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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS HON. E. T. KENNEY, Minister G. P. MELROSE,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1948

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Hon. E. T. Kenney, Minister G. P. Melrose, Deputy Minister of Lands
Report of the Deputy Minister of Lands
containing the Reports of the
Lands, Surveys, and Water
Rights Branches
together with
the Dyking and Drainage Commissioner,
Southern Okanagan Lands Project, University Endowment Lands, and the Coal,
Petroleum, and Natural Gas Controller
Year ended December 31st
1947
VICTORIA, B.C. :
Printed by Don McDiahmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
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—     cn     ro  Victoria, B.C., January 30th, 1948.
To His Honour C. A. Banks,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia:
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Lands, Surveys,
and Water Rights Branches, with other divisions, of the Department of Lands and
Forests for the year ended December 31st, 1947.
E. T. KENNEY,
Minister of Lands and Forests.
Victoria, B.C., January 30th, 1948.
The Honourable E. T. Kenney,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit my Annual Report, including the reports of the
Lands, Surveys, and Water Rights Branches of the Department of Lands and Forests
for the twelve months ended December 31st, 1947, with which are also incorporated the
Annual Reports of the Inspector of Dykes and Commissioner of Dyking, Southern
Okanagan Lands Project, the University Endowment Lands, and the Coal, Petroleum,
and Natural Gas Controller.
GEO. P. MELROSE,
Deputy Minister of Lands.  CONTENTS.
Page.
1. Report of the Deputy Minister of Lands  9
2. Lands Branch ,  12
(a)  Land Utilization Research and Survey  27
(6)  Land Inspection Division  31
(c)  Land Settlement Board  36
3. Surveys Branch  37
(a) Air Surveys Division  40
(b) Geographic Division  62
(c) Surveys Division  68
(d) Topographic Division  74
Topographic Surveys—
(1) West Coast of Vancouver Island  80
(2) Tyaughton Creek  86
(3) Rossland-Trail  93
(4) Terrace-Kitsumgallum  102
(e) British Columbia-Yukon Boundary Survey  109
(/)   Reconnaissance Survey of Western Route for a Highway to Yukon  117
4. Water Rights Branch  121
5. Coal, Petroleum, and Natural Gas Control  137
6. Dyking and Drainage  141
7. Southern Okanagan Lands Project  146
8. University Endowment Lands  153
9. General Administration File-room  157  Report of the Lands, Surveys, and Water Rights Branches.
REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER OF LANDS.
Reflecting continued commercial activity and the movement of people and businesses to British Columbia, all records of the Lands Branch of the Department were
broken in 1947. Enterprise branching out must find land on which to build, new plants
need space, and people want that freedom of personal decision that comes most to those
owning the land by which they live.
Hence the total number of Crown grants issued was the greatest on record, and
exceeded the ten-year average of 1,510 by 1,067 or roughly 71 per cent. Leases of land
were correspondingly high, with an increase over 1946 of 68 per cent, and over the
ten-year average of 60 per cent.
Collections increased proportionately, with a total gross revenue from land of
$1,770,000, as compared to $992,000 in 1946 and a ten-year average of $755,000. This
represents increases of 78 per cent, and 135 per cent, respectively. Although including
one large sale of $350,000, the increase in collections is still well above last year and
average.
The increased volume of work was handled by an office staff changed very little
from a year ago. Their work and loyalty to duty accounts for the greater and very
high-grade output. The comparison of permanent staff, including districts, with the
pre-war period and with 1946 is as follows:—
1938.
1946.
1947.
Lands Branch (Land Settlement Board and Land Utilization Research and Survey)...
27
48
31
15
39
30
44
34
16
54
53
62
45
17
51*
Totals	
160
178
228
* University Endowment Lands, 25 ;   Southern Okanagan Lands Project, 24 ;   Coal and Petroleum, 2.
The increased work represents a demand on the relatively small area of usable land
in British Columbia, which makes it apparent that we must husband what is left.
Although there is still enough land to support a great increase of both industrial and
agricultural people, it must not be left to chance to put it to the right use.
Hence, during 1947, an important step forward was taken in the appointment of
six Land Inspectors. These were all graduate agriculturists with field experience, to
which was added, in the spring, a two weeks' course in fundamentals of forestry and
timber estimating.
For the past thirty years land inspections have been made by the Forest Rangers.
Their work in this regard has been highly satisfactory, but with increasing duties,
especially in the summer months when field-work is best done, it has been found more
and more difficult to get the land inspections completed. Added to this is the desire
that settlement areas be given adequate study by men trained in the agricultural
outlook and able to advise intending settlers and the Government on the best methods
of securing proper results.
Although they did not reach their field stations until early summer, these young
men did a most creditable job.    Altogether they inspected 404 different areas of land X 10 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
or an average of 66 each, on which they made reports—an excellent record for new men.
In addition, there were many miscellaneous duties to be done.
The results indicated clearly the wisdom of setting up this inspection service,
and we may look forward with confidence to its increasing value in the years to come.
Reports on their individual districts appear later in this report, together with that of
the Chief Land Inspector.
Proper use of land, especially for agriculture, is based on a great variety of conditions. Too many people, industrious and determined, but uninformed, have been
allowed to take up land that later proved unprofitable. This may have been for various
causes, such as poor soil, too little or too much water, too far from markets, or social
amenities, and many others. Such failures can be prevented by adequate study of the
conditions that made them and, conversely, that have made the successes.
That is the function of the Land Utilization Research and Survey Division that
secured a good start in 1947. With three field parties they covered a total area of
almost 200,000 acres and, as a result, have set up a number of farm units that are calculated to support a family each. They are located mostly in the vicinity of Prince
George and the Peace River. Briefly, the purpose of this Division is accomplished
when they make available to the district land offices sufficient information to enable an
intending settler to pick his land intelligently, get expert reports on soil, water, clearing
costs, building-sites, and other essential facts, and, if satisfied, the price and possession
at once. This last item is of utmost importance, as most people who want to take up
land do not have time to wait for reports.
Other important studies were made, as will be detailed later by the Director of the
Division of Land Utilization Research and Survey.
Closely allied to land use and disposal is the question of water, either because of
too little, too much, or the right use of the right amount. The arid Interior of the
Province survives only through irrigation, while the fertile alluvial lands of the Lower
Fraser and the Kootenay Valleys can produce only through dyking and drainage.
Hence the great necessity for control of the available supply where it is scarce and
the prime function of the Water Rights Branch, which is the licensing and division
of water.
The very competent staff of hydraulic engineers in the Water Rights Branch maintains technical supervision of these matters, as well as doing a great many surveys of
projects for water power and domestic supply. Full information is contained in the
report of the Comptroller of Water Rights, where, it may be noted, increased revenues
are also reported.
Better direction and internal organization of the University Endowment Lands
and Southern Okanagan Lands Project have been secured. Both were placed on a self-
sustaining basis in 1947 and should carry themselves in the future. They are the
result of foresight of years ago and are now beginning to pay off in many ways. Not
by revenue alone can we judge the value of such projects, but by the number of satisfied
and self-supporting people who inhabit them. The Southern Okanagan project is now
almost wholly developed, with little more land available, and produces more per year in
early fruits and vegetables than the total investment. From dry sage-brush country
it has blossomed into a productive and delightful home for over 4,000 people.
The University Endowment Lands have also developed rapidly along planned lines
of a high-class residential district and soon further subdivisions must be provided.
Details of accomplishments in each case are contained in reports of the managers.
Relatively new is the Division of Coal, Petroleum, and Natural Gas Control. Its
function is the survey of the resources in these products and the control of their alienation. Requiring large areas for prospecting and development, the control of the surface
in relation to other land uses is highly important.    At the same time the value of the REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER OF LANDS. X 11
products to be secured must be balanced against other land uses. Important advances
have been made by this Division, as recorded later by the Controller, notably among
them being the establishment of a coal and oil laboratory at Victoria under highly
competent direction.
All these activities of the Department, as well as those of other departments of
Government, depend upon an adequate system of surveys, for land use and alienation
can only be planned and carried out where confusion of title is impossible. Thus
the Surveyor-General's Branch is the connecting-link that binds them all together,
figuratively and literally. The surveys of land areas, grids of triangulation, photo-
topographic and aerial photographic surveys, all are used to show the shape of the
country and the relationship of every part to every other. Good progress was made
in 1947 in the surveys of the Province, especially aerial surveys, which progress faster
than others. However, more speed is needed in the ground ties and topographic work.
Better methods have been developed by a keen and highly technical staff, and young
men are in training who will be able to add greatly to the areas covered.
Many maps have been produced of high technical standard, and the co-operation
of the Dominion Government in printing many in the " degree " series is appreciated.
Lists of available maps are given later in the report.
The Annual Report of this part of the Department of Lands and Forests for 1946
was designed as an historical resume to that time as well as a current report for the
year. The history of each Branch and Division may now be considered complete by
using the 1946 Report and those issued subsequently. X 12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
LANDS BRANCH.
By C. E. Hopper, Superintendent of Lands.
The Lands Branch has the supervision and general administration of the disposal
of Crown lands throughout the Province by pre-emption, lease, sale, or reservation for
various purposes, together with the lands of the University Endowment and Southern
Okanagan Lands Project.
The Branch is divided into four divisions, that of Lands, Land Settlement Board,
Land Utilization Research and Survey, and the Land Inspection service.
As the land is the basis of all renewable natural resources, the proper use of lands
becomes the main problem in the management of those natural resources such as farms,
forests, water, wild life, fish, and scenery.
In order to determine and plan their proper use, it is a first necessity that the
lands must be classified if we are to continue to expand our farm population on the
land and provide for forest, industrial, and recreational uses.
The Land Utilization Research and Survey Division has commenced a programme
to this end; the first land-use survey of over 600 square miles was made of lands in
the vicinity of Vanderhoof and Fraser Lake. This season's surveys cover some 180,500
acres, details of which are given later.
The Land Settlement Board functions under the provisions of the " Land Settlement and Development Act " of 1917. Its main purpose is the encouragement of land
settlement and increasing agricultural development. Details of the Board's operations
for the year 1947 are set out in the report by the Director.
The Land Inspection Division is at present in course of organization. The staff
is under the direction of the Chief Land Inspector and consists of six Land and two
Pre-emption Inspectors. The Land Inspectors are graduates in agriculture and, as
appointed, were immediately placed in the field, working with the Forest Service
Rangers and Provincial Assessors. The report by the Chief Land Inspector summarizes the work accomplished during the year and is herewith submitted.
The detailed statements annexed record the increased volume of business conducted
by the Lands Branch.
The sale of land in acreage parcels continues to surpass that of the previous year.
VETERANS' LANDS.
Applications received for free lands under the " Veterans' Land Settlement Act"
of 1944 total 185, of which 131 were received in 1947; of these, 112 were approved.
The acreage of all applications to December 31st, 1947, is 19,798.38. The Department
issued 104 free grants in favour of the Director, " Veterans' Land Settlement Act,"
this year, with a total acreage of 14,148.87.
" PRE-EMPTORS' FREE GRANTS ACT," 1939.
Applications for grants dropped off to forty-seven for the year. This figure would
indicate that the veterans entitled to consideration under this Act have about completed
their applications thereunder.
The applications for Crown grants under various Statutes continue to show an
increase each year; the gain in grants issued for 1947 was 374 over the last year's
figures.
Applications for pre-emption records kept pace with the previous year.
REVENUE.
The total revenue received was $1,770,413.49, some $778,151.79 over that collected
last year.    Of this sum, $358,215 represents payments received on repayment of money REPORT OP SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS. X 13
advanced out of Consolidated Revenue in previous years and therefore cannot be termed
as current revenues. A new source of revenue is the " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act,
1947."    Receipts from the first year of operation totalled $52,250.
The decline in rentals on Dominion leases, etc., is accounted for by reason of the
terms of the agreement relating to the retransfer of the lands of the former Dominion
Railway Belt.
Under this agreement the Province was obligated to complete the outstanding
commitments under Dominion regulations. Upon expiry or renewal the new alienation
is made under the " Land Act."
LAND SURVEYS.
The Branch is faced constantly with the need for making subdivisions, checking
surveys, and locating lines and corners. In 1947 we were fortunate in being able to
assign a Departmental surveyor to this work in the person of Philip M. Monckton,
B.C.L.S. During the year Mr. Monckton carried out subdivision surveys on the Southern Okanagan Lands and University Endowment Lands, also at Lillooet, Campbell
River, Emory Creek, Chilliwack, Hatzic, Cawston, and Okanagan Falls. In addition,
he carried out a location survey of parts of the proposed coast road to Alaska, clearing
up some doubtful points.
These surveys enabled us to place needed lands on the market and advanced the
development of the Province materially. It was work for which private surveyors
were not available.
STATISTICAL TABLES.
Table 1.—Summary of Recorded Collections for the Year
ended December 31st, 1947.
" Land Act "—
Land revenue (sundry)   $202,366.33
Land sales (principal and interest)     811,752.23
Survey fees, sales of maps, etc       28,512.34
  $1,042,630.90
" Coal and Petroleum Act " :_J  6,310.60
" Coal Act, 1944 " ,  1,834.00
" Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1947 "  52,250.00
$1,103,025.50
" Soldiers' Land Act "—
Southern Okanagan Lands Project  $113,194.00
Houses, South Vancouver         8,215.11
        121,409.11
" Better Housing Act "—Sundry municipalities __  1,926.63
" University Endowment Lands Administration Act "        171,261.64
Refunds and votes   22,790.61
Former Indian reservations (Kitsilano)        350,000.00
Total  $1,770,413.49 X  14
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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Table 2.—Summary of Total Collections for Ten-year Period 1938-47, inclusive.
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
$454,540.81
458,306.02
477,973.19
612,810.01
768,710.98
576,228.02
595,117.61
846,456.33
992,201.70
1,770,413.49
Total  $7,552,758.16
Average annual collections, $755,275.81. REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS.
X 15
Table 3.—Revenue Statements for the Year ended December 31st, 1947.
Land Revenue—Sundry.
Victoria
Collections.
Agency
Collections.
Total
Collections.
Collections under " Land Act "—
$1,770.00
155,527.31
670.00
20,080.00
4,500.00
1,296.49
1,278.11
$1,770.00
155,527.31
670.00
Crown-grant fees—
20,080.00
4,500.00
Sundry revenue	
$2,946.15
4,242.64
1,278.11
105.00
7,737.08
1,070.55
105.00
7.737.08
1,287.50
1,627.11
11.81
2,288.05
20.00
56.03
38.14
57.00
1,000.00
4,295.60
15.00
1,000.00
25.00
1,609.00
200.00
750.00
51.500.00
2.358.05
1,627.11
11.81
Former Dominion lands—
2,288.05
20.00
Quarry leases	
	
56.03
38.14
57.00
Collections under " Coal and Petroleum Act "—
1,000.00
4,295.60
15.00
1,000.00
Collections under " Coal Act, 1944 "—
25.00
1.609.00
200.00
Collections under " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1947 "—
750.00
	
51,500.00
$250,902.15
$11,858.78
$262,760.93
Table 4.—Summary of Land Revenue Collections for Ten-year Period 1938-47,
inclusive.
1938  :   $133,387.26
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
Total.
143,508.90
153,325.58
175,787.02
156,863.76
173,251.99
182,782.73
199,042.61
207,696.63
262,760.93
$1,788,407.41
Average annual collections, $178,840.74. X 16
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Table 5.—Land Sales.
Victoria
Collections.
Agency
Collections.
Total
Collections.
Collections under " Land Act " (principal and interest)—
Country lands—
$28,902.73
356,652.63
328.81
3,014.73
$204,836.86
155,780.14
1,569.64
51,839.21
795.10
$233,739.59
512,432.77
1,898.45
54,853.94
795.10
4,781.75
4,781.75
2,512.00
320.61
2,512.00
418.02
738.63
Totals	
$394,098.67
$417,653.56
$811,752.23
Table 6.—Summary of Land Sales for Ten-year Period 1938-47, inclusive.
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
Total.
$85,906.11
86,495.16
115,330.74
153,663.91
151,752.83
202,458.04
215,409.40
294,034.56
368,088.19
811,752.23
$2,484,891.17
Average annual collections, $248,489.11.
Table 7.—Survey Fees, Sales of Maps, etc
Victoria
Collections.
Agency
Collections.
Total
Collections.
Collections under " Land Act "—
$1,383.52
10,957.28
6,540.35
870.55
539.65
2,438.70
$5,782.29
$7,165 81
10,957.28
6,540.35
870 55
539 65
2,438 70
Totals	
$22,730.05
$5,782.29
$28,512.34 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS.
X 17
Table 8.—Survey Fees, Sales of Maps, etc., for Ten-year Period 1938-47,
inclusive.
1938      $10,551.01
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
Total.
10,309.82
10,372.97
11,646.30
16,670.53
18,751.40
18,413.92
25,080.57
29,235.51
28,512.34
$179,544.37
Average annual collections, $17,954.43.
Table 9.—Sundry Collections.
Victoria
Collections.
Agency
Collections.
Total
Collections.
Collections under " Soldiers' Land Act "—
Southern Okanagan Lands Project—
$53,813.35
6,535.46
1,015.21
2,131.40
305.00
10,112.63
39,280.95
4,669.31
647.56
89.87
2,482.86
325.51
1,608.10
318.53
78,473.74
3,533.19
2,107.47
5.52
15,447.00
48.67
9,606.29
5,490.01
6,857.19
1,042.58
14,001.64
10,428.27
24,220.07
9,987.20
12,803.41
350,000.00
Water rates—
$113,194.00
Houses, South Vancouver—■
8,215.11
Collections under " Better Housing Act "—
1,926.63
Collections under " University Endowment Lands Administration Act "—
Land sales—
Lease rentals—
Local improvement taxes—
      !
Loan repayments—
Repossessed houses—
171,261.64
Refunds—
22,790.61
350,000.00
$667,387.99
$667,387.99 X 18 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Table 10.—Collections for Ten-year Period 1938-47, inclusive.
1938       $219,802.94
1939   216,586.59
1940   256,936.36
1941   300,588.49
1942   546,845.58
1943  . :        286,552.83
1944         265,137.10
1945         328,298.59
1946  :        387,181.37
1947         667,387.99
Total  $3,475,317.84
Average annual collections, $347,531.78. REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS.
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Table 12.—Town Lots sold, 1947.
Subdivision.
Number
of Lots.
Value.
Subdivision.
Number
of Lots.
Value.
182
43
6
7
5
21
7
5
3
3
10
12
9
16
19
10
10
32
7
62
13
19
16
23
61
3
8
4
22
34
19
16
5
16
47
17
26
66
42
5
25
35
32
41
49
19
$4,250.00
1,307.36
30.00
295.00
35.00
625.00
975.00
650.00
450.00
430.00
520.00
155.00
385.00
1,230.00
465.00
305.00
500.00
1,795.00
85.00
2,700.00
325.00
1,265.00
280.00
250.00
1,190.00
385.00
200.00
205.00
230.00
890.00
285.00
255.00
250.00
500.00
625.00
386.00
260.00
1,127.50
1,665.00
85.00
345.00
739.40
1,300.00
785.00
2,790.40
682.76
145
54
73
3
4
80
23
475
2
23
8
60
35
5
6
6
37
17
38
13
15
32
30
11
5
3
58
87
13
6
11
10
34
6
16
23
7
10
27
73
20
$8,015.00
600.00
365.00
Atlin	
North Quesnel	
150.00
425.00
425.00
285.00
500.00
34,300.00
2,000.00
1,185.00
120.00
Quesnel	
Revelstoke	
5,475.00
900.00
216.00
600.00
Falkland
90.00
1,050.00
550.00
2,450.00
Telkwa	
235.00
1,040.00
165.00
Trail	
Trout Lake City	
550.00
216.00
275.00
175.00
420.00
5,865.00
1,250.00
2,175.00
Kaleden	
Kamloops	
Wardner	
Wellington	
285.00
215.00
335.00
786.00
Willow River	
Wilmer	
340.00
Lake Cowichan....	
30.00
160.00
840.00
Yale	
390.00
100.00
Moyie	
McBride	
Zeballos	
Miscellaneous	
University Endowment Lands..
Totals	
1,500.00
3,510.28
39,437.60
2,757
$154,382.20 REPORT OP SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS.
X 21
Table 13.—Pre-emption Records, 1947.
Agency.
Pre-emption Records
allowed.
Pre-emption Records
cancelled.
Certificates
ments
OP Improve-
ISSUED.
Number.
Ten-year
Average.
Number.
Ten-year
Average.
Number.
Ten-year
Average.
48
7
4
6
2
1
2
138
34
38
2
2
0.4
28.1
1.6
0.3
15.3
5.4
11.8
3.2
1.3
8.2
5.5
97.9
27.4
2.2
35.2
4.7
5.0
0.1
2.4
4.2
0.3
1
1                          1.6
0.6
31                        20.3
5           |              3.5
1.2
10           |           15.2
8 7.9
10                        16.4
0.2
3                          5.1
3                          1.3
9 j •        11.9
12           j             9.2
76             1          107.7
1
5
5
1
5
1
4
2
1
5
2
46
8
13
1
1
2
2
0.1
Atlin	
0.1
13.6
Cranbrook	
1.4
0.2
9.7
Golden	
1.7
9.4
Kaslo	
0.3
1.6
Nelson	
0.8
5.6
3.6
62.2
31
3
33
3
6
29.8
3.4
32.4
7.2
5.6
0.2
3.5
18.7
0.4
17.4
Revelstoke	
2.8
3.1
1.4
1
3.9
2.3
Victoria	
             1              1-2
0.4
Totals	
284
260.5
245                     289.3
105
156.8 X 22
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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J< X 24 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Table 16.—Crown Grants Issued, 1947.
Pre-emptions  138
" Pre-emptors' Free Grants Act, 1939 " _  47
Dominion homesteads  20
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act "  104
Purchases (other than town lots)  957
Town lots   1,019
Mineral claims —_ 122
Reverted mineral claims  100
Supplementary timber grants  10
"Dyking Assessment Act"  19
" Public Schools Act " * 5
Home-site leases   17
Miscellaneous  19
Total      2,577
Crown Grants issued for the Past Ten Years.
1938  1,063
1939  1,108
1940  1,155
1941  1,102
1942 ;.  1,134
1943  1,421
1944  1,528
1945  1,817
1946  2,203
1947  2,577
Total  15,108
Ten-year average, 1,511. REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS.
X 25
RECORDS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       RECORDS
ISSUED                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           /           ISSUED
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TY YE/
VR PERI
OD
1880
I9£B TO I9>
7  INCH
SIVE
1.80
1480
1280
c*2
Nji__~--
6RP£_IS
1080
880
680
480
PR
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Chart 2.
Table 17.—Total Area deeded. Acres.
Pre-emptions  18,879.17
" Pre-emptors' Free Grants Act, 1939 "  6,851.52
Dominion homesteads   2,605.84
" Veterans' Land Settlement Act "  14,148.87
Mineral claims (other than reverted)  4,715.31
Reverted mineral claims  3,692.68
Purchases of surveyed Crown lands (other than town lots) 59,860.56
Supplementary timber grants   821.09
Total   111,575.04
Table 18.—Acreage Land Sales, 1947.
Acres.
Surveyed (first class)  20,534.88
Surveyed (second class)  23,458.47
Surveyed  (third class)  24,366.98
Unsurveyed
Repurchases (section 134A, "Land Act").
68,360.33
17,457.27
85,817.60
193.81
Total   86,010.41 X 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Table 19.—Home-site Leases (not exceeding 20 acres).
(For Calendar Years as shown.)
Year Leases issued.
Leases
carried.
Rentals
received,
1947.
Total rentals
received.
April 1st, 1929, to December 31st, 1946	
2
2
2
2
9
5
12
9
8
6
13
13
24
19
16
12
9
10
19
32
$27,331.81
1928                                 ...                         	
$22.75
13.75
11.60
15.50
64.25
47.95
183.70
76.15
41.90
47.91
140.50
114.04
211.50
155.68
132.50
85.44
67.60
77.96
147.26
228.52
1929	
1930	
1931     ...           	
1932	
1933	
1934	
1935	
1936 ,	
1937	
1938	
1939	
1940	
1941 :	
1942	
1943	
1944	
1945 '.	
1946	
1947	
1,886.45
As at December 31st, 1947 :	
224
15
1,045.80
....
Total revenue received, April 1st, 1929, to December 31st, 1947	
$30,264.06
	
Leases cancelled during 1947, 11.
Table 20.—Coal Licences, Coal and Petroleum and Natural Gas
Leases, and Petroleum and Natural Gas Permits, 1947.
Leases under the " Coal and Petroleum, Act."
Number. Acres.
Leases renewed   10 5,314.70
Licences under the " Coal Act, 1944."
Number. Acres.
Licences issued     4 2,080.00
Licences renewed     4 1,138.00
8 3,218.00
Permits under the " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act, 1947."
Number. Acres.
Permits issued (geological)     2        498,736.00
Permits issued (geological and geophysical)     1        255,552.00
3        754,288.00
Applications for permits pending     7     1,782,038.20 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS. X 27
LAND UTILIZATION RESEARCH AND SURVEY DIVISION.
By Donald Sutherland, B.S.A., Director.
GENERAL.
In accordance with plans outlined in the 1946 Report, field surveys were instituted
in 1947, though on a small scale due mainly to a lack of experienced field assistants and
directing staff for the initial surveys. Small parties were placed in three important but
widely separated areas in the Province. It was intended that in each area operations
would be in the nature of type surveys by establishing the survey technique adapted
to the conditions peculiar to each and in providing a nucleus of trained personnel,
enabling an expanded scale of operations in 1948.
Approximately 180,000 acres of land were surveyed and mapped in detail in the
field. In view of the limited and inexperienced staff and the initial problems encountered in systematizing survey methods when detailed information was not readily
available, the field-work accomplished was considerable and generally of high quality.
The preparation of detailed maps and the compilation of data for the surveyed
areas is in progress at the present time. The serious handicap of completely inadequate
office facilities will be remedied in 1948, and it is expected that the task of mapping
and report compilation will be simplified and expedited.
STAFF.
As an assurance that land-use studies would be conducted from the required broad
approach, the Lands Department was fortunate in securing, in January, the services of
Dr. D. B. Turner, B.S.A., M.A., Ph.D., as Assistant Director. A graduate in agriculture from the University of British Columbia, Dr. Turner taught school for some
years in New Westminster, during which period he completed studies leading to his
master's degree in conservation. He then spent two years at Cornell University,
returning in January, 1947, after receiving his doctor's degree in the broad field of
conservation studies, specializing in wild-life protection and management. It is appreciated that Dr. Turner's broad technical background in the resource field will enable him
to furnish a valuable contribution in the task of recommending preferred economic uses
for land in the developing economy of this Province.
The small administrative staff was augmented during the summer months through
the services of six very capable students from the University of British Columbia—
N. T. Drewry and W. F. Baehr, married student veterans studying for a degree in
agriculture, specializing in soils; J. H. Day, V. M. Young, and J. Bayfield, all graduates
in agriculture and all returning to the University in the fall for further studies;
C. H. Howatson, who had acquired his master's degree in geography and who at the end
of the survey season travelled to Syracuse University to study for his doctor's degree.
It is expected that all of these men will be available in 1948 to continue the field surveys
initiated in 1947, and thus ensuring a nucleus of highly trained and experienced field
assistants.
As a means of providing a functional background for field-work, all field assistants
were enabled to participate in the Forest Service short course designed for the University students employed on the forest surveys as cruisers and compass-men. The
practical and admirably directed course provided experience in the use of simple survey
equipment, tree identification and yield estimation, and general survey procedure that
proved invaluable later in actual field operations. It is anticipated that the principle of
a preliminary training period for student assistants will be developed for future years,
or until such time as a supply of experienced field assistants has been built up. For the
1948 season a short course will be arranged in co-operation with University authorities.
Student assistants will be given an intensive course in soils and the recognition of soil- X 28
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
types, climate, general principles of tree and plant species identification, and land-use
survey procedure. The preliminary training is regarded as essential from the standpoints of time and money saved and as an assurance of more efficient and uniform field
operations.
FIELD SURVEYS.
Field surveys were conducted in three main areas selected from the standpoint of
their economic importance to the Province and the opportunities afforded for further
expansion and development. The areas selected were Creston, Prince George, and
Dawson Creek in the British Columbia Peace River Block.
Creston was selected as being representative of land in the Southern Interior in a
climatic region permitting fruit-growing and where the irrigation of land is of economic
importance. Creston is the main agricultural centre of the Kootenay District,
combining irrigated fruit lands on the benches and grain-growing and mixed farming
on an extensive area of rich reclaimed land on the flats.
Prince George was chosen for its strategic location in the central part of the
Province. Soil-surveys indicate that in the area west and south there are almost a
million acres of arable land. The soils are grey-wooded and covered with a varying
degree of tree cover. Definite soil-improvement practices are required. The area
offers great opportunities for development, with a lack of population and local markets
being the main limiting factors.
The Dawson Creek district was selected as the starting-point for the studies in the
British Columbia Peace River Block, which constitutes the largest single area of
agricultural land in the Province. Within a few short years this region has become the
most important feed and seed grain and forage-crop seed-producing district in British
Columbia. Certain complex soil-management problems are appearing, and it is
important to find solutions to these in order to ensure that the area will remain
permanently productive. As in the case of the area west and south of Prince George,
extensive undeveloped areas of land offer the greatest opportunities of additional
expansion and settlement within the Province.
In addition to the three planned surveys, requests for information on certain other
areas received attention during the season. A detailed survey was made of Crown
lands in the Pemberton Valley. On completion of the P.F.R.A. drainage programme
the area will permit the development of some 17,000 acres of level, stone-free, and easily
farmed land, although the greatest portion of the valley, while unimproved, is privately
owned. The valley is approximately 100 miles from Vancouver and could be developed
into an important mixed-farming and seed-producing area, furnishing additional dairy
products to supply the expanding Vancouver market. A survey was completed of a
block of 2,500 acres in the Rock Creek-Midway area which, with water, could be
developed into a highly productive seed- and vegetable-growing area. A brief survey
was also made of a proposed subdivision at Ryder Lake, near Chilliwack, which will
provide,a number of small holdings suitable for small-fruit and vegetable production
and ultimately, as the land is cleared, as small dairy-farms.
Surveyed Areas.
Location.
Area surveyed
(Acres).
Period.
Size of
Party.
Nature of survey.
17,000
90,000
45,000
25,000
2,500
1,000
4
2
2
3
4
2
1 week, September	
Intensive, not completed.
Total	
180,500 SW1
■ .'J"."""'v,V"^.
^
^
fc* X 30 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
In addition to the detailed surveys, each party within their area conducted general
board reconnaissance surveys to block out any promising sections as a basis for future
work.
Method of Surveys.
The primary object of the surveys was to classify the remaining unalienated Crown
land in each area surveyed, mainly from the standpoint of their suitability for settlement, then, from the land considered suitable, to determine adequate economic units
offering sufficient arable land for the types of agricultural production adapted to the
areas being surveyed. Recommendations were to include pertinent data on the location
of the units, development factors, such as cost of clearing and availability of water,
and suitable soil-improvement and cropping practices. This information would then
be available to incoming settlers, providing a complete picture of each lot, including any
particular limitations and advantages. In order to furnish such details, it was not
found practical to concentrate only upon the frequently widely separated and isolated
blocks of Crown land. It was necessary to take into account present land use in each
area, so that from the proven practices developed by time and experience on various
types of soil conclusions could be drawn for the use of similar undeveloped soil-types.
The surveys have developed into detailed regional studies.
One might compare the objectives in estimating the productive capacity of soil to
determining the capacity of a barrel of which the staves were of varying heights.
In the case of the soil, each stave would represent a contributing factor, such as soil-
fertility, drainage, climate, and degree of stoniness. Just as the height of the lowest
stave would limit the capacity of the barrel, so would the limiting factor or factors
control the natural productive capacity of the soil. It was also important to arrive at
some comparative productive rating, for just as barrels vary in size, so does the natural
fertility of the many soil-types vary in accordance with climate and soil. These ratings
would provide a basis for determining land valuations and a more accurate means of
relating development costs and anticipated returns under average management.
Previous to the commencement of the field-work, every source of information
bearing on the selected areas was brought together. Copies of soil maps and reports
and the results of economic surveys, if available, were secured. In the case of the
Creston area, it was possible for the Dominion Economics Branch to conduct an economic survey to supplement the land studies. In the Peace River the survey personnel
operated in conjunction with the Dominion-Provincial soil-survey party. It is anticipated that the Dominion Economics Branch will conduct an economic survey in the
Block in 1948. The combining of special skills and training is conducive to economy
and more comprehensive reports.
As a basis for ensuring uniform and complete field operations, a special survey
report form was devised and used by the various survey parties. Space was provided
for mapping in each particular land unit, the scale conforming to the intensity of the
survey. Supplementary headings ensured that the land unit was identified, located
with respect to the nearest community and social facilities, and furnished details of
topography, stoniness, drainage, soil-type, and kind and degree of cover. A summary
space enabled a brief report on the relative suitability of the lot for farming and an
estimate of development costs.
The land was classified into eight classes, comprised of three classes for arable
soils, depending upon soil and topography, a fourth-class arable after drainage or
stone-removal or other special practice, three classes for non-arable soils of value for
forest production and also varying with the soil and topography, and an eighth class
for land suitable only for wild-life production or recreational uses and watershed
protection. REPORT OF  SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS. X 31
The individual report forms were combined on two base maps, the one providing
details of present land use and ownership, the other providing details of the land-
capability classification. The maps were supplemented with factual data bearing upon
the social and economic development of the area. The surveys, when completed, will
provide a very comprehensive picture of the present and potential development possibilities of an area with details of the social and economic factors concerned.
PUBLIC RELATIONS.
Since the primary function of land-use studies is one of fact-finding and compilation, co-operation with other agencies dealing specifically with specialized phases of
resource-development is essential. Every effort was put forth to co-ordinate the work
with the other agencies concerned.
It is gratifying to report that the greatest measure of co-operation and assistance
has been received from University authorities, Provincial and Dominion Departments
of Agriculture, the Forest Service, and from the various divisions within the Lands
Branch.
Advantage was taken by both the Director and Assistant Director of attending
a number of conferences and meetings dealing with land resource-development and
management.
Developments within the Lands Branch during the year, including the appointment
of Land Inspectors, the preparation of land-ownership maps, and the closer co-ordination of mapping and survey programmes, should greatly assist in the task of planning
and carrying out future field surveys.
1948 SURVEYS.
It is the intention to expand the scale of field surveys in accordance with the funds
made available for this work. This will enable a more rapid examination and mapping
of the extensive settlement areas in Central British Columbia and the Peace River
Block. Further intensive studies would be undertaken of potential irrigable and
mixed-farming areas in the Southern Interior.
The group of trained field assistants developed in 1947 makes such a contemplated
expansion feasible. Instead of one or two pairs of surveyors in each area, larger
parties would be preferable, since they may be supervised as easily and would make it
economically sound to set up self-contained camps. Problems of further settlement
and development are sufficiently urgent and numerous to warrant the surveys being
conducted on an expanded scale.
LAND INSPECTION DIVISION.
By H. E. Whyte, B.Sc, B.C.L.S., Chief Land Inspector.
In a vast territory like British Columbia, still in the development stage, and with
great areas of unused lands available, there are naturally a great many demands for
parcels of it. It is also obvious that, in this early stage of settlement, it is impossible
to have available information on all the lands with sufficient detail on which to base
decisions as to sale or lease. It has been necessary, therefore, to deal with each application separately on its merits as made, and consequently an inspection service has been
maintained from the early days. From about 1918 this work has been done by the
Forest Rangers. X 32 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Of late years it has been found that the Rangers could not give adequate inspection
service because of the increase in forest activities, especially in the summer months,
which are best for field-work. As land-use policies have developed, the need for planning settlement from the over-all standpoint becomes emphasized, and especially the
use of our remaining agricultural lands must be planned.
Hence it became necessary to have staff available to deal promptly with the great
number of applications being received—a staff adequately trained in the fundamentals
of land use. For this reason graduates in agriculture offered the best basis of training,
and six such men were appointed in 1947, with headquarters at Pouce Coupe, Smithers,
Prince George, Kamloops, Nelson, and New Westminster.
It is hoped that in the next few months the Inspectors will be able to undertake all
current work and, with the assistance of the Forest Rangers, dispose of the quite large
number of inspections that have been deferred due to increased volume of applications
or lack of staff.
During the year I was able to visit all the Inspectors, with the exception of D. E.
Goodwin at Pouce Coupe, and I also made a number of varied inspections throughout
the Province, submitting reports which can be listed as hereunder:—
Plans cancellation and proposed subdivisions     5
Valuation of buildings     2
Dewatering of lake     1
Land inspections     5
Foreshore applications  13
Alaska Highway lands     2
Industrial leases     6
Erosion and accretion examinations     3
Park examinations     3
On one of my trips through the Province I was accompanied by F. 0. Morris,
Assistant Surveyor-General, and on another by R. Torrance, Assistant Chief Clerk of
the Lands Department. Both these officials supplied and gained useful information
at the various Government offices along the route, resulting in a solution of many
problems.    Contacts of this nature are a benefit to all concerned.
Numerous reserves for park purposes and planned development have been made
throughout the Province, with a view to providing recreational areas, camp-sites, etc.,
for the general public.
These reserves are warranted, but after a period of time certain public facilities
become necessary. If public funds are not available to make these improvements, I
would suggest that consideration be given to leasing certain areas to responsible parties
who will be willing to undertake this development.
Delivery of cars to the various Inspectors was not made until late in the year; in
fact, delivery of the car for the Inspector at Pouce Coupe has not yet been made. If it
had not been for assistance in transportation rendered by the Forest Service and Preemption Inspectors, the Land Inspectors would have been very seriously handicapped.
Hereunder is a summary of the work accomplished by the various Inspectors, along
with some of their comments.
1. C. T. W. HYSLOP, LAND INSPECTOR, PRINCE GEORGE.
Land examinations made:—
Applications to purchase  49
Free grants (section 35, Veterans' Land Settlement Act)     5
Applications for pre-emption records  12
Pre-emption inspections  12
Industrial leases     2
Park reserve     1 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS. X 33
The above examinations covered an area of approximately 10,000 acres.
In addition to the above, a status was made of many of the more important areas,
and, in conjunction with the Assessor, a revaluation was made of the Crown lots in the
Prince George townsite.
The new settlers arriving in this section of the Province are, in large part, from
the Prairie Provinces, the Southern Interior of British Columbia, and the Coast. Many
settlers are working part time in the lumber industry.
2. H. L. HUFF, LAND INSPECTOR, NEW WESTMINSTER.
Inspections made:—
Pre-emption  18
Foreshore lease 1  3
Assessments and land valuations-—  4
Application to lease land—
For grazing purposes :  2
For home-site purposes  3
For quarrying purposes  2
For camp-site or industrial purposes  3
Application to purchase land—
For home-site purposes  2
For agricultural purposes  5
For camp-sites, etc  2
In addition, a report was submitted on the use of foreshore along the lower coastline by logging operators and towing companies.
Outside of the City of Vancouver and its environs, the lower Coastal area between
Gibsons Landing and Pender Harbour is the portion of the Vancouver Land Registration District having the most active development during the past year. The Union
Steamship Company has developed new subdivisions around Sechelt. There is considerable interest in the Pender Harbour area for home-sites, lodges, and resorts.
A number of fairly large subdivisions have been made in the vicinity of Gibsons Landing and Halfmoon Bay. Generally speaking, this lower Coastal area is being rapidly
developed as a year-round residential area.
3. D. E. GOODWIN, LAND INSPECTOR, POUCE COUPE.
Inspections made:—
Applications to purchase  76
Applications to lease (agricultural and grazing)  18
Applications to pre-empt  19
Annual pre-emption inspections  41
The number of new applications for land exceed the number of inspections, and as
a consequence there are forty new applications awaiting inspection. The majority of
these are in isolated districts and will have to wait till the spring before the inspections
can be made.
Annual pre-emption inspections were more or less left in abeyance, preference
being given to new applications in order to enable applicants to obtain the land with
the least possible delay.
A status of the district has been commenced, and it is hoped that it will be completed early in 1948.
The Clayhurst district has had the greatest number of new applications, 20 per
cent, of the total number being for land in that area. X 34 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND  FORESTS.
There is still some good land available for pre-emption, but it lies chiefly on the
outer edge of the settlements and access is difficult. This difficulty applies also to some
good agricultural land available for purchase.
During 1947 a great deal of land-clearing was completed in the district. Poplar
and willow is the chief cover, and the clearing was done with brush-cutters and bulldozers. The average cost of clearing and preparing the land for planting is $30 to $35
per acre.
4. F. M. CUNNINGHAM, LAND INSPECTOR, NELSON.
Inspections made:—
Land classifications  , 43
Pre-emption inspections     29
In addition, fifteen different areas were visited on the request of the Assessor, and
land classifications, which would eventually be required, were made at the same time.
New settlement is concentrating in the Cranbrook and Creston areas. This is
especially true of Creston, where sales of private land, as well as Crown land, are high.
The Creston area has a definite stable future due to the large wheat lands on the one
hand and flourishing orchard lands on the other. The greatest drawback to development in this area, like all other areas in the Kootenays, is the lack of irrigation. Even
where lands are under cultivation, maximum productivity is impaired by lack of water.
Land sales in other sections of this district are slightly higher than normal. Most
of the sales in the Midway-Kettle River area are for cattle-ranching purposes. The
same applies to the Elko-Cranbrook area. In other areas the applications are mainly
for home-site or agricultural purposes.
There is a very good possibility of developing a seed-growing area in Kettle River
district that would be comparable to that now in existence in the Grand Forks area.
The future of other lands in this district lies in the maintenance and sale of forest
products and in mining.
5. A. F. SMITH, LAND INSPECTOR, SMITHERS.
Inspections made:—
Land classifications—
Application to purchase  18
Application to lease  2
Application for pre-emption  3
Annual pre-emption inspections  8
Inspections requested by Superintendent of Lands  3
Land Settlement Areas.
Land in the Terrace area is suitable for settlement if smaller acreages are used
and specialization in small fruits and truck-gardening practised. For this area there
is a rapidly expanding market at Prince Rupert, where a large celanese plant is being
constructed, as well as a possible market in Alaska.
There is a possibility of limited settlement in the Kitwanga and Kispiox Valleys.
It is expected an inspection of these areas will be made in the spring in company with
the C.N.R. colonization agent and the District Agriculturist.
There is still land available in the Houston area, and this may be settled by incoming Dutch settlers. The Dutch farmers are also interested in a few quarter-sections
near Knockholt and Barrett Lake.
South of Burns Lake and in the district between Francois and Ootsa Lakes much
land is being taken up, but there is still opportunity for extensive settlement. REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS. X 35
Conditions prevailing throughout the Area.
The present stabilizing factor of the economy of this northern area is the lumber
market and its existing high prices. The majority of the farmers throughout the
district are dependent on the lumber industry for an outside source of income, besides
the profit from their farm produce. Although farm labour has been scarce, farmers
in this area have had good returns for their crops for the last five years.
The Government land-clearing machinery is now in this district, and many farmers
are taking advantage of this low-cost method of clearing and are very satisfied with
the efficient results produced.
The two great drawbacks to agriculture in this area are summer frosts and the
long winter feeding periods. Although nothing can be done about the latter, it is
hoped that further settlement, with more extensive land-clearing, will in the future
reduce the severity of the frosts.
6. L. D. FRASER, LAND INSPECTOR, KAMLOOPS.
Inspections made:—
Leases  6
Land inspections  6
Boom-sites _'  2
Home-sites  2
Pre-emption inspections ,_  3
The above inspections covered 20,000 acres of land, being one-fifth of the area
examined in the district in 1947.
Pre-emption Inspections.
There has been a considerable number of inquiries from prospective immigrants
concerning pre-emptions in this district, but due to lack of information, relative to
vacant Crown lands suitable for settlement, very little satisfaction has been received
by the applicant.
Over 50 per cent, of the pre-emptions recorded in the Kamloops district are from
the Cariboo.
Land Examinations.
Lack of knowledge regarding available Crown land, as in the case of pre-emptions,
has caused disappointment to prospective settlers. Nevertheless, many applications are
being considered for home-sites, hunting and fishing lodges, and dude ranches. A surprisingly high percentage of these are from Americans.
In the ranching areas an abnormal number of ranches has changed hands in 1947,
possibly due to the bright outlook for the future by the renewal of the British contract
and domestic demands. Some ranchers increased their stock above previous figures,
while others sold off, taking advantage of inflation prices, thereby causing a flux and
adjustment in range allotments. When a large ranch, for instance, becomes divided
among several holders, they all endeavour to obtain vacant Crown land in the vicinity.
In other cases applications are to extend existing holdings.
The Cariboo (Clinton-Williams Lake-Alexis Creek) dominates the picture, with
over 40 per cent, of the requests for land coming from that area.
Accommodation for newcomers in some parts of the district is being provided for
by the subdivision of existing properties. Encroachment has been made to some extent
in urban districts, so that irrigable land decreases as numerous small farms are divided
into building lots. To retain the present population and to take care of prospective
settlers, new irrigable lands should be made available at reasonable prices, and Crown
land is the only source at the present time. X 36 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
LAND SETTLEMENT BOARD.
By N. L. Camsusa, Director.
The appointments to the Board in June last of G. P. Melrose, Deputy Minister of
Lands, as chairman, and C. E. Hopper, Superintendent of Lands, as a director, now
bring its membership to three.
The following is a brief resume of the Board's major activities since its inception
thirty years ago:—
Formed in the year 1917 under the provisions of the " Land Settlement and
Development Act" for the purpose of promoting increased agricultural production,
the Board, then in the Department of Agriculture, took over the functions of the
Agricultural Credit Commission, which had advanced loans to farmers by way of
mortgage. This phase of its operations was continued until the formation of the
Canadian Farm Loan Board in 1929. The Board also advanced moneys to farmers
for the purchase of live stock. The Board was transferred to the Department of Lands
in 1931.
Granted authority to purchase, develop, and colonize land considered suitable for
settlement and to declare settlement areas within which development of lands would be
stimulated, the Board acquired from the Crown and obtained through purchase large
tracts of land considered suitable for agricultural purposes. In addition, development
areas were established at Merville, Camp Lister, Fernie, and Kelowna. These were
divided into farm units, on which certain improvements were effected by the Board,
consisting of land-clearing, construction of buildings and fencing, the cost of which
was included in the purchase price. By the establishment of these areas, the regulation of the price of unimproved lands and the imposition of a penalty tax in case of
non-development, the desired effect was obtained.
Appointed as Commissioners for the Sumas Drainage, Dyking, and Development
District in 1917, the Board carried on the construction-work of that project until
March, 1926, when the Inspector of Dykes was appointed sole Commissioner in its
stead.
In addition to the foregoing, the administration of the former Doukhobor lands,
which were acquired by the Government under authority of the " Doukhobor Lands
Acquisition Act " of 1939, was placed under the jurisdiction of this Board. At the
present time these lands are largely occupied by Doukhobors on a rental basis.
As in the past, the Board's balance-sheets will appear in the Public Accounts of
the Province. The following, however, is a brief summary of the Board's activities
and collections for 1947:—
With the lifting of the general reserve on the sale of lands, the Board was able to
deal with numerous inquiries for the purchase of its land and to make satisfactory
sale of several of its foreclosed properties. However, the reserve from sale of the
former Doukhobor lands is Still being maintained.
During the year the sales made by the Board amounted to $90,003.72; seventy
purchasers completed payment and received title deeds, and fourteen borrowers paid
up in full and received release of mortgage.
Collections.
1946. 1947.
Loans   $36,681.48 $23,699.52
Land sales  52,899.49 67,312.65
Dyking loan refunds, etc.  50,197.48 42,386.51
Doukhoborlands—
Rentals  8,027.20 6,873.75
Sales  2,847.75 1,273.91
$150,653.40 $141,546.34
Total proceeds from Doukhobor lands as at December 31st, 1947, amounted to
$82,460.23. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 37
SURVEYS BRANCH.
By N. C Stewart, B.A.Sc, D.L.S., B.C.L.S., P.Eng., Surveyor-General.
Considerable progress has been made in all four divisions of the Surveys Branch,
as is shown in the reports which are appended. Nineteen young men have been added
to the staff and are now being trained in various tasks by the older members. However, we have not, as yet, kept pace with the work required of us, due to the lack of
skilled men and space in which to work. Lectures and home studies are given to those
young men desiring to become qualified land surveyors, in an attempt to get qualified
men as soon as possible. These men will not only become surveyors, but will also be
trained in mapping and the general routine which has been built up.
An army building at Work Point, on loan from the Department of National
Defence, is used temporarily as a draughting office to take care of the additional staff.
The Topographic Division had four survey parties in the field on mapping control,
an increase of two parties over the previous year. In charge of these parties were
A. G. Slocomb, B.C.L.S., near Nootka on the west coast of Vancouver Island; W. R.
Young, B.C.L.S., in the Bridge River area; A. H. Ralfs, B.C.L.S., in the vicinity of
Rossland-Trail;   and G. C. Emerson, B.C.L.S., at Terrace.
Approximately 1,980 square miles were mapped on a scale of one-half mile to the
inch. Each of these maps will be used as a base map for land-utilization plans, forestry,
mines, etc. In addition to the mapping surveys, 38 miles of the British Columbia-Yukon
Boundary, across the Cassiar Mountains, were cut out and monumented by A. J. Campbell, D.L.S., B.C.L.S.
The purchase of the motor-launch " B.C. Surveyor," a seaworthy ship capable of
going anywhere on our coast and large enough to accommodate its crew and a topographic survey party, helped greatly to increase the coverage of the party working
along the west coast of Vancouver Island. The ship was used on inspection-work for
the Superintendent of Lands after the close of the topographic field season, and will be
used for cadastral work before the mapping season opens next year.
As noted in the report of the Air Surveys Division, two aeroplanes were employed,
resulting in a great increase in aerial photography over 1946, when only one aeroplane
was used, and this in spite of the fact that photographic weather was well below
average. A good start was made on tricamera photography along the main valleys of
the Province. To add to the existing information on the westerly or coast route for
a highway north from Hazelton to the Yukon, tricamera photographs were taken as
far as Telegraph Creek. In addition, a large number of low-altitude photographs were
taken for special projects.
The R.C.A.F. and other Federal departments were also active on air photography
for mapping purposes in British Columbia, covering approximately 22,000 square miles,
which, added to our coverage of 26,000 square miles, gives a grand total of nearly 48,000
square miles of vertical air photography in our Province in 1947. If this rate is maintained, the whole Province will be photographed in about six years.
The Surveys Division reports a very busy year. The large increase in population
and many other factors have caused a great turnover in real estate, Crown lands, and
mineral claims, thus causing an increase in number of clearances and surveys, adding
materially to the work of the staff. Several field surveys were made, among them being
a survey of a portion of the Alaska Highway by A. W. Wolfe-Milner, B.C.L.S., and
smaller cadastral surveys in various parts of the Province.
In the report of the Chief of the Geographic Division, attention is called to the
large number of maps that has been printed during 1947, and to the necessity of
stream-lining the mapping service to keep up with the constant demand for maps of all X 38 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
kinds. This is already on its way, but the plan cannot be put into final operation until
space for an increased staff is obtained. This plan calls for an assembly line, starting
with the map grid and adding detail to it from all sources until the basic manuscripts
are ready for the cartographer and the printing-press. Then, using these base maps,
specialized detail, whether of timber resources, geology, land use, or any of the specialized undertakings which are required to be recorded in map form, may be added without
these special interests making basic maps of their own, a work of which, as a rule, they
have little knowledge and still less desire to undertake. These base maps should be
accurate, so that errors are not evident at the chosen scales, for the work of the specialist is costly to obtain and noticeable inaccuracies would at once condemn his findings.
In addition to supervising the work of the four divisions, the writer attended the
annual meeting of the Canadian Institute of Surveying at Ottawa, where contact was
made with Federal officials whose work had a bearing on our survey and mapping
activities.
While in Ottawa the writer attended the annual meeting of the Geographic Board
of Canada, and a visit to the Surveyor-General of Ontario was made in Toronto.
Valuable information on cadastral and air surveys was obtained from these visits.
In the first part of July a meeting with Federal authorities on the Alaska Highway
was held at Fort St. John, where allocations for maintenance purposes were discussed.
Afterwards an inspection trip over the highway was made.
In the early part of August a trip was made through the Okanagan and the
Kootenays, when the land surveyors in private practice, our field parties on mapping
and other surveys, the Land Registry Offices, and Government Agencies were visited.
A similar trip was made in September through the Cariboo and westerly from Prince
George to Prince Rupert. While on the latter trip the Air Surveys photo detachments
were inspected—one at Terrace and the other at Smithers—and a visit paid to the
topographic surveyor working in the vicinity of Terrace.
From Smithers a flight was made over the proposed westerly highway route from
Hazelton as far as Telegraph Creek. Owing to unsuitable flying weather we were
unable to go beyond Telegraph Creek. It was evident from this flight that the route
is feasible for the location of a highway, and it also revealed some wonderful and
diversified scenic attractions. Shortly after this flight the weather cleared and the
detachment based at Smithers was able to photograph this route as far as Telegraph
Creek, as already mentioned.
P. M. Monckton, B.C.L.S., who a few years ago travelled a good portion of the
coast route on foot, and who had written several reports on this westerly route to the
Yukon, was asked to investigate a few sections where additional information was
desired. He was able to complete part of this work, the details of which will be found
in his report herewith.
The necessity of doing away with the use of the easily destructible wooden posts
in the survey of the Crown lands of the Province has been advocated for many years.
In making additional district lot surveys or in subdividing district lots, surveyors frequently find that the posts from which they would like to start have disappeared, either
rotted, burned out, or have been wilfully removed, necessitating the re-establishing of
these corners before commencing the required survey. This results in additional expense
to their clients. It was realized that a great deal of this trouble and expense might
be overcome by marking corners in a more permanent manner. It was decided, therefore, to amend the " Land Act " to permit regulations to be made to govern such permanent corner monuments. This was done during the 1947 session of the Legislature.
Subsequently the " Regulations regarding Permanent Monuments " were drawn up, new
posts were designed and manufactured, and the regulations put into effect on August 1st. Permanent Survey Monuments.
:
1.
.-■S-'H:-.
^
jf      \
mm ■
* ■ ' *    ' ...i-;;
';■■.■ ij:'i":""-
St
Etnclard. Hpe
Post
- ■,  '    Standard
■■•■'■'.•.• '{Rock  Post
An amendment to the " Land Act " in 1947 required permanent monuments to be placed at all
survey corners.    Above are shown two types of posts designed by the Surveyor-General.
Permanent post in
concrete with pits
and stone mound.
Permanent rock post with
pits and stone mound—
Monument 254, British
Columbia-Yukon Boundary. X 40 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
The new post (see photographs) is similar to those in use in Ontario, the Prairie
Provinces, and in the survey of Dominion lands, and was used by the Dominion land
surveyors in the former Railway Belt and Peace River Block, when these were under
Dominion control.
An additional effort to provide starting-points for future surveys and to preserve
existing corners was attempted by notifying the surveyors in private practice that they
could, at Government expense, renew with the new posts a few district lot corners in
their districts. If this effort proves useful, it is hoped that money will be allotted
each year for this work, so that gradually, and after a few years, many of the district
lot surveys will be permanently marked on the ground.
The plan announced last year of making control surveys along the highway and
roads of the Province was commenced in a small way by surveys along the Alaska
Highway and on the highway south of Prince George. The Public Works Department
is employing surveyors in private practice to survey portions of their highways for
registration purposes. Their instructions call for a good order of survey, well marked
on the ground by concrete posts with a specially designed bronze cap. When possible,
these surveys will be tied by us to the triangulation network, thus eventually coordinating all the surveys in the Province.
I would like to express my appreciation of the support given by the Honourable
the Minister and yourself in carrying out the tasks of the Survey Branch, and to
point out the loyalty and hard work of the staff during the year.
AIR SURVEYS DIVISION.
By G. S. Andrews, M.B.E., B.Sc.F., P.Eng., B.C.R.F., F.R.G.S.,
Chief Air Surveys Engineer.
Highlights of the year's record in air survey include the extension of basic
" vertical" air-photo cover over new areas at a slightly greater rate and lower unit cost
than heretofore; a good start on a new programme of systematic tricamera survey
photography; the establishment of a specialized photo laboratory for processing air
film and prints; and improvement in the quality of product generally; and a marked
increase in magnitude and tempo of demands for air-survey services by Government
departments and the public. On the other hand, work of the Division has been greatly
impeded by inadequate and sporadic accommodation in Victoria. The year was characterized by the worst weather on record for photographic flying, especially in Northern
British Columbia.
ADMINISTRATION.
Official definition of this work into the Air Surveys Division under direction of the
Chief Air Survey Engineer, in the Surveys Branch, has provided better identification
and organization for working within the Branch, the Department, and the Government
generally, and it has placed the morale of the staff on a sound basis—for esprit de corps
and pride of accomplishment. In .his capacity as head of the Division and as technical
adviser to the Interdepartmental Committee on Air Photography, the Chief Air Survey
Engineer has been called upon to provide a lively service as consultant on air-survey
problems, both in the above connections and directly to Departmental officials and to
the public, including industries. Aside from the need for proper accommodation under
one roof, which fortunately is expected to be forthcoming early next year, the most
serious problem yet unsolved is the lack of a qualified air survey engineer to assist in  REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 41
both technical and routine administration. The necessary qualifications of a suitable
Assistant Chief of the Division are onerous. In addition to a degree in applied science,
and professional status in the Province, a thorough background of experience in both
ground and air survey in British Columbia is imperative.
FLYING OPERATIONS.
The estimates in Vote 142 for 1947 air survey provided for the deployment of one
aircraft detachment, as in past years. However, as the season approached, it became
evident that two aircraft would be required to cope with the large demand for new airphoto cover. The Forest Service, therefore, offered to finance an additional aircraft
detachment from the Forest Reserve Account in order to increase the potential for
obtaining new cover required for the forest surveys programme.
The Air Survey Engineer agreed, of course, to embrace the extra responsibility of
doubling the flying effort of previous years, which obviously implied problems of personnel for air crew, equipment, and supervision. At the same time, on his recommendations, it was decided to fit up one of the two aircraft specially for tricamera
(" trimetrogon ") photography and to embark on a new programme of that type in
addition to normal " vertical " operations.
Aircraft Installations.
A charter contract for two Anson V aircraft was negotiated with the same company which last year supplied the aircraft CF-DLF, the latter being used by us again
this year for normal vertical photography. The second aircraft, CF-EZI, had to be
modified for the tricamera installation. Both aircraft were fitted with extra fuel-tanks
and paddle-type constant-speed propellers, making possible economic flying at 17,500
feet above sea-level for a duration of about seven hours with our routine load of air-
survey equipment and personnel.
Aircraft modifications for the tricamera installation and design of the tricamera
mount were original, unique, and quite involved. The low-wing feature of the Anson
V aircraft necessitated locating the tricamera mount in an extreme rear position to
avoid wing obstruction in the oblique views (see Fig. 1). The effects of this on the
aircraft centre of gravity were critical. Also to realize the specification that the tricamera mount be adjustable for level and drift, its design had to be symmetrical about
the aircraft centre line, with the vertical camera window cutting through it. Control
cables had to be rerouted therefore. To enclose the oblique cameras within the aircraft
through their full range of drift settings, oblong oblique windows had to be set out in
the slip-stream, supported by air-flow blisters (see Fig. 2). Finally, the whole bag of
tricks, including the mount, had to be approved by the Department of Transport for
certificate of airworthiness. Consultant services of a licensed aeronautical engineer,
B. P. Wisnicki, M.E.I.C, M.I.Ae.S., were profitably engaged, especially in connection
with aircraft modification. The design and construction of the tricamera mount itself
was handled by personnel of the Air Surveys Division, with the valuable assistance of
Allan Baker, Surveys Branch, on drawings.
The tricamera mount successfully embodied the desirable feature of maintaining
the three cameras rigidly in constant angular relationship, provision for levelling and
rotation of the camera assembly as a unit, for normalizing drift (or crab) in flight.
Its design employed the three-point floating suspension device originated by us last
year in connection with vertical camera mounts, and which proved eminently successful
for dampening vibration and for smoothing out sharp tilt effects arising from haphazard lurches of the aircraft. The arrangement of the cameras in the mount followed
the standard practice of oblique camera axes depressed 30 degrees below horizontal, to
form an angle of 60 degrees with the vertically directed axis of the central camera. Anson V aircraft fitted for tricamera photography.    Note ob!iqu3 camsra window.    Smithers airport
Fig. 1.
Interior view showing tricamera installation in Anson V aircraft.    The three Eagle V cameras
swing as a single unit for level and drift adjustment.     (Aero Surveys, Limited, photo.)
Fig. 2.
Air Survey Division stereoscope. 1947 model. It is worthy of note that this installation was possible only with cameras of small size
such as an Eagle V. The bulk and weight of the larger 9- by 9-inch cameras, in general
use elsewhere, would have been prohibitive.
Personnel.
As in previous years, the aircraft company supplied a pilot and mechanic for each
aircraft. In this connection, once again, it was necessary for us to break in and train
pilots who were inexperienced in air-survey flying. For this perennial difficulty, which
seriously compromises efficiency of operations, a simple remedy suggests itself (see a
later section of the report).
For each aircraft three Government men are required as air crew, the most experienced of whom acts as officer in charge of the detachment. All three serve in the
capacities of air-survey navigator and air-camera technician, according to their individual abilities and other circumstances.
On an operational flight only the pilot, a navigator, and a camera operator go aloft.
The extra Government employee with each detachment flies, in his turn, as relief, and
otherwise helps with ground operations preparatory and consequential to the flight.
There are several hours of exacting routine on the ground in connection with each
flight, besides the necessity to deal immediately with mechanical troubles, minor or
major, when they occur. It is a great help to the team who have just returned from
a flight, jaded after the long grind at high altitude, to have the assistance of one who
understands what must be done and is fresh and ready to " pitch in " at the chores.
The extra man also ensures that photographic weather need not be lost in the event
that sickness or other personal emergency temporarily grounds one of the crew. This
insurance is essential when each single photographic day comprises from 4 to 5 per
cent, of the total weather opportunity for the season. Also, when photo weather comes
in spurts of several days running, the element of fatigue is rapidly cumulative, reaching
a point where it impairs efficiency. The third man means that each gets one day on
the ground out of every three, a significant factor in maintaining efficiency at the
required level.
It was fortunate that 1946 operations afforded an opportunity to train and prove
two of the younger men sufficiently to allocate one to each of the two aircraft this year,
and to assign to them inexperienced recruits having good war-service background as
air crew. The two experienced men had to assume the responsibilities of acting chiefs
of detachment, supplemented with such help as the Air Survey Engineer himself was
able to divide between them during the season. This supervision was biased slightly
in favour of the tricamera detachment due to the more complicated installation, equipment, routine, and because this was a new type of operation for all concerned. Under
these circumstances the amount and quality of the work accomplished by each detachment was commendable. With exception of one student temporarily employed for the
summer, we now have on our staff sufficient experienced personnel to man two aircraft
detachments. This should reduce future demands on the Chief Air Survey Engineer
for routine supervision of flying operations—a much needed trend! During the last
two weeks of the season one of our employees, a qualified commercial pilot, had an
opportunity to demonstrate his abilities as air-survey pilot. This may have a significant bearing on our future policy with respect to air-survey pilots.
Equipment.
The quantity of precision wide-angle air-survey cameras obtained from War Assets
in 1946 stood us well indeed this year. The tricamera installation in one aircraft
quadrupled the total number of operating cameras over any previous requirements in
our experience.    Furthermore, it was necessary to carry spare cameras on each fliglft X 44 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
for quick interchange in the event of mechanical trouble in an operating unit, so that
the work goes on without appreciable interruption and loss of weather opportunity.
With so many cameras in operation, however, failures are bound to occur due to
intricate and delicate mechanisms and to the severe use which the nature of the work
imposes on this equipment. Our camera technicians were able to cope with all cases
in the field, except in one instance where a register glass was broken accidentally and
required laboratory facilities for repair, adjustment, and recalibration. In this case
a replacement camera was available and shipped immediately from Victoria. It is very
likely that, through practical experience, we have come to know more about the
mechanical weaknesses and idiosyncracies of these cameras and how to keep them
operating, than do the makers themselves.
In so far as we can make air survey an exact science, our success of achieving and
constantly maintaining top-quality results will be measured. On the field side, where
the aim is to bring in from each season's flying operations an adequate harvest of
uniformly high-class survey photographs at a low cost per unit of area, there are a
number of factors which as yet we have had to leave to chance, thereby widening the
margin for lower-average quality and increasing the spread between best and worst
results. With reasonable effort and expense a number of these factors can be brought
under control.
We have the routine of precisely calibrating the optical constants (focal length,
distortion, and principal-point location) of each air-survey camera well under control.
Our next requirement is to develop means of calibrating the exact performance and
efficiency of our camera shutters. These are spring-activated and therefore subject to
periodic variations of performance before, and sudden variations after, repairs, which
have already proven to be out of line with the exactness achieved in our assessment
(with photo-electric devices) of light variations during flight and the control we can
exercise during subsequent processing in the darkroom. Unlike optical calibration,
shutter calibration does not affect the mathematics of photogrammetric compilation of
the photos, but it does very materially affect the use of the photos in all phases by
governing photographic rendition of ground detail. All photogrammetrists will agree
that densitometric quality of the pictures has just as much influence on accuracy
and efficiency in any air-survey project as has mathematical performance of the lens.
We must exert considerable effort to devise and obtain an effective portable shutter-
calibrating apparatus for checking all operational units before, during, and after
operations. From preliminary investigation it appears that electronics will give us
the best answer.
Associated with the foregoing, it is of interest to note that modification of shutters
in the 3%-inch cones is under study with a view to reducing the slowest speed from
one-hundredth second, as supplied by the maker, to one-fiftieth second. This would
enable us to use the wide-angle survey lens with any of the following options, singly or
in combination: (1) Smaller aperture and (or) a finer-grain film emulsion for improved
resolution of detail under poorer light, especially toward the end of the season, and
(2) a denser filter for cutting through abnormally thick haze, especially for better
record of distant horizons in the tricamera obliques. This slower shutter speed is
expected to be feasible (from routine high-altitude flying) because of the extraordinary
properties of the floating three-point suspension device in our camera mountings originated by us in 1946, for dampening out high-frequency vibrations and haphazard
lurches of the aircraft.
The decision to fit up a second aircraft this year made it necessary to duplicate a
number of items of accessory equipment. Fortunately, in the job-lot of cameras and
accessories purchased from War Assets in 1946 we obtained four Type 35 electric
intervalometers units.    It was thus possible to allocate two of them to each aircraft— REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 45
one operational and one spare. As a result of some troubles with them, our staff has
become proficient in maintaining them in operating condition. A vertical view-finder
and drift-indicator was manufactured locally, duplicating the one designed and produced by us in 1938, which has proven entirely satisfactory. Members of the staff of
navigational persuasion (R.C.A.F.) also produced a navigating-sight adapted from the
service-type bomb-aiming sights. The efficiency of this apparatus is believed to be
good, although subject still to some argument within the ranks. A remote-control
photo-electric light-meter, activating a micro-ammeter, was installed in the tricamera
aircraft and proved quite worth while. Readings in micro-amps were correlated
through the full range with standard Weston values, and the normal range of intensities was centred on the micro-ammeter dial by " dampening" the photo cell with a
Wratten 12 filter. This is believed to have the further desirable result of reducing
additive haze distortion on the action of the light-meter, in the same way that filtering
out haze light benefits the negative in the camera.
Aircraft and Air-bases.
While the Anson V, modified with extra fuel-tanks and paddle-type constant-speed
propellers, has done us good service during the past two seasons, it has definite limitations for a full scope of activities in British Columbia. Its range of about seven hours
is satisfactory, but an extra hour would be desirable, not so much for routine " ops "
as for those unpredictable emergencies which crop up sometimes. Its speed of 150
miles per hour could well be increased to 200 miles per hour for our basic cover programme from high altitude, and the operational ceiling of 17,500 feet, while remarkable
for an aircraft of its power, should be over 20,000 feet, and could well be much higher
for mountainous country. The low-wing feature implies a compromise in the tricamera
installation by forcing the cameras too far aft, where instability of fuselage is noticeable. The ideal camera station in a photographic aircraft is normally at, or near,
the centre of gravity, where amplitude of vibrations, structural flexes, and angular
velocities are at a minimum. Lastly, the restriction to land bases implied by wheeled
undercarriage is a serious practical disadvantage in British Columbia. All these
factors have a bearing on efficiency of the work, both qualitatively and quantitatively.
Ideal aircraft specifications for high-altitude basic cover air-survey operations in
British Columbia would be high wing, twin motors, amphibian, range eight hours
operational, ceiling 25,000 feet, and speed 200 miles per hour. Failing the amphibian
feature, if a choice between wheels and floats were an issue, other items being equal,
the answer would be floats.
Of air-bases used during the season, Dog Creek was probably the best, and Princeton the worst. Dog Creek had the virtues of central location in a wide circle of work
opportunity, good average weather conditions, suitable runways (although gravel),
radio range for communication and " met " service, fuel and repair facilities, good
and congenial accommodation for the personnel right on the airfield. Its main disadvantage was the necessity to ship exposed film out by stage 50 miles to Williams Lake
and thence by rail. (In this particular, Prince George, last year, was ideal, having
air express direct to the Coast from the airfield six days per week.)
The runways at Princeton left much to be desired, and the personnel are relieved
that no further operations from there need be anticipated. The other bases, Comox,
Smithers, and Terrace, were all good, although it is unfortunate that the excellent
runways and installations at Terrace are without radio range. Personnel accommodation was a problem at all bases except Dog Creek. The writer took the opportunity
to look over the airfields at Fort St. John, Fort Nelson, Watson Lake, and Teslin, with
a view to future operations in the North. All are good, except that White Horse may
have advantages over Teslin for work along the northern boundary of the Province. X 46
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 47
Although it is possible and by necessity we often do work farther than 100 miles
from a base, considerations of safety and cost make it inadvisable. There are three
main areas of relative inaccessibility for wheeled aircraft, namely: (1) Bella Coola
and Dean River, (2) Big Bend-Yellowhead, and (3) Stikine-Finlay (see map, air surveys working-circles). Water-base facilities for amphibious or floats could be found
for all of these areas without much difficulty. Main requirements are a sheet of water
of sufficient size, preferably fresh water, free from topographic obstructions in the
immediate vicinity, accessibility by road for cars and trucks. Accommodation can be
set up in camps if necessary and communication can be established by radio. As far
as possible, our planning should, for the immediate future, be directed to areas accessible for wheeled aircraft, with reasonable expectation that water-based aircraft of
suitable performance and other characteristics will eventually become available, either
on charter or by purchase.
Car Transportation.
The District Foresters at Kamloops and Prince Rupert supplied light-delivery
trucks for the use of the detachments at Princeton, Smithers, and Terrace. Without
this much-appreciated co-operation, activities at these bases would have been practically
impossible, in view of slow delivery of new cars, and in most places the impossibility
of hiring a car at any price. At Comox, a U-drive sedan from Victoria was used and
at Dog Creek no transport was required beyond the existing stage connection to Williams Lake. The Division obtained delivery of one new G.M.C. half-ton truck just
after the end of operations. This will be available for next year. As a matter of
record, no car accidents were sustained by Air Surveys Division personnel during the
season.
Weather.
In British Columbia the 1947 season was characterized by the worst average airphoto weather in our experience. The average full operational days totalled approximately sixteen, plus fourteen half-days, which might be expressed as a total of about
twenty-three full days per aircraft. The average length of season per aircraft was
107 days. While this does not appear too badly in comparison with other years (see
Appendix 1), it is pointed out that approximately seven of the full days utilized
occurred after September 15th, when, in normal years, full-scale operations have terminated due to waning light and waxing shadows, and only a general clean-up of gaps
and tag-ends is attempted. In the normal year August is our big month—the light is
still good, shadows not too long, and we have averaged ten full photographic days in
that month. This year, between August 1st and September 15th, we averaged barely
three full operational days per aircraft. It was only by using a spurt of good weather
at the very end of the season that we were able to get most of our commitments done,
and catch up with the adverse demurrage balance on the aircraft due to the long spells
of standing by. Operating circles in which good weather is legitimately expected—
namely, Princeton and Dog Creek—this year were very disappointing. A diagrammatic calendar of operations showing the duration and nature of various flights is
found in Appendix 4. It may be noticed that, in the early part of the season, mornings
averaged better than afternoons. This was due to the diurnal build-up of cumulus
clouds shortly after midday, even in fine weather. Toward the end of the season,
ground-fog over sea, lakes, and low valleys (often covering the airfields) in the
mornings delayed take-off. On these days clear skies usually prevailed till evening,
but due to the sun's low altitude effective photography had to be terminated early in
the afternoon. X 48 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Poor weather adversely affected the quantity as well as the quality of the work
accomplished. It also reduced efficiency (increased costs) by forcing attempts at a
disproportionately large number of short flights in order to exploit even an hour or
two of clear sky. The time required for ascent and descent is just the same whether
you do five minutes or five hours of effective photography at operational altitude.
Adverse weather prevented us from attempting a number of odd jobs, some of
them very interesting—namely, experimental seaweed surveys from low altitude.
In past years we have classified weather from the air-survey standpoint as of three
kinds—photographic, not quite photographic (adversely critical),and non-photographic.
This season we revised these ideas, conforming to the increasing complexity of life in
general, with the following conceptions of photographic weather:—
(1) "Tricamera weather"—ceiling unlimited, no serious cloud obstruction
over a large area 50,000 square miles or more.
(2) "High vertical weather"—similar to (1) but may be restricted to a
smaller area, of 2,000 square miles.
(3) "Low vertical weather"—not good enough for (1) or (2) but clear or
good light, and freedom from contrasty cloud shadows over restricted
areas of a few square miles, containing towns, industrial areas, or other
projects for which vertical photography is desired from low altitudes of
1,500 to 5,000 feet above the ground.
Of course these weather types are transitional, and the necessity to decide on the
best course of action when conditions are critical is still a mental strain in this business.
In this connection it is felt that a larger number of low-altitude assignments should
be encouraged, for the purpose of utilizing days when the weather is suitable for them
but not good enough for normal high-altitude operations. This would effect economy,
and would have a good influence on the morale and efficiency of operational personnel.
During the season co-operation of the Forest Service was again afforded by a daily
programme of weather reports from lookouts, also of the Meteorological Service, Department of Transport, which obliged by giving special forecasts for the areas in
which each of our detachments was based. It must be confessed that frequent repetitions of unfavourable forecasts at time became monotonous and discouraging, but it
did help and added interest to know that " a flow of cold moist air from the Pacific
caused by an approaching disturbance off the Charlottes " was to blame for the heavy
skies. The service provided was most valuable, and we realize that after all the " met "
people do not make the weather. On several instances it was very useful indeed to
know beforehand that local weather conditions over an area of interest—some distance
from the base—were likely to be good enough to warrant a flight in that direction,
occasionally to find that useful work would be done there.
Operations.
Detachment No. 1, with aircraft CF-DLF, fitted for normal vertical photography,
began operation on May 22nd, with a low-altitude mosaic over the North Arm of the
Fraser River and University Endowment Lands, after which it proceeded the same
day to Princeton. It carried on for a season of 131 consecutive days, terminating the
evening of September 30th. Bases used by this detachment are indicated in Appendix 4. Detachment No. 2, with aircraft CF-EZI, fitted up for tricamera as well as for
routine vertical photography, was not ready for operations till July 9th, due to the
involved installations already described and the required preliminary test flights.
It proceeded to Dog Creek and other bases, as indicated in Appendix 4. This detachment terminated operations on September 30th, after eighty-four days in the field.
A summary of operations by projects and types and a break-down of costs are
given in Appendices 2 and 3 respectively.    It may be noticed that a total of some REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 49
26,000 square miles of basic systematic vertical cover was completed at an average
cost of $1.36 per square mile. Most of this area was " controlled " by a total of 1,580
lineal miles of tricamera tie flights, the cost of which is included in the figure quoted.
The tricamera programme itself totalled a gross of 6,440 lineal miles of traverse, at
an average cost of $3.35 per lineal mile. For each lineal mile flown, a width of 3 to 4
miles is covered by overlapping vertical photographs, and the obliques extend this cover
laterally to the horizons, at diminishing scale, according to the distance from the
aircraft. It is considered that these results of our first efforts at tricamera photography have demonstrated that this extremely valuable type of air-photo cover can be
obtained at very low cost indeed. The 6,440 lineal miles covered with the vertical
camera represents an equivalent of some 19,000 square miles of actual vertical photography. However, it is not recommended that this figure be added to the 26,000 square
miles quoted, because about one-quarter of it was absorbed as " control " for vertical
cover done this year, and eventually all of it will serve as " control" for future routine
vertical projects. In the meantime some 4,800 lineal miles of tricamera photography
over new country, not otherwise covered, will serve valuable purposes for study and
interim mapping of an enormous amount of country which may not be served by any
more intensive air-survey data for some years to come.
A slight increase in the (still small) proportion of low-altitude projects characterized the year's operations. These jobs were done mostly from a height of 2,500 feet
above ground, and one test over Essondale was done at 1,500 feet net height. These
photographs were generally of excellent quality and show a remarkable wealth of detail.
The cost of low-altitude photography is extremely variable, but theoretically is in
inverse proportion to the squares of the net flying heights above ground compared to
higher-altitude work, which makes the average for this year of $13 per square mile
look pretty low. This was possible, however, only because these jobs were done according to opportunity along with the main programme of extensive operations at high
altitude and on days when that work was not possible due to weather. On this basis,
however, it appears that we could take on quite a lot more low-altitude work at very
economical rates indeed. This should be of interest to the Public Works Department
particularly. From a net height of 2,000 feet above ground, the 5- by 5-inch negatives
have a scale of %_oo, routine 9- by 9-inch prints have a scale of Mioo or 340 feet per inch.
The negatives would stand enlargement to 30 by 30 inches for special cases, which
would give a scale of M230, or roughly 100 feet per inch. By slowing the aircraft to
100 miles per hour, the absolute movement relative to the ground is less than 1 foot
during an exposure of two-hundredth second, or less than one-hundredth inch on the
30 by 30 enlargement.
Just as the devil can quote scriptures, figures can be made to prove almost any
purpose. However, the costs for 1947 for air-survey operations given in Appendix 4,
totalling $54,942.14, were for the most part straightforward accounting. The only
arbitrary, and therefore possibly debatable, items were administration and depreciation on equipment. It is difficult to draw the line separating the costs of preparation
for field operation and clearing up after it from the general overhead and maintenance
costs of the Division. For depreciation, 15 per cent, of the original cost of our camera
equipment ($24,000) was considered a fair charge against wear and obsolescence.
This rate would write off or replace the said equipment in seven years, which is considered reasonable. In any case, administration and depreciation together comprise
less than 15 per cent, of the total estimated costs of 1947 flying operations.
TRICAMERA PHOTOGRAPHY.
Although there is not space to go into the technical implications and other details
of tricamera photography, some brief consideration of this programme is well merited X 50 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
here, especially as the mental concepts put forward in this connection early in the year
and in part forecast in our 1946 report, have now been successfully translated into
practical accomplishment by actual operations.
This programme aims at flying a tricamera traverse along all the main valleys of
the Province, plus connecting runs, to form a grid of these lines spaced from 15 to 20
miles apart. The blocks of country enclosed by these lines will be irregular in shape
conforming to the natural physiographic pattern of the country rather than to an
artificial rectangular arrangement. The aim is to have this programme practically
completed by the end of the 1949 season. This year about one-quarter of the scheme
in mind was completed, which is considered a good start in view of the late commencement, the adverse weather, and our lack of previous experience in this type of work.
The tricamera programme, as outlined, has the following purposes:—
(1) To bring all unknown, unphotographed, and unmapped areas within this
type of air cover in the next two or three years. It may well take five
to ten years to complete the basic vertical air cover of the Province.
This tricamera material will consist of normal vertical cover over all the
main valleys where economic values are usually highest, plus stereoscopic
oblique cover of the tributary areas between. The value of having this
information on hand simply for qualitative inspection will be fundamental.
(2) To provide source data, ready at any time, for compilation of:—
(a) Where adequate ground control is established, standard large-
scale detail topographic maps of the 3- to 4-mile strip covered by the
vertical cameras (normally valley-bottoms), and medium-scale maps of
good accuracy and detail along the flight-strip to a width of 8 to 10 miles,
and small scale (one-quarter inch area, one-eighth inch to the mile) of
the flanking areas beyond.
(b) Where ground control is sparse or intermittent, maps as above
of substandard accuracy—but of great value—for interim use in connection with economic development.
(c) Flight maps of improved detail for more efficient subsequent
flying in connection with standard vertical photography.
(3) To propagate mapping control photogrammetrically, from a more sparse
density of control than is at present required for all types of mapping,
standard and interim, of areas covered with basic vertical photography.
(4) To serve as effective material for planning and subsequent field-work of
standard triangulation topographic and other surveys.
These and other uses of a systematic tricamera programme for British Columbia
have an importance, the magnitude of which is difficult to comprehend for those unfamiliar with it and its photogrammetric potentialities. The net cost is extremely small,
because in the final result it boils down to the cost of the two oblique photos only—
about 5 cents per square mile added to the cost of normal systematic vertical photography of an area. In other words, the tricamera programme is merely doing in
advance control runs which on the former basis would have been done concurrently
with the vertical photography, with the added feature of the two synchronized oblique
photos. Therefore, the bulk of the cost (95 per cent.) of the tricamera programme
will comprise a discount or rebate on the cost of future systematic vertical photography
of the areas served.
PROCESSING.
The incipient facilities for photographic processing of air film and prints set up
by the Division at the end of last year have, by necessity and by good fortune, developed REPORT OF  SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
X 51
into a really strong organism with a vigorous " heart and soul " personified by the
staff, although the " body," in allusion to accommodation and equipment, has been definitely puny and undernourished. A staff of three specialists is engaged in the work
full time, but under severe material difficulties. The effects of this rounding-out of
our organization and the close co-ordination between darkroom, flying operations, and
demands for the product, now possible, has elevated the quality and quantity of output
into a new plane of achievement. During the past flying season the volume of new
processing has trebled over any previous year; nevertheless, development of exposed
air film-rolls followed very closely on the heels of exposure in the air. A report on
each roll was communicated to the flying detachments by letter and in urgent instances
by telegram, so that it was possible for the crews in the air to modify details of procedure or to rectify faulty performance of their equipment, often to be detected only
by inspection of the developed negatives, in time to prevent serious waste of effort.
New techniques of processing aimed to recover maximum detail by finer-grain development, and at the same time saving the loss in deep shadows (for example, dark
timbered valleys) and highlight (for example, alpine snow-fields), and corresponding
efforts in printing have resulted in a gratifying improvement in the product generally.
The new spiral developing equipment obtained from War Assets in 1946 was the
mainstay in this year's developing, and so excellent that we are attempting to locate
additional units in the United Kingdom.
These improvements in processing of film have been attended, auspiciously, by
parallel refinements in printing, made possible by use of the new type of concentrated
arc illumination (product of the Western Union, Ltd., Electrones Division), which we
installed in the projection printer.' It is believed that we are the first agency to apply
this new principle to air-survey photography on a mass-production basis. As a result,
we may fairly claim that our 9- by 9-inch routine air photos projected from the small
5- by 5-inch negatives are equivalent or superior to the orthodox 9- by 9-inch contact
prints turned out by other agencies.
Due to lack of space, in extremely makeshift quarters, we have not hid room to
install either fully adequate equipment or personnel to handle the traffic. W. Halkett,
who did much of our work in former years, now in private business, has helped us out
of many tight spots by taking care of a number of miscellaneous and urgent demands
for special enlargements and reprints which would have interfered with the continuity
of large-scale operations in our own laboratory.
The output, including Mr. Halkett's efforts for the year, is as follows:—
Air Surveys Division.
Departmental.
Public.
To.tal.
Rolls.
220
220
Prints.
16,000
2.140
Prints.
Rolls.
220
220
720
1,300
Prints.
3,440
18,140
2.020
20,160
12- by 12-inch and 20- by 20-inch enlargements (all Mr. Halkett)	
162
20,322
At the close of this year we have a formidable backlog of printing orders, still to
be done, for the air-photo library, Government departments, and for the public, of some
28,000 prints. There is no sign of this business letting up, rather it is steadily
increasing. With the anticipated new accommodation for the Division, and the opportunity afforded to install adequate equipment and layout in the processing laboratory,
we hope to clean up most of this backlog of orders before the flying season begins next year. During flying operations the first priority on all the resources of the processing
section is necessarily absorbed by developing the new rolls of exposed air film as
received from the flying detachments.
A cost analysis of each individual air photo is now possible from records maintained by the Division, as follows:—
Cost per Photograph.
Film at-$16.25 per roll, 5% inches by 60 feet, average 111.7
5- by 5-inch exposures per roll  $0,138
Development and annotation, $5.65 per roll, as above       .048
Prints, 9- by 9-inch—
Labour and materials  $0.1745
Overhead       .0255
       .200
Depreciation on equipment, cameras, enlargers, etc       .176
Total cost per photo, exclusive of flying costs  $0,562
This represents about 25 per cent, of the total cost of each photograph when all
flying operation costs are included. The significant thing here is that each additional
reprint, costing only a few cents and put to worth-while use, constitutes a multiple
return on the original cost of getting the photo.
AIR-PHOTO LIBRARY.
The increased tempo and volume of air-survey activity in general has had full
reflection in the air-photo library, which functions not only as a holding and reference
library of all official air photos of British Columbia, but also as the channel for reprint
distribution to Government departments and the public. The collection of air photos
now on hand in the library is as follows:— Photos.
Federal Government   (R.C.A.F.)  123,500
British Columbia Government (Air Surveys Division)     36,500
Miscellaneous  (commercial)         7,800
Total in stock  167,800
In addition to the above, about 20,000 photos from our " B.C." negatives are still
to be printed for the library, and about an equal amount taken by the Federal
Government have not yet been received.
The air-photo library co-ordinates all the activities arising from demands for
purchase of reprints. This includes correspondence in reply to preliminary inquiries,
checking and often compiling order lists, requisitioning on the processing laboratory,
checking finished prints against the original orders, parcelling, shipping, invoicing,
supplying of index and key-maps, and all the relevant correspondence.
The preparation of a systematic series of air-photo index maps for the Province,
mentioned in the Annual Report for 1946, has made good progress. Most of these are
prepared in manuscript on standard 4-mile and 3-mile maps of which Grade N photostat
negatives at 4-mile scale are made.
A large mass of technical information relevant to the air photographs is compiled
and systematically indexed by the air-photo library for ready reference. This includes
data on precise focal-length calibrations for the various cameras used, dates, times of
day, flight altitudes, types of film, filters, etc., pertaining to the various photos.
In addition, special subject and qualitative index lists are being compiled as opportunity
permits.    A special list of air-photo cover, both oblique and vertical, of towns of the Province in alphabetical order has just been prepared and is ready for distribution.
This will be of great value to planning and taxation authorities, both municipal and
departmental. The amount of valuable cover in hand in the form of low- and high-
altitude vertical photography of various towns is now considerable, and is being
augmented each year. We consider it a duty to see that the availability of this and
other similar material should be brought to the attention of as many potential users
as possible.
Air photography now in hand includes a vast amount of remarkable illustrative
material of a variety of physiographic, economic, and scenic subjects. The air-photo
library is attempting to compile and maintain a subjective index of particularly good
examples as they come to attention in the course of handling the photos for other
purposes. This job itself would merit the full-time application of suitable personnel,
so that this material, too, may be made available and brought to the attention of all
concerned.
It should be appreciated that the air-photo library is the normal link between the
production side of air-survey photography and the users of the photos; it is here that
the various specialized air-photo plotting agencies within the Government come to
order large blocks of photos, usually on loan or sometimes by purchase of reprints.
It is also here that the large industrial users of air photos come to study the material
which is available for their needs, with a view to compiling and placing a definite order
for purchase of reprints. The larger agencies, both Government and private, are
generally well versed in the use of air photos; they know exactly what they want, see
quickly what is available, and order their requirements with a minimum of trouble.
There is, however, a large and growing class of " lay " users, who have had little or no
previous experience with air photographs. These individuals, both official and private,
often come to the air-photo library on advice of a third party, by curiosity, or merely
by accident. They require and deserve sympathetic attention from the library staff,
an explanation of the set-up for borrowing or purchasing photos, and some elementary
instruction in the properties and uses of them. It can be appreciated that an
important facet of air-photo library activities has to do with public relations and
education. Although the staff allocated to the library has made a creditable effort to
cope with these varied demands on their energies and abilities, additional draughting,
clerical, and secretarial help is needed, with more commodious quarters where both
staff and clients may handle, study, and manipulate the photos with sufficient elbow
room, table surface, and good light.
Aside from the routine work of the air-photo library in respect to public relations,
a certain amount of this type of work was done in other ways. During the year four
public addresses on air survey were given—one to the Native Sons of Canada, Victoria,
by A. M. Barber; one to the Victoria Natural History Society; one to the Military
Engineers' Association, Vancouver; and one to the Rotary Club, Kamloops, by the
writer. An 8,000-word article, also by the writer, entitled "Air Survey in British
Columbia," was submitted to the American Society of Photogrammetry, Washington,
D.C, for publication in their quarterly journal Photogrammetric Engineering.
We have also begun to prepare a collection of small diapositive slides on 35-mm.
film, suitably mounted for projection, of illustrative material pertaining to air survey.
PHOTOGRAMMETRIC COMPILATION.
The function of the Air Surveys Division, as conceived by the writer, who, since
the war, has been charged with the responsibility of building up this new service, is
mainly twofold: (1) Taking air-survey photographs of the best possible quality in
sufficient quantity to fulfil all Provincial Government requirements, and (2) compiling
air photographs for certain much needed purposes which no  existing Government X 54 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
service has so far been organized to attempt. Before the unique and varied applications of the air-survey method can be fully exploited, it is essential that means have
been set up to get the right kind of pictures in sufficient quantity. This is a basic
premise to all subsequent manipulations of the photos. For this reason, our main
efforts during the past twenty months have been devoted to this end, as indicated in
the foregoing body of this report. It is considered that the air-photographic side of
the work is now sufficiently well advanced to permit directing our energies to the other
side of the air-survey picture—namely, compilation. The proper balance of functions
of the Division will thereby be established, and a dire need for accelerated map
production will be served.
The main field of photogrammetric activity envisaged for the Air Surveys Division
is production of interim maps, to fill the gap between the accelerated economic development of the Province and the output of the standard topographic map as produced by
the Topographic Division of the Surveys Branch, whose work is geared to the necessity
of establishing adequate ground control to maintain standard accuracy. The interim
mapping programme would be based entirely on the air photographs for topographic
detail and tied to whatever control happens to be available in a project area, in any
usable form—triangulation, traverse, highway road and railways survey, lot-boundary
surveys, etc., in some cases possibly astro-fixes. The accuracy of these interim maps
would generally be substandard due to the haphazard control, but would exploit all the
photogrammetric devices known or contrived, be sufficient for producing extremely
useful maps, which would serve until the standard precise mapping is able to catch up.
The photogrammetric devices, referred to above, to be used for stiffening up the
framework of the interim maps will be mainly derived from the tricamera traverses,
which in themselves are expected to provide a type of graphic triangulation over wide
areas. Points so established by the method may be used to control the sketching of
detail from the obliques when compiling small-scale maps. The same type of graphic
control, pinned down here and there to whatever ground control may be available and
identified, will serve to strengthen larger-scale detail maps, where the area is covered
with vertical photography. The degree of accuracy which may be achieved by these
purely photogrammetric methods remains to be seen, but it is possible to expect that
when good tricamera and basic vertical photography are combined, the accuracy will
be sufficient to make detail maps at as large a scale as 40 chains per inch, suitable for
preliminary extensive economic purposes. In this way the wealth of topography and
other detail in the vertical photos (at about the same scale) may be put to worth-while
use. It may even be possible to do very creditable form-lining (in place of contouring),
which will give a representative picture, of the terrain. Although the maps may
contain errors of position and elevation considered gross in terms of standard precision
mapping, such errors will be reasonably distributed between the basic control available,
so that no serious local discrepancies should be appreciable. For many of the " back "
areas of the Province, maps of this interim nature will be quite adequate until such
a time as economic development and progress of the standard precision topographic
mapping affect them.
It is expected that a beginning on this type of work will be made by the Air
Surveys Division in the early months of 1948, using tricamera photography taken in
1947, along the westerly route of the proposed Alaska Highway through Hazelton.
With regard to photogrammetric equipment, two items are worthy of note. During
the year another batch of fifty mirror-stereoscopes was produced by the Air Surveys
Division, using local manufacturing facilities in Victoria. This 1947 model (Fig. 4)
is similar in basic design to former models, but is much more compact, about half the
bulk, while retaining the same field of view. It has plastic panels in the body construction to permit better illumination of the photographs, which also improve its general REPORT OF  SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 55
appearance. A simplified device is provided for truing up the mirrors into parallelism,
within a few seconds of arc. A novel arrangement of the mirrors reduced the viewing
distance eye to photo, for closer observation, and slightly reduces the size (cost) of the
mirrors without lessening the field of view. These instruments cost $40 each in a
carrying-case. They have all been disposed of to various Government departments,
and a small number, on special request, to industries which experienced difficulty
getting imported equipment. Requests for additional units are already accumulating,
which may justify the production of another batch early in the new year.
A WIDE-ANGLE VIEW.
This seems a good time to back away from the picture presented in some detail by
the foregoing report, and to take a wide-angle perspective view of the general situation,
with this question in mind, where should we go from here? Two questions have been
put up to the writer more than once. " You will soon have British Columbia all
photographed—what will you do then? " and "Why take more pictures than can be
assimilated each year? "
How much of British Columbia has been photographed? Net vertical cover to
date totals 140,000 square miles, 79,000 square miles by the Federal Government
(mostly R.C.A.F.), 53,000 square miles by the Provincial Government, and 8,000 square
miles by contractors. The last mentioned and a small percentage of the R.C.A.F. was
early work, now economically and technically obsolescent and which will be cheaper to
refly with our modern cameras. This leaves an effective total of about 132,000 square
miles, or roughly one-third of the Province. The systematic tricamera programme
started this year, which is really an advance part of the basic vertical cover programme,
is about one-quarter done. With our present potential of one aircraft on vertical and
one on tricamera, we can do about 25,000 square miles of straight vertical photography
plus about one-quarter of the total tricamera work required each year. The Federal
Government has been doing about 20,000 square miles of vertical cover and no tricamera
work during recent years in British Columbia. Allowing a reasonable amount of
operational overlapping of projects to ensure contact between them, the present rate of
net gain on vertical photography is about 40,000 square miles per year. At the present
rate then it appears that the basic vertical cover of the Province would be completed
in six years—by the end of 1953, which is pretty good. The tricamera programme,
as urged previously, should be pushed through to a finish as soon as possible, reasonably
in three more years, possibly two. After that it would appear we could drop the
tricamera aircraft without affecting the basic vertical programme as mentioned above.
Certain trends, however, which may become more significant as time goes on, may
alter the situation as we see it now. As the vertical programme advances, there will be
less and less flexibility of operation to take advantage of weather over any area
accessible from an operating base. This will reduce efficiency and may result in a
smaller total accomplishment each year. Also it is probable that the demand for
rephotography of active areas at low altitude for large-scale precision mapping will
increase, possibly sufficiently to offset the diminishing requirement of the present type
of work. Again, it is conceivable that demands for revision photography at higher
altitudes may sustain such operations appreciably for a long time to come. We shall
essay no speculation about colour photography, but it may have an important bearing
on future flying policy.
Reference has been made to technical obsolescence of some of the earlier photography, to the extent that it will pay to refly with our present equipment. Is then the
risk of obsolescence of our present photography sufficient to justify putting the brakes
on current efforts at basic cover?    I think not.    Our cameras and methods in present use incorporate all the scientific and technical advances developed and proven during
the recent war. We are now in a period when highly accelerated research and development of such equipment is not likely to take place, rather we may expect that existing
equipment must be made to serve for considerable time both to yield a return on the
tremendous costs of developing it during the stress of a war and because the surplus
wealth of producing countries is already bespoken for the reconstruction of war
devastation elsewhere. This can certainly mean one thing: money for improving
equipment already admirably efficient will not be forthcoming.
What about obsolescence from the economic standpoint? Will ground conditions
change sufficiently over wide enough areas rapidly enough to justify slowing down the
present rate of doing basic vertical cover—I should say that evidence would not justify
such a decision for the present at least. In view of the accelerated rate of assimilating
the photography which may be reasonably expected, changes of ground conditions will
be of minor importance. The topography itself is substantially permanent, and a
considerable proportion of the area is not seriously affected by forest fires. Settlement,
roads, and industrial development will in general affect only the areas of highest
priority in both photographic and mapping programmes.
With regard to the basic air-photo cover, who will venture to prophesy the order
in which specific areas will be required—over a term of more than two years or even
more than one year? It would be most embarrassing when certain areas suddenly
become " hot spots " of interest requiring immediate mapping efforts to find that first
we must wait for the photographic season and then wait for weather and face other
operational hazards before the basic air cover can be obtained. In the meantime the
field parties would have to go stumbling confusedly over the area without any photographs. One of the essential basic features of air mapping is to have the photo ties
and qualitative interpretation positively identified by men with the photos in the field.
The ideal sequence is:—
First season:   Tricamera photography.
Second season:
(a)  Standard  triangulation   (tricamera photos  taken  in  the  field for
positive station identification on them).
(6) Vertical photography (may be done concurrently with (a)).
Third season:
(a) Field-work for standard topographic control.
(b) Compilation of standard topographic map.
Fourth season:   Sample ground checks to prove map.
Interim map compilation may be done at any stage after the tricamera
photography—scale, intensity, and accuracy depending on what photography and
control are available.
The map-makers are prone to forget that air cover of areas still unmapped
constitutes in itself a wealth of information of greatest value to a large number of
interests. Furthermore, who will hazard a guarantee that money for air photography
will always be available. A depression would certainly slow up expenditures; therefore, we must " make hay while the sun shines " and get our basic air cover. Then,
come what may, we can always go ahead and complete urgent mapping projects over
any area, independent of all the multifarious hindrances to air photography—financial,
seasonal, weather, and operational. In connection with the campaign in Burma during
the recent war this principle of ensuring adequate air cover over the theatre was
fortunately realized by the high command at an early stage, and a successful effort was
put forth to accomplish this. With the photographs in hand it was possible for the
mapping services to cope very well with the unpredictable course of hostile operations.
Thus a supply of effective maps on time, every time contributed fundamentally to REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
X 57
accelerating the successful conclusion of that campaign,
a very similar problem in British Columbia.
Let us apply this lesson to
CONCLUSION.
It is recommended that our present rate of vertical cover of about 25,000 square
miles per year be continued; that the tricamera programme be prosecuted with full
vigour until completed; and then the general situation be reviewed for deciding
whether to reduce the operational commitment to one aircraft detachment per year.
As regards costs, it is likely that gradually increased efficiency will be offset by
increasing operational difficulties, leaving costs about stable, at present figures.
As to map compilation, it is recommended that the Air Surveys Division be given
full support in its plan to develop interim mapping from the photographs alone, by
augmented personnel, equipment, and accommodation.
Encouragement should be given also to a heavier accent on large-scale precise
detail mapping with low-altitude photography over special areas.
AIR SURVEYS DIVISION PERSONNEL, 1947.
G. S. Andrews, Chief Air Survey Engineer, in charge of Division.
Personnel.
Administration.
Flying
Ops.
Processing.
Air-photo
Library.
Photo-
grammetry.
Barber, A. M	
Bell, T. H	
Griffiths, D. Jean	
Hackett, E. B	
Hawes, J. A	
Kroeger, R. W	
Lukinuk, A	
Matson, C. A. E	
Morris, P. R	
Rawlinson, D. M. (Mrs.)
Wight, A. D	
(4)
(4)
(1)
(2)
(7)
(1)
(1)
(3)
(5)
(5)
(7)
(6)
(9)
(8)
(9)
(9)
(8)
(1) Air survey flying assistant during flying season.
(2) Librarian in charge of air-photo library balance of year.
(3) Air survey photographer in charge of processing laboratory.
(4) Secretarial, by co-operation with Land Utilization Survey.
(5) Assistant air survey photographer.
(6) Junior draughtsman.
(7) Air camera technician and acting-chief of air survey detachment during season.
(8) Acting-photogrammetrist balance of year.
(9) Technical assistant.
APPENDICES. "
1. Summary of Air-survey Operations, 1936 to 1947, inclusive.
2. Summary by Projects, 1947 Air-survey Operations.
3. Summary of Expenditures of 1947 Air-survey Operations.
4. Graphic Calendar of Air-survey Operations in Relation to Weather, 1947.
5. Representative Samples of 1947 Air Photography.
6. Key Map of Air Cover of British Columbia to December 31st, 1947 (Key Map
of Air-photo Indexes on Reverse Side). X 58
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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J3  'S    OJ    3 REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
X 59
Appendix 2.—Summary by Projects, 1947 Air-survey Operations.
A. Basic Cover Vertical Photography (from 17,500 Feet above Sea-level).
Project.
Base.
Number of
Photos.*
Area
(Square Miles).
Cost.
1,923
1,303
2,788
123
1,057
142
1,653
168
.      1.487
1.320
109
320
194
212
79
6,156
1,770
5,356
528
1,602
320
2,820
405
3,215
2.650
232
884
663
6^0
175
$5,842.14
Butef	
Comox	
Comox	
Comox	
3,311.85
Secheltt	
7,179.44
615.83
2,735.03
385.51
4,047.37
Alexis t	
Dog Creek	
Terrace	
Terrace	
Terrace	
Terrace	
Terrace	
Smithers	
553.77
4,560.76
Eestallt	
3,513.97
353.95
1,074.84
671.83
845.00
228.61
12,868
26,416
$35,919.90
Average cost for basic cover:   Per photo, $2.79 ;   per square mile, $1.36.
B. Tricamera Photography (from 17,500 Feet above Sea-level) from Bases
mentioned, except Princeton and Terrace.
1,578 lineal miles control over vertical projects   (including  "A"
above)   and 4,862 lineal miles over new country	
11,084                    14,586
$16,315.84
Total tricamera photos, 6,440 lineal miles.
C. Special Large-scale Vertical Projects.
Seaweed surveys, 3,000 feet above sea-level	
Experimental, 2,500 feet above sea-level	
North Arm of Fraser River and University Endowment Lands,
2,500 feet above ground	
Miscellaneous, mostly urban, including thirteen towns, 2,500 feet
above ground	
Total, large-scale cover	
Grand totals, photography	
158
42
$339.39
47
5
97.83
595
85
811.91
200
25
650.15
1,000
147
$1,899.28
24,952
41,149
$54,135.02
Average, low altitude:   6.8 photos per square mile;   cost, $12.93 per square mile.
D. Reconnaissance Flights (Non-photographic).
Expenditure for reconnaissance flights..
$807.12
♦Negatives, 5- by 5-inch, 3^-inch wide-angle lens; prints, 9- by 9-inch, effective focal length 6 inches (approx.).
t Blocks indicated were controlled by tricamera photography   (aggregate  1,578  lineal miles),  cost of which is
included in amounts shown.
Appendix 3.—Distribution of Costs, 1947 Flying Operations.
Organization   $3,634.59
Flying 338.9 hours   28,154.54
Salaries     3,883.65
Insurance   1,556.44
Field expenses   3,527.07
Depreciation (equipment)   4,399.35
Film—developing, annotation   4,796.10
Prints—1 set 9- by 9-inch   4,990.40
Totals  $54,942.14
Per. Cent.
6.6
51.2
7.1
2.8
6.4
8.0
8.8
9.1
100.0   139°
138°
137°
136°
135°
134°
133°
132°
131°
130°
129°
128°
127°
126°
125°
124°
123°
122°
121°
120°
119°
118°
117°
116°
115°
114°
113°
112°
111°
no*
59
58
57
S^
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
PRINCE RUPERT
AIR PHOTOGRAPHS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Many thousands of air photographs have been taken of various parts of British Columbia
(see air-photo cover map on back) for mapping and special surveys. These photos are mostly
als "; i.e., views straight to the ground below the aircraft. There are also " obliques "
ve a scenic view to the horizon. New areas will be photographed from the air each
year aihjd eventually the whole Province will be covered.
Reprinlns of Air Photographs
hile the air photographs are taken in the first instance for official surveys, the number of
which can be made from the original negatives is practically unlimited. The negatives
lefully preserved for this purpose. As these photographs may be of great value to all
who aj«|e interested in the country covered, it has been the policy to supply reprints at the
I cost of printing. In this way every reprint which is put to worth-while use constitutes
pie return for the money expended on the original air survey.
*>
led way
Index Maps
Detail index maps, 4 miles to 1 inch, showing the incidence of all
air photographs with roll and photp numbers are in the course of
preparation and revision. Blue-print copies may be obtained on application, cost of 25 cents each. Order by block number and sheet
number;  e.g., 93-N is the designation of the hachured sheet.
^
Sheets ready for distribution as of
Dec.  30,   1947, shown thus
YU
M
QUE EM
D^
ir   photography   in   British   Columbia   has   been   done   almost   entirely   by   two   agencies:
e   Dominion   Government,   Ottawa;    (2)   The   Air   Survey   Division   of   British   Columbia,
Branch,   Department of  Lands  and   Forests.     The  Dominion  Government  numbers  its
Is with the prefix letter "A," and also numbers each photo in the roll; for example,
32:77 "  means photo No.  77 of R.C.A.F.  roll  No. A 9532.     The British Columbia Air
Division numbers its film rolls with the prefix " BC "; for example, " BC 325:62' "
photo No.  62 of  roll  No.   BC 325.     The  photo and  roll   numbers appear in the  lower
n the air-photo cover map on back it can be determined if a particular place in the
Province has been photographed from the air, and whether it was done by the R.C.A.F. or by
the Bnijtish Columbia Air Survey Division.
rders and inquiries for Dominion Government photographs may be addressed directly to:
Natiorjal Air-photo Library, Department of Mines and Resources, Ottawa, Ont.
(jjeprints of " BC " photographs and information relative to air photographs and air surveys
of British Columbia may be obtained on application to: '
Air Survey Division,
Surveys  Branch,  Department of  Lands and  Forests,
Victoria,  B.C.
Air-phpto Library
library of all air photographs taken in B.C. by the Dominion Government and the British
Colurr^bia Air Survey Division  is maintained by the Provincial Government in Victoria for both
and public reference.     This library now contains about 200,000 air photographs, com-
ndexes   and   other   relevant  data,   readily   available   for   reference   by   the   public.      New
are added to the library as taken.
AIR-PHOTO INDEX MAPS
OF
DEPARTMENT of LANDS  and FORESTS
Honourable E. T. Kenney, Minister
k&
Scale of   mites
M/lban
CHARLOTTE
SOUND
58
57
56
55
54
52
51
5d
49
148
The price of standard 9- by 9-inch double-weight matte prints from the B.C. air negatives is 40
cents each. Remittance should be made in favour of the Surveyor-General, Department of Lands and
Forests, Victoria, B.C. If possible the roll and photo number should be quoted, but if these are
unknownj the exact locality should be described as closely as possible. For special purposes, enlargements upto 20 by 20 inches from the B.C. negatives in Victoria may be obtained at cost.
136°
135°
134°
133
132°
131°
13 O
129°Longitudel28°   West    127°   from    126^^60^.^125°
124
123°
122°
121°
120°
119°
118°
117°
116°
115°
Geographic Di\ ^
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c X 62 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION.
By W. G. H. Firth, Chief Geographer.
The public demand for maps and other geographical data may be taken as a good
yardstick of the interest in economic development, particularly of a new country.
This premise is reflected in the tabulated matter appended to this report. These
tables indicate a sustained demand for the products and services of the Division during
the year 1947.
While abnormal post-war demands, the lack of trained and skilled personnel, insufficient office accommodation, together with a considerable volume of other work undertaken by request for various agencies, both public and governmental, has militated
against and retarded the main work of the Division—that is, the compilation and
preparation of maps for reproduction—yet it is gratifying to note that all public and
other requests have been met. The eight printed maps published during the year
under the aegis of the Department, including the four sheets printed at Ottawa, makes
this one of the largest production years of the Division. It is anticipated that a similar demand and volume of work could be undertaken and accomplished during the year
ending December, 1948.
A considerable amount of work was involved in making final revisions of the
topography and nomenclature on several new or revised map sheets and nautical charts
published by the Federal Government and completing details on place-name cards for
inclusion in the master record index.
Cataloguing revision and recording for a new edition of the Geographical Gazetteer proceeded, but as only one member of the staff was available for this work, and
on a part-time basis, progress was of necessity slow. By a realignment of the present
office space when accommodation becomes available in the new building and the possibility of placing this work on a full-time basis, it is hoped to expedite publication.
Among the many activities of the Division undertaken during the year the following may be mentioned:—
By request of the Director, Geodetic Survey of Canada, Ottawa, a compilation of
the names of mountains, lakes, passes, together with the elevation and geographical
positions, was completed. This information will appear in booklet form, the fore
part of which will contain the latest data on precise levelling within the Province,
completing a series of similar publications constituting the third revision of Altitudes
in Canada.    It is understood this publication will be available early in 1948.
The arrangements made in 1946 with the Department of National Defence (Geographical Section G.S.) for the reproduction of national topographic series maps made
from basic manuscript maps produced by the Topographic Division has been very
satisfactory.
From August, 1946, to December, 1947, 1,000 copies each of five printed 1-mile
standard map sheets covering the localities of Effingham, Tofino, Port Alberni, Cape
Scott, and Buttle Lake, areas of Vancouver Island, have been delivered to the Department. All material and data are currently at Ottawa for another four sheets, and it
may be presumed these will be completed during the ensuing year. Under similar
arrangements and by special request, manuscripts and complete data for the reproduction of two more maps on a 1-mile scale covering the Lower Post-Liard Biver area
were dispatched to Ottawa.
As the topography of the Province will not change in our ken or in untold years,
the information on these maps is basic and of sufficient accuracy for plotting preliminary trial lines, making investigations, etc., and will facilitate greatly in any current
or future economic development or engineering projects. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
X 63
The designating number and names of published sheets in this series appears in
the appendices to this report.
A map display which met with favourable comment was arranged and set up in
the rotunda of the Parliament Buildings from February 17th to March 1st, 1947.
High-precision instruments, modern methods, procedures and the different stages in
map-making from the field surveys to the final printed map were exhibited; also samples
of administrative, soil and land utilization, forest cover, and geological maps, illustrating the adaptability and their importance in many fields. About 2,000 persons viewed
the display, a large portion being organized parties of college and high school students.
EESUMfi.
It is difficult to appraise and note the many items and commissions of a varied
nature undertaken during the year; only the broad outline of the main activities can
be given in this report. The writer desires to thank superior officers, not only in the
Surveys Branch, but throughout the Department, for their consideration and help, and
also to pay tribute to members of the staff for their loyalty, co-operation, and industry.
The younger members, mostly returned service men, are progressively becoming more
proficient and effective in the work on the Division.
STATISTICAL.
Maps.
Published.
Name.
No. of
Copies.
Date of
Issue.
Dept.
Map No.
Scale.
Area in
Sq. Mi.
British Columbia electoral districts	
Lower Fraser Valley	
Lillooet pre-emptor's map	
Tete Jaune pre-emptor's map	
Lardeau degree sheet	
Provincial Government Topographic Surveys
reproduced and printed in Ottawa under
the National Topographical Series.
Toflno	
Effingham.	
Alberni Inlet	
Cape Scott	
Buttle Lake	
300
2,500
2,500
1.050
1,620
1,120
960
1.600
l.ooo
1,080
Feb., 1947
Mar., 1947
May, 1947
Sept., 1947
Dec,   1947
July, 1947
Aug., 1947
Oct., 1947
Oct., 1947
Dec, 1947
lJF
4p
3k
3h
4f
92-F/4
92-F/3
92-F/2
102-1/16
92-F/12
27 mi. to 1 in.
2 mi. to 1 in.
3 mi. to 1 in.
3 mi. to 1 in.
2 mi. to 1 in.
1 mi. to 1 in.  |
1 mi. to 1 in.
1 mi. to 1 in.
1 mi. to 1 in.
1 mi. to 1 in.
366,255
3,400
11,700
6,000
3,100
315
392
392
110
In Course of Preparation.
Northerly Vancouver Island	
British Columbia commercial, showing rivers, railways
and main roads, etc	
British Columbia (srnall), showing land recording districts	
Fernie degree sheet	
Bella Coola '..	
2c
1J
lex
4d
I
4 mi. to 1 in.  [    10,000
I
27 mi. to 1 in.  |  366,255
I
50 mi. to 1 in.  | 366,255
2 mi. to 1 in.  j      3,050
4 mi. to 1 in.  j    17,200
I X 64
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Geographic Board of Canada, Naming and Eecording.
1942.      |
1943.
1
1944.
1945.
1946.
1947.
11  |
12   |
22
1,928
551
21
2,037
335
50
4,107
602
57
7,297
Number of new names recorded	
1,302  |
153   |
1
446
Geographical Work for other Departments and Public.
Total number of items	
Total receipts and value of work..
64
$2,007.00
56
$734.25
37 | 56
$626.31  I $1,221.73
81
$2,277.50
66
$1,306.39
Map Stock and Distribution.
14,444
8,700
$5,850.70
$5,347.33
15,776
12,805
$4,901.37
$4,621.73
15,598
12,453
$4,815.33
$3,690.56
20,973
20,800
$6,997.80
$5,091.49
29,052
11,425
$10,848.45
$7,079.22
28,755
19,942
$10,207.85
$6,590.35
Photostat.
Total number of photostats made	
Total value of photostats	
Value of photostats for Department of Lands
and Forests	
4,189
$1,286.00
$816.70
3,279  | 3,620
1,234.59  I  $1,865.75
$545.00
$834.50
$1,716.35
$751.25
4,696
$2,259.60
$1,013.75
5,692
$2,786.00
$1,881.20
Letters.
Letters received and attended to..
1,343   | 1,705
1,857
2,619
2,547 REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
X 65
List of Lithographed Maps.
Map
No.
Year of
Issue.
1945
1945
IE
1930
1G
1916
lH
1943
1J
1945
lJCA
1923
1JC
1937
1JD
1937
1JE
1937
1JF
1945
1JGL
1937
1JGC
1937
lJS
1945
IK
1925
1L
1940
2a
1938
2B
1914
2C
1929
2d
1923
2e
1924
2f
1927
3a
1944
3b
1942
3c
1940
3d
1937
SB
1945
3f
1934
3g
1935
3H
1947
3j
1942
3k
1938
3m
1929
3p
1924
4a
1927
4b
1946
4c
1936
t4D
1947
4e.
1925
4f
1947
4g
1943
4h
1926
4j
1921
4k
1923
4l
1926
4m
1927
4n
1930
4p
1946
4<5
1939
5A
1916
5b
1929
1929
5c
1929
5d
1941
MRMl
1927
MBM2
1928
MRM3
1928
mrm4
1929
MRM5
1929
mrm6
1932
mrm7
1934
mrm8
1935
PWD
1946
MD
1939
1930
I
Title of Map.
Geographic Series—
Wall Map of British Columbia. In four sheets. Roads, trails,
railways, etc	
British Columbia. In one sheet. Showing Lan,d Recording
Districts	
Kootenay, Osoyoos, and Similkameen (South-east B.C.)	
Cariboo and adjacent Districts	
Northern British Columbia, Special Mineralogical Data	
British Columbia. In one sheet. Showing, rivers, railways,
main roads, trails, parks, distance charts, etc	
Ditto ditto and precipitation	
Ditto ditto and Land Recording Districts	
Ditto ditto and Mining Divisions	
Ditto ditto and Assessment and Collection Districts	
Ditto ditto and Electoral Districts, Redistribution 1938.
Ditto ditto and Land Registration Districts	
Ditto ditto and Counties	
Ditto ditto and Census Divisions	
South Western Districts of B.C., Commercial and Visitors.
(Economic Tables, etc., 1929.)
Central British Columbia (contoured 1,000-ft. ihterval)	
Land Series—
Southerly Vancouver Island	
New Westminster and Yale Districts	
Northerly Vancouver Island	
Powell Lake	
Bella Coola (Preliminary)	
Queen Charlotte Islands, Economic Geography (preliminary)	
Pre-emptors' Series—
Fort George	
Nechako (contoured)	
Stuart Lake (contoured)	
Bulkley	
Peace River (contoured)	
Chilcotin	
Quesnel (contoured)	
Tete Jaune (preliminary)	
North Thompson (contoured)	
Lillooet	
Prince Rupert	
Grenville Channel (preliminary)	
Degree Series—
Rossland (contoured)	
Nelson (contoured)	
Cranbrook	
Fernie	
Upper Elk River ,
Lardeau	
Windermere	
Arrowhead	
Vernon (contoured)	
Kettle Valley (contoured)	
East Lillooet, Economic Geography (contoured)	
Nicola Lake (contoured)'	
Penticton (contoured)	
Lower Fraser Valley (preliminary)	
Hope-Princeton (contoured)	
Topographical Series—_
Omineca and Finlay River Basins, Sketch-map of	
Howe Sound-Burrard Inlet (contoured). South sheet (special)..,
„ „ „ North sheet (special)....
Stikine River (contoured)	
Revelstoke-GoIden (Big Bend-Columbia River) (contoured)	
Mineral Reference Maps—Printed.
Slocan and Ainsworth	
Trout Lake 1	
Lardeau River	
Nelson-Ymir	
Rossland- Ymir	
Grand Forks-Greenwood	
Greenwood and Osoyoos	
Barkerville and Lightning Creek	
Miscellaneous—
Highway and Travel Map of B.C	
B.C. Mining Divisions and Mineral Survey Districts	
Geographical Gazetteer op British Columbia	
Scale,
Per
Per
Miles, etc.
Copy.
Dozen.
1: 1,000,000
15.78 m. to 1 in.
$1.50
$14.00
50 m. to 1 in.
Free
1.50
7.89 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
7.89 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
15.78 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
27 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
31.56 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
27 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
27 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
27 m. to 1 in.
.75
6.00
27 m. to 1 in.
.75
6.00
27 m. to 1 in.
.75
6.00
27 m. to 1 in.
.75
6.00
27 m. to 1 in.
.75
6.00
7.89 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
15.78 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
4 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
4 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
4 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
4 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
4 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
4 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
3 m. to 1 in.
2.00
3 m. to 1 in.
W   qj
2.00
3 m. to 1 in.
2.00
3 m. to 1 in.
2.00
4 m. to 1 in.
2.00
3 m. to 1 in.
«h.2 ri
2.00
3 m. to 1 in.
ftT_)   6
2.00
3 m. to 1 in.
2.00
3 m. to 1 in.
B<™
2.00
3 m. to 1 in.
0J
2.00
3 m. to 1 in.
2.00
3 m. to 1 in.
2.00
2 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
2 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
2 m. to 1 in.
.25
2.00
2 m. to 1 in.
.25
2.00
2 m. to 1 in.
.25
2.00
2 m. to 1 in.
.25
2.00
2 m. to 1 in.
.25
2.00
2 m. to 1 in.
.25
2.00
2 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
2 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
2 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
2 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
2 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
2 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
2 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
5 m. to 1 in.
.25
2.00
*/__ m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
y2 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
5 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
4 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
1 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
1 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
1 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
1 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
1 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
1 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
1 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
1 m. to 1 in.
.50
4.00
20 m. to 1 in.
.35
2.50
50 m. to 1 in.
Free
On ap.
1.00
8.00
Map Number " of map
with wooden
t In course of compilation.
Note.—To avoid misunderstanding, applicants for maps are requested to state the
desired.
Maps listed above can be mounted to order in the following forms:   Plain mounted;   cut-to-fold
bars top and bottom to hang, etc.    Prices upon application.
We can supply information  concerning maps  of British  Columbia printed  and  published  at Ottawa  by the
Department of Mines and Resources.
Unless otherwise requested, maps will be sent folded.
Inquiries for printed maps—Address :—
Chief Geographer, Department of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.    December 31st, 1947.
3 X 66
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Index of Lithographed Maps.
BASE MAPS COMPUTING SECTION.
By W. H. Hutchinson, Mathematical Computer for Geographic Division.
Triangulation Adjustment.
The work of this Section comes under four headings:—
(1) Calculation of positions and elevations of new triangulation stations from
surveyors' angular observations in the field.
(2) Adjustment of triangulation networks between fixed control-points, and
adjoining nets with one another.
(3) Collection and  indexing of all triangulation data covering the whole
Province.
(4) Dissemination of triangulation control data, in response to requests. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 67
New Triangulation.
Final returns covering the following triangulation surveys, the field-work for
which was undertaken in 1946, were completed:—
Topographic triangulation in the vicinity of Fraser Lake—N. C. Stewart,
B.C.L.S.
Topographic triangulation in the vicinity of Muchalat Arm.—A. G. Slocomb,
B.C.L.S.
Control triangulation, westerly from Williams Lake—A. C. Pollard, B.C.L.S.
Geographic positions, bearings and distances, and elevations were determined for
each station, and the results recorded in the card-index.
Following the close of the 1947 field season, elevations and preliminary co-ordinates
were determined for all stations set by the topographic surveyors in the following
areas:—
Muchalat Arm-Gold River area by A. G. Slocomb, B.C.L.S.
Yalakom and Bridge Rivers area by W. R. Young, B.C.L.S.
Rossland-Trail area by A. H. Ralfs, B.C.L.S.
Terrace-Kitsumgallum Lake area by G. Emerson, B.C.L.S.
In all, preliminary co-ordinates for 320 stations and 290 station elevations were
determined.    It is of interest to note that in order to determine these 290 station elevations, 3,060 difference-of-elevation calculations had to be performed and adjusted.
In addition, a least-square adjustment was made of the triangulation controlling
the British Columbia-Yukon Boundary by A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S., in the 1947 season.
A minor triangulation scheme by A. G. Slocomb, B.C.L.S., with the object of providing
control-points at Powell and Haslam Lakes, was dealt with also.
Adjustments.
A least-square adjustment of the coast triangulation in Finlayson and Tolmie
Channels was completed. This network is controlled at either end by positions established by the Geodetic Survey of Canada, and comprises ninety-seven triangles. The
adjusted positions of these stations were used by the Canadian Hydrographic Survey
in their 1947 field programme.
In addition, an adjustment of thirty-four triangles in Fisher Channel has been
completed, and further schemes in the vicinities of Clio Channel and Homfray Channel
have been commenced.
Indexing.
All triangulation data relating to the Province are indexed under an alphabetical
card-index system, also under a quadrant-index system.. In the alphabetical system
a card is written for each station, on which is recorded the following details, where
available: Names of surveyors occupying the station, with dates of occupation, and
numbers of field books and plans relating to same; description of mark; description
of access; latitude and longitude; elevation; distances and bearings to adjoining
stations;  grid rectangular co-ordinates;  ties to cadastral survey posts.
Under the quadrant system a register, with pages for each quadrant of 30-minute
extent, lists all the stations contained in each individual quadrant. In this manner
inquiries relating to triangulation in the Province can be attended to promptly.
Requests for Triangulation Control.
Requests for triangulation control data have been received from all Provincial
departments concerned with mapping, and the following Dominion departments: Canadian Hydrographic Survey at Victoria;   Canadian Geodetic Survey at Ottawa;   Cana- X 68
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
dian Geological Survey at Ottawa; Canadian Topographic Survey at Ottawa; Department of National Defence at Ottawa.
In addition, there have been requests from the United States Army Mapping
Service in Washington, from British Columbia land surveyors in private practice, and
from private individuals. In all, seventy-four inquiries were received and attended to,
a noticeable increase over former years.
The following table gives comparisons with the previous five-year period, and this
year " ties to cadastral surveys " and " elevations of stations determined " have been
included for the first time:—
1942.
1943.
1944.
1945.
1946.
1947.
Triangles adjusted by least squares	
Stations calculated from rectangular co-ordinates	
Ties to cadastral surveys	
217
586
6
824
8,353
45
7
Ill
654
14
918
9,271
53
10
461
286
10
715
9,986
44
5
431
570
3
694
305
10,680
52
2
456
683
3
685
229
11,437
50
6
218
599
221
517
2
Index cards, new	
714
296
Index cards, total on file.	
12,151
74
Standard base map, skeleton sheets compiled	
6
SURVEYS DIVISION.
By F. O. Morris, Chief of Surveys Division.
This Division deals with the general correspondence, the supply of survey information to land surveyors and the general public, preparation of instructions for
surveying, checking survey-field-notes and plotting official plans therefrom, clearing all
applications, and many minor activities.
A blue and ozalid printing plant is maintained, rendering service to the various
Governmental departments.
Departmental Reference Maps. — In order to keep a proper graphic record of
alienations and inquiries, reference maps, generally on the scale of 1 mile to 1 inch,
and mineral reference maps on the scale of 1,500 feet to 1 inch, drawn on tracing-linen,
are maintained by the Surveys Division. There are now 202 reference maps and 82
mineral reference maps, making a total of 284 maps. The work of keeping these up
to date—(1) by adding new survey information as it becomes available, and (2) by
renewing same when worn out with constant use and handling in the blue-print
machines—forms a considerable portion of the work of the Division. During the year
seven reference maps were recompiled. Tables B and C, attached hereto, give a list of
these reference maps.
Table A, which follows, summarizes the main items of work. REPORT OF  SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
X 69
Table A.—Summary of Office-work for the
Surveys Division.
Number of field-books received	
lots surveyed	
lots plotted 	
lots gazetted	
lots cancelled	
Years 1946 and 1947,
mineral-claim field-books prepared ___.
reference maps compiled	
applications for purchase cleared	
applications for pre-emption cleared _
applications for lease cleared	
coal licences cleared	
water licences cleared	
timber sales cleared	
free-use permits cleared	
hand-loggers' licences cleared	
Crown-grant applications cleared.
reverted-land clearances 	
cancellations made	
inquiries cleared 	
placer-mining leases plotted on maps.
letters received	
letters sent out	
Crown-grant and lease tracings made
miscellaneous tracings made	
Government Agents' tracings made ____
blue-prints made	
Revenue received from sale of blue-prints	
Number of documents consulted and filed in vault
1946.
223
222
187
175
8
66
8
1,812
440
1,152
5
89
2,660
464
3
2,518
1,538
561
795
515
7,843
4,501
1,458
141
93
45,081
$12,127.36
30,033
1947.
406
423
337
261
20
127
7
1,641
331
1,001
44
132
2,799
359
4
2,512
1,551
1,125
891
442
8,328
4,832
1,757
179
134
52,563
$10,957.28
45,474
An analysis of Table A shows a great increase in nearly every item on the list over
last year. This work is a reflection of the increased activity in land transactions
throughout the Province, being due to post-war plans and to increasing numbers of
home-seekers entering British Columbia from outside points. Also please note the
great increase in the amount of work of the blue-print room. It must also be pointed
out that this increased amount of work in the various jobs of the Surveys Division has
been accomplished with a depleted staff.
FIELD SURVEYS.
Field surveys under instructions from the Surveys Division carried out by surveyors in private practice included:—
1. Survey of part of the Alaska Highway and 5-acre leases adjoining the highway,
by A. W. Wolfe-Milner, B.C.L.S.
2. Subdivision of the Nelson Rifle Range, by Boyd Affleck, B.C.L.S.
3. Control survey south of Prince George, by F. P. Burden, B.C.L.S.
4. Small miscellaneous survey at Quesnel, Lillooet. X 70 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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OOOOOOOOOOi—l'-l»-1i—IrHi-i HHHH10IOIi.OtC X 74 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
TOPOGRAPHIC DIVISION.
By A. J. Campbell, B.A.Sc, D.L.S., B.C.L.S., Chief, Topographic Division.
The Topographic Division of the Surveys Branch deals with the survey parties in
the field, including those engaged in obtaining control for topographic mapping, on
triangulation, and on boundary-line surveys (not including cadastral surveys). Also
under its supervision is the compiling of the topographic maps and making the calculations for and the preparation of the field-notes of the triangulation, as well as for the
boundary surveys. The control used in plotting contour maps from vertical air photographs is obtained primarily by a photographic method, using pictures taken from
vantage points on the ground to control the positions of the air photographs, a method
that is very suitable for the greater part of British Columbia. A description of this
method and its history is given at the end of this report. In the flatter portions of the
Province, where ground pictures cannot be obtained, control is obtained by traverses,
barometer readings, and any other methods found suitable for that type of terrain.
The triangulation stations, main photo stations, and other control stations that are
accurately fixed are marked on the ground by brass bolts set in rock or concrete, thus
making a permanent record on the ground to be used on subsequent surveys. •
In line with the policy that has been inaugurated for the expansion of topographic
mapping in the Province, there were twice the number of parties in the field in 1947
over the preceding year. This only means an increase from two to four parties, but it
is a step forward. The main difficulty in the way of further expansion is the lack of
trained personnel in this specialized occupation. A considerable effort is being made
to improve this situation by undertaking the training of several prospective young
topographers in the different phases of the work.
Besides the topographic parties, one party carried on the survey of the British
Columbia-Yukon Boundary. This party, under the writer, ran a section of the boundary
in the vicinity of the Swift and Rancheria Rivers. The triangulation necessary for
the production of the boundary-line was provided by a section of this party under A. C.
Pollard, B.C.L.S.
The topographic parties operated in widely scattered sections of the Province.
A. G. Slocomb, B.C.L.S., continued with control surveys on the west coast of Vancouver
Island, covering the area north of Muchalat Inlet to the 50th parallel and the south half
of Nootka Island. Completing the work in this area, Mr. Slocomb crossed to Powell
River and carried out some control-work between Powell and Haslam Lakes.
It has long been the claim of the surveyors engaged on this work, in coastal waters,
that a boat, large enough to accommodate a complete party, would make it possible to
carry on the work with much greater efficiency, much less risk, and considerably greater
comfort. This has been fully substantiated by the experience of Mr. Slocomb's party
with the " B.C. Surveyor," which was bought during the year.
W. R. Young, B.C.L.S., was in charge of a party operating north of the Bridge
River in the Tyaughton Creek area, and covered Map-sheet 92 0/12. A party under
A. H. Ralfs, B.C.L.S., carried out control surveys in the Rossland-Trail area, and the
party under G. C. Emerson, B.C.L.S., worked in the area around Terrace and north to
Kitsumgallum Lake.
Messrs. Young, Ralfs, and Emerson were members of the topographic surveys for
several years before the war. On their return from overseas they immediately reentered the service, and this year were sent out in charge of parties, for which their
experience and other accomplishments made them fully qualified.
Reports of the surveyors, giving details of the work accomplished and other data
in connection with their respective areas, are attached hereto. It will be seen from
these reports that the weather, particularly in the northerly parts of the Province, REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 75
was very poor for this work, so that these surveys were carried out under adverse
conditions.
The present office of the Division was quite inadequate to accommodate any
increase in office staff, and space was obtained from the military authorities by the loan
of one of the unused buildings at Work Point. Office space has been allocated to the
Division in the new office building being erected, and there is no doubt that, with
proper accommodation and increased staff, the demand for the type of maps produced
will be more nearly satisfied.
In the following brief outline of the history of mapping, which leads up to the
development of the topographic maps as now produced in British Columbia, the information was gleaned from several sources, but principally from " Maps," a book by
Alexander D'Agapeyeff and E. C. R. Hadfield; from a publication of the Department
of the Interior of Canada entitled " Photographic Surveying," by M. P. Bridgland,
D.L.S.;  and from the writer's own experience.
" Topography " is defined as " the art of representing on a map the physical features of any locality or region with accuracy." It follows, then, that a topographic
map is one that does just this, but the maps of to-day go further, and may be said
to show, in greater or less detail, everything that is on the'surface of the ground.
Cadastral surveys are shown, also all railroads, highways, roads, and trails. Cities,
towns, and villages are indicated, and in some cases even buildings. Forest-covered
areas are shown in coloured wash. The extent of detail of the different features
depends on the scale and the requirements of the map.
The topography, or the physical features, has been shown on maps in several ways,
as will be mentioned later, but the contour line has superseded the others, being almost
universally used. Contour lines are lines drawn on the map following through points
of the same altitude, thus showing the shape of the ground at that height. Hence,
from the map, the position and altitude of any point can be found, and this is the
principal difference between topographic maps and maps of other types, which are
usually called flat maps, for they do not give much idea of heights, other than occasional
spot heights for certain particular features. The accuracy of the shape of the country
as depicted on the topographic map depends on the contour interval—a very intense
map would likely show intervals of 5 feet, but a reconnaissance map would have a
contour interval of 500 feet. In our work, in the national topographic series, which
we plot on a scale of half a mile to 1 inch, a 100-foot contour interval is used. The
resulting maps are extensively used as a base on which may be shown the various
resources, such as timber and minerals.
The two essentials of map-making—a method of determining the position of a
point on the earth's surface so that it can always be found by anyone and a knowledge
of the shape of the earth and its approximate size—both owe their foundation to the
men of what we call " the ancient world." The Babylonians divided the circle of sky
into 360 degrees and each degree into 60 minutes and each minute into 60 seconds.
They had a system of counting based on sixties and figures that would divide into
sixties, as we have one based on hundreds, retaining some of the remains of the old
system in our degrees, minutes, and seconds. This division of the sky enabled a place
on the earth's surface to have its position plotted in relation to the stars, and so a
constant position given to it which did not depend on description or measurement of
the earth.
The second essential—a knowledge of the shape and size of the earth—was first
almost correctly established by an African Greek, Eratosthenes, of Cyrene, in Libya,
in the third century B.C. Another astronomer, Posidonius, about a century and a half
later, thinking that Eratosthenes had made a mistake, published his own findings,
which were not proven in error until the eighteenth century, when accurate measurements of the earth's surface were made.    In the meantime the famous Greek, Ptolemy, X 76 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
about a century after Posidonius, adopted the erroneous findings of Posidonius and
published them in his book " Geographic."
Some time after Ptolemy the early Greek concept of the shape of the earth became
obsolete. For many centuries it was believed that the earth was a disk entirely surrounded by a great river called " Oceanic." Early maps based on this theory were of
a pictorial nature, and had little idea of being an accurate representation of the shape
of the earth. Ptolemy's book was rediscovered, and an edition published in 1475 A.D.
Upon it were based all the maps that were brought out until the eighteenth century,
when modern maps appeared.
It will be remembered that Columbus was looking for another way to the Indies
and China, and these lands, on Ptolemy's reckoning, should have been found somewhere
near where he actually discovered the American continent. If the explorer had realized
the much greater distance it really was to the East Indies, across the Atlantic, it is
more than possible that he would never have started out.
The first English cartographer, whose maps became widespread and well known,
was Christopher Saxton, who lived in the latter half of the sixteenth century. In 1570,
during the reign of Queen Elizabeth, Saxton began a survey of England and Wales,
and completed it in nine years. It is not known how Saxton carried out the survey,
or what instruments he used to fix points and measure distances, but his work was so
good that it formed the basis for most of the work of the next 200 years. " Saxton's
Atlas " of county maps was reprinted many times, with alterations in date and detail.
Many cartographers followed Saxton, improving the maps and adding more detail.
The early sheets showed no roads. These were shown separately on what were called
" road strips "—long narrow strips showing details along the way. Hills, trees, towns,
and other features were sketched in a sort of perspective. Later, about the beginning
of the eighteenth century, maps began sketchily showing the roads; hills were indicated by hachures, and towns, villages, and buildings in plan. It was said of a map
published in 1782 that " every house is shown, every road, stream, garden, park, and
wood.    It is a complete and elaborate map."
Another cartographer, John Cary, who lived from 1754 to 1835, produced maps
which are said to be drawn and engraved greatly superior to those of the map-makers
who went before him, and also to compare favourably with the ordnance maps, which
were beginning to appear at that time. He is also credited with being the first to print
maps in colour.
The ordnance survey, in its original form, came into being after the Battle of
Culloden, which ended the Jacobite uprising in 1746. In this rebellion it was established that, in order to make war, accurate maps were a necessity, and this was the
most urgent reason for the beginning of the survey. The organization formed to
produce the maps, which were the first made by the military authorities for the Government, was later linked with the Board of Ordnance, developing into the Royal Army
Ordnance Corps of the present day.
The early ordnance maps, printed in black and white, showed the topography by
hachure lines. In later editions they were printed, from a second plate, in a brown
colour. This was the beginning of colour printing on the ordnance maps. When contour lines were first used they were printed in red, and for a time the hachure lines
were retained in their original colour. The contours then superseded the hachure lines
and other colours were used to represent different features, producing the present
ordnance maps, which are a recognized standard in the amount and accuracy of the
detail shown.
A century ago a Frenchman introduced a sensitized film on glass, being the
forerunner of the photographic plates of to-day. Then followed a long period of
experimenting by many scientists, providing many developments in the science of
photography.    The art of using photographs in map-making has followed along with this development in photography.. But even before that the same principles as are
used in photographic surveying were used in attempts to produce maps by making
perspective drawings in the field and then constructing the map from these drawings.
The attempts failed, probably on account of the difficulty of making freehand drawings
sufficiently accurate to give good results, but the experimenter was convinced of the
feasibility of the system. The possibility of using photographs instead of sketches
was seen, but early attempts were much hampered by the slowness and uncertainty of
the early photographic process, by the imperfection of the lenses and of the heavy
apparatus.
In 1856 Col. A. Laussedat, a French scientist and surveyor, who was really the
founder of photographic surveying, began a study of the subject. He at first used a
camera lucida for reflecting the image on paper to make a freehand drawing. He soon
substituted photographs for the drawings, and in 1859 felt justified in announcing his
success to the Academy of Science in Paris. A favourable report was given, and
photographic surveying became a recognized science. After its introduction by Colonel
Laussedat, and with improvements being made in photographic processes, particularly
the introduction of the dry plate, about 1873, the use of the method expanded rapidly.
Many extensive photographic surveys have been made, not only in European countries,
but also in many other parts of the world.
The introduction of the method into Canada was due to the late Dr. E. Deville,
who was Surveyor-General of Dominion lands for many years. He saw its value for
mapping the extensive mountain regions of Western Canada, a country eminently suitable for such a method. The instruments he designed especially for the work are still
in use, almost in their original form, and the book he wrote, containing the plotting
methods that were devised and listed, is still the classic on the subject. The first Canadian photographic survey was made in 1886, in the Rocky Mountains adjacent to the
Canadian Pacific Railway. Since then mapping from photographs, or photo-topographic
mapping, has been carried on by the Dominion almost continually. Areas of British
Columbia in the old Railway Belt were among the first to be mapped, also around the
Crowsnest Pass, and along the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta the
work was carried on for many years. Other sections of British Columbia were mapped
by the Geological Survey of Canada during the same period. This work was all done
by departments of the Dominion Government. The first mapping from photographs
for the British Columbia Government was in 1913, when the late R. D. McCaw,
B.C.L.S., working for the Public Works Department, made a topographical survey along
a portion of the Banff-Windermere Highway, which was then under construction. The
next year Mr. McCaw started work for the Surveys Branch of the Department of
Lands, mapping an area in the Okanagan region, and this was the beginning of what
came to be known as the Topographic Section of the Surveys Branch, but is now called
the Topographic Division.
The survey of the boundary between Alberta and British Columbia, commenced in
the same year, 1913, was accomplished by photographic surveying, along that portion
northerly from the 49th parallel where it follows the Great Divide. This survey
was carried out under the Governments of the two Provinces—British Columbia and
Alberta—and the Dominion Government. The writer worked on this survey with the
late A. 0. Wheeler, D.L.S., B.C.L.S., who was the British Columbia Commissioner on
the survey from its start in 1913 until the finish in 1924.
For several years after 1914 Mr. McCaw carried on the work of the Topographic
Section as the sole Provincial exponent of the method. In 1920 another party was sent
out under G. J. Jackson, B.C.L.S. Mr. Jackson is still with the Division. Then, in
1925, the writer joined the staff. The three parties continued the work of mapping by
the photo-topographical method, using what we will now call ground photos, until in X 78 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
1931 a start was made on mapping using the ground photos in combination with vertical
aerial pictures. In this combination the ground photos provide the necessary control
for plotting the aerial pictures in position, and also the necessary altitudes for drawing
the contours directly on the aerial views.
The rapid development, after the First World War, of mapping with aerial pictures
is too well known to require description here. But it is believed that the first mapping
of this kind in British Columbia was in 1929 on the Pacific Great Eastern resources
survey. Then, in 1930 and 1931, N. C. Stewart, now Surveyor-General of British
Columbia, carried out control surveys for plotting from aerial photographs, using the
ordinary surveying methods of traverse, lines of levels, and barometer readings. The
method of producing topographic maps by using a combination of ground and aerial
photographs was definitely invented by the Topographic Section and put into effect in
1931. This combination had been discussed for some years by the members of the
staff, and in the spring of that year they were able to place a convincing demonstration
before F. C. Green, then Surveyor-General, and the attempt was launched. That it was
successful, it is sufficient to say that the methods devised then, with some changes and
improvements, is still in use.
Before giving description of the method of mapping now used, it is necessary to
explain how maps are compiled from ground photos only.
The principles used are the inverse rules of perspective; that is, the photographs
serve as the perspective in the vertical plane, and from these a model of the features
in the photograph, shown by the contour lines and the water-drainage, is built on the
paper in the horizontal plane. To do this, many points are identified and marked on
at least two photographs taken from different camera stations. Then, from the direction of the centre line of the photographs which have been plotted on the sheet, rays
can be laid down to all these selected points. The intersection of the proper pairs of
lines fixes the position of the point. Having the position of a point, its altitude can
be found by combining the distance from the camera station to the point, with the
distance of the point, above or below the horizontal line, measured on the photograph.
This gives the difference in height between the camera station and the point, and as
the altitude of the station is known, we obtain the altitude of the point. This is done
with each photograph on which the point has been identified and marked. Finally,
with the photographs in front of him and the points with their altitudes marked on the
paper, the operator builds up the model of the country as seen in the picture. It has
been proved many times that in suitable country a map of good accuracy can be so
constructed, but it will be seen that the country to which the method can be successfully applied is limited to that in which photographic stations can be obtained covering
every part of it. With the introduction of vertical aerial pictures and the combination of the two types, the scope of photographic mapping was expanded to include all
of British Columbia, except possibly the very flat sections.
It seems to many that a vertical aerial photograph should be a map of the country
that it covers, but it is only so in a very flat country that the detail can be taken
directly off the photograph and fitted in place on the map. Actually the aerial picture
is a perspective in the horizontal plane as the ground photo is a perspective in the
vertical.
Very early in the use of vertical aerial pictures it was discovered that the displacement of points on the photograph, due to differences in altitude, was on lines
radiating from its centre; that is, the lines radiating from, the centre of a photograph
gave the true direction from it to any point on the photograph. It follows that with
photographs taken with more than 50-per-cent. fore and aft overlap, every feature
appears on at least two of them, hence the position of any point can be plotted by
intersection of these directions or rays. But it is first necessary to plot the centres
of the aerial photographs in the proper positions on the map. REPORT OF  SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 79
To plot the centres requires ground control or points of known position which can
be identified on the aerial photographs and plotted on the map. There are a number of
ways of providing the control, but, in this report, we are dealing with the combination
of the ground and aerial photographs. It has been described above how points are
plotted from the ground views. Thus, by selecting points on them that can also be
picked on the aerial pictures, this ground or horizontal control, as it is called, can be
provided. At least three horizontal control points are needed to plot a centre in
position, but more are preferred, for in finding the position of a centre by fitting the
radial lines from it to the control points, a possible error can then be spotted and
corrected. It is not necessary to have this amount of control on every photograph
because, as they are taken with more than 50-per-cent. overlap, there is always sufficient
information to be got from them to plot the centres of a few views on each side of the
one that is fixed. The ideal situation would be to plot every fourth or fifth centre with
control points and bridge the others between them.. In this way the centres over the
whole area are plotted.
To provide the vertical control, many more points are picked on the aerial views
and plotted by the intersecting radial rays from adjoining centres. At the same time
these points are identified on one or two of the ground photos, so that their altitude
may be found in the usual manner. In picking these points care must be taken to
choose them in positions that will control the contours which we are now ready to draw,
on the aerial photographs, with the aid of a stereoscope.
The next operation is the reduction to the map scale of all the detail on the
photographs and placing it on the map. It will be quite evident to everyone that, in
a vertical photograph, the top of a mountain will be closer to the camera than the base.
It follows that the contour around the top will require a greater reduction than those
around the base. This means that every altitude will have its own ratio of reduction
and that all the detail, such as lakes, streams, and contours, must be reduced at the
proper ratio for their altitude. When this is completed, we will have our contour model
of the area and the map is well on the way to completion.
This lengthy, and it is feared, involved description might be better understood
if a short summary of the different steps in their proper order was added.
The first requirement is to have the area to be mapped covered with lines of aerial
pictures, having 60-per-cent. fore and aft overlap between each pair and a 25-per-cent.
lateral overlap between the lines.
In the field the surveyor occupies a sufficient number of camera stations to provide
the horizontal and vertical control for the aerial pictures. The position of these stations
is fixed by triangulation, based on stations of a main network that may be in the area,
or a net he has established himself.
In the office the position and altitude of all the camera stations are calculated from
the readings taken in the field.   All stations are then plotted.
The directions and traces of the ground photographs from each camera station are
plotted. At the same time the flight strips of the aerial pictures are being prepared
for plotting.
Horizontal control points are identified on both ground and aerial photographs and
plotted from the ground views. These points are marked on the aerial photos and
plotted on the flight strips.
The centres of the aerial photographs are all plotted.
Vertical control points are picked and plotted, and the altitudes of both horizontal
and vertical control points found from the ground photographs.
The contours are drawn on the aerial views and the other details marked. They
are then reduced to the proper scale and the material placed on the map. X 80
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Instruments.
The cameras, designed by Dr. Deville sixty years ago, when he introduced
photographic surveying to Canada, were built particularly strong and suitable for the
rough and rugged country in which they were to be used. We still have and use
cameras of the original design, with only minor changes, but modern lenses have
replaced those originally used. We also have cameras of a new design, radically
different from the old. Glass photographic plates are used in all the cameras, but we
have a camera under construction, designed by a member of the staff, of which we have
great hopes. This camera is designed to use roll film, which, at exposure, will be
pressed against a glass plate after the manner in use in aerial cameras, and should give,
using modern film, results comparable in accuracy with that obtained from glass plates.
The original theodolites, reading to minutes, have been replaced by instruments
of the modern type, reading to seconds of arc. These give much greater accuracy in
triangulating and also in vertical angles for the calculation of altitudes.
The draughting offices are equipped with stereoscopes, epidiascopes, parallax
bars, etc.
TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY OF WEST COAST OF VANCOUVER ISLAND.
By A. G. Slocomb, B.C.L.S.
The area completed is on the west coast of Vancouver Island, bounded to the north
by the 50th parallel of latitude, to the east by the 126th meridian, to the west by the
126° 30' meridian, to the south roughly Muchalat Inlet, being the continuation of my
1946 season's work. Some additional control was added to strengthen the northerly
part of that section. Also controlled was the south half of Nootka Island. These
areas complete Map-sheets 92-E/9, 92-E/10, and 92-E/16 of the national topographic
series and fill in the gap between N. C. Stewart's 1937 area to the east, A. J. Campbell's
area of 1932 to the north, and the Dominion Zeballos sheet to the west. The area
controlled contains approximately 780 square miles.     (See sketch-map, Fig. 1.)
— 50*oo- /
%     ""    J I s
5i . Sentini + I
\T_ >, C S'Offil
/ REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 81
Also eleven days were spent on a tie and control survey in the Powell River area,
a short report of which will be added as an appendix.
The purpose of the survey was to produce an accurate map at the scale of one-half
mile to 1 inch, with a contour interval of 100 feet, using the air photos taken by the
Air Surveys Division and the R.C.A.F. The ground control was obtained by photo-
topographical methods, and on the shore-line the triangulation stations of W. J. H.
Holmes, B.C.L.S., were located and marked on the air photos. The hydrographic
stations on Tlupana Inlet were used in a like manner. Several ties to lot corners on
Tlupana Inlet were made, while those ties made by Mr. Holmes on Muchalat Inlet,
Hanna Channel, and Cook Channel were used, as strong ties were made to his work.
A triangulation net was carried forward, using as a base two of the 1946 stations—
Pierce and Rufus. Ties were made to N. C. Stewart's 1937 stations—Gold and Sentinel—and also to the Dominion stations—Mala, Walker, Head. It was found impractical
to tie to the north, and none of the stations in this area was read on for the earthquake
of 1946 destroyed all the cairns.
The party organized at Victoria, and left on our newly commissioned survey ship,
the " B.C. Surveyor," on the 7th of June. The party consisted of the writer, A. F.
Swannell as assistant, Capt. F. A. Hebden as skipper-engineer of the " B.C. Surveyor,"
R. P. Justice as instrument-man, five axemen, and a cook. The party disbanded in
Victoria on September 17th.    The Powell River trip was made with staff members only.
We travelled to and from Victoria on the " B.C. Surveyor," lived on board all summer, and found the boat ideal for the purpose. Many two- or three-day fly-trips were
taken from the boat, and on most occasions at least one full day was saved through
having the boat on the spot the night before and, on our return, able to move immediately to the next jumping-off spot. With the extra comforts available we had a more
satisfied crew. The two-way radio was indispensable. Two smaller sets ordered in
the spring were not delivered till after our return; they will be available for next
season, and will save considerable running of the boat, as safe places to anchor were
found to be scarce, and on many of the trips the boat had to come to a rendezvous in
case we came down. With the small set at the shore, we could call the boat when we
arrived.
Physical Features.
Nootka Island, the south half of which we controlled, is one of the most famous,
and probably least known, of all of the historic spots in British Columbia. It was there,
at what is now known as Friendly Cove, that the first landing on British Columbia soil
was made by Captain Cook in March of the year 1778.
The final settlement of the Nootka controversy was made at Friendly Cove in 1792,
when Captain Vancouver and Bodega Y Quadra met in August to determine the land
to be restored under the Nootka Convention. To commemorate this meeting, two
monuments have been erected—one by the Washington State Historical Society in 1908
and the other by the Historical Sites and Monuments Board of Canada in 1924. The
latter was unveiled by the Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia, the Hon. W. C.
Nichol, with appropriate ceremony and speeches. The plaque reads: " Nootka Sound—
Discovered by Captain James Cook in March 1778. In June 1789 Spain took possession
and established and maintained a settlement until 1795. The capture of British vessels
in 1789 almost led to war which was avoided by the Nootka Convention 1790. Vancouver and Quadra met here in August 1792 to determine the land to be restored under
that Convention."
A good many of the names in the vicinity and around Nootka Sound are Spanish,
a few have been shortened, many are still in their original form.
To the east and approximately in the centre of Map-sheet 92-E/16 lies Conuma
Peak.    This peak, which is a local landmark, was used by the early navigators.    It was Topographic Survey.
West Coast Vancouver Island.
jnuma Peak, from Walker Mountain.
Tlupana Arm in background.
Muchalat Lake,
looking west.
JL~
B.C. Surveyor."
Friendly Cove. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 83
shown as " Konoomah Mountain" on a chart drawn in 1792 by Joseph Ingraham.
Galiano's early chart called it " Pico de Tasis," but in 1795 he changed it to " Conuma."
Indian legend has it that their ancestors carried their dead to the upper slopes of this
mountain and left them in the sitting position in the trees. If so, then the early tribesmen had a lot more ambition than the present inhabitants, who hardly ever travel from
the sight of salt water. We made two ascents, and had to use ropes both times. The
elevation of Conuma is 4,860 feet. Conuma is still listed as an aid to navigation in the
" B.C. Pilot."
The mountains on Nootka Island are all heavily wooded and under 3,000 feet in
elevation, with the higher ridges on the eastern shore, gradually sloping to sea-level
on the western shore. The one break occurs when Crawfish Lake, elevation 200 feet,
cuts into almost the centre of the island. All the creeks are short and shallow. The
small lake just behind Friendly Cove has no visible outlet, and as there are quite a few
creeks draining into it, it must have either an underground outlet or is drained entirely
by seepage.
A mountain ridge just north of Muchalat Inlet is very steep and precipitous.
This ridge, the high point of which has our triangulation station " Kleep " (altitude
3,896 feet) on it, runs approximately north-east to its junction with the valley of the
Gold River, where the direction changes to nearly north. Here the tops are bare rock,
the high point occurring at our Baldy Station (altitude 5,285 feet). North of that the
Upana River and Muchalat Lake and River break the continuity of the ridge. Commencing again north of Muchalat River, the ridge, gradually getting higher, culminates
in Victoria Peak (altitude 7,095 feet), which is beyond the north boundary of the map-
sheet. On this ridge our triangulation station " Wanch " (altitude 5,252 feet) is located
just south of the boundary. To the east of the Gold River there is a mountain ridge
paralleling the one already described. " Gold " triangulation station (altitude 5,683
feet), the high point on the easterly ridge, is approximately due east of Muchalat Lake.
The Gold River and its tributaries, Muchalat River, Heber River, Upana River,
Ucona River, and numerous large creeks, drain the whole of the easterly half of the
area mapped. The Gold River is not navigable, except by canoe, and then only by
experts for a short distance. To the west a precipitous ridge commences in the vicinity
of Head Bay at the head of Tlupana Inlet, culminating at Mount Alava and Mount Bate
(altitude 5,585 feet). These are very rugged peaks, appearing to be covered with snow
all year. This year they were the only peaks that had perpetual snow of any proportion. The main fork of the Conuma River heads on the easterly slopes of these mountains. The country between Mount Bate and the north boundary of the map-sheet is
comprised of a series of ridges draining to the north into the Nimpkish watershed.
The remainder of the area is timber-topped, with the average height around 3,000 feet.
Between the south half of Nootka Island and the coast-line lie a dozen or more
small islands, most of which are just rocky knolls with a few trees, with the exception
of Bligh Island, which is of considerable size and rises to approximately 700 feet.
Gibson Bros, did some logging at several different sites on this island a number of years
ago. The only island that seems to have been used for anything except logging is
Villaverde Island, which was used as a site for a fox-farm. This venture was a failure
due to the damp climate, but the buildings still stand. There is a new building going
up on a small island on Tlupana Inlet opposite Hanna Channel, the purpose for which
I was unable to find out.
Muchalat Lake, which drains into the Gold River, is approximately 4 miles long
and varies in width from 1,000 to 4,000 feet. Aeroplanes frequently land on it for
fishing, and a trapper has a fine headquarters cabin close to the mouth of the Oktwanch
River. X 84 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Forests.
The whole area is heavily timbered up to approximately 4,000 feet. Timber-line
varies from there to 4,500 feet. The timber is fir, hemlock, balsam, cedar, spruce, and
pine, with scattered yellow cedar on the higher levels. Arbutus grows along the north
shore of Muchalat Inlet. Along the upper Gold and in the vicinity of Muchalat Lake
some very large firs were noticed, mostly past maturity. There is some fine timber
around Muchalat Lake. It is 18 miles by trail to the lake, and there is fine timber all
the way. Gibson Bros, did some logging for spruce at the mouth of the Gold during
the First World War, and there is a road of sorts for a mile or two. The Forest
Service had a cruising party in this area during the summer, also on Nootka Island.
The underbrush follows the same pattern as the rest of the west coast, exceptionally
heavy and difficult of access. It consisted mainly of salal, evergreen huckleberry,
devil's-club, wild rhododendron, wild rose, and many other species, a regular botanist's
paradise, but all hard to make a way through.
Wild flowers were more plentiful than last year, and this could be accounted for
as the previous winter's snowfall was either light or an early spring cleared the
mountains, because this season we seldom encountered snow except on the highest
ridges. A collection of wild flowers was picked and turned over to the Provincial
Museum, for their records.
Minerals.
To my knowledge there was no mining activity or prospecting in this area this
summer. It is thought that considerable gold was taken from the Gold River in the
old days by the Chinese, but no evidence was found to substantiate this. We located
several mineral-claim posts but found no evidence of work done. There is a well-defined
trail up the Gold River, with a cable-crossing to Heber River. This work was done by
a mining company about 1936, but has not been kept up. Some work in the past has
been done on Tlupana Inlet. About a mile up Sucwoa River, at the head of Tlupana,
there is a magnetite deposit of commercial size, and a company prospected a quartz
showing on the west shore opposite Conuma River. We found several old mineral
claims up the Conuma River. In 1908 a grey marble was quarried from Hisnit Inlet,
which is on an arm on the north shore of Tlupana. They used this as a building-
stone. I saw several of these stones and they were of very good quality, and had taken
a very fine polish.
Game.
Deer seem to be on the increase, and quite a few were actually seen with a fair
proportion of fawns. One of the crew members came face to face with a cougar on
a mountain ridge, to their mutual embarrassment. There were lots of signs of bear,
but very few were seen. Fur-bearing animals in the area include mink, marten,
racoon, otter, and beaver. Fresh beaver cuttings were seen along the Conuma River.
Squirrels and chipmunks in fair numbers were noticed over the whole country. Seals
were quite often seen in the inlets, no doubt after the salmon which run up Muchalat
Inlet to go up the Gold and Burman Rivers to spawn. There is good trout-fishing in
Muchalat Lake and in several of the smaller lakes. Mud sharks frequent the salt
waters in the vicinity of Nootka. Salmon, cod, pilchard, herring, anchovy, dogfish,
and shark are fished commercially. This was another poor season for pilchard, the fish
not coining into Nootka Sound in any quantity. Tuna are fished well off the coast.
Water-fowl were plentiful, and many large families of ducklings were seen on the lakes
and rivers. Grouse were not very plentiful, and only a few ptarmigan and blue grouse
were seen.
Crows, sea-gulls, and eagles abound. Generally the fishermen around Nootka did
quite well,  especially the trollers.    Up till the  middle  of  September,  however, the REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 85
Nootka cannery had run for about three ho'urs only.   They had a crew on the job, and
were expecting to be running steadily until after Christmas.
Climate.
Due to the growth of the underbrush I would say our area was in the wet belt, but
our summer's average of 43 days on which rain fell out of 103 was an improvement
over 1946. Many of the mountains which in 1946 had snow on them all summer were
clear this year in June. We did not have a dry summer, as it was always possible to
find water on the ridges or close to the top. We had far less fog than the previous year
and consequently were seldom held up for this reason. There was no fresh snow by
the time we left. We had more photographic weather and consequently exposed
more plates.
Accessibility.
There are no roads in this area. Some work was done in the spring on a location
for a proposed road up the Gold River, thence up Heber Creek to make connections to
the east coast, but there was no actual work done on the road. There is a good trail up
the Gold River for about 8 miles to Heber River, where a cable-crossing erected around
1936 is still in place. At this forks the trail crosses the Gold and goes up both Heber
and the Gold Rivers.
We found the cable-crossing too slow and, as the river was down, made better
time with a raft. When the river is in flood, the cable would be the only means
of crossing.
The trail from Heber River up the Gold River and into Muchalat Lake is only fair.
We had to do a lot of work on it, reblazing and recutting. There is also a fair trail
going up the Heber River. There was a blazed trail up the Oktwanch River and also
up the Conuma River, but these old trails are hard to follow. We cut 16 miles of new
trail during the summer.
The area is served by the C.P.R. boat S.S. " Princess Maquinna," maintaining an
eight-day schedule. Queen Charlotte Air Lines includes Nootka in its twice-a-week
flights to Vancouver. The Gibson Bros, logging company at Tahsis ran a small
passenger-and-freight boat between their mill at Tahsis and Port Alberni twice a week,
on which passage could be arranged. It was always possible to go down the coast on
the fish-packers, which make regular calls at the fish-floats.
Industries.
Fishing is the only active industry in the area. The Canadian Fishing Company
maintains a cannery and reduction plant at Nootka, which is a regular stop of the
" Maquinna." They have a well-stocked general store and post-office, a wireless
telegraph station, also a machine-shop on the premises. The B.A. Oil Company maintains an oil-dock. We tied up to the company wharf at Nootka on every possible
occasion to avoid having to anchor in the tricky inlets.
At Friendly Cove, 2 miles south of Nootka, there is a fish-float, and an Indian
village on San Rafael Island is the Dominion Government lighthouse.
Preliminary surveys have been made by a logging company to tap the large timber
resources of the Gold River Valley.
The Nootka Indians use the Indian reserve there during the fall fish run.
Should the road go through to connect up with the east coast, there is no doubt
that Muchalat Lake would develop into a tourist attraction, as it is a very pretty lake
with a sandy shore-line. I do not think there are very many agricultural prospects.
There is sufficient timber up the Gold River and in the vicinity of Muchalat watershed
to warrant a large-scale operation, but it would ruin Muchalat Lake for scenic value. X 86 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Appendix A.
The purpose of the Powell River trip was to make ties to existing triangulation
data of Powell and Haslam Lakes, from the hydrographic plugs on the shore-line.
The party consisted of myself and A. F. Swannell, with R. Justice and J. Cambrey
as axemen. We left on the " B.C. Surveyor " on September 23rd and returned on
October 4th.
It was possible to do this work by triangulation, though the weather man did his
best to hinder us, there being fog in the mornings and smoke haze from local slash
fires to contend with all the time. Visibility was very poor, and for this reason we did
not expose any photographic plates as we had originally intended.
The triangulation of Powell Lake made in 1916 by F. H. Swift, and checked in
1924 by J. T. Fullerton, B.C.L.S., was done before the lake-level was raised, and since
the lake-level was raised approximately 25 feet, all the original stations were under
water and impossible to use. We tied to the cadastral survey at several places, but
I doubt if the original survey will be of much value for control. It will be necessary
to triangulate the lake again.
The triangulation of Haslam Lake made in 1924 by J. T. Fullerton, B.C.L.S., was
found to be traceable, and good ties were made to hubs found still in place. Ties were
also made to the cadastral surveys.
We commenced operations from the brass plugs established by the Hydrographic
Service of Canada, using their stations " Ber " and " Pow," and we expanded to a
station we set ourselves on Harwood Island, which we called " Har." We set a standard
pipe post at this point, properly referenced.
TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY OF TYAUGHTON CREEK AREA.
By W. R. Young, B.C.L.S.
Under instructions from the Surveyor-General, a topographical control survey was
carried out in an area in the vicinity of Tyaughton Creek, north of the Bridge River.
Control was obtained by photo-topographical methods sufficient to map topographically with 100-foot contour intervals an area approximately 375 square miles in extent.
This area embraces Map-sheet 92-0/2, which is bounded on the east by the meridian of
122° 30' and by the meridian of 123° on the west, the 51st parallel being the south
boundary and the parallel of 51° 15' being the north.     (See sketch-map, Fig. 2.)
The party consisted of a total of eight men—the chief of party, with a University
of British Columbia student of engineering as assistant, three young chaps as survey
helpers, two packers, and a cook. A half-ton truck was used to transport some of the
equipment from Victoria to the area, and was used in sending out for supplies during
the season. Only one road, of doubtful classification, led just into the area at approximately the centre of the south boundary, so that all moving within the area was done
by twelve pack-horses.
Sixty-seven stations were occupied and forty-three dozen ground photographs taken.
Four triangulation stations originally established by John Davidson, B.C.L.S., in 1925,
were reoccupied and two new ones within the area were established. Thirty-two of the
stations, including the triangulation stations, were permanently marked by B.C.L.S.
brass bolts cemented in rock. Ties were made to land surveys in the vicinity of Spruce
Lake and to surveyed mineral claims in the Taylor Creek basin and Bon Creek area, as
well as to the group of claims in Blue Creek vicinity, enabling us to plot them accurately
with reference to the triangulation.
Air photographs of the area are now available, to be used in conjunction with the
ground control, the map-sheet being part of a larger area flown this summer by the
Air Surveys Division. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
X 87
122° 30-
The party left Victoria on June 2nd and assembled about 6 miles north of
Tyaughton Lake; it disbanded again in the fall at the same point, returning to Victoria
on September 22nd. The general elevation of the area is high, the lowest station occupied being just under 5,000 feet and the highest being just under 9,500 feet. Due to
this general altitude and the proximity of several large ice-fields, the work was hampered to some extent all season by adverse weather. The final disbandment of the
party was advanced by at least two weeks from the planned date, due to the complete
break in the weather. Snow was general over the whole area, and as much as 3 feet
of fresh snow had fallen on the higher peaks.
During the season a total of 747 miles was travelled on foot, 815 miles by pack-
horse, and 1,626 miles by truck, 600 miles of the latter being taken up by the trip to
and from Victoria.
Physical Features.
The area is drained by three fairly large streams and their tributaries. The
southerly half is drained by Tyaughton Creek (locally Tyax Creek) and its tributaries,
the main ones being Taylor Creek and Bon Creek flowing from the south and Relay
Creek from the north-west, then Mire Creek (locally Mud Creek) and Noax Creek from X 88 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
the north. Churn Creek and its tributaries, the main ones being Dash Creek and
Beaver Creek, drain the northerly part, Churn Creek itself rising in the north-east
corner near Poison Mountain. The easterly part of the area is drained by tributaries
of the Yalakom River, the largest being Blue Creek, which rises in the south-east corner
of the area controlled.
The whole area is very mountainous and there are few sustained ridges—mostly
peaks. This is probably due to the fact that so much of the rock is of volcanic origin.
The highest mountain entirely within the area is in the south-east corner, locally known
as Big Dog Mountain, a huge mass of rock covering a large area, elevation 9,400 feet.
Relay Mountain, lying roughly between the head of Relay Creek and Tyaughton Creek,
is 8,874 feet. Eldorado Mountain, about the middle of the south boundary, is 8,037
feet, and Red Mountain in the north-east corner is 8,034 feet. Big Dog Mountain is
really the most northerly of a group known as the Shulaps Mountains; Shulaps Peak,
the highest of these and lying some 6 miles south of the map-sheet, is one of the triangulation stations used to control the area (elevation 9,446 feet), and there are some
twenty or thirty other peaks in the group, all in the neighborhood of 9,000 feet
elevation.
Most of the mountain-tops consist of volcanic cores or bosses which are rapidly
being eroded, leaving large scree and talus slopes at the foot of the cliffs. Below these
rock slopes there is often very beautiful alpine country, falling more or less steeply to
quite deep and narrow creek-valleys. One very prominent feature, visible from nearly
everywhere in the area, is Castle Peak, a volcanic boss protruding out of a granodiorite
mass. From the north it appears as a sharp obelisk about 500 or 600 feet high, and
from the south or east it appears as a series of huge rock blocks, one on top of the
other, the sizes decreasing upwards and giving a very striking resemblance to the
battlements of a medieval castle. The peak of this feature is at an elevation of 8,177
feet.
Forest-cover.
There is no timber of merchantable value to speak of within the area. Up Taylor
Creek there are a few scattered stands of spruce suitable for building cabins and a few
similar stands in the other lower creek-bottoms. There are a few large Douglas firs
in the Tyaughton Creek valley, mostly on the north slope, but being isolated and not
in stands they are very branchy and of little commercial value.
For the most part the forest-cover consists of jack-pine, scrub spruce, and mountain balsam, with an unusually small amount of aspen poplar and scattered cottonwoods.
The north slope of Tyaughton Creek and almost the whole valley of Relay Creek to
above the junction of Paradise Creek, as well as up Paradise Creek, has been swept by
fire within the last fifteen or twenty years, and the windfall is very bad in consequence.
The slopes around the headwaters of Mire Creek have also been badly burned, as well
as the north slope of the Beaver Creek valley and part of the south slope. The tributary of Churn Creek flowing north out of Fish Lake has also been burned.
Timber-line in general is at about 6,500 feet, but some scrub growth often occurs
at much higher altitudes. In many cases this scrub growth has been burned on both
sides of the hills, serving as evidence that the fires were very fierce, with high winds,
spreading from one valley over the divide into the next.
Berries, except for the soapberry, which was very plentiful, were scarce indeed.
In fact, even few bushes were seen, indicating that the lack was not merely due to a
poor season. Alpine flowers, however, were abundant everywhere—very many varieties
and in greater profusion than has been noted in any other area to my own knowledge
at least. Topographic Survey.
Tyaughton Creek Area.
Castle Peak from the north-east.
Camp near
Cinnabar Creek
Mule-deer.
Cairn and signal. Minerals.
The entire area in which the party worked this year has been very thoroughly
prospected over a good many years, and is heavily mineralized. Many mines have been
started, but there are none actually producing at the present time. The most promising
prospect is the Bralorne property on Blue Creek; the company is spending considerable
money on development-work and I was told by an official of the Bralorne mine that they
fully expect it to be a valuable property, gold being the chief mineral.
Other discoveries have been made and developed to some extent on Taylor Creek
and on Bon Creek, also up Relay Creek, near the junction of the creek from Prentice
Lake pass. The property on Taylor Creek has been abandoned for some time, but a
group of claims was surveyed this year in connection with the Bon Creek property.
These properties assayed gold, silver, and zinc principally. A more detailed description
of all mineral deposits in the southerly part of the area can be seen in the Report of the
Geological Survey of Canada for 1943 by C. E. Cairns, Paper 43-15.
During the war several cinnabar properties were developed, and some operated,
among them being the Manitou mine on Mire Creek near its junction with Tyaughton
Creek and a property developed by Bralorne on Relay Creek near its junction with
Tyaughton Creek. A 10-ton Gould rotary kiln was set up on the Manitou property,
and at the Bralorne holding an aerial tram with an engine was established to bring
ore from the adit and to take equipment up to it. Both these properties are now
abandoned, due probably to the fall in the price of mercury at the end of the war.
A man named Thompson has a cinnabar property on the south side of Tyaughton Creek,
about 3 miles above the Mire Creek junction, which he is working successfully with a
small retort. The ore is quite rich, but so far the body of ore discovered is not large
enough to warrant working on a bigger scale.
A considerable amount of placer-working has been carried out on Relay Creek,
above the Paradise Creek junction, at some time, and also on the lower part of Mire
Creek. Both these workings were abandoned some years ago, and the degree of success
they met with is not known by the writer. Placer-mining has also been carried out on
Poisonmount Creek, with at times considerable success, but at present the only working
in that area is on hard-rock prospects, a fair assay in copper having been found,
I believe, but no great amount of development-work has been done to date.
Stakers' posts are to be found almost everywhere in the area, but comparatively
few claims have been surveyed, and most of those seen show no signs of recent working.
The most thickly staked areas in the unsurveyed category are those in the vicinity of
Spruce Lake, Quartz Mountain, Poison Mountain, and the Noax basin.
The whole country is of great interest geologically, due to its comparatively recent
volcanic origin and consequent lack of overburden, leaving the various formations
exposed. Some interesting fossils were found by members of the party around Spruce
Lake and Castle Peak, and also to the north-east of Relay Mountain. Many clusters
of quartz crystals were picked up at various places, and in the vicinity of Big Dog
Mountain, where there is a great deal of serpentine, pieces were picked up in about all
stages between ordinary serpentine rock and asbestos. Quite large pieces of flint were
plentiful on the slopes of Red Mountain.
Game.
Mule-deer were very plentiful indeed over the whole area, really large numbers
being seen at all times. Nearly all does seen by the party had fawns, and above
timber-line, or close to it, it was not unusual to see nine or ten big bucks at a time
among the really excellent feed on the higher slopes. On one particular day over
twenty big bucks, all with good heads, were counted in little more than half an hour.
Moose were seen at different times, but not in very great numbers, the area on the REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 91
whole not being typical moose country. Some mountain-goat were seen and a few
mountain-sheep. Old-timers in the country report that at one time there were large
numbers of mountain-sheep and are unable to account for their depletion, attributing
it to disease more probably than to hunters and wolves or cougars. Elk were reported
to be in the area, but none was seen by members of the party. Black and brown bear
were seen, but were not as plentiful as in other areas, such as the Cariboo or Chilcotin
to the north. Only one grizzly was seen in the area, and it is believed they are not
plentiful, though they are reported to be plentiful to the extent of becoming a nuisance
south of the Bridge River. Coyotes were fairly numerous and were even seen in
daytime quite frequently by members of the party. Cougars are rare in the area,
I believe, although one was seen in the vicinity of Red Mountain, which is unusual even
when they are quite plentiful. There were a few beaver in Prentice Lake, but these
were the only ones actually seen in the area. However, Liza Lake, Marshal Lake, and
Tyaughton Lake, just outside the area, all showed evidence of beaver.
A few willow grouse and prairie chicken were seen at different times, and small
coveys of ptarmigan were found near most of the higher peaks. Blue grouse and
spruce or fool hens, on the other hand, were quite plentiful in most parts of the area.
A few ducks were rearing young in the higher meadows near the heads of the creeks,
but they were by no means plentiful.
There are no large lakes within the area, the biggest being Spruce Lake, and it
is very well stocked with fish.    Members of the party on more than one occasion
experienced no difficulty in landing twenty-five or thirty fish in a couple of hours,
averaging a half to three-quarters of a pound in weight.    No one in the party was an
authority on fresh-water fish, but they appeared to be a type of speckled trout.    Other
lakes,  though  smaller,  were  also well  stocked,  Fish  Lake  being perhaps the best.
Although inquiries disclosed no record of this lake having been artificially stocked, one
member of the party caught a fish in it 19 inches long, which was identified by an
authority as an Eastern brook trout.   The creeks all had fish in them, too, but not of
any great size.    Good fishing was reported to be had in Prentice Lake, but no one on
the party had an opportunity to prove or disprove the report, the same applying to
Noax Lake.
Accessibility.
In the fall of the year the area in which the party worked this season is a Mecca
for hunting-parties. In the old days it was a hunting-ground for both the Chilcotin
and Lillooet Indians, and some more or less serious controversies arose from this fact.
At present it is doubtful if the Indians would fare very well in competition with the
white man. Registered guides bring parties in from the Bridge River area, starting
at Rexmount, Tyaughton Lake, and Spruce Lake, by way of the Gun Creek Trail. The
area can also be entered from Moha, up the Yalakom River, and from farther up the
Fraser River in the vicinity of Big Bar Ferry, entering by the trail past Red Mountain.
It is also accessible to parties coming in from, the Chilcotin up to the head of Big Creek
and over the divide into the head of Relay Creek or Tyaughton Creek, and to the east
from the Gang Ranch area up to the head of Dash Creek, and so into the Beaver
Creek valley.
The only road leading into the area this spring was the Manitou mine road, which
can be reached from the Bridge River Highway, turning off about 2 miles east of
Minto mine and going in to Tyaughton Lake. The road then follows along the west
side of the lake, eventually dropping in to the Tyaughton Creek valley and crossing it.
It then follows above the creek on the east side to the Manitou mine near the .junction
of Mire Creek.   This road, while in poor repair, is passable for cars during dry weather.
In the late fall the Bralorne Company, working in conjunction with the Public
Works Department, completed a road from Moha up the Yalakom River on the east X 92 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
side, finally crossing the river and going up Blue Creek to the Bralorne property there.
I have not seen this road since its completion, but since the mining company intended
to move heavy machinery in at once to work the mine during the winter, I imagine it
would only be passable for heavy trucks for some time.
Within the area good trails lead almost everywhere, although many of them
required opening up this spring, as they had not been used for some time by a large
pack-train.
Climate.
This area lies on the border between the Coast Wet Belt and the Chilcotin Dry
Belt, and consequently seems to get some of both types of weather. This year, however,
it more closely resembled the Coast type. During 107 days in the area the party
experienced 48 days of rain and 15 days of snow. Snow fell at some time in each
month—June, July, August, and September—and a considerable amount of snow from
the winter before stayed right through the summer. Frosts were common at night all
through the summer down as low as about 4,500 feet, and at no time were the days
excessively hot. At the higher altitudes very strong and very cold winds were almost
the rule, the prevailing wind being from the south and south-west. The wind-storms
originate from the extensive ice-fields at the head of the Bridge River; therefore, the
weather was unfavourable. Our experience during the summer was that a week or more
of fine weather was invariably followed by a storm which took four or five days to blow
itself out. From talks with the local people it seems that that often prevails during
the winter too. They say that while the snowfall is not noticeably greater than in the
Chilcotin, there is this difference—that all during the winter sudden mild spells will
occur softening the snow. Then when it turns cold again the snow crusts, and consequently lies on the ground much later in the spring. Farther north, where the winter
thaws do not occur, the snow remains powdery and often blows completely off the
exposed hillsides.
Settlement.
There have been no permanent settlers actually within the area, though there are
several not far outside of it on Tyaughton Lake and near Marshal Lake, and also to
the north-east. ■ .
There is a fine lodge-type of building on Spruce Lake, but it is used only for
hunting-parties at present.
Two purchase lots have been surveyed on Spruce Lake, but they are the only
cadastral surveys in the area, except for mineral claims.
Several cattle-ranches hold grazing leases in the valley-bottoms and drive cattle
in for summer grazing, the Gang Ranch being one of these. A small number of cattle
were seen at Spruce Lake only, and a supply of salt was seen near the head of Dash
Creek, as though cattle were going to be brought in. Evidence of cattle having been
brought in, in other years, was noted in Dash Creek, Beaver Creek, Upper Relay Creek,
and Spruce Lake Creek.
Sheep are grazed extensively on the higher slopes and have been, intermittently,
for many years. This year, so far as I know, all the sheep were the property of one
man, whose home ranch is near Kamloops. There were approximately 6,500 head in the
area, which, for the greater part of the time, were in three bands—one of 1,000
yearlings and two others of between 2,500 and 3,000. Each band had a herder with
them, who in turn had a dog and probably two or three horses, and he moved his camp
and the band about every couple of weeks, working generally in a big circuit. The
sheep seem to do well, and for the first couple of months, the herders say, they are
comparatively free from predatory animals,  such  as bears and coyotes.    Once the REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 93
presence of the sheep becomes known, however, the inroads due to these animals
increase and become quite a problem.
There is very little other traffic in the area, except for hunters and prospectors;
very little trapping is done in the winter.
One hunting club, with headquarters at Gun Lake, was building a series of cabins
in the area this summer for use by hunting-parties in the fall.
In conclusion I may say that the future of this area lies mainly in the possible
discovery and development of further mineral deposits.
The grazing of sheep is, in my opinion, a good thing, though deeply resented by all
those not engaged in that business. Loudest in their objections are the professional
guides, their contention being that the sheep drive out the game. From our own
observation this year, however, such was not the case. The game seemed entirely
unaffected by the sheep, the deer often feeding quite undisturbed within sight of them.
Our own horses, on the other hand, were greatly disturbed by the sheep, and we were
caused a lot of bother by them. Cattlemen claim the sheep hurt the feed for cattle and
horses, which is true, but for the most part the sheep feed higher on the short wiry
grass and ignore the more moist, longer grass on the lower slopes. With a little
co-operation on the part of the herders, the vast open slopes can be put to very good
use without interfering with others. Likewise, with proper control by the Game
Department, a remunerative occupation for guides is available in the area each season
for many years to come.
TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY OF ROSSLAND-TRAIL AREA.
By A. H. Ralfs, .B.C.L.S.
The portion of British Columbia covered by this photo-topographic survey consists
of approximately 425 square miles situated between the 49th parallel and Lower Arrow
Lake and straddling the Columbia River. The resultant map-sheet (82-F/4) lies
between parallels of latitude 49° 00' and 49° 15' and meridians of longitude 117° 30'
and 118° 00'.    (See sketch-map, Fig. 3.)
The object of the survey was to obtain the necessary ground control to map
accurately the area with vertical air photographs which were taken by the R.C.A.F. in
1946. The scale of the map will be one-half mile to 1 inch and will feature 100-foot
contours. A good deal of development has taken place, particularly in the section
covered by the cities of Rossland and Trail, and because of this our control here has
been much more intense than would normally be the case.
Surveys of numerous types and for different reasons have been made in the area
over the last fifty years, and the evidence of many of these is still easily seen. Some
useful ties were made to them for purposes of co-ordination. The most recent and
adaptable survey is the one on " Triangulation and Topography, Columbia River and
Lower Arrow Lake," by A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S., in 1944, the report of which may
be seen in the Annual Report of the Lands and Surveys Branches of the Department
of Lands for that year. Mr. Campbell's survey provided us with a main triangulation
network, including geodetic stations " Lake," " Kelly," and " Old Glory " in the southern
part of our map-sheet. Also made available was a considerable number of secondary
stations adjacent to the Columbia and Kootenay Rivers and the Lower Arrow Lake.
As well as being strongly tied to the cadastral system along these waterways, some
24 dozen ground photos, similar to our own, were taken at these points and will be used
in conjunction with our own views for the mapping operations in progress at the time
of this writing.
The survey party of seven was composed of myself with G. Norman Worsley as
assistant, four student helpers, and a cook.    This conveniently made two three-man X 94
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Fig. 3.
parties for the climbing and occupation of triangulation and photographic stations.
Only one of the assistants, Mr. Worsley, had previously had any experience whatsoever
in this work, and only during the previous season, so that considerable time at the
commencement of operations early in June had to be spent in practical training.
Rossland, conveniently located near the centre of the area, was made a headquarters, although other important camps were established at Big Sheep Creek, Sheep
Lake, and Fruitvale, as well as several shorter " fly-camps."
Our transportation consisted of a 1936 Chevrolet pick-up truck and a jeep complete
with trailer. These were able to haul our complete camp and survey equipment,
together with four men, from Victoria to Rossland and return. During the season the
jeep with its four-wheel drive proved to be particularly useful in negotiating the many
steep logging-roads peculiar to the area, and saved us many a mile of foot travel. In
several instances we were able to visit distant points and return on the same day.
Without the jeep this would have necessitated fly-camps and the possible loss of one
or two days on each occasion. This is an important fact because when bright, clear
days are never too plentiful anyway, it. always seems that moving camp has to fall on
one of them, when it might have been more advantageously used for necessary photography and observations. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 95
Our survey operations came to a close on September 26th, when it was discovered
that 52 dozen photographs had been exposed and some 130 new triangulation and
camera stations had been established, in addition to our occupation of previously established stations in the area. It should be noted here that a considerable number of
duplicate photographs were taken because of the persistent smoke condition occasioned
by the Trail smelter smoke-stacks. An otherwise perfect day was often rendered
rather poor because of this condition, although we soon found that it was predictable
to some extent, enabling us to plan accordingly to get the best possible results.
Twenty-five of our new triangulation stations were permanently marked with brass
bolts or the new standard rock posts. Land ties were made to five posts, three of which
were renewed under the 1947 Regulations regarding Permanent Survey Monuments.
Connections to our triangulation were made from four geodetic bench-marks, and
numerous other bench-marks were plotted on our air photos so that our vertical argument should be particularly sound. Connections were also made to two International
Boundary monuments, as well as to three posts of McGregor's mineral monument survey
of 1898.
Mention is made of the willing co-operation given by so many people in the area,
such as Mr. Jamieson of the Public Works Department, R. W. Haggen, B.C.L.S., Ches.
Edwards of the Ski Club, Judge R. E. Plewman, and many others.
Historical.
It is an interesting fact that Rossland, " The Golden City," which made us an
admirable headquarters, happened to be celebrating in July the golden anniversary of
her incorporation as a city. The celebration brought to light many noteworthy facts,
and though little remains to remind us, Rossland, the Canadian West's first and
greatest mining camp, has contributed directly or indirectly practically everything that
exists in and is now enjoyed by this prosperous area.
Her influence has gone even further, for in her earlier and more glamorous days
of romance and pioneering as a gold camp, she created the need which resulted, among
others, in the formation of what is now the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company
of Canada, Limited, at Trail, and the West Kootenay Power and Light Company,
Limited.
As early as the fall of 1854 placer gold was first discovered on the Columbia River
at the mouth of Pend d'Oreille by Joseph Morel. He was an employee of the Hudson's
Bay Company post at Colville, in the newly organized Washington Territory. This
strike brought in about one thousand prospectors, and a good few of these likely
remained to further prospect the general area. Then followed a long lapse, and in
1890, at the time when prospector Joe Moris made the historic discovery of gold on the
famous Red Mountain overlooking Rossland, the Dewdney Trail, winding below him,
and the only trail and main artery of Southern British Columbia at that time, had
been in existence for more than twenty-five years. Many and various trappers and
Hudson's Bay Company traders, and the already mentioned prospectors, before that
memorable strike, must have travelled this route which crossed the Columbia River
at Trail Landing, now the City of Trail. It continued up Trail Creek and then
westward to the Boundary country, finally reaching New Westminster.
The first ore shipment in 1891 from the famous Le Roi mine on Red Mountain was
loaded on mules and transported easterly along the Dewdney Trail to Trail Landing,
then by river-boat, eventually reaching Montana for smelting. The river-boats were
wood-fuel burning, stern-wheelers, operated by the Nelson and Fort Sheppard Railway.
Farther down the Columbia, in Washington State, there was also the station Northport,
the terminus of the Spokane Falls and Northern Railroad. X 96 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Besides the Le Roi, other famous mines attracting attention were the War Eagle,
Centre Star, Iron Mask, Josie, and others, and, with production rapidly increasing,
a wagon-road was soon built connecting them all with Trail Landing. Later in 1896
the Red Mountain Railway was completed, which connected Rossland with Northport.
By this time the B.C. Smelting and Refining Company was well established at Trail,
and a connecting tramway had been built linking it with the producing mines. The
production of gold, silver, and copper increased annually until 1902, with a production
value of nearly $5,000,000. Up until 1914 over $62,000,000 had been recovered. Much
more could be written about the early pioneering and the numerous transportation
difficulties which later saw the abandonment of the Red Mountain Railway and the
taking-over of the present system by the Canadian Pacific Railway, but the old-timers
will not forget the coming of the " iron horse," and with it a great prosperity to this
section of the Province.
Ross Thompson was one of the early pioneers of the gold camp, and is given credit
as the founder of Rossland, the city being named after him. Always a very popular
figure around Rossland, he actually pre-empted the 160 acres which is now the city.
An energetic worker in real estate and mining enterprises, he helped float the first
electric light and water company. It was due a good deal to his eagerness to develop
Rossland that, as early as 1897, the hydro-electric plant at Lower Bonnington Falls
was constructed by the newly formed West Kootenay Power and Light Company to
supply electric power at 20,000 volts over a record distance of 35 miles to the War
Eagle and Iron Mash mines, the first Rossland users. With increasing demands from
the other mines and the smelter itself for more power, other units, and later more
plants, were built on the Kootenay River. Since the Rossland boom, of course, other
areas of the Kootenays have had their demands satisfied by the West Kootenay Power
and Light Company, but it is interesting to note that the origination of this powerful
company, the largest producer of electrical energy in British Columbia, is closely
associated with the historic gold discovery on Red Mountain.
In the years that followed Rossland's birth as a famous gold camp, she has had a
varied and colourful career. Her mines produced great quantities of rich ore for
thirty years or more, supporting several thousand people. However, these have long
since ceased to produce in any quantity, and in the last twenty years she has been
transformed from the rough, bustling overcrowded town she must have been to a
residential city of about 4,300, serving the growing needs of the great Trail smelter.
How remarkable that the smelter which grew solely as a result of Rossland's ore
production now actually provides a good livelihood to the citizens of Rossland, as well
as to a good many others in the area. Trail, with a recorded population of 12,960,
is the greatest industrial centre of the British Columbia Interior, and one of the
well-established communities in the Province. Its metallurgical plant is the largest
in the British Empire, smelting and refining many metals, including the output of the
Sullivan mine, which produces about a tenth of the world's lead and zinc. The plant
also manufactures chemicals and chemical fertilizer at their Warfield plant.
Physical Features.
The terrain of this section of British Columbia is very much broken up, with the
greater part being high uplands surmounted in places by steeper peaks and ridges
rising some few hundred feet above the general level. Old Glory Mountain is the
outstanding high point, rising to almost 7,800 feet. Utilized as a Dominion Government meteorological station and a forest lookout, it lies about the centre of a prominent
circular ridge of land running from Sophie Mountain on the International Boundary
northerly through Record Ridge and the Old Glory mass. From here it curves toward
the north-east, taking in the Dominion Mountain group, and terminating in rambling REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 97
Mackie Mountain with an elevation of 7,113 feet. From this ridge the land falls away
very sharply in steep rocky bluffs to the deep Columbia Valley.
The swift-flowing Columbia, which provides a local base-level of about 1,350 feet,
separates the area longitudinally. After meandering in a general south-easterly
direction through Lower Arrow Lake, it turns southerly at Castlegar and is supplemented by the Kootenay River coming from the north-east. From this point the river
flows southerly, making a large swing to the west past Tadanac and Trail, and crosses
the International Boundary into the United States just below Waneta, where the
roaring Pend d'Oreille River joins it from the north-east.
The area is generally very well watered and forested to the very tops of the
mountains. Sheep Lake, about 4,250 feet in elevation, is situated in a broad rolling
jack-pine basin near the north-west corner of the map-sheet. Here the slopes are
much more gentle and form the headwaters of Blueberry Creek, running easterly out
of Sheep Lake to drop off steeply into the Columbia some 6 miles below the mouth of
the Kootenay. The Sheep Lake Country is also the source of Big Sheep Creek, flowing
westerly before swinging south and running through a rough deeply cut valley across
the International Boundary, and eventually meeting the Columbia farther south near
the town of Northport, Washington. The sides of Big Sheep Creek near the 49th
parallel are traversed many times by the present Trans-Canada Highway, and the
westerly summit is given as 5,400 feet. This point is within 3 or 4 miles of the
south-westerly corner of the map-sheet. Little Sheep Creek, a few miles to the east,
has its source in Jumbo Gulch, between Red Mountain to the east and Granite (6,688
feet) and Roberts (6,520 feet) on the west. It also flows south through a deep
valley and crosses the Border near the customs port of Patterson, later joining Big
Sheep Creek.
The City of Trail is situated on the west bank of the Columbia at the mouth of
Trail Creek. Sand and gravel benches of varying heights and extent are particularly
prominent on both sides of the river here and to the south. Above Trail, on one of
these, is the huge smelter and fertilizer plant of the Consolidated Mining and Smelting
Company of Canada, Limited.
The residential city of Rossland (population 4,364) has an elevation of about
3,400 feet. Once a busy mining town, it has a very attractive setting on a rocky bench
which commands a fine view to the south of a broad basin, the headwaters of Trail
Creek, some 6 miles from Trail. The high ridge bounding the basin on the south
terminates in Lake Mountain (elevation 5,424 feet), a very prominent point and
featured in many of the previous surveys, such as those of the Geodetic Survey of
Canada and the International Boundary Commission. Rising above the town to the
north are the round-topped hills of Monte Christo, Columbia-Kootenay, and the historic
Red Mountain, gradually building up to Record Ridge to the north-west.
South of Blueberry Creek we find many other fair-sized creeks flowing easterly
into the Columbia, such as China, Murphy, Hanna, and Stony. The latter originates
in Squaw Basin, a favorite ski resort of Rossland and Trail, lying between Granite
Mountain and Grey Mountain (elevation, 6,724 feet). Farther south, between Trail
Creek and the International Boundary, lies a group of rocky hills which are mainly
drained by Casino and Sheppard Creeks. On the east side of the Columbia are also
Beaver, Bear, and Champion Creeks. The latter drains a large upland area interspersed
with low, wooded hills lying between Champion Lakes and Aaron Hill. East of Aaron
Hill lies Grassy Mountain, commanding a good view of this section, and farther south
of Beaver Creek are Beaver and Kelly Mountains in the Gold Range. The former is
a forest lookout and the latter a geodetic survey triangulation station. X 98
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Climate.
The climate over the area is very agreeable during most of the year. The summers
are usually temperate and dry, with moderately warm days and cool nights. A fair
number of electrical storms occur during the heat of the summer, July being the hottest
and driest month. Although the snowfall is heavy, temperatures seldom drop below
zero. Clear air, a better than average amount of sunshine, and the absence of wind
provide most of the area with a pleasant winter. Winter sports are very popular and
there are fine ski-ing grounds in the vicinity of Rossland. Being completed this year is
the new 1,500-foot chair-lift on the northerly slope of Red Mountain and also a ski
jump, both projects under the direction of the Red Mountain Ski Club.
The 1947 season was a poor one, and this seems to have been the case in many
other sections of the Province. Fine days were not nearly as plentiful as previous
records indicate, while cloudy ones and more rain was often the case. On September
16th flurries of snow unexpectedly fell in Rossland, and the surrounding mountains
received a good fall, which remained for about a week.
Trail smelter smoke prevails most of the time in the lower parts of the area
adjacent to Trail and the Columbia River. To avoid this, many of the smelter
employees live in residential areas, principally Rossland, Castlegar, and Fruitvale, and,
by means of co-operative systems of transportation, drive to and from Trail daily.
The following is a table showing available temperature and precipitation data
taken over the area, and compiled at Gonzales Observatory in Victoria:—
Station.
Average Annual
Temperature.
1946 Extreme
Temperatures.
Annual Precipitation.
(Inches).
Mean
(1946).
Average.*
High.
Low.
For 1946.
Average.*
46
42
47
43
46
48
94f
98t
-2t
23.92
28.59
28.65
28.03
23.26
25.60
* Average taken over periods of eighteen to forty-one years.
Note.—Temperatures in degrees Fahrenheit.
Forests.
f July.
1 December.
} December-January.
Except for the sandy benches and rocky bluffs adjacent to the Columbia River, we
find the area well covered by forests, with timber-line extending to the very tops of the
mountains. The snowfall is very heavy and results in thick underbrush in most parts.
Also encountered is much windfall, as a result of burns Which at one time or another
covered this whole section.
Most of the timber found is still immature, but of that which is mature, there are
eight species of commercial importance listed in order of their abundance: Engelmann
spruce, Western red cedar, Western larch, Western hemlock, Western white pine, Silver
fir (balsam), Douglas fir, and lodgepole pine.
The undergrowth, as mentioned, is very thick and includes buck-brush, willow,
soapolallie, and devil's-club. Wild berries are plentiful, and we noted huckleberries,
cherries, salmon-berries, strawberries, and raspberries. Also found growing in great
quantities along the sandy benches of the Columbia were hazel-nut bushes. Wild
flowers were quite plentiful at the higher altitudes, where the timber and brush were
not so dense.
White pine, comprising about 12 per cent, of the total mature cover, is said to be
the most valuable species in the area. It was noted that a lot of fine-looking spruce
was being logged at the head of China Creek.    This, with Blueberry Creek, Lower REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 99
Big Sheep Creek, and a large area between Champion Lakes and Aaron Hill, provides
a good deal of the logs cut in this district. There is a smaller section on Baldy
Mountain, south of Rossland, containing a fair stand of cedar, larch, and spruce in that
order, with a mill on the site. The Pend d'Oreille Valley, in the south-easterly corner
of the area, also contains some good mixed stands.
Very large cedars were noted in the valley of Big Sheep Creek and also on the
Rossland-Sheep Lake Trail near the head of Murphy Creek. These are reported largely
decadent, but some are being cut and made into shingles. Altogether there are twelve
mills operating in the Rossland district. Eight of these are portable or semi-portable,
with four stationary ones, the largest of the latter being the Waldie mill in Castlegar.
With a good deal of spruce and hemlock in the area generally, most of which is
reasonably accessible, it might well be utilized at some future date in a pulp industry.
Several fine stands of young second-growth spruce and pine were noted, some in the
park-like Sheep Lake area.
Although repeated fires have undoubtedly reduced the productive value of some
sections, it would appear now that in most of the area back from the Columbia River
reproduction and growth seem to be good, and, in fact, some sections overstocked.
The fumes from the smelter in the past have killed or damaged most of the forest
growth adjacent to the Columbia River. This condition is remedied now to a great
extent, and certain trees and shrubs can be grown again successfully.
Fire-protection consists of a Forest Ranger in Rossland, with telephone connection
to three outstanding lookouts on Old Glory, Beaver, and Sentinel Mountains. Assistant
Rangers are stationed at Castlegar and Fruitvale.
Most of the wood products are confined to the local market. Cedar and tamarack
poles have been logged in quantity, and most of the small operators have been cutting
cedar posts. A fair amount of cut lumber and shingles have been turned out to supply
the local housing-programme needs. With cordwood commanding a high price at this
time, we noted this being cut in many of the areas close to Rossland and Trail.
Game.
With a considerable number of hunters in an area, most of which is not too difficult
of access, it is not surprising that game and wild life are inclined to be scarce. Despite
this, many varieties are represented. We saw a fair number of deer—white-tailed,
black-tailed, and mule—although they seemed to be mostly confined to the valley of Big
Sheep Creek and Sheppard Creek near the International Boundary. We noted very
few bears, although many were reported, particularly on Bear Creek and in the Sheep
Lake area. These included grizzlies, which were seen high on the ridges near Old Glory
Mountain. Some coyotes were seen and many heard about midnight, but mostly on the
east side of the Columbia. Of the smaller animals, chipmunks were numerous, with a
few squirrels, rabbits, and gophers. Very few birds of any kind were seen, with the
exception of a good number of fool-hens and a few blue grouse at the higher altitudes.
There is good trout-fishing in Sheep Lake. Most of our success in this respect was
encountered in Little and Big Sheep Creeks, however. The latter is the best spot of
the area, although, here again, many fishermen are tending to deplete its stock.
There are several trap-lines recorded, and are located in the Big Sheep area,
Blueberry Creek, and Champion Creek. Fur animals are scarce, however, although
marten, lynx, beaver, muskrat, mink, and weasel live in the country.
Minerals.
Although the area is a highly mineralized one, and was once famous as a great
producer of gold, silver, and copper, there is practically no activity at all at the present X 100 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
time. Mining claims, many of them now reverted, cover much of the ground. There
are still a number of active prospectors roaming the hills, very optimistic about their
finds. The general feeling indicates that, given better economic conditions to offset the
considerably higher costs of mining, a good deal of activity would result. Some of the
already established mines could again be successfully put into production.
In the Rossland district there are two main mineralized belts known as the North
and South Belts respectively. The North Belt is the more important and includes most
of the well-known former producers. The South Belt stretches south of Rossland and
Trail Creek, and it is interesting to note that during the past season considerable
exploratory work has been accomplished here by the Rossland Mines, Limited. Under
the direction of Dr. A. R. Clark, associate professor of physics at the University of
British Columbia, a geophysical survey has been made. By measuring variations from
the normal pull of gravity, indications of ore-bodies beneath the surface are given.
Results are said to be encouraging, and at certain of the more favourable points
open-cutting and possibly drilling will be done.
From a geological point of view this area is a very old one of deformed volcanic
rocks and batholithic intrusives. The structural and age relations of the various
igneous members are said to be complex and difficult of interpretation in places. (For
complete detailed report see Geological Survey Memoir 77.)
Accessibility.
The greater portion of the area covered during the season is easily reached with
little or no difficulty, and rail, stage, bus, and air travel are all available with regular
services.
The Canadian Pacific Railway's Kettle Valley line, with a branch from Castlegar
to Trail (22 miles), provides daily service to this portion. There is a connecting-link
for freight only between Trail and Rossland. On the east side of the Columbia a
branch of the Great Northern Railway runs from the American side to Salmo and
Nelson via Waneta and Fruitvale.
The Southern Transprovincial Highway passes through Rossland and Trail, up the
west side of the Columbia to Castlegar, and on to Nelson, with stages travelling daily
over this route in both directions. The worst part of this highway at present is its
crossing of Big Sheep Creek, centrally located between Rossland and Cascade to the
west. The quickest approach to the United States by road is south from Rossland
through the Canadian customs port of Paterson. Recently proposals have been
submitted to connect Paterson to Cascade by a much easier route through the States,
thus eliminating the difficult and dangerous Big Sheep Creek section with its two
high summits.
Bus lines connect the main portion of the district with Trail. Regular air service
to Canadian and American ports is provided by the Canadian Pacific Air Lines with
a base at Castlegar, and the Kootenay Air Service operating from Columbia Gardens.
The latter company also provides charter service for hunters and prospectors to larger
lakes in the area.
There are many logging-roads in the area, some of them very steep, and these run
for varying distances up most of the larger creeks. A low-geared vehicle, such as the
jeep we used or a heavier truck, is necessary, however, for negotiating the majority
of them.
A considerable number of trails are to be found here, most of them very old and
used for many years. However, it was disappointing to learn that many of them have
now become of little use because of windfall obstructions. The most used is that from
Rossland to Sheep Lake. The first 8 miles can be driven to the old O'Brien mill-site.
From here there remains a 10-mile hike.    Several days' work was necessary even on
J Topographic
Survey.
Rossland-Trail Area.
Consolidated Mining
and Smelting Company
Smelter, Trail, B.C.
Columbia River,
Kootenay River
entering at left.
!§■,__«__ * * '■ "?i*irM
^^^^^^2^^'^
PROVINCIAL LIBRARY
VICTORIA, B. C. X 102 DEPARTiViENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
this before we could take pack-horses over the route. The trail continues northerly
down Moberly Creek to Shields Station. Two other old trails, almost completely
obscured now, ran up Lamb Creek to Sheep Lake and from Sheep Lake down Blueberry
Creek. Except for the game, there is now little further use for the famous Dewdney
Trail, but parts of it can still be seen amongst the brush and windfall.
Industries and Possibilities.
As has been mentioned, the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company, utilizing
three eight-hour shifts, employs most of the working population at their Trail and
Warfield plants, drawing the employees daily from over a 20-mile radius. Only recently
assurance was given that, with the large sulphur content of the tailings-dump at the
Sullivan mine concentrator, a large industry would exist for many years at Trail, even
after the exhaustion of the Sullivan mine. The present daily production of ore of the
latter is 8,000 tons, and at this rate there is still enough blocked out for another
generation.
The lumbering industry, with twelve mills in the district, employs several hundred
men. Noteworthy was a good percentage of small operators, including many cutting
fence-posts and cordwood, the prevailing prices at this time being high.
Agriculture is mostly confined to mixed farming on the Columbia River benches
and the Beaver Creek valley near Fruitvale. Dairy-farming and chicken-ranching
seem to be prospering. Fruit-farming has not been so successful, and many abandoned
orchards can be seen along the Columbia River. Originally much damage was caused
by the noxious fumes from the smelter. Now that this condition has been greatly
remedied, it is possible that fruit could again be produced on the benches, especially
if a suitable irrigation system could be economically obtained. The latter requirement
may be easier fulfilled with further development in the Columbia River watershed.
Vegetables can be successfully grown, and a fine display of these was in evidence
at the Fruitvale Fall Fair.
There are a fair number of prosperous-looking farms, and it was learned that
many of their owners depended on employment with the smelter to develop their land.
This has proved a very happy combination for many of the more industrious farmers.
A very complete experimental farm is maintained by the Consolidated Mining and
Smelting Company on the main highway, a few miles north of Tadanac, and it is
evident that much agricultural information will be forthcoming from this source in
the next few years.
Several people in the area are very keen on the establishment of a summer resort
at Big Sheep Lake. This would take considerable capital, as some 18 miles of road
would have to be built or improved to give access.
With winter sports so popular here, and exceptionally good ski-ing grounds nearby,
the area north of Rossland might well be developed into a winter resort. Great
progress is being made at present by the Red Mountain Ski Club, while the City of
Rossland has made a start on the erection of what will be a fine arena.
TOPOGRAPHIC SURVEY OF TERRACE-KITSUMGALLUM.
By G. C. Emerson, B.C.L.S.
The following is a report on the preparation of a topographic map in the vicinity
of the Village of Terrace.
The area for which this topographic map is being prepared is situated on the
Skeena River, about 70 miles in an easterly direction from Prince Rupert, and is 400
square miles in extent.    It is bounded on the south by Terrace (on the Skeena River) at REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
X 103
latitude 54° 30', on the north by the southerly end of Kitsumgallum Lake at latitude
54° 45', and on the east and west by the meridians of longitude 128° 30' and 129° 00'
respectively.    (See sketch-map, Fig. 4.)
MAROON   PK
+ 6829'
MT ALLARD
+ 494_'
Fig. 4.
The field-work commenced on May 28th and ended on October 5th. The party as
organized consisted of the writer, M. S. Sheldon as assistant, and six other men. In
addition to establishing the positions of the photographic stations, it was necessary to
establish a main triangulation network and connect this to work done by the geodetic
survey in 1925 and by P. M. Monckton, B.C.L.S., in 1926. This connection was
arranged by using two geodetic precise traverse stations for base ends and reoccupying
a number of Mr. Monckton's stations. The elevations of these stations were derived
from the geodetic bench-marks on the Canadian National Railways line. X 104 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Although the annual precipitation at the Village of Terrace is comparatively light,
the mountain areas receive a considerably greater quantity. This year appeared to be
exceptionally difficult for photographic and triangulation purposes. In the middle of
June snow completely covered the ground above timber-line, making it impossible to
erect signals. From July 1st to September 30th, a period of ninety-one days, there
were only twenty-three photographic days (a monthly average of eight), as compared
to sixty-eight heavily clouded or rainy days, and two periods of fourteen days and
seventeen days without a trace of sunshine.
This area has been photographed from the air on three different occasions. In
1938 the Kitsumgallum River valley was covered by the British Columbia Forest Service, in 1946 the R.C.A.F. took a single strip of photographs along the Skeena River,
and in September of this year the Air Surveys Division of the Department of Lands
and Forests rephotographed the complete area.
Over one hundred specimens of flowers were collected and presented to Mr. Hardy,
botanist at the Provincial Museum, and about thirty specimens of mosses were collected
and presented to Mrs. Hugh MacKenzie, of Victoria, who is the only authority on
mosses in Western Canada.
Physical Features.
This area, which lies within the confines of the Coast Range Mountains, is characterized by high mountain peaks and deeply incised valleys.
The Village of Terrace (elevation, 230 feet), on the southerly limit of the area,
is situated at the intersection of the Skeena River valley and the Kitsumgallum-Lakelse
Valleys.
The Kitsumgallum River, which drains the majority of the area, is fed by tributary streams flowing in an east-west direction. These streams have moderate slopes
for the majority of their courses, although the mountain-peaks on either side rise to
heights of nearly 7,000 feet. From the stream-beds to about 4,000 feet elevation the
slopes are very steep (slope 1 and 1), between 4,000 and 5,200 feet they are smooth,
rounded, and gently sloping, and above 5,200 feet they are steep, with knife-edged
ridges and serrated peaks.
The whole area is drained by the Skeena River, and tributaries, which flows into
the Pacific Ocean near Prince Rupert. This river, at Terrace, varies in width from
one-seventh to one-half mile, and becomes torrential during the flood season. These
abnormal conditions can occur twice a year—in the spring by exceptionally warm
weather melting the snow and in the fall by heavy rains.
Floods in the years 1894, 1935, and 1936 caused serious damage to settlements all
along the river. During the period of heavy rainfall in October, 1935 (9.2 inches in
ninety-six hours), it is stated the Skeena River rose 25 feet in twenty-four hours due
to the tremendous volume of water that poured in from the tributary streams. During
the 1936 flood the river rose 15 feet above the normal high-water mark, causing numerous washouts along the railroad. In a three-day period of this flood 10 acres of good
farm land about 2 miles west of Terrace were washed out.
Kitsumgallum Lake (elevation, 508 feet), at the northerly limit of the area, is
6%" miles long and 1% miles wide. The water, unlike that of Lakelse Lake, is very
cold and clouded with silt.    It is reported to be 450 feet deep.
Geology and Mineralogy.
The Village of Terrace lies along the eastern contact-zone of the Coast Range
batholith, which occupies a belt 90 miles wide, running in a north-westerly direction
along the Pacific Coast. The eastern border of the batholith intrudes a wide belt of
Mesozoic volcanic and sedimentary rocks. Rocks of three periods are present—
Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous.    Of these, the Jurassic sediments and volcanics, REPORT OP SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 105
designated the Hazelton group, are the most important, as they cover almost half
the area.
Mineral deposits occur in the volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Hazelton
group, and also in the intrusive tongues and stocks of the Coast Range batholith that
cut these rocks. Deposits containing gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc are numerous,
and molybdenum and tungsten are found. Although most of these deposits are small,
there are a considerable number of ore occurrences of economic importance. The
minerals are usually contained in quartz veins that occur along faults of small
displacements, or along sheared zones.
Placer gold was discovered as early as 1884. Mineral claims were first staked at
Usk in 1893, and by 1910 there were about 200 claims staked on deposits containing
gold, silver, and copper. A few years later, minerals containing gold, silver, copper,
lead, zinc, molybdenum, and tungsten were found in deposits south-east of Terrace.
Silver, lead, and zinc were discovered near Kitsumgallum. Lake in 1914. In 1920 the
Lucky Luke mine, situated about 15 miles north-east of Terrace, produced 25 tons of
ore, which gave total returns of 18 oz. of gold, 316 oz. of silver, and 11,162 lb. of copper.
At a property 10 miles east of Terrace a 75-ton-daily-capacity flotation-mill operated
for about nine months in 1934 and 1935. At Kitsumgallum Lake, between the years
1925 and 1928, 50 tons of high-grade ore were shipped from the Black Wolf claims.
Over one hundred groups of mining claims were held in this area in 1936, but
about twenty are all that remain at the present time. (See Geological Survey Memoirs
205 and 212 for more detailed report.)
Forest and Flora.
With the exception of the farm lands in the immediate vicinity of Terrace, the
whole area is covered with a dense growth of timber. Hemlock is the predominant
species, with lesser quantities of cedar, balsam, and spruce. This timber extends in
merchantable quantities to about 4,000 feet elevation, with timber-line at 4,500 feet
elevation. Both the mountain hemlock and Western hemlock are found in this area
and grow to diameters of 5 feet.
On the western slopes of the Kitsumgallum River valley the ground is covered with
dense underbrush of mountain alder, devil's-club, and huckleberry bushes. Devil's-club
often attains the height of 10 feet, and one shrub was measured to be 15 feet in height.
In some cases it is necessary to cut a trail to permit a man with a pack to walk freely.
The eastern slopes of this valley are not as densely covered with underbrush, there
being few signs of mountain alder.
Wild raspberries grow in abundance, with limited quantities of strawberries, blueberries, and huckleberries.
Wild Life.
Eight trap-lines are registered in this region, two of which are held by Indians.
During the winter of 1946-47 there was a total of 340 skins taken from six of the eight
lines. Black bear, mountain-goat, coyote, rabbit, weasel, and squirrel are plentiful.
A few beaver, whistler, marten, mink, muskrat, wolverine, wolf, and skunk are in
existence in limited numbers, but grizzly bear, moose, deer, fisher, and porcupine are
extremely scarce.
Fish are numerous in the majority of the streams. Both Kitsumgallum and
Lakelse Lakes are noted for their trout. A variety of fish was found in a large pool
above a waterfall north-west of Terrace. These fish, although only 5 inches long,
were mature Dolly Varden. In the fall of the year the rivers and streams are filled
with spawning fish. Seals come up the Skeena River as far as Terrace for these
spawning fish. X 106
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
With the exception of ptarmigan, game birds are very scarce.    Willow and blue
grouse were seen, but in very few numbers.    The Canada jay (whisky-jack), blue jay,
and crows are plentiful.
Climate.
The climate here is very mild, the average monthly temperature varying from 28
degrees in December and January to 63 degrees in August. During short winter
periods a minimum of 3 degrees below zero has been recorded, but summer frosts are
unknown. The annual precipitation is 47 inches, half of this amount falling in the
four-month period October to January. This season appeared to be exceptional, with
a ratio of about four cloudy or rainy days to every one of sunshine. The following
information, supplied by the Meteorological Division, Department of Transport, in
Victoria, for cities and towns in the Prince Rupert Land Recording District, gives the
average temperature and annual precipitation:—
January.
July.
Annual
Mean.
Annual
Precipitation.
Degrees.
34
35
32
24
36
25
Degrees.
61
56
56
58
57
61
Degrees.
48
46
44
42
46
44
Inches.
165.63
95.59
Mill Bay	
85.72
Stewart	
65.04
55.37
46.63
Historical.
The present white settlement at Terrace dates back to about 1892, when Tom
Thornhill landed at Little Canyon, 2 miles east of Terrace. At this time, however, an
Indian village was in existence at the junction of the Kitsumgallum and Skeena Rivers.
Two years later Harry Frank and a partner arrived from. Bellingham, Washington, in
a flat-bottomed boat, although their original destination was Alaska.
With the blowing of a large rock in the river-channel above Terrace in 1894, a
steamship named the " Caledonia " was able to ply the river as far as Hazelton. In
1896 this steamship was replaced by the " New Caledonia," capable of carrying 12 to
15 tons.
In 1905 Frank took up the first pre-emption about 2 miles east of Terrace, and in
1908 he brought his wife and three other settlers to the area. Frank's farm soon
became the point of call for the steamship, and a post-office named Kalum was
established.
In 1901 a telegraph-line was put in from Terrace to Port Simpson.
The Village of Terrace started in 1910, and one year later the railroad was constructed for the first 100 miles from Prince Rupert.
Terrace of to-day has a population of about 1,350 (including the surrounding
area). It is a prosperous town, operating its own electrical power, telephone, and a
limited water system. During the war numerous army and air-force personnel were
stationed at Terrace. A 200-bed hospital was erected and an airport capable of taking
the majority of the present-day planes (three 5,000-foot runways). At present the
army buildings are in the process of demolition, but negotiations are under way to
equip and use a portion of the military hospital.
Access.
The Canadian National Railways system serves this area on the Prince Rupert-
Prince George line.    Three trains run weekly from Prince George and Prince Rupert, making a daily service except Sunday. With the construction of this railroad in 1911,
the steamboating was discontinued.
Until the war years the road from Prince George extended only a short distance
westerly from Hazelton. Roads at Terrace extended northerly to Kitsumgallum Lake,
southerly to Lakelse, and along the Skeena a few miles in both directions. During the
war it was found necessary to have a highway through to Prince Rupert, and construction was undertaken by the Dominion Government. In April, 1945, this road was
officially opened to the public.
Ferries are in operation at Copper City and Remo, making it possible to cross the
river by automobile at both of these points.
Few trails are found in this area. During the mining boom several short trails
were made to mining claims, but have since grown over and are now obliterated. The
telegraph trail from Terrace to Alice Arm, on the Portland Canal, has been replaced
in part by the Kitsumgallum Lake road, with the exception of the length of the Kitsumgallum Lake where no road exists. A good trail up the Kymagotitz River to
Kitsumgallum Lake was in existence about fifteen years ago, but has since completely
grown over.
Pack-horses can be used, but it is necessary to build trails for this purpose.
Industries.
The chief industry is lumbering, with mining and agriculture of lesser importance.
In the vicinity of Terrace there are four well-equipped mills and twenty-one
smaller ones, including portables. These mills produce about 25,000,000 feet of lumber
yearly for markets in Eastern Canada, United States, and the United Kingdom.
About 750,000 lineal feet of cedar poles are shipped annually to Eastern Canada
and the United States, some of these poles being over 100 feet in length.
A great quantity of Cottonwood logs is cut in 40-foot lengths and shipped to the
Western Plywoods at Vancouver. About 1,750,000 board-feet are shipped annually,
the average log being 1,200 board-feet.
Spruce boom-sticks for pulp and paper mills on the Great Lakes are also shipped
in considerable quantities, 1,333,000 board-feet being shipped last year.
In the years 1935-37 mining was of considerable importance, but to-day only a few
claims and mines are being worked.
The majority of the farms are limited to a radius of 3 miles from the Village of
Terrace. They are small, necessitating intensive cultivation. Many farms concentrate on small fruits, notably strawberries. The small orchards do well, giving an
abundant supply of apples, cherries, plums, and pears. All vegetables, especially
potatoes, beans, and celery, yield a good crop. Clover, rye, and wheat are also grown,
but in limited quantities.
Future Possibilities.
Terrace, with a moderate climate and good access, has much to offer. Lumbering,
mining, farming, and the tourist industry can be developed to a much greater extent.
Lumbering has been carried on on a selective-logging basis, leaving very few completely logged-off areas, although cutting has continued for many years. The future for
the lumbering industry has been improved of late with the establishment of the celanese
plant at Port Edward which, when completed, should provide a good market for the
smaller and lower-grade logs.
Much work can be done in the development of the mineral resources, the following
being a quotation from the Geological Memoir No. 205 by E. D. Kindle: " There is
a marked lack of necessary development-work on deserving properties and none of the
small rich veins has been tested at depth with a diamond-drill." Topographic Survey.
Vicinity of Terrace, B.C.
Kitsumgallum Valley
looking toward Terrace.
Kitsumgallum Lake to left
Mount Garland
6,652 feet. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 109
The possibility of developing electrical power on the Kitsumgallum River has been
considered, and a survey was conducted by the Water Rights Branch of this Department
in 1928.
The site chosen is at the head of a canyon on the Kitsumgallum. River, about 12
miles south of Kitsumgallum Lake.
Between 15,000 and 50,000 horse-power can be developed, depending on numerous
circumstances, some of which are run-off, storage capacity available, and height of dam.
This power could then be transmitted to Kitimat Arm and Prince Rupert, if necessary, distances of 45 miles and 100 miles respectively. (For further information see
Water Rights Report.)
There are about 25,000 to 30,000 acres of first-class farming land south of Terrace,
with some second-class land on the benches north of the village. This land has a variety
of soils, ranging from black river-bottom loam and light-red loam to clays. It is well
adapted to fruit-growing and mixed farming. This soil is well drained and contains
an adequate supply of lime. Good well-water can be obtained at depths of about 25
feet. Most of the first-class land, however, is covered with a dense stand of timber,
and the cost of clearing would be between $300 and $400 per acre.
Both Lakelse and Kitsumgallum Lakes are suitable for tourist resorts. At Kitsumgallum Lake, although the water is too cold for swimming, fish can easily be caught,
and wild goat shot on the mountain peaks within 3 miles of the lake.
Lakelse Lake has more to offer, with good swimming and fishing and hot springs
within half a mile of the lake. There are nine springs in all, the largest pool being the
second largest in Canada. This pool, which is 35 yards in diameter, is absolutely clear
and ranges in temperature from 120° F. on the edge of the pool to 186° F. in the centre.
At present one family is piping water from this pool to Lakelse Lake for bathing
purposes. Big-game hunters can find grizzly bear on the mountain-peaks within 5 miles
of this lake.
BRITISH COLUMBIA-YUKON BOUNDARY SURVEY.
By A. J. Campbell, B.A.Sc, D.L.S., B.C.L.S.
The following is the report on the 1947 survey of the British Columbia-Yukon
Boundary, extending easterly from the Alaska Highway crossing of the 60th parallel
at Swift for a distance of 38 miles.
The survey of the boundary between the Yukon Territory and the Province of
British Columbia during 1947 was carried out under similar instructions to those of
the 1945 and 1946 seasons. These instructions were given by the Boundary Commission, formed by the Surveyor-General of Dominion Lands at Ottawa and the Surveyor-
General of British Columbia at Victoria. Detailed instructions were given as to the
methods to be followed in making the survey.
Last year's report gives, in a brief history, the development of the boundaries of
the Colony of British Columbia, and how in the year 1866 it was united with Vancouver
Island to form a territory of British Columbia with boundaries as we now know them.
The Colony entered confederation in 1871 and became the Province of British Columbia
of the Dominion of Canada.
At the time of confederation there was no change in the boundaries, the description of which states that " British Columbia shall comprise all such territories as are
bounded to the south by the territories of the United States of America; to the west
by the Pacific Ocean and the frontier of the Russian Territories in North America; to
the north by the 60th parallel of North Latitude, and to the east, from the boundary X 110 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
of the United States of America northwards, by the Rocky Mountains and the 120th
Degree of West Longitude, and shall include Vancouver Island and the Queen Charlotte
Islands and all other islands adjacent to the said territories."
Thus the 60th parallel of north latitude was established as the north boundary of
British Columbia. For many years no necessity appeared for the delineation of this
boundary on the ground, until 1898, when, with the formation of the Yukon Territory
and the development of the country adjoining the boundary, it was considered advisable
to survey out portions of it from Teslin Lake to the west. These surveys were carried
out during the years 1899, 1900, and 1901, and again in 1907 and 1908, and some 157
miles were marked and monumented on the ground. No further work was done and
no necessity appeared until 1942, when the Alaska Highway was constructed. As this
highway crosses and recrosses the 60th parallel several times, and from the resulting
activity in the vicinity of the boundary, it was considered necessary, for administration
purposes, that the line be surveyed and marked on the ground. So in 1943 the Boundary Commission was established and the work of surveying the boundary commenced.
The method used in laying down the 60th parallel is the one generally employed.
The preliminary operation is to establish points, by astronomical observations, at intervals along the route of the part to be surveyed. These astro-fixes are located as close
to the parallel as possible, that is, close enough so that the parallel can be located from-
them by the ordinary methods of surveying. The intervals between the astro-fixes
along the 60th parallel vary from 11 miles to 40 miles. Before commencing the final
line, another preliminary is necessary. The astro-fixes must be connected so that the
proper bearing and distance between them is known. This may be done by first running
a trial line, by triangulation, or any other suitable method.
A description of the astronomical points along the British Columbia-Yukon Boundary, as established in 1943 and 1944 by members of the Geodetic Survey of Canada, is
given in the boundary survey reports of the years 1945 and 1946, and published in the
Reports of the Minister of Lands and Forests for those years. Sufficient for the purposes of this report is that the astro-fixes are designated by R.l, R.2, etc., for those
established in 1943 by J. E. R. Ross, D.T.S., N.l, N.2, etc., for those in 1944 by C. H.
Ney, D.L.S., and are numbered from west to east. The points located on the parallel
from the governing astro-fix are called R.2 parallel and N.2 parallel, etc.    (See Fig. 5.)
In 1945 N. C. Stewart, D.L.S. and B.C.L.S., now Surveyor-General of British
Columbia, surveyed the boundary from Teslin Lake east to the highway, crossing at
Swift River, a distance of 42 miles, passing through the points R.l parallel, N.l parallel,
and to R.2 parallel. In 1946 the writer surveyed the portion from near Contact Creek,
near Mile 588 on the highway, and commencing at R.5 parallel, going west through
N.5 parallel at the Hyland River, R.4 parallel in the Liard Valley to R.3 parallel a short
distance south of the road at Mile 648, a distance of 45 miles. This year the survey was
commenced at R.2 parallel, where Mr. Stewart ended in 1945, and the line was produced
eastward through N.2 parallel to N.3 parallel and a further 6 miles on the way to N.4
parallel, a distance of 38 miles.
In 1945 the triangulation party, under A. G. Slocomb, B.C.L.S., working with Mr.
Stewart's boundary party, had connected R.2 with N.2, the next astro-fix to the east.
This was of great assistance in this year's work, as the final line could be commenced
when the party was organized and established in the field. It also enabled the triangulation party of this year to commence at N.2 and join to N.3, the next point to the
east, so that the line party could carry on with a minimum of delay.
The field party consisted of F. H. Nash as assistant, in charge of running the line,
and H. Ridley as rear chainman—both are members of the Topographic Division;
E. J. Clark as front chainman and R. O. Hannah as picketman, with A. W. Trorey as
office and utility helper.    In addition, there were a cook and helper, a variable number  X 112 DEPARTMENT OP LANDS AND FORESTS.
of axemen, up to six, and two packers—a total of fifteen men. The triangulation party,
with A. C. Pollard, B.C.L.S., in charge, included an assistant, T. 0. Ryall, two helpers,
a packer, and a cook. Transportation was provided for the two parties by two trucks
and twenty-two pack-horses. Two-way radios permitted communication between the
main and the triangulation party and proved exceedingly useful.
An advance portion of the party left Vancouver on May 27th and flew to White-
horse. The trucks had been stored there with the Department of Mines and Resources,
and our freight had been shipped there from Victoria. The party and outfit were
finally collected and work commenced on June 7th. On the way in by aeroplane it
appeared the start was much too early—the hills over which the line had to go were
still covered in snow, small lakes completely frozen over, and even on Teslin Lake there
was considerable floating ice. The hot spell at the end of May and early in June, and,
incidentally, the only one during the season, changed conditions very rapidly.
A sky-line, the same as in the preceding years, was cut out through the timbered
sections, and the same system of blazing along the line was followed. Monuments
were planted at frequent intervals along the line and, if possible, were placed so they
were intervisible. Due to the extreme roughness on parts of the line, this was not
always possible, and the system was followed of having the monuments placed so they
were intervisible in pairs to facilitate the re-establishment of the line at any point.
The specially designed bronze tablet for use on the boundary was used. This was set
in holes drilled either in rock in-place or cemented in the top of the modified headless
standard post set in the ground, with the top flush with the surface. All monuments
were marked with mounds, either earth or rock, and pits were dug where possible.
In the timber the monuments were further referenced by bearing trees. The line was
double-chained throughout, using a 300-foot tape checked with a 5-chain tape. The
slope angles were read with a transit, checked by readings on a clinometer for possible
gross errors. In the more mountainous sections the chainage was carried forward
from ridge to ridge by laying out a base line in the valley and triangulating to points
set on the line at or near the summits. Altitudes were carried forward by vertical
angles read forward and backward between transit stations. These were checked and
balanced with the altitudes of the triangulation stations as carried forward and tied
to a precise level bench-mark near the Little Rancheria River. For profile purposes,
altitudes between the transit stations were found from the chainage slope angles.
Commencing with stations established by Mr. Stewart's party in 1945, the triangulation was carried eastward from N.2 through a well-laid out system of twelve stations
to make ties with N.3 and N.4 astro-fixes. A further station was attached to the
system, placed near the highway at the Little Rancheria River. From Mr. Pollard's
explorations to lay out a system to connect with R.3 (east of N.4) it appeared that it
would be extremely difficult to do so by this method, and that the most practical way
would be to traverse along the highway from this triangulation station and connect
it with R.3 some 2 miles south at Mile 648. In making this traverse, frequent ties
were made to the monuments of the highway survey.
The triangulation was completed on September 4th, and the traverse was carried
through by Mr. Pollard with two men and a cook. The traverse completed, Mr. Pollard
returned to Victoria on September 24th, and his party disbanded. Some of the personnel joined the line party to aid in a late-season drive.
The line-work was carried on until the end of September, and better mileage was
obtained during the latter part of the month than at any time during the season.
This was due principally to the better weather conditions, also to the less-rugged
country and the increased personnel, in spite of more cutting being necessary to clear
the line. WmBBB^^ PHYSICAL FEATURES.
The first 12 miles of the line, east from R.2, after crossing the highway and making
three crossings of the Swift River on a reversed curve, passes over a gradually ascending and rolling timbered country. In this distance, as well as the Swift River at the
beginning, two major streams were crossed. The first one, about 8 miles from Swift,
is a branch of that river, flowing north and west to connect with the main stream near
the highway. The second, called Corlick Creek, runs north and east into the Rancheria
River very close to the highway. With the exception of the waters flowing to the
Swift in the first few miles of the line, all the waters crossed are tributary to the
Rancheria River. Also, with the exception of the main Swift River and one stream
which was crossed close to its headwaters, all waters flow toward the north. In the
last 3 miles to N.2 parallel the line rises above timber-line, passes over the northerly
shoulder of a 6,000-foot mountain, drops into the valley, or rather the basin, in which
N.2 is located.
In the first 12 miles from N.2 to N.3 the line was almost entirely above timber-line
and in mountainous country. Eight distinct ridges, ranging around 6,000 feet in
altitude and reaching to nearly 6,500 on the highest, were crossed. Only twice, in
the valleys of the two largest streams crossed, were any woods encountered. From
available information these streams were not named, and the name " Tootsa" was
given to the west and larger, with " Freer " applied to the other.
The production of the line over these ridges, some of which are quite rugged, presented some difficulties, and the extremely uncertain weather which obtained at that
period did nothing to ease them. On some it required days of occupation before any
chance appeared. This was very disappointing, as the running of the line through this
section had been looked forward to as interesting work and with the expectation of
proceeding more rapidly than possible in the timbered sections. East of the mountain
ridges the line followed for 4 miles down the valley of a small creek to the Lord River,
and beyond to N.3, located 2 miles east and 600 feet above the river.
In the 6 miles of line run east of N.3 parallel, the boundary passes definitely out of
the mountains and into lake-studded rolling timber country all the way to N.4.
FOREST-COVER.
In the timbered areas passed through this year, spruce is easily the predominating
species. Pine and balsam are found intermingled with the spruce, gradually changing
to more balsam at higher altitudes and, as timber-line is approached, to scrub and
ground balsam. On lower benches to the north of the boundary, and along the Lord
River valley, extensive areas are covered with jack-pine. The timber as a whole is
small, averaging 8 inches in diameter. Some old standing dry spruce noted were 2%
feet in diameter, giving evidence of a heavier forest-cover at one period. While brush,
buck-brush, willow, and some alder is general, it is not a brushy country and offered
no serious obstacle to the work. Small fruits were far from plentiful. This is probably due to the unsuitable weather last summer. Some blueberries were noted, but
very few cranberries, which, from the experience of last year farther east, were
expected in abundance. The open slopes and valleys above the timber meadows and
semi-open grass-covered areas provided the best of pasture for the pack-horses, and
they finished the season in first-class condition.
MINERALS.
From the number of prospectors seen and rumoured to be in this section it is
evident there is considerable interest being shown. The Hudson's Bay Exploration
and Development Company is carrying out extensive exploratory work on prospects REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 115
west of the Swift River landing-strip. This is remote from our particular area and
little information is available. It is reached by a road pushed through from the strip.
The Western Rangers had prospectors exploring in the boundary area and were investigating a prospect a few miles north of the line between Freer Creek and the Lord River
valley. A bulldozer, brought up from the highway to timber-line, was used in clearing
off the overburden and tracing the extent of the deposit. A chance visit to the boundary
survey camp by an independent prospector resulted in a discovery, and a number of
claims were staked straddling the line in a high basin between Tootsa and Freer Creeks.
These are, it is understood, base-metal prospects, principally galena, showing high
percentages of lead, some silver, and traces of gold, but unless sufficiently large quantities are found to call for the establishment of a smelter in the vicinity, the cost of
transportation to the outside would make development impractical.
On Corlick Creek, a half mile south of the Rancheria River, at Mile 719, a gold
prospect is being developed. It is understood, from the discoveries made to date, that
a large producing mine is expected by the operators. A large number of claims has
been staked in this vicinity to the south and south-west, and across the line into British
Columbia.
GAME.
This should be a good game country and has been used by the Indians as a hunting-
ground for many years. This may be, in part, the reason that game is not more plentiful. Also the construction of the highway may have caused the larger animals to
retreat farther into the hills. But, while not numerous, some moose, caribou, sheep,
goats, black bear, and one grizzly were seen, and also a few wolves. The usual fur-
bearing animals, including fox, mink, marten, beaver, weasels, and otter, were also in
evidence.    Other wild life includes porcupine, marmots, and rabbits.
Of the game birds, willow grouse and ptarmigan are the most plentiful, several
large flocks of the latter being noted on the alpland areas. Some ducks and a few geese
were seen, but the line this year ran through a country of small streams and few lakes
not likely to contain many water-fowl.
CLIMATE.
The Indians have a name for the mountains through which the boundary passes.
They call them the " Tootsee " Mountains, which is said to mean " lots of water." The
experience of the past season certainly confirms this. Of the 130 days spent in the
field, the season's diary gives 76 on which there was rain. This does not mean rain
throughout the day. There were comparatively few such days. A regular day would
be fine in the early morning, clouded over by midmorning, raining at noon, and clearing
by late afternoon to a fine evening. Many more days were cloudy with no rain, and
also little sunshine. It would be safe to give an estimate of no more than three weeks
of sunshine throughout the season and that the weather was undoubtedly the worst of
the writer's more than thirty years' experience in the hills of British Columbia. July
and August were the worst months, with the first part of September keeping pace. The
latter part of September provided better and, peculiarly, somewhat warmer weather. X 116
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
The following is a table from the meteorological service of the temperature and
precipitation at Watson Lake airport, recorded to October, 1947:—
rEMPERATURE.
Precipitation.
Snow on
Ground.
High.
Low.
Mean,
Inches.
Inches.
January	
40
— 74
— 13
1.8
28
38
— 67
— 6
1.3
29
51
51
— 33
1
21
30
0.3
1.7
14
April	
2
85
20
46
1.0
74
85
34
37
54
59
1.4
1.7
July ...
August	
72
28
52
2.2
September	
65
26
45
1.5
October	
62
14
35
0.5
ACCESS.
The season's work commenced near Mile 733 of the highway, on the south side of
the Swift River maintenance camp, and the boundary, except to the east of the Lord
River where it swings to the north, was never more than 10 miles south of the road.
Stretches of the highway are visible from many points along the line. From R.2 to
N.2 a pack-trail was cut out through the timber and close to the line. From N.2 to
N.3 was more difficult, and a route possible for the horses had to be located through
and around the mountains, and camps established as close to the line as possible.
Three trails gave access to the road for bringing supplies to the party, Mr. Ney's trail
from N.2 joining the highway at Mile 719; a short trail of 3 miles along Freer Creek
connected the line trail at Mile 706. From here east the line was served from the
Western Rangers' trail at Mile 701. This had been connected to Mr. Ney's N.3 trail by
Mr. Pollard's party in their triangulation-work. Mr. Pollard located a trail east from
N.3 to N.4.    This will be of assistance in the further production of the boundary.
MISCELLANEOUS.
Highway Items.
The maintenance crews, established in camps at least every hundred miles, are
keeping the road in good condition. A new steel bridge was opened early this year,
over Big Creek, at Mile 674. Another, over the Little Rancheria River, at Mile 670, is
probably opened by now. The Imperial Oil Company has control of the gas-stations at
the maintenance camps from Dawson Creek to Coal River at Mile 533, and supply gas
and other services to the motoring public. Farther north (one is always either going
north or south along the highway) the maintenance camps supply gas only to official
cars and trucks, and not to motorists, but it is available to the public at several places
along the road. Among these, in the boundary area, are Lower Post at Mile 620,
Watson Y at Mile 635, Rancheria Lodge at Mile 710, and Teslin Lake. There is a
graduated scale of prices for gasoline, increasing to a high of 65 cents a gallon, and
decreasing as you near Whitehorse.
During the summer months three B.Y.N, buses a week each way from Dawson
Creek to Whitehorse were scheduled, reverting to the regular two a week September 1st.
Hotel accommodation is provided by the company for their bus passengers and others
at the overnight stops, Nelson and Lower Post. Accommodation is also available at
several other points. Those close to the boundary area include new lodges at Watson
Y, Rancheria Lodge, and Teslin Lake. REPORT OP SURVEYOR-GENERAL. X 117
There were many survey parties along the highway this year, showing what an
interest is being taken in the country. Those to some extent contacted by the boundary
party included a geodetic triangulation survey, a National Defence topographic party
working around Watson Lake airport, four geological topographic, two parties in the
area north of us, and the others to the south, and a party surveying a mining road from
Mile 648 into the McDame Creek gold-mining area. The road party was placed in the
field by the Department of Mines, Victoria, and work was started on a winter road last
fall. The geodetic party, running a network southerly along the highway, included
several of the boundary triangulation stations. This will give a positive tie and check
to the line.
The party was fortunate in obtaining, from the authorities of the N.W.H.S. at
Whitehorse, permission to use for the season an unoccupied building at the Swift maintenance camp. It was used as a place of organization at the beginning of the season
for storing supplies and surplus equipment where they would be safe and readily
reached when required, and it was particularly useful at the end of the season in providing a place for packing the camp outfit for shipment during the wet weather of the
fall.    Altogether it was a great convenience.
To the foreman and others of the maintenance crew at Swift and to the staff of
the Swift repeater station our thanks are due for the accommodation, assistance, and
many kindnesses shown to the party and its members.
RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY OF WESTERN ROUTE
FOR A HIGHWAY TO YUKON.
By P. M. Monckton, B.C.L.S.
Acting under instructions to make a ground reconnaissance of a possible route for
a highway from Hazelton to the Alaska Highway, arrangements were made to have a
party proceed up the Kispiox Valley.     (See sketch-map, Fig. 6.)
Frank Dobie, an old-timer in the district, but now living near Victoria, was sent
ahead at the beginning of July to obtain a pack-train, with a packer and assistant, to
purchase the supplies, and to go ahead and open up the old, long-disused trail. This
proved to be no easy assignment, as both parties and pack-horses have become scarce;
also the logging industry is very active and nearly every man is making big money at
that or some other job close to home and is not willing to go out into the discomforts
of bush life. Finally, he persuaded another old-timer from Kispiox to go out as packer
and a young Hazelton student as assistant; horses were picked up—one here, another
there—from Indians, and a start was made up the valley on July 23rd with eight horses.
A wagon-road north from Hazelton follows the Skeena for about 10 miles, then
crosses the Kispiox, and thence up the valley of the same name, gradually deteriorating
in quality as it serves fewer people, until finally, at 35 miles, it ceases to be a passable
road as it skirts McLaren's ranch and becomes unfit for wheeled traffic. At Mile 40 the
cabin of an Indian trapper (Harris) is passed, and this is the point at which the old
wagon-road, opened up in 1913, finished.
Incidentally, in 1914, the Kispiox Valley contained around eighty settlers; now
there cannot be more than twenty.
Beyond Harris's place there never was anything more than a pack-trail, but settlers
used this to reach their homesteads, which were scattered along the valley for another
17 miles as far as Sweetin River, where the Kispiox splits into two forks.
By August 1st Dobie and his party had opened up the old trail and transported all
supplies as far as Corral Creek, 7 miles short of Sweetin. X 118
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
FIG. 6. Assistant D. W. Carrier, of Victoria, and I had been working in the Oliver district
of the Okanagan Valley, and left there on July 27th, driving by truck via Kamloops and
Prince George, and arrived at Hazelton on August 1st. Here we spent three days on
a survey of the graveyard, and on August 5th left in the truck and drove to McLaren's
ranch, where we met the packer and some horses. The next day, pushing our way
through the dripping underbrush, we reached the main camp at Corral Creek by evening.
The trail was next cleared out as far as Sweetin Creek, passing en route through
large areas of what appeared to be very fertile land, covered with bracken and open
poplar groves. Here and there a tumble-down ruin of a 1913 pre-emption log cabin
is seen.
Once across Sweetin Creek the trail enters bigger timber; in fact, the farther one
goes from Hazelton the more moisture there seems to be, with a corresponding increase
in the timber and underbrush. Indians pack supplies on horses to a house at the
junction of the Kispiox and the Sweetin, so there is some semblance of a trail thus far,
but beyond here it is very hard to follow, being overgrown with berry-bushes and sometimes completely obliterated where it crosses a big meadow.
Seven miles beyond Sweetin Creek is another fair-sized creek named Mangeese,
and beyond this again about 2 miles, and across the Kispiox, there enters a small creek
called " Swee-gwans," which falls from a lake about a mile west and about 550 feet
above the Kispiox. This is on the divide leading to the Cranberry and Nass Rivers,
and is about 59 miles from Hazelton and under 2,000 feet above sea-level.
Beyond this point the country has become so overgrown with brush and cluttered
with fallen timber that we did not proceed, but returned to Corral Creek camp, whence
a trail was constructed to timber-line on the east side of the valley. It was hoped to
be able to see a good deal of the valley ahead from the high summit east of Sweetin
Creek. Rain clouds and fog almost neutralized this idea, but an ascent was made on
a dull day (but with some visibility), and it could be seen that the valley stretched far
ahead into an apparently easy gradient, and a possible pass to the Nass via Brown Bear
Lake. The most feasible way to decide about this pass would be to put a party down
from an aeroplane and explore from the lake. But none of this should be attempted
before a thorough study has been made of the air photographs taken in 1947, and which
are said to be in the course of preparation.
From this point north the route has been previously covered and reported on by
the writer and others up to the point where it is proposed to join the Alaska Highway,
50 miles north of Atlin, at Jake's Corner, Y.T., 50 miles east of Whitehorse.
However, there are a few other points that should be examined, especially the 30
miles between Quinn Lake and Four Mile Lake through the Iskut Valley, where side
canyons and other features will call for very careful location.
There was also some choice of routes south of Atlin, and therefore my assistant
and I went thither, via Prince Rupert and Skagway,- and ten days were spent on this
work, including a partial resurvey of Atlin townsite and a survey of the Atlin airport.
Where it had been anticipated that a pack-train would have to be got together again
and a slow ground trip made to investigate the valley between Atlin Lake and the
Nakina, the situation was alleviated by the fact of the well-known bush pilot Dalziel,
of Telegraph Creek, being at Atlin; therefore a few hours' low flight in his Taylor-
craft solved more problems in a day than could have been done in two weeks on foot.
This arrangement allowed us enough spare time (before catching the boat south
to Prince Rupert) to mark with iron bars all the block corners in the original townsite
of Atlin, which had been laid out over forty years ago.
Oh arrival at Atlin by Northern Airways aeroplane from Carcross, I had been
impressed by the poor quality of the airfield, the runway being uneven, the surface of
loose, coarse gravel, and especially the bad approach from the east, where an aircraft X 120 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
has to clear a bench covered with pine trees 50 feet high and drop at a gradient of 8
per cent, to touch down at the east end of the runway, whereas in the R.C.A.F. the
maximum permissible gradient was only 2 per cent. Some days were spent on a survey
of this situation, and as a result a grant was obtained from the Public Works Department and $1,000 expended.
On completion of the work at Atlin the party returned to the Okanagan Valley and
continued with work for the Lands Branch.
The situation with regard to the westerly route might be summarized as follows:—
There are no insuperable difficulties and apparently no greater ones than on the
Trench (B) route or the Takla Lake (A) route.
The whole distance has been examined (mostly by the writer) between Telegraph
Creek and Hazelton, and between Atlin and Telegraph Creek by several competent
engineers.
The only remaining points requiring reconnaissance are (1) the Brown Bear Pass
from the Kispiox to the Nass, (2) the bridge-site for the Nass, and (3) 30 miles of
location between Quinn Lake and Four Mile Lake. All these should be done with the
help of aircraft.
And, as there are wild glacial torrents between Quinn Lake and Four Mile Lake,
and no timber big enough to bridge them, it appears to be that this work should be
done when the snow is crusty and the streams still frozen;  namely, in March.
Items (1) and (2) would also be much easier at that time, for the brush in the
Kispiox and Nass Valleys is so high and dense that it is almost impenetrable and visibility is only a few feet, whereas in March there would be no leaves and most of the
brush would be under the snow.
So far as the resources of the western route are concerned, there is good land from
Hazelton for probably 100 miles, and no doubt some day pressure of population from
the south will force its opening. As to what can be done in the Kispiox, one has only
to visit the Beirnes and Love ranches to see farms that are equal, if not superior, to
any along the northern Canadian National Railways line.
The upper part of the Kispiox is covered with dense timber, mostly spruce and
balsam, up to 4 feet, an ideal pulp show. There is fair timber, though more scattered,
up the Nass and Bell-Irving.
From a mineral point of view the area is very little prospected.
There is fairly heavy snowfall, but modern rotary snow-ploughs can easily deal
with that. ^ffff?
 ^gm
Hazelton—Rocher Deboule Mountains
in background.
Westerly Route
Highway to Alaska
Hazelton to Atlin REPORT OF COMPTROLLER OF WATER RIGHTS. X 121
WATER RIGHTS BRANCH.
By R. C. Farrow, M.E.I.C, B.C.L.S., P.Eng.,
Comptroller of Water Rights.
During the past year the work of the Branch has maintained the steady increase
in volume which has been in evidence since the end of the war. While this is undoubtedly due in part to a backlog which piled up during the war years, most of it is due to
the phenomenal expansion which has taken place all over the Province.
It follows as a matter of course that any increase in population and any expansion
of industry requires more water; it also requires more power, which in turn, in this
Province, means further hydro-electric development, while expansion of agriculture in
the Dry Belt requires further supplies of water for irrigation.
All of these have occurred, and are reflected, in the increased work handled by the
branch: many more water licences have been dealt with; a large increase in inquiries
relative to power and irrigation purposes; more improvement districts formed; a constantly increasing demand for water-resources surveys pertaining to irrigation, waterworks, domestic supply for villages and municipalities, water storage and power. The
demand for water-supply forecasts has necessitated a further expansion of snow-survey
networks, both in the Dry Belt and the Kootenay-Columbia area. In the field of active
construction which affects the work of the Branch, the British Columbia Power Commission brought in the first 28,000-horse-power unit of their Campbell River development on December 15th; a second unit is nearly ready to go into operation, and the
remaining four will be completed as fast as construction can proceed and equipment
be obtained. The Powell River Company this year raised its Lois River dam and
installed a further unit of 22,000 horse-power. The British Columbia Electric Railway
Company has so accelerated its Bridge River power-development programme that it
plans to put the first 62,000-horse-power unit into operation this year and to have
186,000 horse-power installed by 1953.
The extent to which the growth of population and expansion of industry and
agriculture is dependent on adequate supplies of water is not generally realized by the
public, nor is it realized how fortunate we are in this Province that nature has so
bountifully provided us with this basic natural resource.
We are also fortunate in the care and thought in the past which has evolved our
present Water Act and the doctrine behind it. Many individuals who should know
better have alleged that the Government has improvidently alienated large and valuable
portions of our water resources; whereas, as a matter of fact, no one under our Water
Act can acquire rights to water except by licence, which remains in good standing provided it is beneficially used as authorized; it can be cancelled for non-use or non-payment of rentals, as well as for other infringements of the Act; furthermore, the British
Columbia Power Commission has power under its Act to expropriate public utilities.
With the increased work to cope with, the Branch has again been badly handicapped, as it was the previous year, through inability to attract replacements to fill the
gaps in our engineering staff caused by the numerous retirements of 1945 and 1946.
Salaries offered were not attractive enough to compete with industry and private engineering firms in an expanding economy. This was borne out by the fact that after
engineers' salaries were increased this year the Branch has been able to engage six
new young engineers, although salary scales are still below those offered in industry
and in public corporations. X 122 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
ADMINISTRATION OF THE "WATER ACT, 1939."
Water Licences.
A water licence may be granted under the " Water Act, 1939," for a wide variety
of purposes, namely: Conveying (that is, carrying water from one place to another
by some form of conduit) ; domestic; fluming (for conveying timber) ; hydraulicking
(use of water under pressure for moving earth, other than in mining) ; industrial;
irrigation; land-improvement (diverting or storing water to protect, drain, or reclaim
land) ; mineral trading (bottling and distributing natural mineral waters) ; mining;
power; storage; and waterworks (carriage and supply of water by a municipality,
district, or company).
Administrative Set-up..
(See map, Plate 1, and organization chart.)
For the purposes of administering the " Water Act, 1939," the Province is divided
at present into thirty-two water districts, whose boundaries follow the divides of
watersheds so far as possible. The number of water districts are apt to increase as
settlement of the outlying parts of the Province takes place, with a consequent increase
in the number of water licences. For instance, in the northern part of the Province
where settlement is sparse and water licences few and scattered, the water districts
embrace major watersheds and are therefore very large; whereas in the southern and
more highly developed parts, particularly in the Dry Belt, where there is a greater
density of water licences, the water districts are smaller and tend to be broken down
to sub-drainage areas.
On account of the size and topographically broken nature of our Province, administration entirely from Victoria would be slow, difficult, and cumbersome; it is therefore handled through four district offices, each responsible for a group of contiguous
water districts. The district offices are at Victoria, Kelowna, Nelson, and Kamloops,
and the areas they respectively administrate are indicated on the map (Plate 1). Each
district office is staffed by a District Engineer, one or more Assistant District Engineers, and a clerk-stenographer. These officials are vested with considerable local
administrative authority and keep the Comptroller informed on matters within their
administrative areas.
The Kamloops office has a larger area to take care of than any of the other district
offices and, with an increasing number of licences, was becoming too unwieldy to be
handled efficiently entirely from Kamloops. It was therefore intended to open a sub-
office in Quesnel last summer manned by an Assistant District Engineer, responsible
to Kamloops. Williams Lake was chosen as being nearest to the centre of gravity of
the licences in Cariboo, Barkerville, Quesnel, and Prince George Water Districts.
Provision was made for this in the estimates, but, unfortunately, we were unable to
find an engineer for the sub-office until last October, so its opening will, of necessity,
be deferred until next spring.
APPLICATIONS AND LICENCES.
The large amount of work entailed in dealing with applications and issuing licences
was fully dealt with in last year's report. The increase in volume of work noted then
has continued through 1947. The backlog of final licence surveys which built up during
the war years owing to shortage of staff, gas rationing, etc., has been slightly reduced,
despite the fact that during the field season we remained short of engineers; 343 final
licences were completed—twice as many as in the previous year.
A certain number of, licences lapse, are cancelled, or abandoned each year; this
year there were 116, leaving some 10,700 in good standing on our registers. For some
7,000 of these, rental statements are rendered annually.
	 Geographic Branch   B. C.
PLATE 1. REPORT OF COMPTROLLER OF WATER RIGHTS.
X 123
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During the year a total of 1,037 water licences were issued, as compared with 753
in 1946, an increase of 284 or 38 per cent.
IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS AND WATER-USERS' COMMUNITIES.
These are organized under the " Water Act, 1939," to enable water-users in otherwise unorganized areas to combine and pool their licences and resources. Districts are
designed to take care of large communities; they are operated by elected trustees who
have relatively wide powers, including those of taxation, tax-sale, and borrowing.
Water-users' communities can be set up to take care of small groups who wish to
co-operate, and may be formed by six or more licensees, one of whom is designated
manager;  their powers are more limited than those of a district.
There are now thirty-nine water-users' communities and ninety-nine improvement
districts;  two of the former and nineteen of the latter were incorporated in 1947.
DRAUGHTING AND MAPPING.
The general draughting-room, like the clerical stalf, dealt with an increasing
amount of work. The report of the chief draughtsman on the activities of his staff
shows the following work handled during the year:—
Water applications cleared and entered      731
Conditional licence plats drawn  694
Final licence plats drawn  343
Total licence plats  1,037
Water rights maps compiled     23
Water rights maps revised       7
Total        30
Improvement-district maps compiled        18
Some 8,500 files were cleared, covering Crown grants, leases, purchases, timber
sales, etc., for noting thereon any water licences and their works which might be
involved.
IRRIGATION AND IRRIGABLE LANDS.
There were no extensive additions to the irrigated lands in the Province, though
several small improvement districts were formed for irrigation purposes, totalling
about 600 acres. [
A development has taken place, however, which may well mark the beginning of
a new epoch for irrigation in British Columbia. The Dominion Government, on the
initiative of the Minister of Agriculture, has extended the activities of the Prairie
Farms Rehabilitation Administration to include this Province, and British Columbia
stands to benefit from Dominion aid in developing, worth-while irrigation and reclamation projects. Under terms of this arrangement the Provincial Government takes the
initiative in requesting that certain projects be carried out, submitting engineering
reports if available. If, after proper investigation by the Prairie Farms Rehabilitation
engineers and our own, the project is approved, a three-way agreement is contemplated,
defining the responsibilities of the Dominion and Provincial Governments and of any
district formed to operate the project. In general, as presently planned, the Dominion
will engineer and construct the main works and operate them for a year before turning
them over to the Province; the Province will provide the necessary water rights and
make available any Crown lands required for dam-sites, rights-of-way, etc.; the benefiting district will construct the distribution-works and be responsible for maintenance
and operation. The first project to be undertaken under this plan is the Pemberton
Meadows reclamation scheme, on which the first $100,000 unit is under construction. REPORT OF COMPTROLLER OF WATER RIGHTS. X 125
A number of irrigation projects on which engineering data were available have
been submitted to the Federal Government, and it is hoped funds will be voted for them
at the coming session of Parliament. Further irrigation projects were investigated this
year by engineers of the Branch for submission to the Dominion Government this year.
CONSERVATION FUND.
This was set up in 1918 to assist the irrigation districts in making much-needed
replacements. It was intended to be a revolving fund, but falling fruit prices, marketing difficulties, etc., caused the districts to default in their payments, so that the
fund was eventually exhausted.
In order to relieve the districts of some of the debt thus contracted, about 25 per
cent, of the debt was written off by the Government in 1928 and approximately 45
per cent, of the balance in 1933. Despite the resulting reduced annual payments, the
districts still failed to meet their payments.
Under a further adjustment made in 1938 the debtor districts have been making
token payments each year up until 1946, which represented only a small fraction of the
amortized payments necessary to liquidate the balance of their debts. On representations by the debtor districts, the Government in 1946 appointed Dean F. M. Clement,
of the University of British Columbia, as a Commissioner to determine how much each
of the debtor improvement districts could pay each year in respect of their indebtedness
to the Province. His findings reduced the token payments of the majority of districts,
the aggregate reduction being about one-third.
Dean Clement quotes E. Davis, then Comptroller of Water Rights, in respect to the
status of the Conservation Fund, as follows: " The total amount of money borrowed,
together with the accrued interest to the 15th March, 1946, is $6,011,706, of which
$1,531,638 is paid, $2,932,689 written off or forgiven, and $1,547,379 is still owing."
Dean Clement in his report stressed the necessity of maintaining proper renewal
reserve funds in these words: " The Water Rights Branch must continue to exercise
control, not only over the amount of the assessment for Renewal Reserve, but also over
withdrawal of funds from the Renewal Reserve."
Last year D. K. Penfold, Chief Engineer of the Branch, commenced a complete
reassessment of the Renewal Reserve requirements of all the debtor districts; it is
hoped to complete the work this year.
REVENUES AND EXPENDITURES.
(See Plate 2.)
With minor recessions, revenues have risen from $42,002.06 in 1911 to $441,165.99
in 1947, expenditures for these years being $38,023.44 and $122,688.53 respectively.
Revenues and expenditures for the fiscal years of the last decade—March 31st,
1938 to 1947—are as follows:—
Fiscal year ending  Revenue. Expenditure.
1938  $310,718.29 $100,229.20
1939  310,451.12 109,098.40
1940  324,210.04 105,236.66
1941  338,017.72 89,646.53
1942  341,535.46 84,462.94
1943  355,765.68 74,815.42
1944  363,901.98 77,475.36
1945  382,297.16 80,531.78
1946  406,056.03 82,434.78
1947 .__ 441,165.99 122,688.53
Average for thirty-seven years (1911-47) 192,392.37 101,633.94
Average for last ten years  357,612.25 92,661.96 X 126
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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The drop in expenditures during the period of the war was, of course, due to
a number of the staff being away in the armed forces and the dropping of all work
unessential to the war effort. The year 1947 represents the first one in which the
Branch, even though still understrength in engineers, began to resume all its pre-war
activities, attempting to pick up the backlog accumulated during the war years and
trying to meet the demands of an expanding economy.
The revenue of the Branch comes from various sources, and within about 1 per
cent, of the following percentages:— Per Cent.
From power  90
From irrigation     3
From industrial     2%
From mining (hydraulicking)     1
From miscellaneous, including domestic and waterworks     3%
TECHNICAL SERVICES.
A discussion of the needs and scope of technical services in the modern state were
fully discussed in last year's report (p. 87).
Hydrometric Surveys.
Hydrometric surveys, being the measurement of stream-flow, the rise and fall of
lake levels, and associated studies, were carried out and extended by the Dominion
Water and Power Bureau of the Department of Mines and Resources under a longstanding agreement with the Province-—work to which we make a financial contribution
through our hydrometic survey vote. The Branch has maintained its close liaison with
the Bureau, whose co-operation at all times has been most helpful.
Snow Surveys.
In order to increase the accuracy and scope of our water-supply forecasts where
the demand for them is most urgent, our snow-survey network has been increased by
locating and laying out thirteen new courses last year in the Kootenay, Columbia, and
Okanagan Basins, the majority being high-altitude courses. We now have fifty-two
courses in British Columbia (see map, Plate 3), which together with a number of
United States courses are used for forecasting April-July and April-August run-off,
so necessary for planned control of water-storage. Our bulletins on Snow Surveys and
Run-off Forecasts were issued as usual as of February 1st, March 1st, April 1st,
and June 1st, the main forecast bulletin being as of April 1st. They have been in
increasing demand.
It is typical of the widening interest in snow surveys that the Dominion Water
and Power Bureau has voluntarily undertaken to sample several of our new courses in
the Big Bend of the Columbia in conjunction with their winter hydrometric work.
They have a direct interest in these courses in conjunction with their Columbia Basin
studies. The inaccessibility of the Big Bend in winter has hitherto prevented us from
establishing needed courses in the area. The Dominion Water and Power Bureau has
recently acquired a " snow-kat," a track-type snowmobile in wide use in the United
States for snow-survey and other winter work, which will enable it to service its
stream-gauging stations and our snow-courses. The Meteorological Division, Dominion
Department of Transport, which now has a weather observatory on Old Glory Mountain
near Rossland, offered to obtain records there if we would lay out a course and instruct
their staff. It was laid out last summer, the highest course we have, at an elevation
of 7,000 feet, and will be sampled and serviced by the observatory staff.
Snow surveys, designed to correlate snow-melt to ensuing stream-flow, are still
young enough to demand considerable research in order to study and isolate certain Ruskin Development of British Columbia Electric Railway Company,
94,000-horse-power capacity.
The power-house.
Aerial view.
Head-dam and Forebay op the British Columbia Power Commission's
Campbell River (V.I.) Development.
_____s
Present installation, 28,000-horse-power;   ultimate
installation, 150,000 to 180,000 horse-power. MAP
SHOWING DISTRIBUTION OF SNOW
COURSES  IN  BRITISH  COLUMBIA
Course
No. Name
1A Grouse Mount.
2 Stave  Lake
3 Trout Creek
3A Summerland
Reservoir
4 McCulloch
5A Mission Creek
6A Aberdeen
Lake
7     Gerrard
Sinclair   Pass
9A Canoe   River
10 Fernie
11 Glacier
12A Field
13 Upper Stave
14 Alouette
15 Revelstoke
15A Revelstoke
Mountain
16 Ferguson
Course
No. Name
17 Farron
18 Sandon
19 Nelson
20 Kimberley
20A Sullivan Mine
21A Irvermere
22 Blue River
23 Powell River
23A Powell   River
24 Powell River
24A Powell River
25A Kinbasket
River
26A New Tashme
27     Brookmere
Burwell Lake
Palisade Lake
Loch Lomond
Bouleau Creek
Marble
Canyon
33 Kicking Horse
34 Quartet   Lake
35B Klesilkwa
36 Downie  Creek
37 Bigmouth
38 Wood River
39 Blackwater
Lookout
39A Blackwater
Creek
Beaverfoot
Range
Upper  Elk
River
Old  Glory
Mountain
Gray Creek
East  Stave
Lake
Steelhead
PLATE 3. _^>,
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m  f ■ X 130 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
distorting factors which occasionally upset our forecasts. Considerable time and work
has been given to this research by the writer and recently by engineers of the Branch
specializing on snow hydrology. Last year the Canadian National Research Council
set up a Sub-committee on Snow and Ice Research, of which the writer has been nominated a member.
Fundamental snow research can only be carried out where nature has provided the
raw material—snow. In the United States a number of permanently manned snow
laboratories has been established in the mountains to study the complete cycle of the
phenomena of accumulation, evaporation, snow-melt, infiltration, and snow run-off. It
is probable that the National Research Council, through the Sub-committee on Snow
and Ice, will establish a snow laboratory in the British Columbia Rockies, which would
be of inestimable value to our snow surveys.
WATER-RESOURCES SURVEYS.
These are carried out to determine how our streams and lakes can best be put to
economic use for power-development, for irrigation, for waterworks purposes, and to
determine the availability of storage on a watershed for any purpose. Flood-control
surveys are also carried out as required.
Power Surveys.
British Columbia's known resources in water-power are one of its greatest assets.
It is estimated by this Branch that a minimum of 9,000,000 known firm horse-power is
available in the Province, of which only a little over 900,000 horse-power are presently
developed.
The increased tempo of growth in the Province has been reflected in the increased
demand for central-station power. The rate of load-growth in urban areas has risen
sharply to 13 per cent, per annum, as compared with a long-term thirty-year rate of
5 per cent. The same trend is noted in direct industrial use. To take care of actual
and anticipated demand, active construction is under way on a number of new developments and expansion of existing ones.
On December 15th, 1947, the Honourable John Hart threw a switch which set into
operation the first 28,000-horse-power unit of the British Columbia Power Commission's Campbell River project on Vancouver Island, which has been appropriately named
" The John Hart Development." A second unit is nearly ready to go into operation,
and construction is to be pushed to complete the development to its full capacity of
150,000 to 180,000 horse-power. It has also announced the immediate construction of
a 32,000-horse-power hydro-electric project at Whatshan Lake, in the Arrow Lakes
area.
The British Columbia Electric Railway Company has announced an acceleration
of its development programme to meet increased demand. The first unit of its Bridge
River development, originally scheduled to come into operation in 1949, has been set
ahead for this year, with 62,000 horse-power, and three units totalling 186,000 horsepower by 1953. As soon as these units are supplying energy to Vancouver and the
Lower Mainland, it is intended to develop the Jones Lake project near Chilliwack to
32,000 horse-power and then modernize the Lake Buntzen power-house and increase
the capacity of the Ruskin plant.
The Powell River Company brought an additional 22,000-horse-power unit into
operation at the Lois River plant last year.
The City of Nelson is proceeding with the installation of an additional 6,750-horse-
power unit at its municipal plant on the Kootenay River, which is expected to go into
operation this year. 138°
136°                       134°
132°                    I30°                   128°                    (26-                   '24°                    122°                   120°                    n8°                    H6°                 .114*                     n2*
II     j      l\\
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS,
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A FEW OF THE MAJOR WATER POWERS
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19. Fraser River.                 12. Marble River.
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38. Dean River.
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132°                              130°
128°                               126°                               124°                              122°                               'i20°                               H8*                                116°                                H4
Geographic Branch  B.C.
PLATE 4. REPORT OP COMPTROLLER OF WATER RIGHTS. X 131
For many years power surveys were the chief concern of our water-resources
surveys, but of late the demand for irrigation, waterworks, storage, and flood-control
surveys have kept our reduced engineering staff engaged almost to the exclusion of
power surveys. As the branch builds up to full strength again, more power surveys
will be carried out.
This year the only power investigation undertaken was carried out on Mission
Creek, in the Okanagan, in response to local demand. Some 183 power-sites have been
reported on in past years; a list of the larger ones was given in last year's report
(page 94). Of the sites investigated and reported on, an aggregate of 770,000 horsepower is now under licence—some partly developed, others in course of development.
The Fraser River and its tributaries constitute British Columbia's greatest asset
in water-power. Its resources are presently estimated to be in excess of 6,000,000
horse-power, of which some 2,000,000 horse-power are on the main stream and the
balance on its tributaries.
The Fraser is, in fact, British Columbia's greatest river—historically, economically, and in the area it drains and serves. The strategic location of its watershed,
covering the central and southern portions of the Province, is outlined on the map
(Plate 4).
The Fraser has played a great part in our development. It was the discovery of
gold in its Cariboo tributaries which started the first development in the then Crown
Colony. The first road to the Interior, the old Cariboo Trail, wound its tortuous way
through the Fraser Canyon to reach the goldfields. It furnished a route through the
rugged Cascades for, first, the Canadian Pacific Railway and then the Canadian Northern (now Canadian National) Railway, and later still for the Cariboo Highway.
The waters of tributaries in its lower reaches furnish Vancouver and the Lower
Mainland with over a quarter of a million horse-power. The Bridge River will ultimately provide a further 600,000.
All the mining developments of the Cariboo are served by Fraser River water.
Agriculture and stock-raising in the Cariboo, Chilcotin, Lillooet, Kamloops, Nicola,
South and North Thompson areas receive their irrigation-water from the Fraser
system.
The Branch commenced the investigation of the manifold power-sites of the Fraser
many years ago, and they were continued from time to time as funds permitted. The
principal ones investigated and reported on to date are the Chilko-Homathko scheme,
over 1,000,000 horse-power; the Eutsuk-Kimsquit scheme, about 1,000,000 horse-power;
and the Tahtsa-Kemano, about 850,000 horse-power; the latter two are on the headwaters of the Nechako River, which joins the Fraser at Prince George. A number of
smaller power-sites on its tributaries have also been covered either by reconnaissance
or surveys, such as Nechako Grand Canyon, Nechako Isle Pierre, Quesnel River, Swamp
River, etc.
On the main stream itself, in descending order, there are important power-sites
at Prince George Canyon, Cottonwood Canyon above Quesnel, Soda Creek Canyon,
Moran Canyon opposite Pavilion, and Lillooet Canyon (see power profile, Plate 6).
Below its confluence with the Thompson River at Lytton, it has been estimated that
500,000 horse-power could be developed. The value of this power-reach, however, is
largely discounted by reason of the location of the Canadian Pacific and Canadian
National Railway lines and the Cariboo Highway, whose relocation would be necessary
in places, and which would be inordinately expensive.
Of the power-sites mentioned above, Soda Creek and Lillooet have been surveyed
in detail, and some work has been done on the biggest of all, at Moran Canyon.
It is considered important to complete these major Fraser River surveys, as in
considering the main stream it is necessary to study it as a whole, to see to what extent X 132
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
regulation at one site would affect others, and what remote storage can be allocated.
It is hoped to resume the surveys this year.
The development of these Fraser River sites would have great economic value apart
from the power generated.    The necessary regulation of the stream would greatly lessen
Plate 5.—Fraser River Power-sites.
Dam-site just above Lillooet, looking up-stream.
Dam-site at Moran, 20 miles above Lillooet, looking down-stream.
(See power profile, facing.)
the flood-hazard in the Lower Fraser Valley. There is a long narrow belt of very
fertile benches all along the Fraser from Lytton up, but at present only small areas
here and there are under cultivation where the occasional tributary creeks can supply
irrigation-water by gravity, the pumping lift from the river being too expensive. The
big artificial lakes which would build up behind each dam could, however, supply water REPORT  OF COMPTROLLER OF WATER RIGHTS.
X 133
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« X 134 DEPARTMENT OP LANDS AND FORESTS.
to extensive areas of bench-lands by both gravity and low-head pumping without detriment to the power-developments.
A start was made last year on the long overdue task of bringing the hydrometric
data of many power reports up to date and revising the reports themselves in light of
subsequent data where necessary. The Chilko-Homathko, Eutsuk-Kimsquit, and Tahtsa-
Kemano reports were so revised last year, and the work of revision is proceeding on
further reports.
Irrigation Surveys.
Surveys and investigations were carried out last year for irrigating some 2,400
acres known as Grandview Flats, near Armstrong, water being brought from the
Salmon River.   The report is in course of preparation and will be issued at an early date.
Preliminary investigations and stream-flow measurements were carried out to
determine the feasibility of augmenting the flow of Mission Creek, in the Okanagan, by
a high-level diversion from the West Branch of the Kettle River. This looks sufficiently
promising to warrant a special low-level flight of aerial photos with ground control and
other surveys, which it is planned to carry out this year.
Storage Surveys.
As mentioned in last year's report, the question of available storage is becoming
more and more important in the agricultural and stock-raising sections of the dry belt.
The Similkameen River Basin Surveys commenced in 1946 were brought to a conclusion last year, with the completion of the Otter Lake surveys and three reservoir
sites on the Ashnola River, which were covered by reconnaissance the year before.
These surveys occupied the whole field season for a strong engineering party supplied
by pack-train.
Waterworks Surveys.
On request preliminary surveys were made for the Villages of Tofino and Ucluelet
on Vancouver Island.
The Villages of Smithers, Burns Lake, and Williams Lake last year commenced
the installation of waterworks systems based on surveys and reports previously made
by engineers of the branch.
Technical Draughting Section.
During 1947 the maps, plans, hydrographs, mass curves, etc., required to finish
the following reports were completed:—
Salmon Arm Irrigation Report, remaining 30 per cent.
Nicola River Flood Control Report, remaining 50 per cent.
Plans, etc., for the following reports presently in hand:—
Mission Creek Power Report, completed.
Grandview Flats Irrigation Report, 50 per cent, completed.
Similkameen Storage Report, 75 per cent, completed.
Sooke, Leach, and Koksilah Rivers.
Plans for Dr. Cleveland's Greater Victoria Water District Report, 90 per cent.
completed.
Tofino Waterworks Report, completed.
Ucluelet Waterworks Report, completed.
Plats for thirteen snow-courses, completed.
New snow-survey map, completed.
Maps for Annual Report, completed. PKV^VTW^   ^\XaXS    of
54R"^T   "PARTES
a.crcs.55    a_. T70t-mta.1_.17    toi-rerit.
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"pa.cJr^-^2.^      crG5Siri3   ^5CK°   J^cVe/p. X 136 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
INSPECTION OF DAM-SITES AND TESTING FOUNDATIONS
AND MATERIALS.
The sites for twenty-four earth dams were inspected and passed on last year. In
most cases field tests were made and earth samples analysed at the soil mechanics
laboratory of the British Columbia Research Council.
At one dam-site, on Shuttleworth Creek, near Okanagan Falls, where two previous
earth dams have failed, detailed surveys were made, including sub-surface exploration
by boring and test-pits both at the dam-site and in the surrounding area, to locate
suitable materials for a new dam. A complete report, working drawings, specifications, and estimates were made.
Several jobs of study and design of hydraulic structures were carried out for the
Joint Board of Engineers, Okanagan Flood Control, of which the writer is a member.
An analytical study was made by our dam engineer for the proposed channel rectification of Penticton Creek through the Municipality of Penticton. As the entire length
of the channel is on a slope at or above the critical, the study was made leading toward
model studies, which should precede final design and construction.
A study, including design of a typical section and specifications, was made of drop
structures for the Okanagan River. REPORT OF COAL, PETROLEUM, AND NATURAL GAS CONTROL.     X 137
GOAL, PETROLEUM, AND NATURAL GAS CONTROL.
By Thomas B. Williams, M.Sc, Ph.D., P.Eng., Controller.
INTRODUCTION.
A recent press dispatch states: " In two items alone Canada can change balance
by $100,000,000. . . . Each year, when things are anything like normal, Canada
imports about $60,000,000 worth of coal. . . . The other item which accounts for
around another $60,000,000 a year is petroleum products."
It is confidently believed that this unfavourable Canadian situation may be partially righted by British Columbia.
The coal production of British Columbia has recently been falling off. There is
more than one reason for this unfortunate condition. One is that British Columbia
coal exports have declined and its imports have increased. A better grade of coal,
which will be able to hold its own among competitors for both the domestic and foreign
markets, would help to right the present situation. The locality of an extensive deposit
of such coal is known in North-eastern British Columbia in the valley of Pine River.
In the interests of the people of British Columbia, the Department of Lands and
Forests is investigating this coal deposit.
Petroleum and natural gas are now being used in greater quantities than ever
before. Last November Max W. Ball, Petroleum Director in the United States, stated
before a group of petroleum producers that the United States was then needing a half-
million barrels more per day than during the peak of the war demand; that during
1946 the United States for the first time in history produced more heat and power from
oil and gas than from coal; and that during the winter of 1947-48 there would occur
a shortage of petroleum and natural gas. This shortage has now occurred, and Canada,
and especially British Columbia, is being inconvenienced by it.
Careful geological studies indicate that petroleum and natural gas production may
be expected from certain areas in British Columbia. The time is now ripe for the
investigation and testing of these areas.
GENERAL STATEMENT.
The Coal, Petroleum, and Natural Gas Control was established in 1946 for the
purpose of evaluating the coal, petroleum, and natural gas resources of British Columbia and promoting their use.
By 1947 the permanent staff has increased to include one part-time and four full-
time members. In addition, there were twenty-two temporary field employees. Some
sixteen others have worked on the diamond-drills.
Our activities have been of two main classes—namely, those of organizing and of
testing, which have been conducted at headquarters, and the field-work, which during
the past season has been principally in the general Peace River area.
HEADQUARTERS.
During 1947 the " Petroleum and Natural Gas Act" and regulations were completely revised.
An investigation into the probable cost of mining coal in the Peace River area was
conducted.    A start was made on an investigation of the possible market for this coal.
Edgar Stansfield and Dr. F. W. Gray, two coal-men of international reputation,
were retained as consultants. Mr. Stansfield has advised concerning the installation
of the laboratory and the general work on coal. Dr. Gray conducted a short investigation into the market possibilities of British Columbia coal in the North-western United
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XI
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o REPORT OP COAL, PETROLEUM, AND NATURAL GAS CONTROL.     X 139
A close association has been maintained with the Department of Mines as well as
the Railway Department. It should be borne in mind that any extension of the Pacific
Great Eastern Railway and the development of Peace River coal are inextricably
associated.
The Coal, Petroleum, and Natural Gas Laboratory has been set up, and is being
developed as rapidly as equipment can be obtained, under the very able management
of K. C. Gilbart, B.A., M.Sc, F.C.I.C, P.Eng. Mr. Gilbart, by virtue of his broad
training and experience obtained in Alberta in investigating coal and under the Federal
Department of the Interior and later under the Alberta Conservation Board in the
development and analysis of petroleum, is well equipped to take charge of this work.
The laboratory reports that some of the coal samples examined are of high-grade,
short-flame, bituminous rank. In addition, an, as yet, uncommercial seam of semi-
anthracite has been found.
A Canadian National Railways mining engineer during the summer was given
a personally conducted tour over the coalfield which is being investigated.
GENERAL ACTIVITIES.
One field party operated during 1946. Three were employed during 1947.
Gordon L. Kidd, P.Eng., who was in charge in the field during 1946, returned early
in 1947 in charge of Party No. 1. His operations continued until the end of the year.
Party No. 2 was at first in charge of Alan P. Fawley and later of Austin L. Johnston.
Each of these parties was equipped with a 60-horse-power bulldozer and with a smaller
tractor. Each was also accompanied by a diamond-drill. The third field party did
exploratory work from the Hart Highway north to Moberly River. It was in charge
of Bruce Woodsworth.
As a result of the field-work to date, a reserve of 190,000,000 tons of high-grade,
short-flame, bituminous coal is indicated. It is intended to carry the work on into
1948, when it is confidently expected that the estimated reserve may be still further
increased and a suitable location for the commencement of mining operations will be
decided upon.
Late in the summer the Canadian National Railways sent a party under its
vice-president, S. W. Fairweather, to make an inspection of the field. This party
subsequently expressed itself as being highly pleased and most favourably impressed
with what it observed. As a result of tests made by the Canadian National Railways
of a sample of coal taken under the supervision of their mining engineer, K. M. Ralston,
the following analysis was reported:—
Air-drying loss      0.12 % *
Moisture       0.46 % f
Total moisture      0.58 % *
Volatile combustible matter  20.49% %
Fixed carbon   77.34 % %
Ash      2.20 % X
Sulphur      0.51 % %
Total combustible matter  97.84%$
B.t.u     15,247:.
Fusion point of ash 2,460° F.
Character of coke Hard, slightly swollen
Swelling index  2 %
Colour of ash Light brown
* As received basis. t Air-dry basis. J Oven-dry basis. X 140 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
The following points in the report are outstanding:—
"(1) Locomotive Use.—The B.t.u. value, the fixed carbon, and the total combustible of the coal are exceedingly high; the ash, moisture, and sulphur contents are
unusually low. The volatile combustible is relatively low and the ash is of medium
fusibility.
"All these factors considered, it would appear that the coal is a very efficient
locomotive fuel. ... On the other hand, this factor also indicates that the coal will
burn with relatively little smoke—an advantage in these days of public outcry against
the railways for creating a smoke nuisance in residential areas.   .   .   .
" Storage qualities appear to be excellent. In a coal containing such a small
amount of sulphur there would be little or no danger of spontaneous combustion, and
the coal would not cause corrosion.
"(2) Industrial Steam Coal.—Hasler Creek coal, as represented by the sample,
appears to be excellent for use as an industrial steam coal. Much the same considerations apply as under (1) above.
"(3) Gas Coal.—The carbon ratio (3.7) is too high and the average volatile matter
(20.3 per cent.) too low for the coal to be considered a good gas-producing coal.
"(4) Metallurgical Coke.—The coal meets all the requirements for the production
of metallurgical coke. The low ash and sulphur contents would make it particularly
desirable in this field.
"(5) Domestic Fuel.—The low ash content, the low volatile combustible, and the
high B.t.u. value indicate that the coal would be an excellent domestic fuel. Some
cities in the U.S.A. have ordinances against the use of any but low volatile coals and
at present are hard put to it to obtain supplies."
Following the above-mentioned tests, the Canadian National Railways has requested
a 30-ton sample of coal with which to make a full-scale railway-locomotive test under
scientific control. This is now being shipped and the test will be made under the
observation of our Railway Department.
PETROLEUM.
A new Petroleum and Natural Gas Act was passed at the 1947 Session of the
Legislature. With its accompanying regulations, it was brought into effect on August
19th last and has produced some very favourable comment. At the time of writing,
nearly 1,800,000 acres of petroleum and natural gas rights have been issued for
prospecting and development. As the field season of 1948 approaches, there is evidence
of an increasing interest in British Columbia's petroleum resources. Active drilling
near Rolla, in the Peace River area, began at the turn of the year. One test-hole to
a depth of nearly 3,000 feet has been completed and a second hole is now under way.
OUTLOOK FOR 1948.
Plans are being prepared for a comprehensive central laboratory to accommodate
all departments of the Government. Such an institution would greatly facilitate all
Government investigation-work and the Control is heartily co-operating.
In addition, the Control is co-ordinating its work with that conducted elsewhere.
Arrangements are being entered into with the Federal Government by which certain
coal tests will be conducted in Ottawa. Somewhat similar arrangements for a different
type of work are being negotiated with the Universities of British Columbia and
Alberta.
The Peace River coal investigation will again be vigorously conducted in the field
during 1948. It is expected that various petroleum interests will greatly increase
their field activities during the present year. REPORT OF DYKING AND DRAINAGE. X 141
DYKING AND DRAINAGE.
By Bruce Dixon, B.Sc, M.E.I.C, P.Eng., Inspector of Dykes, Commissioner.
In a fairly extensive report covering the activities of this office for the year 1946,
published in the annual report of the Honourable the Minister of Lands and Forests,
an attempt was made to trace legislative developments as regards dyking and drainage
from the first parliament of the Province of British Columbia up to the year 1946. The
year 1947 witnessed a further important and radical development in this connection.
The " Dyking Assessments Adjustment Act, 1947," will, in the course of time,
affect greatly the economy of the various dyking and drainage districts coming within
its scope.
A Royal Commissioner in the person of Dean F. M. Clement, of the University of
British Columbia, had, during 1946, spent some months in study and investigation
under the " Public Inquiries Act " to determine how much each of several districts
could pay annually in respect to its indebtedness to the Province. His recommendations, adopted almost in their entirety, were implemented by the Statute named above.
Briefly stated, the " Dyking Assessments Adjustment Act, 1947," provides that if
the districts named completely meet their operating or maintenance expense in any
year and, in addition, provide a stipulated contribution to a fund of the district known
as the " Renewal Reserve Account," then the Minister of Finance shall accept a stipulated amount (token payment) as payment for that year upon the indebtedness of the
district and cancel the balance of the amount which would otherwise be due. The provisions of the Act were made retroactive to apply to the levy which had already been
made for the year 1946, and the assessments for the year 1947 were made upon the
new basis.
The districts coming within the scope of the new Act are as follows: The Dyking
Districts of Coquitlam, Maple Ridge, Pitt Meadows No. 1, Pitt Meadows No. 2, Matsqui,
Dewdney, and Sumas, and the Drainage Districts of Matsqui No. 1 and Maple Ridge
No. 2. Two other districts operated from this office—namely, West Nicomen and South
Westminster—are not affected by the Act for the reason that their debts are not owed
to the Province.
The necessary payments were made to the Treasury on or about September 30th,
1947. Renewal Reserve Accounts, in a total of $22,000, were set up and subsequently
invested in Province of British Columbia, 1966, 2%-per-cent. bonds at a price of 99%.
On September 30th next a similar contribution will have been made, after which the
Renewal Reserve Account will amount to $44,000 plus the year's earnings. The Act
stipulates that these funds may be invested in guaranteed obligations of the Dominion
or any of the Provinces, with the approval of the Minister of Finance, or may be used
for renewals, replacements, reconstruction, or extensions in the districts from which
the moneys arose, on the recommendation of the Inspector of Dykes, Commissioner,
and with the approval of the Minister of Lands and Forests.
WORKS.
An eminent authority on municipal finance once said that efficient spending was of
more consequence than sufficient collecting. The latter is mandatory in the management of the dyking and drainage affairs, but the former must be always in mind if we
are to have peace in our time among the ratepayers of the several districts. Accordingly, we resort to day-work -almost exclusively and with modern equipment endeavour
to attend to the requirements of each district efficiently and economically. Those
requirements often are emergent and cannot be delayed or scheduled to convenience as
is the case in practically all municipal or public works. Apart from emergency-work,
which cannot be anticipated with accuracy, such as river-bank protection and flood X 142 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
patrols   and  correlated   activities,   pump   operation   with   its   complement,   improved
drainage-ways, are essential services vital to the economic life of each district.
The year 1947 was about average as regards pumping requirements. The river
freshet got away to a comparatively early start, and pumping was general by April
23rd. The river rose to a high for the year of 17.88 feet at Mission on June 14th and
continued until August 10th, when the flood-gates opened and pumping was discontinued except for storm periods. Precipitation was comparatively light until the
middle of October, when it became intense and established a record in December.
During the year $32,968.99 was expended in pump operation, for electric energy alone,
in the twenty plants serving these districts. Trouble was experienced in only one plant
during the freshet season. The impeller on one of the old pumps at Dewdney failed
and was replaced at a cost of $550. Fortunately, during the week this pump was out of
commission, rainfall was not excessive, and we were able to keep the water-table down
with the other pumps. The usual inspection following the freshet season showed two
pumps of the West Nicomen District defective. Consultation determined that these
pumps could not be brought back to a proper state of efficiency, and they were accordingly scrapped. They are being replaced by modern automatic axial-flow type pumps
at a probable cost of $4,500. In the Maple Ridge District gear-drives on two Goldie-
McCulloch centrifugal pumps developed trouble after twenty-five years' operation.
Nursed through the freshet season, these two drives are being replaced at a probable
cost of $600.
In reconditioning drainage-ways, three of our own drag-lines were in continuous
operation—two %-cubic-yard and one 1%-cubic-yard machines—while on the Vedder
Canal improvement our 2-cubic-yard electric Sauerman operated between freshets.
In connection with these operations, plant rental included, we spent $5,714 in the Pitt
Meadows No. 2 Dyking District, $5,003 in the Maple Ridge No. 2 Drainage District,
$5,145 in the Matsqui No. 1 Drainage District, and $5,219 in the Sumas Dyking
District. Operation on the Vedder Canal improvement involved an expenditure of
$3,621.26, but this was reduced by $2,774.80 recovered from the sale of gravel excavated
in the process. With labour costs and ratio of efficiency at the present level, excavation
costs are comparatively low, and the biggest item in the cost of drainage improvements
is that of brush cutting and disposal ahead of the excavating-machines. This feature
prompted us in 1947 to explore different methods of brush-disposal. A patented
portable burner using oil and a compressed-air booster was only partially successful,
and the same may be said regarding some experiments with chemical sprays. Costs
by either method are still prohibitive, and it would appear that the cheapest and best
way of dealing with this increasingly important detail is to level and grade ditch-banks
after the excavating-machines finish and seed down to prevent future brush-growth.
Storms and winter frosts of 1946-47 assisted other natural agencies in works of
destruction and brought into focus, along in March, the necessity of river-bank
protection-work on a section of the Fraser River above the Mission Bridge, in the
Matsqui Dyking District. Erosion had not been, rapid for some years, but all at once
it seemed that dormant forces had come'to life and the rate of erosion indicated that
protective steps must be taken, and immediately. Reference was made to this problem
in last year's report, and the opinion was given that one important cause of erosion
here was the existence of the borrow-pit from which material for the dyke was taken
during construction. This borrow-pit was located on the river side of the dyke, and
excavation had been made to an average depth of 15 feet. It filled with water from
each freshet, and this water, seeping back to the river with the receding freshet through
underlying sand strata, carried sand particles from the stratum at the face of the
river-bank. This and wave-action at accommodating river-levels cause cavities into
which overburden settles.    Often the settlement forms cracks farther back into which REPORT OF DYKING AND DRAINAGE. X 143
rain and surface waters accumulate, and erosion, well upon its way, is greatly increased
by a freeze-up. Spring waters act similarly. The protective measures adopted, and
which so far appear fairly satisfactory, are briefly described as follows: Bulldozers
were used to push material from around large cottonwood trees, which had forested the
margin between the river-bank and borrow-pit, to the required depth to fill completely
the borrow-pit. Then the weakened cottonwoods were pulled down and pushed over
the bank, with their tops into the low-water river-shore and their roots upon the bank
above average high water, and anchored securely to deadmen so as to rest at an angle
of 45 degrees with the direction of the current. Then, in among the trees so placed,
flaked baled hay about 6 inches thick was blanketed over exposed sand strata, held in
place with woven wire or navy torpedo-nets, and weighed down with a pavement of
one-man rock. Approximately 1% miles of river-bank was attended to in this fashion,
and $9,171.60 was expended. The Provincial Public Works Department, because of the
protection afforded their roads, shared this cost equally with the Matsqui Dyking
District. A continuation of this job is planned for the early spring of 1948 at an
estimated cost of $12,000, and it is hoped that the Provincial and Dominion Departments of Public Works, the Canadian National Railways, and the Matsqui Dyking
District will each share the cost. River-bank protection at Matsqui must continue
until the entire 7.21 miles has been adequately attended to.
On the Pitt River, in the Coquitlam Dyking District, river-bank erosion has taken
the foreshore to the base of the dyke at a point opposite Goose Island. Here the
formation is a heavy clay, and fortunately no sand strata are encountered. Deep water
follows the eroded shore. The cause seems to be that the channel to the east of Goose
Island has silted in and the incoming tide is crowded to the eroding shore. The remedy
would appear to be a suction-dredge job in the channel referred to, but the funds are
not available. We have in mind the construction of three rock groins at strategic points
along the eroding shore.
The menace of the inside borrow-pit throughout the Pitt River system, with
seepage planes and muskrat infestation, still persists. It will continue until the entire
34.34 miles is filled with suction-dredge material, but this must remain for future
consideration.
In the table with which this report is brought to an end an attempt is made to give
a physical inventory of the works of each district. X 144                               DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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Thirty-six-inch axial-flow pump being installed.
Rock pavement—river-bank protection. X 146 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT.
By D. W. Hodsdon, B.C.L.S., P.Eng., Project Manager.
GENERAL.
Irrigation Rates.
A public meeting of all growers under the Southern Okanagan Lands Project was
held in the Legion Hall, Oliver, B.C., on April 22nd, 1947. Dr. R. R. Laird, M.L.A.,
and G. P. Melrose, Deputy Minister of Lands, were present, as well as the project
manager who acted as chairman. The meeting was called primarily to discuss the
necessity of raising the rate from the present $8 per acre per year.
Prior to the close of the meeting an irrigation committee was chosen to examine
project estimates and discuss in detail the proposed change in rates. This committee
consists of George Lundy, local president of the British Columbia Fruit Growers'
Association; Major H. Earle, B.C.L.S., and professional engineer, representing growers
in the northern end of the project;   and Sam Wight, representing the southern end.
Several meetings have been held and the committee has functioned very smoothly.
The project management welcomes a committee of this nature, as it greatly assists in
presenting to the growers the various problems encountered.
After some discussion the irrigation rates were set at $10 per acre per year.
Land Sales.
All land under the present system has been either sold or reserved for sale. Land
sales for the fiscal year 1946-47 totalled $53,800, the largest amount received in one
year since the inception of the project. Further lands sold up to December 31st totalled
an additional $12,500.
Power Failures.
The year 1947 was a bad one for power-supply. Power is obtained from the West
Kootenay Power and Light Company, and supply was cut off, without warning, numerous times during the irrigation season. When the system is running at capacity load
and when all six irrigation pumps are suddenly shut off, there is danger of an overflow
at certain bottlenecks in the system. The crew has to be very alert to spill this water
before such overflow occurs, hence during the irrigation season the crew is on call
twenty-four hours a day.
Raw Lands placed under Irrigation, 1947.
A total of 200 acres of raw land was put under irrigation in 1947. This area
includes some dozen small holdings of 3 acres each, more or less. The remaining land
consists of full-time farms of 10 acres or more.
Salaries and Wage Scales.
No change in the general set-up was made during the year, but salary and wage
scales were adjusted upward, with the foreman, his assistant, and three ditch-riders
being placed on a monthly basis with an opportunity for superannuation. Daily-wage
earners contribute 7 per cent, of their monthly earnings to a retirement fund.
The Department has granted both holidays and sick-leave with pay, dependent on
length of service, to daily-wage earners as well as the salaried staff. As the cost of
living has risen, so has the cost-of-living bonus. All of the above adjustments have
tended to create a generally satisfied working crew, with resultant efficiency. REPORT OF SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT. X 147
ALTERATIONS TO CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE
EQUIPMENT AND  STORAGE-SPACE.
To the end of efficiency and economy all antiquated and unsafe equipment was
scrapped, and new and modern substitutions made, namely:—
1. Two new Ford pick-ups were purchased to provide each ditch-rider and the
foreman with a light and useful truck.
2. A new cement-mixer, entirely power-operated, was purchased and was found to
be extremely useful. Much time and money has been saved by this unit, which is
easily transported by truck to any desired location.
3. A single-drum Ford winch was purchased. The project crew took a drum from
an old discarded winch and, by alteration of gears, change of speed in a reduction unit,
and lengthening of frame, made a very efficient two-drum hoist. This hoist, with a
tight line and loading-jack or bicycle, also constructed by the crew, can reach almost
any spot along the steep and (in so far as the hauling up of material is concerned)
nearly inaccessible portions of the system. All materials, such as cement, lumber, etc.,
are now quickly hoisted into position. This unit has saved an incalculable amount of
hand-labour, with its resulting high cost. An ingenious trip allows the dumping of
cement into position.
4. The project purchased its own welding outfit and acetylene generator and, consequently, has already saved hundreds of dollars. Much welding and cutting is necessary,
and since the crew includes a welder, this type of work can be done in our own shop.
5. An old 440-gallon gas-tank was unearthed, repaired, and installed. A 10-gallon
hand-operated pump was purchased. This unit is only awaiting an angle foot-valve to
be put into operation.    The annual saving in gasoline cost will be approximately $600.
6. In the past the blacksmith-shop, sanitary facilities, etc., were outside in the
warehouse yard. All small pipe-fittings', bolts, and numerous miscellaneous supplies
were kept in bins in the office basement. The location of these smaller supplies resulted
in a constant running between warehouse and the office. All bins were removed to their
proper positions in the warehouse, and the office basement cleared for the use for which
it was intended; namely, the storage of files and other office equipment. Sanitary
facilities were completely modernized and located within the warehouse. A 12-foot
extension, which runs the full length of the building, was added to the south side of
the warehouse. Welding and blacksmith shops are now located therein, as well as a
long carpenters' bench.
7. A second-hand power-grinder was purchased and installed in the shop, with the
resultant speeding-up of all tool-sharpening and some types of saw-sharpening. The
use of this grinder required the addition of 220-volt line (into the building), installed
by the power company at no cost to the project.
8. One improvement made during the year was the enlargement of the yard area.
A new and adjacent land subdivision laid out by the project permitted the inclusion of
a triangular-shaped area and the rearrangement of the yard in a much more efficient
manner. There are now two front and one rear yard-entrances. Lanes have been
made, with lumber treated and earmarked for various jobs stacked on either side for
quick unloading and loading. The entire yard has been cleared of weed-growth and
paved with cinders. All rods, iron flume-sheets, etc., have been piled on racks according
to size and flume destination. Roofed storage areas to protect treated wood-stave pipe
from summer heat have been erected. Pipe-racks for small-size domestic water-system
pipe have been located at the new shop under an extended eave.
New Land Subdivisions, 1947.
1. On the east side of the Trans-Provincial Highway, which is also the main street
of Oliver, and just south of the Government office, an area which will make available
two business lots was subdivided. X 148 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
2. Six small holdings were surveyed on the east side of the river just north of
Lot 686. These holdings were laid out at the request of The Director, " The Veterans'
Land Act."
3. Lot 404, District Lot 2450 (S.), Similkameen Division of Yale District, was
divided into two portions, one of which was intended to be used for a gravel-pit. (For
further information concerning this pit see item 8 under " Work done, 1947.")
4. The old garbage dumping-ground for the Village of Oliver was surveyed and
will revert to the project on February 1st, 1948. Dumping will cease on that date.
In the same block other lots have been laid out and, to some extent, the road location
changed.
5. The north boundary of the local airport was resurveyed to conform with existing
conditions.
6. A block of lots in Block 43, Oliver townsite, has been laid out.
7. A subdivision of good residential lots in the Oliver townsite has been made in
the open area just south of Fairview Road and just east of the main canal.
8. Lot 727, District Lot 2450 (S.), Similkameen Division of Yale District, was
subdivided into three possible farm lots, the remainder of the lot being leased for
grazing purposes.
(N.B.—None of items 1 to 8 have yet been offered to the general public.)
9. Osoyoos townsite school-site, with many attendant lots, was surveyed. The
school-site was turned over to the School Board and all lots have been sold.
10. Lots 736 and 737, Osoyoos townsite, have been subdivided, but as yet not
offered for sale.
WORK DONE, 1947.
1. A discharge-gate was installed in the side of the canal adjacent to the gates in
the diversion-dam, which feeds the canal. This enables us, by use of a few sand-bags
in the main canal, to drain the bottom thoroughly in order to undertake repair-work.
In the past water has stood in the bottom nearly to Mclntyre Creek siphon.
2. Mclntyre Creek siphon once had a drain with a valve, but the drain had been
disconnected during some trouble. Consequently, it has been necessary to pump out
the siphon for cleaning purposes. This drain and valve have been repaired and, prior
to the start of the 1948 irrigation season, will be connected, and in future the draining
should be a simple matter.
3. The motors operating the gates at the head of the main siphon crossing under
the Village of Oliver have been protected, it appears, only by the original small boxes.
These had reached such a state of disrepair that it seemed dangerous to operate the
gates in bad weather and motors and gears were suffering from exposure to the
weather. These boxes have been eliminated and a small house erected over the entire
unit.    Guards have been provided for all gears.
4. Approximately 130 feet of main canal-wall just north of Gallagher Lake was
washed out.by a flood some five or six years ago. Hasty repairs were made by putting
in a wooden bottom and side, which constituted a considerable restriction in flow.
Since the area under irrigation has been greatly increased, this temporary l-epair was
removed and the wall replaced by a reinforced concrete one, which brings this section
of the canal back to normalcy.
5. The remainder of the main 78-inch wood-stave siphon, some 350 feet, which was
not dealt with a few years ago when the main portion of this siphon was being rebuilt,
has been replaced. The section rebuilt was on a steep sloping trestle. This trestle
was redesigned and a span allowed for a roadway underneath. The very light sand
under the old trestle had been washing badly and, therefore, when the new structure
was constructed, a concrete mat, concave, to take leakage, was built under the dangerous section. 1
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z X 150 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
6. By pressing a button in the project office, it was originally possible to open the
spillway at the head of the main siphon in case of an emergency. For some reason
this was disconnected.    This important service has again been put in operation.
7. Townsite water-system extensions were continued and completed in so far as
the area within the corporate limits of the village is concerned. Approximately one-
half mile of pipe still remains to be laid in the area just south of the southerly village
limits known as the " acre lots."    This work still awaits pipe delivery.
8. Lot 404, District Lot 2450 (S.), Similkameen Division of Yale District, was subdivided with the idea that the southerly portion adjacent to Lot 405, a Public Works
gravel-pit, could be used as a project pit. This turned out to be unsuitable for the
the purpose intended, since, as the gravel exposed would need washing and crushing,
the project Would suffer unwarranted expense.
9. The office grounds were further improved by the construction, on the north and
south boundaries of the lot, of concrete walls with pipe railings. The westerly wire
fence was repaired, new posts installed and all weeds removed. Flower-beds were
made, and the grounds were beautified to the extent that they are a credit to the village
in general and to the Government building in particular.
10. The office lighting and furniture were apparently the original equipment.
Both were antiquated. New fluorescent lighting has been installed, partitions altered,
and some good desks and chairs purchased.
11. The main canal, as far as the head of the siphon, was pitched in the worst
spots and the area from the intake to the siphon cleaned. The above work and the
cleaning-out of the Mclntyre Creek siphon in the fall of 1946, in addition to repairs
in the spring of 1947, decreased the losses in this section very appreciably; namely,
from about 30 per cent, to under 9 per cent.
12. Approximately one-quarter mile of zinc flume was replaced by lined wooden
flume.
13. The framing of 2,000 feet of wooden flume was started and was well on the way
to completion at the end of 1947.
14. The framing and treating of timber to rebuild No. 7 flume was completed.
15. The clearing of brush, trees, etc., alongside the main concrete canal and
concrete laterals was commenced as soon as the water was shut off on October 25th,
1947. If possible, by the start of the irrigation season in 1948, the entire system
should be cleaned and the sides cleared of brush. This will be the first time since the
project system was entirely completed that this has been done between irrigation
seasons.
16. At the request of certain growers and at their expense, a number of new boxes
were constructed in order that sprinkler systems might be installed. The installation
of this type of irrigation system practically started in 1946 and has grown by leaps and
bounds in 1947.
17. The new areas of land placed under irrigation during the year required extensions to existing laterals and construction of new laterals. In one instance a lateral
previously constructed was found to have insufficient capacity, so it was necessary to
supplement this by 1,700 feet of new line, which was laid after the start of the
irrigation season (although no provision for such construction had been made in the
estimate) by using all types and sizes of pipe on hand. The line was in operation in
time to save the crops from drought.
18. An entirely new lateral about half a mile in length was installed to serve four
lots sold to veterans. Pipe was not available at the start of the irrigation season, but
through the kindness of the Oliver Chemical Company, of Penticton, it was possible to
borrow enough pipe to save the planted trees.   This pipe was returned and the cost to REPORT OF SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT. X 151
the project was limited to the hauling and the cleaning of borrowed pipe lengths.
In due course the system was permanently installed.
19. The most southerly spillway in the system is known as " Bucher's Spillway."
It consists of buried concrete pipe which apparently was of inferior construction.
It broke twice during the year, and the breaks had to be reinforced to prevent further
trouble. Air-vents were also installed. It is anticipated that the trouble has now
been eliminated.
20. New impellers, giving increased capacity, have been installed in No. 2 and
No. 4 pumps.
21. All pumps were turned on May 5th and shut off on September 14th. They are
turned on for a day later in the year and before the system is dewatered to allow
cisterns to be filled.
GENERAL REMARKS RE 1947 OPERATION.
By great care in the cleaning of the ditch and the use of bluestone the water was
kept quite clear of algse-growth and weeds until very late in the season, when the
excessive heat overcame to some minor extent the effort to kill vegetable-growth.
No complaints were received as to the volume of water-supply to the extreme
southerly part of the system during the year.
Two washouts marred the year's irrigation season. The first occurred May 3rd
at 1.30 a.m., shortly after the start of the season, when, with no warning, a 98-foot
section of concrete canal was entirely washed out, although this section had been
inspected as usual on the afternoon of the 2nd. The area in which the canal was
located was comprised entirely of clay. It later appeared that the entire side-hill above
the canal had become saturated and, when the frost finally came out of the area above,
seepage saturated the clay and the side-hill slid off. To repair this, a flume some
35 feet high (at the maximum height) was necessary, since there was no ground left
upon which to construct a canal. The slide sheared the hillside from a point some
20 feet above the original canal to an almost vertical slope.
The second washout occurred in the main canal at No. 1 flume on the shore of
Gallagher Lake on June 26th, in the early morning. A large section of rock bluff,
evidently loosened by recent rains, struck the flume and removed some 50 feet, including
the trestle which supports the flume along the shores of the lake. The entire section
was carried into the lake, and very little of the structure could be found after the
accident. By strenuous effort on the part of the repair crew, who worked twenty hours
per day, water was again turned into the ditch at 1.30 p.m. on June 28th.
PLANS FOR 1948.
1. The annual canal and flume cleaning will be carried out as usual.
2. Rebuild the major portion of No. 1 flume trestle.
3. Rebuild No. 7 flume trestle.
4. Endeavour to complete the replacement of all zinc flume by lined wooden flume.
This means approximately 2,100 feet of new construction.
5. Rebuild No. 1 flume on the west lateral.    This is a long-overdue replacement.
6. Subdivide Lot 732, Osoyoos townsite, into business lots.
7. Install 7y2-horse-power booster pumps in both No. 2 and No. 3 pump-houses in
order to augment the discharge to serve additional lands to be placed under irrigation.
8. Install a 5-horse-power booster pump to augment the discharge of No. 4 pump
for the reason given under item 7.
9. Make major extensions to Oliver domestic water-supply to include the settled
area on the east side of the Okanagan River and also the Oliver sawmill area. X 152 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
10. Replace 950 feet of the 22-inch wood-stave main between No. 2 and No. 3
pump-houses.
11. Purchase a new 1%-ton dump-truck for heavy work.
12. Construct new irrigation laterals to serve approximately 155 acres of land to
be irrigated at the start of the irrigation season. This requires the installing of
approximately 11,500 feet of various types of pipe and the construction of distribution-
boxes.
13. Construct eighteen new boxes for sprinkler-system installation at the request
of various growers.
14. If approved, construct an entirely new irrigation system to serve approximately
233 acres on the east side of Okanagan River. This will be a pumping system and will
be known as Southern Okanagan Lands Project No. 2. Except for administrative
purposes, there will be no connection between the original project (Project No. 1) and
Project No. 2. The construction required for the latter project will consist of a
pump-house, pump and accessories, and some 8,500 feet of pipe-line.
Items 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 12, and 14 are major construction jobs in so far as this project
is concerned.
NEW ACREAGE, 1948.
The total amount of new land to which water must be delivered by the start of the
1948 irrigation season may be summarized as follows:— Acres.
(a) Below present gravity system—new pipe-lines required.___ 69.97
(b) Under present pumping system—no new lines required.— 59.47
(c) Under present gravity system—no construction required 1.14
(d) Lands previously privately served by pumping from potholes, now to be put under present gravity system—new
construction required   28.50
(e) New areas above all present distribution systems requiring new pumps, pipe-line, etc  62.45
Total  222.67
SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT No. 3.
A further area within the project which the P.F.R.A. engineers will look into with
a view to irrigating is locally known as the " west bench." It lies above our present
system to the west and runs southerly from a point about opposite the north end of
Osoyoos Lake to a short distance north of the International Boundary. It contains
between 800 and 900 acres, which may be irrigated by pumping from Osoyoos Lake.
If this is developed, it will be known as Southern Okanagan Lands Project No. 3.
MARKET CONDITIONS, 1947.
Recently much has been publicized regarding the condition of the fruit industry
as a whole and the situation in the Okanagan Valley in particular.
The year 1947 saw a reduced price for peaches, a heavy loss on the cherry-crop
due to weather conditions, and the loss of the British market for apples. This latter
removed one of the major markets for the produce of this valley.
Wages and the cost of box-shook increased rapidly, and while returns for all crops
are not yet in, it is evident that the margin between production costs and returns to the
grower has been greatly reduced.   This year was not a banner year.
A shortage of refrigerator cars has seriously hampered the distribution of the crop.
While there is no reason for pessimism, the outlook for 1948 would indicate higher
production costs and a stationary or lower selling price for all fruit varieties. REPORT OF UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS. X 153
UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS.
By M. E. Ferguson, Manager.
The year 1947 was a year of events sufficiently important to be rated as one of
great importance in the historical recordings of the activities of the University Endowment Lands.
The most important of these events was the inauguration of a new tax structure
within the area. This is something that had been under careful consideration for
several months, and while it was very apparent something definitely had to be done to
place the existing developed area on a more self-supporting basis, it was equally important that whatever changes were made should not be allowed to be drastic enough to
seriously affect our development and sales programme. This was quite successfully
accomplished; namely, because of a tactful policy which was formulated and carried
out by Victoria. Net result of this policy, which necessitated the holding of both
general ratepayers' meetings and private committee meetings, was the establishment
of a school and general tax rate that would, within a comparatively short time, place
the area on a more self-supporting basis without placing any undue burden on the
present taxpayers or creating a barrier to prospective purchasers. While it is much
too soon to give any actual comparative figures showing benefits that are being obtained
from this revision in the tax structure, there is no doubt this will prove to be one of
the most beneficial and important improvements made in the general administrative
policy of the University Endowment Lands for some years.
During the early part of the year it was felt advisable to engage an engineer, and
in February the services of H. M. Dilworth were obtained. Mr. Dilworth had been
with the Department of Transport from July, 1940, to February, 1947, and previously
was engineer for the municipality of the township of Etobicoke, Ontario. He is a
graduate of the University of Toronto in engineering.
One of the first tasks Mr. Dilworth was given was the laying out of roads, sidewalks, sewers, and other utilities for a new apartment-site development which consisted
of eleven apartment-site lots of approximately 3% acres set up by resubdivision of
Block 99.
His next assignment was to study and report on the existing water-supply system.
After a long and careful study of the system it was felt imperative to take steps immediately to improve the supply system in order to ensure adequate supply for both
present and contemplated needs. As a result, a contract was let to Canadian Wood
Pipe and Tanks, Limited, in May for the erection of a 150,000-gallon wood-stave water-
tank to be used in conjunction with the existing 100,000-gallon tank. Consideration
was also given to the advisability of installing a booster pump to use in case of emergencies in exceedingly low water-pressure. Unfortunately, due to delays in obtaining
necessary cast-iron fittings, etc., the booster pump was not installed, but we are now in
a position to make the installation and have it in operation before next summer.
Careful consideration is being given with a view to deciding whether or not it
would be advisable to proceed with further development, bearing in mind the present
development costs, together with values and prices prevailing in the real-estate market.
Preliminary estimates are now being completed by Mr. Dilworth regarding development
costs, and when a decision has been reached as to whether or not it is advisable to
proceed with this work at the present time will govern the planning of our 1948 work
programme.
Land sales for the year consisted of:—■
Five lots in Unit 1  $8,949.38
Two lots in Unit 2     8,488.13
Thirteen apartment lots  22,000.00 X 154 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Building permits were issued as follows:—
Nineteen permits for new houses  $247,200.00
Eight permits for alterations, etc.  20,400.00
Eleven permits for apartments  237,000.00
Total   $504,600.00
It will be noted from the following tabulations that we now have forty-six lots
left to sell in Unit 1 and twenty-two lots in Unit 2, making a total of sixty-eight lots,
which under present sales conditions should be ample.
CASH STATEMENT OF UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS FROM
INCEPTION, AS AT DECEMBER 31ST, 1947.
Cash receipts—
Land sales   $600,982.47
Lease rentals      125,435.89
Local improvement taxes     262,826.02
Loans repaid (principal)      213,591.13
Loans repaid (interest)      296,699.87
Repossessed properties (rentals)        79,253.01
Repossessed properties (sales)      177,599.32
Miscellaneous revenue    263,662.46
     $2,020,050.17
Accounts receivable—
Mortgages  (principal)  $129,443.75
Mortgages (interest)   1,664.36
Repossessed properties (sales agreements)   14,474.61
Leases    837.98
Local improvement taxes  11,310.86
Land sales (agreements)   56,406.66
  214,138.22
Value of unsold lands—Units 1 and 2  294,313.00
Value of undeveloped area—2,451.85 acres   (approximately)   at $4,000
per acre  9,807,400.00
$12,335,901.39
Expenditures—
Development of site  $1,674,942.95
Maintenance         743,218.79
Administration        321,074.12
Loans advanced        531,837.69
       3,271,073.55
Surplus      $9,064,827.84
Treasury advances       2,184,937.34
Surplus over advances      $6,879,890.50 REPORT OF UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS. X 155
GENERAL STATISTICAL INFORMATION.
Number of lots—
Unit 1—
Residential   200
Fraternity       6
Apartment      26
Commercial        9
Unit 2  106
Block 8     54
401
Lots sold at December 31st, 1947—
Unit 1—
Residential   154
Apartment   26
Commercial   4
Unit 2   84
Block 8  54
Ninety-nine-year leases  9
331
Residences completed December 31st, 1947—
Unit 1      96
Unit 2     36
Block 8     52
Blocks 13, 14, 15, and 16	
184
Apartments— suites.
Gables Apartments       4
University Lodge     10
Dalhousie Apartments      16
University Village     79
Monarch Lodge, board-residence  	
109 X 156
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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GENERAL ADMINISTRATION FILE-ROOM.
By S. C. Hawkins.
During the year 1947 the work covered by the file-room and file-checking room
showed an increase of approximately 10 per cent, over the preceding year, and the
volume of correspondence handled and recorded was the largest for any one year in
the history of the Department.
To offset the effect that such a large volume of correspondence has on vault accommodation, more attention has been given to the disposal of old files and routine reports
in accordance with the provisions of the " Public Documents Disposal Act."
In co-operation with the Forest Service and the various branches of the Department, a very considerable amount of valueless material has been disposed of. Incidentally, the disposal of such material has meant a considerable saving, as most of the
file-boxes and vault-space thus emptied are being made available for new files.
The present plan calls for the disposal of a further large quantity of valueless
documents, and it is anticipated that that will equal in volume the amount of incoming
correspondence during the ensuing year.
STATISTICAL TABLES.
The following statistical report covers the period January 1st to December 31st,
1947:—
Letters inward recorded—
Lands Branch  33,495
Forest Service  54,848
Water Rights Branch  8,964
Surveys Branch   8,328
105,635
(An increase of 8,869 (10.9 per cent.) over the total for 1946.)
Letters outward (copies) recorded—
Lands Branch  29,369
Forest Service  14,740
Water Rights Branch  6,955
Surveys Branch   4,832
55,896
(An increase of 4,919 (10.5 per cent.) over the total for 1946.)
Miscellaneous reports received—
Forest fires  1,330
Slash disposal  1,067
Logging inspection __.  13,153
Land classification  2,007
17,557
(An increase of 700 over the total for 1946.)
New files made up—
" O " files  6,260
Timber marks  _  1,736
Timber sales  2,736
General inquiry (01863) files  7,435
18,167
(The decrease in the number of " O " files made up as compared with the figures of
1946 is accounted for by the fact that the total of forest fire reports showed a marked
decrease.) X 158
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
In addition to the above, thousands of vouchers, accounts, requisitions, etc., were
routed to the various branches.
Tables showing totals for 1947 compared with totals for 1946 and yearly average
for the ten-year period 1938-47:—
Letters inward.
Branch.
1947.
1946.
10-year Average,
1938-47.
33,495
54,848
8,964
8,328
31,003
49,160
8,760
7,843
23,613
41,516
7,559
5,676
105,635
96,766
78,364
Letters outward
(Copies recorded)
Branch.
1947.
1946.
10-year Average,
1938-47.
29,369
14,740
6,955
4,832
26,378
13,386
6,912
4,501
20,138
16,236
5,856
Surveys Branch	
3,920
Totals	
55,896
51,177
46,150
Miscellaneous Reports received.
Designation.
1947.
1946.
7-year Average,
1941-47.
Fire reports '-	
1,330
1,067
13,153
2,007
1,711
1,425
11,338
2,383
1,533
12,082
2,116
17,557
16,857
16,666
New files made up.
Designation.
1947.
1946.
10-year Average,
1938-47.
" O " files	
6,260
1,736
2,736
7,435
6,491
1,617
2,615
6,750
4,003
1,055
2,194
3,261
Totals	
18,167
17,473
10,513 REPORT OF GENERAL ADMINISTRATION FILE-ROOM. X 159
Files and Letters disposed of pursuant to Provisions of the
" Public Documents Disposal Act."
Old files destroyed—
Lands Branch        614
Forest Service        990
Water Rights Branch        481
Surveys Branch 	
2,085
Valueless letters inward (removed from " live " files)—
Lands Branch  	
Forest Service  25,592
Water Rights Branch  6,246
Surveys Branch   4,595
Miscellaneous inquiries   10,149
46,582
Letters outward destroyed (copies)—
Lands Branch  __	
Forest Service  12,817
Water Rights Branch  3,971
Surveys Branch   1,421
Miscellaneous inquiries   5,075
23,284
Approximately 175,000 files were removed from and returned to the vaults during
1947, and in the last quarter of the year a check showed that an average of 5,100 files
were charged out at any given time.
VICTORIA, B.C. :
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
194S.
1,815-248-8665
1 ' ' 

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