt that the District Agriculturists cannot
continue to devote such a great percentage of their time to supervision of clubs in their
immediate districts. Also with new clubs, such as clothing and food projects, the
Women's Institutes will become increasingly responsible.
CLOVERDALE POTATO TEAM.
Left to right: Doug. Bose, A. J. Christmas (coach), Audrey Kidd.
EXPANSION OF SERVICES.
During the past year several additions and alterations to office space have made
the headquarters accommodation considerably more convenient than they have been.
In addition to some office alterations in the Department, we have had additional
laboratory facilities provided for animal pathology and plant pathology at 515 Superior
Street. This combined laboratory and office space is now being occupied and is used
by the Veterinary Pathologist in connection with his work of live-stock diseases.
The Assistant Plant Pathologist is also utilizing to good advantage his improved
laboratory space.
The Live Stock and Veterinary Branch has increased its personnel and duties.
Since the passing of the fur-farming legislation and the promulgation of the Act, the DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 19
Live Stock Commissioner and his assistants have arranged for the licensing of fur-
farms. These licence fees are on a sliding scale, according to the number of animals
kept on a fur-farm. To assist the Live Stock Commissioner in his field duties, two
Live Stock Inspectors have been added to his staff. These men, who are graduates in
animal husbandry, are located at Merritt and at New Westminster, and have charge
of the carrying-out of live-stock policies in the Interior and in the Fraser Valley
districts respectively. In the Brand Inspection Office supervision is being given to
the " Stock-brands Act," the " Horned Cattle Purchases Act," and the " Beef Cattle
Producers' Assistance Act." These were not formerly attended to by the Live Stock
Branch.
There are now legislative measures coming under the direct supervision of the
Live Stock Branch, namely: the "Animals Act," "Beef Grading Act," "Beef Cattle
Producers' Assistance Act," " Stock-brands Act," " Cattle Lien Act," " Contagious
Diseases (Animals) Act," " Creameries and Dairies Regulation Act," " Dairy Industry
(British Columbia) Act," " Eggs Marks Act," " Goat-breeders' Protection Act," " Hog
Grading Act," " Horse-breeders' Registration and Lien Act," " Horned Cattle Purchases
Act," " Poultry and Poultry Products Act," " Sheep Protection Act," " Stock-breeders'
Protection Act," " Live Stock and Live Stock Products (British Columbia) Act,"
" Veterinary Act," " Wool Grades Act," " Fur-farm Act," and " Milk Act."
The Field Crops Branch has been asked to give increased assistance to municipalities, agricultural associations, Farmers' Institutes, and individual farmers with
reference to weed-control. The Assistant Field Crops Commissioner has this season
attended several national and international meetings where this question has been fully
discussed, and as a result of his membership in the Western Section of the National
Weeds Committee he is now in a position to properly advise inquiring farmers. The
toll taken by weeds in many of our important field crops is of considerable monetary
value to British Columbia. In actual cost for labour, weedicides, and the loss of crops,
this is extensive.
SOIL-SURVEYS.
Soil-surveys have again been conducted by the Provincial and Federal Departments
of Agriculture, but on a broader scale than in past years. The University has contributed the services of Dr. C. A. Rowles, who worked with our field party during
June, July, and August. The field party was this year for the first time accommodated in tents and provided with wholesome rations and a full-time cook. It is
believed that this arrangement for the comfort and welfare of the soil-survey men
produced work of a superior quality in the Peace River Block. It was formerly found
that the men used considerable time and transportation in moving to the field daily
from headquarters, which were remote from the area being surveyed.
The work south of the Peace River in the Block has been completed in the field,
and the report covering this area is presented in its proper place in this report. In
all, eleven townships have been examined. The 1947 field-work covers an area of
approximately 300,000 acres; in 1946 there were 322,000 acres examined. This makes
a combined total of 622,000 acres mapped and reported on south of the Peace River
within the Block. In this work the Department of Lands and Forests has materially
assisted the Department of Agriculture, and we express appreciation for that
co-operation.
The regular soil-survey work conducted by C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., assisted by Der-
ward Smith, B.S.A., was in the south part of the Kootenay Valley. This survey covers
153,000 acres, which were examined at the request of the Water and Power Bureau of
the Dominion Department of Mines and Resources. The purpose of this survey was to
ascertain the acreage in the Rocky Mountain Trench that is irrigable and arable.
According to the report presented this year, 107,000 acres have been pronounced to R 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
be in the arable class, and with irrigation-water, which will be available from the
Kootenay River and other sources, there is no reason why this corner of the Province
'should not be an excellent producer of such field crops as alfalfa, peas, potatoes, and
cereals. One fact worthy of note is that the soils of this area are comparatively high
in lime content.
ECOLOGICAL REPORT.
It was possible this year to have an ecological examination carried out in conjunction with the soil-survey. This work was done by J. W. Eastham, B.A., Provincial
Botanist and Plant Pathologist, assisted by L. Todhunter. Although the native plants
of the region have been reported on, there remains much work still to be done on the
" plant associations " of the area, and it is hoped that this work may be completed
during the coming year. By completing this work of a botanical nature, which is
closely associated with soil changes, it will be possible to present for the future farmers
of this area a valuable soil-survey and ecological report.
SUPPLEMENT TO "HENRY'S FLORA."
This year it has been possible for J. W. Eastham to complete the manuscript for
a supplement to " Flora of Southern British Columbia." It was in 1915 that J. K.
Henry contributed to the students of botany in this Province his " Flora of Southern
British Columbia," and in the years between 1915 and 1947 British Columbia has been
so extensively opened up by road and railway as to make it necessary to revise or add
to this publication dealing with the flora of the Province. The manuscript for the
supplement was presented by the Department of Agriculture to the Department of
Education, which has issued Special Publication No. 1 of the British Columbia Provincial Museum. This little booklet has already attracted attention for its excellent
contents and its scholarly presentation.
BEEF-GRADING CHANGES.
In December, 1937, the Legislative Assembly of the Province of British Columbia
enacted the " Beef Grading Act," and shortly thereafter regulations were adopted for
enforcement in the large consuming centre of Greater Vancouver. These regulations
have remained in force ever since; however, during the past two years the Federal
Government has been giving some attention to the drafting of a schedule of national
beef grades in order to make available a set of standard grades which would be suitable
for consumer branding as well as for the basis of settlement to the producer.
The National Advisory Beef Committee has finally approved of this draft, and
grades were incorporated in a set of revised regulations and were made effective under
P.C. 3851 on October 1st, 1947. In view of these Federal regulations, a revision of
our schedule of beef grades has been put into effect and now our regulations conform
to the national beef grades. Briefly, this alteration changes Grades Al and A to the
Federal Grades A and B, being branded red and blue respectively. The former B
Grade now becomes C (commercial) and our former C and D Grades are now shown
as Dl (plain). Other Federal grades include good cow beef. These carcasses were
formerly shown as B and C cow beef. The D3 commercial cows are shown as such, and
all other carcasses are for manufactured meat products.
PLANT INSPECTION.
The following information on the movements of nursery stock and other plant
products has been contributed by G. V. Wilby, M.S.A., of the Federal Division of Plant
Protection.    It covers data relating to imported nursery stock, exported nursery stock, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 21
exported plant products, and interprovincial nursery stock from all points east of
Manitoba.    The imported plant products will be reported elsewhere.
There has been an increase in the total number of nursery-stock imports in shipments, volume, and value. The increase in volume is chiefly in fruit-trees, ornamentals,
fruit-seedlings, plants, roots, cranberry-cuttings, and aquatic seeds. A decrease has
occurred in small fruits, roses, ornamental seedlings and scions, bulbs, aquatic plants,
rose-eyes, and peach-pits.
The exports of nursery stock for the past year to nineteen countries have increased
in shipments, but have decreased in containers and value due largely to the absence of
seed shipments to Russia. Increases were in bulbs, shrubs, fruit-trees, seedlings and
scions, roots, plants and ornamentals, and plant-cuttings, hop-roots, coniferous seed and
cones. There was a decrease in roses, deciduous and evergreen ornamentals, small
fruits, rose eyes and cuttings, vegetable-seed, and nuts.
Interprovincial shipments from points east of Manitoba have decreased about 22
per cent, below last year. The total quantity has decreased about 30 per cent., and the
total value is about 20 per cent, less than last year. The only increases were in fruit-
trees, ornamentals and ornamental seedlings, plants, and vegetable roots.
Surveys.
The observations and surveys conducted into the possible spread of the pear-psylla
(Psylla pyricola Foerst) into British Columbia have practically proven the incidence of
this insect to be a very minor pest in British Columbia.
Following the outbreak of the little-cherry disease in the Kootenays, a joint survey
was made last summer by the Provincial Plant Pathological Service in the South Oka-
nagan area. Approximately 40,000 trees were examined, but no indications of the
little-cherry disease wefe observed. However, the growers are alert to the seriousness
of the possibility of an infestation, and a further survey will be carried on in 1948.
Observations made during July, August, and September in the Okanagan area
showed no evidence of the Oriental fruit-moth.
The joint survey conducted in the Okanagan area by the Plant Protection Division
and the Provincial Government was continued, with Grader Inspectors placed at
Kelowna, Naramata, Kaleden, Penticton, Keremeos, and Oliver.
Approximately $7,000 was expended on this work, of which $1,000 was furnished
by the Provincial Government, $1,500 by B.C. Tree Fruits, Limited, and the balance
by the Federal Government.
Items of Interest.
During the past.year importers have been using air mail, air express, and air
freight to a considerable extent for the more rapid transportation of rooted plant-
cuttings, orchids, and strawberry plants from the United States, Central and South
America, England, and Scotland.
Early in March an air-freight shipment of spinach was delivered at the Vancouver
airport from Texas as a good-will gesture. In return the outbound cargo consisted of
British Columbia shingles.
In May of this year more stress was placed on inspections of boats which were to
carry grain, cereals, and flour for export. All ships loading in Vancouver and New
Westminster harbours are inspected.
In June a full-time Inspector was appointed for these inspections, and since then
a second has been added to the staff in order to cover the increased volume of work.
From June 1st to November 30th a total of 156 vessels was inspected. Of these,
twenty-one required fumigation and four had one or more holds sprayed for stored-
products insect infestations. R 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The closest co-operation has been given by the shipping interests for this service.
See attached resume of this phase of the work.
During the summer months an Inspector has been in attendance on the Pacific
Highway to assist the Customs Department in checking the baggage of tourists. The
Inspector administered under five Acts, including Plant Protection; Fruit, Vegetables,
and Honey;  Health of Animals;   Poultry, etc.
With the inauguration of regular flying services between Australia, New Zealand,
and Vancouver, all planes arriving twice a week are met and inspected by a member of
this staff, since the planes call at Honolulu en route.
In June 22 bales of greasy wool, 173 bales of sheep-skins, and 549 bags (54,900
lb.) of liver tankage from Australia were fumigated for larder-beetle infestations.
During this month 4,150 tons of copra from the South Seas, en route to Hamilton,
Ont., were loaded on eighty-four freight-cars. The copra was infested with copra-
beetles and was dealt with upon arrival in the East.
In August eleven cases (736 lb.) of dried vegetables from Mexico were fumigated
for an infestation of the Augoumois grain-moth.
STAFF CHANGES.
Appointments during the year included several officials who, in spite of improved
grades and reclassification, have resigned, and are shown as follows:—
Appointments.
H. K. Abbey, Veterinary Inspector, June 1st.
D. A. Allan, Field Inspector, June 15th.
R. D. Archibald, District Agriculturist, July 1st.
J. W. Awmack, District Agriculturist, May 19th.
Miss M. E. Bain, Stenographer, July 14th.
H. Barber, Clerk, February 10th.
G. T. Bell, Clerk, January 13th.
D. Borthwick, District Agriculturist, August 15th.
R. W. Brown, District Agriculturist, January 1st.
J. F. Carmichael, District Agriculturist, June 16th.
W. D. Christie, Field Inspector, April 1st.
Miss S. M. Coburn, Stenographer, November 1st.
Miss L. R. Crane, Typist, July 10th.
Mrs. R. R. David, Stenographer, August 11th.
Miss M. L. Dawson, Typist, May 7th.
W. A. Dennis, Clerk, July 3rd.
A. J. Duck, Brand Inspector, May 1st.
P. D. Graham, District Agriculturist, May 26th.
Miss M. L. Grimes, Stenographer, April 21st.
U. J. G. Guichon, Live Stock Inspector, July 12th.
Miss D. M. Hall, Stenographer, February 17th.
Miss F. E. Henney, Typist, January 6th.
Mrs. J. E. Hill, Stenographer, September 4th.
A. Kidd, Veterinary Inspector, June 16th.
Miss M. Law, Stenographer, October 8th.
Miss A. C. Marks, Stenographer, September 20th.
Miss M. MacDonald, Typist, March 10th.
Mrs. M. Mackay, Stenographer, July 28th.
Miss P. M. O'Neill, Stenographer, May 21st.
Miss V. E. Paddle, Stenographer, October 1st. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 23
Miss M. C. Paxton, Junior Clerk, July 4th.
Miss N. H. Pite, Stenographer, September 22nd.
Miss D. Price, Stenographer, June 28th.
W. G. Reed, Mechanical Engineer, March 15th.
W. B. Richardson, District Agriculturist, May 19th.
J. S. D. Smith, Agriculturist, May 15th.
J. W. Smith, Veterinary Inspector, June 16th.
Mrs. J. Venus, Stenographer, March 24th.
M. J. Walsh, District Agriculturist, May 19th.
A. E. Webb, Milk Board Inspector, January 1st.
Miss J. M. Wilkinson, Stenographer, March 3rd.
R. M. Wilson, Field Inspector, January 15th.
Mrs. L. Y. Zala, Secretarial Stenographer, June 19th.
Deceased.
I. J. Ward, Entomologist, February 5th.
Resignations.
H. K. Abbey, Veterinary Inspector, December 15th.
G. C. A.xen, District Agriculturist, July 19th.
Miss M. E. Bain, Stenographer, August 31st.
J. E. Bennett, Veterinary Inspector, February 28th.
Mrs. D. V. Bigham, Stenographer, July 31st.
C. F. Cornwall, District Agriculturist, August 31st.
Mrs. R. R. David, Stenographer, August 31st.
Miss M. L. Dawson, Stenographer, August 16th.
W. A. Dennis, Clerk, September 20th.
Miss M. L. Grimes, Stenographer, May 31st.
Miss D. M. Hall, Stenographer, March 15th.
Miss P. M. O'Neill, Stenographer, September 3rd.
J. W. Smith, Veterinary Inspector, November 30th.
Mrs. J. Venus, Stenographer, June 30th.
T. G. J. Whitehead, Clerk, September 22nd.
Mrs. L. Y. Zala, Secretarial Stenographer, August 3rd.
Superannuated.
C. R. Barlow, District Field Inspector, July 31st.
J. W. Eastham, Provincial Plant Pathologist, December 31st.
M. Sparrow, Veterinary Inspector, July 31st.
Transferred.
W. J. Lyle, Chief Clerk, from Public Works Department, June 16th.
H. L. Wollison, Chief Clerk, to Audit Branch, August 25th.
BRITISH AGRICULTURAL CONTRACTS.
According to Canadian press dispatches on December 16th, 17th, and 18th, new
trade agreements with the United Kingdom have been offered by Canada. These agreements cover bacon, cheese, eggs, and beef, and involve increased prices of approximately
10 per cent, over the old agreements that expired on the 31st day of December, 1947.
It is believed that Canadian exports must be reduced in volume for the coming year.
The grain crop in this country was inadequate this year, so farmers are unable to maintain the flow of foodstuffs at the rate of last year. R 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The existing contracts are for the supplying by Canada of approximately 86,000,000
dozen eggs, 300,000,000 lb. of bacon, and 90,000,000 lb. of cheese. These will possibly
be reduced to 82,000,000 dozen eggs, 225,000,000 lb. of bacon, and a similarly reduced
volume of cheese. The new price will be approximately 10 per cent, above the price for
the 1947 contract. As a result of this information and the discussions of the production
plans for the coming year which took place at the Dominion-Provincial Agricultural
Conference in Ottawa, it is believed that British Columbia farmers should endeavour to
maintain their production of all agricultural commodities at approximately the same
level as has been maintained during the past twelve months.
Vegetable-growers have been encouraged to increase their plantings for the coming
year by the imposition by the Canadian Government of various bans and restrictions
that have been placed against the importation of American products, but so far we have
been unable to learn from Ottawa how long these restrictions against importations are
to remain in force. This is causing some apprehension on the part of local farmers,
who wish to have assurance that their commodities will satisfy a ready market. At
present such assurance cannot be given.
PUBLICATIONS BRANCH.
J. S. Wells, senior clerk, reports that during the year 1947 the Publications Branch
received 4,514 letters requesting information and literature on agricultural subjects.
To date this office has forwarded to residents of British Columbia a total of 50,164
bulletins and circulars. The greatest demand was for Horticultural Circular No. 73,
Diseases of Fruit-trees, compiled by J. W. Eastham and W. R. Foster, plant pathologists. Over 2,100 copies of this circular were sent out. Next on the list in popularity
were the two new poultry bulletins—No. 27, Practical Turkey Raising, and No. 26,
Practical Poultry Raising.
This year the Department mimeographed 79,064 stencil circulars for distribution
on agricultural matters. Over 89,000 bulletins and circulars have been ordered to
date this year from the King's Printer. The following is a list of the publications
printed:—
Potato-growing in British Columbia Bull.    86
Farm Camosun Cheese D.C.      2
Mangel-seed Production F.C.C.      7
Orchard   Cover-crops H.C.    51
Recommendations for a Farm Milk-house D.C.      9
Control of Tree-fruit Pests and Diseases Spray Chart
The Care of Milk on the Farm : Bull.    71
Field Crop and Garden Spray Calendar.
Some Factors that Influence Poultry-farm Incomes.
Practical Turkey-raising  Bull.    27
Pruning  Fruit-trees H.C.    60
Exhibition Standards of Perfection for Fruit, Vegetables,
and  Field  Crops A.D.C.    50
Practical Poultry-raising Bull. 107
Flower-seed Growing (Seed Series) No.    17
Sweet Corn  (Seed Series) No.    14
Tulip Culture (Bulb Series) No.      1
Practical Poultry-raising Bull.    26
Weeds and their Control Bull. 106
Asparagus  Production H.C.    75
Blackberry Culture_„ H.C.    57 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 25
Loganberry Culture H.C.    54
Vine-seed Production (Seed Series) No.    11
Cauliflower-seed Production (Seed Series) No.     3
Tomato-growing in British Columbia H.C.    65
Varieties of Fruit-trees recommended for Planting in
British Columbia H.C.    64
Climate of British Columbia Report 1946
List of Publications 1947
Cantaloupe-growing in British Columbia Dry Belt H.C.    69
Diseases of Fruit-trees H.C.   73
A complete list of Departmental publications may be obtained by request to this
Branch.
REPORT OF MARKETS BRANCH.
Ernest MacGinnis, Commissioner.
The year just closing, the second following the war, has been one of uncertainty in
marketing all farm produce. Rising costs of labour and materials, aggravated by the
removal of price ceilings on feeds, have intensified the problem further. Added to
this are the adverse exchange situation clouding the continuity of present outlets for
eggs and poultry and the apparent loss of the British market for apples.
The bright spot in the picture is that the growers have maintained a high quality
of production. As at September 20th the production of Grade A large eggs per Province is reported to have been as follows: British Columbia, 96 per cent.; Nova Scotia,
88 per cent; Ontario and Quebec, 80 per cent; others, 73 per cent., 61 per cent., 55 per
cent., and 38 per cent. British Columbia apples and pears have secured, through their
high quality, a permanent place with the high-class trade all across Canada. Reports
from United States indicate too that the quality of the fruit exported there has been
of high grade and good colour, and the prices received there prove its ready acceptance
in such highly competitive markets as New York and Chicago. These two items are
indicative of the general trend.
On November 18th the Dominion Government announced sweeping changes under
the " Foreign Exchange Control Act." These quota restrictions and definite curbs
and prohibitions on the imports of many food and other commodities had, perhaps, the
most definite of any influence on the prices for agricultural products generally throughout the year. Quota restrictions apply to oranges, grapefruit, lemons, fruit-juices,
potatoes, apples, and onions, and had the immediate effect of firming markets for all
these and similar commodities which they might replace.
At the same time announcement was made of recently concluded multi-lateral
agreements with seventeen nations designed to widen export markets for Canadian
goods and lower Canadian tariff barriers against imports of foreign countries. The
agreement provides that a country with an adverse trade balance may restrict the
quantity and value of imported goods.
Based upon a press release from Ottawa, a summary has been prepared indicating
any change in the trading of items important to British Columbia production. The
general agreement includes a provision, " Relation of this Agreement to the Charter
for an International Trade Organization," and auxiliary to the agreement are certain
notes and letters, indicating the possible future ramifications of this large-sized venture.
The Markets Bulletin is again being produced from this office. Its present and
primary purpose is to keep fieldmen more closely in touch with the Department and to R 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
record the fast-changing prices of feed, live stock, and poultry products. In addition
to Departmental officials, the mailing-list includes all members of the British Columbia
Legislative Assembly, the Deputy Ministers and other officials in agriculture in Alberta,
Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. The Bulletin, which is published weekly in mimeographed form, contains a review in each issue of some branch of the Department.
The first Markets Bulletin on file is dated at Calgary June 9th, 1923, and edited
by J. A. Grant, Markets Commissioner at.that time. In 1932 the Bulletin was issued
at Vernon. Later it was put out in limited numbers, mimeographed, from Victoria,
but became a war casualty when prices were fixed by Government order. In its new
form the Bulletin will carry on the tradition of almost a quarter of a century, of keeping those interested closely in touch with market developments. As the sphere of
global influence has widened, the Bulletin now includes world pictures of various commodities gathered from authentic sources, such as the international grain, potato, and
oil-seed crops.
MEDICINAL PLANTS AND HERBS.
During the year two major events occurred in the realm of medicinal plants and
herbs.
A Swiss chemist and associates have purchased a 100-acre farm in the Fraser
Valley, on which he plans to produce and manufacture certain new colloidals for the
drug trade. There is the likelihood that this will develop into a full-scale enterprise
and become a natural market for other smaller growers of various herbs.
Further steps have been taken to ascertain whether the extract from cascara wood
is exactly similar to that taken from the bark only. Samples have been forwarded
to the British Columbia Research Council and to pharmaceutical manufacturers in
Britain and the United States for experimental and demonstration purposes.
A number of growers are interested in the production of golden-seal {Hydrastis
Canadensis) and other standard herbs, as well as ginseng. In each case they are
urged to find a reliable market for their herbs, etc., before embarking upon a production program. Peppermint-growing is becoming established in the Fraser Valley, and
an excellent quality of oil is being recovered.
POTATOES.
Potatoes are reported to be from a smaller acreage in British Columbia, with a
good yield. Prices, however, have been stabilized here by the Marketing Board. The
United States Department of Agriculture discontinued all purchases of Irish potatoes
on November 23rd, stating that there was a good commercial demand at or above
support prices.
Exports of British Columbia potatoes have been largely of small sizes and second
crop, except, of course, certified seed, for which there has been a brisk demand.
Freedom from bacterial ring-rot is a factor in popularity of certified seed, over 3,000
tons having been shipped out to the end of November.
The Annual Certified Seed and Table Stock Potato Exhibition staged by the
Coast Vegetable Marketing Board is fast becoming a prominent feature in the larger
marketing picture, with retailer as well as grower competitions.
FARM MACHINERY.
When, last August, the Administrator of Farm and Construction Machinery
requested information on the farm-machinery situation in this Province, a survey was
undertaken covering points on Vancouver Island, Fraser Valley, Cariboo, Nechako,
Revelstoke, Peace River Block, Pemberton, Okanagan, East and West Kootenays, and
Grand Forks. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 27
The results, when summarized, showed that 62 per cent, of the farm machinery
ordered by farmers in 1947 had been unobtainable; 82 per cent, found the need had
been acute and the demand as heavy as was anticipated for 1947, and that the 1948
demand would require 167 per cent, of 1947 deliveries to satisfy it.
The list of items in short supply and unobtainable included barbed wire, trailers,
ensilage cutters, domestic pressure water systems, farm cream separators, milking-
machines, power sprayers and dusters, pick-up balers, manure-spreaders, tractor
ploughs, hay-loaders, grain-binders, combine reaper-threshers, mowers, hay-rakes,
grain-drills, and nails.
EGGS AND POULTRY.
A number of poultrymen are inquiring into the operation of the " Natural Products Marketing (British Columbia) Act" and whether a scheme could be drawn up
which would suit the needs of that industry.
The last part of the year, when feed subsidies were lifted and doubts expressed
about a continuity of export markets, saw considerable discouragement amongst producers and the decimation of flocks. Stringent culling is under way to increase
efficiency.
Last year's export record of 129,500 cases of eggs, jointly produced and shipped
by Alberta and British Columbia as fresh shell eggs, was exceeded this October, when
147,000 cases were loaded aboard four ships for Britain, a total of 52,920,000 eggs.
Reinspection before loading showed the quality to be uniformly high.
Prices of eggs on the farm for Grade A large were: January, 36 cents; February,
March, and April, 31 cents; May, June, and July, 32% cents; August, 35 cents; September and October, 40 cents;  November, 42 cents.
Between October 20th and December 1st pick-up prices of feed in Vancouver
advanced as follows: Bran, from $39 to $43; shorts, $40 to $45; middlings, $43 to
$49; wheat, $46 to $53; oats, $39 to 54; barley, $34 to $55; linseed oilcake meal, $62
to $89. Alfalfa-meal reduced from $62 to $59 and feed screenings from $62 to $47.
Laying mash increased from $57 to $67, pullet mash from $55 to $66, and turkey breeder
from $67 to $77.    Corn, cottonseed-meal, and fish-meal are generally unobtainable.
The formation of the Turkey Improvement Association in the Fraser Valley and
Vancouver Island provides a clearing-house for advertising and sales co-operation.
The first annual Turkey Week in Victoria proved successful in attracting attention to
the development of these birds as satisfactory meat sources at other times than the
holiday season.
TREE-FRUITS.
Reviewing the successful marketing of the record 1946 crop under the powers
extended to Tree Fruits, Ltd., as the designated agency of the British Columbia Fruit
Board by the " Natural Products Marketing (British Columbia) Act," and comparing
it with the chaos resulting without such grower one-desk sales in the years before
control was instituted would seem to be all the demonstration required of the ability
of the grower to run his own business.
One of the services the grower receives through his central selling is the research
and inquiry on the progress in finding new-type packages, pre-packaging, and air
transportation, in addition to centralized advertising campaigns and personal relations
with the trade across the Dominion.
Measured in terms of packed boxes to be marketed, the 1946 crop included 434,000
Wealthy apples, 3,443,000 Mcintosh, 1,836,000 Delicious, 806,000 Jonathans, 167,000
Stayman, 656,000 Newtowns, 409,000 Rome Beauty, and 479,000 Winesaps.
The 1947 apple picture was clarified when it became known that exports to
Britain were very unlikely and that a maximum of 2,275,000 packed bushels can be R 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
exported to the United States. This arrangement is not an agreement but a tacit
understanding arrived at by representatives of the producers of both countries. To
November 22nd, 1,405,912 of the 1,527,916 bushels shipped to the United States from
Canada came from British Columbia. In addition to the foregoing fresh-apple allocations, Canada may also ship to the United States 1,225,000 bushels for processing.
Press reports comment very favourably on the colour and quality of the apples shipped
from this Province.
Brazil is one of the markets which is purchasing in larger quantities, a shipment
of 75,000 boxes of Delicious having gone forward early in October.
Movement of apples from the Okanagan was slowed up in early December due to
a shortage of refrigerator-cars which developed because fewer cars moved north from
United States after the quota restrictions and prohibitions of November 18th.
BERRIES.
Strawberries ran about as estimated, at 5,000 tons or 558,000 crates, of which 20
per cent, or 110,000 crates were sold as fresh, and the balance as processed, mostly in
S02. The raspberry-crop, estimated at 640 tons, ran slightly over that, with about
125,000 crates sold as fresh. Figures released by Trade and Industry indicate that
exports to the United Kingdom in S02 were 2,490 barrels of strawberries and 14,501
barrels of raspberries; 1,965 barrels of green gages were also shipped, the total gross
weight of the three varieties being 8,894,182 lb.
This report would be incomplete without reference to the splendid co-operation
received from officials of the Dominion, other branches of the Provincial Government,
and of our own Department.
SUMMARY OF THE GENEVA TRADE AGREEMENT.
Apples.
One of Canada's most important contributions to the General Agreement on
Tariffs and Trade, which has for its purpose the reduction of tariffs, the elimination
of tariff preferences and other trade restrictions, is the relinquishing of the apple
preference in the United Kingdom. Canadian apples have always enjoyed free entry
into the United Kingdom market.
Canada and the United States entered into negotiations at Geneva with a view
to reducing their existing tariffs on apples. The Canadian duty has amounted to
approximately 60 cents per bushel, compared with the United States duty of 15 cents
per bushel of 50 lb. In the Geneva Agreement the United States agrees to reduce its
duty to 12% cents per bushel and Canada agrees to a rate of three-quarters of a cent
per pound, equivalent to 37% cents per bushel of 50 lb., for the period July 13th to
May 19th, inclusive. During the period May 20th to July 12th, inclusive, Canada
agrees to admit apples free of duty.
Potatoes.
United States.—Canada obtains an important concession from the United States
on certified seed-potatoes through the enlargement of the tariff quota from 1,500,000
bushels to 2,500,000 bushels for importation during the twelve months commencing
September 15th. The rates of duty remain unchanged at 37% cents per 100 lb., or
22% cents per bushel within the quota. Imports of certified seed-potatoes in excess
of 2,500,000 bushels are subject to the full duty of 75 cents per 100 lb., which is
equivalent to 45 cents per bushel.
With respect to table potatoes the United States removes the intermediate rate
of 60 cents per 100 lb., which applied from December 1st to the last day of the following February.    No concession is obtained in the United States quota tariff, and the quota of 1,000,000 bushels remains unchanged. The rate of 37% cents per 100 lb. or
22% cents per bushel now applies throughout the year, commencing September 15th,
to the quota of 1,000,000 bushels. Imports in excess of this quantity pay the full rate
of duty of 75 cents per 100 lb.
Eggs and Poultry.
United States.—Substantial reductions in duty were obtained from the United
States on all products of interest to Canada in the egg and poultry group. The duty
on live poultry entering the United States is reduced from 4 cents a pound to 2 cents.
The corresponding Canadian import duty is 15 per cent. The former duty on baby
chicks imported into the United States was 4 cents each. Canada obtains a new rate
of 2 cents each and reciprocates. For dressed poultry, exclusive of dressed turkeys,
the United States rate is reduced from 6 cents a pound to 3 cents a pound. On'other
dead birds, except turkeys, the rate is cut from 5 cents to 2% cents per pound. The
Canadian rates on these items continue at 15 per cent. On canned chicken the United
States rate, which formerly was 10 cents a pound, is now 5 cents a pound. The
Canadian rate is reduced from 30 per cent, to 20 per cent.
Canada obtains an important concession in fresh eggs by the reduction in the
United States duty from 5 cents per dozen to 3% cents per dozen. Canada reciprocates
in this reduction.
Live Stock and Live-stock Products.
United States.—Concessions in the United States tariff are obtained under the
General Agreement on twenty-four products in the live stock and live-stock products
group.
The tariff quota on live cattle over 700 lb. in weight is increased from 225,000
head per calendar year to 400,000 head for the twelve months commencing April 1st.
Within the tariff quota of 400,000 head the rate of duty continues at 1% cents
per pound. On imports of heavy cattle in excess of the quota the duty is reduced
from 3 cents to 2% cents per pound.
Berries.
The following reductions in United States duties on berries are of importance
to Canadian fruit-growers: Strawberries, reduced from three-quarters of a cent per
pound to one-half a cent per pound for the period June 15th to September 15th;
raspberries and loganberries, from three-quarters of a cent to one-half a cent per
pound, July 1st to August 31st.
Fresh Vegetables.
United States.—The import duty on cabbage is reduced from 1% cents to three-
quarters of a cent per pound; carrots, from 25 to 12% per cent.; cauliflower, from 25
to 12% per cent, from June 5th to August 5th; celery, from 2 cents to 1 cent per
pound from August 1st to April 14th and from 1 cent to one-half a cent per pound
from April 15th to July 31st; cucumbers, from 3 cents to 1% cents per pound from
July 1st to August 31st; lettuce, from 2 cents to 1 cent per pound from June 1st to
October 31st; onions, from 2% cents to 1% cents per pound; green peas, from 2 cents
to 1 cent per pound from July 1st to September 30th; radishes, from 25 to 12% per
cent, from July 1st to August 31st; beets are unchanged at 10 per cent.; the rate on
tomatoes is unchanged at 1% cents per pound, but the season commencing July 15th
is extended from August 15th to August 31st; mushrooms, from 10 cents plus 45 per
cent, to 5 cents per pound plus 25 per cent. On the following fresh vegetables a reduction from 50 per cent, ad valorem to 25 per cent, is obtained: Asparagus, brussels
sprouts, parsley, rhubarb, spinach, and okra.
Canada.—New Canadian specific rates of duty on imported fresh vegetables are
established in the Geneva Agreement.    During the period when the specific duty is R 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
not effective, the basic rate of 10 per cent, ad valorem applies. The new rates are as
follows: Asparagus, 3% cents per pound for eight weeks; cabbage, nine-tenths of
a cent per pound for twenty-six weeks; cauliflower, three-quarters of a cent per pound
for twenty weeks; celery, 1 cent per pound for twenty-four weeks; cucumbers, 2%
cents per pound for twelve weeks; lettuce, 1 cent per pound for eighteen weeks; green
peas, 2 cents per pound for twelve weeks; carrots and beets, 1 cent per pound for
twenty-six weeks; green beans, 1% cents per pound for fourteen weeks; tomatoes,
1% cents per pound for thirty-two weeks; mushrooms, 3% cents per pound for fifty-
two weeks; onions, 1 cent per pound for forty weeks; rhubarb, one-half a cent per
pound for ten weeks; the rate of 10 per cent, ad valorem continues unchanged for
brussels sprouts, parsley, spinach, watercress, and vegetables not otherwise provided
for. The duty on onion-sets and shallots is reduced from 30 to 15 per cent.; truffles
take a rate of 10 per cent, ad valorem; eggplant, sweet potatoes and yams, whitloof or
endive, artichokes, horseradish, and okra enter Canada duty free.
Vegetable-seeds.
United States.—As a result of negotiations with various countries the following
reductions in import duties on vegetable seeds are received from the United States on
a poundage basis: Mangel-seed, from 2 cents to 1 cent; celery, from 2 cents to 1 cent;
beet, except sugar-beet, from 3 cents to 2 cents; parsnip, from 4 cents to 3 cents;
turnip and rutabaga, from 3 cents to 2 cents; cabbage, from 6 cents to 5 cents;
radish, from 3 cents to 2 cents; kale, from 3 cents to 2 cents; pepper, from 15 cents
to 10 cents; kohlrabi, from 8 cents to 5 cents. The duty on the following vegetable-
seeds are bound against increase: Parsley at 2 cents; carrot at 3 cents; cauliflower at
25 cents; spinach at one-half a cent; vegetable-seeds not specifically provided for, from
3 cents to 2 cents per pound.
Canada.—The following concessions are agreed to by Canada on a poundage basis
when in packages weighing more than 1 lb. each: Mangel and turnip seed, from 4 cents
to 2 cents; beet, not including sugar-beet, from 3 cents to 2 cents; parsley and parsnip
are bound against increase at 2 cents; radish, leak, lettuce, carrot, borecole or kale,
from 3 cents to 2 cents; cabbage and cucumber, from 5 cents to 4 cents; tomato and
pepper, from 10 cents to 7% cents; cauliflower, from 15 cents to 12% cents; onion,
from 20 cents to 15 cents; root, garden, and other seeds not otherwise provided for,
from 5 cents to 2% cents per pound. Field, root, garden, and other seeds in packages
weighing 1 lb. each or less, from 25 per cent, to 20 per cent, ad valorem.
Forage-crop Seeds.
United States.—The United States duty on red-clover seed is reduced from 4 cents
to 2 cents per pound;   alsike clover, from 4 cents to 2 cents per pound;   alfalfa, from
4 cents to 2 cents per pound; sweet clover, from 2 cents to 1 cent per pound; crimson
clover, from 2 cents to 1 cent per pound; timothy-seed, from 1 cent to one-half a cent
per pound;   bent grass, from 20 cents to 15 cents per pound.
Canada.—In the agreement Canada reduces the import duty on all clover and
alfalfa seed from 2^ cents to 2 cents a pound; timothy-seed, from 2 cents to one-half
a cent per pound.
Other Tree-fruits and Grapes.
United States.—Through the General Agreement the following concessions on
tree-fruits, other than apples, and on grapes were obtained from the United States.
The import duty on fresh cherries is reduced from 1 cent to one-half a cent per pound
and on maraschino cherries from 9% cents per pound plus 20 per cent, to 7 cents plus
10 per cent. The United States duty on peaches remains unchanged at one-half cent
per pound, and the duty on canned peaches is reduced from 35 per cent, to 20 per cent. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 31
The duty on canned pears is reduced from 35 per cent, to 20 per cent., and for dried
apricots the duty is cut from 2 cents to 1 cent per pound. For canned plums and
prunes the duty is reduced from 35 per cent, to 17% per cent., and on fresh fruits for
which no specific provision is made in the United States tariff the duty is reduced
from 35 per cent, to 17% per cent. The new duty on fresh grapes entering the
United States is 17% cents per cubic foot, in place of the former rate of 25 cents per
cubic foot.
Canada.—Canadian specific rates of duty on tree-fruits and grapes, which become
effective with the entry into force of the General Agreement, are as follows: Apricots,
1 cent per pound for ten weeks; cherries, 2 cents per pound for seven weeks; peaches,
1% cents per pound for nine weeks; pears, 1 cent per pound for fifteen weeks; plums
and prunes, 1 cent per pound for ten weeks.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL APIARIST.
W. H. Turnbull, Senior Inspector.
The winter of 1946-47 was very mild and no extremes of temperature'were encountered, with the result that the colonies which were wintered over came through the
winter very well, and, with a mild spring, they built up very rapidly.
Some loss from starvation was reported in the Coast districts, caused to a great
extent by the bee-keepers leaving insufficient stores, but this loss was much less than
usual. The heaviest reported loss was in the vicinity of Vancouver and New Westminster, which districts are very much overstocked, and practically no crop is reported
from any of the 2,046 hives registered in this district, and most of the colonies went
into winter quarters very light in stores.
Commercial bee-keepers again brought in large consignments of package bees, and
this was particularly noticeable in the producing areas of the Okanagan Valley and
the northern central part of the Province, as well as the Peace River Block.
This office was more lenient in the issuing of sugar permits in known producing
areas, as it was felt that by giving the bees a good start, the sugar fed to them would
be returned many times in an increased honey-crop.
In view of the higher prices of package bees, many of the bee-keepers (who in
the past few years have been gassing their bees) are wintering over most of their good
colonies. These are going into winter quarters in excellent shape, both from a standpoint of strength and with a larger quantity of stores of good quality. This is
accounted for by the continued honey-flow, which gave the bees a chance to fill the hives
again after the first extracting.
The system adopted last year re gathering data for a honey-crop report was again
used this year, and a very good return was made to the questionnaire sent out. This
gave us a very good basis on which to draw up an accurate estimate, a copy of which
is attached.
It would not be fair to let this opportunity go without mentioning the bumper
honey-crop harvested in the Okanagan Valley this year. One of our largest producers
reported an average of over 200 lb. per colony from over 500 colonies, while another
reported an average of 225 lb. from 135 colonies. The largest individual report was
450 lb., from one colony in the Rutland district. The writer saw two colonies at
Dawson Creek that were estimated at well over 450 lb. each. Many old-time beekeepers report this the best season in twenty-five years.
A total of 184 bee-keepers cancelled their registrations during the year, and 571
new registrations were made.    The total bee population of the Province increased in R 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
a material way, approximately 33%-per-cent. increase being reported. This is
accounted for by a record importation of package bees, as well as a very heavy natural
increase. This was extremely noticeable in the producing areas of the Province,
which are rapidly filling up with bees.
The granting of sugar permits was again handled by this office, and 1,231 permits were issued for sugar in the past year, totalling 160,815 lb.
FIELD-WORK.
Essential apiary inspection work was started on March 1st, but little was done
until settled weather in mid-April. V. E. Thorgeirson took over the work in the area
lying west of the King George Highway, and Vancouver Island; E. R. Freeman had
that part of the Fraser Valley lying east of the Highway. A. S. Homersham inspected
the Doukhobor settlements around Nelson. H. Boone, a newcomer to the staff, took
over the South Okanagan and Keremeos, while your Senior Inspector in charge of the
office in Vernon did inspection-work in various parts of the Province. A summary of
the work of each Inspector appears in Appendix No. 3.
I would like especially to mention the work of A. S. Homersham, in a very difficult
territory, also the close systematic checking of Harvey Boone in the South Okanagan;
both these men examined and destroyed a lot of abandoned hives which had been left
empty and exposed, and which were considered a menace to the surrounding beekeepers. This was more particularly noted in the South Okanagan and Keremeos,
where spray poisoning has been bad for several years.
A large number of field-days were held over the Province, and the interest in bee
culture is increasing very rapidly. Your Inspectors took in these meetings, where
possible, and gave information on the detection of disease as well as local information
of value to the bee-keepers.
Your Senior Inspector made several trips this year that were of real value to the
bee-keepers in outlying parts of the Province. In June I visited the East Kootenay,
going via Golden, and taking in the district of the Windermere Valley, visiting as
many bee-keepers as was possible. Later I visited the Prince George area, and spent
several days in that district. While there I visited the Peace River Block and called on
practically 100 per cent, of the bee-keepers in the Block. This district, in my opinion,
will take care of a very large bee population at the present time and, as it develops, will
supply all the honey needed in the Province, as well as a goodly supply for export.
LOSS FROM SPRAY POISON.
I am glad to report that no serious loss has been reported this year, due, no doubt,
to the recommendations of the various authorities advising that arsenical sprays be
abandoned and various forms of D.D.T. be used. If this continues, the orchard areas
will again be real districts for honey production. In fact, many of the bee-keepers did
not move their apiaries out of the orchards and report no material loss from poison,
and in most cases reported a bumper crop of honey.
BROOD-DISEASES.
The educational program re the detection and handling of American foul-brood is
bearing fruit, and, as last year, more bee-keepers are reporting supposed cases to the
office for reports and advice. This, coupled with systematic inspection, as well as the
systematic feeding of sulphathiozole as a preventive measure, seems to be showing
results. Some 16,000 tablets of sulphathiozole were purchased wholesale and distributed
to the bee-keepers at cost from this office, and all our commercial bee-keepers, as well as
a big percentage of the smaller ones, are reporting excellent results. It looks as if the
feeding of sulpha drugs will become part of our regular bee-keeping practice. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 33
Office-work this year was looked after by Miss J. Trehearne, who joined the staff
upon her return from war service with the Women's Division, R.C.A.F. I wish to
register my satisfaction with the way she has handled the 3,032 letters received and
the 4,511 letters mailed from this office, of which 1,231 were sugar permits.
I also would like to express my thanks to the various District Agriculturists and
other members of the agricultural staff for their co-operation and help. More
especially, I would like to thank T. S. Crack and R. Brown, from the Peace River Block,
for the way they assisted me in my work there.
The British Columbia Honey Producers' Association is increasing the membership
among bee-keepers all over the Province, and now has fifteen divisions, of some 860
members, who assist greatly in spreading information and reporting disease. The
"Apiaries Act " was completely overhauled and brought up to date this year, and the
thanks of the Department are due to the Honey Producers' Association for their
co-operation in preparing changes and amendments.
Judging honey at the fairs this year was a real task, and the thanks of your
Inspector are due to A. W. Finlay, former Provincial Apiarist, for his assistance and
advice.
REPORT OF BOYS' AND GIRLS' CLUBS.
Miss Echo Lidster, B.S.A., Supervisor.
This year there were two new projects added to kinds of clubs organized in this
Province.
For some years Eastern Canada and the Prairie Provinces have sponsored Senior
Yearling Heifer Clubs for Dairy Club members who wish to keep their Calf Club
calves and show them the following year in an older age class. This was considered
a valuable factor in encouraging club members to maintain their interest in the dairy
cow by officially taking note of the fact that they were able to acquire at least the
nucleus of a herd, if they so desired, instead of limiting their endeavours to calves of
the under-a-year class, and compelling them to start afresh every year, with no
encouragement to carry it further.
The desire for this type of project was indicated by the fact that nine clubs were
formed with members having calves used as club material in 1946.
The second new venture involved an experimental excursion into the field of home
economics. With the inclusion of the sewing project in the national competitions for
the first time in 1946, and considering that British Columbia was the only Province in
Canada which did not promote these home economics projects as part of its regular
Junior Club program, it was felt that some effort should be made to determine just how
necessary and how essential they were to this program. It was quite evident that great
care would have to be exercised in developing these, as information and guidance would
have to be secured outside of our own Department. Accordingly, four clubs were
formed, based on material willingly furnished by the other Provinces already experts
in this field. Chief responsibility consequently fell upon the shoulders of those leading
the clubs in the role of voluntary organizers. The Department was singularly fortunate
in procuring four voluntary leaders who were especially fitted for this work.
The Cloverdale Sewing Club was instructed by Miss Marie Irwin, a former Calf
Club member from Chilliwack and a recent graduate in home economics from Corvallis,
Ore. Mrs. George Brown, of Cloverdale, graciously lent her home for these weekly
meetings. It should be noted that the members of this club were all students at a
consolidated high school where an excellent course of home economics was offered by
the Department of Education, but due to conflict in time-tables they had been unable R 34
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
to avail themselves of it. This is cited merely as an indication of the need for this type
of instruction even in organized areas, and also that there is no intention on the part
of this Department to duplicate the efforts already firmly established by the Department
of Education. Instead, there is a great need for us to obtain club members who are or
have been enrolled in similar courses at school, to the end that they may assist our much
more elementary efforts with their advanced knowledge and leadership in this field.
The Matsqui Nimble Fingers Club met every two weeks at the home of their
organizer, Miss Betty Borg, also a former Calf Club member, and a graduate of high
school economics course in this Province.
The third club was organized by Mrs. A. Konig, of Houston, who has had
considerable previous experience with similar clubs in Alberta.
The fourth club was under the guidance of Miss Diane Simpson, public school
teacher at Valley.
Following is a table showing the number of clubs and members enrolled in the
Province for the past two years:—
Clubs.
Members.
1946.
1947.
1946.
1947.
50
22
1
49
13
50
9
17
43
12
4
514
222
8
429
139
553
80
Beef Calf	
195
405
128
50
Totals	
143
145
1.386
1,500
TRAVELS IN 1947.
It was necessary to go to Winnipeg to attend the second annual meeting of the
Canadian Council on Boys' and Girls' Club Work held at the Fort Garry Hotel from
March 3rd to 6th, and which was attended by supervisors from other Provinces, as well
as representatives from the Dominion Department and many interested firms.
During the two weeks between June 8th and June 25th ninety-five personal visits
were made to club members in the Grand Forks, Rock Creek, Okanagan Falls, Vernon,
Armstrong, and Salmon Arm. districts. Meetings were held with clubs in each centre
and, in addition, field-days were held at Okanagan Falls and Armstrong.
Flying to the Peace River on July 14th provided an opportunity of visiting this
district for the first time. Although there are at present no Junior Clubs in that area,
the three days spent there afforded an opportunity of visiting the district meetings of
the Farmers' Institute at Sweetwater, the Women's Institutes at Fort St. John, and the
youth training school held by the University Extension Service at Baldonel.
Arriving back at Prince George on July 18th the Central British Columbia, Cariboo,
and Kamloops areas were subsequently covered by August 8th, in which time only
ninety-one personal visits were made because adverse weather conditions had so affected
the roads as to make many of them impassable. Meetings were, during this time, held
at Kispiox, Telkwa, Houston, Vanderhoof, and Salmon River, with field-days at Kersley
and Lac la Hache.
The first fairs of the season were held at Richmond and Ladner, where Junior
Club work was featured. On August 25th to September 1st the Pacific National
Exhibition took place, and from this date until September 24th, at Kamloops, there
were fairs and achievement-days almost continuously on the islands and the Lower
Mainland where Junior Club work was featured. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947.
R 35
PROVINCIAL ELIMINATION CONTESTS.
In connection with the Provincial elimination contests it was felt that it would be
desirable to have just one competition, and this at the Pacific National Exhibition,
instead of holding two as in former years, with the second one at Armstrong. This
would have two advantages, namely, it would provide something more rewarding in the
way of a trip for the contestants from the more remote areas of the Province, and also
it meant that there would be available qualified and competent help in sufficient
numbers to ensure the efficient and fair conduction of the competitions. This latter
point is one not to be minimized. However, the outbreak of poliomyelitis previous to
the fair dates made it inadvisable to bring the young people down from the Interior and
accommodate them in a crowded place, as it would be necessary for sleeping. Consequently the Fraser Valley teams competed at the Pacific National Exhibition as planned,
as this would not necessitate them staying overnight, and arrangements were then made
to conduct the finals at Kamloops in conjunction with their fair, which was this year
revived for the first time since the war.
ARMSTRONG BEEF TEAM.
Left to right:  Claire Ward, Hilliard McCallam (coach),
Lenore Ward.
The scoring of the first three teams in each project was as follows
Dairy Contest.
Contestant's Name and Club.
Rennie Dawson, Ladner Jersey Club	
Jean Reynolds, Ladner Jersey Club	
Individual
Score.
_. 509
- 498
Anne Challenger, Chilliwack Jersey Club  496
Mavis Pickup, Chilliwack Jersey, Club T  445
Joyce Beach, Langley Holstein Club
  401
Thelma Massey, Langley Holstein Club  499
Total.
1,007
941
900
This contest was held on August 29th at the Pacific National Exhibition, and since
there was no competition in this project from up-country, this was considered final. R 36 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Beef Contest.
Individual
Contestant's Name and Club. Score. Total.
Claire Wood, Armstrong "A" Club  528
Leonora Wood, Armstrong "A" Club .  535
Rita Sadlier-Brown, Lower North Thompson  515
Ronnie Donchi, Lower North Thompson  521
Edgar Drew, South Kamloops  502
Glen Shannon, South Kamloops  523
Swine Contest.
Ray Shaw, Langley Swine Club  494
Elmer Newman, Langley Swine Club  511
Jeff Sandeman-Allen, Armstrong Swine Club  403
Murray Parker, Armstrong Swine Club  418
Poultry Contest.
Ronald Smith, Haney Poultry Club  538
Allan Smith, Haney Poultry Club  554%
Stuart Cox, Armstrong Poultry Club  502%
Norman MacDonald, Armstrong Poultry Club  485%
1,063
1,036
1,025
1,005
821
1,092%
988
1,032
1,010
Potato Contest.
Doug. Bose, Surrey Potato Club  537
Audrey Kidd, Surrey Potato Club  495
Jim Helsdon, Alexandria Potato Club  499
Pat Windt, Alexandria Potato Club  511
Alice Duncan, Armstrong Potato Club  378
Malcolm Parker, Armstrong Potato Club  432
— 810
NATIONAL CONTESTS AT THE ROYAL WINTER FAIR.
British Columbia again sent five teams to the National contests at Toronto. This
year there was a greater number of girls than ever before, five of the competitors being
girls and five boys.
Potato Team.—Doug. Bose and Audrey Kidd, of Surrey, and coached by A. J.
Christmas and Sid. Gray, took first place. This is the third year in succession that
British Columbia has taken the potato trophy. Doug. Bose was high individual with
a score of 564.   Three teams competed.
Beef Team.—Claire Wood and Leonora Wood, sisters from Armstrong, coached by
Hilliard McCallan, took second place.    Eight teams competed.'
Poultry Team.—Ronnie Smith and Allan Smith, brothers from Haney, coached by
R. L. Hamilton, came third.    Six teams competed.
Dairy Team.—Rennie Dawson and Jean Reynolds, from Ladner, coached by Ian
Paton, tied with Quebec for fourth place.    Eight teams competed. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947.
R 37
Swine Team.—Hay Shaw and Elmer Newman, from Langley, coached by Cliff
Freeman, tied with Saskatchewan for fourth place.    Six teams competed.
This year saw the expansion of the contests to include not only clothing teams
from the Girls' Home Economics Clubs, as was done for the first time last year but
a competition for girls in the Food Clubs was inaugurated. Thus each Province was
allowed to send a maximum of seven clubs, five of which must be agriculture.
HANEY POULTRY TEAM.
m 1
Left to right: Ronald Smith, R. L. Hamilton (coach), Alan Smith.
FOOD PROJECT CONTEST.
_ Judging classes comprised (1) family menus and (2) school lunches. The possible
individual score was 50 for judging and 50 for reasons in each class—total 200
Demonstrations.—Contestants were required to demonstrate their ability to prepare
certain foods. Demonstration was selected from salads, muffins, tea biscuits cream
soups, floating island custard.
Each member of team prepared one dish. One team member prepared an oven
dish, the other prepared the salad or custard.
The judges designated the demonstrations and decided the method of selecting
demonstration.
The possible individual score was 100.
Basis of Questions.—E&ch contestant was required to give oral answers to ten
simple questions. These questions related to such subjects as club activities, nutrition,
food preparation, and cooking techniques.
Twelve questions were prepared. Each contestant selected and answered ten of
twelve questions.
The possible individual score was 200.
M. S. Middleton, District Horticulturist at Vernon, accompanied the teams to
Toronto this year.    It was also under Mr. Middleton's direction that several samples R 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
of the Armstrong Junior Potato Club were sent to the Royal to be exhibited. The
results were very satisfying, as Raymond Hitt came first with his Warba potatoes and
Jan Clemson third, while Jean Marshall came first with the Netted Gem variety and
Arthur Maw second.
Conclusion.—This year, for the first time, it was possible to obtain additional help
for the summer months in the Fraser Valley for Junior Club work. From May till the
middle of September, John Caplette, a third-year student at the University of British
Columbia in agriculture, was appointed temporarily to the staff to assist with the
70 clubs and some 759 club members in this area, as it was felt that too much of the
time of the District Agriculturists was being absorbed by the clubs, preventing them
from spending more time on their regular duties. However, F. C. Clark, District
Agriculturist at New Westminster, was transferred to the Live Stock Branch, and
there was no District Agriculturist to take his place until August, so that there really
was no improvement in the amount of help available in this area.
The following is a report by John Caplette:—
" Inspections were carried out on Calf and Swine Clubs for the Lower Fraser
Valley and on Poultry Clubs for the whole valley. It was suggested to me that during
the inspections it would not be necessary to have the organizers with me. I have found,
however, during the course of the summer, that inspecting with the organizers provides
an excellent opportunity to discuss club affairs and problems and receive many valuable
suggestions.
" Numerous field-days for local clubs were held on Saturday afternoons, and of
these I attended as many as possible. The main theme of these gatherings was judging,
and a few times showmanship was included. Since the local fairs I have realized that
showmanship should be more heavily stressed in some clubs, for it has been overlooked
entirely.
" Night gatherings were held for judging in Surrey and Langley, and these
I attended when I was in the district. These gatherings are somewhat restricted, due
to the emphasis placed on Toronto competitions. I would like to suggest that a broader
program, including more diverse subjects to hold the interest of juniors, be instituted.
This, of course, would fall on the organizers and may not be feasible.
" Since the bulk of club work is done by the organizers, an attempt could be made
to assist them more fully. Some suggestions have been made by the organizers that
club work has become too cumbersome and should be reduced. I would like to say
here that any attempt to restrict club work may prove disastrous. It should be
expanded, if anything, to keep young people interested in agriculture by showing them
the advantages of advanced farming methods.
" The inspections of the plots were carried on in the manner of a field-day, which
allowed each member to see his fellow's work. This created a great deal of initiative
among the individuals to improve their plots, and a similar arrangement for other types
of clubs may have some merit.
" The three major field-days were held at the University of British Columbia,
Agassiz, and Bella Vista-farms. Judging classes were provided for the juniors in their
own projects and also in one optional project. Although a certain amount of apprehension was felt on the optional judging by organizers who wished to concentrate on
their project, it was very helpful in that it provided a wider education for the juniors."
PACIFIC NATIONAL EXHIBITION.
The Pym Trophy judging was held on Monday, August 25th. I would like to
suggest that the classes of live stock be chosen one day before the competitions. This
will lessen the last-minute work, which always proves cumbersome at this time. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947.
R 39
It was unfortunate that the poultry judging competition had to be staged at the
same time as the swine carcass and halter-making competitions, but the time factor
would not allow any other arrangement. Numerous complaints were made by organizers
about the crowded accommodations provided for the poultry judging section of the
Pym Trophy, and this matter should be remembered in future years.
The swine carcass and halter-making competitions could not enjoy the popularity
they might have, due to the time-table arrangement mentioned. However, they were
highly successful for those who could enter. I would like to remind you again of the
necessity of providing suitable rope for the halter-making.
The judging of the dairy classes was run very efficiently. The placing and reasons
were taken orally by two judges for each class of live stock, and speeded up the
competitions considerably. However, too much time was allowed for the questions, as
the limit was not rigidly enforced. This made a rather long wait for the last entrants
in the contest.
LADNER DAIRY TEAM.
Left to right:  Rennie Dawson, Ian Paton (coach), Jean Reynolds.
Dr. S. N. Wood handled judging classes for the Future Farmers of America and
4-H Clubs who were in attendance from the State of Washington. He provided a very
instructive day for them, with a minimum of assistance.
Some confusion resulted from misinterpretation of rules regarding tuberculosis
testing and vaccination for Bangs disease for entry to the Pacific National Exhibition.
If all the entry rules for junior entries were included in the junior section of the
catalogue, these last-minute preparations might be avoided.
The number of entrants for Provincial eliminations also was a sore point with the
organizers, and this should be settled as soon as possible to avoid further ill feelings.
Since the exhibition of calves and swine was not held at the Pacific National
Exhibition, the Jersey, Guernsey, and Ayrshire Calf Clubs, and the Swine Clubs were
shown at the Chilliwack Exhibition, while the Holstein Calf Clubs were shown at
Langley Fair. R 40
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
CHILLIWACK EXHIBITION.
The inter-club competitions and showmanship for the three breeds mentioned and
the Swine Clubs were held there. In spite of the difficulty of crowded quarters for
such a large addition to the show, it ran very smoothly.
Record classes of high-grade animals showed that a great deal of work had been
done by many members, parents, and organizers. The Guernsey section of the show
was greatly augmented by the car-load of Eastern calves imported this spring. Their
competition was felt keenly and was culminated by the fact that the inter-club competition was won by Angus Hay with four imported calves. If pure-bred calves remain
as difficult to obtain as last year, aid by the various breed associations to procure them
in this manner will help club work to no small degree.
The program was too lengthy for both exhibitors and animals, but this could not
be helped under the circumstances. Showmanship proved a real problem., due to the
numbers participating and the small facilities provided, but this was overcome by the
enthusiasm of the juniors and the judges.
LANGLEY SWINE TEAM.
1111111
Left to right: Ray Shaw, Cliff. Freeman (coach), Elmer Newman.
LANGLEY EXHIBITION.
The Holstein Clubs were shown there for inter-club and showmanship competitions.
These competitions were the largest ever conducted in Holstein Club work, but space
and facilities were very adequate.
Due to its success at Langley Fair, some suggestions were put forward as to the
advisability of decentralizing club shows at different fairs in future. This may have
some merit, but a full showing at the Pacific National Exhibition, when possible, will
have greater educational value for the juniors. f
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947.
R 41
FALL FAIRS.
The fairs at Mission, Agassiz, Abbotsford, Cloverdale, and Haney all had classes
for exhibition of Junior Club work. In many cases these proved to be the largest
sections of the exhibitions.
It was always an interesting feature at the fairs and was enthusiastically
supported by all the members of the community. .This is a good indication of the
interest taken in club work by the farmers of the various districts.
Field-day Attendance for Lower and Upper Fraser Valley.
Dairy Cattle.
Poultry.
Potato.
Swine.
Total.
Clubs.
Members.
Clubs.
Members.
Clubs.  [Members.
1
Clubs. | Members.
University of British
Columbia	
32
30
32
293
205
207
11
12
8
122
56
59
5
5
5
51
33
30
3
3
3
15
15
12
481
309
Bella Vista	
308
Project Shield Competitions.
Dairy Shield—Chilliwack Jersey Club; Poultry Shield—Abbotsford Poultry Club;
Potato Shield—Richmond Potato Club; Swine Shield—Chilliwack Swine Club. (NOTE.—
This is the first time a Swine Club has been eligible for the shield.)
JUNIOR FARMER CLUBS.
The number of Junior Farmer Clubs in the Lower Fraser Valley for 1947 totalled
twenty-nine, comprising sixteen Calf Clubs, eight Poultry Clubs, four Potato Clubs,
and one Swine Club.
Members enrolled and completing Projects.
Dairy Cattle.
Poultry.
Potato.
Swine.
173
169
105
100
48
48
7
7
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
Appreciation is here recorded for the willing co-operation by the Extension staff of
the University of British Columbia, the Faculty of Agriculture at the University, the
staffs of the Dominion Department of Agriculture, Extension staffs in other Provinces,
and the various Fair Boards of British Columbia. Grateful acknowledgment is here
made also to members of the British Columbia Department of Agriculture staff, both
clerical and technical, who have been so co-operative and helpful at all times. R 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
REPORT OF FARMERS' INSTITUTES.
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent.
The year 1947 marks the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Farmers'
Institute movement in British Columbia. It was in 1897 that the Hon. J. H. Turner,
Minister of Agriculture, after having had an Act passed by the Legislature authorizing Farmers' Institutes, appointed J. R. Anderson, his Deputy Minister, Acting
Superintendent and instructed him to proceed with the work of organization.
Mr. Anderson's first step was to call a conference of representative farmers from
the different parts of the Province, to discuss ways and means to ensure the success of
the movement. This meeting recommended that the Government endeavour to obtain
the services of some person from Ontario, where the Farmers' Institute movement had
been functioning for some time, to come to British Columbia for the purpose of
explaining to the farmers of this Province the value of such an organization.
Working in conjunction with the Government of Ontario, British Columbia was
fortunate in obtaining the services of T. F. Patterson (at present a resident of
Vancouver), an assistant lecturer in biology at the Ontario Agricultural College, for
a period of three months.
However, before Mr. Patterson arrived in British Columbia, a petition for the
formation of an Institute was received from the Surrey-Langley district, and an
organization meeting was held at Surrey centre on August 28th, 1897, at which time
the Surrey-Langley Farmers' Institute was organized, being the first one in the
Province.
Since that time the movement has continued to grow, and at the close of this year
we have 195 Farmers' Institutes in British Columbia, with a membership of approximately 9,000. These 195 Institutes are divided into ten districts, known as " District
Farmers' Institutes." The districts, with number of Institutes and membership in
each, are as follows:—
Number of
District. Institutes.        Membership.
" A "—Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands  24 1,000
" B "—Skeena and Bulkley  23 409
" C "—Nechako Valley   17 450
" D "—Kamloops and North Thompson  20 461
" E "—Lower Fraser Valley  32 3,968
" F "—West Kootenay  18 563
" G "—Okanagan and Shuswap _  14 609
" H "—Cariboo  13 259
" I "—East Kootenay  14 529
" J "—Peace River  1  20 430
During the year twelve Institutes that had been inactive for some years were
dissolved by the Registrar of Companies for failure to file returns in accordance with
the " Societies Act." Two Institutes previously dissolved were revived and restored
to the register, and one new Institute was incorporated.
One of the functions of a Farmer's Institute is the purchase of commodities on
behalf of the members, and from, annual returns submitted, covering the year 1946,
these purchases have been compiled as follows: Stumping-powder, $95,492.63; feed,
$124,873.53;   fertilizers, seed, etc., $24,378.39;   miscellaneous, $257,780.62.
On September 27th the Farmers' Institute movement in this Province suffered
the loss of an ardent supporter in the death of Louis LeBourdais, M.L.A., and his loss
will be long felt.    Mr. LeBourdais served for a number of years as Secretary and Chairman of the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture, and was of considerable
help to the Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes. He was untiring in his efforts
to improve the farming communities of British Columbia.
Also during September the organization lost another hard worker and counsellor
in the death of 0. B. Appleton, who passed away on September 11th. Mr. Appleton,
after years of work in the Institute movement, was elected to the Advisory Board in
1921 as member for District " F " (West Kootenay). He was appointed Chairman
of the Board in 1929, which position he held until 1937. He resigned from the Board
in 1944 after twenty-three years' service.
ADVISORY BOARD MEETING.
The Advisory Board met in Victoria at the call of the Minister of Agriculture,
from February 17th to 19th, when 123 resolutions compiled from those sent in by the
ten District Institutes were discussed. Some eighty of these resolutions were endorsed
and referred to the various Provincial and Federal departments concerned.
The Board met with the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture and placed
before them a number of resolutions that had been endorsed by the Board, and which
would require legislative action. Following this meeting, and later in the session,
Thomas King, Acting Chairman of the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture,
presented the report of his Committee to the Legislature, which was in • part as
follows:—
" Mr. Speaker:
" Your Select Standing Committee on Agriculture held several meetings and was
addressed by many different organizations.
" The Committee recommends the following resolutions, presented by the Advisory
Board of Farmers' Institutes:—
"(1) That the Government establish an agricultural school in the Interior of the
Province where a thoroughly practical training in farm and dairy work could be given,
such school to be patterned somewhat after that of the one at Olds, Alberta.
"(2) That the Department of Lands undertake either the impounding or destroying of wild horses ranging illegally in the District of East Kootenay.
"(3) That fertilizers and feeds for live stock be contained in new or clean sacks
sterilized for the purpose.
"(4) That farmers desiring land-clearing should be allowed up to five years for
payment, the first two years the payments to be nominal so as to give them an opportunity for returns from the cleared land.
"(5) That the stock-breeders, dairymen, and Farmers' Institutes be represented
by a member on the British Columbia Game Board or other boards or commissions that
might be dealing with agricultural problems.
"(6) That the use of coloured gas be reinstated when it is used for other than
road purposes.
"(7) That bounties on wolves be increased to $50, on cougars to $40, on coyotes
to $5 the year round, and the hunter to keep the hides."
DISTRICT MEETINGS.
All ten districts held annual meetings during the year, with the Superintendent
attending all but one—namely, District "J" (Peace River). All meetings were well
attended, especially that of District " E," which was held at Cloverdale on November
5th. Following this meeting, the Surrey Farmers' Institute was host at a banquet held
to commemorate their fiftieth anniversary and the fiftieth anniversary of the founding
of the organization in British Columbia. R 44
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
After the banquet very fitting ceremonies marking the occasion were held, among
which was the unveiling of an honour roll containing the names of those of District
" E " who were outstanding in their efforts to make the Farmers' Institute movement
what it is to-day. Three of the charter members of Surrey Institute were present—
namely, Sam Shannon, D. W. Poppy, and Henry Bose. A presentation was made to
Mr. Bose in appreciation of his services. Mr. Bose was elected Secretary of the Surrey
Institute in 1899 and has been re-elected to that position continuously since that time,
truly a remarkable record of service. Mayor Mott of New Westminster presented the
Surrey Institute with an illuminated address on behalf of the citizens of New Westminster as a token of friendship and appreciation.
The place and date of each meeting held, together with the names of the president,
secretary, and Advisory Board member in that order, are shown in the following
table:—
District.
Place.
Date.
Officers elected.
"A "
A. R. Hiscock, R.R. 1, Victoria ; J. T. Neen, East Wel
" B "	
Telkwa	
June 24-25	
June 26-27	
May 27.   ..
lington ; A. R. Hiscock, R.R. 1, Victoria.
" C "	
Brandon, Telkwa.
"D "	
River ; T. E. Gerhardi, Fort Fraser.
W. F. Palmer, Heffley Creek ; J. E. Fry, Kamloops ; Wil
" E "	
liam Harrison, Pritchard.
" F"	
Westminster ; A. H. Peppar, loco.
R. H. Street, Salmo ; B. H. Smith   Nelson ; K. Wallace
" G "	
Boswell.
W.   A.   Monk,   Grindrod;   M.   A.   Doug-el,   Grindrod;  J.
Woodburn, Salmon Arm.
J. Trueman, Quesnel; F. Vernon, Quesnel; E. Greenlee,
Canim Lake.
William Dicken, Fernie; A. B. Smith, Cranbrook ; A. B.
Smith, Cranbrook.
Ted Dunn, Sunset Prairie; John Close, Sunset Prairie ;
Ted Dunn, Sunset Prairie.
" H "	
Dragon Lake	
" I "	
"J"	
Sweetwater	
July 17
POUND DISTRICTS.
During the year eleven petitions were received requesting the constitution of
pound districts in their respective areas. Two of these requests were turned down
owing to the fact that those in favour of constitution did not have a majority of all
proprietors of land, as required by the Act. The following table shows requests
received, eight of which were from Vancouver Island, and action taken:—
Maxey Road (East Wellington)—constituted January 17th.
Upper and Lower Granite Road (Nelson)—not constituted.
Warfield-Annable (Trail)—constituted April 8th.
Clinton—constituted June 14th.
West Cedar—constituted June 24th.
Nanoose-Wellington—constituted September 1st.
Shawnigan—not constituted.
Departure Bay Road (Wellington)—constituted October 1st.
Sooke—constituted November 1st.
Diamond District (Ladysmith)—constituted December 13th.
Cherry Creek (Alberni)—in abeyance. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 45
WOMEN'S INSTITUTE REPORT.
Mrs. Stella E. Gummow, Superintendent.
We started the year with 192 Women's Institutes and now have 203 on our roll.
Of this total, four have failed to send in their annual returns.for 1946—Midway, Upper
Camp, Poplar Manor, and Pritchard. The two latter have not sent returns since 1944
and will in all probability be struck off the list by the Registrar of Companies.
Nine new Institutes have been organized during the year and two have been
reorganized after a period of inactivity. The nine new ones are Bow-Horne and
Gabriola Island in the North Vancouver Island District, Nicomen Island in the North
Fraser, Nukko Lake and Sinkut in the Central Interior, Perow in the Bulkley-Tweeds-
muir, Alexandria in the Cariboo, Naramata in the South Okanagan, and West Langley
in the South Fraser. Quadra Island in the North Vancouver Island District and Trail
in the Kootenay District have been reorganized.
The total membership for 1946 was 4,427.
«
DISTRICT MEETINGS.
Eleven of the twelve districts held district meetings during the year, as follows:
South Okanagan and Similkameen at Keremeos, May 16th; North Okanagan and
Salmon Arm at Lumby, May 18th; Bulkley-Tweedsmuir at Telkwa, June 24th; Central
Interior at Vanderhoof, June 25th and 26th; Cariboo at Dragon Lake, June 28th;
Peace River at Fort St. John, July 18th; Arrow Lakes and Slocan at New Denver,
September 6th; Kootenay at Trail, September 8th; South Fraser at Atchelitz, October
7th and 8th; North Fraser at Coquitlam, October 9th and 10th; and South Vancouver
Island at Victoria, November 4th and 5th.
The North Vancouver Island District meeting, which was to have been- held at
Sayward, has been postponed until spring, when it is thought conditions will be more
favourable for a meeting.
WOMEN'S INSTITUTE BULLETIN.
Each Women's Institute receives a monthly bulletin issued from this office, and
which carries the news of the Institute. This takes the form of a mimeographed sheet,
which is mailed in time to reach the Institutes by the first of the month, and provides
a very valuable means of contacting the individual Institutes and giving them the
latest news during the month.
FIFTIETH ANNIVERSARY.
This has been a very busy and successful year for the Women's Institutes in this
Province. The fiftieth anniversary of the founding at Stoney Creek, Ont., was celebrated during the week of February 19th, and this Women's Institute Week proved
so popular that it has been suggested that it should be a yearly event. A short summary of the history of Women's Institutes was written for this occasion, and so many
requests for this story have been received that 350 copies of this mimeographed history
have been sent out.
PROVINCIAL BOARD.
The Provincial Board met at Victoria in February, and during their time here
attended the official opening of the Legislature. All of the Board were present at this
meeting, as follows: Mrs. A. S. Dennis, of Vancouver, president; Mrs. E. Tryon, of
Parksville, vice-president; Mrs. G. Calder, secretary-treasurer; Mrs. J. East and Mrs.
R. W. Chalmers, directors.
Rules for the Women's Institute Memorial Fund Scholarship Fund for rural girls
were drawn up at this meeting.    It was announced that a representative from the Board, along with your Superintendent, was needed on an Advisory Committee on
Rural Housing, and Mrs. J. H. East, of Keremeos, was appointed to this position.
SPECIAL MEETINGS.
Special meetings attended during the year in an official capacity were as follows:
Final meeting of the Advisory Committee of the Wartime Prices and Trade Board held
at Vancouver in January; Agricultural school at Creston in February; Rural Housing
Committee meeting held at Vancouver in May; biennial meeting of the Federated
Women's Institutes of Canada in June at Halifax; anniversary celebration of the
Ontario Women's Institutes at Guelph in June; Associated Countrywomen of the World
meeting at Amsterdam in September; County Rally of Worcestershire Women's Institutes at Malvern in September; Consultative Council of the National Federation of
England and Wales in September at Cheltenham, Gloucestershire; B.C. Federation of
Agriculture annual meeting at Vancouver in November; and second meeting of Rural
Housing Committee in November at Vancouver.
FEDERATED WOMEN'S INSTITUTES.
Two other British Columbia women attended the biennial meeting of the Women's
Institute at Halifax—Mrs. A. S. Dennis, Provincial president and Federal convener of
citizenship, and Mrs. R. W. Chalmers, director. The work of the two Standing Committees of Home Economics and Citizenship was stressed, with the practical program
of the Women's Institutes in making our newcomers feel at home acknowledged.
The theme for the next two years is education for citizenship, and home improvement
and rural development,.with accent on youth.
Eleven thousand women from all over Ontario were present for the anniversary
open-air celebrations at the Guelph Agricultural College.
ASSOCIATED COUNTRYWOMEN OF THE WORLD.
One of the most interesting meetings of the year was that of the Associated
Countrywomen of the World held at Amsterdam in September. Mrs. E. Tryon and
I took the trip together, while Mrs. H. McGregor, past president of the Federated and
Province, and Mrs. Colin McDonald, of Penticton, were also present as delegates.
Women from twenty-three different countries were there, with the hostess group, the
Dutch Countrywomen's Association, and the Government of Holland giving us all a most
cordial welcome. ' Through the courtesy of the Department of Trade and Industry and
British Columbia House at London, coloured films of this Province were shown and
much appreciated by those present.
The chief topic of consideration was the F.A.O., and an appeal was made for the
support of all the constituent societies of the A.C.W.W. for the F.A.O. and the United
Nations. The International Food Council was backed in an effort to get needed foods
to all nations.
A trip through Holland as the guests of the Dutch Countrywomen gave us a wonderful opportunity to learn more of the country. We were impressed by their courage
and initiative in rebuilding their country after the war years of occupation and
devastation. We visited the agricultural school at Wageningen, where we saw the
progress that is being made in quick-freezing of fruits and vegetables, and in the
processing of apple-juice. The School of Agricultural Economics gave us an interesting insight into their method of training teachers in a combined course of agriculture
and home economics. The cheese-factory at Heino was visited, where powdered milk
is made from the German method, which is supposed to be more readily soluble in
water. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 47
ENGLISH WOMEN'S INSTITUTES.
During the two weeks I spent in England following the Amsterdam meeting,
Women's Institute groups in the three counties of Worcester, Gloucester, and Hereford
were visited. I was glad to be able to thank them personally for the gift of books
sent by them to our Women's Institutes, and to be able to tell them that these books
are being circulated throughout the Province. A county rally at Malvern was addressed
and'greetings given at the Consultative Council of the National Federation at Cheltenham, which was attended by representatives from England and Wales.
A number of our Institutes have already adopted English Women's Institutes, and
they have been given the addresses of Herefordshire Women's Institutes. Thirty of
these have since been adopted, with an exchange of letters and parcels following.
STANDING COMMITTEES.
A brief outline of the Standing Committee work of the Institutes of the Province
is as follows:—
The Women's Institute Scholarship Fund for rural girls which was started in
1946 shows a balance of $3,400. Of this, $2,600 is now invested in Dominion of Canada
perpetual bonds, and the fund is growing rapidly.
As a result of Miss Lidster's visit to the Institutes this year, ten of them have
either started or are getting ready to start Home Economics Clubs among the girls,
with instruction and leadership given by the parent group.
Better housing, rural electrification, and farm and home improvements have been
studied, with many resolutions along this line passed at district meetings.
Nutrition, with school lunches as a topic for discussion, is also of great interest.
Community welfare and special cases have been given attention in this work.
General health-insurance plans and greater old-age benefits have been prominent in
resolutions sent in. A drive against salacious literature on news-stands is reported
from several of the districts. Travelling dental clinics are still a vital need in the
rural areas, and the Institutes are still pressing hard for this means of saving the
teeth of the country children.
The Othoa Scott Trust Fund, which is invested in Canadian bonds and yields
interest each year, has helped three different cases during the year. These appeals
for help came in from Somenos, Hope, and Chase Women's Institutes, and helped a boy
who had his foot taken off by a mower, one who required X-ray treatment, and another
who required facial treatments after a bad burning.
The merits of each case presented were considered by the Provincial Board, and
the entire amount of the interest for the year was spent in this way. Miss Hilda
Leighton and Mrs. A. Webster are the trustees of this $10,000 trust fund. The payments were made as the need required and were: Somenos, $50; Hope, $90;- and
Chase, $200.
A revival of fall fairs and flower-shows arranged wholly or in part by the Women's
Institutes of the Province is noted for the year. These feature contests for girls and
boys and encourage them in agricultural projects which are sponsored by the Women's
Institutes. Leadership is given in garden-planning and suitability of plants for their
own locality.
A very fine display of handicrafts and a working demonstration of spinning,
weaving, rug-making, and glove-making was held as a part of the Women's Institute
display at the Pacific National Exhibition in August of this year at Vancouver. Much
interest in our work resulted. Classes under the night-school plan of the Department
of Education have been organized by various Institutes in the Province, and many
requests for instruction in handicrafts have come in during the year. As many of our rural areas have a large population of newcomers, the work of the
Institutes in welcoming them and making them feel at home in the community is of
inestimable value. This work was stressed at the Federal meeting and has proved
in many cases a valuable introduction, and the sharing of a mutual love of fine work,
and ideas for sharing their knowledge, has given a common meeting-ground for understanding and friendship.
Community projects have been outstanding, and community halls, rest-rooms,
projection outfits for schools and halls, sports equipment for schools are listed as
special efforts. Education has always been of vital interest, and a number of resolutions throughout the year have dealt with the new educational set-up as it affects the
different areas.
INDIVIDUAL VISITS.
•
During the last two years many individual Institutes have been visited at the
time of the district meetings. The value of these visits is hard to estimate, but the
appreciative letters received would seem to indicate that a personal visit stimulates
interest and encourages the membership, more particularly in the more remote sections
of the Province.
Following the Creston agricultural school, visits were paid to the Nelson Institute
and Trail in company with Mrs. R. W. Chalmers. As a result of this visit the Trail
Institute was reorganized. The Okanagan Valley Institutes of Kelowna, East Kelowna,
and Winfield were visited, with the near-by Institutes of Rutland, Okanagan Centre,
and Kalamalka attending. Summerland attended at Penticton, and Naramata was
organized as a Women's Institute.
Visits to Okanagan Falls, Osoyoos, and the twenty-fifth anniversary of Oliver
preceded the district meeting at Keremeos. Following the Lumby district meeting,
Miss Echo Lidster, Supervisor of Boys' and Girls' Clubs, met me, and together we
visited Salmon Arm, with Mount Ida, Canoe, South Canoe, and Valley present. Magna
Bay and North Shuswap joined in a meeting at Celista. Tappen, Chase, and Sicamous
were also visited, while Grindrod, Coldstream, and Vernon, with Armstrong attending,
completed this tour.
In April Mrs. E. Tryon and I visited the Institutes of the North Vancouver Island
District—Parksville, Qualicum, Denman Island, Hornby Island, Lazo, Courtenay, Quadra
Island, Whaletown, and Sayward, and the new Institute of Bow-Horne.
The district meetings of the Bulkley-Tweedsmuir at Telkwa, the Central Interior
at Vanderhoof, and the Cariboo at Dragon Lake were visited in June, while in July
once again Miss Lidster joined me for the Peace River meeting at Fort St. John.
We were also present at the Farmers' Institute meeting at Sweetwater.
Reports from the individual Institutes show continued interest and enthusiasm.
From the new Institutes, Windermere reports sixty-five members after a year of
activity. The proceeds of their day at the fall fair provided funds for a stove donated
to the community hall. Houston reports that they have succeeded in having a doctor
visit their community regularly, and they are busily fitting up an office for patients.
Naramata, with fifty-one members, had a most successful flower-show. The organization meeting at Gabriola Island, an occasion for women of the island meeting together
for the first time, showed the need for a Women's Institute. Nicomen Island has
a number of Indian women in its membership. Bow-Horne has adopted a bed-ridden
crippled child. Nukko Lake, Sinkut, Alexandria, and Perow provide a meeting-place
for women from scattered farming districts in the Interior of the Province. The
work of the older-established Institutes is also proceeding with increased interest,
and the value of this meeting together of all women in the community, regardless of
race or religion, is of great importance, not only to the women themselves, but to the
community as a whole.
| DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 49
REPORT OF STATISTICIAN.
George H. Stewart, Statistician.
The total gross value of agricultural production in British Columbia in 1946
exceeded that of any previous year. Estimated at $118,588,777, the 1946 total is
$15,596,925 or 15.1 per cent, above the revised estimate of $102,991,852 for 1945.
Increases are recorded in the revenue from live stock, poultry and eggs, dairy
products, fruits, vegetables, grains, fodders, potatoes, honey, hops, tobacco, and bulbs.
Decreases are shown in the revenue from wool, seeds, and fibre flax.
The total value of imports is placed at $49,786,126, as compared with $43,564,551
in 1945, representing an increase of $6,221,575 or 11.4 per cent.
Imports from other Provinces are valued at $45,392,967, compared with $40,439,685
in 1945, while imports from foreign points reached a total of $4,393,159, compared
with $3,124,866 in 1945.
The total value of exports is placed at $33,054,715, while in 1945 the estimated
value was $28,152,502. This represents an increase of $4,902,213 or 17.4 per cent.
The 1946 values are the highest on record.
HORTICULTURAL CONDITIONS.
No low temperatures were recorded during the winter period in any of the fruitgrowing sections of the Province. However, a heavy snowfall in the Kootenay areas
and on the higher elevations of the Okanagan and Coast sections did much to assure
a satisfactory water-supply in those areas where irrigation is a factor in production.
In the Coast sections rainfall was not excessive. Taking the Province as a whole, the
spring was from five to seven days earlier than in 1945. Nevertheless, following the
blossoming period the spring continued cool, with the result that many ground crops
did not make the usual amount of growth during the early period of the year. Cool
weather continued throughout the summer with considerable rainfall, which, on the
whole, was satisfactory, particularly in the Coast districts. In the Interior the cool
weather with the absence of the usual extreme heat had a delaying effect on such crops
as cantaloupes, tomatoes, etc.
In the latter part of July a severe hail-storm was experienced in the Okanagan.
This storm centred in the Kelowna area and caused heavy loss to fruit, vegetable, and
seed crops.
Late summer and fall conditions were excellent for harvesting in all sections, and
it was not until the middle of November that cold weather was experienced, with light
snowfall in the Coastal areas and heavy snowfall in the Okanagan and East Kootenay
sections. Mild weather on the whole prevailed until the end of the year, and with the
satisfactory covering of snow in the Interior sections, conditions were excellent for
the overwintering of trees.
FRUITS.
The present year has been rather a difficult one for the fruit-grower in British
Columbia. Loggers and millworkers on strike caused a shortage of box-shooks, which
at one time gave indications of being very serious. However, sufficient shook was
eventually secured for the marketing of the crop, which, particularly from the standpoint of apples, pears, and peaches, was the largest crop on record. As compared with
the previous year, plums also showed an increase, as well as crab-apples, apricots,
strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, and loganberries. The production of cherries
was somewhat less than that of the previous year.
Control prices on small fruits, as established by the Wartime Prices and Trade
Board in previous years, were removed in 1946. This resulted in higher prices, and
also there was an increase in the cost of picking. R 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Plantings of small fruits show a material increase, and it is expected that with
satisfactory winter and spring conditions in 1947, the volume of these fruits for the
coming year will be much larger than it has been for some time.
The total production of all fruits in 1946 amounted to 553,726,000 lb., valued at
$27,649,029, as compared with 361,880,000 lb., valued at $20,167,446, in 1945, indicating
an increase of 191,846,000 lb. or 53 per cent, in volume and $7,481,583 or 37.1 per cent,
in value.
The total production of apples for 1946 is estimated at 423,958,000 lb., of a value
of $17,207,232, as compared with 246,118,000 lb., value $10,365,128, in 1945.
Production of peaches in 1946 amounted to 33,474,000 lb., of a value of $1,854,109,
as compared with 32,782,000 lb., value $1,845,109, in 1945.
The production and value of other crops grown commercially in British Columbia,
with comparable data for 1945 in brackets, is as follows: Pears, 32,586,000 lb., $1,765,959
(25,742,000, $1,425,226) ; plums, 4,298,000 lb., $197,548 (3,544,000, $192,215) ; prunes,
18,628,000 lb., $944,597 (17,056,000, $981,135) ; apricots, 7,374,000 lb., $445,604 (4,358,-
000, $319,071) ; cherries, 7,686,000 lb., $1,045,552 (9,804,000, $1,415,105) ; strawberries,
7,480,000 lb., $1,574,515 (6,888,000, $1,645,627) ; raspberries, 12,280,000 lb., $2,001,594
(9,330,000, $1,422,222) ; blackberries, 1,364,000 lb., $142,302 (1,174,000, $117,640) ;
loganberries, 1,636,000 lb., $222,029 (1,446,000, $179,765) ; bush-fruits and grapes,
2,604,000 lb., $180,983 (3,394,000, $207,379).
VEGETABLES.
There is little change in the vegetable acreage from that of the previous year.
Tomato acreage was slightly smaller than in 1945, and due to weather conditions the
canning pack of this crop was materially reduced from that of the previous year.
Shipments of ripe greens and semi-ripes, however, were on the whole good and the
price satisfactory.
Onion acreage, while larger than last year, did not produce the expected tonnage,
due to cutworm and wireworm damage. The crop was harvested satisfactorily, and
the tonnage available will be sufficient to meet market requirements.
The cold, backward spring and early summer weather particularly affected the
cantaloupe-crop, of which the acreage was almost double that of last year. This being
essentially a hot-weather crop, many of the plantings produced but a small percentage
of the anticipated crop, thus causing considerable loss to the growers.
'The following vegetable-crops showed an increase in volume of production over
the year previous: Beets, cauliflower, celery, corn, lettuce, onions, parsnips, green peas,
peppers, spinach, and turnips. On the other hand, such crops as asparagus, cabbage,
carrots, and rhubarb showed a decrease.
The production of field rhubarb is estimated at 968 tons, of a value of $62,900,
as compared with 1,145 tons, valued at $75,704, in 1945.
A decrease of 14 tons is recorded in the quantity of forced rhubarb produced. The
1946 crop amounted to 74 tons, valued at $18,652.
The quantity of field cucumbers produced in 1946 amounted to 3,090 tons, as compared with 2,543 tons in 1945, an increase of 547 tons or 21.5 per cent.
The production of hothouse cucumbers is estimated at 317 tons, of a value of
$83,266, as compared with 189 tons, value $57,220, in 1945.
Field tomatoes produced in 1946 amounted to 17,956 tons, valued at $1,452,971,
as compared with 21,682 tons, valued at $1,048,472, in 1945—a decrease in quantity
of 3,726 tons.
Hothouse tomatoes produced in 1946 amounted to 1,824 tons, as against 1,882 tons
in 1945. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 51
The aggregate of all vegetable-crops for the year 1946 was 88,995 tons, of a value
of $7,179,543, as compared with 96,102 tons, of a value of $6,593,990, produced in 1945.
FIELD CROPS.
The winter of 1945-46 was comparatively mild in all areas, and as a result there
was very little winter-killing of fall-sown grains, grasses, and legumes. The spring
was later than usual and seeding operations were somewhat delayed. At the end of
June better than average crops were in sight for British Columbia. Pastures were in
excellent condition, although haying was being retarded by damp weather and some
loss was feared. During the summer, weather conditions were generally favourable
to growth of both field crops and fruits. Yields per acre of both early- and late-season
crops were in excess of those of the previous year, with the exception of fodder corn
and tobacco, of which crops only relatively small acreages are sown in this Province.
Acreages seeded to grain, fodder, and root crops for the most part exceeded those
of the previous year.
The total area of the principal field crops in British Columbia in 1946 is estimated
at 591,200 acres, as compared with 578,400 acres in 1945—an increase of 12,800 acres.
Wheat production in 1946 is estimated at 3,089,000 bushels from 108,400 acres,
a yield per acre of 28.5 bushels, as compared with 2,544,000 bushels from 106,000 acres,
or 24 bushels per acre, in 1945. Oats yielded 4,447,000 bushels from 81,000 acres, as
compared with 3,563,000 bushels from 79,000 acres in 1945—yields per acre of 54.9
bushels and 45.1 bushels respectively. The yield of barley is estimated at 542,000
bushels from 14,200 acres, as compared with 523,000 bushels from 16,500 acres in 1945,
the average yields per acre being 38.2 bushels and 31.7 bushels. Rye is estimated to
have yielded 29,000 bushels from 1,300 acres, as compared with 24,000 bushels from
1,200 acres in 1945—yields per acre of 22.1 bushels and 20.1 bushels respectively.
The production of mixed grains is estimated at 348,000 bushels from 7,900 acres,
or 44.1 bushels per acre, as compared with 196,000 bushels from 5,300 acres, or 37
bushels per acre, in 1945. Dry-pea production in 1946 shows an increase of 73,000
bushels over the crop of 1945. Both larger acreage and higher yields per acre were
responsible for this. The 1946 flax-seed crop of 25,700 bushels is fractionally above
last year's production of 25,000 bushels.
The production of all grains amounted to 8,709,700 bushels, valued at $7,177,000,
as compared with a production of 7,028,000 bushels, valued at $5,840,000, in 1945.
Hay and clover production in 1946 amounted to 511,000 tons from 227,000 acres,
or 2.25 tons per acre, as compared with 490,000 tons from 231,000 acres, or 2.12 tons
per acre, in 1945. Alfalfa yielded 233,000 tons from 79,100 acres, or 2.95 tons per
acre, as compared with 203,000 tons from 72,500 acres, or 2.80 tons per acre, in 1945.
Fodder corn yielded 45,000 tons from 4,400 acres, or 10.15 tons per acre, as compared
with 47,000 tons from 4,500 acres, or 10.50 tons per acre, in 1945. Grain-hay is estimated to have yielded 72,000 tons from 36,000 acres, as compared with 71,000 tons from
34,000 acres in 1945—yields per acre of 2 tons and 2.10 tons respectively.
Fodder-crops, aggregating a total of 861,000 tons, valued at $15,492,000, were
produced, as against the 1945 production of 811,000 tons, valued at $14,435,000.
The total yield of potatoes in 1946 was 120,650 tons from 19,000 acres, as compared with 81,700 tons from 16,500 acres in 1945—yields per acre of 6.35 tons and
4.95 tons.
Turnips, etc., yielded 19,950 tons from 1,900 acres, or 10.50 tons per acre, as
compared with 19,550 tons from 2,100 acres, or 9.30 tons per acre, in 1945.
The average values at the farm for the major field crops vary but little from 1945
levels. R 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The aggregate value of all field crops in the Province in 1946 is estimated at
$28,738,000, as compared with $24,686,000 in 1945, an increase of $4,052,000.
DAIRYING.
The survey of live-stock numbers at June 1st, 1946, showed a decline of 3.2 per
cent, in milk cows from last year.
Farm milk production in 1946 showed the first visible indications of a post-war
recession. Total output for the year was 636,401,000 lb., as compared with 641,290,000
lb. in 1945, a reduction of 4,889,000 lb. or approximately 1 per cent. The 1945 total
was an all-time high, and the decline in 1946 was the first break in the'upward trend
in milk production since the year 1940.
The daily per capita consumption of milk in the Province for 1946 is placed at
0.78 pint, as compared with 0.73 pint in 1945 and 0.64 pint in 1939.
Total fluid sales amounted to 325,321,000 lb., as compared with 298,561,000 lb. in
1945, an increase of 26,760,000 lb. or 9 per cent.
Factory production suffered from a decline in the farm output and also from the
diversion of milk to the fluid channel. The decrease of 13 per cent, in British Columbia
was almost entirely due to the advance in fluid sales.
The butter output of creameries in 1946 was 5,331,578 lb., as compared with
6,205,307 lb. in 1945, a decrease of 873,729 lb. or 14 per cent. The factory price of
creamery butter in 1945 was 36.8. cents per pound, as against 40 cents per pound
in 1946.
Factory cheese is estimated at 689,152 lb. in 1946, as compared with the final
estimate of 748,825 lb. for the previous year, a decrease of 59,673 lb. or 8 per cent.
The production of evaporated milk was down 14,183 cases or 2.4 per cent, from
that of the year previous. The output of the condenseries for 1946 was 579,510 cases,
valued at $2,511,965, as compared with 593,693 cases, valued at $2,501,925, in 1945.
There was a slight drop in ice-cream production, whilst production totals for dairy
butter and farm-made cheese closely approximate the 1945 totals.
The total value of dairy production in 1946 is placed at $20,180,000, as compared
with the revised total of $19,531,000 in 1945.
LIVE STOCK AND POULTRY.
A rather long winter constituted somewhat of a problem for range live-stockmen,
with losses being somewhat higher than average. However, cattle generally reached
spring in fair condition. The spring, summer, and fall range was about average, and
the quality of beef reaching market could be said to be well up to standard.
Prices were quite satisfactory with the plainer cattle, including canners, and cutters
bringing very good prices. The different sales held throughout the Province proved
to be very satisfactory from the standpoint of the producer. There was a general
evidence of closer culling on the part of the cattlemen. It is fortunate for the industry
in general that prices for this class of cattle have been good for the last two years,
which has given encouragement to weeding out of older and poorer breeding stock.
Sheepmen have had a very good year, but, generally speaking, the sheep population has gone down. The very satisfactory cattle prices have contributed in part to
this, but the problem of predatory animals has also played a part in reducing the flocks.
The swine situation has not improved. Lack of help on farms and a scarcity of
suitable breeding stock, especially breeding boars and brood sows, is responsible for
the lack of extension of this branch of live-stock production. However, the indications
are that more people are becoming interested in swine production. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 53
Estimates of the numbers of principal species of live stock on farms at June 1st,
1946, showed an appreciable reduction from those of the previous year.
Swine production in British Columbia for 1946 showed a slight decrease. The
June 1st survey indicated 67,300 pigs on farms, as compared with 68,500 in 1945,
a decrease of 1,200 head or 1.8 per cent.
Cattle numbers, after reaching an all-time peak at June 1st, 1945, show a reduction at June 1st, 1946, of 6.5 per cent. Milk-cow numbers, estimated at 95,500 at
June 1st, 1946, are 3,200 below those of a year ago.
The June 1st survey indicated 124,700 sheep on farms, as compared with 138,900
in 1945, a decrease of 10,200.
There were 4,427,000 hens and chickens on farms in British Columbia on June
1st, 1946, as compared with 4,096,000 as at June 1st, 1945, an increase of 331,000 or
8.1 per cent.
The number of turkeys increased by 41.6 per cent., being 108,500, as compared
with 76,600 on June 1st a year ago.
The production of farm eggs in 1946 is estimated at 29,284,000 dozens, valued at
$10,054,900, as compared with 27,652,000 dozens, valued at $9,151,000, in 1945, indicating an increase in quantity production of 1,632,000 dozens.
MISCELLANEOUS.
Tobacco-fields were two weeks ahead of normal as a result of favourable spring
weather. Some growers had finished planting by May 24th, and all planting was completed by June 10th. Rains were received when required, and irrigation was not
necessary for the first time in many years. The first kiln of tobacco was harvested
on August 8th and by August 15th harvesting was general. The yield of tobacco in
1946 is estimated at 170,000 lb. from 151 acres, or 1,126 lb. per acre, as compared with
155,700 lb. from 130 acres, or 1,198 lb. per acre, in 1945.
Seasonal conditions were very favourable to the growth and development of the
1946 hop-crop, which resulted in the largest crop on record being harvested. Hops
yielded 2,205,500 lb. from 1,581 acres, as compared with 1,533,650 lb. from 1,557 acres
in 1945—yields per acre of 1,395 lb. and 985 lb. respectively.
The production of honey in 1946 is estimated at 1,244,320 lb., of a value of $211,534,
as against 1,017,000 lb., of a value of $172,890, in 1945, an increase in quantity of
227,320 lb. or 22.3 per cent.
Due to a decrease in sheep numbers in the Province the total wool-clip was somewhat below that of the previous year. Wool production in 1946 amounted to 538,000
lb., valued at $145,000, as compared with the 1945 production of 586,000 lb., valued at
$163,000.
The revenue derived from fur-farming in 1946 is placed at $534,000, as compared
with a value of $552,000 in 1945.
The total value of flower, vegetable, and field-crop seed production for 1946
amounted to $2,064,863, as against $2,067,665 in 1945.
The value of bulb production for 1946 is placed at $368,600, as compared with
a value of $345,250 in 1945, an increase of $23,350.
The value of floricultural and ornamental nursery stock sold during the year
amounted to $735,000, an increase of $155,000 over the total for the year previous. R 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
REPORT OF SOIL CLASSIFICATION BRANCH.
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor.
Material derived from the field-work of the previous year had office preparation
from January to April. Land drainage and miscellaneous soil problems of tree-fruit
growers were given consideration in the winter months, and co-operation with the
Bureau of Reconstruction was continued. In November preliminary study was made
of the Saanich irrigation proposal. The Okanagan soil-survey report is being prepared
for publication in 1948.
During the field season soil classification work was undertaken on Hornby Island,
in the Salmo Valley area, and in the East Kootenay District.
HORNBY ISLAND SOIL-SURVEY.
In April a reconnaissance soil-survey of Hornby Island was undertaken to determine the acreage of potentially arable land and the agricultural possibilities. The
total area of the island is about 7,470 acres, 2,870 acres of which are potentially arable.
This island lies about 2% miles east of Denman Island in the Strait of Georgia.
Present population amounts to about 200, of which 30 are school-children attending
the single primary school or high schools elsewhere. There are about 250 cattle and
200 sheep, which use the available pasture.
Public services include a rural telephone system connected with Vancouver Island,
mail three times a week, and a C.P.R. boat once a week. The road system could stand
repairing, but is otherwise adequate.
Topography.
The island is an irregular mass exposed to the Strait of Georgia on the north,
east, and south. The main topographic feature is a conglomerate promontory rising
to 1,070 feet elevation. This promontory strikes from the south-west to north-east
through the centre of the island, exposing considerable rock and gravel. A second
area of high land and rock-outcrop occurs on the east side of Tribune Bay, the maximum elevation being about 300 feet.
The two areas of rock-exposure are separated by land of potential value for
agriculture. Near the centre of the island the main promontory is divided by a valley
with a bottom area of about 156 acres, 30 acres of which are cleared and farmed.
This is called Strachan Valley, after its settler, and the bottom, elevation is about 250
feet. Strachan Valley is worthy of attention as a possible water-storage from which
the potentially arable land could be irrigated.
Drainage.
The potentially arable area has gentle slopes leading to local depressions. Owing
to the need of moisture during the dry summer months the ill-drained depressions
have been cleared by the settlers. More depressions have been cleared than better-
drained slopes.
The depressions have a high water-table in the wet season, due to a humus-iron
pan 1 foot to 18 inches from the surface. The iron pan also occurs on the slopes, but
at slightly greater depth. This pan is impervious to the downward movement of
water, and it impairs drainage in the depressions and on the slopes. When irrigation
is used, underdrainage of the depressions will be necessary.
Surface Geology.
The island bed-rock is composed of alternating layers of conglomerate and sandstone.    The conglomerate beds consist of water-rounded pebbles cemented by the mini- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 55
mum of fine material.    The sandstones are of fine texture and good quality.    The
consolidated beds are related to existing beaches.    If the present sandy and gravelly
beaches become consolidated, they would fit into the pattern of rock formations.
The presence of faults on the promontory and clam-shells of recent origin in
Strachan Valley at about 250 feet elevation suggests uplift in the recent past.    This
feature explains the absence of glacial till common to Vancouver Island.    Evidence of
glaciation consists of scattered granite boulders not related to local bed-rock.    It seems
probable that Hornby Island was submerged during the glacial epoch.    The soils are
derived from marine deposits.
Climate.
The climate has about the same temperature and precipitation total as the dry
parts of the Lower Fraser Valley, with greater emphasis on the summer-dry factor.
The nearest temperature station is at Lazo, where the mean annual temperature is
49°  F.    On Denman Island, the nearest rain station, annual precipitation is 49.60
inches, with an average of 3.35 inches for June, July, and August.    Since moisture
is deficient during the best growing months, irrigation is necessary for maximum
crop production.
Native Vegetation.
The main part of the original forest was big Douglas fir, hemlock, and cedar, with
pine, arbutus, and oak along the shore. To-day the big timber has been thinned by
logging, which still continues, and deciduous trees are becoming more prominent.
Alder and maple are common, and a dense shrub layer occurs where light is abundant.
Tree-rooting is shallow. The humus-iron pan at 18 inches depth is not penetrated
by roots, and when large trees fall, they up-end flat-bottomed root areas.
Land-clearing of large stumps and dense secondary growth is a heavy task not
undertaken to any marked degree in recent years.    In 1947 about 20 per cent, of the
potentially arable land was cleared and used in part for cultivated crops, but mainly
for pasture.
Soils.
The potentially arable soils consist of about 2,780 acres of loamy sand and light
sandy loam at elevations up to 175 feet above sea-level. Features of the soil profiles
are the reddish-brown colour and the semi-impervious layer of iron-bound sand, from
1 to 2 inches thick, about 18 inches from the surface. Drought resistance is weak
owing to the light texture and general deficiency of organic matter.
A soil reaction of pH 4.5 to 5.0 indicates strongly acid soil conditions. For production of all but acid-loving crops the soils should be limed up to pH 6.5 or higher.
Good yields depend on adequate moisture, organic matter, lime, and complete fertilizers.
. A local supply of lime exists in the form of a shell heap on Shingle Spit, covering
about 6 acres. The shell-heap consists of clam-shells in various stages of decomposition mixed with soil. The depth of this deposit is from 6 to 20 feet and the reaction
is pH 7.5.
RECONNAISSANCE OF SALMO VALLEY.
A soil-survey reconnaissance was undertaken to the south of Nelson, in the Salmo
River valley and in the valley of Erie and Beaver Creeks, between Salmo Village and
Fruitvale.
In the Salmo Valley the slopes and bottoms were mapped between Ymir and a point
on the Salmo River about 4 miles north of Nelway. In this area potentially arable
soils amount to about 4,700 acres. Approximately 4,080 acres are soils derived from
river deposits and 620 acres are soils derived from fans.
In the Erie Creek drainage, from Salmo Village to Divide Creek, 960 acres of
potentially arable land are derived from stream deposits and 160 acres from fans; the R 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
total in this section being 1,120 acres. The Beaver Creek drainage, from Divide
Creek to Fruitvale, contains about 1,130 acres of potentially arable soils derived from
stream deposits and 900 acres on fans, or 2,030 acres. The total of potentially arable
land in the whole area is about 7,850 acres.
The population of the Salmo Valley amounts to about 800, including approximately
150 in Salmo Village. Public services include the Great Northern Railway, a daily
bus service, telephone, and electric power. An additional population of about 700 is
scattered through the valley of Erie and Beaver Creeks, the main concentration being
around Fruitvale.    Fruitvale is developing as a suburb of Trail.
Topography.
The Salmo is a flat-bottomed valley bounded by mountains and seldom more than
a mile wide, with invasion along the sides by gently sloping fans. Throughout its
length the Salmo River meanders with gradually increasing volume as water is contributed by several tributaries. The valley-bottom of Erie and Beaver Creeks is less
than half a mile in width, and the fan slopes are steeper and more important. This
deeply incised valley broadens near Fruitvale to a width of about a mile and a half at
Kelly Creek. Elevations of the several localities above sea.-level are as follows: Ymir,
2,392 feet;   Salmo, 2,178 feet;   Erie, 2,336 feet;   and Fruitvale, 1,979 feet.
Climate.
The nearest meteorological stations are at Columbia Gardens and Nelson. From
these data it seems probable that annual mean temperature in the map-area is 44°
to 45° F. and annual precipitation about 25 to 30 inches. Lack of rainfall for crops
is not obvious, except at Fruitvale, where production on fan slopes could be increased
by irrigation.
Native Vegetation.
The forest-cover is of medium to high density. Large cedar and cottonwood
stumps and a few large trees occur on the river-flats among second growth. Douglas
fir, cedar, spruce, white pine, lodgepole pine, balsam, tamarack, and yellow pine cover
the slopes. The present cover is 12 inches or less in diameter, but occasional trees
of 18 to 24 inches at the trunk are found.    Land-clearing is heavy and expensive.
Soils.
The soils derived from river deposits consist of sandy loam, silt loam, and clay loam
with gravel substratum. Here and there patches of gravel occur on the surface.
The fan slopes have stony and gravelly soils, the classes being stony sandy loam,
gravelly loam, and gravelly clay loam. These textures are carried down to considerable
depth. Reaction tests were not available at the time of writing, but an acid reaction
is expected. For high production the soils require adequate moisture, organic matter,
and complete fertilizer.    A lime requirement is probable.
Small areas of Carex muck soil occur west of Erie Lake, in the valley between
Salmo and Fruitvale. For high production of hay or vegetables this black, fairly well
decomposed muck requires drainage and fertilization with the mineral plant-food
elements.
Agriculture.
The agriculture of the area is chiefly of the subsistence type. Excepting a few
larger farms, the average holding is about 5 acres or less, and the cleared acreage is
devoted to pasture, potatoes, and vegetables. The family income is derived chiefly
from outside employment in the mines, forests, etc.
i DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 57
Arable soil areas are now subdivided to such an extent that a family farm unit of
60 acres would be difficult to find. In the vicinity of Fruitvale the land is divided into
1- to 3-acre holdings, and the locality is occupied by employees of the Trail smelter.
To facilitate this development, the road between Trail and Fruitvale has been paved.
The main resources of this area consist of minerals and timber, and as good roads
are built, the distance a smelter employee may live from Trail will be extended.
Providing outside employment is adequate and likely to increase, the small holding
provides an inexpensive and a satisfactory home for the part-time employee. It also
provides food for the family, fuel, and a small income from the sale of surplus products.
Under these conditions a small-holdings type of agriculture can be justified and
encouraged.
EAST KOOTENAY DISTRICT.
A soil-survey of the East Kootenay District was started in July, 1947. This survey
will eventually classify the lands in the Rocky Mountain Trench between the Montana
Border and Beavermouth, about 21 miles north of Golden.
The primary purpose of the undertaking is to supply information to the Dominion
Water and Power Bureau as to the acreage of potentially arable land in this part of
the Columbia River drainage system. The potentially arable land will be classified
into several grades as to its value for irrigated agriculture. The secondary purpose
of the survey is to provide a publication describing the soil resources and agricultural
possibilities of the East Kootenay District.
During the field season about 153,000 acres were classified between Wardner and
the Border of Montana. A preliminary estimate of lajjd potentially arable if irrigated
amounts to 103,900 acres, and about 3,100 acres are under some form of cultivation.
Irrigation-surveys to follow may reduce the acreage of potentially arable land owing
to insufficient water-supplies at high elevations or in parts of the district.
PEACE RIVER BLOCK.
Progress of soil-survey operations in the Peace River Block in 1947 has been
made by Dr. C. A. Rowles and L. Farstad as follows :•—
" Soil-survey during the 1947 field season was resumed in the Peace River area,
with the Provincial and Dominion Departments of Agriculture participating. Field
operations were carried on from a field camp at Arras. Field-work was directed by
Dr. C. A. Rowles, Department of Agronomy, University of British Columbia, and L.
Farstad, Experimental Farms Service, assisted by G. E. Munro, H. F. Fletcher, G. R.
Webster, and W. F. Crowe, Provincial Department of Agriculture; F. D. Cook and
T. Lord, Experimental Farms Service. J. K. Horie acted as cook and camp assistant.
The camp was shared by members of the Department of Lands and Forests, Utilization
Survey Branch, under the direction of Donald Sutherland. These arrangements were
highly satisfactory.
" The survey undertaken was detailed reconnaissance, the field-mapping being on
a scale of 2 inches to the mile. All roads and trails were covered by car or on foot,
and, where necessary, traverses across quarter-sections were made to trace soil
boundaries. In this way significant soil differences were recorded, enabling an evaluation to be' made of each quarter-section unit. In certain areas, such as rough, hilly,
steeply sloping lands and mountain-slopes, a broad reconnaissance procedure was used.
" The area was mapped with the aid of aerial photographs, which served as the
base map. Soil boundaries were sketched directly on the photographs and later transferred to township sheets. R 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" About 300,000 acres, comprising the townships listed below, were mapped during
the season:—
" Township 19, Range 17, west of the 6th meridian.
" Township 21, Range 16, west of the 6th meridian.
" Township 77, Ranges 14, 17, and 18, west of the 6th meridian.
" Township 78, Ranges 17, 18, 19, and part of 20, west of the 6th
meridian.
" Township 79, Ranges 17, 18, 19, and part of 20, west of the 6th
meridian.
" Township 80, Range 17 and part of 18, west of the 6th meridian.
" In the field-mapping particular attention was given the following soil-profile
features: Colour, texture, structure, depth and number of horizons, stoniness and
presence of gravel. Features of the landscape, such as topography, type and density
of vegetation, drainage, and erosion were also noted on the field-sheets. In addition,
the location of roads, schools, churches, etc., was shown. The representation of the
above-mentioned features was simplified by the use of symbols and letters, grouped
and placed on the field-sheets in a ' four-point' symbol as indicated below.
Texture and structure of
surface horizons.
Texture and structure of
sub-surface horizons.
Topographic phase, stoniness, erosion, etc.
Parent material (depth to
lime, salts, etc.).
" Each soil-change mapped, therefore, carried an orderly arrangement of descriptive symbols. m
" The soils mapped during the season may be grouped on a zonal basis as follows:—
" 1. Soils of the Degraded Black Zone.
"(a) Soils developed on Heavy Lacustrine Deposits.—This group includes moderately to strongly degraded soils found chiefly along the stream-channels at an elevation of about 2,100 feet. They are heavy in texture, ranging from clay loam to clay,
relatively stone-free, and occur on undulating to rolling topography. Associated with
the better-drained members are areas of restricted drainage. The vegetation consists
of open grassland interspersed with scattered bluffs of deciduous trees. Due to their
geographic and physiographic position, these soils have been slow in developing
agriculturally.
" 2. Soils of the Grey-Wooded (Podsol) Zone.
"(a) Soils developed on Unsorted Glacial Till Deposits.—This group of soils,
developed on low lime glacial deposits, occupies an intermediate position between the
mountains and undulating lowlands. The landscape consists of steep-sided mesa-like
hills and parallel ridges, which are probably the remnants of a former plateau. The
surface horizons are strongly leached and vary in texture from very fine sandy loam
to heavy loam. The natural vegetation consists of mixed stands of coniferous and
deciduous forest, varying in size and density. Owing to their topographic position,
rather low inherent fertility and organic content, it will be necessary to pay special
attention to fertility maintenance and cropping systems in the agricultural utilization
of these soils.
"(6) Soils developed on Sorted Glacial Till Deposits.—This group of soils has
developed on glacial till deposits which have been modified somewhat by the action of
water. In general they occupy the sloping uplands surrounding the lacustrine deposits.
Their profile, vegetation, agricultural utilization, etc., are similar to the Grey-Wooded
soils developed on unsorted glacial till deposits previously described. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947.
R 59
"(c) Soils developed in Alluvial Deposits.—The soils developed on sandy alluvial
deposits consist of two small areas located in the south-west portion of the mapped area.
They are light in texture, porous, and stone-free. Drainage is usually rapid, and profile
development is that of a moderately to strongly leached soil. The topography is
dominantly undulating, and the forest-cover a mixed stand of lodgepole pine and
poplars.
"Agriculturally, these are an inferior group of soils, their main undesirable
characteristics being light texture, low organic matter, and excessive drainage.
" In mapping the topographic features of the area, the degree of slope and length
of slope were used. The degree of slope was expressed as per cent, and the length of
slope as frequency or number of complete rolls per-one-half mile, a complete roll being
the distance from the crest of a ridge to the crest of the next occurring ridge. On the
basis of frequency, two topographic classes were distinguished—rolling classes and
sloping classes (see table). Thus the gently rolling topographic phase included slopes
ranging from 2 to 4 per cent, and having three or more complete rolls per one-half mile.
The gently sloping topographic phase includes slopes having the same per cent, range
in gradient, but with a frequency of less than three rolls per mile. A considerable
proportion of the area covered to date has a slope frequency of 1 or less.
Tentative Table of Topography Classes.
Topographic Class.
Topographic Phase.
Approximate
Slope Limits.
Approximate
Frequency Limits.
(Rolls per % Mile).
Per Cent.
0- 2
2- 4
4-10
10-16
2- 4
4-10
10-16
16+
Hillv ___  _____    	
"Attention was also given to the mapping of soil erosion by wind and water, and
its occurrence shown on the field-maps by appropriate symbols to indicate the severity
and extent of damage. •
" Erosion by wind, while not as pronounced as that by water, is none the less on
the increase. If indiscriminate land-clearing on a large scale were undertaken, it would
favour higher wind velocities at ground-level, which might lead to serious soil-drifting.
Further evidence supporting such a possibility is the fact that under certain conditions
some of the soils would likely be subject to drifting at relatively low wind velocities.
" Soil erosion by water, emphasized in the soil-survey report for 1946, was still
very evident on the majority of lands having sloping and rolling topography. It would
appear that in the future greater attention should be given to land-clearing, cropping,
and tillage practices so as to reduce soil and water losses to a minimum." R 60
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
REPORT OF HORTICULTURAL BRANCH.
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist.
CLIMATIC CONDITIONS.
Winter conditions were on the whole satisfactory for all small- and tree-fruit
plantings in the horticultural areas of the Province. Short periods of below zero were
recorded at some Interior points, but no damage was done as there was a satisfactory
ground cover of snow in practically all districts. In the Coast areas there was more
snow and rain than usual, particularly in January and early February. The spring was
cool and at some Interior points extremely dry, resulting in the slow germination and
growth of spring-seeded crops. Nevertheless, the season might be considered as
slightly earlier than that of 1946. A fair indication of earliness is evidenced by the
dates of blossoming, as shown in the following table giving blossoming-dates for the
Kelowna district:—
1943.
1944.
1945.
1946.
1947.
Apr. 22
May 1
May 3
May 15
Apr. 20
Apr. 27
Apr. 29
May 10
Apr. 22
May 1
May 6
May 15
Apr. 16
Apr. 26
Apr. 29
May 7
Apr. 16
Apr. 22
Apr. 26
Summer temperatures were not as high as usual, with the result that heat-loving
crops such as tomatoes and cantaloupes were retarded. Dry conditions prevailed in
Coastal areas, while in the irrigated sections there were occasional heavy rains, which
supplemented quite materially what earlier in the season gave every indication of being
a shortage of irrigation-water. The fall was cool and excellent weather prevailed for
the harvesting of all horticultural crops. To date some snow has been reported from
Interior points, and in the Coast sections there has been the usual amount of precipitation experienced at this time of year, with no unusually low temperatures recorded in
any district.
HORTICULTURAL CROPS.
Tree and Small Fruits.
The apple-crop was not as heavy as in 1946, which was the largest crop on record.
Latest estimates show a reduction in. 1947 of over 20 per cent, as compared with the
1946 production. This percentage may be slightly increased by the time that final sales
are completed. A feature of the 1947 apple-crop has been its quality, both from the
standpoint of colour and freedom from disease and insect pests. Harvesting was
completed under satisfactory conditions, and the general movement of apples to date
has been good.
Pears were slightly below the 1946 crop, while prunes, plums, cherries, and
apricots were about the same. The peach-crop was much heavier than that of last year,
with an estimated increase of approximately 15 per cent. Some loss occurred in the
harvesting of cherries due to wet weather. Other stone-fruit crops, however, were
marketed satisfactorily.
Some definite idea of the 1947 production of both tree and small fruits may be
secured by referring to the following table, which shows the actual fruit production
of 1946 and the estimated production for 1947:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947.
R 61
Fruit Production, 191+6 and 191+7 (estimated).
Kind.
Year.
Production.
Kind.
Year.
Production.
1946
1947
1946
1947
1946
1947
1946
1947
1946
1947
1946
1947
1946
1947
1946
1947
Boxes.
9,892,074
6,969,000
235,834
120,000
775,860
645,300
Crates.
286,576
275,600
1,241,802
1,128,800
1,673,708
1,840,700
368,677
398,250
384,282
457,900
1946
1947
1946
1947
1946
1947
1946
1947
1946
1947
1946
1947
1946
1947
1946
1947
Crates.
415,576
632,800
682,205
882,100
90,954
96,020
75,777
73,900
2,627
3,100
16,521
16 650
3,908
3,975
Lb.
2,195,491
2,759,350
Greater interest is being evidenced in all tree-fruit areas, not only in actual orchard
practices, but in the question of better handling of the crop after production. The
following statement from the report of B. Hoy, District Field Inspector for the Kelowna
district, is typical of the various measures being taken, not only in the Kelowna area,
but in other areas as well:—
" The apple-crop in the Kelowna district was estimated at 2,300,000 boxes at the
beginning of the season and, because of smaller size than last year, was dropped to
2,115,000 in the September estimate. It is probable that the pack-out will be very close
to the estimate. Though this year's crop is considerably lower than the three-million-
box crop of last year, it is the largest crop of apples ever produced in this district in the
off-bearing year. This increase in production during the last five years is undoubtedly
due to young trees coming into bearing and better orchard practices.
" Mcintosh this year were of the finest quality for many years. The percentage of
desirable sizes was greater, colour better, and apples firmer. Owing to recommendations from the Better Fruits Committee, harvesting and handling through the packinghouses was much improved. Picking-dates were established by the District Field
Inspectors; the general picking-date in this district was September 10th. The following
is the summary of the recommendations of the Better Fruits Committee regarding
Mcintosh:—
" (1) That the fruit be moved from orchards to packing-houses within twenty-
four hours if possible, but within three days maximum after picking.
" (2) That the packing-houses in each district take what action they feel
necessary to acquaint their growers with the recommendations of this
committee, the necessity for prompt hauling, and the ability of the
packing-house to receive the fruit if hauled at the proper time.
" (3) That all fruit be packed and cold-stored or shipped within three days of
receipt, or cold-stored loose immediately on receipt.
" (4) That all cold-stored Mcintosh be packed within thirty packing-days from
the established picking-date for the area.
" (5) That a differential of 10 cents per packed box be established between fruit
packed within thirty days and fruit not packed within thirty days.
" Tree-removal programs in the older orchards are increasing.    The results of
earlier removals are in practically all instances good.    There has been little reduction
in yield, and marked benefits in improvement of grade and quality.    Just as the removal R 62
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
of fillers was slow in the beginning, and as the benefits were observed, their removal
was accelerated so it will be with the removal of old crowding trees."
Small-fruit production for the current year will on the whole show a marked
increase over 1946. This applies particularly to strawberries and raspberries, both of
which show an increase in acreage in the last four years. In 1946 our biennial small-
fruit survey was made, but it was not until the present year that the figures covering
this survey were compiled. The following table shows the acreage in small fruits from
1920 to 1946, inclusive:—
Small-fruit and Rhubarb Acreage, 1920 to 1946.
Kind.
1920.     1922.
1924.
1926.
1928.
1930.
1932.
Strawberries	
1,796
967
209
210
23
62
56
91
2,886
2,105
506
329
42
138
85
111
2,331
2,387
764
252
58
239
96
183
2,042
1,641
802
178
34
192
68
244
3,005
1,258
713
170
42
179
69
320
2,198
1,060
821
120
22
149
60
382
2,264
1,077
844
Blackberries	
158
20
159
71
396
Totals	
3,414     6,202
6,310
5,201
5,756
4,812
4,989
Kind.
1934.
1936.
1938.
1940.
1944.
1946.
2,944
1,371
697
156
86
272
112
571
3,312
1,438
628
140
42
326
112
685
3,338
1,424
648
133
36
255
57
572
3,292
1,194
703
74
24
248
53
395
1,570
1,520
467
85
12
189
26
141
2,833
2,058
393
56
18
132
12
112
Totals.,	
6,159
6 683   1   6 463
5,983
4,010
5,614
1
Compiled in co-operation with the Statistics Branch.
Harvesting conditions were excellent for all small fruits in the various small-fruit
districts, with one exception. In the Island area the loganberry-crop was not as large
as originally estimated due to dry weather at picking-time. All small-fruit plantings
have gone into the winter in satisfactory condition, and the outlook at the present time
is for a very heavy crop of all small fruits in 1948. Prices were well maintained during
the current season and compared favourably with those of the previous year.
Vegetables.
Vegetable acreages for the current year show on the whole little change from those
of the previous year. The few changes that might be noted are: Onion acreage, a
slight reduction; the same also applies to cantaloupes, while tomatoes show an increase
of about 20 per cent, in acreage. Onions were harvested under excellent fall conditions
and should be sufficient to take care of market requirements. The tomato-crop was
short, and while the market for green-ripe and semi-ripe was fairly well supplied, the
pack of canned tomatoes was on the short side.
The broccoli-crop was materially shortened on the Coast due to the cold weather
of last fall and unsatisfactory weather conditions in February and March. A very
satisfactory cauliflower-crop was harvested this fall.
A general idea of the acreage of the most important vegetable-crops may be
obtained from the following table, showing the estimated acreage for 1946 in comparison
with the estimated acreage for 1947:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947.
R 63
Kind.
Estimated
Acreage,
1946.
Tomatoes  3,488
Onions   1,540
Lettuce       778
Celery      556
Cucumbers  .      338
Cabbages      830
Cantaloupes      448
Estimated
Acreage,
1947.
4,011
1,196
800
544
406
826
213
During the past season the biennial greenhouse survey was carried out. The
following table shows the present standing of the greenhouse industry from the
standpoint of growers and acreage:—
Greenhouse Survey, 1947.
District.
Number of
Growers.
Number of
Houses.
Area in
Sq. Ft.
282
215
43
12
875
943
151
30
2,070,495
2,641,000
313,479
41,976
Totals	
552
1,999
5,066,950
Bulb Production.
This year the usual survey covering bulb production was undertaken. As this
survey has been made every two years since 1929, the following table shows an
interesting increase in acreage since that date:—
Bulb Acreages, 1929 to 1947.
Year.
1929_.
1931-
1933.
1935-.
1937_.
Number of
Acres.
- 159%
. 200
._ 203%
- 209%
_ 249%
Year.
1939____.
1941-..
1943 ___.
1945____.
1947—
Number of
Acres.
- 257%
_ 315%
_ 360%
_ 482%
- 559%
From 1929 to 1947 there has been an increase of over 250 per cent, in bulb acreage.
With this increase in acreage there has been an increase in value of production. For
the current year the value of the production is estimated at $332,800 and arrived at as
outlined in the following table:—
Estimate of the Number and Value of the 1947 Marketable Bulb-crop.
Narcissi:    207%   ac.   X   100,000 = 20,725,000   grown.
Marketable crop 1947,15% = 3,100,000 at $30 per M    $93,000.00
Tulips: 162% ac. X 100,000 = 16,250,000 grown. Marketable crop 1947, 25% = 4,100,000 at $25 per M____    102,500.00
Irises: 44% ac. X 150,000 = 6,650,000 grown. Marketable crop 1947, 25% = 1,660,000 at $30 per M       49,800.00
Gladioli: 90 ac. X 100,000 = 9,000,000 grown. Marketable crop 1947, 30% = 2,700,000 at $20 per M_       54,000.00
Miscellaneous: 33% ac. X $1,000 return per acre      33,500.00
Total  $332,800.00 R 64
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The 1946-47 bulb-crop was below normal due to unfavourable growing conditions
resulting from excessive rainfall in the autumn and winter and a shortage of moisture
accompanied by two periods of seven to ten days' duration in May and June of
excessive heat. In general, Vancouver Island was more adversely affected by the dry,
hot weather than the Mainland, but the Mainland crop was seriously affected by a bad
infestation of narcissus fly, causing heavy culling of the bulb stock. Thus we have
scaled down the marketable output of each of the autumn-planted crops by about 25
per cent., which we consider to be the average, and therefore the estimated returns
for the 1947 crop are considerably less than the 1946 crop, although the acreage planted
shows an increase of 14 acres.
The trend in the development of the bulb industry, as indicated by the distribution
of bulbs inspected in 1945, 1946, and 1947, is as follows:—
Kind of Bulbs.
Number op Bulbs.
1945.
1946.
1947.
Fraser Valley.
8,223,000
2,300,000
575,000
13,000
8,440,000
2,240,000
375,000
10,000
8,767,100
Tulips	
1,474,200
304,900
18,865
Vancouver Island.
Totals	
11,111,000
11,065,000
10,565,065
7,518,000
8,544,000
4,161,000
51,100
8,260,000
9,360,000
5,050,000
75,000
9,880,500
Tulips	
10,095,900
5,597,600
72,630
Totals.....
20,274,100
22,745,000
25,646,630
The Fraser Valley is rapidly developing into a specialized narcissus area, but the
bulb industry there has reached a temporary static condition, the acreage for the last
three seasons being practically the same. The losses in acreage were mainly in tulips
and irises, and these "losses were compensated by gains of 2 to 3 acres a year in
daffodils.
Vancouver Island shows a steady climb in each of the main bulb-crops, a fact which
reflects the favourable conditions on Vancouver Island for the development of a bulb
industry engaged in the production of a wide variety of commercial bulbs.
The British Columbia Horticultural Branch is indebted to the Dominion Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Saanichton, for the assistance given in the making of the
above surveys, as well as for the facts relative to value of production and trends of
plantings.
During the past year the Bulb News letter was continued. This publication,
prepared by the Dominion Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Saanichton, and mailed by
the Provincial horticultural office, has been sent out each month to a mailing-list of
over 300 names. This service is appreciated, as is indicated by the letters, etc.,
reaching this office from time to time.
A further indication of the increasing importance of the bulb industry is the fact
that the Dominion Department of Agriculture intends in the very near future to put
into effect regulations with respect to grading. This should materially improve the
commercial bulbs placed on the Canadian market.
Nut Production.
The nut acreage in the Province is not extensive. The following table shows the
acreage at the present time in the different districts of filberts and walnuts:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947.
R 65
Acreage in Filberts and Walnuts, 1938-46.
Filberts.
Walnuts.
1938.
1940.
1944.
1946.
1938.
1940.
1944.
1946.
Ac.
25 V_
58%
Ac.
34
82
Ac.
28%
284%
Ac.
14%
550%
Trees.
132
114
Trees.
202
84
Trees.
180
371
Trses.
232
2,593
Totals	
79
116
818%
565
246
286
551
2,825
It will be noted that the plantings on a commercial scale are on Vancouver Island
and in the Fraser Valley. G. E. W. Clarke, District Horticulturist, Abbotsford,
reports as follows on this matter in so far as the Fraser Valley is concerned:—
" In January, 1947, the nut-growers of this district formed The B.C. Nut Growers'
Association. The aim of this organization is to further nut-growing on a commercial
basis by field-days and meetings.    C. A. Skelton, of Chilliwack, was elected president.
" Rather extensive plantings of filberts made a few years ago are now beginning
to come into full production, and many growers are experiencing difficulty in selling.
Prices dropped in 1946 to around 23 cents, and this year reported prices are below 20
cents a pound.
" Crop production from commercial plantings is a little over 100 tons, and additional plantings are coming into bearing.
" Walnuts are also receiving attention, but as the planting of these trees requires
a long term before coming into bearing, most plantings are limited to a few trees.
" Other kinds of nuts, except from an ornamental point of view, are receiving
little attention.
" Almonds of the hard-shelled variety are ornamental and heavy croppers as well,
but the cracking of these nuts is a problem compared to the ease with which the semi-
soft and soft-shelled varieties are handled. Marketing of this hard-shelled variety has
been difficult for most growers.
" Nut-growing is a comparatively new crop, and before this crop can be handled
on a satisfactory basis, uniform practices will have to be adopted by growers, and the
types and grades of nuts must be established in order to meet present competition.
"The growing, harvesting, handling, grading, and marketing of this crop will
take time to develop. A good-quality nut can be grown but, when marketing, the whole
crop offered for sale must be properly cured, attractive, and up to specifications."
Hop Production.
The total acreage of hops in the Province amounts to approximately 1,625 acres.
The major portion of these plantings are in the Sardis area of the Fraser Valley.
In the Kamloops area some plantings have been made in recent years, and the indications are that these plantings will be extended. Latest figures supplied by the Statistics
Branch indicate that there is a total yield of 11,322 bales of hops, having a total value
of $1,698,235. 0
Seed Production.
While there has been a marked decrease in vegetable-seed production during the
past year, it is interesting to note that the estimated value for this year is $550,000,
as compared with an actual value of $72,130.20 in 1939. A general summary of the
vegetable-seed situation in British Columbia has been submitted by J. L. Webster,
horticulturist.    Extracts from his report are herewith submitted :•—
" Although soil conditions on the Coast were very satisfactory, a long dry spell in
the Southern Interior from mid-April until almost the end of May was unfavourable
for the seed germination of crops planted before irrigation was available.    This dry R 66
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
spell resulted in the failure, or partial failure, in light-soil areas of many seeded
crops, including peas, several vegetables, and even transplanted crops such as carrot,
beet, mangel for seed, and tomato. It is also claimed that this dry spell was in part
responsible for the partial failure of the carrot-seed crop in the Grand Forks district.
Excellent showers during June and July to some extent compensated for the previous
dry weather. Actually there was a very good distribution of moisture through June,
July, and August in the Southern Interior.
: "On September 17th and 18th frost ended the tomato-canning season in the
vicinity of Kamloops and did severe damage to this crop in the vicinity of Vernon and
Kelowna. In the Fraser Valley damage was done to tender flowers, cucumbers, and
scarlet runner beans for seed.
" The harvesting season from late August until about September 10th was very
satisfactory. Frequent showers until about September 20th held up harvesting, then
two excellent weeks from September 20th to October 5th allowed most Southern Interior
growers to finish threshing vegetable-seed.
" The following table shows the serious downward trend in volume of production
from the peak year of 1945:—
British Columbia Vegetable-seed Production.
Kind.
Asparagus 	
Beans (broad) :	
Beans (pole and dwarf)
Beets	
Borecole or kale	
Brussels sprouts ,—
Cabbage	
Carrots 	
Cauliflower 	
Citron	
Corn  (sweet)  	
Cress	
Cucumber	
Leek  ____.
Lettuce	
Muskmelon	
Onion 	
Onion-sets 	
Parsley	
Parsnip	
Peas 	
Pepper	
Pumpkin	
Radish 	
Spinach 	
Squash 	
1945.
Lb.
100
Swiss chard	
Tomato 	
Turnip, Swede	
Vegetable marrow
Watermelon	
300,224
44,450
192
50
11,137
310,600
1,545
220
12,000
6,450
1,520
52,980
250
351,000
24,000
777
15,500
-,060,000
130
600
101,000
28,000
3,000
1,400
3,735
59,000
7,812
310
1946.
Lb.
300
24,973
170,677
38,300
1,000
10,065
174,300
1,189
380
22,950
995
5,700
700
65,350
270
224,000
38,000
17
11,500
3,469,700
35
505
87,800
14,100
2,000
1,000
1,010
9,100
6,900
75
1947.
(Estimated.)
Lb.
250
23,700
237,700
47,479
2,359
■  44,200
640
400
26,500
17,100
1,110
25,084
400
65,350
40,000
2,610
2,743,400
60
800
23,650
11,500
1,500
10
1,362
7,873
5,800
400
Totals     3,397,982        4,382,891        3,331,237
Total value  $1,479,493.86 $1,045,149.14    $550,000.00 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 67
" The decrease in the total of onion-seed grown was due to the smaller acreage
contracted and not to reduced yield per acre. Yields were satisfactory on most farms.
Prices of onion-seed are now lower than at any time in the last seven years and the
market very competitive.
" Although the contracted acreage of carrot-seed was slightly higher than that of
the previous year, it will be noted from the above that total yield was exceedingly small.
" However, corn, cucumber, mangel, and sugar-beet seed are all up slightly from
the previous year. We would predict that corn, beans, mangel, sugar-beet, and Swede
turnip, and all lower-priced items will increase in ensuing years, but higher-priced
items, such as onion, cauliflower, lettuce, etc., probably will not be increased unless
a favourable export market develops.
" Main Reasons for Decline in Production of Vegetable-seed.
" The decline in the total production and total value of the British Columbia grown
vegetable-seed was expected. During the war there had been a tremendous demand
for seed at high prices from the United Kingdom and from all allied countries because
of the cutting-off of normal supplies from Europe. There was also a greatly increased
consumption of seed in Canada and the United States because of the stimulus to home-
gardening.
" Prices of seed rose to as high as three times that prevailing before the war, and
farmer-growers were given contracts for large acreages at these very profitable prices.
" Early in 1946 it became evident that this abnormal export demand, which was
chiefly supplied through the Special Products Board at Ottawa, was practically at an
end. Some surpluses of seed then existed, which had a depressing effect on prices in
this country. At the same time home-gardening began to decline, which resulted in
a small domestic demand.
" Toward the end of 1946, when mutual aid or ' lend-lease ' was practically discontinued, the United Kingdom, in order to protect her trading position, refused to allow
resumption of trading between British and Canadian firms. In other words, she
refused to allow the importation of further Canadian seed because of her desire to
conserve dollars for the purchase of other more needed supplies.
" British Columbia is, therefore, in the position that unless a profitable export
market opens up for vegetable-seed, she must be content with a market of approximately
25 per cent, of that which prevailed during the war. Prices on most kinds of vegetable-
seeds are also now much lower and almost back to their pre-war level. At the same
time the cost of production has increased in common with that of all other commodities
and there is much less profit, hence very little incentive for many farmers to continue
producing. The local seed firms are cautious in contracting under the prevailing conditions unless they have a certain market; therefore, many former seed-growers are
dropping out and resuming the growing of other types of crops. The end result is the
obviously lowered production and lower total values produced in this Province this year.
" The situation is not without its brighter side. We have achieved a fairly permanent and favourable position for British Columbia grown seed in the world markets.
We now have a large number of experienced seed-growers who are well equipped and
are keenly interested in seed production. Surplus seed, which piled up as a result of
overstimulated production, is gradually disappearing, and we are now getting back to
a more normal system of trading.
" Growers, seed firms, and others have all acquired a great deal of information,
and much data has been gained with the many kinds and varieties in the various
climatic zones in the Province. Growers now appreciate the opportunities offered, also
the disadvantages and pitfalls which exist. The industry will probably continue on
the present reduced scale for a number of years, although it may show a gradual
increase, starting in 1948. R 68 :. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
■ " Flower-seed Production in 1947.
" The acreage of flower-seed grown in the Province declined only slightly from that
of 1946, and yields in general were a good average. However, the price of many items
was somewhat lower, which will cause a noticeable reduction in total value.
" The following is the estimated value for the 1947 crop in comparison with the
values of 1945 and 1946 crops: 1945, $155,893.85; 1946, $167,144; 1947 (estimate),
$125,000.
"There are several factors which are working to the disadvantage of the British
Columbia flower-seed growers. The first is that American production has now returned
to normal, and with their high degree of mechanization and lower costs of production
on many kinds and varieties, competition is keen and, therefore, prices lower. The
Dutch growers, who can produce more cheaply certain items which require a lot of
hand-labour, have made a strong drive to recapture the Canadian and American markets. And finally, the former very satisfactory market for British Columbia grown
flower-seed in the United Kingdom is still closed for Canadian business. Furthermore,
there does not appear much likelihood of a resumption of trading with the United
Kingdom for several years to come.
"As opposed to the above pessimistic outlook, it is a fact that our growers are now
more experienced and better equipped than in former years. Our climate is better
suited for some kinds than that of either California or Holland. Two or three of our
British Columbia firms now have well-established connections with many buyers and
handle certain lines which are in good demand. We would expect, however, a further
reduction in total values for next year (1948), unless some catastrophe occurs in one
of the foreign seed-growing areas or unless some unforeseen profitable export market
becomes available.
■"■ Opportunities for Increase in certain Seed Crops.
" Peas.—Three of the four wholesale seed-producer firms which grow considerable
acreages of garden and canning pea-seed in the Province have admitted that they could
contract and sell the crop from an increased acreage if suitable additional acreage could
be found in British Columbia.
" One firm placed out 200 to 300 acres in the British Columbia Peace River Block
and some in the Alberta Block. Although some lots were injured by frost in August,
and the crops were estimated at about 50 per cent, of normal, indications are that the
acreage will be increased in this region. Frost damage to peas apparently only occurs
at intervals of several years.
" Another firm placed about 100 acres with farmers in the Bulkley Valley, in the
vicinity of Houston, Telkwa, Smithers, and Terrace. Some crops were very satisfactory, but a number were seriously reduced by frost and some were damaged by rain
and threshed with high moisture content, having to be dried in the warehouse in
Vancouver. Increased acreage is, therefore, somewhat doubtful in the Bulkley Valley
and dependent on what risks this firm will take when allocating acreage. Our own
opinion, after seeing some of the fields and crops in the Bulkley Valley, is that considerable frost-free areas on the slopes and on benches are available, where an increased
pea acreage could be safely grown.
"About 50 acres of garden and canning seed were contracted for and grown in the
Fraser Valley in the hope that the pea moth could be controlled or would not seriously
affect the crop. The yield was quite satisfactory although about 6 to 10 per cent, of
the peas were marked and chewed by the larvae. The firm now has a special piece of
equipment imported from England which is making an effective job of removing these
chewed peas.    Even split peas are taken out. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 69
" There appears to be every indication that pea-moth damage in the Fraser Valley
can be reduced by spraying the crop with oil-emulsified D.D.T. Effective commercial
control may depend on the economic application of the material by one of the new
turbine sprayers or by aeroplane. Should this prove successful, there is every hope
that a very considerable acreage of peas for seed can be again planted in the Fraser
Valley.
" Seed-beans.—As noted in last year's report, large contracts for canning and
garden seed-beans have had to be turned down because of inability of our British
Columbia firms to find farmers in the Dry Belt sufficiently informed and equipped to
undertake to grow the increased acreage.
" Bean-seed, as grown in the British Columbia Dry Belt, has been found the freest
from disease of any in Canada, which is one of the main reasons for the increased
demand. The recent plan for certification or health approval for freedom from disease
should provide a very valid reason for securing a premium for British Columbia grown
bean-seed.
" Many farmers in the Dry Belt are not interested because of the prices prevailing
for competitive crops such as tomatoes, potatoes, and other vegetable or canning crops.
Also the demand for alfalfa-hay is firm. In spite of this, we feel that a seed contracting firm having a good fieldman in the Thompson Valley should be able to greatly
increase the acreage in this crop.
" Our view is that ultimately the Thompson Valley between Lytton and Chase will
become the most important section in Canada for the growing of this class of seed.
" Sweet-corn Seed.—Since reporting for the past four years the opportunities for
increased seed-corn growing in the British Columbia Dry Belt, we are pleased to note
that production is at least showing a favourable upward trend. Some 25 acres of sweet
corn were contracted for in the vicinity of Kamloops and Chase, and this is being dried
in a hop-kiln through arrangements made with the Ord Hopyards at Kamloops.
"The price paid to the grower varies from 10 to 12 cents per pound, depending
on variety. Yields of sweet corn are running from 1,500 to 3,000 lb. per acre, making
a gross value of $150 to $300 per acre. However, in order to compete with American
and Ontario quotations and obtain a larger volume of orders or contracts, it is possible
that the growers' price on sweet corn seed would have to be lower and in the vicinity
of 6 to 8 cents per pound. We believe that this can be done, providing an efficient corn
drier is constructed and operated in a central location in the Dry Belt. The cost of
such a drier would be in the neighbourhood of $3,000, according to diagrams and
specifications we have to hand.
" One firm is very interested in having a corn drier located at Kamloops, or a
portable drier somewhere in that area, but is concerned about the initial cost. If a
group of growers, a farmers' organization, or the Government would undertake to assist
in installing the drier, we feel sure the firm would underwrite a share of the costs,
operate the drier, and contract for the entire output of seed-corn.
" Field-corn Seed.—A similar opportunity exists for greatly increased production
of field seed-corn, both in hybrids and open-pollinated varieties. There is no reason
why a large part of our British Columbia requirements of seed-corn (estimated at about
75,000 lb.) cannot be produced within the Province. Possibly even a portion of the
Alberta and Saskatchewan requirement of seed of silage corn could be produced here.
Exactly the same situation exists with field-corn seed as with sweet corn—a drier must
be installed to handle the crop. One drier could easily handle both the sweet- and the
field-corn seed.
" No discussion on the subject of corn in British Columbia would be complete without mention of the opportunities which exist in the growing of grain or feed-corn in
the Southern Interior.    Practically no feed-corn has been available in British Columbia R 70
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
for five years. The small amount shipped in is now costing about $100 per ton, and
cracked corn is quoted at $108.50. It has been repeatedly proven that from 2 to 3 tons
per acre of corn of the earlier hybrids can be easily produced in most of the Interior
valleys at the lower elevations. That part of the Thompson Valley stretching from
Lytton through Kamloops as far as Chase would produce many hundreds of acres of
heavy-yielding medium-late varieties which would be dried in cribs. This would enable
the district to become a natural feeder area for finishing hundreds of cattle from the
adjacent ranges of the Cariboo and the Nicola.
" Importation of Vegetable-seed suitable for Stock Seed.
" The policy of obtaining certain stocks of vegetable-seed which may be of value
to seed-growers in the Province was continued. Seeds of various varieties of onion,
parsnip, squash, pepper, cabbage, beans, carrot, beet, and corn to the value of $87.78
were obtained from the following reliable wholesale firms: Northrup King & Company, Ferry Morse Company, Joseph Harris Company, and Pieters-Wheeler Company.
A number of items were released to one of the British Columbia seed firms who assumed
a proportion of the cost. All stocks were placed in the trial-grounds at University of
British Columbia.
" Sufficient crossing stocks to produce 3 acres of Canada 355 hybrid corn were
obtained and turned over to a seed-grower who has produced a good crop of hybrid seed.
" Vegetable and Flower Trials.
" There were two outstanding trial-grounds in operation in British Columbia in
1947—namely, the joint trials at University of British Columbia and the B.C. Seeds
trial-ground below Marine Drive.
" The vegetable trials were probably the best ever operated in British Columbia
from the standpoint of vigour and readability of the results. The B.C. Seeds trials
were outstanding from the point of vigour and growth because of excellent soil and
moisture conditions. Unfortunately only a limited amount of selection-work and no
breeding-work was carried on with these trials. There is, no doubt, a very good opportunity for line selections existing in conjunction with the trials which is not taken
advantage of.
" The flower-seed trials, first instituted in 1946, were almost double that of the
previous year. This feature is valuable from the standpoint of purity of stocks and
has an educational value for the various officials and seedsmen which should not be
overlooked.
"Aside from the above points the trials have a great advertising value, as they
are viewed by many visiting seedsmen and potential customers."
FIELD INSPECTION WORK.
Fire-blight Inspection.
The following table gives the general results of the fire-blight inspection work as
carried out in the different sections of the Province during the past season:—
District.
Total Acres
inspected.
Inspected
and passed.
Not
passed.
91
6,000
4,200
20
10
460
91
5,930
4,200
20
10
460
10,781
10,711
IU DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947.
R 71
Nursery Stock Inspection.
As in previous years, inspection of all fruit stock was undertaken at the various
nurseries throughout the Province. The following table summarizes the results of
this inspection:—
Trees.
Number
inspected.
Number
passed.
Number
condemned.
59,940
43,771
28,440
11,985
69,763
1,515
58.684
41,040
27,910
11,681
67,199
1
1,256
2,731
530
304
2,564
1,514
215,414
206,515
8,899
Fifty-four inspections made;  4.1 per cent, of inspected stock condemned.
HORTICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION-WORK.
Pruning Demonstrations.
Interest is still being shown by growers in the various districts in the matter of
pruning. Many of these growers are newcomers to the Province who have had no
experience in fruit-growing and who are glad of the opportunity of availing themselves
of this instruction. As long as this interest is maintained, it would be advisable to
hold these demonstrations. The following table indicates the results of the pruning
demonstrations held during the past season:—
No. of
Demonstrations.
  21
District.
Vancouver Island 	
Lower Mainland  _ .     5
Okanagan .  20
Kootenay  .  12
No. of
Pupils.
608
248
998
115
Totals
58
1,969
Demonstration-work with Oil in Control of Weeds in Carrot-crops.
In view of the fact that oil is becoming an important item in the control of weeds
in vegetable-crops, work was undertaken along this line by J. L. Webster, horticulturist
in charge of seed-work for this Department. Mr. Webster's report on the project
follows:—
"As a result of our report on the use of stove-oil for control of weeds in carrots
in California, a number of growers expressed their desire to try out the method in
British Columbia.
"Accordingly, the Imperial Oil Company donated ' Varsol' (a refined oil similar
to cleaning-solvent) in 20- and 40- gallon lots to a number of carrot-growers for trials
on a commercial scale.
" Our Department and the B.C. Co-operative Seed Association recommended a
number of growers as follows, and the oil was delivered to their premises free of charge
by the Imperial Oil Company: O. Pennoyer, Grand Forks; Pearson brothers, Vernon;
F. Rady, Kelowna; F. Hartinger, Grand Forks; J. Gierl, Grand Forks; H. Calhoun,
Tappen;  Riverside Seed Farms, Grand Forks;  and C. Meggitt, Grand Forks.
" The majority of the fields which were treated were visited, and without exception
control of weeds was up to or above expectations and growers were elated with the
result. R 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
"A number of fields of carrot roots which were going to be disked under because
of cost of weeding were treated, and a good control obtained. C. Meggitt saved over
an acre of carrots, although the weeds were over 10 inches high and a solid mass.
F. Rady saved a field of half an acre when weeds were 6 inches high and solid throughout. He reported that it required 55 gallons to spray all the area thoroughly on this
half an acre, but only 35 gallons of oil to treat a full acre of carrots at the proper stage,
spraying a strip 6 to 8 inches in width. As the cost of oil will be about 32 cents per
gallon, f.o.b. Kelowna, it will be noted this first and most important weeding would cost
only $10.75 per acre. It is estimated that hand-weeding of this acre would have cost
about $50 at present wage prices.
" J. Gierl reported very good control with only 4 gallons of Varsol on a quarter of
an acre of carrots at the right stage. This is only 16 gallons per acre, or a cost of
$6.90 per acre.    (Cost of oil will be 37 cents per gallon, f.o.b. Grand Forks.)
" It appears that for most economical control a very fine flat disk should be used to
give a fine spray. Also where only a 6- or 8-inch strip directly over the young carrots
is treated, the cost of oil used is greatly reduced. The remainder of the weeds in the
middle of the row can then easily be weeded by wheel-hoe or horse cultivator. When
all the land across the rows is treated, costs are two to three times that of the strip
treatment.
" The pressure to be used does not seem important, and hand-pumps are quite
satisfactory for small areas if the small disk aperture is used.
" The most effective and economical stage for the first spray is when the carrot
seedlings are 2 to 3 inches tall and in the two to four fern leaf stage.
"AH weeds and grasses encountered were killed effectively, and the carrots suffered
little, if any, check. When small seedlings were oversoaked with the oil, there was
considerable injury.
" Some fairly large carrots were sprayed with Varsol, and tests made to determine
if tainted by the oil. There was a faint taint which lasted about ten days or so,
according to F. Rady. It should be noted, however, that the taint from use of common
stove-oil will last three to four weeks at least and is not advisable on mature carrots.
Varsol, or its equivalent put out by various companies, can be safely used several times
on the same patch pf carrots but, to be on the safe side, should not be applied thirty
days before harvesting a crop for table consumption.
" It is expected that either Varsol, Stoddart solvent, or stove-oil of the proper
specifications will become quite generally used in British Columbia for the control of
weeds in young carrots and especially carrot-seed crops. One grower equipped a
garden tractor with a power-pump and proper booms and nozzles for treating two rows
at one time. Several other growers are adapting various types of power equipment so
that larger acreages can be sprayed economically. Two growers have stated that they
will be spraying a considerable acreage of seed-carrots in 1948.
" Parsnip, celery, and parsley have not as yet been tried in British Columbia on
a commercial scale, but an acreage of parsnip will be treated in 1948."
Mr. Webster also submits a brief statement on the use of other weed-killers that
may be of interest to flower- and vegetable-seed producers:—
" 2-4-D may have a place in certain vegetable- and flower-seed crops. Portulaca
was found fairly resistant to 2-4-D. J. Gierl, Grand Forks, using 1 lb. of 2-4-D to
80 gallons of water, sprayed a field of Portulaca which he was going to plough down
because of weed infestation. The weeds were completely killed and some of the Portulaca plants damaged. However, the Portulaca had considerable resistance, and revived
and produced a fairly good seed-crop. He plans to use 2-4-D at the rate of one-half
pound to 80 gallons of water on all Portulaca next year. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947.
R 73
"Arrangements are being made for a few growers to try out a 2-per-cent. sulphuric-
acid spray on onions in 1948, and pre-emergent sprays on carrots and a number of other
crops with both oil and 2-4-D."
Table-corn Variety Trials.
These trials were under the supervision of E. W. White, District Horticulturist,
Vancouver Island, who reports as follows:—
" In 1946 four varieties of table-corn were secured from J. L. Webster—namely,
Marcross, Spancross, Earligold, and King's Cross Bantam. These were tried out last
year by E. C. Gillingham, R.M.D. 4, Victoria, and reported on. The results were
promising, and Mr. Gillingham continued the test this year and added two more
varieties which he secured himself.    The following is a summary of the results:—
Variety.
Number of
Rows.
Length of
Row.
Number of
Hills.
Number of
Ears.
Approximate
Average Ears
per Hill.
Spancross	
1
1
%
%
2
1
3
2.
4
Ft.
360
360
180
180
720
360
900
600
1,200
270
270
135
135
540
270
675
450
900
440
502
250
200
1,022
507
1,343
766
1,810
1.60
1.80
1.80
1.50
1.90
1.90
1.90
1.70
2.00
Totals	
15
4,860
3,645
6,840
1.87
Rows 1 to 9 planted April 26th, 1947;   rows 10 to 15 planted May 11th, 1947.
" The rows were spaced 3 feet apart, hills 16 inches in the row, two seeds to a hill
planted at a depth of 2 inches. Three cultivations were given, and furrows made after
the last cultivation for irrigation purposes. The plot was watered regularly throughout the season. A mixture of half muriate of potash and half sulphate of ammonia
was applied as a side dressing at the rate of 2 tablespoons per hill. One row had
muriate of potash alone and one sulphate of ammonia alone. There was no apparent
difference.    No thinning or stripping of undersized ears or suckers was done.
" The Spancross was early and very promising. Earligold was also promising.
Marcross was not so satisfactory, and King's Cross Bantam was later and produced
long, thin ears. Golden Cross Bantam was very satisfactory. First picking from early
planted plot was on August 15th and was completed September 1st. Picking from
second plot began September 1st and was completed September 18th.
" The 6,840 ears were all No. 1 and sold at an average price of 32 cents per dozen.
In addition, there were 1,536 small ears which were marketed for canning at 10 cents
per dozen."
Pear-scab Control.
The pear-scab control-work was undertaken in Salmon Arm and under the direction of M. P. D. Trumpour, District Field Inspector, in co-operation with the Dominion
Science Service office at Summerland.    Mr. Trumpour reports as follows:—
" As the Fermate-Sulforon spray materials had been established for the control
of apple-scab, it was felt that these materials should be tested for the control of pear-
scab on Flemish Beauty pears. Accordingly, an experiment was drawn up and carried
out.    Details of this project are presented as follows :—
" Orchard Site.—F. Turner orchard, Lakeshore Road, Salmon Arm.
"Plot.—Twelve Flemish Beauty pear-trees were selected and sprayed; one tree
was selected for a check and was not sprayed. R 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" Spray Materials.—Fermate (ferric dimethyl dithio carbamate) and Sulforon
(wettable sulphur) at the rate of 1 lb. of Fermate plus 3 lb. of Sulforon per 100 gallons
of water.
" Procedure.—The twelve trees were sprayed with a Hardie 23 conventional sprayer
on the following dates: Delayed dormant, April 14th; pink, May 1st; calyx, May 15th;
cover, June 6th.
" Results—Fruit.—The fruit from the sprayed trees was put over the grader at
the Salmon Arm Farmers' Exchange, and culled pears were counted for pear-scab.
Of 7,730 pears, 59, or 0.77 per cent., had scab. The fruit from the unsprayed tree
was counted in the orchard. Of 109 pears, 109, or 100 per cent., had scab. In addition,
an estimated 200 pears from this tree became so badly infected with scab that these
pears dropped before harvest-time.
" Results—Foliage.—At harvest-time an estimated 20 per cent, of the foliage on
the sprayed trees had small scab infections; 100 per cent, of the foliage on the
unsprayed tree had scab.
" Grower's Comment.—' The use of Fermate-Sulforon leaves a smoother pear.
There is, too, less russetting of fruit, and what russetting there is, is smoother.'
" Conclusions.—The use of Fermate-Sulforon spray materials for the control of
pear-scab on Flemish Beauty pears is very promising. This program should be repeated
in the coming year before it is definitely recommended to growers."
Apple-mildew Control.
Apple-mildew is found in all the fruit-producing areas, and control sprays are
necessary in the production of high-grade fruit. While demonstration sprays were
applied in several districts, the work undertaken in the Penticton district may be considered as typical. As this work was supervised by R. P. Murray, District Field
Inspector, Penticton, his report is submitted in detail:—
" Following up the work of the past two years, the work was further extended this
season. The work was started in the green tip and continued until the calyx spray.
Of all the materials tried, lime-sulphur was the most satisfactory. Although a new
material, Polyethylene polysulphide, showed promise, unfortunately this material did
not arrive soon enough to be included in the whole spray schedule, and only one application was possible. This material was used at the rate of 1 quart per 100 gallons.
As this is new material, no directions or suggestions are given by the manufacturer.
There is one objection to it—the material has a most offensive smell, resembling
decayed mushrooms.
" Practically all the plots showed fruit reasonably free of mildew, but the foliage
in many plots was badly damaged, particularly where Phygon, .Puritize, and Zerlate
were used. Fermate gave a little better protection, but none of the materials used
throughout the spray schedule were as satisfactory as lime-sulphur. From some other
work done in previous years, it was thought that the addition of oil to the lime-sulphur
in the early sprays was of some benefit. From this year's results, no material difference was noted where oil was added to the lime-sulphur.
" The following are the tabulated results:—
" Sprays or Dusts applied, Hohenadel Orchard, Penticton.
" Spray No. 1: L.S., 3 gallons; oil, 1 gallon; water, 100 gallons.
" Spray No. 2: L.S., 3 gallons; oil, one-half gallon; water, 100 gallons.
" Spray No. 3: L.S., 4 gallons; water, 100 gallons.
" Spray No. 4: L.S., 1% gallons; water, 100 gallons.
" Spray No. 5: Microsul, 2 lb.; Cryolite, 4 lb.; water, 100 gallons.
" Spray No. 6: Fermate, 2 lb.; water, 100 gallons. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947.
R 75
" Spray No. 7: Zerlate, 2 lb.; water, 100 gallons.
" Spray No. 8: Phygon, 1 lb.; water, 100 gallons.
" Spray No. 9.: Puritize, 1-2,000.
" Spray No. 10: Polyethylene polysulphide, 2 pints; water, 100 gallons.
" Spray No. 11:  Stautter's dust (sulphur applied with Buffalo turbine).
" Schedule of Application to Various Trees in Different Plots.
Plot No.
Tree
No.
Dates of Application.
Infection
April 8.
April 17.
April 25.
May 14.
June 11.
on Fruit.
Spray No.
Spray No.
Spray No.
Spray No.
Spray No.
Per Cent.
I	
1
2
1
1
4
4
4
4
5
5
11
11
3.00
5.25
3
1
4
4
5
11
1.00
II	
1
2
2
2
4
4
4
4
5
5
11
11
2.00
2.50
3
2
4
4
5
11
1.50
4
2
4
5
11
4.00
5
2
4
5
11
6.50
Ill :	
1
3
4
4
5
11
4.75
2
3
4
4
5
11
2.50
3
3
4
4
5
11
5.00
4
3
4
4
5
11
9.50
IV	
1-9
1
2
4
6
6
6
4
6
6
4
6
6
11
6.50
V          ...          	
4.50
37.80
3
6
6
6
6
54.40
4
6
6
6
35.50
VI          	
1
2
7
7
7
7
7
7
57.00
68.30
3
7
7
7
7
76.60
4
7
7
7
7
70.90
VII          	
1
2
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
53.40
59.60
VIII	
1
2
9
9
9
9
9
9
38.90
62.80
IX	
1-14
4
11*
f   5.30f
{   1.60J
X    	
1
2
10
10
54.10
16.50
3
10
§
Check	
1
(Sprayed twice by grower.)
10.00
2
(Sprayed twice by grower.)
1            !
2.50
* Trees 1, 2, and 3.
t Tree 7.
t Tree 10.
§ No count."
Deblossoming Sprays.
As this project has been carried out for five years in the Vernon area under the
supervision of H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector, and as this is the last year for
this work, it would seem advisable to submit Mr. Evans' report :■—•
" This project has been an effort to establish the value of chemicals as thinning
agents at pre-blossom and blossom stages of development.
" The full co-operation of T. P. Hill, manager of the Coldstream Ranch, has been
deeply appreciated, particularly in providing the same block of trees annually for this
work.
" Materials used in 1947 were dinitro-ortho-cresol and dinitro-cyclo-hexylphenol.
The work was carried out by W. Baverstock and your assistant.
" One spray only was applied on May 6th. The period chosen was with trees 15
to 20 per cent, of the clusters in blossom.    The block was 80 per cent, full crop, with R 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
the balance of trees carrying a variable bloom. Weather was clear and quiet at
spraying-time.
" Blossom-kill and foliage-injury checked May 23rd. Thinning results checked
June 10th and August 27th.
"Plot 1: Dinitro-ortho-cresol 40 per Cent, at 2y2 Lb. per 100 Gallons.—Blossom-
kill poor to fair. Foliage-injury very slight, no spur-injury. Thinning results fair,
clusters much too bunchy.    Fruit-size medium to large.
"Plot 2: Dinitro-ortho-cresol 40 per Cent, at 3 Lb. per 100 Gallons.—Blossom-kill
fair to good. Foliage-injury light, no spur-injury. Thinning results fair to good, too
much bunchiness.    Fruit-size medium to large.
"Plot 3: Dinitro-ortho-cresol 40 per Cent, at 3xh Lb. per 100 Gallons.—Blossom-
kill medium to heavy. Foliage-injury medium, very light spur-injury. Plot too heavily
thinned, some bunchiness.    Fruit-size medium to large.
"Plot 4: Dinitro-cyclo-hexylphenol 40 per Cent, at 3 Lb. per 100 Gallons.—
Blossom-kill poor, no foliage-injury;   crop set heavily.    Fruit-size small to medium.
"Plot 5: Dinitro-cyclo-hexylphenol 40 per Cent, at 4 Lb. per 100 Gallons.—
Blossom-kill fair, no foliage-injury, only slightly better thinning job than in Plot 4.
Fruit medium size.
" Check-plot: Untreated.—Two acres were left unsprayed and these set heavily.
Fruits on these trees were small to medium.
"All plots needed hand-thinning to a greater or less extent. Late thinning was
the main cause of lack of fruit size on heavily set trees. All sprayed trees showed
better foliage, size and colour, and more terminal growth than unsprayed trees.
" It is our intention to discontinue this project for the present, as information
gathered over the five years' work indicates the non-feasibility of adopting a general
grower recommendation for this type of crop-thinning. This method would be of
definite value to growers with large blocks of the Duchess or Wealthy varieties. Over
the full period of this project the block maintained far better annual bearing habit
than the grower's untreated blocks."
Apple-scab Control.
Apple-scab is a serious handicap in many districts to the production of high-grade
fruit. This is particularly true in the Kootenay area. E. C. Hunt, District Horticulturist for the Kootenays, reports on apple-scab control work in that section:—
" This disease was prevalent this season in many sections of the district, and is
still the No. 1 disease that the fruit-growers of the Kootenay have to deal with. One
of the main factors that makes the disease difficult to keep under control is shortage
of good spray equipment in many sections of the Kootenay area. With good spraying
equipment and where growers have put on the recommended sprays as to time and
thoroughness of application, the results on the whole have been satisfactory in the
control of this disease. It is not so much the question of materials recommended as it
is the application of these materials. The Mcintosh is the most susceptible variety,
but with this variety in one of the worst scab areas in the Kootenay where the recommended sprays were thoroughly applied the pack-out in the orchard on Mcintosh was
87 per cent. Extra Fancy, and little, if any, scab could be found on the remaining 13
per cent, of the 1947 crop. The recommended apple-scab control spray for the Kootenay
District for the past few years has been lime-sulphur 1% gallons, calcium arsenate
4 lb., and water to make 100 gallons, and four applications are necessary for most
varieties grown here in the Kootenay District, the exception being Cox's Orange,
Jonathan, and Ontario.    On these varieties usually three applications will give good DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 77
control of the disease. Indications are that for the 1948 season some changes in the
recommendations for the control of apple-scab will be made for some sections of the
district, if not for all. This is brought about by the use of D.D.T. in the spray schedule
for the control of codling-moth and the introduction of some new materials that have
proven quite effective in the control of apple-scab in other sections of the Province.
Some of the wettable sulphurs in combination with Fermate have been suggested, as
they are easier on foliage than lime-sulphur. It is not likely, however, that lime-
sulphur will be eliminated from the spray schedule for the control of apple-scab altogether, but will be recommended for early scab sprays and at weaker strengths in
combination with some of the wettable sulphurs or Fermate for scab sprays after
■frit1  psil'v'y
Coryneum-blight Control.
The following covers the situation in the Kootenays as reported by E. C. Hunt,
District Horticulturist, Nelson :—
"This disease has become serious on peach and apricot trees in many sections of
the Kootenay District where these fruits are grown. The disease attacks the fruit-
buds, spurs, small twigs and limbs, and in severe cases some of the large limbs are
infected. The disease also causes spotting and gumming of the fruit in severe infestations. Work on the control of this disease here in the Kootenay started in the fall
of 1946. An orchard was selected near Nelson for the experiment. The experiment is
a co-operative one—British Columbia Department of Agriculture, Horticultural Branch,
and the Dominion Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Science Service, Summerland, B.C.
The age of the trees sprayed ranged from 2 to 12 years old. In this orchard twenty-
six peach-trees and eight apricot-trees were sprayed. Check, unsprayed trees, eleven
peaches and eight apricots. The material used was Bordeaux mixture 6-6-40 for fall
application and 4-4-40 for spring application. The trees were first sprayed on September 23rd in 1946, followed by a spring application on April 14th, 1947. Another
fall application was made this year on the trees on September 23rd. A number of
inspections were made of the orchard and trees during the growing season and of the
fruit at picking-time. There was quite a marked difference in the appearance of the
trees that were sprayed over the unsprayed ones; much less infestation of the disease
on the spurs and small twigs and branches in the sprayed plots than on the unsprayed
trees; the foliage also had a much healthier look where the trees had been sprayed than
on the check trees. These control sprays reduced the spotting and gumming of the
fruit to a very large extent, and the sprayed trees carried a much heavier crop than
the unsprayed trees. Further observations will be made next year on the control
sprays, and it is hoped by that time some general recommendation can be made to the
growers in the Kootenay District for the control of this disease."
Control of Grey-streak of Narcissi.
As reported by G. E. W. Clarke, District Horticulturist, Abbotsford:—
" Further observations were made again this year in conjunction with R. J. Hastings and J. Bosher on the bulb-farm of J. Everett & Sons, Port Kells.
" It has been demonstrated that by careful roguing and selection of mother bulbs
that the grey-streak disease can be practically eliminated. By careful selection, started
in 1944, these growers have practically eliminated the disease from their foundation
stock.
" Severe roguing of all bulbs showing grey-streak of the foliage is essential, otherwise the disease becomes general throughout the planting, increasing quite rapidly.
Affected bulbs do not size, due to the foliage drying up early in the season.
" This work has emphasized the necessity of growers selecting and building up
a good foundation stock." R 78 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Control of Buffalo Tree-hopper.
The control-work with regard to this insect has been carried on for three years
in the Vernon district and with three varieties of apples—namely, Mcintosh, Jonathan,
and Delicious. This control project has been under the supervision of H. H. Evans,
District Field Inspector, Vernon, who reports as follows:—•
" The block consisted of three 1-acre plots of 9-year-old trees.
" There had been considerable injury to these trees by the tree-hopper in previous
years. The cover-crop was alfalfa. D.D.T. at 2 lb. per 100 gallons of water was used
at each spray period.
" Plot 1: Spring application, May 16th.
" Plot 2:  Spring application, May 16th; fall application, September 8th.
" Plot 3: Fall application, September 8th.
" Emergence of the nymphs commenced May 24th. On September 8th adults or
egg incisions were not observable. At date of checking trees, on October 6th, egg
incisions were in evidence, but no adults, indicating that oviposition was finished and
the life-cycle completed.
" Though many trees were checked for incisions, an insufficient number was
observed to make comparative or reliable counts. In checking the grower-sprayed
block, a few more incisions were noticeable, but not sufficient to even consider from an
economic standpoint.
" The conclusion drawn from the scarcity of insects was that the growers' codling-
moth spray program of D.D.T. applications, from the first cover spray on, resulted in
almost complete control of the nymphs at the spring emergence period. This theory
will be checked in 1948 if an infested block of younger trees is available where your
officials can obtain complete control of the spray program."
Codling-moth Control.
Codling-moth has for the past twenty years been an increasing item of expense
in the modern orchard practices as undertaken in the tree-fruit districts of this
Province. Control has been variable, depending on the material used and thoroughness of application.
With the introduction of D.D.T., control seems much more hopeful, and the results
of the trial-work which has been undertaken this past season are most encouraging.
A great deal of this control-work has been under the supervision of B. Hoy, District
Field Inspector, Kelowna. Mr. Hoy's report covering the past season's work is herewith submitted:—
" The past two years have been unfavourable to codling-moth development. Owing
to the cool season and the increased use of D.D.T. there were less culls from codling-
moth injury than at any time in the past fifteen years. The insecticides in use were
Cryolite, D.D.T., and D.D.T. combined with Xanthone.
" Cryolite, where well applied, gave excellent results, but the results generally
with D.D.T. or D.D.T. plus Xanthone were spectacular in many instances, and indications are that it will replace other insecticides in codling-moth sprays.
" Spraying tests were carried on in Keloka Orchards again this year. These tests
again demonstrated the superiority of D.D.T. over other insecticides for codling-moth
control. Both D.D.T. and D.D.T. plus Xanthone gave excellent results. Detailed
results are as follows:—
" Procedure.
"1. Variety; Mature Mcintosh trees.
" 2. Fifty trees in block.
" 3. Average number of gallons per tree, 35. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947.
R 79
"4. Dates of application: First cover, May 19th; second cover, May 28th; third
cover, June 11th;  fourth cover, July 4th;   fifth cover, August 4th.
" 5. Five hundred apples from each tree were checked at harvest.
" 6. Infestation in 1945, over 50 per cent.; infestation in 1946, with D.D.T., 3 per
cent.    Check, 8.5 per cent.
" Table No. 1.—Infestation of Individual Trees in Plots.
Plot.
Materials per 100 Gallons of Spray.
Tree.
Boxes.
Worms.
Stings.
Per Cent.
Per Cent.
1
D.D.T. 50% W., 2 lb. in 1st and 2nd covers ; Xanthone, 2 lb. in
1
44
0.00
0.20
3rd, 4th, and 5th covers
2
36
0.00
0.00
3
27
0.80
0.20
5
30
0.00
0.20
5
46
0.20
0,20
0.15
2
D.D.T. 50% W., 1 lb. in 1st and 2nd covers ; Xanthone, 2 lb. in
0.20
3rd, 4th, and 5th covers
3
14
0.40
. 0.20'
2
18
0.60
0.00
1
34
0.00
0.20
7
39
0.30
o.oo
0.15
3
D.D.T.  50% W.,  2 lb.  in  5 covers,  plus D.N.  Ill,   %  lb.  in
0.00
3rd, 4th, and 5th covers
8
45
0.00
0.20
9
26
0.00
0.20
Average	
10
56
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.10
4
D.D.T.  50% W.,  1  lb.  in 5 covers, plus D.N.  Ill,   %  lb.  in
10
40
0.20
0.00
3rd, 4th, and 5th covers
9
44
0.00
0.80
8
28
0.00
0.00
7
25
0.00
0.20
0.05
0.25
5
Cryolite, 4 lb.;   monoethanolamine oleate, % lb.;   oil, \k gal. in
1
27
1.20
1.20
5 covers
7
14
0.40
1.00
9
17
2.60
3.80
10
14
0.50
3.20
1.20
2.30
6
D.D.T. 50% W., 1 lb. in 5 covers ;   Z 1 spreader, % lb. ;   plus
10
23
0.00
0.60
D.N. Ill in 3rd, 4th, and 5th covers
9
36
0.40
0.20
6
27
0.60
0.20
3
6
0.20
0.00
1
48
0.00
0.60
0.24
0.32
7
D.D.T. 50% W., 2 lb. in 5 covers, plus D.N. Ill, % lb. in 3rd,
4th, and 5th covers
1
45
0.00
0.00
2
13
0.20
0.20
3
9
0.20
0.20
9
29
0.00
0.20
10
12
0.00
0.20
0.08
0.16 Table No. 2.—Summary of Results.
Plot.
Materials per 100 Gallons of Spray.
Cover
Sprays.
Worms.
Stings.
Clean
Fruit.
1
D.D.T. 50% W., 2 lb	
1, 2
3,4,5
1, 2
3, 4, 5
1, 2
3,4,5
1, 2
3,4, 5
1,2
3, 4, 5
1, 2
3,4,5
1,2
3, 4, 5
Per Cent.
0.20
0.30
0.00
0.05
1.20
0.24
0.08
Per Cent.
0.15
0.15
0.10
0.25
2.30
0.32
0.16
Per Cent.
99.60
2
D.D.T. 50% W., 1 lb	
99 50
3
D.D.T. 50% W., 2 lb	
Plus D.N. Ill, % lb	
99 90
4
D.D.T. 50% W., 1 lb	
Plus D.N. Ill, % lb ;	
5
Cryolite, 4 lb.; monoethanolamine, .4 lb.; oil, y2 gal.
6
D.D.T. 50% W., 1 lb., plus S 1 spreader, % lb	
96.50
Plus D.N. Ill, % lb	
7
D.D.T. 50% W., 2 _b :. i.
Plus D.N. Ill, % lb	
99.76
" Comments on Results.
" 1. Worms and stings practically nil in all D.D.T.-sprayed plots.
"2. No marked difference in worm-control between plots sprayed with two sprays
of D.D.T. and three of Xanthone, or between those sprayed with 1 lb. of D.D.T. and 2 lb.
" 3. All plots show better worm-control than the check.
" 4. The low infestation on the check may be due to the season or to the general
lowering of codling-moth population by the balance of the block being sprayed with
D.D.T. in 1946-47, or both. Previous to using D.D.T. an infestation of no more than
8 per cent, was considered good control with Cryolite."
European Red-mite Control.
A report on this project as carried out by Messrs. Hoy and Wilson, of the Kelowna
office, is herewith submitted:-^
"Purpose of work: To examine the effects of various insecticides on European
red-mite.
"Investigators: Messrs. Hoy and Wilson, British Columbia Department of Agriculture.
" Place and date:  Keloka Orchards, East Kelowna, 1947.
" Variety and age: Delicious, over 20 years.
"Materials and sources of supply: Hexaphos (hexaethyl tetra phosphate) from
Shanahan's, Vancouver; D.N. Dry Mix No. 1 (dinitro-cyclo-hexylphenol 40 per cent.)
from Commercial Chemicals, Vancouver; dinitro-cyclo-hexylphenol (technical) from
Commercial Chemicals, Vancouver; am. salt of dinitro-cresol from Charles Oliver,
Penticton;  monoethanolamine, local supply.
" Equipment:  Hardie 20 G.P.M. pump on truck with power take-off, 500 to 550 lb.
" Conditions and Procedure.
" 1. There was a heavy carry-over of mite eggs, resulting in early infestation.
Two rows of trees were used in the experiment, each plot consisting of ten trees, five
in each row, with a check-plot of four trees.
" 2. At the time of the first spray application, mites were very numerous and
yellowing of leaves was in evidence. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947.
R 81
" 3. Four sprays were applied on each plot and combined with 1 lb. of D.D.T.
"4. Spray dates: First cover, May 22nd; second cover, June 4th; third cover,
June 30th;  fourth cover, July 31st.
" 5. Seasonal conditions: Season appeared to be favourable for red-mite development.    Infestation was the heaviest ever experienced in this orchard.
" 6. Checking: No mite counts were made, but trees were observed throughout the
summer and differences between check and grower-sprayed trees were so great that
little more information as to the comparative effect of the sprays applied could have
been gained by long, tedious mite counts. Apples were checked for size from the
check-plot and also those sprayed with dinitro compounds and hexaphos.
" Results.
" Spray-injury: No damage to the crop was experienced from any of these sprays,
but there was a yellowing and dropping of small primary leaves about the end of
September on the dinitro-sprayed plots which did not appear on the checks or hexaphos
plots. This dropping of leaves was so slight that it would have no effect on the trees
or future crops.
"Table No. 1.
Plot.
Material per 100 gallons of Spray.
Control.
Average No.
of Apples
per Box.
1
D.D.T. 50% W., 1 lb. ;  40% dinitro-cyclo-hexylphenol, 5 oz. ;  monoethanolamine, 1 oz.
D.D.T.   50%   W.,   1   lb.;   dinitro-cyclo-hexylphenol   (technical),   2  oz. ;
monoethanolamine, 1 oz.
Check—D.D.T. 50% W	
70
2
72
3
No control	
121
4
Am.  dinitro-cresolate,  4 oz.   1st and 2nd cover;   last 2 covers as  in
Plot 1
Hexaphos:   Hexaethyltetra phosphate, 1 pt. in first 2 covers and yz pt.
in last 2 covers
96
5
Excellent and good
control, woolly
aphis
84
" Discussion.
" In Table No. 1 it will be noted that control in Plot Nos. 1, 2, and 5 was excellent
and fair in Plot No. 4. Though control in Plot No. 4 is only fair, it perhaps demonstrated the effectiveness of mono-dinitro-cyclo-hexylphenol better than any other plot.
Am. dinitro-cresolate applied on May 22nd and June 4th, and mites continued to increase
as rapidly as in the check-plot. Because of this mono-dinitro-cyclo-hexylphenol was
used on June 30th, and-mite infestation was immediately reduced and the trees
recovered to a greater extent than anticipated.
" The size of apples indicated by the number per box shows fairly closely the degree
of mite-control. It also has been believed by some investigators that dinitro compounds, when sprayed on trees, influence growth and increase size. An attempt was
made to see if this was the case in this test, but while Plot Nos. 1 and 2 do indicate
a larger size than in No. 5 owing to the variable set of fruit and generally lighter crop
on No. 1 and No. 2, it is not a true indication of any effect of the material on size
because mite-control was excellent in all three plots. The smaller size in Plot No. 4
and the check is definitely caused by increased mite damage."
San Jose Scale Control.
The spread of San Jose scale is increasing, and now it is found in all of the southern
fruit-growing districts of the Okanagan and also at scattered points in the Northern
Okanagan and certain Kootenay districts as well. R 82
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The control of this scale is not difficult if the recommendations are followed and
a thorough application of the recommended sprays is made. The Departmental recommendations are as follows: Lime-sulphur, 4 gallons; dormant oil (200-220 viscosity),
2 gallons (actual oil);   water, 100 gallons.    To be applied during the dormant period.
A thorough application of the above spray every three years would so reduce the
infestation that it would be difficult to find it on fruit that is being packed.
On the other hand, if growers do not take the necessary measures to control this
scale, it will mean that such fruit will be refused export certificates and may even
result, in the case of severe infestations, in such fruit only being marketed through
the juice-factories.
Lime-sulphur alone may be used as a dormant spray with satisfactory results.
Some work has been done in the control of San Jose scale in the Oliver-Osoyoos district
by J. A. Smith, District Field Inspector, who reports as follows:—
" This experiment was a continuation of similar work carried out in Osoyoos in
1945 and 1946 to determine means of controlling San Jose scale and observation of
spray-damage.
" The orchard selected was owned by William McConnachie. The spray-machine
was tractor-drawn with power take-off, with two guns with No. 8 disks, and approximately 500 lb. pressure per square inch.
"The orchard had about a 10-per-cent. fruit infestation of scale in 1946 after one
dormant lime-sulphur spray. The entire orchard, except for the experimental plots,
was sprayed by the owner with two dormant lime-sulphur sprays—12 gallons in 100—
about two weeks apart in the spring of 1947.
" The owner sprayed the entire orchard with D.D.T., except for a portion of the
experimental plot, as a summer control for codling-moth. One plot of the experimental
block was sprayed with Cryolite, 4 lb., and summer oil, one-half gallon. The purpose
of the Cryolite spray was to determine if summer applications of D.D.T. would control
San Jose scale.
" The trees were 18 years old, of the Delicious variety.
" The dormant spray was applied March 11th, 12 to 15 gallons per tree in favourable weather.    There were no check-plots because of the owner's fear of infestation.
" Materials used and description follow:—Benzene hexachloride, 6 per cent, gamma
(50 per cent, lignin pitch); petroleum, heavy western dormant (200-220 S.S.U. over
55 per cent. U.R.); petroleum, light mid-continent dormant (110 S.S.U., 65 per cent.
U.R.); petroleum, 96 per cent, emulsive high paraffin (100-110 S.S.U., unknown U.R.);
lime-sulphur, 1.28 S.G.;   soya flour.
" Mixtures by Plots and Effects on Bud-development.
Plot.
Materials per 100 Gallons of Spray.
Effect on Buds at
Pink Stage.
Benzene hexachloride, % lb. gamma ; petroleum, heavy western, 2 gal.
Petroleum, heavy western, 4 gal.; soya flour, 1 lb	
Petroleum, light mid-continent, 4 gal.; soya flour, 1 lb	
Petroleum, emulsive high paraffin, 4 gal	
Petroleum, heavy western, 1 gal.; lime-sulphur, 3 gal.; soya flour, 1 lb.
Petroleum, heavy western, 1 gal.; lime-sulphur, 4 gal.; soya flour, 1 lb.
Lime-sulphur, 12 gal	
No delayed buds.
Slight bud delay.
Considerable bud delay;
no economic loss.
Considerable bud delay;
no economic loss.
No bud delay.
No bud delay.
No bud delay.
" Plot Nos. 1 to 6, inclusive, were sprayed by the grower with D.D.T. for summer
control of codling-moth. Plot No. 7 was sprayed with Cryolite, 4 lb., and summer oil,
one-half gallon per 100 gallons. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 83
"The fruit was examined at picking-time—September 12th. There was.not sufficient scale in any plot to warrant a count being taken, the infection being probably
0.01 per cent."
Pear-psylla Control.
In the control of pear-psylla the recommendations as shown in the Departmental
spray calendar should be followed carefully. R. P. Murray, District Field Inspector, in
his annual report, deals with the question of pear-psylla control, based upon work
undertaken during the past season.    The report follows:—
" Because of the increase in pear-psylla in the district it was felt that the work
done on this insect the previous year should be repeated. A block of approximately
fifty mature Anjou trees that were quite heavily infested in 1946 were divided into two
lots. Plot No. 1 received dormant oil (220 viscosity) at 4 gallons per 100 gallons.
The other plot received dormant oil (220 viscosity) plus iy2 lb. of 40-per-cent. dinitro-
cyclo-hexylphenol. The spray was applied March 24th. The results, as in the previous
year, were quite satisfactory, no psylla being detected until early July, and these
probably came from adjacent orchards where no control measures had been undertaken
earlier in the season.    There was no sign of any oil-injury.
"Among the new spray materials introduced this season was an emulsified pyrethrum
that was highly recommended by the manufacturers for the control of pear-psylla. It
arrived quite late but was tried against a rotenone-oil product that has been giving very
good results. An orchard with a rather severe infestation was chosen, and the two
materials were applied August 20th. Each plot contained twenty-five trees each. Both
materials gave excellent kills, but no material difference was noted on checking the
results. Since the new material is rather high-priced and no more effective than
rotenone-oil, and neither of them as effective as benzene hexachloride, it is not likely
to be widely used, but would be useful if supplies of other materials for pear-psylla
control were short."
Tarnished Plant-bug Control.
This project was undertaken in the Peachland and Summerland areas by A. W.
Watt, District Field Inspector, Summerland, in co-operation with officials of the
Dominion Science Service (Entomological Laboratory).   Mr. Watt reports as follows:—
" Two 1-acre blocks of peaches were selected for this work—one in Summerland
(F. R. Ganzeveld, owner) and one in Peachland (G. Birklund, owner). Both these
blocks showed heavy damage from cat-facing the previous year. Suitable check-plots
were selected in each case.
" On April 17th, when the peaches were in the pre-pink state, these blocks were
dusted with B.H.C. and D.D.T., using the Buffalo turbine duster. Dr. James Marshall
operated the machine, your assistant co-operating. The materials used were: At
Peachland—(a) 3-per-cent. D.D.T. in talc and (6) 3-per-cent. D.D.T. in pyrophyllite;
at Summerland—(a) 3-per-cent. D.D.T. as above and (6) benzene hexachloride, 2-percent, gamma isomer, in diatomaceous earth.
" In each case about 80 lb. of the dust was applied per acre. Dusting was with the
jet aimed at the cover-crop.    A very good coverage was obtained.
" Unfortunately results were negative. At picking-time the fruit was checked by
H. Richardson and J. Proverbs of the Entomological Laboratory, with your assistant
helping. Cat-facing in the treated plots ran slightly higher than in the checks. However, Mr. Birklund reported that at thinning-time the treated plot had far less cat-faces
than in the previous season. Apparently the results had been masked by the thinners,
who automatically would take off as much of the cat-faced fruit as possible at thinning-
time.
" These tests showed promise and should be repeated, with results being checked
at thinning-time as well as at harvest." R 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
THE USE OF MULCHING MATERIAL IN FRUIT PRODUCTION.
There is an increasing interest being taken in the use of mulching material in the
production of both small and tree fruits. Some tree-fruit growers have made a notable
success in the use of straw and alfalfa as a mulch in their orchards. The chief difficulty
lies in securing satisfactory material at a reasonable cost. Where it has been used,
there has been a noticeable improvement in tree-growth, moisture conservation, and
soil-texture.
In the case of small-fruit growers, those who have used many different materials
are satisfied that it tends to improve growing conditions generally. A number of
growers on Vancouver Island are using a mulch in the production of small fruits.
E. W. White, District Horticulturist, Victoria, has reported on this work for the past
two years.   The following is from his report on this matter for the current year:—
"As this subject of mulching material continues to interest many growers, some
further observations may be of interest.
" The grower in Gordon Head mentioned last year with the very excellent yield
from one-eighth acre of Latham raspberries in 1945, and who had a reduced yield in
1946 due to the very wet winter of 1945-46, brought his patch back this year to yield
almost as much as in 1945.    Mulching material of old hay and straw was again used.
" The Duncan grower, some of whose operations were reported on last year, has
again extended his mulching program, using almost entirely sawdust as the mulching
material. Practically all small-fruit plantings are now mulched with sawdust. The
results to date have been excellent, and no detrimental effects have been observed.
The ease with which young strawberry plants were dug this spring on the mulched
area was very noticeable.    Growth of young plants was excellent.
" The Saanich grower who had such an excellent crop of strawberries in 1945 and
1946 on a mulched area of about 1*4 acres, this year harvested a third crop. Part of
the area, about half an acre, got out of control, but on the balance a rototiller was used
to work up the mulch between the rows in the spring; and the large weeds in the rows
were removed as well as possible with a hook fork.   The yield approximated 3,500 lb.
" This grower made a new planting of about a quarter of an acre this spring.
It was kept clean cultivated until about a month ago, when it was mulched with sawdust.
"Another Saanich grower who mulched a %-acre planting of loganberries in the
spring of 1946 with sawdust still has the planting under mulch. While the crop this
year was not as large as in 1946, this condition was general throughout the district.
Cane-growth has been good, and no detrimental effects are noticeable.
" This grower also planted a sawdust-mulched area on November 16th and 17th,
1946, with 2,500 strawberry plants. This planting went through one of the worst
winters experienced for several years, but still came through and made relatively
good growth this spring. About 2,500 plants in the same plot were planted this spring,
and they also have made satisfactory growth. A comparison between the fall-planted
and spring-planted area will be made next spring and summer.
" One grower in Saanich has this fall started contour-strip farming in a small way
on his property. He has recently ploughed down a heavy sod. He hopes to prevent
a good deal of erosion by using the contour strips instead of a square or oblong block."
FRUIT-TREE THINNING.
With the increase in size of trees in the usual tree-fruit plantings, and particularly
in apples, the question of thinning of trees is a problem that is confronting many
growers. This subject has been well dealt with by J. A. Smith, District Field Inspector,
Oliver, and as the situation in that district is typical of many other Okanagan districts,
his report on this matter is submitted:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 85
" Practically all apple-trees in this area were planted 30 by 30 feet on the square,
usually with a filler in the centre.    In the older orchards the fillers have almost all
been eliminated.   However, in many cases the remaining trees are becoming crowded.
" This condition has several disadvantages, the chief ones being:—
" (1)  Much of the fruit is grown in the shade and fails to colour.    This contributes largely to the heavy percentage of Cee grade fruit, especially
on the Delicious and Mcintosh varieties.
" (2) The trees grow into each other and pruning consists largely of heading
back.   The most vigorous fruiting spurs are on younger wood, but within
overcrowded orchards this wood is largely eliminated by the continual
heading back, and fruiting is confined to the older, weaker spurs.    Heading back also causes a brushy growth where the cut is made,  and
this increases the already heavy shade and entails more time pruning the
following year.
" (3)  In overcrowded orchards it is difficult to carry on many orchard operations
because of the interference of the trees.    This is especially true of
spraying.
" (4)  Some insects, especially Pacific mite, seem to thrive under shade, more so
than when the trees are reasonably spaced.
" In an attempt to correct this condition, several growers in this area last winter
experimented in a small way with tree-removal.    In all cases they are enthusiastic with
the results obtained.
" The procedure followed in a 30-by-30 foot planting on the square was to remove
the trees in every second diagonal row. The remaining trees are approximately 42 feet
on the square, with the rows running diagonally to the original planting.
" This procedure removes half the trees, and naturally the actual tonnage the first
year is not much more than half of what it formerly was. In tests conducted elsewhere
in the Okanagan and in the State of Washington, the former tonnage is not obtained
until the third year. There are advantages obtained, however, that largely compensate
for this lack of tonnage in the first two years.
" There is an immediate up-swing in the percentage of higher-grade apples.
Operating expenses in the orchard are reduced, for there are only one-half the trees to
prune, thin, spray, and pick. Spray-machines can move through the orchard with
greater ease, and trees may be more thoroughly sprayed, with a consequent reduction
in the loss from insects and disease.
"As a result of the past season's experience, many growers plan to carry on
tree-thinning to a greater extent this season."
LITTLE CHERRY.
Little cherry was first found in the Willow Point area of the Kootenays, but is now
general throughout all the fruit-growing sections of the Kootenay. This virus trouble
will be dealt with in detail by W. R. Foster, Assistant Plant Pathologist, in his annual
report. In view, however, of the fact that this subject has been reported on in the past
by officials of the Horticultural Branch, it would seem advisable to again deal briefly
with this subject. A summary of the present situation is submitted by E. C. Hunt,
District Horticulturist, Nelson:—
"An intensive survey of the entire district for little-cherry disease was carried on
in June by officials of the Dominion and Provincial Departments of Agriculture.
Every cherry-tree in the area was inspected. Although several suspected trees were
located, none was positively identified as having little cherry. It was recommended
that one tree be removed. This particular tree had suffered from winter-injury, and
this quite likely was the reason for the type of fruit it bore.   The tree has been removed. R 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
"A disease known as ' small bitter cherry' is also present. It is very similar in
appearance to little cherry, and it serves to confuse the issue."
AGRICULTURAL LIME.
The matter of agricultural lime was fully dealt with in the report of this Branch
for 1946. At that time it was pointed out that the demand exceeded the supply. During
the past year the supply has greatly improved. In many cases during the current year,
manufacturers were holding agricultural lime in storage pending orders from distributers. The following table shows the quantities of lime used for soil-amendment purposes
during the years 1944, 1945, and 1946, and for eleven months in 1947:—
Tons.
January 1st to December 31st, 1944     3,830.55
January 1st to December 31st, 1945     5,210.67
January 1st to December 31st, 1946     5,636.86
January 1st to November 30th, 1947  12,767.38
Total 1  27,445.46
PUBLICATIONS, CROP ESTIMATES, AND REPORTS.
Horticultural publications, as prepared by officials of the Horticultural Branch,
have been revised and reissued as was necessary.
The Horticultural News Letter was again issued under the supervision of M. S.
Middleton, District Horticulturist, Vernon, from the Vernon office. The News Letter
covers the period from May 17th to September 20th and was mailed every two weeks.
Approximately 350 copies of each issue were sent out on each mailing-date. In addition
to current reports covering each district, the News Letter also covered crop estimates
for small fruits, tree-fruits, and vegetables:
Fruit estimates independent of the estimates appearing in the News Letter were
also issued on the 15th of the months of June, July, August, and September, with a final
revision of tree-fruit figures on the 1st of November.
Your officials also obtained and made available to the Statistics Branch the final
fruit, vegetable, and seed production figures for the previous year.
REPORT OF PLANT PATHOLOGIST.
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc, Plant Pathologist.
Special-delivery tags to the number of 1,489 were issued for shipments from the
Prairie Provinces, or about the same as last year. Returns have been made on 1,250
of them. Of the orders shipped under these, 390 contained ornamentals, 168 small
fruits, 100 fruit-trees, 518 bulbs, 76 rhubarb, 73 asparagus, 43 potato-eyes, 43 onion-
sets, and 18 caragana. It was noted that several new Prairie nurseries have begun to
ship into the Province since the end of the war.
In addition, 72 untagged shipments were inspected at Vancouver. These were
mostly small shipments, many being private ones of garden or house plants. There
were, however, a good number of small commercial shipments of raspberries and
strawberries, the latter being carefully examined for red stele, no symptoms of which
were found. There was one shipment of 280 lb. of peony roots and a large number of
caragana plants for the Interior. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 87
In contrast to the preceding year, express shipments of potatoes were only \x/2
sacks. These tubers, in two shipments, were small in size and probably intended for
seed.    Both were from Alberta and showed no signs of bacterial ring-rot.
ECOLOGICAL SURVEYS.
As extensive soil-surveys were to be undertaken in the eastern districts of the
Province, in connection with irrigation and other land-development schemes, it was
thought desirable that some study should be made of the natural vegetation, as an
indicator of climatic and soil conditions. The months of June and July were therefore
spent on this work, first in the Creston district, and later in the Rocky Mountain Trench
from the Montana Boundary to Golden, with some less detailed observations along the
Big Bend Highway on the return journey.
A brief summary of these observations is given here, while more detailed reports
have been, or are being, prepared for the officials chiefly concerned.
Creston District.
The natural vegetation of the bench-lands is basically that of the less arid subdivisions of the Arid Transition Zone. Pronounced xerophytes, such as sage-brush
{Artemisia tridentata), cactus (Opuntia), and rabbit-brush (Chrysothamnus), so
conspicuous in the region around Kamloops and in the Southern Okanagan, are absent.
Most of the area appears to fall within the Montane Forest Zone, as given by Spilsbury
and Tisdale for the Tranquille Range. In that area this zone is given as occurring
at an elevation of 3,200 to 4,000 feet, but owing to greater precipitation in the Creston
district, it descends here to a lower altitude. (The altitudes of the C.P.R. stations of
Creston and Erickson are given as 1,987 and 2,112 feet respectively; the precipitation
for the months of April to September, inclusive, is 7.04 inches for Creston, as compared
with 5.54 for Kamloops and 5.32 for Kelowna.)
The change from the moister region of Kootenay Lake is well seen in driving from
Gray Creek to Creston, in the gradual, and apparently complete, replacement of white
pine (Pinus monticola) by the yellow or bull pine (P. ponderosa).
The area of settlement and its immediate vicinity have been intensively logged,
and in some cases burned over. As no virgin area was located, the exact nature of the
original cover can only be inferred. It is possible there may have been some natural
grassland in the Huscroft and Camp Lister areas, but on the whole the district would
appear to have been wooded, with thin shrub undergrowth, becoming denser as the
hill-slopes are ascended—for example, on Goat Mountain.
In general, Douglas fir is now the dominant tree, yellow pine having probably been
much more plentiful in the past, but extensively cut out. Western larch (Larix
occidentalis) is frequent; cedar, aspen, and birch occur in moister spots, and mountain
maple {Acer glabrum) and balsam (Abies grandis) occasionally.
The common shrubs are Oregon grape (Berberis aquifolium), mock orange (Phila-
delphus Lewisii), saskatoon (Amelanchier Florida), ninebark (Physocarpus pauciflorus),
roses, choke-cherry (Prunus demissa), bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), and snow-
berry (Symphoricarpos albus).
The herbaceous plants include such typical plants of the Dry Belt as slender
wheat-grass (Agropyron trachycaulum), three-spot lily (Calochortus apiculatus),
Heuchera glabella, Lupinus sericeus, balsam-root (Balsamorhiza sagittata), and Crepis
atribarba.
West Creston.
This is much moister than the rest of the Creston district, except the reclamation
area, partly from seepage from the Kootenay River and also, according to residents, from a greater rainfall. Very few of the typical Arid Transition plants were observed,
and the density of the tree and under-shrub cover is probably equal to 75 per cent, of
that of the Coastal Mainland.
The following trees, all indicative of moist conditions, are common: White pine,
spruce, hemlock (Tsuge heterophylla), alder (Alnus tenuifolia), yew (Taxus brevifolia)
and cascara (Rhamnus Purshiana) occasional. Of shrubs, swamp gooseberry (Ribes
lacustre), thimbleberry (Rubus parviflorus), and osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera)'
are common. Most of the herbaceous plants observed are wide-ranging species, found
also at the Coast. Especially noteworthy is the abundance of ferns as compared with
the bench-lands, several species being observed, all of which are also found at the Coast.
Rocky Mountain Trench.
The lower levels, up to about 3,500 feet elevation, appear to fall naturally into three
divisions, although the transition is gradual.
(a) Southern Section.—The area from the Montana Boundary north to and including Canal Flats, bounded by Cranbrook on the west and Elko on the east, forms a definite
vegetation zone. The type of vegetation is that of the Arid Transition, modified by
somewhat greater precipitation, with higher altitudes and severer winters than, for
example, the Central Okanagan. The precipitation for the months of April to September, inclusive, for Kelowna is 5.32 inches, as compared with 6.93 at Cranbrook and 6.19
at Newgate (Tobacco Plains).
Sage-brush (Artemisia tridentata) and cactus (Opuntia) do not occur, and rabbit-
brush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus) only here and there on hot, dry exposures. These
are all very constant features of the Kamloops and Okanagan areas.
1. Most of the area has been woodland, but extensive logging has changed much
of it. The characteristic tree is the yellow or bull pine, which is found throughout in
the drier situations. It ceases abruptly beyond Canal Flats, where it is abundant, but
only a few stragglers persist for 3 or 4 miles northwards. Where there is a little more
moisture, Douglas fir is abundant. On logged-off land, if there is sufficient moisture,
lodgepole pine (P. contorta) often succeeds^ sometimes forming almost pure stands.
With sufficient moisture Western larch and aspen occur, while along creeks spruce, both
white and Engelmann's, alder (Alnus tenuifolia), cottonwood, and willows are often
plentiful. The forest-cover is mostly open, with only a thin forest floor of dwarf shrubs
and grasses.    On the whole, it agrees with the " montane forest " formation.
The most characteristic shrub is the antelope bush (Purshia tridentata), which is
extremely abundant, extending north to a few miles south of Canal Flats. Individual
plants may not reach the size that they do in the Upper Sonoran Zone around Oliver
and Osoyoos, but the species is probably more numerous in individuals and extent of
range here than elsewhere in the Province. Other common shrubs are mock orange
(Philadelphus Lewisii), choke-cherry, roses, bearberry, and Western snowberry
(Symphoricarpos occidentalis).
2. While most of the area is, or has been, forest, there appear to be two districts
of climax grassland, with only scattered trees and shrubs. These are St. Mary's
Prairie, between Cranbrook and Marysville, and Tobacco Plains, adjoining the Montana
Boundary. Much of these prairies, especially at Tobacco Plains, has been excessively
overgrazed, and it is difficult to infer the original nature of the vegetation. However,
in certain small protected areas blue bunch-grass (Agropyron spicatum var. inerme)
was found to be the dominant grass, and it seems probable that at one time this was so
in most of these areas. Other abundant grasses are rough fescue (Festuca scabrella),
F. idahoensis (often dominant on St. Mary's Prairie), Koeleria cristata, Poa secunda,
and needle-grasses, especially Stipa comata and S. spartea var. curtiseta. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 89
Herbaceous plants commonly associated with these grasses include the three-spot
lily (Calochortus apiculatus), bitter-root (Lewisia rediviva), Heuchera glabella, avens
(Geum triflorum), Potentilla strigosa, harebell (Campanula rotundifolia), Antennaria
parvifolia, Arnica sororia, Erigeron concinnus, Gaillardia aristata, yellow aster
(Chrysopsis sp.), and goldenrod (Solidago decumbens).
On the whole, these prairies seem to correspond fairly well with the Middle and
Upper Grassland Zones as described by Spilsbury and Tisdale.
(b) Middle Section.—This extends from Canal Flats northwards to about Brisco.
The valley-floor is occupied by the Columbia and Windermere Lakes, and farther north
by extensive swamps and flood-meadows of the sluggish Columbia River. No study was
made of this semi-aquatic vegetation, as, having an abundance of moisture, it remains
fairly constant over large areas and bears little relation to land conditions. The benches
are mostly rather steep, with comparatively little level land. The vegetation, although
of the Arid Transition type, indicates a less arid condition than obtains in the southern
section, but this is probably due less to higher precipitation than to a more retentive
soil. (The average precipitation for the six months April to September is 6.94 inches
at Invermere, as against 6.19 inches at Newgate on the southern boundary.) The most
conspicuous feature of the forest-cover, as compared with the southern section, is the
absence of the bull or yellow pine (P. ponderosa), which thins out rapidly and ends
about 4 miles north of Canal Flats. Douglas fir now becomes the dominant tree, often
forming almost pure stands, mostly of an open character, on the lower benches. These
stands have probably been denser in the past, having been thinned out by selective
logging. Scattered trees of Rocky Mountain juniper (/. scopulorum) are frequent in
the Douglas fir association.
In moister hollows aspen, poplar, cottonwood, and birch (both Betula fontinalis
and B. occidentalis) occur. Western larch does not seem to descend much below 3,500
feet, but above that is often abundant. Along the creeks spruce, both Engelmann's
and white, mountain fir (Abies lasiocarpa), mountain maple (Acer glabrum), and white
pine (P. monticola) occur.
The shrubs are much the same as farther south, except that the antelope bush
(Purshia tridentata) has disappeared. Dwarf Oregon grape (Berberis repens), roses,
bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), Shepherdia, Western snowberry (Symphoricarpos
occidentalis), and rabbit-brush (Chrysothamnus nauseosus) are all abundant.
Of the herbaceous plants a number characteristic to the southern section have
disappeared—for example, Eriogonum flavum, Orthocarpus tenuifolius, and Calochortus
apiculatus. Two plants not recorded from elsewhere in the Province occur on alkali
soils in the Windermere area. One of these, a plantain (Plantago eriopoda), is abund-
dant in low moist ground. It has the long spike of the broad-leaved plantain and the
narrow leaves of rib-grass. The other is a crucif er, Arabidopsis (Sisymbrium) glaucum,
and occurs on dry ground. A few years ago the dry southern slopes of ranges at
Windermere were brilliant with scarlet mallow (Malvastum coccineum), but this has
disappeared, at least temporarily, probably as a result of overgrazing.
It is doubtful if there has been any extent of original prairie in this section.
Probably most of the present range-land was open forest, cleared or thinned out by
logging. Most of the ranges have been so overgrazed that is is difficult to ascertain
their original composition. However, from examination of some range at Fairmont
which has been allowed to recover, it would appear that typical Agropyron spicatum,
with long divaricate awns, replaces the awnless form (var. inerme) which is the
dominant species of the southern prairies. In the central area of this middle section
a grass appears, not known to occur elsewhere in British Columbia. This is Calama-
grostis montanensis. It was first collected by the writer some years ago at Invermere,
and careful observations made this year show that it occurs from a few miles north of R 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Fairmont to south of Edgewater, and across the valley on the benches of Invermere
and Wilmer, From its distribution it would appear to have migrated into British
Columbia along the passes followed by the Banff-Windermere Highway from Alberta,
where it is common. As it has creeping rhizomes, it can, if not too closely grazed,
continue to spread even if not allowed to seed, and seems resistant to both drought and
overgrazing. In a small protected piece of range above Windermere Beach it was the
dominant grass, and may have formed an important component of the original grassland
of this area.
(c) Northern Section.—This extends from about Brisco north to Golden, and then
north-west to Boat Encampment, where the Columbia leaves the Rocky Mountain
Trench. The vegetation from Brisco northwards indicates a progressive increase in
moisture until Boat Encampment is reached. The Mariposa lily (Calochortus macro-
carpus), a typical Dry Belt plant, which had been with us all the way north from the
International Boundary, was noticed for the last time at a point 55 miles south of
Golden and a little south of Brisco. Rabbit-brush had ceased a few miles earlier. The
Douglas fir now forms thicker stands and is denser in its growth. The grass cover
becomes thicker and taller, and Kentucky blue-grass (Poa pratensis) becomes the
dominant grass along the roadside, replacing the needle-grass (Stipa), Koeleria, and
Agropyron bunch-grasses of the southern and middle sections. As the precipitation at
Brisco for the six months April to September is only 7.48 inches, as compared with
7.07 inches at Vernon, it is probable that irrigation may be desirable in the most
southern portion of this section, although the general appearance of the country is
much greener than the Vernon district at this season (the end of July). North from
Brisco, aspen, birch, and spruce become steadily more plentiful, though no cedar was
noticed along the road until near Golden. North-west of Golden, Engelmann's spruce
becomes the dominant tree, Douglas fir being much less abundant. Cedars are common,
some quite large. Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) was first noticed at Blackwater Lake
and white pine became common a little later. Ferns of several species, including
bracken, become common. From Boat Encampment to Revelstoke the density of the
forest-cover and shrub undergrowth is comparable to that of the Lower Fraser Valley.
The herbaceous plants from west of Golden have not yet been worked over.
WEEDS.
The origin of the infestation of Silene Cserei Baumg. in the railway-yards at
Prince George has been something of a puzzle, as this weed, introduced from Europe
or Asia Minor, does not appear to be common, as yet, in North America. The yard-
master at Prince George was of opinion that the seed came in with coal from Alberta,
as it appeared first in the siding where coal is unloaded. However, inquiries addressed
to the authorities in Alberta elicited the information that the weed was unknown in
that Province. However, it now seems probable that the weed was introduced with
coal, but from Fernie, where it has apparently been long established. It was first
noticed along the road up the Coal Creek valley. Further investigation showed it to
be abundant on the site of the coal-dump of the now abandoned Fernie mine and in
the railway-yards. The derelict coke-ovens skirting the yards were also overgrown
with it. Any coal spilled or dumped in the yards would be very likely to contain seeds
when reloaded.
Although so abundant in certain spots, the plant does not seem to have spread
much into the surrounding district. In any case, as there is no clover-seed production
here, as there is at Prince George, it is likely to be only of minor importance as a weed.
Another weed found to be very abundant in the Fernie railway-yards is the
common ragweed (Ambrosia elatior L., or probably better known as A. artemisiifolia).
Although widespread and often extremely abundant east of the Rocky Mountains, it DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 91
has been found hitherto to be only of rare and scattered occurrence in British Columbia.
The abundance of it in the Fernie yards, however, confirms what was previously supposed, that the present freedom of the Province from it is probably the result of
fortunate accident only. The pollen of this plant is, perhaps, the commonest cause of
severe hay-fever, and every year inquiries are received from hay-fever sufferers in the
East as to the prospects of escaping this discomfort by residing in British Columbia
in late summer. There is, therefore, in addition to the objection to the plant as an
agricultural weed, a tourist value in preventing its establishment as a common or
widespread plant.
A few years ago W. B. Johnstone, of Cranbrook, sent to the Provincial Museum
specimens of a small woolly annual composite which he had found to be abundant near
Moyie. The present writer also collected a few plants in a barnyard at Erickson.
Specimens sent to Eastern herbaria were identified as the European Filago arvensis L.,
and probably not previously recorded as established in North America. During the
past season this was found to be abundant from Elko south to the Montana Boundary,
and possibly a weed of some importance on dry overgrazed ranges. Under proper
management it is probably only a weed of roadsides and waste places, but on these
ranges, in July, it had often taken possession of the ground in large patches and over
considerable areas. Its wiry, woolly character suggests it is not very palatable stock-
feed, although actual information on this point was not obtainable.
The yellow goat's-beard (Tragopogon) is given in Henry's Flora only from Spences
Bridge. Only one species is there given, but two are now recognized, and one or other
is now abundant and widespread in the Interior of the Province. They were observed
from Yale right across the Southern Interior and through the Crowsnest Pass. Some
hundreds of plants were examined, and all were referred to T. dubius. This gives
additional support to H. Groh's conclusion that T. pratensis has, in general, a somewhat
more northern range.
Hound's-tongue (Cynoglossum officinale), reported as abundant around Brides-
ville (Annual Report for 1938), was noticed along roadsides at several points—
Shuswap, between Cranbrook and Kimberley, and from Bull River Village to Wardner,
where it is abundant in places. It is apparently spreading in the Province but is
chiefly of importance where sheep are kept, the burs being troublesome in the wool.
OTHER WORK.
Plant specimens to the number of about 1,000 were collected during the summer's
work. About three-fourths of these have been tentatively identified, mounted, and
placed in the herbarium. Only one, so far identified, is new to our flora. This is
a tall reed-like grass, Calamovilfa longifolia, which occurs on Tobacco Plains for some
10 miles north of the Montana Boundary. It has strong creeping rhizomes and forms
large patches in the hottest, driest, sandy soil. An undetermined species of Panicum,
collected on the range at Fairmont, also appears to be new.
The supplement to Henry's Flora of Southern British Columbia, on which the
writer has been engaged for some time, was issued in November as Special Publication No. 1 of the Provincial Museum. It is a booklet of 119 pages, in the same format
as Henry's work, so that it can be bound with that work by those who so desire. In
addition to many new records of the rarer species, extensions of range, changes of
nomenclature, and some corrections, descriptions or keys are given for some 450 species
and varieties which have been added to the flora of British Columbia since Henry's day.
It is worthy of note, from an agricultural point of view, that over 100 of these are
aliens that have established themselves, or at any rate only been recognized, since the
publication of Henry's work in 1915. A few of these introductions are natives of other
parts of North America, but the great majority came originally from the Old World. R 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Some are known to be pernicious weeds, and others are liable to be troublesome in
varying degrees.
PLANT-DISEASES.
W. R. Foster, M.Sc, assistant Plant Pathologist, reports on plant-diseases in the
following paragraphs:— ,
The little cherry continues to be the most serious disease. Little-cherry Control
Regulations were passed at the request of the growers, with the object of protecting
the Okanagan, the largest cherry-growing area. One of the main weaknesses in this
effort is the difficulty of early detection, particularly in the Bing variety. It is hoped
that a quick method of detection will be available whenever the little-cherry disease
reaches the Okanagan.
A black-knot of plums publicity campaign is in progress in the press and radio
with the hope of reducing it from a major to a minor disease. The method of control
is known, but requires concerted effort of all plum-growers, including those on Indian
reserves, and the municipalities with affected trees growing along the roadside.
No bacterial ring-rot of potatoes was found or received from any commercial or
certified-seed crop grown in British Columbia in 1947. This fortunate situation is
quite a contrast to that in nearly every other potato-producing Province or State on
the North American Continent, where the disease is now widespread.
A certification of strawberry plants was inaugurated in 1947, which seems to have
been well received by both the growers and the industry. Certification enables the
growers to obtain plants that will not introduce " red stele," a bad root-rot disease,
into their soil.
Inspection for Little Cherry in the Okanagan.
The little-cherry disease of the Kootenays does not appear to have reached the
Okanagan. Nearly 50,000 cherry-trees were inspected in Osoyoos, Oliver, Kaleden,
Okanagan Falls, Penticton, Naramata, Summerland, Peachland, Westbank, and Kelowna
without finding one tree that was diagnosed as little cherry. The inspection was made
and the Little-cherry Control Regulations were passed at the request of the grower
delegates at the 1947 British Columbia Fruit Growers' Association convention, with
the object of protecting the cherry industry of the Okanagan. The inspections were
made by officials of the Horticultural and Plant Pathology Branches of the Provincial
Department of Agriculture and the Dominion Plant Pathology Laboratory, Summer-
land. An inspection of a number of orchards south of the Border in the Okanagan,
reported to have a small-cherry condition, was made in co-operation with United States
officials, but no little cherry was found.
A few trees were found in the Southern Okanagan with a small-cherry condition,
which might be confused with the little-cherry disease in the Kootenays. T. E. Lott,
of the Dominion Plant Pathology Laboratory, Summerland, has had this trouble, which
he has named " small bitter cherry," under observation since 1940.
Some characteristics of little cherry and small bitter cherry are as follows:—
Little Cherry. Small Bitter Cherry.
Shape More pointed and angular.    Smoother and oval.
Size About half normal. About half normal.
Flavour Poor quality, less sugar.        Some good and some poor.
Rate of spread Very fast. Slow.
Kinds of fruit Usually one, small. Two, normal and small.
Distribution (district
and orchard) Usually general. Usually patchy. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 93
Little Cherry in the Kootenays.
The little-cherry disease continues to spread at a rapid rate in the Kootenays.
Every cherry-growing district in the Kootenays appears to be affected, and few healthy
trees remain. The increase in spread in five orchards, from 1946 to 1947, in one
of the most recent districts to get little cherry is shown in the following table:—
Number of Little-cherry Trees.
Orchard. 1946. 1947.
A L ___   7 33
B   63 330
C   54 216
D     0 56
E  31 88
The difficulty of early detection, particularly in the Bing variety, was observed
in a mapped orchard. A number of Bing trees with definite symptoms for the first
time in 1946 appeared to be normal in 1947. Difficulty in early detection has been
observed before, during the first few years after infection. In districts where the
disease has been general for about seven to fourteen years, the average amount of
Bings large enough for the fresh-fruit trade has been about 5 per cent. In the
Lambert, the commonest variety in the Kootenays, no fruits are usually large enough
after two or three years. One of the main weaknesses in the effort to protect the
Okanagan is the difficulty of early detection. It is hoped that a quick method will be
found before the little-cherry disease reaches the Okanagan.
In an attempt to find a practical control for little cherry, an article, " Report
Healthy Cherry Trees," was published in the Nelson newspaper. E. C. Hunt, District
Horticulturist, checked the many reports of supposedly healthy trees. Two Lambert
cherry-trees have been located which appear to be normal—one in the City of Nelson,
an area that has been affected for at least seven years, and one reported first by Dr.
M. Welsh in the experimental orchard leased by the Provincial Department of Agriculture at Kootenay Bay, where most of the trees have been affected for three years.
Both of these trees are under observation and experimentation to attempt to find
whether they are infected but not affected, and whether they might be the answer to
the control of little cherry.
Black-knot of Plums.
Black-knot of plums seems to have become a disease of major importance in the
Fraser Valley in recent years. This disease can become of minor importance by the
co-operation of all growers of plums and municipalities that have any affected trees
growing along the road. Co-operation or community effort is required to obtain
a completely satisfactory control because the spores of the fungus causing the disease
can be carried by the wind from neglected trees. Usually most of the spread of the
disease is within a grower's own orchard, but there may be some spread from any
neglected trees in the immediate vicinity. The officials of the Indian Affairs Branch
of the Dominion Government have been interviewed, and they have agreed to encourage
the taking-out of affected trees on the reserves.
The most important control measure is the cutting-out of all the black-knots before
March 1st at least 4 inches below the knot. Any developing knots should be cut out
during the summer before they turn black. Spraying with either lime-sulphur 1-10 or
Bordeaux 4-6-40 in the dormant stage, just before the buds burst in the spring, is
supplementary to cutting out all knots.
Bacterial Ring-rot of Potatoes.
The Province of British Columbia appears to be freer of bacterial ring-rot than
any other potato-producing area on the North American Continent.    Not one affected R 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
potato was found or received from any commercial or certified crop of 1947. Even
though no ring-rot was found on the four farms affected the previous year, arrangements have been made to send the potatoes to non-potato-producing areas as an added
precaution. All the commercial growers' crops in the district where the latest outbreak
occurred were inspected at digging-time. Annual inspection of potatoes in different
areas is planned.
Certification of Strawberry Plants inaugurated.
A certification of strawberry plants was inaugurated at the beginning of 1947
primarily in an attempt to assist growers to avoid getting the bad root-rot disease
called red stele into their non-infected land. To obtain certification, the plantations,
in addition to being free from the disease, must also be vigorous and reasonably free
from leaf-scorch, leaf-spot, insect pests, and free from virus diseases and Tarsonemid
mite.    Only plants (runners) from maiden plants are certified.
Only 60 per cent, of the growers who applied for certification had their plantings
passed.    Over two million plants were certified.
The inauguration of this service seems to have been well received by the growers
and the industry. It is hoped that we will be able to include Interior growers, particularly in such strawberry-growing areas as Salmon Arm and Wynndel, in the certification scheme by training the district man concerned.
Spring-dwarf in Strawberry.
Spring-dwarf was found for the first time in British Columbia in a small strawberry-patch near Milner. Spring-dwarf is caused by a nematode called Aphelenchoides
fragarise and is potentially a serious disease. Fortunately this disease does not appear
to be widespread. No affected plants were observed in over seventy patches examined.
All the strawberry plants on the infested land have been destroyed. The certification
of strawberry plants, started this year, is the best method of protecting the strawberry-
growers from this new disease.
The leaves in spring-dwarf plants are small, narrow, twisted, and glossy. The
plants produce little or no fruit. Some plants may be killed if heavily infested, but
usually they survive, and upon return of hot summer weather they appear to recover.
Onion-smut.
Onion-smut caused by Urocystis cepulse is reported for the first time in one field
near Kelowna by G. E. Woolliams of the Dominion Plant Pathology Laboratory.
Leaf-mould of Tomatoes in Greenhouses.
The control of leaf-mould, particularly in the second crop, has again become a
problem for investigation. Both the resistant varieties Vetomould and V 121 gave
a satisfactory control for a number of years, but they are now susceptible.
The recently developed, aerosol fog generators will be tried out for applying
fungicides in the greenhouse to combat the leaf-mould disease.
Verticillium Wilt of Tomatoes.
1. Outdoors.—In the Lillooet district Verticillium-wilt disease of tomatoes continues to be a problem, but was only about half as serious as in the previous year. The
reduction in loss is probably due to the warmer weather during the early part of the
growing season. Most of the plantings in new land seemed to be free of the disease,
and this may have been due in part to seed treatment with an organic mercury. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 95
There are at least four factors which increase the severity of the disease in the
Lillooet district, namely:—
(a)  The irrigation-water is cold.
(6)  Over irrigation.
(c) Some of the growers plough under old diseased plants.
(d) Continued use of same land for tomatoes.
The most promising result from the experimental work was the resistance of the
Sioux variety to sun-scald, together with its high yield. Although the Sioux appeared
to be affected with the wilt about the same as the common variety grown (Clarke's
Early), the loss from sun-scald appeared to be much less. Of all the eighteen varieties
tested, Stokesdale appeared to be the most susceptible.
No noticeable effect was observed from the use of dichloropropane-dichloropropene
as a soil fumigant at the rate of about 20 gallons per acre.
2. In Greenhouses.—Steaming and warming up the soil, previous to planting, by
the buried-tile method appears to be the most effective measure in preventing Verticil-
lium wilt in greenhouses. The grid method of steaming and sterilizing with formalin
does not appear to be as effective.
REPORT OF FIELD CROPS BRANCH.
J. Travis, Field Crops Commissioner.
Heavy winter snowfall and cold, wet spring weather in the Peace River District
delayed field-work until toward the end of April. Seeding did not become general until
around the early part of May. Cold weather retarded growth, but germination was
good, and crop conditions were more than usually favourable. Soil-moisture continued
fair throughout May, but by the end of June lack of rainfall was evident and the effects
of drought were showing over wide areas. The situation improved somewhat when
some heavy rains were recorded during the month of July. A heavy frost was
experienced on August 19th, followed by more adverse weather conditions during the
remainder of the season, which has been recorded as one of the worst ever experienced.
Extremely low temperatures and heavy snowfalls were recorded in the Prince
George, Nechako, and Bulkley Valley districts during the winter months. During
March and April mild weather prevailed, and fields were water-logged. Seeding
throughout these areas became general by the middle of April. At Prince George 4.14
inches of rain during the month of June established a record over a period of thirty-five
years, while precipitation for the following month was slightly over 4 inches. During
this period cereal-growth was retarded, with crops on the heavy clay soils inclined to
turn yellow.
Little improvement was noticed as the season advanced. A poor-quality hay-crop
resulted. Much of the alsike-seed crop could not be salvaged. Potatoes generally
returned a fair to good crop. Field peas yielded around 50 per cent. Spring-sown
cereal-crops were frozen during September, indicating a seed shortage for next year.
Fall wheat survived a severe winter, with the result that a larger acreage has now
been sown to this crop.
Throughout most sections of the Cariboo, North Okanagan, and East and West
Kootenay, yields of hay and grain crops were slightly above average. All districts
experienced difficulty with hay-crops, particularly first cuttings, which were subjected
to heavy rains, thus lowering the quality. With few exceptions, farmers report surplus hay on hand for winter-feeding. Wild-hay meadows have produced record tonnages. The District Agriculturist for North Okanagan reports gratifying results
where farmers have been encouraged to use boron on their alfalfa-fields. R 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
District Agriculturists for the Fraser Valley report that field crops throughout
their respective areas were well up to standard. First clippings of hay were made
about May 20th, when a particularly heavy yield was taken in, with most of the clovers
being cut into silage, while the balance, which was safely stored in the barns, proved
to be the best hay harvested during the whole season. June and July crops proved
more difficult due to weather conditions, which affected the quality. There is, however, an abundance of fair-quality hay on hand throughout the whole area. The use
of pick-up balers is becoming more general.
Oats made a fairly strong stand, averaging 75 to 90 bushels to the acre of good-
quality grain. Field corn for silage and succulent feeds, such as mangel, turnip, and
kale, are receiving more attention as a good feed to balance milk production. The
acreage devoted to these crops is increasing. Yields of red-clover seed were somewhat
higher this year than in 1946. Some growers in the Ladner area obtained yields as
high as 750 lb. per acre. A number of farmers did not have their clover seed threshed
before October rains set in, and some of this later-threshed seed has been of poor
quality due to partial germination in the flower-head.
The Fraser Valley Fibre Flax Co-operative Association has reported an increase
of 100 acres sown to fibre flax over the previous year. Acreages sown to fibre flax since
the plants'inception in 1943 are: 1943, 1,000 acres; 1944, 625 acres; 1945, 200 acres;
1946, 300 acres;   1947, 400 acres.
No one grower puts in large acreages of fibre flax; the 400 acres in 1947 is spread
over forty members.
Yields of fibre this year were slightly over 2% tons per acre, or a total of 865 tons
from the 400 acres grown.
There were 4,200 bushels of certified flax obtained, for which there is a ready
market.
This year's flax fibres were, on the whole, not as high in quality as last year's, the
fibres being about 20 per cent, shorter.
This year there was a slight drop of 2% cents per pound in value of raw flax fibre,
which is ultimately shipped to Scotland and England.
On October 10th, 1947, the Fraser Valley Fibre Flax Co-operative Association had
the misfortune to lose its entire scutching plant to a fire which apparently started
from spontaneous combustion. It is hoped that this section of the operations will be
rebuilt by next summer when scutching recommences.
Following the general practice of keeping in touch with modern research investigations as applied to agricultural chemicals, weedicides, fertilizers, pasture, forage and
cereal crops, this Branch has continued to co-operate with district representatives and
farmers throughout the Province in supplying materials for experimental and field
demonstration purposes. During the past season 375 lb. of sodium chlorate, 28 lb. of
dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D), and a small quantity of Esteron 44 were distributed for experimental work on weed-control. Also 41,400 lb. of commercial fertilizer were made available for experimental trial-plots, together with quantities of
cereal grain, grass and legume seed.
GROWING AND MANAGEMENT OF PASTURES.
A good pasture may well be considered one of the most important crop assets of
the farm. Dairy production cannot be maintained successfully without high-producing
pastures. The reason for low pasture production may be found in the fact that there
are not enough well-adapted seed mixtures used, pastures are not well fertilized, and
a poor system of grazing is too frequently practised.
Pasture-growing and rotation-grazing are now receiving more serious consideration throughout the Province.    Sprinkler irrigation systems, where sufficient water- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947.
R 97
supply is available, are making their appearance on the more progressive farms,
especially in areas subject to drought during July and August. During the past two
years a number of demonstration permanent pastures ranging in size from 2 to 8 acres
have been established, the purpose of these plots being to determine the kinds and
varieties of grasses and what mixtures of grasses were most suitable in the particular
area. These projects are arranged through the resident District Agriculturist in
co-operation with the local farmers. Progress reports on the 2-year-old pastures are
encouraging and serve as an indication of their value to the farming community.
HYBRID FIELD-CORN TESTS.
Hybrid corn has definitely shown its superiority over other crops in British Columbia throughout the areas in which it can be grown. Under favourable conditions corn
produces a greater yield of grain and total digestible nutrients per acre than any other
grain-crop. From tests conducted during the past few years, certain numbers or
strains have been recorded and are now recommended for specific districts. Twenty-
one separate strains were provided for test purposes in British Columbia in 1947.
Maurice Middleton, District Horticulturist, Vernon, and G. A. Luyat, Supervising
District Agriculturist, Kamloops, have been chiefly instrumental in supervising these
trials and recording the results. Mr. Middleton's tabulation describes the performance
of nine hybrids—225, 275, 341. 416, 464, 395, 1415, 641, 692—interpreted in terms of
yield per acre, tons green weight, and yield per acre, tons dry matter. The dry-matter
tests were made by the Swift Current Experimental Station. These plots were harvested on September 26th. On this date the first two numbers were ripe, the following
five had reached the hard-dough stage, the remaining two late varieties being still in
the soft-dough class.
It should be noted that the past season was a very unfavourable " corn " season
the dry spring season being followed by a cool summer.
Another interesting experiment was conducted under the direction of G. A. Luyat,
Supervising District Agriculturist, with headquarters at Kamloops. The purpose of
this experiment is set forth in Mr. Luyat's report, which is quoted herewith:—
"Corn Trial with Canbred 150, Canbred 250, and-Canada 240, Armstrong District.—All three strains are early maturing for grain production and therefore suitable
for districts with a short growing season, which otherwise could not hope to mature
corn.
" The plot was planted on May 20th, but this date could have been advanced by at
least ten to twelve days under normal seasonal conditions. The plot was checked for
maturity on September 11th, and the following observations were noted:—
Maturity.
Estimated
Moisture
Content.
Size of
Cob.
Type of
Corn.
Per Cent.
90-95
85-90
80-85
Per Cent.
30
35
38
Good
Medium
Medium
Flint
Dent
Flint
Note.—All three strains were by that date past the danger point for any serious
damage from frost, which, if much immaturity is present, reduces the yield by causing
shrinkage of the kernels and tends to slow up the drying in the field, thus delaying
cribbing until well into the late fall. In studying maturity of corn, the nature of the
plant should be taken into consideration. Silking takes place over a period of ten days
and more, depending on the temperature at the time, therefore the maturity will be R 98 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
spread over the same period. In choosing a hybrid for a location one should select,
keeping yield in mind, the one which will give the maximum maturity by the date of
the average first killing-frost of the locality. In the tests outlined above, the Canbred
150, from one year's observation, would seem to fill the bill for the Armstrong district
generally. However, one trial is hardly conclusive enough and should be carried on for
several years. It is possible that these very early strains of hybrid corn could be
very helpful in the live-stock production of the Armstrong district."
SUNFLOWER TEST FOR POULTRY-FEED.
Sunflower-seed is a valuable supplementary food for poultry. Its place as an
effective substitute for cereal grain and its high fat content are well known to
poultry-raisers everywhere.
As a result of recent research, new varieties have been selected as suitable for seed
production in Western Canada. Of these, two dwarf-growing varieties, Sunrise and
Mennonite, were chosen for the purpose of establishing tests in co-operation with officials of the Poultry Division. For convenience in checking and observation, this
initial experiment was confined to four operators specializing in turkey-raising on
Vancouver Island in widely separated localities. The results of the first season's trials
give promise of more widespread use of this feed in future. Growers were satisfied
with the improvement in flesh and plumage over flocks which were confined to the
general run of commercial foodstuffs. When turned in to the nearly mature growing
crop, the birds greedily consumed both leaves and seeds. Of the two varieties, Mennonite, of short stocky habit, with dark-green foliage, was preferred by birds, and
also met with favour from the growers on account of sturdiness of habit and size of
leaves and heads.
SOY-BEAN EARLYANA TRIALS.
Trial-plots of this recently introduced American variety were placed this season
in the localities of the Okanagan, Vancouver Island, and Lower Mainland. Reports
from these sources indicate that this variety is not early under our conditions. Good
growth to a height of 3y2 to 4 feet was reported at Salmon Arm and Fraser Valley,
where plants failed to set seed-. H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector, Vernon, reports
on a North Okanagan test as follows:—
" This sample was row-seeded on June 8th on a light sandy silt soil, non-irrigated.
The crop made good growth throughout the season and averaged 30 inches high. Blossoming and seed-setting commenced in late August. A long open fall ensured setting
of a good crop of beans. Maturity was retarded by cool weather conditions. The crop
was harvested after the middle of October and is not yet threshed. The crop, under
1947 seasonal conditions, had a 120- to 130-day maturity period. This, normally, is
too long for soy-bean production in the North Okanagan. The grower has been
encouraged to save some seed for a retrial-plot and earlier seeding in 1948."
B.C. FIELD CROP UNION.
This union of British Columbia farmers has been in operation for the past fourteen years. The purpose of the Union is to supply growers with a wide range of cereal
varieties, legumes, and grasses at a nominal fee to enable farmers to carry on small
experimental trials as a supplement to more extensive tests carried out by this Branch
through the co-operation of District Agriculturists. Keen interest is shown in the
alfalfa and hybrid field-corn trials.
During the shipping season of the current year ninety-nine shipments of farm
seeds of various kinds were dispatched from the Vancouver office of the Field Crops
Branch. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 99
The membership in the B.C. Field Crop Union for 1947 was 141 members. Distribution of the membership was as follows: Lower Mainland, 4; Vancouver Island, 14;
Okanagan, 32; Cariboo, 24; Kootenays, 19; Central British Columbia, 21; Peace
River, 27.
Altogether 128 tests were supplied through the Union this year, a substantial
increase over 1946. Distribution of the tests was as follows: Vancouver Island, 12;
Lower Mainland, 2; Interior, 18; Central British Columbia, 22; Kootenays, 33;
Cariboo, 14; Peace River, 27.
FIELD-DAY, EDGEWOOD.
A successful field-day sponsored by the Edgewood Farmers' Institute was held on
the farm of H. 0. Cooper, Edgewood, on August 10th. Despite inclement weather
there was a good attendance of farmers from the surrounding neighbourhood. After
partaking of a picnic lunch, which was provided by the ladies, those present listened
to addresses presented by officials of the Provincial Department of Agriculture.
J. S. Allin, Supervising District Agriculturist, Creston, gave a talk on pastures
and pasture management. F. C. Clark, of the Live Stock Branch, New Westminster,
spoke on diseases of live stock. M. S. Middleton, District Horticulturist, Vernon,
who has noted the development of the valley over a long period, gave a very interesting
talk on general farm practices. N. F. Putnam, Field Crops Branch, Department of
Agriculture, Victoria, explained the uses and functions of many of the new weed
chemicals and weedicides.
During the following day these officials toured the valley inspecting Field Crop
Union test-plots and observing general farming conditions.
SOIL ANALYSES.
Up to November 15th of this year 701 samples of soil were received by this Branch
for analysis. This is an increase of 100 samples over the same period last year. The
analyses were carried out by the Spurway method, giving the pH of the sample, together
with the presence of available supplies of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium.
Reports of the results of the analyses are made and sent out with fertilizer recommendations. Although most of these samples come from gardens and small-property owners,
an increasing number of samples are sent in by District Agriculturists and farmers.
In the case of samples coming from farmers, results of the soil tests are forwarded to
District Agriculturists in order that they may personally contact the farmer concerned
and discuss cultural practices and fertilizer recommendations with him.
FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS AND DEMONSTRATIONS.
Hand in hand with soil analyses, the work in connection with fertilizers of all
kinds continues to expand and is conducted in co-operation with the resident officials
representing the Department of Agriculture. A wide range of field crops is included
in these tests, some of which continue over a period of several years. In some instances
definite recommendations with respect to fertilizers for the treatment of specific crops
are now available.
FERTILIZER AND AGRICULTURAL POISONS BOARD.
Meetings of the above Board were attended by members of this Branch throughout
the year. September and October meetings were devoted to consideration of control
of mixes, which the Minister of Agriculture for British Columbia would be requested
to submit to Ottawa for enforcement by the Dominion within the provisions of the
" Fertilizers Act." For the 1947-48 season the Board recommended the following:
0-12-20, 2-12-10, 2-15-12, 2-16-6, 4-10-10, 6-8-6, 6-30-15, 8-10-5, 10-20-10, 8-35-6,
17-6-6. R 100 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
SEED PRODUCTION.
Field root- and forage-crop seed production continues to hold a prominent place
in the agricultural economy of the Province. There was a large increase in the alfalfa
acreage in the Peace River Block this year, but this was somewhat offset by poorer
yields throughout the area. Yields of alsike in the Central Interior were very disappointing this year, due largely to poor weather conditions. Total yield is estimated
at less than one-third of last year's record high. Total production of peas is down
this year. A large acreage of peas was sown in the Peace River Block for the first
time, but due to very unfavourable weather conditions during the early season and an
early frost, results were very poor and disappointing yields were harvested.
The following table gives an indication of the seed production as estimated for
1947, as compared to the actual production in 1946:—
Estimated
Production, Production,
1946. 1947.
Lb. Lb.
Alfalfa   495,000 775,000
Red clover ,  480,000 586,000
Alsike  410,000 123,000
Timothy-alsike and alsike-timothy  315,000 156,000
Sweet clover   115,000 153,838
White clover  1,000 1,500
Timothy   475,000 400,000
Brome _____:  50,000 105,000
Crested wheat-grass  10,000                 	
Creeping red fescue  2,000 63,800
Orchard-grass  7,600 8,000
Perennial rye-grass  7,000 8,000
Field corn (open-pollinated)   8,000 6,000
Field corn (hybrid)         4,000
Field peas  3,889,700 2,743,400
Mangel  36,300 70,000
Sugar-beet   296,445 340,000
Fibre flax  184,380 240,800
Vetch   76,000 50,000
Canary seed  60,000 50,000
THRESHERMEN'S RETURNS.
Appendix No. 7 tabulates the amount of grain threshed in the various districts,
as submitted by the district agricultural officials.
AVAILABLE STOCK-SEED SUPPLIES.
A supply of elite, registered, and certified stock seed of cereals has been made
available to this office by the Agronomy Department, University of British Columbia,
through a co-operative arrangement between the University of British Columbia and
the British Columbia Department of Agriculture. This seed is distributed to farmers
throughout the Province at only a nominal cost. The following is a list of stock seed
made available this year:—
Lb.
Red Bobs wheat  770
Jones' Fife wheat  150
Dawson's Golden Chaff wheat  450
Kharkov wheat  375 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 101
Lb.
Victory oats  3,600
Eagle oats  1,300
Alaska oats      340
Olli barley      650
Storm rye  2,050
PRODUCTION OF REGISTERED AND CERTIFIED SEED.
There has been a sharp increase in the production of registered and certified seed
of many crops during the past year. This production not only helps meet the export
demand but also provides a valuable source of pure-seed stock for commercial growers
within the Province. The inspection and registration of cereal and forage crops is
carried out by representatives of the Plant Products Division, Dominion Department
of Agriculture, under the regulations of the " Seeds Act."
The following table gives in summary the number of acres and estimated production of varieties inspected for registration in British Columbia during the past
season:—
Total Acreage and Estimated Production of Cereal and Forage Crops
inspected for Registration in British Columbia.
Estimated
Variety. ^f-tion
Wheat  Acres. Bu.
Garnet   33.50 900
Red Bobs   553.00 12,735
Thatcher   1,769.00 47,270
Regent   24.00 600
Ridit  .-- 0.57 12
Oats—
Ajax   10.00 400
Banner   9.00 400
Beaver   5.00 400
Eagle ;  0.45 20
Larain   84.00 4,450
Legacy  73.00 4,200
Vanguard   108.00 5,560
Victory  1,671.00 156,000
Barley—
Montcalm   1.00 75
Newal   4.00 160
O.A.C. 21   73.25 2,625
Olli   25.00 1,000
Rye—Storm  0.57 14
Flax-
Redwing   995.00 12,130
Royal     257.50 4,705
Alfalfa— Lb.
Grimm   2,506.00 313,250
Ladak   86.00 20,500
Brome  190.00 1,750
White clover  4.75 290
152434 PRO LIBRARY
VICTORIA, B. C. R 102 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
WEED-CONTROL.
Of great significance is the keen interest in weed-control now in evidence on the
part of farmers and the public generally. This is due, in part, to the ever-increasing
need for greater food production and the publicity focused on weed chemicals by
manufacturers of herbicides and weedicides.
Two Weed Inspectors were appointed during the past season for the Peace River
Block—Robert Shearer, Rolla, for the south side, and K. D. Birley, Fort St. John, for
the north side—working in co-operation with the resident District Agriculturists for
their respective areas.
N. F. Putnam, Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, took a major part in directing a Provincial weed-control campaign. In this connection he travelled over much
of the agricultural area conducting inspections, laying down experiments, and demonstrating the methods of applying many forms of weed chemicals. He was also privileged to attend the Western Weed-control Conference at Regina, November 26th to
28th, and also a weed-control meeting at Bonner's Ferry, Idaho, November 29th.
The following is quoted from Mr. Putnam's report:—
" During the past year, problems of weed-control were given attention, with
increased stress on the use of the newer chemicals, particularly 2, 4-D, in controlling
weeds. Tests started in the Armstrong area in 1946 were continued. Further tests
were conducted in and around Victoria. From two seasons' results on tests conducted
throughout the Province, general recommendations can be made on the use of 2, 4-D
for weed-control as follows:—
" Susceptible annual weeds in cereal crops, flax, and grass pastures can be controlled without injury to the crop with an application of 8 to 12 oz. of 2, 4-D acid of
the sodium salt or 6 to 8 oz. of 2, 4-D of the amine or ester salt per acre. Treatment
should be made when the weeds are in the young growing stage or when the crop is
8 to 12 inches high.
" Perennials require higher rates of 2, 4-D than do annuals—from 1 to 1% lb.
of 2, 4-D acid per acre at the bud or bloom stage. At these higher rates of application there is danger of injury to the crop, especially flax. However, this damage may
be offset by a reduction in weed-growth, and particularly by preventing the weeds from
going to seed.
" Susceptible perennial weeds respond to the action of 2, 4—D in the pre-bud stage
to flower stage rather than very early stage of growth.
" Top growth of deep-rooted persistent perennials (hoary cress, leafy spurge,
Russian knapweed) can be killed at these higher rates of application. However, to
date there is no certainty of complete eradication. Retreatment of new growth is to
be expected.
" Indications are that Canada thistle, sow-thistle, and field bindweed may be
greatly reduced in stand by the application of 2, 4-D."
R. Shearer, Weed Inspector for Peace River, south side, reports prevalence of wild
oats, ball-mustard, Russian thistle, stinkweed, sow-thistle, and minor infestations of
hoary cress. Trials with 2, 4-D on hoary cress and perennial sow-thistle were very
encouraging, with good kill on top growth.
K. D. Birley, Weed Inspector for Peace River, north side, reported that patches of
Canada thistle, sow-thistle, and couch-grass were treated with Atlacide with good
results. Other weeds prevalent in the district were stinkweed, wild oats, and mustards.
Most farmers showed willingness to co-operate in control of weeds. Weeds along the
Alaska Highway still provide a serious menace to adjoining farm lands.
Each of the District Agriculturists was supplied with sufficient 2, 4-D and Atlacide to carry on experimental work' within their respective areas.    From their reports DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 103
on this season's work, 2, 4-D has been successful in controlling many of the annual
weeds, and many of the perennials were controlled, if not completely eradicated. Mr.
Preston reports that the Department of National Defence undertook to treat weeds on
the Vanderhoof Airport with Atlacide. Due to unfavourable weather conditions, control was not completely effective. Mr. Carmichael reported that tests, using Varsol
at the rate of approximately 20 gallons per acre, to control weeds in carrots proved very
efficient in the Grand Forks district. Also 2, 4-D was used successfully to control
a field of Portulaca badly infested with weeds. No apparent harm was done to the crop.
Mr. Thorpe, District Field Inspector, Creston, carried out some trial sprayings with
Sinox. on pea-crops on the Creston flats, but results were not very encouraging.
Further tests are contemplated for next season.
Seeding of roadsides to crested wheat-grass as a weed-control measure was undertaken in the Vernon district during the past season under the direction of M. S. Middle-
ton, District Horticulturist, in co-operation with the Department of Public Works.
A total of 15.2 miles was seeded on both sides of the road.
SEED-DRILL SURVEY.
This fall a seed-drill survey was undertaken throughout the Province. This survey will continue during the spring of 1948. The kind co-operation of the District
Agriculturists in securing the samples and the Plant Products Division in making the
necessary analyses was obtained. The object of this project is to check on the quality
and source of cereal grains being sown by farmers, with special attention to the number
and kinds of weed-seeds in these samples. The information obtained will be used to
promote interest among farmers to use only high-quality seed, free from weed-seeds,
as a preventive measure in weed-control.
SEEDING OF LOGGED-OFF AND BURNED-OVER LAND.
An area of approximately 10 acres, located on the Northwest Logging Company
Road No. 155, about 3.2 miles from the main Island Highway, was seeded in January,
1944, to mixed grasses and clover. A separate plot was at the same time seeded to
reed canary-grass (Dryland strain).
These plots were inspected by L. Todhunter and J. Travis on November 25th, 1947,
when it was noted that in the cases of the mixed grasses and clover, growth during the
past year had been most satisfactory, and it would appear that, although the soil here
is of poor fertility and subject to drought during the growing season, these grasses
have become fairly well established and are gradually expanding over a larger area.
The reed canary-grass also appears to have become established and is spreading
quite rapidly. Plants are large and well developed, and in many instances attain the
height of at least 4 feet. At the time of inspection, heads were shattered, but there
was much evidence that large quantities of seed had been produced, being distributed
over the area by birds, animals, and wind. The seed had germinated and new growth
noted at a height of 2 and 3 inches.
Campbell River District.
A large area in this district was seeded in the spring of 1939 to timothy and alsike
clover, sweet clover, white Dutch clover, and subterranean clover.
Unfortunately the largest area seeded to white Dutch clover, and treated with
artificial fertilizers and lime, has been utilized by the contractors of the Elk Falls
power-site as a camp and workshop, and all traces of the clover have quite naturally
disappeared. However, in another plot not treated with fertilizers, there are still
numerous plants in evidence, although the area is gradually becoming infested by a
rank growth of alder and willows.   This area has also been brought under reforestation. R 104 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The sweet clover, although very disappointing at earlier inspections, appears now
to be making better progress, numerous plants being noted. These had borne seed, and
new plants were very much in evidence.
The subterranean clover continues to make good growth and is rapidly spreading
over a larger area. Many seed-pods and numerous new plants were noted. In one
area, however, alder, willow, and bracken were becoming too rank for the clover to
survive.
There was much evidence of natural reproduction due to self-seeding in the timothy
and alsike area, new growth being extremely rank, with plants from 1 foot to 2 feet in
height.    There are cattle grazing over these areas and deer are plentiful.
GRAIN SCREENINGS.
This is a by-product originating in the recleaning process of wheat at the grain-
elevators. It is delivered from the cleaners in various separations and graded
accordingly.
A pamphlet (Bulletin No. 4) issued by the Board of Grain Commissioners of
Canada provides for five grades of screenings, which are identified as follows: Oat
screenings, No. 1 feed screenings, No. 2 feed screening, uncleaned screenings, and
refuse screenings, each being graded according to official standards.
During the ten-month period eight permits for the removal of screenings and one
feeder's permit were issued from this office, the latter to cover removal of various
quantities of low-grade screenings for local consumption. All permits expire December
31st, 1947, or when the quantities indicated on the permit have become exhausted,
whichever is the sooner.
According to the " Noxious Weeds Act " and regulations thereunder for the Province of British Columbia, a permit is not required for oat screenings and No. 1 and
No. 2 feed screenings.
In compliance with the British Columbia " Noxious Weeds Act" and regulations
thereunder, grain screenings which contain weed-seeds in excess of the percentage
allowed by the " Canada Grain Act" of the Dominion, or the regulations made thereunder from time to time, for No. 2 feed screenings, shall not be removed from any
grain elevator, mill, or warehouse to any place within the Province, except only by
virtue of permit duly signed by the Minister of Agriculture, or by a person authorized
in writing by the Minister, and issued at the office of the Department of Agriculture,
Court-house, Vancouver, B.C.
Permits above referred to consist of two specific forms; that is, one permitting
removal of low-grade screenings by a dealer or grain merchant and one a feeder's
permit, which entitles the holder to remove low-grade screenings conditional to prescribed regulations. These permits are available only to certain areas, mainly within
the boundaries of Greater Vancouver. Care is exercised in preventing the removal of
low-grade screenings to farming districts, where the high percentage of weed-seeds
contained in such screenings may become a general menace through the introduction
of many varieties of weeds.
Managers' Reports.
Complying with section 4 of the Screenings Regulations under the " Noxious
Weeds Act," managers' reports are submitted in duplicate each month, by British
Columbia grain elevators and dealers who handle grain screenings, to the Honourable
Minister of Agriculture through the office of the Department of Agriculture, Courthouse, Vancouver. These reports show the movement of all grades of screenings; the
name and address to whom delivered; date of delivery; quantity; grade; number of
permit, if any; and whether for local use or export.    The original copy of these reports DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 105
is forwarded to the Field Crops Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria,
B.C., and a copy kept on file at the Court-house office.
Movement of Screenings.
Managers' reports show that for the twelve months ended December 31st local feed
merchants have received from Vancouver grain-elevators a total amount of 4,272 tons
of No. 1 feed screenings and 1,531 tons of No. 2 feed screenings. This is chiefly ground
and used in the various combinations for mixed feeds.
Low-grade screenings, such as refuse, to the amount of 15,298 tons have been
exported to the United States; 3,455 tons of mixed feed oats were also exported to
the United States.
Grades which may be ground.
Section 11 of the Screenings Regulations provides that screenings which contain
weed-seeds in excess of the percentage allowed by the " Canada Grain Act" or regulations thereunder, for No. 2 feed screenings, shall not be ground or otherwise manufactured for sale within the Province.
Managers' reports show that during the past five months a firm of feed merchants
in Vancouver has received a total of 1,820 tons of refuse screenings from local grain-
elevators which were ground upon the premises of the said firm, and 2,070 tons of the
ground product were exported to the United States. It is understood that these refuse
screenings are being ground to fulfil the agreements of an existing contract. The
British Columbia " Noxious Weeds Act " does not permit this type of screenings to be
ground or manufactured for sale within the Province.
Appendix No. 8 shows the quantity of each grade of screenings removed from
British Columbia grain-elevators each month for the period January 1st to December
31st, 1947, as compiled from the managers' reports. It will be seen from a perusal of
the summary that only the higher grades have been used by local feed-dealers for
home consumption.
PRIZE-WINNERS AT CHICAGO INTERNATIONAL HAY AND GRAIN
SHOW AND TORONTO ROYAL WINTER FAIR.
Again British Columbia growers have demonstrated the high quality of their
agricultural produce at the Toronto Royal Winter Fair and the Chicago International
Hay and Grain Show. A larger number of entries were submitted this year. Special
commendation goes to the fine showing of the large number of exhibits in the potato
classes.
Mrs. A. Kelsey, Erickson, again won world wheat honours by winning the grand
championship wheat award at the Toronto Royal Winter Fair with a sample of Reward
wheat.    Her entry of Marquis wheat at the Chicago International placed second.
Bert Young, Koksilah, V.I., won second prize with a commercial sample of Trebi
barley, third with a sample of registered Montcalm barley, second with a sample of
Victory oats, and tenth with a sample of Dawson's Golden" Chaff wheat, at the Toronto
Royal.
J. Decker, Pemberton, was awarded grand championship honours at both the
Toronto Royal and Chicago International with his sample of Stirling peas. Mrs. J.
Hamilton, Duncan, won second prize at the Chicago International with a sample of
field beans.
In the Western Section of the special corn competition at the Toronto Royal,
British Columbia winners included Mrs. A. Kelsey, Erickson, first; J. B. Jackson,
Ashcroft, second; D. Palmer, Heffley Creek, third; and Guichon Cattle Company,
Quilchena, fourth. R 106 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Frank Choveaux, Okanagan Landing, won third place with a sample of Ladak
alfalfa at the Toronto Royal, and A. McKellar, Dawson Creek, won fifth prize with a
sample of red clover.
Ross Brothers, Pemberton, headed the long list of awards won by British Columbia
potato-growers at the Toronto Royal. Their sample of Netted Gem not only won first
place in the class, but went on to win the grand championship of the show.
PUBLICATIONS.
The following bulletins and circulars were revised and published during the
year:— ,
Weeds and their Control Bull. No. 106
Potato Growing in British Columbia Bull. No. 86
Mangel-seed Production F.C.C. No. 7
Root Storage-houses F.C.C. No. 25
Circular on Weed Chemicals.
REPORT OF LIVE STOCK BRANCH.
Wallace R. Gunn, B.V.Sc, B.S.A., V.S., Live Stock Commissioner,
Director of Fur-farms, and Chief Veterinary Inspector.
The horse picture for the year 1947 is very much similar to that which has
obtained in the last few years. The general over-all reduction in horse population of
Western Canada has been heavy. Many horses are going to processing plants for
live-stock feeding and for export shipments of horse-meat.
It might be said that a little more careful checking of the animals being collected
could be done. Those of us who know the open ranges of the country would suggest
that some of these horses would be better removed and some otherwise very good workhorses distributed into areas where they could be used. However, a large campaign
such as this could be expected to develop certain weak spots.
The number of stallions enrolled this year has gone down from last year, as can
be noted from the figures given below:-—
1947: A,9; B,9;  C, 0;  D,4; E,2;  F,0.
1946: A, 10; B, 9; C, 0; D, 3; E,5;  F. 0.
A complete check was not made of all stallions owned in the Province, since time
did not permit, but I expect that there might be almost as many draught stallions
owned as in previous years. As usual, too many inferior, unsound, and plain stallions
are being kept by horsemen, supposedly for their own use. Education could be undertaken in this field, but interest in the industry is not sufficiently keen to justify
extended effort being made at this time.
Light-horse breeding is quite keen, and the demand for riding-horses is strong.
Buyers are constantly covering the country looking for satisfactory riding-horses to
supply the market. Unfortunately the production of saddle-horses for pleasure purposes is not very well established generally. The production of a composite animal
such as a riding-horse calls for considerable information in the field of genetics.
Generally speaking, too many of the people who attempt to do some breeding are not
well informed and accept the suggestions of people with little experience.
It might be said at the present time that all over this country there is a general
move on the part of the far-sighted horsemen to get production on a more uniform
basis where breeders will be trying to breed horses of particular types intended for
specific uses.    It is unfortunate to find breeders making foolish combinations by out- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 107
crossing between breeds and types which can only result in the production of a more
or less misfit type, not bred to qualify for any particular classification.
It has been part of my work to undertake a certain amount of judging of this type
of horse, and I have endeavoured to direct the thinking of the public toward breeding
for classification. Every help which can possibly be given to more intelligent classification of horses at gymkhanas and light-horse shows should be given. It is impossible for a judge to intelligently place, or the public to be able to understand many
decisions handed down by judges, when such judge is called upon to place a mixture
of types of horses and place many excellent animals down in a class when they would
qualify for much higher places had proper classes been provided for them, or if they
had been placed in their proper classes.
Every encouragement has been given to the bringing-in of suitable sires to take
care of the needs of particular groups of light-horse breeders, and it is believed that
the year 1948 will see more good stallions in this Province than during the past few
years. Our permit policy calls for vaccination against encephalomyelitis of all horses
being brought into the Province, and is supported by the policy of requiring all stallions coming into the Province to be registered pure-breds of breeds recognized by the
Canadian National Live Stock Records, and all such stallions have to pass inspection
by a Dominion Stallion Inspector before being admitted. This has definitely cut down
the traffic in undesirable stallions coming into this Province. In the past, before this
policy was enforced, many stallions, which probably previously qualified but were
developing first symptoms of some unsoundness, were being shipped in to unsuspecting
buyers in this Province. That situation has definitely been corrected. The requiring
of vaccination of horses before shipping has, in our opinion, assisted in the control of
this disease. Our first outbreaks of encephalomyelitis in this Province appeared
amongst horses which had recently come into the Province and amongst horses which
were running with these animals.
There were 229 horse permits issued, covering 551 mares, 671 geldings, 6 stallions,
6 entire colts (to be castrated when 2 years of age), and 245 racehorses, making a total
of 1,479 horses imported from January 1st to November 30th, 1947. The correspondence covering this particular work involved the sending-out of 492 letters, together
with numerous circulars and wires during the same period.
BEEF CATTLE.
The beef-cattle industry had a very satisfactory year, with the exception of the
period when an apparently well-timed strike of packing-house workers disturbed the
situation greatly. The experience of the industry in having to take the loss over a
dispute between labour and industry has awakened the cattlemen to the need of some
form of organization that will prevent the industry having to suffer in future. Out
of many discussions held with the industry at that critical time, concrete suggestions
were offered, which, if put into application, will definitely protect the industry against
a similar situation in the future. It would seem now as though the industry intends
to be guaranteed against repetition of such action, otherwise they will move to organize
for their own protection.
The average price for good steers in Vancouver in 1946 began with $11.75, with
an increase of 10 to 20 cents per hundred, reaching a spring high of $12.25 in late
February and a high for the season on July 4th of $13.25, ranging from $12.25 to
$12.50 and $12.65, dropping to $12.15 in November, where it remained until the end
of the month. The average price for 1947 was somewhat higher, beginning with $12.80
and gradually increasing to a high for the season in June of $15, and dropping to $13.50
for November. For more details refer to Appendix No. 9 and compare it with
Appendix No. 6 in the report for 1946. R 108
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
For statements of beef branded, see Appendix No. 10.
The summarized reports of sales held in British Columbia during the year of 1947
are as follows:—
Provincial Bull Sale and Fat Stock Show, Kamloops,
March 11th, 12th, and 13th, 1947.
There were four car-lots (15 head) selling at an average price of $17.81 for a
total of $10,228.57. The top price was $18. The average net weight was 956 lb. The
average price for 1946 was $14.96, for a total of $13,739.40 for six car-lots. The
average net weight was 1,017 lb.
Twenty-one groups of five cattle averaged $18.05, with a total of $18,583.12. The
top price was $20.25. The total net weight was 102,791 lb. and the average net weight
979 lb., compared to an average net weight of 1,061.75 lb. in 1946.
There were 70 head of singles, which included 10 boys' and girls' calves, and
5 head of spares.
The spares sold for an average of $17.50, the open singles for an average of $21.16,
the boys' and girls' singles for an average of $23.05. The top price was $60 per
hundredweight for the grand champion and the reserve grand champion.
1947. 1946.
Total sales   $42,673.34        $41,926.40
Total number sold         237 288
This sale was exempted under Wartime Prices and Trade Board order. Your
Commissioner acted as chairman of the culling committee.
Of the 237 head sold, 202 head were sold to central plants in Vancouver. These
graded:   AA, 177 head;   A, 22 head;   no tags, 3 head.
Breeding Stock sold.
1947.
1946.
Bulls.
No. of
Head.
Average
Price.
Top
Price.
Total.
No. of
Head.
Average
Price.
Top
Price.
Total.
85
1
16
2
3
92
5
21
8
$100.00
423.09
309.00
417.22
245.71
226.87
$100.00
3,000.00
350.00
$400.00
400.00
400.00
359.00
262.60
348.33
$1,700.00
400.00
$34,000.00
400.00
1,545 00
625.00
275.00
5,745.00
525.00
735.00
500.00
5,160.00
1,815.00
Shorthorn (under 18 months)	
1947.
Total number of bulls  104
Total fat stock  237
Total sale of bulls   $40,670.00
Total sale of fat stock  42,673.34
1946.
129
288
$47,745.00
41,926.40
Grand totals   $83,343.34       $89,671.40 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947.
R 109
Southern Interior Stockmen's Association Fifth Annual Sale,
September 16th, 1947.
Summary of Sales.
Commercial Cattle.
No. of
Head.
Average Price
per Head.
Average Price
per Cwt.
Total
Receipts.
Steers	
Cows	
Heifers	
364
186
150
28
55
11
$109.54
76.08
92.71
104.75
33.28
109.28
$11.60
7.46
11.23
10.50
11.33
7.75
$39,873.62
14,150.75
13,906.45
2,933.18
1,830.55
Bulls	
1,202.03
Totals	
794
$78,896.58
Breeding Stock (Bulls).
Average Price. Total Price.
1947—8 head  $302.50 $2,420.00
1946—11 head     269.99 2,960.00
There were 9 head of boys' and girls' calves, which sold for $197.93 average per
head and a total price of $1,781.51. There were 14 head of boys' and girls' calves in
1946, which sold for $183.81 average per head and a total price of $2,573.38.
1947. 1946.
Total cattle         820 1,147
Total receipts  «  $79,643.02        $114,122.26
Cariboo Stockmen's Association Tenth Annual Feeder and Fat Stock
Show and Bull Sale, Williams Lake, October 9th and 10th, 1947.
This, we believe, to be Canada's largest commercial cattle sale. The figures presented by the sales committee make it impossible to give any very complete information.
There were 1,728 head of cattle as groups in the yards and 35 head of singles in
outside pens.    The top price paid was $22 per hundredweight.
Breeding Stock.
The 52 Hereford bulls sold for $19,950. The top price was $950 for a bull bred
by Earlscourt Farms, Ltd., There were 8 head of Hereford heifers and cows; the
top price paid was $180 and the total was $985. The 2 Shorthorn bulls sold for $275
each.
Quesnel Cattlemen's Association Fourth Annual Sale,
Quesnel, October 24th, 1947.
There was very little information obtained on this sale. The 574 cattle sold for
$54,452. The highest price for yearlings was $14.80. Bulls (bologna) went for an
average of $8.65 and cows for $7.10.
Waldo Stockbreeders' Association Sixth Annual Fat Stock and
Feeder Sale, Elko, November 8th, 1947.
At this sale 465 head of cattle were sold for $33,989.92, and an average price of
$73.09 per head.
Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale, Kamloops,
December 2nd and 3rd, 1947.
There were five car-lots (15 head) which sold for an average price of $17.87.
The 1946 average was $14. The top price was $20.75, against a top price of $14.25
in 1946.    The total was $13,905.34.    There were nine groups of 5 head which sold for R 110 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
an average of $16.66 and a total of $7,547.46. Last year's average was $14.26. The
top price was $21.50. Four head of spares averaged $16.12 for a total of $912.79.
Last year's average was $13.03. Forty-two head of open singles averaged $19.11 for
a total of $8,141.58. Last year's average was $16. The top this year was $205 for
the champion.
The Armstrong "A" Beef Calf Club had 13 entries, which averaged $20.54 for a
total of $2,658.78.    Last year's average was $16.61.    The top price was $21.75.
The Armstrong " B " Beef Calf Club had 10 entries, which averaged $20.45 for a
total of $2,092.70.    Last year's average was $16.17.    The top price was $21.25.
The Barriere Beef Calf Club had 11 entries, which averaged $18.55 for a total
of $1,854.12.    Last year's average was $14.80.    The top price was $20.
The Brigade Lake (Kamloops South) Beef Calf Club had 8 entries, which averaged
$19.90 for a total of $1,520.83. Last year's average was $14.82. The top price was
$21.25.
The Heffley Creek and MacGillivray Beef Calf Club had 7 entries, which averaged
$16.21 for a total of $930.27.    The top price was $19.
The Kamloops East Beef Calf Club had 8 entries, which averaged $19.12 for a
total of $1,563.14.    The top price was $20.50.
The Lac la Hache Beef Calf Club had 4 entries, which averaged $20 for a total of
$829.99.    Last year's average was $15.67.    The top price was $21.
The Lower North Thompson Beef Calf Club had 12 entries, which averaged $19.48
for a total of $2,335.12.    Last year's average was $15.79.    The top price was $20.25.
The Notch Hill Beef Calf Glub had 8 entries, which averaged $16.75 for a total of
$1,201.50.    Last year's average was $12.93.    The top price was $20.25.
The Salmon Arm Beef Calf Club had 9 entries, which averaged $19.58 for a total
of $1,592.56.    Last year's average was $17.09.    The top price was $21.50.
The Westwold Beef Calf Club had 9 entries, which averaged $43.40 for a total of
$4,028.68.    Last year's average was $16.04.    The top price was $205.
The group for non-club members, boys and girls, had 12 entries, which averaged
$18.87 for a total of $2,188.96. Last year's average was $33.50. The top price was
$21.75.
One Iamb sold for $33.
There was a total of 113 head of junior entries, which averaged $21.07 per hundredweight for a total of $22,796.74.
There were 9 Hereford bulls sold for an average of $366.66 and a total of $3,390.
Summary.
1947. 1946.
Total number of cattle         290 265
Total sales of cattle  $53,303.91 $39,054.91
Total sales of sheep  33.00 199.85
Total sales of bulls      3,390.00 	
Grand totals   $56,726.91        $39,254.76
Your Commissioner, as usual, acted as chairman of culling committees until Wartime Prices and Trade Board control was withdrawn. An effort is being made, however, to follow through the shipments of each lot of show cattle at the respective sales
in order to get some idea of the grade and class of cattle which is being marketed and
so that specific information can be carried back to the producers.
The British Columbia " Beef Grading Act" is again functioning, but there is a
move to bring it in line with Dominion regulations which have recently been drafted
as a voluntary grading service offered by the Dominion Department.    It is expected, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 111
after sufficient time has elapsed to try out the soundness of this policy, that the
Dominion Department of Agriculture will move for some form of all-over Dominion
grading of beef on the rail.
The demand for beef of any quality is so strong that the plainer cattle are receiving prices perhaps higher in proportion than the price offered for the top grades. We
have regularly suggested to all producers the advisability of culling herds closely in
order to remove the poor breeding stock and get their herds in line for the time when
the market can discriminate and will ask for only the better type and quality of cattle.
The general tendency is for fair finish without any excessive waste. All beef
continues to be trimmed of fat, which, of course, means very little fat reaching the
consumer, but generally speaking the trend is away from unnecessarily heavy finish.
It is felt that the heavy trimming of fat from all carcasses is responsible for the lack
of character and flavour noticed in so much of the meat, even in the high-quality beef.
The market is sufficiently keen that there does not seem to be any great insistence
on the producers breeding light-weight cattle. Small carcasses, however, especially on
Vancouver Island, are in keen demand. It is hard to anticipate what the trend will be
as to weight of carcasses, but in all likelihood when the consumer can discriminate, he
will again ask for light cuts carrying medium finish.
Regarding the future of cattle sales in this Province, this year saw several of the
sales finding it somewhat more difficult to finance. This, of course, was aggravated
by the sudden strike of packing-house employees. Nevertheless, it does indicate the
necessity for the best business management and organization of these sales if they are
going to carry on throughout the years and compete with outside competition which
will appear from time to time. The general feeling is that these sales should not
expect to live on subsidy but should, once established, aim to carry on as a business
organization.
BULL-CONTROL AREAS.
The bull-control areas established for the most part during the year 1944 have
had another year to try out the soundness of this policy. There is little doubt but
what the plan is a sound one, since 'it definitely attacks the weak spots in cattle
production, especially in areas where the holdings are small. Most Bull-control Committees have worked faithfully to implement the regulations, which are intended
primarily to see that sufficient bulls of good quality are kept on the range and the
undesirable old sire removed, and to see that closely related sires do not go back on
to the range.
In some places disputes developed with certain ranchers not wishing to supply their
quota of sires or pay for bull service, and in one area one or two breeders wanted to
bring in sires of another breed which were not recognized within the area, but the
committee in each instance has made a very excellent job of getting these matters
reasonably well adjusted.
The problem facing some of these areas at the present time is the fact that the
progeny of the first bulls purchased (some of them very good bulls) are now ready to
go into the breeding herd. According to regulation this is not permissible, but it is
hoped that breeding-pastures for these young heifers will be approved, so that the older
sires can be held at least one year more and unrelated bulls brought in to take care of
the heifer herd. When this policy has gained its level and becomes an established fact
in these bull-control areas, it is hoped that additional service can be given to the
cattlemen in these areas. It has not been felt advisable to undertake too many policies
in any particular area at one time.
The Aberdeen Angus area in the Waldo district, which has been severely criticized
by some local people, would seem to have a very bright future if the breeders within the R 112
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
area take a long-distance view. This area is probably the only area where everyone
is breeding a single beef breed.
If the cattle-owners wish to make the best use of their opportunity, they can
definitely attract special buyers anxious to come in and buy lots of calves and older
cattle for Calf Club efforts, special marketing projects, and for breeding stock. The
secretary of the Canadian Aberdeen Angus Association has been interested by your
Commissioner in this effort, and we look for some real work being done. Through the
kindness of the Dominion Department of Agriculture good bulls of pure-bred breeding
have been furnished to this area in reasonable numbers, and they will support this effort
for some time until the association is in a position to take care of itself.
Some work can be done in studies of blood lines to take care of the needs of the
association.    This is where we believe we can all work in to advantage.
DAIRY CATTLE.
The dairy-cattle industry has had a very successful year, with the over-all production for the Province down again about 3 or 4 per cent, as in 1946. The production
of ice-cream is up some 60 to 70 per cent., with butter production lowered by 17 or 18
per cent. The reduction is due to the usual reasons of lack of suitable labour to carry
on the work and the rising cost of feeds. The production per cow on the whole is
possibly a little higher than the previous year, with a possible small reduction in the
cattle population. Labour difficulties along with high feed costs and the expected
removal of the free-freight policy would point to the possibility of a considerable
decrease in dairy-cattle numbers next year.
The policies affecting the dairy-cattle industry—namely, calfhood vaccination
against brucellosis, artificial insemination, dairy-farm gradings, and Cow-testing
Associations—will be dealt with under separate headings.
SHEEP.
The sheep industry has had a very successful year, but unfortunately many of our
large range flocks have been disbanded. Some of the range formerly used by our
largest sheepmen has now been taken over by cattle interests. See Appendix No. 11
for average prices of Iambs from January 1st to November 30th, 1947.
Predators and sheep-killing dogs continue to be the major problems facing the
industry. The following is a summary of live stock killed by dogs and compensation
paid under the "Sheep Protection Act ":—
Year.
Goats.
Sheep.
Poultry.
Number.
Compensation.
Number.
Compensation.
Number.
Compensation.
1942	
1
1
4
74
111
179
108
190
159
$828.00
1,156.25
2,124.50
1,294.25
2,167.50
1,920.50
306
489
521
497
415
1,042
$243.48
1943	
484.77
1944	
465.94
1945	
1946	
1947	
$30.00
25.00
80.00
408.74
629.28
1,310.50
SWINE.
Swine production during the last year or so has been on the up-grade, with more
people keeping a brood sow or two, but it is feared that with the removal of the
free-freight policy (which remains in effect till next July) that the situation will change
and many sows will be marketed. The Province has some very definite swine-raising
districts which, it is hoped, can be built up into heavy production areas. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 113
One of the greatest errors made by most people when getting started in the swine
business is that they do not pay close enough attention to the soundness of the breeding
stock which they are buying. Since the Province of British Columbia does not supply
all of its own breeding stock, there has been a tendency to pick up any type of sow from
any source, and, of course, with this class of animal, as would be expected, trouble
comes along.
In the last few years we have had some swine-diseases which have been receiving
considerable publicity. The so-called swine rhinitis, in the opinion of some people, is
the basic cause of a good deal of the trouble. This, however, is not generally borne out
by men working on this particular condition. Rhinitis seems to be associated with
other conditions.
Swine erysipelas is another disease which is making its appearance in somewhat
more acute form in parts of the country.
Both these diseases will be discussed at more length under separate headings.
See Appendix No. 12 for average prices for hogs from January 1st to November
30th, 1947.
NUTRITION AND ANIMAL HEALTH.
Errors of nutrition lay the foundation for disease-development, and unless the
live-stock industry of any country can hold down disease, it is certain to undermine
the entire agricultural system. In order to protect the industry against attacks of
disease, a steady campaign of control and eradication must be carried on. Your
Commissioner has made this a regular policy at all times.
This last year or so we have lost the services of Dr. A. Knight, Chief Veterinary
Inspector; Dr. J. D. MacDonald, Veterinary Inspector; and Dr. M. Sparrow, Veterinary
Inspector. After considerable delay, three additional Inspectors were added to the
staff, and two of these have since resigned to go into private practice. One new
inspector, Dr. J. J. Carney, formerly Food and Milk Consultant for the Department
of Health, has recently joined the staff. Dr. John Bankier has been added to the staff
as Animal Pathologist, with the intention of providing laboratory service to all branches
of the live-stock industry, but laboratory equipment has been very difficult to procure
and, as a result, our laboratory has not yet been opened. It is hoped that sufficient
equipment will shortly be available in order to make a start on specific programs of
live-stock disease eradication, which require supporting laboratory assistance.
Mineral and other Deficiencies.
Your Commissioner is of the opinion that the uncertainty of the feed-supplies is
responsible for considerable of the difficulty encountered especially by dairy cattlemen
trying to keep their herds on high production. The feed-houses are finding it difficult
to get a uniform supply of any particular feed. All this reflects back to the individual
herd and definitely contributes toward a higher percentage of replacements going out
of dairy herds.
Range-cattle herds are having their usual troubles as a result of nutritional
deficiencies. The incidence of the so-called knock-heel was quite high in some parts of
the Province this year. Personal observations made by your Commissioner over many
years indicate that where the nutrition is sound and especially the calcium-phosphorous
balance is correct, knock-heel does not seem to appear to the same extent. The work of
Dr. E. A. Bruce, Pathologist, Dominion Department of Agriculture, uncovered the
primary cause of this condition and associated it with the plant Astragalus campestris,
commonly known as " timber milk-vetch." There are some who feel that this trouble
is associated with selenium poisoning, but that remains to be definitely proven. R 114 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
There is some work being undertaken with a new war-time product in the actual
treatment of affected cases.   This treatment seems to have definite possibilities.    It is
hoped that it will furnish a definite answer to this problem and that the price will make
it practical and that it can be easily handled.    Otherwise cattlemen may not make the
best possible use of it.   We are working with and encouraging this group of workers
to continue their efforts.
DISEASES.
Hemorrhagic Septicemia.—The so-called shipping-fever did not appear to the
usual extent in the range-cattle country this last winter. Losses in general, according
to reports received, were considerably less than during the winter of 1945-46. This
disease is becoming more widely established in both beef-cattle and dairying sections of
the Province and, without a doubt, will become one of the greatest disease problems
the industry has to contend with.    Its incidence coincides with the traffic in cattle.
Coccidiosis.—This disease did not appear extensively in any part of the range
country this last year. There were the usual cases breaking out during the winter
months, but it did not appear in epizootic form in any section of the range country.
The disease does not appear frequently in epizootic form, and as a consequence cattlemen lose their appreciation for the disease and give less attention to the handling of
their young stock, with the result that when favourable weather conditions, probably
at periods of eight or ten years, appear, severe outbreaks occur and the losses are quite
heavy. It is safe to say that the infection remains established around most feed-
grounds and old corrals, and all that is required is bad management, poor nutrition, and
suitable conditions to bring about a severe outbreak. Most cattlemen to-day are
acquainted with the method of handling this trouble.
Necrotic Stomatitis.—This disease is becoming more widely established due to
longer use of feed-lots and feed-grounds and the addition of outside cattle to herds.
Blackleg.—This disease is making steady progress into new sections of the
Province, brought in with outside cattle being purchased. There is but one answer to
this problem, and that is systematic and regular vaccination.
Equine Encephalomyelitis.—A few cases of the disease appeared in sections of the
Interior, where permanent reservoirs have been established, but these outbreaks were
promptly brought under control by block vaccination of the horse population in the
adjacent territory. Some cases were reported to have occurred in the Fraser Valley,
but later investigations would indicate this to be very doubtful.
Caseous Lymphadenitis.—We are pleased to announce that the Province as a whole
is very clear of this disease, which broke out in such severe form some few years ago.
Only two slight outbreaks appeared in flocks in the Province, and these are under
practical quarantine, and it is expected that infected flocks will be rapidly cleaned up.
These outbreaks came with imported ewe purchases.
A personal visit to sheep-raising sections in the United States and post-mortem
reports coming from other parts of this Dominion seem to indicate that we are much
more free of this disease than they are iir many of these other sections. Being a slow
and chronic disease, it does not alarm stockmen until it has become strongly entrenched.
In the large sheep-raising sections of the world it is almost disease problem No. 1, and
we feel very gratified with the results that we have been able to get. The sheepmen
generally have been very co-operative.
Foot-rot in Sheep.—All the major range flocks of the Province were given the usual
inspections before going to the range this summer, and while some progress has been
made, there is much yet to be done. It is hoped with additional veterinary service that
we can get more time to check the flocks on winter range and again on summer range,
and also that a better plan of range management while on the summer range will bring
about a clean-up of this disease. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 115
Mastitis.—The incidence of mastitis in the dairy herds of this country is rapidly
becoming one of first importance. In fact many dairymen agree that it is their greatest
problem. There is, of course, a close association between this disease and other
members of the breeding-disease group, especially brucellosis. Mastitis is probably
responsible for more replacements in dairy herds than any other single condition.
Where the disease is running rampant, as many as 60 per cent, of the dairy cows are
removed each year.
The consuming public is demanding a higher-quality, lower-count milk, and it is
quite evident that the high incidence of mastitis in some herds is responsible for unduly
high counts in the product. An effort is being made in our dairy-herd and dairy-farm
inspection work under the " Milk Act" to check on the incidence of mastitis in the
herds. This, of necessity, must only be a very general check, since intimate laboratory
examinations cannot be made. With these field checks a large percentage of the
abnormalities in udders will be uncovered and treatment immediately recommended.
With clinical cases of mastitis, removal from the herd is immediately required. Our
Inspectors are spending considerable time with individual cattle-owners in an effort
to get better general management and more careful milking, and gradually reduce the
incidence of mastitis in herds. The work done this year has definitely shown that
the cattle-owners in general are becoming more mastitis conscious, and considerable
improvement is already showing in herds where the disease was prevalent.
Our work with mastitis amongst the dairymen is encouraging them to be more
careful in the purchase of replacement cattle for their herds. We definitely look for
marked improvement in the incidence of mastitis in the dairy herds of this Province.
As soon as our pathological laboratory has been opened, we hope to do more
intimate work with mastitis.
The chief organisms responsible for mastitis in our herds, of course, are streptococcus agalactia? and staphylococcus aureus, with other organisms to a lesser extent.
In general the incidence of mastitis rotates around bad management, the establishment
of carrier animals in their herds, and a high general incidence of the infection about
the premises. Bad milking methods, resulting in injury to the udder and direct
inoculation of the infection from the hands of the milker or the milking-machine, are
factors which have to be considered in the control of this disease. A very intense
educational campaign is necessary in order to reduce the incidence of the disease in
our herds.
Swine Erysipelas.—This disease has been in evidence in the Province for some
considerable time but usually appeared in a somewhat mild, chronic, or sub-acute form.
This last year has seen the disease appear in acute form in a few points in the Province.
These have been brought under control, and it is hoped that no further acute breaks
will appear.
It should be noted that this disease can seriously affect turkey flocks. It appeared
in acute form in two large flocks but has definitely been brought under control. The
disease can affect human beings, and, as a consequence, definite control measures should
be undertaken in order to protect public health. It is hoped that we can make a definite
check on many of our swine herds this coming year with the help of our laboratory
facilities. It would seem as though any infection we have in the Province has developed
as a result of careless purchases of breeding stock from mixed shipments of swine
coming in to the central markets.
Swine Rhinitis.—There is a definite difference of opinion with regard to this disease. Some workers believe that the disease is the primary trouble-maker in the swine-
disease picture, and that it constitutes a specific disease in itself. In the work done by
the Dominion Department of Agriculture this thought does not seem to be borne out. R 116 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The disease as a clinical condition might be said to constitute a combination of several
factors and the rhinitis itself is the result of this combination of conditions.
It would seem that in order to produce a typical case of rhinitis, there must be
contributing factors, such as badly formed faces with an extremely short and up-turned
nose. Usually where the condition is prevalent, you find bad management and bad
feeding practices, with a lowered nutrition and general malnutrition. It is frequently
found around old hog-lots, where the sanitation has been neglected and where hogs have
been kept for many years. This combination of conditions, with possibly some invading
micro-organisms, results in an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose,
producing the so-called rhinitis.
In the early stages the pigs quite often sneeze and rub their noses. There is a
watery discharge which later becomes purulent. There may even be haemorrhages
from time to time. As the condition becomes longer established, the bony structure of
the jaw and head becomes affected, and the upper jaw ceases to grow and the turbinate
bones of the nostrils disappear. The bony tissues generally become decalcified and
absorbed. The animal no longer brings the teeth together in the normal way. The
hard pallet may become deformed and even bulge down into the mouth. The nose may
become enlarged and even twisted. Observations made by the Dominion Department
indicate that until the animal is 75 to 100 lb., there seems to be little inconvenience.
After that, however, as the deformity becomes more pronounced, the affected animal
finds it difficult to eat, especially in conflict with other pigs at the trough.
It would seem that in order to eradicate this condition from the swine herds of the
country, it would be necessary to carry on better general management and keep swine
pens and lots in better condition, with frequent changes to new ground if possible. The
swine herds should be culled carefully, and an attempt should be made to eradicate the
abnormal heads which are becoming far too frequent in our swine herds. It is our hope
that we can assist swinemen in cleaning up this situation in their herds.
Calfhood Vaccination against Brucellosis.—This policy is receiving more consider-
tion each year, and it is expected that eventually every part of the Province will be
making use of the policy. The chief limitation to its more extended use is lack of
veterinary practitioners to undertake the work. The vaccine, being very fragile, must
be handled with great care. Every effort is being made to see that the vaccine is of
high quality and that it reaches the veterinarian in good condition.
In our area work this year, which will be reviewed in more detail later on, it is
expected that well on to 5,000 doses of vaccine will be used.
A tabulated statement of the work accomplished to date follows  (our year begins
July 31st):—
No. of Calves vaccinated.
First year (July 31st, 1941, to July 31st, 1942)  3,098
Second year (July 31st, 1942, to July 31st, 1943)  5,778
Third year (July 31st, 1943, to July 31st, 1944)  7,022
Fourth year (July 31st, 1944, to July 31st, 1945)  8,318
Fifth year (July 31st, 1945, to July 31st, 1945)  7,434
Sixth year (July 31st, 1946, to July 31st, 1947)  8,569
Total for six years  40,219
Vaccinated from July 31st, 1947, to November 30th, 1947     6,878
Total  calves  vaccinated  from  July  31st,   1941,   to
November 30th, 1947  47,097
This total includes 14 calves vaccinated in the Inonoaklin Valley under the area
plan and 1,801 in the Nicola Valley. A considerable number of calves are yet to be
done in the latter area. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 117
Correspondence with respect to this policy amounted to 672 letters from January
1st to November 30th, 1947.
Area Programs.
An additional program of work was commenced this year with a move to eradicate
tuberculosis and brucellosis from specific areas. These areas are established on the
petition of the cattle-owners in the area. Our first area, which is the Inonoaklin
Valley area, consisted of 577 head of cattle. Since this area is primarily a dairying
district, all cattle were tuberculin-tested and all cattle were blood-tested. The cattle-
owners were anxious to still further protect their herds against brucellosis and requested
that the replacement heifer calves be vaccinated. Since the farmers in this valley are
primarily interested in dairying, all dairy premises were graded under the " Milk Act,"
and advice and direction given to each owner as to how they could best bring their
premises up to a standard which would qualify them for the sale of whole milk. It is
hoped that by the end of another year all premises in the territory will be up to grade.
It is interesting to know of the low incidence of mastitis in the herds of this territory. Out of all udders examined, only 49 cows showed any evidence of mastitis and
only 20 clinical cases were found, and these will be removed.
The low incidence of disease in this valley emphasizes the importance of checking
on as many such valleys as can be done at as early a date as possible in order to prevent
these diseases becoming established in these newer districts.
There is little doubt that the greatest single strain on the agricultural industry
to-day in many parts of the country is the incidence of brucellosis and other associated
breeding diseases.
Our No. 2 area—namely, the Nicola Stock Range—is somewhat different in its
constitution. This great cattle-range country has perhaps 20,000 breeding cows and
markets from eight to ten thousand cattle each year. On all cattle-ranches there are
some milk cows kept for the use of the ranch, and these have been built up largely from
dairy cattle purchased outside of the area. The mistake made by ranchers was in not
seeing that these cattle were negative to brucellosis and tuberculosis before they were
brought on to the ranch.
Another problem in the area which had to be dealt with was the individual dairy
cows and the dairy herds in the neighbourhood of the Town of Merritt. These cattle
were likewise brought in from outside without tests.
The program has not been completed, but to date some 250 head of dairy cattle
have been blood-tested, with 26 known positives and 14 head to be rechecked. In
January of this year 102 head of cattle were blood-tested, and 16 reactors to the
agglutination test for brucellosis were found and shipped out. Also 375 head of cattle
were tuberculin-tested and no reactors found.
In the recent tuberculin test made of the dairy cows on the ranches and in the
Town of Merritt, 242 head were tuberculin-tested and only one reactor found, which
was removed and compensation paid. During the last two or three years tests were
made on individual ranches, and a number of tuberculosis reactors were found and
removed.
In support of this program of tuberculosis and brucellosis eradication a calfhood-
vaccination program has been carried on. In January of this year 170 heifer calves
were vaccinated, and to date in the area some 2,000 head of heifer calves have been
vaccinated. It is expected that there will be some 1,500 or 2,000 calves vaccinated
within the next few weeks.
This policy is recognized by well-informed authorities as being one of the most
practical methods of approach to this difficult problem. If the dairy herds can be kept
regularly retested and free of brucellosis and the replacement heifer calves regularly
vaccinated, it should only be a matter of a very few years until all of the cattle in the R 118 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
area will be negative to brucellosis and carry a high measure of immunity against
the disease.
It is hoped that the milk-supply of the Town of Merritt will come from only
mastitis-free, tuberculosis-free, and brucellosis-free dairy cows.
So far this year two other areas have inquired about a similar program being
started in their districts.
Our recently appointed Live Stock Inspector for the Interior, Urban Guichon, has
spent a great deal of time in organizing this area in order to facilitate the work for the
Veterinary Inspectors.
ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION.
The year 1947 has been a rather difficult year for those working in the field of
artificial insemination. The problem of financing is not a simple matter. It is easier
to get a higher efficiency in smaller units, but the difficulty with these small units is to
finance the proportionately heavier overhead.
In order to uncover the weaknesses in the general policy as it exists in this
Province, the full time of our Animal Pathologist has been devoted to an intimate
investigation of the work, particularly in the Lower Fraser Valley. As a result of this
investigation, we now know the chief weaknesses in the work as it has been carried on
in the past. It is expected that the necessary changes will shortly be made in as far as
the station itself is concerned, and it is hoped that an educational program can be
carried on with the actual owners themselves in order to correct the irregularities
in their herds.
It is quite evident from a review of the situation that the far-seeing dairymen in
the country are anxious to have artificial insemination established on a sound basis.
There is no doubt that it offers the best means for the improvement of the quality of
the individual animals, especially in small herds, and for the control of breeding-
diseases of cattle.
WARBLE-FLY AND TICK CONTROL.
Steady progress has been made in this work. In many sections practically all of
the early warbles have been eradicated from the herds. In these areas we hope to make
an attack on the late warble this year. At the present time the Fraser Valley is being
very intimately organized with the idea of getting every last animal in an attempt
to eradicate all warbles, both early and late, which may remain in the herds. Our Live
Stock Inspector, F. C. Clark, is at work at the present time on this campaign.
During 1947 there were 1,561 lb. of derris powder and 4,590 lb. of warble wash
distributed.
In the Lower Fraser Valley 700 lb. of powder were distributed, and 503 herds of
cattle were treated twice.   This comprised a total of 9,577 cattle treated.
In the Upper Fraser Valley 825 lb. of powder were distributed.
In the Prince George area approximately 1,170 head of cattle were treated and
351 warbles found.
In the East Kootenay District 268 lb. of powder were distributed, with 4,697 cattle
treated.   The incidence of warbles was light.
In the Salmon Arm area approximately 530 cattle were treated. The incidence of
warbles was quite high.
In the Nicola area 5,320 cattle were treated and 59,612 warbles found. The
incidence of warbles was very high.
In the South Okanagan approximately 300 head of cattle were treated and 1,663
warbles found.
Very good work was done last year in the Cariboo. Central British Columbia
is almost entirely cleaned up.   The same could be said of the Peace River Block.   The DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 119
Okanagan, Kamloops, and parts of the Kootenay Districts need more attention. It is
hoped that our Live Stock Inspector for the Interior will be able to intimately follow
out the program of warble-fly eradication, especially in our Nicola Stock Range area.
" MILK ACT " ADMINISTRATION.
The work in this field has definitely increased, with many herds formerly supplying
milk for manufacturing purposes now shipping their product for whole-milk consumption. Distributers generally are faced with the problem of quality, especially with these
smaller shippers and new shippers who are not familiar with the requirements of the
Act. It was impossible to cover all the work this year due to the many changes in the
staff and lack of sufficient staff. However, in some sections definite progress has been
made, and with a strengthened staff and the support of the distributers and Medical
Health Officers great improvement is anticipated.
In the concentrated dairying areas a great deal of work has to be done in getting
better equipment, better methods, and in the eradication of disease in the herds. The
lack of interest on the part of other groups associated with the industry has made it
difficult for this Branch to get the co-operation which is required, but the situation is
definitely changing, with the distributers, Health Officers, and farmers themselves
becoming more conscious of the need for improvement.
The consuming public is demanding a better and safer quality milk, and farmers
are generally beginning to realize that the nearer they comply to the requirements
under the " Milk Act," the less trouble they will have in their herds. Your Commissioner has been named chairman of a committee to co-ordinate the work, and it is hoped
that this committee will meet early in the new year to lay plans intended to improve
the situation and assist the farmers in their efforts to improve.
See Appendix No. 14 for a detailed summary of the dairy premises inspected and
herds tuberculin-tested this year.
Under the " Milk Act," although we have two large Dominion tuberculosis-free
areas in this Province, there is yet much tuberculin test work to be done by our staff.
We are endeavouring to arrange our tuberculin tests more or less on an area plan
rather than on the individual-herd approach. In this way definite areas are being
cleaned up, and dairymen working under the " Milk Act" can buy clean cows anywhere
in the area. In the area approach it will not be necessary to undertake tuberculin
testing in all these areas each year. This will reduce our work considerably and enable
us to extend our efforts into new areas, and in that way clean out tuberculosis as an area
effort in many new districts.
Considerable tuberculin test work has been done in mixed-farming areas, including
small beef herds. In order to protect public health, every effort is made to tuberculin-
test individual milk cows being kept as family milk cows. Wherever we see the need
for tuberculin tests being made in order to protect public health, it is immediately done.
The following information taken from the report of Dr. A. Kidd will give a general
idea of the situation which obtains in the area covered by this Inspector during the
period from July 1st to November 30th, 1947:— R 120
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Dairy Premises inspected and graded from July 1st to November 30th, 1947,
under the " Milk Act."
Number
of
Premises.
Total
Cattle.
Total
Milk
Cows.
Number
Milking
at Time of
Inspection.
Grade.
Municipality.
A.
B.
C.
Ungraded.
Surrey	
5
155
126
121
3
2
Langley1	
10
89
63
52
1
4
5
Matsqui2	
362
6,546
4,306
3,516
3
287
21
51
Sumas3	
14
496
311
249
1
12
1
Chilliwackl	
87
1,789
1,159
902
3
70
4
10
Maple RidgeS	
1
13
8
8
1
CoquitlamS	
1
20
17
15
1
Burnaby7	
9
122
78
69
4
4
1
Totals	
489
9,230
6,068
4,932
17
379
26
67
17
401
70
1 As a result of raw-milk producer-vendor investigation, all 5 Ungraded premises because of no milk-house.
2 On thirty-day regrade of C Grades, 17 regraded as B Grades, 3 regraded as Ungraded, 1 sold out stock. Of 51
Ungraded, 28 because of no milk-house, 12 because of no milk-house and stable too poor, 6 as premises unfit to
grade, 5 as stable too poor to grade.
3 On thirty-day regrade of C Grades, 1 regraded as B Grade.
4 On thirty-day regrade of C Grades, all 4 regraded as B Grades. Of 10 Ungraded, 4 because of no milk-house,
3 because of no milk-house and stable ungradable, 1 because premises unfit to grade, 2 because stable ungradable.
5 A cream vendor at New Westminster City Market.
6 A raw-milk producer-vendor to New Westminster.
7 Raw-milk producer-vendors.
8 One C Grade sold stock.
Municipality graded.—Of the 488 premises with a final grade, 17 or 3.4 per cent,
were graded as "A," 401 or 82.2 per cent, were graded as " B," 70 or 14.4 per cent, were
graded as " Ungraded." Of the 26 premises with a C Grade on thirty-day regrade, 22
or 84.6 per cent, regraded to " B," 3 or 11.5 per cent, regraded to " Ungraded," 1 or 3.9
per cent, sold out stock. Of the 70 Ungraded premises, 37 or 52.9 per cent, because of
no milk-house, 19 or 27.1 per cent, because of no milk-house and stable too poor to grade,
7 or 10 per cent, as premises unfit to grade, 7 or K> per cent, as stable too poor to grade.
The owners of Ungraded premises are seriously handicapped by the difficulty in
procuring cement, lumber, and nails. Off-hand it could be said that 75 per cent, of
these people intend to improve their premises to grade standards.
" FUR-FARM ACT " ADMINISTRATION.
At the last session of the British Columbia Legislature the fur-farm industry was
turned over by Act to this Branch for direction. Considerable field-work has been done
amongst the fur-farmers in an effort to ascertain exactly what they require and
sometime ago the Act itself was proclaimed, and it is hoped to have the regulations
proclaimed very shortly. It was felt that the industry itself should approve of the
regulations before they were proclaimed. Generally speaking, the farmers seem to
favour regulations intended to control the incidence of disease rather than leave the
matter open and depend upon general vaccination against certain diseases such as
distemper in order to protect the industry.
There is at the present time well on toward 400 fur-farms listed in the Province,
and it is expected that there will be many more farmers move in from other Provinces
and new farmers commence business in the next year. It is hoped that the help of the
pathological laboratory will be of much assistance to the industry, also that some
research-work can be done by the University of British Columbia on the nutrition
of fur-bearers. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1947. R 121
DAIRY-HERD IMPROVEMENT.
The following extract is taken from the annual report of G. H. Thornbery,
Superintendent of Cow-testing Associations:—
" There are in operation fourteen associations, employing seventeen supervisors
who are testing 395 herds, containing 8,600 to 9,000 cows. With trained men now
available, it will be possible to give some attention to districts that have been asking
for this dairy-herd improvement project for some time past. Plans are being made to
employ, on a temporary basis, an assistant who will be available for relief-work, thereby
providing each supervisor with the opportunity to have a short annual vacation.
" Due to the sharp rise in the price of feeds during the last two months, thereby
narrowing the ratio between feed costs and the cash value of a can of milk, it is
probable that the average amount of grain fed per 100 lb. of milk will show a reduction,
resulting in a drop in milk production. This may have a beneficial effect on the health
of many herds.
" The early part of the year presented two important problems connected with the
efficient operation of Cow-testing Association routes. The most serious concerned the
lack of suitably trained men to fill vacancies caused by resignations of Cow-testing
Association supervisors. Furthermore, no encouragement could be given to the
formation of associations in new districts. The remuneration obtainable has not been
sufficiently attractive to men with the necessary qualifications, as no allowance for
operation of car was provided for. This condition of affairs forced a temporary closing-
down of operations in the Dewdney-Deroche Cow-testing Association from March 31st
to December 15th, resulting in a break in the continuity of production records. It has
been a keen disappointment to dairymen who had been testing continuously for many
years, as life-time records were severed.
" Following conferences with Cow-testing Association officials and members of this
Department, an arrangement was made for a monthly transportation allowance for
Cow-testing Association supervisors. It was accomplished through an increase in
testing fees paid by the dairymen and a corresponding raise in the Departmental
subsidy. This solution has had a salutary effect on the staff of Cow-testing Association
supervisors, and there has been a decided increase in the number of applicants who wish
to train for this work. As a result, there are now two trained men who are anxious to
obtain positions as Cow-testing Association supervisors as soon as a suitable opening
becomes available for each man.
"Another problem that has become increasingly difficult is that progressive policies
concerning the registration of pure-breds being adopted by the majority of Dairy
Cattle Breeders' Associations are forcing owners of pure-bred cows to put them on
R.O.P. to avoid penalties in costs of registration, etc. In many cases these dairymen
do not want two supervisors periodically testing their cows and, as a result, there are
some herds that have dropped the Cow-testing Association.
"As there are 100 members of Cow-testing Associations who individually own three
or more pure-bred cows, the potential loss of herds might be sufficient to disorganize
some Cow-testing Association routes.
"After considerable correspondence with Departmental officials at Ottawa had
taken place, followed by a journey to that city, contacts were made and discussions
started that have finally resulted in reaching a satisfactory solution to this difficult
problem of long standing. As a result, British Columbia Cow-testing Association
supervisors are now recognized as R.O.P. Inspectors and qualified to prepare test
reports of cows that are entered in R.O.P. and are also on test on Cow-testing Association. These reports are forwarded to Ottawa through this office. At the present
time there are twelve herds taking advantage of this R.O.P.-C.T.A. service. R 122 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" Publications.
" Data was assembled and compiled in stencil form under the following headings:—
" Dairy Circular No. 55, Fifteenth List of Jersey Sires, containing progeny
production reports for 122 sires.
" Dairy Circular No.  57,  Sixteenth List of Holstein  Sires;   this report is
compiled from production records of 1,783 daughter-dam pairs, progeny,
and mates of 102 sires.
"Dairy Circular No. 58, Eighth Annual List of Cows (428), each having a
lifetime production of more than a ton of fat to their credit.
" Parental Production Summaries.
" During the period under review ten requests for individual reports on potential
dairy sires have been complied with.
" Field and Office Routine.
"A considerable amount of time has been spent in areas covered by Cow-testing
Associations. During such visits frequent conferences were held with local supervisors
and board officials. Many members of Cow-testing Associations have been called on
and certificates of production endorsed with particulars of subsequent records qualifying
for certification. Contacts have been made with individuals who desired information
concerning duties of a Cow-testing Association supervisor. In a majority of instances
there was generally a lack of sufficient schooling to warrant giving them any
encouragement to proceed with their plans.
" The main project at headquarters has been centred on the problems concerned
with the increasing duplication in herds where R.O.P. and C.T.A. tests were in operation. Much time and thought has been spent in assembling data and preparing reports
and briefs for use in discussions with Dominion officials. As a result, no time has yet
been available to compile the annual summarized report for 1946 on average milk and
butter-fat production of all completed milking periods.
" Short Courses.
" From February 3rd to 14th an instructional course for prospective Cow-testing
Association supervisors was held in Victoria. Of the three students attending, one
only was available and suitable for this type of work, and he was placed immediately
in the Chilliwack district.
" In conjunction with the