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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Department of Education PROVINCIAL MUSEUM of NATURAL HISTORY and ANTHROPOLOGY… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1948

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Department of Education
Report for the Year 1946
Printed by Don McDiaemiu, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1947.  To His Honour C. A. BANKS,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
The undersigned respectfully submits herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial
Museum of Natural History and Anthropology for the year 1946.
• G. M. WEIR,
Minister of Education.
Office of the Minister of Education,
Victoria, B.C. Provincial Museum of Natural History
and Anthropology,
Victoria, B.C., April 30th, 1947.
The Honourable G. M. Weir,
Minister of Education, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—The undersigned respectfully submits herewith a report of the activities
of the Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology for the calendar
year 1946. »
I have the honour to be,
Your obedient servant,
The Honourable G. M. Weir, Minister.
Lieut.-Col. F. T. Fairey, Superintendent.
G. Clifford Carl, Ph.D., Director.
George A. Hardy, Botanist.
A. E. PlCKFORD, Assistant in Anthropology.
Lillian C. Sweeney, Artist (to September 30th).
Betty C. Newton, Artist (from November 1st).
Margaret Crummy, B.A., Secretarial Stenographer.
Sheila Grice, Typist (from November 25th).
H. H. Pegler, Attendant (to September 30th).
Arthur F. Coates, Attendant (from September 15th).
(a) To secure and preserve specimens illustrating the natural history of the
(b) To collect anthropological material relating to the aboriginal races of the
(c) To obtain information respecting the natural sciences, relating particularly to
the natural history of the Province, and to increase and diffuse knowledge regarding
the same,
(Section 4, " Provincial Museum Act," R.S.B.C. 1936, c. 231.)
The Provincial Museum is open to the public, free, week-days, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m.; and
on Sunday afternoons, 1 p.m. to 5 p.m. CONTENTS.
Report of the Director     7
Exhibition and Preparation     7
Special Exhibitions     7
Field-work     8
Publications     8
Motion-pictures      9
Education  10
Museum Lectures  10
Other Lectures  10
School Materials  10
Research  11
Attendance   11
Staff Changes  12
Building Maintenance and Storage Arrangements  13
Obituaries  13
Report of the Botanist  13
Acknowledgments   14
Miscellaneous Notes  14
Report of the Entomologist  14
Report of the Anthropologist  15
Accessions  16
Article:   " The Alaska Fur Seal Industry and Canada's Interest," by G. Clifford
Carl  21 Report of the Provincial Museum
The year 1946 has been a momentous one in the history of the Provincial Museum.
The various events which have taken place and the activities which have been carried on
during the period are set forth in the following pages.
One of the largest undertakings in connection with display material was the
rearranging of the entire Indian exhibit following the redecoration of the rooms which
house the material in the basement of the Museum building. The work was accomplished under the direction of Mr. A. E. Pickford, who gives a more detailed account
elsewhere in this report. The new arrangement, while not yet complete, produces a
more pleasing appearance; there is less crowding in the cases and the objects are much
more artistically displayed. One of the smaller rooms has been set aside for storage
for excess Indian material.
Early in the year the series of scale models of the sharks of British Columbia was
completed by Mrs. L. C. Sweeney, and the collection was placed on display in the fish
section. The exhibit includes models of the following: basking shark, mud shark,
mackerel shark, spotted cow shark, blue shark, soup-fin shark, thresher shark, cat shark,
sleeper shark, and dogfish.
Living animals on exhibit continue to attract attention. Chief among these was
a colony of bees contributed by Dr. J. B. Munro, Deputy Minister of Agriculture,
and maintained in a demonstration hive. The rattlesnake, chipmunk, and various
amphibians and fishes also receive special notice.
A display-case near the entrance-hall has featured a collection of modern native
handicrafts arranged by Mr. A. E. Pickford, followed by a diagrammatic exhibit showing the recent geological history of the Victoria area prepared by Mr. Hardy.
An additional exhibition-case has been installed, in which specimens of current
interest are displayed.
In the entrance-hall a show-case has been placed at the disposal of the junior members of the Victoria Natural History Society. During the year this case has displayed
exhibits entitled " What is an insect," " Fungi of the Victoria area," and " Twigs and
fossils," all arranged by junior members.
The Fifth Annual Exhibition of British Columbia Indian Arts and Crafts, June
10th to 30th, formed the only special exhibition held in the Museum during the year.
The display, sponsored by the British Columbia Indian Arts and Welfare Society, was
opened by Mrs. Nancy Hodges, M.L.A.; Chief Percy Ross, of the Songhees Reserve,
was also in attendance. The materials on view consisted of entries from several Indian
schools as well as from individuals. Entries consisted of paintings, drawings, and
other art-work, together with many examples of woodwork embodying Indian designs. B 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Among the latter were model canoes, indicating a deep interest on the part of young
boys in the Indian canoe races held at the Gorge during May. Several examples of
recent paintings by George Clutesi, Alberni Indian artist, were also included.
During the period from June 10th to August 24th the Director was on loan to the
Federal Department of Fisheries for the purpose of visiting the fur-seal breeding-
grounds on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska. A brief outline concerning this trip will be
found elsewhere in this report.
While on the Pribilof Islands, biological specimens of special interest were collected
under permits granted through the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Materials
so gathered included the skin and skeleton of a bachelor fur-seal, skulls of adult males
and females, skins of common sea-birds, specimens of St. George Island lemmings and
representative plants.    (The latter obtained by exchange with Dr. Georges Prefontaine.)
Kodachrome " stills " and motion-pictures in colour were also obtained to show
phases of the life-history of the fur-seal and some of the birds and flowers found on
the islands.
On three occasions during the summer Mr. Hardy paid short visits to the area in
the vicinity of Jordan Meadows, near the headwaters of the Jordan and Leech Rivers.
Sufficient specimens and information were collected to indicate that further and longer
study should be given to this area before it is changed radically by logging operations
and other forms of exploitation.
On February 15th an overnight trip was made to Parksville to take part in an
investigation concerning the death of trumpeter swans in a near-by swamp; a dead
bii-d was obtained for its skeleton. Later in the season a visit was made to Alberni
and to Home Lake, at which place caves were examined in company with Game Warden
Frank Greenfield, of Nanaimo.
Numerous other field-trips to areas in the vicinity of Victoria have been made
during the year, mainly for the collection of fresh materials for display, but also to
accumulate data regarding changes being forced upon local wild life by the spread of
urban areas.
In July Mr. Pickford spent several days on Denman Island as a guest of Mr. H. R.
Lacon, during which time he examined middens and other sites of former Indian
A short period of field-work in the Canadian Rockies was made on behalf of the
Museum by the botanist while on annual leave. Valuable contacts were made and
specimens were gathered for the herbarium collection.
A number of papers and other articles have appeared in print during the year as
contributions from the Museum.    These include the following:—
By G. Clifford Carl.
" Major Allan Brooks."    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 2, No. 8, p. 119, 1946.
" In Memoriam—Allan Brooks."    Murrelet, Vol. 27, No. 1, p. 14, 1946.
" From Fish to Frog."    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 21-24, 1946.
" Life in the Museum."    The Provincial, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 21, 22, 1946.
"A School of Killer Whales stranded at Estevan Point, Vancouver Island."
Report of the Provincial Museum for 1945, pp. 21-26, 1946.
" Sharp-headed Finner Whale stranded at Sidney, Vancouver Island, British
Columbia."    Murrelet, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 47-49, 1946. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1946. B 9
By I. McT. Cowan and G. C. Carl.
" The Northern Elephant Seal (Mirounga angustirostris) in British Columbia
Waters and Vicinity." Canadian Field-Naturalist, Vol. 59, No. 5, pp.
170, 171, 1 plate, 1945.
By George A. Hardy.
" Some Spring and Summer Butterflies."    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 2, No. 9,
pp. 142-145, 1946.
" Spring Flowers."    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 12, 13, 1946.
" The Devil's Club."    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 43, 44, 1946.
" The Scaly Crab."   Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 3, No. 3, p. 44, 1946.
" The Tent-caterpillar Situation for 1947."    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 3, No. 6,
pp. 75, 76, 1946.
" Report of the Third Annual Fungus Foray."    Victoria Naturalist, Vol. 3,
No. 6, pp. 78, 79, 1946.
" Some   Mushrooms   and   other   Fungi   of   British   Columbia."    Provincial
Museum Handbook, No. 4, pp. 1-96, 1946.
Materials for several other publications in the Museum series have been prepared
during the year.    Some of these are in the hands of the printers at the time of writing;
others will be published in 1947.
The continued demand for copies of Occasional Paper No. 5, "A Corner Stone of
Canadian Culture," by Alice Ravenhill, has made it necessary to have a third lot
reprinted. Copies of this publication have been requested from many parts of Canada
and from almost all States in the Union as a result of being reviewed in various
We wish to record here also the enthusiastic reception given to Mrs. J. Stanwell-
Fletcher's book, " Driftwood Valley," which appeared during the year. The many
references to this Museum and the accounts of specimens taken for our collections
have resulted in many inquiries regarding animals and plants from that remote area.
The exhibits and work of the Museum was the subject of a short article by Robert
S. Savery which appeared in " Island Events " of November 28th, 1946.
During the spring months several species of wild flowers were photographed on
colour motion-picture film to add to those taken in previous years. These have been
assembled with other material and appropriate titles to make a 400-foot film featuring
our native wild flowers.    Prints are being obtained for general use.
On two occasions during the year motion-pictures of whales were obtained. In
time it is planned to produce a film showing phases of the structure and habits of these
marine mammals.
During a visit to the Pribilof Islands in June, July, and August the Director was
granted the privilege of photographing the fur-seals and other natural-history subjects
found there. A 1,200 foot silent colour-film has been assembled featuring this material
for Museum use, and shorter films are planned for wider distribution.
The co-operation of the British Columbia Government Photographic Branch of the
Department of Trade and Industry in photographing some of this material is greatly
appreciated. The loan of a camera and other accessories by the Public Relations and
Education Branch of the British Columbia Forest Service was also of inestimable help
in producing these films.
In December the Museum purchased an Ampro sound projector to supplement the
Bell & Howell silent machine, which has given many years of efficient service. B 10
Museum Lectures.
The programme of Saturday morning lectures offered in the spring to children of
the Greater Victoria area extended over a period of seven weeks in 1946, as shown in
the following table:—
February 9	
" Would   you   like   an   Indian
Erna Gunther, Director, Washington State Museum, Seattle,
Dinner? "
February 16
" Legends of the Winter Stars "...
Joseph A. Pearce, Director, Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, Victoria, B.C.
February 23
" Life on the Pribilofs "	
Victor B. Scheffer, Biologist, Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S.
Department of the Interior, University of Washington,
Seattle, Wash.
Forest Service, Victoria, B.C.
March 23     	
" Dinosaurs "	
Total attendance, 3,300.
Thanks are again extended to the various outside speakers who aided in producing
this programme, and also to Mr. R. L. Colby, of the Photographic Branch, Department
of Trade and Industry, who operated the sound motion-picture projector. We wish also
to extend thanks to the British Columbia Electric Railway Company, through Mr. W. C.
Mainwaring, vice-president, for again granting special travelling privileges to school
children attending the lectures.
Other Lectures.
During the year addresses and lectures have been given by members of the Museum
staff to the following organizations: Victoria Nursing Home (four shows), Cloverdale
Parent-Teacher Association, Outdoors Club, Pacific Northwest Bird and Mammal
Society, Monterey School, Langford Parent-Teacher Association, Victoria Rock Garden
Association, Victoria Kinsmen (two addresses), Y.M.C.A. Boys' Department, Victoria
Lions Club, Victoria Natural History Society (two lectures), St. Michael's School (three
lectures), Victoria Hard of Hearing Club, University Women's Club, Quadra School,
Quadra Parent-Teacher Association, Ornithology Group of the Victoria Natural History
Society, Mount View High School Parent-Teacher Association, Round Table Club,
Songhees Indian Day-school (Craigflower), Canadian Section of the Pacific Northwest
Bird and Mammal Society, Victoria Gyro Club, Victoria Lions Auxiliary, Capital City
Commercial Club, Colwood Community Club, Federation of Canadian Artists (Little
Centre), Vancouver Natural History Society, Cowichan Fish and Game Association
(Duncan), Royal Oak School, Victoria Kiwanis Club.
In addition to these, numbers of school classes have been guided through the
Museum and have been given instruction by members of the staff, particularly in
connection with Indian material, which is now included in the course of studies.
A series of other talks and demonstrations has been given to the junior members
of the Victoria Natural History Society, who meet in the Museum on Saturday
School Materials.
In anticipation of demands being made upon the set of dioramas prepared last
year for use in teaching Indian life in schools, several more copies were made by both REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1946. B 11
Mrs. Sweeney and Miss Newton, but even these extra panels were insufficient to satisfy
all requests.    Further copies are therefore in preparation.
As a supplement to this material a wooden model of a Coast Salish " long house "
was constructed for use in local schools. It is designed to show the method of construction and the internal arrangement of living-quarters. Miniature human figures
add interest and value to the exhibit as a teaching aid.
Among biological material a collection of common birds has been gathered and
will be used as a teaching unit.
In connection with the preparation of teaching material to accompany dioramas
featuring early British Columbia Indian life, a considerable amount of research has
been done by the anthropologist in gathering authoritative material. This is being
assembled in type-script form and may in time be published.
At every opportunity the botanist has been gathering specimens and information
regarding the flora of the Province, which in time will be used in future publications.
Materials and specimens relating to certain biological problems have also been gathered
as time and opportunity have permitted.
The attendance at the Museum during the year 1946 is summarized as follows:—
Month. Registered. Estimated.
January   2,326 3,440
February   2,552 3,261
March   2,740 3,641
April   2,809 3,760
May   3,225 4,786
June   4,920 7,930
July   7,213 10,650
August  8,631 12,900
September   4,285 7,000
October   2,136 3,069
November   1,331 2,017
December  1,028 1,200
Totals   43,196 63,654
Not included in these figures are 3,300 children who attended the spring lectures,
twenty-two school classes, four groups of naval officers, and eight other organized
parties, making an estimated total of over 67,000.
Compared with the estimated attendance of 76,000 for 1945 (a record year), the
number of visitors in 1946 was lower by 9,000, a decrease of about 12 per cent.
The attendance record for the month of July, as shown by the Visitors' Register,
has been analysed by Mr. Pegler as follows:—
Residence. Registration. Residence. Registration.
British Columbia   1,601 New Brunswick          3
Alberta      475 Nova Scotia        11
Saskatchewan       453 Prince Edward Island  5
Manitoba       246 Newfoundland   3
Ontario      218 Yukon Territory         2
Quebec         69 ■	
Total  3,086 B 12
Residence. Registration.
Washington   1,667
Oregon   499
California   1,041
Alaska  2
Other States   873
Great Britain ___;  19
Other countries	
Country not stated
Grand total   7,213
Compared with a similar analysis of attendance for July, 1945, the registration
during this month was lower in 1946 by 629. This general decrease is no doubt partly
due to the demobilization of Canadian and United States forces, formerly concentrated
in this area, who used to visit the Museum in considerable numbers.
At the same time the number of visitors from the Prairie Provinces has shown a
decided increase, while those from California is almost six times as great as in the
former year. These figures apparently reflect the general tendency towards increased
tourist travel following the lifting of restrictions.
Notwithstanding the general decrease in attendance as compared with last year,
the number of visitors in August reached an all-time high for any single month.
Major changes in staff occurred during the year due to superannuation; those
members affected were Mrs. Lillian C. Sweeney, Mr. A. E. Pickford, Mr. H. H. Pegler,
and Mr. J. Cruickshank (Department of Public Works).
Mrs. Sweeney, who joined the staff in 1935 as assistant preparator, produced many
of the very fine models now on display in the Museum. Particularly outstanding are
those of the fungi and those of fishes. In the preparation of the latter she was able to
develop a special technique which resulted in an unusually life-like reproduction of our
local species. More recently she painted a series of dioramas showing Indian life in
the Province for use in schools—a type of exhibit which has been given high praise.
Examples of her work will be of use for many years to come.
Mr. Pickford, who was transferred from the Forest Service to the Museum in
May, 1944, to take over the anthropological work, has made a valuable contribution in
the short time that he has been associated with the Museum. Most conspicuous is the
new and pleasing arrangement of the Indian exhibit, which was accomplished during
the past season under his direction. Of great value also is the series of type-scripts on
Indian life in the Province assembled by him for use in schools as a supplement to the
panels painted by Mrs. Sweeney. Less tangible, but no less important, are the many
contacts made with other scholars -and specialists in this field in various parts of this
Province and elsewhere. Mr. Pickford's contribution in this much neglected field will
long be felt.
Mr. Pegler has been associated with the Museum for six years, during which time
he has been of service to innumerable visitors and school classes, acting as a guide and
source of information to all interested parties. Many regular visitors, both adults and
youngsters, will miss his presence.
We would like to express gratitude to these retiring staff members and to Mr.
Cruickshank, of the Public Works Department, for the period of faithful and cheerful
service they have given while associated with this institution.
To fill the vacancies created as above noted, we wish to welcome Mr. Arthur F.
Coates, a veteran of the Italian and Normandy campaigns, and Miss Betty Newton,
a local artist of promising talent. We are pleased also to have the assistance of Mr.
J. McAllister, of the Public Works Department, as night janitor. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1946. B 13
Under this heading we wish to record the redecorating of the basement display-
rooms, none of which had been painted for many years. To accomplish this, the Indian
materials were removed from each room in turn, providing an opportunity to store
surplus and duplicate specimens and to rearrange the remainder. To render the displays more effective, the exhibition-cases were painted on the inside and extra tables
and cases were acquired to prevent crowding of the specimens.
To accommodate excess material, one of the small basement rooms has been turned
into a storeroom by fitting shelves into the old cases and installing locks on the doors.
Permission has also been granted to store study materials in the front portion of
the basement of the building housing the Museum workshop on Superior Street.
A metal-covered storage-cabinet has been purchased to add to the series in the attic
of the main building, where the bird and mammal study skins are kept.
With regret we record the passing of Mr. Francis Kermode, the former Director
of this Museum, on December 29th, 1946, at the age of 72 years.
The late Mr. Kermode became associated with the Museum in 1890, when Mr. John
Fannin was in charge. On the retirement of Mr. Fannin in 1904, Mr. Kermode was
made Curator, an office which he held until September, 1940, when he retired after
more than fifty years' service. Under Mr. Kermode's directorship the Museum grew in
both size and scope, until at the present time the natural-history collection is of great
scientific value and the North-west Coast Indian collection is one of the most extensive
on the continent. He was the author of several papers on various natural-history
subjects published in the Annual Reports, and he took an active interest in assembling
the exhibits which are now on display in Thunderbird Park. The widely known British
Columbia white bear was named in his honour, and many specimens on view in the
Museum carry his name as collector, so that he will be long remembered.
On January 3rd, 1946, Major Allan Brooks died at Courtenay in his seventy-seventh
year. Known widely as an artist and an illustrator of birds and as an authority in
wild-life matters, his death is deeply felt by all. The Museum is fortunate in having
a number of study specimens prepared by him and also two bird paintings which are
on display.
We wish to note also the death of Dr. C. McLean Fraser, former head of the
Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, who died on December 26th,
1946, at 74 years of age. A renowned authority on hydroids and marine biology in
general, Dr. Fraser was widely known both as a scientist and as a teacher. Many
workers in biological fields and in medicine were former pupils of his; they learn of
his passing with regret.
Accessions for the year 1946 amounted to 613 sheets of specimens. Specimens
labelled, filed, and shelved numbered 379. About 2,000 plants were mounted, the
majority by Mrs. L. C. Sweeney. During the last month of the year Miss Sheila Grice
helped with labelling and filing.
No field-trip of any consequence was undertaken as far as the botanical section was
concerned, although no opportunity was neglected to augment the herbarium collection
whenever the occasion offered, such as when renewing living material for the seasonal
flower case, or during an exploratory visit to the Jordan Meadows district.
As usual the seasonal case of wild flowers has been maintained to display the
salient floral features of the vicinity of Victoria. B 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Work on the mushroom handbook was completed during the year; the publication
will be available for distribution in 1947.
Special exhibits were arranged when space and time were available. Of two such
displays one shows the poison ivy and oak, comparing the two species and indicating the
action of the poison, its symptom and treatment. The other illustrates diagrammati-
cally and graphically the raised beaches of the Victoria district, which, while not featuring a botanical subject, nevertheless was prepared in the botanist's time.
In the aggregate, considerable time was expended in answering inquiries and
giving attention to various school and other lectures and demonstrations.
As hithertofore Mr. J. W. Eastham, Provincial Plant Pathologist, Vancouver, has
maintained his interest in the herbarium by the contribution of specimens and information concerning British Columbia plants in general.
We are grateful for the support and co-operation of the Government survey parties,
whose members, listed below, have gone out of their way to make collections for the
Museum: Mr. A. G. Slocomb for 12 sheets of specimens from the west coast of Vancouver Island; Mr. J. Cambrey for 18 sheets of specimens from the Fort Fraser district ; Mr. G. C. Emerson for 31 sheets of specimens from the Ugachuz Mountains, west
of Williams Lake.
Other contributions, which are equally valued, are credited to the following donors:
Mr. J. A. Munro for a collection of 90 specimens acquired over several years from
Interior points, all of which have been identified by Mr. A. E. Porsild, of Ottawa;
Mr. Lionel E. Taylor for 138 specimens from the west coast and inland points, areas
not otherwise represented in the herbarium; Mr. G. A. Hardy for 150 specimens collected in the Rocky Mountains while on a holiday; Dr. G. C. Carl, 8 numbers from the
Pribilof Islands, Alaska, collected by Dr. Georges Prefontaine.
A short trip to the Jordan Meadows district by the botanist yielded a collection
of some 66 sheets of specimens, while many additional numbers have been obtained on
short excursions made on the spur of the moment in the course of his duties.
We are greatly indebted to the specialists mentioned below, who have kindly
undertaken the work of identification of difficult species: Dr. Leon Kelso, Washington,
D.C.—Castilleja; Dr. Carleton R. Ball, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington,
D.C.—Willows;   Mr. J. W. Eastham, Vancouver, B.C.—Grasses and Sedges.
Plant additions to " Flora of Vancouver Island and Queen Charlotte Islands,"
1921 :—
Hieracium Pilosella L.    Comox, V.I., August 7th, 1946.    Mrs. L. A. Planta.
(Introduced from Europe.)
Caltha biflora DC.    Jordan Meadows, V.I., June 26th, 1946, G. A. Hardy.
Alaska-Washington, previously recorded for Queen Charlotte Islands but
not, so far as known, from Vancouver Island.
Most of the work in this department was of a curatorial nature.
The usual flood of inquiries about conspicuous or obnoxious insects was received,
necessitating some time spent in the identification of specimens and looking up of facts
in connection therewith.
Work is under way on the insects collected in Manning Park, in view of a report
for that area in the near future. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1946. B 15
Some investigation concerning the tent-caterpillar situation was undertaken, the
results of which were published in the bulletin of the Victoria Natural History Society.
For many years the Museum quarters in which the anthropological material is
displayed have been listed for painting and calcimining. Shortage of labour and of
material, due to war conditions, delayed the work, but the project was put in hand in
the early part of the year. Simultaneously with the work of redecorating, the exhibits
were dismantled for renovation. The reorganization of the displays necessitated the
removal of much surplus material which had accumulated in the cases due to lack of
storage-space elsewhere. To meet this condition moth-proof costume storage-boxes
were built and an additional room set aside for storage.
These display and storage problems have been approached on modern lines, and
a plan of attack advocated some time ago has now become possible. To each of the
tribal divisions of the Province a definite floor display-space is assigned, on which are
arranged special exhibits of a more or less temporary nature. These temporary
exhibits are concentrated on a limited range of typical cultural aspects of native life,
and each is planned and labelled to carry a definite educational message. Once an
exhibit of this nature has been on display for a definite period, it is then removed and
another equally interesting series is installed in its place. Thus those who are frequent
visitors to the Museum may have the pleasure, from time to time, of seeing fresh
material and of learning new things about the complex cultures of our native races.
Nor has the organization of the surplus material been neglected: the new storage-
room is designed with shelving, cabinets, and drawers allotted to the various tribal
divisions; in these it is planned to place the storage material in such systematized
order that all of our accessions, even though they may not be immediately on display,
shall be, nevertheless, readily available to those students who are engaged in serious
anthropological research. This project is not yet entirely completed, having been
delayed by forced retirement of the anthropologist in the last three months of the year.
However, with the opening of the new season it is again in hand.
Field-work during the year was limited, due to the above-mentioned retirement
and to Dr. Carl's absence during the summer months. However, an extension of the
study of ancient evidences of native life on and around Denman Island became possible
through the courtesy and hospitality of Mr. H. R. Lacon. The well-known Yellow Rock
petroglyphs on the south end of the island are found to be extended in counterpart at
many other points in the vicinity. An early earthwork at the north end of the island
was examined and mapped, and a limited amount of work was done on the extensive
shell-mound in the same locality. As a result of the recent earthquake, several
evidences of prehistoric tide-water constructions came to light in the form of picket-
points arising from the mud. These pickets are interpreted as being part of brush-
work screens used as duck-spearing blinds or as maze-like spearing-grounds for fish
driven into the shallow waters during the seasonal runs. Ethnobotanical observations
on the island also provided interesting record material.
An interchange of courtesy and assistance was carried out between the Museum
and the famous British Museum, the City Museum of Vancouver, and the Heye Foundation Museum of New York.
Lectures on the floor of the Museum were limited to one given on behalf of the
British Columbia Indian Arts and Welfare Society, in which the aid of local Indian
boys and girls was invoked to display a series of ceremonial costumes of the tribes of
the North-west Coast. Continuation of our policy of giving personal attention to
visitors both in the office and on the floor of the Museum was carried out.    In this work particular attention was given to Miss D. Geneva Lent, author, of Calgary;
Miss Helmi Juvoven, artist, of Seattle; and Mr. Edward Malin, student in anthropology
at the University of Colorado.
The attendance of school classes as visitors to the Museum was well maintained;
some field demonstration and local lecturing was done. Schools also proved eager to
take advantage of the facilities afforded by the circulating panels illustrative of native
life and accompanying script.
During 1946 the following numbers of specimens or groups of specimens were
added to the catalogued collection (figures in parentheses denote the total number on
December 31st, 1946) : Indian material, 161 (6,352) ; plants, 613 (19,729) ; mammals,
13 (5,227) ; birds, 108 (9,263) ; reptiles, 5 (275) ; amphibians, 0 (555) ; fish, 22 (683).
Coming directly or indirectly from individual collectors, the following anthropological items are noteworthy:—
The Frank Swannell Collection.— (Purchase.) Mr. Frank Swannell, B.C.L.S., who
is well known as one of the pioneer land surveyors of the Province, has from time to
time passed over to this Museum groups of specimens collected by him in the Northern
Interior. A further contribution was made again from this source, comprising the
following items of Dene origin: A bone bottle for trap-scent, a fine bone sap-scraper,
a Hudson's Bay buffalo-knife with moosehide handle, a horn cinch-hook, a moosehide
gun-coat, a pair of moccasins embroidered with dyed porcupine quill, and a Tsimshian
axe-head, which latter was found at Stuart Lake. The collection also includes two
fine old Lillooet baskets from Seton Lake and Pemberton Meadows.
The Captain L. A. Peck Collection.— (Gift.) Captain Peck is another contributor
who, from time to time, is able to hand us valuable groups of material. In this instance
his gift is of archaeological interest and includes some interesting bone pieces, chiefly
from the Eburne and Locarno shell-mounds.
The M. D. Jamieson Collection.— (Gift.) This collection included a great variety
of miscellaneous pieces, including several Salishan arrow-heads and chisels, also a great
many items of world-wide provenance which, since this museum is confined to products
of British Columbia, were handed on to the excellent little museum at St. Ann's
Academy supervised by Rev. Sister Mary Theodore.
The T. B. Caulkin Collection.— (Gift.) This unusual gift of eastern Eskimo
material, although not in any way connected with British Columbia, was taken in and
valued for the interesting comparisons it affords with the earlier bone and other
archaeological specimens found in the various kitchen-middens along the Pacific Coast.
Horn spoons, snow-knives, blubber-hammers of musk-ox horn, a stone lamp, and some
native copper implements are among the more interesting items.
In addition to the above groups, the following specimens have been added to the
accession list:—
By gift-
Wooden dish, carved ends.    In the Captain Peck donation.
Spring hook for black cod.    In the Frank Swannell donation.
Black slate totem.    Mrs. Charles S. Parker, Toronto.
By gift-
Ceremonial copper (rare specimen).    E. Wrightmeyer, Vancouver. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1946. B 17
By purchase—
Concretion, engraved animal design.    In Frank Swannell purchase.
By gift-
Model canoe.    In the M. D. Jamieson donation.
By purchase—
Table-mat—a very fine specimen of recent native workmanship woven in
tribal design.
Coast Salish.
By gift-
Stone anchor.    Commander R. P. Kingscote, Victoria.
Stone mortar.    Mrs. A. C. Wurtele, Victoria.
Two rugs of native weave.    Mrs. F. J. Barrow, Sidney.
Two arrow-heads.    Arthur Peake, Duncan.
Elkhorn wedge.    H. R. Lacon.
Stone net-sinker.    Harry Dick, Songhees Reserve.
Bone tool.    Mrs. Davidson, Victoria.
Salmon-toasting stick and lomatium roots.    A. E. Pickford, Museum staff.
Swan feathers, as used on ceremonial costumes.    Dr. G. Clifford Carl, Museum
Two arrow-heads.    Mrs. Charles S. Parker, Toronto.
Two stone chisels.    G. Hirst, Victoria.
Two stone chisels.    H Raines, Victoria.
By purchase—
Basket, coiled and imbricated.
Basket, lid twined.
Blanket, goat-wool mixture.
Basket with handles.
Two spirit boards.
Rattle, bean-shaped.
Rattle, bird-shaped.
Two baskets.
One basket and lid.
Salishan Interior.
By purchase—
Two basketry cradles complete with urinal tubes.
By purchase—
Model of totem-pole.
By gift-
Umiak (model), with two paddles, two oars, mast and sail.
Mrs. C. H. French, Victoria.
Plains Indian.
By purchase—
Feather head-dress. B 18
By gift—the following human remains from pre-historic burials:—
Skeleton from Okanagan Centre.    Mrs. G. Reeve.
Skeleton from Vancouver Island.    Mrs. W. Martin, Victoria.
Jawbone from shell-mound at Dashwood.    A. E. Pickford, Museum staff.
Cranium from Dockyard, Esquimalt.    Miss E. Prangnell, Victoria.
Skeletal remains from Royston.    Commissioner T. W. S. Parsons, Victoria.
Jawbone from shell-mound at Deep Bay.    A. E. Pickford, Museum staff.
Skull and bones from Gordon Creek.   Commissioner T. W. S. Parsons, Victoria.
Skull from under overhanging rock at Tattersal Drive.   Miss Kitchin, Victoria.
T. H. Anstey, Agassiz, one; Mr. Day, Yukon, collection of plants from Eldorado
Creek, Y.T.; C. P. Lyons, Victoria, collection of plants from Manning Park; J. M.
Macalister, Macalister P.O., one; F. H. McKinnon, Victoria, one; D. Munday, North
Vancouver, one; Mrs. A. E. Planta, Nanaimo, one; W. Planta, Blubber Bay, one;
L. Solly, Westholme, one;   Mrs. T. L. Thacker, Hope, one.
By gift—
A Carmichael, Victoria.    Three portions of whalebone.
T. B. Caulkin, Victoria.    One narwhal tusk.
H. C. Dalziel, Okanagan Landing.    One mountain-goat skull.
D. Leavens, Cultus Lake.    Three bats.
E. C. Mayea, Duncan.    One ferret.
A. Peake, Duncan.    One shrew.
H. Raines, Victoria.    One mammal skull.
J. W. Stewart, Lower Post, B.C.    One melanistic red squirrel.
T. L. Thacker, Hope.    One shrew.
By the staff  3
By gift—
L. Bullock-Webster, Victoria.    Collection of birds' eggs from England, Normandy, and Iceland.
I. Finlay, Victoria.    One gull.
D. Gray, per A. Peake, Duncan.    One Virginia rail.
F. Greenfield, Nanaimo.    One whistling swan.
C. Kinloch, Victoria.    One snowy owl.
T. McKeachie, Victoria.    One fork-tailed petrel.
A. C. Mackie, Vernon.    Collection of bird-skins representing species from
various districts of British Columbia.
R. Monteith, Victoria.    One European widgeon.
J. A. Munro, Okanagan Landing.    One grebe.
Alex. Patterson, Victoria.    One golden eagle.
Peter Ross, Victoria.    One bald eagle.
L. C. Sweeney, Victoria.    One duck.
By the staff  2 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1946. B 19
By gift—
Askey's Fish Market, Victoria, per H. H. Pegler.    One rockfish.
L. Carlson, Victoria.    One pipefish.
G. N. Cull, per Fishermen's Co-operative Federation, Victoria.    One hagfish.
W. Egeland, Sidney.    One California pompano.
R. Hopkins, per R, Monteith, Victoria.    One brown trout.
R. W. Hull, Victoria.    One grunt fish.
R. 0. Merilees, Vancouver.    Jaw of salmon.
E. Pepler, Victoria.    Specimen of fish-egg mass.
C. H. Robinson, Nelson.    Seven samples of minnows.
R. Sanders, Vancouver.    One pipefish.
G. H. Smith, Victoria.    Two sculpins, one greenling, one alligator fish, one
W. Stevens, Oliver.    One sunfish.
By the staff  2
Amphibians and Reptiles.
By gift—
D. L. Benson, Pavilion.    One rubber-snake.
H. C. Dalziel, Okanagan Landing.    One blue racer snake.
R. C. W. Lett, Victoria.    One garter-snake.
David McCracken, Victoria.    One living horned toad from Alberta.
N. J. Robb, Princeton.    One rubber-snake.
D. Tylor, Victoria.    Tree-toad tadpoles.
T. Widdowson, Read Island.    One alligator-lizard.
By gift—
J. C. Browne, Victoria.    One white admiral caterpillar.
Patricia Cann, Victoria.    One larva of tiger-beetle.
E. A. Cooke, Sooke.    One cabbage white butterfly.
K. Duncan, Victoria.    One California tortoise-shell butterfly.
W. Egeland, Sidney.     One wood-borer.
Mrs. G. Ellis, Victoria.    Two polyphenols moths and one eyed hawk-moth.
L. P. Emerson, Victoria.    One orange-tip butterfly.
R. Forbes, Victoria.    Three long-horned beetles.
F. Gale, Victoria.    One polyphemus moth.
P. George, per Wilson & Lenfesty Co., Victoria.    One pearl from oyster.
P. Graham, Victoria.    Specimens of barnacles.
W. Harrison, per Major Glaston, Victoria.    One banded borer.
E. G. Hart, Victoria.    Collection of jellyfish.
Mrs. C. E. Hutton, Victoria.    Moths and eggs of polyphemus moth.
R. C. W. Lett, Victoria.    One caterpillar of swallow-tail butterfly.
Mrs. J. Macdonnel, Victoria.    One polyphemus moth.
J. Macalister, Macalister P.O.    One nest of mud-wasp.
E. Moilliet, Victoria.    Larva of white admiral moth.
Mrs. J. R. Nixon, Victoria.    One California oak-borer.
G. Parker, Victoria.    One tiger-moth.
H. Sargison, Victoria.    One ichneumon fly.
E, B. Shaw, Victoria.    One wasps' nest.
F. R. Shenstone, Victoria.    One sphinx-moth. B 20
D. Smith, Victoria.    One orb-weaving spider.
D. Tylor, Victoria.    One meadow butterfly.
E. Walters, Victoria.    One California silk-moth.
Mrs. E. Wilcox, Youbou.    One wood-borer.
Mrs. B. Woodward, Victoria.    One California tortoise-shell butterfly.
By gift—
C. E. Foster, Victoria.    One concretion.
C. Tapping, Sidney.    One rock specimen.
S. Woods, Victoria.    One fossil shell.
By gift—
W. B. Anderson, received through W. Ireland, Provincial Librarian, Victoria.
One hundred and thirty original coloured drawings of Vancouver Island
Mrs. F. J. Barrow, Sidney. Collection of 16-mm. motion-picture film of botanical and anthropological interest belonging to the late F. J. Barrow.
Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Vancouver, per I. Dilworth. One set of
recordings of ceremony at Duncan in connection with the presentation of
an Indian sweater to President Truman's representative.
R. Nugent, Duncan. Collection of sixteen lantern-slides of whaling and fur-
E. Scaplin, Victoria. Collection of prints and negatives of whale photographs
and one 200-foot 35-mm. film of whaling industry. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1946. B 21
By G. Clifford Carl, Provincial Museum, Victoria, B.C.
Since 1911, when the hunting of fur-seals on the high seas was discontinued by
international agreement, the number of seals has increased from about 150,000 to
approximately 3,000,000 animals. The increase has come about through the careful
management of the sealing industry now carried on by the United States Government
on the breeding-grounds, located on the Pribilof Islands in the Bering Sea. The Alaska
fur-seal industry is an outstanding example of successful wild-life management.
Because of Canada's interest in this thriving industry, the United States Government invited the Dominion Government, through the Honourable H. Francis G. Bridges,
Minister of Fisheries at Ottawa, to send representatives to the Pribilof Islands to act
as observers during the sealing season of 1946. Dr. Georges Prefontaine, Director of
the Institute of Biology at the University of Montreal and an executive member of the
Fisheries Research Board of Canada, and the writer were asked to act as Canadian
representatives, and arrangements were made for us to accompany American officials
leaving Seattle for the Pribilofs on June 12th. The writer arrived back in Victoria on
August 25th after a stay of seven weeks on the Islands; the remaining time was spent
in travelling. The following report is based on material gathered during this time and
submitted in more detail to officials of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada.
The life-history of the fur-seal while on the breeding-grounds is fairly well known,
having been studied by various investigators over a number of years. For details the
reader may refer to " The Fur Seals and Other Life of the Pribilof Islands, Alaska,
in 1914," -by Osgood, Preble, and Parker (Bulletin of the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries,
Vol. 34, pp. 1-172, 1916).   A brief account follows.
Bull seals ready for breeding arrive at the Pribilofs and haul out early in the
season, some in April but the majority in May and early June. Here they await the
arrival of the cows, the strongest individuals taking up the most favourable positions,
the weaker being forced to the rear. Cows begin to arrive towards the end of May,
but the greatest number appear in June and stragglers may continue to arrive throughout July; virgin cows may even arrive as late as August. Bulls reach sexual maturity
in their third or fourth year but are unable to hold their ground on the rookery until
their seventh year; in their prime they may attain a weight of 500 pounds or more.
Cows, on the other hand, mature in their second year of life and weigh between 45 and
135 pounds.    No other mammal shows such a disparity in size between male and female.
Each breeding bull takes over a number of cows to form a family group or
" harem "; the size of the harem depends upon the number of cows available, the
strength of the male, and other factors. Some bulls suceed in acquiring a single mate
only, while others may gather eighty or more cows. An average harem consists of
about thirty individuals.
A certain number of bulls of breeding age fail to acquire mates because they occupy
an unfavourable position on the rookery, because they have not attained their physical
prime or have passed it or because of some other reason. These are known collectively
as " idle bulls " and are usually found occupying stations to the rear or to one side of
the breeding animals.
The pup is born shortly after the arrival of the cow, usually within a day or two of
reaching the rookery. A single pup weighing 8 to 12 pounds is born of each female;
no authenticated case of twins or multiple births is known.    Within a few days or B 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
perhaps a week after delivery, the cow is served by the bull and then is allowed to leave
the harem to go to sea in search of food. In her quest she may travel 50 to 100 or more
miles to sea and may be absent several days to a week. Meanwhile the pup remains
on the rookery and awaits the return of the female. On arrival the cow searches for
her offspring and is apparently able to distinguish her own pup from all the others and
will suckle only her own.
By the end of July the breeding season draws to a close, the harems break up and
the bulls rest after their long strenuous fast before going to sea in search of food.
The males of breeding age remain in northern waters until the next spring, when they
again return to the Pribilof beaches.
In the meantime the cows and pups remain on the rookeries; the .young grow
rapidly and learn to swim on their own, the cow giving no instruction. By October and
November, when the pup has attained a size of 25 to 40 pounds, the cows and pups
leave the islands and travel southwards, some as far as Southern California. So far
as is known, all the cows and most of the young return the next spring to the Pribilofs.
In addition to the breeding seals, on certain portions of the beach there are
gathered non-breeding animals, mostly males in their second to sixth year. This
" bachelor " population is the result of the harem system of breeding, for although
about equal numbers of males and females are born each year, there is built up a large
surplus of males. From this surplus stock, animals are selected for killing to provide
skins for the trade. Those of the 3-year-old age class are most suitable for commercial
use from the standpoint of size and numbers available, but since they are selected on a
basis of size, a certain small number of 2-year-olds, 4-year-olds, and females are
inadvertently taken.
Each day in the early morning during the sealing season the bachelor seals of one
rookery or group of rookeries are rounded up by the native members of the sealing
gang and are slowly driven to the killing-ground, usually the nearest flat area. Here
small groups or " pods " are detached as required and driven over to the killing gang.
These men are skilled in selecting by eye seals of the required size and in killing them
with a single blow of a 6-foot hardwood club. Seals judged to be too small or too large
are allowed to escape back to the beach, while the dead individuals are laid out in rows
of ten, where they are measured and bled. The skin is then slit down the mid-ventral
line and around flippers and nose. The carcass is then held to the ground by a man
armed with a special tool which fits over the neck of the seal, and the skin is removed
by a team of three natives who strip it from the body with the aid of tongs fastened to
the front edge of the pelt.
The skins are spread out to cool; after counting they are loaded into a truck and
removed to the village, where they are turned over to officials of the Fouke Fur Company of St. Louis, Missouri, who hold the contract for processing the skins for the
United States Government.
On arrival at the processing plant the skins are thrown into vats of sea-water,
where they are allowed to soak for twenty-four hours to remove dirt and blood (Fig. 9).
Following washing, the skins are removed to the blubbering-room, where each pelt is
placed fur side down on a specially designed blubbering-board, and the fatty tissue is
removed by downward thrusts of a curved two-handled knife in the hands of a skilled
employee of the fur company. The workman also removes the external ears and tail,
trims away the rough edges of the flipper-holes and tag ends of flesh and other parts. -pc*
Fig. 1. Breeding bull fur-seal and harem.    St. Paul Island, Alaska.
Fig. 2. Fur-seal harem with bull on right and new-born pup in foreground.
(Photos by G. C. Carl.) g^saa
Flg- 3- BU11' ~». -Kl pUp fur.seal_
F^- 4. Fur-seal pups on ro^iy"
(Photos by G. C. Carl.) ■
;     ... .,,r        '     .
'i   |   If •,.- ■- -
■  I
v : :
Fig. 5. Edward C. Johnston, manager of the Pribilof Islands, counting seals in
the annual census. North rookery, St. George Island; supply vessel "Penguin"
in distance.
• :
Fig. 6. Natives (Aleuts) driving bachelor seals to killing-ground.    Tolstoi rookery,
St. Paul Island.
(Photos by Victor B. Scheffer.)
I ""' Th'"--=; satSSSSS
Sealskins beino- r.v^ i    , •   *'*' *
""» U.S. Fish and WildhfI t       d m from t^kmrTfiluTr^
(Photos by Victor B. Scheffer.)  Fig. 11. Sealskins being salted in kench for curi
n ■
All*    /     /
Fig. 12 The 1946 take of sealskins from St. Paul Island barrelled for shipping
Foreman Edward J. Neidel, of the Fouke Fur Company, points out one of the barrefs
marked as part of Canada's share.
(Photos by Victor B. Scheffer.) REPORT OF PROVINCIAL MUSEUM, 1946. B 23
At this point the skins are individually examined by an inspector, after which they are
gathered up, run through a wringer, and counted into bundles of five.
The skins are then transported by overhead trolley system to the salting-house for
curing. Here they are carefully spread, one by one, in bins measuring 10 by 20 feet,
twenty-four skins to a layer. About 35 pounds of coarse salt is used on each skin and
about 15 in the surrounding space, giving a layer at least 1 inch thick over each skin
and about 10 inches between skins. The sides of the bins are built up with planks a
distance of about 5 feet so that each holds from 1,500 to 2,000 skins; the bin of skins
is known as a " kench." After ten days the skins are removed and piled flat ready for
At this time each skin is again examined to make sure that curing has been complete, after which it is rubbed over with boric acid and salt mixture, folded, rolled, and
packed tightly in a wooden barrel. Each container holds 90, 95, or 100 skins, depending
upon the size of the pelts and the skill of the packer.
By international agreement Canada receives 20 per cent, of the number of skins
taken each year. The division of the take is made in the following way: When all
skins have been placed in barrels, this information is wired to Ottawa by an official of
the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, giving the total number of skins and the number
of barrels. In acknowledging receipt, the Dominion Government of Canada selects any
number from 1 to 5, inclusive; this number becomes No. 1, and this and every fifth
barrel after this makes up the Canadian share of the sealskins for the year. These
barrels are marked with a large " Canada " by stencil (see Fig. 12) and are further
identified by a circle of red paint. At Seattle these marked barrels are segregated for
delivery to Ottawa.
It is apparent that the method of sharing the take of skins each year is eminently
fair to both countries concerned. No selection of skins according to size, grade, or
condition is made during the handling of the pelts on the islands. The skins can therefore be said to be " run of the kill." When packing, the numbers of barrels containing
90, 95, or 100 skins are grouped in multiples of five so that when the division is made,
Canada is assured of receiving the exact number of skins due her. Moreover, no one
knows which barrels are to be included in Canada's share until the selection of No. 1
barrel is made in Ottawa at the end of the season. Those officials concerned in evolving
the plan by which this sharing is accomplished are to be commended in arriving at such
a method which is so satisfactory to all concerned.
As an indication of the value of this industry to Canada, the latest returns for
which there are figures show that the Dominion received as gross revenue for the sale
of sealskins in 1944-45 the sum of $374,743.20. From the 1946 sealing season Canada
receives as her share 12,084 skins, which at an average price of $50 per each processed
skin have an estimated value of $600,000. The net return after freight and processing
costs are deducted will prove to be a considerable addition to the national economy.
It is a pleasure to take advantage of this opportunity to extend thanks to the many
persons who made our visit to the Pribilofs most memorable and enjoyable. We are
especially grateful to the following: Mr. Edward C. Johnston, general manager of the
Pribilof Islands;   Mrs. Edward C. Johnston;   Mr. Clarence Olson, assistant general B 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
manager; Mrs. Clarence Olson; Mr. Dan C. Benson, agent for St. Paul Island; Mrs.
Dan C. Benson; Mr. Roy Hurd, agent for St: George Island; Mr. and Mrs. John Stacey,
Mr. and Mrs. John Hyer, and Father Theodosy Kulchitsky, all of St. George Island;
Dr. and Mrs. Edward Wilde, Mr. and Mrs. Fred Martyn, Mr. and Mrs. Pete Benson, and
Father and Mrs. Makary Baranof, all of St. Paul Island; Dr. Victor B. Scheffer, biologist in charge of research; Mr. Harry May, superintendent of operations, Fouke Fur
Company; Mr. Ed. Neidel and Mr. Bob Booth, also of the Fouke Fur Company, St.
Louis; Mr. and Mrs. A. Millote, of Walt Disney Studios, Hollywood; Captain Harold
Knudsen and crew of the Fish and Wildlife motor-ship " Penguin." To these and
other persons we are indebted for many services rendered and courtesies extended.
Printed by Don MuDl4rmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.


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