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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Civil Service Commission REPORT TO DECEMBER 31st 1946 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1947

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Civil Service Commission
REPORT
TO DECEMBER 31st
1946
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1947.  To His Honour C. A. BANKS,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
The undersigned respectfully submits the Report of the Civil Service Commission,
Province of British Columbia, to December 31st, 1946.
GEO. S. PEARSON,
Provincial Secretary.
Victoria, B. C, January, 1947. The Honourable Geo. S. Pearson,
Provincial Secretary,
Province of British Columbia.
SIR,—In conformity with the provisions of section 7 of the " Civil Service Act,
1945 " (chapter 11, British Columbia Statutes of 1945), we have the honour to submit
herewith the report of the proceedings and work of the Civil Service Commission to
December 31st, 1946.
We have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servants,
CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION.
Norman Baker,
Chairman.
J. V. Fisher,
Member.
E. W. Griffith,
Member.
Victoria, B.C., January, 1947. REPORT OF THE CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION
Pursuant to Section 7 of the " Civil Service Act, 1945,"
to December 31st, 1946.
Subsequent to the submission of the Report of the Civil Service Committee on
Reorganization to the Fourth Session of the Twentieth Parliament of British Columbia,
changes of an important nature affecting the entire Government Service have been
effected.
The Civil Service Act in force for many years was repealed upon the coming into
operation of the " Civil Service Act, 1945," on April 1st, 1945, and the classes of
positions with salary schedules as set forth in the Classification of the Civil Service as
submitted to the Legislature were confirmed by the new Act, and, as far as practicable,
the Civil Service actually has been classified in accordance with the said Classification.
In the writing of salary schedules, it is pertinent to quote from the Progress Report
of the Civil Service Committee (page 11, clause 4) : " Once the Classification schedules
have been applied, it will be necessary to keep under constant supervision every position
in the Service, in order that new or additional positions be properly classified promptly,
that positions changed materially be reclassified and each change in personnel properly
recorded." In other words, as reported by the Special Committee, October 21st, 1942,
in speaking of a personnel committee, " It will be necessary to develop an intelligent
continuing survey of the entire Civil Service, and to make periodic recommendations
leading to economy and efficiency."
In furtherance of this principle, the Civil Service Committee on Reorganization
in its Progress Report strongly recommended: " The appointment of a senior official
in the capacity of Chief Personnel Officer on the staff of the Civil Service Commission,
whose duties would be to make investigations and surveys and to prepare reports in
connection with the organization of Departments; to appraise and report on the
standards of work and worth of employees and to submit periodic recommendations
concerning any matter affecting the welfare of employees."
Of necessity, considerable thought had to be given to the selection of a Chief
Personnel Officer, and it was not until December, 1945, that a final choice was made in
favour of Hugh M. Morrison, M.A., Ph.D., who not only was well qualified academically
for the position but who had had considerable experience in personnel relationships.
With the further addition to the staff of the Commission of R. L. W. Ritchie, B.A.,
who possessed not only the necessary academic background but also had had considerable experience in research and administration of personnel methods with the Royal
Canadian Air Force, the staff of the Commission was greatly strengthened and was
now ready to meet the greatly increased duties imposed upon it.
The rapidly increasing pressure of work necessitated the appointment of a further
Personnel Officer. In September, 1946, the Commission obtained the services of
A. G. Richardson, M.A., who possessed sound training and experience in personnel work
gained in the Army and with the Department of Veterans' Affairs.
To December 31st, 1946, the Personnel Branch had made investigations in a number
of branches of the Service, involving some 489 individual positions, and where changes
were considered justified, the necessary adjustments were made.
In accordance with its belief recorded earlier in this report that: " Under the
Classification it will be essential to carry out a continuing survey of all positions in the II 6 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Government Service, in order that each position be kept constantly alive," it will be
appreciated that any material difference in the duties being performed by an individual
automatically would serve to eliminate that position and create a new one which would
require reclassification.
It is necessary, therefore, to stress the great importance of one of the main
recommendations made by the Civil Service Committee on Reorganization that " this
Committee believes there is an urgent need for the appointment in each of the larger
Departments of a thoroughly experienced Senior Official to undertake the duties of a
Departmental Personnel Officer, this Officer to be of a rank comparable with the importance of the position and to be responsible directly to the ' Deputy Head of the Department'"; and that "the Departmental Personnel Officer should be entrusted with all
staff matters, including the general supervision of the ' Organization ' of the Department, the distribution of members of the staff so as to ensure the best use of their
services, and the filling of vacancies by transfers or by the acquisition of new recruits.
He should be concerned with recommendations for promotions and should maintain
close contact with the Chief Personnel Officer and the Civil Service Commission on all
personnel matters."
It further was suggested that " in most Departments these duties could be carried
out by an official already employed in the Department."
In order to avoid the danger of the Civil Service Commission functioning as a mere
recording instrument, personnel work must be actively administered. The Personnel
Division continually is striving to educate Departmental officials in fundamental public
service principles. In the final analysis these principles revolve around two pivots,
namely, efficient service and consideration of the individual employee. Continuous
education in these principles is necessary, and a most important channel for this work
would appear to be through the medium of Departmental Personnel Officers.
Where Departmental Officers have been appointed, particularly in the Departments
where the appointment of a Personnel Officer has been made and particularly where
that Officer has been able to devote sufficient time to this particular phase of work, the
results obtained justify the need for immediate and like action by other Departments.
We are happy to report that much progress already has been achieved by the
Commission through the Personnel Division in its educative work. It is apparent that
the various Departments of the Government are developing a keener and sounder
appreciation of how the Commission best can be of service both to themselves in
particular and to the Government Service in general. Obviously, when the senior
officials of a Department are imbued with this co-operative and understanding attitude,
their advice and opinion can be relied upon by the Personnel Officers and, as a result,
the chances of arriving at equitable and fair decisions are greatly enhanced. There
have been a few instances—and happily they are becoming fewer—where advice received
from some senior officials was not founded on all the facts, and hence proved to be
misleading.
CIVIL SERVICE PERSONNEL PROGRAMME.
The Commission is of the opinion that its personnel programme constitutes the
hereunder-mentioned aspects, which, as far as possible, are concurrent operations.
1. Classification.—The work reported upon in the Progress Report (1945) is being
carried out as contemplated and is in process of completion. This work includes the
constant writing of definitions of qualifications and duties of the various positions as
they are assigned salary ranges, as well as for new positions which constantly are being
established.
2. Continuing Study of Departmental and Branch Organizations.—Hand in hand
with the writing of classifications is the study of Departmental organizations.    The CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION REPORT. II 7
Commission requires a complete knowledge of the organization of each Department in
order to be able to classify positions, to assist in the determination of new positions,
to study the efficiency of each position, and to decide upon the fair salaries commensurate with the duties involved.
In the interests of economy and efficient administration, the Commission must be
thoroughly conversant with the personnel requirements of each Department, as only
with such knowledge may intelligible advice be rendered in regard to future developments consistent with Civil Service efficiency.
3. Administration of Classifications.—This aspect of the programme includes the
study of requests for reclassifications, entailing a dual study of classifications and
Departmental or branch organizations in order to arrive at equitable recommendations
relative to positions, the duties of which may be changing.
4. Employee Recruitment and Selection.—Recruitment and selection is of vital
importance. This work is of a twofold nature, involving (a) the examination and
selection of recruits into the Service, and (6) promotion within the Service.
It is here that the principles of open competition and merit are being maintained
in the interests of the Government, the public, and our employees. The techniques in
recruitment and in selection now being followed have resulted in the appointment of
personnel of a calibre well above average, which will tend greatly to strengthen the
Service as a whole. Incidentally, the Commission is gratified to report that these
techniques have been the subject of commendation.
5. Efficiency within the Service.—Efficiency within the Service demands, in addition
to sound organization, a knowledge of each employee and his work. This is personnel
work in the strictest personal sense and can be greatly accelerated by the establishment
of Personnel Officers (either full time or part time) in each Department. The Personnel
Division of the Commission has made a start with new Efficiency Reports; but to be
effective there must be follow-up work, and the assistance of Departmental Personnel
Officers who have intimate knowledge of the employee, or can readily secure it, must be
made available to the Commission.
Efficiency within the Service also must be considered in a positive as well as in a
negative sense. In the positive sense it is allied with a policy of promotion, in which
the provision for in-service training is an important factor. To date this training is in
its infancy. Attention should be drawn to the work presently being accomplished by
some Departments of the Government. The training of social welfare workers, and of
psychiatric female and male nurses at the mental hospitals, has been in effect for some
time. Training also is being carried on in the ranger school of the Department of
Forests. Reference also may be made to the forest scaling system of examinations
presently in operation.
6. Employee Welfare.—A programme of welfare demands personal contact by the
Personnel Officers. The mere visit of a Personnel Officer inspires confidence and
appreciation from employees, improves morale, and often paves the way for a settlement of imagined as well as real grievances.
Except for visits in the Victoria and Lower Mainland areas, the Personnel Officers
of the Commission, due to pressure of other duties, have been unable to visit as much
as they would like to have done. Nevertheless, the Commission constantly has met with
representatives from the employees' association, who have presented welfare problems.
REINSTATEMENT   OF   PERSONNEL   WHO   WERE   GRANTED   LEAVE   OF
ABSENCE TO ENLIST WITH HIS MAJESTY'S CANADIAN FORCES.
The task of reinstatement of returning personnel has required considerable thought
and care, as the Commission not only endeavoured to see that each individual should
not have been deprived of any salary increases which he normally would have received II 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
1
had he not enlisted, but in a number of cases the question arose of the employee who,
before enlistment, held a very junior position and after a period with His Majesty's
Forces, became qualified for a more senior position.
The reclassification of the service was applied as of April 1st, 1944, and the
Commission endeavoured to ascertain as of that date just what the status of the returning employee would have been had he not enlisted.
Of the Provincial Civil Service employees who enlisted, 265 were reinstated during
the period April 1st, 1945, to December 31st, 1946. Generally speaking, the Commission
believes that reinstatements have been carried out with justice and impartiality.
In certain instances individuals who, prior to enlistment, were employed in the
Service purely as " war replacements " on a temporary basis have applied for re-entry
into the Service upon discharge. The Commission is happy to state that in nearly all
cases not only has reinstatement been effected, but the individuals concerned have been
accorded the same privileges upon re-entry as have permanent civil servants.
APPOINTMENTS, ETC.
The turnover in staff still continues to be considerable, more particularly in the
stenographic classes, which has meant a greater retention in service of stenographers
after marriage until such time as competent successors are found.
The number of staff changes from April 1st, 1945, to December 31st, 1946, were
as follows:—
1. Appointments—
Permanent—
Male	
.                 469
Female _ __ _  _   _ _ _
            776
Temporary—
Male	
                  734
Female 	
         1,324
Total	
1,245
2,058
3,303
2. Changes in position—
From outside service to Civil Service   (permanent staff
only)   1,122
Within the Service—
Permanent—
Male  672
Female   452
  1,124
Temporary—
Male  159
Female   194
      353
Total  2,599
3. Reinstatements—
Total number of reinstatements  271
Number of above returning from World War II  265 CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION REPORT. II 9
4. Removals from Service  914
5. Civil servants on leave without pay—
With His Majesty's Forces     39
Other     66
Total  105
6. Gratuities—
Number granted   9
Total amount paid out  $4,331.43
7. Civil Service list as at December 31st, 1946—
Permanent  3,158
Temporary   1,506
APPLICATION OF THE "CIVIL SERVICE ACT, 1945."
Effective July 1st, 1945, the personnel of the following boards and commissions
and the sundry personnel of the institutions, as named below, were included by Order
of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council within the definition of " Civil Service " as
defined by section 2 of the " Civil Service Act, 1945 ":—
Public Utilities Commission.
Coal and Petroleum Control Board.
Health Insurance Commission.
Provincial Mental Hospitals (Essondale, New Westminster, Colquitz).
Colony Farm.
Division of Tuberculosis Control.
Boys' Industrial School.
Girls' Industrial School.
School for the Deaf and the Blind.
Provincial Home, Kamloops.
Allco Infirmary.
Provincial Infirmary, Marpole.
Home for the Aged.
Public Works sundry personnel as classified by the Civil Service Commission.
King's Printer sundry personnel as classified by the Civil Service Commission.
The inclusion in the Civil Service of the above involved many hundreds of employees
and entailed an immense amount of additional administrative detail.
Pursuant to section 69 of the " Civil Service Act, 1945," the Lieutenant-Governor,
by Proclamation, declared the 1st day of October, 1946, as the date from and after
which retirement of employees be compulsory within the meaning of that section. As a
result, 229 employees were retired. These retirements involved the effecting of many
promotions within the Service and the eventual selection of new appointees. It readily
will be seen, therefore, that the total number of changes in positions resulting from the
retirements greatly exceeded the number of persons retired.
Considerable study was given by the Commission to the formulation of regulations
pursuant to the " Civil Service Act, 1945," and the Lieutenant-Governor in Council was
pleased to approve regulations governing vacation-leave and special leave, sick-leave,
grievance procedure, welfare and appeals.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS.
In conclusion the Commission would draw attention to the present instability of
economic living conditions.   This instability more than ever accentuates the need for II 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
constant salary appraisals. Because of a rapid rise in public demand, certain technical
and professional occupations have tended to exert pressure on the present Civil Service
classifications during the past year. As a result, the danger of the Service losing
certain types of employees best fitted to serve the public need perhaps is greater at the
present time than ever before. The value of some of these senior technicians or
administrators often is not fully appreciated until they leave the Service, when public
comment results. In view of such conditions it is gratifying to note that, through its
Personnel Branch, the Commission is equipped better than hitherto to deal with this
situation for the purposes of recommendation.
The following recommendations respectfully are made:—
That a definite policy regarding compensation or otherwise for overtime be
established for all ranks of the Government Service.
Where it is proposed to transfer personnel from one point to another point
within the Province, that consideration be given to the establishment of
a uniform policy of payment of transportation costs, inclusive of the full
cost of transportation of all personal effects, including household furniture.     This  recommendation  should  apply  in  part to  new  appointees
accepting appointments at points distant from their established domicile.
That greater efforts be made to improve working conditions in the Service.
There is a great deal of overcrowding, and lighting conditions in a good
many instances are of the poorest.
That Departmental Personnel Officers be appointed at the earliest possible
moment.
That a far greater measure of in-training be undertaken by Departments in
co-operation with the Civil Service Commission.
These recommendations are made in the belief that they will make for increased
efficiency in the Civil Service, resulting in greater service to all.
In conclusion the Commission desires to express its keen appreciation of the
co-operation received from Departmental officials and for the loyal and efficient service
rendered by its own staff.
REPORT OF THE CHIEF PERSONNEL OFFICER, HUGH M. MORRISON.
Up to December 31st, 1946, the following personnel work was accomplished by the
newly inaugurated Personnel staff of the Commission.
I. General.
1. Inauguration of Apprentice Training for Veterans with the Department of
Public Works.—A scheme for training ex-servicemen as apprentice tradesmen was set
up in co-operation with the Department of Public Works. This scheme was intended
to take care of the maturity and marital status of returned men in paying them higher
rates than apprentices ordinarily would receive and was completely independent of any
grants offered by the Department of Veterans' Affairs. The apprenticeships are of
four years' duration, during which time the apprentice is paid progressively increasing
percentages of the journeyman's rates and is entitled to holiday and sick leave and
other benefits during his apprenticeship.
2. New Positions established and classified.—The need for the establishment of the
following positions was investigated and a classification assigned:—
Air Surveys Engineer.
Assistant Analyst, Mines Department.
Executive Assistant, Department of Education. CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION REPORT. II 11
Executive Assistant, Department of the Provincial Secretary.
Forestry Branch—Engineers and Sundry Staff.
General Assistant, High School Correspondence Branch.
Head, Audio-visual Education Branch, Essondale.
Industrial and Trade Representative.
Janitor-Engineers.
Land Inspectors.
Land Surveyor.
Milk Board.
Occupational Therapists.
Organizer of Recreation, New Westminster.
Personnel Officers.
Physical Education and Recreation Branch, Department of Education.
Psychologists.
Sanitary Inspectors.
Specialized Assistants, Occupational Therapy.
Technical Stenographer, Museum.
Typewriter Mechanics.
Visual Education Branch, Department of Education.
3. Review of Existing Positions and Classifications.—The following occupational
groups were investigated,  and adjustments in the classifications were made where
necessary:—■
Architects.
Assessors, Department of Finance.
Cleaners, Institutions.
Dietitians.
Draughtsmen.
Engineers, Public Works Department.
Farm Staffs.
Government Agents.
Housekeepers, Institutions.
Inspectors of Amusement Tax.
Inspectors, Labour Department.
Inspectors of Railways.
Institutional Employees, Public Works Department.
Instructional and Nursing Staffs, Mental Hospitals.
Laboratory Personnel.
Land Registry Office Personnel.
Librarians and Archives Staff.
Male Attendants, Boys' Industrial School.
Mining Engineers and Inspectors.
Municipal Inspectors of Schools.
Nurses, Marpole Infirmary.
Nurses, Tranquille.
Physicians.
Public Health Unit Staffs.
Relief Orderlies, T.B. Unit.
Scaling Staff, Department of Lands and Forests.
Sheriffs.
Social Workers, Social Assistance Branch.
Sundry Staff, Institutions.
Surgical Attendants, Essondale. II 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Teachers, General and also Model School.
Tradesmen—Maintenance, Department of Public Works.
4. Working-hours.—A policy covering working-hours was established for night
watchmen, Parliament Buildings;   occupational therapists;   laboratory personnel.
5. Overtime.—The problem of payment or compensation for overtime has been
investigated and a report submitted.
6. Promotional Examination of Attendants at Essondale.—Attendants at this
institution were examined in order to determine those eligible for promotion.
7. Special Living Allowances.—A policy covering the payment of special living
allowances in remote parts of the Province was recommended in order that such payments might be consistent within separate Departments.
8. Amendments to the Present Regulations covering holiday-leave have been
submitted.
9. Promotional Policy.—In filling all vacancies, the Personnel Branch has endeavoured to promote qualified and deserving personnel within their respective Departments
and Branches. In line with the policy of the Commission, all vacancies at Government
institutions are posted on the bulletin-boards for a period of not less than five days.
II. Branches and Offices.
The following offices were reviewed as a group, and necessary adjustments and
modifications in classifications recommended where necessary:—
Old-age Pension Board.
Division of Venereal Disease Control.
Division of Vital Statistics.
Farmers' and Women's Institutes and Boys' and Girls' Clubs, Department of
Agriculture.
Text-book Branch, Department of Education.
Auditors, Comptroller-General.
Supreme Court Registry, Vancouver.
Technical Education Branch, Department of Education.
Sheriff's Office, Victoria.
Janitors, Vancouver Court-house.
Office Staff, Public Works Department.
Office Staff, Social Assistance Branch.
Office Staff, Essondale.
Staff, Tuberculosis Sanatorium, Tranquille.
Motor-vehicle Branch, Headquarters Staff, Victoria.
Department of Municipal Affairs.
General Office, Department of Mines.
Department of Labour.
Office of the King's Printer.
Water Rights Branch.
Superannuation Branch.
Office Staff, Department of Forests, Vancouver.
Registrar-General of Voters' Office, Vancouver.
Accounting Branch, Department of the Provincial Secretary.
III. Individual Cases.
Besides the above general surveys, the Commission officials daily are faced with
investigations into requests from individual employees for surveys of their positions.
During the period, no less than 489 positions and persons were investigated and
reports made. CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION REPORT. II 13
IV. Interviewing and Placement.
A substantial proportion" of the Personnel Officer's time is spent in interviewing
applicants. This work is most important in order to keep recruitment and placement
on a high plane.
It might be noted that, acting under the prevailing policy, preference to veterans
of the armed forces in regard to recruitment has been rigidly followed.
V. Record System affecting Service as a Whole.
1. Medical Reports.—An entirely new and expanded form for medical examination of employees recommended for permanent appointment was devised. It may be
stated that this form has operated to the entire satisfaction of all concerned.
2. Employee Efficiency Reports.—As salary increases to employees within the
salary ranges are not automatically effective, but are dependent upon the recommendation of the Chief Personnel Officer and the Deputy Minister of the Department concerned, a report form was devised. As a result, several months before an increase
becomes due, a report on each individual is filed in the office of the Commission.
3. Reorganization of Personnel Records.—Due to the expanded nature of the work
of the Commission, and particularly in regard to the inclusion of various institutional
employees as civil servants, reorganization of personnel records became necessary, and
while a good deal of progress has been made, the work has yet to be completed.
VI. Advertising.
All positions which readily cannot be filled from available applicants or by the
means of promotion have been advertised by open competition in the daily press and
in pertinent trade or professional periodicals.
In line with the policy of the Commission, all vacancies at the institutions are
being posted on bulletin-boards for a period of not less than five days.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1947.
805-247-9477    PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Hon. E. T. Kenney, Minister Geo. P. Melrose, Deputy Minister of Lands
Report of the
Lands, Surveys, and Water
Rights Branches
together with
the Dyking and Drainage Commissioner,
Southern Okanagan Lands Project,
University Endowment Lands, and the
Petroleum and Natural Gas Commissioner
Year ended December 31st
1946
VICTORIA, B.C.:
Printed by Don McDiaemid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1947.    Victoria, B.C., January 30th, 1947.
To His Honour C. A. Banks,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Lands, Surveys,
and Water Rights Branches, with other divisions, of the Department of Lands and
Forests for the year ended December 31st, 1946.
E. T. KENNEY,
Minister of Lands and Forests.
Victoria, B.C., January 30th, 1947.
The Honourable E. T. Kenney,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
SIR,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Lands, Surveys, and
Water Rights Branches of the Department of Lands and Forests for the twelve months
ended December 31st, 1946, with which is incorporated the Annual Reports of the
Inspector of Dykes and Commissioner of Dyking, Southern Okanagan Lands Project,
the University Endowment Lands, and the Petroleum and Natural Gas Commissioner.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
GEO. P. MELROSE,
Deputy Minister of Lands. CONTENTS.
Page.
1. Report of the Deputy Minister of Lands       5
(a.)  Introduction  5
(6.)  Development of the Province of British Columbia and its Land Laws 8
2. Lands Branch, by C. E. Hopper  16
(a.)  Land Utilization Research and Survey, by Donald Sutherland  30
3. Land Settlement Board, by N. L. Camsusa  33
4. Surveys Branch, by N. C. Stewart     35
(a.) Air Surveys, by G. S. Andrews  36
(6.) Geographic Division, by W. G. H. Firth  44
(c.)  Surveys Division, by F. 0. Morris  53
(d.) Topographic Division, by A. J. Campbell  59
(e.)   Topographical  Survey,  West  Coast  of Vancouver  Island,  by A.   G.
Slocomb   59
(/.)   Topographical Survey, Vanderhoof and Fort Fraser Vicinity, by N. C.
Stewart  64
(g.)  Triangulation Control Survey, Chilcotin Area, by A. C. Pollard  68
(h.)  British Columbia-Yukon Boundary Survey, by A. J. Campbell  72
5. Water Rights Branch, by R. C. Farrow    78
6. Dyking and Drainage, by Bruce Dixon     98
7. Southern Okanagan Lands Project, by D. W. Hodsdon  112
8. University Endowment Lands, by M. E. Ferguson  122
9. Coal, Petroleum, and Natural Gas, by Dr. T. B. Williams  128 REPORT OF THE LANDS, SURVEYS, AND
WATER RIGHTS BRANCHES.
REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER OF LANDS.
INTRODUCTION.
The year 1946 was the first calendar year of peace after the late World War. It
naturally saw many important changes in the amount and kind of work performed, the
demands on the Department and its personnel. The staff comparison with the pre-war
year of 1938 is as follows:—
Total Permanent Staff,
Lands Branch	
including Districts.
1938.
         27
1946
30
Surveys Branch              	
48
44
Water Rights Branch    _ 	
                   31
34
General administration	
         15
16
Other Divisions	
_____             39
54
Totals	
  160
178
Valuable members of the staff of the various branches lost their lives in the service
of their country during the late World War. The final records available show the following as having made the supreme sacrifice: F. R. Leighton, Surveys Branch; J. F.
Stevens, Surveys Branch.
During the year we lost one respected member of the staff through death, the late
R. C. Mainguy, B.C.L.S., and several through retirement.
Notable among the latter was Henry Cathcart, I.S.O., who had an unparalleled
career in the Civil Service. Joining the Government employ in 1884, he retired after
sixty-two years of continuous service, during the last seventeen of which he occupied
the position of Deputy Minister of Lands. Well known and highly respected for his
knowledge of Governmental policy and procedure, his calm judgment and common-sense
attitude will long be missed in the Department.
As might be expected, the backlog of demands for land, built up during the war,
began to make itself felt, and the year's business showed a big increase over 1945.
Almost every kind of land use shared in the upward movement, which bids fair to
continue into 1947. An indication of the increase is given in the statistics of the file-
room, shown later in the report.
During the year a Chief Land Inspector was appointed to handle the more difficult
field inspections and to supervise the work of the other Land Inspectors. The appointment was well justified, as there were many complicated cases with which to deal. The
following table shows the number and kinds of inspections carried out by the Chief
Land Inspector in addition to his supervisory duties:—
Foreshore leases  15
Valuation     1
Reservations      6
Proposed subdivisions, surveys and plans cancellation  11
Land leases     8
Selection, one-quarter-interest lots     1
Squatters     2
Land purchases     2
Total
46 II 6 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
The result of the greater movement of land units was the demand for more surveys,
which is reflected in the business of the Surveys Branch. The relative amount of
activity in this Branch is shown in later tabulation of field-books received and records
of surveys made.
As development of the natural resources of the Province progresses, we find constant expansion of the need for reliable maps. This need has been understood for many
years, indeed decades, by the various Surveyors-General of the Province, with the result
that great areas have been carefully mapped. Starting with ground photo-topographic
processes more than a quarter of a century ago, methods have been improved constantly,
until to-day the combination of ground triangulation and photo-topographic methods
on the horizontal plane are combined with the vertical plane aerial photographic
methods. These give a complete and accurate basis for mapping the topography, cover,
and culture of the Province, resulting in maps of superlative value.
The reports of the Surveyor-General and his staff show what work has been done
and the maps that are available. They can and do form the basis for all kinds of land
use and planning. Forest inventories are only intelligible as they are based on good
topographic maps; the soil surveyor laying out the land for agricultural use depends
on topographic maps for the size and shape of land areas; the geologist and mineralogist connect land shapes to the search for minerals. These and many more resource
developments depend on maps, the accuracy of which may vary if competent men with
adequate controls are not available. It may be said without boastfulness that the
highest standards of reliability and scientific excellence are maintained by the Department through the Surveyor-General's Branch.
For the first time the Surveyor-General had at his disposal the services of highly
trained and professionally competent men in the Air Surveys Division. This was
organized in 1946, and details of its operations appear in this report. Basically
designed for full topographic coverage, the results of its work are imperative for
modern land, forest, geological, hydrological, and utility development. Every effort is
being made to keep the standard as high as any in the world through the use of the
best instruments by the best-trained men.
Land use in British Columbia, especially for agricultural pursuits, involves the
control of water. In the great Interior valleys, semi-arid in climate, water must be
applied to the land artificially if it is to produce. In the fertile Fraser Valley excess
water must be dyked off the land and drained away. Thus the services of the Water
Rights Branch assume vast importance to the agricultural community and hence to the
whole Province. Guiding and controlling the use of water by individuals and communities, it has consistently maintained a stable and seldom-challenged administration
over one of our basic resources. The report of the Comptroller of Water Rights will
elaborate the functions of his Branch.
The administration of land areas, their survey and mapping, and the application
or denial of water to them for productive purposes, all join in a complicated pattern to
form the basis of British Columbia life. Mineral resources, wild life, power, forests,
scenery, farms, and fisheries are mixed in ever-shifting combinations to be used by
man through his ingenuity.
In past years many groups and individuals have failed in their settlements for lack
of the full comprehension of the interplay of all these factors. With land open to all,
at their free will, one can only wonder that there were no more failures.
Planned guidance to settlers is now the policy of the Department. The Land
Utilization Research and Survey Division of the Lands Branch is designed to obviate
the past difficulties. Basically organized to study the land and its use, its practical
function will result in all land areas of the Province being divided into economic units
and disposed of to people capable of making such units productive of the good life. REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER OF LANDS. II 7
A more detailed description of the work and objectives of the Land Utilization
Research and Survey Division is given later in this report. Sufficient to say here that
through this Division the works of all other Branches and Divisions of the Department,
even of other Departments, can be integrated and, channelled back through administrative functions, provide the basic design of a better Province.
Land use in specific areas for various purposes has also been a function of this part
of the Department. For instance, the area known as the Southern Okanagan Lands
Project is here administered. Originally an area of semi-arid range-land, of sage-brush
and bunch-grass, supporting a few hundred head of cattle, there is now a prosperous
population of over 4,000 people and the thriving towns of Oliver and Osoyoos. They are
the business centres of a district producing from $2,500,000 to $3,000,000 worth of
agricultural products per year. This is the result of land-use planning, of the combination of soil and water surveys, of hydraulic and agricultural engineering, and of
enlightened Governmental administration.
A full report on this project is given later in the report. It should be noted that,
although it has not been entirely self-supporting in the past, it is planned to make it
so from now on.
On the other arm of the water balance is the dyking and drainage problem of the
Fraser Valley. Here thousands of acres of low-lying, fertile lands are annually threatened by river freshets, periodically by heavy precipitation, and daily by the ocean tides.
Once in a while the three combine to form the makings of disaster. Through Governmental assistance and administration, dyking and drainage districts have been formed
and operated as outlined later in this report.
Under the Eegis of this Department these lands enter the picture of utilization of
natural resources for the benefit of the Province and the Dominion as a whole.
The development of a great Province such as British Columbia can only be accomplished on the basis of scientific knowledge and its application. Hence the University
of British Columbia has been established to educate our own youth for these purposes,
for the development of resources, both natural and human. To help support the
University, a tract of over 3,000 acres of land was set aside surrounding the University
site, to be developed as a high-class residential area, the proceeds to form an endowment
fund. Adjoining the City of Vancouver and overlooking the waters of the Strait of
Georgia, there is no finer residential area in Canada (some say in North America).
The management and development of the area is a function of this Department, accomplished through a resident staff, whose activities and accomplishments are recorded
later in the report. Suffice to say here that the years of war activity, the rapid development of Vancouver and the University, and the attractiveness of the site have all
combined to build it up. Blocks of building lots have lately become almost exhausted,
with the demand still strong.
Plans for 1947 call for development of additional areas of building sites along plans
made by leading town-planning experts.
Involving the alienation and use of large areas of land surface, as well as subsurface, the administration of the " Coal Act" and the " Petroleum and Natural-gas
Act" is vested in the Department. The increasing interest displayed by the large oil
companies in British Columbia made it desirable to set up a division to administer the
Act and advise the Department on the technical aspects.
To this end Dr. T. B. Williams, a widely experienced geologist, was appointed Commissioner of Petroleum and Natural Gas early in 1946.
In addition, Dr. Williams took charge of the investigations of the coal resources
of the Peace River area, and he will advise the Department and the Government on the
technical factors involved in the administration of the " Coal Act." His report for the
year appears later. II 8 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Through the various technical divisions of the Department we have accomplished
a good year's work in the study of the resources of the Province. The Surveyor-General
provides the maps and surveys on which all resource and cultural expansion must be
based; the Water Rights Branch studies and records the water resources for power,
irrigation, and domestic use; the Land Utilization Research and Survey Division brings
together all pertinent information for a land-use plan; the Petroleum and Natural Gas
Commissioner compiles information on oil, gas, and coal resources, while the Lands
Branch administers the land areas involved. The whole picture of land use and development is one of combining the resources in their proper importance and building and
maintaining an organization for their development. It is felt that we have made a
good start after the war and have a foundation on which to build a great future, but
without knowledge we can do nothing.
Thus a year of great activity has passed, of accomplishments along many lines, but
of still wider plans for the use of the land of the Province in the great purpose of better
living for all. The planned use of land—the conjunction of enough land of the right
kind for the chosen localities, of auxiliary resources, and of the right people—will result
in higher standards of living for everyone.
Through the efforts of every Branch and Division of this Department, and with
the co-operation of other Departments of the Government so generously given in the
past and confidently expected in the future, the planning of our land use should be
advanced measurably each year as it has been in 1946.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
AND ITS LAND LAWS.
In any country, legislation dealing with natural resources is essentially a compromise between the rights of the State with respect to the resources and the natural
desires of men to realize for themselves the fruits of the earth. Since the State must
be regarded as timeless, the interests of generations to come must be considered in
framing the legislation. Furthermore, the regulations must not favour any one area
of the State but should apply equally to all parts and to all men. Finally, since time
brings constant changes by way of population density, markets, inventions, and uses
for materials, the legislation must conform to the ever-changing social and economic
pattern of the country. Obviously, it is beyond the powers of man to produce a perfect
piece of legislation which would satisfy all the diverse interests and conditions in the
country and yet accurately anticipate and allow for the inevitable changes which time
is bound to bring about.
The " Land Act" of the Province is an excellent example of the type of legislation
described. The present form of the Act is an expression of the existing policy for the
administration of the land resources. Over a period of years the many amendments
to the original Acts reflect changes in policy conforming to the social and economic
developments that have taken place since the beginnings of settlement.
The following is intended as a very brief summary of the development that has
occurred in the Province and of some selected amendments to the land laws over the
same period. The summary should indicate the relationships that have existed between
the changes in the social and economic life of the Province and the changes in the
policy of land administration, which may be fairly described as a policy of expediency.
Early History.
Limitations of space enable only passing reference to the rich historical heritage
of the North Pacific Coast and the vast country inland. The early explorations by sea
and the explorations conducted by the fur-traders inland would form volumes of REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER OF LANDS. II 9
fascinating reading. But the first explorations were not conducted with the purpose
in mind of the colonization of a new land. The voyagers by sea were searching for
the fabled north-west passage to the Indies.
Three great European countries have left their imprint upon the Pacific Coast
through the geographical place-names given by their explorers. Russia through the
voyages of Vitus Bering, the Dane, who, on his second voyage in 1741, sailing in the
" St. Peter " and accompanied by Chirikoff in the " St. Paul," landed on the Aleutians,
and while Bering did not survive the voyage, Chirikoff landed at Sitka in Alaska. The
voyage led to the establishment of the Russian fur trade and Russian claims to Alaska.
Spain was the second great European power to attempt actual explorations, when in
1774 Juan Perez sailed in the " Santiago," and before returning sighted the peaks of
the Queen Charlotte Islands. In the following year Heceta and Quadra sailed in two
vessels from San Bias in Mexico, when Quadra landed at Port Bucareli in Alaska and
took formal possession of the adjacent territory. England was the third European
power concerned, and first definite knowledge of the North-west Coast and its inhabitants came as one of the results of the last voyage of Captain James Cook. During the
time his vessel was proceeding along the coast in 1778, his crew bartered with the
Indians for furs. These were marketed in Canton for high prices, and accounts of the
voyage stimulated quick development of a maritime fur trade.
The second compelling motive leading to early explorations was the lure of the
great harvest of fur-bearing animals existing in the virgin northern territories.
Competition between the claims of Spain and the activities of English and American
maritime traders led to the seizure by Spain of four vessels belonging to Captain John
Meares and his associates. The resultant dispute nearly brought about a war between
Spain and England, but was finally settled by the signing of the Nootka Convention
in 1790. The treaty left the coast open to any nation for trade, including the building
on land of trading establishments. Following the signing of the treaty, Captain
George Vancouver was sent out from England in 1791 in command of the " Discovery "
and " Chatham." He was instructed to take possession of the establishments at
Nootka Sound alleged to have been seized from Captain John Meares by Martinez, then
the Spanish commander. Captain Vancouver, in the years between 1792 and 1794,
directed very intensive explorations of the broken and intricate coast-line of what is
now known as the State of Washington, British Columbia, and Alaska.
At the time Captain Vancouver was mapping the coast-line, Alexander Mackenzie,
employed by the North West Fur Company, completed the first voyage across the main
body of the continent. Leaving Fort Chipewyan on Lake Athabasca, he proceeded up
the Peace and Parsnip Rivers, continued down the Fraser, and then by way of the Bella
Coola River reached the Pacific. The activities of the Hudson's Bay Company did not
extend beyond the Rockies, and it was the North West Company that directed the
extension of the fur trade in the North-west. In 1805 Simon Fraser established Fort
McLeod and the year following founded Fort St. James on Stuart Lake. In 1807 Fort
George was founded, and in 1808 Simon Fraser, after incredible difficulties, descended
the Fraser River to its mouth. The years following were marked by the explorations
of David Thompson in the Kootenays, of John Stuart, who founded Fort Kamloops in
1812, and of others. One wonders, on reading of the hardships faced by these men, at
the unerring instinct by which they found their way over vast distances to definite
points through a wild, trackless, and mountainous country. Truly it may be said of
them that they were " iron men."
The Pacific Fur Company competed for a short time with the North West Company, but was finally absorbed by the latter company. In 1821, in turn, the North
West Company was united with the Hudson's Bay Company. In 1825 Fort Vancouver
was established at the mouth of the Columbia River and became headquarters for the II 10 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Columbia Department, which included all the North-west. In 1827 Fort Langley was
established on the Fraser River, and in 1839 the Hudson's Bay Company leased the
coastal strip of Alaska from the Russians and thus completely dominated the fur trade
in the North-west Pacific area. White settlement at this time was limited entirely to
the fur-trading posts and land-development was of little consequence other than for the
small Post farms and gardens. The only communities that existed were the Indian
settlements along the coast and the inland waterways. Intervening land areas were
held under tribal rule, the boundaries established through generations of Indian wars
and years of use for hunting, fishing, and trapping.
The Hudson's Bay Company was completely disinterested in colonizing the vast
area under its control, for it was policy to limit contact with the Indians to company
officials and to preserve a monopoly of the Indian trade. The move towards white
settlement was brought about through the pressure of events of more significance to
the Colonial Office than the continuance of a fur monopoly by a private company.
The Oregon boundary dispute between Britain and the United States, after years
of negotiation, was finally settled in favour of the United States on June 15th, 1846,
by which treaty the boundary-line was drawn along the " forty-ninth parallel to the
middle of the channel which separates the continent from Vancouver Island and thence
southerly through the middle of said channel and of Fucas Straits to the Pacific
Ocean." As a result, the Hudson's Bay Company was forced to withdraw from its
establishments south of the boundary.
In 1842, foreseeing a possible decision in favour of the Americans, Dr. John
McLoughlin, in charge of company affairs in the North-west, sent out James Douglas
from Fort Vancouver at the mouth of the Columbia to examine the south end of Vancouver Island for a possible site for a new headquarters. He selected the port of
Camosun, now Victoria, and on March 15th, 1843, Douglas and a party of fifteen men
arrived to clear the site and prepare materials. Following the settlement of the dispute, company headquarters was moved from Fort Vancouver to Fort Victoria, with
James Douglas now in charge of company affairs in the West.
During the discussion of the Oregon boundary dispute the British Government
learned that arguments of prior rights of exploration were not sufficient to overcome
the weight afforded through the presence of large numbers of American settlers
who had arrived over the Oregon Trail to settle the rich lands of the Columbia. Apprehensive of peaceful American penetration, the British Government could see that the
establishment of settlers would count in the long run. Representations had also
been made to the British Government for authority to settle a colony of Mormons
attracted by the mild climate and resources of Vancouver Island. The Hudson's Bay
Company was interested, since any settlement could only come by way of the sea, the
cost of which was quite beyond the means of the ordinary individual. If there was
to be any settlement, it must necessarily be financed by a private company, and the
Hudson's Bay Company was the logical agency.
On January 13th, 1849, by Royal Charter, Vancouver Island was ceded to the
Hudson's Bay Company upon the condition that it should form there a colony of British
subjects and dispose of the land at a reasonable price for that purpose. The moneys
received from such sales, and all sums arising from the mining of coal and other
minerals, less a deduction of 10 per cent., were to be used in the colonization and
improvement of the Island. The grant required the company to make a return once
in every two years showing the number of colonists and the amount of land that had
been alienated. James Douglas, being in charge of the Hudson's Bay Company,
became the agent of the Government. The civil authority was to be represented by
a governor appointed by the Crown. REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER OF LANDS. II 11
Early Land Policy.
1849 to 1866.
The company at once took the first logical step towards colonization.    A set of
regulations for the granting of land was drawn up, and six days after the receipt of
the grant the regulations outlined below were published in the London Times:—
(1.)  No purchases of less than 20 acres.
(2.)  Price of land to be £1 per acre, payable in London.
(3.) Purchasers were to pay their own passage out.
(4.)  In the case of all purchases of more than 20 acres, five single men or
three married couples were to be brought out for each hundred acres
purchased.
(5.)  Ten per cent, of the land in each section was to be set aside for a minister.    His passage and passage of enough labourers to work his allotment were provided.
(6.) Ten per cent, was also set aside for roads, sites for church and graveyard, schools and other public purposes.
The foregoing regulations were transmitted to James Douglas from Hudson's Bay
House in London, but it cannot be said that the policy resulted in any flow of settlers
to the Island.    Until 1858 sales of land were made almost entirely to officials of the
company, and development of the land was limited to company activities and to a
subsidiary company, the Puget Sound Agricultural Company, which operated the large
company farm near Victoria.
The first civil governor sent out was Richard Blanchard, an English barrister, who
arrived in 1850. There was constant conflict between the new Governor, who found
no colonists to govern, and James Douglas, the Chief Factor of the company, who
exercised the real influence in the colony. Within a few months Blanchard resigned
and returned to England, and Douglas was appointed as governor to succeed him. He
ruled with the aid of a nominated council until August 4th, 1856, when, in obedience
to pressing dispatches from Downing Street, he reluctantly summoned an elected
council of seven members.
One of his first tasks was to extinguish the Indian title to the land now granted
by the Crown, and in doing so Douglas followed definite instructions from Hudson's
Bay House, as follows:—
(1.)  The natives were to be considered rightful possessors of such land only
as they occupied by cultivation or had houses built upon.
(2.)   Such land as was needed was to be purchased and an average compensation of £1 per head of the tribe was to be paid.
(3.)  Wild land was not to be paid for, as it belonged to the Crown.
(4.)  Natives would be confirmed in the possession of their lands as long as
they occupied and cultivated it themselves, but would not be allowed to
sell or dispose of them to any private person.
(5.)  All land sales were to be made by the company.    Douglas negotiated
with certain Indian tribes and acquired the land encompassed by the
sea-coast and the interior from Gordon Head to Point Gonzales, and
from thence running west along the Strait of Juan de Fuca to Point
Sheringham, a distance of about 44 miles.    In all cases the Indians were
not to be disturbed from their villages, retained full fishing rights, and
could hunt over the unoccupied land.
The first years were marked by the passage of various laws enabling the purchase,
registration, transfer, and inheritance of real estate.    James  Douglas was  in the
position of a buffer between the demands of immigrants for more lenient land regulations and the inflexible control of administrators several thousand miles distant and II 12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
wholly unfamiliar with conditions. Fortunately for the welfare of the young colony
the Governor was a man of very strong character, and once having determined his
course of action, nothing could persuade him to deviate from his principles. In the
light of history, his principles can be said to be of the highest and his judgments sound.
In 1850 the regulations regarding purchases exceeding 20 acres requiring the
importation of labourers was cancelled, since to enforce them amounted to prohibiting
settlement.
The procedure for obtaining title deeds was cumbersome. When the full purchase
price was paid and the survey completed, one copy of the agreement went to London,
where a regular deed was made out, sealed, and returned to the colony.
The absence of immigrants and the lack of land sales finally induced Hudson's
Bay House to relax the rule requiring payment in full for the land at the time of
purchase. In 1856 a policy was established permitting instalment purchase. The
amount to be paid down at first was 25 per cent, of the sale price, and in 1858 there
were instalments of £24,000 as yet unpaid, which would indicate a considerable bulk
of land sales.
The size of the initial payment was the subject of a petition signed by a large
and respectable body of immigrants from Upper Canada. In view of their circumstances, Douglas established a more lenient rule, requiring payment of 1 shilling at
purchase, 1 shilling at the end of the first month, and the remainder in 6-shilling
payments on the second, third, and fourth years.
Up until 1858 there was no settlement on the Mainland other than the fur-trading
posts, when overnight men began to arrive by the hundreds and then by the thousands.
Gold was discovered on the sand-bars of the Fraser River and constitutes the third and
most powerful motivating force in the exploration and settlement of the North-west.
As the nearest representative of the Crown, James Douglas was offered the governorship of the Mainland, provided that he would give up his interests in the Hudson's Bay
Company. This he did, and on November 19th, 1858, at Fort Langley, the Colony of
British Columbia was ushered into existence. In the following year the seat of
government for the new colony was moved to New Westminster. The two colonies
carried on under separate administrations, but revenues were not sufficient, and in 1866
they were united and, following much controversy, Victoria was selected as the capital.
The union was contemporaneous with the movement in Eastern Canada towards
Confederation.
The unexpected rush of the gold-seekers greatly intensified the demand for land
and created pressing problems in the task of administration.
The lack of surveyed land, due to the absence of qualified personnel, created a very
obstinate problem. The Land Proclamation of 1858 was passed as an emergency
measure. Full .payment was to be made when surveys reached the pre-empted land, and
no land was to be pre-empted unless it had already been offered for sale at £1 per acre.
The actual Proclamation was made in 1861, and allowed male British subjects and aliens
who took the oath of allegiance, over 18 years of age, to pre-empt 150 acres of land, or
200 acres for a married man whose wife lived on the Island and 10 acres for each
child under 18.
By March, 1862, some 254 pre-emptors had taken up land, which would indicate at
least 50,000 acres taken under private control. Other Acts passed in this period were
the "Land Registry Act" of 1860, to facilitate the transfer of real estate and to
provide for the registration of titles, also a succession of Acts enabling aliens to hold
and transmit real estate. Provision was made to enable naturalization on proving
continuous residence in any part of the colony for three years or upwards.
On the Mainland Governor Douglas enacted by Proclamation various enabling Acts
for the purchase and registration of land conforming closely to the laws passed on REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER OF LANDS. II 13
Vancouver Island. In February, 1859, Lord Lytton, then Colonial Secretary, sent out
a set of suggestions to guide land policy. He advised the maintenance of a fixed high
price and discouraged any suggestion of instalment purchase on the grounds that it
would tend to attract a class of indigent persons, when the object was to attract men
with available capital.
However, by the Land Proclamation of British Columbia in 1859, Douglas proceeded
with a policy of lower prices for land. All lands except townsites and mineral lands
were to be sold for 10 shillings per acre, payable half in cash and the balance at the
end of two years.
The movement leading to Confederation continued. In 1869 the Hudson's Bay
Company surrendered to the Crown the right and title to their territories for transfer
to the Dominion of Canada, and in 1870 these became part of the Dominion. In 1871
British Columbia entered into Confederation.
The Land Ordinance of 1870 repealed various earlier Acts and permitted the
pre-emption of land to the extent of 320 acres northward and eastward of the Cascades
and 160 acres in the rest of the colony. Upon completion of the survey, a certificate of
improvement attesting to improvements to the value of $2.50 an acre, residence of four
years on the land, and completion of the purchase price of $1 an acre, a Crown grant
was issued. Right of the Crown was retained to remove gravel, stone, and timber
required for the construction of public works. Also the Crown retained the right to
divert any unrecorded and unappropriated water.
The price of unsurveyed and unoccupied land was determined by Order in Council,
dated September 5th, 1873, as $2.50 per acre, the right to all precious and base metals
and minerals being reserved to the Crown. Purchases were limited individually or as
a member of a company to not more than 640 acres.
1866 to 1900.
Part of the terms of Confederation was the promise of the Dominion of Canada to
complete a railway linking the East and the West. Years were required to complete
the surveys, and to the land-owners in the isolated Province of British Columbia the
work seemed to progress with tantalizing slowness. However, in 1887 the last spike
was driven, linking the two oceans by a narrow ribbon of steel. The impetus given by
the gold-seekers was succeeded by the promoter and land-seeker, and in the thirty-year
period from 1870 the Province developed with an almost explosive rapidity. The road
leading to the mines of the Cariboo was cut through the rocky canyon of the Fraser
river; the Esquimalt and Nanaimo Railway was completed in 1886, and in 1892 steel
was laid for the branch line of the Canadian Pacific Railway into the Okanagan. In the
same period the Crowsnest Pass railway was completed to the mines of the Kootenay
country. In 1883 the Legislature passed the great railway land grants, conveying a
20-mile strip on the Island and the Mainland for railway construction and a 3,500,000-
acre block in the Peace River to the Dominion for the same purpose.
In 1886 the bill incorporating the City of Vancouver was passed, and also industrial
bills incorporating the Vancouver Electric, the Vancouver Street Railways and Vancouver Gas Company.
The question of protecting and conserving the great natural resources of timber,
fish, and game induced the enactment of legislation to control their exploitation and to
secure the maximum of revenue to the Crown.
In 1873 an Act was passed respecting the drainage, dyking, and irrigation of lands
in British Columbia. In the same year, in an effort to secure the development of lands
held for speculation, a bill was passed imposing a wild land tax of 1 per cent, of the
value per acre. II 14 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
In 1874 an Act was passed to prevent the careless use of fire in woods and forests.
However, the Act was only enforced in a district when the necessary petition was
received, signed by two-thirds of the settlers.
The question of unpaid balances owing on land purchases caused some very drastic
legislation in 1878, when an Act was passed declaring that unpaid purchase money on
surveyed lands would bear the interest rate of 24 per cent, and forfeiture of the land
if payment was not completed within three months.
The system of square or rectangular survey was adopted by the Government in
1882. Lines were to be run due north and south and east and west, and in the year
following the amended and consolidated land laws described the system of surveys in
great detail. Land prices of surveyed Crown lands were set at $2.50 per acre and the
price of pre-empted land at $1, payable in instalments. Certain residence and improvement requirements were described.
In the amendments to the " Land Act " in 1891 the first recognition was made of
the variation in the productivity of land. Class 1 land, consisting of good agricultural
land or land having good timber or wild-hay meadows, was valued at $5 an acre.
Class 2 land was land requiring irrigation and valued at $2.50 an acre, and class 3 land
consisting of mountainous and rocky land valued at $1 per acre.
Lands were further reclassified in 1896, with surveyors being empowered to classify
lands surveyed into timber-lands, first-, second-, and third-class lands. Timber-lands
were defined as those lands containing milling timber on an average of 8,000 feet per
acre, or over, west of the Cascades, and 5,000 feet and over east of the Cascades.
Timber-lands could not be sold. Prices of the other three classes were set at $5,
$2.50, and $1.
In 1899 the enabling legislation was passed reserving coal and petroleum rights to
the Crown in respect to all land.
1900 to 1947.
The rapid development within the Province continued, with almost yearly amendments to various regulations pertaining to the lease, sale, and pre-emption of Crown
lands and the exploitation of land resources.
During the South African War and World Wars I. and II., provision was made
to secure any equity in land possessed by the volunteers and to assist members of the
forces to take up land following their discharge.
Railway construction continued unabated until the completion of the Canadian
Northern line to Prince Rupert in 1915.
The task of land administration grew to the point that in 1908 an Act was passed
establishing a Department of Lands, and in 1912 provision was made for the establishment of a Forest Branch within the Department of Lands, calling for the appointment
of a Chief Forester to carry out and administer the provisions of the " Forest Act."
Various important regulations were passed respecting the administration of land.
In 1901 provision was made for small holdings whereby Crown lands which had been
subdivided into lots not exceeding 40 acres could be pre-empted.
The question of watersheds received attention. Provision was made in 1905
whereby any incorporated city owning and operating its own system of waterworks
could lease vacant Crown lands which formed the whole or any portion of the natural
watershed for a term not exceeding 999 years.
In 1906 pre-emptions of land for agricultural purposes were limited to 160 acres,
and in the same year legislation was enacted reserving to the Crown any foreshore
lands, tidal lands, the bed of the sea, or any land covered by navigable water.
The year following, a further reservation was passed to include quarries or lands
suitable for fishing-stations or cannery-sites.    In addition, it was enacted that in the REPORT OF DEPUTY MINISTER OF LANDS. II 15
event of lands Crown-granted being divided into town lots, one-fourth of all the blocks
of lots were to be reconveyed to the Crown.
The price of land was raised in 1910 to $10 for first-class land and remained at
this level until 1918, when prices were reduced by law to a minimum of $5 for first class
and $2.50 for second class.
Provision for assistance to existing settlers was made in 1917 with the establishment of a Land Settlement Board, in charge of lands in certain defined settlement
districts. In 1930 authority was given to the Board for the purchase and resale to
settlers of live stock, for the purchase and rental of well-drilling machinery, and for the
purchase and resale of well-casing materials.
In 1934 provision was made for the exchange of land held by pre-emptors, which
was isolated or otherwise unsuitable, for Crown land of an equal area more suitably
located.
In 1937 alterations were made to the land classification—to be further amended in
1945—defining land other than timber-lands in three grades: Class 1 land being open
lands or lands easily cleared or wild-hay meadow lands, with a minimum value of $5 an
acre; Class 2 lands being other lands that may be brought under cultivation, and valued
at not less than $2.50 an acre; Class 3 lands comprised rough, mountainous land valued
at not less than $1 an acre.
The years 1945 and 1946 were also marked by the enactment of legislation that
may have far-reaching influence in the permanent development of the Province.
The " Irrigation Assistance Loan Act " of 1945 provided for a sum up to $500,000
for the acquisition, construction, reconstruction, replacement, improvement, and extension of works for the diverting, storing, and conveying of water for the irrigation of
land.    In 1946 the sum available was increased to $1,000,000.
The " Electric Power Act" instituted the Power Commission and provided a
possible solution for the long-sought goal of cheaper pumping costs for the irrigated
lands of the Interior.
The " Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Act " enabled present land-owners to
hire the use of heavy land-clearing machinery, paying the costs in instalments.
These Acts are an indication of the new outlook in the development of the land
resources whereby the former policy of expediency is being succeeded by long-range
planning to ensure the sound and permanent development of land and its resources.
Acknowledgment is made of the following references:—
(1.) Land Policy of the Colony of Vancouver Island 1849-1866:   A thesis submitted by L. A. Wrinch in October, 1932.
(2.)  British Columbia—The Making of a Province, by F. W. Howay.
(3.)  British Columbia Statutes, 1870 to 1946. II 16 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
LANDS BRANCH.
By C. E. Hopper, Superintendent of Lands.
The accompanying statements contain complete information pertaining to the
administration and disposition of Crown lands by pre-emption, purchase, lease, and
sale of town lots under the " Land Act," the Crown grants issued under sundry
Statutes, the revenue received therefrom, and comparative statement covering the
operations of this Branch for the last ten years.
The increased volume of business is reflected throughout the office. Pre-emption
applications more than doubled those for the year 1945, the Peace River District being
responsible for the greater gain. Applications to purchase town lots also show a considerable increase in volume. The sale of lands and applications to lease, both land
and foreshore, together with the number of Crown grants issued, also record a very
marked increase over the former year.
A very considerable increase in correspondence is also recorded: some 31,000
letters were received, and 26,000 letters were acknowledged, which does not include
form letters to various Government officials.
In addition, numerous requests for information on lands available for settlement
were made by personal contact, and this phase of the office-work similarly increased in
volume.
The financial statements show an increase in the revenue received from the sale
and leasing of lands, and sundry receipts represent an increase of $145,745.27 over
last year's total, with the gross collection for the year 1946 of $992,201.70. This compared to the revenue collected in the last ten years shows a decided increase and
a record.
In addition to the alienation of lands and the leasing of foreshore under the
" Land Act," lands are dealt with by this Branch under various Statutes, including
that of the " Soldiers' Land Act," under which the Southern Okanagan Land Project
is operated; the "Veterans' Land Act"; the "University Endowment Lands Administration Act"; also licences and leases are issued under the " Coal Act, 1944,"
the " Petroleum and Natural-gas Act, 1944," etc.
The reports covering the year's operations of D. Sutherland, Director of the Land
Utilization Research and Survey Division, and H. E. Whyte, Chief Inspector of Lands,
are herewith submitted.
Summary of Recorded Collections for the Year ended
December 31st, 1946.
"Land Act "—land revenue  (sundry)  $199,924.40
" Coal and Petroleum Act "          6,504.08
" Petroleum and Natural-gas Act, 1944 "    	
" Coal Act, 1944 "         1,268.15
  $207,696.63
"Land Act"—land-sales (principal and interest)     368,088.19
" Land Act "—survey fees, sales of maps, etc      29,235.51
$605,020.33
" Soldiers' Land Act "—
Southern Okanagan Land Project   128,260.93
Houses, South Vancouver   245.00
" Better Housing Act "—sundry municipalities   15,682.44
" University Endowment Lands Administration Act "  222,179.47
Refunds and votes   20,813.53
Total   $992,201.70 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS.
II 17
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
•   Collections for Ten-year Period 1937-46, inclusive.
1937  $455,849.09
1938  454,540.81
1939 :  458,306.02
1940  477,973.19
1941  612,810.01
1942  768,710.98
1943  576,228.02
1944  595,117.61
1945  846,456.33
1946  992,201.70
Total.
$6,238,193.76
Average annual collections_
  $623,819.38
Revenue Statements for the Year ended December 31st, 1946.
Land Revenue—Sundry.
Victoria
Collections.
Agency
Collections.
Total
Collections.
Collections under " Land Act "—
$1,125.00
141,782.59
795.00
20,500.00
5,450.00
736.41
4,401.05
163.14
$1,125 00
141,782.59
795.00
Crown-grant fees—
20,500.00
5,450.00
5,097.95
4,401.05
Sundry revenue..... ,
$4,361.54
212.50
8,292.29
2,211.85
375.64
8,292.29
4,084.65
1,872.80
1,188.74
36.92
5,745.88
36.14
166.00
795.55
51.00
900.00
4,099.08
55.00
1,450.00
1,188.74
Former Dominion lands—
5,745.88
36.14
51.00
Collections under " Coal and Petroleum Act "—
900 00
4,099.08
1,450.00
Collections under " Petroleum and Natural-gas Act, 1944 "—
Collections under " Coal Act, 1944 "—
100.00
125.00
1,043.15
1,043.15
•
$192,618.45
$15,078.18
$207,696.63 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS.
II 19
Collections for Ten-year Period 1937—46, inclusive.
1937      $134,419.21
1938.
1939_
1940
1941.
1942.
1943
1944
1945
1946
Total
Average annual collections	
Land-sales.
133,387,26
143,508.90
153,325.58
175,787.02
156,863.76
173,251.99
182,782.73
199,042.61
207,696.63
.____ $1,660,055.69
$166,005.57
Victoria
Collections.
Agency
Collections.
Total
Collections.
Collections under " Land Act " (principal and interest) —
Country lands—
$38,468.04
1,873.55
703.38
2,662.25
$156,959.10
72,068.48
1,213.41
77,097.74
973.05
365.60
2,047.90
1,865.83
$195,427.14
73 942.03
Pre-empted lands	
1,916.79
79,759.99
973.05
Special regulations	
11,789.86
12,155.46
2,047.90
1,865.83
Totals                        	
$55,497.08
$312,591.11
$368,088.19
1937_
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944.
1945..
1946
Land-sales for Ten-year Period 1937-46, inclusive.
  $91,810.81
  85,906.11
  86,495.16
  115,330.74
  153,663.91
  151,752.83
  202,458.04
  215,409.40
  294,034.56
  368,088.19
Total..
$1,764,949.75
Average annual collection  $176,494.97
Survey Fees, Sales of Maps, etc.
Victoria
Collections.
Agency
Collections.
Total
Collections.
$506.66
12,127.36
$8,360.78
$8,867.44
12,127.36
6,960.22
6,960.22
1,066.98
1,066.98
213.51
213.51
$20,874.73
$8,360.78
$29,235.51
Collections under " Land Act
Survey fees	
Blue-prints	
Lithographed maps	
Photostats	
Miscellaneous	
Totals	 II 20
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Survey Fees, Sales of Maps, etc., for the Ten-year Period 1937-46, inclusive.
1937_
1938_.
1939_.
1940-.
1941_
1942_.
1943_.
1944_
1945-
1946..
TotaL
$10,843.74
10,551.01
10,309.82
10,372.97
11,646.30
16,670.53
18,751.40
18,413.92
25,080.57
29,235.51
$161,875.77
Average annual collection  $16,187.58
Sundry Collections.
Victoria
Collections.
Agency
Collections.
Total
Collections.
Collections under " Soldiers' Land Act "—
Southern Okanagan Land Project—
$74,479.11
9,567.25
1,027.76
61.00
310.00
7,221.77
35,594.04
Office rentals (Votes 118, 121)	
Water rates—
Irrigation	
$128,260.93
Houses, South Vancouver—
245.00
245 0G
Collections under " Better Housing Act "—
14,024.47
1,657.97
137,674.36
2,159.59
2,027.52
6.36
12,459.04
21.08
21,457.55
6,629.34
7,354.81
1,085.68
10,699.73
5,672.96
14,931.45
5,062.10
15,751.43
15,682.44
Collections under " University Endowment Lands Administration Act "—
Land-sales—
Lease rentals-
Interest	
Local improvement taxes—
Loan repayments—
Principal	
Interest	
Repossessed houses—
Interest	
Sundry collections	
222,179.47
Refunds—
Advances	
20,813.53
Totals	
$387,181.37
$387,181.37 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS. II 21
Collections for Ten-year Period 1937—46, inclusive.
1937  $229,499.25
1938  219,802.94
1939  216,586.59
1940  256,936.36
1941  300,588.49
1942  546,845.58
1943  286,552.83
1944  265,137.10
1945  328,298.59
1946  387,181.37
Total $3,037,429.10
Average annual collection  $303,742.91 II 22
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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II 23
Town
Subdivision.
Alberni 	
Lots sold, 1946.
Number of
Lots.
        62
Value.
$2,725.00
Alice Arm       _ __
                        17
785.18
Anaconda 	
 '        38
150.00
Athalmer  	
               50
245.00
Atlin 	
                        10
415.00
Barkerville _  	
                          4
420.00
Barriere 	
                          6
150.00
B eaverdell   	
Blue River   _        	
          6
           12
150.00
425.00
Burns Lake   	
                          4
400.00
Campbell River 	
        12
1,310.00
Cascade   	
           12
300.00
Cedar               __ __        _ __
8
295.00
Celista   	
Chase               _   	
        11
                        23
275.00
1,480.00
Christina    	
                        12
220.00
Cobble Hill	
               12
160.00
Colwood     _ __   	
          7
225.00
Clinton     	
        27
1,600.00
Cranberry Lake   	
          8
1,275.00
Cranbrook   _     __            	
                        29
1,552.60
Departure Bay    	
6
200.00
Evelyn          '
          5
175.00
Extension          _   _       _   	
30
320.00
Falkland    ___   	
          42
1,880.00
Fernie          _        _           	
6
1,659.71
Fort Fraser   	
Fort George  __ _,	
          8
        12
170.00
500.00
Gibsons Landing	
           12
1,000.00
Golden          _ 	
          7
70.00
Golden, South 	
          36
420.00
Grand Forks 	
Grindrod    —     	
        48
        12
715.00
300.00
Hedley                    _ _    _
                         16
520.00
Hope             _    _       	
        18
680.00
Houston
                         26
915.00
Huntingdon       	
             4
170.00
Invermere    _        	
        53
505.00
Kamloops
5
500.00
Kaslo          _ _       	
        11
60.00
Keremeos                       	
        26
380.67
Kimberley
           176
7,185.00
Kitchener
_____             7
115.00
Lillooet
            60
605.00
Lone Butte               _    _   _ _ _
        11
360.00
Marysville
        39
1,560.00
Masset
          6
120.00
Merritt                                 _ _
          4
80.00
Midway   	
      111
670.00 .:   __—      i
Town Lots sold, 1946—Continued.
Number of
Subdivision.                                                                                                    Lots.
Mount Olie                                              4
Value.
125.00
650.00
1,835.00
2,110.00
4,110.32
85.00
185.00
600.00
125.00
25.00
240.00
1,290.00
350.00
225.00
235.00
7,070.00
185.00
205.00
236.30
38,255.00
1,175.00
16,660.00
520.00
50.00
940.00
630.00
225.00
300.00
775.00
45.00
350.00
1,448.70
275.00
125.00
290.00
3,882.50
380.00
150.00
230.00
810.00
9,900.00
712.03
515.00
2,956.50
1,275.00
210.00
70.00
270.00
3,415.00
Moyie                                                         27
McBride                                                   33
Nakusp    _                  _ _ _        111
Nanaimo                    _ _     100
Naramata                               4
Nelson                        __ _                 _ _         10
Newcastle  _              _ _              15
i      New Denver               _     __                    _   _       12
New Hazelton  _ _            _         5
Northfield                                                                     5
North Kamloops         26
Okanagan Centre       _               __ _         17
Olalla                                     39
Parksville             33
Port Alberni             204
Port Crawford                                     37
Port Clements                 6
Port Coquitlam _ _              54
Prince George          _                                  __         223
Qualicum Beach   __ _   __          26
Quesnel         152
Refuge Cove   ___            4
Retallack     _             5
Revelstoke                                 27
Royston            16
Salmo          __        _ _        9
Savona     _                   ________              _               5
Sidney             5
Silverton                    4
Similkameen City     _   __            42
Smithers           74
South Fort George                          10
South Hazelton ___                       25
Sproat Lake               __                                              7
Squamish               118
Trail       ,        11
Trout Lake City __                                   19
Union Bay  _ _     ____           4
Vananda         18
Vancouver           5
Vanderhoof             15
Wellington          41
West Quesnel                         56
Westview       __ _         10
Willow River _           __ _ _            _ _ _                          21
Wilmer _                  _          24
Windermere                  46
Woodhaven                49 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS.
II 25
Town Lots sold, 1946-
Subdivision.
Yale   	
-Continued.
Number of
Lots.
          6
Value.
600.00
Ymir   __
          9
135.00
Zeballos   	
        15
1,335.00
Miscellaneous      	
      101
6,195.16
University Endowment Lands	
        73
166,848.79
Totals  	
  3,184
$318,233.46
Pre-emption Records, 1946.
Agency.
Pre-emption Records
allowed.
Pre-emption Records
cancelled.
Certificates
MENTS
OP Improvb-
ISSUED.
Number.
Ten-year
Average.
Number.
Ten-year
Average.
Number.
Ten-year
Average.
3
16
2
1
10
4
6
2
4
2
177
15
1
26
8
1
5
0.5
25.5
2.1
0.3
16.2
5.2
12.1
0.4
3.6
1.4
9.4
6.3
111.7
23.8
2.8
36.0
6.1
5.4
0.1
2.3
3.8
0.5
1
12
3
1
7
4
7
3
4
8
71
9
2
21
1
6
1
2
1.7
0.6
18.0
4.1
1.9
17.8
9.8
18.7
0.5
6.0
2.3
16.6
14.4
125.2
35.3
4.6
34.5
9.4
6.8
0.4
5.4
5.6
1.9
11
1
6
1
5
1
1
3
6
67
16
1
7
2
1
1
1
Atlin	
0.1
12.2
1.0
Fernie	
0.1
11.1
Golden	
2.0
9.9
0.5
1.6
0.7
5.1
Penticton	
3.4
66.3
Prince George	
22.0
0.6
17.1
2.8
3.4
1.6
2.4
0.6
Totals	
283
275.5
163
332.5
131
164.5 II 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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i- II 28 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Crown Grants issued, 1946.
Pre-emptions   189
" Pre-emptors' Free Grants Act, 1939 "  129
Dominion homesteads   16
Purchases (other than town lots)  891
Town lots   696
Mineral claims   107
Reverted mineral claims  114
Supplementary timber grants  10
" Dyking Assessment Act "  22
" Public Schools Act "  6
Home-site leases   6
Miscellaneous   17
Total issued   2,203
Crown grants issued in—
1937  1,226
1938  1,063
1939  1,108
1940  1,155
1941  1,102
1942  1,134
1943  1,421
1944  1,528
1945  1,817
1946  2,203
Total  13,757
Average per year     1,376 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS.
II 29 II 30
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Total Area deeded, 1946.
Acres.
Pre-emptions      27,214.86
" Pre-emptors' Free Grants Act, 1939 "     18,718.23
Dominion homesteads 	
Mineral claims (other than reverted)
Reverted mineral claims 	
Purchases of surveyed crown lands (other than town lots)
Supplementary timber grants 	
1,725.20
4,166.95
4,157.22
53,296.46
912.49
Total..  110,191.41
Home-site Leases (not exceeding 20 Acres).
(For Calendar Years as shown.)
Year Leases issued.
Leases
carried.
Rental Collections received
during 1946.
Total Rentals
received.
April 1st, 1929, to December 31st, 1945	
1
2
3
3
2
3
9
5
15
13
10
7
16
18
28
25
19
15
12
17
$25,221.95
1925	
$5.00
10.00
10.00
5.25
17.00
11.60
30.25
47.35
47.95
103.50
104.92
54.80
35.64
166.55
116.14
264.90
215.20
170.30
95.00
82.90
70.46
132.05
1926	
1927	
1928	
1929                     	
1930 -                    	
1931	
1932	
1933	
1934	
1935	
1936            	
1937 ....
1938 :	
1939	
1940	
1941	
1942	
1943	
1944	
1945	
1946	
1,796.76
232
8
Lease rentals paid in advance for Crown-grant purposes	
313.10
Total revenue received, April 1st, 1929, to December 31st, 1946	
$27,331.81
Leases cancelled during 1946, 5.
LAND UTILIZATION RESEARCH AND SURVEY.
By Donald Sutherland, B.S.A., Director.
General.
The need for planned land use rests upon the fact that the capacity of land to
produce varies from region to region and even within small areas, depending upon soil,
climate, vegetation, slope, degree of erosion, and other physical conditions.
The wise use of land implies the production of a crop, whether cultivated, pasture,
woodland, or wild life, which, with due regard for economic conditions, can be most
profitably supported without permanent injury to the physical capacity of the land to
produce.
	 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS. II 31
Seasonal Activities.
Your Director succeeded F. D. Mulholland on February 1st, following the resignation of the former Director to accept employment in the logging industry. As a standard for future work, Mr. Mulholland left as a legacy completed maps in colour and
a detailed report covering a land-use survey of 136,700 acres of land in the Nechako
Valley.
Since adequate help was not immediately available, and since your Director was
absent from the Province during the war years while new developments in land policy
were being pursued, it was decided that the first concern was an inspection and study
of present development and settlement in various parts of the Province. With this
purpose in view, settlement areas in the Peace River Block, Central British Columbia,
the Thompson and Okanagan Valleys, and the Kootenay and Boundary areas were
visited.
In order to broaden what had been an extensive agricultural background, opportunity was taken of participating in the special course given by the Forestry Service
at Green Timbers for compass-men and cruisers.
Some time was spent with the soil-survey party working in the Peace River Block,
and most of October was spent with C. C. Kelly, Provincial Soil Surveyor, at Kelowna.
A short period in the summer was devoted to working with officials of the Dominion
Economics Branch who were conducting a farm survey on Vancouver Island.
Personal contact was made with officials of the American Soil Conservation Service,
and a visit was paid to the soil conservation experimental and research stations at
Pullman, Wash.
In each district visited, an effort was made to contact all officials dealing with any
phase of land resource work, including representatives of the Forest Service, Department of Agriculture, and the Game Commission. Contact was made with a number
of industries dealing with the processing of primary products.
During the year a careful review was made of literature published in the last ten
years dealing with various phases of land use and land classification. Correspondence
was conducted with similar branches in other Provinces on various phases of land
administration and settlement.
Purpose of Work.
It is the intention of this Division to conduct further intensive regional studies,
with the object of classifying and mapping undeveloped Crown lands in accordance
with their inherent capability to produce.
By means of such a survey, prospective settlers may be guided to areas suitable
for agricultural development. These areas will be laid out in units conforming to the
soil and topography, and to the type of agriculture adapted to the location.
Method of Survey.
Surveys will be based on a detailed field survey of the area being considered, using
every available source of information bearing on the soil, water, climate, cover, and
present stage of development. As far as possible, areas selected will be those for
which basic soil-survey and economic survey data are available. The following requirements are considered as basic:—
(1.)  Soil-survey maps and reports.
(2.) Accurate topographic base maps of the area on a scale of at least 20
chains to the inch.
(3.)  Vertical aerial survey photographs to permit stereoscopic study, plotting,
and mapping of the physical features of the area. II 32 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(4.) Economic survey of area to assist in determining the adapted types of
land use, land management, and minimum size of farm unit required.
(5.) Present status of land ownership.
(6.) Adequate trained help. Contact has already been made with the departments of geography and agriculture at the University of British Columbia, and there is assurance that the necessary survey personnel will be
available—men with the broad background of training required for this
type of survey.
Plans for 1947.
1. Surveys.—In accordance with funds available, it is the intention to institute
field surveys to classify available Crown lands in those areas in the Province offering
the greatest opportunities for increased settlement and development. The following
areas are being considered: Pemberton Meadows reclamation area, Creston district
and Kootenay Valley, Prince George district, and the Peace River Block.
2. Co-operation.—It is the intention of the Branch to co-operate in every way
possible with other Federal and Provincial and private agencies dealing with various
phases of land resource conservation, land development, and land settlement.
3. Education.—The greatest field for ensuring land resource conservation lies in
educating the people to appreciate the permanent value of land resources. Every
effort will be made to stress, through schools, boys' and girls' clubs, private organizations, and the press, the fundamental importance of wise land use and land management practices. REPORT OF LAND  SETTLEMENT BOARD. II 33
LAND SETTLEMENT BOARD.
By N. L. Camsusa, Director.
The Board, which was formed in the year 1917 under the provisions of the " Land
Settlement and Development Act," has for its main purpose the promotion of increased
agricultural production. With this end in view and in accordance with the powers
vested therein, settlement areas were established in Central British Columbia along the
Canadian National and Pacific Great Eastern Railways. The Board was also given
authority to purchase certain acreages of logged-off lands in various parts of the
Province, with the objective of subdividing them into suitable farm units and of
developing such units into what practically amounted to ready-made farms. These
development areas are located at Merville, Camp Lister, Fernie, and Kelowna. The
Board also acquired a large block of land at Cawston.
The total acreage within the boundaries of these districts amounted to approximately 220,000 acres, of which at this time the Board still has available for sale
approximately 48,000 acres.
The Board was also empowered to advance loans to farmers for any purpose which,
in its opinion, would increase agricultural production, and to accept as security first
mortgages on their lands. On the formation of the Canadian Farm Loan Board in
1929, this Board ceased to issue further loans. Unfortunately, through adverse conditions and depression years, the Board became possessed of several of these mortgaged
properties. While many of them have since been sold, the Board still has, scattered
throughout the Province, several of these properties available.
The lands which were acquired by the Government under authority of the
" Doukhobor Lands Acquisition Act" of 1939 have since been transferred to the
administration of this Board, and at present are being occupied largely by Doukhobors
on a rental basis. These lands are scattered throughout the West Kootenay District
and comprise approximately 20,000 acres.
In keeping with the policy of the Department, the Board has in the past year,
wherever it was considered advisable, held in reserve for rehabilitation purposes lands
within its several areas. Although this has restricted the sale of land to a large
extent, satisfactory disposition has been made of several foreclosed properties which
had been carried on our books for many years; in addition, a number of sales were
made where it was considered that the property applied for was of beneficial use only
to the adjoining owner.
With the lifting of the general reserve, the Board will be in a position to dispose
of a large number of applications which have been held in abeyance.
As in the past, the Board's balance-sheets will appear in the Public Accounts of
the Province. The following, however, is a brief summary of the Board's activities and
collections for the year:—
Operations of Land Settlement Board as at December 31st, 1946.
During 1946 twenty-two borrowers paid up in full and received release of mortgage,
and fifty-one purchasers of land completed payment and received title deeds.
Since 1939, 210 mortgages have been released and 301 title deeds have been issued.
There have been 273 sales of land made by the Board, amounting to $273,615.83, of
which 22 were made in 1946, amounting to $39,262.10. II 34 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Collections.
1945. 1946.
Loans      $44,806.08 $36,681.48
Land-sales        47,084.51 52,899.49
Dyking loan refunds, etc       61,851.39 50,197.48
Doukhobor lands—
Rentals         8,600.65 8,027.20
Sales         3,202.00 2,847.75
$165,544.63 $150,653.40
Total proceeds from Doukhobor lands as at December 31st, 1946, $74,312.57. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. II 35
SURVEYS BRANCH.
By N. C. Stewart, B.A.Sc, B.C.L.S., D.L.S., P.Eng., Surveyor-General.
After serving as Surveyor-General from the spring of 1930, F. C. Green, B.Sc,
B.C.L.S., D.L.S., retired at the end of September, thus establishing a record in length
of service as the head of the Surveys Branch. During his term of office there were
very difficult times, a long depression followed by over five years of war, but, nevertheless, in addition to the routine work of his Department, many important tasks were
accomplished, some of which are (1) the simplification and correlation of district
boundaries, electoral, educational, jurisdictional, and other functions of government;
(2) the issuing of a new Manual respecting the Survey of Mineral Claims and Placer
Leases; (3) new regulations under section 79 of the "Land Registry Act"; and
(4) the enlarging of the mapping programme by the appointment of an Air Surveys
Engineer.
Surveying and mapping, like other sciences, took many centuries to develop.
In the very beginning one might visualize the primitive man indicating in the sand the
direction to some good hunting-ground, thus making the first attempt at a map. At the
dawn of recorded history in Babylon, clay tablets now in the British Museum, dated as
early as 2300 B.C., show a cadastral survey for taxation purposes. There is extant
evidence that cadastral surveys were made in the Nile Valley as early as 1200 B.C.
It was from these Egyptian maps that Eratosthenes, the Greek geographer, was able
to obtain the distance from Syene to Alexandria, enabling him to make the first computation of the circumference of the earth. He followed this by making the first map
of the then known world, and drawing this on a map projection. The ancient Greeks,
especially Eratosthenes, Ptolemy, and Euclid, laid down a very solid foundation for
mapping, having produced a mathematical science still in use and, in addition, perfected
certain instruments for measuring distances and angles. The Roman era added a few
items to the Grecian methods, but it was the invention of the magnetic compass that
made the next great contribution to the science. Then followed the telescope of Galileo,
the mathematic revival of Newton, and in our own age we have added photography,
both terrestrial and aerial, and the great mechanical improvements in precision instruments. Then during the last war came radar and other electronic inventions that may
still further advance the science.
As the accuracy and minute detail of the maps increased, so has the demand for
them. It is the work of the Surveys Branch to produce maps showing all topographic
features—maps that are a base on which other departments, such as Forest Service,
Mines, Agriculture, etc., may add their particular interests.
The Surveys Branch is now divided into four divisions, as follows: Cadastral
Surveys, Geographic, Topographic, and, in the process of organization, an Air Surveys
Division. The reports of the chief of each division follow. These reports tell of the
duties of the division, and of the tasks accomplished during the year. Reports of the
field surveyors of the Topographic Division, also appended, give a brief account of the
character of the country covered, together with a description of its settlements, future
possibilities, etc.
An analysis of these reports shows a remarkable amount of work was accomplished
by a depleted staff. It must be pointed out that during the depression for lack of funds,
and in the war years from scarcity of man-power, new men were not trained in the
various divisions; hence, with the passing of trained men into retirement and by death,
we find that now we are not able to carry on as we would like and do all the work at
hand. Add to this an expanding economy, bringing with it a greater demand for land
subdivision and other cadastral surveys, the handling of increased numbers of applications, a greater demand for geographic information, and for printed maps of various II 36 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
kinds and scales, we find ourselves in a rather difficult position. During the year, out
of a staff of forty-five, six key-men retired on superannuation, two transferred to other
departments, and one was called by death. The usual source from which trained
personnel could be obtained—that is, the surveyors in private practice—is now not
available, for these men are all very busy on private work.
Cordial and close contact was continued with the Federal services relating to
surveying and mapping in British Columbia. These included the Hydrographic and
Map Service, and the Geodetic Survey of the Department of Mines and Resources, the
mapping section of the Department of National Defence, and the Royal Canadian
Air Force.
In addition to their regular work, our technical men, by study and a limited amount
of research, are continually alerted to new developments occurring elsewhere that might
increase the efficiency of the methods in use here. Our surveyors who were officers
during the war, and who each had several years experience in war-time surveying and
mapping, are keenly alive to the possible use of military techniques and war-time
inventions in so far as they are applicable to peace-time survey-work. During the past
summer a new type altimeter was tried out, with rather remarkable results. Again,
a simple camera-mount designed by the Air Surveys Engineer proved very satisfactory
in overcoming vibration and minimizing the effects of accidental lurches of the aircraft.
Methods of triangulation by radar are being considered, as well as the possibility of
obtaining terrestrial altitudes from an aeroplane by electronic reflection methods.
Some of the future demands on the Surveys Branch include the following:—
(1.)  The solution of the problem of the renewal of monuments, which through
the years have become almost obliterated.   This really means jacking up
and putting a new foundation under our system of survey, on which
rests our land tenure.
(2.)  The establishment of more control points for mapping and for the use of
other departments, such as Forest Service, Water Rights, Mines, etc.
This  may  be  accomplished  by  triangulation,  and  by a  good type of
traverse, controlled by our triangulation network.
(3.)  Development of mapping at other scales than the one now being used;
for unexplored areas a 4- or 8-mile scale, based on trimetrogon air
pictures, and in highly developed areas a map similar to the ordnance
maps might be attempted.
(4.)  The placing before the public, in some simple manner, of geographical
and  other  data  on  file  here.     This  information  might  be  shown  on
specialized maps or included in an atlas of British Columbia.
AIR SURVEYS.
By G. S. Andrews, M.B.E., B.Sc.F., Air Surveys Engineer.
The year 1946 marked the resumption of air photographic operations by the
Provincial Government after a lapse of five war years, occasioned by the absence of
experienced technical engineers in the armed forces overseas. These men have now
returned to the Provincial service, with the regrettable exception of the late F.O.
John H. Benton, R.C.A.F., who was killed in action overseas, July, 1943.
Post-war Reorganization.
With the appointment of the writer as Air Surveys Engineer, on the staff of the
Surveyor-General, March 1st, 1946, all Provincial Government air-survey activities
were consolidated under his direction.    Governing policy and yearly operational pro- REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. II 37
grammes are formulated by the Interdepartmental Committee on Air Photography,
under the chairmanship of the Deputy Minister of Lands. All Provincial Government
Departments and services interested in air photography have representation on this
committee, authorized by the Premier on December 15th, 1945. Co-ordination is maintained with a similar Federal committee at Ottawa, so that operations by the Province
and those by the R.C.A.F. in the Province will dovetail to avoid duplication of effort.
The Air Surveys Engineer is technical adviser to the Interdepartmental Committee,
and is charged with carrying out its programmes within the limits of personnel, equipment, moneys, and other facilities provided. The pre-war Air Survey Section of the
Forest Service was therefore reorganized as the Forestry Base Maps Section, and the
air-survey cameras and accessory air-borne equipment of the old section have been
turned over by the Forest Service to the Air Surveys Engineer.
Initial Outlook.
The outlook in the spring of 1946 for accomplishing very much in the way of air
photography on a Provincial basis during the year was most discouraging. The prewar camera equipment taken over from the Forest Service was by this time obsolescent
and in uncertain mechanical condition. Spare parts were unobtainable. None of the
commercial aircraft operators in the Province had suitable photographic aircraft to
offer for the work on charter. Due to war casualties and disabilities, the only experienced person available for air crew was the Air Surveys Engineer himself.
Preparations.
The Forest Service was anxious that a large programme of air photography be
carried out for a revival of the forest surveys programme, and had funds available to
finance it. The areas chosen were of general interest to other departments, so it was
decided to go ahead on that basis. Part of the forestry requirements and additional
areas of special interest to the Mines Department were arranged to be done by the
R.C.A.F. through Federal authorities at Ottawa. In addition to financing and supplying cameras to get started, the Forest Service further co-operated by authorizing
Captain W. Hall, M.C., to assist the Air Surveys Engineer as required in supervising
and training.
Through special and fortunate circumstances, an opportunity was arranged for
the purchase from War Assets of a job-lot of surplus air-survey cameras which had
been developed and produced in Great Britain by the Canadian Army overseas. These
cameras are unique and embody all scientific advances in optics and design for specialized air mapping, developed during the war, including high-precision wide-angle
survey lenses. The purchase of this sorely needed equipment was completed in June,
and it arrived in Victoria during July. Some minor modifications were rushed through
to adapt the new cameras to our peace-time requirements in British Columbia, and a
special camera-mount of novel design was improvised. It so happened that after that
date, with the new cameras, the major proportion of the season's work was accomplished.
The situation with regard to aircraft became so acute as the summer approached
that preliminary steps were taken to purchase one from War Assets. However, at the
last moment a newly formed Vancouver company was able to offer an Anson V. aircraft
on charter, which could be ready almost immediately for operations. A contract with
this firm was therefore signed on June 12th. In the meantime installation of the old
Eagle III. camera equipment in the Anson was completed in time for a test flight on
June 11th.
The 1946 agenda for air photography in British Columbia, adopted jointly by the
Federal and Provincial Governments as on June 10th, embraced a total area of over
30,000 square miles, of which the R.C.A.F. with several aircraft were to attempt about II 38 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
20,000 square miles and the Air Surveys Engineer would attempt 10,000 square miles
with one aircraft.
Operations.
Operations on first-priority projects on the Coast began on June 19th and were
completed on July 22nd, using Patricia Bay and Comox air-bases, during which period
over two weeks' bad weather was utilized to install long-range tanks in the aircraft.
Work from Prince George base began August 3rd and finished September 10th. A number of miscellaneous second-priority jobs were done from Vancouver airport September
18th and 19th, winding up the season's operations for the year.
Work done.
The total area covered with vertical air photography during the season by operations under the Air Surveys Engineer, using a single aircraft, was 19,500 square miles,
of which a detailed tabulation by projects is given in Appendix No. 2, at an average
cost of $1.40 per square mile, inclusive of all operational expenses, processing, and
delivery of one complete set of 9- by 9-inch prints ready for plotting. A detailed breakdown of the costs may be seen in Appendix No. 3. The area covered is roughly three
times that done with one aircraft in the average pre-war season, and, in spite of higher
general operating costs, the unit cost (per square mile) is the lowest on record
(Appendix No. 1). It is felt that this is a very gratifying result, in view of the many
difficulties and uncertainties which had to be met in this first year of post-war Provincial air-survey operation.
The qualitative results of the season's field-work are in keeping with the quantitative results. The average definition and tone values in the negatives are remarkable
when it is considered that the new wide-angle lens in the Eagle V. cameras covers an
angle of 95 degrees across the diagonal of the photograph and takes in two and one-half
times as much country per photo as was obtained with the pre-war Eagle III. camera
with 5-inch lens. The low incidence of gaps and tilt, and constancy of the altitude
maintained, speaks well for the new members of the air crew, including the pilot, in
the manner in which they absorbed their training and put it to energetic and conscientious application.
Factors contributing to Success of Operations.
The conspicuous quantity and quality of the work done was the result of the following factors, which should be borne in mind when planning future work:—
Quantitative factors:—
(1.)  Large authorized area of operations from one base permitted full exploitation of weather opportunities.
(2.)  Early change-over to the wide-angle cameras more than doubled the ratio
of area covered to operational effort and weather opportunity.
(3.) Higher-performance aircraft with respect to speed, operational ceiling,
and range (compare the Anson V. to pre-war aircraft used, Appendix
No. 1).
(4.) Only slightly better-than-average weather, but better weather intelligence
from meteorological authorities, Forest Service look-out stations, and
radio network.
(5.)  High  standard  of  effort  and  discipline  in  the  operational  personnel,
achieved by careful selection, training, and attention to factors contributing to good morale.
Qualitative factors:—
(1.)  Confinement of operations to the period mid-June to mid-September, and
from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. each day, to avoid late snow in the higher country,
i -ffh Swcveui.i
Vertical air photographs show ground conditions clearly
from 15,000 feet above sea-level.
Vanderhoof and surrounding country.
A—Nechako River D—Highway G—Farm
B -Town or Vanderhoof E—Airport H —Pine and Spruce
C~ Railroad F—Poplar bush J—Pond  REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. II 39
long shadows from topographic eminences, and to utilize the seasonal and
diurnal periods of most intense actinic light.
(2.) Benefit of war-gained experience and knowledge of the behaviour and performance of wide-angle lenses, and air photographic technique generally.
(3.) The conspicuous success of our new home-made camera-mount for completely insulating the camera from vibration, and for minimizing the tilt
effect from haphazard lurches of the aircraft in flight. This permitted the
use of a slower shutter-speed and smaller aperture in the camera, which
enhanced definition in the photographs without jeopardizing exposure.
(4.) Advanced optical features, precision design, and construction of the new
Eagle V. cameras.
(5.) Close attention to detail and rigid discipline in following out the photographic routine laid down, and keeping of accurate records, both in the
air and in the darkroom, with the aim of leaving nothing to chance.
Weather.
The total amount of photographic weather this year was not appreciably greater
than the average experienced in former seasons, but it came in unusually concentrated
runs, separated by lengthy periods of non-photographic weather, as the synopsis in
Appendix No. 4 shows. About four consecutive days on full photographic flight is
really all the air crew can stand without the element of fatigue seriously compromising
their efficiency, which must be maintained at a high level to do the work well. Several
runs of good weather much longer than this demonstrated that it is essential to have
an extra trained and experienced man with the detachment in order to spell off one
member of the air crew at a time. The flying contract should also provide for the
company sending up an experienced pilot to relieve the one who has been working to
the limit for a sustained period.
Aircraft and Air-bases.
The Anson V. proved to be a very satisfactory aircraft for routine vertical photography. It is, however, a low-wing type, which limits its scope for wide-angle oblique
work, an important consideration for some promising new methods of rapid small-scale
mapping, and propagation of photogrammetric control framework with tri-camera
installations..
Floats or amphibious landing-gear is considered to be the safest and most versatile
for general operations in British Columbia, although landing facilities for wheels were
greatly extended and improved over more than half the Province during the war. The
Anson with wheels worked out very well during the recent season, using Vancouver,
Patricia Bay, Comox, and Prince George bases. The excellent facilities at these airports
were not likely as fully appreciated by the younger air crew as they were by the older
personnel, who retain vivid memories of improvising their own bases in the remote wilds.
Air-survey Personnel.
Experience this year confirmed very emphatically the rule that air-crew personnel
for air-survey operations must be young and of exceptionally high calibre. In flying
operations, mediocre efficiency, which results from uninspired effort, involves large
financial loss, directly due to the high rate of expenditure per minute of flying and to
the drastic limits on the opportunity to get on with the work imposed by the short
season, the short hours of suitable sunlight during the day, and the interference by
non-photographic weather. In addition to having a thorough technical knowledge of
the work, the men must have a high degree of physical and moral stamina to sustain II 40 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
efficiency throughout the long, exhausting flights at high altitude. They must combine
sound judgment with quick, clear thinking to consistently do the right thing at the
right time. Unforeseen incidents on a photographic flight happen suddenly and quickly.
There is a high danger factor in the work, especially over our wild mountain country in
this Province. During the operational season there are no " hours of work " and no
holidays. They must be prepared to work all night to effect a camera repair in order
to be ready the next day. Sundays, Saturday afternoons, and holidays are all workdays if the weather is photographic or if maps and mechanical repairs have to be put
in readiness for when the weather clears. They have to be patient and alert through
periods of bad weather; they cannot go off fishing, but must stand by, sometimes day
after day, ready to work if the weather should suddenly clear.
Processing.
Development of the air film-rolls and making the 9- by 9-inch prints by projection
from the 5- by 5-inch negatives has been done by the photographer on the staff of the
King's Printer. Although his work for us has been of very high quality, the facilities
at his disposal and the demands of his other routine work have been such that this
arrangement for processing our air photographs is a serious bottleneck. The present
volume and the specialized nature of our air-survey processing now makes the provision
of our own dark-room facilities imperative. An initial step in this direction has been
taken recently in the setting up, in temporary quarters, of a new projection printing
unit and the accession to our staff of an expert on processing. The new apparatus
combines the latest improvements in optical science developed during the war, and
recent tests indicate that the quality of the enlarged 9- by 9-inch prints from it are a
conspicuous advance on anything we have been able to produce heretofore.
The Air-photo Library.
During the year technical supervision of the Provincial air-photo library was
assumed by the Air Surveys Engineer. A new series of standard indexes of air photography for the Province has been initiated, at a scale of 4 miles per inch, and following map-sheet boundaries of the National topographic series. Grade N photostat
negatives of the up-to-date manuscript copies of the sheets will be kept on file, from
which inexpensive blue-prints may be taken to meet demands from other Government
departments and from the public.
The air-photo library now has approximately 150,000 air photographs in its collection, and a better system of filing them has been provided by the acquisition of sufficient
steel filing cabinets from War Assets to accommodate about 200,000 photographs. This
will take care of the backlog of air photographs now available from Ottawa, but not
in our collection, as well as the normal increment during the next few years.
Looking ahead.
In addition to the normal programme for vertical photography, next year's effort
should include some modified " trimetrogon " photography on a precision basis, possible with our new cameras. Such a tri-camera technique has great promise for speeding up the interim mapping of our Province, at medium and small scales.
The lack of adequate base facilities on the ground at the head office is now the
weakest aspect of our air-survey picture. The accelerated appreciation of air photography in connection with the post-war development of our Province, evidenced by the
Interdepartmental Committee on Air Photography and the success of our flying operations recently completed, justifies the final step of consolidating the work into an
officially recognized Air Surveys Division of the Surveys Branch, with suitable accommodation, installation of special equipment, and adequate personnel. 139°        138°        137°        136°        135°        134°        133°       132°        131°        130°       129°       128°        127°
113°
159]
111°
VERTICAL PHOTOGRAPHY
Isl
Vertical Photography:
Inset numerals refer to B.C. Gov"
tabulated data
Oblique Photography:
Approx. line of flight 1 r- ~T~ ~£ ~\    ^
Approx. direction of photos J?    '*'    ^
" Trimetrogon " Photography: 1 f T  I   aTaT^*
In cases of overlapping, boundaries of most recent photography
are given precedence over those of earlier projects.
AIR PHOTO COVER
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS and FORESTS
fc
Date.
Authorit,
Focal
Sq. Miles.
Location.
1928
R.C.A.F.
10,000
11.64
1.800
1928
R.C.A.F.
13,000
1 1.64
1.850
1928
R.C.A.F.
12,500
11.7
4.400
Parsnip
1930
R.C.A.F.
15,000
8.18
1,600
Harrison Lake-West
1930
R.C.A.F.
15,000
9.78
3,125
Shuswap Lake
1930
R.C.A.F.
15,000
8.25
2,250
1931
R.C.A.F.
15,000
8.21
1,250
1931
R.C.A.F.
15,000
8.21
4,000
1931
R.C.A.F.
15,000
8.21
1,625
Buttle Lake
1931
R.C.A.F.
15,000
8.21
1,750
Harrison Lake-Lillooet R.
1932
R.C.A.F.
10,000
8.25
1,200
Jervis Inlet©
Smith-Queens Sound
1932
R.C.A.F.
10,000
8.25
500
1933
R.C.A.F.
10,000
8.25
2,250
Queen Charlotte Isl.
1937
R.C.A.F.
15,000
8.25
1,350
1937
R.C.A.F.
17,750
5.9
625
Big Bend of Columbia R0
1937
R.C.A.F.
17,500
5.9
2,250
Nass-Skeena  R.(7)
1937
B.C. Gov't.
15,000
4.9
2,200
Queen Charlotte Isl.
1937
R.C.A.F.
15.000
8.25
2,700
1938
R.C.A.F.
15,000
8.25
375
Nimpkish-West
1938
R.C.A.F.
15,000
8.25
3,650
Smith Sd. to Knight Inlet
1938
R.C.A.F.
15.000
8.25
150
Ecstall R., S. Pr. Rupert
1938
B.C. Gov't.
15,000
4.9
2,500
Kitimat-Kitsumgallum
1938
B.C. Gov't.
13,000
4.9
3,700
1939
B.C. Gov't.
16,000
4.9
3,300
West Kootenay
1940
B.C. Gov't.
15,000
4.9
3,500
Fraser V.-Howe Sd.
1940
B.C. Gov't.
15,000
4.9
1,125
Great Central Lakes
1940
B.C. Gov't.
15,000
4.9
5,000
Ketchika-Finlay  R.
1941
R.C.A.F.
5.9
1,000
Inginika-Tributaries©
Murray R., S. of Peace R.
1942
R.C.A.F.
14,200
5.9
5,300
1943
R.C.A.F.
10,000
8.25
900
Banks-Pitt Isl.
1943
R.C.A.F.
10,000
8.25
400
Fitzhugh Sd.
1943
R.C.A.F.
15,000
400
Nanaimo-West
1943
R.C.A.F.
10,000
8.25
350
Hope-Chilliwack, Fraser V.
1944
R.C.A.F.
15,000'
200
1944
R.C.A.F.
12,500
6.00
Tri. Met. Williams L.-West
1944
R.C.A.F.
10,000
6.00
Tri.
Fort St. John, Fort Nelson-N.
1944
R.C.A.F.
11,000
6.00
Met.
1945
R.C.A.F.
13,000
8.25
300
Knight Inlet®
Sutil Channel Bute Inlet
1945
R.C.A.F.
.14,000
8.25
1,700
1945
R.C.A.F.
14,000
8.25
8,400
Peace R., Fort St. John.
1945
R.C.A.F.
13,000
8.25
1,700
Douglas-Granville Ch.©
1945
R.C.A.F.
13.000
8.25
630
1945
R.C.A.F.
14,000
8.25
1,500
E.N.   Belt
1945
R.C.A.F.
19,500
10.00
2,800
Columbia  R.  Project©
Lillooet R.-Garibaldi©
1946
B.C. Gov't.
15,000
4.9
500
1946
B.C. Gov't.
15,000
4.9
1,750
1946
B.C. Gov't.
15,000
4.9
1,450
South Van. Isl., Victoria
1946
B.C. Gov't.
17,500
3.25
15.400
Pr. George Area
1946
R.C.A.F.
12,000
6.00
1,200
1946
R.C.A.F.
650
Lower Post
1946
R.C.A.F.
1,600
Portland Canal©
Mouth of Skeena ©
R.C.A.F.
600
1946
R.C.A.F.
800
Banks Isl., PorcherTslj©
1946
R.C.A.F.
5,800
1946
R.C.A.F.
1,000
Dean Channel©
1946
R.C.A.F.
2,950
Van. Isl.. Nootka Sd. N.
4,250
B.C. Gov't.
14,000
3.25
20
Manning Park©
f           0
Single flight
along riv
er valley.
9         <D
Shoreline ph
□tography for hydrographic survey.                     A
IHBI4
To accompany Annual Report of Surveys Branch,
Department of Lands and Forests,
  December 31st. 1946.
For reprints of R.C.A.F. photographs apply to National Air Photo Library, Department of Mines and
Resources, Ottawa.
For reprints of B.C. Government photographs, more detail index maps, and other information, apply
to Air Survey Division, Surveys Branch, Department of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
136? 135° 134°
132° 131° 130° 129"Long.Ludel28°  West    127°   fro™   126"Greei.w_chl250
124°
121°
119"
117°
115° 139°        138°        137°        136°        135°        134°        133°       132° 131°        130°       129°       128°        127°       126°       125°       124°       123°       122°        121°        120°        119°        118°
117°
116°
113°
IIO'
sT
N CE
PRINCE ROPERT^n
13
'.K
AIR PHOTOGRAPHS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Many thousands of air photographs have been taken of various parts of British Columbia
■photo cover map on back) for mapping and special surveys. These photos are mostly
verticals"; i.e., views straight to the ground below the aircraft. There are also a few
obliques " which give a scenic view to the horizon. New areas will be photographed from
each year and eventually the whole Province will be covered.
While the air photographs are taken in the first instance for official surveys, the number of
reprints which can be made from the original negatives is practically unlimited. The negatives
are carefully preserved for this purpose. As these photographs may be of great value to all
who are interested in the country covered, it has been the policy to supply reprints at the
nominal cost of making the print. In this way every reprint which is put to worth-while use
constitutes a multiple return for the money expended on the original air survey.
Air photography in British Columbia has been done almost entirely by two agencies: (1) The
R.C.A.F. under the authority of the Dominion Government, Ottawa; (2) The Air Survey Division
of British Columbia, Surveys Branch, Department of Lands and Forests. The R.C.A.F. numbers
its film rolls with the prefix letter " A," and also numbers each photo in the roll; for example,
"A 9532:77 " means photo No. 77 of R.C.A.F. roll No. A 9532. The British Columbia Air
Survey Division numbers its film rolls with the prefix "BC"; for example, " BC 325:62 "
means photo No. 62 of roll No_ BC 325. The photo and roll numbers appear in the lower
left-hand corner of every photograph.
back it can be determined  if a particular place  in the
) the air, and whether it was done by the R.C.A.F. or by
On the air-photo cover map <
Province has been photographed fi
the British Columbia Air Survey Division.
Orders and inquiries for R.C.A.F. photographs may be addressed directly to:
Chief, Bureau of Geology and Topography,
Department of Mines and Resources,
Ottawa, Ont.
Index Maps
Detail index maps, 4 miles to 1 inch, showing the incidence of all
air photographs with roll and photo numbers are in the course of
preparation and revision. Blue-print copies may be obtained on application, cost of 25 cents each. Order by block number and sheet
number; e.g., 93-N is the designation of the hachured sheet.
1
A,
Caomo^d- Q
02r
AIR-PHOTO INDEX MAPS
DEPARTMENT of LANDS _
A library of all air photographs taken in British Columbia by the R.C.A.F. and by the British
Columbia Air Survey Division is maintained by the Provincial Government in Victoria for both
official and public reference. This library now contains about 150,000 air photographs, complete indexes and other relevant data, readily available for reference by the public. New
photos are added to the library as taken.
C HARLOTTE
ISA.
The price of standard 9- by 9-inch double-weight matte prints from the B.C. air negatives is 30
cents each. Remittance should be made in favour of the Surveyor-General, Department of Lands and
Forests, Victoria, B.C If possible the roll and photo number should be quoted, but if these are
unknown, the exact locality should be described as closely as possible. For special purposes, enlargements up to 20 by 20 inches from the B.C. negatives in Victoria may be obtained at cost.
135°
129°LongiLudel28°   West    127°   fr°m    l26°Greenw"lch125°
121°
120°
115° REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. II 41
Appendices.
1. Summary of Air-survey Operations, 1936 to 1946, inclusive.
2. Summary by Projects, 1946 Air-survey Operations.
3. Summary of Costs, 1946 Operations.
4. Summary of Photographic Weather, 1946 Season.
5. Key-map, British Columbia, showing air-photo cover up to end of 1946. II 42
DEPARTMENT OP LANDS AND FORESTS.
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Ofl     S    fe    S   P.    fH REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
II 43
Appendix No. 2.
Summary by Projects, 1946 Air-survey Operations.
Project.
Operational
Base.
Camera.
Lens.
Altitude.
(M.S.L.)
Number
of
Photos.
Area
(Sq.Mi.).
Cost
(Sq.Mi.).
E. III.
E. III.
E. III.
E. V.
E. V.
E. V.
E. V.
E. V.
E. V.
E. V.
E. III.+V.
E. V.
E. V.
E. V.
E. V.
E. V.
E. V.
5"
5"
5"
3V4."
3V4"
3%"
SY*"
3V4"
3*4"
3V4"
3%"
3%"
3V4"
3V4"
w
16,000'
15,000'
15,000'
15,000'
17,500'
8,000'
8,000'
6,000'
15,000'
14,000'
17,500'
17,500'
17,600'
17,500'
7,300'
5,000'
17,500'
800
1,300
280
15
15
60
35
13
27
60
6,000
600
100
40
30
80
33
1,450
1,750
470
40
100
110
25
10
80
180
12,000
2,260
700
200
20
10
150
$1.50
1.72
1.18
McNab Creek	
Comox	
2.17
.84
2.13
Seymour Mountain	
Vancouver	
2.60
5.67
1.95
1.61
Prince George	
1.48
.85
Fraser Lake	
Stuart River	
Town of Prince George
Geddes Test	
Prince George	
Prince George	
Prince George	
Prince George	
.66
.67
2.97
8.80
.90
Totals ...
9.488     1     19.555
Appendix No. 3.
Summary of Costs, 1946 Operations.
Flying—156 hours, 32 minutes 	
Salaries—supervisory and temporary personnel
Preliminary organization	
Insurance—3663%o man-hours 	
Field expenses, personnel 	
Depreciation on equipment	
Film—84 rolls, developing, annotation 	
Prints—9- by 9-inch enlargements 	
$13,384.75
6,220.08
669.08
693.96
665.08
1,985.47
1,806.83
1,889.00
Totals,.
Appendix No. 4.
Summary of Photographic Weather, 1946 Season.
49.0
22.8
2.5
2.5
2.4
7.3
6.6
6.9
$27,314.17        100.0
Photographic Days.
Time
FLOWN.
Photographic Days.
Time
FLOWN.
Hr.
Min.
Hr.
Min.
2
2
5
5
4
3
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
55
37
10
11
26
30
08
36
05
02
13
43
37
32
26
5
5
5
5
3
5
4
5
5
5
5
5
4
5
4
4
06
„    19	
22	
24	
07
„    20    ....                     	
44
July 18     ..                  	
25	
58
„    19	
„      26	
„      27	
„      28	
„      29	
„      30	
September   6	
7	
8	
00
,,    20	
35
„     21     ....               	
32
„    22	
26
,    23    ...              	
41
25
4	
43
10             	
42
17	
9	
10	
18	
19	
49
18	
47
19 	
10
20               	
16 II 44 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION.
By W. G. H. Firth, Chief Geographer.
Maps are of paramount importance, whether in times of peace or times of war;
in the first instance, the whole economic progress, particularly of a new country, will
be materially advanced, and in the second instance, the success of a campaign, either
in defence or offence, and the lives of men, might very largely rest on the availability
of accurate contoured maps.
From the dawn of history man has zealously guarded his property rights, and the
base of all law is formulated on this premise, whereby the necessity for accurate surveys and maps delineating boundaries becomes apparent.
A written report is essential in describing any part of the country, but accompanied by a good plan or map the facts contained therein are illuminated and brought
to life. In the field of graphic publicity a map has great merit in disseminating
knowledge of a country and its potentialities.
The former concept of geography has undergone a vast change in the past two
decades. Hitherto, the study of this subject was confined to memorizing names of
geographical features and textual matter concerning the industries and customs of the
people of a particular area. Modern geography embraces the science of the earth and
all its organic and inorganic matter; more particularly it studies the relationship of
man to his environment and industry. It impinges on all the physical sciences and
much of social science.
There are few universities now which do not have on the faculty a professor or
lecturer of geography. The subject is almost unlimited in its scope and has wide ramifications. Two global wars within the last three decades and the great advance in
aeronautics have very forcibly focused the attention of people throughout the world on
geography; the significance of distance, the proximity to other continents and countries
exemplified by press notes, diagrams, and globular projections of the earth have
extended and developed greatly the interest and knowledge of the general public.
A committee was appointed by the Canadian Social Research Council " to explore
the possibilities of preparation and publication of a comprehensive Atlas of Canada,"
and the results of a preliminary survey are contained in a bulletin published by the
Council in November, 1945. It would be interesting to investigate the practicability
of preparing a similar project covering British Columbia. Whether the time is opportune or not, and whether such a survey would normally be carried out in conjunction
with the Federal Government, is a moot point, but the writer respectfully submits that
the development of potentialities of the great hinterland and other sections of the
Province sooner or later will have to be undertaken, and that a planned research survey
of a whole area in contrast to isolated surveys would be the logical scheme to follow.
Further, it is submitted there are men in the Province with the necessary qualifications
to direct, organize, and implement such an undertaking, and most of these could be
drawn from the technical staffs of the Provincial Civil Service.
Division History.
It may be fitting in this report to give a synopsis of the Geographic Division since
its inception in August, 1912. British Columbia felt the impact of the great influx of
immigrants to Canada, particularly land-seekers, in the years 1909-13. To assist and
control settlement, large tracts of lands that were deemed to be suitable for development were surveyed and opened to pre-emption. The growing public demand for maps
in this period was probably the main reason which decided the Provincial Government
to establish a Geographic Division of the Surveys Branch, whose prime function would
be to compile, assemble, correlate, and prepare for publication suitable lithographed
maps for departmental purposes and general distribution. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. II 45
Apart from the foregoing, many other commissions have been undertaken throughout the years and have become an integral part of the Division responsibilities. These
include a Standard Base Map Section, which computes and records all triangulation
data and prepares skeleton control-sheets for all mapping projects. These data are
used extensively by the various technical branches of the Dominion and Provincial
services. A report by the mathematical computer on the work of this section is
appended hereto.
The writer has reason to believe the Division has met with a measure of success in
the fulfilment of its responsibilities and, in its particular field of endeavour, has assisted
materially in the development of British Columbia.
During the war periods 1914-18 and 1939-45 the staff was reduced to a minimum
by enlistment, but the Division has functioned continually since its inception. It is
worthy of note that thirteen members of the present staff, out of a total of seventeen,
are veterans of either the First or Second Great War.
From small beginnings and without any specific appropriations, a card index has
been built up of all place-names and geographical features. A Geographical Gazetteer
of British Columbia containing some 25,000 names and also pertinent geographical data
covering the Province was published in 1930. Since that date many place-names have
been established, and the recordings now total some 35,000 cards, on which appear the
geographical position of the feature, its length, height or area, and where information
is available, the origin of the name. As the years advance, this record will become of
still greater value both from a material and historical view-point, and probably is not
excelled by any other Province in the Dominion; only recently the Geographic Board of
Canada made reference to it. Information is now being assembled with a view to publishing a new edition.
A well-constructed filing-card system in conjunction with graphic indices is maintained, from which information can readily be obtained on all available maps covering
British Columbia issued by the Dominion and Provincial Governments. The Division
is equipped with a photostat machine, used primarily for reduction or enlargement
purposes, and also for copying documents required by various departments and, to some
extent, the general public.
Map Development and Progress.
The plan now in operation for mapping the Province was largely governed by the
economic conditions prevailing in 1912. The necessity and demand for maps of those
areas being actively developed or portended at that date set the pattern. The Division
on its inauguration (1912) was instructed to compile and prepare for printing a wall-
map covering the whole Province, and this was accomplished by the publication of Map
1a, wall-map of British Columbia on the scale of 17.75 miles to 1 inch. The next
requirement was to prepare a map of the south-westerly section of the Province on
sufficient scale to show cadastral surveys and by a colour scheme to indicate all land
under licence or alienated from the Crown. This was accomplished by the publication
of Map 2a, southerly portion of Vancouver Island, in 1913.
The greater area of lands opened to pre-emption in the years 1909-14 covered the
area now traversed by the Canadian National Railways. The Pre-emptors' Map Series,
on the scale of 3 miles to 1 inch, was designed to meet the demands of land-seekers for
maps of this area. Cadastral surveys are shown, and the status of lands is indicated
by colour on these maps. Later editions have been greatly improved in design and by
the adoption of five-colour printings. On several of these sheets concise economic notes
on agriculture, mining, and forestry appear.
The Degree Map Series, on the scale of 2 miles to 1 inch, was designed to cover the
older settled area of the Province adjacent to and north of the 49th parallel;  each sheet II 46 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
covers one complete degree of latitude and longitude respectively. All available survey
data, cadastral and topographical, as at date of publication appear on these maps, which
are lithographed in four colours.
Regional maps on the scale of 7.89 miles to 1 inch cover the south-west and southeast sections of the Province, and two sheets on the scale of 15.78 miles to 1 inch cover
the central and northern areas.
The foregoing is a synopsis of the requirement and growth of the map-planning
scheme currently in operation. The well-planned and rigid system laid down by the
Dominion Government for mapping all Canada, known as the National Topographic
Map Series, is worthy of note. These sheets are predetermined, bounded by latitude
and longitude lines, and produced in multiple scales of 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 miles to 1 inch.
The geography of British Columbia was very largely fashioned by the great Rocky
Mountains and Coast Ranges, minor systems, and high Interior plateau areas. To
these dominant features are attributed the long and deeply indented seaboard, the main
valleys in which the great rivers run their course and the large lakes are situated.
These in turn determined the location of settlements, industries, and commerce. The
geographical features of the Province, including the major rock units have a general
north-north-westerly trend, and this fact has a certain bearing on the orientation of
our present mapping system.
Some undesirable features will arise in almost any planned mapping scheme, and
more particularly in a high rugged country such as British Columbia. Although the
present plan has worked well, is elastic and capable of an orderly expansion, consideration in the near future will be given to desirability of adopting, at least in part, the
more rigid scheme laid down by the Dominion Government.
It is proposed during the ensuing year to prepare for publication a one-sheet map
of the Province on the scale of 27 miles to 1 inch, on which by overprintings in colour
the various administrative boundaries will be shown. It is also proposed to use this
map as a base for depicting in broad outlines, and by colour schemes, elevations, forest-
cover, agriculture, minerals, fisheries, temperatures and rainfall, power-sites, historical data, either singly or in combinations where adaptable.
The writer suggests that through interdepartmental co-operation appraisals and
descriptions of any given areas could be made and publicized either in leaflet form or
on the reverse side of map-sheets.
The development and progress of mapping-work during the next fifteen to twenty
years will largely depend on the extent of any new topographical surveys undertaken,
particularly in the northern and coastal sections wherein the topographical information
available now is meagre or non-existent. Much work lies ahead also in maintaining
the sectional sheets and making them truly representative of the new topographical
information as it becomes available.
Divisional Activities, 1946.
During the last four years the Division has lost by death, retirement, and resignation three key members of the staff, and this, together with the large increase in all
phases of the Division's work as reflected in the tabulated and itemized data appended
hereto, has imposed a considerable extra load, particularly on those members of the
staff concerned with the final drawing and preparation for map-reproduction work.
Notwithstanding, all requests and demands of whatever nature (and they were many)
have been met.
The distribution of over 29,000 maps during the year, largely by individual request,
and the correspondence entailed thereby constituted a considerable amount of work.
Many requests of an exacting nature from widely scattered sources for detailed
geographical data of the Province, historic and current, were received and dealt with. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. II 47
Among these may be mentioned a request from the Inter-service, Topographical Section,
Department of National Defence, for detailed information on the navigability of the
great rivers of British Columbia.
All maps or charts of the Province published by the various departments of the
Federal Government are submitted to the Division for final review and checking.
A large increase over previous years in work of this nature is noted: no less than fifty
maps or charts containing over 4,100 names were checked against our master record,
and when new or changed names were submitted, either on account of duplication or of
a contentious nature, recommendations were made either for their adoption or otherwise. It is gratifying to note that with few exceptions these recommendations were
accepted by the Geographic Board of Canada. A total of 602 new names has been
recorded during the year.
Under the direction of the Surveyor-General and for the approval of the Department of Education, boundaries of the seventy-four new school districts as recommended
in the Cameron Report were delineated, described, and finally read for publication in
the British Columbia Gazette. Work of a similar kind was undertaken by request of
the Vital Statistics Division to redescribe and bring into better alignment and juxtaposition the boundaries of the vital statistics districts to conform with the new school
district boundaries, a task requiring accuracy, precision, and terse, correct legal phraseology. It is commendable that work of this nature has in recent years been entrusted
to the Division.    A total of 1,273 man-hours was consumed in this work.
By arrangement and in close co-operation with the Department of National Defence
(Geographical Section, General Staff) a backlog of fourteen manuscript maps covering
sections of Vancouver Island, and prepared from surveys carried out by the Topographical Division during the last ten years, was dispatched to Ottawa. These data
will provide the basic coverage and meet the requirements for the reproduction of ten
National Topographical Series Maps on the scale of 1 mile to the inch, lithographed in
several colours. Not only will this mass of survey information be brought to fruition
and made available to the public, but the needs also of the Department of National
Defence and the Department of Mines and Resources (Bureau of Geology and Topography) will be served thereby.
This is the largest single planned map-reproduction programme ever undertaken
by the Division in conjunction with the Federal Government.
The arrangements, co-operation, and progress made to date have been very satisfactory to all concerned, and it is hoped the remaining backlog of survey information
will be prepared and made available for shipment to the Dominion Government, Ottawa,
during the ensuing year.
A large amount of incidental work, totalling some eighty-one items, was undertaken for various departments other than the Department of Lands and Forests; these
included charts, diagrams, and special hand-coloured maps. Particular mention might
be made also of a well-executed illuminated address presented to Viscount Montgomery
which was designed and drawn by a member of the staff.
The programme of map reproduction as planned in 1945 was retarded somewhat
by the volume of work as set out in the foregoing text; nevertheless, three maps were
published during the year and two degree sheets are concurrently in the hands of the
printer. The names of these maps, area covered, and other particulars are noted in
the tabulated data appended hereto.
RESUM___.
It is anticipated the current post-war upsurge in the economic life of the Province
will continue into 1947, with a consequent large demand for maps and geographical
information. II 48 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
As previously mentioned in this report, the compiling and preparation of maps
for publication was retarded in 1946 by other activities. It will be essential during
the ensuing year to concentrate on several map-sheets, the stocks of which have become
depleted. To speed up this work, it is proposed to adopt a more mechanical process
by the use of letter-press type.
The writer desires to pay tribute to the staff for their whole-hearted friendly and
loyal co-operation, sometimes under stress and difficult conditions.
Base Maps Computing Section.
By W. H. Hutchinson, Mathematical Computer.
Triangulation Adjustment.
The office-work in connection with triangulation adjustment may be said to come
under three headings:—
(1.)  Calculation of positions and elevations of new triangulation stations from
surveyors' angular observations in the field.
(2.)  Adjustment of triangulation networks between fixed control-points, and
adjoining nets with one another.
(3.)   Collection and  indexing of all triangulation data covering the whole
Province.
New Triangulation.
In the past it has been the practice for each topographic surveyor to calculate, with
sufficient accuracy for plotting purposes, preliminary rectangular co-ordinates and
elevations for each station set by him during the field season; later, the Computing
Section revised these preliminary co-ordinates, established geographical positions (latitude and longitude) for each station, and recorded the results in the card-index system.
An innovation was started this year whereby this Section performed all the necessary computations and furnished the surveyor with lists of rectangular co-ordinates
and elevations for all stations set by him. This method of procedure was tried out in
order to give the surveyor more time to work on the mapping of his sheet, and also to
avoid any duplication of effort.
N. C. Stewart's triangulation in the vicinity of Fort Fraser and A. G. Slocomb's
triangulation in the Sydney Inlet-Muchalat Arm area were handled in this manner, with
satisfactory results. In addition a start was made on the necessary calculations covering A. C. Pollard's main control triangulation from Williams Lake westerly; these
computations are not completed.
This control triangulation commences at the geodetic survey line " Narcosli-Dome,"
near Williams Lake, continuing westerly. The field observations are complete as far
as the line " Downton-Baldface," situated in the Itcha mountain range.
It is hoped, in one more season, to continue northerly, making a further junction
with the geodetic survey triangulation net near Francois Lake.
This survey, when completed, should furnish much needed control for mapping in
this area.
Adjustments.
The most important work under this heading undertaken during the year was the
adjustment of the main control triangulation from Hazelton to Fraser Lake, surveyed
by E. R. Foster, B.C.L.S., and H. Pattinson.
This net commences at the geodetic survey precise traverse line " Berry-Hazelton,"
near Hazelton, continues northerly to the divide between the Kluatantan and Kluayetz
Rivers, thence south-easterly to Takla Lake, finally connecting with the geodetic survey
line " Saddle-Taltapin " to the north of Fraser Lake. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. II 49
There are 44 triangles in this net, extending for a distance of about 400 miles,
and it is controlled at either end by positions established by the Geodetic Survey of
Canada.
After the preliminary computations had been completed, the following closure
errors were obtained:—
Closure in latitude:  0.751 second of arc = 76 feet, approximately.
Closure in longitude:   0.834 second of arc — 49 feet, approximately.
Closure in length:   11.6 feet in a distance of approximately 35 miles;  that is,
at the rate of 1 foot in 15,848 feet.
Closure in azimuth:  27 seconds.
A " least square " adjustment was applied to take up these discrepancies, the necessary corrections to the preliminary angles proving to be less than 1 second in every case.
In addition, trigonometrical elevations were carried throughout the network, with
a closing error of 16 feet.
Other " least square " adjustments were completed in the following areas:—
Coast triangulation:   Grenville Channel, comprising 115 triangles.
Coast triangulation:  Knight Inlet, comprising 45 triangles.
Okanagan Flood Commission:   International Boundary to Penticton, comprising 52 triangles.
Indexing.
All triangulation data relating to the Province are indexed under an alphabetical
card-index system, also under a quadrant-index system (see Triangulation Map).
In the alphabetical system a card is written for each station, on which is recorded
the following details, where available:—
Names of surveyors occupying the station, with dates of occupation, and
numbers of field books and plans relating to same.
Description of mark.
Description of access.
Latitude and longitude.
Elevation.
Distances and bearings to adjoining stations.
Grid rectangular co-ordinates.
Ties to cadastral survey posts.
Under the quadrant system a register with pages for each quadrant of 30-minute
extent lists all the stations contained in each individual quadrant.
In this manner inquiries relating to triangulation in the Province can be attended
to with efficiency and without delay.
Technical Methods.
Starting from a fixed base, if a triangulation is carried forward so as to make a
junction with another fixed line, it is evident that the length, direction, and geographical
position of the latter, as determined from the new network, will not exactly agree with
the previously fixed data for that line.
In order to eliminate these discrepancies, it is necessary to make an adjustment
of the network, and it is the objective of the adjuster to bring about this adjustment
with the least possible disturbance to the observed angles.
A triangulation network cannot be properly adjusted in a similar way to that used
for traverse surveys; in the case of the latter the length of each course is independent
of the lengths of succeeding courses, but in a triangulation survey any angular errors
in the first triangle are carried forward to the next and accumulate rapidly throughout
the network. II 50
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Main Provincial triangulation is computed using " true " bearings, and the method
of adjustment used is the " least square " method, in accordance with the formulae and
tables prepared by the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, and fully described
in their publication No. 138.
The United States Coast and Geodetic formulae, mentioned above, do not apply to
stations worked on a rectangular co-ordinate system, and for some time it has been felt
that there was a need for some precise system that would be applicable to such
secondary networks, particularly in regard to the adjustment of Provincial coast
triangulation.
Some three years ago such a method, founded on " least square " principles and
adapted to rectangular co-ordinates, was developed by the Computing Section and has
since been put into practice, with excellent results, the necessary calculations being
arranged suitably for calculating-machine work rather than logarithms.
A table of statistics follows, giving comparisons with the previous five-year
period:—
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.
1945.
1946.
Triangles adjusted by least squares _	
Stations calculated from rectangular co-ordinates	
Index cards, new	
241
746
3
649
7,529
33
6
217
586
6
824
8,353
45
7
Ill
654
14
918
9,271
53
10
461
286
10
715
9,986
44
5
431
570
3
694
305
10,680
52
2
456
583
3
685
229
Index cards, total on file	
11,437
50
6
Maps.
Published.
Name.
No. of
Copies.
Date of
Issue.
Dept.
Map No.
Scale.
Area in
Sq. Mi.
4,000
4,100
3,100
Mar., 1946
April, 1946
Sept., 1946
4B
3g
2 mi. to 1 in.
3 mi. to 1 in.
20 mi. to 1 in.
3,050
In Course of Preparation.
In Course
of Printing.
2,500
2,000
Feb.,   1947
Mar., 1947
4p
4p
2 mi. to 1 in.
2 mi. to 1 in.
3,400
3,100
Northerly Vancouver Island	
British Columbia Commercial, showing rivers
railways, main roads, etc	
Fernie Degree Sheet	
2c
lJ
4d
4 mi. to 1 in.
27 mi. to 1 in.
2 mi. to 1 in.
10,000
366,255
3,050 139°        138°        137°        136°        135°        134°        133°       132°        131°        13Q°       129°       128°        127°        126°        125°       124°       123°        122°        121°        120°        119°        118°        117°   |     116°        115°        114° 113° 112° 111° IIO'
V*
TRIANGULATION LEGEND
Geodetic Survey of Canada (Basic Control)
Dominion Geological and Topographical Surveys
* Provincial Standard
Provincial—Other than Standard
solid line    Purple
dotted line Purple
Red
Green
*The standard type of Provincial triangulation meets the following requirements:—
Network of quadrilaterals or polygons with all angles read.
All angles read to the nearest second of arc.
losing error for each triangle, 10 seconds.
All stations marked by brass bolts or iron posts.
Distance and azimuth derived from Geodetic Survey Basic Control wherever available.
Only the main framework of triangulation  is shown on this map;   numerous additional
stations have been established, many of which are marked by brass bolts, iron posts, or cairns.
H4     5vl nines Details concerning each station are recorded in a card-index, giving marking, geographical
\fmf      \)    Cr'°    position, elevation, distances and directions to adjacent stations, etc.
Triangulation surveys of all the principal coastal waterways have been made, either by
Provincial or Canadian Hydrographic surveys.    These are not shown on this map o
its small scale.
j[ December 31st, 1946
To accompany Annual Report of Surveys Branch
Department of Lands and Forests,
December 31st. 1946.
135° 134° 133° 132°
131° 130°
129°LongiLudel28°   West    127°   from    126°Greenw_chl25° 124° REPORT OP SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
II 51
Geographic Board of Canada, Naming and Recording.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.
1945.
1946.
14
11
12
22
1,928
551
21
2,037
335
50
4,107
Number of new names recorded	
549
1,302
153
602
Geographical Work for other Departments and Public.
Total number of items	
Total receipts and value of work..
$1,708.00
64 56
$2,007.00 I     $734.25
 I
37
$626.31
56
$1,221.73
$2,277.50
Map Stock and Distribution.
Maps issued to departments and public	
12,401
9,237
$4,450.75
$4,139.49
14,444
8,700
$5,850.70
$5,347.33
15,776
12,805
$4,901.37
$4,621.73
15,598
12,453
$4,815.33
$3,690.56
20,973
20,800
$6,997.80
$5,091.49
29,052
11,425
Total value of printed maps issued	
$10,848.45
$7,079.22
Photostat.
Total number of photostats made	
Total value of photostats	
Value of photostats for Department of Lands
and Forests	
2,562
675.00
$1,387.15
4,189
$1,286.00
$816.70
3,279
$1,234.59
$545.00
3,620
$1,865.75
$834.50
3,330
,716.35
$751.25
4,696
$2,259.60
$1,013.75
Letters.
Letters received and attended to..
1,370 1,343
1,705
1,857
2,111 2,619 II 52
DEPARTMENT OP LANDS AND FORESTS.
List of Lithographed Maps.
Map
No.
Year of
Issue.
Title of Map.
Scale,
Miles, etc.
Per
Copy.
Per
Dozen.
lA
1945
1946
1930
1916
1943
1947
1923
1937
1937
1937
1945
1937
1937
1945
1925
1940
1938
1914
1947
1923
1924
1927
1944
1942
1940
1937
1945
1934
1935
1931
1942
1938
1929
1924
1927
1946
1936
1947
1925
1947
1943
1926
1921
1923
1926
1927
1930
1947
1939
1916
1929
1929
1929
1941
1927
1928
1928
1929
1929
1932
1934
1935
1946
1939
1930
Geographic Series—
Wall Map of British Columbia.    In four sheets.    Roads, trails,
1: 1,000,000
15.78 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
15.78 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
31.56 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
15.78 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. toi in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. toi in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
5 m. to 1 in.
Vk m. to 1 in.
V-z m. to 1 in.
5 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
20 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
$1.50
Free
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.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
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1.00
$14.00
lex
British  Columbia.    In  one  sheet.    Showing   Land   Recording
1.60
IB
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Kootenay, Osoyoos, and Similkameen (South-east B.C.)	
4.00
4.00
lH
4.00
tlJ
British Columbia.    In one sheet.    Showing, rivers,  railways,
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
IJE
1JF
Ditto          ditto          and Assessment and Collection Districts	
Ditto          ditto          and Electoral Districts, Redistribution 1938..
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
IK
1L
South   Western   Districts  of  B.C.,   Commercial  and  Visitors.
(Economic Tables, etc., 1929.)
4.00
4.00
2a
Land Series—
4.00
2b
4.00
t2c
2d
4.00
4.00
4.00
2f
3a
Queen Charlotte Islands, Economic Geography (preliminary)   ....
Pre-emptors' Series—
4.00
2.00
3b
2.00
3c
2.00
3d
Bulkley     .. .         	
2.00
2.00
3p
2.00
3g
2.00
3h
2.00
3j
2.00
3k
2.00
2 00
3p
2.00
4a
Degree Series—■
4.00
4b
4.00
4c
2.00
f4D
Fernie (contoured)	
4.00
2.00
t4P
2.00
4g
2 00
4h
2.00
4j
4.00
4k
4.00
4l
4.00
4.00
4.00
|4p
4 00
4q
4.00
5a
5b
5c
Topographical Series—
Omineca and Finlay River Basins, Sketch-map of	
Howe Sound-Burrard Inlet (contoured), South sheet (special)....
„                         „                     ,,              North sheet (special)
2.00
4.00
4.00
4 00
5D
4.00
Mineral Reference Maps—Printed.
4 00
4 00
4 00
4 00
4 00
Miscellaneous—
On ap.
Geographical Gazetteer of British Columbia	
t In course of compilation.
Note.—To avoid misunderstanding, applicants for maps are requested to state the " Map  Number " of map
desired.
Maps listed above can be mounted to order in the following forms:   Plain mounted;   cut-to-fold any size;   with
wooden bars top and bottom to hang1, etc.    Prices upon application.
We can  supply  information  concerning- maps of British  Columbia  printed  and published at Ottawa  by the
Department of Mines and Resources.
Unless otherwise requested, maps will be sent folded.
Inquiries for 'printed maps—Address :—
Chief Geographer, Department of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.      January 3rd, 1947. REPORT OP SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
II 53
Index of Lithographed Maps.
SURVEYS DIVISION.
By F. 0. Morris, Chief of Surveys Division.
This Division deals with the general correspondence, the supply of survey information to land surveyors and the general public, preparation of instructions for surveying,
checking survey-field-notes and plotting official plans therefrom, clearing all applications, and many minor activities.
A blue and ozalid printing plant is maintained, rendering service to the various
Governmental departments.
Departmental Reference Maps.—In order to keep a proper graphic record of alienations and inquiries, reference maps, generally on the scale of 1 mile to 1 inch, and
mineral reference maps on the scale of 1,500 feet to 1 inch, drawn on tracing linen, are
maintained by the Surveys Division. There are now 202 reference maps and 82 mineral
reference  maps, making a total of 284 maps.   The work of keeping these up to date— II 54
DEPARTMENT OP LANDS AND FORESTS.
(1) by adding new survey information as it becomes available, and (2) by renewing
same when worn out with constant use and handling in the blue-print machines—forms
a considerable portion of the work of the Division. During the year two new reference
maps were made and six were recompiled. Tables B and C, attached hereto, give a list
of these reference maps.
Table A, which follows, summarizes the main items of work.
Table A.—Summary of Office-work for the Years 1945 and 1946, Surveys Division.
1945.
Average
for Years
1936 to 1945.
Number of field-books received	
lots surveyed	
lots plotted	
lots gazetted	
lots cancelled	
mineral-claim field-books prepared	
reference maps compiled	
applications for purchase cleared	
applications for pre-emption cleared	
applications for lease cleared	
coal licences cleared	
water licences cleared	
timber-sales cleared	
free-use permits cleared	
hand-loggers' licences cleared	
Crown-grant applications cleared	
reverted-land clearances	
cancellations made	
inquiries cleared	
placer-mining leases plotted on maps....
letters received	
letters sent out	
Crown-grant and lease tracings made....
miscellaneous tracings made	
Government Agents' tracings made	
blue-prints made	
Revenue received from sale of blue-prints	
Number of documents consulted and filed in vault..
161
173
137
200
13
77
12
850
164
513
20
98
2,188
298
6
2,063
956
458
772
76
6,114
4,043
1,410
108
91
28,043
',934.53
28,946
223
222
187
175
8
66
8
1,812
440
1,152
5
89
2,660
464
3
2,518
1,538
561
795
515
7,843
4,501
1,458
141
93
45,081
$12,127.36
30,033
296
318
304
312
206
227
10
284
354
362
52
129
1,960
365
18
1,205
970
965
1,701
302
5,215
3,732
1,233
132
142
25,597
$4,908.21
29,859
An analysis of Table A shows a great increase in nearly every item on the list for
last year over the average for the past ten years. This work is a reflection of the
increased activity in land transactions throughout the Province, being due to post-war
plans and to increasing numbers of home-seekers entering British Columbia from
outside points. You will notice " field-books received " during 1946 are less than the
ten-year average; this will no doubt be changed soon, probably in 1947, when such large
numbers of purchases and leases are surveyed. Also please note the great increase in
the amount of work, and the revenue therefrom, of the blue-print room. It must also
be pointed out that this increased amount of work in the various jobs of the Surveys
Division has been accomplished with a depleted staff. a.
REPORT OP SURVEYOR-GENERAL. II 55
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-^     HHHHHHriHHHrlrtHHHH HHHHHHHHH 139°        138°        137JJ(f 136°        135°        134°        133°       132°        131°        130°       129°       128°        127°       126°       125°       124°       123°        122°        121°        120°        119°        118°        Il?>||j| .116° 115°^Ugl4° 113° 112° 111° HO*
|| December 31st, 1946
135° 134° 133° 132°
131° 130°
129°Long-t.udel28° "West    127°   from    126°Greenwichl25° 124° 123° 122°
120° 119°
118°
To accompany Annual Report of Surveys Bra
Department of Lands and Forests,
December 31st. 1946.
117° 116° 115° REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. II 59
TOPOGRAPHIC DIVISION.
By A. J. Campbell, B.A.Sc, B.C.L.S., D.L.S.
The Topographic Division of the Surveys Branch deals with the survey parties in
the field, including those engaged in obtaining control for topographic mapping, on
triangulation, and on boundary-line surveys (not including cadastral surveys). Also
under its supervision is the compiling of the topographic maps and making the calculations for and the preparation of the field-notes of the triangulation, as well as for
the boundary surveys. The control used in plotting contour maps from vertical air
photographs is obtained primarily by a photographic method, using pictures taken
from vantage points on the ground to control the positions of the air photographs,
a method that is very suitable for the greater part of British Columbia. In the flatter
portions of the Province where ground pictures cannot be obtained, control is obtained
by traverses, barometer readings, and any other methods found suitable for that type
of terrain. The triangulation stations, main photo-stations, and other control-stations
that are accurately fixed are marked on the ground by brass bolts set in rock or concrete. This makes a permanent record on the ground which may be used for subsequent surveys.
In 1946 four parties were in the field, two were engaged on topographic control
surveys, one on triangulation, and one party carried on with the British Columbia-
Yukon Boundary. N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S., was in charge of a control survey in the
vicinity of Vanderhoof, while the other party, in charge of A. G. Slocomb, B.C.L.S.,
controlled an area on the west coast of Vancouver Island in the vicinity of Muchalat
and Shelter Arms. The triangulation party commenced its operations at geodetic stations west of Williams Lake, with the object of making a connection, westerly and
northerly, to other geodetic stations near Francois Lake. This work would provide
control for the Tweedsmuir Park area and also strengthen some of the earlier triangulation nets. More than half of this work, which was expected to take two seasons,
was completed. This triangulation was started under R. C. Mainguy, B.C.L.S., of the
Topographic Division, but he, through illness, was compelled to leave the field, when
A. C. Pollard, B.C.L.S., took over and carried on to the end of the season. The British
Columbia-Yukon Boundary survey party, in charge of A. J. Campbell, B.C.L.S., D.L.S.,
ran a section of the boundary in the vicinity of Lower Post on the Liard River.
Reports of the surveyors, giving details of the work accomplished under their
supervision, are attached hereto.
The demand for topographic maps of the standard produced by the Topographic
Division is great and is growing. It is a matter of great regret that owing to limitations of staff and office space that this demand is far from being satisfied.
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, WEST COAST OF VANCOUVER ISLAND.
By A. G. Slocomb, B.C.L.S.
The area completed is on the west coast of Vancouver Island, and is roughly
bounded by Shelter Arm to the south, Muchalat Arm to the north, 126th meridian to
the east, and Nootka Sound to the west. This survey, therefore, controls Map-sheet
92 E/8, the major portion of Map-sheet 92 E/9, and parts of Map-sheets 92 E/7 and
92 E/10. It lies to the north of the area controlled during 1943. The area contains
approximately 450 square miles.
The purpose of the survey was to produce a map at the scale of % mile to 1 inch,
with a contour interval of 100 feet, using the air photos taken by the British Columbia II 60 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Forest Service, and the R.C.A.F. The ground control was obtained by photo-topographical methods. Many ties were made to lot corners so as to place accurately the
cadastral surveys in relation to the triangulation. A triangulation net was carried
forward from the 1943 work, and suitable stations were occupied with a view to extending the net to the north and west. The coast-line taken from the files of the Hydro-
graphic Survey of Canada will be used to check that taken from our air photos.
The party left Victoria via the S.S. " Princess Maquinna " on June 4th, and consisted of the writer, A. F. Swannell as assistant, four axemen, and a cook. We organized at Ahousat and disbanded at Refuge Cove. Two of the men left to continue their
studies at the University at the end of August, with the remainder of the party working till October 1st. It was found impossible to obtain additional help in the area.
We were under canvas for most of the season, with the exception of August, when we
hired a cabin at Refuge Cove.
For transportation we had two small boats—one 16-foot clinker-built powered
with a 16-horse-power Evinrude outboard motor and one 14-foot clinker-built powered
with a Johnson outboard. The larger one was suitable most days to run around
the inlets, the smaller only during calm weather. Neither was big enough to run
around the shore of Nootka Sound or around Estevan Point. Both are open boats,
and during wet or rough weather the crew suffered considerable discomfort. It was
not possible to hire a launch for the season, all the local boats being engaged in fishing.
They could make as much in one day when the fish were running as I could pay for
a month's hire, and so were not interested. On the occasions when I wanted to move
camp, I had to wait for weather not suitable for fishing to hire a boat. This was
usually at short notice. More boats were available during September, when the salmon
run was nearly over. The only suitable arrangement for this coast would be a boat
large enough for the whole crew to live on board, and so do away with the necessity
of locating a camping-spot, always hard to find on the west coast. A boat this size
could travel at any time and anywhere.
During the season seventy-eight triangulation, tie and control, and camera stations
were occupied, and 20 dozen photographs exposed.
Physical Features.
Along the eastern boundary there are a series of high, steep mountains, several
of which pass the 6,000-foot mark. Only Matchlee (6,019 feet), to the north, was
occupied. From just north of Megin Lake to Shelbert the mountains are round-topped,
lightly timbered on top, and between 3,560 and 4,000 feet.
Sydney Inlet and its watershed practically cuts the area in half, running through
till intersecting the mountains immediately south of Muchalat Arm. The sides of the
inlet are very precipitous. Pretty Girl Mountain (3,887 feet), east of the head of
Sydney Inlet, was the hub of the area and made a splendid main station. While
Sydney Cone (3,268 feet), to the west of the head of the arm, is a very conspicuous
landmark.    Both were previously occupied by W. J. H. Holmes, B.C.L.S., in 1931.
To the south-west lies Hesquiat Peninsula. To the head of Hesquiat Harbour
this peninsula is very flat. From there a general slope up to a series of timber-top
mountains which extend up the coast to Zuciarte Channel. Of these, Mount Alber-
marle (3,482 feet) is the highest and the only one with a rocky top. Located on the
south-west tip of this peninsula is Estevan lighthouse and wireless station, named in
1774 by the commander of the Spanish corvette " Santiago," Lieutenant-Commander
Juan Perez, after his second lieutenant, Don Estevan Jose Martinez. In 1882 the
American barque " Melleville " went ashore on the reef there, and measures were taken
to establish a navigation light. The lighthouse, 133 feet high, was erected in 1907.
In December, 1918, an earthquake damaged the light and cracked the lighthouse.   Dur- lofiogiGphical Jfuttset/.
West Coast, Vancouver Island
Looking towards Hesquiat
Peninsula from Sidney
Cove.
Head of Talbot Creek
looking west from
Slide Station.
Survey crew, 1946
Steamer Mountain
in background.  REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. II 61
ing the last World War a Japanese submarine shelled the light from offshore. Due to
the presence of so many reefs, this was done from long range, and no damage was
reported. It is seldom possible to land at the lighthouse, supplies being brought over
a dirt road from Hesquiat.
Paralleling Muchalat Arm again are steep, precipitous mountains. Mount Rufus
(3,721 feet) and Mount Gore are the main peaks. Mount Rufus overlooks the Sydney
Inlet watershed. Mount Pierce (4,604 feet) is the high point of the Pierce Range,
situated between the head of Muchalat Arm at the mouth of the Burman River and
Jacklah Creek;   this is around the north-east corner of the area.
The top of Steamer Mountain (2,591 feet) was cleared off for a triangulation
station, and we were able to see this signal from all points occupied. Steamer Mountain
is near the north shore of Flores Island.
The largest lake of the area is Hesquiat Lake, at the head of Hesquiat Harbour.
There is a fine hot spring at Refuge Cove, reached by a well cut-out trail from
Clarke's store, or by boat at certain stages of the tide. At its source the water of this
spring is too hot to keep the hand in for more than an instant. It is used extensively
for bathing purposes by the local residents and the fishermen.
C. H. Clapp, of the Geological Survey, in a report made in 1913, says the water is
predominantly sodium chloride and silica, with flakes of white, thought to be sulphur.
He gives the temperature as 125 degrees at point of issuance, and says it runs at the
rate of 100 gallons per minute. There is a sulphur smell. While well known for years
as a bathing-point for sailors, the first attempt to make this a resort was in 1898 by
a man named Brewer. When the analysis failed to give any definite proof of healing
powers, the project was dropped.
Forests.
The whole area is heavily timbered up to 4,000 feet, with timber-line at approximately 4,500 feet. The timber is hemlock, balsam, and cedar, with scattered fir, spruce,
and jack-pine, and a few yellow cedar. Some very large fir were seen on Muchalat
Arm, particularly around Jacklah Creek, where Gibsons had done considerable logging
in 1938, also at the mouth of the Houston River. Some large spruce were measured
on Shelter Arm, the largest being 32 feet in circumference. Commercial timber does
not seem to go far up the slopes and is confined mainly to within a few miles of salt
water. A few scattered stands were noticed in the vicinity of Megin Lake, at the
head of Sydney Inlet, and up Silverado Creek. There is still considerable timber up
Jacklah Creek, past where Gibsons finished logging.
A Forest Service cruising party was in the south half of our area during the
summer.
The underbrush was exceptionally heavy and difficult to get through. It consisted
mainly of salal, salmon-berry, thimbleberry, devil's-club, mountain blueberry, red
wortleberry, white rhododendron, and willow. It was encountered everywhere we went
in the area.
Very few wild flowers were seen. This was probably due to the late season; the
snowfall, very heavy in the mountains, was very late in clearing and the flowers did not
seem to bloom.    A collection of those found was turned over to the Provincial Museum.
Minerals.
Only one property is being worked in the area, that being a gold property owned
by the Burman River Mining Company (Sloan) at the head of Muchalat Arm on the
south-west side of Matchlee Bay. Considerable staking was noticed up Matchlee Creek,
also by the above company.
Situate at Kings Pass, Muchalat Arm, is the old Danzig property. Not in operation, a few of the old buildings are still in fair condition.    A wooden truck-road which II 62 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
runs up the west bank of Silverado Creek for about a mile is rapidly deteriorating, and
also the wharf at salt water, at the commencement of the road. Several large windfalls
block the road. The mine at the head of the road was a zinc show, while that at tidewater, situate across the bay from Ous Point, was gold. The buildings at the latter
are still standing, but only the cook-house is in fair condition.
At Stewardson Inlet are the remains of a copper-gold-silver mine, originally operated by the Tidewater Company and called the Indian Chief mine. In 1938 the Sidney
Inlet Mining Company took over and rebuilt the wharf, cook-house, and bunk-house.
They operated a 120-ton concentration mill, using flotation process, with an aerial
tramway system from the workings. There are three tunnels. As the company was
Japanese-owned, it closed down in 1939, and all the machinery and cable were removed.
There are two Crown-granted iron claims on the north side of the river which runs
into Mooyah Bay, Muchalat Inlet. Also a zinc showing (Shannon) east of the mouth
of the Houston River, Muchalat Inlet. There seemed to be little activity in the prospecting line during 1946.
Game.
Game was not plentiful, but quite a few deer were seen during the season, usually
in small groups, and there seemed to be many fawns. Very few bear were actually
seen, but there were plenty of signs. A few rabbits were seen in the Megin Lake
country. Squirrels and chipmunks were noticed, though not plentiful. There are some
fur-bearing animals in the area, chiefly mink, marten, raccoon, and otter. Trappers
report their previous season very poor, their chief trouble being bears, who apparently
stayed in the valleys and raided their traps. Seals were seen quite often in the inlets.
Trout in moderate numbers are to be found in most of the rivers and lakes. Megin
Lake in particular seemed to be well stocked. Salmon of all varieties come into the
inlets in season and go up the rivers to spawn. Many mud-sharks were seen, some of
them large. One killed by the Indians for the liver, and left on the beach, measured
32 feet in length. We caught rock-cod, black bass, and flounders in Shelter Arm.
Commercially, halibut, salmon, cod, pilchard, herring, anchovies, dogfish, and shark
were fished during the season in this area.
Water-fowl were plentiful, the broods of ducklings being all large. Loon were also
plentiful. Some fool-hens and blue grouse were seen, but not in any quantity. An
occasional ptarmigan was noticed.    Crows, sea-gulls, and eagles abound.
Climate.
This area seemed to be in a rainy belt. We had fifty-five days during the season
on which rain fell, on the same days of which to the south and west fine weather would
be reported. The condition and size of the undei'brush would lead one to believe it is
normally a heavy precipitation area. There is little snowfall at sea-level, but a heavy
fall of snow in the mountains is normal. This season many of the mountains still had
snow on them from the previous winter when we left. There was no fresh snow in
September. There is considerable fog during the summer months, usually hanging in
the inlets till noon. We were bothered by low clouds continually, except during the
month of August.
We found the weather reports from Estevan Point very accurate and of great
assistance, while " G.G." on radio-station CJOR, Vancouver, gave a West Coast report
at 7 a.m. that could be relied on.
On Sunday, June 23rd, severe earthquake tremors were felt. All the rock cairns
in Strathcona Park visible from our area were destroyed. The whole top of Matchlee
Mountain slid down the mountain, taking the brass bolt established in 1938 by N. C.
Stewart, B.C.L.S., with it. One of our new signals (Shelbert) had to be re-erected.
A great number of rock-slides occurred, and these continued to move all summer. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. II 63
Accessibility.
There are no main roads in this area. A dirt road between Hesquiat Village and
Estevan Point Lighthouse serves to take supplies to the lighthouse when it is not possible to land a boat on the exposed point.
It is possible to travel up the Megin River by canoe to Megin Lake. A local trapper
had a series of trails that we used and found to be in fair condition.
At Jacklah Creek we found an abandoned logging-road about 2 miles in length that
can still be used as a trail, a new growth of alder having grown up on the right-of-way.
A bridge across Jacklah Creek has disappeared, and crossing during a freshet would
be impossible.
The mine road (boards) on Silverado Creek can still be used as a trail.
The area is served by the C.P.R. boats. At the start of the season a ten-day
schedule was maintained, but commencing with the month of October a seven-day
service is to be inaugurated. At Nootka cannery it was possible to take passage on a
plane to Vancouver, weather permitting. This plane called twice a week at Nootka,
while a telephone call would stop one of the daily flights to Zeballos. It was possible to
travel on any of the many fish-packers serving the area, most of the larger ones maintaining a regular schedule to Vancouver.
This whole area has very few blazed trails and is very difficult to travel through.
Travelling the creek-beds, except when the creeks were in flood, was the easiest way to
get through the country.
Industries.
Fishing is the chief industry, in fact, at present the only one. Trollers, purse-
seiners, and dogfishermen operate out of Refuge Cove, Hesquiat, and Nootka. A dragnet outfit fished Sydney Inlet and Muchalat Arm during August and September. Both
Refuge Cove and Nootka reported a very poor fishing season. There were four fish-
floats operating at Refuge Cove. Nootka is a cannery settlement. All the reduction
plants formerly in the area were abandoned some time ago and the machinery removed.
Since then the wharves have collapsed, and in most cases only a cabin and debris remain
to mark the site.
There were no logging operations in this area this summer, and none of the larger
mining operations was working. Mr. Sloan, on the Burman property, was still exploring
and putting up buildings.
There is a well-stocked general store with post-office and gas-station at Refuge
Cove, operated by Ivan Clarke. The post-office is known as the Sydney Inlet post-office,
so as not to confuse it with another Refuge Cove on the east coast of the Island.
A school was to have been opened this coming term. The building was put into commission by Mr. Clarke, but at the end of September the School Board was still unable
to supply a teacher.    Mr. Clarke has a few cabins to rent.
At Nootka the Canadian Fishing Company operates a store, gas-station, and post-
office in conjunction with the cannery, and the Government telegraph has an office there.
There are small stores and a post-office at Boat Basin and Hesquiat, which I did not see.
South of the area, at Ahousat, Gibsons operate a general store and gas-station. The
C.P.R. boat docks at Ahousat and Nootka, and makes a boat landing at Refuge Cove
and Hesquiat.
There is a bush telephone through the area from Ahousat to Nootka operated by
the Government telegraphs.    Calls for more distant points have to be made in relays. II 64 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY, VICINITY OF VANDERHOOF
AND FORT FRASER.
By N. C. Stewart, B.A.Sc, B.C.L.S., D.L.S., P.Eng.
A ground-control survey for the topographic mapping of the Fraser Lake and
Vanderhoof map-sheets was completed during the 1946 field season. These map-sheets
comprise an area of approximately 700 square miles, a partial control of which was
made under my direction in 1930. This area was photographed from the air in 1928
by the R.C.A.F., and the air photographs were supplied, together with some more recent
trimetrogon views taken during the war. During September of this year, the Air
Surveys Division of the Surveys Branch rephotographed most of these map-sheets,
thus providing more modern air photographs, with considerably larger coverage per
photo, which will, of course, decrease the amount of office-work.
The ground-work of 1930 closely followed the method laid down by the Topographical Survey at Ottawa in their manual for main mapping control. This provided for
frequently placing pre-cast concrete monuments along the control traverses. These
monuments were found in good condition, excepting one which had been removed when
alterations were made in a roadway. In some places signal poles erected in 1930 were
still in place.
Since the first survey was made, new methods of control for air photographs have
been initiated, especially in the more general use of ground pictures, where the terrain
permits of photo-topographic methods. Hence the Fraser Lake area, which contains
a great number of low mountains and hills, is controlled photographically, while in the
Vanderhoof sheet, where the terrain is more or less flat, other methods were used,
including traversing, levelling, and the extensive use of altimeters. Many ties were
made to land surveys, thus permitting the proper adjustment of the cadastre to the
map-sheets. The maps are being compiled at a scale of 2 inches to the mile, with a
100-foot contour interval, by W. R. Young, B.C.L.S., of the Topographic Division.
The field party consisted of myself, seven students, a cook, and a packer, main camp
being established early in June at Fort Fraser in a building kindly loaned to us by the
Forest Service. Two of the students were veterans of the Canadian Navy, one a
veteran of the Survey Regiment, R.C.A., one from the R.C.A.F., while the others were
too young to enlist. The cook and the packer were also returned veterans. None of the
party was experienced in topographic surveying, and their collective knowledge of
surveying and bush-whacking was almost nil. However, they proved apt students, so
that at the end of the season they were able to undertake most of the work. Transportation was supplied by two half-ton trucks and twelve pack-horses. Two-way radios
were used and were found very useful when the party was divided.
Physical Features.
The Fraser Lake map-sheet (latitude 54° 00' to 54° 15', longitude 124° 30' to 125°
00') covers a hilly area, interspersed with numerous lakes, of which beautiful Fraser
Lake (altitude 2,197 feet) is the largest. A small part of Francois Lake is included in
the south-west corner of this map-sheet. Oona and Ormonde Lakes, situated about
5 miles north of Fraser Lake, locally known as the Fish Lakes, are very pretty. Justine
Lake, a few miles to the west, is well stocked with trout and has a nice sandy beach on
the east end. Near the south-east corner of this map-sheet the Nechako River enters
from the south, flows north-westerly to within a mile of the east end of Fraser Lake,
then turns easterly through the southerly part of both the Fraser Lake and the Vanderhoof map-sheets. Fraser Lake is connected with the Nechako River by the Nautley
River, reported to be, by the Indians, the shortest river in the country. The Stellako
River, which drains Francois Lake into Fraser Lake, flows through a deep rocky canyon ■H
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.  REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. II 65
most of the way. There is a drop of nearly 150 feet between the two lakes, hence the
Stellako is very swift—at one place, about 3 miles up-stream from Fraser Lake, there
is a falls 10 feet high.    Hydro-power could be developed here.
The mountains are all under 5,000 feet altitude, the more prominent being Lookout
Mountain (altitude 3,782 feet), south-west of Fort Fraser; Pitka Mountain (altitude
4,726 feet), locally known as Saddle Mountain, and on which " Saddle" geodetic
triangulation station is located; Chinduyus Mountain (altitude 4,009 feet), which
appears to be an ancient crater; and Moosehead Mountain (altitude 4,353 feet),
situated south of Justine Lake.
The physical aspect of the Vanderhoof map-sheet (latitude 54° 00' to 54° 15r,
longitude 124° 00' to 124° 30') is considerably different to that of the Fraser Lake
area in that it is less hilly. As already stated, the Nechako River flows easterly through
the southerly half of this map-sheet. For most of the way the river is contained within
steep gravelly banks rising to benches up to 400 feet above it. In two or three places
these banks appear to be very gradually sliding into the river, and in other spots the
gorge narrows into rocky canyons. In the north half of the Vanderhoof map-sheet the
country rises to a wooded plateau between 2,500 and 3,000 feet above sea-level. The
surface of this plateau has been scraped by glacial action and cut by erosion, draining
north-easterly, paralleling the direction taken by the ice, into the Stuart River. In the
north-west corner of the Vanderhoof map-sheet the easterly end of the ridge from
Pitka Mountain culminates abruptly in a mountain called Notagai by the Indians
(altitude 4,309 feet). The cliffs of this mountain are strikingly visible from every
direction excepting the west. The silty benches immediately north and south of the
Nechako River are generally flat, or with very gradual slopes.
Forests.
With the exception of small areas of meadow and swamp land, the whole of these
map-sheets is wooded chiefly with lodgepole pine and poplar, with occasional patches
of spruce and Douglas fir. The poplar is usually found on southerly exposures and the
Douglas fir on the rocky hills north and south of Fraser Lake. In the past there were
many forest fires, and as the size and kind of forest-cover depends on the date of those
fires, there is quite a diversified stand, the merchantable timber being found in those
parts that have longest escaped the ravages of fire. During the construction of the
Canadian Northern Railway much of the timber adjacent to the railway was cut for ties
and lumber, but since that time the merchantable timber has been renewed, so that now
many of the logged areas are again being cut. New methods of logging, that is, by
extensive use of small portable mills and truck-haulage, also new methods of road-
building with bulldozers, now make logging profitable at greater distances from the
railway. A great demand for mine-props for Europe, railroad-ties, telephone poles,
and lumber of all dimensions has greatly stimulated the lumber industry in this area.
The splendid work of the Forest Service in forest-protection and fire-fighting is
continually adding to the forest wealth.
The undergrowth of grasses, flowers, peavine, and berries is usually quite dense
in the poplar areas, while in spots there grew a thick underbrush of alder, birch,
willow, and soapberry. Among the berries found were strawberries, blueberries, raspberries, and saskatoons.
Minerals.
No recent mining or prospecting was noted. Evidence of placer-mining during
the depression years on Dog Creek west of the Fort St. James Road, and old workings
on a hill north of the Nechako River, and about 5 miles north-east of Fort Fraser, where
some manganese was found, were the only indications of mineral wealth.   We were told
. II 66 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
of a coal-outcrop near the east end of Fraser Lake, and of samples of cinnabar found
on the north side of that lake, indicating that minerals of economic value may yet be
found in this area. Geologists report the district not unfavourable to the occurrences
of economic minerals, but due to the great amount of overburden prospecting is exceedingly difficult. For a detailed account of the geology of this area see Paper 38-14, by
J. G. Gray, of the Geological Survey, Bureau of Geology and Topography, entitled
" East Half Fort Fraser Map Area, B.C."
Game.
This is a good big-game area. Moose and bear are very plentiful, but deer are
scarce owing, it is said, to their depletion by wolves. The district is divided into
trap-lines producing excellent catches of fur, including beaver, fox, muskrat, mink,
marten, lynx, coyote, otter, fisher, wolverine, squirrels, weasel, and bear. Willow grouse
and spruce partridges were plentiful, as were ducks and geese. The latter took advantage of the bird sanctuary at Vanderhoof, becoming contentedly fat on the grain in
near-by farms until the opening of the shooting season, when, of course, they met a
sudden end when away from the sanctuary for feed. There are considerable porcupines,
rabbits, and chipmunks, while frequently loons were heard. Trout-fishing is good in all
the lakes and streams, especially Oona and Justine, and at Trout Lake, about 10 miles
north-east of Fort Fraser.
A great number of sportsmen come to this part for the excellent hunting and
fishing.    Good guides, well equipped with horses and boats, are available.
Climate.
From mid-June to mid-September the weather was excellent for our work, with
sufficient showers to keep down haze and prevent forest fires. Here the summers are
short, with correspondingly long and severe winters, snowfall being around 2 feet.
Although the growing season is short, the warm days and sufficient showers produce
abundant crops, and in the grazing area, especially under the poplars, grasses and
vetches, intermixed with wild flowers and fruits, grow luxuriantly. During the past
season there were no summer frosts in the settled parts.
Access.
The Canadian National Railways (Prince Rupert branch) runs through the
southerly part of these map-sheets, crossing the Nechako River at Fort Fraser. The
Prince George-Prince Rupert Highway, served by buses and freight-trucks, more or
less parallels the railway. From Vanderhoof a good highway goes north to Fort
St. James and then north to the Manson Creek country. Numerous other roads give
access to settled areas, chiefly south of the Nechako River. North of the river and
adjacent thereto the area is partly served by roads from Vanderhoof and Fort Fraser,
but a gap of a few miles is covered only by pack-trail. Fraser Lake could be circled by
roads if about a mile of new road was built on the north side. One can drive from
the Prince Rupert Highway at the west end of Fraser Lake, south-westerly to Francois
Lake, cross the outlet of the latter on a bridge, continue west along the north shore of
Francois Lake about 2 miles, and then go northerly, joining the main highway again
near Endako.
Trails lead northerly from Fort Fraser and Endako to the Sutherland River and
on to Babine Lake. Trucks can be taken nearly to Ormonde Lake from Fort Fraser
when the weather is dry. Another trail, now not much used and therefore in poor
condition, leads north-east from Fort Fraser to Fort St. James. This at one time was
the main highway between those two forts.   A telegraph-line followed along this trail,
.1 REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. II 67
but is no more. Here also shows up in places a slashed right-of-way for a road,
evidence of the rivalry between Fort Fraser and Vanderhoof for the trade of the north
country. We cut a trail from Trout Lake (Lot 5775) northerly over the mountains to
Sutherland Lake, at the head of Sutherland River.
The Nechako and Stuart Rivers are navigable to small power-boats. Before the
railway was built, a stern-wheel steamer, the " Nechacco," afterwards called the
" Chilco," pioneered her way up the Nechako River to the foot of Fraser Lake canyon
at Fort Fraser and up the Stuart River almost to Stuart Lake and Fort St. James
(B.C. Historical Quarterly, October, 1944).
Settlement.
The Indian villages of Nautley, at the east end of Fraser Lake, and Stella-quo, at
the west end, were flourishing long before the arrival of John Stuart, of the North
West Company, in 1806. In that year he saw and named Fraser Lake in honor of his
chief and friend, Simon Fraser. Here they established a fort or post at the east end
of the lake, not far from this Nautley village. Fort Fraser has been continuously
settled since that time and is, with the exception of Fort St. James and Fort McLeod,
the oldest settlement in British Columbia. Here, too, we find the first farm in the
Province, started by Daniel Harman, of the North West Company, about 1811, and
operated to-day by Messrs. Gerhardi, of Fort Fraser.
During the gold-rush days of 1898 many gold-seekers travelling through this area
on their way to the Yukon noted its agricultural possibilities, and on their return some
of these hardy pioneers settled here. These men made the first real agricultural
development by bringing in cattle and horses. They were fortunate, too, for shortly
afterwards the construction of the railroad began, when a ready market at high prices
was provided for all they could grow. Between 1908 and 1912, while the railroad was
under construction, families flocked in to settle the adjacent lands. Then, after the
First Great War, a large development took place under the Land Settlement and Soldier
Settlement Boards. All of these settlers have not remained, for some of their locations
were not sufficiently fertile, hence a few abandoned home-sites are seen. However,
some of these are again being taken up, and the clearings put under cultivation.
Markets were good during the recent World War due to construction of the airport at
Vanderhoof and other war work. New settlers are steadily coming here, for there is
still good land to be developed.
This area is chiefly suited for the growing of grain and feed, and therefore live
stock. There is good summer grazing, but the winters are long and severe; cattle
cannot winter out and must be fed up to six months of the year. Hence the herds are
limited to the amount of feed that can be put up. Recently the growing of clover-seed
has been very successful and profitable. Good vegetables are grown, as well as some
small fruits. Most of the tilled areas are below 2,300 feet above sea-level, but a trapper
has a garden about 16 miles out from Vanderhoof on the Fort St. James Road at an
altitude of 2,600 feet, where he grows luxuriantly strawberries, raspberries, currants,
and other small fruits, as well as all the vegetables he requires.
The largest town is Vanderhoof, the centre of a thriving farming community and
the rail-head for an immense territory to the north, including Fort St. James, Pinchi,
Manson Creek, and the lake country north-west of Fort St. James. Here are fine
stores, a bank, hotels, restaurants, garages, good schools, a grain-elevator, a fine
hospital, and the offices of the Provincial Public Works and Forest Service, also the
Federal Indian Agent.   A planing-mill was being built.
The railway-station and village of Fort Fraser is not located at the site of the old
post, but is nicely situated on a southerly exposure on the right bank of the Nechako
River, some 3 miles east of the east end of Fraser Lake.   The village has two stores, a II 68 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
hotel, garages, two churches, and the office of the Government Agent. A planing-mill
is located here.
The sawmill village of Fraser Lake is found near the west end of Fraser Lake.
This village serves not only the farmers near by, but, with its sawmill, is the centre of
logging operations that extend to the south and south-west into the Francois Lake
country. Ties and logs cut along Francois Lake are towed to the east end of that lake
and, when the height of water is suitable, are cut loose into the river, and so floated
down to Fraser Lake, whence they are boomed and taken to the mill. To facilitate the
driving of these logs, a foot-trail has been opened out along the left bank of the
Stellako River.
A fine Indian school and mission, with its large farm, is located on the south side
of Fraser Lake at Lejac railway-station.
In conclusion I believe there is room for many more people in this beautiful country,
for there are still considerable areas that might be brought under cultivation. With
the highway now completed to Prince Rupert, more tourists and hunters can be expected
if facilities are provided for their comfort. The forests and the trap-lines, under
careful management, should produce in perpetuity.
TRIANGULATION CONTROL SURVEY, CHILCOTIN AREA.
By A. C. Pollard, B.C.L.S.
This survey was commenced in June, 1946, by the late R. C. Mainguy, B.C.L.S.,
and it was because of his unfortunate illness that I was requested to continue the work.
The instructions covering this survey called for a triangulation net commencing
with the geodetic stations " Narcosli " and " Dome," near Williams Lake, as base and
carrying the scheme westerly to the Coast Mountains and then turning 'northerly, with
the ultimate object of connecting with the geodetic stations in the vicinity of Francois
Lake (see triangulation map).
In addition to this main scheme, certain ties to cadastral surveys were called for,
where economically feasible, and a tie for elevations made to a geodetic bench-mark
along the Pacific Great Eastern Railway.
The party as organized consisted of G. C. Emerson, of the Topographic Division,
as assistant, and seven other men, with transport being handled by one Ford 3-ton
truck, one Chevrolet light truck, and fifteen pack-horses. This enabled the party to
divide into two sections most of the time, and so cover more ground and occupy more
stations than when staying together. Consequently, we were continually on the move,
a network of wagon-roads throughout much of the area helping considerably in getting
around by means of the trucks.
By the end of August, quadrilaterals had been extended and read up to the line
" Downton-Baldface," and the party then moved to the vicinity of Anahim Lake.
Beyond this, some difficulties were encountered, as it was found that a proposed
site for a station to the north-west of Downton was impractical as the site was not
visible from Baldface. Consequently, a new scheme had to be swung farther southwest to take in Mount Kappan, and a cairn was erected on the highest point of the
Ugachuz Mountains to tie in with this. Cairns were also erected on Anahim Peak and
Tsilsalt Mountain.
Bad weather in the shape of snow-storms and heavy clouds on the higher peaks
prevented further readings, and it was found advisable to turn back by the third week
of September and confine the work to cadastral ties on the lower elevations. Three
men—University students—left the party on September 16th. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. II 69
The work was completed by the second week of October, and Mr. Emerson and I
returned to Victoria on October 13th.
Access.
The Chilcotin area is traversed by a public road from Williams Lake to Anahim
Lake. From this main road there are numerous wagon-roads, usually passable in good
weather for trucks, which branch both northerly and southerly to give access to
meadows which are dotted all over the area. Beyond Redstone and Chezacut, however,
access is generally only by pack-trail. Trails over which cattle are driven to market
in the fall connect the chief cattle-raising areas with the main road. One such trail
leads from Chezacut via Palmer Creek, Knowle Creek, and a divide over a low hill range,
thence due westerly to the open meadows in Lot 440, 16 miles by wagon-road from
Anahim Lake post-office.
The area around Anahim and Abuntlet Lakes has an outlet via a cattle-trail which
follows roughly along Corkscrew Creek to between the Ilgachuz and Itcha Mountains.
One branch then leads north-westerly to follow the creek-valley flowing out of Ilgachuz
and joins the trail which follows the West Road River. A second branch has recently
been opened to run north-easterly and connects to the Baezaeko River trail.
Beyond Anahim Lake access is by wagon-road and trail only; one route goes westerly to join the Bella Coola Road and another follows the Dean River and joins with
other trails leading north to the Ootsa Lake region. This latter route offers a good
connection for the continuance of the triangulation scheme.
Physical Features.
The Chilcotin country, generally speaking, is a wide undulating plateau with large
patches of grassy flats sloping gently to the rivers and lakes. The elevation varies
from 2,800 to 4,000 feet, but the westerly edge of this plateau is flanked by mountains
in the vicinity of Anahim Lake which are up to 8,250 feet in height. The plateau is
dotted with small meadows, lakes, and swamps, which make the area an ideal feeding-
ground for game and cattle. The rivers, in their upper reaches, are little below the
plateau-level, but erosion increases towards the ocean; and where the Chilcotin joins
the Fraser River, it is 2,200 feet below the surrounding uplands. Four rivers, the
Chilcotin and the West Road, tributaries of the Fraser, and the Dean and Klinakline,
which flow directly into salt water, have their headwaters in this area. The largest of
these is the Chilcotin, which rises 130 miles from its junction with the Fraser. The
Klinakline is a fast glacial stream about 75 miles long, rising to the south of Kleena
Kleene, then flowing southerly through the Coast Mountains to Knight Inlet. Dean
River flows north-westerly into Dean Channel.
The Itcha and Ilgachuz ranges of mountains in the west are isolated groups of
volcanic origin, averaging 7,000 feet in elevation, bare and rugged, and cut by deep
valleys and precipitous ridges, particularly on the southerly sides. Anahim Peak, west
of Ilgachuz, stands out distinctly as a wedge-shaped mountain rising out of the Dean
River valley.    It is also of volcanic origin.
Forest-cover.
The greater part of the Chilcotin country is wooded with a dense growth of lodge-
pole pine. Spruce is found in the wetter areas and Douglas fir is seen along the main
river-valleys, but does not extend to any great elevation above those rivers. In the
dry parts near Williams Lake and Alexis Creek juniper 30 feet high and 8 inches in
diameter was found, and on southern slopes aspen poplar, while near timber-line
white-barked pine was noted. There is little underbrush and very few flowers in the
pine country, but there are many alpine varieties in the mountains.    Berries are very II 70 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
scarce. Large sections of the country have suffered from fires in the past, with the
result that windfall patches, which make travelling through the brush very difficult,
are encountered everywhere.
Mineral Resources.
From a geological standpoint this area is not very important. There is a lava
formation from Williams Lake westerly to the Coast Range and from the south at Tatla
Lake, where Hazelton volcanics are apparent. No deposits of valuable minerals have
so far been found in this area, and the only rock of interest is obsidian, which is found
in small quantities on Anahim Peak and in the Ilgachuz Mountains, westerly and northerly respectively from Anahim Lake. In early days the Tsilkolin Indians quarried this
rock to make arrow-heads and also used it as a medium of exchange between tribes.
Obsidian is found as float up to 75 miles from Anahim Lake.
About 1 mile from Riske Creek post-office soda-water is found bubbling in this
volcanic formation. Pumice covers the tops of many of the higher mountains between
Chezacut and Anahim Lake, varying in colour from grey to light red.
Climate.
The annual precipitation is 10 to 12 inches, and the temperature varies from 102
degrees in summer to —50 degrees in winter. No frost was recorded east of Redstone
during the summer months, and all vegetables are grown under irrigation. West of
here, however, frosts may be expected any month of the year, and consequently potatoes,
tomatoes, and similar garden produce are not successful. Very little land is under
cultivation, except for small gardens. Irrigation is limited to Alexis Creek and near
the junction of the Fraser River and Chimney Creek, where alfalfa is grown.
Game.
For many years the Chilcotin country has been known as an excellent hunting and
fishing area, and many sportsmen travel to its accessible sections and find ample sport.
Moose seem particularly plentiful, and were seen throughout the entire district by
members of the party, the Itcha Mountain range being a favourite feeding-ground for
bulls during the summer.
Deer appeared to be more localized, and plentiful only in certain areas. Black
bear are said to be fairly numerous in some localities, but only a few were observed
along the upper reaches of the Chilcotin River. Wolves are also numerous, judging
by the tracks which were seen, and at Moore's Flats, west of Chezacut, a pack of six
black ones was surprised by our pack-train party. Coyotes, too, were numerous
everywhere.
The Chilcotin River offers excellent fishing, and the Dean River, in the vicinity
of Anahim Lake, was found well stocked, varieties being rainbow, Kamloops, and cutthroat trout. The numerous lakes and swamps make this country a paradise for geese
and ducks. Grouse were very scarce, as are rabbits and squirrels, but porcupines are
plentiful. Considerable fur-bearing animals are trapped in this area; these include
marten, fisher, fox, lynx, weasel, skunk, otter, muskrat, and beaver. There are hunting and fishing lodges at Chilko Lake and Kleena Kleene.
Historical.
Sir Alexander Mackenzie, in 1793, made the first expedition by white man through
this country, when he travelled westerly from the Fraser River along the West Road
River to Bella Coola on North Bentinck Arm, but it was not until a Hudson's Bay post
was established in 1826 near where Redstone post-office now stands that it was first
settled by white men.   This fort was called Chilcotin (spelled " Chilcoten " on Hudson's REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. II 71
Bay Company bulletins), but the exact location is somewhat vague, varying in position
from Chilko Lake to Chilcotin Lake at Chezacut on maps by Hudson's Bay Company,
1859, and Hon. J. W. Trutch, Surveyor-General of 1871, and also by works of Rev.
Father A. G. Morice and Lieut. H. S. Palmer. Chilcotin Lake is probably the more
accurate assumption, as Palmer speaks about a fiord and good fishing at the old fort-
site, which fits the description of the lower end of this lake. This fort was established
under the direction of William Connelly, of Fort St. James, but had to be abandoned
in the year 1837. A half-breed called John Mcintosh was then in charge of this post,
and the reason for abandoning it was partly due to its isolation and consequent expen-
siveness, but mostly due to the troublesome disposition of the natives who frequented
it. It is interesting to note that even in these early days potatoes and wheat were
grown successfully at this post. From early reports it is quite evident that the Tsilkolin (Chilcotin) Indians were barbaric, and although numerous attempts were made
to establish an overland route from North Bentinck Arm to Quesnel, it was not until
about 1850 that a Hudson's Bay agent by the name of Baron finally established a pack-
train route.
The present settlements date about 1880 to 1900, when the land was taken up as
pre-emptions, the first of these being north of Alexis Creek.
Cattle-ranching is the chief livelihood of the scattered population, of which the
majority are Indians, although at Williams Lake small lumber-mills operate for local
consumption and mine-props are cut from lodgepole pine for the British market. The
ranches vary in size from 25 head to the Mayfield and Moon ranches which have about
6,000 head each. The cattle raised are of very high quality Shorthorn and Hereford,
as only pedigree bulls are allowed on the ranges. At Hanceville one farmer raises
pure-bred Herefords exclusively and sells the bulls from $250 upwards. These cattle
are allowed to roam at will for miles through the open benches and small timber. Drift-
fences divide the ranges, and the cattle are alternated from side to side to preserve the
pasture. Hay is cut on the meadows and stacked, giving a good supply which can
be fed out to the animals in the winter when rustling proves poor. It is estimated
that 1 ton of hay is necessary per animal.
In the fall the cattle are driven to the nearest market, which is either Quesnel or
Williams Lake. Driving cattle is a monotonous job, and an average of 7 miles a day
is all that is maintained. The cattle from Anahim Lake were taken over the hills this
year to the Nazko Valley, using a trail that was opened up mostly due to the efforts
of a rancher named Alfred Bryant. From here they are driven along the road to
Quesnel. This drive takes between twenty and thirty days and is very difficult in that
summits of 5,500 feet must be crossed about the first of November. About 20 miles
north of Alexis Creek one rancher is grazing pigs and is having remarkable success.
Horses are kept only in sufficient quantities to care for the cattle and the ranch.
The development of the Chilcotin area would seem to be mainly restricted to the
raising of cattle. It lies at too high an elevation—mostly about 3,000 feet—to offer
much hope for any other type of agricultural expansion.
The district does offer, however, increased attractions for tourists and sportsmen.
Already there are a number of stopping-places along the highway offering accommodation to sportsmen. There are many scenic sections along the river-valleys and adjacent
to the highways, and in the western areas, as one approaches the Coast Range mountains, the scenery is beautiful, with magnificent mountain views and lovely creek-
valleys and picturesque lakes, and these, together with the open range country, offer
attractions to suit every taste. Improved facilities for travel, both in the way of
better highways and better accommodation, are bound to attract more visitors. As the
area at present is a natural reserve for game, the sportsmen may be well assured of
getting all they want. II 72 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
BRITISH COLUMBIA-YUKON BOUNDARY SURVEY.
By A. J. Campbell, B.A.Sc, B.C.L.S., D.L.S.
The lure of precious metal and the consequent gold-rushes had much to do with
developing the boundaries of British Columbia, especially those northern boundaries
with which this report is concerned.
The Fraser River gold-rush of 1858 made it necessary to fix the boundaries of the
Fraser River country and adjacent areas for the purpose of administration. This
territory became the colony of British Columbia (for a time called New Caledonia),
and Governor Douglas of the colony of Vancouver Island was made governor of the
newly created colony.
On July 1st, 1858, a Bill to provide for the Government of New Caledonia was
introduced in the House of Commons. The boundaries then laid down were: On the
south the frontier of the United States; on the west the Pacific Ocean; on the north
the 55th parallel; and on the east the watershed between the streams which flowed
into the Pacific and those which flowed into the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. These
were amended, due to the information that " the gold which was found in the Fraser
River was merely the debris of the gold which existed in the Rocky Mountains." The
revised boundaries, as they appeared in the final Act " to provide for the Government
of British Columbia," dated August 2nd, 1858, were " British Columbia shall, for the
purposes of this Act, be held to comprise all such territories within the dominions of
Her Majesty as are bounded to the south by the frontier of the United States of
America, to the east by the main chain of the Rocky Mountains, to the north by Simpson's River and the Finlay Branch of the Peace River, and to the west by the Pacific
Ocean." The Queen Charlotte Islands and the other islands adjacent to the territories
were included, but the colony of Vancouver Island was excluded.
Rumours of gold-strikes on the Stikine River in the fall of 1861 caused the formation of the " Territory of Stickeen," with the Governor of British Columbia as administrator. According to an Order in Council issued July 19th, 1862, the territory was
bounded to the west and south-west by the frontier of Russian America, to the south
and south-east by the boundaries of British Columbia, to the east by the 125th meridian
of west longitude, and to the north by the 62nd parallel of north latitude.
This was only a temporary expedient, and in 1863 the decision was reached to
amalgamate the Mainland possessions and " British Columbia was to comprise all such
territories as are bounded to the south by the territories of the U.S.A., to the west by
the Pacific Ocean and the frontier of the Russian Territories in North America, to the
north by the 60th parallel of north latitude, and to the east, from the boundary of the
United States northwards, by the Rocky Mountains and the 120th degree of west longitude, and shall include Queen Charlotte Islands and all other islands adjacent to the
said Territories except Vancouver Island and the islands adjacent thereto."
No explanation was offered for the withdrawal from the 62nd to the 60th parallel
as the northern boundary. The extension of the eastern boundary from the 125th to
the 120th meridian is explained by a mild gold-rush in the Peace River area in October,
1862.
British Columbia and Vancouver Island were united as one colony in November
of 1866, and the boundaries of British Columbia as we now know them came into being.
No alteration was made at the time of Confederation in 1871, and the colony of British
Columbia became a province of the Dominion of Canada.
The above is taken from a paper by Willard E. Ireland, entitled " The Evolution
of the Boundaries of British Columbia."
There was no demand for the laying-out of the north boundary of British Columbia
until 1898.    In that year the Yukon Territory came into being, and with the develop- REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. II 73
ment of the country adjoining the boundary, questions of jurisdiction between the
Province and the Dominion arose. In response to communications from the British
Columbia authorities calling attention to this, the Minister of the Interior directed
that the work be proceeded with at once.
During the years 1899, 1900, and 1901, and again in 1907 and 1908, work in
surveying and marking the boundary west of Teslin Lake was carried out. This was
in two parts, nearly 119 miles from Teslin Lake to Takhim River, then a break of
9 miles due to roughness of country between the Takhim and Hendon Rivers, and
another section of nearly 38 miles to the west crossing of the Tatshenshini River, or
157 miles in all. This leaves 65 miles of the boundary, over very mountainous country
to the Alaskan Border, still to be run, when with future development, it may be
necessary.
In the spring of 1943 the question of running some of the boundary east of Teslin
Lake arose, due to the construction of the Alaska Highway. It was first mooted by
the Surveyor-General of Dominion Lands to the Surveyor-General of British Columbia
in April of that year. This resulted in Orders in Council being passed by the Dominion
and the Province that read in part:—
" That the route of the Alaska Highway, now under construction, crosses and
recrosses the sixtieth parallel of latitude, which is the boundary between the Province
of British Columbia and the Yukon and Northwest Territories:
" That the resulting activity, in the vicinity of the boundary area, makes it necessary that the boundary line be surveyed and marked on the ground for administrative
purposes:
" That in order to carry out the boundary delineation work, a Commission should
be established."
The Commission consisted of the Surveyor-General of Dominion Lands and the
Surveyor-General of British Columbia. In 1943 and 1944, under instructions from
the Commissioners, eleven points were fixed, by astronomical observations, close to the
60th parallel. These fixations were made by J. E. R. Ross, D.T.S., in 1943, and C. H.
Ney, D.L.S., in 1944, both of the Geodetic Survey of Canada, and covered as far east
as the Smith River, about 200 miles from Teslin Lake. In 1945 the work of delineating
the boundary-line was commenced. A party, with N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S., of the Topographic Surveys, Victoria, now Surveyor-General of British Columbia, in charge,
started work at Teslin Lake and carried the line through to the Alaska Highway crossing at the Swift River. Mr. Stewart has submitted a very full report on the work
carried out in that year.
In 1946 the writer was in charge of the survey, and the following deals with the
operations of that year. The survey was carried out under instructions from the
Boundary Commissioners, F. H. Peters, Surveyor-General of Dominion Lands and
Chief of Hydrographic Service, Ottawa, and F. C. Green, Surveyor-General of British
Columbia. These instructions called for the line to be run west between certain of the
points on the 60th parallel as established from the astronomical fixations. These fixations, for purposes of identification, are known as R 1, R 2, etc., for those of Mr. Ross,
and N 1, N 2, etc., for those of Mr. Ney, the numbering running from west to east.
According to the instructions, the work was to start this year at R 5, near Contact
Creek, and ran west through N 5 at the Hyland River to R 4 on the Alaska Highway,
in the Liard River Valley, and on, across the Liard River, to R 3, 16 miles farther west.
The name " Contact Creek " is derived from the fact that the crews on the construction
of the Alaska Highway, from the east and west, met there.
In running a line between these points on the parallel established from these astronomical fixations, it is necessary to have some connections between them to derive the
proper bearing.    This connection may be made by triangulation between the points or II 74 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
by traverse, or by running preliminary lines on the theoretic bearing. The three points
R 5, R 4, and R 3 are connected to K. F. McCusker's traverse of the Alaska Highway;
N 5 is located about 3 miles up the Hyland River from the highway bridge and could
readily be connected to the traverse. This was done, and the information now available
made it possible to derive good bearings on which to run the preliminary lines between
the different points. This worked out very satisfactorily. These preliminary lines
were, for the most part, sufficiently accurate to be further cleared out, blazed, and monu-
mented, and so established as the final line.
The field party consisted of W. R. Young, B.C.L.S., in charge of running the line;
A. H. Ralfs and H. Ridley as chainmen, and F. H. Nash as picket-man—all members of
the British Columbia Topographic Surveys. In addition to the technical staff, there
were one cook and cookee, a variable number of axemen—up to seven—and two packers.
Transportation was provided by two trucks and twenty pack-horses. The pack-train,
for most of the season, was in charge of J. 0. Davidson, a well-known packer with
British Columbia surveyors in the northern parts of the Province. For the production
of the line across the two big rivers, the Hyland and the Liard, boats with outboard
motors were hired locally.
The field-work commenced on June 8th and ended on October 16th, when the party
disbanded. The line-work was carried out in the same way as last year. A good skyline was cut, with British Columbia blazing on the south and Dominion blazing on the
north. Monuments were planted at frequent intervals and, in so far as possible, were
placed so as to be intervisible. The monuments were all of the same type. The specially designed bronze caps, riveted and cemented in the top of the modified headless
iron pipe, were used exclusively. These were buried in the ground with the bronze
cap flush with the surface and were, with a few exceptions, embedded in concrete. All
posts were referenced by regulation pits and mounds; that is, pits were dug north,
south, east, and west of the post, and the mound to the north-west. Also, where possible, three bearing-trees were established at each monument.
The posts set to mark the astronomic stations are close to, but never on, the 60th
parallel. Points on the parallel were established from the positions given for the astronomic stations. The line was produced westerly in a series of chords 486 chains long,
with a fractional chord adjoining the next westerly point on the parallel.
It has often been asked, " Why is the line not run straight? " and " Why the necessity for putting in bends? " as they are called. Local impressions arise that the line
is incorrect and so bent to make it come out right; a short explanation, or rather an
attempt at one, may not be out of place.
Any lines run or surveyed on the surface of the earth follow what is called a great
circle, and a great circle will, if produced to completely encircle the earth, cut it in
halves. If a line were started running west at any point on the 60th parallel and carried around the earth and back to the starting-point, when halfway around it would be
at the 60th parallel south of the Equator. The Equator is the only parallel of latitude
on which a straight line can be run west or east and follow the parallel. All the others
are small circles; that is, they do not cut the earth in halves and would be on a curve
when laid out on the ground. The farther away from the Equator, the greater the
curvature. Hence a method of following this curve closely must be used. There
are several ways of doing this, but the method used on the British Columbia-Yukon
Boundary is by short lengths of straight lines, the ends of which are on the parallel.
At the end of such a straight line or chord, the line is deflected or bent a certain amount
so that the end of the next chord will also be on the parallel. The amount of this
deflection depends on the latitude and the length of the chord. On the 60th parallel of
latitude, between two chords of 486 chains, the deflection amounts to 9' 6.23". REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. II 75
To establish the lines, monuments were placed in suitable positions along these
chords. This, while admittedly not exactly on the parallel, except at the deflection
points, is sufficiently close for the practical purposes of the line. Forty monuments,
numbered from 361 to 400, were planted along the 45 miles from R 3 to R 5.
Monuments were placed close to the highway at all crossings. While these are
sufficient to mark the boundary, it is recommended that a more conspicuous monument,
visible to passing cars, be erected at the side of the travelled road. It is probable that,
for public information, these crossings will be marked by suitable signs erected by the
highway maintenance authorities.
During the past season a party of the Geodetic Survey of Canada carried precise
levels along this part of the highway. From bench-marks established by them, altitudes were carried along the line by vertical angles between the transit stations, and all
chainage slopes were read with the idea of completing the information necessary to plot
a profile.    All angles were read with instruments reading to seconds.
Physical Features.
From Contact Creek to the wide, deep valley of the Hyland River the country is
undulating, with long slopes rising to progressively slightly higher flat-topped ridges.
The lowest and highest altitudes of the season's work were encountered in this area.
The lowest (1,785 feet) was on the Liard River flat, near Cosh Creek, and the highest
(2,757 feet) on the top of a ridge a few miles east of the Hyland River. Cosh Creek,
Iron Creek, and another small creek were the only creeks encountered. One lake and
not many swampy areas were crossed between Contact Creek and the Hyland Valley.
In the first 8 miles west of Contact Creek, four crossings of the highway were made,
and the line along these 8 miles was never more than half a mile from the highway.
Between the Hyland and the Liard River similar country is found, with three ridges
being crossed by the boundary. A group of small lakes, two of them crossed by the
line, are drained into the Liard near Lower Post. An old trail from the Post follows
this creek and on through to reach the Hyland River well into the Yukon.
The line crosses the Liard River near the southerly end of a canyon about 7 miles
north of Lower Post.
In 1887 G. M. Dawson, the noted Canadian geologist, passed up this canyon while
making an examination of the country. He states in his report that, while they were
working their way up the river in small boats, and were somewhere near the middle of
the canyon, he found time to make an observation for latitude. He found it to be
60° 01' 06.2", and as it was so near the 60th parallel of latitude, the north boundary of
British Columbia, decided to mark the spot. A small cairn of stones was built about
a post on which the latitude was marked. He comments: " The 60th parallel may be
said to coincide almost exactly with the lower end of the canyon." This post, as the
story goes, was removed by a travelling tourist. He later replaced it with a large stone
cairn, set in concrete, with a brass plate giving the history of the spot.
In 1939 P. M. Monckton, B.C.L.S., connected this cairn to a triangulation point
which he had established on the easterly rim of the canyon. This triangulation station
was tied to the boundary-line.
West of the Liard River the country changes. Extensive flat areas and few hills
were encountered, and numerous small lakes in groups are scattered over the area.
Three of these lakes are crossed, but only one creek—Cormier Creek—was noted. West
of this creek the country begins a general slow rise, which will continue to the foot-hills
of the mountains some 30 miles to the west.
Forests.
Spruce, poplar, pine, and birch are in that order the predominating species between
R 5 and N 5.    They average around 6 to 8 inches in diameter.    A few spruce over II 76 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
30 inches were cut on the line. Along here, and farther west, the larger trees were
found on the ridges. Small larch was noted in the swampy areas. The forest-cover
in the area traversed by the line is somewhat heavier than is seen along the highway,
which follows generally the flat benches covered with open jack-pine.
In the area between N 5 and R 4 the same species were found, but more jack-pine
was noted, particularly in the pot-hole area just west of the Hyland River. On the
ridges farther west, spruce again predominated, with a stand of large spruce, many
trees over 24 inches, on the ridge east of the Sucker Creek valley. Spruce and poplar
groves are found on the ridge east of the Liard Valley.
West of the Liard the forest-cover changes. Jack-pine is by far the predominating
type. The country is much more open, particularly on the flat benches. West of
Cormier Creek the whole area has been more or less burned, with pine reproduction
almost universal. As a whole, the average size of the trees is considerably less than
east of the Liard Valley.
In several places close to the highway, spruce has been logged and sawn into
lumber for local needs. One portable mill was working on a spruce-covered flat near
Lower Post.
There was brush, principally willow and alder, encountered throughout the whole
area, but never very thick. The heaviest was found in some of the burned areas west of
Cormier Creek.
Of the small fruits, cranberries were the most general and were found all along the
line. Around some of the old camps, particularly Mile 596 camp, raspberries were
growing, and seemed to be doing very well. Several quarts of berries that would
compare favourably with those from farther south were picked.
Game.
The whole country is taken up as trap-lines, and quantities of first-class fur are
being produced. These lines are registered and under careful management, as many
of them are capable of producing a very good living for the owner. One trapper
estimated that he had $40,000 worth of beaver alone on his line.
Wolves, it is reported, are becoming more prevalent, and this probably accounts for
the scarcity of large game. Only one moose was seen, but no deer or caribou. Bear
were more numerous and, probably from the experiences of the past season, have been
educated to camps. They probably have been encouraged to visit the large construction
camps along the highway. For the first time in the writer's rather long experience of
survey camps, one of our camps was visited and partially destroyed by two bears. It is
a pleasure to report they will visit no more. Also, on two occasions bears interfered
with the equipment left on the line, but fortunately no serious damage was done.
Game birds, fool-hen and willow grouse, were reasonably plentiful. Some fish were
taken in the Hyland River and in a lake crossed by the boundary in Sucker Creek
valley; many small fish, grayling and suckers, were seen, and some were caught.
From the evidence of camping-places noted and wooden floats for nets, this lake seems
to be, or, rather, has been, a favourite fishing-spot for the Indians from Lower Post.
Climate.
In the late years there have been two reports on the area around Lower Post:
P. M. Monckton, B.C.L.S., reported in 1939, and N. C. Stewart, B.C.L.S., in 1941.
It would appear from these, and the experience of this year, that it is rather a dry area.
During the first part of the season, while it was generally cloudy and there were several
rain-storms, few days were lost on account of bad weather. From August 25th to
September 23rd, when the first snow fell, was a wonderful month, with very clear days
and cold nights and very little rain.    In the 134 days spent in the area, thei-e were 45 Jt.G.-l/ulton Soandatij JLin*
-.  REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
II 77
on which rain fell. As evidence of the rather exceptional season, very little trouble
was experienced in finding the skies clear enough for observation purposes. The first
frost, heavy enough to put a coating of ice on the water-pails, was on August 16th, and
every clear night after that there was frost. This was reported to be nearly two weeks
earlier than usual.
On September 29th snow fell to a depth of 8 inches. This disappeared gradually
and was practically gone when work ceased on October 16th.
May is, from reports, generally a good month, and it is recommended that work
could be commenced two or three weeks earlier. The drawback to this is, if pack-
horses are used, whether the grass has advanced far enough to provide feed. But it
would be of greater advantage to start earlier in the spring when the days are long,
and provide feed, than to stay out after the end of September when the days are short,
and have to provide feed for them.
The meteorological service provides the following information with respect to
temperatures and precipitation for the first eleven months of 1946, as recorded at
Watson Lake airport:—
Month.
Precipitation.
Temperature.
High.
Low.
Inches.
2.2
1.3
0.2
0.6
0.4
1.6
2.0
2.0
1.3
1.3
1.0
+ 15
+ 31
+ 46
+ 62
+ 81
+ 83
+78
+ 81
+ 76
+ 52
+ 49
— 32
— 34
— 19
—5
+22
+40
+39
+32
+16
+7
— 34
Total	
13.9
Minerals.
No evidence of minerals was noted. There was very little rock seen along the
whole line. The rock cliffs in the Laird Canyon were the only rock in place noted in
the whole area. Placer-mining was being carried out by a few prospectors along the
Hyland River, and there were reports of others in the Kechika Valley, but there was no
information available as to the results of their labours.
Accessibility.
The Alaska Highway has made many changes in this country, and to no place more
than Lower Post. When the writer was there in 1941, it was among the most isolated
of Hudson's Bay posts. Orders for supplies were sent out once a year, and they took
weeks, or even months, to arrive. Now, freight-trucks from Dawson Creek stop at the
new modern store nearly every day. Two passenger-buses a week from Dawson Creek
and two from White Horse pass by on the road. II 78 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
WATER RIGHTS BRANCH.
By R. C. Farrow, M.E.I.C., B.C.L.S., P.Eng.
Historical Background.
If any one is asked to enumerate our natural resources, he will mention our forests,
minerals, fish, fur-bearing animals, etc., but few will think of or mention probably the
most important of all—water—without which the others would either be non-existent
or incapable of use and development. Water is taken for granted in the same way as
sunshine, wind, and the stars, but is nevertheless a resource of fundamental importance.
Like fire, it is one of man's greatest friends when he can control it; uncontrolled,
it can be a devastating enemy. Down through the ages man has struggled to control,
harness, and use the earth's waters, and while he has made great strides, the struggle
still goes on and much remains yet to be done. The field of research in hydrology and
hydraulics is still a wide one.
Long before the dawn of history man was using water. Archaeologists have
uncovered the remains of baths, conduits, ditches, and even canals for navigation.
The ancient Egyptians maintained gauges on the Nile in order to study the behaviour
of its flow; they used it for irrigation, lifting it onto the land by crude mechanical
devices. The Romans conveyed it for miles to their cities in great aqueducts, distributed it in leaden pipes, and also used it to flush out their great sewers, many of
which are still in use in modern Rome.
The menace of floods, beyond man's power to control, are symbolized in the Biblical
story of the Flood. Primitive man, no doubt, instinctively weatherwise, probably
evaded danger by seasonal migrations to high lands, but many must have perished.
The enormous volumes of water released as the ice-caps melted at the conclusions of
the Ice Ages must have had as profound an effect on the human race as they had in
altering and shaping topography. Until, in comparatively recent times, land suitable
for man's requirements began to be scarce in certain areas, there was probably little
attempt at reclamation. By the twelfth and thirteenth centuries large areas of what
are now Holland and Belgium had been dyked and reclaimed, and also in the twelfth
and thirteenth centuries Frisian and Dutch engineers, most skilled in this work, were
retained to reclaim the marshes at the mouth of the River Thames in England—many
of their original sea-walls can be seen to-day; some archaeologists claim that this work
was started by the Romans. The Romney marshes were reclaimed about the same
time, also by Frisian engineers.
To-day the utilization of our other natural resources is largely dependent on the
availability of water and our ability to control it and put it to work. It is essential
in large quantities and for various purposes: to our logging and lumber industry;
to the production of pulp and paper, directly in driving the grinders and as a prime
mover for the generators, as well as in processing; to the mining and metallurgical
industry; for the production of electricity, it is used in nearly all manufacturing
processes. Our cities and towns require unlimited supplies of pure water. Without
irrigation our Dry Belt would have remained a semi-arid cattle country.
Fortunately, British Columbia is in general a well-watered region, with numerous
rivers and lakes. Extensive diversion and storage-works are nevertheless necessary
in order to put the water to work.
Legislation governing the Use of Water in British Columbia.
Legislative control of the use of water began in Crown colony days, and the first
water right on record was granted for agricultural purposes on October 30th, 1858, on
Nohomeen  Creek, near Lytton.    In  1859 the " Goldfields Act" was proclaimed by REPORT OF COMPTROLLER OF WATER RIGHTS. II 79
Governor Douglas, and water rights for mining purposes were provided for. It
enunciated the principle of beneficial use, which has been maintained throughout all
our water legislation. From 1860 to 1864 a number of records were made for agricultural purposes. The oldest water right still in existence was granted on August
1st, 1861. In 1865 the enactment of the " Land Ordinance " made the first specific
provision for the diversion and use of water for agricultural purposes.
In 1892 the " Water Privileges Act" was passed, and is important in that it
declared the right to the use of all water, not at that time recorded and appropriated,
except that under the jurisdiction of the Dominion, to be vested in the Crown in the
right of the Province. In other words riparian rights to the use of water were
disallowed.
This Act was followed by the " Water Clauses Consolidation Act " in 1897, designed
to meet the needs of the developing Province, and specifically provided for licences for
power and waterworks purposes.
Owing to elements of weakness in existing legislation, and to the large number of
records that had been made during the preceding fifty years, in 1909 the " Water Act"
was passed, which created a Board of Investigation, a semi-judicial body with authority
to review all existing rights and order the issue of licences in respect of them. A Water
Commissioner was also appointed at this time. The 1909 Act was superseded by the
" Water Act" of 1914, which, however, retained the Board of Investigation. It was
renamed the Water Board in 1929, and was not finally wound up until 1939. In 1913
the Water Commissioner's title was changed to Comptroller of Water Rights. The
1914 Act also provided for the appointment of District Engineers, who assumed a
certain amount of local control in the diversion, storage, and use of water.
Up until 1939 the Board and Comptroller had jurisdiction over public utilities.
This constantly widening field was turned over to a Public Utilities Commission in that
year. Owing to the abrogation of this jurisdiction and to the large number of amendments written into the 1914 Act, the " Water Act, 1939," was drawn up arid enacted,
embodying all pertinent previous amendments; the new Act is shorter, more concise,
and clearer than its predecessors.
The history of water legislation in the Province has on the whole been good, and
the result of the consistent care that has been bestowed on Provincial water legislation,
and painstaking work on the part of the Branch in the years gone by is evidenced by
the very few disputes over water matters which have been taken to the Courts, as
compared with the large volume of litigation in other countries. Through the medium
of the District Engineers, local issues are investigated and usually settled. This
freedom from' litigation and the general smoothness of the administration of water
matters in-the Province has been frequently commented on by authorities from other
parts of Canada, and is the envy of our friends south of the Border. It is worthy of
note that out of over 8,000 orders of the Board, only six appeals were made to the
Courts, and in three of these the Board was sustained and the appeals dismissed.
At the World Power Conference in 1936, the Dominion Water and Power Bureau
presented a paper on the law and administration pertaining to water across the
Dominion, in which they stated in respect to our Water Act and its administration:—
" This system, both in its legislative foundation and its administrative procedure
has reached a high degree of perfection in British Columbia. It enables the water in
any stream or district to be apportioned among different users for various purposes in
the most economical and effective manner."
Certain principles and doctrine were formulated in the early Acts which have been
retained in all subsequent ones. The most important was the doctrine of beneficial
use, which simply means that a final licence will only be granted for the amount of
water being beneficially used at time of final licence survey by the District Engineer. II 80 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Also of fundamental importance is the principle that all water is vested in the Crown,
to the exclusion of riparian rights. Also that water cannot be permanently alienated,
its use being granted on licence as long as it is beneficially used.
Administration op the " Water Act."
Both administration and technical services have faced the loss of a number of
senior officials in the past two years due to superannuations, and, so far as engineers
are concerned, we have not been able to find replacements, with the result that although
extra work has been thrown on the remaining staff, some phases of work have fallen
into arrears. We have lost our three senior District Engineers—Mr. Blane of the
Nelson office, Mr. Varcoe of Kamloops, and Mr. Marriott of Victoria—and in the
headquarters staff Mr. Davis, the Comptroller; Mr. Frame, hydraulic engineer; and
Mr. Mountain, our senior clerk, all retired last October 1st. They are greatly missed,
both personally and on account of their wide experience and sage counsel.
Licences which can be granted.
Since the inception of the first legislation dealing with water, licences for more
and more purposes have gradually been introduced. Under the 1939 Water Act,
licences can be issued for the following purposes: Conveying, domestic, fluming,
hydraulicking, industrial, irrigation, land-improvement, mineral-trading, mining, power,
storage, and waterworks.
Administration involved.
(See map, Plate 1.)
For adminstrative purposes, the Province is divided into thirty-two water districts,
whose boundaries so far as possible follow watershed boundaries. Local administration
is decentralized to four district offices, each staffed by a District Engineer, an Assistant
District Engineer, and a clerk-stenographer, and each is responsible for a group of
water districts. The four district offices are located at Victoria, Kelowna, Nelson, and
Kamloops. The latter has by far the largest area to administrate, extending as far
north as Finlay Forks. It is now becoming too unwieldy, and as development increases
in the northern part of the Province, so will the number of water applications increase;
and it is anticipated that a new district office will have to be opened in Northern British
Columbia in the near future.
The granting of every licence involves a considerable amount of work. Every
Government Agent in one office in each water district, amongst his other manifold
duties, is a Water Recorder, and an applicant for a water licence, after posting copies
on the ground, has to file his application with the Recorder for the district, who sees
that it is properly filled out and forwards a copy to headquarters of the Branch in
Victoria. Here the application is checked and statused, which involves considerable
work, including entry into registers and onto maps. The applicant is then written to,
requesting the payment of fees, proof of posting of the application, service thereof
on all owners of land that will be affected physically by the proposed works, and on all
licensees whose points of diversion are at or below the applicant's proposed point of
diversion, also of advertising if so ordered. In addition, any further information
necessary and details of proposed works are then asked for. A further check on the
application is made by referring it to the appropriate District Engineer for his report;
this may or may not involve an examination on the ground.
Should objections be filed within such time as prescribed in the regulations, the
Comptroller has the authority to decide whether or not the objection is such as to
warrant a hearing, and the objector is notified of his decision. If a hearing is decided
upon, it is held by the Comptroller at a suitable place, and the applicant and objector
are entitled to be notified and to be heard. Geographic Branch   b. C.
PLATE 1. REPORT OF COMPTROLLER OF WATER RIGHTS. II 81
This close scrutiny is in the interests of both existing licence-holders and the
alienation of the Provincial water assets. Should the application be accepted, a conditional licence is issued—the only exception being for projects of some magnitude,
when the issue of the licence is deferred until plans and specifications prepared by a
registered engineer are submitted and approved.
A conditional licence determines the source, property, purpose, quantity, and place
of use, the dates for commencement and completion of works and putting of water to
beneficial use, and attached thereto is a plat showing location of source of supply,
works, and land. In addition to the licensee receiving a copy of the licence, a copy is
also sent to the District Engineer, so that the matter comes under his surveillance
and eventually, after the period for construction of works and putting water to beneficial use has elapsed, the Engineer makes a survey on the ground to establish the
extent to which water is used, and their findings become the basis of a final water
licence, superseding the conditional water licence.
This control and administration of the use of water is of paramount importance in
all parts of the Province, and is particularly difficult and intricate in the drier parts,
calling for great care, judgment, and foresight on the part of the District Engineers
in particular, who administer the " Water Act " in these areas, to ensure so far as
possible that the greatest number of users get sufficient water for their requirements,
but no more, with a minimum of waste.
Number of Applications and Licences to Date.
Since the inception of legislation governing the use of water, 17,000 conditional
licences have been issued authorizing the construction of works and putting water to
beneficial use. Conditional licences are in due course mostly replaced by final licences,
of which 12,000 have been issued to date. The works and character of use of water
have all been subject to inspection and survey on the ground by the District Engineers.
Cancellations and abandonments have reduced the active licences to some 10,000 now
standing on our register. As an indication of accelerated growth, it is interesting
to note that one-third of these have been issued since the enactment of the " Water
Act, 1939 "; since then 3,500 applications for water licences have been received, and
some 3,300 licences have been granted. Upwards of 6,700 rental statements are now
rendered annually. It may be of passing interest to note that in 1913 revenue was
$37,057.97 and the staff numbered sixty; in 1946 revenue was $406,056.03 and the
staff only numbered thirty.
The fundamental requirements towards keeping a water licence in good standing
are beneficial use of water and payment of annual rental. On the average, approximately 200 licences a year are removed from the registers consequent to abandonment,
cancellation for non-payment of rental, non-use of water for three successive years, or
other causes.
Final Licence Surveys.
Owing to shortage of staff and transportation, only 171 final licence surveys were
carried out in 1946 under the District Engineers, this being only about half current
requirements.
Improvement Districts and Water-users' Communities.
In order that water-users in otherwise unorganized territory may combine and pool
their licences, and operate over contiguous areas, provision is made for two types of
organization: water-users' communities and improvement districts. The former,
designed for small communities, may be formed by six or more licensees, to operate
co-operatively under a manager.    Improvement districts are designed to take care of II 82 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
larger communities, are operated by elected Trustees, and are public corporate bodies.
Both types may be organized for any purpose within the meaning of the " Water Act."
The majority of both types of organization are for waterworks and irrigation purposes,
but districts are also functioning for fire-protection, drainage, dyking, and power purposes. There are now thirty-seven water-users' communities and eighty improvement
districts.    Two of the former and twenty of the latter were incorporated in 1946.
The incorporation of each district and community involves, for the Branch, checking
of the petition for incorporation, hearing and dealing with objections, drawing up the
Letters Patent, amending the water licences involved, and generally advising them
until they are operating. Their by-laws have to be checked and registered by the
Comptroller.
Draughting and Mapping Work.
The draughting-room acts as a clearing-point for all applications. After they
have been dealt with and checked by the chief clerk and his staff, and a report has been
received from the District Engineer concerned, and, if a licence is to be issued, they are
passed to the draughting-room, entered in the stream register, plotted on the appropriate water rights map and on a letter-size plat which is attached to the licence. At a
later date a second plat has to be made, based on the final licence survey of the District
Engineer, and which will show the actual location of all works constructed.
Keeping the water rights maps up to date is a considerable undertaking. They
cover every part of the Province where there is any density of water licences. They
have to be accurately drawn to a large scale, showing all legal subdivisions of land,
roads, rights-of-way, etc. As development takes place and land is subdivided into
smaller and smaller parcels, many water licences appurtenant to land being subdivided
and sold have to be apportioned amongst its subdivisions. The water rights maps
therefore have to be constantly revised in order to keep them up to date with Land
Registry Office records, and in areas where there are many subdivisions into small
parcels or town lots, the maps have to be redrawn to a larger scale. Owing to shortage
of staff during the war, this work fell into arrears, and there are now some 400 maps
to be revised or redrawn. These maps, on account of their completeness and accuracy,
are constantly referred to by other branches and other departments. Special maps and
plans for various purposes are also required from time to time by the Comptroller and
the Engineers.
Many applications are on streams or springs having no name, so in order to
identify them a card-index is maintained, names assigned, and cleared with the Geographic Board to avoid duplication.
All maps and plans and all field-books are assigned numbers and are filed through
the draughting-room.
A separate section handles all work in connection with water resources, surveys,
and investigations, and involves topographical maps, watershed maps, plans, profiles,
and diagrams pertaining to reports in hand on power, irrigation, domestic supply,
storage, and flood-control projects, and certain supporting computations.
During the calendar year ended December 31st, 1946, the work handled in administration of the " Water Act" was as follows:—
Water licence applications cleared  805
Water rights maps revised and redrawn     18
Conditional and final licence plats  753
Improvement district plans compiled—
Waterworks       13
Irrigation         5
Fire-protection          2
Water-users' communities        1  IRRIGATE
or-cV^r-A^   irj   t.V-[e   OKa,rja.g3_r{
Votings   oT^cVfaKirA^   r?ea.-r   y^r^loo-p^, REPORT OF COMPTROLLER OF WATER RIGHTS. II 83
All applications to purchase, lease, or pre-empt Crown lands and all Crown grants
going through the Lands Branch are cleared through the draughting-room for noting
thereon any water licences whose works might lie within the lands being alienated, in
order that the licensee's rights thereto may be protected. Approximately 8,000 such
files were cleared during the year.
Irrigation.
Irrigation may be said to have officially begun almost as soon as there was an
organized authority in this territory. The first right to the use of water for agricultural purposes was granted in 1858, three months after the passing of an Act by
the Imperial Government establishing the Crown colony of British Columbia.
During the early years of settlement in the Province, irrigation was used mostly
for raising hay in valley-bottom lands, where it was easy to divert water out of the
streams. By the end of the century the settlers were becoming bolder, ditches were
longer and water was being conveyed to the benches and higher lands, especially where
it became apparent that the climate and the bench lands were suitable for growing tree-
fruits on a commercial scale.
Companies were formed to buy up large holdings, subdivide them into small parcels,
and construct irrigation systems to supply them with water. Most of these companies
have passed into history, and the irrigation systems they started have been taken over
and operated by improvement districts under the " Water Act" or by municipalities.
At first these systems were constructed largely with earth ditches and wooden flumes,
but as the large water losses from such structures became apparent, many ditches have
been lined with concrete or asphalt, and wooden flumes replaced with metal or concrete,
so that to-day the large irrigation systems of the Province are good examples of
hydraulic structures. Owing to the generally rugged topography, irrigation engineering has been faced with many difficult problems, so that, compared with other parts of
the world, many interesting features will be found which are peculiar to the varied
topography which had to be traversed. The generally prevalent condition of agricultural development following, of necessity, our rather narrow valleys does not lend
itself to simple and cheap irrigation systems.
Due to the wide variation in climate and soil types found throughout the Province,
three methods of irrigation are in use. Sprinkling is practised in fairly humid areas,
where the precipitation is moderate but insufficient during the growing period, also on
heavy soils and on rough topography. In the dry areas delivery by ditch or flume and
distribution over the ground by furrows is general for fruit and vegetable crops.
Irrigation by flooding is common in stock-raising areas on hay meadows. Most of the
irrigation is by gravity supply, but pumping from lakes and rivers is also practised.
In general, it is a more costly method and only warrantable in favoured areas for the
growing of high-price specialty crops. Any general reduction in power-pumping rates
would probably induce increased irrigation by pumping.
Irrigable and Irrigated Lands.
Estimates of the area of irrigable and irrigated lands of the Province are only
approximate, as in the case of the former no over-all complete survey has ever been
made, and in the latter case, apart from the organized irrigation districts and companies for whom records are available, there are hundreds of individually irrigated
farms and ranches for which no exact figures exist. The best estimate of irrigated
lands in the Province is 150,000 acres, but approximately 35,000 acres of this are inadequately irrigated. The provision of additional storage-dams and the improvement of
conveying-works to reduce seepage losses would provide water for much of this land.
An additional 85,000 acres are under water licence and capable of being irrigated. II 84 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
A large proportion of this area will be under irrigation by individual effort by the time
the works called for under the licences are completed in the next few years.
In addition, there are some 200,000 acres which could be brought under irrigation,
but at a cost greater than that of existing works.
The following tabluation, based on the best available figures, shows the irrigable
and irrigated areas at present under the control of public and private organizations:—
Total Acres.
Irrigated. Irrigable.
One Provincial system (Southern Okanagan Lands
Project)         4,300 8,000
Two municipalities (Penticton and Summerland)     5,690 5,750
Thirty-seven improvement districts  34,910 39,110
Twenty water-users' communities     6,640 6,640
Three water companies     1,700 2,000
Total  53,240 61,500
Nearly 100,000 acres are irrigated by individual effort, the majority being hay and
grain for stock-ranches and for field crops.
The Conservation Fund.
The original water companies, subsidiaries of land-selling companies, built their
irrigation systems more with an eye to selling land than with any thought of permanence and serviceability, so that when the water-users at a later date were forced for
their own protection to acquire and operate the systems, and formed irrigation districts,
they were immediately faced with a costly programme of replacements and reconstruction, and appealed to the Provincial Government for help. While the first irrigation
districts were not incorporated until 1920, the Conservation Fund was set up in 1918
to provide funds for assisting towards reconstruction; the moneys so expended to be
a charge against the lands involved. It was intended to be a revolving fund, out of
which further loans could be made as the earlier ones were paid off, but, after 1922,
falling fruit prices with consequent difficulty in collecting revenues by the districts
resulted in their defaulting. In 1928 legislative relief was granted the districts, which
reduced their indebtedness by about 25 per cent. The depression years of the '30's
increased their financial difficulties, and in 1933 a further reduction of approximately
45 per cent, of the remaining indebtedness was granted. During the next five years
the districts failed to pay the reduced instalments, and also failed to properly maintain
their systems. This condition brought about the 1938 adjustment, providing for a
substantial reduction of the instalment payments to the Conservation Fund on condition
that the districts expended or set aside certain sums for replacement of works. This
arrangement is still in effect, although the payments under it have been reduced in some
cases on the plea of special circumstances.
The present status of irrigation loans under the Conservation Fund is as follows:—
Total loans  $3,314,293.22
Repayments received (principal and interest)     1,536,544.37
Total relief granted (principal and interest)     2,823,877.43
Revenue and Expenditures.
Revenue has risen steadily from $42,002.06 in 1911 to $406,056.03 in 1946; expenditures in 1911 were $38,023.44 and in 1946 were $94,912.57. Revenues and expenditures are shown graphically below. It will be noted that until 1925 (with the exception
of 1923) expenditures generally exceeded revenue by substantial amounts. This was
due to the large staff and heavy expense necessary for the work of the Board of Investi- REPORT OF COMPTROLLER OF WATER RIGHTS.
II 85
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gation. It has, however, proved to be a good investment. The thorough and painstaking work they carried out has paid dividends in the smoothness of operation of
water matters to-day and the comparative freedom from expensive litigation on water
matters which we have enjoyed, as compared with other jurisdictions.
Revenues and Expenditures for the Fiscal Years ended March 31st, 1911 to 1946.
Fiscal year ending  Revenue. Expenditures.
1911   $42,002.06 $38,023.44
1912   34,722.74 62,321.59
1913   37,057.97 105,660.88
1914   42,265.79 135,663.29
1915   27,523.76 171,507.54
1916   60,120.28 79,964.15
1917   34,022.43 75,900.98
1918   33,883.09 58,515.99
1919   20,247.10 58,837.86
1920   49,842.53 120,643.68
1921   97,114.96 139,371.63
1922   89,576.15 141,368.57
1923  351,074.18 130,597.33
1924   139,800.97 145,412.04
1925   110,403.95 128,280.38
1926   119,646.19 110,955.44
1927   106,085.76 108,545.03
1928   172,093.56 119,035.07
1929   184,995.31 135,433.93
1930   220,591.72 130,411.91
1931   222,115.36 142,425.07
1932   211,062.85 106,647.43
1933   203,987.57 78,745.81
1934   214,937.71 65,641.81
1935   213,668.71 78,763.34
1936   230,955.30 79,258.04
1937   274,597.10 85,904.12
1938   310,718.29 100,229.20
1939   310,451.12 109,098.40
1940   324,210.04 105,236.66
1941   338,017.72 89,646.53
1942   341,535.46 84,462.94
1943   355,765.68 74,815.42
1944   363,901.98 77,475.36
1945   382,297.16 80,531.78
1946   406,056.03 82,434.78
Totals for the thirty-six-year
period   $6,677,348.58  $3,637,767.42
Average for the thirty-six-
year period         185,481.90 101,049.09
Average for last ten years        340,755.05 88,983.51 REPORT OF COMPTROLLER OF WATER RIGHTS. II 87
Revenue is derived from the various sources in the approximate percentages
(correct to within 1 per cent.) shown below:—
Per Cent.
Power   90
Irrigation   3
Industrial   2%
Mining (hydraulicking)   1
Miscellaneous, including domestic  4
Technical Services.
In all socially advanced countries the gathering of fundamental data pertaining
to natural resources and their utilization is a recognized government function. These
data are required by the government itself in framing a policy for the development
and control of its natural resources, and by scientists and engineers employed by public
and private organizations, and by individuals, in actual development.
In so far as our water resources are concerned, exact data are required concerning
rainfall, snowfall, snow water-content, temperatures, the flow of streams, the level of
lakes, ground-water levels, rates of evaporation, transpiration from vegetation, and
the impurities, chemicals, and suspended matter carried in our streams. The study of
these factors involves two interrelated branches of the science of geophysics, hydrology,
and meteorology; the application of the resulting data is necessary in hydraulic engineering, forestry, agriculture, and many other activities.
Despite the constantly widening scope of research into natural phenomena by
scientific and technical bodies and government agencies, it is common experience to
find the data available for the solution of a particular problem, to be incomplete or
inadequate. The gaps in our knowledge of climatic and water conditions obtain,
despite earnest and self-sacrificing activities carried on by a small army ranging from
volunteer observers to scientists who have devoted their lives to research.
Techniques for observing and recording all natural phenomena have been developed
and are constantly being improved, but the field of application can only be broadened
and the work pursued more intensively and more vigorously through additional support
from governmental bodies.
Hydrometric Surveys.
These, embracing the measurement of stream-flow and the fluctuation in lake-levels,
are in general carried out by the Dominion Water and Power Bureau of the Department
of Mines and Resources. At one time engineers of both the Water Rights Branch and
of the Dominion Bureau undertook this work, often with resultant duplication of effort.
By common agreement therefore, the Dominion undertook all work in the Province as
part of their nation-wide service, and the Province makes a yearly contribution, which
is only a small part of the cost of the hydrometric surveys undertaken, largely at our
request. Engineers of the Branch maintain a very close liaison with their opposite
numbers in the Dominion service, and requests for measurement of additional streams
or for specific data are always complied with, with the utmost co-operation.
Engineers of the Branch when in the field are, however, equipped to obtain stream
measurements, and often have occasion to do so in making specific studies of some
particular condition in the course of our water-resources surveys.
With the normal growth of our Province and consequent demand for stream-flow
data on more and more streams, the scope and therefore cost of this service is due for
expansion. All authorities agree that, at the very least, fifteen years of records on
a stream are necessary before hydraulic structures can be safely and economically
designed, which means that stream-flow records should be started at least fifteen years
ahead of anticipated development. II 88 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Meteorological Data.
This is obtained through the Meteorological Division, Department of Transport,
and a close contact is maintained with their local office at Gonzales Observatory.
A number of precipitation and temperature stations in the Province have been established and maintained at our request, since this data is essential to many of our studies
and investigations. Precipitation data, as published by the Meteorological Division,
is based on the calendar year, whereas for comparison with stream-flow it is required
to be tabulated for the "water-year" (October 1st to September 30th). The local
observatory, therefore, supplies us with the data from all its British Columbia stations
as soon as they become available each month, and it is the routine job of a senior
draughtsman to transpose this data into our precipitation registers in terms of the
water-year.
Snow Surveys.
From the standpoint of water-supply our winter snows are of the utmost importance, since they hold the moisture in storage in the mountains. The water content
of the snow is therefore a measure of the water which may be expected to swell our
streams during the succeeding spring and summer. Snow-surveys, a comparatively
new branch of the science of hydrology, is a technique for measuring the water content
of the snow each year at certain times at the same permanently established locations,
called snowcourses; and, from the data so obtained, correlated with known stream
records, forecasts of stream-flow can be made, which are of inestimable value to
water-users.
In view of the success being achieved in forecasting throughout the Western
States, it was decided in 1935 to try out snow-surveys in British Columbia, and small
networks were established in the Kootenay and Okanagan basins. It has been well
said that every watershed is a law unto itself, and this is true of snow-surveys on
watersheds. Months of research and studies were carried out with stream run-off,
precipitation, and snow-survey data before various factors could be evaluated. But
occasional initial successes encouraged perseverance, until now dependable forecasts
are made in most years on a number of watersheds. Much research into such related
factors as ground-water levels still remains to be done, as and when staff and funds
are available.
We now have forty snowcourses in British Columbia—all in the southern part,
where the greatest use of water for all purposes has been developed. The distribution
of courses is shown on the map (Plate 3).
Snow being the principal source of water used for power, for irrigation, and for
domestic supply, there is an increasing demand from users and technical men and
organizations for the bulletins on " Snow Surveys and Run-off Forecasts," which are
issued by the Branch each year on April 1st and May 1st. As each year adds to the
length of record of the snowcourses, the accumulated data become more and more
valuable to those charged with the administration and development of our water
resources, whether by Government or municipal activity or by private enterprise.
In response to this widening interest, and due to the necessity for the greatest
possible planned control of storage, our snow-survey networks on watersheds for which
forecasts of available summer run-off are made have gradually been expanded and the
coverage thickened up by the establishment of additional snowcourses. Six new
courses were located and established this year.
It is a measure of the value placed by users on this hydrologic service that a
considerable part of the actual winter field-work of obtaining the records of snow
water-content is carried out co-operatively by various organizations, at no expense to
the Government other than that of administration.    Such organizations include the MAP
SHOWING
DISTRIBUTION OF SNOW COURSES
IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Name.
Course Course
No. Name. No.
1a. Grouse Mountain. 19.    Nelson.
2. Stave Lake. 20.    Kimberley.
3. Trout Creek. 20a. Sullivan Mir
3a. Summerland Reservoir.      21 a. Invermere.
McCulloch.
5a. Mission Creek.
6a. Aberdeen Lake.
7. Gerrard.
8. Sinclair Pass.
9a. Canoe Riv<
10. Fernie.
11. Glacier.
12A. Field.
13. Upper Stave.
14. Alouette.
15. Revelstoke.
15a. Revelstoke Mountain.
16. Ferguson.
17. Farron.
18. Sandon.
22. Blue Riv(
23. Powell River.
23a. Powell River.
24. Powell River.
24a. Powell River.
25. Kinbasket Lake.
26. Tashme.
27. Brookmere.
28. Burwell Lake.
29. Palisade Lake.
30. Loch Lomond.
31. Bouleau Creek.
32. Marble Canyon.
33. Kicking Horse.
34. Quartet Lakes.
35. Klesilkwa.
PLATE 3, .1 -Ji
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ShozAld^   ___.ppe-ajr   v/V-C-ri   oorrjple-tec-V . REPORT OF COMPTROLLER OF WATER RIGHTS. II 89
Greater Vancouver Water Board, the Dominion Parks Bureau, the Dominion Water
and Power Bureau, the Meteorological Division of the Department of Transport of
Canada, the Powell River Company, the British Columbia Electric Railway Company,
the East Kootenay Power Company, and the Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company. Their co-operation has enabled an expansion which otherwise would have been
beyond our resources. This co-operation also extends to our neighbours to the south.
The 49th parallel has no regard for watersheds, and the data from the United States
snowcourses is essential for many of our forecasts, while the data from some of ours
is equally necessary for theirs. This data is therefore made mutually available through
a co-operative international network embracing all the Western and South-western
States and the Provinces of British Columbia and Alberta. British Columbia is represented on the Western Snow Conference by engineers of the Branch, one of whom is
currently Chairman of the Pacific North-west Section, embracing Oregon, Washington,
and British Columbia. This association has been most valuable in aiding the development of our own snow-surveys, enabling us to draw on the experience and greater
resources of our American colleagues.
The over-all picture presented by the physical side of snow-surveying is interesting ; in the last weeks of January, February, March, and, in some areas, April a great
activity takes place when some 2,500 snow surveyors—a small miscellaneous army of
engineers, foresters, park wardens, watermasters, and hundreds of young men whose
keenness for ski-ing and the mountains in winter attracts them to this work—start
simultaneously for the snowcourses in the mountains scattered all the way from
Southern California to the Big Bend of the Columbia in British Columbia. They
travel on skis and snow-shoes, a few lucky ones in the United States by various forms
of snowmobile. Their trip may take several days, requiring that shelter-cabins, stocked
with food, wood, and blankets, be provided along their route. Having obtained the
necessary data, they hurry back to the nearest telephone and wire their results in a
special code to co-operative snow-survey headquarters. These disseminate the material
to various organizations, States, or Provinces who require it for their forecasts, which
are thus issued practically simultaneously in two Canadian Provinces and eight Western
States.
Water-resources Surveys.
These cover a wide field and embrace not only where and in what quantity water
resources exist, but how and to what extent they can be put to economic use for
developing power for irrigation and for domestic supply, with the complementary
problems of storage and flood-control.
Water-power Investigations.
Cheap primary power is one of the outstanding factors which contribute to the
development of the modern state. British Columbia, a land of mountains, lakes, and
rivers, has a vast potential of undeveloped water-power. This has been estimated by
the Dominion Government at 1,930,000 horse-power minimum and 5,100,000 horse-power
for six months. These figures, however, are based on unregulated flow, and do not
therefore reflect the full potential, as partial or complete balancing storage can be
developed on most of our bigger river systems. The Water Rights Branch estimates
that nearly 8,000,000 horse-power is possible of development. The Fraser River and its
tributaries alone has a potential of about 6,000,000 horse-power—about 2,000,000
horse-power on the main stream and the balance on its bigger tributaries.
The first recorded use of water-power in the Province was in 1848, when the
Hudson's Bay Company built a small sawmill driven by an overshot water-wheel, which
developed about 5 horse-power.    Until 1896 the water-wheel installations appear to II 90 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
have been for the purpose of developing direct mechanical power, but early in that year
the first hydro-electric plant went into operation to supply the city of Nelson, making
the total development to that date 547 horse-power. By the turn of the century,
developed water-power had risen to 12,000 horse-power, and since then has shown a
steady increase, reaching 65,000 horse-power in 1910, 310,000 horse-power in 1920,
630,000 horse-power in 1930, 780,000 horse-power in 1940, and 864,000 horse-power in
January of 1946.
By 1912 the increasing demand for water-power sites, coupled with the realization
that little was known of our resources in this regard, led to the initiation of a long-term
policy of power investigations, in charge of engineers experienced in hydro-electric
development. This called for preliminary field surveys and engineering reports on
selected power possibilities for the information of the public and the Comptroller. For
interested members of the former, these reports furnished sufficient data to determine
the suitability of a particular power-site for a given purpose; for the Comptroller, they
provided information of great value when dealing with applications for licences for
power purposes. Power-sites, both large and small, were investigated. Some of the
larger possibilities required several years' field-work by large parties in rugged and
inaccessible country, which demanded a high order of organizing ability on the part of
the engineers in charge in order to maintain and transport their parties through little-
known and often unexplored regions. All types of transport were called into use—
primitive back-packing, pack-horses, rafts, boats and canoes, cars, trucks, and aeroplanes. Considerable ingenuity was often called upon in carrying out surveys and
obtaining topography in inaccessible places.
World War I. slowed down this programme through shortage of staff, but it was
resumed in earnest in 1920. No work was done in the depression year of 1933. World
War II. reduced the amount of work carried out, again because many members of the
engineering staff entered the armed forces.
Since 1912, 181 power-sites have been investigated and reported on, varying from
6 to 1,100,000 horse-power and totalling 4,030,000 horse-power. ■yh&r?$p©nt__^€io__7    i*2     v&vq<z>Z-&.    rr^oMt^ts-AT? ©or*<_*_-a^.
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Wa>__\(_s,)T7<3l-.or! QMTVorj - "Powir 5i^e PLATE   4 REPORT OF COMPTROLLER OF WATER RIGHTS.
II 91
Amongst the larger possibilities reported on are the following:—
Date of
Survey.        Report.
Name of Site.
Estimated
Horse-power.
Remarks.
1912
1921
1922
1923
1924
1926
1927
1928
1928
1928-29-30
1932
1935
1936
1938
1935
1935
1936
1939
1937-39
1941
1942
1912
1921
1922
1922
1922
1922
1923
1923
1923
1924
1924
1925
1926
1927
1927
1927
1928
1929
1929
1929
1929
1930
1931
1932
1936
1936
1936
1939
Interim
1939
1940
1940
1941
1943
Pend d'Oreille River	
Stafford River	
Ash River	
Ellerslie River	
Foch River	
Ingram Lake	
Azure Creek	
Murtle River	
Nanaimo River	
Quesnel River (Little Canyon).
Quesnel River (Dam)	
Campbell River	
Victoria Lake	
Big Falls Creek	
Nass River	
Shuswap River	
Kitsumgallum River ,
Bulkley River—
Hagwilget ,	
Beament	
Moricetown	
Spring Hill	
Skeena River	
Chilko-Homathko	
Swamp River	
Murtle River	
Quesnel River	
Nascall River.	
Nation River	
Fraser River—
Lillooet Canyon	
Moran Canyon	
Soda Creek Canyon	
Tahtsa-Kemano	
Nechako Canyon	
Nechako, Isle Pierre...
Eutsuk-Kimsquit.	
Kicking Horse River..
Nahmint River	
Stamp River	
Chehalis River.	
405,820
22,850
28,170
14,060
11,200
14,060
10,800
50,990
20,710
25,450
20,400
107,900
42,960
13,500
30,000
35,710
50,000
370,000
1,320,000
310,000
845,000
120,600
47,800
910,000
11,100
15,900
18,360
40,000
Without storage.
Reconnaissance.
Total for  Bulkley River
191,500 horse-power.
Reconnaissance.
With storage.
Reconnaissance.
Surveys for Moran are
incomplete, and Cottonwood remains to be
investigated.
See map showing location of principal powers (Plate 4). II 92
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
MI WADOINCT
UNDEVELOPED POWER.
a
j>m
Key-map of the 1,100,000-horse-power Chilko-Homathko project. REPORT OF COMPTROLLER OF WATER RIGHTS.
II 93
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w II 94 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Of the sites investigated and reported on, the following are now under licence,
some partially developed and others in course of development:—
Horse-power.
Pend d'Oreille River  405,820
Lillian Russel Creek  40
Butedale Creek  3,300
Grantham Creek   42
Kahtit Creek  10
Rutherford Creek  6
Woodworth Lake  1,650
Campbell River   107,900
Lois River  44,000
Marble River  40,000
Raging River  1,340
Victoria Lake   42,960
Big Falls Creek  13,500
Brown Creek   8,870
Shuswap River  35,710
Nascall River  65,000
Total  770,146
The power reports issued by the Branch have been the subject of very complimentary references by eminent consulting engineers who from time to time have
studied them.
It is worthy of note that Campbell River has been reported on, and quite different
methods of development suggested by two eminent American consulting engineers, as
well as by the late F. W. Knewstubb, who in his time was Chief Hydraulic Engineer
of the Branch. The scheme of development now being carried out by the British
Columbia Power Commission is the same as that recommended in Mr. Knewstubb's
report.
Irrigation Surveys.
No general programme of irrigation supply surveys has been carried out, but
surveys are undertaken from time to time at the request of interested communities.
The following surveys were carried out in 1946:—
Extensive surveys started in 1945 were completed in 1946 for an irrigation scheme
for Salmon Arm, and the plans and report are now nearing completion. Depending
on the acreage to be developed, estimates of cost would run as high as $880,000.
A survey and report completed in 1946 was for an irrigation supply from Knouff
Creek, in the Kamloops area, for the Vinsulla Irrigation District. The estimated cost
was $4,000.
A survey of an irrigation system for the Balfour area on Kootenay Lake, east of
Nelson;   estimated cost, $33,000.
A survey of a supply from Cuisson Creek, in the Cariboo, for a proposed water-
users' community.
Storage.
Closely related to irrigation supply, particularly in the Dry Belt, is the matter of
storage, without which only a fraction of the present area under crop could be irrigated, since the peak run-off occurs in the spring before irrigation commences, and the
residual unregulated flow would be insufficient in most cases to supply the demand.
To make the utmost beneficial use of water in these areas, therefore, the run-off has to
be controlled, and as much as possible of the spring freshet held in storage for later use
during the growing season. REPORT OF COMPTROLLER OF WATER RIGHTS. II 95
The more accessible natural storage-sites, such as lakes, meadows, and wide valley
sections, have already been developed by the building of dams. For further development and the irrigation of increased acreage, more storage-reservoirs will be required
and are now in actual demand, and these, of necessity, will become more and more
remote from the areas they will supply.
With this problem in mind, a programme of reconnaissance, followed by field
surveys and aided by aerial photography, is being undertaken on watersheds where
the situation is becoming critical. In 1946 a start was made on this programme, a field
party having made a reconnaissance of the Similkameen watershed and commenced
detailed surveys of potential storage-sites. The ground reconnaissance was augmented
by aerial photos taken by the British Columbia Air Surveys Division of the Surveys
Branch.
An interim report has been completed, but it will require at least another season's
field-work to complete the surveys.
It is intended to examine the storage resources of all the Dry Belt basins where
the situation in this regard is becoming acute.
Flood-control Surveys.
Related to the control of streams for their beneficial use is the problem of flood-
control. It is an irony that, even in the Dry Belt, water so badly needed later for the
production of crops often runs wild in freshet and does great flood damage.
The Nicola River, partly due to natural causes and partly to the works of man,
does considerable flood damage every year. In 1946, following abnormal winter snowfall, the flooding was more severe than usual, and the Branch was requested by the
Provincial Public Works to undertake flood-control surveys and studies, following
urgent representations by local residents and the city of Merritt. A field party spent
most of the season on this work, and a detailed report is in course of preparation.
Waterworks Surveys for Domestic Supply.
Under section 5 of the " Village Municipalities Assistance Act, 1945," the Lieutenant-Governor in Council may furnish technical advice to villages, and under this section
a number of requests for waterworks surveys and reports were made to the Minister.
In 1945 field surveys were carried out for the following projects: Smithers waterworks and drainage, Burns Lake waterworks, Vanderhoof waterworks, Williams Lake
waterworks, Quesnel waterworks, Pouce Coupe waterworks, and McBride waterworks.
The reports on all these were completed and issued in 1946.
During 1946 waterworks investigations were carried out at Balfour, near Nelson,
and for the village of Tofino, on Vancouver Island, and reports have been issued.
Technical Draughting Section.
During 1946 all plans and drawings required for the above village waterworks
reports were completed.
In addition, maps, plans, hydrographs, mass curves, etc., required for the following reports were completed or are in hand as indicated:—
Rock Creek-Midway Irrigation (pumping), completed.
Similkameen Basin Storage Survey (stage 1), completed.
Salmon Arm Irrigation Survey, 70 per cent, completed.
Balfour Irrigation and Waterworks Survey, completed.
Vinsulla Irrigation Supply Survey, completed.
Tofino Village Water-supply Survey, completed.
Spius Creek Power-site Survey, 25 per cent, completed.
Nicola River Flood-control Surveys, 50 per cent, completed. II 96 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Plats for six snowcourses, many miscellaneous maps, sketches, diagrams, and
computations were also completed.
Inspection of Dams and Testing of Foundations and Materials.
When it is considered that there are some 10,000 active licences on our registers
and that for every licence there are diversion and (or) storage-works, it means that
scattered over the Province there are thousands of dams of all sizes, from modest earth
embankments to great concrete structures. Many have reached a venerable age, and
crudely constructed in the first place, some of these old dams have become a menace.
Complaints about the condition of old dams became more and more frequent; there
have been several dam-failures involving considerable damage, but fortunately no loss
of life, and in at least one case the dam that failed was a new earth dam.
In the past, as at present, approval of the design of dams was required, and designs
and specifications were checked. In the case of plans submitted by engineers of repute
or by large responsible organizations, once the plans were approved, there was assurance that construction according to specifications would be carried out and that the
structures would be properly maintained. But in the case of earth dams of small size
built by small operators or individual ranchers, this assurance was lacking. Moreover, in the case of earth dams, foundation conditions, type of fill material available,
and method of construction are more important than actual design, and in most cases
these small structures were built without the owner employing an engineer, and in
many cases the size of the undertaking probably did not warrant the owner entailing
this additional expense. As long as the dam continued to hold water, maintenance was
generally nil, and yet if they failed, many of these dams could cause, and have caused,
considerable damage.
In the meantime, owing to intensive research and experimentation, spurred on
by the necessities of rapid war-time construction, our knowledge of soil mechanics and
soil-testing techniques had made great strides. It is now accepted as good engineering
practice, for structures on earth foundations and (or) involving the use of available
earth as construction material, to abide by the criteria established and the techniques
developed in the new branches of science and of engineering known as soil mechanics.
When the British Columbia Research Council was set up, a soil-testing laboratory was
installed at the University of British Columbia on the request of the Provincial Public
Works Department and the Water Rights Branch. Under the supervision of an expert
on soil mechanics, with the co-operation of an engineer of this Branch, foundation and
fill materials for all projected earth dams are tested. For carrying out foundation
tests on the ground, equipment has been made to the design of our engineers.
This inspection and testing service is not only a great added protection to the
public, but has indicated to the engineering profession that a higher standard of earth-
dam construction than in the past will be expected and insisted on. In addition, it
gives the small individual rancher, who requires to store water for his irrigation but
cannot afford the cost of hiring an engineer, the benefit of expert engineering advice
and guidance in the construction of his small dam, usually saving him money in the first
place and giving him greater assurance that his dam will not fail and involve him in
heavy damage.
A publication entitled " Practical Information on Irrigation for British Columbia
Water-users," compiled by engineers of the Branch, has been made available for many
years, has always been in demand, and is revised from time to time. The latest
revision has just been completed and is going to press. The section on the construction
of small earth dams has been completely rewritten and brought up to date in line with
our latest earth-dam requirements. REPORT OF COMPTROLLER OF WATER RIGHTS. II 97
So far as old existing dams are concerned, any complained of are immediately
inspected, and, in addition, a general programme of inspection of all old dams has been
initiated. On account of the large number involved, it will take several years to complete this. When dams are found to be unsafe or in need of repair, the licensees are
ordered to repair or rebuild them, as necessary.
In 1945, therefore, the whole set-up of approval of works was overhauled. This
includes inspection of foundations of dams prior to construction and, in the case of
earth dams, inspection and field tests of both the stripped dam-site and the proposed
fill material, in addition to mechanical tests of materials, are carried out by the British
Columbia Research Council laboratory, and, where considered necessary, inspections
during construction to see that specifications are adhered to.
In March, 1945, the first soil tests for earth-dam construction were carried out at
the University of British Columbia. Since that date eighteen dam-sites have been
inspected and soil tests of various types carried out. Several of these dams have been
completed and others are scheduled for construction in 1947. During 1946 the plans
of twelve dams were submitted for approval. Alterations in design were required by
engineers of the Branch before three of these were approved. II 98 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
DYKING AND DRAINAGE.
By Bruce Dixon, B.Sc, P.Eng., Inspector of Dykes and Commissioner.
It has been said with some justification that the better agricultural lands of British
Columbia are useless unless or until they receive artificial treatment by one of two
general methods—either they require excess soil-water removed (by drainage) or they
require soil-waters supplied (irrigation). The first of these observations is definitely
true and applicable as regards the better agricultural lands of the Fraser Valley, and
this fact has been recognized since the time of the earliest settlers. Drainage-works,
however, though essential, must be deferred until the lands are first protected from
inundation by the tides or by the annual river freshets through the construction and
subsequent maintenance of dyking systems. The Fraser presents both sets of conditions. Tidal effect only is encountered below the city of New Westminster, while tidal
and freshet effect combine in the Port Mann Reach, with the freshet effect predominating beyond. As might be expected, the problems differ very materially, for in the one
case intermittent low pressures (between high tides) only are encountered, while in
the other case pressures up to the resultant of a head of 30 feet are encountered and
sustained over a period of weeks. Without our present dyking systems the low lands
of the Fraser Valley would, during the 1946 river freshet, have been inundated to a
depth of between 4 and 5 feet at the Pitt River, between 9 and 10 feet around Mission,
and in parts of the Sumas Lake area to a depth of 21 feet. The following historical
reference is submitted for what it may be worth:—
" Owing to the flood conditions in the Fraser River and the resulting high water
at Sumas Lake, the highway between Abbotsford and Vedder Mountain was closed to
traffic for about six weeks. When the waters receded it was found necessary to carry
out extensive repairs to the portion of the road flooded. This was done without delay
or much inconvenience to the public." (Paragraph 5, page E 9, Report of Minister of
Public Works, 1920-21).    This highway was the only road to Chilliwack at the time.
The above suggests a sizeable outlet for the activities of this office, but of greater
moment is the contribution our services make to the agricultural production of the
Fraser Valley, for we believe there can be no lasting national greatness which is not
based on the land and the prosperity of those who live upon it.
We administer the dyking affairs of the districts of Coquitlam, Maple Ridge, Pitt
Meadows No. 1, Pitt Meadows No. 2, and Matsqui, as well as the drainage districts of
Maple Ridge and Matsqui, all under the provisions of the " Dyking Assessments Adjustment Act," with amendments, and also the districts of Dewdney, West Nicomen, Sumas,
and South Westminster as Commissioner under the provisions of the " Drainage,
Dyking, and Development Act " and special Statutes pertaining to each district. These
affairs focus around the maintenance and upkeep of the 87.45 miles of dyke or earthen
dam, a part of which sustains a maximum pressure-head of 30 feet; the pumping
services furnished by the twenty plants with their 5,545 connected horse-power, and
capable of delivering 900,000 Imperial gallons per minute; the upkeep and proper
functioning of the thirty-four flood-boxes; and the maintenance of the 91.14 miles of
drainage ditches and canals—the stock-in-trade of the 60,000-odd acres comprised by
these districts. Then, too, there is the matter of the eleven assessment rolls to be kept
up to date and the annual levies upon the 3,200-odd individual owners, in order to provide for the financial requirements of each district. The staff has not been increased
in number in twenty-five years, and the overhead per acre has been decreased over 20
per cent.
There is the historical side, which may be of some interest. In 1864 Samuel Brig-
house made a systematic attempt at dyking certain low lands on Lulu Island, wherethe
problem was comparatively simple, and was able to demonstrate what these soils would &ukinq and uta
'       Fr
:raser Valley.
Ssjsjiggggj^jjgigs-r- Maple Ridge dyke.
1%
Drainage-ditch,
Pitt Meadows.  [
REPORT OF DYKING AND DRAINAGE. II 99
produce when reclaimed. Encouragement was given to a few individuals, and for a
time dyking-works were constructed here and there along the river, but in a small way.
Speculative interests with vision, but without experience, organized to take advantage
of large tracts of Dominion lands available at prices of $1 to $5.75 per acre and proceeded to carry out plans for dyking-works, but always with an eye on profits and hence
cheap construction. Notable among the visionaries were C. B. Sword, at Matsqui in
1878; Ellis Luther Derby, at Chilliwack and Sumas about the same time; the Matsqui
Land Company and the B.C. Dyking and Drainage Company a few years later. Reports,
Sessional Papers, and even legislative amendments indicate a period of uncertainty and
insecurity, leading to the appointment of local Commissioners in many areas just prior
to and immediately following the epic year 1894.
The spring season of the year 1894, following a climatic year of low run-off,
remained cold until the middle of the month of May, when temperatures suddenly
soared throughout the Province. Nights, too, remained warm, and all tributaries to the
Fraser discharged their maximum flow. Official records place the peak freshet height
on the Mission gauge at 25 feet 9 inches on June 5th, but the diary of W. S. Collinson,
an early Sumas settler, a copy of which is in the writer's possession, contains an entry
on June 9th to the effect that " the river has raised 14" at McGillivray's since June
5th." The result of the record freshet was disastrous, but it served a very useful and
obvious purpose. Sessional Papers, 1894-5, contain documents of especial interest in
connection therewith, notable among which is a copy of a report of a committee of the
Honourable the Executive Council approved on the 15th day of October, 1894, and containing copies of correspondence passing between Premier Davie of the Province and
Premier Sir John Thompson of the Dominion. Premier Davie expressed such sentiment as the following:—
" The most serious and important aspect of the case affects the future. Bridges
have been washed away, roads and trails obliterated, dyke walls broken down. . . .
What is plainly the lesson of the flood is the necessity of a comprehensive system of
dyking which will include the whole inundated area of the Fraser. The magnitude of
the task places it beyond the ability of private enterprise and makes it clearly the duty
of the State to undertake. . . . The undertaking has a most important bearing upon
the interests of this Province for all time to come."
Also in these Sessional Papers is a copy of a Report on Fraser River Relief, by
Colonel James Baker, then Provincial Secretary, who had been dispatched to render
Government assistance to flood victims. It is a running narrative of his experiences
after leaving New Westminster on a chartered tug on the afternoon of June 3rd until
his return about a week later, and then of his arrangements for supplying seeds and
feed, which must come from the south as transportation east and west was completely
disrupted by the flood. He uses the figure " 666 " farmers distributed over 1,500
square miles of country. To-day there would be about 5,000 farmers. Colonel Baker
refers to his discovery of a local feud at Chilliwack, which developed between residents
of Chilliwack and residents of Sumas. A log-jam had formed in Luk-a-kuk Creek,
which prevented the main flow of the Vedder waters from going down the Luk-a-kuk
through what is now Sardis. The Sumas people tried to break the jam, but were
stopped by the Chilliwack people. Feelings ran high and both sides threatened to use
force of arms. Special Constables were sworn in and dispatched to the scene, and
further trouble was averted on the promise of Colonel Baker to investigate and to see
that justice was done. F. J. L. Tytler, C.E., was employed to investigate this matter
and to establish a bench-mark for the high-water mark of the flood for future reference.
The record height of 1894 has not since been equalled and sets the standard for dyking-
works reconditioned therafter and for all subsequent construction. II 100 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
The first parliament of the Province of British Columbia at its second session,
with the plain and brief preamble " Whereas it is expedient to provide for Dyking and
Drainage Lands," enacted the " Drainage, Dyking, and Irrigation Act, 1873." This
legislation was perhaps sufficient to meet the simple requirements of districts in the
tidal zone, and in fact efforts were made to make it meet the needs of the districts
whose problems were more complicated. Amendments were enacted in 1881, 1882, and
1892, and under these regulations some progress was made. With fresh memories of
the flood of 1894 and a more complete realization of the requirements, the principal
Act and amendments were repealed and supplanted by the " Drainage, Dyking, and
Irrigation Act, 1894." This Act clarified and extended former regulations, particularly with reference to borrowings, but of first importance was the provision authorizing the Lieutenant-Governor in Council to guarantee with discretion two-thirds of the
interest charges on bond issues for dyking purposes. Minor amendments were written
into this Act in 1895 and 1896, and then in 1897 came the " Dyking Debenture Loan
Act." It authorized the Government to purchase 6-per-cent.-dyking debentures in the
amount of $324,000, guaranteed as to 4 per cent, of the interest thereon by the Province,
and to expend a further $150,000 under the " Public Works Act," without which expenditure the moneys already expended would be lost. Next came the " Public Dyking
Act, 1898." It listed existing districts as Maple Ridge, Sumas, Coquitlam, Pitt
Meadows, and Matsqui, and as " further dyking works " Chilliwack, Agassiz, Hatzic,
and Surrey. It consolidated the several debts of the different existing districts, secured
them as debts due to the Province, regulated as to the manner and method of repayment, and made provision for the treatment of further districts. It further provided
for the appointment of an officer, to be called the Inspector of Dykes, to replace the
Commissioners of the existing districts or in any other districts in which works might
be undertaken, for the carrying-out of the provisions of the Statute. Digressing for
a moment, it may be stated that F. J. L. Tytler, C.E., previously referred to in Colonel
Baker's report of 1894, was the first Inspector of Dykes. He was replaced in November, 1898, by F. C. Gamble, C.E., who held office until the appointment of E. A. Wil-
mott, C.E., on May 1st, 1905. Following the death of Mr. Wilmott, the writer was
appointed in February, 1921.
The "Public Dyking Act, 1898," was amended in 1899, 1900, 1901, and 1902,
chiefly with reference to increasing debts, and was completely replaced in 1905 by the
" Dyking Assessments Adjustment Act." This Act reviewed expenditures made by the
Government under the provisions of the Acts of 1897 and 1898, and amendments, in
connection with the works of the different districts, placing the total expenditures as
at November 1st, 1904, at $981,219.16, and pointed out that the annual interest and
sinking fund charges thereon were greater than the lands could bear, and that it was
desirable that the Province recover some portion of the moneys expended without
retarding development. The total indebtedness was thereupon reduced to $545,252, and
distributed and secured as follows:—
Maple Ridge Dyking District   $127,396.00
Coquitlam Dyking District       57,988.00
Pitt Meadows No. 1 Dyking District       17,815.32
Pitt Meadows No. 2 Dyking District       17,052.68
Matsqui Dyking District      125,000.00
Chilliwack Dyking District      200,000.00
Regulations were made concerning the recovery of these amounts to the Government by annual assessments over a period of forty years at 3%-per-cent. interest.
Provision was also made for the financing of annual maintenance requirements through
advances from the Minister of Finance, to be repaid forthwith upon collection, and
machinery generally was set up for forcing collections.   Amendments have been made REPORT OF DYKING AND DRAINAGE. II 101
from time to time, two of which are worthy of note. By the year 1912 steam pumping
equipment had become obsolete, flood-boxes constructed of timber had reached the end
of their useful lives, and drainage and other improvements became necessary. Provision was made to meet such extraordinary expenditures from the Consolidated Revenue
Fund of the Province and to extend the repayment over a term of years. The other
amendment referred to was intended to meet the financial depression in the early '30's.
This provided for the postponement of the annual payments for interest and sinking
fund on debts owed to the Government. Similar amendments were made each year
until last year, when, as a result of demands for debt relief, a Royal Commissioner, in
the person of Dean F. M. Clement of the University of British Columbia, was appointed
to inquire into and report upon the ability to meet existing obligations. The net effect
of these two amendments, subject to remarks following concerning the individual districts, is that the total debt owed to the Government is considerably more than that
established by the original Act of 1905. Referring back to the " Drainage, Dyking,
and Irrigation Act, 1894," from which the " Dyking Assessments Adjustment Act "
was an offshoot, we may say that this Act was repealed, reserving any rights thereunder, by the " Drainage, Dyking, and Irrigation Act, 1913." In 1918, with some
amendments, the name was changed to the " Drainage, Dyking, and Development Act."
Several districts have been organized under its provisions, with special Acts in some
cases. As stated above, four such districts—namely, Dewdney, West Nicomen, Sumas,
and South Westminster—are administered from this office.
Except for the above general remarks, the several districts have little in common.
Their physical problems may be closely related, but their financial or economic problems differ. Acre costs, initial and annual, depend upon such factors as length and
cross-section (yardage) of dyke in relation to the total reclaimed acreage in a unit or
district; the drainage area to be accommodated, for in this Province the low land must
take care of water which may come to it from higher levels often outside a district's
boundaries; soil formation or stratification encountered for this has a bearing upon
seepage or leakage; and there are also questions purely human in character which may
have a marked influence on the development of a district and thus affect its economy.
Below we quote such figures as we consider pertinent in the remarks upon the
individual districts which follow.
Coquitlam Dyking District.
General.—Located on the west bank of the Pitt River. Reclamation mooted in
1888, but not organized until 1893 by private enterprise. Construction started during
the winter of 1894-5, at estimated cost of $70,000. The actual cost as at November
1st, 1904, was $151,280.35, which amount was reduced to $57,988 and fixed as the debt
of the district by the 1905 Act.
Physical.—Area:   3,213.44 acres.
Length of dyke:   8.41 miles, 3.75 miles interception ditch.
Flood-boxes: Three concrete with creosoted laminated timber gates; discharge
capacity, 318 square feet.
Pumping equipment: Four plants, distributed, 250 connected horse-power; total
capacity against 10-foot head, 60,000 i.g.p.m.
Remarks.—This district has just begun to show signs of recovery from the major
boom with which it was inflicted some thirty-five years ago. Then the lands were subdivided for the greater part into 33-foot lots and sold at fabulous prices far and wide.
Purchasers held for years, hoping to salvage some of their investment, but eventually
tired, after which it became possible to invoke the provisions of the " Plans Conservation Act " and revert to acreage. For years we have endeavoured to keep the works
from deteriorating and to provide such service as the actual operators required, but
always perhaps too sensitive to criticism of expenditure.
PROVINCIAL.  LIBRARY
VICTORIA, B. C. II 102 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Nevertheless, pumping equipment has been proven inadequate. This was partially
corrected in 1938 by an expenditure of $12,500, which supplied a pump capable of discharging 20,000 Imperial gallons per minute against a head of 10 feet for the Upper
Coquitlam area and one of half that capacity for the lower end of the Lower Coquitlam
area. With intensive cultivation, another pump of 20,000 Imperial gallons per minute
will be required in the Lower Coquitlam area. Pumping services this year have been
quite exacting owing to the comparatively high freshet over an abnormally long period
of time. The cost of pumping, together with that of the emergency dyke patrol, contributed greatly to the unusually high maintenance expenditure for the year, which
pro-rated amounted to $1.8476 per acre. Drainage facilities must receive attention
just as soon as it becomes economically possible.
Pitt Meadows No. 1 Dyking District.
General.—Located at the forks of the North and South Alouette Rivers, 2 miles
east of Pitt River. Reclamation commenced in 1890 by B.C. Dyking and Drainage
Company along with Pitt Meadows No. 2, and together called Pitt Meadows Dyking
District. The company acquired 2,299 acres from the Dominion Government for $5.75
per acre, and their expenditures appear to have been about $45,000. Originally built
2 feet above the freshet of 1882, the freshet of 1894 overflowed the dyke and washed out
one section. It was reorganized along with No. 2 in 1894. In 1898 the Government
assumed control, when it was estimated that the amount necessary to meet the liabilities
of the Commissioners and to complete the work would be $79,938.90. The actual cost as
at November 1st, 1904, was $88,873.11, and this was reduced in 1905 to $34,868, a part
of which—namely, $17,815.32—was secured against Pitt Meadows No. 1 and $17,052.68
against Pitt Meadows No. 2. The land all reverted to the Province a few years ago.
Five parcels amounting to 185 acres have recently passed to private ownership through
purchase.
Physical.—Area:  1,174.78 acres.
Length of dyke:  6.08 miles.
Flood-boxes: One concrete, laminated timber gates; discharge capacity, 72 square
feet.
Pumping equipment: One plant, 75 connected horse-power; capacity against 10-
foot head, 18,000 i.g.p.m.
Remarks.—This area never was economically sound, and in half a century has never
developed. Owned at one time as a speculation, it was provided with drainage facilities
at the expense of the owners. One operator with capital made a determined effort from
1931 to 1934 to farm 430 acres, but after three years recognized defeat and allowed his
land to revert. It does not seem to be possible for land in this area to pay for maintenance and municipal services, both of which are made comparatively high through
natural handicaps.    The land is utilized for cheap and inferior pasture.
Pitt Meadows No. 2 Dyking District.
General.—Located on the east bank of Pitt River and north bank of Alouette at
their junction (see Pitt Meadows No. 1, opening remarks). Debt secured against
district, 1905, $17,052.68. Ownership is divided among fifty-three individuals, with 55
acres reverted to the Crown.
Physical.—Area:  1,112.18 acres.
Length of dyke:   5.46 miles.
Flood-boxes: One concrete, creosoted laminated timber gates; discharge capacity,
72 square feet.
Pumping equipment: One plant, (two pumps), 120 connected horse-power; capacity, 20,000 i.g.p.m. REPORT OF DYKING AND DRAINAGE. II 103
Remarks.—The lands in this district are similar to those of the Coquitlam District
and somewhat superior to those of the Pitt Meadows No. 1 District. Like the latter,
its shape and size lead to abnormally high service charges, and were it not subdivided
into comparatively small blocks, its economic difficulties would be greater. Its people
are fairly progressive, and the supply of electric energy and domestic water are in the
offing. We are presently reconditioning a drainage system in response to a request
from the owners, and this will double the annual maintenance charge for the current
year. As was the case generally, pumping requirements were high, and this, together
with emergency patrol, contributed to the heavy expenditures for the year, which
necessitated a maintenance levy of $2.48565 per acre for the year ended September
30th last. A section of dyke in this district appears to have suffered from the earth
tremor of June 23rd last, and will be reinforced early this spring. Drainage is and
will be a major problem in this district, and if there is a demand for a maintained
water-table of 30 inches, it is probable that a larger pump will have to be substituted
for the existing equipment.
Maple Ridge Dyking District.
General.—Located on the east bank of Pitt River and north bank of the Fraser at
their junction. Alouette River forms the north boundary, and district extends eastward to the town of Hammond.
Reclamation started during the summer of 1893, with W. J. Harris, W. Manson,
and C. E. Woods as Commissioners, at estimated cost of $80,000. They anticipated
building to a height of 2 feet above the 1882 level, but the flood of 1894 destroyed much
of the work, and it was decided to rebuild to a height 2 feet higher than the 1894
freshet, and at a new estimate of $126,000. The actual cost as at November 1st, 1904,
was $221,981.96, which amount was reduced to $127,396 and fixed as the debt of the
district by the Act of 1905.
Ownership in the district is divided among 274 individuals, and 406 acres have
reverted to the Crown.
Physical.—Area:   8,382.31 acres (2,623.46 "high," 5,758.85 "low").
Length of dyke:   14.39 miles, 1.5 miles interception ditch.
Flood-boxes: Four concrete, creosoted laminated timber gates; discharge capacity,
392 square feet.
Pumping equipment: Three plants, distributed (five units), 445 connected horsepower;   capacity, 103,000 i.g.p.m. against 10-foot head.
Remarks.—The lands of this district surround a knoll of high ground of some 600
acres, more or less in the district's geographic centre. This knoll was an island in the
freshet of 1894 and, therefore, was not included in the district's boundaries. Lying
between this high-water contour of 1894 and the contour of previous average freshets
is some 2,625 acres, classified as " high land," and below that contour lies the remainder
of the district, some 5,825 acres, classified as " low land." The knoll pays nothing
towards the expense of the district, though its springs and surface drainage add
materially to those expenses. The effect of the two classifications is that in the levy
for the year 1946 the low-land classification was called upon to pay 41.3 per cent, more
per acre than the high-land classification. There is a growing justifiable demand for
the abolition of this differential.
Parts of the knoll referred to were taken up for settlement twenty years before the
Canadian Pacific Railway constructed its main line across it, and it would be natural
to expect to find a high state of development in the adjoining lands of the dyking
district. Development has been disappointing, and for one reason or another it still
lags. The chief source of income is dairying, and with the price of milk going as low
as 26.73 cents per pound of butter-fat a few years ago, one reason is provided.    How- II 104 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
ever, production costs are of equal importance, and yield becomes a ruling factor.
There has been a demand for a lower maintained water-table, and winter pumping has
become general. Two automatic axial-flow impeller pumps were installed at the north
end of the McKechnie Road in 1938, each capable of delivering 20,000 i.g.p.m. against
a head of 10 feet, and every effort is made to keep the water-table low. Except for
peak storm periods, this is now possible, but it cost $7,075.12 for electric energy last
year. In common with all districts in the Fraser Valley, last year the high freshet and
length of duration led to high maintenance requirements. The necessary rate per acre
here was $1.20015 per acre for " high land " and $2.04496 per acre for " low land."
Maple Ridge No. 2 Drainage District.
This drainage district was organized within the dyking district of the same name
by petition from the majority in value dated November 22nd, 1923. It was constituted
under the provisions of section 58 of the " Dyking Assessments Adjustment Act,
1905," as enacted by the " Dyking Assessments Adjustment Act, 1905, Amendment Act,
1920," and designed to benefit some 5,460 acres of the dyking district. The scheme
finally adopted co-operated with the municipal corporation in the opening-up of new
roads, and in consideration of this service, the municipality contributed $16,500 towards
its cost. The balance of the cost—namely, $24,636.75—was advanced by the Minister
of Finance under the provisions of the Statute referred to, and its repayment arranged
by annual instalments with interest over a period of fifteen years. The work was
completed and the first assessment made in the year 1926.
There are 145 holdings in this district, and the works involved the construction
and subsequent maintenance of 41.66 miles of drainage laterals having a cross-sectional
area of from 32 to 60 square feet. Seven pile bridges were constructed for the municipality, and they are responsible for upkeep and renewal. The maintenance of these
works is attended to from a fund provided by an annual levy for that purpose against
the lands concerned in the amount of 40 cents, 20 cents, and 10 cents per acre on "A,"
" B," and " C " lands respectively. This provides $1,362 annually, which amount is
entirely inadequate for present-day costs, with a labour increase of 75 per cent.
During the war, owing to the man-power shortage, much of this maintenance-work had
to be neglected in favour of work which was imperative. At the first of January, 1946,
we were able to get delivery of a new %-cubic-yard drag-line excavator which had been
on order for some two years, and this equipment operated for ten months of the year
in this district cleaning and reconditioning the ditches and drainage-ways. We expect
to return in the early spring and complete the job, or rather take up where we left
off, for this kind of a job is never completed.
Summary Pitt River Districts.
The earthworks of the four districts immediately preceding were constructed with
the same equipment—namely, a floating dipper-dredge—and material was taken from
a borrow-pit on the inside of the dyke. This borrow-pit had to be deep enough to
provide flotation, and apparently the dipper-sticks were not long enough to permit
a berm between the borrow-pit and toe of slope. This deep borrow-pit immediately
adjoining the embankment acts as an inferior drainage-way, the water in which stands
at a level approximately 2 feet below the base of the dyke and is a haven for muskrats
nesting in the dykes. Each spring it is necessary to dig out by manual labour about
700 rat-holes in these four districts, and vigilant patrols are necessary at the time of
the rising freshet to ascertain that none have been overlooked. No proper bond was
made between the natural ground surface and the base of fill, and trouble has been
encountered through these seepage planes. This, however, has by now been corrected.
Trouble has been encountered recently on two occasions when longitudinal sections of REPORT OF DYKING AND DRAINAGE. II 105
dyke have slipped owing to the nearness to the borrow-pit. These dykes were constructed to a level 2 feet above the 1894 freshet mark and are of sufficient sectional
area for the material encountered. They have been well maintained, but maintenance
would be cheaper and more effective if their crowns were of sufficient width to admit
of truck traffic. The 34.34 miles of dyke protecting the four Pitt River districts was
for the most part well located, but some sections are too near the river, and river-bank
erosion has to be combated. This appears to result mostly from wash following wind
and wave-action, and to some extent from fast-moving power-boats and tugs. Our
experience is that the most efficient method of handling this problem is to slope the face
back to about % :1, and pave the sloped face with one-man rock.
Matsqui Dyking District.
General.—Located on the south bank of the Fraser, directly opposite Mission City,
between Mount Lehman and Sumas Mountain. Reclamation was mooted about 1878
and started about 1880. By 1882 about $70,000 is said to have been expended, but
without success. A second attempt was made between 1888 and 1894 by the Matsqui
Land Company, who are said to have expended $45,072. It was organized as the Matsqui Dyking District in 1894, and authorized to raise $50,000 by the sale of bonds. The
district as now constituted was reorganized in 1896. Four failures in 1896 led to the
abandonment of most of the old dyke and the construction of a new one farther removed
from the river. In 1898, when the Government assumed control, it was estimated that
the amount required to meet the liabilities of Commissioners and to complete the works
would be $106,445.24. The actual cost as at November 1st, 1904, was $209,915.60, which
amount was reduced to $125,000 and fixed as the debt of the district by the Act of 1905.
There are 349 individual owners in the district, and 67-odd acres are at present in the
name of the Crown.
Physical.—Area:   10,170.73 acres.
Length of dyke:   7.21 miles.
Flood-boxes: Two concrete, creosoted laminated timber gates; discharge capacity,
264 square feet.
Pumping equipment: Two plants (four units), 480 connected horse-power;
capacity, 75,000 i.g.p.m. against 10-foot head and 55,000 i.g.p.m. against 20-foot head.
Remarks.—The earthworks of the Matsqui dyke were constructed for the most part
with a floating dipper-dredge, but one section on the Mount Lehman end was constructed with teams and scrapers, the borrow-pit being on the outside of the dyke.
Four failures occurred in the year 1896 through faultily constructed flood-box^, .*.t
slough crossings, and another failure occurred in 1921 because of the nearness of the
deep borrow-pit to the dyke. Flood-boxes, two in number, were constructed of timber,
but have since been renewed by reinforced-concrete structures. In the year 1931, in
co-operation with the Canadian National Railways Company, we deposited 100,000 cubic
yards of suction-dredge material from the river-bed in the borrow-pit, and thus corrected several of the weaker sections, but another 200,000 cubic yards is required to
complete the job.
River-bank erosion presents a major problem in this district. This year, before
the freshet, in conjunction with the two Governments, we placed some 2,250 tons of
one-man rock and better as revetment on two sections of exposed river-bank, and
erosion following the freshet was the most pronounced in our experience. This was no
doubt due to the fact that seepage was excessive this year, due to the height reached
by the river and maintained over such a long period—over 17 feet in height for over
thirty-five days. Low-lying areas just inside the dyke, totalling 115 acres, filled with
seepage-water, and this filtered back into the river as the freshet receded. It found
its way back through sand strata which underlie the area, and this action, together II 106 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
with the passage of natural ground-waters, carries sand from the edge of the stratum
nearest the river. Into the comparatively thin cavity thus formed, the overlying strata
settle, crack, and break off, to be carried away by the current. When the surface of the
river is near the sand strata, a strong north-east wind has a similar effect through
wave-action. During the last fifteen years $44,000 has been spent in river-bank protection at Matsqui, and a considerable amount of protection-work must be undertaken
early in the coming spring.
Vigilant patrols become necessary all along the 7-odd miles of dyke in this district
when the river freshet gets to the 18-foot mark on the Mission gauge.
A part of this area served by No. 1 slough has for years had reason to complain of
inadequate pumping service. Some years ago the pumping capacity was doubled to
40,000 i.g.p.m., but there have been times recently when.this could not accommodate
peak storm requirements. Adding to existing equipment may become necessary. The
equipment on No. 2 slough has, during the last three years, been completely renovated
and reinstalled in a new pump-house, on concrete footings. The sump is encased in
steel-sheet piling, and the two discharge-pipes, 30 inches and 41 inches in diameter and
72 feet long, are of reinforced centrifugal-spun concrete, with a mass concrete cut-off
wall supported on pile clusters at each 8-foot joint. This was financed through ordinary
maintenance channels and accounted for a comparatively high rate per acre during
those years. The rate for 1942 was 89 cents per acre, while for 1943, 1944, and 1945
it was $1.25, $1.33, and $1.24 respectively. Last year, with heavy requirements in other
directions, the necessary rate was 98 cents per acre.
We would like to take advantage of this occasion to refer to the great loss sustained
by this district during the year in the matter of the untimely death of Ole Sorenson.
Mr. Sorenson had been caretaker and superintendent of these dykes for some twenty-
nine years, and during that time had impressed all with his honesty and industry. On
April 26th, while crossing the main line of the Canadian National Railways at Skouge
Road, en route to the pumps close by, his truck was hit by a freight train. He was
instantly killed, and the district thereby sustained a very great loss.
Matsqui Drainage District No. 1.
A part of the Matsqui Dyking District, some 4,100 acres, lying for the most part
south of the Hallert Road, was constituted a drainage district under the provisions of
section 58 of the " Dyking Assessments Adjustment Act, 1905," as enacted by the
" Dyking Assessments Adjustment Act, 1905, Amendment Act, 1920." It was accomplished by a petition signed by the majority in value of the area involved, received on
January 17th, 1919. Surveys and preliminary organization-work were completed, and
the statutory Court of Revision was held on August 22nd, 1919.
The scheme which was approved involved the cleaning of some 9.8 miles of slough
whose bed had been raised and whose flow had become obstructed by natural agencies,
and the construction of some 16.2 miles of lateral ditches intended to provide drainage
to the lands concerned.
Assessments were to be on a benefit basis in three classifications, but apparently
no fixed standard was adopted by which an area or a plot could be definitely placed in
one or other classification, and considerable controversy still results.
The lowest tender for the work appeared within the estimates of the engineer, but
was on a cost-plus basis and eventually got out of control, and cost, including interest,
$115,619.18. This was reduced by a Government grant to $55,619.18 as the cost to the
district, and this sum, together with interest at 6 per cent, (later reduced to 4y2 per
cent.), was to be repaid to the Government in twenty-six years by equal annual instalments. The first assessment was made in the year 1922 and continued until affected
by the postponement referred to herein. REPORT OF DYKING AND DRAINAGE. II 107
The works of the district are maintained from a fund which is the product of an
annual levy against the lands in the district at the rate of 50 cents per acre. References
made previously regarding rising cost apply with equal effect here.
Dewdney Dyking District.
General.—Located on the north bank of the Fraser River some 2% miles east of
Mission City. The grade of the Canadian Pacific Railway main line forms its dyke,
and the district embraces the low land surrounding Hatzic Lake, including Hatzic
Island, lying north of the C.P.R. This district was organized and operating prior to
the year 1894. In the freshet of that year the grade of the C.P.R., through which had
been constructed a flood-gate for the district, washed out. The railway repaired its
track for traffic purposes only, constructing a trestle across the gap, and not until 1909
did the district become reorganized. An arrangement was made with the railway
company whereby the trestle referred to was " filled," a balance-basin constructed
between the fill and what is now the Dewdney Trunk Road, a flood-box constructed on
the shore through private property, and one small 20-inch pump was supplied. Expropriation proceedings in June, 1910, against the owner of the private property, required
for purposes of the flood-gate, started legal entanglements which affected very materially the borrowings of the district.
Total borrowings were, by 1923,- $202,500, and in 1929 the Government of the
Province saw fit to assist. The " Dewdney Dyking District Relief Act, 1929," authorized
the expenditure of $150,000 in the purchase of the district's debentures, amounting to
$202,500, and a further $15,000 in discharging the current liabilities of the Commissioners. The sum of $164,875 was required for these two purposes. Assets of the district, represented at $48,000, were acquired by the Government, and the Prudential
Trust Company was appointed to liquidate those assets, chiefly reverted lands, within
five years. The Act referred to established $60,000 as the debt of the district, but
provided that should there be a deficiency in the district's assets, the debt would be
increased by the amount of such deficiency. Provisions were made for the payment of
the debt by annual payments over a period of forty years at 5% per cent, interest,
which later became reduced to 4% per cent. The Act also provided for the transference
of the duties and responsibilities of the Commissioners to the Inspector of Dykes, and
this was accomplished by Order in Council No. 459, dated April 2nd, 1929. Regular
levies for interest and sinking' fund were made annually until the postponement referred
to became operative.
There are 138 individual owners in the district, and there are no reverted lands at
present.
Physical.—Area:   3,355.73 acres.
Flood-boxes: One concrete under C.P.R. grade with locks and oak gates, 96 square
feet capacity.
Pumping equipment: Two plants (four units), 510 connected horse-power; capacity, 80,000 i.g.p.m. against a 12-foot head and 40,000 i.g.p.m. against a 20-foot head.
Remarks.—Reference was made above to the installation of one 20-inch pump at
the commencement, which presumably was calculated to be adequate. A few years later
it was found necessary to supplement this equipment, and two units, which more than
doubled that capacity, were added. For some twenty years this proved sufficient, until
with logging operations over the large drainage-shed the equipment had to again be
supplemented. In 1937 a Dominion vertical-shaft axial-flow propeller pump with a 200-
horse-power motor capable of discharging 37,500 i.g.p.m. against a head of 12 feet was
installed. This installation was made difficult by the nearness of the C.P.R. double-
track grade, through which the 48-inch discharge-pipe had to penetrate. As near-
permanent construction as possible was adopted, and the cost, some $20,185, was met II 108 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
through the maintenance account of the district over a five-year period. Having
accomplished this through increased maintenance assessments, the assessments were
continued higher than required, and an operating surplus was accordingly established
against the day when the old discharge-pipe, which is not of permanent construction,
will have to be renewed. Pumping costs are heavy because of the large drainage-shed.
A contribution is made each year to those costs by the Government, on account of the
large mileage of roads in this unorganized territory which the pumping service protects.
The lands of this district vary greatly and run from perhaps the best lands in the
valley to the poorest. The poor lands suffer from insufficient drainage, and, in fact,
drainage is becoming more and more a pressing problem. Legace Creek, in the extreme
north corner of the district, like most local mountain streams, flares up with each heavy
storm and, discharging into Hatzic Slough, deposits its burden, raising the slough-bed.
Adjacent lands then become overflowed, presenting a perpetual difficulty, for the cleaning of the slough only provides a remedy between storms. The Government of the
Province has been generous in its attitude towards this problem, which, since the disastrous winter of 1935, has been most acute. Whether Legace Creek may become more
docile with additional growth of forest-cover remains to be seen.
West Nicomen Dyking District.
General.—Organized in 1911 under the provisions of the " Drainage, Dyking, and
Development Act," the works were carried out at a cost of $94,905, and the Government assisted by a grant of $10,000. It was financed by a bond issue of $87,000 at
5 per cent, on a twenty-year basis. The dyke was inferior and emergency work was
necessary with each freshet. Calls to the Government were common, and the district's
finances got in such bad shape that refinancing became necessary, and in 1918 the bondholders exchanged their bonds for new ones with a Government guarantee in the same
amount but at 4 per cent, interest on a thirty-five-year basis. The Land Settlement
Board then replaced the former Commissioners. The " West Nicomen Relief Act,
1925," cancelled arrears of dyking assessments and authorized the Government to
reimburse the district to the extent of the cancellation.
In 1928 the Lougheed Highway was constructed through the district, and a new
dyke, improved in location, was constructed to protect the highway. In October, 1930,
the duties of the Commissioners were transferred to the Inspector of Dykes, who has
since acted as sole Commissioner. The district is meeting its obligation to pay off the
bonds issued in 1918, payments upon which could not be postponed by the Government,
as the debt was owed to others. As at September 30th, 1946, the district had $74,486.97
invested in securities for sinking fund purposes, with a market value of $81,445, and
annual earnings of $2,917.50. Some $2,147.94 of this amount may be required for
maintenance purposes, but the balance, $79,297.06, is available for sinking fund purposes. This is over $19,000 ahead of scheduled requirements. The accumulation of
interest to our present investment will by themselves provide considerably more than
enough to redeem the district's debentures by the due date;  namely, May 1st, 1953.
Physical.—Area:  4,124 acres.
Length of dyke:   13.62 miles.
Flood-boxes:   Seven, concrete, metal gates.
Pumping equipment: Two plants (two units), 40 connected horse-power; capacity,
15,000 i.g.p.m. against 12-foot head.
Remarks.^-The year 1946 was a bad year for this district, for the river remained
at a height of over 17 feet on the Mission gauge for over thirty-five days. Owing to
the porosity of the soil, seepage cannot be avoided, and the general elevation of the
district is such that low areas must suffer when the river reaches the 17-foot mark.
The dyke was well constructed by drag-line fill and compacted as much as practicable. The material for the dyke was taken from a borrow-pit on the outside of the dyke, and
this presents a danger, especially at slough crossings, where the borrow-pit had to be
enlarged to find material.
Anticipating a high freshet this year, two danger sections were filled by bulldozing
from higher ground, and we have in mind continuing this practice with the hope that
eventually the entire borrow-pit will have received attention.
Excessive seepage overtaxed the existing pumping equipment this year, and as
there is a demand for better pumping service, we propose installing one additional unit
in the early spring. A very vital concern of the district is river-bank protection, for
erosion at or about McDonalds Landing is rapid. The district is entirely incapable of
facing this issue unassisted.
Early in the century the Dominion Government constructed a dam at the top end
of Nicomen Slough, and the Fraser water is prevented from entering. Except for
seepage, the level of Nicomen Slough water is governed by the height of the Fraser at
the mouth of Nicomen Slough,-some 9 miles down-river from the dam. The West Nicomen dyke along Nicomen Slough was accordingly constructed at a level grade and 3.307
feet lower than required at Quamitch Slough on the Fraser, while the Fraser dyke was
constructed on a rising grade of 0.014 per cent.
South Westminster Dyking District.
This district is well located and comprises the flood-plain of the Fraser River on
the south bank between Port Mann on the east and the Annieville cannery on the west.
Due to its location, its land, though poor, is in demand for industrial sites and for
home-sites for industrial workers.
It was organized under the provisions of the " Drainage, Dyking, and Development
Act " in 1920. The cost of the work appears to have been $54,766.41, to which the Government of the Province contributed $5,470. Annual assessments for all purposes
amounted to $6,317.95, and were made each year.
In December, 1930, in response to a petition from the majority in value, the Inspector of Dykes replaced the Commissioners (see Order in Council No. 1584, December
30th, 1930). A survey of the district's affairs at that time showed that the works of
the district, then only seven years old, had begun to show definitely the lack of maintenance attention. Ditches of the district required cleaning; flood-boxes, six in number,
constructed of fir and some of it second growth, showed signs of decay and could not
be depended upon beyond a few years, while the dykes themselves, some sections constructed of straight peat, were practically useless. In addition, there was a demand
for pumping service, but pumping equipment was entirely lacking. An attempt was
made to improve the works of the district through ordinary maintenance channels, but
this proved impractical.
In due course the Government of the Province saw fit to guarantee the interest on
a new bond issue, and refinancing was accomplished in the amount of $55,000 on a
41/_>-per-cent. basis over a twenty-year term. The old bonds were called and purchased,
four new creosoted-timber flood-boxes were constructed, three small automatic pumping units were installed at strategic points, and drainage-ditches were renovated. Three
of the creosoted flood-boxes referred to above replaced smaller and higher culverts under
the C.N.R. main line at mileages 116.4, 117.16, and 117.54, while the discharge-pipe
from one of the pumps referred to also penetrated the grade at mileage 117.16 (Yale
Subdivision), and this, of course, affected the cost. However, by agreement, dated
April 1st, 1939, with the Canadian Northern Pacific Railway Company, we obtained its
permission and were able to use its grade for 1.55 miles in substitution for our dyke
parallel to it, which was of useless peat material referred to above. The creosoted-
timber flood-boxes were of 12- by 12-inch select fir material, pre-framed and bored in II 110 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
the yard of the Timber Preservers, Limited, marked, knocked down, pressure-treated,
and brought to the job in proper sequence. The largest of these was 95 feet 6 inches
in length and 5 by 5 feet inside.
The new bonds of the district retire on July 1st, 1960. At July 1st, 1947, according to the terms of the regulating trust deed, it should have in the sinking fund the
sum of $16,444.96 and earnings should be $632.66 for the year. Actually it has $18,500
invested, but the earnings will be only $600. Annual assessments for all purposes now
amount to $5,303.88. The 1,400-odd acres of the district are divided among 640 owners.
The dyke is 4.62 miles in length. Pumping equipment consists of three small units,
distributed, with a total of 35 connected horse-power, and capable of discharging 25,000
i.g.p.m. against a 6-foot head.
Sumas Dyking District.
General.—The reclamation of Sumas was mooted as far back as 1875, and in 1878
the Government of the Province gave to Ellis Luther Derby a sort of franchise conditioned upon performance authorizing him to reclaim by dyking certain lands in Chilliwack, Sumas, and Matsqui, according to a plan of Edgar Dewdney, receiving therefor
certain taxing privileges on lands which were then Crown-granted and a grant to some
45,000 acres. A large part of the 45,000 acres was in Sumas and included Sumas Lake.
This contract was ratified by the " Sumas Dyking Act, 1878," but nothing appears to
have been accomplished, though minor amendments for the next ten years indicate some
interest.
A company was organized to reclaim Sumas in 1891 and another in 1892, but
nothing material was accomplished, although the latter company did considerable work
which later was abandoned. The district was organized under the " Drainage, Dyking,
and Irrigation Act, 1893." Some $19,000 was spent in survey-work, etc. Plans of
Sterling B. Hill were considered in 1905, those of J. Francis Le Baron in 1908, and
those of L. M. Rice & Co. in 1911; but nothing of importance developed until 1917,
when the majority in value petitioned the Government to appoint the Land Settlement
Board of the Province as Commissioners for the district, and to proceed under the
" Dyking, Drainage, and Development Act." Plans were prepared and presented to
the ratepayers in November, 1919, and approved by 86 per cent, of the value. The estimated cost was $1,500,000, but the first unit bids indicated an underestimate, and it
was accordingly raised and approved at $1,800,000. The entire construction-work, with
the exception of internal drainage, was completed by the Land Settlement Board as
Commissioners by March, 1926, when the Inspector of Dykes was appointed sole Commissioner in their stead.
The problem of reclamation was quite involved. The Vedder River, a stream of
considerable magnitude, had changed its course about the year 1890 and now flowed
into Sumas Lake, greatly intensifying the problem, but adding materially to soil-
fertility as well as shallowing the lake. The plan adopted consisted of leading the
Vedder River direct to the Fraser, by-passing Sumas Lake through an artificial canal
4 miles in length with dykes on either side high enough and of sufficient sectional area
to bar the Fraser freshet and tied into high ground at or about the British Columbia
Electric Railway crossing on the one end and to the Chilliwack and Sumas Mountains
respectively at the other ends. The run-off waters from approximately 103 square
miles, 66 square miles of which lie in the State of Washington, whose natural sump was
Sumas Lake, were diverted by means of an interception canal 10 miles in length, so
located as to provide gravity-flow except during freshet periods, and supplemented by
a dyke throughout its length to protect the lands below it from the maximum known
run-off. Then there was the internal drainage with main canals and laterals, together
with adequate pumping facilities. REPORT OF DYKING AND DRAINAGE. II 111
The actual cost, including maintenance for the four years 1921 to 1925, was
$3,615,459.-12, which has since pyramided through interest accumulations, and is entirely
owed to the Government. Actually, security was taken and is registered in the amount
of $4,076,855.94. The Government has been generous in its position as mortgagee,
though at the commencement the policy applied was that the district must repay all of
its indebtedness. This was to be accomplished through the sale of the lake area,
approximately 12,000 acres, and by an annual levy over a period of forty years, with
interest at 5V_! per cent., upon the lands which were privately owned. Amendments to
the special Act—namely, the " Sumas Drainage, Dyking, and Development Act"—have
subsequently arranged that a definite construction charge per acre be fixed against the
privately owned lands, and that the insufficiency arising out of the sale of the lake
area be charged to the Consolidated Revenue Fund of the Province. The lands are
divided for assessment purposes into ten different classifications on a basis of elevation
and the frequency of flooding during the period of record before reclamation.
Net proceeds from land-sales in the lake area paid to the Government amount to
$585,394.59, and outstanding agreements for sale, together with accrued interest
thereon, amount to a further $139,757.75, while further payments have been made for
interest, $333,474.44, and for sinking fund, $32,529.58, or a total from all sources of
$1,091,156.36. Levies were made and collected as required by the Statute for each of
the years after the first assessment in 1926. The levies for the years 1932 and 1934 to
1945, both inclusive, were for maintenance only because of similar statutory postponements as regards capital payments to those referred to in connection with the " Dyking
Assessments Adjustment Act." That postponement was not made for the year 1946,
and a levy on the secured capital charge was accordingly made.
Physical.—Area:   28,074.53 acres.
Length of dyke:   High level, 15.35 miles;  low level, 12.31 miles.
Length of drainage-ways:   Major, 18.65 miles;   laterals, 54.95 miles.
Flood-boxes:   Nine conci-ete, with hand-operated gates;- capacity, 516 square feet.
Pumping equipment: Two plants (six units), 3,590 connected horse-power; capacity against 15-foot head, 450,000 i.g.p.m.
Remarks.—The earthwork in the dykes was constructed by suction-dredge fill and
drag-line; and borrow-pits, where necessary, were placed on the outside, except for a
short section in specially selected material. Some pits, excavated to too great a depth
and which gave some trouble originally, have been corrected by carpeting with selected
material. Proper bonding was insisted upon, but in one section 2 miles in length where
the sand strata continued with depth, the right-of-way was widened 350 feet and an
auxiliary dyke constructed capable of impounding seepage-waters between it and the
main dyke through gate controls, balancing partially the pressure.
The Vedder Canal has in time silted to a considerable extent by the speed of the
current above the canal-intake. This is being corrected by establishing and maintaining a settling-basin where the canal and river grades meet. It is hoped that the canal
will in time cleanse itself from this point downward. Maintenance expense in the district is naturally very heavy, requiring an expenditure of approximately $40,000 per
year, all of which is recovered from the district through an annual maintenance levy.
Reference was made to the 66 square miles of drainage-shed lying across the International Boundary. Some 1,000 acres of this is bottom land and was flooded from the
Fraser freshet of 1894. No contribution whatever is made by these lands to the Sumas
District for the protection afforded by its works. On the other hand, considerable
drainage-work has been done on these lands in the last two years, and the effect of this
work was quite noticeable in the Saar Creek run-off during the storm of January 21st
and 22nd, 1946. We propose to discuss this question with Whatcomb County Commissioners in the near future, in the hope that some amicable arrangement may be entered
into. II 112 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT.
By D. W. Hodsdon, B.C.L.S., P.Eng., Project Manager.
History.
Much has been written and several pamphlets have been published by the Provincial Government of British Columbia with regard to the Southern Okanagan Lands
Project, so that only a brief summary of its history is submitted in this report.
Following the end of World War I., and due to the insistent demand of returned
men for farm lands, the Provincial Government purchased a tract of arid land in the
Southern Okanagan Valley and reclaimed it by the construction of an elaborate irrigation system. Surveys were started in 1919, and on March 4th, 1921, the first sale of
lots took place. This date was reserved for sale to returned men only, but on March
5th and 6th lots were offered to the public.
In 1919 Dr. E. A. Cleveland, Comptroller of Water Rights, was appointed consulting engineer for the project, with F. H. Latimer as local engineer in charge. The
irrigation diversion-dam constructed in 1920 was officially opened in 1921 by the
Honourable T. D. Pattullo, the then Minister of Lands.
Oliver and Osoyoos townsites were administered by the project until December,
1945, when both were incorporated as villages. The project now handles the domestic
water system in Oliver and still owns land within the village limits, but three Commissioners administer local village government. Osoyoos also has three Commissioners,
and the project has relinquished control of local affairs, but still owns land in the
village and maintains laterals conveying water for irrigation purposes to small village
holdings.
The estimated population of Oliver in 1946 was 900 and of Osoyoos 500.
Location and Area.
The irrigable portion of the project is situated at the southern end of the Okanagan
Valley, commencing some 20 miles south of Penticton and extending to the International Boundary. The area which may be considered to be reclaimed is approximately
25 miles long by 1 to 2 miles wide, with most of the land at an elevation of about 1,000
feet above sea-level. The total area owned is 22,000 acres, of which, at time of construction, it was expected some 8,000 acres could be irrigated. It later appeared, due to
soil and other conditions, this expectation could not be realized, and at present there
are 4,036 acres irrigated by the project, with, however, the possibility of this area
being increased in the near future.
Some 500 acres of project bottom lands adjacent to the Okanagan River are not
irrigated, but are growing ground crops, hay, etc. About 300 acres of land are being
privately irrigated by pumping from pot-holes or the Okanagan River.
Approximately 3,500 acres of land are leased for grazing purposes, which explains
that a large portion of the 22,000 acres owned are outside any irrigable area. The
project' owns a goodly area several hundred feet above the Okanagan Valley floor and
to the west, part of which includes a large flat known as Myers Flat. This was
investigated in 1920, and considered at that time as non-irrigable. Unless an underground source of water is discovered, it is still not irrigable. It also may be subject
to both a later spring and an earlier fall killing-frost. In addition, an area known as
Sidley Meadows, well to the east of the Okanagan Valley, is owned, and has been
considered fit only for hay meadows. Lot 229, near Rock Creek, some 40 miles towards
Grand Forks, is part of the project, but as yet nothing has been done with it. ■MMi-
South. Okanagan Jland&s
:  : -i ..:
__-_■________________. ^id_^___lt_r^___.''l' "  «*\.     	
Ground crop of Zucca melons, giving returns while op
chard grows to maturity.
Typical  South Okanagan orchard  land, dependent entirely upon water.
VB      *"._*y^'
'&_?"v ' ^
■^..-v -_, m (ft
Laying  pipe  under difficulties.     Closing-up of a  townsite circuit at Oliver.
January 8th,  1947.
(/* a- s~A   o s*//"    —^ieifi -a.g'1-.
Photo of main flume and trestle near head of Osoyoos Lake which washed out
July 22nd,   1946, and was replaced in twelve hours with iron.
Photo taken January 8th,   1947. REPORT OF SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT. II 113
Administration. •
The project from 1919 to 1924 was operated on a construction basis, which is to
say that the engineer in charge looked after surveys, construction, operation, and
maintenance, with immediate Provincial authority vested with the Water Rights
Branch under the Comptroller, Dr. E. A. Cleveland.
Construction was completed in 1924, and in January of that year Mr. Latimer's
assistant, Major Harry Earle, was made project manager, with the Water Rights
Branch looking after some details of engineering and the Department of Lands taking
care of land-sales. Unsold project lands were also listed with private real-estate firms
on a commission basis, but this practice was discontinued in 1924, and all sales were
thereafter made through the project office. Annual project estimates were referred to
the Department through the Comptroller of Water Rights. In April, 1929, Major Earle
retired and was succeeded by Major C. A. C. Steward, who carried on until January,
1934. D. G. McCrae was then appointed project manager and acted in that capacity
until May 1st, 1946, when the present incumbent took over.
In detail the project is administered by the following personnel, namely:—
Project manager, who acts also as engineer.
•Accountant, in charge of the office, land-sales, etc.
Cashier-stenographer, handling stenographic work, billing, cash, etc.
Building janitor and gardener.
Town foreman, in charge of Oliver domestic water-supply, pumps, meters,
etc.
The outside work during the irrigation season has a—
General foreman.
Assistant foreman.
Ditch riders for three divisions of the system.
Patrolman for one division.
Spare ditch rider.
Night-man for pumps.
Construction and maintenance labour as required.
Transportation consists of the project manager's car, three light trucks, and one
heavy duty truck.    This is one truck short of requirements since the foreman and the
three ditch riders have large areas to cover.    A new light truck on order for 1947
will correct this discrepancy.
Financial Set-up.
From inception this project has operated under a vote passed by the Provincial
Legislature annually, based upon estimates as submitted by the project manager. All
moneys for land-saies, leases, irrigation levies, etc.. have gone into Consolidated Revenue and disbursements to the project have not been based upon moneys taken in. No
fund for depreciation and reserve has ever been set up. This system has had two
effects—namely, the project cannot tell within any degree of accuracy as to whether it
is a paying proposition or not and, furthermore, as the works age, more and more
money is required for upkeep, which means the annual project expenditure will
automatically increase. The question of the age and probable life of the present
structure will be discussed under the 1946 activities and the 1947 programme.
Source of Water-supply and Description of Works.
The water-supply for the Southern Okanagan Lands Project is the Okanagan
River. The drainage area above the point of diversion has been estimated as 2,545
square miles.    Diversion is made from the river at a point about a mile below the II 114 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
outlet of Vaseaux Lake. The project has no storage rights and relies upon the
Dominion Government's control of Okanagan Lake to supply its irrigation system. In
1935 the project asked for storage rights upon Okanagan and Skaha Lakes, but no
decision was ever reached in the matter. Since that time the Dominion and Provincial
Governments appointed a Joint Board of Engineers to study the control of the water
of the Okanagan River basin. This report has now been given to the present project
manager, who was field engineer for this Joint Board of Engineers, and the question of
this control as it affects the project will be set forth later.
Diversion-dam, Okanagan River.—This dam is of concrete gravity type, having a
spillway crest of just over 200 feet in length, and is of a maximum height of 8 feet.
It is provided with a cut-off wall on the up-stream side and an apron about 20 feet
long on the down-stream side. It is also provided with a 5- by 5-foot sluice-gate for
dewatering and four 4-foot 6-inch gates for entrance to the main canal.
Main Canal.—The main canal is of concrete, 4 inches thick, with fillets at the
bottom corners. The cross-section is trapezoidal in form, with a bottom width of 8
feet and side slopes of 1:1, making a top width of 18.4 feet with a maximum depth of
5.2 feet. The grade is 1 in 4,000, and it was designed to carry 170 cubic feet per
second with a depth of water of 4.2 feet, leaving a free-board of 1 foot.
Main Siphon.—The purpose of this siphon is to take the full canal-flow from the
east side of the Okanagan River to the west side, since practically all the irrigable area
is on the west.
This siphon consists of two portions'—namely, 1,776.9 feet of creosoted wood-stave
pipe, 78-inch inside diameter, which is carried across the Okanagan River by Howe-
truss bridge, and which joins 1,815 feet of 80-inch (inside diameter) riveted steel pipe.
This steel pipe runs underground, under the village of Oliver, until it discharges again
into a standard main-canal section. At this point there is a smaller short canal section
leading northward, known as the west lateral. The main west lateral is about 3%
miles long, and consists of siphons, flumes, and canals with various branches. The
size of the various sections are commensurate with the area to be served.
It should be noted that this lateral will be at capacity when a few additional acres
are put under irrigation in 1947.
Balance of Main System.—From the discharge of the main siphon southward the
main-canal section carries on to the International Boundary, being reduced in size as
the area served grows smaller. This section has twenty-one flumes and two bridges.
Of these flumes, fourteen are of Armco iron, one of wood stave, and originally six of
zinc.
There are two main spillways in this section, one at Hester Creek and one at the
head of Osoyoos Lake, both used in case of emergency. Much of the flume is on
trestle along a rocky side-hill, which makes quick repairs rather difficult.
There are approximately 23 miles of main canal and 34 miles of laterals in
operation on the whole project.
Pumps.—The previously described system is a gravity system. As it was impossible, owing to the topography of the valley, to locate the canal at a high enough
elevation to serve all lands by a gravity system, water is pumped to several blocks which
are situate above the ditch. Four pumps were originally installed, energy being
supplied by the West Kootenay Power and Light Company, whose 110,000-volt transmission-line crosses the project property. The company has erected an outdoor-type
sub-station for transforming the energy to a convenient voltage for use in the pumping
p_ants and to supply the town of Oliver with light.
Pumping Plants.—The area of land intended to be served by No. 1 pumping plant
comprises 215 acres.    The water is drawn directly from the main canal. REPORT OF SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT. II 115
No. 2 pumping plant was installed to serve 537.6 acres of land, of which water for
237.6 acres was to be pumped to the intake for pump No. 3. Water is drawn directly
from the main canal.
The area presumed to be served by No. 3 pumping plant was 237.6 acres. Water
is drawn from a concrete tank, which is supplied by No. 2 pump.
No. 4 pumping plant was installed to serve 170 acres. Water is drawn directly
from one of the laterals.
Water Usage per Acre.
This is probably the most important factor which has affected the project. The
project design contemplated the use of 2% acre-feet of water per acre during the
irrigation season, which is normally considered to be about 120 days.
Water Branch practice at the time of the project's development usually allowed
about 2% acre-feet per acre for the irrigation season when issuing water licences.
The present interim agreement respecting the operation of the Southern Okanagan
irrigation system (which is still in effect) states that " the grower shall not take a
quantity in excess of % of an acre foot for any irrigable acre in any month of any
irrigation season." For the four main growing months, this would mean not more
than a total of 3% acre-feet. The agreement further states that " where the water is
supplied to his land by pumping the user agrees that he shall be entitled only to a
seasonal allowance of 2% acre feet per irrigable acre except he pay to the Crown the
cost of energy required to pump the quantity desired in excess thereof." This excess
by the first statement could not total more than % acre-foot per acre in any irrigable
month.
When irrigation first started, it was found that conditions were not as expected.
The frost-free period in the Oliver district is on the average 162 days and the growing
season the longest in the entire valley; namely, about 226 days. The soil varies from
the north end of the project to the south, the area south of Osoyoos being very light and
sandy. Temperatures are relatively higher and precipitation less than in other parts
of the valley. It was found, therefore, that a greater amount of water per acre was
required, particularly since early orchardists were growing ground crops while trees
were coming into bearing.
It was then laid down that 1 acre-foot per acre would be allowed in pumping areas,
or 4 acre-feet per acre for 120 days, and 1% acre-feet under the gravity system in the
light soil to the south, this amounting to 6 acre-feet per acre for 120 days. This
arrangement was apparently a verbal one, since nothing can be found in the files
confirming it. It is more or less in effect at date. It has been claimed that 6 acre-feet
per acre has been too much for the light soil in the Osoyoos area, and that the land was
being " high-graded." There may be some truth in this, but as trees come into bearing
and sprinkler systems, now in vogue, come in, it may be quite possible to reduce this
amount slightly.
From records in this office we find that it has been estimated that the net duty of
water per acre for ten years has averaged over the entire area 4.56 acre-feet for a
period of 120 days.
A comparison with other irrigation areas more or less comparable with ours is
interesting. We have picked three sections of the Yakima project, which has soil
classed as " shallow, medium texture, over gravel or coarse sand." The acre-feet per
acre is given below in two columns. The acre-feet " irrigable basis " refers to the
amount which would have been used per acre had the entire irrigable area been
irrigated. The per acre " irrigated basis " shows the amount used per acre on the
actual amount irrigated. II 116 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Average.
Acre-feet, Per Acre,
Irrigable Basis.    Irrigated Basis.
Boise   4.719 5.022
Sunnyside   3.816 4.132
Kennewick   4.000 4.675
It is also found that two sections of the above three sections having deep sand and
loamy sand used as follows:—
Average.
Acre-feet, Per Acre,
Irrigable Basis.    Irrigated Basis.
Boise   5.138 5.997
Sunnyside  5.102 5.593
The additional amount of water per acre which it was found had to be supplied by
the project to its users, both under the gravity and pumping systems, has had a far-
reaching effect. It was found that not all the irrigable area under the pumps could be
supplied, and as at date all pumps are operating at capacity to supply the areas at
present cultivated. Furthermore, the area possible to irrigate under the gravity system
has been greatly reduced.
During 1946, due to trouble with Mclntyre Creek siphon, the most water which
could be put through the canal, with less free-board than should have been allowed,
amounted to 1.9 acre-feet per acre per month in theory. Since losses from all sources
were relatively heavy, it is estimated that about an average 1.2 acre-feet per acre was
used, or a total of 4.8 average per acre for the season. There is no guarantee that this
is correct, but it probably is not far from the truth.
Due to the length of the growing season, spray requirements, and also domestic
necessity, water usually has to be in the system, for considerably longer than the actual
main irrigation period. The amount used before and after irrigation for the above
requirements is relatively small.
Okanagan Flood-control.
On May 21st, 1936, the Comptroller of Water Rights held a public hearing in
Penticton, on the application of the Southern Okanagan Lands Project for permission
to store 100,000 acre-feet of water in Okanagan Lake and 30,000 acre-feet in Skaha
Lake. The District Engineer, Dominion Public Works, requested that this matter be
delayed until a thorough investigation and survey of Okanagan Lake levels be made.
This has now been done, and recommendations are contained in the Report of the Joint
Board of Engineers, Okanagan Flood-control.
It is the manager's recommendation that this project be granted storage rights on
both Okanagan and Skaha Lakes, but the amounts originally asked for must be changed,
since, in the first instance, with the possibility of more lands being put under irrigation,
the amount asked for is not enough, and secondly the storage range on Skaha Lake will
only allow of 10,000 acre-feet being handled.
From 1929 to 1931 the discharge from Okanagan Lake was much less than this
project requires, and storage must, therefore, be provided.
The flood-control engineers' report also proposed a greatly increased (controlled)
discharge from Okanagan Lake during flood periods, and as a result a much larger
channel has been designed. The project diversion-dam will now pass about 1,500 c.f.s.
at capacity over its spillway, but with (as proposed) a discharge of 3,800 c.f.s. alterations will have to be made to the dam to handle the extra 1,300 c.f.s.
The new and enlarged channel also is located in a different position from the
present river, where the project siphon is carried across on a Howe truss at Oliver.
This means an entirely new bridge or else a siphon under the river. REPORT OF SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT. II 117
Should control of the Okanagan River be established as per the engineers' report,
a further effect will be felt by this project. A new channel is proposed from the highway bridge north of Oliver to Osoyoos Lake. This channel is naturally much shorter
than the present meandering river-bed and, therefore, has an entirely different location.
The result of the new location will be a complete splitting-up of lots bordering the
present river, and a complete resurvey of the bottom lands will no doubt be required.
Work done during 1946.
Water was turned into the main canal on May 1st, 1946, before essential repairs
to the zinc flume had been completed, resulting in many breaks. As many as ten leaks
have developed in one day, and it is necessary to keep a crew on the alert all during
the summer to stop these leaks. The zinc flume, from its inception, has proven very
unsatisfactory and is being replaced as quickly as possible by a wooden flume.
The following gives some details of the work accomplished from May 1st, 1946,
to January 1st, 1947, this being eight months only of the fiscal year:—
(1.) All irrigation pumps have been overhauled preparatory to start of next
year's irrigation season.
(2.)  Eight hundred feet of zinc flume have been replaced by wooden flume.
(3.)  Four hundred feet of zinc flume have been torn down;   all lumber for
replacement has been framed, and replacement is awaiting a break in
the weather.
(4.)  Framing of lumber for replacement of another 800 feet of zinc flume
is practically complete.
(5.) A large portion of the concrete canal has been repaired by concreting or
pitching of seams.    Balance awaits weather-break.
(6.)  For the first time in many years all brush overhanging the concrete canal
has been cut.    Naturally, the whole 57 miles of main canal and laterals
have not yet been cleared, but work is progessing.
(7.)  A cattle-guard has been constructed between project property and the
Indian reserve.
(8.)  Small extensions to laterals and new distribution-boxes have been constructed.
(9.)   The siphon under Mclntyre Creek, which was a bad bottleneck throughout the irrigation season, has been dewatered and cleaned out.
(10.)  Sand-bags and groins have been erected in Mclntyre Creek to prevent
its breaking loose and causing trouble in our main canal.
(11.)  Subdivisions have been made in Osoyoos townsite,  and lots sold by
public auction.
(12.)  All spillway gates have been overhauled and new seals installed.
(13.)  Townsite water-supply extensions:   5,980 feet of 4-inch wood-stave pipe
laid;   thirty-five services, including boxes for meters,  installed;   nine
hydrants installed.    This job is not quite completed due to impossibility
of getting 2-inch wood-stave pipe.
(14.) Water-supply, acre lots:   3,120 feet of 4-inch wood-stave pipe installed;
thirteen services installed and connected;   six services installed, not
connected;    six  hydrants   installed.    Job   not   completed.    One-quarter
mile of 2-inch pipe,  and one-quarter mile of 4-inch pipe yet to lay.
Material not available.
(15.) Veterans' small holdings, Lot 361:   Concrete pump-house built, pump
installed and tested;  1,800 feet of 6-inch wood-stave pipe laid, with eight
services.    This area ready to be serviced as soon as the West Kootenay
Power Company hooks up to pump-house.    (See photo appendix.) II 118 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(16.) Veterans' small holdings, Lots 200, 201, and 204: Concrete pump-house
built and pump installed; 980 feet of 8-inch wood-stave pipe laid; 1,710
feet of 6-inch pipe laid; eight concrete distribution-boxes with weirs
installed. This area ready to be serviced as soon as West Kootenay
Power Company hooks up to pump-house.
(17.) A cost system for each different job has been instituted and will be put
in effect in 1947.
(18.) All trucks have been supplied with a number, and as at January 1st a
monthly report of mileage, costs, etc., will be submitted.
(19.)  The project office has been painted, all trees pruned or removed, the Elks
roll of honour has been established under the flag-pole, and concrete
walks constructed around same.    A concrete wall with pipe railing has
been erected along the front of the grounds, concrete curbs and gravel
driveway from the main driveway (which has been black-topped)  constructed back of the office.    A concrete foundation for extension of the
garage has been finished, and a concrete ash and garbage bin erected.
(20.)  Project yard has been cleaned up, extended, racks made for flume rods,
etc., and cross-roads made in order to facilitate loading and unloading of
material.
Two major disasters occurred during the irrigation season of 1946.    On July 5th,
when main gates were opened to permit more water to be sent south, No. 3 flume
overflowed.    It was three days before the cause was discovered;  namely, algae growth
in the main canal on the Indian reserve.    This necessitated water being shut off for
twelve hours, but no serious damage was done to ground crops.    Orchards did not suffer
at all.
On July 22nd a leak in the zinc flume washed out the footings of the trestle
supporting it, and 48 feet of the main canal were washed out. This occurred at
approximately the head of Osoyoos Lake. The washout occurred at 10 a.m.; at 10
p.m. the same night the flume had been rebuilt, and by next morning full flow was
resumed.    No damage occurred to any crops.
Other leaks and breaks occurred, but were repaired as part of normal operation.
Land for Veterans.
On January 11th, 1943, all unsold land within the project was withdrawn from sale.
Upon the establishment of the Department of Veterans' Affairs and the " Veterans'
Land Act " in 1945, a survey and appraisal of all unsold lands within the project was
made by representatives of the " Veterans' Land Act." At the request of the Director
of the " Veterans' Land Act," all parcels which their representatives considered suitable for settlement were released for sale to returned service personnel through the
" Veterans' Land Act." Certain other parcels which the Director of the " Veterans'
Land Act " rejected were then released for sale to any service personnel, until now only
nine parcels remain unsold. Tentative applications for the purchase of four of these
are on file, but cannot be considered pending registration of the amended plans of the
right-of-way of the Kettle Valley Railway, which operates between Oliver and Osoyoos.
1947 Operation Plans.
1. Repair canal, flumes, ditches, etc., after irrigation season over. This is an
annual job.
2. Complete all work not done in 1946 due to weather or short supply of material.
This will probably include the replacement of 350 feet of 78-inch main siphon, which
is on a reasonably high trestle. The trestle also needs to be rebuilt. This is a major
construction job. REPORT OF SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT. II 119
3. Complete all townsite or acre-lot domestic water-supply lines. These have been
held up due to the lack of wood-stave pipe. The townsite area is practically complete,
but one-half mile of line remains to be laid in the acre lots.
4. Replace as much as possible all timber structures. This will be an annual job
until all structures have been renewed.
5. Subdivide more townsite lots in both Oliver and Osoyoos townsites, and sell
same at public auction.
6. If new impellers for pumps No. 2 and No. 4 are received in time, put more
acreage in the shape of 10-acre lots under irrigation.
7. Extend project garage.
8. Landscape project-office grounds.
9. Revamp all rotation of water services under pump No. 4, and run same seven
days per week.
10. Put 177 more acres under irrigation. This will mean a complete revision of
water distributions and considerable extra work for ditch riders. Pumps No. 5 and
No. 6 v/ill be put into operation.
11. With reference to No. 10 above, 10,000 feet of new laterals must be laid. The
main paved public highway must be crossed several times and repaired. A number of
new distribution-boxes must be constructed.   This is a major construction job.
Agricultural Production.
Before outlining the objectives at which this project is aiming, we would like to
submit certain figures anent the phenomenal growth of this portion of the Okanagan
Valley.
There are at present the following packing or canning plants between Oliver and
Osoyoos: Osoyoos Co-operative Fruit & Vegetable Growers; Oliver Co-operative
Growers' Exchange; Haynes Co-operative Growers' Exchange; Okanagan Fruit
Shippers, Limited; McLean & Fitzpatrick, Limited; Southern Okanagan Co-operative
Vegetable Growers' Association; McNaughton Canning Company; and Monashee
Co-operative Exchange. The last two were constructed in 1946. The McNaughton
cannery is operating, and the Monashee Exchange will operate in 1947.
The Oliver Co-operative Growers' Exchange handles about 45 per cent, of the total
Oliver-Osoyoos tonnage. Their comments on the growth of the fruit industry are
illuminating, and we quote:—
" From an orchard survey taken off in 1945 before the construction of our new
cold storage plant, with the present acreage which we handle, the tonnage as regards
this Exchange is expected to increase 40 per cent, in the next five years and 70 per cent,
in the next ten years, which will give you some indication of the increase which can be
expected over the whole district in those years. Being faced with this tremendous
increase in crops, we, in 1945, started a building programme and spent $150,000.00 for
a new cold storage plant which, to all appearances, will have to be extended again in
1950."
Without going into detail as to the various types of fruit and ground crops grown
in this area, we would like to submit the following figures: In 1938 the value of all
fruits and ground crops in the Oliver-Osoyoos district was $523,997.33; in 1945 the
total was $2,603,085.59. This startling increase in values is admittedly due in part to
the greatly increased prices received for the crop, but it is mainly due to the increase
in productive acreage.
The figures above given include a small acreage on the east side of Osoyoos Lake,
which is outside the project, but the total production there is comparatively small and
does not affect the ratio of increase in productivity of project lands in any way. It is
anticipated that the value of the 1946 crop will be well over $3,000,000. II 120
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Objective of the Southern Okanagan Lands Project.
As your present management views it, this project should endeavour in every way
to put all possible lands under irrigation. This will mean considerable study, and
probably some field engineering will be required. The opening-up of new lands will
increase the number of settlers and in general add to the prosperity of the valley and,
in fact, the Province.
To quote a cliche, " Water is the life blood of this valley," and it is the primary
object of the project to see that water is supplied in proper quantity to all growers.
This means that the system must be kept in perfect repair, and also that all ditch riders
during the irrigation season must be on call twenty-four hours a day.
The project has in mind the possibility of making two new areas available to
growers by pumping. A third and larger area to the south and west of Osoyoos contains several hundred acres of fine land, but the irrigation of this calls for a major
construction job and either the revamping of the present system or a new project
handled by itself by high-level pumping from Osoyoos Lake.
Appendices.
Certain sheets have been appended to this report, all of which are self-explanatory.
Statistics for Ten Years of Southern Okanagan Lands Project.
Year.
No. of
Irrigation
Services.
Parcels
sold.
Approximate
Acreage.
Charge per
Acre.
Area
irrigated.
Revenue.
1936	
1937	
1938 :	
450
469
485
490
495
511
514
515
515
515
515
28
27
17
15
10
22
140
140
170
90
.75
100
1
$6.00                  3,562
6.00         |         3,699
6.00         j         3,859
6.00           1           3 877
$21,372
22,194
23,154
1939	
23,162
194Q	
1941 	
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
8.00
8.00
8.00
3,922
3,982
4,025
4,032
4,036
4,044
4,044
4,221
23,532
23,892
24,150
1942	
3
30
1943	
1
32
10
264
24 192
1944	
24,216
1945	
1946	
32,352
32,352
1947 (estimated within 20 acres)..  .
33,768
Value of Lands sold in 1946-
Village of Oliver  $20,711.00
Village of Osoyoos  9,096.00
Farm lands   25,648.75
Total  $55,455.75
Collections for Calendar Year 1946.
Irrigation    $35,594.04
Domestic water   7,221.77
Land-sales—
Principal   69,952.38
Interest   9,567.25
Total  $122,335.44 REPORT OF SOUTHERN OKANAGAN LANDS PROJECT.
II 121
Operating and replacement costs     $61,809.16
Additions to irrigation services         6,296.72
Additions to domestic water services       10,514.32
Total.
$78,620.20
Operating Costs (Fiscal Year).
1936-37_
  $30,504.76
1937-38  37,091.44
1938-39  40,392.08
1939-40  34,735.07
1940-41  37,545.88
1941-42  $37,450.47
1942-43  37,290.70
1943-44  48,704.10
1944-45  45,663.42
1945-46  54,205.66
Key-map showing the Location of the Irrigated Fruit and Garden Lands in
Southern Okanagan Valley and the Townsites of Oliver and Osoyoos. II 122 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS.
By M. E. Ferguson, Manager.
1923 to 1946.
Subsequent to the passing of an Act by the Provincial Legislature in 1908 establishing and incorporating the University of British Columbia, some 750,000 acres of
agricultural land throughout the Province were set aside to provide funds for endowment purposes. During the next decade it became apparent that this scheme was not
satisfactory, owing to the fact that public demands for such farm lands were
totally insufficient to warrant continuation of such a programme. As a consequence,
in 1923 a large tract of land comprising some 2,700 acres adjacent to the University
was set aside to be developed as high-class residential home-sites. From the sale of
this property it was felt that a much more adequate source of revenue for endowment
purposes could be obtained; and following very careful planning, giving due consideration to topographical surveys, etc., the first 100 acres, known as Unit One, were
developed and offered for sale in 1925. Three years later a further section, known as
Unit Two, adjoining Unit One and comprising the northern slope overlooking Howe
Sound, was developed and placed on the market. While these two sections would appear
somewhat isolated, they are part of the general development plan which was designed
prior to the commencement of any work, and consequently they will blend harmoniously
with future subdivisions.
Prior to placing any of the property on the market, each subdivision was cleared,
stumps removed, and rough grading completed. Following this, a very elaborate
scheme was carried out whereby roads, curbs, and sidewalks were laid, water and sewer
facilities installed for each lot, and plans completed setting forth building areas and
regulations governing each section. Work was also commenced on boulevard planting
and installation of standard street-lighting, although this part of the work was not
completed before the land was offered for sale.
Up to 1930 there were forty-four homes either completed or under construction,
besides several other lots which were sold and upon which building had not been started.
During the early period of development the project was administered by a resident
engineer. From 1930 to 1936, due to depression, only twenty-one lots were sold and
fifty homes erected. During this period lot-sales were handled by London & Western
Trusts, while the Public Works Department was in charge of maintenance.
Commencing January 1st, 1936, a new administration and land-sales office was
erected at the corner of Chancellor Boulevard and Acadia Road, at which time land-sales
and all administration pertaining to the endowment lands were placed in the hands of
a project manager. This new form of administration proved much more satisfactory,
as it established a direct contact between the Department in Victoria and any one
concerned through the project manager, who in turn was in a good position to know
the requirements for successful progress of the development.
Shortly after the inauguration of the new administration set-up it was deemed
advisable to consider opening up a new subdivision of smaller lots to accommodate the
large demand for smaller-type homes. A section known as Block 8, containing fifty-
four lots ranging in size from 60- to 70-foot frontage and from 90 to 110 feet deep,
adjacent to the city of Vancouver, was placed on the market in 1940. All have now
been sold, and all but two lots have houses.
Units One and Two during the period 1936 to 1941 enjoyed development to a much
more limited degree, during which time eight homes were erected. The period 1941
to December 31st, 1946, produced considerable activity in the land-sales for these
units, although construction was seriously hampered through lack of help and avail- REPORT OF UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS. II 123
ability of building materials. During this period seventy-three lots were sold in Units
One and Two and twenty-five homes erected. This brought the total number of homes
erected or under construction as at December 31st, 1946, to ninety-two in Unit One,
thirty-six in Unit Two, and fifty-two in Block 8.
1946.
The year 1946 was one of importance and prominence, in so far as many problems
which had been gradually accumulating for a considerable time had to be faced, thus
necessitating the formation, at least in part, of some form of general policy, not only
for the present, but for future development and administration.
Owing to the publicity afforded our rapidly growing University, whose enrolment
has been increased from a normal 1,800 students before the war to an enrolment during
1946 of almost 9,000, it was only natural such a beautiful residential area, with its
proximity to the city of Vancouver, yet affording the quiet and luxury of a semi-rural
atmosphere, should enjoy much enthusiasm among interested prospective home-seekers.
Between August 1st, 1946, and the end of the year twenty-four lots, at a value of
$73,260.05, were sold. This leaves a balance of ninety-seven lots within the subdivided
areas unsold, thus giving every indication that new subdivisions will have to be made
ready for sale within a very short time, providing, of course, development costs and
market values leave sufficient margin to warrant such development.
Fire Department.
Jk
The University Area Fire Department is administered by the University Endowment Lands, with the University paying 45 per cent, of maintenance charges. Two
fire-halls are provided. One, where the men on active duty are stationed, was built
and is maintained entirely by the University. The second, in the residential area on
Acadia Road, was built and is maintained entirely by the University Lands. Likewise, the University provides, at its own expense, one piece of apparatus. The Endowment Lands has provided one new Fargo fire-truck, with the original Chevrolet fire-
truck being kept in reserve chiefly for fighting bush-fires.
During the past few years the fire department has consisted of chief, captain, and
six men, which allowed an officer and two men on a shift. However, with the inauguration of the forty-eight-hour week, coupled with the additional fire-hazard created by
the erection of and the use of army huts on the campus for class-rooms, etc., fire department personnel has been increased during the year 1946 to fifteen men, consisting of
chief, captain, lieutenant, and twelve firemen. This allows an officer and three men on
shift at all times. Cost of the extra man provided is paid entirely by the University
as their contribution for additional protection necessitated by the use of army huts.
The University also has provided fire wardens, who serve as watchmen at the various
camps.    Cost of this is borne entirely by the University.
Acadia Camp.
In November, 1944, the Army gave up use and possession of the camp they were
occupying at Acadia Road, whereupon buildings and site were made available to
University students, under the management of the Students' Co-operative and supervised by the University. This plan was abandoned in May, 1945, when the University
decided to enlarge the camp and establish housing facilities for both war veterans and
their families, as well as single students. Since 1945 to the end of 1946 this camp
has been increased from eighteen huts to ninety-one huts plus forty-eight trailers.
The trailers are provided with two community-service buildings which are equipped
with showers, wash-basins, toilets, and facilities for washing and ironing.    In order II 124 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
to accomplish such a feat, it was necessary to install water-mains, fire-hydrants, trunk
sewer, roads, sidewalks, etc., total cost of which was taken care of by the University.
At present all dormitories, dining-rooms, and some of the other buildings are steam-
heated from central heating units throughout the camp. These units will shortly be
equipped with automatic oil-burners. There is currently a population at the Acadia
Camp of approximately 500.
Future Plans.
Regarding the plans for 1947, there is every indication that if materials, labour,
and funds are available a great deal of new work will be undertaken, besides completing many improvements already started, highlights of which are as follows:—
Plans for development as suggested in the Bartholomew Report of February, 1945,
including the preparation, subdivision, and improvement of additional blocks of building lots.
A new water-main must be provided to give adequate supply to existing homes and
University buildings. This will also provide a reasonable margin of safety to ensure
sufficient reserve to provide for new homes and University buildings, both planned and
already under construction.
An early commencement should also be made for the laying of a trunk sewer from
Chancellor Boulevard to Marine Drive, thence along Marine Drive to the Imperial
intercepter sewer, in preparation for future subdivision development. When this work
is done, it will allow diverting sewage from Units One and Two along Marine Drive to
join with such a trunk sewer as originally planned, thus eliminating the temporary
sewer outfall across the beach at the foot of Acadia Road. This outfall has been causing considerable trouble and expense in the past few years.
Commencement of the aforementioned will depend largely upon availability of
materials and skilled labour, the costs being borne by future development.
If copper pipe and fittings are available during 1947, it will be necessary to continue replacing water services throughout Unit One which were originally installed
twenty years ago with galvanized pipe. This work has been under way for the past
five years.
It is also hoped to commence a long-term plan for replacing all existing boulevard
trees and shrubbery through the establishing of a nursery on the area, where suitable
stock can be raised.
Finally, a very carefully planned programme of high-class advertising should be
given consideration to create enthusiasm and interest in this beautiful residential
district. The objective is to assist in carrying to fruition the ultimate aims and
objectives of the project; namely, the development of an endowment fund for the
University.
Statistical Information.
The following tables give a condensed picture of progress and development accomplished to date, both as to sales activity and financial standing. It should be noted
that total receipts have been advancing for the past ten years, with the exception of
the war years 1942-44.    The increase has been rapid since the cessation of hostilities.
Acres.
Total area of University Lands   3,497.6
First Crown grant to University   277.0
Second Crown grant to University  271.0
■ 548.0 REPORT OF UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS. II 125
Military reserve      10.0
Lands leased to City of Vancouver Parks Board, between Marine Drive and water   186.5
Area of Marine Drive right-of-way     60.6
 257.1
805.1
Endowment Lands, net 2,692.5 acres—only 6 miles from the corner of Granville
and Hastings Streets.
Cash Statement of University Endowment Lands from Inception,
as of December 31st, 1946.
Cash receipts—
Land-sales    $518,975.54
Lease rentals (99 years)      123,322.90
Local improvement taxes      247,330.35
Loans paid—
Principal     203,984.84
Interest      291,209.86
Rentals (repossessed properties)        79,253.01
Repossessed properties sold     169,699.55
Miscellaneous revenue     239,982.04
    $1,873,758.09
Outstanding accounts—
Mortgages—
Principal   $139,050.04
Interest          1,005.18
Repossessed properties        19,237.64
Agreements of sale       97,596.31
Leases   878.00
Cottage rents   89.00
Land improvement taxes          8,330.68
         266,186.85
Value of lands unsold—
Units One and Two         317,748.35
Value of undeveloped area  (approximately 2,451.85 acres at $4,000
per acre)        9,807,400.00
$12,265,093.29
Development of site  $1,638,182.03
Maintenance        706,457.87
Administration         289,564.48
Loans made  :       531,837.69
      3,166,042.07
Surplus     $9,099,051.22
Advances by Treasury      2,184,937.34
Surplus over advances     $6,914,113.88 II 126 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
General Statistical Information.
Total area— Acres.
University Endowment Lands  2,692.5
University of British Columbia  548.0
3,240.5
Total area cleared and subdivided  225.0
Total area uncleared and unsubdivided  2,467.5
Total area developed—
Unit One   78.578
Unit Two   62.679
Block 8  9.024
Blocks 13, 14, 15, and 16  12.260
Miscellaneous—parks, roads, etc.  62.459
225.000
Number of lots—
Unit One   241
Unit Two   106
Block 8     54
401
Lots sold at December 31st, 1946—
Unit One _             	
  161
Unit Two
75
Block 8                                   _____          	
54
Ninety-nine-year leases  	
_____          14
Residences completed December 31st, 1946—
Unit One .             __
304
       81
Unit Two                    - _
30
Block 8 	
51
Blocks 13, 14, 15, and 16	
162
Apartments— suites.
Gables Apartments        4
University Lodge     10
Dalhousie Apartments     16
Monarch Lodge, board-residence     	
30
Business stores—The Gables  3 stores
RoadS, etc.  Miles.
Paved streets   10
Island Boulevard   2
Curbing   19%
Sidewalks   11 REPORT OF UNIVERSITY ENDOWMENT LANDS.
II 127
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I- II 128 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
COAL, PETROLEUM, AND NATURAL GAS.
By Thomas B. Williams, Ph.D., P.Eng., Commissioner of Petroleum and
Natural Gas.
As the first step in the setting-up of a Coal, Petroleum, and Natural Gas Commission the writer was appointed as Commissioner of Petroleum and Natural Gas. The
increased interest in the effort to develop the petroleum resources of British Columbia
and the desire to improve the coal industry of the Province has made the appointment of a Commission desirable.
The necessity for this appointment was increased by the need for a thorough
investigation of the natural resources of the northern part of the Province and of their
bearing upon the location of the extension of the Pacific Great Eastern Railway.
The wealth of the Peace River area has long been recognized. Among the various
resources investigations which have been made, the following may be noted:—
Dr. G. M. Dawson, of the Canadian Geological Survey, toured the area in 1879
and 1880.
Professor J. C. Gwillim conducted an oil-survey in 1918 and 1919, followed by
J. A. Dresser and E. N. Spieker.
Dr. F. H. McLearn, of the Canadian Geological Survey, has done much work
there since 1917.
The Pacific Great Eastern Railway Lands Survey of Resources conducted a
two-year investigation under Dean R. W. Brock, reporting in 1930.
A mineral resources survey of the Peace River area was conducted in 1939
by Dr. M. Y. Williams, who also had taken part in the survey under Dean
Brock.
From   1940   until   1942,   inclusive,   drilling  operations   were  conducted   for
petroleum in the Pine River valley, under the supervision of the writer.
The coal area at Carbon Creek, a tributary of the Peace River, was investigated in 1944 by W. H. Mathews, of the British Columbia Department of
Mines.
In addition to the above, many Government and private investigations have been
made.
Coal.
In connection with the attempted development of petroleum, begun in 1940, certain very high-class coal-seams were encountered in the drill-hole. As a fuel for the
drilling-rig, one of these seams of coal was opened at Hasler Creek, a tributary of Pine
River, under the supervision of the Government's Petroleum Engineer, and some 600
tons of coal were mined. This fuel made a most favourable impression, and, although
it lies at a distance of 100 miles from railhead at Dawson Creek, it has been mined
since then from time to time in a small way.
From a much earlier date, a very high-grade coal has been mined near Hudson
Hope, on Peace River.
In 1946 the Department of Lands began an investigation of the coal of the Peace
River area under the supervision of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Commissioner.
One geological party was in the field, and associated with it were one bulldozer crew,
stripping and digging into the coal-outcrops, and one diamond-drill, testing the coal at
depth. Four drill-holes were drilled during the year, three of which showed coal-
seams of 4 feet or more in thickness. The diamond-drill has been working all winter,
and it is planned to continue the work on a larger scale, as men and materials may be
available in 1947. REPORT OF COAL, PETROLEUM, AND NATURAL GAS.
II 129
The new Peace River highway from Prince George to Dawson Creek, now under
construction, has created cuts in which coal has been observed. These have been
examined by the Commissioner, who is of the opinion that the present-known coal
deposits extend for a considerable distance, both to the north and to the south of the
areas in which they have been investigated.
The high quality of the coal leads to the belief that its use can be extended over
a considerable area. A comparative statement of analyses and heat values of some
well-known coals follows:—
Specimen Coal Analyses, Dr%
-coal Basis
Coal.
Edmonton.*
Typical
Anthracite.t
Crowsnest.*
Canmore.*
Hasler
Creek.*
25.3
7.1
28.6
39.0
1.35
Sub-
bituminous
8,640
2.8
12.7
2.5
82.0
3.3
1.5
14.3
23.6
60.6
2.6
Medium
volatile
bituminous
12,860
1.8
7.9
14.2
76.1
5.4
Low
volatile
bituminous
14,050
0.8
Ash	
1.2
20.2
77.8
3.9
B.t.u	
12.600
volatile
bituminous
15,300
* Alberta Research Council analyses,
t Schuykill, Pa., Diamond seam.
In an effort to more thoroughly study these coals and the coals of the Province,
arrangements are being made towards the establishment of increased laboratory
facilities.
Petroleum and Natural Gas.
A foundation for the development of petroleum and natural gas is being laid. The
Acts and regulations in force in various parts of Canada and in some of the American
States were studied in connection with the proposed revision of the British Columbia
Act and regulations. In addition, the Alberta Department of Mines and Resources and
its Conservation Board have been called on and consulted as to the best features to
embody.
There are plenty of signs that there will be much petroleum activity in British
Columbia during 1947 after the passing of the new Act. II 130 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
GENERAL ADMINISTRATION FILE-ROOM.
By S. C. Hawkins.
In reporting on the work covered by the file-room and file-checking room for the
year ended December 31st, 1946, it is noted, in referring to the attached statistics, that
since the end of 1944 (which was an average year compared to the ten years previous)
the work has increased approximately 40 per cent, and the staff has been increased by
25 per cent.
The work in the file-vaults has been particularly heavy owing to the active movement of thousands of files, indicative of the increased business of the whole Department.
To take care of the rapidly expanding filing system, more space was made available
last April, which, it is anticipated, will take care of accommodation for the next three
years, depending on the quantity of incoming correspondence. In 1946 some 650 boxes
were needed to accommodate the new files made up in that period, and a further 350
boxes were used to replace old worn-out boxes. Boxes cost in the neighbourhood of
$1.25 each.
Statistical Report of the File-room and Filing-vaults for the Year ended
December 31st, 1946.
Letters inward recorded—
Lands Branch   31,003
Forest Service  49,160
Water Rights Branch     8,760
Surveys Branch      7,843
96,766
(An increase of 19,313 over the total for 1945.)
Letters outward (copies) recorded—
Lands Branch   26,378
Forest Service   13,386
Water Rights Branch  6,912
Surveys  Branch   4,501
51,177
(An increase of 7,708  over the total for 1945.)
Miscellaneous reports received (not included in above) —
Forest fires   1,711
Slash-disposal    1,425
Logging   inspection  11,338
Land classification   2,149
Peace River land classification  234
16,857
(An increase of 562 over the total for 1945.)
New files made up—
" O " files   6,491
Timber-marks   1,617
Timber-sales    2,615
01863 files   6,750
17,473
(An increase of 7,954 over the total for 1945.) REPORT OF GENERAL ADMINISTRATION FILE-ROOM. II 131
In addition to the above, thousands of vouchers, accounts, and requisitions were
routed to the various branches.
Approximately 155,000 files were removed from and returned to the vaults during
1946, and in the last quarter of the year a check showed that an average of 3,300 files
were charged out at any given time.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1947.
1,150-247-9630 

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