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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Provincial Department of Fisheries REPORT WITH APPENDICES For the Year ended… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1948

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Provincial
Department of Fisheries
REPORT
WITH APPENDICES
For the Year ended December 31st
1946
VICTORIA, B.C. :
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1947.  To His Honour Charles Arthur Banks,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I beg to submit herewith the Report of the Provincial Department of Fisheries
for the year ended December 31st, 1946, with Appendices.
LESLIE HARVEY EYRES,
Minister of Fisheries.
Department of Fisheries,
Minister of Fisheries' Office,
Victoria, B.C. Honourable Leslie H. Eyres,
Minister of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial
Department of Fisheries for the year ended December 31st, 1946, with Appendices.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
GEORGE J. ALEXANDER,
Deputy Minister. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Value of Canadian Fisheries and the Standing of the Provinces in 1945     7
Species and Value of Fish caught in British Columbia     8
Value of British Columbia Fisheries in 1946     8
Capital, Equipment, and Employees     9
The Canned-salmon Pack for British Columbia, 1946    9
British Columbia's Canned-salmon Pack by Districts  10
Review of British Columbia's Salmon-canning Industry, 1946  18
Other Canneries (Pilchard, Herring, and Shell-fish)  19
Mild-cured Salmon  19
Dry-salt Salmon  19
Dry-salt Herring  19
Pickled Herring  20
Halibut Production  20
Fish Oil and Meal  21
Net-fishing in Non-tidal Waters  22
Condition of British Columbia's Salmon-spawning Grounds  23
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon (Digest).    (No. 32.)  23
Herring Investigation  24
Pilchard Investigation  25
Shell-fish Investigation  26
International Fisheries Commission, 1946  26
APPENDICES.
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon. (No. 32.) By
W. A. Clemens, Ph.D., Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia,
Vancouver, B.C  29
Results of the West Coast of Vancouver Island Herring Investigation,
1946-47. By A. L. Tester, Ph.D., and J. C. Stevenson, M.A., Pacific Biological
Station, Nanaimo, B.C  42
Investigations on Commercial Clams. By Ferris Neave, Pacific Biological
Station, Nanaimo, B.C  72
Report on Investigations of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries
Commission for 1946.    By B. M. Brennan, Director  75
Salmon-spawning Report, British Columbia, 1946. By F. Warne, Acting Chief
Supervisor of Fisheries  77
Statistical Tables  83  Report of the Provincial Department
of Fisheries for 1946.
VALUE OF CANADIAN FISHERIES AND THE STANDING OF
THE PROVINCES, 1945.
The value of the fisheries products of Canada for the year 1945 totalled $113,690,630.
During that year British Columbia produced fisheries products to the value of
$44,531,858, or 39.2 per cent, of Canada's total.
British Columbia in 1945 led all the Provinces in the Dominion in respect to the
production of fisheries wealth. Her output exceeded that of Nova Scotia, the second
in rank, by $13,824,958.
The market value of the fisheries products of British Columbia in 1945 was
$9,630,868 more than in the year previous. There was an increase in the value of
salmon amounting to $9,801,731.
The capital invested in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1945 was $37,128,455,
or 49.6 per cent, of the total capital employed in fisheries in all of Canada. Of the
total invested in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1945, $18,193,201 was employed
in catching and handling the catches and $18,935,254 invested in canneries, fish-packing
establishments, and fish-reduction plants.
The number of persons engaged in British Columbia fisheries in 1945 was 19,330,
or 22.6 per cent, of Canada's total fishery-workers. Of those engaged in British
Columbia, 13,292 were employed in catching and handling the catches and 6,038 in
packing, curing, and in fish-reduction plants. The total number engaged in the fisheries in British Columbia in 1945 was 754 more than in the preceding year.
The following statement gives in the order of their rank the value of fishery
products of the Provinces of Canada for the years 1941 to 1945, inclusive:—
Province.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.
1945.
$31,732,037
12,634,957
6,484,831
2,842,041
3,518,402
3,233,115
952,026
440,444
414,492
$38,059,559
15,297,482
7,132,420
4,194,092
4,135,205
3,577,616
1,639,539
492,182
585,782
$32,478,632
21,684,435
11,128,864
5,632,809
5,292,268
4,564,551
2,860,146
795,000
1,154,544
$34,900,990
23,662,055
11,968,692
5,361,567
4,938,193
3,581,795
2,598,975
929,887
1,482,223
$44,531,858
30,706,900
13,270,376
7,727,222
Ontario   -	
Manitoba - -	
7,261,661
4,263,670
3,076,811
1,450,502
Saskatchewan 	
1,286,361
112,131
6,652
3,056
2,495
3,131
3,138
$62,258,997
$75,116,933
$85,594,544
$89,427,508
$113,690,630 M
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
SPECIES AND VALUE OF FISH CAUGHT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The total marketed value of each of the principal species of fish taken in British
Columbia for the years 1941 to 1945, inclusive, is given in the following table:—
Species.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.
1945.
$20,879,104
1,650,731
470,958
4,665,260
1,781,876
$22,419,881
1,985,705
243,113
8,223,754
2,016,607
$14,740,298
2,517,038
244,062
7,809,630
2,756,416
$15,623,223
2,679,657
257,288
6,758,626
2,222,181
780
1,353,900
174,673
414,753
52,495
271,231
10,451
149,754
$25,424,954
Halibut      	
3,042,390
275,825
8,423,136
1,439,145
398,316
98,970
189,527
83,253
30,470
8,115
116,111
676,903
155,965
193,840
104,021
42,670
7,222
57,862
978,973
148,226
399,923
34,743
49,320
10,417
82,318
1,600
72,619
150,551
9,792
736
3,526
271
5.932
9,504
21
1,296,639
206,045
368,408
77,958
Soles ffl...	
438,219
Shrimps     — 	
24,025
105,596
6,370
14,555
15,832
3,095
5,920
3,675
986
2,478
1,492
25
47,086
24,829
51,375
8,042
2,552
1,965
390
5,235
8,960
7
132,136
284,828
13,741
3,278
3,915
1,444
5,866
16,456
540
90,786
284,759
16,174
5,076
6,521
5,802
Skate -
4,685
Oolachans  - - - '
Whiting -  — -	
24,091
50
Trout
Grayfish, etc.—
13,117
29,328
531,355
29,569
69,062
298,349
23,250
1,178,242
31,135
60,872
178,667
18,982
2,0.28,875
16,756
41,857
92,890
60,930
3,661,131
8,263
21,136
10,634
2,337,267
Whales
730
50
261,160
93,373
12,564
323,068
162,159
804
44,860
23,913
80,295
11,483
5,760
21,045
158,184
82,545
319,404
42,194
165,966
6,548
187,866
2,679
61,686
68,040
56,216
29,429
18,531
Totals    .-	
$31,732,037
$38,059,559
$32,477,964
$34,900,990
$44,531,858
VALUE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FISHERIES IN 1946 SHOWS
A SLIGHT DECREASE.*
The total marketed value of the fisheries of British Columbia in 1946 amounted
to $43,817,147 or 1.6 per cent, below the 1945 value of $44,531,858. The decrease in
value was owing to the failure of the run of pink and coho salmon—partially relieved
by increases in sockeyes and chums—and by the failure of the run of pilchards. The
total value of all salmon marketed was $24,346,483, as compared to $25,424,954 in 1945.
The 1946 salmon marketings amounted to nearly 56 per cent, of the marketed value for
all species.
Herring was the second species in order of value. Although the catch was only
2,123,651 cwt., as compared to 2,576,536 cwt. in 1945, higher prices for canned goods
* These figures  are taken  from the Advance Report on  the  Fisheries  of  British  Columbia,   1946,  Dominion
Bureau of Statistics, Department of Trade and Commerce. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946. M 9
were an important factor in raising the total marketed value of herring to $9,574,643,
an increase of $1,151,507 over 1945.
Halibut, in third place, was valued at $4,009,122, an increase of $690,907, due
entirely to the greater quantities landed. Ling cod displaced grayfish products in
fourth place, with a marketed value of $1,064,627, although both quantity and total
value were lower than in the previous year.
The total quantity of fish and shell-fish landed was 4,293,881 cwt., a decrease of
1,146,410 cwt. or 21 per cent, from the 5,440,291 cwt. recorded for 1945. Of the
decrease, salmon accounted for 19 per cent, and herring for 40 per cent. Despite the
decrease in the quantities landed, the landed value was $21,372,034, an increase of
$171,389 over that of 1945.
CAPITAL, EQUIPMENT, AND EMPLOYEES.
Capital.—The capital employed in the primary fishing industry—that is, the actual
catching and landing of the fish—amounted to $21,773,297, an increase of nearly 20 per
cent, over the 1945 figure of $18,193,201. Of these totals, vessels and boats accounted
for $17,490,786 in 1946 and $14,799,684 in 1945, or 81 per cent, and 80 per cent,
respectively.
Employment.—Employment showed no significant change as compared with 1945.
The total number finding work in the industry as a whole was 19,744 in 1946 and 19,330
in 1945, an increase of 414. Personnel engaged in the primary operations of catching
and landing the fish numbered 13,665 in 1946 and 13,292 in 1945, an increase of 373,
while those employed in fish-processing establishments numbered 6,079 in 1946 and
6,038 in 1945.
THE CANNED-SALMON PACK FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1946.
The total canned-salmon pack in British Columbia in 1946 amounted to 1,348,139
cases, according to annual returns submitted to the Provincial Department of Fisheries
by the licensed canners. The 1946 pack was 391,174 cases less than were canned in
the year previous and 102,819 cases less than the average annual pack for the previous
five years. The 1946 pack was also the smallest pack, except for 1944, since the very
low packs of the depression years in the early thirties. The canned-salmon pack for
1946 was composed of 543,027 cases of sockeye, 8,100 cases of springs, 4,115 cases of
steelheads, 100,154 cases of cohoes, 116,607 cases of pinks, and 576,133 cases of chums.
In each instance half-cases have been dropped.
A breakdown of the pack figures by species shows that the sockeye-pack in 1946
was the largest pack of this species canned in British Columbia since 1942 and was
considerably above the average sockeye-pack for a number of years. The 1946 sockeye-
pack was 214,026 cases greater than the pack of the year previous but was 123,543
cases less than were packed in 1942, the cycle-year for most sockeye runs to British
Columbia streams. The returns to the spawning-beds of the Nass and Skeena Rivers
and Rivers Inlet are reported to have been good. An increase was reported in the
number of spawning sockeye over the whole of the Fraser River watershed.
With regard to the spring-salmon pack in 1946, there were 8,100 cases of this
species canned, compared with 12,801 cases in 1945 and 19,362 cases in 1944. The
canned-salmon pack of spring salmon, as reported in these pages, must not be taken
as an indication of the size of the run, however, as most spring salmon which are
canned in British Columbia are caught incidental to fishing for other species. The
spring-salmon catch proper is disposed of principally on the fresh- and frozen-fish
markets.
The cohoe-pack in 1946 amounted to 100,154 cases, which was 118,732 cases less
than the pack in 1945 and 85,889 cases less than were packed in 1943, the cycle-year M 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
for this species. An examination of the pack figures for the British Columbia canned-
cohoe pack indicates that the 1946 season was most disappointing, the 1946 pack being
less than 50 per cent, of the average annual pack for the previous ten years.
The pink-salmon pack in 1946, amounting to 116,607 cases, was also most disappointing. In 1945 the pink-salmon catch produced a pack of 825,513 cases, and in 1944
the pack was 389,692 cases. The pink-salmon pack in 1946 was probably one of the
lowest packs of this species on record.
Chum salmon were canned in British Columbia in 1946 to the extent of 576,133
cases. In considering the canned-salmon pack of chum salmon as a measure of the
catch, due allowance should be made for the fact that large numbers of chum salmon
are frozen each year. The 1946 pack of canned chums was 225,945 cases greater than
the pack for this species in 1945 but was 57,701 cases less than the chum-salmon pack
of 1942, the cycle-year.
Steelheads are not salmon, but a few are caught each year incidental to the canned-
salmon fishery and are canned also. In 1946 there were 4,115 cases of steelheads
canned in British Columbia, compared with 2,922 cases of this species canned in the
year previous and 3,926 cases canned in 1944.
The reader is referred to the next section of this report for a breakdown of the
figures of each species by districts.
BRITISH COLUMBIA'S CANNED-SALMON PACK BY DISTRICTS.
Fraser River.
The total canned-salmon pack in British Columbia from Canadian-caught salmon
in 1946 amounted to 413,542 cases. This was 192,191 cases greater than the total
pack for this river system in 1945. The 1946 pack was composed of 341,957 cases of
sockeye, 1,096 cases of springs, 178 cases of steelheads, 9,168 cases of cohoes, 429 cases
of pinks, and 60,713 cases of chums. It will be noted that 1946 was an off year for
pink salmon in the Fraser River. The 1946 season, however, was the cycle-year for
the Adams River run, which, to a large extent, accounts for the increase in the Fraser
River totals.
Sockeye Salmon.—In 1946 the total pack of canned sockeye salmon produced from
Fraser River caught fish by both Canadian and American canners amounted to 610,518
cases. This was 476,486 cases more than were canned from this source in 1945. The
increased pack in 1946 over the year previous reflects the increased run of sockeye,
particularly to the Adams River, as 1946 was the cycle-year for the Adams River run.
The 1946 run of sockeye to the Fraser River should be compared with the pack of 1942,
in which year there were canned from American and Canadian gear a total of 709,892
cases. In 1946 Canadian fishermen caught 341,957 cases of sockeye, while the American catch amounted to 268,561 cases. The year 1946 was the first year that the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission was authorized to regulate the catch,
which, under the treaty, is supposed to be regulated as near as practicable on a fifty-
fifty basis. In 1946 Canadian fishermen took 56.1 per cent, of the total Fraser River
sockeye-salmon catch, while American vessels accounted for 43.9 per cent. For convenience the percentages for the Fraser River sockeye catch by American and Canadian
fishermen are tabulated below:-—
American. Canadian.
PerCent. Per Cent.
1931  68.00 32.00
1932  55.00 45.00
1933  71.00 29.00
1934 .  72.00 28.00
1935  47.00 53.00 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946. M 11
1936	
American.
Per Cent.
    25.00
Canadian.
Per Cent.
75.00
1937	
                                  38.00
62.00
1938	
                                 42.00
58.00
1939	
         44.50
55.50
1940	
     ...                   37.50
62.50
1941 	
                                  39.30
60.70
1942
37.20
62.80
1943	
                                  37.42
62.58
1944	
                                29.77
70.23
1945       '     '     -   	
                                  39.90
60.10
1946	
  43.90
56.10
The 1946 sockeye-pack, while considerably in excess of the packs in the intervening
years, was, in comparison with the immediately preceding cycle-year, somewhat disappointing, although much above any of the other preceding cycle-years.
In any consideration of the salmon-packs as an indication of the runs to the different river systems and for the different species, due consideration must be given to the
numbers of fish reaching the spawning-beds. In 1946, reports from the sockeye
spawning-beds of the Fraser River watershed indicated that, in nearly all cases, the
beds were seeded in excess of previous seedings, which would indicate that a larger
number of spawning salmon reached the Fraser River spawning-beds than for a very
long time.
Spring Salmon.—The 1946 pack of spring salmon on the Fraser River was 1,096
cases. This was very much below the normal pack for this variety, but as spring
salmon find an outlet principally in the fresh- and frozen-fish trade, the small canned
pack probably reflects a brisk market in the fresh- and frozen-fish trade rather than any
slackening off in the run of this species. The spring-salmon pack on the Fraser River
in 1945 was 6,130 cases;  in 1944, 12,577 cases;  and in 1943, 3,505 cases.
Cohoe Salmon.—The cohoe-pack on the Fraser River in 1946 was 9,168 cases.
While this was disappointing in comparison with the cohoe-packs of the immediately
preceding cycle-years, it was slightly above the cohoe-pack in 1943, the cycle-year, when
8,809 cases were packed. It should be remembered, however, that, outside of the small
pack in 1943, the 1946 pack of Fraser River caught cohoes was the smallest since 1931.
Pink Salmon.—1946 was an off year for pink salmon on the Fraser River. The
runs of pink salmon to this river system appear only in the odd-numbered years;
consequently, pink salmon were not anticipated in 1946. There were 429 cases of pink
salmon canned on the Fraser River in 1946.
Chum Salmon.—The canned pack of chum salmon credited to the Fraser River
varies widely from year to year. As large quantities of this species are frozen each
year, the canned pack does not necessarily reflect the size of the runs. In 1946 there
was a total of 60,713 cases of chum salmon packed from Fraser River caught fish. The
pack of chum salmon on the Fraser River in 1942, the cycle-year, amounted to 82,573
cases. The average annual pack of this species for the previous ten-year period was
44,824 cases.
In using the canned-salmon pack figures for any species as an index of the run to
any river system, other factors should be given equal consideration—namely, the
escapement to the spawning areas and the quantities of the species under consideration
finding a market in other outlets.
For a detailed statement of the escapement to the spawning-beds of the various
species, the reader is referred to the Salmon-spawning Report for British Columbia,
1946, in the Appendix to this report. M 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Skeena River.
The total canned-salmon pack on the Skeena River in 1946 amounted to 105,912
cases, composed of 52,928 cases of sockeye, 2,439 cases of springs, 2,366 cases of steelheads, 26,281 cases of cohoes, 10,737 cases of pinks, and 11,161 cases of chums. The
1946 total pack of Skeena River salmon was the smallest pack for many years. The
pack in 1945 amounted to 221,471 cases; in 1944, 149,948 cases; in 1943, 133,589 cases;
and in 1942, 152,418 cases.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-salmon pack on the Skeena River in 1946, amounting
to 52,928 cases, reflects the small pack of 1942, the cycle-year, when 34,544 cases were
canned. The 1946 pack is also compared with the previous cycle-year of 1938 when
47,257 cases were canned. The Skeena River sockeye are largely four-year-old fish,
although five-year-olds are prominent in the sampling. The 1946 pack was, therefore,
the return from the spawning of 1942 and of 1941. In the latter year the pack
amounted to 81,767 cases.
As has been previously pointed out in the pages of this report, the Skeena River
sockeye production in recent past years has been very much below normal and the
disappointing pack in 1946 is no exception. It is sincerely hoped that the Federal
Government's scientific investigation on the Skeena River will produce information
which will halt the downward trend of this important producing area.
Spring Salmon.—The spring-salmon pack on the Skeena River in 1946 amounted
to 2,439 cases. This is compared with 2,382 cases in 1945, 1,500 cases in 1944, and
1,783 cases in 1943. Spring salmon find their principal outlet in the fresh- and frozen-
fish trade, therefore the canned-salmon pack figures for this species are no indication
of the size of the run.
Cohoe Salmon.—In 1946 the Skeena River produced a pack of cohoe amounting to
26,281 cases, compared with 34,201 cases in 1945, 20,191 cases in 1944, and 40,479 cases
in 1943, the last mentioned being the cycle-year. The Skeena River cohoe-pack in 1946
was 7,115 cases below the average annual pack for this species for the past ten years.
Pink Salmon.—The 10,737 cases of pink salmon canned on the Skeena River in 1946
were most disappointing. A pack of at least 50,000 cases was anticipated. In 1944
the cycle-year produced a pack of 48,837 cases of this species, while two cycles previous
the pack was 52,767 cases. Following the cycle-year further, 1940 produced a pack of
47,301 cases, while in 1938 the pink-salmon pack on the Skeena River was 69,610 cases.
This cycle has produced very much larger packs. In 1934, 126,163 cases of pink
salmon were packed. The pink-salmon runs, as measured by the .canned-salmon packs of
this species, would appear to be in need of attention by the biologists, with a view to
ascertaining the cause of the decline, and sufficiently drastic conservation measures
taken which would bring this river system back to its known potential production.
Chum Salmon.—The Skeena River is never a large producer of canned chum
salmon. In 1946, 11,161 cases of this species were canned. This figure is compared
with the packs for 1945 when 9,264 cases of chums were canned, 1944 when the pack
amounted to 8,741 cases, and 1943 when 6,597 cases of chum salmon were canned. In
1942, the cycle-year, the pack of chum salmon was almost identical with 1946. In the
former year 11,421 cases were packed.
• In all cases in this report where catch figures for the various salmon streams in
British Columbia are used as a means of indicating the possible size of the runs to the
individual streams, the reader is cautioned to give due consideration to the escapement
to the spawning-beds.of the respective river systems. The annual report on the salmon-
spawning beds of British Columbia, issued by the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for
the Federal Government, is reproduced in full in the Appendix to this report. The
reader is referred to the report for information as to conditions on the different
spawning-beds. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946. M 13
Nass River.
The total pack of canned salmon on the Nass River in 1946 amounted to only
38,313 cases of all varieties. The pack was made up of 12,511 cases of sockeye, 472
cases of springs, 134 cases of steelheads, 4,239 cases of cohoes, 7,147 cases of pinks,
and 13,810 cases of chums. While the canned-salmon pack on the Nass River fluctuates
widely from year to year, the particularly small pack in 1946 was unexpected and, when
compared with the packs for recent past years, must be considered as a definite
disappointment. In 1945 the Nass River produced a pack of 54,980 cases. In 1944
the total pack amounted to 61,096 cases, and in 1943, 52,333 cases were canned.
In 1942, the cycle-year for most species running to the Nass River, the pack was
100,142 cases.
Sockeye Salmon.—The 12,511 cases of sockeye salmon canned on the Nass River
in 1946 were 8,574 cases below the sockeye pack for this river system in 1942, the
cycle-year, assuming Nass River fish to be four-year fish. While it is known that
considerable numbers of sockeye salmon running to the Nass River are five-year-old
fish, if the 1946 pack is compared with 1941, it is even more disappointing in that in
the latter year the pack was 24,876 cases. Since 1942 the Nass River has not been
producing sockeye salmon up to average expectations. In 1945 the pack was only
9,899 cases, while in 1944, 13,083 cases were packed. The 1943 pack amounted to
13,412 cases.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are never a factor in the Nass River production,
and the year 1946 was no exception, 472 cases of this species being canned. Spring
salmon on the Nass River are caught only incidental to fishing for other species, hence
the smallness of the pack.
Cohoe Salmon.—The year 1946 produced a pack of cohoe salmon on the Nass River
that amounted to 4,239 cases. This was slightly more than in the year previous when
3,895 cases were packed, but less than the 1944 pack of 6,102 cases. The 1946 pack was
less than half the number of cases of cohoe packed in 1943, the cycle-year. In that year
the pack amounted to 9,768 cases.
Pink Salmon.—The pink-salmon pack on the Nass River in 1946, amounting to
7,147 cases, was particularly disappointing. The cycle-year, 1944, produced a pack
of 31,854 cases, while the previous cycle-year, 1942, produced a pack of 49,003 cases.
A pack of 35,000 cases for the Nass River in 1946 was not too much to expect, and the
consequent low pack of this species was definitely unexpected.
Chum Salmon.—The Nass River is never a heavy producer of chum salmon, and
the 13,810 cases of this variety packed in 1946 was somewhat higher than average..
If chum salmon are considered to be four-year fish, the 1942 pack, which would be the
cycle-year, produced 12,518 cases. In 1938, the previous cycle-year, 15,911 cases were
packed. The 1946 pack was considerably above the average for chum salmon in this
river system.
The reader is again reminded that conditions on the salmon-spawning beds should
be taken into consideration when using the canned-salmon pack as a measure of the
size of the runs.
Rivers Inlet.
The total canned-salmon pack of all varieties on Rivers Inlet for 1946 amounted
to 123,304 cases, composed of 73,320 cases of sockeye, 1,108 cases of springs, 314 cases
of steelheads, 9,524 cases of cohoes, 1,641 cases of pinks, and 37,395 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The Rivers Inlet pack of sockeye salmon in 1946 amounted to
73,320 cases. Rivers Inlet sockeye are four- and five-year-old fish, the percentage of
four-year-olds slightly exceeding the five-year-olds. Therefore the fish composing the
1946 pack are the progeny of the escapement in 1942 and 1941, in which years the packs M 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
amounted to 79,199 cases and 93,378 cases respectively. While the 73,320 cases packed
in 1946 were somewhat less than might have been expected, nevertheless the difference
between the actual pack and expectation was not out of line, particularly when it is
remembered that the 1945 pack of 89,735 cases was the four-year progeny of the 1941
run and the five-year progeny of the 1940 run, when the pack dropped to 63,469 cases.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are caught and canned on Rivers Inlet incidental
to fishing for other species, therefore the canned pack of this species is never large and
fluctuates widely. In 1946 the canned pack of spring salmon on Rivers Inlet amounted
to 1,108 cases. In 1945 the pack of this species amounted to 1,191 cases, while the
packs in 1944 and 1943 were 805 and 765 cases respectively.
Cohoe Salmon.—The year 1946 produced a cohoe-pack on Rivers Inlet amounting
to 9,524 cases. This is compared with 17,516 cases in 1945, 13,921 cases in 1944, and
11,448 cases in 1943, the cycle-year.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon are never a large factor in the Rivers Inlet canning
picture. The 1946 pack, amounting to 1,641 cases, was considerably below the packs
of pink salmon produced in Rivers Inlet in recent past years, but no significant
importance is attached to this as pink salmon canned in Rivers Inlet are caught
incidental to fishing for other species.
Chum Salmon.—Previous to 1935 chum salmon were not fished in Rivers Inlet
except incidental to the sockeye-fishery. Since 1935, however, Rivers Inlet has continued to produce an increasing quantity of canned chum salmon. In the year 1935 the
pack amounted to 7,136 cases, while in 1946 the pack amounted to 37,395 cases. The
1946 pack was the largest pack ever recorded for chum salmon in Rivers Inlet. If chum
salmon are considered to be four-year-old fish, the 1946 pack should be compared with
1942, when Rivers Inlet produced a pack of 15,874 cases.
Smith Inlet.
Smith Inlet is primarily a sockeye-fishing area. The total pack of all varieties of
salmon canned in Smith Inlet in 1946 amounted to 23,177 cases. This figure is compared with the total pack for this inlet in 1945 of 21,682 cases and 6,194 cases in 1944.
In 1943 the total pack in Smith Inlet amounted to 21,942 cases, while 23,777 cases of all
varieties were canned in 1942.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-salmon pack in Smith Inlet in 1946 amounted to
14,318 cases. This is compared with 15,939 cases packed in 1942, the cycle-year. The
pack in 1945 was 15,014 cases, while in 1944, the cycle-year, the sockeye pack dropped
to 3,165 cases. The pack in 1943 was 15,010 cases. The 1946 pack was 5,431 cases
below the average for the previous ten years if the exceedingly low pack in 1944 is
excluded.
Spring Salmon.—Smith Inlet, like Rivers Inlet, produces a small amount of canned
spring salmon each year, caught incidental to fishing for other varieties. In 1946 the
spring-salmon pack in Smith Inlet amounted to 45 cases.
Cohoe Salmon.—Smith Inlet is not a cohoe-producing area, but, like spring salmon,
a few are caught incidental to fishing for sockeye. In 1946 the pack of canned cohoe
for Smith Inlet amounted to 177 cases.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon are not fished in Smith Inlet, except those few which
are caught in the sockeye-nets. There were 235 cases of pink salmon canned from
Smith Inlet caught fish in 1946.
Chum Salmon.—In recent years there has been some fall seining for chum salmon
in Smith Inlet, although Smith Inlet is primarily considered a sockeye-fishing area.
In 1946 the canned-salmon pack of chum salmon caught in Smith Inlet was 8,369 cases.
This was the largest pack of chums from Smith Inlet caught fish since 1937, when
9,494 cases were canned. In the immediately preceding years the packs were: 1945,
3,692 cases;   1944, 2,122 cases;   and 1943, 5,693 cases. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946. M 15
The reader is again referred to the report on conditions on the spawning-beds in
the Appendix to this report.
Queen Charlotte Islands.
Pink and chum salmon for canning purposes are the two principal species fished
for and caught in the Queen Charlotte Islands district, except in certain years when
a considerable number of troll-caught cohoes from this area find their way to the
canneries. Pink salmon frequent the Queen Charlotte Islands in the even-numbered
years. In the odd-numbered years there is no run of pink salmon to the Queen
Charlotte Islands. In 1946 the total pack of all species credited to the Queen Charlotte
Islands catch amounted to 41,635 cases. Of this, 1,192 cases were cohoes, 8,024 cases
were pinks, and 32,414 cases were chums.
Cohoe Salmon.—The canned pack of cohoes caught in the Queen Charlotte Islands
district varies considerably from year to year and does not necessarily represent the
total production from this species. In 1946 the canned pack amounted to 1,192 cases.
In 1945 the canned pack of this species was 1,108 cases. In 1944, however, there were
19,615 cases of cohoes packed from Queen Charlotte Islands caught fish, and in 1943
the pack was 14,488 cases. Cohoe salmon find a ready market as fresh and frozen, and
the demand of the freezers and fresh-fish market, with the consequent higher prices,
materially affects the quantity of this species canned in any one year.
Pink Salmon.—As pointed out above, pink salmon occur in the Queen Charlotte
Islands area every second year, the runs coinciding with the even-numbered years.
In 1946 the run of pink salmon to the Queen Charlotte Islands, as represented by the
canned-salmon pack, was most disappointing, the catch producing a pack of 8,024 cases.
When it is realized that the pink-salmon runs to the Queen Charlotte Islands have been
producing packs in the neighbourhood of 50,000 to 100,000 cases, it will be realized
how disappointing the run of pinks to this district was in 1946.
Commenting on the Queen Charlotte Islands run of pink salmon, the Acting Chief
Supervisor of Fisheries for the Federal Government remarked that the run of pinks
generally over the British Columbia coast in 1946 was disappointingly light, late in
arrival, and the individual fish were small in size; also that the run to Masset Inlet,
the chief producer of pink salmon in the Queen Charlotte Islands district, was no
exception. Because of the obviously light run, the area was closed to seining on
September 1st, which was a week or ten days earlier than normal.
The seeding by pink salmon in the spawning area was only medium. It would
appear that the pink-salmon runs to the Queen Charlotte Islands district should receive
special attention, with a view to bringing this district back to something like its former
productivity.
Chum Salmon.—The chum-salmon pack in the Queen Charlotte Islands district in
1946 amounted to 32,414 cases. This is compared with 12,132 cases in 1945 and 81,916
cases in 1944. In 1943 the chum pack in the Queen Charlottes amounted to 35,370
cases, while in 1942 the pack was 43,801 cases. An examination of the pack figures for
chum salmon for the Queen Charlotte Islands district over a period of years will
indicate that 1946 was indeed a poor producing year for this species.
The pack figures should be read in conjunction with the Chief Supervisor of
Fisheries' report on the spawning-beds for a true picture of the runs to the different
districts.
Central Area.
For statistical purposes the Central Area comprises all of the salmon-fishing areas
off the coast of British Columbia between Cape Calvert and the Skeena River, except
Rivers Inlet. The total pack of all varieties of canned salmon caught in the Central
Area in 1946 amounted to 337,333 cases.    This figure is compared with 574,080 cases M 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
in the year previous. In comparing these two figures, it should be pointed out that the
pink-salmon pack in the Central Area in 1945 was exceptionally large, whereas in 1946
the pack of pinks was even lower than anticipated. The 1946 pack of canned salmon
In the Central Area was composed of 12,611 cases of sockeye, 656 cases of springs,
934 cases of steelheads, 19,589 cases of cohoes, 81,584 cases of pinks, and 221,958
cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The principal sockeye-salmon fishing-grounds in the Central
Area are Fitzhugh Sound and Burke and Dean Channels. While some sockeye are
taken annually in the vicinity of Banks Island and Principe Channel and a small gill-net
sockeye-fishery is conducted in Gardner Canal, these latter-mentioned areas are much
less important. Because of the widely scattered area and separate races of salmon
to the different parts of the area, no attempt is made in these pages to report separately
on the different populations.
The total sockeye-pack in the Central Area in 1946 amounted to 12,611 cases,
compared with 24,109 cases in the year previous, and, assuming sockeye to be four-year
fish, the pack is compared with 17,470 cases in 1942. In the previous cycle-year, 1938,
the sockeye-pack in the Central Area amounted to 36,178 cases. The 1946 pack was
slightly less than half the average annual pack for this area for the past ten years,
inclusive.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are caught and canned in this area to some extent,
but, as in other areas, the canned pack is from fish caught incidental to fishing for other
varieties. Much of the spring salmon caught in this district finds a market in the
fresh, frozen, and mild-cured trades, consequently the canned-salmon pack figures are
not indicative of the extent of the run or the size of the catch. In 1946 the canned-
salmon pack of spring salmon in the Central Area was 656 cases, compared with 542
cases in 1945 and 643 in 1944.
Cohoe Salmon.—There were 19,589 cases of cohoe salmon canned in the Central
Area in 1946, compared with 45,462 cases canned in 1945. Cohoe are three-year-old
fish, and in 1943, the cycle-year, the canned cohoe-pack from fish caught in the Central
Area amounted to 26,645 cases. In 1940 the Central Area produced a pack of 49,886
cases. Large quantities of cohoe salmon are frozen each year, and it may be that
a greater number of cohoe from the Central Area entered the freezers than in those
years of comparison.
Pink Salmon.—The Central Area has* always been considered a good producing
area for pink salmon. The pink-salmon pack in 1946, amounting to 81,584 cases, was
most disappointing, although the 1946 cycle has been probably the one of least importance. Nevertheless the run in the previous cycle-year produced a pack of 162,986
cases, and a pack of 100,000 cases in 1946 was not unduly optimistic. In 1942 the run
produced a pack of 69,434 cases, while the low point for pink salmon in this cycle in the
Central Area was 1940, when 54,478 cases were packed. The Central Area in 1930
produced a pack of 376,084 cases.
Chum Salmon.—The Central Area in 1946 produced a pack of 221,958 cases of
chum salmon. This is compared with 138,992 cases in 1945, 80,793 cases in 1944, and
109,101 cases in 1943. Assuming chum salmon to be four-year fish, the cycle-year for
the 1946 run was 1942, and in that year there were 79,152 cases of chum salmon canned
from fish caught in the Central Area.
Vancouver Island.
The total canned-salmon pack from fish caught in the Vancouver Island district
amounted to 264,922 cases. This pack was composed of 35,381 cases of sockeye, 2,283
cases of springs, 151 cases of steelheads, 29,983 cases of cohoes, 6,809 cases of pinks,
and 190,313 cases of chums.    Vancouver Island, like the Central Area, supports numer- REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946. M 17
ous races of salmon running to the different watersheds. In this breakdown no
attempt is made to deal with the races separately. It probably should be mentioned,
however, that sockeye salmon caught in the Sooke traps are not credited to Vancouver
Island but rather to the Fraser River, where they are known to migrate.
Sockeye Salmon.—The sockeye-salmon pack for Vancouver Island caught fish
amounted to 35,381 cases. This figure is compared with 51,961 cases of sockeye canned
from Vancouver Island caught fish in 1942, the cycle-year for most sockeye, and 27,965
cases in 1938.    The sockeye-pack for Vancouver Island for 1945 was 5,988 cases; for
1944, 5,288 cases; and for 1943, 7,185 cases.
Spring Salmon.—Large quantities of spring salmon are caught in the waters off
Vancouver Island each year. Most of these fish, however, are taken by troll and find
.a market in the fresh- or frozen-fish trade or as mild-cured salmon. The trap catch on
the lower west coast of Vancouver Island also finds a market principally as fresh,
frozen, or mild-cured. The amount of spring salmon canned from Vancouver Island
caught fish consists principally of spring salmon taken in the seines while fishing for
other varieties, consequently the pack figures are no indication of the size of the run
or the quantity of this species taken. In 1946 there were 2,283 cases of spring salmon
credited to Vancouver Island, while the spring-salmon pack in 1945 was 2,323 cases;
in 1944, 3,068 cases; and in 1943, 2,937 cases.
Cohoe Salmon.—Vancouver Island produced a canned cohoe-pack of 29,983 cases
in 1946, compared with 104,528 cases in 1945. The cohoe-pack in 1944 was 79,813
cases, and in 1943, the cycle-year for this species, the pack was 73,846 cases. The
canned cohoe-pack for Vancouver Island in 1946 was the smallest canned cohoe-pack
credited to this area for many years.
Pink Salmon.—The pink-salmon pack for Vancouver Island in 1946 amounted to
only 6,809 cases. While the 1946 cycle has not been a heavy producer for many years,
nevertheless the 1946 pack was most discouraging. In 1944 the pink-salmon pack for
Vancouver Island amounted to 49,092 cases, while in 1942 it was 14,474 cases. In
1940 the Vancouver Island pink-salmon pack was 33,785 cases, while in the cycle-year
previous to that 70,108 cases of pinks were canned. In the case of pink salmon the
size of the canned-salmon pack is very largely a measure of the catch, as practically
all of the pink-salmon catch is canned.
Chum Salmon.—Vancouver Island produced a pack of canned chum salmon in 1946
amounting to 190,313 cases.    This is compared with 136,724 cases of chums packed in
1945, and, if chums are considered a four-year fish, the 1946 pack is compared with
1942, when 383,005 cases of chum salmon were canned. Compared with previous
chum-salmon packs, the canned pack in 1946 again reflects a period of low production
for Vancouver Island. It is interesting to note that from 1936 to 1942 the Vancouver
Island chum-salmon pack ranged between a low of 203,900 cases and a high of 593,016
cases, the average for these years being 326,636 cases, while the average for the period
from 1943 to 1946 was 128,977 cases. In the pages for this report for 1945 we presented a table showing the chum-salmon pack of Vancouver Island from 1934 to 1944.
The table is again included, as it is felt that the recent downward trend in the Vancouver Island chum-salmon pack is of sufficient importance to warrant the close attention of everyone interested.
Cases.
1934  210,239 1940  279,064
1935  143,960 1941  593,016
1936  347,951 1942  383,005
1937  203,900 1943  132,843
1938  266,566 1944  56,029
1939  212,949 1945  136,724 M 18
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In comparing Vancouver Island pack figures for recent past years with the pack
figures of this area in pre-war years, two important factors must be considered.
First, the heavy demand of the freezers for Vancouver Island caught chum salmon,
particularly during the latter war years, and, second, previous to the war large quantities of Vancouver Island chum salmon were salted and shipped to the Orient. Notwithstanding these two factors, however, the trend indicated is definitely downward.
REVIEW OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-CANNING
INDUSTRY, 1946.
The Provincial Department of Fisheries licensed thirty-three salmon-canneries for
operation in 1946. Two of these did not operate, therefore there were two more canneries operated in 1946 than in 1945, in which year twenty-nine canneries operated.
The operating canneries were located as follows:—
Queen Charlotte Islands	
Skeena River 1    7
Central Area x 1    4
Rivers Inlet     1
Johnstone Strait     3
Fraser River and Lower Mainland  13
West coast of Vancouver Island     3
Nass River 	
It will be noted from the above that, whereas on the Fraser River and Lower
Mainland in 1946 there were thirteen operating canneries, in the year previous only
ten canneries operated in this area. In 1946 there were no canneries operated on the
Nass River, whereas in 1945 one cannery operated. For the past two years, 1945 and
1946, there have been no salmon-canning operations in the Queen Charlotte Islands.
Attention has been drawn previously to the fact that, since the beginning of the
war, the number of salmon-canneries licensed to operate by the Provincial Department
of Fisheries has been considerably less than the number generally operated in pre-war
years. The shortage of labour and technical help has forced a consolidation of operations in many cases. Companies owning several canneries have been forced to close
down one or more operations and consolidate their operations in fewer plants. In
other cases two or more companies have made working agreements to can each other's
fish in different areas. These consolidations and joint operations have been forced on
the different companies by circumstances largely brought about by the war, but where
the arrangements have been satisfactory from an operating or economic standpoint,
one may expect these arrangements to continue. Higher operating costs in the postwar years, together with higher prices for fish on -the one hand and the competitive
position in which canned salmon will find itself in the post-war years, will force the
operators to use every measure at their disposal that will tend to lower production
costs. Successful joint operations or consolidations, up to a point, are a step in this
direction.
In 1946, as in the war years, a very large proportion of the British Columbia
salmon-pack went to the British Ministry of Food. The demand for British Columbia
canned salmon by Great Britain was still very great but somewhat larger quantities
were made available for domestic consumption in 1946 than during the war years.
Again in 1946, as in the war years, the Provincial Government refused to permit
the operation of salmon dry-salteries, and the Federal Government also placed an
embargo on the export of fresh salmon in certain categories, except under export permit. These steps were taken to divert as much of the salmon-catch as possible to the
canneries because of the heavy demand for this commodity. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946. M 19
OTHER CANNERIES  (PILCHARD, HERRING, AND SHELL-FISH).
Pilchard.—Seven plants were licensed by the Provincial Department of Fisheries
to can pilchards in 1946. This was one more than the number licensed in 1945.
In 1946, however, due to the complete failure of pilchards to make an appearance, only
one plant actually operated on pilchards. Two of the licensed plants, however, operated
on anchovies. The three operating plants, one on pilchards and two on anchovies,
produced a total pack of 34,305 cases of canned pilchards and anchovies combined.
The pilchard-canning operation, for the reasons pointed out above, was a dismal failure
in 1946. This was very unfortunate, as the European market was particularly anxious
to secure as large an amount of this desirable canned product as possible.
Herring.—In 1946 twenty-three herring-canneries were licensed to operate by the
Provincial Department of Fisheries, although only twenty operated. Herring have
been canned in British Columbia for a number of years previous to the war, but in the
pre-war years the canned herring-pack was comparatively small, averaging not over
25,000 cases annually. At the outbreak of hostilities the demand for canned herring
increased enormously. This war-stimulated demand enlarged the herring-canning
industry of the Province from a comparatively insignificant branch of our fisheries to
one of the Province's most important. The first year of the war the industry in
British Columbia produced 418,000 cases of canned herring, and each year since then
the annual pack has been over 1,000,000 cases. In 1945 the twenty operating plants
produced 1,307,514 cases. In 1946, the year under review, twenty operating plants
produced 1,634,286 cases of canned herring.
Shell-fish Canneries.—In 1946 eleven shell-fish canneries were licensed to operate
by the Provincial Department of Fisheries, but for reasons unknown to the Department
only seven of these plants operated. The seven operating plants produced 750 cases of
crabs, 39,492 cases of clams, and 48 cases of shrimps. Incidentally the 48 cases of
shrimps were more or less in the nature of an experiment. It is expected, however,
that the pack of this commodity will increase from now on.
MILD-CURED SALMON.
There were ten plants licensed to operate on mild-cured salmon in 1946, although
only seven of these actually got into production. These seven plants produced 2,208
tierces of mild-cured salmon in 1946. In 1945 the production was 1,697 tierces from
six operating plants.
DRY-SALT SALMON.
Previous to 1939 varying amounts of chum salmon were dry-salted for shipment
to the Orient. In some years the production of this product reached fairly large
proportions. During the war years the demand for dry-salt salmon from the Orient
has not been great. Nevertheless there has been a small demand for dry-salt salmon
to meet Canadian trade. Due to the increased demand occasioned by the war for inexpensive protein foods, such as canned salmon, the Provincial Government has repeatedly
declined to issue salmon dry-saltery licences, and no change in this policy was made in
1946.    The last production of dry-salt salmon in British Columbia was in 1938.
DRY-SALT HERRING.
Previous to the outbreak of the war dry-salt herring were produced in large
quantities in British Columbia and shipped to China. Since the outbreak of the war
the bulk of the herring caught in British Columbia has been canned, and, in order to
divert as much as possible of the herring-catch to the canneries, no herring dry-salteries
have been permitted to operate in British Columbia since 1940.    Late in 1945, however, M 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
U.N.R.R.A. asked the British Columbia producers to again dry-salt a quantity of herring
for China. The necessary plant and equipment was not available for a large production.
On this account and the fact that the request came late in the season, only one plant
was able to get into production in 1945, and this for only a short time before the season
closed. The production, therefore, was very small, amounting to some 302 tons. Early
in 1946 U.N.R.R.A. again signified its desire for dry-salt herring for China, The
Provincial Department of Fisheries licensed ten plants to operate, eight of which
actually got into production. These eight plants in 1946 produced 5,807 cured tons of
dry-salt herring. Not all of this amount, however, was for the account of U.N.R.R.A.,
but all was shipped to the Orient. It is expected that if trading conditions are acceptable, the dry-salt herring business will probably make its reappearance in 1947.
PICKLED HERRING.
The business of pickling herring in British Columbia had been on fairly large
proportions during World War I, due largely to the fact that European supplies of
pickled herring were unavailable. After the Armistice in 1918 the demand for British
Columbia pickled herring dropped off rapidly, and for many years no pickled herring
was produced in British Columbia. Again, during World War II, the demand for
pickled herring was revived, due largely to the fact that the source of supply, which was
Europe, was again cut off, and Canada and the United States have had to look elsewhere
for this product. The British Columbia production of pickled herring since the war has
not been large. The peak seems to have been reached in 1940, when 5,500 barrels were
pickled. Since that time the production figures have varied. In 1946 there were 650
barrels of pickled herring produced by three licensed plants.
HALIBUT PRODUCTION.
The halibut-fishery on the Pacific Coast of North America is regulated by the
International Fisheries Commission under treaty between Canada and the United
States. The fishery is shared in by the nationals of the two countries. The Commission regulates the fishery on a quota basis, and on that account there is very little
fluctuation in the total amount of halibut landed from year to year, except when the
quotas are changed for any reason. For the purpose of regulation, the coast has been
divided into four areas, the principal areas from the standpoint of production being
Areas Nos. 2 and 3. Area No. 2 comprises the waters of the Washington and British
Columbia coasts from the approximate vicinity of Willapa Harbor in the south to Cape
Spencer in the north. Area No. 3 comprises the waters from the northern boundary
of Area No. 2 to the Aleutian Islands. The other two areas, Nos. 1 and 4, from which
production is small, comprise the waters south of Area No. 2 and the Bering Sea
respectively.
In 1946 the catch-limit set by the Commission for Area No. 2 was 24,500,000 lb.
and for Area No. 3, 28,000,000 lb. These were the same quotas as were in effect for
these respective areas in 1945. These quotas are exclusive of the halibut which are
caught incidentally while fishing for other species with set-lines in the areas closed to
halibut-fishing in accordance with the Commission's regulations.
The total landings of halibut by all vessels in all ports in 1946 amounted to
60,391,000 lb., including halibut caught incidentally while fishing for other species.
This was 5,726,000 lb. greater than the total landings in 1945. Of this total, Area No.
2 produced 28,482,000 lb. while Area No. 3 produced 31,187,000 lb.; 722,000 lb. were
produced by Area No. 1.
The total halibut-landings by all vessels in Canadian ports in 1946 were 22,284,000
lb.    Of this amount, 14,740,000 lb. were caught in Area No. 2 while Area No. 3 pro- REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946. M 21
duced 7,544,000 lb.    These figures  are compared with  19,680,000 lb.  landed by all
Vessels in Canadian ports in 1945.
Canadian vessels landed in Canadian ports, in 1946, 17,900,000 lb. of halibut;
14,286,000 lb. came from Area No. 2 and 3,614,000 lb. came from Area No. 3. Canadian
Vessels also landed 472,000 lb. of halibut in American ports in 1946; 448,000 lb. of this
was caught in Area No. 3, while 24,000 lb. was reported to have been caught in Area
No. 2. The total landings by American vessels in Canadian ports in 1946 were
4,384,000 lb. This latter figure is compared with 4,571,000 lb. of American-caught
halibut landed in Canadian ports in 1945.
The average price paid for Canadian halibut in Prince Rupert in 1946 was 16.9
cents per pound, and for all Canadian landings in all British Columbia ports the average
price for Canadian halibut was 17.5 cents per pound.
Halibut-livers have been a source of revenue to the halibut fishermen because of
their high vitamin content. The calculated value of the halibut-livers to the United
States and Canadian fishermen in 1946 was $1,801,130, compared with $1,220,000 in
1945. Of this amount, Canadian fishermen received $261,750, compared with $148,000
for the Canadian fishermen's share in 1945.
The statistical information in connection with the Pacific halibut-fishery quoted
above has been supplied by the International Fisheries Commission and is hereby gratefully acknowledged.
FISH OIL AND MEAL.
Fish-oil and edible fish-meal have been an important branch of British Columbia's
fishery production for a number of years. Previous to the war pilchards and herring
were the principal species used for the production of oil and meal. Since the outbreak
of the war and the consequent increase in the demand for natural sources of vitamins,
other species have been found to yield oils of higher vitamin content, and the increased
demand for these products has stimulated activity in this field. Dogfish-livers, shark-
livers, codfish-livers, cannery waste, and viscera are all utilized for the production of
fish-oil, much of which finds a market in the pharmaceutical trade. In addition to the
high vitamin oils used in the medicinal field, British Columbia fish-oils of the lower
vitamin potencies find an outlet in many of the manufacturing processes, such as the
production of soaps, paints, linoleums, printers' ink, etc. Other vitamin-bearing fish-
oils produced in British Columbia are sold in large quantities for the feeding of
poultry and live stock.
Fish-liver Oil.—Fish-liver oil production in British Columbia since the outbreak
of the war has reached quite important proportions in the Province's fisheries economy.
It has been known for some time that the livers and viscera of certain Pacific fishes
were a valuable natural source of vitamins, and the increasing demand for a natural
source of Vitamin A has been the chief cause for the continued rise in the production
of fish-liver oil.
Since 1942 the Provincial Department of Fisheries has required the operators of
fish-liver reduction plants to obtain a licence and to make returns. In 1946 nine plants
were licensed to operate fish-liver reduction. These nine plants processed 3,724,804 lb.
of liver, producing 211,914 imperial gallons of oil valued at $1,602,625. In 1945 ten
plants were licensed to operate, and, from returns made to this Department, these
ten plants processed 6,281,195 lb. of livers, producing 445,858 imperial gallons of oil.
In the case of fish-liver oil it should be noted that this oil is of high vitamin content
and, therefore, the value is not comparable with values for other types of fish-oil.
Pilchard Reduction.—The pilchard-fishery of British Columbia is conducted principally off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Pilchards, which are a .migratory fish,
make their appearance in British Columbia coastal waters during July, August, and M 22 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
September. These pilchards range from Southern California, and it is during their
northern migration that the British Columbia fishermen obtain their share of this
pelagic fish.
In 1946 there were seven plants licensed to operate, only four of which actually
got into production. The pilchard migration in 1946 was almost a complete failure
so far as the British Columbia fishermen were concerned. Reports from Washington
and Oregon indicated a similar condition. From a financial standpoint the pilchard-
fishery and pilchard reduction were heavy financial losses. The four operating plants
in 1946 produced 699 tons of edible fish-meal and 81,831 imperial gallons of oil.
In 1945 six plants produced 5,812 tons of meal and 1,273,329 imperial gallons of oil,
while in 1944 seven plants produced 8,435 tons of meal and 1,675,090 imperial gallons
of oil.
Herring Reduction.—The reduction of herring to meal and oil in British Columbia
has become an important branch of our winter fishery. Herring are caught from
October through to March, and, while heretofore the reduction of herring was conducted
largely on the west coast and south-east coast of Vancouver Island, latterly the industry
has spread and now practically covers the entire British Columbia coast from the
south-east shores of Vancouver Island to Prince Rupert.
In 1946 there were thirteen plants licensed by the Provincial Department of
Fisheries to reduce herring. Twelve of these operated and produced 7,223 tons of meal
and 484,937 imperial gallons of oil. In 1945 there were eleven plants operating, which
produced 5,525 tons of meal and 521,649 imperial gallons of oil.
Whale Reduction.—There has been no licensed whale reduction in British Columbia
since 1944.
Miscellaneous Reduction.—Dogfish and fish-offal reduction plants are licensed under
miscellaneous reduction. These plants produced oil and meal from cannery waste and
from the carcasses of dogfish. The oil from the carcasses of dogfish is not to be
confused with dogfish-liver oil which is reported in another section of this report.
In 1946, nineteen plants were licensed in this category, seventeen of which operated.
These seventeen plants produced 4,248 tons of meal and 453,008 imperial gallons of oil.
NET-FISHING IN NON-TIDAL WATERS.
Under section 23 of the Special Fishery Regulations for British Columbia, fishing
with nets in certain specified non-tidal waters within the Province is permissible under
licence from the Provincial Minister of Fisheries. This fishery is confined almost
exclusively to the residents living within reasonable distance of the lakes mentioned.
In the Appendix to this report there again appears a table showing the name and
number of lakes in which net-fishing has been permitted, together with the number
and approximate weight of the various species of fish taken from each lake.
It will be noted that there are three different kinds of fishing licences issued for
net-fishing in the non-tidal waters of the Province—namely, fur-farm, ordinary, and
sturgeon. In 1946-47 there were thirty licences issued to fur-farmers, compared with
twenty-five in the year previous. The coarse fish taken under these licences are used
for feeding fur-bearing animals held in captivity.
There were ninety-nine ordinary fishing licences issued in 1946-47, compared with
eighty-four in 1945-46. In 1946-47 there were issued three sturgeon fishing licences,
compared with one in the year previous.
The total number of fish taken by licensed nets in the non-tidal waters of the
Province in the 1946-47 season was 67,119 of all species permitted, with an approximate
weight of 78,016 lb.
For a more detailed account of the fish taken by licensed nets in the different
waters of the Province, the reader is referred to the table above mentioned appearing
in the Appendix. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946. M 23
CONDITION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-SPAWNING GROUNDS.
Owing to this Department having discontinued making inspections of the various
salmon-spawning areas of the Province, we are indebted to the Chief Supervisor of
Fisheries, and the officers of his Department who conducted the investigations, for
furnishing us with a copy of his Department's report. His courtesy in supplying us
with this report is gratefully acknowledged.
The Chief Supervisor's report on the condition of British Columbia's salmon-
spawning grounds will be found in full in the Appendix to this report.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
(Digest.)     (No. 32.)
In the Appendix to this report will be found another paper, No. 32, in the series
" Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon," again contributed by
Dr. W. A. Clemens, Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia.
In commenting on the general characteristics of the sockeye-salmon runs to the
various river systems, Dr. Clemens points out that the runs of sockeye salmon to Rivers
Inlet and to the Skeena and Nass Rivers in 1946 were apparently rather small, in that
they produced commercial packs of 73,320, 52,928, and 12,511 cases respectively. The
escapements were reported as good, indicating that they were neither exceptionally
large nor small so as to attract attention. While the pack of 73,320 cases at Rivers
Inlet may appear to be large, it is only a medium-sized pack in relation to the history
of the area, for packs of over 100,000 cases have not been uncommon. Following the
adoption of constructive measures on the Skeena River as the result of the present
thorough investigation by the Fisheries Research Board, similar action should be taken
in regard to Rivers Inlet. There would appear to be every reason to believe that each
of these areas should produce at least 100,000 cases annually.
With respect to the Skeena River, Dr. Clemens observes that the run of sockeye
salmon to this river in 1946 was relatively small, producing a pack of 52,928 cases, with
a fair escapement. The percentage of five- and six-year-old fish was high, indicating
that the small run of 1942 contributed relatively little to that of 1946. As the return
in 1947 will be the product of the spawnings of 1942 and 1943, and in both these years
the packs were exceptionally small with corresponding escapements relatively small,
the outlook for 1947 is, therefore, very poor.
As pointed out in the 1943 report, the conditions on the Skeena are undoubtedly
the result of the accumulative effect of low productions in certain years without a
lessening of the fishing intensity. Dr. Clemens suggests that it would have been a wise
procedure to have limited the commercial catch on the Skeena River in 1947 to 20,000
cases in order to provide a reasonable escapement for these depressed cycle-years.
With regard to the Nass River, Dr. Clemens points out that the pack of sockeye
salmon from the Nass was 12,511 cases in 1946, which was somewhat below the anticipated amount. However, the run may have been close to expectancy, as the report from
the spawning-grounds stated that the escapement was good, that the fish came in early
and were large in size. The return in 1947 will be derived from the brood-years of
1942 and 1943. In the former year the pack was 21,085 cases and in the latter year
13,412 cases. In both years the escapements were reported as good. While a large
return cannot be expected in 1947, the size of the pack cannot be predicted in view of
the variation in the sizes of the catches over a long period of years.
With respect to the run of sockeye salmon to Rivers Inlet, it is noted in Dr.
Clemens' paper that the run of sockeye to this inlet in 1946 was possibly smaller than
might have been expected from the information available. In the absence of quantitative data on spawning escapements, it is difficult to judge the extent of the escapements M 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
and to compare conditions from year to year except in very broad terms. The return
in 1946 was the product of the spawnings of 1941 and 1942. These years produced
packs of 93,378 and 79,199 cases, and the escapements were reported as very good.
However, climatic conditions are most variable and usually severe in the Rivers Inlet
area, and undoubtedly production of fry varies widely from year to year. The only
protective measure available at the present time is conservative fishing. The return in
1947 will be the product of the spawnings of 1942 and 1943. In the former year the
pack was 79,199 cases and the escapement was reported as very good. In the latter
year the pack was 47,602 cases and a satisfactory escapement was indicated. Unless
the production of fry was exceptional in the brood-years, the return in 1947 should be
on the small side, producing a pack in the neighbourhood of fifty to sixty thousand cases.
For a full account of Dr. Clemens' analyses of the samplings of these three river
systems, the reader is referred to Paper No. 32 in the series " Contributions to the
Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon," appearing in the Appendix to this report.
HERRING INVESTIGATION.
In the 1946-47* season the herring investigation was continued by Dr. A. L. Tester
and Mr. J. C. Stevenson, of the Pacific Biological Station, and their assistants, under
joint financial arrangement with the Fisheries Research Board of Canada and the
Provincial Department of Fisheries.
A detailed investigation of the west coast of Vancouver Island population has
been initiated. The results of the first year's work are given in the Appendix to this
report. It is pointed out that, in order to formulate a management policy which will
assure maximum utilization of the stock, the causes of natural fluctuations in survival
between the egg and recruitment stages must be ascertained and the average minimum
spawning population necessary to produce maximum yield must be determined. To this
end, the main energies of the staff of the herring investigation have been concentrated
on the west coast study, which is expected to yield results which can be applied to all
herring-fisheries of British Columbia.
The detailed study of the west coast population was commenced by intensifying
the established lines of research on the adult population and by initiating a study of the
young herring. With a boat supplied by the industry, closer contact was maintained
with the fishermen and operators, permitting on-the-spot observations to be made on
the progress of the fishery and facilitating the collection of catch statistics and tag-
recoveries. Tagging was resumed on the west coast in 1946 (28,148 fish tagged) and
1947 (30,401 fish tagged) after a lapse of several years. Two tag detectors, one at
Kildonan and one at Steveston, and magnets in several reduction plants recovered tags
from the catches. Tests were made to determine the efficiency of recovery of tags by
reduction-plant magnets, plant machinery, etc., and to ascertain the time-lag involved
in the passage of tags through the plants, information which is used in interpreting
tag returns. Tag-detector returns showed (1) that immigration of fish from other
sub-districts to the West Coast was somewhat greater than emigration of West Coast
fish to other sub-districts, (2) that the tendency for fish to return to the particular
area of tagging was relatively weak, and (3) that there was a tendency for fish to
wander to the south-eastward along the west coast.
An intensive sampling program in the West Coast Sub-district resulted in the
taking of eighty-three samples (8,192 fish) from the commercial catch and sixteen
samples (1,580 fish) from the spawning runs, almost twice as many as were taken in
the previous year. The age composition of the catches confirmed the tagging results
in indicating a south-easterly movement of the fish.
* The herring season in British Columbia overlaps the calendar year, and, as a consequence of time-lag between
the conclusion of the herring season and the compiling of the annual report, the work of the herring investigators
done in the* season of 1946-47 is reported in this report for 1946. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946. M 25
More accurate surveys of the spawning-grounds on the west coast were undertaken
than have been attempted previously, and plans are under way for further improvements in assessing the extent of spawnings. Despite the record herring-catch in the
winter of 1946-47 (59,000 tons), spawning was only slightly less than the average
over an eleven-year period.
In the preliminary larval herring survey in April and May, 1947, a total of 267
ten-minute hauls resulted in the collection of 4,500 larvae. Information was obtained,
on the distribution and growth between hatching and schooling of the young in order
to form a basis for the study of the causes of variations in their numbers. A study of
the extent of egg mortality on the spawning-grounds was also begun this spring. It is
anticipated that next year the' investigation of the early-life history will be extended
so as to include the study of the young at later stages.
Although attention was focused on the West Coast population, certain work was
continued on the populations of the other sub-districts, with relatively greater stress
being laid on the Lower East Coast fishery. As in previous years, the collection of
catch statistics was continued for all herring-fisheries. Apart from the west coast
taggings, 23,383 fish were tagged in 1946 and 11,150 fish in 1947, chiefly in the Lower
East Coast Sub-district. The continuation of tagging in this sub-district is for the
purpose of determining the extent of mixture between it and the West Coast, and for
the purpose of determining mortality rates for comparison with the West Coast.
In addition to the intensive sampling of the West Coast fishery, a total of 112
samples (11,128 fish) were taken from the other fisheries, of which 56 samples (5,602
fish) were from the Lower East Coast catch and the remainder were from catches in
the Discovery Passage, Upper East Coast and Central Sub-districts.
Knowledge of the extent of herring spawning over the entire coast was obtained
from the reports submitted by fisheries officers as in previous years.
Experiments on the mortality of tagged fish were again continued but without
conclusive results. Further experiments will be conducted when the construction of
suitable concrete tanks is completed.
Predictions of the expected abundance of herring on the various fishing-grounds
were made for the 1946-47 season and proved to be moderately accurate. These predictions are based on the catch and age composition of the fish in previous years and
on the size of the spawning population as determined by the extent of spawning in the
preceding spring.
PILCHARD INVESTIGATION.
The Canadian pilchard catch in 1946 was 3,984 tons—the smallest since 1924.
The production by unit effort was reduced to about half that of the previous year and
to less than a tenth that for 1943. This failure is serious in itself. Considered as the
culmination of a series of successively less productive seasons, it is disconcerting
indeed.
Tons. Tons.
1943 88,739 1945 34,302
1944 53,383 1946    3,984
The data which have been accumulated in the course of an investigation of pilchards suggest an explanation for the declining abundance and, in so doing, indicate
that prospects for the immediate future of the pilchard-fishery are not bright. The
investigation has been carried out by Dr. J. L. Hart and his associates, of the Pacific
Biological Station, under a joint agreement between the Provincial Department of
Fisheries and the Fisheries Research Board of Canada.
Extensive tagging experiments, the results of which have been published in these
reports, have shown the interchange of pilchards among California, Oregon, Washington   and British Columbia fishing-grounds.    It accordingly is pertinent to consider M 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
conditions along the whole coast in assessing the present position and in particular to
regard the declining coastwise catch as a warning indication, namely:—
Tons. Tons.
1943-44 569,000 1945-46 433,000
1944-45 602,000 1946-47 241,000
The average size of all pilchards in 1946 was 247 millimetres standard length, as
. compared with 240 millimetres for 1945, 237 millimetres in 1944, and 235 millimetres
in  1943, the increasing average size representing increasing average age of fish.
Eighth-year fish (produced in 1939) were most abundant, constituting about 38 per
cent, of those sampled, and seventh-year fish were next in importance.
Detailed studies of the lengths and ages of the pilchards show beyond reasonable
question that since the first part of 1939 pilchards have been unsuccessful in producing
a large brood of young. It is certain that the relative contributions made by broods
produced since 1939 have been smaller. This indicates that declining catches are a
consequence of actual deficiency in the numbers of pilchards in the sea. If this interpretation is correct, any major improvement in the situation must await the production
of one or more abundant brood-years and their growth to size suitable for the British
Columbia fishery.
SHELL-FISH INVESTIGATION.
In the Appendix to this report will be found a paper by Mr. Ferris Neave, of the
Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C., on the commercial production of clams in
British Columbia. Mr. Neave is in charge of the shell-fish investigation which is
conducted jointly by the Provincial Department of Fisheries and the Fisheries Research
Board of Canada.
The paper presents statistics on the clam-fishery based on reports received by the
Pacific Biological Station through the co-operation of officers of the Federal Department of Fisheries and the industry. The statistics indicate that the production of
butter and little-neck clams has increased substantially over the previous year. Probably the most interesting features relating to the production of butter-clams are (a) the
maintenance of the high production in the southern portion of the Strait of Georgia,
which has been exploited for many years, and (&) the greatly increased production of
Northern British Columbia. The statistical data give a measure of the availability of
clams to the fishermen in the various areas. The statistics also contain records of the
razor-clam production from the beaches of the northern shore of Graham Island, which
have been supplied by the kind co-operation of the Masset Co-operative Association.
The paper discusses very briefly the commercial clam-digging on the experimental
plot at Seal Island. From the figures presented, it will be seen that the yield per unit
of effort was practically the same in 1946 as in the previous year, indicating that this
area is supporting the present degree of exploitation in a satisfactory manner and
maintaining a very high level of productivity.
INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES COMMISSION, 1946.
The International Fisheries Commission continued the regulation of the Pacific
halibut-fishery and carried forward the statistical and biological investigations upon
which the regulation of the fishery is based.
United States representation on the Commission was changed shortly before the
end of the year, when Mr. Charles E. Jackson, of Washington, D.C, who had been a
member since 1940, resigned, and Mr. Milton C. James, Assistant Director of the United
States Fish and Wildlife Service, was appointed as his successor. Continuing members
of the Commission were Mr. G. W. Nickerson and Mr. A. J. Whitmore for Canada, and
Mr. Edward W. Allen for the United States. Mr. Allen served as chairman and Mr.
Nickerson as secretary. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946. M 27
A meeting of the Commission with the Halibut Conference Board, composed of
representatives of the Canadian and United States halibut fleets, was held at Seattle
on November 26th. The results of the Commission's investigations were reviewed and
the fleets' recommendations for the regulation of the fishery in 1947 were received.
The annual meeting of the Commission was held at Seattle on November 25th and
26th, before and after the meeting with the Halibut Conference Board. The condition
of the fishery, as revealed by current investigations, was examined and necessary modifications in the regulations were adopted.
The regulations governing halibut-fishing in 1946 became effective on March 6th,
upon approval by the Governor-General of Canada and the President of the United
States. They were essentially the same as those of previous years, though modified in
a few respects.
Changes were made in the regulations to improve the utilization of the limited
stock of halibut off Northern California. Area 1, which extended south from Willapa
Harbor in the State of Washington, was divided at Cape Blanco, Ore., into Area lA and
Area 1b. Provision was made for the closure of Area IB, the northern section, at the
same time as Area 2 and for the closure of Area Ia, the southern section, at the same
time as whichever of Area 2 or Area 3 should close later. To prevent illegal post-season
halibut-fishing in Areas IB and 2 under pretense of fishing in Area lA, vessels fishing
in Area Ia were required to have their licences validated at a port in that area prior to
each fishing-trip after the closure of Areas 1b and 2.
Minor changes were also made in the section of the regulations under which vessels
fishing with set-lines for other species in closed areas may secure permits to retain and
sell 1 lb. of halibut for each 7 lb. of saleable fish of other species. In 1946 vessels with
such permits were allowed to possess more halibut than they could sell legally, provided
that such additional halibut did not exceed 30 per cent, of the amount that could be
sold legally and that such additional halibut was surrendered to an enforcement officer
at the time of landing. To facilitate enforcement of this provision, dealers and captains
were required to report the arrival of vessels fishing under permit to an enforcement
officer and to obtain permission to unload them.
The fishing season opened on May 1st, with catch-limits of 24,500,000 lb. and
28,000,000 lb. for Areas 2 and 3 respectively, as in the previous year. Halibut-fishing
ended in Areas 2 and 1b on June 11th, when the Area 2 catch-limit was reached. Fishing terminated in Areas 3, 4, and lA on August 19th, when the Area 3 limit was
attained. Permit-landings of halibut caught incidentally during fishing for other
species continued until November 15th.
The halibut-catch of Canadian and United States vessels on the Pacific Coast in
1946 amounted to 60,391,000 lb. This was an increase of 5,726,000 lb. over 1945 and
the greatest catch since 1915. It was 16,169,000 lb., worth $3,000,000 to the fishermen,
greater than in 1931, the year before regulation began.
Halibut-landings from the different areas were: 549,000 lb. from Area lA, south
of Cape Blanco, Ore.; 173,000 lb. from Area IB, between Cape Blanco and Willapa
Harbor, Wash.; 27,250,000 lb. from Area 2, extending from Willapa Harbor to Cape
Spencer, Alaska; and 31,187,000 lb. from Area 3, between Cape Spencer and the
Aleutian Islands. An additional 1,228,000 lb. of incidentally caught halibut were landed
under permit from Area 2 after closure to halibut fishing. No landings were made
from Area 4, in the Bering Sea region.
Canadian vessels in 1946 caught 18,372,000 lb. of halibut, an increase of 3,071,000
lb. over their catch in 1945. They took 14,310,000 lb. from Area 2 and 4,062,000 lb.
from Area 3, which constituted 51 per cent, and 13 per cent, respectively of the Area 2
and Area 3 catches. The increase in the Canadian catch resulted from an increase in
the size of the Canadian fleet. M 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Scientific investigations were continued along the lines required for the fulfilment
of the purposes of the halibut treaty. They included the collection and analysis of
current statistical and biological data, which show the effect of past regulations upon
the stocks and provide a sound basis for future regulation. The collection of biological
data at sea made the operation of a vessel necessary.
The abundance of halibut, as revealed by the average catch per standard unit of
gear fished, was 6 per cent, above the level of 1945 in Area 2, which includes the grounds
off the coast of British Columbia. In Area 3, off the coast of Alaska, it was 5 per cent,
lower than in the previous year. The abundance of halibut in 1946 was 145 per cent,
and 95 per cent, above the low levels which prevailed in Area 2 and Area 3 respectively
in 1930.
Study of the changes occurring in the size and age composition of the marketable
stocks was continued, being necessary for a proper understanding of the over-all changes
in abundance. More than 18,000 halibut were measured from sixteen trips landed from
a representative part of Area 2. Abnormalities in the distribution of landings prevented similar work on the stock in Area 3. Analysis of the Area 2 data showed that
the increase in the catch per unit of fishing effort was contributed to by an increase in
the number of young entering the fishery during the year.
Vessel operations, using an otter-trawl vessel, were undertaken to study the effect
that the recent expansion of the otter-trawl fishery to important halibut grounds in
Area 2 might be expected to have upon the supply of halibut. The trawling-gear used
in this fishery was known to be capable of catching and destroying young halibut long
before they reach commercial size.
The Canadian otter-trawl vessel " Santa Maria I" was chartered and operated in
Hecate Strait and Dixon Entrance during late summer and early autumn. Extensive
information was collected concerning the distribution of small unmarketable halibut,
the sizes and numbers of halibut caught by trawl on different grounds, and the mortality
of halibut caught by trawl under various conditions.
Trawling operations afforded an opportunity to collect biological materials for age
and growth studies and to undertake a comprehensive tagging program. Recoveries
from the 1,886 halibut which were tagged will, over a period of years, provide valuable
information concerning the utilization of the stock and regarding the natural and fishing mortality rates now operative upon the partially rehabilitated stocks of halibut in
the Hecate Strait and Dixon Entrance region.
The investigations of the Commission continued to measure the changes taking
place in the stocks of halibut. They proved that the condition of the stock in Area 2
was continuing to improve. They showed a cessation of improvement in the Area 3
stock and indicated the need for very close observation and control of the Area 3 fishery
to ascertain the cause and to prevent any sustained deterioration in the generally sound
condition of the stock. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946. M 29
APPENDICES.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
(No. 32.)
By W. A. Clemens, Ph.D., Department of Zoology, University
of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.
INTRODUCTION.
The runs of sockeye salmon to Rivers Inlet and to the Skeena and Nass Rivers in
1946 were apparently rather small, in that they produced commercial packs of 73,320,
52,928, and 12,511 cases respectively. The escapements were reported as good,
indicating that they were neither exceptionally large nor small so as to attract attention. While a pack of 73,320 cases at Rivers Inlet may appear to be large, it is only
a medium-sized pack in relation to the history of the area, for packs of over 100,000
cases have not been uncommon. Following the adoption of constructive measures on
the Skeena River as the result of the present thorough investigation by the Fisheries
Research Board, similar action should be taken in regard to Rivers Inlet. There would
appear to be every reason to believe that each of these areas should produce at least
100,000 cases annually,
DESIGNATION OF AGE-GROUPS.
Two outstanding features in the life-history of the fish have been selected in
designating the age-groups—namely, the age at maturity and the year of its life in
which the fish migrated from fresh water. These are expressed symbolically by two
numbers, one in large type, which indicates the age of maturity, and the other in small
type, placed to the right and below, which signifies the year of life in which the fish
left the fresh water.   The age-groups which are met most commonly are:—
31( 4t—the " sea-types " or fish which migrate in their first year and mature
at the ages of three and four respectively.
32—" the grilse," usually males, which migrate in their second year and
mature at the age of three.
42, 52—fish which migrate in their second year and mature at the ages of four
and five respectively.
53, 6...—fish which migrate in their third year and mature at the ages of five
and six respectively.
64, 74—fish which migrate in their fourth year and mature at the ages of six
and seven respectively.
1. THE RIVERS INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1946.
(1) General Characteristics.
The run of sockeye salmon to Rivers Inlet in 1946 was possibly smaller than might
have been expected from the information available. In the absence of quantitative
data on spawning escapements, it is difficult to judge the extent of the escapements and
to compare conditions from year to year except in very broad terms. The return in
1946 was the product of the spawnings in 1941 and 1942. These years produced packs
of 93,378 and 79,199 cases and the escapements were reported as very good.    However, M 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
climatic conditions are most variable and usually severe in the Rivers Inlet area and
undoubtedly production of fry varies widely from year to year. The only " protective "
measure available at the present time is conservative fishing.
The return in 1947 will be the product of the spawnings of 1942 and 1943. In the
former year the pack was 79,199 cases and the escapement was reported as very good.
In the latter year the pack was 47,602 cases and a satisfactory escapement was indicated.
Unless the production of fry was exceptional in the brood-years, the return in 1947
should be on the small  side, producing a pack in the neighbourhood of 50,000 to
60.000 cases.
(2) Age-groups.
The data for this year's study are obtained from twenty-five samplings of the
commercial catch from July 1st to August 2nd, inclusive, representing 1,537 fish. The
42 age-group is represented by 563 individuals or 37 per cent. The 52 age-group
consists of 964 individuals or 63 per cent. It may be noted that in 1942 the four-year-
old fish formed only 8 per cent, of the run, but in 1946 the same age-group constituted
37 per cent, of the run. It does not appear, therefore, that four-year-old fish produce
four-year-old progeny and that five-year-old fish produce five-year-old progeny. A reasonable conclusion appears to be that, in the case of Rivers Inlet, whether the sockeye
mature at four or five years of age depends upon their rate of development as influenced
by several factors, the chief of which may be temperatures and food. In the thirty-five
years of record the percentage of 42's has exceeded the percentage of 52's nineteen
times, the percentage of 52's has exceeded that of the 42's fourteen times, and in two
years the percentages of the two-year classes has been practically identical. The
balance has thus been slightly in favour of the earlier maturity.
The 53 age-group is represented by seven individuals and the 63 age-group by
three (Table I).
(3) Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths of the males and females of the 42 age-group are 20.6 and
21.1 inches respectively, and the average weights are 3.9 lb. in each case. These data
indicate very small fish. In fact, the weights are the smallest on record. It may be
of interest to point out again that only in the case of Rivers Inlet sockeye do the
females of the 42 age-class frequently exceed the males in length and weight.
The average lengths and weights of the males and females of the 52 age-group are
25.1 and 24.1 inches and 7.2 and 6.2 lb. respectively, indicating large fish. The lengths
are the longest on record (Tables II, III, IV, and V).
(4) Distribution of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 807 and of females 730, percentages
of 53 and 47 respectively. In the 42 age-group the males predominate with a percentage of 79, while in the 52 age-group the females predominate with a percentage of 63.
As may be seen in Table VI, the proportion of males in the 42 age-class is high. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946.
M 31
Table I.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs.
Percentage or
Individuals.
Year.
42
h
h
63
1907 (87,874 cases)	
21
80
35
13
26
39
57
46
5
49
81
74
43
23
59
81
55
77
49
53
67
44
77
57
53
60
27
67
69
59
8
8
76
57
37
79
20
65
87
74
61
43
54
95
51
18
24
54
77
38
16
40
18
48
44
27
55
20
41
46
37
70
32
28
40
91
91
23
41
63
1908 (64,652 cases)	
1909 (89,027 cases)  	
1910 (126,921 cases)	
1911 (88,763 cases)	
1912 (112,884 cases)	
1913 (61,745 cases)	
1914 (89,890 cases)	
1915 (130,350 cases)	
1916 (44,936 cases) 	
1917 (61,195 cases) 	
1918 (53,401 cases)  	
1919 (56,258 cases)	
1920 (121,254 cases)	
1921 (46,300 cases)	
1922 (60,700 cases)	
i
2
2
2
3
4
3
2
2
5
1
2
1
1
3
1
1
3
1
1
2
1923 (107,174 cases)	
1924 (94,891 cases) 	
1
1925 (159,554 cases)	
1926 (65,581 cases)	
1
1927 (64,461 cases)	
1928 (60,044 cases)	
1
1929 (70,260 cases) 	
2
1930 (119,170 cases)	
1
1931 (76,428 cases)	
1
1932 (69,732 cases)	
1
1933 (83,507 cases)	
1934 (76,923 cases)	
1
1935 (135,038 cases)	
1
1936 (46,351 cases)	
1937 (84,832 cases)	
1938 (87,942 cases)	
2
1939 (54,143 cases)	
1940 (63,469 cases)	
1941 (93,378 cases) .-.	
1942 (79,199 cases)	
1
1943 (47,602 cases)	
1
1944 (36,852 cases)	
1945 (89,735 cases)	
1946 (73,320 cases)	 M 32
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table II.-
-Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1946, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Length in Inches.
Number of
Individuals.
4
2
52
h
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
17%	
1
4
14
29
61
71
70
69
39
42
18
15
6
4
1
3
5
13
22
29
21
10
7
6
2
1
	
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
18	
4
18%	
15
19	
32
19%	
67
20	
	
84
20%	
2
7
14
22
33
35
29
48
43
43
36
24
10
9
2
1
1
26
34
76
91
97
97
103
50
23
6
2
93
21:	
99
21%	
22	
63
87
22%	
73
23	
23%	
119
132
24	
139
24%	
128
25	
152
25%	
93
26	
67
26%	
42
27	
27%	
28                             	
26
10
9
28 V„...      ._    	
2
Totals 	
443
120
357
607
6
1
1
2
1,537
Average lengths	
20.6
21.1
25.1
24.1
22.8
22.0
24.5
24.5
Table III.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1946, Grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Weight in Pounds.
Number of
Individuals.
4
2
52
h
€
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
2             	
l
8
68
144
104
61
33
18
6
1
5
42
49
19
2
1
1
1
3
9
26
34
44
31
36
53
33
31
. 19
16
14
4
3
1
11
42
69
86
113
81
96
64
29
11
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
	
1
1
9
3                          	
74
3%    	
188
4            	
4%         	
133
5	
131
5%         	
6	
165
6%                        	
115
7%         	
8             .            	
62
g%         	
9    	
9%          	
10....          	
14
10%          	
4
3
443
120
357    |    607
6
1
1
2
1,537
3.9
3.9
7.2
6.2
4.9
4.5
6.5
5.8 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946.
M 33
Table IV.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of the 42 and 52
Groups, 1912 to 1946.
Year.
42
h
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41	
22.4
21.6
21.9
20.5
21.1
20.9
20.6
22.4
21.6
21.3
21.1
21.0
21.2
21.1
25.4
24.6
25.0
24.3
23.6
24.2
25.1
24 7
1912-41 (conversion)	
1942	
23.9
1943	
23 7
1944	
1945            	
23.3
23 9
1946	
24 1
Table V.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of the 42 and 52
Groups, 1914- to 1946.
Year.
42
h
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41	
4.9
5.1
4.1
4.6
4.3
3.9
4.8
4.6-
4.4
4.4
4.4
3.9
7.0
7.2
6.8
6.2
6.6
7.2
6 5
1942	
6.4
1943	
6.3
1944	
1945	
1946	
6.0
6.4
6.2
Table VI.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1946.
Year.
4
2
52
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Total
Females.
63
61
62
67
70
79
37
39
38
33
30
21
34
35
34
33
39
37
66
65
66
67
61
63
50
38
36
69
57
53
1942                            	
1943                            	
64
1944	
41
1945             	
43
1946	
47
2. THE SKEENA RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1946.
(1) General Characteristics.
The run of sockeye salmon to the Skeena River in 1946 was relatively small,
producing a pack of 52,928 cases and a fair escapement. The percentage of five- and
six-year-old fish was high, indicating that the small run of 1942 contributed relatively
little to that of 1946.
The return in 1947 will be the product of the spawnings of 1942 and 1943. In
both these years the packs were exceptionally small, that of 1943 being the smallest on
record. Correspondingly the escapements were relatively small. As pointed out in
the 1943 report, the above condition has been undoubtedly the result of the accumulative effect of low productions in certain years without a lessening of the fishing intensity. The outlook for 1947 is, therefore, very poor. It would have been a wise
procedure to have limited the commercial catch in 1947 to 20,000 cases, and so provided
a reasonable escapement for these depressed cycle-years.
(2) Age-groups.
The material for this year's analysis consists of thirty-six samplings taken from
July 2nd to August 17th, inclusive, involving 1,804 fish taken at random from the
commercial catch.
The 42 age-group is represented by 238 individuals or 13 per cent., the 52 by 1,256
or 70 per cent., the 53 by 142 or 8 per cent., and the 63 by 168 or 9 per cent. The
outstanding feature in this record is that the percentage of four-year-old fish is the
lowest on record. A very similar condition occurred in 1920, when this age-group
comprised 15 per cent, of the run. The relatively high percentage of six-year-old fish
is also of interest (Table VII).
In addition to the usual age-groups, representatives of three others occur as
follows:—■
62—male, 22% inches, 4 lb.
female, 25% inches, 5 lb.
female, 25% inches, 6y2 lb.
73—female, 25 inches, 6% lb.
74—male, 24 inches, 6 lb.
These five fish have not been included in the calculations.
(3) Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths of the males and females in the various year-classes are shown
in Table X and present no unusual features.
The weight data have presented some difficulty. Mr. D. J. Milne, of the Pacific
Biological Station, checked at the end of the season the scales used by the collector and
found that they were underweighing to a considerable extent. On the basis of the
information supplied by Mr. Milne, a half-pound has been added to the average weights
of all the year-classes. This procedure brings the weights into reasonable agreement
with those of previous years, whereas the original weights are definitely below. The
fact that the average lengths are not less than those of previous years appears to justify
the correction of the weights (Tables VIII, IX, X, and XI).
(4) Distribution of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 679 and of females 1,125, percentages of 38 and 62 respectively. In the 42 age-group the percentages of the sexes are
equal, but in the 52 age-group the percentage of females is 68 (Table XII). REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946.
M 35
Table VII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs of
Successive Years and Packs.
Year.
Percentage op Individuals.
1907 (108,413 cases)
1908 (139,846 cases)
1909 (87,901 cases)..
1910 (187,246 cases)
1911 (131,066 cases)
1912 (92,498 cases)..
1913 (52,927 cases)..
1914 (130,166 cases)
1915 (116,553 cases)
1916 (60,923 cases)..
1917 (65,760 cases)..
1918 (123,322 cases)
1919 (184,945 cases)
1920 (90,869 cases)..
1921 (41,018 cases)..
1922 (96,277 cases)..
1923 (131,731 cases)
1924 (144,747 cases)
1925 (77,784 cases)..
1926 (82,360 cases)..
1927 (83,996 cases)..
1928 (34,559 cases)..
1929 (78,017 cases)..
1930 (132,372 cases)
1931 (93,023 cases)..
1932 (59,916 cases)..
1933 (30,506 cases)..
1934 (54,558 cases)..
1935 (52,879 cases)..
1936 (81,973 cases)..
1937 (42,491 cases)..
1938 (47,257 cases)..
1939 (68,485 cases)..
1940 (116,507 cases)
1941 (81,767 cases)..
1942 (34,544 cases)..
1943 (28,268 cases)..
1944 (68,197 cases)..
1945 (104,279 cases)
1946 (52,928 cases)..
57
50
25
36
34
57
51
27
15
69
70
56
23
51
62
62
51
62
39
40
44
57
58
49
67
45
64
50
80
39
86
39
37
20
13
43
50
75
64
38
29
34
60
71
22
16
29
69
45
26
28
39
30
52
30
37
36
34
31
20
40
15
35
15
52
54
39
52
63
70
13
9
12
8
7
3
9
9
7
28
7
5
7
18
11
11
16
11
4
8
7
16
7
12
18
6
6
4
2
1
2
12
2
1
2
2
4
5
4
1
1
3
6
4
5 M 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table VIII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1946, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Number op Individuals.
Length in Inches.
4
2
52
53
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
19      	
1
1
2
1
7
15
16
18
21
15
11
4
3
2
1
1
1
3
20'
17
38
17
16
3
2
1
1
	
3
9
9
25
46
79
81
80
38
17
11
1
4
12
22
58
131
206
160
154
64
34
8
4
2
9
6
9
7
15
5
11
8
3
2
1
1
2
6
13
17
4
7
7
4
3
1
1
8
16
24
20
8
2
1
7
11
17
22
20
5
2
2
1
2
19%      	
1
20          	
3
20%                    	
5
21      	
30
21%	
34
22    	
84
22%                     	
76
23	
137
23%                                      	
181
24      	
282
24%      	
254
25                           	
288
25% 	
187
26      	
138
26%      	
59
27      	
25
27%	
13
28      	
1
28%	
4
118
120
403
853
77
65
81
87
1,804
22.7
22.0
25.4
24.3
23.9
23.2
25.5
24.4
Table IX.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1946, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Number op Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
4
2
52
53
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
iy2                   	
1
2
4
17
19
20
18
18
7
7
4
1
1
8
23
36
27
16
4
2
3
2
2
7
8
31
60
70
76
54
50
19
12
10
2
3
23
63
140
187
186
123
80
32
11
3
2
2
3
5
18
10
13
16
4
2
2
2
4
5
8
21
14
5
7
1
1
5
6
18
21
18
10
1
1
2
15
12
25
19
8
2
2
2
2
2
2%                                  	
12
51
31^                       .          	
88
4                            	
132
414                       	
237
5                     	
281
5y2               	
304
263
6%      	
194
7                             	
109
7%                 	
75
8         	
27
8%                     	
15
9          .         	
10
10                                     	
2
118
120
403
853
77
65
81
87
1,804
4.2
3.7
6.4
5.3
5.3
4.6
6.5
5.6
4.7
4.2
6.9
5.8
5.8
5.1
7.0
6.1 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946.
M 37
Table X.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1946.
Year.
42
h
53
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41	
23.7
23.0
22.6
21.9
22.4
22.6
22.7
23.1
22.4
22.3
21.9
21.7
22.3
22.0
25.8
25.1
25.2
25.1
24.8
24.9
25.4
24.9
24.2
24.3
23.9
23.9
24.1
24.3
24.2
23.5
24.1
23.3
22.5
23.3
23.9
23.4
22.7
23.7
22.6
21.7
22.6
23.2
25.8
25.1
26.3
25.8
25.0
25.0
25.5
1912-41 (conversion)	
1942	
24.1
1943	
24.7
23.7
1944       ...
1945	
1946	
Table XI.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1946.
Year.
42
5
2
h
8
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41	
1942	
5.4
4.9
4.7
5.1
5.2
4.7
5.0
4.7
4.6
4.6
4.9
4.2
6.8
6.7
6.8
7.0
6.7
6.9
6.1
6.0
5.9
6.1
6.1
5.8
5.7
5.8
5.5
5.3
5.6
5.8
5.1
5.4
4.9
4.6
5.0
5.1
6.8
7.2
7.3
7.1
6.7
7.0
6.0
6.6
1943 . .      .             	
6.1
1944....                    	
5.8
1945	
6.2
1946        ...            	
6.1
Table XII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females, 1915 to 1946.
4
2
5
2
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Females.
48
42
50
54
41
50
52
58
50
46
59
50
43
25
31
34
35
32
57
75
69
66
65
68
46
33
43
43
38
38
54
1942	
67
1943	
57
1944	
57
1945	
62
1946                        	
62
3. THE NASS RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1946.
(1) General Characteristics.
The pack of sockeye salmon from the Nass River was 12,511 cases and somewhat
below the anticipated amount. However, the run may have been close to expectancy,
as the report from the spawning-grounds stated that the escapement was good, that
the fish came in early and were large in size.
The return in 1947 will be derived from the brood-years of 1942 and 1943. In the
former year the pack was 21,085 cases and in the latter 13,412 cases, and in both years
the escapements were reported as good. While a large return cannot be expected, the
size of the pack cannot be predicted in view of the variation in the sizes of the catches
over a long period of years. M 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
(2) Age-groups.
The material for 1946 consists of data and scales from 1,376 fish obtained in
thirty-four samplings from July 3rd to August 17th, inclusive. The 42 age-group is
represented by 178 individuals or 13 per cent., the 52 by 169 or 12 per cent., the 53 by
993 or 72 per cent., and the 63 by 36 or 3 per cent. The percentage of 53 fish is thus
high, being slightly above the thirty-four-year average of 65 per cent.  (Table XIII).
(3) Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths of both the males and females of the 42 age-group at 23.4 and
22.4 inches are somewhat low, but on the other hand those of the 52 age-group at 26.3
and 24.9 inches are high. The average lengths of the 53 age-group at 24.9 and 23.9
inches are not unusual. The average length of the males of the 63 age-group is
exceptionally high at 28.1 inches, but only twenty-seven fish are involved.
Since the data on the Nass River fish were collected at the cannery on the Skeena
River, the weights are apparently in error, as in the case of those of the Skeena River
fish. A half-pound has been added, therefore, to all the average weights. As a result,
the average weights of both the males and the females of the 52 age-group are exceptionally high, as well as of the males of the 63 age-group. However, the average
lengths of these groups is exceptionally high and probably the corrected weights are
not seriously astray. On the other hand the original weights are exceptionally low
and not in keeping with the average lengths (Tables XIV, XV, XVI, and XVII).
(4) Distribution of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 682 and of females 694, percentages
of 50 and 50. The males are exceptionally abundant in the 42 age-group with a
percentage of 62 and in the 52 age-group with a percentage of 59 (Table XVIII). REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946.
M 39
Table XIII.—iVass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Principal Age-groups
in Runs of Successive Years and Packs.
Year.
Percentage of Individuals
42
52
h
63
1912 (36,037 cases)    	
8
15
4
19
9
10
30
7
8
10
6
11
4
23
12
8
30
25
28
10
28
35
13
11
16
22
21
14
23
37
22
5
15
46
13
27
12
41
14
17
15
16
22
14
7
2
6
3
8
12
7
6
9
15
17
4
7
9
10
7
4
4
13
8
7
7
13
15
11
12
63
71
45
59
66
71
45
65
72
75
91
77
91
67
63
81
61
60
54
67
61
55
74
73
67
68
70
66
59
52
66
67
32
37
72
2
2
10
8
8
4
9
6
6
8
1
6
2
2
13
4
3
6
3
6
7
3
4
6
10
6
5
7
10
4
5
15
38
6
3
1913 (23,574 cases)	
1914 (31,327 cases)	
1915 (39,349 cases)	
1916 (31,411 cases)	
1917 (22,188 cases)	
1918 (21,816 cases)	
1919 (28,259 cases)	
1920 (16,740 cases)	
1921 (9,364-cases)	
1922 (31,277 cases)	
1923 (17,821 cases)	
1924 (33,590 cases)	
1925 (18,945 cases)	
1926 (15,929 cases)	
1927 (12,026 cases)	
1928 (5,540 cases)	
1929 (16,077 eases)	
1930 (26,405 cases)	
1931 (16,929 cases)	
1932 (14,154 cases)	
1933 (9,757 cases)	
1934 (36,242 cases)	
1935 (12,712 cases)	
1936 (28,562 cases)      	
1937 (17,567 cases)	
1938 (21,462 cases)	
1939 (24,357 cases)	
1940 (13,809 cases)	
1941 (24,876 cases)	
1942 (21,085 cases)	
1943 (13,412 cases)	
1944 (13,083 cases)	
1945 (9,899 cases)	
1946 (12,511 cases)	 M 40
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table XIV.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1946, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Length in Inches.
4
2
52
h
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.     1     F.
1
M.
F.
21	
6
5
14
22
30
17
8
9
3
12
19
13
9
8
1
2
1
3
6
8
12
16
20
10
13
5
5
1
3
1
12
18
12
10
8
4
1
1
2
19
35
58
74
100
72
48
26
7
2
14
40
85
102
143
71
61
22
10
1
1
1
1
1
4
4
9
4
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
1
3
21%	
18
22    	
39
22%	
69
23	
138
177
24   	
235
24%     .            	
179
25	
191
25%	
119
26	
85
26%	
52
27	
27%	
28	
28%	
29	
29%	
20
21
9
14
5
1
30%	
1
Totals	
111
67
100
69
444
549
27
9
1,376
23.4
22.4
26.3
24.9
24.9
23.9
28.1
26.0
Table XV.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1946, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
4
2
52
53
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
3	
1
3
12
19
25
26
17
5
3
1
5
23
21
11
4
1
1
1
2
3
5
13
15
14
21
11
10
4
1
7
13
18
14
9
7
1
1
4
10
29
43
65
117
81
61
19
7
7
1
21
60
138
141
120
52
13
2
1
1
4
2
4
4
7
3
1
1
1
2
3
2
1
4
3%....          ...           	
33
4   	
106
4%	
207
5                      	
229
5%  	
232
6    	
212
6%	
131
7   . ..          	
96
7%	
44
8	
33
8%                 	
22
9                  	
17
9%              	
7
10      	
1
10%               	
1
11	
1
111
67
100
69
444
549
27
9
1,376
Average weights..	
5.1
4.4
7.6
6.2
6.0
4.9
8.4
6.5
5.6
4.9
8.1     1      6.7
6.5
5.4
8.9
7.0 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946.
M 41
Table XVI.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1946.
Year.
42
5
2
h
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1915  41
24.5
23.8
23.9
22.8
23.5
23.4
23.4
23.7
23.0
23.2
22.2
22.7
22.8
22.4
26.3
25.6
26.1
26.1
25.7
25.0
26.3
25.2
24.5
24.9
24.8
24.6
24.4
24.9
26.1
25.4
24.9
24.1
24.8
24.7
24.9
25.3
24.6
24.3
23.5
23.8
24.0
23.9
27.7
27.0
26.9
27.1
26.8
25.1
28.1
1912-41
1942	
(conversion)	
25.7
26.0
1943  	
25.8
1944       	
25 8
1945	
25.5
1946	
26.0
Table XVII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1946.
Year.
42
5
2
53
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41	
6.0
5.8
5.2
5.7
5.7
5.6
5.4
5.1
4.7
5.0
5.3
4.9
7.3
7.1
7.6
7.7
7.0
8.1
6.4
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.4
6.7
6.9
6.2
5.9
6.7
6.5
6.5
6.2
5.6
5.3
5.7
5.9
5.4
8.0
7.5
7.9
8.2
7.2
8.9
7 0
1942	
6.7
1943	
6 9
1944	
7.1
1945   	
7 1
1946	
7 0
Table XVIII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1946.
Year.
4
2
I
2
h
6
3
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Total
Females.
1915-41
49
42
51
53
37
62
51
58
49
47
63
38
47
48
67
45
37
59
53
52
33
55
63
41
45
44
47
39
38
45
55
56
53
61
62
55
63
70
74
60
53
75
37
30
26
40
47
25
47
45
54
50
38
50
53
1 942
55
1943	
46
1944	
1945    	
50
62
1946    	
50 M 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
RESULTS OF THE WEST COAST OF VANCOUVER ISLAND
HERRING INVESTIGATION, 1946-47.
By A. L. Tester, Ph.D., and J. C. Stevenson, M.A.,
Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
CONTENTS. Page.
Introduction  42
Statistical Areas  43
The 1946-47 Fishery '.  44
Tagging and Tag-recovery  47
Magnet Efficiency Tests  48
Tag-detector Recoveries  48
Tags recovered by Plant Crews  50
Tagging during the 1947 Spawning Season  50
Sampling of the Catches  51
Age Composition  51
Sex Ratio and Stage of Development  52
Average Length and Weight  54
Spawning-ground Surveys  54
Young-herring Investigation  56
Summary „  58
Acknowledgments  60
References .  61
INTRODUCTION.
A study of the herring (Clupea pallasii) and herring-fishery of British Columbia
has been under way for several years. A recent survey of the results for the west
coast of Vancouver Island (Tester, MS.) has produced no conclusive evidence that this
population, actually a series of intergrading units, has suffered a progressive decline
in abundance as a result of past fishing effort. Likewise the survey has produced no
conclusive evidence that the population has materially benefited by catch restrictions
which have been in force under the quota system of regulation (Tester, 1945). Apart
from annual fluctuations, the catch has been sustained under a relatively high fishing
effort, but not necessarily at or approaching the maximum yield of the population.
In this species, in contrast to the Pacific halibut (Thompson and Bell, 1934), the
rate of increase of the fishable population from growth in weight is much less than the
rate of decrease from natural mortality; thus maximum sustained yield will be obtained
with an intensive fishery, the intensity being as great as is consistent with maintenance
of the supply of young. In other words, the goal of maximum sustained catch will be
reached when fishing effort is such that the spawning stock is kept at the minimum
number necessary to produce an approximately constant supply of new recruits to the
fishery. However, at this level of abundance, the catch will undergo more violent
fluctuations than at a higher level.
In the west coast of Vancouver Island population there has been no close relationship between the size of the spawning stock and the size of the resultant year-class
during the recent years of intensive fishing. Because of large natural variation in
survival rate between egg and recruitment stages, big spawning stocks have sometimes REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946. M 43
produced small year-classes and small spawning stocks have sometimes produced big
year-classes. Determination of the causes of variation in the survival of young is one
of the most difficult yet one of the most important problems facing fisheries investigators. If the causes could be determined, it is probable that accurate predictions of
abundance could be made.
Aside from natural fluctuations, as fishing effort increases and the spawning stock
decreases, eventually there must be a direct relationship between the size of the
spawning stock and that of the resultant year class or, in other words, between the
number of eggs deposited and the number of recruits to the fishable population.
Theoretically there is a point below which population resilience—the ability to produce
relatively more recruits from a smaller egg deposition—is exhausted, and below which
a further decrease in egg deposition will cause a decrease in recruitment. The level
of fishing effort which will allow the spawning stock to approach but not to exceed
this critical minimum is the optimum for yielding maximum sustained catch. The
determination of this optimum is a second difficult, yet important, problem facing the
fishery investigator. Until it is known, there is the possibility on the one hand of
wasting thousands of tons of fish and millions of dollars by over-restriction of the
fishery and on the other hand of allowing a progressive dwindling of the stock by
under-restriction.
It was recommended that an intensive investigation of the west coast of Vancouver
Island herring population be undertaken with the primary objects of determining the
causes of natural fluctuations in abundance and the average minimum spawning stock
necessary to produce maximum sustained catch. As there was no conclusive evidence
that the minimum spawning stock had been exceeded, or even approached, by the
intensive fishing of recent years, it was recommended that restrictions be relaxed to
allow a further increase in fishing effort and that the effect of the decreased spawning
on recruitment be carefully studied. It was pointed out that a certain risk of " overfishing " was involved, but that this risk had to be taken if the problems were to be
solved within a reasonable period of time. The ultimate object of the investigation
was to formulate a management policy for all herring-fisheries of British Columbia
which would assure the maximum utilization of the resource without endangering its
perpetuity.
The above recommendations were accepted and an intensive study of the west coast
of Vancouver Island herring population was started during the 1946-47 fishing season.
In this, the first in a series of annual reports, the results of the first year of investigation as at present available are presented and discussed.
STATISTICAL AREAS.
The coast of British Columbia has been divided into districts, sub-districts, and
areas (Fig. 1). The latter, numbered from 1 to 27, will, for brevity, be referred to in
this and subsequent reports by number. Statistical areas for the west coast of Vancouver Island, frequently called the " West Coast Sub-district " or the " West Coast,"
are as follows:—
Area 23:  Pachena Point to Quisitis Point, including Barkley Sound and contiguous waters.
Area 24: Quisitis Point to Estevan Point, including Clayoquot Sound, Sydney
Inlet, Hesquiat Harbour, etc.
Area 25:   Estevan Point to Tatchu Point, including Nootka Sound, Tahsis
Inlet, Esperanza Inlet, Nuchatlitz Inlet, etc.
Area 26:   Tatchu Point to Cape Cook, including Kyuquot Sound, Malksope,
Ououkinsh, and Nasparte Inlets, etc. M 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Area 27:   Cape Cook to Cape Scott, including Quatsino Sound, Klaskish and
• Klaskino Inlets, etc.
The locations of places referred to in the text are shown in Fig. 2.
THE 1946-47 FISHERY.
During the first part of November a few seine-boats scouted west coast of Vancouver Island areas without locating any fish. On November 20th the first catch of
the season was made off Refuge Cove, in Area 24, and fishing continue'd in that area on
a small scale until the first part of December.
Toward the end of November herring were located in abundance in the " outer "
waters of Area 23—Peacock Channel, Sechart Channel, and Mayne Bay. In fishing
these grounds, which are relatively shallow and have a very uneven bottom, the fishermen were greatly aided by the use of echo sounders in both finding the fish and in
discovering places where sets could be made without danger of snagging the seines.
Following closure of the Lower East Coast Sub-district on December 9th, fishing effort
was greatly increased and a fleet of more than forty seine-boats crowded the grounds.
The area continued to yield good catches, and by the time of holiday closure, December
19th, the West Coast Sub-district quota of 25,000 tons was largely used up.
During the holiday period negotiations between operators and the Dominion
Department of Fisheries resulted in an extension of 15,000 tons to the quota. This
enabled fishing to proceed while recommendations of herring investigators regarding
the relaxation of catch restrictions were under study by the authorities. On January
9th quota restrictions for the West Coast Sub-district were abolished for the 1946-47
season.
The second part of the season opened on January 5th. Fair catches continued to
be made in Area 23, but seiners scouting grounds to the north-westward discovered an
exceptionally large body of fish in Esperanza Inlet and adjoining waters of Area 25.
Spectacular fishing took place here, with total catches averaging two to three thousand
tons per day for a short period. At Espinoza Inlet, on January 8th, a single set by the
" Eastisle," skippered by John Bordewick, yielded a record catch of 1,200 tons. After
a few days the large body of fish seemed to disappear—it either went into deep water,
moved from the area, or was caught off. The seiners scattered to other grounds,
including Tahsis Inlet (Area 25), Sydney Inlet (Area 24), and Barkley Sound (Area
23), where fair catches were made, although fishing was sporadic.
Oh January 25th, after four or five days of very poor fishing, the West Coast
Sub-district was closed by the Dominion Department of Fisheries. Thus the season
was terminated about ten days earlier than the prescribed closing date of February 5th.
Table I includes data on catch, fishing effort, and availability for each area and for
the sub-district as a whole. The catch by area is estimated from various sources,
including plant records of landings. The total number of active fishing-days expended
by all seiners, a measure of effort, is compiled from daily records of fishing as submitted
by seine-boat captains; it has been adjusted to compensate for the fact that the daily
records were incomplete, comprising but 65 per cent, of the total catch. The availability or catch per unit effort, which is a measure of the success of fishing, was also
compiled from daily catch records.
The total catch of herring, officially given as 58,797 tons, is the largest on record
for the West Coast Sub-district and is about 31,000 tons greater than that of the
previous year,- when fishing was restricted to the 25,000-ton quota (official catch, 27,556
tons). Of the total catch, about 28,000 tons (48 per cent.) were taken from Area 23,
about 9,000 tons (15 per cent.) from Area 24, and the remainder, about 22,000 tons
(37 per cent.), from Area 25. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946.
M 45
Fig. 1. Map showing districts, sub-districts, and areas. M 46
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Fig. 2. Map of the West Coast Sub-district showing the location of places mentioned
in the text. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946. M 47
The average catch of a seiner for each day of fishing amounted to 76 tons, as
compared with 78 tons in 1945-46, showing a similar abundance of herring on the
fishing-grounds during the fishing season in the two years. However, the greater
catch in 1946-47 was produced by greater effort, the calculated number of active
fishing-days being 777 as compared with 353 in 1945-46. During 1946-47 the availability was smallest in Area 23, probably because of the very large number of seine-boats
fishing there during the first half of the season, and it was greatest in Area 25, where
fishing was very successful for a short period of time.
At the time of closure fear was expressed that practically all of the west coast of
Vancouver Island herring population had been caught off, and that spawning would be
very poor. This fear was heightened by the experience of one seiner who continued
to fish in the sub-district for a limited supply of bait after the date of closure and made
only one set in about two weeks of scouting. The results of observations on spawning
will be given in a later section of this report.
TAGGING AND TAG-RECOVERY.
Tagging and tag-recovery form one important phase of the west coast of Vancouver Island investigation. It is hoped that it will yield information not only on the
extent of mixture of the runs, but also on the rate of exploitation of the population and
the abundance of the new recruits entering the fishery.
Methods and previous results have been described in detail in a series of articles
which have been published annually since 1936 in the Reports of the British Columbia
Provincial Fisheries Department. The methods, in brief, involve the use of internal
metal tags (Fig. 3) and the recovery of these by means of electromagnets ih the meal
lines of reduction plants and tag detectors in the conveyer systems of reduction plants
and canneries.
In preparation for the present investigation, intensive tagging along the west coast
of Vancouver Island was resumed during the 1946 spawning period after a lapse of
several years: 28,148 fish were tagged in the West Coast Sub-district and, in addition,
23,383 fish in other sub-districts (Tester, 1946). These tags, along with those used
in previous years, were liable for recovery from West Coast catches during the 1946-47
fishing season.
An attempt was made to increase the efficiency of tag-recovery by installing two
tag detectors in plants within the sub-district and by stimulating interest among plant
crews in recovering tags from magnets and submitting them, with the required information, to the Pacific Biological Station.
One new-type tag detector (Tester, 1946) was installed at the Kildonan plant of
B.C. Packers, Limited, and a second was installed at the Nootka plant of the Canadian
Fishing Company, Limited. As has often been the case with new installations, considerable difficulty was experienced in adjusting the intricate apparatus to local conditions. The Kildonan detector recovered tags throughout most of the season, but its
efficiency was relatively low. The Nootka detector was not properly adjusted until the
close of the season. The old-type tag detector which has been operated at the Imperial
Cannery, Steveston, for several years was again in use and recovered tags from catches
made in several sub-districts, including the West Coast.
During the season all six west coast reduction plants were visited at least once, and
some several times, to inspect magnets, collect tags, and conduct recovery efficiency
tests. The tests consisted of inserting about fifty tags in dead herring and distributing
these at random in the storage-bins containing fish which were to be processed. Most
of these were later recovered by the plant crew from the magnet placed in the meal line
for that purpose or were found in conveyers, grinders, or driers. A reward of 25 cents
was paid for the recovery of test tags and 50 cents for the recovery of bona fide tags. M 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The tests served a dual purpose: they yielded information on the efficiency of recovery
of tags in the plants and on the time-lag involved in their passage through the plants,
and they stimulated and maintained interest among the plant crews in searching
for tags.
Magnet Efficiency Tests.
The results of so-called magnet efficiency tests are given in Table II. Actually the
tests as indicated above give the general efficiency of recovery of tags from reduction
plants based on returns from all sources as submitted by plant crews. This involves
not only the actual efficiency of the magnet in retaining tags from the flow of meal, but
also the diligence of the crew in clearing the magnet of trash metal, in looking for tags
among this trash, in searching driers and conveyers during shut-down periods and at
the close of the season for tags that have failed to reach the magnet, and in searching
the base of the grinders for tags that have passed over the magnets and are frequently
battered beyond clear recognition. It also involves the efficiency of plant crews in
submitting tags which have been recovered, and the accuracy with which they note and
record the date of recovery.
Knowledge of the percentage efficiency of recovery is of importance in calculating
the probable total number of tags in the catches. Table II shows that where several
tests have been made on one plant the percentage efficiency is fairly uniform between
tests. However, there is considerable variation between plants, as is shown by the
following summary:— Average
* 0n Number Percentage
Area 63. 0f Tests. Recovery.
Kildonan      3 73.8
Ecoole      3 32.9
Port Albion     3 90.0
Area 25.
Nootka   1 77.1
Ceepeecee   2 50.5
Hecate  1 56.0
Grand average  63.6
Some of the tests were made toward the end of the season. It is possible that
additional test tags, held up in plant machinery, will be recovered during the 1947
summer pilchard season or during the 1947-48 winter herring season.
Knowledge of the interval that elapses between the time the tag enters the plant
and the time its recovery is recorded is of considerable importance in interpreting the
place at which the load of fish containing the tag was caught. This is particularly
the case when fish caught in different areas are being processed in close sequence.
It will be seen from Table II that in some plants, Port Albion and Hecate for example,
the time-lag is small, most of the tags being reported within three days. In other
plants it is larger. The large time-lag at the Kildonan plant is due to the low efficiency
of the magnets; at least 45 per cent, of the tags were recovered from the base of
grinders toward and after the close of the season.
Tag-detector Recoveries.
Recoveries made by the Steveston and Kildonan detectors are listed in Table III
according to area of tagging and area of recapture. Recoveries were made from
catches taken on the following fishing-grounds: Area 13, Deepwater Bay; Area 14a,
off Cape Lazo; Area 14b, Nanoose Bay; Area 17, Porlier Pass; Area 18, Swanson
and Satellite Channels; Area 23, Barkley Sound; Area 24, Sydney Inlet; and Area 25,
Esperanza Inlet. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946.
M 49
The results are summarized in the following table:
Area of Tagging.
Area of Recapture.
Total.
23.
24.
25.
Outside.
23	
20
33
4
4
8
5
3
1
2
7
20
24
5
1
2
1
23
24	
47
25	
28
26	
28
216
230
Totals	
69
9
58
220
5,985
998
2,956
11,597
21,536
A total of 356 tags were recovered, 220 from catches made in outside areas (lower
east coast of Vancouver Island and Discovery Passage) and 136 from catches made in
west coast of Vancouver Island areas. Of the former, four (1.8 per cent.) were fish
which had been originally tagged on the west coast but which had wandered to outside
areas as follows:—
To Swanson Channel   (Area 18)  from Pipestem Inlet  (Area 23), 1;   from
Refuge Cove (Area 24), 1;  from Ewin Inlet (Area 25), 1.
To Deepwater Bay (Area 13) from Refuge Cove (Area 24), 1.
Of the latter, fourteen (10.3 per cent.) were fish which had been originally tagged
in outside areas but which had wandered to the west coast, as follows:—
To Barkley Sound   (Area 23)   from Cramer Passage   (Area  13),  1;   from
Qualicum Bay (Area 14a), 1;   from Ladysmith Harbour (Area 17), 2;
from Prevost Island (Area 18), 3;   from Sooke (Area 19), 1.
To Sydney Inlet (Area 24) from Prevost Island (Area 18), 1.
To Esperanza Inlet (Area 25) from Gunboat Passage (Area 7), 1;  from Viner
Sound (Area 12), 1;   from Deepwater Bay (Area 13), 1;   from Pender
Harbour (Area 16), 1;  from Departure Bay (Area 14b), 1.
Thus there was mixing of west coast of Vancouver Island fish with those of other
sub-districts.    Emigration of west coast fish to outside areas was relatively small and
unimportant.    Immigration of outside fish to the west coast was larger, the results
suggesting that it involved roughly 10 per cent, of the catch (say, 6,000 tons of fish).
This is somewhat greater than has been indicated in previous years.     It emphasizes the
need for continued tagging and recovery in outside areas.
Tags used in and recovered from west coast areas totalled 122. The tendency for
tagged fish to return to the area of tagging was relatively weak, about 37 per cent,
returning and the remainder, 63 per cent., wandering to other west coast areas.
The large run to Area 23 apparently received substantial additions from fish
spawning the previous spring in Area 24 (Whitepine Cove and Refuge Cove) and smaller
additions from fish spawning in Areas 25 and 26. However, it should be pointed out
that tagging in Area 23 during the 1946 spawning period was not conducted on the
main spawning-grounds along the westerly shore, but rather on a catch of fish not yet
in spawning condition at Pipestem Inlet and on fish which were spawning on the
relatively small spawning-grounds of Banfield Inlet. This may explain why the number
of returns of fish tagged in Area 23 is smaller than was expected.
Tags recovered from fish caught in Area 24 were originally used within the area
(Whitepine Cove and Refuge Cove) and in Area 25 (Ewin Inlet and Queen Cove).
The large run to Area 25 contained fish which had been tagged the previous spring
on near-by spawning-grounds of Queen Cove and Ewin Inlet, both within the area.
However, it also contained a large number of tags used in Area 26 (Clanninick Cove)
and smaller numbers used in Areas 24 and 23. M 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The results for 1946-47 thus show a general south-easterly movement of west
coast fish, which, as indicated by tagging results, involves on the average about 50
per cent, of the local runs. Some of the fish which spawned in previous years in Areas
26, 25, and particularly 24 moved to Area 23 in 1946-47; some which spawned in Area
25 moved to Area 24; and some which spawned in Area 26 moved to Area 25. In comparison, movement in the opposite direction, north-westerly, appeared to be very small,
although there was no opportunity of determining its extent in Areas 26 and 27 as no
fish were caught there during the fishing season. This latter fact, together with poor
spawning runs to these two areas after the close of the fishing season (as will be shown
later), would indicate that the runs were small, thus precluding the possibility of any
extensive movement to the north-westward.
In Table IV is included the probable number of west coast tags in the catches, as
indicated by tags recovered by detectors and the probable percentage recovery for
west coast taggings of 1946 (only). The calculations were made from a consideration
of tags recovered, tonnages examined for tags, and catch. The probable percentage
recoveries are fairly uniform, ranging from 0.77 to 4.68 and averaging 2.49. The
lowest value was obtained with the fish tagged in Pipestem Inlet (Area 23), and may
be related to the fact mentioned previously that the fish were not on the spawning-
grounds at the time of tagging. The highest value was obtained with fish tagged in
the second of two taggings at Clanninick Cove (Area 26) and may be related to the fact
that these tagged fish did not disperse to the same extent as those of other taggings—
all recoveries came from Esperanza Inlet (Area 25) catches.    •
Tags recovered by Plant Crews.
Decipherable bona fide tags were recovered by plant crews from magnets, grinders,
etc., at eleven reduction plants, as follows:—
Port Edward ——  16
Butedale  .  26
Alert Bay  36
Imperial   13
Gulf of Georgia   20
Kildonan   :_.__ 28
Ecoole   24
Port Albion  133
Nootka  i  29
Hecate   12
Ceepeecee   43
Total   380
The most probable locality of recapture of these has not yet been investigated.
It involves an unbiased consideration of the reported place and date of recapture, the
origin of the fish being processed at and prior to the time of recovery, and the time
required for tags to pass from storage-bins to grinders in the various plants. The
results will be reported in a later publication.
Tagging during the 1947 Spawning Season.
Three vessels, loaned by fishing companies, were used to facilitate the catching
and tagging of herring on or near spawning-grounds in the Discovery Passage, Lower
East Coast, and West Coast Sub-districts (Fig. 4). The fish, caught by means of small
purse-seines, were handled with utmost care throughout the operation.    This usually Fig. 3. Internal metal tag being
inserted into the body-cavity of a
herring through an incision which is
made by a tagging-knife.
Fig. 4.  The " Western Monarch," one of three vessels loaned by fishing companies
for tagging and spawning-ground survey work. **2£ aS&^^s^^^-   -	
seme skiff.    Herring are caught on the st ^ °f a lar^e Aat-bottomed
while the skiff is being towedVa smal, fZ^oT^ * "*»« the s^
few
r - ,
Flg- ^ GUllS °n spawnin^ZTZ^^^^^^-fe REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946.
M 51
consisted of setting and pursing the seine in shallow water on or near the spawning-
grounds, " rolling " the fish from the " dried up " seine to a web live pound, towing
them slowly in the pound to deeper water where the seine-boat was anchored (Fig. 5),
dipping them into a fold of web forming a small shallow pound within the larger one,
tagging them one by one from this and releasing them immediately.
Data on the various taggings are given in Table V. The identifying code letters
for each lot of tags and the date and place in which each was used is given in Table
XIII, which is placed at the end of this report for easy reference.
A total of 41,551 fish were tagged during the spawning season, 11,150 in the Discovery Passage and Lower East Coast Sub-districts, and 30,401 in the West Coast
Sub-district. In the latter, 15,180 fish were tagged in nine taggings in Area 23, 6,583
fish in two taggings in Area 24, and 8,638 fish in six taggings in Area 25. The numbers
of tags used in these areas were roughly in proportion to the relative magnitudes of
the spawning runs. In Areas 26 and 27, where the spawnings were small, scattered,
and of short duration, no taggings were made, although the areas were visited several
times in search of fish by one of the tagging-vessels.
The tags used during the 1947 spawning season, along with those of previous years,
will be recovered during the 1947-48 fishing season.
SAMPLING OF THE CATCHES.
One of the main purposes underlying this phase of the herring investigation is to
study fluctuations in the abundance of successive year-classes of fish and their influence
on the catch. In keeping with the present intensive investigation of the west coast
population, almost twice as many samples were taken from the 1946-47 catch as from
that of 1945-46. A total of eighty-three samples (8,192 fish) were obtained from the
various areas, as follows: Area 23, fifty; Area 24, eight; and Area 25, twenty-five. In
•addition, sixteen samples (1,580 fish) were taken from the spawning runs, as compared
with nine in the previous year. A complete list of the samples, with pertinent data, is
given in Table VI.
The sampling procedure involves taking random samples, each of 100 fish, from
the catches. For each fish in a sample, the standard length or distance from the
closed lower jaw to the end of the silver area on the caudal peduncle is determined to
the nearest millimetre by means of a specially constructed measuring board, the weight
is determined to the nearest gram on a spring scales (Chatillon), and the sex and
degree of maturity are noted. One scale is selected either from under the left pectoral
fin or just posterior to it, and care is taken that its annuli or year marks are as clear as
possible for age determination. The scales are mounted on glass slides and are later
examined by means of a projection apparatus (Promar) at a magnification of twenty
times and the ages are recorded.   A fish in its third year of age is recorded as III.
Age Composition.
The following tabulation gives the average percentage age composition of west
coast catches for the last three fishing seasons, the age composition for each area being
weighted to the catch in that area:—
In Year of Age.
1.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII-X.
1944-45..
0.8
27.0
35.3
17.9
8.0
8.1
3.0
1945-46..
—
10.8
73.3
10.1
3.2
1,3
1.2
1946-47
+
4.9
52.6
32.3
6.1
2.6
1.5 M 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In all three years, herring of Age III have dominated the catches, but the extent
of their dominance has varied greatly. The marked variation in the relative abundance
of Ill's has been due chiefly to the entry into the fishery of the highly successful 1943
year-class, which constituted about one-quarter of the 1944-45 catch as II's, about
three-quarters of the 1945-46 catch as Ill's, and about one-third of the 1946-47 catch
as IV's. In comparison, the 1942 year-class was very poor, but the 1944 year-class,
which as Ill's in the past season of large catches overshadowed the dominance of the
1943 year-class (Fig. 6a), promises to be above average. This is also indicated by the
fact that the 1944 year-class contributed 284.1 million fish (Table VIII) to the catch at
Age III (in 1946-47), as compared with 210.2 million fish contributed by the 1943 year-
class at the same age (in 1945-46) and 72.5 million fish contributed by the 1942 year-
class also at the same age (in 1944-45), although it must be remembered that fishing
effort was greater in 1946-47 than in preceding years.
The average percentage age composition of samples from the catches made in
individual areas is included in Table VII and Fig. 6b. It will be noted that fish ranging
from Age I to Age X were encountered, but that the majority were of Ages III and IV.
Fish of the 1944 year-class (Ill's) dominated the catches in all areas, although they
were relatively more abundant in Areas 24 and 25 than in Area 23. In the latter, fish
of the 1943 year-class (IV's) dominated in about one-third of the samples. In the
previous year the 1943 year-class exhibited much stronger dominance in both Areas 23
and 24 than in Area 25. The result for the.present year may be explained by the movement of fish from Area 25 to 24 and from Area 24 to 23, as shown by tag returns.
It may be noted from Table VII and Fig. 6b that Area 25 samples contained a
relatively larger percentage of older fish (Ages VI to X) than those of Areas 23 and 24.
The tendency for older fish to appear in relatively greater abundance in areas to the
north-westward has also been noted in previous years, but no plausible explanation can
be offered at the present time. .
The average percentage age composition of samples from the spawning runs is
included in Table VII. In Areas 24 and 25 they were similar to those of the commercial catches. In Area 23 the age composition of the first four samples, taken from
an early spawning run (February 19th to March 1st) resembled that of the fishery
in the area, but the last four samples, taken from a late spawning run (March 15th
to 21st) differed greatly in that the 1944 year-class (Ill's) was strongly dominant.
Evidently the second spawning run was comprised mostly of new recruits to the mature
population.
Sex Ratio and Stage of Development.
Sex ratios (number of females divided by number of males) and stages of development (immature, mature, and spent) are summarized in Table IX. The average sex
ratio of samples from the commercial catches (1.02) showed approximately equal
numbers of males and females in all areas. However, the sex ratio varied considerably
from sample to sample; for example, in samples from Area 23 the variation was from
0.39 to 2.42. The average sex ratio of samples from the spawning grounds (0.92)
showed males to be slightly more numerous than females, with considerable variation
from area to area. Differences in sex ratio may often be related to age composition,
the proportion of males to females being greater among younger fish. This accounts
for the difference between the sex ratios of the early and late spawning runs to.Area 23.
In samples from the commercial catch, immature fish averaged 5 per cent., as
compared with 0.7 per cent, in samples from the spawning runs. In both series of
samples the percentage of immature fish was highest in Area 23.
I REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946.
M 53
300
A     :
w    200
U.
u.
o
•
^
MILLIONS
5
o
•
4
1946     1945      1944     1943      1942      1941       1940     1939      1938      1937
YEAR        CLASSES
40
30
■
b. ;
m
20
■
V/,
AREA 23
COMPOSITION
Ol      0)                —
OOOO
um
p/,
tmm
■
ui       40
o
«       30
■
AREA 24
UJ
o      20
<
£     io
UJ
S      o
UJ
"■       50
i
40
30
20
.
AREA 25
y/A
10
■
y//A
	
0
1          II         III        IV         V         VI       VII       VIII       IX         X
IN   YEAR   OF AGE
Fig. 6.    Diagrams showing the total number of fish in each year-class
caught by the commercial fishery in 1946-47 (A), and the average percentage
age composition of samples from the commercial catches in Areas 23, 24,
and 25 (B). M 54
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Average Length and Weight.
A study of the average length and weight of the year-classes is of importance in
tracing the effect of environmental factors which influence growth and in determining
if the various runs pass their summer feeding periods under similar environmental
conditions. Average weight is also used in calculating the number of fish in the
commercial catches.
In Table X are given the average lengths and average weights of herring in
samples from the commercial catches and in Table XI the average lengths in samples
from the spawning runs. Weight was not determined in the latter, as it varies with
the spawning condition of individual fish; that is, whether the fish is full, partly spent,
or spent.
As shown in the following tabulation, for samples from the commercial catches,
both average length (A, in millimetres) and average weight (B, in grams) were less
in 1946-47 than in the previous year at all ages:—
Year.
In Year of Age.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
A 1945-46	
170
166
58
57
194
187
95
86
207
203
119
113
219
213
143
133
226
222
161
151
236
228
180
170
240
233
194
183
254
1946-47	
235
B 1945-46	
1946-47	
221
177
This suggests either that food conditions were poorer in the 1946, as compared
with the 1945, spring and summer feeding period or that, if food conditions were
similar, the 1946-47 population was greater. In both years, growth in samples from
Area 25 tended to be larger than in the other areas.
In general the average length at each age in the 1946-47 spawning samples tended
to be similar to that in the commercial catches. However, in Area 23 a striking difference was found in fish of the 1944 year-class (Ill's), which formed 46 per cent, in
samples from the early run and 80 per cent, in samples from the late run. The latter
had a much smaller average length as compared with both the early spawning run and
the commercial catches, suggesting that they constituted a group of fish which had
lived under different environmental conditions or which had a slower growth rate for
some other unknown reason.
SPAWNING-GROUND SURVEYS.
Investigators aboard the three vessels engaged in tagging operations also made
surveys of herring-spawning grounds in west coast areas. The spawning-grounds are
fairly readily discovered by the presence of white milky water—the milt of male fish—or
by the presence of large numbers of gulls (Fig. 7), shags, scoters, and other birds
which feed upon either the herring or the eggs. When spawning-grounds were found,
they were examined as carefully as possible at low tide to determine the length, average
width, and intensity of egg deposition, the type of vegetation on which the eggs were
iaid, and the extent of mortality which they might have suffered.
Each area was also patrolled by fisheries officers of the Dominion Department of
Fisheries who made similar observations where possible, and who reported spawnings
which they had found to the investigators for further detailed study. They also
submitted their usual annual reports on herring spawning, which have served as a
valuable supplement to the more detailed scientific surveys. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946. M 55
A list of the spawnings according to area, date, place, intensity, and extent of the
grounds is given in Table XII. The average intensity of egg deposition is estimated
in five categories, as follows: VL—very light; L—light; M—medium; H—heavy;
and VH—very heavy. For present quantitative calculations, use is made only of the
length of shore-line occupied by the spawning-grounds. This is estimated from a chart,
and, of all the observations, it is least subject to personal bias. In a few cases, where
the spawning has covered an area of considerable width (such as the head of an inlet),
the area estimate has been converted to distance on the basis of the average width
of the spawning-grounds within the (statistical) area.
Particularly extensive spawnings took place in Areas 23 and 25, the two main
contributors to the exceptionally large 1946-47 catch, thus relieving fears that almost
the entire runs had been taken by the fishery. Apparently additional schools entered
inshore waters to spawn after the close of the fishing season.
In Area 23, important spawning-grounds along the western shore, extending from
Macoah Passage both east and west of Maggie River to Toquart and Mayne Bays, were
very well seeded during two pulses of spawning, one taking place from about February
19th to March 1st and the other from about March 15th to 21st. Large eel-grass beds
in this area were heavily coated with eggs (Fig. 8), and although some were detached
and washed ashore, in general they were not disturbed by pounding surf, which in some
years can cause a heavy loss in exposed localities such as these. Heavy spawnings at
Useless Inlet and Mud Bay took place earlier in the season, February 4th to 8th and
February 10th to 13th. Lighter depositions occurred in February and early March
on other grounds scattered throughout Barkley Sound.
In Area 25, spawnings at Esperanza Inlet and Nootka Sound took place at intervals
from February 21st to March 29th. Particularly heavy depositions were noted on the
extensive tide-flats off Nuchatlitz Village and on the shores of adjacent islands. The
mileage estimate for this vicinity is approximate and probably low: it is a most difficult
problem to thoroughly cover a broken, irregular shore-line such as this in the limited
time which is available. Other important spawnings took place in March at Kendrick
and Ewin Inlets, in Nootka Sound.
In other west coast areas the spawnings were less extensive. In Area 24, fair-sized
spawnings took place at Cypress Bay and Whitepine Cove, but there was only a relatively
small spawning at Refuge Cove, which is usually an important spawning-ground.
In Area 26 there were the usual number of spawnings, but most of them were small
and of short duration. In Area 27, apart from a fair spawning at Leeson Harbour on
March 27th, the spawnings were all early and relatively small.
It may be noted that the amount of spawning was roughly proportional to the
catches in the various areas. Of the three areas fished, catch and spawning were both
largest in Area 23, intermediate in Area 25, and smallest in Area 24. No catches were
made and spawning was very slight in Areas 26 and 27.
Most of the spawning took place on eel-grass or rock-weed beds which occur within
or just below the intertidal zone. In a few cases, however, for example at Whitepine
Cove and Ewin Inlet, spawning also took place on the large, broad-leaved brown kelp
which may be rooted at a considerable depth. Kelp leaves, thickly coated with eggs,
were brought up from a depth of 6 fathoms below the zero tide-level by a special
drag-rake which was used.
As this is the first year in which detailed studies of the spawning-grounds have
been made, there is no accurate basis of comparison of the 1947 spawnings with those M 56
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
of previous years.    However, the reports of fisheries officers may be used as a rough
indication of conditions in 1947 as compared with 1946 :•—
Miles of Spawn.
Area.
Probable
Total,
1947.
Recorded by Officers.
1947.
1946.
23        ....           	
13.15
6.05
9.32
2.50
1.45
7.2
6.3
1.7
1.5
1.5
4.4
24    	
13.0
25	
3.1
26	
0.4
27	
3.7
I
Totals	
32.47         I         18.2
24.6
The total 1947 mileage reported by the officers is less than the probable total as
compiled by the investigators. In comparing the officers' mileages for 1947 and 1946,
it must be assumed that the tendency to underestimate has remained constant.
Their figures indicate that in Areas 23 and 26 spawning was more extensive, but
in Areas 24, 25, and 27 it was less extensive in the present as compared with the
previous year. Their totals indicate that, on the whole, spawning was less in 1947
than in 1946. However, their 1947 total (18.2) was not much less than the average
over an eleven-year period (1937 to 1947), which amounts to 21.0.
It will be realized that spawning surveys will form a very important phase of the
herring investigation in that they provide a relative measure of the quantity of fish
left to propagate the species after the fishery has taken its toll. Plans are being made
to improve the accuracy, uniformity, and coverage of the surveys in future years.
Accurate large-scale charts of the areas are being prepared, and copies of these will be
used by both investigators and fisheries officers for recording and estimating the extent
of the grounds. The officers will also be supplied with special drag-rakes of the type
designed and used in 1947 (Fig. 9) for locating egg depositions in water too deep for
visual observation.
YOUNG-HERRING INVESTIGATION.
As pointed out in the introduction to this report, determination of the causes of
natural variation in the mortality rate of larval and young herring would be of great
value in predicting the abundance of year-classes in the fishable population. If a year-
class could be followed closely from the time it was deposited as eggs on the spawning-
grounds until the time it entered the fishery as maturing fish, it seems probable that
the reasons behind its success or failure could be adduced. Certain stages in the early-
life history might be found to be especially vulnerable, explaining why large spawning
stocks have sometimes produced small year-classes and vice versa.
To initiate this study, a survey of larval herring was conducted from April 18th to
May 22nd, 1947. It was essentially of a preliminary nature, as time was not sufficient
to obtain much of the desired equipment. Nevertheless, most of the immediate objects
were realized, thus enabling plans to be made for a more intensive survey next spring.
Stress was placed on the normal cycle of events in the early-life history, such as distribution and growth, and the factors affecting them. In the relatively short period
of the survey it was not possible to devote much time to studying sources of mortality,
but some were noted, which will form a basis for future work.
A total of 267 hauls, mostly of ten-minutes' duration, was taken, using a conical
cotton net 6 feet long and 30 inches in diameter at the mouth (Fig. 10). The hauls
were taken either from a seine-boat loaned for the purpose (the " Dominion No. 1 ") fflrtllR p'?M
ilMu^
.. .... "\"
PPlrtpppPp-ppp-
m—wBIW^.HI
:      ": : ■    !        '
Fig. 8. Herring-spawn on eel-grass beds at Mayne Bay (Area 23). In the
picture the spawn is whitish in colour, but in nature it is golden-yellow and
can be spotted from a considerable distance at low tide.
iK
C
A^^m^Ms:
':     ■
s
.ipPPP:,
xJmt:<mt #
"
iN 'v.
iv-
k«?
Fig. 9.   Herring-eggs on eel-grass collected by means of a special drag-rake
when the spawning-grounds are submerged. Fig. 10. Large plankton net used to
collect larval herring. In practice, a
small glass jar is attached to the narrow end to prevent the larvae from
being crushed by the pressure of the
water while the net is being towed.
Fig. 11. Comb jellies (ctenophores) which have been
feeding on larval herring. A larva has been engulfed
in the digestive tract of the one in the upper right-hand
corner; a larva in the process of being eaten was disgorged when the one in the lower right-hand corner was
placed in preservative. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946. M 57
or from its tender, an 18-foot scout-boat. About three-quarters of the hauls were made
in inshore localities immediately in the vicinity of herring-spawning grounds; the
remainder were from (1) inshore localities where no spawnings had been reported and
from which no larvse were obtained, (2) intermediate localities within the sounds and
inlets but away from the spawning-grounds, and (3) offshore localities out to 3 or 4
miles from the coast-line.
About 4,500 herring larvse were taken in the course of the survey, of which about
95 per cent, came from hauls in four inshore localities which contained major spawnings—namely, Macoah Passage in Area 23, Whitepine Cove in Area 24, Refuge Cove
in Area 24, and the Nuchatlitz Village to Rosa Island region of Area 25. This indicates
that up until the end of the survey, at which time the larvse were beginning to metamorphose (assume adult characteristics) and to school, there was a relatively small
amount of dispersal from the spawning-grounds. An example of limited dispersal is
contained in the data from Whitepine Cove, May 18th to 20th, where the average night
haul contained 121.6 larvse, whereas at the mouth of the cove it contained only 2.5
larva? and 4 miles off the mouth it contained only 0.5 larvse. In the Macoah Passage
area the dispersal was relatively greater, probably due to the open nature of the shoreline. In this connection it might also be noted that the average length of larval herring
taken in inshore localities of Area 23 was smaller than that from intermediate or offshore localities. This would be expected, since the larvse which drifted from the
spawning areas would tend to be older and therefore larger. On the other hand, in
Areas 24 and 25, the average length in inshore localities was greater than that in
intermediate or offshore localities, suggesting that the less open nature of these
spawning-grounds resulted in less dispersal.
On the average, hauls taken during the night yielded about fifty times more young
than those taken in the daytime. No herring were taken in daytime hauls after
April 27th, and none taken in daytime hauls were greater than 15 millimetres in standard length. This suggests that after the larvse attain this size they either develop a
marked negative reaction to light or are able in some way to escape the net, or both.
The larvse taken in both inshore and offshore hauls were generally most numerous
in the 1%-4-fathom depth zone. However, in the intermediate localities they were
found to be most numerous in the 0-1%-fathom zone. In the inshore areas the larvse
in the l*4-4-fathom zone were of greater average length than those in the zones above
and below.    In intermediate and offshore areas this tendency was not found.
The night hauls taken between 12 p.m. and 1 a.m. in Whitepine Cove (May 18th
to 20th) contained fewer larval herring than those taken between 10 p.m. and 12 p.m.
or those taken between 1 a.m. and 2 a.m. Thus the larvse were relatively more abundant after dusk and before dawn. It is interesting to note that fishermen frequently
choose dusk and dawn as the best time to catch the adult herring. It was also found that
the average length of successive samples of larval fish decreased as the night progressed.
A study of growth in length indicated that larval herring from late spawnings grew
much faster than those from early spawnings. In Area 23, larvae from late spawnings
in Toquart Bay, Mayne Bay, and Macoah Passage attained the same average length
in twenty-five days after hatching as those from early spawnings in Rainy Bay and
Macoah Passage in forty days. There exists the possibility that some or most of the
larvse from the early Macoah Passage spawnings had metamorphosed, schooled, and
thus escaped the net when sampling was carried out. However, if this were so, an
unnoticed late spawning in Rainy Bay would have to be assumed. On the average,
the young were 5 millimetres in length on hatching, and they began to metamorphose
at 26 millimetres.
In several localities, notably Macoah Passage, Newcombe Channel, Mayne Bay,
and Sechart Channel, young herring were found being eaten by jellyfish-like animals M 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
called ctenophores (Fig. 11). In the last-named area two hauls showed that one cteno-
phore out of fifty was consuming either one or two larval herring. Considering the
tremendous numbers of these animals at times and the fact that larval herring probably
must pass through a dense mass of them in their upward movement at dusk and their
downward movement at dawn, the ctenophores could be an important factor in reducing
the number of larvse. Large numbers of fish were seen in certain areas, presumably
feeding on the larvse, but no detailed data were obtained.
At the time of tagging operations during the spawning period, sixty-three samples
of spawn were examined for dead eggs. In one sample from Refuge Cove (taken 6 to
10 feet above zero tide-level) 66 per cent, of the eggs had died, but this was the greatest
mortality found. On the average the mortality was about 3 per cent. This is apart
from loss of eggs caused by the feeding of gulls, scoters, etc.
An ultimate objective of this study is to estimate the actual abundance of larva]
and young herring derived from the spawnings of each year. This year's preliminary
survey, which was carried out over a relatively short period of time and was handicapped by lack of equipment, was not expected to provide data which would allow an
accurate estimate of abundance to be made, but it has brought to light the many difficulties which beset this object. An estimate of abundance was obtained from the data,
but it is believed to be much too low. Factors which contributed to this underestimation and which show the complicated nature of the problem are briefly mentioned:—
(1) It was possible to sample larval herring only from about two-thirds of
the spawnings in the West Coast Sub-district.
(2) Only larval herring were sampled, since during the early phases of metamorphosis the young were found capable of escaping the net. This suggests the possibility that the young from many early spawnings had
metamorphosed prior to sampling, in which case larvas from about half
or less than half of the total spawnings were sampled.
(3) The larvas were of slightly different age in each locality, and thus the
abundance, as indicated by sampling, would not necessarily be comparable
between localities.
(4) No feasible method of accurately checking the efficiency of the net was
found. It was realized that much overflow took place and that slowing
the speed of tow reduced this, but in hauling at reduced speeds it was
observed that the motility of the more advanced larvse was sufficient for
many to escape the net. As a rough estimate it is believed that the net
was about 50 per cent, efficient, or less.
(5) No hauls were taken beyond 4 miles offshore. Granted that the number
of larvse per haul would be extremely small beyond this area, the actual
number in such a large body of water might be considerable. Likewise,
although extremely few young were taken below 6 fathoms within the
major areas, the number of young actually present might be great because
of the large volume of water involved.
SUMMARY.
This is the first in a series of annual reports giving the results of an intensive
investigation of the west coast of Vancouver Island herring population. The primary
objects of the investigation are to determine the causes of natural fluctuations in
abundance and to ascertain the average minimum spawning population necessary to
produce maximum sustained yield. The ultimate object is to formulate a management
policy for all herring-fisheries of British Columbia which will assure maximum
utilization of the stock. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946. M 59
A record herring-catch of almost 59,000 tons was made in the 1946-47 season.
Good catches in Area 23 (Barkley Sound) in late November and in December were
followed by excellent fishing in Area 25 (Esperanza Inlet) in early January. Quota
restrictions were removed on January 9th, but the sub-district was closed on January
25th after several days of poor fishing. Almost one-half of the catch was taken from
Area 23, over one-third from Area 25, and the remainder from Area 24.
The availability (average catch per seine per day's active fishing) in 1946-47 was
about the same as in 1945-46, showing a similar abundance of herring on the fishing-
grounds during the fishing season. It was greatest in Area 25, where heavy fishing
took place over a relatively short period of time.
After a lapse of several years, tagging was resumed on the West Coast in 1946
(28,148 fish tagged) and in 1947 (30,401 fish tagged), and it was continued to a lesser
extent than previously in other sub-districts. Tags from the 1946 and previous taggings
were recovered by tag detectors at Steveston and Kildonan and by magnets in various
reduction plants.
Tag-detector returns showed that immigration of fish from other sub-districts to
the West Coast was greater than emigration of West Coast fish to other sub-districts
Returns from outside areas comprised about 10 per cent, of the tags recovered from
West Coast catches. This is a somewhat higher percentage than has been found in
previous years.
For the West Coast Sub-district the tendency for fish to return to the area of
tagging was relatively weak, about 37 per cent, returning and 63 per cent, wandering
to other west coast areas. A marked tendency for fish to wander to areas to the
south-eastward, rather than to the north-westward, was noted.
Tests were carried out on all six West Coast reduction plants to determine the
efficiency of recovery of tags from magnets, plant machinery, etc., and the time-lag
involved in the passage of tags through the plants. The efficiency varied greatly
between plants, ranging from 33 to 90 per cent. In some plants the time-lag was
generally small (a few days), whereas in others it was apt to be great (several weeks).
An analysis of 380 decipherable tags recovered from six West Coast reduction
plants and from five plants located elsewhere has not yet been completed.
The percentage age composition of eighty-three samples of herring taken from the
1946-47 West Coast fishery shows that the rich 1943 year-class, which comprised about
three-quarters of the 1945-46 catch (as Ill's), constituted just under one-third of the
1946-47 catch (as IV's). The 1944 year-class, which dominated the 1946-47 catch
(as Ill's), is apparently also above average abundance. Certain apparent irregularities
in the " follow through " of age composition from 1945-46 to 1946-47 in individual
areas are readily understandable when it is realized, as shown by tagging, that there
was a partial shift of the runs in a south-easterly direction on their return to inshore
waters in 1946-47.
In general the fish caught in 1946-47 were both smaller and lighter for a given age
than those caught in the previous year, suggesting that either food conditions during
the spring and summer of 1946 were poorer than in 1945 or that the population was
larger and competition for food was keener.
Both the age composition and growth of most of the samples of fish taken on the
spawning-grounds during the late winter and spring of 1947 were similar to those taken
during the winter fishing season in the various areas. However, those from the second
of two main spawning runs to Area 23 differed from the samples of the winter fishery
in including a relatively large number of comparatively slow-growing fish of the 1944
year-class.
In view of the heavy catch in the winter of 1946-47, particular attention was given
to spawning conditions during the subsequent February and March spawning season. M 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Detailed surveys revealed 32 miles of spawn, with particularly extensive depositions in
Areas 23 and 25, the two areas which had yielded the largest catches. This indicates
that additional schools of fish entered inshore waters to spawn after the close of the
fishing season. A comparison with the results of rough surveys of previous years
indicates that spawning in 1947 was less than in 1946, but not much less than the
average over an eleven-year period. Weather conditions during the 1947 spawning
period were ideal for maximum survival of eggs.
A five-week survey of larval herring in April and May, 1947, resulted in the
collection of about 4,500 herring larvas in 267 ten-minute hauls with a large plankton
net. Up to the beginning of metamorphosis, when the larval fish assumed adult
characteristics, there was only a limited dispersal from the spawning-grounds; very
few larvse were taken in offshore localities. Hauls taken during the night were much
more productive than those taken during the daytime, and after the young reached
15 millimetres in length, they could only be taken in night hauls. More were taken
in the l^—l-fathom zone than in the zones above or below. Larval herring from the
late spawnings tended to grow more quickly than those from the early spawnings.
Jellyfish-like animals (ctenophores) were found to eat larval herring. It is believed
that mortality from this source in some places might be great.
The preliminary investigation of the early-life history of the herring has resulted
in an appreciation of the difficulties involved in this type of study, which aims at
estimating the abundance of larval and young herring, at determining the sources of
mortality, and eventually at predicting the abundance of new year-classes entering
the fishery.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
The herring investigation has been greatly assisted during the course of the
year by the co-operation of herring fishermen, fishing companies, and government
departments.
Most of the herring fishermen have voluntarily submitted daily records of their
catches in the Pilot-house Record Books, with which they have been supplied. We are
grateful to those who have helped in this way, and we hope that all seine-boat skippers
will submit this information in the future, thus contributing to a better understanding
of the changes which take place in the availability of herring.
All fishing companies have been co-operative in submitting records of herring
landed at their plants. Reduction-plant crews have also assisted by searching for
tags and returning them with the requested information. British Columbia Packers,
Limited, and the Canadian Fishing Company, Limited, have both allowed certain
changes to be made in the unloading systems of their plants to facilitate the installation of tag detectors, and also have given every possible assistance in the operation of
these throughout the season. British Columbia Packers, Limited, loaned the " W. No.
10 " for general scientific work from November to the end of January, the " W. No. 10 "
and the " Dominion No. 1 " for tagging and spawning-ground surveys from the middle
of February to the end of March, and the " Dominion No. 1 " for larval herring studies
during April and May. The " Western Monarch " was loaned by Nelson Brothers
Fisheries, Limited, for tagging and spawning-ground surveys during March. To the
companies and many individuals who have rendered us assistance in these and in other
ways, we express our sincere thanks. Without their help it would have been impossible
to carry out many of the phases of investigation.
The Dominion Department of Fisheries has co-operated in the collection of catch
statistics and has kept us posted on the course of the fishery during the fishing season
and on spawnings which have been discovered by their officers during the spawning
season. The spawning-ground observations which have been made by fisheries officers
have been of great assistance in assessing the extent of spawn deposition. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946.
M 61
The following field technicians in permanent or temporary employ of the Fisheries
Research Board of Canada have assisted in the investigation: Messrs. A. G. Paul, R. S.
Isaacson, R. Wilson, G. A. L. Thompson, D. A. Shinnan, and G. H. Griffin. Age determinations for the 1946-47 samples were made by Mr. J. H. Glover, Junior Biologist.
The investigation has been jointly financed by the British Columbia Provincial
Fisheries Department and the Fisheries Research Board of Canada. To Mr. G. J.
Alexander, Deputy Minister of Fisheries, and Dr. R. E. Foerster, Director of the
Pacific Biological Station, we are greatly indebted for general supervision, advice,
and assistance.
REFERENCES.
Tester, A. L. (1945) : Catch statistics of the British Columbia herring fishery to
1943-44.    Fish. Res. Bd., Canada, Bull. 67,1-47.
  (1946):  Tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in British Columbia:  insertions
and recoveries during 1945-46.    Rept. British Columbia Fish. Dept., 1945, 43-66.
  (MS.): West coast of Vancouver Island herring investigation: background and
objects (1947).
Thompson, W. F., and Bell, F. H. (1934): Biological statistics of the Pacific halibut
fishery. (2) Effect of changes in intensity upon total yield and yield per unit of
gear.    Rept. Internat. Fish. Comm., No. 8, 1-49.
Table I.—Catch (Tons), Fishing Effort (Total Number of Active Fishing-days
expended by all Seine-boats), and Availability (Average Catch per Seine per Day's
Active Fishing) for West Coast Sub-district Areas during 1946-47 Fishing Season.
Area.
Estimated
Catch.
Fishing
Effort.
Availability.
23	
28,000
9,000
22,000
485
118
170
4
57.7
24	
76.1
25	
129.5
26	
27	
Totals	
59,000
777
75.9 M 62
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
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M 63
Table III.—Tags recovered by Tag Detectors during 1946-47 Fishing Season.
Area.
Code.
Place and Time of Tagging.
Area of Recapture.
13.        14A.       14b.        17. 18. 23. 24.
25.
Total.
7
8M
9
9K
12
7N
8J
9G
9J
13
81
9F
10S
14a
10D
10E
15
7D
8D
9E
10G
16
10F
14b
8E
9C
IOC
17
8G
10B
18
9D
10A
19
9A
23
101
IOJ
24
5Y
8N
10K
IOL
10M
25
ION
10P
26
10Q
10R
Gunboat Passage ; March, 1944	
Takush Harbour ; March, 1945	
Chatham Channel; April, 1943	
Retreat Passage ; March, 1944	
Viner Sound ; March, 1945	
Cramer Passage ; March, 1945	
Deepwater Bay ; March, 1944	
Deepwater Bay ;  April, 1945	
CahnishBay; April, 1946	
Qualicum Bay ; March, 1946	
Baynes Sound ; March, 1946	
Skuttle Bay ; March, 1943	
Skuttle Bay ; March, 1944	
Skuttle Bay ; March, 1945	
Skuttle Bay; March, 1946	
Pender Harbour ; March, 1946	
Horswell Point; March, 1944	
Departure Bay ; March, 1945	
Departure Bay ; March, 1946	
Kuper Island ; March, 1944	
Ladysmith Harbour ; March, 1946.
Prevost Island ; March, 1945	
Prevost Island ;  February, 1946	
Sooke ; October, 1944	
Pipestem Inlet; February, 1946	
Banfleld Inlet; February, 1946	
Refuge Cove ; March, 1941	
Matilda Inlet; March, 1944	
Whitepine Cove; March, 1946	
Refuge Cove ; March, 1946	
Refuge Cove ; March, 1946	
Ewin Inlet;  March, 1946	
Queen Cove ; March, 1946	
Clanninick Cove ; March, 1946	
Clanninick Cove ; March, 1946	
Totals	
Tonnages examined	
Estimated catch	
51
1,480
768
468
28
126
8,853
69
5,985
16
2,956
5,000
3,000
3,000
1,500
32,000
28,000
9,000
22,000
1
1
1
1
3
2
4
6
3
12
24
5
14
1
18
13
1
50
10
6
6
17
1
10
14
13
9
9
19
12
16
21,536
103,500 M 64
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table IV.—Number of Tags used, Probable Number in Catches, and Probable Percentage of Recovery for West Coast of Vancouver Island Taggings of 1946, based on
Tag-detector Recoveries during 1946-47 Fishing Season.
Code.
Place and Time of Tagging.
Number
used.
Probable Number in Catches
from Areas.
Probable
Percentage
23.    i     24.
[
25.
Outside.
Total.
Recovery.
23
24
101
IOJ
10K
IOL
10M
ION
10P
10Q
10R
Pipestem Inlet; February, 1946 .
Banfleld Inlet; February, 1946
Whitepine Cove ; March, 1946	
3.914
3,545
2,941
2,947
1,574
3,542
3,961
3,182
2,542
19
75
61
28
37
9
9
19
9
27
9
18
9
7
7
15
30
119
60
119
4
7
4
30
82
70
77
46
61
137
79
119
0.77
2.31
2.38
2.61
2.92
25
Ewin Inlet; March, 1946	
1.72
3.46
26
Clanninick Cove ; March, 1946    ...
Clanninick Cove ; March, 1946    ...
Totals	
2.48
4.68
28,148
257
72
357
15
701
2.49
Table V.-—Taggings made during 194-7 Spawning Season,
Code.
Area.
Place and Date of Tagging.
Number
used.
11A
13
11B
14a
11C
15
11D
14b
HE
17
11F
23
11G
23
HH
23
HI
23
HJ
23
HK
23
11L
23
11M
23
HN
23
HP
24
11Q
24
11R
25
IIS
25
11T
25
11U
25
11W
25
11X
25
Cortes Island, Quartz Bay; Mar. 15, 1947	
Lambert Channel; Mar. 14, 1947	
Skuttle Bay; Mar. 5, 1947...:	
Departure Bay ; Mar. 17, 1947	
Kulleet Bay ; Mar. 8, 1947	
Banfield Inlet, head ; Feb. 17, 1947	
Grappler Inlet, Port Desire ; Feb. 21, 1947	
Macoah Passage ; Feb. 24, 1947	
Macoah Passage ; Feb. 25, 1947	
Macoah Passage ; Mar. 1, 1947	
ToquartBay; Mar. 15, 1947	
ToquartBay; Mar. 20, 1947	
Mayne Bay; Mar. 16, 1947	
Mayne Bay; Mar. 19-20, 1947	
Refuge Cove ; Mar. 12-13, 1947	
Sydney Inlet, Flores Island ; Mar. 7-8, 1947	
Ewin Inlet, near entrance ; Mar. 17, 1947	
Kendrick Inlet, head ; Mar. 15, 1947	
Kendrick Inlet, lagoon at head ; Mar. 15, 1947
Kendrick Inlet, lagoon at head ; Mar. 16, 1947
Nuehatlitz Inlet, near village ; Mar. 4, 1947	
Nuchatlitz Inlet, near village ; Mar. 5, 1947	
Total	
2,564
496
2,557
2,008
3,525
2,087
499
2,670
1,017
2,074
2,637
994
2,191
1,011
3,499
3,084
2,021
1,005
1,011
1,011
2,622 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946.
M 65
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BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table VII.-
-Average Percentage Age Composition of Samples from Commercial Catches
and from Spawning Runs during 1946-47 Season.
23—Early	
Late	
Both	
24	
25	
All..
COMMERCIAL CATCHES.
Area.
In Year op Age.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
23	
0.02
0.04
6.15
5.64
3.00
45.54
68.70
55.07
38.93
21.28
28.35
6.79
2.76
6.52
2.00
1.38
3.76
0.40
0.12
1.96
0.14
1.12
0.02
0.13
0.08
24	
25      	
0.08
All*	
0.02
4.96
53.03
32.07
5.97
2.50
0.90
0.46
0.06
0.03
SPAWNING RUNS.
0.50
3.00
1.75
3.17
2.06
46.84
80.25
63.55
68.00
65.33
64.77
40.59
13.75
27.17
26.50
20.67
8.78
2.75
5.77
3.50
5.83
24.65
5.51
2.26
0.25
1.26
1.00
2.50
1.69
0.50
0.25
1.00
2.00
1.00
0.50
0.19
0.50
0.25
* Average percentage age composition for each area weighted to numher of fish caught, rather than to weight
of fish caught as in the case of data included in the text.
Table VIII. — Number of Fish (in Millions) of each Age in West Coast Catches of
1946-47; Numbers of Fish in Total weighted to Numbers of Fish caught in each
Area (A) and weighted to Tonnage caught in each Area (B).
In Year
3F Age.
Total.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
23	
0.05
0.08
15.79
5.52
5.71
116.88
67.30
104.74
99.93
20.85
53.92
17.42
2.70
12.41
5.14
1.35
7.16
1.03
0.12
3.73
0.36
2.13
0.05
0.12
0.15
0.15
256.65
24	
97.96
25	
190.18
Totals (A)	
0.13
27.02
288.92
174.70
32.53
13.65
4.88
2.49
0.32
0.15
544.79
Totals (B)	
0.11
26.45
284.14
174.38
32.77
13.82
5.07
2.59
0.32
0.16
539.81
Table IX.—Average Sex Ratio (Females/Males) and Stage of Development for
Samples of Commercial Catches and Spawning Runs during 1946-47 Season.
COMMERCIAL CATCHES.
Sex Ratio.
Percentage.
Area.
Immature.
Mature,
unspent.
Mature,
spent.
23                        	
1.03
0.96
1.02
7.1
2.0
2.0
92.9
97.5
98.0
24        	
0.5
25               	
+
All	
1.02
5.0
94.9
0.1
SPAWNING RUNS.
0.98
0.72
0.85
0.72
1.07
2.6
0.2
1.4
63.2
82.2
73.0
100.0
69.5
24	
25	
30 5
All	
0.92
0.7
75.1 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946.
M 69
Table X.—Average Length (Millimetres) and Average Weight (Grams) for each Age
in Samples from Commercial Catches, with Numbers of Fish on which Averages
are based indicated in Parentheses.
AVERAGE LENGTH.
In Year of Age.
Area 23.
Area 24.
Area 25.
All Areas.
I	
(1)    86.0
(301) 165.7
(2,231) 186.8
(1,896) 202.6
(330) 211.7
(96) 221.5
(19) 229.2
(7) 231.6
(1) 235.0
(1) 105.0
(75) 169.1
(1,375) 189.3
(708) 203.6
(163) 214.3
(94) 222.2
(49) 228.3
(28) 233.3
(2) 234.5
(2) 230.0
(2)    95.5
(421) 166.2
(4,154) 187.0
(2,774) 202.6
(515) 212.6
II               	
(45) 164.4
(548) 182.1
(170) 199.2
(22) 212.8
(11) 219.0
(1) 220.0
Ill                	
IV.	
V	
VI	
(201) 221.7
VII	
(69) 228 4
VIII.	
(35) 233.0
(4) 234.8
IX	
(1) 235.0
X	
(2) 230.0
(15) 193.9
1
(15) 193.9
AVERAGE WEIGHT.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX
X.
(1)
(209)
(1,421)
(1,115)
(197)
(50)
(15)
(5)
(1)
7.0
57.2
86.0
112.5
130.0
146.8
161.3
166.8
164.0
(14) 100.9
(41) 54.3
(330) 77.0
(108) 101.3
(12) 124.8
(8) 145.5
(1)    12.0
(41)    58.9
(823)    89.7
(414) 115.7
(105) 138.6
(59) 154.8
(33) 173.7
(18) 187.4
(1) 190.0
(2) 172.0
(2)      9.5
(291)    57.1
(2,574)    86.0
(1,637) 112.6
(314) 132.7
(117) 150.7
(48) 169.8
(23) 183.0
(2)  177.0
(2) 172.0
(14) 100.9
Table XI.—Average Length (Millimetres) in Samples from Spawning Runs, with
Numbers of Fish on which Averages are based indicated in Parentheses.
In Year of Age.
Area 23.
Area 24.
Area 25.
Early.
Late.
Both.
II       	
(2) 167.5
(178) 189.1
(153) 205.4
(33) 215.0
(9) 227.4
(2) 237.5
(12) 158.7
(321) 179.4
(55) 201.0
(11) 213.8
(1) 227.0
(14) 159.9
(499) 182.9
(208) 204.2
(44) 214.7
(10) 227.4
(2) 237.5
(19) 153.8
Ill	
(136) 185.7
(53) 203.1
(7) 211.6
(2) 221.5
(2) 226.5
(392) 184.1
IV	
(124) 204.4
(35) 215.5
V	
VI	
(15) 222.0
VII.               	
(12) 229 2
VIII	
(3) 231.3
IX	
(2) 234.5
(1) 203.0
(2) 234.5
(1) 203.0
?	 Table XII.—List of Spawnings which occurred on the West Coast of Vancouver Island
in 194-7, including Intensity and Extent of each.
VL=Very Light.    L=Light.    M—Medium.    H=Heavy.    VH=iVery Heavy.
Date.
Location of Grounds.
Intensity.
Miles of
Spawn.
Feb. 4-7	
Feb. 4-8	
Feb. 10-13	
Feb. 10-13	
Feb. 14-18	
Feb. 19-28	
Feb. 24-28	
Feb. 28	
Feb. 23-Mar. 1„
Mar. 3	
Mar. 15-19	
Mar. 15-19	
Mar. 15-19	
Mar. 16-21	
Feb. 7	
Mar. 3-4	
Mar. 3-7	
Mar. 11-18.
Mar. 11-18.
Mar. 16-18.
Mar. 16-18.
Feb. 21-26.
Feb. 21-25.
Mar. 1-6	
Mar. 2-6.....
Mar. 14	
Mar. 26-29.
Mar. 26-29.
Mar. 15-17.
Mar. 17-25.
Feb. 16-17.
Feb. 16	
Feb. 16-17.
Feb. 26	
Mar. 3	
Mar. 3-4....
Mar. 3-4....
Mar. 9-10..
Mar. 19	
Mar. 25-26
Apr. 9	
Feb. 25(?)..
Feb. 25 (?) -
Feb. 25 ( ? )..
Feb. 27-28....
Mar. 27	
Area 23—Barkley Sound Vicinity.
Snug Basin	
Useless Inlet	
Mud Bay	
Useless Inlet	
Banfield Inlet, head	
Macoah Passage, east of Maggie River....
Uchucklesit Inlet	
Rainy Bay	
Macoah Passage, west of Maggie River-
Sunshine Bay	
Toquart Bay	
Macoah Passage, near Toquart Bay	
Stopper Islands	
Mayne Bay, south-east shore	
Area 24—Clayoquot Sound Vicinity.
Hesquiat Harbour, head	
Cypress Bay, Quait Bay	
Sydney Inlet, Flores Island shore	
Refuge Cove, head, east shore	
Refuge Cove, head, west shore	
Whitepine Cove, south shore	
Whitepine Cove, island at entrance	
Area 25—Nootka Sound Vicinity.
Nuchatlitz Inlet, Port Langford	
Nuchatlitz Inlet, Colwood Island vicinity	
Esperanza Inlet, opposite Centre Island	
Nuchatlitz Village tide-flats, etc	
Nuchatlitz Village area	
Bay opposite Rosa Island ,
Rosa Island	
Nootka Sound, Kendrick Inlet, head	
Nootka Sound, Ewin Inlet vicinity	
Area 26—Kyuquot Sound Vicinity.
Malksope Inlet, islands and east shore	
Clanninick Cove, west shore	
Nasparte Inlet, west shore	
Malksope Inlet, islands	
Nasparte Inlet, head	
Clanninick Cove, west shore ,
McLean Island, south-east corner.	
Union Island, bay, south-west side	
Malksope Inlet, head	
Clanninick Cove, west shore	
Amai Inlet, head	
Area 27—Quatsino Sound Vicinity.
Klaskish Inlet	
Klaskish Inlet	
Klaskino Inlet	
Forward Inlet, west of and opposite Greenwood Point..
Leeson Harbour, west shore	
M
0.13
H
0.96
H
0.34
H
0.45
L
0.63*
M
2.48*
L
0.04
L
0.17
l-H
4.20*
L
0.06
H
1.15*
H
1.04*
H
0.35*
H
1.15*
H
L
M
L
M
Grand total..
13.15
VL
0.23
H
2.54
H
0.75*
L
0.40*
M
0.63*
H
1.04*
M
0.46*
6.05
H
0.80
H
1.40
M
0.57*
H-VH
1.15*
VH
0.80
M
0.80*
VH
0.68
M
1.42*
M-H
1.70*
M
0.28
VL
0.09
L
0.23
M
0.11
L
0.03*
VL
0.11
VL
0.06
M
0.85*
VH
0.06*
M-H
0.62*
M
0.06
2.50
0.09*
0.20*
0.28
0.31*
0.57
1.45
32.47
* Spawning-grounds surveyed by scientific investigators. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946.
M 71
Table XIII.—Tags inserted during 1947 Spawning Season.
Code
Letters.
Tagging
Code.
Area.
Place.
Date.
No.
IJJI
11F
11F
11G
11H
11Q
11Q
IIP
IIP
IIP
IIP
IIP
IIP
HP
iik
UK
UK
UK
UK
11M
11M
11M
11M
HJ
HJ
11W
11X
11X
HS
11Q
11W
11F
11W
11R
HH
HR
HH
111
HJ
11C
HE
HE
HE
HA
11Q
HA
US
HT
HT
11U
11U
HC
lie
HC
HE
11B
11A
11D
11D
11D
11D
UN
11N
11L
11L
23
23
23
23
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
23
25
25
25
25
24
25
23
26
25
23
25
23
23
23
15
17
17
17
13
24
13
25
25
25
25
25
15
15
15
17
14A
13
14b
14b
14b
14B
23
23
23
23
Feh.    17    1947
524
IKKI
Feb.   17
Feb.   21
Feb.   24
Mar.    7
Mar.    8
Mar.  12
Mar.   12
Mar.  12
Mar.  12
Mar.  12
Mar. 13
Mar. 13
Mar.  15
Mar. 15
Mar.   15
Mar.  15
Mar.  15
Mar. 16
Mar.  16
MaT.  16
Mar.  16
Mar.    1
Mar.     1
Mar.    4
Mar.    5
Mar.    5
Mar.  15
Mar.    7
Mar.    4
Feb.   17
Mar.    4
Mar. 17
Feb.   24
Mar.  17
Feb.   24
Feb.   25
Mar.     1
Mar.    5
Mar.     8
Mar.    8
Mar.    8
Mar.  15
Mar.    7
Mar.  15
Mar.  15
Mar.  15
Mar.  15
Mar.  16
Mar. 16
Mar.    5
Mar.    5
Mar,    5
Mar.    8
Mar.  14
Mar. 15
Mar. 17
Mar.  17
Mar.  17
Mar.  17
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
1947
535
ILLI
499
IMMI
513
INNI
530
IOOI
IPPI
516
ISSI
535
IXXI
516
JBBJ
529
JCCJ
484
JDDJ
479
JEEJ
440
JHHJ
517
JIIJ
466
JKKJ
591
JLLJ
544
JMMJ
519
JNNJ
526
JOOJ
JPPJ
Mayne Bay ,	
593
559
JSSJ
513
JTTJ
519
JUUJ
526
JWWJ
517
JXXJ
473
JYYJ
495
JZZJ
496
KAAK
1,064
KBBK
1,068
KCCK
1,028
KDDK
1,037
KEEK
1,048
KHHK
1,101
KIIK
973
KJJK
1,056
KLLK
1,017
KPPK
1,029
KSSK
Skuttle Bay	
1,058
KUUK
KulleetBay	
1,011
KWWK
Kulleet Bay	
1,004
KYYK
1,063
KXXK
980
KZZK
1,001
LAAL
509
506
LCCL
505
LDDL
505
LEEL
506
MAAM
Skuttle Bay	
601
MBBM
Skuttle Bay	
499
MCCM
Skuttle Bay       	
499
MDDM
KulleetBay	
497
MEEM
496
MHHM
500
MUM
496
MJJM
500
MKKM
507
MLLM
505
MNNM
Mar. 19-20, 1947
Mar. 19-20, 1947
Mar.  20, 1947
Mar.   20.  1947
507
504
503
491 INVESTIGATIONS ON COMMERCIAL CLAMS.
By Ferris Neave, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
In line with previous reports on the commercial production of clams in British
Columbia, the following statement is presented relating to the season 1945-46. The
statistics are again based on reports received by the Pacific Biological Station through
the co-operation of officers of the Federal Department of Fisheries and the industry.
The season is taken as beginning on October 1st, this being the legal opening-date for
the commercial taking of butter-clams, the most important element in the total clam-
catch of the Province.
CATCH BY SPECIES.
Total quantities reported were as follows:—
1944-45. 1945-46.
Species. Lb. Lb.
Butter-clams   3,508,342        4,021,230
Littleneck-clams      368,880 547,586
Razor-clams  - •  144,860 216,577
Increased production of butter and littleneck clams is evident, the catches quoted
above being greater than those reported for several years previously.
BUTTER-CLAMS.
A comparison between the distribution of the catches reported in 1945-46 and
those of the previous season is presented in the following table :-
1944-45.
Lb.
      602,009
Area.
Northern British Columbia.
Queen Charlotte Islands	
Central British Columbia  472,260
Queen Charlotte Strait and Johnstone Strait 1,066,008
Northern Strait of Georgia  367,225
South-east coast of Vancouver Island  1,000,840
1945-46.
Lb.
,989,848
325,489
179,560
337,374
270,999
917,960
Totals.
3,508,342   4,021,230
The most striking features of this table are (a) the maintenance of the high production reported during 1944^5 in the southern part of the Strait of Georgia, which
area has been exploited for some forty years but in recent seasons has made only
relatively small contributions to the total catch, and (6) the greatly increased production of Northern British Columbia in 1945-46, with exploitation extended to the Queen
Charlotte Islands for the first time in recent years.
As a measure of availability, average catches in pounds per man-tide for the more
important clam-producing areas are shown in the following table:—
Area.
1939-40.
1940-41.
1941-42.
1942-43.
1943-44.
1944-45.
1945-46.
200.7
120.0
138.0
182.7
198.2
124.7
149.9
558.1
272.3
186.7
153.8
159.1
352.2
287.4
248.2
175.2
202.4
300.6
282.1
274.7
198.0
218.9
418.9
259.1
280.5
212.2
229.3
289.5
341.2
341.4
South-east coast of Vancouver Island—
216.0
The above figures for 1945-46 show a relatively high availability of clams in all
districts. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946.
M 73
LlTTLENECK-CLAMS.
The bulk of the catch, as usual, was made on and near the south-east coast of
Vancouver Island. In 1946 small contributions were also reported from Sooke (34,170
lb.) and the Jervis Inlet area (25,506 lb.). The following figures show the average
production per man-tide for clams taken during the summer months in the South-east
Vancouver Island district (constituting the major part of the fishery) for the past six
years: 1941, 129.8 lb.; 1942, 127.8 lb.; 1943, 152.7 lb.; 1944, 127.2 lb.; 1945, 184.2
lb.;  1946, 152.2 lb.
Razor-clams.
Records of razor-clam production from the beaches of the northern shore of Graham
Island were again provided by the Masset Co-operative Association for the digging
season of 1946 (March 12th to July 3rd, inclusive). A comparison between the catches
of 1943, 1944, 1945, and 1946 is presented below:—
Year.
Man-tides.
Production.
Average Catch
per Man-tide.
North Beach.
1943	
1,518
2,661
1,787
2,507
806
458
173
308
1,631
1,303
518
775
3,955
4,422
2,478
3,590
Lb.
118,400
147,300
104,675
146,769
82,350
30,450
8,803
18,833
189,075
120,650
31,382
50,975
389,825
298,400
144,860
216,577
Lb.
78.0
1944	
55.4
1945	
58.5
1946	
58.5
Middle Beach.
1943	
102.2
1944	
66.5
1945	
50.9
1946	
61.1
South Beach.
1943	
115.9
1944	
92.6
1945	
60.6
1946	
65.8
All Beaches.
1943	
98.6
1944    	
67.5
1945	
58.5
1946             	
60.3
In spite of the statistical indications of reduced availability of clams since 1943,
the figures are not regarded as a reliable index of the variation in abundance of clams
in these beaches. Production is markedly affected by weather conditions, varying
ability of diggers, and the availability or otherwise of the latter during favourable
tidal periods.
INVESTIGATIONS AT SEAL ISLAND.
The Seal Island beach, near Comox, was dug commercially in 1946 for the fifth
consecutive year since this area was set aside for experimental studies in productivity.
Digging was opened to all comers on January 28th and a catch-limit of 100 tons was
imposed, this being the approximate quantity removed during each of the two preceding
years. A large number of diggers was on hand for the operation and the quota was
reached in seven consecutive nights' digging. M 74
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
I
Production and digging effort during the period of the investigation are shown in
the following table:—
Year.
Man-tides.
Man-hours.
Catch.
Average Catch.
Per Man-tide.
Per Man-hour.
1942	
393
394
264
484
442
1,586
1,588
1,160
2,108
1,918
Lb.
235,757
236,825
209,211
207,160
196,072
Lb.
599.89
601.08
792.57
435.60
443.60
Lb.
148.64
1943	
149.09
1944	
180.38
1945	
98.26
1946	
102.23
It will be seen that the yield per unit of effort was practically the same in 1946 as
in the previous year, indicating that the beach is supporting this degree of exploitation
in a satisfactory manner and maintaining a very high level of productivity. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946. M 75
REPORT ON INVESTIGATIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL PACIFIC
SALMON FISHERIES COMMISSION FOR 1946.
By B. M. Brennan, Director.
The International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, conforming to the terms
of the treaty, began regulation of the commercial fishery for the first time during the
1946 season. It so happened that the first year of regulation coincided with the return
of the great South Thompson-Adams River run of sockeye salmon, presenting the
Commission with a most difficult problem.
Six meetings were held by the Commission in 1946. The first meeting was held at
Vancouver, B.C., on March 8th, 9th, and 10th, and members of the Advisory Board
were present to discuss the pending regulations. At a second meeting held April 17th,
18th, 19th, and 20th, with the Advisory Board again in attendance, the final details of
regulations were agreed upon. During the fishing season the Commission held four
additional meetings in Bellingham, Wash.—the first on August 29th, the second on
September 7th, the third on September 21st, and the fourth on October 4th. At these
meetings the Commission observed the progress of the run of salmon, studied reports
of its biological staff, and put into effect the emergency closures to ensure a proper
escapement to the spawning-grounds.
A total of 7,791,383 sockeye were taken in treaty waters from the 1946 run, of
which 3,551,761 sockeye salmon were landed by the United States fishermen, while
Canadian fishermen landed 4,239,622.
On the whole, the escapement to all districts in the 1946 season was most satisfactory. Some 2,400,000 sockeye were found in the South Thompson system—sufficient
seeding, in the opinion of the Commission and its staff, to guarantee a good return in
the cycle-year 1950. The escapement to the spawning-grounds of the Upper Fraser
was exceptionally good, with only the runs to the Stuart Lake district showing no
increase. From a count of 34,105 spawning sockeye in the Chilko River and Lake in
the brood-year, a return of 59,000 was found in 1946. The Bowron River, with 1,826
spawners in 1942, had an escapement of 6,951 sockeye in 1946. But most phenomenal
was the increase in the run to the Stellako River, for, from an escapement of 48,640
in the brood-year, 245,779 fish were found in 1946 in the river alone. This does not
include the large number of sockeye that entered Francois Lake to spawn but which
our observers were unable to count.
The escapement to the tributaries of the Lower Fraser was less sensational, but
satisfactory. The 1946 run to the Birkenhead River was equal to the numbers present
in 1942. The Cultus Lake run was about 11 per cent, smaller than its brood-year, while
the number of sockeye that entered Weaver Creek to spawn was nearly twice as large.
The increase in the numbers of fish on the spawning-grounds resulting from the
operation of the fishways at Hell's Gate and Bridge River Rapids, combined with the
delayed opening of the commercial fishery, is a most promising beginning in the
rehabilitation of the Fraser River system.
In 1946 the Indian fishery took 50,127 sockeye, compared to 46,708 fish in 1942.
The main fishways at Hell's Gate functioned perfectly over the range of water-
levels for which they were designed to operate. The returns from the 31,041 fish
tagged above and below the former obstruction showed plainly that there was no block
of salmon.
During the 1946 season the Fraser River at Hell's Gate reached a high of 79 feet
in June and a low of 12 feet in November, and it is unusual that these exceptionally
high-water and low-water conditions should occur in the same year. The early races
bound for the Stuart Lake district and proceeding through Hell's Gate in June and
early July experienced difficulty at the high-water levels.    At this time the main fish- M 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
ways were under water, and our observations disclosed that some of these early salmon
were held up, battered, and bruised during their migration through this stretch of
water. On the basis of these investigations the Commission, at its meeting on
September 7th, authorized construction of a high-level fishway on the right bank of the
river at Hell's Gate, to be completed in time for the 1947 run.
The total length of the high-level fishway is 120 feet, with ten baffles spaced
approximately 12 feet apart. Its inside width is 13 feet 8 inches. The high-level
fishway is built parallel to but at a higher elevation than the main fishway. Its
entrance lies immediately above the entrance to the main fishway but is transposed
into the bank the full width of the principal fishway, or 20 feet. The outer wall, floor,
and baffles are of reinforced concrete, while the inner wall is of native rock.
The type of baffle is unique and differs from those used in the principal fishways.
Each baffle is flat, about 23 feet in height, with two slotted openings of unequal size—
one slot 4 feet in width and the other 1 foot 8 inches. The narrow and wide openings
alternate in each successive baffle, with the wide opening first on the right and then
on the left hand side.    The drop in water through each baffle will not exceed 8 inches.
The highest elevation of the deck of the high-level fishway is 82 feet, as compared
with the highest elevation of 63 feet for the principal fishway. Both fishways operate
between 53 and 54 feet, but above 54 feet the right-bank principal fishway will submerge
and the high-level structure will continue to operate efficiently to approximately
elevation 70 feet (at the lower Hell's Gate gauge). The overlapping of operating levels
will permit a smooth change from one fishway to the other as the water rises or lowers
but is especially designed to prevent the trapping of fish in the high-level fishway
as the water lowers.
Because of extreme low-water conditions during the fall when the main fishways
were completely out of water, the latter part of the South Thompson run experienced
some difficulty in passing the Gate. Although no serious mortality of fish occurred,
a longer time was taken for the fish to pass the Gate than at the higher levels. Even
though this low-water condition may not occur again for years to come, the Commission
authorized the design of a low-level fishway that could be installed to counteract any
such blockade in the future.
The fishways constructed during the winter of 1945 at Bridge River Rapids were
completed and in operation for the 1946 season. No delay of fish at this location was
indicated by the tag-recoveries, and the large increase in sockeye salmon reaching the
upper spawning-grounds of the Fraser in 1946 was conclusive evidence that the run
had experienced little difficulty at Bridge River Rapids.
An engineering survey has been completed to solve the problem of low-water conditions in Weaver Creek. Insufficient flow of water that occurs every fall prevents the
salmon from migrating from Morris Lake into the spawning stream. Rehabilitation
measures will be undertaken in 1947.
Engineering and biological studies have been completed at Farwell Canyon, on the
Chilcotin River, where a stretch of difficult water conditions has caused mortality to
the Chilko sockeye runs. The Commission has authorized the construction of five
baffle-type fishways in this area that will begin in 1947.
A change in membership of the Commission took place in 1946. Mr. Charles E.
Jackson, one of the original United States Commissioners, resigned. He was succeeded
by Mr. Milo Moore, Director of the State Department of Fisheries of the State of
Washington.    Membership on the Commission as of this date is as follows:—
Canadian Commissioners:   A. L. Hager, chairman;  A. J. Whitmore, member;
Tom Reid, M.P., member.
United States Commissioners:   Fred J. Foster, secretary;   Edward W. Allen,
member;  Milo Moore, member. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946. M 77
SALMON-SPAWNING REPORT, BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1946.
By F. Warne, Acting Chief Supervisor op Fisheries.
GENERAL.
Sockeye.—Good supplies were found in the Nass, Skeena, Bella Coola, Rivers Inlet,
and Smith Inlet areas. In the Fraser River system, due in part to the later opening-
date for sockeye-fishing in the commercial fishing areas, in conjunction with improved
conditions at Hell's Gate, there was a general increase in the numbers of spawning fish
over practically the whole watershed. Increases of exceptional note occurred in the
Fraser-Francois, Upper Bowron, and Chilcotin River systems. The heavy, late run to
Adams River was up to expectations, although possibly slightly less in numbers than
in 1942. Satisfactory supplies reached the grounds tributary to the lower portion
of the Fraser.
Springs.—With few exceptions, the seeding of spring salmon was fairly satisfactory, and generally indicates a slight improvement over recent years.
Cohoes.—The supply in the northern district was below brood-year levels. Fairly
satisfactory seedings occurred in the Nass, Lower Skeena, and Grenville-Principe areas,
but numbers in the remaining areas ranged from light to medium. In the southern
portion of the Province, supplies were light in all areas.
Pinks.—The run of pink salmon was disappointingly light, late in making an
appearance, and the individual fish unusually small in size. Due in part to the extra
conservation measures, the escapement to the more important northern areas, excepting
the Nass, was medium. There was also a fair seeding of the grounds in the upper
portion of the east coast of Vancouver Island area. Supplies in the Nass and other
parts of the Province were light.    It was the " off year " in the Fraser River area.
Chums.—Generally speaking, supplies in the more important chum-salmon areas
over the Province were fairly satisfactory, particularly so in District No. 3.
IN DETAIL.
Queen Charlotte Islands Area (North).
Fair supplies of cohoe were found on the spawning-grounds tributary to this area.
Although the run of pink salmon to Masset Inlet and Naden Harbour was very light,
there was a medium escapement to all streams. A light seeding of chums occurred
over the area, exceptions being a medium seeding of the Ain River in Masset Inlet
and a heavy run to Naden River. Extra conservation measures were enforced to
protect the pink-salmon run.
Queen Charlotte Islands Area (South).
There was a light to medium escapement of cohoe. The seeding of pinks was
generally light, with the exception of a heavy escapement to Copper and Skeedans
Rivers, and a very heavy showing in Pallant River, Cumshewa Inlet. The chum seeding
was medium in Skidegate Inlet, heavy in Pallant Creek, and light in the other streams
in Cumshewa Inlet, light in the area between Cumshewa Inlet and Lockeport and heavy
in the area south of Lockeport to Cape St. James. Unusual conservation measures
were enforced in this area, as well, to protect the chum-salmon runs.
Nass Area.
A satisfactory escapement of sockeye occurred to the Meziaden Lake area, the
principal spawning-grounds of this variety in the Nass system. The inspecting officers
report a slightly larger run than that which occurred in 1945.    Good supplies of spring M 78 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
salmon reached the several streams, with the exception of the Tseaux River, where the
escapement was small. The supplies of cohoe were satisfactory. The pink-salmon
seeding over the whole area was light. The chum seeding was satisfactory over the
area, especially so in the Warke Channel and Portland Canal areas. A marked
improvement was also noted in Khutzeymateen Inlet.
Upper Skeena Area.
The inspecting officer reports a satisfactory seeding of sockeye over the area.
Good supplies reached the Babine Lake and River area. The numbers observed on the
grounds in the individual streams compared favourably with the runs of the brood-year
of 1942. The fish were of good average size, and it is estimated that females formed
60 per cent, of the run. Good supplies also reached the Morice Lake area, tributary
to the Bulkley River, but the numbers reaching the Kispiox and Kitwancool systems
were somewhat below the levels of the brood-years of 1941 and 1942. The spring-salmon
seeding was fairly satisfactory. Medium to heavy supplies appeared in the Babine and
Morice Lake areas, but the runs to the Kispiox system and other streams were not quite
so heavy. Although the cohoe salmon were fairly numerous in some areas, the general
seeding can only be considered light. The number of parent pink salmon reaching the
streams in this area was small.
Lower Skeena Area.
A fairly satisfactory escapement of sockeye occurred to this area. Good supplies
were observed in Williams Creek, the principal spawning-grounds tributary to Lakelse
Lake, but the smaller streams received only a light seeding. The run to the Kalum Lake
area was just fair, somewhat smaller than that of the cycle year of 1942. Satisfactory
numbers reached Shawatlans Creek, and there was a medium showing in the Ecstall
River system. The spring-salmon seeding was good, especially so in the Ecstall River
system and Kalum Lake area. The escapement of cohoes was satisfactory. Fair
supplies reached the Lakelse area, a good escapement to the Ecstall River, and a heavy
run to the Kalum Lake area. The pink-salmon seeding of the streams tributary to the
Lower Skeena was light, but the coastal streams were well supplied with this variety.
The number of chums on the spawning-grounds was small.
Lowe Inlet Area.
A medium escapement of sockeye was reported to all streams in the area frequented
by this variety, with the exception of Minktrap Bay, where the seeding was fairly
heavy. The cohoe-supply was normal. Due in part to the extra conservation measures,
pink-salmon supplies in the northern portion of this area were satisfactory, especially
so in the Porcher Island area, Alpha Bay, Kumealon Inlet, and Salmon River. The
seeding of the southern portion of the area was not as heavy. Chum-supplies were
only fair.
Butedale Area.
The sockeye streams in this area received a medium seeding. The supply of cohoe
was also medium, and in comparing the run with the brood-year, although there was
some decrease in the numbers observed in the larger streams, there was a definite
increase in the quantities found in the smaller streams. Again, in this area, due in part
to extra conservation measures, medium supplies of pinks reached the spawning-
streams. Surprisingly good seedings occurred in the Kitimat, Kildala, and Kitkiata
Rivers. The chum-salmon escapement was fair, the heaviest seedings occurring in
Kynoch Inlet, Poison Cove, and Bottleneck Creek in Higgins Pass. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946. M 79
Bella Bella Area.
Supplies of sockeye were light; in general, somewhat below the level of the brood-
year. Decreases were most notable in the stocks in the Koeye, East Tuno, and Kisemete
Rivers. There was a light seeding of cohoe generally over the area, the largest supplies
appearing in Koeye River and the Gullchuck streams. Due again, in part, to extra
conservation measures, a medium seeding of pinks occurred over the area; although
light to medium supplies reached some of the streams, there was a heavy escapement
to others. The run to Koeye River was disappointingly small. The supply of chum
salmon was satisfactory to all streams. A noteworthy feature was the heavy early
migration to Roscoe Inlet during August.
Bella Coola Area.
The supply of parent sockeye was fairly satisfactory. Moderate supplies were
observed in Kimsquit Lake, the main spawning-grounds of the Kimsquit River system.
A medium to heavy seeding took place in the Bella Coola-Atnarko system. The main
spawning area between Lonesome and Tenas Lakes was well covered with parent
sockeye. Although the early migration of cohoe was light, the late run was of large
enough proportions to assure a medium seeding. The supply of spring salmon was
satisfactory. Parent pink salmon were observed in the streams in medium numbers.
There was an excellent run of chums present in all streams.
Rivers Inlet Area.
As usual, two inspections of the spawning-grounds in the Owekano Lake area were
carried out—the first between September 9th and 13th and the second between October
15th and 24th. Good supplies of sockeye were found on all spawning areas. It was
difficult to determine which streams received the best seeding. They were all well
seeded, but the best showing might have been at the Quap, Genesee, and Dallec, and
probably the Shumahault. The showing at Whannock was good. The Indian and
Waukwash were also good, but spawning had finished when these streams were
reinspected, during October. The Asklum was good, but spawning was not of great
intensity during October. The runs were composed chiefly of large-sized fish. " Runts "
were not numerous. The following remarks of the inspecting officer, concerning special
conservation measures enforced during the sockeye-fishing season, are of interest:—
" The moving of the commercial fishing boundary during the last week of fishing
operations had a most beneficial effect on the 1946 escapement, and when it is acknowledged that some 65,000 cases were taken commercially, coupled with a very good
escapement, the sockeye season for Rivers Inlet can and should be considered good."
The supplies of cohoe were poor. The seeding of pink salmon was generally light
over the area.   The escapement of chums was very good to all streams.
The Department's inspecting officer was accompanied by a representative of the
industry on the final trip of inspection over this area.
Smith Inlet Area.
The sockeye-supplies are reported to be very good. The Geluck and Delabah Rivers,
the principal spawning-grounds of this variety, were well seeded. The outward movement of the commercial fishing boundary, during the last week of sockeye-fishing, was
a factor that contributed, in part, to conditions there. The seeding of cohoe was light
in all streams. There was a fair escapement of pink salmon. Chum-salmon supplies
were heavy over the area.
Fraser River Watershed.
Prince George Area.—There was a noteworthy increase in the number of parent
sockeye appearing in this area.    The estimated stock of 8,000 parent fish in 1938 M 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
increased to 42,000 in 1942, while this year the number observed was approximately
311,000. Supplies in the Stuart Lake system were slightly greater than in the brood-
year. The large increase was in the Fraser-Francois system, where approximately
300,000 fish spawned, compared with 40,000 in the brood-year. Supplies of spring
salmon were satisfactory. The showing in the streams tributary to the Fraser, east of
Prince George, was better than during any recent year.
Quesnel Area.—Approximately 75,000 sockeye were observed on the spawning-
grounds of the Chilcotin River system, compared with 25,000 in the brood-year. In the
Bowron system some 7,000 fish were counted, compared with 1,500 in the brood-year.
About 60 sockeye were observed in the Horsefly River, which is the main spawning area
of the Quesnel Lake system. This river has been barren for several years in this cycle.
No sockeye were reported in any other stream in the Quesnel system, with the exception
of Mitchell River, where one pair was observed spawning. The supply of spring salmon
was average, there being a slight increase in the Chilcotin system, a slight decrease in
the Bowron River, while runs to other streams were similar to those of the brood-year.
Kamloops Area.—The early runs of sockeye to Raft River, tributary to the North
Thompson River, and Seymour River, tributary to Shuswap Lake, were considerably
larger than those of the brood-years. The late run to Adams River, although possibly
slightly less in numbers than that of the brood-year, was very heavy. There was an
increase in the spring-salmon supplies throughout the area. The run to the Nicola
River was the largest for a number of years. The run of cohoes to the area was also
the best in recent years.
Pemberton Area.—Upwards of 75,000 sockeye spawned in the Birkenhead River,
which compares very favourably with the spawning of the past several years. In
addition, some 400 fish spawned in Anderson Lake, Seton Creek, and Portage Creek.
The run of spring salmon to the area was above average, especially in Tyaughton
Creek, Portage Creek, and Gates Creek. Supplies of cohoes were only fair. The runs
to the Squamish River, in the lower part of the area, and to Gates Creek and Portage
Creek in the upper part, were fair, but the supply to Seton Creek was poor. Chum-
supplies in the Squamish River were good, but the other streams in Howe Sound
received only a light seeding.
Chilliwaek Area.—The run to the Cultus Lake area, where approximately 33,000
fish were counted, was good. A small, early run of sockeye spawned in the outlets of
the streams tributary to Chilliwaek Lake. This run is becoming progressively smaller
each year. Spring-salmon supplies were fairly good. The seeding of cohoe was generally light over the area, with the exception of the Chilliwaek River, where a medium
run spawned early in the season. Approximately 700 cohoe were counted in the Cultus
Lake area. There was a medium run of chums to the Vedder, Chilliwaek, and Sweltzer
Creek areas. There were no chum salmon observed in the Coquihalla River, and the
seeding in all other streams was exceptionally light.
Harrison Area.—The seeding of Weaver and Steelhead Creeks, tributary to Morris
Creek, where upwards of 30,000 sockeye spawned, was good. There was also a better-
than-average spawning in Harrison River rapids. The seeding of the other streams
tributary to Harrison Lake was light. Supplies of spring salmon were small. The
cohoe seeding was disappointingly light. Chums appeared in satisfactory numbers in
the Harrison and Chehalis Rivers.
Pitt Lake Area.—A normal run of sockeye spawned in the Upper Pitt River and
tributaries.    Supplies of cohoes, pinks, and chums were light over the whole area.
Lower Fraser Area.—The seeding of cohoe was very light in all streams. The
number of this variety frequenting the Serpentine and Nicomekl Rivers was less than
usual this year. Chums, in fair numbers, appeared in the Alouette and Coquitlam
Rivers, as well as Kanaka and Whonnock Creeks, but the supply present in all other
streams was small. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946. M 81
North Vancouver Area.—There was a slight increase in the number of cohoe in
Capilano and Seymour Rivers, when compared with the brood-year. The seeding in
Indian River and other streams in the area was very light. A medium run of chums
occurred to Indian River, but the supply in the other North Shore streams was only
fair.
Alert Bay Area.
The sockeye seeding of the Nimpkish River, although not quite as heavy as in the
brood-year of 1942, was satisfactory. Medium supplies, comparable with the brood-
year, appeared in Fullmore, McKenzie, Kleena Kleene, Nahwitti, Kahweeken, and Keogh
Rivers, with McKenzie and Kahweeken showing an increase over 1942. The seeding
of spring salmon was very satisfactory in all the main streams. Cohoe-supplies were
generally light, somewhat less than the brood-year, exceptions being the heavy seeding
of Nimpkish River and Cohoe Creek, and the medium escapement to Kleena Kleene,
Wakeman, Kingcome, and Adams Rivers. Although the run was light, the pink
streams were fairly well seeded. The main run, which appeared while most of the
seine-boats were in Area No. 17, was lightly exploited. Practically all chum-salmon
streams were well seeded, a very heavy escapement occurring to several of the more
important streams.
Quathiaski Area.
The sockeye seeding at Hayden Bay was average, comparable with the brood-year.
Phillips River was also well seeded, showing quite an improvement over 1942. Spring
salmon in very satisfactory numbers appeared in Campbell, Salmon, and Phillips
Rivers, as well as in the streams at the head of Bute Inlet. The cohoe seeding over the
area was much lighter than in the brood-year. The supplies of pink salmon were
surprisingly good, although somewhat less than in the brood-year. A heavy chum-
salmon seeding occurred in practically all streams, a considerable improvement over
the brood-year.
Comox Area.
The seeding of spring salmon in Puntledge River was the best in recent years.
Cohoe-supplies were generally light. The seeding of Courtenay and Oyster Rivers, as
well as the streams in Baynes Sound, was fairly satisfactory, but it was distinctly poor
in the streams in the lower portion of the area. While the return of spawning pinks
was very light, the number appearing on the spawning-grounds was in improvement
over the brood-years. Supplies of chum salmon over the area were very satisfactory,
an improvement over the brood-year, excepting Englishman River, where the run was
disappointingly small.
Pender Harbour Area.
The sockeye seeding at Saginaw Creek, although an improvement over the brood-
year, was light. The supplies of springs were normal. The return of parent cohoe was
the lightest in the past five years, although it was very similar to that of the brood-year
of 1943. The pink-salmon seeding was also very light. There was a medium supply of
chum salmon over the area.
Nanaimo-Ladysmith Area.
Cohoe-supplies were the lightest in the past five years. Pinks do not frequent
this area in commercial quantities. However, this year some 2,000 parent fish spawned
in the Nanaimo River. The chum-salmon seeding was the best in recent years, especially so in the Chemainus River, where the escapement was heavy and of long duration.
Cowichan Area.
The supply of spring salmon was average. The number of parent fish passing
Skutz Falls was estimated between twelve and fifteen thousand.    The return of cohoe M 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
was the lightest for some years, estimated in numbers to be about 25 per cent, of the
brood-year of 1943. Chum-supplies were the heaviest in recent years. The steelhead
run is being well maintained.
Victoria Area.
The cohoe seeding was light. In the Sooke Basin area the chum seeding was heavy
in Sooke River and smaller streams, as well as at Goldstream, an improvement over
the brood-year. In the streams lying west of Sooke Harbour spawning was light.
Only the late-run fish entered these streams, due to low-water conditions in the early
fall.
Alberni Area.
The seeding of sockeye in the Somass system, including the Sproat and Great
Central Lake areas, was satisfactory. Good supplies, fully equal to the brood-year,
also appeared at Anderson Lake and Hobarton Lake, in the Nitinat area. Supplies of
spring salmon were very good in the Somass, Nahmint, Sarita, and Toquart Rivers.
The spawning run of cohoe up Somass River was heavier than that of the brood-year.
The actual count of fish over Stamp Falls was 11,734 cohoe, compared with 9,643 in 1943.
In the other streams of the area, including Nitinat and Port Renfrew, the seeding was
light to medium and generally below expectations. Chum-supplies were satisfactory
in all streams, although the escapement was not quite as large as in the brood-year.
Clayoquot Area.
In the Kennedy Lake system the sockeye seeding was heavy, comparable to the
brood-year and heavier than in 1945. At Megin Lake, spawning was heavier than in
the brood-year but lighter than in 1945. Spring-salmon supplies were the best in the
past six years. An unusually large percentage of very large fish was present. The
cohoe seeding was the lightest in recent years. On the other hand, the seeding of chums
was the heaviest in some years.
Nootka Area.
Spring-salmon supplies in the Gold and Burman Rivers were somewhat lighter than
normal. The usual small numbers of cohoe were present. The streams of this area
have never been large producers of this variety. The seeding of chums, the heaviest
in the past three years, was satisfactory, although slightly less in numbers than in the
brood-year.
Kyuquot Area.
The number of parent cohoe was somewhat lighter than normal over the area. The
seeding of chums in practically all streams was found to be very satisfactory, somewhat better than in the brood-year.
Quatsino Area.
There was the usual small supply of sockeye on the grounds. Spring-salmon supplies were average in Marble Creek, which is the principal spawning-ground, as well
as in other streams in the area, with the exception of Klashkish River, where a light
spawning occurred. There was a medium seeding of cohoe over the area, not as good
as last year, but a slight improvement over the brood-year. The escapement of pinks
was much heavier than during the brood-year and is reported the best since 1936. The
supply of chums was fairly satisfactory, better than last year and comparable to that
of the brood-year.
I REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946.
M 83
STATISTICAL TABLES.
PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON, SEASON 1946.
Showing the Origin of Salmon caught in each District.
District.
Sockeye.
Springs.
Steelheads.
Cohoe.
Pinks.
Chums.
Total.
341,957
1,0961
178
5
134
2,366
314
33
934
1511
9,1681
1,192
4,239
26,2811
9,5241
177
19,589
29,983
429
8,024
7,147
10,737
1,6411
235
81,5841
6,8091
60,713
32,414
13,810
11,161
37,3951
8,369
221,958
190,313
413,542
41,635
12,511
52,928
73,320
14,318
12,6111
35,3811
472
2,439
1,1081
45
656
2,2831
38,313
105,9121
123,304
23,177
Smith Inlet	
337,333
264,922
Totals 	
543,027
8,1001
4,115J
100,1541
116,6071
576,1331
1,348,1381
Note.—2,914 cases of bluebacks are combined with cohoes in this table for Vancouver Island.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL SALMON-PACK BY SPECIES
FROM 1938 TO 1946.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
543,027
8,1001
576,1331
116,6071
329,0011
12,801
350,1881
825,513
218,8861
2,922
247,714
19,362
255,3161
389,692
181,5461
3,9261
164,889
10,658
363,3471
530,189
186,043
3,095
666,570
24,7441
633,834
270,6221
211,138
4,649
455,298
51,593
926,801
427,774
430,513
3,454
366,402
17,740
643,441
213,904
224,522
1,207
269,887
16,098
386,590
620,595
245,097
796
447,450
Spring-	
15,356
541,819
Pink 	
400,876
Cohoe
100,1541
4,1151
301,081
1,036
Totals	
1,348,1381
1,739,3124
1,097,5571
1,258,2211
1,811,558
2,295,433
1,467,216
1,539,063
1,707,798
STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL SALMON-PACK OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA BY DISTRICTS. ,
Total packed by Districts in 1938 to 1946, inclusive.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
Fraser   —
413,542
105,9121
123,304
23,177
38,313
264,922
378,968
221,3511
221,4711
135,412
21,682
54,9801
492,2811
592,1331
130,8831
149,9481
59,391
6,1941
61,096
193,459
496,587
126,5411
133,589
79,6971
21,942
52,3331
347,7101
496,407
549,617
152,4181
105,539
23,777
100,1421
536,8031
343,2601
431,299
200,497
138,650
32,109
71,330
985,835
398,152
46,561
152,363
195,355
88,665
33,998
60,441
419,579
516,815
199,241
205,604
83,502
28,727
55,946
590,736
375,307
277,084
223,413
122,363
44,921
113,970
458,554
467,493
Grand totals—
1,348,1381
1,739,3121
1,097,5571
1,258,2211
1,811,558
2,295,433
1,467,216
1,539,063
1,707,798*
* Including 5,779 cases of Alaska sockeye and 26,828 cases of Alaska cohoe packed at Skeena River. M 84
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
TABLE SHOWING THE TOTAL SOCKEYE-PACK OF THE FRASER RIVER,
ARRANGED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE FOUR-YEAR CYCLE, 1895-1946.
1895—
- 395,984
65,143
1896-
1900-
1904—
1908—
1912—
1916—
1920—
1924—
1928—
1932—
1936—
1940—
1944—
- 356,984
72,979
1897-
1901-
1905-
1909-
1913-
1917-
1921-
1925-
1929-
1933-
1937-
1941-
1945-
- 860,459
312,048
1898— 256,101
252,000
Total	
461,127
480,485
499,646
429,963
- 229,800
228,704
1,172,507
- 928,669
1,105,096
508,101
1902— 293,477
339,556
1899—
1903
Total 	
980,131
204,809
167,211
458,504
72,688
123,419
2,033,765
- 837,489
837,122
633,033
1906— 183,007
182,241
Washington	
1907—
Total	
372,020
59,815
96,974
196,107
74,574
170,951
1,674,611
- 585,435
1,097,904
365,248
1910— 150,432
248,014
Total -.--	
156,789
58,487
127,761
245,525
123,879
184,680
1,683,339
- 719,796
1,673,099
398,446
1914— 198,183
335,230
1911—
Total   .--	
186,248
91,130
64,584
308,559
32,146
84,637
2,392,895
- 148,164
411,538
533,413
1918—    19.697
50,723
 .            1915—
Total 	
155,714
38,854
64,346
116,783
48,399
62,654
559,702
-    39,631
102,967
70,420
1922—    51,832
48,566
British Columbia	
1919—
Total	
103,200
31,655
47,402
111,053
39,743
69,369
142,598
-    35,385
112,023
100,398
1926—    85,689
44,673
1923—
1927—
Total 	
79,057
61,393
97,594
109,112
29,299
61,044
147,408
- 61,569
111,898
173,467
- 52,465
•128,518
130,362
1930— 103,692
352,194
1931—
Total  »	
158,987
40,947
87,211
90,343
65,769
81,188
455,886
1934— 139,238
352,579
Total 	
128,158
62,822
54,677
146,957
184,854
59,505
180,983
- 100,272
60,259
491,817
1938— 186,794
•135,550
British Columbia	
Washington   ,.	
1935—
Total 	
117.499
54,296
*43,512
244,359
99,009
*63,890
160,531
- 171,290
110,605
1939—
1942— 446,371
Washington - —	
Total	
97,808
31,974
*19,117
162,899
88,515
•37,509
281,895
-    79,977
*53,055
British Columbia  -	
1943
709,829
Washington     -
1946— 341,957
•268,561
Total	
51,091
126,024
133,032
610,518
* These figures are corrected according to latest advice from the Department of Fisheries   State of Washington
dated May 22nd, 1947. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946.
M 85
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES.
Fraser River, 1931-46, inclusive.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
Sockeyes. ,. 	
Springs -    —.
341,957
1,0961
60,713
429
9,1681
178
79,977
6,130}
27,610
95,7481
11,615
2701
88,515
12,5771
13,8031
130
15,564}
293
31,973}
3,5051
52,149
29,860}
8,809
244
446,371
9,688
82,573
134
10,642
309
171,290
34,038
95,070
102,388
28,265
248
99,009
4,504
35,665
'  12
13,028
145
54,296
5,993
30,150
Pinks    -	
95,176
13,557
69
Totals  	
413,542
221,3511
130,8831
126,541}
549,617
431,299
152,363
199,241
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
186,794
4,308
58,778
63
27,127
14
100,272
5,444
20,878
94,010
11,244
184,854
15,126
31,565
28,716
62,822
9,401
8,227
111,328
24,950
139,238
16,218
104,092
2,199
11,392
52,465
5,579
34,391
92,746
13,901
65,769
28,701
14,948
385
16,815
23
40,947
Springs  	
9,740
251
Pinks	
13,307
8.165
657
Totals - -     	
277,084
231,848
260,261
216,728
273,139
199,082
126,641
73,067
Skeena River, 1931-46, inclusive.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
Sockeyes  	
Springs —  	
Chums - - -   -
Pinks	
52,928
2,439
11,161
10,737
26,281}
2,366
104,279}
2,382
9,264
69,783}
34,201}
1,561
68,197
1,5001
8,741}
48,837
20,191}
2,481
28,268}
1,783
6,597
54,509
40,479}
1,952
34,544
6,374
11,421
52,767
44,081}
3,231-
81,767
4,985
10,707
50,537
50,605
1,896
116,507
6,118
4,682
47,301
20,614
133
68,485
4,857
7,773
95,236
Cohoes ... -—  	
29,198
55
Totals  	
105,912}
221,471}
149,948}
133,589
152,418}
200,497
195,355
205,604
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
47,257
4,318
16,758
69,610
52,821
42
42,491
4,401
10,811
59,400
15,514
21
81,973
4,551}
15,297}
91,389
25,390
33
52,879
4,039
8,122
81,868
23,498
14
70,655
8,300
24,388
126,163
54.456
114
30,506
3,297
15,714
95,783
39,896
267
59,916
28,269
38,549
58,261
48,312
404
93,023
Springs -	
9,857
3,893
Pinks.— —  	
44,807
10,637
768
Totals 	
190,806
132,638
218,634
170,420
284,096
185,463
233,711
162,986 M 86
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES—Continued.
Rivers Inlet, 1931-46, inclusive.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
Sockeyes 	
Springs -	
73,320
1,108}
37,395}
1,641}
9,524}
314
89,735
1,191}
16,793
9,916
17,516}
260
36,582}
805
2,705
5,289}
13,921
88
47,602}
765
11,448
8,347
11,466
69
79,199
985
15,874
954
8,467
60
93,378
1,692
15,442
4,807
23,202
129
63,469
1,226
9,025
3,329
11,561
55
54,143
745
5,462
Pinks	
12,095
10,974
83
Totals              	
123,304
135,412
59,391
79,6971
105,539
138,650
88,665
83,502
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
87,942
1,209
7,759
9,063
16,285
105
84,832
917
9,415
7,536
6,012
70
46,351
581}
11,505
6,432}
7,122}
19
135,038
429
7,136
4,554
8,375
39
76,923
436
895
2,815
4,852
79
83,507
449
677
5,059
3,446
82
69,732
459
944
3,483
7,062
29
76,428
325
429
Pinks —
5,089
6,571
32
Steelheads —-   -	
Totals 	
122,363
108,782
72,011}
155,571
86,000
93,220
81,709
88,874
Smith Inlet, 1931-46, inclusive.*
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
Sockeyes   -
14,318
45
177
235
8,369
33
15,014
26
560
2,362
3,692
28
3,165
66
343
4981
2,122
666
15,010
118
541
556
5,693
24
15,939
8
1,813
527
5,490
21,495
124
1,955
749
7,741
45
25,947
142
1,102
755
6,015
37
17,833
Cohoes   —
Pinks  	
3,880
3,978
2,771
Totals - 	
23,177
21,682
6,194}
21,942
23,777
32,109
33,998
28,727
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
Sockeyes  	
33,894
68
1,058
1,761
8,076
64
25,258
21
241
483
9,494
5
12,788
30
310
65
1,653
42
31,648
216
1,201
4,412
12,427
24
14,607
164
3,941
6,953
15,548
43
37,369
354
5,068
19,995
8.84J
87
25,488
48
273
1,148
165
20
12,867
122
112
824
133
36
Pinks   	
Steelheads	
Totals      	
44,921
35,502
14,888
49,928
41,256
71,714
27,142
14,094
• Previously reported in Queen Charlotte and other districts. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946.
M 87
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES—Continued.
Nass River, 1931-46, inclusive.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
12,511
472
13,810
7,147
4,239
134
9,899
202
4,981}
35,918}
3,895
84}
13,083
681}
9,143
31,854
6,102
232}
13,412}
1,002}
10,146}
17,669
9,768
335
21,085
1,515
12,518
49,003}
15,487
534
24,876
519
6,246
22,667
16,648
374
13,809
1,716
5,461
29,278
10,060
117
24,357
Springs —. 	
Chums   .- —	
Pinks  	
708
2,500
26,370
Cohoes --    	
Steelheads ..-. - 	
1,996
15
Totals  	
38,313
54,980}
61,096
52,333}
100,142}
71,330
60,441
55,946
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
21,462
773
15,911
61,477
14,159
188
17,567
1,251
10,080
8,031
12,067
46
2b,562}
2,167
20,6201
75,8871
11,842
496
12,712
560
17,481
25,508
21,810
143
28,701
654
2,648
32,964
9,935
311
9,757
. 1,296
1,775
44,306
3,251
49
14,154
4,408
14,515
44,629
7,955
10
16,929
Springs -     .
1,439
392
Pinks	
5,178
8,943
Totals   	
113,970
49,042
139,575}
78,214
75,213
60,434
85,671
32,881
Vancouver Island District, 1931-46, inclusive.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
Sockeyes	
Springs - -  	
35,381}
2,283}
190,313
6,809}
29,983
151}
5,988
2,323
136,724
242,590}
104,528
128
5,288}
3,068}
56,029}
49,092
79,813}
165
7,185
2,937
132,843
130,825
73,8461
74
51,961
5,407
383,005
14,474
.81,837}
119
40,273
8,038
593,016
177,292
166,9.08
308
15,177
2,454
279,064
33,785
88,885»
214
16,259
2,889
212,949
Pinks      	
Cohoes* - -	
Steelheads    — ~
285,119
123,388
132
Totals -—	
264,922
492,281}
193,459
347,710}
536,803}
985,835
419,579
590,736
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
27,965
4,254
266,566
. 70,108
89,471
190
25,427
2,359
203,900
318,780
52,244
88
32,696}
6,340
347,951
82,028}
90,625
105
22,928
6,525
143,960
191,627
104,366
21
27,282
1,630
210,239
54,526
78,670
18,397
4,875
96,642
172,945
60,019
147
27,611
10,559
70,629
33,403
63,637
91
22,199
Springs 	
4,055
16,329
Pinks  -  -	
81,965
50,953
40
Totals -.  _.._	
458,554
608,798
559,746
469,427
372,347
353,025
205,930
175,541
* Bluebacks are included with the cohoe-pack for Vancouver Island. M 88
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
# BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES—Continued.
Queen Charlotte Islands, 1937-46, inclusive.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
Sockeyes
157
20
81,916
90,993
19,615
1
53
1
38
43,801
83,329
16,935
41
149
236
76,745
524
27,421
11
16
62
164,911
44,966
8,897
1
36
45,519
2,123
3,020
179
66
40,882
57,952
16,616
2
4
12,132
4,809
1,108
140
Chums 	
Pinks- -
Cohoes -
32,414
8,024
1,192
5
35,370
313
14,488
72,689
13
4,631
Totals -
41,635
18,053
192,702
50,224
144,145
105,086
218,852
50,699
115,695
77,475
Central Area, 1937-46, inclusive.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
Sockeyes	
12,611}
24,109
32,715
21,101
17,470
20,854
32,042
26,158
36,178
29,987
Springs	
656
542
643
547
723}
460
1,518
655
540
1,641
Chums 	
221,958
138,992
80,793
109,101
79,152
111,587
135,802
79,384
127,089
110,493
Pinks _____
81,584}
364,385
162,986
288,109}
69,434
66,130
54,478
150,498
130,842
97,321
Cohoes	
19,589
45,4621
25,823
26,645
31,274
45,218
49,886
44,426
56,716
25,009
Steelheads ...
934
590
666
397
355
330
506
392
433
614
Totals --
337,333
574,0801
303,626
445,900}
198,408}
244,579
274,232
301,513
351,798
265,065
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS, 1931 TO 1946, INCLUSIVE.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
341,957
52,928
73,320
14,318
12,511
35,381}
12,611}
79,977
104,279}
89,735
15,014
9,899
5,988
24,109
88,515
68,197
36,582}
3,165
13,083
5,288}
32,883
31,973}
28,268}
47,602}
15,010
13,412}
7,185
21,437
446,371
34,544
79,199
15,939
21,085
51,961
17,471
171,290
81,767
93,378
21,495
24,876
40,273
22,219
99,009
116,507
63,469
25,947
13,809
15,177
32,484
54,296
68,485
54,143
17,833
24,357
16,259
34,514
Rivers Inlet    -	
543,027
329,001}
247,714
164,889
666,570
455,298
366,402
269,887
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
186,794
47,257
87,942
33,894
21,462
27,965
36,357
100,272
42,491
84,832
25,258
17,567
25,427
29,989
183,120
81,973
46,351
12,788
28,562}
34,430}
27,584
62,822
52,879
135,038
31,648
12,712
22,928
32,417
139,238
70.655
76,923
14,607
28,701
27,282
20,438
52,465
30,506
83,507
37,369
9,757
18,397
26,106
65,769
59,916
69,732
25,488
14,154
27,611 .
21,685
40,947
93,023
76,428
12,867
16,929
22,199
29,071
441,671*
325,836
414,809
350,444
377,844
258,107
284,355
291,464
216 cases of Alaska sockeye packed in British Columbia canneries are not shown in the above table for the year 1936.
* 5,779 cases of Alaska sockeye packed at Skeena River are not shown in the above table for the year 1938. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946.
M 89
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SPRING-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA, BY DISTRICTS, 1935 TO 1946, INCLUSIVE.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.*
1,096}
6,130}
4
202
2,382
1,191}
26
542
2,323
12,577}
20
681}
1,500}
805
66
643
3,068}
3,505}
9,688
38
1,515
6,374
985
8
723}
5,407
6
34,038
236
472
2,439
1,1081
45
656
2,2831
1,002}
1,783
765
118
547
2,937
519
4,985
1,692
Smith Inlet            .••'■'                                 	
124
460
8,038
383
Totals - 	
8,100}
12,801
19,362
10,658
24,744}
50,475
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
4,504
62
1,716
6,118
1,226
142
1,518
2,454
5,993
36
708
4,857
745
215
655
2,889
4,308
66
773
4,318
1,209
68
540
4,254
5,444
140
1,251
4,401
917
21
1,641
2,359
15,126
227
2,167
4,551}
581}
30
830
6,340
9,401
Queen Charlotte Islands —__ - _. —	
Nass River-   _ _ _	
63
560
4,039
429
Smith Inlet _ _	
216
687
6,525
17,740
16,098
15,536
16,174
29,853
21,920
* In addition to the above there were packed 1,118 cases of springs out of cold-storage stocks, catch of 1940.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE COHOE-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA, BY DISTRICTS, 1935 TO 1946, INCLUSIVE.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.*
9,1681
1,192
4,239
26,2811
9,524}
177
19,589
29,983
11,615
1,108
3,895
34,201}
17,516}
560
45,4621
104,528
15,564}
19,615
6,102
20,191}
13,921
343
25,823
79,813}
173
8,809
14,488
9,768
40,479}
11,466
541
26,645
73,846}
10,542
16,935
15,487
44,0811
8,467
1,813
31,274
81,837}
701
28,265
27,421
16,648
Skeena River.. - -	
50,605
23,202
1,955
45,218
166,908
31,187
Totals 	
100,154}
218,886}
181,546}
186,043
211,138
391,409
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
13,028
8,897
10,060
20,614
11,561
1,102
49,886
88,885
20,489
13,557
3,020
1,996
29,198
10,974
3,880
44,426
123,388
14,658
27,127
16,616
14,159
52,821
16,285
1,058
56,716
89,471
26,828
11,244
4,631
12,067
15,514
6,012
241
25,009
58,244
527
28,7.16
19,920
11,842
25,390
7,122}
310
45,824
90,625}
24,950
Queen Charlotte Islands ___ _ __ _
5,461
21,810
23,498
8,375
Smith Inlet   	
1,201
41,831
104,366
Totals  _	
224,522
245,097
301,081
133,489
229,750
231,492
• In addition to the above there were packed 39,104 cases of cohoe out of cold-storage stocks, catch of 1940. M 90
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE PINK-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA, BY DISTRICTS, 1935 TO 1946, INCLUSIVE,
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
429
8,024
7,147
10,737
1,641}
235
81,584}
6,809}
95,7481
4,809
35,918}
69,783}
9,916
2,362
364,385
242,590}
130
90,993
31,854
48,837
5,289}
498}
162,986
49,092
12
29,860}
313
17,669
54,509
8,347
556
288,109}
130,825
134
83,329
49,003}
52,767
954
527
69,434
14,474
102,388
524
22,667
50,537
4,807
Smith Inlet                  - -	
749
66,130
177,292
2,680
Totals -   - - _
116,607}
825,513
389,692
530,189
270,622}
427,774
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
12
44,966
29,278
47,301
3,329
755
54,478
33,785
95,176
2,123
26,370
95,236
12,095
3,978
150,498
235,119
63
57,952
61,477
69,610
9,063
1,761
130,842
70,108
94,010
13
8,0-31
59,400
7,536
483
97,321
318,780
89,355
75,887}
91,389
6,432}
65
246,378
82,028}
111,328
1,479
25,508
81,868
4,554
Smith Inlet '	
4,412
Central Area— _ _ 	
94,190
191,627
Totals _	
213,904
620,595
400,876
585,574
591,535}
514,966
STATEMENT SHOWING THE CHUM-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA, BY DISTRICTS, 1935 TO 1946, INCLUSIVE.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.*
60,713
32,414
13,810
11,161
37,395}
8,369
221,958
190,313
27,610
12,132
4,981}
9,264
16,793
3,692
138,992
136,724
13,803}
81,916
9,143
8,741}
2,705
2,122
80,793
56,029}
63
52,149
35,370
10,146}
6,597
11,448
5,693
109,101
132,843
82,573
43,801
12,518
11,421
15,874
5,490
79,152
383,005
95,070
76,745
6,246
10,707
15,442
7,741
111,587
593,016
3,908
Totals _	
576,133}
350,188}
255,316}
363.347}
633,834
920,462
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
35,665
164,911
5,461
4,682
9,025
6,015
135,802
279,064
2,816
30,150
45,519
2,500
7,773
5,462
2,771
79,384
212,949
82
58,778
40,882
15,911
16,758
7,759
8,076
127,089
266,566
20,878
72,689
10,080
10,811
9,415
9,494
110,493
203,900
31,565
69,304
20,620}
15,297}
11,505
1,653
99,592
347,951
8,227
86,298
17,481
8,122
7,136
Smith Inlet	
12,427
125,953
143,960
Totals	
643,441
386,590
541,819
447,760
597.488
409,604
* In addition to the above there were packed 6,339 cases of chums out of cold-storage stocks, catch of 1940. REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1946.
M 91
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF PILCHARD PRODUCTS
PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1930 TO 1946.
Season.
Canned.
Meal.
Oil.
1930-31        .
Cases.
55,166
17,336
4,622
2,946
35,437
27,184
35,007
40,975
69,473
7,300
59,166
72,498
42,008
94,512
78,772
79,536
4,359
Tons.
13,934
14,200
8,842
1,108
7,628
8,666
8,715
8,483
8,891
906
4,853
11,437
11,003
15,209
8,435
5,812
699
Gals.
3,204,058
1931-32.     ...  	
2,551,914
1932-33      	
1,315,864
1933-34       _	
275,879
1934-35  	
1,635,123
1935-36 _ 	
1,634,592
1936-37 _	
1,217,087
1937-38	
1,707,276
1938-39    _      	
2,196,850
1939-40	
178,305
1940-41     ...  -	
890,296
1941-42	
1,916,191
1942-43 	
1,560,269
1943-44
2,238,987
1,675,090
1944-45	
1945-46	
1,273,329
1946-47	
81,831
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF HERRING PRODUCTS
PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1935 TO 1946.
Season.
Canned.
Dry-salted.
Pickled.
Meal.
Oil.
1935-36	
1936-37 	
1937-38 -	
Cases.
26,143
20,914
27,365
23,353
418,021
640,252
1,527,350
1,253,978
1,198,632
1,190,762
1,307,514
1,634,286
Tons.
14,983
16,454
10,230
7,600
7,696
5,039
Tons.
892
779
502
591
26
100
1291
Tons.
5,313
10,340
14,643
18,028
22,870
10,886
8,780
4,633
7,662
9,539
5,525
7,223
Gals.
328,639
786,742
1,333,245
1938-39                                       -	
1,526,117
1939-40     -	
1,677,736
1940-41	
1941-42                    	
923,137
594,684
1942-43   - 	
323,379
1943-44...  -
512,516
1944-45      .            	
717,655
1945-46	
302
5,807
521,649
1946-47 	
484,937
The above figures are for the season, October to March 31st, annually.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF MEAL, OIL, AND FERTILIZER
PRODUCED FROM SOURCES OTHER THAN HERRING AND PILCHARD,
1935 TO 1946.
From Whales.
Fkom
Fish Livers.
From other Sources.
Season.
Whalebone
and Meal.
Fertilizer.
Oil.
Oil.
Meal and
Fertilizer.
Oil.
1935-36   ....
Tons.
211
332
268
273
181
270
130
62
Tons.
354
687
527
512
434
661
205
90
Gals.
426,772
763,740
662,355
543,378
Gals.
Tons.
2,226
2,857
2,445
2,059
3,559
4,998
5,410
4,768
4,332
2,721
4,560
4,208
Gals.
260,387
1936-37
356,464
1937-38
266,009
1938-39    .
186,261
1939-40
331,725
1940-41
361,820
619,026
255,555
134,553
415,856
1941-42
405,340
1942-43 	
916,723
822,250
645,736
445,858
211,914
338,502
60,000
1944-45- _ _
301,048
1945-46	
513,442
1946-47	
453,008 M 92
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
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1,315-947-6146  

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