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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Annual Report of The Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1948

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Annual Report of
The Social Welfare Branch
of the Department of
Health and Welfare •
For the Year ended March 31st
1947
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1947.  Victoria, B.C., November 25th, 1947.
To His Honour C. A. Banks,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The Annual Report of the Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Health
and Welfare for the year ended March 31st, 1947, is herewith respectfully submitted.
GEO. S. PEARSON,
Minister of Health and Welfare.
Office of the Minister of Health and Welfare,
Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C. Social Welfare Branch,
Victoria, B.C., November 25th, 1947.
The Honourable G. S. Pearson,
Minister of Health and Welfare, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Social Welfare Branch
for the year ended March 31st, 1947.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
E. W. GRIFFITH,
Deputy Minister of Welfare. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Assistant Director of Welfare        	
Page.
     9
Child Welfare Division . _                  	
_                      _ 14
Family Service    -.       - -   	
  ____      30
Industrial School for Boys  .   _   	
       34
Industrial School for Girls       ._          -.          -          - -
48
Medical Services Division          - —. _        _ 	
            ..           . 53
Mothers' Allowances        	
      ____ 55
Old-age Pension Board     	
•  __ 61
Provincial Home _ _           _ 	
     _.          „ 77
Research Consultant	
  80
Social Allowances	
  81  REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH.
Victoria, B.C., November 21st, 1947.
E. W. Griffith, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Welfare.
Sir,—It is with pleasure that I submit the Annual Report of the Social Welfare
Branch of the Department of Health and Welfare for the year ended March 31st, 1947.
In the pages following will be found the reports of the various divisions comprising
the Branch. It will be noted that in the Branch report there are for the first time the
annual reports of the Boys' and Girls' Industrial Schools and the Provincial Home.
These institutions now come under the general administration of the Social Welfare
Branch.
As in past reports, divisional heads have placed emphasis on the items particularly
pertaining to their administrations, but I should like to comment on a few phases of
our activities.
During this past year there were two developments of major importance. The
first of these was the establishment of the Department of Health and Welfare on
October 1st, 1946, under the Minister of Health and Welfare and a Deputy Minister of
Health and a Deputy Minister of Welfare. On the formation of this new Department
our Branch became known as the Social Welfare Branch. This has meant some
rearrangement of responsibilities as between departments and branches, and I am
confident I speak for all our staff in expressing pleasure that our Branch has been
given this greater recognition.
The other development to which I refer was the decentralization of supervision,
which also was instituted on October 1st, 1946. This was a radical departure from
past methods of case-work supervision and was prompted by the desire to give better
service to the residents of this Province and more help to our social workers in carrying
generalized case-loads. Supervisors are strategically located with these ends in view.
While it is too early to properly assess the value of this procedure, it is already evident
that cases are being dealt with more expeditiously and workers are profiting by on-the-
job supervision. This move will. I am sure, be reflected in a higher standard of casework being given by our field staff. In her report, the Assistant Director of Welfare
has dealt in more detail with this forward move.
In reviewing the report on mothers' allowances it will be noted that the numbers
receiving this form of assistance have steadily decreased since 1940. In administering
the " Mothers' Allowances Act," the peak was reached in May, 1940, when there were
1,778 active cases. In March, 1947, active cases numbered only 863, which is but
46.85 per cent, of the May, 1940, total. Various reasons can be advanced for this
marked decrease. The first and most important is undoubtedly improved economic
conditions prevailing during the past few years. In the annual reports of the administration of the " Mothers' Allowances Act" will be found the reasons for cancellation
of allowances. The fact remains, however, that there is a falling-off in the number
of new applications and reapplications. To some extent at least, this is explained by
the broad coverage of our " Social Assistance Act," which would appear capable of
meeting every situation. This, of course, raises the question of categorical assistance,
the necessity of which is questioned by many of our staff.
The report of the Old-age Pension Board is, I consider, of special interest, as the
year under review marks the twentieth anniversary of the granting of old-age pensions
in British Columbia. In his report the Chairman of the Board has given a brief
history of old-age pensions in Canada, together with a few details of the first one
hundred to receive the pension in this Province.    It can be a matter of pride that not O 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
only was British Columbia the first Province to grant old-age pensions, but that twenty
years later the amount of pension together with the supplementary allowance and other
benefits place us in a position second to none in the whole of Canada. Of some significance is the fact that while 180 old-age and blind pensioners were transferred from
British Columbia to other Provinces, a total of 605 were transferred in from other
Provinces.
Social allowances have shown an increase this past year both in costs and in
numbers receiving aid. In endeavouring to determine the reasons for this, I feel that
we must not lose sight of the fact that during the war years many persons formerly
considered unemployable or but partially employable obtained employment of such a
nature that assistance was no longer required. Since the end of the war, employment
opportunities to this type of person have not been available to the same extent, and as
a consequence a fair number have been forced to apply or reapply for assistance.
Another factor which undoubtedly has some bearing is the increased population of
this Province. In March, 1942, there were 14,617 persons receiving this form of aid,
and at that time our population was estimated at 870,000.* In March, 1947, 10,753
were receiving social allowances, but our population for 1947 is estimated at 1,044,000.*
Our 1945 population was estimated at 949,000,* which means there has been an increase
of 95,000 during the past two years. In view of these circumstances I cannot think
that the increase in numbers on social allowance during the past two years is alarming.
Present indications are, however, that a further increase must be expected.
As more people come to reside in this Province, it follows naturally that more
demands will be made on every division of our Branch. This will be particularly
reflected in our Medical Services Division, which has shown a decided increase in
expenditure this year. The amendments to the " Old Age Pensions Act" and regulations, soon to become effective, will result in a greater number of applicants for
pensions. It is this older group which accounts in a great measure for medical services
costs, and I foresee higher expenditures in this Division during the coming year.
This past year has been difficult in that severe strains were placed on all divisions
as well as the field staff in preparing for and in the transitional period to the decentralization of supervision. In her report, the Superintendent of Child Welfare has
amplified this to some extent. With the splendid co-operation of all divisional heads,
supervisors, and workers, this was accomplished with but the minimum of disruption
of day-to-day duties.
The staff situation is one that has given some concern, but, as pointed out by the
Assistant Director of Welfare, this has improved somewhat. I anticipate a considerable
increase in our over-all case-load for the coming year, but I believe we are in a position
to effectively deal with all demands made upon us. The Social Welfare Branch is
playing an increasingly important role in the everyday life of the residents of British
Columbia, and it shall be our constant endeavour to render the best possible service to
those whom it is not only our duty, but privilege, to assist. In doing so, we shall ever
be mindful of the fact that the funds which we expend are supplied by the taxpayers
of this Province.
May I again take this opportunity of expressing my appreciation of the assistance
and co-operation I have received from municipal officials, branch and divisional heads,
and regional administrators. Our field staff of supervisors and social workers have
completed another year of work such as would leave no question as to their ability,
industry, and loyalty. Their ready acceptance and whole-hearted fulfilment of Branch
policy have made possible the forward steps undertaken by our Branch in ministering
to the social welfare needs of the people of this Province.
Respectfully submitted. q  ^  luNDY
Director of Welfare.
* Dominion Bureau of Statistics estimates. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47. 0 9
ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF WELFARE.
The most important development in the year under review was the achievement
of decentralized administration and supervision. Regional administrators, as reported
by the Director of Welfare, now have delegated authority to make expenditures, while
case-work supervisors have been given authority to sanction the expenditures recommended by the social worker.
Decentralizing supervision of social workers has proved to be an economical,
practical, and satisfactory move. The old method of supervision by correspondence
was wholly inadequate, involving large staffs in divisional offices and much waste in
time, effort, and stationery. Not only was the old method not economical, but it tended
to emphasize categorical thinking on the part of the social worker. Now the worker
may discuss the case with the supervisor across the desk, and instead of thinking of
the problems as belonging to one pigeon-hole or another, he may now think of the
family as a whole needing family case-work treatment. The case-worker can now use
and develop his professional skills under the supervisor's guidance, for staff development is a part of supervision. Old frustrations, too, have been removed, occasioned by
waiting for long periods of time for advice before taking action, and by the inevitable
misinterpretation of supervisory memos.
Four months' preparation was provided in which the supervisors had an opportunity to spend a week or more in each divisional office learning procedures, and on
October 1st, 1946, decentralization was achieved. There were only enough supervisors
with the required training and experience to staff four of the regions at this time,
Region 5, the northern area of the Province, carrying on under the old method of
supervision by correspondence.
With such a new undertaking it was presumed that the case-work supervisors
themselves would require helpful guidance, as uniform methods of supervision were
considered to be essential to sound development. For these reasons, in three of the
regions, regional supervisors were appointed, their task to co-ordinate methods, give
counsel to supervisors, and generally to be the channel through which problems, of
which there were many in the first six months under decentralization, should reach
the administration or the division concerned.
Thus the pattern now established in the field is as follows:—
Regional administrators, who work under the delegated authority of the
Director of Welfare in the matter of authorizing expenditures under the
" Social Assistance Act" and under the Assistant Director of Welfare in
the matter of personnel, office administration, statistics, transportation,
etc.
Regional supervisors (in three regions to co-ordinate the methods of supervision, to give guidance to case-work supervisors, and to act as the final
field authority in the matter of case-work planning on individual problem
cases.
Case-iuork supervisors, who give face-to-face supervision to the social workers
in the district and municipal social welfare offices assigned to them,
planning with the worker on every case, sanctioning expenditures, and,
through consistent teaching, assisting the staff to raise their standards
of performance for the sake of the client.
Social workers in both Provincial and municipal offices, the former carrying
out a generalized case-work job involving all the programs provided by
social legislation, the latter carrying out the work involved in social
assistance programs only—social allowances, mothers' allowances, old-age
pensions. O 10
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Clerical staff to provide the necessary accounting and stenographic work
involved in the careful records kept of all work performed.
The pattern in divisional offices has changed from one of giving supervision on
every case to one of giving expert consultation in one specialized form of service—child
welfare, family services, medical social work, psychiatric social work. In some divisions the legal implications. of their programs must remain the prerogative of the
divisional head. This legal and consultative responsibility therefore has become the
divisions' chief function under decentralization. The statistics given below closely
follow the set-up of last year's report in order that comparisons may easily be made.
DISTRICT OFFICES.
There are thirty-six social welfare offices in the Province—twenty-one under Provincial jurisdiction and fifteen under municipal jurisdiction.
PERSONNEL.
Actual appointments made during the year totalled fifty-three. To offset this
there were thirty-four resignations and retirements, which shows an actual increase of
only nineteen. Five members of the staff were given leave of absence for educational
purposes. The following figures show the number of social workers in both district
and divisional offices:—
April 1st, 1946.
March 31st, 1947.
Men.
Women.
Total.
Men.
Women.
Total.
35
5
36
71
5
35
6
56                    91
40
5
36
35
76
40
41
5
56
32
97
45
2
71
3
116
5
46
5
88
134
47
74
121
51
89
DIVISIONAL OFFICES.
In addition to divisional offices shown last year, the Girls' Industrial School has
been added. In divisional offices such as family services, child welfare, and old-age
pensions the function is entirely administrative and supervisory in character, whereas
in divisions such as psychiatric and tuberculosis there are patients in the institutions
and case-workers must be allocated to these divisions in addition to the supervisors
carrying administrative and supervisory responsibilities. The following figures show
how the above total of 37 is made up :—
Administrative
Supervisory.
General administration  2
Child Welfare  6
Family Services   1
Old-age pensions _. 2   .
Psychiatric Division (general)  £L_ 1
Mental hospital 	
Child guidance clinics
Medical social work (general)
Tuberculosis Division 	
Venereal Disease Division _
Caseworkers. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47. 0 11
Administrative Case-
,,....,                Supervisory.         workers.
Research Consultant .. , .     1
Training Supervisor  _...__.___:     1
Boys' Industrial School ._.__   1
Girls' Industrial School .     1
22 15
Total --.- .    37
At the end of the fiscal year the standing in regard to municipal agreements under
the " Social Assistance Act" was as follows: Worker for worker, 10; Municipal
worker (50 per cent, of salary paid by Province), 7. The balance of the municipalities
have agreed to pay for services rendered at 15 cents per capita, based on population.
CASE-LOADS.
The case-loads reported from the field for the month of March, 1947, were as
follows:—
Social Assistance Branch—
Social allowance __  6,638
Mothers' allowance  :  915
Family services L  775
Old-age pension  18,692
Child Welfare Division :  3,409
Provincial Board of Health—
Tuberculosis Division  :  348
Venereal Disease Division Li i  5
Hospitals and institutions—
Mental hospital  .  446
Child guidance clinic .  87
Hospital clearance T  17
Welfare institutions .  82
Provincial Infirmary  36
Collections  .___ „-_.,  69
Federal services—
Family allowances  i  1
Dependents' Board of Trustees  8
Dependents' Allowance Board   2
Others  3
Directorate of Social Science :__ :	
War veterans' allowance  5
Total .  31,538
This figure shows an increase of 2,472 over last year. The average case-load
carried by the district workers as at March 31st, 1947, was 272, as against 320 at
the beginning of the fiscal year.
SUPERVISORS' COUNCIL.
The Supervisors' Council, composed of the senior officials from each division, has
had an active year, guiding the various stages in preparation for decentralization.
The Policy Manual was completed and distributed to the staff as a whole, its three O 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
volumes outlining not only procedures involved in all forms of the work but also
enunciating the philosophy underlying the program in question. The fourth volume
is composed of sample forms. A few copies of this manual have been circulated to
universities, other public welfare departments outside the Province, and to the American Public Welfare Association.
The Council, in the year under review, set up a committee composed of all casework supervisors, to which have been assigned particular topics for exhaustive study.
This study committee has worked diligently, producing excellent material on methods
of recording and staff evaluations. Their recommendations have been particularly
valid, as the staff as a whole in regular staff meetings throughout the Province was
consulted, and their opinions incorporated in the studies. Many of these were adopted,
or are in the process of being adopted.
STAFF DEVELOPMENT.
Decentralized supervision marks the greatest step toward continuous staff development. Supervision and evaluation of staff implies constant learning and professional
growth on the job, and good results are bound to show in the years ahead in terms of
better service to the client.
Two in-service training classes were completed in the year under review. The
first, from June to September, included seven recruits, two of whom were municipally
appointed workers. The second, from October to December, was composed of twenty
persons, five of whom were municipal workers.
Orientation periods were arranged for all graduates from the University school
of social work and for those coming on the staff from other agencies. Two weeks
was considered a sufficient time in which to visit each of the divisions and institutions
before going to the field.
PUBLICATIONS.
The staff bulletin changed its name to " British Columbia's Welfare," and an
attractive cover featuring a picture of the Parliament Buildings was designed.
Articles of an educational and informative nature, book reviews, news of the regions
and municipalities, and notes about staff continued to comprise the contents. Circulation rose from 313 to 485 within the year.
LIBRARY.
At the end of the year under review the library contained 460 professional books
and pamphlets. Circulation was high, an average of 85 books per month being distributed to the staff, in-service trainees, and University students doing field-work in
our offices.
The library is housed in a large airy room in the Court-house, Vancouver, which
was acquired during this year. Furnished with well-made book-shelves built by the
Court-house carpenters, and with reading-tables, it provides an excellent room for
large or small meetings, as well as for in-service training lectures. The training
supervisor has her office in this room, moving from loaned quarters at the City Social
Service Department at 530 Cambie Street in July.
An average of twenty meetings per month have been held in the library since this
room was acquired, and numerous students and others have used it for quiet study.
CONFERENCES.
A conference of all those involved in the launching of decentralization convened
in the last week in September. Attended by the general administration, divisional
heads and supervisors, regional administrators and supervisors, and case-work super- REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47. O 13
visors newly assigned to field offices, the conference formed a necessary clearing-ground
for all matters related to decentralization. Every anticipated problem was reviewed,
and clarification obtained as to the new relationship between field and divisions.
The high enthusiasm evinced at this conference carried over into the ensuing
months, and in spite of predicted hard work and difficulty occasioned by the change to
decentralization, reports from the field indicated satisfactory results.
STUDENT PLACEMENT.
The University school of social work became this year accredited under the American Association of Schools of Social Work, granting a bachelor of social work degree
at the conclusion of one term of study and a master's degree after two years of study.
As the University considers that first-year students should have a thorough grounding
in the generalized field, with only second-year students specializing, none were placed in
divisional offices as in previous years. Fourteen students were placed in offices adjacent
to Vancouver—New Westminster, Burnaby, Vancouver district, and North Vancouver
—to be supervised by Provincial case-work supervisors.
CONCLUSION.
From the foregoing it will be obvious that the whole Branch directed all its efforts
this year toward achieving decentralization. Planning and preparation occupied six
months, and successfully launching the operation involved the remainder of the year.
This objective was one of the goals set many years ago, and its achievement is a
matter of pride to everyone in the Branch. With a well-established economical administration and with competent administrators and supervisors in the field, it is our new
objective to increase the quality of the work performed. The way is now clear to do
more and more constructive rehabilitation work, resulting in an ultimate saving of
public money and a more immediate saving of human values and family life throughout
the Province.
Respectfully submitted.
Amy Leigh,
Assistant Director of Welfare. O 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
CHILD WELFARE DIVISION.
In many ways this past fiscal year has been one of the most eventful in the Child
Welfare Division. On October 1st, 1946, we, like other divisions of the Social Welfare
Branch, decentralized a large degree of administration to district offices. Up to that
date all authority and responsibility for administration and supervision was centralized
in Divisional office. The expansion of services during the past few years and resultant
increase in district office staffs made it evident that the supervision required had to
be something more than we could possibly give by memo. It was also apparent that
if district staffs were to develop their initiative and skills, there must be a greater
sharing of responsibility as between Division and district staffs.
The authorities and responsibilities vested in the Superintendent of Child Welfare
under our three pieces of children's legislation—" Protection of Children Act," " Adoption Act," and " Children of Unmarried Parents' Act"—are essential and basic to a
good child welfare program. They could not, and should not, be weakened by a complete decentralization. We therefore delegated to the field those duties and responsibilities which would tend to simplify and improve service to the client, and retained in
Divisional office those responsibilities and authorities we believe provide the necessary
safeguards to an all-over child welfare program.
Responsibility for actual case-carrying and supervision of staffs is decentralized
to the district, but the following authorities and responsibilities remain centralized in
Divisional office:—
(1) Authority to apprehend a child under the " Protection of Children Act":
(2) Authority to admit a child to care as a non-ward:
(3) Authority to apply to  Court to rescind a committal order under the
" Protection of Children Act ":
(4) Responsibility for submitting the final report and  recommendation to
'     Supreme Court on adoption applications:
(5) Responsibility for disbursing collections under the " Children of Unmarried Parents' Act":
(6) Responsibility for obtaining and submitting reports to Supreme Court
on custody of children applications:
(7) Payment of all accounts for children in care.
The retaining of these authorities in Divisional office provides" a safeguard to our
legislative obligations and standards of work, and should strengthen the relationship
between case-work supervisors and workers with Divisional office. Each shares in the
making of decisions, and while the final word in these specific administrative areas
lies in Divisional office, each has opportunity to express his thinking.
Decentralization has been in effect for five months. There have been, and will
continue to be for a time, inevitable transitional difficulties, but already things are
beginning to take shape both in the Division and in the districts. The success of the
plan depends upon an adequate number of qualified and experienced district case-work
supervisors. As more district offices become adequately staffed in this regard, the
difficulties now being encountered will diminish.
During this transitional period Divisional office has a dual role to play: to assist
case-work supervisors in their new responsibilities by conference when possible and
where this is geographically impossible to confer by letter, and to see that our legislative responsibilities toward children in their own homes or apart from them are
fulfilled.
The first few months of decentralization and the four months preceding October
1st, 1946, made very heavy demands upon the decreased Divisional office staff. First,
an orientation period was arranged in the Division for all case-work supervisors before
going to the field.    Those going from the Child Welfare Division were given an oppor- REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47. O 15
- ■ - *     —	
tunity to spend time in other divisions in order that they might be familiar with all
phases of the Social Welfare Branch program. In the meantime the daily volume of
work in the Division did not decrease. Members of both the clerical and social work
staff are to be commended for the willingness with which they gave of their time and
energy in an effort to keep abreast of the work of the Division.
Anticipating a marked decrease in volume of mail and work in the Division, the
social work staff of fourteen members was decreased throughout the summer to six as
at October 1st, 1946, and the clerical staff of twenty-two to thirteen. Fortunately we
were able to take care of this latter decrease through ordinary resignations for personal
reasons throughout the summer, and no member of staff was asked to leave.
Two members of the social work staff were appointed as district case-work supervisors ; two went to the field as district social workers; one was transferred to another
Divisional office; one went to a Children's Aid Society as supervisor; and two temporary members left the service as planned—one of these was Miss Zella Collins, whose
record in child welfare work requires no elaboration in British Columbia or Canada.
We would like to express our sincere appreciation to Miss Collins for her help and
untiring support during her stay in the Division. It has been a privilege to work with
her and to test our thinking in the light of her long and broad experiences. We wish
her well in her new work and know she will continue to be a source of knowledge and
support to us outside the Division.
It is difficult to anticipate the effect a change in organization will have on the
volume and content of work. This was particularly true in regard to Divisional office's
immediate responsibilities under decentralization. Orientation periods cannot provide
opportunity to learn all things, and case-work supervisors can only do so much. It
became apparent almost at once that Divisional office would have to continue to give to
the field a great deal of help and support on individual case situations until district
workers became familiar with changed policies and procedures and case-work supervisors more secure in their new roles. The Divisional staff has endeavoured to do this,
but in the next year, and perhaps for some time to come, we will require additional
staff members and improved methods of bringing to district case-work supervisors and
staffs material and thinking which will be of help to them in their own and their
staffs' development.  .,   . • .,"
However, in spite of the increased pressures the Division and the district staffs
have felt during these past few months, there is no desire to return to centralization.
On the contrary, we are more than ever convinced that the plan of decentralization is
sound and good, and that the future under such a plan holds promise of better-trained
and more competent staffs, with resulting improved services to people.  ,. .,,
The function of the Child Welfare Division will change gradually to one of a more
truly child welfare consultative service to the, field, and this change will be geared to
meet the gradually changing needs of the field.
" PROTECTION OF CHILDREN ACT."
A total of 924 families with about 2,775 children were known during the past year
to district workers as children in need of protection. Of this number, 59 children from
41 families were apprehended under the " Protection of Children Act."
Number of
Children Number of
apprehended.       Families.
Region 1      6 5
Region 2   26 17
Region 3     7 5
Region 4     9 4
Region 5  11 10
Totals   59 41 0 16
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Twenty-two of the children from 7 families were made wards of the Superintendent
of Child Welfare. Applications to commit 22 children from 9 families are still before
the Court awaiting completion as at March 31st, 1947. Applications to commit 12
children from 9 families were withdrawn when the parents were subsequently helped
to make satisfactory plans for their care. One child was apprehended but not presented, as the parent was located within a short time and proved himself capable of
planning adequately for his child. An application to commit 2 children from 1 family
was dismissed by the Court.
In this last application we considered there was strong evidence against the parents
of physical cruelty to the children, and the fact that onus of responsibility for their
well-being now rests with the Court does not lessen our concern for them. The outcome of this hearing emphasizes the need for greater interpretation of our work to all
members of a community in order that our responsibility to.children may be better
understood.
"JUVENILE DELINQUENTS ACT."
In addition to these 59 children admitted under the " Protection of Children Act,"
there were 12 children made wards of the Superintendent of Child Welfare under the
" Juvenile Delinquents Act."
Number
of
Children.
Number
of
Families.
Age of Child.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
4
1
7
4
1
6
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
12
11
2
1
1
3
1
1
These children were all before the Court as delinquents under the " Juvenile
Delinquents Act," and we regret the haste with which some of them were removed
from their homes. We look forward, under decentralization, to the possibility of there
being a conference between the local social worker and the Court before the case is
disposed of in every instance where a child is in difficulty. In this way everything
possible could be done to enable the child to adjust in his own family group. If removal
is indicated, there would be proper opportunity to prepare the child and his family
for the separation and placement.
The Provincial Police department has assisted us greatly in our work with juveniles in their agreement to notify the district worker routinely of a Juvenile Court
hearing.    Their understanding of the value of this policy is much appreciated.
Of the 12 children committed to the Superintendent of Child Welfare under the
" Juvenile Delinquents Act," 7 are still in our care, 3 have been returned to their
parents, 1 was allowed to go and live with an interested uncle, and 1, although made
a ward of the Superintendent of Child Welfare, was given permission by the Court to
remain with his father. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47.
0 17
NON-WARD CARE.
In addition to the 71 children admitted under the " Protection of Children Act"
and " Juvenile Delinquents Act," district workers took into care 153 children from 104
families on a non-ward preventive basis.
Number of
Children.
Regi on 1   19
Region 2   62
Region 3  30
Region 4  19
Region 5  23
Total
153
Forty-one of these children were children of unmarried mothers, for whom plans
for adoption placement or return to their mothers' homes were in process of being
completed. The remaining 112 were children whose parents or sole surviving parent
was unable temporarily to care for them either because of some family crisis, as illness
or death of the mother, or because the child himself for innumerable reasons was finding life too difficult in his own home. A period apart from his family held hope of
opportunity to resolve some of the problems of the children in this latter group. Some
have benefited from placement, but more and more workers are coming to realize that
placement apart from parents is not the answer in all situations and that a greater
emphasis must be placed on work with the child and his parents in his own home. The
opportunity offered through decentralization to expand our resources in the field of
family case-work will pay high dividends in our program of preventive work.
As at March 31st, 1947, 46 of the children admitted to non-ward care had been
discharged to their parents, 9 were placed for adoption, 1 was discharged to a Children's
Aid Society for supervision when the parent moved into their jurisdiction, and 97 of
them were still in care.
RELATIONSHIP WITH MUNICIPALITIES.
The increased municipal participation in all phases of the social assistance program
during the past two years has done much to increase municipal understanding and
interest in matters pertaining to children. They have appreciated the Government
policy to share with them on an 80-per-cent. basis the cost of children in non-ward care.
The cost to municipalities of ward care, however, is still heavy, and it is gratifying to
know that the Government is even now giving consideration to the possibility of the
Department assuming a portion of the cost of ward care similar to what they are now
paying in non-ward care. O 18
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The following table shows the number of children who have been in the care of
the Superintendent of Child Welfare during the past fiscal year and the districts in
which they have been placed:—
Children in Care during Fiscal Year.
Children
N Care March 31st, 1947.
Wa^s.     N-
C.A.S.
Wards.
C.A.S.
Non-
wards.
O.P.
Wds.*
Total.
Wards.
Non-
wards.
C.A.S.
Wards
C.A.S.
Non-
Wards.
O.P.'
Wds.*
Total.
Region 1.
2
15
23
10
1
18
19
6
1
2
2
1
3
33
43
19
2
2
13
21
10
1
16
' 15
5
2
2
1
3
29
36
18
2
Totals	
50
44
5
1
100
46
37
4
1
88
Region 2.
8
1
5
27
3
1
12
4
7
21
13
5
2
1
2
1
4
1
23
4
1
13
54
17
6
6
1
2
27
2
1
5
3
4
17
9
3
1
1
2
1
4
1
13
3
1
New Westminster..
Abbotsford.	
North Vancouver-
7
50
12
4
Totals	
45
62
5
6
118
39
41
4
6
90
Region 3.
9
13
44
27
9
14
6
28
33
9
2
4
4
5
1
3
28
19
76
65  .
23
9
10
41
21
9
7
3
24
28
7
2
3
4
4
1
3
21
13
68
54
20
Totals	
102     |      90
15
1
3
211
90
69
13
1
3
176
Region 4.
Cranbrook	
23
31
8
13
12
3
2
1
37
45
11
15
31
6
10
11
2
2
1
26
44
8
Totals	
62
28
2
1
93
52
23
2
1
78
Region 5.
3
3
5
6
4
7
9
7
2
4
2
7
12
18
15
3
4
6
3
7
9
6
2
4
2
6
12
17
14
17     |       27
8
52
16
25
8
49
50
45
102
62
17
44
62
90
28
27
5
5
15
2
8
1
1
1
6
3
100
118
211
93
52
46
39
90
52
16
37
41
69
23
25
4
4
13
2
8
1
1
1
6
3
88
Region 2	
90
i76
78
49
Grand totals
276
251
35
3
9
574
243
195
31
3
9
481
* Other Province wards (cost of maintenance refunded by responsible Provinces).
Financial Eesponsibility.
Children in Care during Fiscal Year. Children in Care March Slst, 191,7.
Municipal responsibility  130 Municipal responsibility  125
Provincial responsibility  444 Provincial responsibility  356 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47.
0 19
In addition to these children, we asked a Children's Aid Society to care for the following children:—
Children in Care of Superintendent of Child Welfare placed with
Children's Aid Societies.
Children's Aid Society.
Wards
during Year.
Non-wards
during Year.
Wards,
Mar. 31, 1947.
Non-wards,
Mar. 31, 1947.
Total
in Year.
Total,
Mar. 31, 1947.
31
11
19
110
20
22
28
8
17
82
13
15
141
31
41
110
Victoria	
Catholic	
21
32
Totals	
61
152
53
110
213
163
Financial Responsibility. jn Year.    Mar. 31, 1947.
Municipal      88 78
Provincial    125 85
We also had 3 wards placed with relatives in another Province. Two wards continued to require care in the Provincial Mental Hospital and 2 wards were in the
Boys' Industrial School. Both of these boys had been committed to that institution
in the previous fiscal year.
In total, the  Superintendent of Child Welfare  assumed  responsibility for 794
children during the fiscal year:—
Wards—
Of Superintendent  344
Of Children's Aid Society     35
Of other Provinces       9
Non-wards—
Of Superintendent  403
Of Children's Aid Society      3
Total.
 :  794
At March 31st, 1947, the Superintendent of Child Welfare had in care:—
Wards—
Of Superintendent  302
Of Children's Aid Society  31
Of other Provinces   9
Non-wards—
Of Superintendent  305
Of Children's Aid Society   3
Total.
650 0 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
EXPENDITURES.
The following expenditures were made by the Division in the fiscal year:-
Paid by Provincial Government to Children's
Aid Societies for maintenance of children  $156,337.78
Less payments made by municipalities and
parents        29,430.25
$126,907.53
Cost of maintaining wards and non-wards in
Child Welfare Division foster-homes._    $91,561.97
Less payments made by Municipalities and
parents        34,253.73
 —      57,308.22
Transportation of children in Child Welfare
Division care      $3,689.52
Less payments made by parents  379.20
         3,310.32
Net expenditure  $187,526.07
MEDICAL PROGRAM.
The health of our children has been good during the past year. Looking over
the medical accounts received, their ailments appear to have been about the usual
suffered by children with their own parents—eye examinations and prescriptions for
glasses, repairs to glasses; chicken-pox; minor infections of fingers, heel, arm, and
hand; circumcision; an appendectomy; sore knee; headache; poison ivy, etc. There
were no serious accidents and no serious complications following any of the ailments.
A few children, however, with involved and serious physical handicaps have been
admitted, for whom we have tried to provide specialist services. One 10-year-old boy,
so badly crippled with arthritis he could not walk and crawled only with difficulty, has
been in care a number of months. It was frustrating to learn that this little boy
could not be helped medically, but there was at least some satisfaction in knowing that
all available advice has been obtained and that these months have afforded some
opportunity for his training and for preparing his family to care for him more adequately when he returns to them.
There is a question to be raised as to our facilities to care for the severely physically handicapped child. Treatment facilities for those who may benefit seem fairly
adequate, but for the chronically handicapped child there are few resources. An
institution is not the answer for all. Some could better continue in their own homes
with their own parents and sisters and brothers. Theirs will inevitably be a lonely
and limited adult life, and they should have at least some knowledge and memory of
the warmth and affection of life with their family. Some effort will need to be made
to determine the size of the problem throughout the Province and wherever possible
to provide help in the family home to enable the child to remain in his own home.
This might entail some additional financial aid or the employment of housekeeper
services on a part-time or full-time basis in order that the mother be relieved of some
of the burden. In other instances bedside nursing services, where available, would
help greatly.
There is also a need to plan with educationists for the teaching and training of
these children. Many of them cannot participate in ordinary school curricula, but
are intellectually capable of learning many things.    As they grow older, some may REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47. O 21
require permanent institutional care, but if their stay in their homes has been made
brighter and more comfortable, the later years of separation from family will be less
difficult.
Responsibility for medical care for children in care is delegated to the foster-
mother under the supervision of the social worker. When a school doctor is in the
district, the child receives the usual examinations, and the prescribed treatment and
preventive medicine measures are carried out, such as vaccination, toxoid, etc. A yearly
examination by the local medical practitioner is also arranged for each child in order
to complete our own medical record. In the case of illness of any child, the foster-
mother calls the local doctor and notifies the social worker. If the treatment prescribed or indicated is not procurable locally, the child is brought to a medical centre.
In districts where our foster-home program is well established, we are receiving excellent co-operation from the medical profession. In some districts there is need for
further interpretation of our work to doctors and public health nurses, but this will
be accomplished as our decentralized district offices become more stabilized.
Dental care is arranged locally also, and although we have felt the shortage of
dentists throughout the Province, as all families have, the dental health of our children
has been good.
In this fiscal year we spent $2,730.67 on medical and dental accounts for children
in Child Welfare Division foster-homes, or about $5 per child in care. This does not
represent the total cost of our medical program, however, since many doctors throughout the Province prefer not to charge for these services or to provide them at a reduced
rate. Also, to date we have not been required to pay for children needing any form
of hospitalization, since such institutions are in receipt of Government grants and
subsidy.
The cost of medical treatment for our children who were in the care of a Children's
Aid Society is, of course, included in the per capita rates paid the society.
CLOTHING.
The sum of $12,326.23 was spent on clothing this year for children in Child Welfare
Division foster-homes, or about $15.60 per child. This item has shown a considerable
increase this year and reflects the increase in general cost of living. Most foster-
parents prefer that the Child Welfare Division- pay for all clothing rather than receive
what we term the " higher rate " and pay for clothing themselves, but the figure quoted
is not truly representative of this cost, since some do prefer to purchase the clothing
themselves out of the foster-home rate paid.
The rates during the fiscal year were:—
Type A (Foster-mother supplies Clothing).
Per Week. Per Week.
Up to 6 years  $4.30 10-14 years  $4.80
6-10 years     4.55 14-18 years     5.20
Type B (Child Welfare Division supplies Clothing).
Per Week. Per Week.
Up to 6 years  $4.00 10-14 years  $4.40
6-10 years     4.20 14-18 years     4.55
It would appear necessary for us to consider the need to increase these rates next
year in view of the constant rise in cost of living generally.
We do appreciate the flexibility of Government policy which enables us to offer
a special rate to foster-parents for certain children who require extra care and
attention.    If we were not able to do this, we would be hard pressed to plan adequately O 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
for some children. For instance, the 10-year-old crippled boy who had to be tended
like an infant, or the little girl whose complete unhappiness upon admission made it
impossible for her to remain continent either day or night, or the teen-age boy who
came from Juvenile Court because of stealing, rudeness, late hours, and many other
unattractive traits. Such problems require infinite patience and understanding from
foster mothers and fathers, and our appreciation of their interest and skills can be
shown to a degree by offering them a reasonably increased rate.
EDUCATION AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING.
A goodly number of children in care are retarded at school, and this is understandable. It is not always due to a lack of ability to learn, although this is true of
some. These children have all had unhappy experiences of one kind or another, and
this makes good adjustments in school difficult. As a result, a few only go on to higher
education or enter a professional field, and there is need to expand the present opportunities for vocational training for boys and girls in order that they may become
independent adults. In a Province with so many natural industries there should be
opportunities for boys in particular to learn worth-while trades, and this resource we
hope to develop.
If a child shows ability and an interest to continue at school, this is made possible,
and we have tried to fulfil our role of guardian in this instance by giving whatever
help the child may require to achieve his goal. One girl, who had known a particularly
unhappy home-life, wanted to be a nurse, and enrolled this year in a local hospital.
We are providing her a regular allowance, out of which she will be able to buy what
clothing, books, etc., she will require during her three years' training period. She is
doing well in her chosen field, and, by making this comparatively small expenditure,
we hope to have the satisfaction of seeing a child become self-supporting and an independent citizen. Another girl, for whom a comparable plan was worked out last year
to enable her to become a teacher, sent us a substantial cheque recently, saying she
wanted to " repay at least part " as she felt in this way some other child could be
helped toward a better education.
Boys do not as frequently want to go on in school as girls do. Perhaps this is
because employment opportunities for youths are more varied and because during the
war years many were attracted from school by highly paid war-industry jobs. As
district staffs become stronger and more able to give close supervision to children in
care, and perhaps as we acquire more male supervisors for children, greater interest
in continued schooling for boys will result.
FAMILY ALLOWANCES.
As at March 31st, 1947, 335 children in Child Welfare Division foster-homes were
in receipt of family allowances. A change in Federal Government policy now requires
us to withhold in trust a part of all allowances paid for children who have been in
a foster-home less than one year. As a result, as at March 31st, 1947, out of a total
of $19,617.27 received from the Family Allowance Department we have a Family
Allowance Trust Account of $1,384.28. This money can be used from time to time at
the discretion of the social worker, and, in order that he may know how much is
available for each child, since decentralization we have been sending periodic statements to each district showing the balance in each child's account. In some instances
the child, foster-parents, and worker think it best to leave the money to accumulate
for future use in education, etc., but if purchase of some coveted article is indicated,
then the money is made available. Payment of family allowance for children who
have remained in the one foster-home for over a year is made direct by the Family
Allowance Department to the foster-mother. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47. O 23
Under decentralization it will be possible in time to learn more about the uses of
family allowances for foster-children. At present we are inclined to feel that it is
looked upon as an increase in the total foster-family income, and foster-children benefit
as own children are benefiting in that families are more able to provide extras, or on
occasion luxuries, for them.
"ADOPTION ACT."
This has been an extremely active year in this field. There were 35 more applications to Supreme Court for completion of adoptions throughout the Province this year
than last. The following shows the regional distribution of all applications to complete
adoptions this year:— No.
Region 1  1    36
Region 2     93
Region 3      37
Region 4     21
Region 5        7
Children's Aid Societies (Vancouver and Victoria)  165
Out of Province      6
Total  365
During this past year the Child Welfare Division placed 69 children in district
adoptive homes as against 35 last year. The regional distribution of these placements
was:— No.
Region 1  :  11
Region 2  23
Region 3  15
Region 4  14
Region 5     6
Total -.  69
The demand for children for adoption still far exceeds the numbers available,
except in the Roman Catholic groups. This lack of response on the part of Roman
Catholic families is a constant concern to us and to the Children's Aid Society of the
Catholic Archdiocese of Vancouver. Babies who are not going to be reared by their
own parents should be given the advantage of early placement in a permanent home.
This we are not able to do for all Roman Catholic babies, and on our own behalf and
in support of the Catholic agency we would like to urge all members of the Roman
Catholic Church who read this report to interest themselves and others in the welfare
of these children.
Number of Approved Adoption Homes awaiting Placements.
Region 1
Region 2
Region 3
Region 4
Region 5
Total.
Roman
Catholic
Homes.
50
2
67
60
3
28
2
17
4
Totals  222 11
Of the 11 Roman Catholic homes, only 2 are available as at March 31st, 1947. O 24
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The following numbers of children were in Provincial adoption homes on adoption
probation during the past year:—
Placed
by an
Agency.
Placed
privately.
One
Adopting
Parent is
Natural
Parent or
Relative.
Total on
Probation.
Region 1	
Region 2	
Region 3	
Region 4	
Region 5	
Totals.
35
65
32
29
15
67
93
33
21
25
40
72
35
23
25
142
230
100
73
65
176
239
Of the 610 adoptive families in our various regions, it is interesting to note in
the table above by whom the placements were made. These figures show a considerable
decrease in private placements, but there are still far too many, and it is still far too
easy for unsuitable parents to obtain a child. Some of the results of such placements
are truly shocking and indicate a need for more stringent legislation regarding the
placement of children for adoption. Recently a 10-day-old baby was placed through
private efforts with adopting parents from whom one child had already been removed
as in need of protection under the " Protection of Children Act." The second child
was in the home only a few days when a Children's Aid Society received a complaint
that he, too, was in need of protection. It should not be possible for any child to be
subjected to such cruel risks, and we would hope that sound legislative protection could
be provided.
In recommending legislation to control private adoption placements, it could be
said that we are infringing upon the rights of parents. We submit, however, that in
adddition to protecting the rights of children, such legislation would also extend a
protection to parents who wish to relinquish a child for adoption. By having a proper
investigation made prior to the placement, they can be assured that the home in which
their child is to be placed is a good and suitable one. To curtail their actions in
planning the adoption placement of their children is not so much an infringement
upon parental rights as it is a protection of their own and their children's rights.
These occasional instances of circumventing usual adoption-placement channels
do not mean that our adoption practices are not acceptable to other professional groups
or the public in general. On the contrary, we are impressed with the increased understanding of members of other professions and lay groups of the need to consider
placement of children as a highly specialized field and not a task to be undertaken by
anybody and everybody.
As in other areas of child welfare, we see in decentralization increased opportunity for improved adoption practices because improved supervision will help workers
to make a more thoughtful evaluation of the needs of the child, his family, and the
prospective new parents.
" CHILDREN OF UNMARRIED PARENTS' ACT."
Through the co-operation of doctors and other members of communities throughout
the Province there has been a marked increase in the early referrals of unmarried
mothers, and this has been a tremendous help to us. Because of this early contact, we
are able to be of greater service to the unmarried mother and thereby make more
adequate plans for her and her child. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47.
0 25
The Government policy whereby we pay 80 per cent, of the per capita cost for
children in non-ward care who have municipal residence also continues to be a strength
in our work with the unmarried mother. Municipalities now rarely feel this cost a
heavy burden and are more ready to accept a proposal to admit a child temporarily.
However, we are still required to approach a municipality to underwrite 20 per cent,
of the cost, and, in a small locality, this can cause a difficult situation for the unmarried
mother. Many times she has left her own community in order that her predicament
may not become known, and she feels her return is made almost impossible when this
confidence has ultimately to be shared with those who know her " back home." This
situation is equally true if the child has to be committed. Municipalities have to be
notified under the " Protection of Children Act." Since these children rarely, if ever,
return to grow up and live in the municipality of the mother's residence and thereby
recompense the municipality by their earning and subsequent spending power, it seems
reasonable to suggest that the Provincial Government consider assuming the total cost
of care of the illegitimate child who for one reason or another must be reared by an
agency.
There has been a small decrease in the total number of illegitimate births throughout the Province and a marked decrease in cases known to the Division during this
past fiscal year. This last is largely due to the fact that we have formed a policy with
the Children's Aid Societies and Family Welfare Bureaux whereby they may interview
the putative father when the unmarried mother is already known to them. This is
proving to be extremely satisfactory for all concerned. It eliminates a duplication of
services, lessens confusion in the client's mind by referrals to other agencies, and the
results have been highly satisfactory.
The collections under the " Children of Unmarried Parents Act " were $27,633.85
for the year, and are $4,378.90 less than last year. This we had anticipated with the
demobilization of the armed forces. It is no longer so easy to contact the putative
fathers, and if an order or agreement is obtained, it is more difficult to enforce it
because civilian employment in this group usually implies working at many and various
points throughout the Province in a year and probably for as many different employers.
Included in the total collections for the year is $4,397 accepted as settlement in full
in fifteen cases. In each instance settlement seemed to meet best the needs of the
unmarried mother, the putative father, and their child. In seven cases the money paid
is being disbursed by monthly payments to the mother for the child. In eight others
the amount of the settlement was meant to cover expenses incurred by the mother only,
and these have been paid. The constructive use of settlements can be an important
factor in our work with unmarried parents.
The following table shows the number of new unmarried-parent cases referred to
the five regions during the past fiscal year as well as the total numbers carried in
the year:—
Totai
during
Year.
New,
1946-47.
New Orders
and
Agreements,
1946-47.
Total Orders
and
Agreements.
Closed.
Total,
Mar. 31,
1947.
189
518
134
104
89
33
66
52
27
32
3
8
4
2
30
52
41
39
25
95
297
13
6
6
94
221
121
98
83
1,034
210
17
187
417
617
Shared by Child Welfare Division  and Children's  Aid  So-
935
211
19
217
226
609
1,969
421
36
404
643
1,226 0 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Under decentralization a more accurate analysis and evaluation of our work with
the unmarried mother and her child will be possible. Statistics compiled in Divisional
office are not without value, but only as the worker who works with the unmarried
mother feels the need to know more about the results of his work can statistics become
meaningful.
For instance, in the following table we have tried to learn something about where
children born to unmarried parents are reared. Even from the information taken
from Divisional office statistical cards the results are illuminating, but how much more
so such an analysis could be when each district worker can determine not only where
the child is, but also from his knowledge contribute something about the results of
placement.
In agency care     15
Placed for adoption  105
With mother or relative  232
Ward under " Protection of Children Act "     35
Unknown   230
Total   617
(It is to be noted in the above figures that only 210 of these were new referrals
this last fiscal year. The remaining 407 have been known to district offices for a period
of two years or more.)
OVERSEAS CHILDREN.
As at April 1st, 1946, we had thirty-one overseas children in British Columbia.
On March 31, 1947, there were but nine still under age and under our supervision.
Of these thirty-one children, eleven are now self-supporting and have obtained
permanent resident status in Canada; two completed professional training this year
and returned to England. The parents of six children came out to Canada and have
now established homes in British Columbia. The parents of two children came out to
British Columbia but later returned to Great Britain with them. One child under
18 years of age returned to England, and two are awaiting completion of their plans
to return. Two other children are awaiting the arrival of their parents in British
Columbia.
Five children still under 18 will be remaining permanently in British Columbia.
Three of these will continue to live with the foster-parents, one will remain with a
relative, and one is to be adopted legally by her foster-parents. These arrangements
for younger children to remain in Canada are contrary to the agreement made with
the Children's Overseas Reception Board at the time the overseas children arrived, but
circumstances have developed within the five children's own family making it inadvisable for them to return. The arrangements for their staying in British Columbia
have been discussed carefully by the overseas agencies with the parent or parents, and
it is with their full agreement and understanding that these five children are remaining
in Canada.
SUPREME COURT REFERRALS FOR INVESTIGATIONS
RE CUSTODY OF CHILDREN.
During the past seven years the Supreme Court of British Columbia has asked the
Superintendent of Child Welfare to have investigations made and reports submitted on
several applications for the custody of children. These usually followed' divorce proceedings, and some Judges have felt unwilling to make decisions as to the future
custody of the children on the evidence brought out at the divorce hearings alone.
Under our present legislation there is apparently no legal authority for such a request REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47. 0 27
to be made by the Court, but, because of the opinions expressed by the Chief Justice
of British Columbia and a number of Judges of the Supreme Court, we have agreed to
make the investigation in situations where counsel for both parties consent to such
investigation being made.
We are advised by the Courts that our reports have been of value to them in
dealing with so important a matter as the future welfare of children. It would
therefore seem advisable for the Courts, the legal profession, and the child welfare
agencies to consider the need of having legislation which would make it legally sound
for such reports to be supplied to Courts upon request.
The following numbers of reports in this respect have been submitted to Supreme
Courts since 1939:—
1939-40     3 1944-45     26
1940-41     2 1945-46      15
1941-42     1        '       1946-47    24
1942-43   18 —
1943-44   51 Total  140
Of these 140 requests, 113 have been under the " Divorce and Matrimonial Causes
Act" and 27 under the " Equal Guardianship of Infants Act."
RELATIONSHIPS WITH THE DEPARTMENT
OF INDIAN AFFAIRS.
During the year some definite policy has been established with the Department of
Indian Affairs in regard to the delinquent child and the unmarried mother and her
child.
Indian children in an Industrial School usually have difficulty in adjusting to the
institutional setting. The restricted quarters, the difference in cultural pattern, and
the institutional routine are so completely at variance with the child's former way of
life that committal to a school frequently results in undesirable behaviour.
What type of treatment would better meet the Indian child's needs is something
to be considered as the Department of Indian Affairs expands its services. In the
meantime we have endeavoured to form policies with the Department which would
safeguard against any child remaining in an Industrial School after he has received
the maximum benefit from his stay in the school. The Indian Agent, through the
Inspector of Indian Agents, is kept informed of the child's progress in the school and,
with the help of the local social worker, plans for the child's return to his community.
Likewise in the case of an unmarried mother, the Indian Agent, with the help
of the local social worker, makes the best plan possible for mother and child within
the resources of his own Department. By working with the Indian Agents through
the Inspector of Indian Agents we feel we are assisting the Department of Indian
Affairs to establish uniform policies in child welfare in all Provincial agencies. At the
same time we are fulfilling our legislative responsibilities and offering Provincial
services where indicated to this portion of the population of the Province.
We are grateful for the co-operation and help we have received from Mr. D. M.
MacKay, Commissioner for Indian Affairs, and his staff.    .
BOYS' AND GIRLS' INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS.
Considerable progress has been made by the Child Welfare Division and the Boys'
and Girls' Industrial Schools in establishing policies and procedures in regard to boys
and girls returning to the community.
No child is now discharged from a school without some arrangement for follow-up
by a social agency.    This implies early and regular contact between the school and the 0 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
agency in the home community; both should be constantly aware of the child's progress
in the school, as well as his family's attitude toward him.
With supervision available in the field under decentralization, work with boys and
girls from the schools will become increasingly more effective.
CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETIES.
With increased Government participation in child welfare in British Columbia,
a change in the function of Children's Aid Societies and other private agencies seems
inevitable. As Government becomes more willing and able to assume responsibility
for certain services to children, private agencies will be freed to consider the development of new and different kinds of services.
This year has seen an interesting development in this direction in the Victoria
agencies. In this city there is a non-denominational Children's Aid Society and a
Family Welfare Association. The boards of these two agencies are in process of
considering the advantages of a combined agency and the possibilities of developing
a truly family and children's services agency. This would involve an ultimate transfer
of certain functions of the Children's Aid Society to the Superintendent of Child
Welfare. These would lie in the area of protection and placement and supervision of
wards under the " Protection of Children Act" and " Juvenile Delinquents' Act," as
well as a limited number of temporary non-ward placements.
Plans for these developments are purposely moving slowly. On our part it will
be necessary to prepare staffs and establish the necessary administrative organization to assume these new responsibilities, and the two private agencies will require
time to work through the administrative detail of change in legal and functional
responsibilities.
The development carries with it a challenge to both this Department and the
private agencies concerned. When the amalgamation and subsequent transfer of work
is achieved, it should offer a pattern for the future division of work and responsibilities
between public and private agencies in this Province and throughout the Dominion.
There is a good working relationship between the Child Welfare Division and the
three Children's Aid Societies, and we feel their continued support and understanding
of the changes necessary to effect decentralization has been indicative of this.
CHILDREN IN CARE OF CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETIES
AS AT MARCH 31st, 1947.
Vancouver Children's Aid Society.
Wards   635
Provincial responsibility   234
Municipal responsibility  396
No maintenance order      4
Child over 18 (maintenance order expired)      1
Non-wards   235
Catholic Children's Aid Society.
Wards   311
Provincial responsibility '.     91
Municipal responsibility  154
In free institutions or homes     66
Non-wards  118 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47. 0 29
Victoria Children's Aid Society.
Wards   102
Provincial responsibility     39
Municipal responsibility     63
Non-wards     64
LOYAL PROTESTANT HOME.
During this past year we have had considerable contact with the Loyal Protestant
Home at New Westminster. We are gratified by the board's eagerness to discuss child
care in general in an effort to see their institution become an integral part of the total
child welfare program.
PRINCE OF WALES FAIRBRIDGE FARM SCHOOL.
We are also able to report a satisfactory relationship with this school. The
principal of the school and the newly appointed Superintendent of Child Care have met
with us frequently during the year, and together we are developing policies and
procedures which would appear to offer greater safeguards in the matter of selectivity
of children coming to British Columbia from Great Britain under this scheme. The
appointment of a Superintendent of Child Care within the school we feel offers increased
opportunity for individual planning for children.
This has indeed been a year of new and interesting developments in the Social
Welfare Branch. In closing this annual report we would like to express our sincere
appreciation to members of the field service staff for the help and support they
have given the Child Welfare Division in its efforts to make a contribution to these
developments.
Ruby McKay,
Superintendent of Child Welfare. O 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
FAMILY SERVICE.
Herewith is submitted the annual report of the Family Service Section of the
Family Services Division for the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1947. This was a
momentous year for all the divisions of the Social Welfare Branch in that the long-
sought goal of decentralization was finally achieved. It represents a period of much
thought and planning and revision of procedures and policies on the part of every
member of the staff, and a period in which the writer was not privileged to participate,
except for the last two months of the year. Therefore this report can only embody for
the most part facts and material obtained from reading of correspondence, perusal of
reports, and personal discussions, and in a way, therefore, can only be a review from
observation of a period in the development of family services that is already well-known
history to many.
During the period under review it could perhaps be said that the Family Service
Section has been placed at a disadvantage by frequent changes in the Divisional supervisory personnel. Each supervisor has contributed immeasurably to the development
of family services, but any program could not escape being hampered by such a lack of
continuity in direction. The thought and effort and hopes of each supervisor in turn
could not be crystallized into any long-range plan of progress, but their achievement by
way of consolidation of the gains already made, and a vision of the future too, should
serve as a firm and sound base on which to build further the family services.
Under decentralization with the case-work supervision given in the district office
by the case-work supervisor, the function of the Divisional office had to be redefined.
In the Family Service Section, where for the most part a statistical card is the only
record of an active case, the function was considered to be of an advisory and directional
nature. It should also be a central office for the compiling of information relating to
family service and a source to which the field can turn for any help they may need with
family problems. Another major function of the Divisional office should be the planning of policy with other divisions of the Branch in order to be of the greatest possible
help to the workers, who are the ones to implement and carry out these policies.
With these objects and aims in view it was hoped to be able to direct the program
along the most effective lines to give the maximum assistance to those in the field,
which would in turn enable them to render maximum service to those families faced
with situations and problems which are beyond their own ability to solve.
From a brief glance in review, a little farther back, it is shown that the Family
Service Section of the Family Services Division was established in 1944, and had as its
purpose the consolidation and strengthening of those services offered on behalf of
individuals and families where financial need was not necessarily the focal point of the
situation. It was not a new service, indeed family service is the basic service in all
cases of need, but rather a recognition of a type of service already being rendered by
the worker in the field in those situations which did not fall within the area of the
already existing specialized divisions and could not be solved by financial aid alone as
economic need was not the immediate or basic problem.
Family service is also a recognition of the principle that the family is the primary
and most important unit of our society. We should not lose sight of the importance of
the individual, but should recognize that a family is made up of a group of such individuals bound together by a tenuous, but none the less strong, tie. Therefore, any
service that can be given to strengthen that unit and prevent its breakdown is an
important part of any welfare program, and a sound investment in the present and
future progress of the nation, and a saving in terms of human welfare.
It has been said before that some of the problems presented, such as domestic
discord, behaviour problems, destructive attitudes, and personality difficulties, can be
as surely disrupting to family life as economic stress, although not always as easily REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47. 0 31
discernible. A general review of the information available to us on the cases which
come to the workers for attention only serves to confirm this statement.
It is our function, therefore, to endeavour to treat these disrupting factors
wherever they occur in order to assist the family or individual to recognize and face
such problems, so that they may resolve or minimize them and bring about as nearly
as possible a restoration of normal independent life.
Certainly there was a recognized need for such service during the disturbing war
years, and now that we are engaged in " winning the peace " the need apparently has
not lessened.
While the fiscal year 1946-47 gave us our first full peace-time year, there were still
many families who were not united by reason of the fact that there were still occupation
forces in Europe and many men continued in the interim forces in Canada. This
situation was reflected in the continuing services rendered to families at the request
of Federal war-time agencies—the Dependents' Board of Trustees, the Dependents'
Allowance Board, and the Directorate of Social Science. As at April, 1946, there were
125 such cases shown as active in the monthly analysis of case-load from the field
service, but the number dropped steadily to March, 1947, when only 11 were shown.
There were also the families who were already reunited, as well as those where
the father had not been out of the home, and the above figures are in direct contrast
to the trend in the total family service case-load for the same period. The number
rose steadily from 497 in April, 1946, to a high of 804 in September, and after a
temporary decrease in October, possibly due in part to the commencement of the
decentralization program and closer review of active cases, the numbers mounted again
to a total of 775 as at March 31st, 1947. The average monthly case-load for the Province was 676.
Due to various factors it has not yet been possible to establish a comprehensive
statistical system for family service cases. It was possible, however, to do a sample
count of the case-load, and the following figures are based on a review of about one-
half (441 cases) of the maximum active case-load of 804, and it is believed they would
be indicative of the type and incidence of the major problems in the total case-load.
Incidence in Total
Case-load reviewed.
Problem. ■ Per Cent.
Parents separated   25
Desertion of father K  11
Desertion of mother     6
Death of parent 1    7
Marital discord  22
Marital discord after war service  10
Maintenance for wife and children     9
Divorce or legal separation  11
Behaviour problems of children  11
Juvenile Court cases      9
Placement with relatives or in foster-home     4
Health  15
Mental health or defect     6
Illegitimacy     9
Financial difficulties  (non-support or inadequate income)   21
Inadequate housing     9
Unsatisfactory home conditions     27
It should be pointed out that more than one of these problems could and did occur
in many of these cases. For example, one family might be faced with the problems of
desertion of the father, behaviour problems in a child, health, and inadequate housing. 0 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The percentages, therefore, indicate the frequency of the individual problems in the
case-load reviewed.
The latter classification represented a general grouping of all unsatisfactory factors
in the home situation, including those which might lead to need of protection for the
child, and those of low living standards, low intelligence, personality difficulties of
parents, and poor parent-child relationships, any one or combination of which would
result in an unsatisfactory situation in the family group.
It will be seen that in 79 per cent, of the cases financial need was not recorded as
a major problem. Even among the 21 per cent, listed under financial difficulties, a
great many represented border-line cases where it was only necessary to supplement for
emergency needs, such as housekeeping services, or extraordinary needs arising out of
health problems. In some cases it was a matter of arranging for contributions from
the husband in cases of separation.
BRITISH COLUMBIA YOUTH FOUNDATION.
During the fiscal year under review this foundation was established by Mr. John S.
McKercher to aid handicapped young people in British Columbia. Handicapped means
mainly in the financial sense, but assistance with the costs of medical and surgical care
may be considered. The foundation is also authorized to receive and administer any
donations for any particular purpose which will benefit children and youth, but the
original donation is specifically for the purpose of assisting underprivileged and handicapped youth to equip themselves physically and mentally to make their own way in
life and become good citizens of Canada, and we are gratified to be asked to participate
in this plan.
Under an arrangement with the application committee of the foundation all applications to the fund are directed through the Family Services Division for completion by
the field service of the necessary inquiries and reports. These are then submitted to
the application committee for its consideration.
The services of our workers were not requested until August 1st, 1946, but from
then to March 31st, 1947, five reports had been requested. This is a comparatively small
number, but represents collateral visits and interviews on the part of the workers in
order to obtain the necessary information from schools and references as well as the
family and applicant.
There would seem to be a truly great need and scope for such a fund, and no doubt
the number of applicants will increase steadily as the fund and its purposes become
better known.
FAMILY ALLOWANCES.
By arrangement with the Federal Department of National Health and Welfare all
requests for investigations into family circumstances which might affect the payment
of family allowance are also directed through the Family Services Division for referral
to the field service. Reimbursement is made by the Family Allowances Division on
each case where a report is requested. For the fiscal year April 1st, 1946, to March
31st, 1947, a total of 582 requests were received.
GENERAL REMARKS.
At the present time the exigencies and volume of the work do not permit of the
close and intensive case-work service which everyone would like to be able to give in
the family-problem case, but it is hoped, as time goes on, that it will be possible to
render more and more a helpful service to all those families that are not able to meet
their own problems within the limits of their own resources and must turn to the caseworker for guidance and counsel.    In this way our greatest contribution can be made REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47. 0 33
in the prevention of the disintegration of families or of the development of more serious
problems which endanger family life and are often costly to the state and the individuals
concerned.
It is always a pleasant sign to read the closing summary on a statistical card that
the problem has been met and resolved, and no further case-work services are required,
which must also be a source of satisfaction to the worker for the time and effort
expended in helping one more family to a more normal way of life.
J. M. Riddell,
Supervisor. 0 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR BOYS.
I submit herewith the forty-third annual report of the Provincial Industrial School
for Boys. The statistical tables and departmental reports will be found to contain some
interesting facts, to which your attention is respectfully directed.
Sixty-nine boys between the ages of 8 and 18 years were admitted during the year,
this being a decrease of 42 from last year. (This, however, should not be taken as an
indication that juvenile delinquency is decreasing, as the admissions for the first six
months of 1947 are in excess of the total admissions for the year 1946-47.)
Twenty-eight Juvenile Courts are represented this year, as against forty-six during
the preceding twelve months. The average age of those committed was 14.5 years.
Twenty boys, or 29 per cent, of our population, were between 8 and 13 years of age;
thirty-eight boys, or 55.1 per cent., between 14 and 16 years of age; and eleven boys,
or 15.9 per cent., were 17 years of age and over.
A breakdown into the Welfare Department districts shows that 20.3 per cent, came
from Region 1, Vancouver Island; 52.2 per cent, from Region 2, the Lower Mainland;
8.7 per cent, from Region 3, Okanagan; 7.2 per cent, from Region 4, Kootenay; and
11.6 per cent, from Region 5, Cariboo and north.
Both the daily average attendance and the number of inmate-days show a decrease
from the past few years.
1944-45 31,083 inmate-days, daily average,     85 boys.
1945-46 27,144 inmate-days, daily average,    74 boys.
1946-47 19,456 inmate-days, daily average, 53.3 boys.
As in previous years, theft and breaking and entering and stealing appear to be
the major delinquency, and were responsible for fifty committals. The balance of
nineteen represents a variety of other forms of misdemeanour.
The report of our nurse-matron indicates the extent of our health services and the
fact that many of the lads sent to us are below par physically and in need of medical
and dental care. This service is provided and every effort made to restore them to
normal health.
It will be noted from Mr. Blagburn's report on academic and vocational training
that the lack of facilities is a handicap and limits the extent of our effort to provide an
adequate training program. We feel that industrial arts and occupational therapy
should form the backbone of our training program, as the majority of boys coming
under our care will eventually earn their living by manual effort, and our function is to
help equip them to become useful, self-supporting citizens. The fact that admissions
to and releases from the school take place irregularly throughout the year causes much
disruption and interferes with the continuity of instruction. This will be partially
overcome when the school is established in modern quarters.
Very satisfactory progress is shown in the report of the social work department
and indicates the close co-operation existing between the various agencies concerned.
It also gives a brief outline of the service being rendered and procedure followed from
the time of a boy's admission to the time of his release or parole. The services given
by the psychiatric clinic have proved invaluable to the school and, as occasion permits,
will be called upon to a greater extent.
Various recreational activities assume a major place in our school program, each
boy having approximately thirty hours per week of supervised play, including physical
training, aquatics, group work, and league games. While we have not produced any
championship teams, the school has had representative teams in football, lacrosse,
basketball, and Softball, in which our boys enjoyed a fair share of honours. Weekly
moving-picture shows have done much to brighten institutional life and are eagerly
anticipated from week to week. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47. O 35
Considerable improvement to the grounds has taken place during the year. With
the removal of the old chicken-houses the garden has been extended, and presents a more
pleasing landscape. Mr. Munro's report on the garden and greenhouse work shows
that the 1946 crop was well worth the effort expended, as well as providing an excellent
training feature for the boys.
The most disturbing factor in our year's effort is that of truancy from the school,
and while this is confined to approximately the same group, who leave time after time,
only to be brought back to the same quarters from which they ran away, it has a most
disturbing effect on those who are endeavouring to derive benefit from their training and
make good. Our lack of segregation and detention facilities for those difficult to handle
and those who will not conform to the honour system places us in an embarrassing
position and weakens our training program. It is our hope that the development of the
new school may soon be undertaken in order that we may have adequate resources for
the treatment of the boys sent to us for training.
Our grateful thanks and appreciation are due to Rev. J. P. Kane, Coquitlam;
Mr. John Wilson, Vancouver; the Salvation Army; and the Sapperton Baptist Church
for their continued interest in the spiritual welfare of our school population, Catholic
and Protestant services being held every Sunday throughout the year and many other
services rendered.
I would like to pay tribute to our school staff, who have worked together harmoniously during the year and have displayed genuine interest in the welfare of the boys,
and to the many individuals and departments of the Government and other agencies
with whom we work for the generous measure of help and co-operation we have enjoyed.
George Ross,
Superintendent.
MOVEMENT OF POPULATION, APRIL 1st, 1946, TO
MARCH 31ST, 1947.
Number in school, April 1st, 1946     76
Number on parole, April 1st, 1946  177
Number in Oakalla, April 1st, 1946       4
Number on extended leave, April 1st, 1946       2
Number away without leave, April 1st, 1946     10
Number of new commitments during year     69
■  338
Number of boys released     88
Number on parole, March 31st, 1947 L 191
Number in Oakalla, March 31st, 1947       1
Number absent without leave, March 31st, 1947       2
  282
Number in school, March 31st, 1947     56 0 36                                                       BRITISH COLUMBIA.
LIST OF BOYS COMMITTED FROM APRIL 1st, 1946, TO
MARCH 31ST, 1947.
No.
Place of Birth.
Parentage.
Residence previous to
Admission to School.
British
Columbia.
Canada.
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299
2300
2301
2302
2303
2304
2305
2306
2307
2308
2309
2310
2311
2312
2313
2314
2315
2316
2317
2318
2319
2320
2321
2322
2323
2324
2325
2326
2327
2328
2329
2330
2331
2332
2333
2334
2335
2336
2337
2338
2339
2340
2341
2342
2343
2344
2345
2346
2347
2348
2349
2350
2351
2352
2353
2354
Years.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
13
Life.
Life.
1
Life.
Life.
Life.
Unknown.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
4
Life.
3
Life.
Life.
6
Life.
Life.
Life.
7
12
Life.
9
Life.
Life.
Life.
10
Life.
9
Life.
Life.
5
Life.
Life.
Life.
9
3
7
Life.
Life.
1
3
6
4
Life.
4
9
Life.
Life.
9
Years.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Life.
Koksilah, B.C.                                	
Ymir B C.
Canadian (both)	
English (both)	
Powell River, B.C.	
Russian-Canadian	
North Vancouver, B.C	
Forestdale, B.C	
South Slocan, B.C.
Edmonton, Alta	
Unknown	 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47.
0 37
LIST OF BOYS COMMITTED FROM APRIL 1st, 1946, TO MARCH 31ST, 1947-
Continued.
No.
Place of Birth.
Parentage.
Residence previous to
Admission to School.
British
Columbia.
Canada.
2355
Polish (both)	
Years.
1 mo.
Life.
Life.
7
Life.
6
8
12
Life.
Years.
Life.
2356
Nelson, B.C	
Life.
2357
Life.
2358
Life.
2359
Kimherley, B.C              	
Life.
2360
Life.
2361
Life.
2362
Life.
2363
Powell River, B.C          	
Life.
NATIONALITY OF PARENTS.
American-Canadian
American-English _
American-Irish	
Austrian (both) 	
Austrian-Canadian .
  3
  1
.  1
  1
__ 1
Canadian (both)   14
Canadian-American   6
Canadian-Danish  1
Canadian-English   2
Canadian-Indian   1
Chinese (both) _          2
.  1
  1
.  2
  1
___ 1
East Indian (both)
English  (both) __
English-Canadian ..
English-Scottish .___.
English-Swiss	
Indian (both) ___.
Irish-French 	
Polish (both) __..
Polish-Canadian
Russian-Canadian .
Scottish-American
Scottish-Canadian .
Swedish-Canadian
Swedish-Irish 	
Swiss-English	
Swiss-Unknown _.
Unknown 	
  10
  1
  1
  1
Russian (both)   2
  1
  1
  1
  1
-. „ 1
  1
  1
  5
Unknown-Canadian      3
Total   69
COMPARATIVE STATISTICAL INFORMATION FOR THE
YEARS 1944-45, 1945-46, 1946-47.
Birthplaces.
Alberta 	
Australia 	
British Columbia      68
1944-45.
.    14
_      1
England 	
Manitoba .	
Nova Scotia
Ontario 	
Quebec 	
Saskatchewan 	
United States of America
Unknown 	
2
4
1
2
1
10
1
1945-46.
15
62
1
6
19
5
1946-47.
11
42
Totals
104
111
69 0 38
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
- Charges resulting in Commitment.
Theft	
Attempted theft	
Breaking and entering	
Breaking and entering and stealing	
Attempted breaking and entering and stealing
Retaining stolen property	
Arson 	
Assault        2
Indecent assault       1
Indecent exposure  <	
Armed robbery	
Buggery 	
Murder 	
Violation of probation
Incorrigibility 	
Infraction of " Railway Act "
Infraction of " Liquor Act " _
Forgery 	
Being intoxicated 	
Possessing intoxicant	
Fraud 	
Attempt to defraud 	
False pretence 	
Vagrancy       2
Unlawful escape	
2
1
1
4
7
Totals
104
111
1944-45.
1945-46.
1946-47
54
40
27
	
2
4
3
2
26
38
1
21
4
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
69
Ages of Boys.
8 years
9 years
10 years
11 years
12 years
1944-45.
1
4
4
13 years  15
14 years ___
15 years ___
16 years ___
17 years —
18 years *_
Unknown _
17
25
19
17
1
1
1945-46.
1
2
2
11
9
19
30
26
11
1946-47.
1
1
1
6
11
11
14
13
11
Totals
104
111
69 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47.
0 39
Length of Sentence.
Indefinite	
Indefinite—not over 2 years
45 days 	
3 months 	
1 year 	
1944-45.
_ 100
Not over 1 year	
Not less than 2 years
Until 18 years of age
Totals	
104
Places of Apprehension.
1944-45.
_      3
1
Agassiz 	
Alert Bay 	
Bella Coola	
Brighouse    3
Burnaby   5
Campbell River  2
Castlegar   3
Clinton  	
Cloverdale 	
Courtenay 	
Cranbrook 	
Creston 	
Dawson Creek
Duncan 	
Fernie 	
Fort St. John .
Greenwood 	
Hammond 	
Haney 	
Hazelton 	
Hope  	
Kamloops        3
Kelowna       9
Keremeos  	
Kimberley 	
Kootenay, County of	
Ladysmith 	
Langley        1
Lillooet        1
Lytton 	
Maple Ridge
Merritt 	
Mission 	
Murrayville _
Nanaimo 	
Natal 	
Nelson 	
New Westminster
1945-46.
93
15
111
1945-46.
5
1
1
1
1
2
5
1
2
1946-47.
66
3
69
1946-47.
2
1
1 O 40
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Places of Apprehension—Continued.
1944-45.
North Bend	
North Vancouver
Penticton 	
Port Alberni	
Port Coquitlam ...
Pouce Coupe 	
Powell River	
Prince George	
Prince Rupert	
Princeton 	
4
2
1
1
4
Queen Charlotte City	
Quesnel 	
Quinsam  	
Revelstoke        1
Rossland        1
Sechelt 	
Sidney 	
Smithers  	
Sooke      1
Squamish       2
Trail        2
Transferred from Oakalla	
Vancouver      14
Vernon        1
Victoria      14
West Summerland 	
West Vancouver	
Williams Lake	
1945-46.        1946-47.
1
1 3
2 2
2
2
1 1
2 2
3 1
1
1
1
1
1
1 1
1 1
1 1
3 3
1
21 21
1
14 8
1
2
1
Totals   104
Parental Relationships.
With both parents living
With both parents dead „
1944-45.
.    64
111
1945-46.
55
1
2
7
22
2
With father living and mother dead       7
With mother living and father dead       4
With both parents living but separated     16
With foster-parents 	
With mother dead and father married again _._     1 2
With father dead and mother married again —     6 8
With parents separated and father married
again       1 2
With parents separated and mother married
again       3 10
With parents separated and both married again     2 	
With mother dead and father's whereabouts
unknown     	
With mother living and father's whereabouts
unknown    	
69
1946-47.
25
1
4
7
13
7
6
3
Totals
104
111
69 •
REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE
BRANCH
, 1946-47.
0 41
Baptist  	
Christian Institute 	
Religion.
1944-45.
3
_.      1
1945-46.
5
25
1
2
1
3
4
27
1
2
17
23
111
Number
of Cases.
..    2
..    4
1946-47.
12
1
1
1
1
2
17
2
2
12
18
69
Number
of Days.
19
10
7
7
5
48
Number
of Cases.
l
Church of England 	
...    24
Church of God  "
...      2
Evangelical     	
2
Foursquare Gospel 	
Fundamentalist  	
Greek Catholic  	
...      1
Greek Orthodox    	
Jehovah's Witness 	
.        1
Lutheran   	
Methodist 	
Pentecostal	
1
Presbyterian 	
Roman Catholic	
...    30
Russian Orthodox	
Salvation Army	
Seventh-day Adventist 	
1
Sons of Freedom	
...      2
United     - _ 	
...    13
Non-denominational . 	
23
Totals	
Medical care for the year 1946-
Hospitalization—
Appendectomy  	
  104
HEALTH.
47 was as follows:—   .
Removal of tonsils and aden
■ Submucous resection	
oids	
2
Pneumonia   	
1
Threatened appendicitis
Totals	
1
10
Cases treated within the school
Rheumatic fever	
Petit mal   ..   _.
i
Auricular fibrillation	
i
Pleurisy  	
i
Threatened pleurisy	
i
Otitis media :	
3
Sinusitis 	
3
Septic throat	
4
Impetigo	
....   2
Infected acne	
1
Infected finger 	
Bursitis    	
1
5
Fractured bone in hand	
-    1
Lacerations requiring sutur
\
es	
5 0 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Cases treated within the school—Continued.
Minor injuries  	
Number
of Cases.
4
Abscess 	
          2
Furuncle	
5
Scabies      	
4
Nits 	
2
Gastro-intestinal infection	
8
Mumps (complicated by orchitis, 2) 	
     6
Chicken-pox 	
2
Catarrhal conjunctivitis 	
Total       .
....     4
  67
We continue to have a complete physical examination on admission and an immunization program which includes Schick testing and inoculation against diphtheria and
smallpox. The results of all chest X-rays, urinalyses, and Kahn tests were essentially
negative this year.
Specialists were consulted for eighteen boys. Nine of these had glasses prescribed
and fitted. One lad was referred to an orthodontist when he had two of his front
teeth broken and another had a partial plate fitted.
Although the general condition of boys coming into care has shown definite
improvement, neglected eyes, tonsils, and teeth are still prevalent. Dental care consisted of 181 visits to our regular dentists, covering treatment received by eighty-seven
boys. Since we doubled our services last year, practically every boy entering the
school is seen by a dentist. This is most encouraging and a decided improvement over
previous years.
Rationing and scarcity of some provisions still exist, but we have managed, with
the co-operation of our cooks, to serve varied, appetizing, and wholesome meals.
Vitamized flour and milk are used at all times. Besides these, extra vitamins are supplied during the winter months through the administration of haliver-oil capsules.
Though meals are served cafeteria style, we encourage the boys to choose the foods
that will give them a well-balanced diet.
We are pleased to report no incidence of serious illness and considerably less
hospitalization than in the previous year. It will be noted from the above list of
illnesses that there were eight cases of gastro-intestinal infection, six of mumps, and
two of chicken-pox. These diseases are all of the infectious type, but fortunately we
were able to isolate them adequately and control was brought about before epidemic
proportions were reached. This is a remarkably different picture than that in 1940-41:
During that year we had two epidemics which necessitated the conversion of one of the
dormitories into an isolation unit and the securing of a special nursing staff. Too
much emphasis cannot be placed on adequate dormitory and infirmary space. It is
an invaluable factor in combating disease which too often is not considered.
Continued progress is being made in our health programme. Credit goes to those
who have shown their genuine and unselfish interest in this work. The school's contribution to the health of the boys in its care goes a long way in establishing healthy
habits and an awareness of physical needs, which are essential for happy and successful
adjustment.
Jennie M. Bitz, R.N.,
Nurse-Matron. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47.
0 43
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iH 0 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
EDUCATIONAL.
At the beginning of the September term Mr. Goodland obtained leave of absence to
continue his studies at an American university. This necessitated staff changes in our
academic department. It was found impossible to obtain the services of another
teacher at the opening of school, so the boys were assigned to two divisions until such
time as it was possible to engage another teacher. Toward the end of September,
Mr. Wicklund joined our staff. Mr. Iveson took over motor mechanics instruction from
Mr. Munro. The staff consisted of: Division 1, E. W. Blagburn; Division 2, J. A.
Wicklund; Division 3, Mrs. A. L. Arthur; Industrial Arts, J. B. Pattern; Motor
Mechanics, J. Iveson.
The school population declined greatly during the summer holidays. Consequently,
when school reopened, the classes had a low enrolment. Within a month or so, however,
Division 2 had regained full strength. The other divisions were slower in regaining
numbers, but a decided increase took place after the New Year. The total enrolment
for the fiscal year was as follows: Division 1, 27; Division 2, 40; Division 3, 31;
total, 98.
Thirty-six were on the roll at March 31st, 1947. They were distributed as follows:
Division 1, 8;  Division 2, 17;  Division 3, 11;  total, 36.
This was a very low number for three divisions. The fluctuation is so great,
however, that in a period of a few weeks the enrolment could conceivably be doubled.
Furthermore, a low number in a division is desirable in this institution. On the
average, we receive the poorest scholars of the public schools. Many are seriously
retarded mentally, while even those of normal intelligence are often educationally
retarded a period of two or more years. A great deal of individual instruction is thus
essential.    Especially is this true in the lower grades.
Before much progress can be made, the pupil must have a liking for his work.
Many of the lads have a deep-seated aversion to school, due to a number of factors,
among which are the following: inability to grasp the work; fear of ridicule, due to
being over age for the group; poor family background, etc. This dislike more frequently
than not leads to extended periods of truancy, which in turn only aggravate the
condition. When the boy arrives here, he finds many others suffering from the same
complexes. In time he tends to lose some of his self-consciousness and there are many
instances where boys have expressed a desire to continue their academic work even
though they are beyond the compulsory school age. During the fiscal year forty-four
boys thus attended, out of the total enrolment of ninety-eight.
A greater amount of time was devoted to visual and auditory aids. In respect to
the former, educational pictures were shown every second week. As nearly as practical,
these pictures were correlated with the subjects being taught. Learning interest was
stimulated greatly by these films and retention of lesson content proved much greater.
A new radio with phonograph attachment proved a valuable asset. This enabled the
classes to listen to regular school broadcasts, as well as to enjoy borrowed recordings.
It was surprising and gratifying to find the number of boys who really seemed to
appreciate good music.
In correspondence work, mechanical drawing courses proved popular. The majority
of boys taking these did not remain here long enough to finish the course, but most of
them left with the intention of continuing this work when they arrived home.
Dr. Lucas and her staff have been very kind to us, and they have done their utmost
to lend the boys a helping hand.
It is obvious that the boys committed to our school would benefit greatly if it were
possible to increase the industrial arts department and provide increased opportunities
for occupational therapy which would fit them for a useful life after leaving the
institution.     The  inadequate  accommodation,  which   is  taxed  to  capacity,   severely REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47. 0 45
handicaps the work of this department and limits the size and number of classes and
the variety of subjects taught.
The population of the institution may be classified under two main headings,
school-boys and working-boys, and the average number of hours spent in academic and
vocational training is as follows:—
School-boys— .        Hours per Week.
Academic training  21
Vocational training     6
Working-boys—
Academic training     6
Vocational training   21
In June, 1946, the School Inspector approved the promotion to Grade IX of four
boys of the six enrolled in Grade VIII.
The median intelligence quotient of the school enrolment was 86, as in the
previous year.
Eric W. Blagburn,
Acting Teaching Supervisor.
SOCIAL WORK DEPARTMENT.
There were sixty-nine boys admitted to the Boys' Industrial School during the year
ended March 31st, 1947.    Supervision was assumed by the agencies as listed below:—
Family Welfare Bureau  5
Indian Agent   10
Victoria probation service  1
Vancouver probation service  16
Saanich probation service  1
Children's Aid Society, Victoria  7
Children's Aid Society, Vancouver  1
Catholic Children's Aid Society  1
Child guidance clinic  1
Direct case    1
Family service  3
Child Welfare Division  4
Social Welfare Branch, Trail  2
Social Welfare Branch, Nelson  1
Social Welfare Branch, Hazelton  1
Social Welfare Branch, Duncan  1
Social Welfare Branch, Dawson Creek  1
Social Welfare Branch, New Westminster  3
Social Welfare Branch, Prince George  1
Social Welfare Branch, Vernon  1
Social Welfare Branch, Penticton  2
Social Welfare Branch, Ladysmith  1
Social Welfare Branch, Surrey  1
Social Welfare Branch, Chilliwaek  1
Social Welfare Branch, Powell River  1
Social Welfare Branch, Pender Harbour  1
Total  69
Individual case records were established and planning for the boy's release
initiated.    In some cases this meant returning the boy to his former home and in other O 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
cases to a foster-home or work placement, depending on circumstances in each particular
case. Correspondence was exchanged between the supervising agency and the school,
relating the resources in the boy's family, community, and school and the adjustment
and progress of the boy in Biscoq. When a suitable plan was formed and the school
felt the boy was ready for release, the post-parole plan, together with a record of the
boy's adjustment at. the school, was submitted to the Superintendent of Child Welfare
for approval, and thence to the committing Magistrate for final approval.
Where location made it possible to hold regular conferences with the supervising
agency, this was done at regular monthly meetings. The case conference method of
interchanging information of the boy's background, his needs, and his wishes is most
effective in making a successful plan for his readjustment to his community life.
There were forty boys given complete examination at child guidance clinic.
Psychiatric treatment was indicated in five cases, and a total of twenty treatments
given to these five boys. As in previous years, we are greatly indebted to the child
guidance clinic for the professional skill and services which are available to the Boys'
Industrial School. With the fuller use of our psychiatric services, the need has become
more apparent for an institution to care for and treat boys with serious maladjustment
problems.
The lack of suitable foster-homes is a serious threat to our program. It is most
desirable for a boy to be released when he has received the maximum training at this
school. There would appear to be a need for two different types of homes—one for
boys wanting foster-home placement and one for boys planning for a work placement.
These homes could also be observation centres where further work could be done, and
also could give the boy a feeling of being free from the institution to which he had
been sent for training.
The co-operation of the field service workers and the private agencies is essential
in our program at the Boys' Industrial School. This co-operation and assistance has
been excellent, and we are indeed grateful for it, as it enables us to provide a more
adequate service to the boy, to his family, and to his community.
Bruce Sturrock,
Social Worker.
TRADES AND VOCATIONAL DEPARTMENTS.
Tailoring.
Work in the tailoring department during the year 1946-47 comprised the
following:—
Tailoring:   32 pairs of tweed pants, 153 pairs of denim pants, 36 pairs of
shorts, 12 pairs of kitchen-pants.
Miscellaneous:  30 pairs of curtain tie-backs, 15 sheets, 55 tea-towels, 45 suits
pressed, 66 pairs of pants pressed, 60 coats pressed, tweed and denim
pants mended, mats bound for swimming-tank.
Shoe check was held regularly, and 227 pairs were repaired.
During the year three boys received instruction and training in tailoring.
J. Henderson,
Tailor.
Greenhouse and Garden.
This department has shown very satisfactory results during the past fiscal year,
and, as in previous reports, the attitude of the boys has been very gratifying, especially
where co-operation from numbers was necessary to accomplish a particular project. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47. O 47
We were very fortunate late last fall to be able to procure 75 yards of good barnyard manure, and noticeable improvement is to be seen on the 1947 crop of vegetables
and also in the flower-garden.
A large number of plants for transplanting, both flower and vegetable, are ready
for use this year.    The germination of the seed has been excellent.
Our tractor is holding a very prominent place in creating an interest in our work.
All boys have an equal chance to operate the machine. Fifteen boys have all become
quite proficient in handling it.
The harvest for the fall of 1946 was one of our best so far: 8 tons of potatoes,
3 tons of carrots, 1 ton of cabbage, 1% tons of onions, 1 ton of parsnips, besides a
quantity of head-lettuce, tomatoes, cob-corn, green beans, spinach, Swiss chard,
cucumbers, pumpkins, and peppers.
D. W. MUNRO,    •
Gardener.
RECREATION.
The program during 1946-47 was similar to that of previous years. From May
to September football, Softball, lacrosse, and swimming appear to be the popular
activities. All boys in the school take part in these games, either in junior or senior
divisions. Representative teams were picked and games played with teams from
Vancouver, New Westminster, and surrounding communities.
During the fall and winter months most of the recreational activity is held indoors,
except football, which is popular all year and played when the weather is favourable.
A balanced program of training based on the method used by the Pro-Rec is in effect
during the fall and winter months. This included a variety of indoor games, gymnastics, and aquatics. Representative basketball and swimming teams compete with
outside groups, such as the Y.M.C.A., schools, and church groups. We feel that these
contests help in building up good sportsmanship and an appreciation of the fellowship
to be had in these groups, with the hope that our lads may attach themselves to one
upon their leaving the school.
In recognition of good conduct, all who are eligible are taken weekly to see a
senior hockey, basketball, or lacrosse game, and, as occasion permits, trips to points
of interest and school picnics are held.
The hobby clubs continue to hold the interest of the majority of our boys, although
fluctuation of population is a distinct handicap. It is inevitable that the best boys
are the ones who leave early, and club membership is made up largely of those who are
still behaviour problems. These groups meet three times weekly and, with the help
given by their supervisor, are largely self-governing. Each boy is permitted to " ride
his hobby" during the activity period and there is considerable variety—model-
building, woodwork, and collections being the most popular. Discussions are held
regularly, and occasionally there are social evenings with camp-fire, sing-song, story
hour, and refreshments.
The weekly " movie " held each Wednesday evening is an event eagerly looked
forward to and greatly appreciated. This is open to all boys in the school, except
those who, through misconduct, have lost the privilege.
We feel that good work has been done and encouraging progress has been made
during the year.
W. S. Shogan,
Supervisor. INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS.
I beg to submit herewith the thirty-third annual report of the Industrial School
for Girls for the year ended March 31st, 1947.
May I be permitted to point out that my appointment became effective on
March 1st, 1947, which means that I have held my present position for but one month
in the year under review. For this reason I feel it would be presumptuous on my part
to comment on the year's operations. I trust that at the end of the next fiscal year
I shall be in a position to deal with the activities of the school in more detail and be
able to make some worth-while comments or suggestions.
In the following pages, however, will be found certain tables and statistics of the
year's work, which should be of interest.
WlLLA R. BRODERICK,
Acting Superintendent. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47. 0 49
EXPENSES AND REVENUE STATEMENT OF SCHOOL, MARCH SlST, 1947.
Total inmate-days from April 1st, 1946, to March 31st, 1947  7,251
Per capita cost, one year     $1,736.67
Per capita cost, one day  4.758
Operating expenditure by voucher—
Salaries  $20,169.99
Cost-of-living bonus       3,610.64
Office and school supplies, etc.—
Postage, office and school supplies     $161.11
Telephone and telegraph        179.91
  341.02
Travelling expenses       1,336.74
Farm operations  305.88
Furnishings, equipment, etc         693.96
Clothing—
Clothing , L     $484.74
Boots and shoes        115.03
  599.77
Janitors' supplies  223.29
Fuel, light, and water—
Fuel  $1,767.15
Water        331.70
Light and power        566.41
       2,665.26
Provisions—
Groceries   $3,097.18
Meat        779.74
Fish        143.41
4,020.33
Medical attendance, medical supplies, and dental cost—
Medical attendance       $493.00
. Medical supplies        182.08
Surgery        395.00
Skin specialist   14.00
Dental cost         351.00
Eyes examined and glasses provided  45.00
       1,480.08
Good Conduct Fund  280.85
Incidentals and contingencies  530.29
Total expenditure for year by voucher  $36,258.10
Maintenance and repairs (expended through Public Works Department)  555.81
$36,813.91
Inventory, March 31st, 1946  952.47
$37,766.38
Less board :  $1,751.70
Less rent        358.07
Less credit for sale of garden produce        213.25
Less inventory, March 31st, 1947        938.62
       3,261.64
$34,504.74 O 50
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
POPULATION OF SCHOOL, MARCH 31st, 1947.
On roll, April 1st, 1946 "  23
Girls admitted during year April 1st, 1946, to March 31st, 1947-.— 30
Released on parole	
Transferred to other institutions.
53
33
1
— 34
Total in school, March 31st, 1947..
19
LIST OF GIRLS ADMITTED FROM APRIL 1st, 1946, TO MARCH 31st, 1947.
No
Place of Birth.
Parentage.
Residence previous
to Admission
to School.
British
Columbia.
Canada.
790
Years.
14
14
14
16
16
16
16
17
16
17
15
16
16
14
17
15
13
12
11
15
15
13
11
16
16
14
17
17
14
14
Years.
14
791
14
792
English-Austrian	
14
793
16
794
Irish (both)                                                	
16
795
Edmonton, Alta	
16
796
16
797
Soda Creek, B.C	
17
798
16
799
17
800
15
801
16
802
16
803
14
804
Trail, B.C	
Irish (both).   ..                   .                         	
17
805
15
806
13
807
12
808
11
809
15
810
15
811
English (both).. .                                       	
812
Wilmer, B.C	
813
16
814
16
815
Victoria, B.C.	
English (both)                   	
14
816
17
817
17
818
English (both) .
14
819
14 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47.
0 51
NATIONALITY OF PARENTS.
American (both)	
American-English _
American-Canadian
English (both) 	
English-American _.
English-Canadian ...
English-Austrian 	
English-French 	
English-Indian 	
English-Irish 	
French-English 	
French-Canadian, English.
German-Scottish   1
Irish (both)   2
Indian (both)   3
Norwegian (both)   1
Russian (both)   2
Scottish-Irish -
Scottish (both)
Swiss-Irish	
  1
  1
  1
Ukrainian (both)   1
Unknown (both)   4
Total-
Alberta   5
British Columbia  16
Manitoba   1
Ontario   1
WHERE GIRLS WERE BORN.
     5 Saskatchewan
30
United States of America—..    1
Unknown      3
Total..
30
AGES OF GIRLS.
11 years     2
12 years     1
13 years     2
14 years     7
15 years     4
16 years     9
17 years     5
Total
PLACES OF APPREHENSION.
Cranbrook 	
Municipality of Richmond-
Oliver 	
1
1
1
1
Vancouver   18
Prince Rupert
Victoria 	
Vernon 	
Williams Lake
Total.
OFFENCES COMMITTED.
30
5
2
1
30
Incorrigibility
10
Theft     4
Sexual immorality  11
Vagrancy     1
Obtaining   goods   by   false
pretences      2
Intoxication      2
Total  30
LENGTH OF SENTENCE.
Sec. 20, J.D.A., 1929.
.. 23
'Industrial School for Girls'
Act" 	
Indeterminate
Total..
30
Baptist	
Church of England
Greek Catholic	
Greek Orthodox	
.  1
.  3
.  1
  1
Presbyterian  2
RELIGIOUS STATISTICS.
Roman Catholic —  10
United Church     9
Unknown      3
Total..
30 O 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
GIRLS AND THEIR PARENTS.
Number who have both parents living  19
Number who have father living, mother dead  1
Number who have mother living, father dead  6
Number whose parents are dead  1
Number whose parents are unknown  2
Number who have mother living, father unknown  1
Total   30
Of the above, the parents of four girls are separated; five parents are divorced;
seven girls have stepfathers;  three girls have stepmothers;  and one girl is adopted.
EDUCATIONAL.
During the period from April 1st, 1946, to March 31st, 1947, school classes continued
during the afternoon period. All girls of school age, as well as any others who were
interested, attended classes, but only seven were enrolled in elementary correspondence
courses. The remainder received individual instruction in the grades suited to their
ability.
Following are movements of high school pupils: On roll April 1st, 1946, 1; enrolled
during term, 7;  released from classes, 4;  on roll, March 31st, 1947, 4.
All of these girls were enrolled in partial courses in Government correspondence
courses. I should like to express my appreciation for the unfailing helpfulness and
understanding shown by Dr. Edith E. Lucas, Miss Anna B. Miller, and their assistant
instructors.
Seven girls attended classes in typewriting and shorthand, receiving tuition in
these subjects from the clerk in our office.
Instruction in fancy-work and various handicrafts continued, and, as always, each
girl, under direction, completed a sweater as part of her wardrobe.
A group interested in Junior Red Cross produced a goodly supply of knitted garments for children, as well as favours for hospital.
Work and training in the various departments of the institution were carried on
as before. The sewing-room provided all the wearing-apparel for the girls, as well
as household supplies. Mending, repairs, and renovations were attended to in this
department.
Kitchen and laundry are always busy places. In the former, girls are directed in
the planning, preparation, and cooking of meals, preserving and canning. The laundry
provides experience in the use of electric equipment and all types of washing and
ironing, from fine starched articles to woollen blankets. General housework is carried
on throughout the house, with stress on dining-room management and serving of meals.
Birthday parties, concerts, radio, library, gymnasium, and playing-field provide
plenty of pleasurable recreation. This year we have had the continued pleasure of a
weekly picture show, which we greatly appreciate.
_ The garden has provided us with a plentiful supply of fresh vegetables and small
fruits, as well as a wealth of flowers. Our surplus of garden produce has been used by
Marpole and Allco infirmaries.
Ayra E. Peck,
Assistant Superintendent and School-teacher. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47. O 53
MEDICAL SERVICES DIVISION.
In reporting on the activities of the Division for the year ended March 31st, 1947,
some difficulty is encountered due to the fact that the present Director was appointed
in November, 1946, to replace the Acting Director, Dr. A. S. Simpson, who was
superannuated.
The Director, having been catapulted into the position, took some time to become
acquainted with his various associates and the functions of the Division. These
functions, simply stated, are: (1) To deal with medical care of social welfare cases in
unorganized areas; (2) to assist with the various medical social problems in all regions;
and (3) to act as medical adviser to the Deputy Minister of Welfare and the Director of
Welfare.
In studying the situation, it became quite apparent that the Division had to become
much more active, and stream-lining was the order of the day. The " hold fast " policy
caused by the war had to be abandoned and all activities stepped up to fall in line with
the energetic policy of the Provincial social services.
As you know, we are responsible for the payment of bills incurred to doctors,
druggists, appliance houses, and municipalities. All outstanding bills were cleared,
and we instituted the principle that accounts received in our office by the tenth of the
month must be paid by the end of that month. We introduced billing methods which
took into consideration simplicity and thoroughness, but we are constantly studying the
situation with a view to improvement. We believe there has been a noticeable good
result.   Accounts are coming in more promptly.
To bring about uniformity in unorganized areas, we contemplate substituting
the " fee for service rendered " in areas now on a " retainer fee " basis. We note with
pleasure the additional two municipalities that have seen fit to provide medical services
for their welfare cases on the per capita basis, namely, Delta and Richmond. Much
credit is due to the regional administrator in District 2, and he is to be congratulated
on the results of his efforts. It is hoped that all districts will in the near future have
similar coverage.
Several conferences were held with the executive of the British Columbia Pharmaceutical Association, and this resulted in a Province-wide formulary with uniformity
of price. The new formulary is being brought up to date in collaboration with the
British Columbia Medical Association and is in the process of being printed. It should
be available in the near future. This should prove most beneficial to the welfare cases
and all Governmental bodies. The Division wishes to record its appreciation of the
excellent co-operation and courtesy extended by the Price and Formulary Committee
of the British Columbia Pharmaceutical Association and the Formulary Committee of
the British Columbia Medical Association.
Our pharmacy has continued in its good work of supplying prescribed medicines to
social assistance cases in the City of Vancouver, reviewing all submitted drug accounts,
furnishing necessary medicines to certain Provincial institutions, and supplying of
medicines and appliances to a limited number of cases throughout the Province. We
believe its functions should be reviewed in the near future to study the possibilities
of increasing its usefulness to Government institutions throughout the Province.
Realizing the need for a consultation service to assist doctors throughout the
Province catering to cases in unorganized areas and in the investigation of mothers'
allowance applicants due to the disability of the breadwinner, we were indeed fortunate
to arrange this service through the medical staff of the Vancouver General Hospital.
With reference to mothers' allowance cases, the Division is most anxious to be of
maximum assistance to the ailing breadwinner and the Director of Welfare. With
this in view we are constantly reviewing active cases. O 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The relationship with the British Columbia Cancer Institute has been outstandingly good. They have been most co-operative and prompt in all arrangements. One
must know the scarcity of boarding-home and nursing-home beds in Vancouver to
appreciate their efforts. Not one of our cases for diagnosis or treatment has been
delayed.
The Director has arranged to visit Chilliwaek, Kamloops, Vernon, Penticton, and
Kelowna, and hold meetings with the various medical men in the above localities, at
which time our policy will be outlined to them and matters concerning welfare cases
will be discussed in detail. It is our hope and plan to visit the majority of the districts
annually and hold similar meetings. Furthermore, it is our intention at the same
time to visit the workers in the field and attempt to assist them, on the spot, with their
medical social problems.
The Director has been requested to sit in at the Provincial social service refresher
meetings, in which much good is accomplished in round-table conference discussions.
The Division has been requested to survey the medical services available to welfare
cases throughout the Province with the object of bringing about uniformity and assuring as complete a coverage as possible. This will be done as expeditiously as circumstances will permit.
Since assuming my present office, arrangements have been made for presenting
in the next annual report detailed statistics which should be both comprehensive and
informative. The following comparative expenditures for the past two years will,
however, indicate the trend in this Division. Fiscal Year Fiscal Year
1945-46. 1946-47.
Hospital  $2,982.40 $2,876.33
Doctors' accounts  43,968.89 56,611.76
Prescriptions   40,847.40 65,690.53
Dental   3,293.00 6,457.75
Optical   1,345.06 1,821.06
Transportation   3,208.22 4,752.15
M.D. agreements  49,444.56 47,764.10
Dispensary   1,180.36               	
Totals  $146,269.89 $185,973.68
J. C. MOSCOVICH, M.D.,
Director, Medical Services Division. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47.
O 55
MOTHERS' ALLOWANCES.
This form of social assistance reached an all-time high of 1,778 cases in May, 1940,
since which time there has been a steady decrease in case-load and expenditure, as
shown in the following tables:—
Fiscal Year.
Total
Expenditure.
Change over
Previous Year.
Percentage
Change.
1940-41	
$798,097.32
751,835.56
667,213.02
581,541.29
528,442.87
498,901.72
488,866.74
—$12,590.80
—46,261.76
—84,622.50
— 85,671.73
—53,098.42
—29,541.15
— 10,034.98
— 1.55
1941-42	
— 5.79
1942-43	
— 11.26
1943-44	
— 12.85
1944-45	
— 9.13
1945-46	
—5.81
1946-47	
—2.02
The following is the case-load for the month of March during the past seven
years:—
March, 1941  1,697 March, 1945  940
„      1942  1,552 „      1946  905
„      1943  1,194 „      1947  863
„      1944  1,080
During the year 202 cases were cancelled and for the following reasons:—
Reason for Cancellation. Number of Cases.
Mother earning in excess	
Mother remarried	
Only child 18 years of age	
Only child under 18 years left school.
Older children maintaining	
  37
  33
  24
  17
  14
Husband not totally disabled  12
Only child under 16 years left school  12
  10
  9
Only child 16 years of age	
Personal property in excess...
Unearned income in excess....
Only child removed	
Left British Columbia	
 ,  4
  4
    4
  2
Husband released from penitentiary  2
Whereabouts unknown  1
Mother in hospital indefinitely
Section 6	
Mother deceased..	
Total.
202
The following table shows the length of time on allowance of the above-noted 202
cancelled cases:—
Years....   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Cases.. 31 15 24 13 15 13 14 12 12 13   8   3   5   5   6   2   5   3   1   2
Total, 202.    Average length of time on allowance, 6.108 years. 0 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
During the year 199 new applications and reapplications were received.
As at April 1st, 1946, there were on hand ten applications on which a decision had
not been made.    A total of 209 cases was dealt with during the year and disposed of as
follows:—
Allowances granted   150
Allowances refused     53
Applications held over       6
Total  209
The reasons for refusal are as follows:—
Reasons for Refusal. Cases.
Personal property in excess  10
Mother's earnings in excess  8
Social allowance preferable form of assistance  6
Application withdrawn  6
Section 6 of Act  4
Non-resident  3
Not legally married  2
Husband not totally disabled  2
Husband's disability arose outside British Columbia  2
Not divorced two years   2
Deserted outside British Columbia .  2
Older children maintaining  2
Unearned income in excess  2
Not British subject  1
Not legally separated  1
Total  53
The housing situation is one which undoubtedly gives concern, and in order to
ascertain how the mothers were meeting this difficulty, a review of the cases active in
March, 1947, discloses that:—
Mothers paying rent  409
Mothers living rent free     34
Mothers owning their homes free of encumbrances  320
Mothers owning their homes but against which are encumbrances 100
Total  863
There were no changes in the " Mothers' Allowances Act" or regulations.
The Mothers' Allowances Advisory Board held two meetings during the year, and
various subjects were discussed. The personnel of the Board remained unchanged and
under the chairmanship of Mrs. F. W. Smelts, Vancouver. The members of the Board
take a keen interest in this Act, and their recommendations and suggestions are of
value in its administration.
Certain statistics are given on the case-load for the month of March, 1947, and it
will be seen that one-child cases comprise 38.7 per cent, and two-child cases 32.9 per
cent, of the whole. Total cases for the month number 863, and total disability of the
husband was the reason for granting the allowance to 203 mothers. Tuberculosis
was again the main cause of disability and accounts for 71 or 34.97 per cent, of the
" total disability " cases. " T.B. benefits " from social allowance funds are payable to
such cases and supplement the mothers' allowance. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47.
O 57
Extremely heavy case-loads precluded visiting as often as we would wish, but the
relationship between the mothers and our field staff is generally good. I am satisfied
that the funds expended under this Act are used for the purpose for which they are
provided.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT.
Fiscal Year April 1st, 1946, to March 31st, 1947.
Advance received from Minister of Finance  $489,100.00
Bank interest   8.54
Amount of Amount of
Month. Advance. Interest.
March        $0.62
April   $42,000.00 .95
May   40,750.00 1.19
June   42,000.00 .35
July   41,000.00 .59
August  41,000.00 .82
September   41,000.00 .64
October   40,750.00 .79
November   40,350.00 .65
December   39,500.00 1.16
January     40,500.00 .22
February    40,250.00 .56
March   40,000.00            	
$489,100.00
$8.54
$489,108.54
Allowances paid as follows:—
Month.
April 	
May 	
June 	
July 	
August 	
Amount of
Allowances.
  $41,543.47,
  41,450.15
  41,332.37
  40,943.81
  40,976.58
September _                             40,852.74
October :  40,818.20
November   40,161.90
December   40,234.39
January   40,237.28
February   40,061.23
March   40,254.62
488,866.74
Balance to be accounted for.
$241.80
The books and records of the Mothers' Allowances Fund have been examined under my direction. I hereby
certify that the above statement is a true account of the Receipts and Disbursements of the Director of Welfare
under authority of the " Mothers' Allowances Act " for twelve months ended. March 31st, 1947, according to the
information furnished me, and as disclosed by the books and records submitted for my inspection.
J. A. CRAIG,
Comptroller-General. 0 58                                                    BRITISH COLUMBIA.
•
Statement of Credits and Refunds deducted from Total Amouj
Allowances paid out.
Total amount paid out from April 1st, 1946, to March 31st, 1947, inclusive
Less refunds paid by—
MA-10777 in April, cheque No. 381328           $80.00
JT OF
$489,508.74
642.00
MA-10937 in August, cheque No. 385030            34.50
MA-10961 in August, cheque No. 385047    42.50
MA-11138 in August, cheque No. 385160       42.50
MA-10209 in September, cheque No. 384779     62.50
MA-10209 in September, cheque No. 385686       62.50
MA-10855 in September, cheque No. 385885       45.00
MA-9985 in October, cheque No. 386527         45.00
MA-9026 in November, cheque No. 387251        37.50
MA-11105 in November, cheque No. 387801              52.50
MA-9821 in December, cheque No. 388257 ,         57.50
MA-7197 in February, cheque No. 389703             35.00
MA-10864 in February, cheque No. 390257       45.00
$488,866.74 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47.
O 59
CAUSE OF DEATH.
The following summary gives the causes of death of the husbands in cases of
widows in receipt of assistance at March 31st, 1947:—
Para-
Infectious and parasitic diseases—
Influenza    2
Septicemia   2
Spinal meningitis  8
Tuberculosis    40
Typhoid   3
Cancer and other tumours-
Cancer    54
Other tumours    1
Rheumatic and other general diseases—
Arthritis     1
Diabetes     8
Muscular atrophy   2
—    11
Diseases of the blood, etc.—
Anaemia   2
Hodgkin's disease  3
Leukaemia   1
Chronic poisons and intoxicants—Toxemia	
Diseases of nervous system and organs of special
senses—
Abscess of brain *.     3
Brain tumour      6
Cerebral haemorrhage   35
Cerebral thrombosis      5
Encephalitis       1
Epileptic seizure      2
General paresis      2
Huntington's chorea      1
Insanity   13
Neurasthenia        1
Neuritis      1
Paralysis agitans      1
Paralysis      3
Parkinson's disease 	
Thrombosis undefined      3
Diseases of circulatory system—
Angina pectoris    4
Aortic aneurism   1
Arteriosclerosis     7
Coronary thrombosis and sclerosis  21
Coronary occlusion   12
Embolism     6
Endocarditis   12
Heart  (ill-defined)    82
Hypertension    5
77
Diseases of the  glands  of internal  secretion-
thyroid 	
Diseases of respiratory system-
Asthma     2
Bronchiectasis      2
CEdema glottis
(Edema lungs ..
Pleurisy 	
Pneumonia   	
Silicosis   	
Diseases of digestive system—
Appendicitis 	
Colitis   	
Gastroduodenal ulcer 	
Intestinal intoxication	
Gall-bladder   r	
Liver disease      2
Pancreatitis     1
Peritonitis        9
49
—    31
Diseases of genito-urinary system—
Chronic nephritis   12
Kidney trouble      4
Uremia  	
22
Violent or accidental deaths—
Accidents    43
Burns      1
Drowning   18
Post-operative shock      1
Suicide      9
Ill-defined causes—
Asphyxia     1
General debility   2
Osteomyelitis   2
Poison   1
Rupture   2
Sclerosis     1
Unknown    2
Suffocation     1
150
—    12
Total     543 0 60
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
CAUSE OF DISABILITY.
The causes of total disability of husbands in cases coming under the classification
of "husbands totally disabled " at March 31st, 1947:—
Infectious and parasitic diseases—
Poliomyelitis	
Tuberculosis    71
Cancer and other tumours—
Cancer    2
Other tumours 	
Rheumatic and other general diseases—
Arthritis     16
Diabetes     1
Rheumatism    2
Diseases of the blood, etc—Anemia	
Diseases of nervous system and organs of special
senses—
Auricular fibrillation   1
Brain  tumour  1
Cerebral hemorrhage   1
Cerebral thrombosis   3
Disseminated sclerosis   3
Eczema     1
Encephalitis  2
Glaucoma    1
Insane    5
Kyphosis of spine  1
Muscular degeneration   1
Neurasthenia    2
Neuritis    1
Paralysis   2
Paralysis agitans   1
Parkinson's disease   1
Psychosis     1
Psychoneurosis    3
Diseases of circulatory system—
Angina pectoris 	
Arteriosclerosis   3
—    74                Coronary sclerosis and thrombosis  6
Coronary occlusion   1
Heart  (ill-defined)    19
Hypertension    5
Pericarditis     1
Tachyeardiac   1
Diseases of respiratory system—
Asthma   5
Silicosis    1
36
19
— 6
Diseases of digestive system—
Colitis        1
Gastroduodenal ulcer      7
— 8
Diseases of genito-urinary system—
Epididymitis        1
Nephritis        2
Prostatitis      1
— 4
Injuries or accidents—
Accidents       2
Dislocated hip      1
— 3
Ill-defined causes—
Blindness     6
General debility   6
Others   1
Rupture   1
Sclerosis     3
Senility   2
— 19
31 Total     203
STATUS AND NUMBER OF CHILDREN OF FAMILIES IN RECEIPT
OF ASSISTANCE IN MARCH, 1947.
Number of Children.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Total.
Widows -	
220
73
10
8
3
7
6
7
165
70
18
9
3
6
5
1
104
24
5
3
6
3
34
20
3
3
1
10
9
4
1
2
7
3
1
3
2
1
1
1
1
543
203
41
20
6
24
16
9
1
Divorced	
Unmarried	
Insane	
Totals	
334
277
145
61
26
11
6
1
1
1
863
Number of individuals benefited—
Mothers 	
Husbands 	
Children	
863
203
1,832
Total
  2,898
C W. LUNDY,
Director of Welfare. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47. O 61
OLD-AGE PENSION BOARD.
TWENTIETH ANNIVERSARY.
This year marks the twentieth anniversary of the coming into existence of old-age
pensions in British Columbia. It is fitting, therefore, that in this report we should
glance backward and recall briefly the events of twenty years ago.
On March 26th, 1926, the Federal Government had sponsored an Old-age Pensions
Bill which passed the House of Commons on May 28th but was later defeated in the
Senate. In the following February, however, an identical Bill was introduced. This
time it passed both Houses and was granted Royal Assent on March 31st, 1927.
In British Columbia the Provincial Government had been keeping in close touch
with the progress of old-age pension legislation at Ottawa, and in anticipation of the
passage of the Federal Act the Honourable John Oliver, Premier of the Province, on
January 19th, 1927, introduced a Bill to give the Provincial Government authority to
enter into an agreement with the Federal Government for a joint scheme of old-age
pensions as soon as the latter had passed the necessary Federal legislation. The Provincial Act came into force on March 7th, 1927, but, due to the necessity of setting up
administrative machinery, the first applications could not be received until September
1st of that year. By its action British Columbia thus became the first Province to
grant old-age pensions in Canada. It was followed afterwards by Saskatchewan on
May 1st, 1928; Manitoba on September 1st, 1928; Northwest Territories on January
25th, 1929; Alberta on August 1st, 1929; Ontario on November 1st, 1929; Prince
Edward Island on July 1st, 1933; Nova Scotia on March 1st, 1934, and Quebec on
August 1st, 1936.    The Yukon Territory still does not pay pensions.
The administration was put in charge of the Workmen's Compensation Board. It
began with a staff of four employees. On April 1st, 1943, the administration was
transferred from the Workmen's Compensation Board to a newly appointed Old-age
Pension Board of three members. At the close of the year 1946-47 there was a staff
of forty-five employees.
It is interesting to note that pensioner No. 1, the recipient of the first old-age
pension cheque in Canada, died on February 27th, 1938, at the ripe old age of 85 years.
He was born in the United States on May 17th, 1852, and came to British Columbia
in 1896.
Pensioner No. 2 died on June 1st, 1938, at the age of 83 years. He was born in
the Province of Quebec and came to British Columbia in 1922.
Pensioner No. 3 is still living and still in receipt of pension at age 93. He was
born in Ireland on March 26th, 1854, came to Canada in 1903 and British Columbia
in 1906.
Nos. 4 to 77 are all deceased. No. 78, a single lady, is still living, at 91 years of
age. She was born at Broadlands, Quebec, in 1856, and came to British Columbia in
1916.
Nos. 3 and 78 above mentioned are the only survivors of the first 100 to receive
pension, and there are only 17 additional still living of the first 1,000.
There are 146 persons in receipt of pension who are 90 years of age or over. Of
these, two are 102, one is'101, one is 100, two are 99, five are 98, and one is 97 years old.
Up to the end of the year under review the cumulative total of applications received
by the Board was 39,231 and the cumulative total of pensions granted was 35,360.
As the various amendments that have been made to the Act and regulations during
the past twenty years have been fully outlined in the reports of the three years starting
with 1943-44, we shall not repeat by dwelling upon them here. 0 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
GENERAL.
In the fiscal year 1946-47 all previous records were broken. Counting both blind
and old age, there were 3,023 new applications received, compared with 2,770 the year
before, and the number of pensions granted was 2,788, compared with 2,519 the year
before. As at March 31st, 1947, there were 18,295 old-age and blind pensioners on the
pay-roll, compared with 16,977 at March 31st, 1946, showing an increase of 7.76 per
cent. The total expenditure on pensions and cost-of-living bonuses for both old-age
and blind pensioners amounted to $6,469,235.34, compared with $5,738,805.34 for the
previous year, showing an increase of 12.73 per cent. This sharp increase in expenditure was due to the large increase in the number of new pensions granted and the
increase from $5 a month to $10 in the cost-of-living bonus paid from January 1st,
1947, to March 31st, 1947.
The average number of new applications received per month is now between 250
and 300. In March, the last month of the fiscal year, the actual number received was
333.    The average number now handled per working-day is 12 plus.
The total cost of pensions proper (as distinct from bonuses) paid during the year
was in excess of $5,100,000, and of this the Province itself paid 25 per cent., or more
than $1,275,000. In addition to this, the Province paid approximately $1,240,000 in
cost-of-living bonuses for pensioners and $81,275 for administration. Altogether,
therefore, the total cost to the Province involved in providing for its pensioners was
well over $2,500,000.
There were 1,428 deaths among British Columbia pensioners, including both old
age and blind, during the year, as compared with 1,299 the year before. The number
of estates against which claims were made was 124, and the amount collected was
$76,784.56.
THE ACT AND REGULATIONS.
There were no changes in either the Act or the regulations during the year, but
a meeting of the Interprovincial Old-age Pensions Board was held in Ottawa in November, 1946, at which British Columbia was represented by the Honourable George S.
Pearson, Minister of Health and Welfare, and the Chairman of the Board, and at this
meeting numerous recommendations for changes in the regulations were made, which
it is anticipated will be put into effect shortly.
COST-OF-LIVING BONUS.
Since April 1st, 1942, the Provincial Government had been paying a cost-of-living
bonus of $5 a month to all old-age and blind pensioners whose pensions were granted
in this Province. At the 1947 session of the Legislature, however, this bonus was
increased to $10 a month, and the increase was made payable retroactively to January
1st, 1947.
RECIPROCAL AGREEMENTS.
Like British Columbia, Alberta also had commenced to pay a cost-of-living bonus
to its pensioners in April, 1942, and the two Provinces had entered into a reciprocal
agreement whereby each Province would pay the bonus to pensioners coming from the
other Province and charge the cost back to that Province. Thus British Columbia and
Alberta pensioners were able to move freely from one Province to the other without
suffering any financial loss.
In the year 1945-46 a similar agreement was entered into with the Province of
Saskatchewan. As Saskatchewan paid a bonus of only $3 a month, however, pensioners
moving from that Province to British Columbia received only that amount, whereas
British Columbia pensioners moving to Saskatchewan were paid a $5 bonus there,
which, of course, was charged back to British Columbia. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47. O 63
As already stated elsewhere, the British Columbia bonus was increased from $5 to
$10 a month at the last session of the Legislature. As a result, in the month of March
negotiations were commenced with Alberta and Saskatchewan for revisions in the
reciprocal agreements whereby those Provinces undertook to pay on our behalf the
increased bonus to British Columbia pensioners living in their territory. The revision
of the agreement with Alberta was effected on March 11th, but the negotiations with
Saskatchewan were still in progress when the fiscal year ended on March 31st.
SOCIAL SERVICE.
Changes in population patterns and trends in relation to money expended for
pensions may be reduced to significant figures. When we look at the more social
aspects of our work with the older group, it is much more difficult to pin down our
findings. Here we come face to face with living individuals, each with his own past
experience, his own temperament, his own needs and desires. His personal usefulness
and happiness have no relation to statistics of the aged or even to his own chronological
age. They are, nevertheless, a measure of the effectiveness of the old-age pension as
a means of helping older people live a satisfying life.
In this Province we have accepted the principle that economic security is not
enough. Other securities are essential to the " good life." As tangible evidence of
our effort to bring these within reach of our older citizens, we point to the following
developments:—
(!) The setting-up of a Social Service Division as a part of the old-age
pensions administration.
(2) The use of a field staff of qualified social workers.
(3) Provision of medical services, including hospitalization.
(4) Plans for gradual establishment of adequate Provincial institutions,
varying in type to meet the requirements of our aging population, and
encouragement to municipalities concerned with the need of suitable
accommodation for their old folk.
. Social Service Division.
The Social Service Division of the Old-age Pension Board was set up in April, 1943,
when the administration of old-age pensions was brought into close relationship with
other social services in the Province. One of the purposes of the Division is to help
interpret the wider implications of the Act to the clerical staff handling business details
in the head office and to the public, whether clients or interested citizens, as it is felt
that such understanding is an important factor in the development of a more individualized service to the aged.
The Division functions first as an information and referral centre. Innumerable
inquiries come to the intake office and over the telephone. Since it is only by persistent
interpretation that we. may hope to clear away a long-standing misapprehension in
relation to old-age pensions, one feels that this service has more significance than might
be apparent at first glance.
The intake office is a focal point in our social work, largely because of skilful
personal interviews in which troublesome details are cleared. During the past twelve
months 2,380 persons were interviewed by the intake worker. In addition, more than
100 from outside points were referred to the supervisor.
Reference has been made to a field staff of social workers. It should be remembered, however, that, because of the requirements of the Act and the large number of
cases, contact with the 12,000 pensioners outside the City of Vancouver cannot be
confined to our district social workers. Unlike members of the field staff, who meet
their clients face to face, the clerical workers in the Old-age Pension Board office meet 0 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
the old folk through the daily mail. In addition to the large volume of ordinary
correspondence, more than 300 personal letters from pensioners or their friends must
be answered every month. Writing letters to old persons presents unusual problems!
We have found that good relationships between pensioners and field workers or the
Board may be strengthened—or weakened—by the written, as well as the personal,
interview.
An effort to meet this situation is being made in two ways:—
(1) At the beginning of employment, members of the clerical staff spend some
time with the Supervisor of Social Service, when the background and
social aspect of their work is discussed.
(2) Information with regard to the pensioner's personality and general situation, included with the annual field service report required by the Act,
serves as a guide to the clerks responsible for correspondence. In some
instances it indicates referral of the communication to the Social Service
Division for reply. In others it makes it possible for the Board to have
a more complete picture on which to base a decision on a particular
problem.
The clerical staff welcomes this social information and is learning to use it
effectively.
Field Staff.
Members of the field staff of the Social Welfare Branch are the representatives
of the Old-age Pension Board throughout the Province, and a large part of their time
must therefore be given to work with the aged. The use of this field staff, a large
group of Provincial social workers handling all categories of social assistance, is the
concrete expression of the idea that economic security is the basis, but by no means
the whole, of our service to old persons. In looking to more adequate provision for
their needs, certain general characteristics of senescence must be taken into account.
One of the most important of these is increasing inability to understand written
instructions and explanations and to carry out undertakings involving some degree of
concentrated effort. Here the personal interpretation of the worker is invaluable.
Then, too, the social worker is understanding of the varied manifestations of emotional
needs and resources for meeting them. His job is an exacting one requiring, on the
one hand, the procuring and recording of accurate and detailed financial information
in accordance with the provisions of the Act and, on the other, a recognition of the
equally important social factors that go to make up the pensioner's total situation.
The present policy of including as complete as possible social information in first
investigation reports and adding from time to time on a selective basis is proving
satisfactory.
In October, 1946, a significant change took place in the district set-up of the
Provincial Welfare Department. A plan of decentralization, giving more responsibility and authority to local offices, was put into effect. (Specific reference to this
development will be found elsewhere in the report of the Social Welfare Branch.)
This move should bring our work with the aged more closely into line with other
case-work services. Workers will have guidance not only in their more direct work
with pensioners, but in the planning and organizing of it, which is so essential because
of the increasingly heavy case-load in this field. The whole procedure in completing
an application may, it is hoped, be carried out with greater dispatch. Emergencies,
constantly arising among the aged, can be more promptly dealt with. Shared responsibility should mean that services to old-age pensioners will develop on a sounder basis. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47. 0 65
Medical Services.
One of the commonest and perhaps the most disturbing of the many fears which
beset later life is that of illness. The importance of the medical program cannot be
overrated as a factor in developing emotional security.... The extent of the health
problem in the older group is indicated in some measure by a sampling of 100 cases
recently added to our old-age pension rolls. Of this group, only 25 were (presumably)
free from ailments and described their health as " good." In 46 cases there were
complaints of general debility with reference to one or another particular ailment—
frequently, no doubt, a self-diagnosis. The remaining 29 were so ill as to be largely
incapacitated and under medical treatment for a condition of a serious nature.
Findings obtained in this way lack J;he validity assured by a more scientific
approach. However, they suggest various possibilities which, it would seem, have a
bearing on the well-be'ing of the pensioners, particularly so when one realizes that we
are speaking of the " younger " members of the pension family for whom we are only
now commencing to take responsibility. The figures cited may perhaps indicate a
preoccupation with health—workers tell us that old- people almost always want to talk
about their health. This in turn may suggest lack of other interest. Such figures
could also mean that because of limited finances these older folk, many of whom have
been unemployed for a considerable period before receiving old-age pension, have lacked
medical advice, with the inevitable result. There can be no doubt but what poor
housing and insufficient nourishment are also factors. One may perhaps assume that
such a situation is to some extent a reflection of the fact that medical science in general
has, to date, been largely concerned with diseases of the earlier years of life. In view
of the increasingly large proportion of older persons in our population, it would seem
that more study must now be given to geriatrics (the branch of medicine dealing with
disease in aged individuals). -
There is ample evidence that the medical services plan for persons in receipt of
social assistance in effect in British Columbia since 1943 has meant a great deal to the
recipients of old-age pension. Difficulties still to be solved include the following:
The unwillingness of many physicians to serve under the plan; gaps in the program,
particularly in relation to special services; lack of uniformity among municipalities;
complication in procedure for old persons living in isolated places; and the forgetful-
ness and general inability of the aged group to grasp written instructions.
Regardless of how we look at the picture of the health situation in later years,
we know that it is economically and socially unsound for such a large proportion of our
adult population to be " below par." A medical program offering complete coverage,
with provisions satisfactory to medical practitioners as well as old persons, is at least
one part of the answer.
To-day's social thinking, with its emphasis upon the individual, is for the most
part away from the large institution. To the social worker it is the last resort, and
it is hoped that as governments and communities become more aware of the social needs
of the aged, the development of adequate programs may decrease, or at least delay,
admissions to public institutions. At the same time experience has shown us that there
can be no real sense of security, either for the pensioner or those persons interested
in his welfare, without adequate provision for care when either physical or mental
deterioration makes it impossible for him to live by himself or with relatives. A discussion of needs in this connection would involve a wide range of plans from foster-
homes to congregate institutions for chronic cases.
Development of Welfare Institutions.
During the past year there has been evidence of a greater interest in the welfare
of these senior citizens in several communities.    New " homes " for old people have O 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
been opened in the Cities of Nelson and Prince Rupert, and New Westminster has a
housing project for pensioners under way. (Information in this connection will be
found in the report of the Administration of the " Welfare Institutions Licensing Act.")
The interest and leadership of our district social workers has no doubt played a part
in these developments.
During the year consultative service was given in 1,100 cases referred to the
Social Service Division from the field or from members of the clerical staff in the Old-
age Pension Board office. All new appointees to the field staff were given periods of
instruction in the Divisional office, and material of an explanatory nature was sent out.
In looking to the year ahead, it is hoped that, as a result of decentralization, the Supervisor of Social Service may be able to function more adequately as a liaison between
the field service and the Branch office, and to work more effectively toward the coordination and development of services for the aged on a Provincial level.
Present eligibility requirements, along with recorded social facts, bring within
reach a volume of detailed information in relation to the over-seventy group, which
should be valuable from a research point of view. Social workers have a responsibility
to contribute steadily from the understanding and skill derived from experience, in
this or any other field, to help the community in its efforts to meet the fundamental
needs of its citizens.
This report would not be complete without grateful acknowledgment of the help
received from social agencies, churches, and other organizations interested in the
welfare of our senior citizens. Among these are: Alexandra Neighbourhood House,
Canadian National Institute for the Blind, Canadian Ladies' Golf Union, Community
Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver (Committee on the Care of the Aged), Family
Welfare Bureau, Gordon House Community Centre, Social Service Department of the
Vancouver General Hospital, Social Service Department of the British Columbia Cancer Institute, Soroptimist Clubs, Travellers' Aid, Victorian Order of Nurses, Young
Women's Christian Association, and several broadcasting stations which hav„e contributed largely toward Christmas cheer for the old folk. It is hoped that increasing
awareness of the particular needs of our older citizens may result in further significant
developments on their behalf.
GRAPHIC PRESENTATION COVERING TWENTY-YEAR PERIOD.
On the following page will be found a graphic presentation of the trends in old-age
and blind pensions in British Columbia from the coming into force of the " Old Age
Pensions Act" in 1927 to the end of the fiscal year 1945-46.
The red-line graph shows the trend in cost of pensions, the unbroken black line
shows the trend in numbers of persons in receipt of pension, and the broken line shows
the trend in total population. These graphs may be compared one with another only in
general, as they are not based on any common unit of amount. The trend-of-costs
graph is based on 72,000 units to the square, the trend-of-number-of-pensioners graph
is based on 2,400 units to the square, and the trend-of-population graph is based on
240,000 units to the square. The graphs are made up from statistical records of the
Old-age Pension Board and population figures from Dominion census records.
It will be seen from the graphs that during the first two years' operation of the
Act there was a sharp rise in both the number of pensioners and the cost of pensions.
This, of course, was due to the large initial number of applicants who were granted
pensions in this period.
After this early period there was a lessening in rate of increase of the number of
pensioners added to the pay-roll until the middle of 1930, when, it will be noted, a
further increase in the rate of pensions granted began and continued fairly steadily
until about the middle of 1939. *6/
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From the middle of 1939 until the end of 1940 the rate of increase in number of
pensioners is seen to continue evenly. This represented the early period of the war.
The later period of the war, beginning with the year 1941 and continuing into the early
part of 1944, shows a rate of increase in the number of pensioners less than in any
former period. However, early in 1944 it is noticed that a sharp rise began in this
rate of increase, became steeper toward the end of that year, and has continued through
the following years.
When the graph representing the number of old-age pensioners is compared in a
general way with the graph representing the total population of the Province, it is
evident that at first the number of old-age pensioners increased much more quickly
than population, which, of course, was to be expected. This difference in percentage
increase, although becoming less for some time, has again shown a marked upward
trend during the past three years.
When the graph representing the cost of pensions is compared with the graph
representing the number of pensioners, it is seen that, after the initial sharp rise, the
graph of cost maintained a general, regular, upward trend until the period between
March and April of 1942, when there was a sharp rise, and another of about similar
amount between September and October, 1943. The first of these rises was due to the
granting of the cost-of-living bonus of $5 a month to pensioners in this Province by
the Provincial Government, which bears the full cost of this additional expenditure
itself. The second resulted from an increase of $5 a month in the rate of pension
payments authorized by the Dominion Government under the " War Measures Act" on
August 10th, 1943, by Order in Council P.C. 6367. It will be seen that although the
cost occasioned by the extra $5 a month under the " War Measures Act" resulted in
high points in the graph for October and November, it fell off sharply during the next
two months. The explanation is that the $5-a-month payment was made retroactive,
so that there resulted an accumulation of more than one month's payment to be made.
A somewhat similar sharp rise followed by a decline is noticed for the middle period
of 1944. This rise is explained by the amendment to the Act which provided for an
allowable income of $425 instead of the former $365, and the computations following
this, too, were made retroactive. For this reason the highest point on the graph was
above that which otherwise would have resulted, and the following months therefore
showed a recession.
The trend for the past three years is normal considering the increase in the number
of pensioners, except at one point. At the end of March, 1947, an additional cost-of-
living bonus was added to the bonus of $5 which previously had been granted in April,
1942, by the Provincial Government. The payment was made retroactive to the 1st
of January, and the total amount of payments made to pensioners at that time results
in a very steep rise in the graph of cost just at the end of the fiscal year. The graph
will, of course, level out at some lower point.
GRAPHIC PRESENTATION COVERING YEAR 1946-47,
On the following page is a column graph showing the highlights of the year's
activities, the details of which may be obtained by comparing the various columns.
These indicate the number of new applications received each month, the number of
applicants who were granted pension, the numbers who had previously been unable to
qualify for pension but have now become eligible, the grand total added to the pay-roll.
The difference between columns 2 and 3 is made up by the number of pensioners who
migrated to British Columbia from other Provinces and are in receipt of pensions
from these Provinces but are now under the administration of the British Columbia
Board. O 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In examining either the profile of the year's activities or the activities of the
individual months, one finds approximately the following ratios:—
(1) The number of deceased pensioners is approximately equal to half the
number of new applications.
(2) The number of applications refused amounts to approximately one-tenth
of the new applications received.
(3) The number of newly granted pensions and those previously suspended
but now reinstated are together about equal to the number of all the
new applications received.
STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED MARCH SlST, 1947.
OLD-AGE PENSIONS.
Table 1.—Disposition of Applications.
Total to
Current March 31st,
Year. 1947.
Number of new applications received  2,937 39,231
Number of new applications granted  2,739* 35,360
Number of new applications not granted      322* 	
* Includes some held over from previous year.
Table 2.—Miscellaneous.
Number of B.C. pensioners returned to B.C  111
Number of new " other Province " pensioners transferred to
B.C  590
Number of B.C. pensioners transferred to other Provinces  177
Number of pensioners from other Provinces transferred out of
B.C. or suspended  354
Number of B.C. reinstatements granted  232
Number of B.C. pensions suspended  370
Number of deaths of B.C. pensioners  1,401
Number of deaths of " other Province " pensioners in B.C  195
Total number of pensioners on pay-roll at end of fiscal year 17,925
Table 3.—Reasons why Applications not granted.
Number. Per Cent.
Ineligible on account of age .       58 18.01
Ineligible on account of residence      23 7.14
Ineligible on account of citizenship       18 5.59
Ineligible on account of income      58 18.01
Ineligible on account of assistance from children_      58 18.01
Ineligible because other resources were available_      22 6.83
Ineligible because of a transfer of property         9 2.80
Application not completed         8 2.49
Application withdrawn        68 21.12
Total -.     322   REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47. 0 69
Table 4A—Sex of New Pensioners.
Number. Per Cent.
Males  1,387 50.64
Females  1,352 49.36
Total 2,739
Table 5.—Marital Status of New Pensioners.
Number. Per Cent.
Married  1,227 44.80
Single     352 12.85
Widows       682 24.90
Widowers      299 10.92
Separated      166 6.06
Divorced        13 0.47
Total 2,739
Table 6.—Birthplace of New Pensioners.
Number. Per Cent.
British Columbia       44 1.61
Other parts of Canada     757 27.64
British Isles 1,383 50.49
Other parts of the British Empire       38 1.39
United States of America     167 6.09
Other foreign countries     350 12.78
Total 2,739
Table 7.—Ages at Granting of New Pensions.
Number. Per Cent.
Age 70 1,188 43.37
Age 71     316 11.54
Age 72     271 9.89
Age 73     214 7.81
Age 74„-__„:     157 5.73
Age 75_ ,     124 4.53
Age 76 to 80     342 12.49
Age 81 to 90     118 4.31
Age 91 and up        9 0.33
Total 2,739 O 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table 8.—Ages of Pensioners at Death.
Number. Per Cent.
Age 70       36 2.24
Age 71       41 2.56
Age 72       78 4.87
Age 73       68 4.25
Age 74       99 6.19
Age 75       79 4.93
Age 76-.  106 6.63
Age 77 r  104 6.50
Age 78  114 7.13
Age 79       90 5.62
Age 80       97 6.06
Age 81  78 4.87
Age 82      82 5.13
Age 83  87 5.50
Age 84  74 4.62
Age 85  66 4.12
Age 86  60 3.77
Age 87  46 2.88
Age 88 ,  59 3.69
Age 89  32 2.00
Age 90 1  27 1.68
Over 90  75 4.76
Total 1,598
Table 9.—With whom New Pensioners live.
Living alone	
Living with spouse-
Living with spouse and children     287
Living with children	
Living with others	
Living in public institutions	
Living in private institutions       24
Number.
Per Cent
.    742
27.09
890
32.49
287
10.48
.    513
18.73
.    260
9.49
23
0.84
24
0.88
Total 2,739
Table 10.—Where New Pensioners are living.
Number. Per Cent.
In own house     962 35.12
In rented house     389 14.20
In rented suite     202 7.38
Boarding     768 28.04
In housekeeping room     276 10.08
In boarding-home_       13 0.47
In institution       41 1.50
In single room (eating out)       88 3.21
Total 2,739 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47. 0 71
Table 11.—Economic Status of New Pensioners.
(a) Holding real property of value—                            Number. Per Cent.
$0 : 1,744 63.70
$1 to $250     299 10.91
$251 to $500     156 5.68
$501 to $1,000     256 9.34
$1,001 to $3,000     221 8.07
$3,001 and up      63 2.30
Total 1 2,739
(&)  Holding personal property of value—
$0 1,267 46.25
$1 to $250     725 26.47
$251 to $500     351 12.82
$501 to $1,000     231 8.43
$1,001 and up     165 6.03
Total 2,739
Table 12.—Number of Pensioners living in other Provinces whose Pensions
were granted by British Columbia and are paid wholly or partially by this
Province.*
Alberta                          -   -     	
Number.
                     96
Saskatchewan -   _._  r	
         47
Manitoba
                    96
Ontario
                  95
Quebec
                       25
New Brunswick
                 10
Nova Scotia
                   29
Prince Edward Island
1
Northwest Territory	
            0
Total                            	
                      399
* At March 31st, 1947.
Table 13.—Claims against Estates, Old-age and Blind.
Number of cases of deaths  1,428
Number of cases where claims were made      124
Number of cases where claims were waived or withdrawn in
favour of beneficiaries       16
Number of cases on which collections were made  (including
cases from former years)      153
Total amount collected—
Old-age   $76,710.91
Blind   73.65
Total   $76,784.56 0 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table 14.—Percentage of Pensioners to Population.*
Percentage of pensioners to the total population of the Province    1.80
Percentage of all persons over 70 years of age to the total population of the Province     5.08
Percentage of pensioners to the population over 70 years of age 35.37
* Percentages based on population estimated as at March 31st, 1947.
BLIND PENSIONS.
Table 1.—Disposition of Applications.
Current Total to
Year. March 31st, 1947.
Number of new applications received  50 668
Number of new applications granted  49* 428
Number of new applications not granted     9* 114
* Includes some held over from previous year.
Table 2.—Miscellaneous.
Number of B.C. pensioners returned to B.C  3
Number of new " other Province " pensioners transferred to
B.C  15
Number of B.C. pensioners transferred to other Provinces  3
Number of pensioners from other Provinces transferred out of
B.C. or suspended  6
Number of B.C. reinstatements granted  8
Number of deaths of B.C. pensioners  27
Number of deaths of " other Province " pensioners in B.C	
Total number of pensioners on pay-roll at end of fiscal year  370
Table 3.—Reasons why Applications not granted.
Number. Per Cent.
Not blind within meaning of Act         4 44.45
Ineligible on account of income         2 22.22
Application withdrawn          2 22.22
Application not completed         1 11.11
Total   q
Table 4.—Sex of New Pensioners.
Number. Per Cent.
Males       26 53.06
Females        23 46.94
Total       49 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47. 0 73
Table 5.—Marital Status of New Pensioners.
Number. Per Cent.
Married        18 36.74
Single       19 38.78
Widows        9 18.36
Widowers         2 4.08
Separated          1 2.04
Total  .       49
Table 6.—Birthplace of New Pensioners.
plumber. Per Cent.
British Columbia         3 6.12
Other parts of Canada       13 26.52
British Isles      22 44.94
Other parts of the British Empire  	
United States of America        2 4.08
Other foreign countries         9 18.34
Total        49
Table 7.—Ages at Granting of New Pensions.
Number. Per Cent.
Age 40 to 44          9 18.36
Age 45 to 49          1 2.04
Age 50 to 54          2 4.08
Age 55 to 59          2 4.08
Age 60 to 64        13 26.54
Age 65 to 69        12 24.49
Age 70 and up        10 20.41
Total        49
Table 8.—Ages of Pensioners at Death.
Number. Per Cent.
Age 50 to 54          1 3.70
Age 55 to 59          1 3.70
Age 60 to 64         1 3.70
Age 65 to 69          4 14.82
Age 70 to 90        20 74.08
Total       27
Table 9.—With whom New Pensioners live.
Number. Per Cent.
Living alone       10 20.40
Living with spouse         6 12.25
Living with spouse and children       10 20.40
Living with children         7 14.29
Living with others        14 28.58
Living in public institutions         1 2.04
Living in private institutions         1 2.04
Total        49 0 74
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table 10.—Where New Pensioners are living.
Number.
Tn own bouse                      _  _         _              __                     11
Per Cent.
22.45
In rented house ~
       11
22.45
In rented suite                        	
         4
8.16
Boarding - -      	
       16
32.65
In housekeeping room „       - - -
         4
8.17
In boarding-home _      .           	
In institution              ...       .
         2
4.08
In single room (eating out)
         1
2.04
Total 	
       49
(a)
Table 11.—Economic Status of New Pensioners.
Holding real property of value—
(b)
$1 to $250 1	
$251 to $500 _
$501 to $1,000
$1,001 and up _
Total 	
Holding personal property of value-
$1 to $250	
$251 to $500 _
$501 to $1,000
$1,001 and up
Number.
20
Per Cent
40.00
21
43.68
3
6.12
3
2
6.12
4.08
49
16
25
3
2
3
31.81
51.87
6.12
4.08
6.12
Total
49
Table 12.—Number of Pensioners living in other Provinces whose pensions
were granted by british columbia and are paid wholly or partially by
this Province.*
Number
Alberta   _   	
_„_                       1
Saskatchewan        ...
            .___                      1
Manitoba      '  — -     	
1
Ontario             	
1
Quebec     	
1
New Brunswick   	
Nova Scotia 	
Prince Edward Island	
Northwest Territory	
Total 	
       _                5
* At March 31st, 1947. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47. 0 75
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR ENDED MARCH 31ST, 1947.
Table 1.—Pensions.
Total amount paid pensioners in British Co-
. ,  . Supplementary
lumbia  Pensions. Allowances. Total.
Old-age  $5,104,796.64 $1,231,042.62 $6,335,839.26
Blind        107,408.54 25,987.54       133,396.08
Totals $5,212,205.18 $1,257,030.16 $6,469,235.34
Less amount of refunds from pensioners and
estates—
From estates of old-age pensioners      $76,710.91.        $76,710.91
From estates of blind pensioners  73.65     73.65
Overpayments refunded by old-age pensioners   3,216.82 $294.00 3,510.82
Overpayments refunded by blind pensioners         ;	
Miscellaneous refunds from old-age pensioners   1,974.52 315.00 2,289.52
Miscellaneous refunds from blind pensioners   25.00 5.00 30.00
Totals       $82,000.90 $614.00       $82,614.90
Net   amount   paid   pensioners   in   British
Columbia—
Old-age  $5,022,894.39 $1,230,433.62 $6,253,328.01
Blind        107,309.89 25,982.54       133,292.43
Totals $5,130,204.28 $1,256,416.16 $6,386,620.44
Add amount paid other Provinces on account
of pensioners for whom British Columbia
is partly responsible—
Old-age        $28,066.52 $8,828.47       $36,894.99
Blind   447.43 190.00 637.43
Totals       $28,513.95 $9,018.47       $37,532.42
Less amount received by British Columbia on
account of pensioners for whom other
Provinces are partly responsible—
Old-age  ,     $275,208.14       $78,341.22     $353,549.36
Blind   5,342.50 1,055.00 6,397.50
Totals :     $280,550.64      $79,396.22    $359,946.86 O 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Less amount refunded by the Dominion Gov-
Supplementary
emment  Pensions. Allowances. Total.
Old-age  $3,767,623.23     $3,767,623.23
Blind          80,435.16     80,435.16
Totals $3,848,058.39     $3,848,058.39
Total amount paid by British Columbia—
Old-age $1,008,129.54 $1,160,920.87 $2,169,050.41
Blind          21,979.66 25,117.54 47,097.20
Totals $1,030,109.20 $1,186,038.41 $2,216,147.61
Table 2.—Administration Expenses.
Salaries and special services  $60,883.72
Office supplies, subscriptions, etc.  5,284.32
Postage, telephone and telegraph  12,231.31
Bank exchange  1,957.35
Travelling expenses  243.25
Incidentals and contingencies  1,368.11
Total  $81,968.06
Table 3.—Supplementary Allowances.
Gross  amount  of  supplementary  allowances  paid  in
British Columbia   $1,265,434.63
Supplementary allowances refunded by other Provinces 79,396.22
Net supplementary allowances paid by British
Columbia  $1,186,038.41
The Board welcomes this opportunity to express its appreciation for the assistance
received during the past year from many sources. In the Social Service section of the
report our acknowledgment of the help received from various social agencies has already
been recorded. Here we would like to add our sincere thanks to other branches and
divisions of the public service for co-operation readily given at all times. To the field
staff and members of our own office staff in particular, however, we wish to express our
sincere appreciation for work done willingly and efficiently and often under trying
circumstances.
J. H. Creighton.
Chairman. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47. 0 77
PROVINCIAL HOME.
I beg to submit herewith the annual report of the Provincial Home, Kamloops, for
the year ended March 31st, 1947.
In the financial statement forming part of this report it will be noted that the
operating cost has increased from the previous year, and which is reflected in a higher
per capita cost. In my opinion this higher rate is directly attributable to the increase
in food prices and operating expenses generally.
During the year there were 42 admissions, 29 deaths, and 35 discharged or left on
leave of absence. Of this latter group, 22 were readmitted. As at March 31st, 1947,
there were 146 men resident in the Home.
The physical condition of the men seeking admission to the Home is usually such
as to preclude most of them from engaging in duties of maintenance of this institution.
Where possible, however, men are allotted certain tasks which they are capable of performing and for which they receive reasonable remuneration. The conduct of the men
has, on the whole, been satisfactory.
Medical attention is available at all times. Once each week a doctor visits the
Home to examine any man in need of his services and, of course, is available at other
times when called upon. Each new admission is examined as soon as feasible after his
arrival at the Home. There are sixteen beds in the sick-ward, and the lower floor of
the west wing has ten beds which are usually occupied by bed patients. During the
influenza epidemic in the winter there were fifty-two bed patients for a short period,
and which meant that the matron and her staff of orderlies worked under heavy pressure.    Their handling of this situation deserves commendation.
During the year a representative of the Canadian National Institute for the Blind
visited all the men eligible for service from that organization. They received the
attention their conditions warranted. All the inmates and staff were X-rayed by the
Provincial tuberculosis unit in February. All old-age pensioners in the Home were
contacted by social workers of the local office of the Social Welfare Branch.
Maintenance of the buildings, equipment, and grounds has been kept to an acceptable standard, I believe. The fire chiefs from Tranquille and City of Kamloops made
regular inspections, and their instructions and recommendations have been carried out.
Recreation and amusements for the men in residence at the Home are varied and
greatly appreciated. Moving pictures are shown once each week; there is a good
library; the smoking-room is equipped for card games; and radios permit the men to
keep abreast of the news and to follow their favourite programs. Various religious
denominations make weekly visits. During the Christmas season, gifts were distributed
and entertainments provided by various organizations.
The farm in connection with the Home proved a valuable asset in supplying fresh
vegetables, thus reducing the operating costs to some extent.
Rationing restrictions and difficulty in obtaining certain supplies created some
inconveniences, but in my opinion the meals served were good and wholesome, with a
menu varied sufficiently that they could not become monotonous. The cook in charge of
the kitchen deserves credit for his efforts and the interest he takes in the performance
of his duties.
In so far as I am aware, the men, on the whole, are comfortable. In plans being
formulated for the coming year, I trust it will be possible to further improve conditions
so that the period of time spent in the Provincial Home by these elderly men, many of
them pioneers of this Province, will be such that they will refer to it with pleasure.
In concluding this report may I express my appreciation of the advice and assistance
which I have at all times received from the officials of not only the Social Welfare
Branch, but of other departments of the Provincial Government.    Since the transfer O 78
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
of the administration of the Provincial Home from the Department of the Provincial
Secretary to the Social Welfare Branch of the Department of Health and Welfare, it
has meant a close contact with the regional administrator of that Branch. His ready
and willing assistance is acknowledged and appreciated.
P. A. McDade,
Superintendent.
HEALTH.
I beg to submit herewith a brief report of that phase of the operation of the
Provincial Home under my supervision during the fiscal year ended March 31st, 1947.
All persons in the sick-ward and others requiring medical attention come under
my supervision. These patients are visited by the doctor once each week, and who is
also available if called upon at other times. In day-to-day attention to our patients
it is found that many of them require treatment for injured nails, corns, callouses, eyes,
and ears.
Approximately thirty of the men in the Home are chronic cases, requiring routine
care according to their condition. All these men have their meals served to them under
my direction. Male orderlies do the bathing and perform general services to the
patients.
During the month of February we had a considerable number of patients ill with
influenza, which placed a heavy strain on our nursing services. I am pleased to report
that only one death can be attributed to that epidemic.
It is my constant endeavour to render every service I can and to make our patients
as comfortable as possible. To that end and for the convenience of the staff as a
whole I trust that from time to time I shall be able to make further suggestions or
recommendations.
Mary H. Aynsley, R.N.,
Matron. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47. O 79
EXPENDITURE FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED MARCH 31st,  1947.
Recapitulation.
Salaries   $39,338.64
Less board and rent deductions       4,032.75
  $35,305.89
Cost-of-living bonus        7,020.40
Expenses—
Office supplies, etc        $310.93
Less Unemployment Insurance deductions  56.83
  254.10
Fuel, light, and water  $11,159.36
Less—
Charged to Provincial Police  $1,877.11
Charged to Public Works Department     1,712.39
       3,589.50
       7,569.86
Janitors' supplies and maintenance of grounds  603.20
Furnishings and equipment .       1,662.36
Provisions      15,968.75
Clothing     $2,244.95
Less rebate  1.00
 ■      2,243.95
Medical and surgical supplies       2,154.33
Transportation of inmates         400.55
Feed for live stock +       1,159.89
Incidentals and contingencies      $4,010.01
Less—
Comfort funds from Trust Account  $1,814.71
Sale of gravel  9.30
Rent of pasture  12.00
       1,836.01
       2,174.00
Provincial Home expenditure  $76,517.28
Public Works expenditure       6,307.33
Total expenditure   $82,824.61
Moneys paid to Government Agent, Kamloops  $34,354.11
Inmate-days.
Inmates in Home, March 31st, 1946     146
Inmates admitted during the year      64
■     210
Inmates discharged        35
Inmates died      29
      64
Total number of inmates, March 31st, 1947     146
Total number of inmate-days          51,863
Total per diem per capita cost   $1,597 O 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
RESEARCH CONSULTANT.
The Research Consultant begs to present the following report for the fiscal year
1946-47.
At the close of the previous year a study of housing for the aged was in process
of being made. This included a fairly detailed study of such housing in four municipalities, together with all available information on the newest and best plans for
housing for the aged as revealed in current publications in North America and England.
After this was completed a digest was made of the material regarding new trends of
housing for the aged.
As the library for the Social Welfare Department was being assembled in the
Training Supervisor's office, and it was felt that it had now reached a size that modern
cataloguing was essential, the Research Consultant undertook the cataloguing and
indexing of the library.
The second research project was "A Study of Ten Immigrant Families." This
had been suggested originally when the study of the Boys' Industrial School revealed
the large number of recidivists whose parents were born outside Canada. The selection of families was made, therefore, from this group. Each family was analysed,
showing the family group and the cost to the public purse under the headings " Social
Assistance," " Delinquency," " Mental and Physical Health." A short resume of the
family history accompanied each chart. This type of research involved not only a
great deal of work on the part of the Research Consultant, but depended for its factual
value on the help of many other agencies—help which was freely given.
An immediate start was then made on a study of the overseas children who were
sent to British Columbia for safety in 1940. Although it may be difficult to evaluate
results, since the children are nearly all returned to their homes and the responsible
English agency no longer in existence, it should at least provide a history of what
seemed to be a fairly large undertaking, and should give some information of definite
value regarding foster-home selection, and supervision. It may be possible when
conditions improve in England to get some social agency to do a follow-up study of
the children who presented definite problems while they were in care in British
Columbia.
Isobel Harvey,
Research Consultant. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47.                  0 81
SOCIAL ALLOWANCES.
The report on social allowances for this year again shows an increase both in
expenditure and in the numbers receiving this form of assistance.   The tables following
give certain statistics on a comparative basis.
Case-loads for the months of March, 1945, 1946, and 1947:—
March, 1945.
March, 1946.
March, 1947.
1,276
2,442
3,893
1,517
3,087
4,438
1,853
3,839
Single men and women ,
Totals	
5,061
7,611
9,042
10 753
The above represents the total numbers on social allowances regardless of where
resident or whether classified as municipal or Provincial responsibilities under the
" Residence and Responsibility Act."
A breakdown of the financial responsibility for the same months shows:—
March, 1945.
March, 1946.
March, 1947.
Per Cent.
64.87
35.13
Per Cent.
63.74
36.26
Per Cent.
63.82
36.18
As this form of aid is administered by the local area in which the recipient resides,
a further breakdown of residence discloses:—
March, 1945.
March, 1946.
March, 1947.
Per Cent.
68.69
31.31
Per Cent.
67.77
32.23
Per Cent.
68.39
31.61 .
From the above two tables it will be seen that there has been no appreciable change
in   the   percentages   of   municipal   or   Provincial   responsibilities.    It   will   be   noted,
however, that a slightly higher percentage of Provincial cases reside in municipalities
than is indicated by the residence responsibility.    As this percentage has remained
almost without change during the past three years, there is no evidence that social
allowance in a city or other municipality offers more attraction than in unorganized
territory.    In my opinion this slightly higher percentage is due to the fact that medical
services are usually more readily available in organized than in unorganized territory. 0 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
EXPENDITURE BY THE PROVINCE FOR SOCIAL ALLOWANCES,
MEDICAL SERVICES, ETC.
Cases who are the responsibility of a municipality (80 1945-46?1 i946-47?r
per cent, paid by Province)  $897,595.06 $1,047,635.94
Cases who are the sole responsibility of the Province
(100 per cent, paid by Province)  525,121.05 638,227.97
Repatriation, transportation within the Province,
nursing-home care (other than T.B.) for Provincial
cases, special allowances, and grants*  12,545.03 16,893.65
Medical services—Provincial and municipal cases (social
allowance, old-age pensioners, and mothers' allowance cases)   146,269.89 185,973.68
Emergency payments—such as where family may lose
their home by fire or similar circumstances  608.17 967.91
Municipal and Provincial cases—
(a) Tuberculosis nursing-home cases  Nil Nil
(b) Tuberculosis private-home cases  127,931.41 179,905.19
(c) Transportation of tuberculosis cases  2,002.50 2,371.56
(d) Comforts allowance for tuberculosis cases  3,315.00 6,358.40
Dependents of conscientious objectors  1,179.30 422.40
Dependents of enemy aliens  871.91 Nil
Allowances to Saskatchewan Mennonites  856.52 Nil
Allowances to Japanese persons  121.20 330.00
$1,718,417.04      $2,079,086.70
Less recovered by refund and payment from Dominion Government, " conscientious objectors"  $1,179.30 NU
Less recovered by refund and payment from Dominion Government, " dependents of enemy aliens " 871.91 Nil
Less  recovered   from  Province   of   Saskatchewan,
" Mennonite settlers "  856.52 NU
Less recovered by refund and payment from Dominion Government, " allowances to Japanese persons "   121.20 Nil
Total refunds   $3,028.93 Nil
Total expenditure by Province  $1,715,388.11      $2,079,086.70
* Includes $4,661.66 expended in repatriating to other Provinces persons not eligible under section 5 (6) of the
" Social Assistance Act."
In reviewing the increased expenditures for this year, it will be seen that, in
addition to general assistance, medical services and extra allowances in respect to
tuberculosis patients and contacts account to a considerable extent for the higher costs.
Municipal and Provincial officials are making greater use of the " T.B. benefits," which
is in line with the Government's control-of-tuberculosis policy and which will, I believe,
prove to be money well expended. Medical services are provided to recipients of social
allowance, mothers' allowance, and old-age and blind pensions. As our case-loads in
these categories increase, so, too, will the cost of medical services.
Social allowances continue to be administered by the local area, municipal or
provincial, and are on a shareable financial basis.   The Province accepts the total cost of REPORT OF THE SOCIAL WELFARE BRANCH, 1946-47. 0 83
allowances to Provincial cases and reimburses the respective municipalities 80 per cent.
of the allowances granted to municipal responsibilities on the basis of our social
allowance guide.
The flexible nature of this form of aid enables it to meet many situations not
provided for in other social welfare legislation. It continued to be available to
unemployables. During the war years employment was obtained by many persons who
had been considered as unemployable or but partially employable. These opportunities
are now decreasing. Our field staff are utilizing every resource by which such persons
can be placed in reasonable employment, but the ages of many of them preclude entire
success.
In my opinion we may expect a further increase in numbers and costs during the
coming year.
C. W. LUNDY,
Director of Welfare.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1947.
865-1247-7500 

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