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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FOREST HON. E. T. KENNEY, Minister, C. D. ORCHARD,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1947

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
HON. E. T. KENNEY, Minister C. D. ORCHARD, Deputy Minister of Forests
REPORT
of
THE FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31st
1946
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1947.    Victoria, B.C., March 17th, 1947.
To His Honour Colonel C. A. Banks, C.M.G.,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service of
the Department of Lands and Forests for the calendar year 1946.
E. T. KENNEY,
Minister of Lands and Forests.
The Honourable E. T. Kenney,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Forest
Service during the calendar year 1946.
C. D. ORCHARD,
Deputy Minister and Chief Forester.  CONTENTS.
Item. Page.
1. Introductory     7
2. Forest Economics     9
Air and Forest Surveys     9
Provincial Forests    9
Inventory of Forest Resources     9
Forest Research  10
Mensuration  10
Volume Tables  10
Growth Studies ,  16
Utilization Studies  17
Silvicultural Studies .  18
Southern Coast Forest  18
Northern Coast Forest  21
Soil Surveys and Research  22
Provincial Parks  25
3. Reforestation  27
Forest Nurseries  27
Seed Collections  27
Reconnaissance and Survey-work  27
Planting  28
4. Forest Management  29
5. Forest Protection  31
Weather  31
Fires  32
Occurrences and Causes  32
Cost of Fire-fighting  32
Damage  33
Fire-control Research and Planning  33
Planning  33
Panoramic Lookout Photographs  34
Fire-weather Studies  34
Weather-recording  34
Investigations  34
Fire-suppression Crews  36
Aircraft  37
Mechanical Equipment  37
Automotive  37
Fire-pumps and Outboard Motors  38
Mechanical Inspection  38
Forest Service Marine Station  38
Building and Construction  39
Radio  39
Slash-disposal and Snag-falling  40
Prevention  42
Co-operation—other Agencies  43
Fire Law Enforcement  43
6. Forest Ranger School    44 00 6 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Item. Page.
7. Public Relations and Education  46
8. Grazing  48
General Conditions  48
Markets and Prices  48
Live-stock Losses  49
Range Reconnaissance  49
Co-operation  49
Grazing Permits  49
Collections  49
Range Improvement  50
9. Personnel Directory, December 31st, 1946  51
10. Appendix—Tabulated Detailed Statements to Supplement Report of Forest
Service  55 REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE.
Free from the trammels of almost total war for the first time in six years, the
world, in 1946, began the long, tedious task of rebuilding the ravages of conflict and
speeding up the production of materials and supplies so urgently required for peacetime happiness and welfare. Like almost every other organization extant, the Forest
Service was faced with greatly increased work and responsibilities, new demands, and
new functions. Although the slow accretion of staff and the inadequate flow of equipment failed to keep pace with the additional work, nevertheless creditable progress
was made.
Two items of reorganization within the Service deserve special mention at this
point. After many years of consideration and planning, the establishment of a Forest
Ranger School became a fait accompli, with a full-time teaching staff of two and supplementary instruction provided by officers of the Service engaged in specialized pursuits, by forest entomologists and pathologists in the service of the Dominion Department of Agriculture, by a meteorologist of the Dominion Meteorological Service, and
by a member of the St. John Ambulance Association. Sincere thanks are extended to
these individuals and the organizations concerned for their expert assistance. The
first term opened at the Ranger School, located at Green Timbers Forestry Station, in
January, with twenty students in attendance.
The second major change in Departmental set-up was the establishment of the
Reforestation Division, formerly a section of the Economics Division, as a distinct and
separate unit, under the direction of the same technical officer who had previously
carried on this work.
Although not ranking as a major change in the organization, there was a minor
rearrangement made whereby the Vancouver Forest District was relieved of the supervision of the (then) Fraser River Repair-station and this responsibility placed with
the Victoria office of the Service, and, coincident with this change, the name of the
plant was changed to the Forest Service Marine Station.
The report of the Royal Commission on Forestry was submitted to the Government
by the sole Commissioner, the Honourable Chief Justice Gordon McG. Sloan, early in
the year and, as was anticipated, contained many vital and far-reaching recommendations. Although only a brief time elapsed between submission of the report and the
1946 session of the Legislature, several amendments to the " Forest Act" marked the
first steps in implementation of a number of the proposals advanced. During the
subsequent months, senior officers of the Service have been engaged in draughting
other legislation further implementing the Commissioner's recommendations.
Legislation enacted at the 1946 session provided for the following:—
(1.)  An increase of $350,000 in the Forest Protection Fund vote for the year.
(2.)  The establishment of a Silvicultural Fund for ensuring perpetuation of
the forest yield.
(3.)  Provision for the grading of hemlock logs.
(4.)  Provision for rebating a portion of the royalty on fire-killed timber and
timber which, by virtue of its small size, has only salvable value.
(5.) An amendment to the section of the " Forest Act " governing the felling
of snags and burning of slash in the Vancouver Forest District to provide
that such practices need only be carried out upon specific instructions of
the Forest Service.
7 00 8 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
With the return of technically trained personnel from the armed services it has
been possible to re-establish a number of silvicultural and other studies that had,
perforce, been suspended during the previous six years, as well as to initiate some new
investigations. The increased staff also permitted an acceleration of the surveying
and mapping programme.
The year created a number of new highs in the Management (utilization) functions
of the Service. Despite the time-losses resulting from industrial disputes, because of
unusually favourable climatic conditions production in all lines was maintained at a
high level and the aggregate value of production exceeded any previous figures.
The average stumpage price bid on timber-sales during the year was $2.39 per
thousand as compared with $2.19 per thousand in 1945 and $1.80 per thousand in the
ten-year period 1937-46. There was a total of 1,228 mills operating, nearly double the
ten-year average of 661, and exceeding the 1945 figure of 931 by 297.
The total timber-scale for the Province, expressed in board-feet, was 3,193,665,132
as compared with 3,081,235,491 in the previous year. Douglas fir again leads the
species cut, with 1,235,382,842 feet; hemlock ranks second with 635,216,631 feet; and
cedar third with 614,567,545. This represents a gain for fir and cedar over 1945, and
a slight recession for hemlock.
A total of 2,627 timber-sales was made during the year, exceeding by over 600 sales
the number made in any previous year.
Hazard conditions throughout the Province were generally better than average, and
this condition was reflected in the reduced number of, and damage caused by, fires
compared to the previous year. July and August were again the months of greater
hazard. Of the total of 1,707 fires, 81 per cent, was confined to 10 acres or less and
51 per cent, covered less than one-quarter acre. A total of 303,395 acres was burned
over, compared to the ten-year average (1937-46) of 330,884 acres. Of this year's
total, 12,941 acres were accessible, merchantable timber, resulting in an estimated loss
of 63,992,000 F.B.M., with stumpage valued at $57,250. The total estimate of damage
caused by fires ($357,984) compares most favourably with the ten-year average of
$794,929, and only the years 1937 and 1943 show a better individual figure.
Industrial operations caused 21.48 per cent, of the fires, smokers 19.54 per cent.,
brush-burning 16.90 per cent., and lightning and campers 12.24 and 12.15 per cent,
respectively.
It was possible during the year to recommence fire-control planning after a lapse
of four years. Eighty possible lookout-sites were examined, and essential data recorded.
Fire-weather recording was expanded, and further studies in fire-hazard measurement
carried out. A contract was negotiated for four aircraft for fire-detection and suppression work. Snag-felling and slash-disposal activities were satisfactory, although
the latter were somewhat hampered by unsuitable burning weather.
The vital and welcome trend towards sustained-yield management being evidenced
by the forest industries has unhappily, from the Service standpoint, resulted in the
loss to industry ranks of a number of able and experienced, technically trained forest
officers. The Service can take satisfaction, however, from the fact that these competent
technicians will still be working for the continuity and welfare of our greatest renewable
resource. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946. OO 9
FOREST ECONOMICS.
As pointed out in the 1945 report, the urgent need of the Economics Division is
for technically trained men. During 1946 two more graduate foresters left to seek
other employment. These men cannot be replaced immediately, and it will be from
three to five years before much alleviation of the present situation can be expected.
AIR AND FOREST SURVEYS.
Under a new administrative arrangement all air survey operations in the Department of Lands and Forests are to be handled by the Air Survey Division of the
Surveyor-General's Branch. The aerial photographic equipment of the Forest Service
has been turned over to this new organization, which has accepted the responsibility
for carrying out such operations as are requested. During the summer of 1946 a total
of about 16,700 square miles was photographed for future forest surveys and the
printed photos submitted to the Forest Service. These photos are in the process of
being plotted and preliminary forest-type maps made up for the use of the field survey
parties.
Two field survey parties were in the field for the full season, and it is worthy of
note that there was no turnover in personnel among the student assistants. One party,
working from the launch " B.C. Forester," continued on the West Coast of Vancouver
Island, working north from Tofino, where the 1945 survey stopped, to the height of land
between Sydney and Muchalat Inlets. An area of 539,010 acres was examined, and
this, added to 674,000 acres surveyed in the region during 1945, gives a total of
1,213,010 acres for the Clayoquot survey. Forest-cover maps for the region are being
draughted and estimates of the forest resources prepared but, due to insufficient
experienced personnel, progress is slow.
The second party was working on a revision of the inventory of the E. & N. Railway
Belt and covered an area of 479,080 acres. It is planned to continue this revision in
succeeding years until the entire region has been re-examined and data gathered for an
inventory to replace that made for 1936. The revised cover maps and timber estimates
are now in the process of preparation.
PROVINCIAL FORESTS.
There were no new Provincial forests created during the past year, and only very
minor eliminations made for sale for industrial purposes. The total number of forests
is unchanged at fifty-three, representing an area of 31,134 square miles.
INVENTORY OF FOREST RESOURCES.
In the report for 1945 it was noted that, with the easing of the labour situation, it
had been possible to secure additional draughting assistance, with the result that the
forest-atlas maps at the district offices at Vancouver, Kamloops, and Nelson had been
placed on a current revision basis. The Prince Rupert District has now been put on
a similar basis, thereby providing cover maps which indicate, at all times, the latest
conditions relative to fire and logging. A total of 1,234 maps was revised in the course
of the year, of which 60 were new replacements.
Instruction in area mapping was given to the current class at the Ranger School.
In addition, instruction was given in the field to the Rangers, Assistant Rangers, and
Patrolmen in fifteen ranger districts scattered throughout the Province.
An extensive reconnaissance of the Peace River Block was made by a combination
of air and land travel for the purpose of revising existing cover-map information.
A total of 6,500 square miles was examined. 00 10
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
The Provincial Fire Atlas has been maintained, showing the location of all forest
fires and slash burns.
FOREST RESEARCH.
Mensuration.
The programme of re-examination of permanent growth-study plots was maintained, with the remeasurement of 30 plots. There is now a total of 559 yield-plots
established throughout the Province.
The series of plots in the Queen Charlotte Islands was increased by the addition
of 42 new plots established during the past year, to give a total of 93 plots for this
region.
A study was made of the height-growth of dominant hemlock on the West Coast of
Vancouver Island, and it was found that the species in that region maintains a definite
leader throughout its life. Height-growth continues to increase to a remarkably old
age, as the following table indicates:—
Age.
50_
100_
200_
Total Height
in Feet.
68
126
174
Age.
300___
400___
450___
Total Height
in Feet.
187
193
195
Data such as the above can be used in the preparation of site-class yield tables and
for correlating height at maturity with the height of dominant trees at 100 years.
Volume Tables.
Volume tables have been prepared for immature Sitka spruce showing both board-
foot and cubic-foot values.   These tables are presented in this report on pages 11 and 12.
During the past year considerable effort has been expended in the preparation of
preliminary site-class tables for the poor sites common to much of the Coastal region.
In the past many of these sites have been classified as scrub for inventory purposes.
This is a vague classification and of no assistance in yield calculations. It is anticipated that by using the new preliminary tables, use of the term " scrub " can be largely
eliminated. Copies of the new tables have been compiled together with those formerly
in use and the summary for mature Douglas fir, hemlock, and cedar on pages 13, 14,
and 15.    These tables are made up on a basis of maximum height at maturity. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946.
OO 11
Volume Table-
-Immature Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis).
(Volume in board-feet.)
HtS
Total Height in Feet.
at
a"
50.
60.
70.
80.
90.
100.
110.
120.
130.
140.
150.
160.
7
5
7
9
11
13
16
4
7
8
10
15
20
25
13
21
18
29
40
50
24
39
52
66
31
38
47
72
101
121
155
146
186
4
4
5
6
8
9
49
67
84
60
83
105
9
10
29
10
11
36
128
11
12
30
44
60
80
102
128
157
190
227
270
5
12
13
51
58
70
94
108
120
138
151
174
185
214
225
260
270
310
320
370
430
500
5
2
13
14
80
14
15
65
91
122
157
197
243
300
360
420
490
570
9
15
16
72
80
101
112
123
136
150
175
195
221
245
270
275
305
335
335
400
470
530
580
550
620
680
640
710
780
2
6
3
16
17
375
410
450
17
18
165
214
490
18
19
133
180
235
295
370
450
540
630
740
850
2
19
20
195
210
225
255
325
350
400
430
485
520
560
580
630
680
690
740
800
800
870
930
920
1000
1070
1
1
20
21
275
21
22
295
375
460
22
23
240
320
400
495
600
730
860
1000
1150
1
23
24
255
270
290
305
335
355
375
395
425
450
475
500
525
640
680
720
770
910
960
1020
1070
1060
1130
1190
1250
1220
1300
1370
1450
2
2
1
24
25
560
590
810
25
26
860
900
26
27
620
750
27
28
320
415
530
650
790
950
1130
1320
1520
28
29
335
440
560
690
830
1000
1190
1380
1600
29
30
460
580
720
870
1050
1240
1450
1680
30
31
480
610
750
910
1100
1300
1520
1750
31
32
500
630
780
950
1150
1360
1590
1830
1
32
33
520
660
820
990
1200
1420
1660
1910
33
34
540
690
850
1030
1240
1470
1720
1990
34
35
560
710
880
1080
1300
1530
1780
2060
35
No.
Trees
1
4
8
16
14
13
7
2
1
66
Block indicates extent of basic data. Data collected in Queen Charlotte Islands in stands from 70 to 125 years
of age. Stump height, 2 feet. Top D.I.B., 60 inches. Trees scaled in 32-foot log lengths with 0.60-foot trimming
allowance and additional top section to 6-inch top diameter (inside bark). Table prepared by alignment—chart
method, 1946. Aggregate deviation from basic data, 0.33 per cent, low; standard error of single volume estimate,
16.36 per cent. 00 12
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Volume Table—Immature Sitka. Spruce (Picea sitchensis).
(Volume in cubic feet.)
m
CQ
ox
Total Height in Feet.
ox
- co
.2 ffi
]
« c
ri"
10.
20.
30.
40. ! 50.
1
60.
70.
80.
90.
100. | 110.
1
120. 1 130.
1
140.
150.
160.
_j _.
P5_h
ri c
ri"
1
0.028
0.057
i
2
0.107
0.224
0.334
2
3
0.247
0.478
0.709
0.930
1.15
3
4
0.420
0.813
1.24
1.76
1.21
1.85
2.62
1.60
2.45
3.46
1.98
3.05
4.30
2.38
2.78
3.18
4.85
3.58
5.45
7.70
3
4
4
5
3.65
5.15
4.25
6.00
5
6
6.85
6
7
2.35
3.50
4.65
5.79
6.91
8.03
9.15
10.3
11.5
2
7
8
7.48
9.35
8.93
11.2
10.4
13.0
11.8
14.8
13.3
14.8
20.4
22.1
4
4
8
9
16.6
18.5
9
10
11.4
13.7
13.7
15.9
19.1
18.1
21.8
20.3
24.4
22.5
27.1
24.8
26.9
32.4
6
6
10
11
16.4
29.8
11
12
19.3
22.5
25.7
28.9
32.0
35.2
38.3
6
12
13
22.5
26.0
26.2
29.9
34.5
33.6
38.7
37.3
42.9
41.0
47.1
44.6
51.2
3
3
13
14
30.2
14
15
34.4
39.3
44.1
48.9
53.6
58.2
62.9
67.7
6
16
16
38.9
43.6
44.5
49.9
50.0
56.1
55.5
62.3
60.9
68.4
66.2
71.4
76.7
86.1
5
5
16
17
74.4
80.3
17
18
48.6
55.7
62.6
69.4
76.1
82.5
89.0
95.6
2
18
19
61.8
69.4
76.8
84.1
91.4
98.7
106
3
19
20
68.1
76.4
84.7
92.8
101
109
117
2
20
21
74.6
81.4
83.7
92.9
102
112
111
122
120
132
129
142
138
152
147
162
2
21
22
91.5
102
22
23
88.5
99.8
111
122
134
144
155
165
175
1
23
24
96.0
108
120
132
144
156
168
179
190
24
25
130
141
152
144
155
157
169
169
182
195
210
195
209
225
207
223
240
3
2
25
26
182
196
26
27
167
182
27
28
163
179
194
209
225
241
256
28
29
174
191
207
224
241
257
274
29
30
222
240
258
275
293
30
31
236
255
274
293
312
31
32
252
273
294
314
335
1
32
33
266
288
310
332
354
33
34
282
305
328
351
374
34
Basis
3
7
10
16
14
12
7
2
1
72
D.B.H. total height volume table—basis, 72 trees; age 70-125 years. Block indicates extent of basic data.
Table gives approximate values for trees larger than 28 inches D.B.H. Field measurements plotted in basal area
forms and volumes determined by planimeter method. No allowance for defect. Table prepared by converting
diameter, height, and volume to logarithms and solving by least squares. Formula derived V — O.OO 3(D.I.B.) 191
H °.99 where V:_itotal volume in cubic feet, D_=diameter inside bark at breast height, and H-zitotal height of tree.
A monograph was prepared from above formula and the D.I.B. axis regraduated to give D.O.B. using the formula
D.O.B.=0.16-|-1.02 D.I.B. Table values read from regraduated monograph. Standard error of the estimate of
individual trees ± 8.9 per cent.    Aggregate difference, table 0.9 per cent. low. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946.
OO 13
Preliminary Site-class Volume Table—Mature Douglas Fir.
Utilized top D.I.B.:
=2.0+0.42 D.B.H., O.B.
Stump, 3.3 feet.
Total he_ght=4.5+bD—cD2.
B.C. rule:   Logs as cut.
&=22.8+300 C.
_>___5.70.
e___0.0950.
Site Index 60.
6=6.60.
c=0.0980.
Site Index 80.
b=7.50.
c=0.101.
Site Index 100.
6=8.40.
c=0.1040.
Site Index 120.
6---9.30.
c=0.1070.
Site Index 140.
6___10.20.
c_=0.1100.
Site Index 160.
Top
D.I.B.
w
ri
ri
(Inches).
Total
Ht.
Vol.
Total
Ht.
Vol.
Total
Ht.
Vol.
Total
Ht.
Vol.
Total
Ht.
Vol.
Total
Ht.
Vol.
8
44
20
51
26
58
30
65
35
72
40
79
45
5.6
10
52
40
61
50
69
60
78
75
87
85
95
95
6.4
12
59
70
70
90
80
110
90
130
101
150
111
170
7.2
14
66
110
78
140
90
118
101
210
114
250
126
280
8.1
16
71
150
85
200
99
260
112
310
126
370
140
420
8.9
18
76
190
92
260
107
350
122
440
137
530
153
620
9.7
20
80
230
97
330
114
450
131
570
148
700
165
830
10.6
22
84
280
102
420
121
570
139
730
157
880
176
1040
11.4
24
87
320
106
500
126
700
146
900
166
1100
186
1280
12.2
26
88
360
110
590
131
830
152
1070
174
1310
195
1540
13.1
28
89
390
112
680
135
980
158
1280
181
1560
204
1850
14.0
30
90
430
114
780
139
1130
163
1500
187
1830
211
2200
14.8
32
90
620
115
860
141
1290
167
1720
193
2150
218
2560
15.6
34
90
650
115
950
142
1440
170
1950
197
2420
224
2920
16.5
36
116
1050
143
1590
172
2160
200
2700
229
3280
17.3
38
116
1150
143
1760
173
2400
203
3060
233
3700
18.1
40
116
1250
144
1950
174
2660
205
3460
236
4120
19.0
42
116
1400
144
2130
174
2900
206
3760
239
4490
19.8
44
144
2350
174
3200
206
4130
240
5100
20.6
46
144
2550
174
3490
206
4510
241
5580
21.5
48
144
2800
174
3820
206
4960
241
6030
22.3
60
144
3000
174
4190
206
5380
241
6640
23.1
52
144
3200
174
4460
206
5740
241
7030
24.0
54
144
3450
174
4760
206
6150
241
7740
24.8
56
144
3700
174
5080
206
6600
241
8270
25.6
58
144
3950
174
5380
206
7000
241
8860
26.5
60
144
4200
174
5800
206
7480
241
9460
27.3
62
174
6200
206
8000
241
10000
28.2
64
174
6600
206
8400
241
10600
29.0
66
174
7000
206
9000
241
11200
29.9
68
174
7400
206
9600
241
11800
30.7
70
174
7880
206
10100
241
12570
31.3
72
206
10500
241
13200
32.4
74
206
11000
241
13900
33.2
76
206
11600
241
14500
34.0
78
206
12200
241
15300
34.8
80
206
12840
241
16000
35.6
Note.—Site index based on height of dominants and codominants at 100 years. 00 14
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Preliminary Site-class Volume Table—Mature Hemlock.
Total height=4.5+6D—cD2. 6=11.54—10.13c.
«
ri
ri
6=9.06.
e=.245.
Site Index 60.
6=9.43.
c=.208.
Site Index 80.
6=
c=
Site Ir
9.75.
.177.
dex 100.
6 = 10.01.
c=.153.
Site Index 120.
6=10.19.
c=.135.
Site Index 140.
6=10.33.
c = .121.
Site Index 160.
Top
D.I.B.
(Inches).
Total
Ht.
Vol.
Total
Ht.
Vol.
Total
Ht.
Vol.
Total
Ht.
Vol.
Total
Ht.
Vol.
Total
Ht.
Vol.
8
61
23
67
26
71
28
75
30
77
31
79
32
6.0
10
71
49
78
56
84
62
89
67
93
71
96
74
6.5
12
78
88
88
105
96
120
103
130
107
140
111
145
7.0
14
84
140
96
175
106
200
115
220
121
235
126
245
7.4
16
87
200
102
255
115
300
126
335
133
360
139
380
7.8
18
88
260
107
345
123
415
135
470
144
510
151
640
8.2
20
88
320
110
435
129
545
144
630
154
690
163
730
8.6
22
88
385
111
540
133
680
151
810
163
890
173
950
9.0
24
88
445
111
630
136
820
157
1000
171
1110
183
1200
9.4
26
88
510
111
720
138
970
161
1190
178
1340
191
1470
9.8
28
88
580
111
820
139
1120
165
1400
184
1600
199
1770
10.2
30
88
660
111
930
139
1270
167
1610
189
1880
206
2090
10.6
32
88
740
111
1050
139
1430
168
1830
192
2160
211
2430
11.0
34
88
810
111
1160
139
1590
168
2040
195
2440
216
2770
11.4
36
88
890
111
1280
139
1760
168
2260
196
2730
220
3130
11.8
38
88
980
111
1390
139
1930
168
2480
197
3020
222
3480
12.2
40
111
1510
139
2100
168
2700
197
3300
224
3830
12.6
42
111
1620
139
2260
168
2910
197
3570
225
4170
13.0
44
111
1740
139
2420
168
3120
197
3830
225
4500
13.4
46
111
1840
139
2570
168
3320
197
4090
225
4820
13.8
48
111
1930
139
2710
168
3530
197
4350
225
5130
14.2
50
111
2010
139
2850
168
3730
197
4610
225
5450
14.6
Note.—Site index based on height of dominants and codominants at 100 years.
Volumes calculated from standard western hemlock volume table based on D.B.H. and total height (Table 9,
Volume, Yield, and Stand Tables, B.C. Forest Service, 1936). Minimum stump height, 2.0 feet for trees 24 inches;
stump height for trees above 24 inches, same as D.B.H. Top D.I.B.=4.6 inches+0.2 D.B.H., O.B. Trees scaled in
32.6-foot logs. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946.
OO 15
Preliminary Site-class Volume Table—Mature Cedar.
Top D.I.B. = 0.419 D.B.H., O.B.+2.18. Total height=4.5 + 6D—cD2. 6= —3.84 + 160c.
6=2.73.
c=.0411.
Site Class VI.
6 = 3.80.
c=.0478.
Site Class V.
6=4.74.
c=.0535.
Site Class IV.
6=5.66.
o=.0591.
Site Class III.
6=6.55.
c=.0649.
Site Class II.
6=7.41.
c=.0704.
Site Class I.
Top
D.I.B.
«
ri
ri
(Inches).
Total
Ht.
Vol.
Total
Ht.
Vol.
Total
Ht.
Vol.
Total
Ht.
Vol.
Total
Ht.
Vol.
Total
Ht.
Vol.
8
24
3
32
5
39
8
46
10
53
13
59
17
5.5
10
28
7
38
12
47
17
55
23
64
30
72
37
6.4
12
31
11
43
20
54
30
64
42
74
54
83
67
7.2
14
35
18
48
29
60
44
72
69
84
92
94
115
8.0
1.6
38
28
53
50
67
78
80
110
93
140
105
175
8.9
18
40
38
57
72
73
115
87
155
101
205
115
290
9.7
20
43
53
61
100
78
155
94
220
109
285
124
360
10.6
22
45
69
65
135
83
210
100
290
117
390
133
490
11.4
24
47
88
68
175
88
275
106
380
124
510
142
650
12.2
26
48
110
71
215
92
345
112
495
131
650
150
830
13.1
28
49
130
73
265
95
425
117
620
137
810
157
1050
14.0
30
50
150
75
315
98
510
121
740
143
1000
164
1280
14.8
32
50
170
77
370
101
610
125
890
148
1200
170
1550
15.6
34
50
190
78
430
104
720
129
1060
152
1420
175
1830
16.5
36
50
215
79
490
106
830
132
1230
156
1660
180
2150
17.3
38
50
240
80
560
107
940
134
1400
160
1920
185
2500
18.1
40
50
265
80
620
108
1050
136
1580
163
2190
189
2870
19,0
42
50
290
80
680
109
1170
138
1780
165
2470
192
3250
19.8
44
50
315
80
740
109
1290
139
1980
167
2750
195
3650
20.6
46
50
345
80
800
110
1410
140
2180
.168
3030
197
4030
21.5
48
50
375
80
870
110
1530
140
2360
169
3330
198
4400
22.3
50
50
405
80
950
110
1660
140
2550
170
3630
199
4830
23.1
52
80
1020
110
1790
140
2750
170
3910
200
5280
24.0
54
80
1090
110
1930
140
2960
170
4210
200
5700
24.8
56
80
1170
110
2060
140
3170
170
4520
200
6100
25.6
58
80
1250
110
2200
140
3380
170
4820
200
6500
26.5
60
80
1330
110
2350
140
3610
170
5130
200
6900
27.3
62
110
2500
140
3850
170
5450
200
7350
28.2
64
110
2660
140
4100
170
5800
200
7850
29.0
66
110
2830
140
4350
170
6150
200
8350
29.9
68
110
2990
140
4600
170
6550
200
8850
30.7
70
110
3160
140
4850
170
6900
200
9300
31.3
72
140
5100
170
7250
200
9800
32.3
74
140
5400
170
7650
200
10300
33.2
76
140
5650
170
8050
200
10850
34.0
78
140
5950
170
8450
200
11400
34.9
80
140
6250
170
8900
200
11950
35.7 00 16
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Growth Studies.
For the purpose of determining the total ages of older trees when ring-counts are
made at known heights above the ground, an analysis was made of a number of dominant hemlock and Sitka spruce seedlings and saplings growing under average conditions
on the Queen Charlotte Islands. The resulting data are presented in the following
table:—
HEIGHT-GROWTH OF SPRUCE AND HEMLOCK.
Queen Charlotte Islands.
Total Height (Feet).
Total Age.
Total Height (Feet).
Total Age.
Spruce.
Hemlock.
Spruce.
Hemlock.
1	
2.5
3.8
4.9
6.0
6.8
7.5
8.2
8.8
9.3
3.3
3.8
5.0
6.0
6.8
7.7
8.5
9.0
9.6
10	
9.8
10.8
11.8
12.7
13.5
14.4
16.2
23.2
10.3
2	
12	
11.5
3	
14                  	
12.6
4	
16	
13.7
5	
18    ..                      	
14.7
6	
20	
15.9
7	
25	
18.5
8	
30                   	
21.0
9	
The percentage volume in total cubic feet of hemlock and Douglas fir was determined in fifty-six permanent plots, with an interval averaging fourteen years between
first and last examination. Plots with 80 per cent, or greater volume of either hemlock
or Douglas fir did not show a significant change in composition. In the mixed types
with less than 80 per cent, of the volume being in any one species, the stand averaged
52 per cent, hemlock, 36 per cent, fir, and 12 per cent, other species. Douglas fir in the
latter types increased 4 per cent, in composition per decade from thirty to fifty years,
with a corresponding decrease in hemlock. The relative proportion of Douglas fir on
plots over fifty years of age showed no significant change. These findings are in contradiction to the theory frequently put forward that the proportion of Douglas fir in
immature mixtures increases significantly with age. Any increase in the status of
Douglas fir is found to occur in the first fifty years of the life of the stand.
As a result of the periodic remeasurement of the permanent yield-plots, some of
which have now been under observation for nearly twenty years, it is possible to compile some tables of average yield. These data constitute a check against preliminary
yield tables based on temporary plots. A summary of the latest compilations is presented in the following table:—
AVERAGE YIELDS, COAST PERMANENT PLOTS.
Douglas Fir.
Hemlock.
Hemlock-Fir.
Total Age.
Total
Cu. Ft.
(100's).
Merch. B.F.
Total
Cu. Ft.
(100's).
Merch. B.F.
Total
Cu. Ft.
(100's).
Merch. B.F.
Int. y8
(1,000's).
B C
(1,000's).
Int. y8
(1,000's).
(1,000's).
Int. y8
(1,000's).
(1,000's).
20	
7.5
21.0
37.0
62.0
67.0
82.0
97.0
112.0
5
15
2-7
40
53
65
78
3.5
12.5
22.0
31.0
40.0
48.0
54.0
10
34
60
84
104
122
132
150
7
23
41
58
75
90
102
4.5
14.0
24.0
35.0
46.0
56.0
65.0
9
30
34
75
92
108
122
136
6
20
34
50
66
79
92
30	
40	
13
50	
60	
34
45
55
65
70	
80	
90	
The volume is based on fifty-five plots. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946.
OO 17
Utilization Studies.
An analysis was made of the top diameters to which trees are cut in Coast logging
operations to determine if the standards used in Forest Service volume tables for
mature stands needed adjustment.
RELATIONSHIP OF UTILIZED TOP D.I.B. TO D.B.H.
Hemlock, 1945.
Locality.
West Coast,
Vancouver
Island.
Queen Charlotte Islands.
Topography	
Number of trees	
D.B.H. range	
D.B.H. average	
Top range	
Top average	
Standard error, top diameter	
Per cent, variance in tops associated with diameters
Slope
283
13"-56"
28"
8"-32"
16.5"
±2.80"
76
Slope
323
15"-60"
28"
8"-33"
16.3"
±3.60"
44
Flat
181
15"-45"
26"
10"-24"
13.5"
±2.65"
34
Formula.
Volume tables:   Top D.I.B.=2.1"+.419 D.B.H., O.B.
West Coast slope:   Top D.I.B.=5.0"+.412 D.B.H., O.B.
Queen Charlotte slope:   Top D.I.B. = 6.2"+.325 D.B.H., O.B.
Queen Charlotte flat:   Top D.I.B.=7.4"+.235 D.B.H., O.B.
Hemlock.
Average Top D.I.B.
D.B.H.
West Coast,
Vancouver
Island,
Slope.
Queen Charlotte Islands.
Tops used
in Volume
Tables.
*
Slope.
Flat.
12                            	
10.0
13.3
17.4
21.5
25.6
29.8
10.0
12.7
15.9
19.2
22.4
25.7
10.0
12.1
14.4
16.8
19.1
21.5
7.0
20             	
10.4
30	
40                 	
14.6
18.8
50                           	
23.0
Only four trees in this study were cut to an 8-inch top. The tendency was to utilize
trees which would cut a 40-foot log to a 10-inch top. Larger trees were cut to the
break in the top. The portion above the break in the larger trees is usually very limby,
rough, and broken up into short sections, and of doubtful practical merchantability.
The fact that trees are cut to the break in the top accounts for the similarity in the
top utilization now and twenty years ago. The breakage varies with slope, as shown
in the comparison of trees cut on the West Coast in 1945, and the lower Mainland in
1924. The West Coast is steeper than the areas being logged on the Lower Mainland
in 1924, which accounts for the tops being about 3 inches larger.
The standard error of top diameter gives an indication of the spread in the size of
tops. For example, the spread from the average shown for each D.B.H. class will not
be more than ±1 standard error 68 per cent, of the time, ±2 standard error 95 per
cent, of the time, and ±3 standard error 99.7 per cent, of the time. Example, on the
West Coast the average 30-inch tree is cut to a 17.4-inch top. In 5 per cent, of the
trees the range in tops will be 2 standard error=2X2.8 = 5.6 inches above or below
the average top, or between 11.8 inches and 22.0 inches. 00 18
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
The study also shows that on the West Coast 76 per cent, of the variance in tops
is associated with diameter and 24 per cent, with other factors. However, on the
Queen Charlotte Islands less than half of the variance was associated with change in
diameter. This indicates the need for further studies to determine why this condition
exists.
Although the volume of logs has been decreasing at the rate of 100 board-feet per
decade, this decrease is mainly due to the decrease in quality of the stands and the
utilization of smaller trees rather than closer cutting in the top of old-growth stands.
Even in salvage operations the bulk of the material will come from the smaller trees
in the stands rather than the rough old-growth tops.
This study shows that the top diameters inside bark, used in our standard tables,
are satisfactory for cruising old-growth timber on the Coast. It also shows that tables
based on a uniform top would be less satisfactory for our conditions.
Silvicultural Studies.
Southern Coast Forest.
Silvicultural research in the Douglas fir types was directed towards making full
use of established projects by re-examination of experimental plots designed to give
data which will add to knowledge of seed production, natural regeneration, direct
seeding, pruning, and thinning.
The Douglas fir cone crop was a failure in 1946, as was expected after an excellent
crop the previous year. On the Queen Charlotte Islands the crop of Sitka spruce was
also a failure. No crop was produced on any coniferous species in the Lower Fraser
Valley, where there has not been a good Douglas fir crop since 1941. Observations of
seed production in the Coast Douglas fir types, based on counts of cones on plots established to study the volume of seed produced by stands of various ages, and plots which
follow seed production from year to year on individual trees in different age and site
classes, are beginning to yield objective data on size and periodicity of cone crops.
The following table gives this information for recent crops:—
SEED PRODUCTION FOR DOUGLAS FIR ON VANCOUVER ISLAND.
Stand Type.
Year of Crop.
1938.
1939.
1940.     1941.      1942.  1  1943.
1944.
1945.
1946.
Percentage of Trees bearing Crops.
Scattered  mature,  residual  after logging  on
95
76    |     26
98
10    j     97    j      5
100
0
Percentage of Trees bearing Good Crops.
Young growth and mature in stands on good sites.
45
31
0
43
0
1
29            2
52
0
There were three productive crops throughout the type during the nine-year period,
an excellent crop in 1945, with two good ones close together in 1938 and 1941.
The conditions of site on cut-over areas change with the passage of time, and these
changes are being studied in relation to the rate of regeneration on typical Douglas fir
sites. Experimental plots have been under observation on two sites of fair quality.
A comparison of the regeneration following good to excellent seed crops in the first, REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946.
OO 19
third, and eighth years following logging gives interesting results.    The data are as
follows:—•
Years after Logging.
Proportion op Total.
Cone Crops.
Germination.
Survival.
One	
25
35
40
24
37
39-
24
Three	
32
Eight	
44
These results indicate that the Douglas fir sites being studied are as receptive to
reproduction eight years after logging as at the beginning of regeneration. In fact,
the last crop of seed produced better results than for the previous years because of slow
development of vegetation on these areas.
A fair survival of Douglas fir was obtained on direct-seeded spots spaced 5 by 5 feet.
At ten years, when crowns were beginning to meet, it was reported (Forest Branch
Report, 1943) that the dominant tree on spots crowded with several trees was of good
form and taller than those on spots where only one tree survived. This apparently
beneficial condition had changed at 15 years of age, when the bases of crowded trees
were beginning to come together. In open parts of the stand these trees developed
enough bend at the base to affect form. To check on the effect of this condition, some
of the multiple-tree spots have been reduced to one tree. This will give a comparison
with the growth on crowded spots, released spots, and spots bearing a single tree
throughout. During the first three years of this study, mortality was 39 per cent., but
there was no more loss until Armillaria disease and suppression entered the stand seven
years later. From 10 to 15 years, the loss from these causes was 9 per cent. When
the trees on seed spots were 10 years old, natural regeneration surrounding the plot
was not conspicuous because the stocking is low, but at 15 years the natural reproduction has the appearance of being much denser than formerly. Although three to four
years younger, it now almost masks the seeded plot.
In silvicultural improvement of stands, thinning and pruning operations contribute
to the effectiveness of each other. Thinnings are designed to increase the growth of
wood on fewer trees, but Douglas fir will not naturally produce any appreciable quantity
of clear wood on these favoured trees within limited rotations. To warrant the
thinning, it becomse necessary to improve the quality of production by pruning. In
1942 the dominant trees in a plantation on a very good site at Green Timbers Forestry
Station were pruned to 7 feet high in a test of tool efficiency. The study of methods
was continued with a second pruning from 7 feet to 13 feet four years later, when the
stand was in its seventeenth year.    Characteristics of the coniferous component of the
Stand at the tWO ages were :  At 12 Years   At 16 Years
of Age. of Age.
Number of Douglas fir over 0.5 inch D.B.H.____per ac. 825 713
Total basal area per acre sq. ft. 31.06 41.00
Average D.B.H.  in. 2.6 3.2
Average height ft. 19.7 24.5
Lowest green branch  ft. 0.9 6.2
Lowest dead branch  ft. 0.0 0.5
Average height of pruned trees ft. 23.6 31.1
Double-cutting California or curved-type pruning-saws, the tool found most efficient
in the first pruning, were used for the second pruning.    To determine the relative
efficiency of two methods, the pruning was done by five workers, each using a 10-inch
2 00 20 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
saw on an 8-foot ladder and a 14-inch saw on an 8-foot pole. The pruning in 1942
confirmed the finding of previous studies that Douglas fir should not be pruned above
half the height of the tree; some trees pruned when too small were lost. As previously
reported (Forest Branch Report, 1942) the low pruning averaged 6.4 minutes per tree
(pruning and walking between trees). Underbrush was very dense in 1942, and it
was found that moving from tree to tree used a large proportion of the time. At the
present time, hardwood trees in the undergrowth have their crowns above pruning
height, and the density of ground-cover has been reduced by heavy shade from the
upper canopy. For the current pruning from 7 to 13 feet by ladder and hand-saw,
pruning and walking time averaged 5.6 minutes per tree, and saw-cleaning and resting
took another 0.7 minutes. The pole saws were less satisfactory for pruning in stands.
In this still relatively dense stand the pole saw is tiresome to use, and there is a tendency for the operator to reach around the tree for a branch, resulting in branch-stubs
being left. Total time per tree was 13 per cent, more than with ladder and saw. Not
the least of the variables affecting pruning time are diameter of tree and texture of
wood. This study showed that trees having branches of similar thickness vary from
very .soft to very hard wood which markedly decreases or increases the effort needed to
remove the branches. A history of the rate of healing has been kept for two branches
on each of eighty trees pruned to 7 feet high. After two seasons of growth, healing
was complete on both sides of 9 per cent, of the trees, and one knot was completely
covered on 4 per cent., but one year later the respective figures were 50 and 15 per cent.
After spring pruning, growth callous starts to form immediately and, after three years,
more than half of the wounds are totally occluded. Thereafter, continuous growth-
rings will add clear wood on the pruned trees. The amount of healing relative to the
size of wound will be worked out when all wounds are completely closed. Healing is
most rapid on trees pruned tangential to the bole, slightly less when the collar of bark
at the base of branches is left, and much slower when pruned with shears or axes.
Two methods of pruning to a height of 13 feet in one operation were tried this year.
It was thought that, in stands of very dense undergrowth due to incomplete crown-
cover, climbing the trees would compare favourably with using a ladder in pruning.
Two acres of a plantation were pruned under these conditions, using two operators
and marked trees. Pruning in one step with ladders was less laborious and took only
three-quarters of the time required for the same operation by climbing. The ladder-
and-saw method required 7.7 minutes per tree (6.6 minutes pruning, 0.6 minutes walking from tree to tree, and 0.5 minutes resting and cleaning saws). To do the same
operation in two steps—that is, to prune through the stand to 7 feet high from the
ground and then to take the ladders through for the second step—took over 40 per
cent, more time. To make a two-stage pruning four years apart leaves a knotty core
below 7 feet similar in diameter and taper to the core above this height, but it may be
cheaper in some circumstances to delay the first pruning until it can be made in one
step to 13 feet on trees 4.5 inches D.B.H. at age 17 years or more for Douglas fir.
Operations this year emphasize the effect of utilization on thinnings. Because
cuttings in very young stands have to be left on the ground, there is a tendency to
remove a minimum volume in thinning and cleaning. Topography is a consideration
in the extraction of cuttings; in order to economically thin plots and compartments,
stands must be located where there is no adverse grade to the nearest truck-road.
Current thinnings from a 35-year-old stand of Douglas fir were absorbed by the export
market for pit-props. All cuttings between 4% inches and 7 inches D.B.H. were peeled
and cut to 7 feet, 6 feet, or 4% feet. A few large trees which should have been cut at
a younger age were removed and used for mine slope-timbers. A few small trees cut
were left on the ground. The remainder yielded 4 cords per acre, or a value of $48 per
acre at the forest for disposal of the cuttings. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946.
OO 21
Northern Coast Forest.
Regeneration adjacent to Skidegate Lake, Queen Charlotte Islands, was sampled
by the stocked-quadrat method on four lines of quadrats. On all conditions of site
investigated restocking was excellent. The results on comparable burned and unburned
areas, together with an unburned area of opposite aspect, are shown in the following
table:—
Type.
Percentage
of Quadrats
stocked in
1946.
Percentage Composition.
Number of
.004-ac.
Quadrats.
Spruce.
Hemlock.
Cedar.
Aspect south—
97
82
87
35
48
15
53
27
80
12
25
5
36
Burned 1942	
40
30
Reproduction on the unburned areas resulted from numerous seed-trees left after
logging. Apparently, in this type, satisfactory restocking is as readily obtained on
southern slopes as on northern slopes, but the unburned northern aspect induces a
greater proportion of hemlock reproduction in relation to spruce and cedar. Hemlock
seems to reproduce better on unburned sites, but this difference could be due to variation in composition of the seed-supply, as well as difference in treatment of site.
PERMANENT STUDY-PLOTS ESTABLISHED AS AT 1946.
Description of Project.
Number of Plots.
Project.
Group.
Growth and yield studies	
Coast forest types	
Southern Interior types -	
Central Interior types	
Silvicultural studies	
On cut-over land—
Seed dissemination from standing trees	
Survival of seed trees	
Artificial seeding	
Growth of exotic trees	
Competition between broom and Douglas fir	
In young stands—
Thinnings	
Primings _	
Christmas tree cuttings	
In mature stands—
Selective cutting	
Slash-disposal methods	
Regional studies	
Natural regeneration in representative districts^
Alberni, Vancouver Island	
Cowichan Lake, Vancouver Island	
Alouette Lake, Fraser Valley	
Skidegate Lake, Queen Charlotte Islands	
405
17
137
14
4
2
1
1
7
7
1
4
6
1,200
600
500
80
559
47
Total Area of
Plots (Acres).
4.8
6.0
5.0
0.1 00 22 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
SOIL SURVEYS AND RESEARCH.
As a result of some casual studies made in 1941, it was suggested that the ground
vegetation might be used as an indicator of forest-site quality. This was developed
into a research programme in 1944. Progress reports have appeared in Forest Service
reports for 1944 and 1945. Studies in the Douglas fir types were completed during
1946, and a preliminary report on the classification of forest-site quality by the use of
the natural vegetation is being prepared for publication.    A brief outline follows.
The quality of a site is fundamentally the result of physical, chemical, and biological activity reacting with the soil and climatic environment. The biological concept of
site is based on the assumption that the natural vegetation, after a period of competition in which the unadaptable species perish, approaches an equilibrium with the complex of growth factors. Specific plant communities are, therefore, the result of, and
are expressive of, the growth factors characterizing different growing-sites. This is
the theory of A. K. Cajander, who first developed the use of plant indicators for forest
classification in Finland. The studies in question constitute an attempt to adapt
Cajander's theory to Pacific North-west conditions.
The area of study was first confined to second-growth Douglas fir on Vancouver
Island and the Lower Mainland of British Columbia. During the past summer the
work was extended (through the courtesy of the United States Forest Service) to
western Washington and Oregon. This entire area is an ecological unit called the
Coast Forest Climax Formation.
Throughout this area there is a remarkable constancy in the composition of the
different plant communities that were found to be indicative of site quality. Five main
plant communities or site types were recognized.
In spite of the observed constancy in the composition of these site types, certain
modifications in the composition of the plant cover were noted which corresponded with
small climatic variations within the general climatic province. For this reason it has
been necessary to recognize climatic subdivisions, four of which are briefly described
as follows:—
A.—Wet temperate  climate with  summer fogs.    Occurs  as  a narrow belt
bordering the ocean-front.    Hemlock, cedar, and spruce forests general.
B.—Humid temperate climate with a moderately dry summer period.   Occurs
on south-east coast of Vancouver Island, eastern exposure of Olympic
Mountains,  and  western  exposure  of  Cascade  and  Coast  Mountains.
Douglas fir with some cedar and hemlock general.
C.—Humid  temperate climate with  pronounced moisture deficiency during
summer months.    Occurs on southern tip of Vancouver Island; Tacoma-
Chehalis area, Washington;   and Willamette Valley, Oregon.    A Douglas
fir invasion of prairie and oak groves characteristic.
D.—Sub-humid temperate climate with a short frost-free period of less than
120 days.    Occurs at elevations above 2,000 feet and in inland shielded
valleys.    Douglas fir, cedar, hemlock, and some Amabilis fir general.
It is possible that there are two or three more subdivisions typical of the climatic
extremes of the Coast Forest Climax Formation which have not yet been studied in
detail.
Before summarizing the composition of the five plant communities indicative of
site quality, a brief outline of the important features of a plant community is necessary.
A plant community is essentially homogenous in respect to the dominant and other
frequently occurring plant species. The occurrence of any individual species is not
confined to any one plant community, but it is the combination of a number of species
having respect to vigour and abundance that is characteristic. A few species are found
to be exclusive to one community only, but their occurrence is generally sporadic. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946. OO 23
In the field, changes in the complex of growth or site factors tend to occur in a
progressive fashion, consequently corresponding changes in the vegetation will occur
as gradual transitions. For this reason the description of a site type cannot be reduced
to precise terms, and the recognition of site types in the field must be based on an
appreciation of natural trends between " pure " types. The five main plant communities or site types are named for the most conspicuous species of the respective communities.    They are as follows:—
1. P type or Polystichum (Sword fern) site type.
2. P G type or Polystichum-Gaultheria (Sword fern-salal) site type.
3. G type or Gaultheria (Salal) site type.
4. G Pa type or Gaultheria-Parmelia (Salal-" pale green " lichen) site type.
5. G U type or Gaultheria-Usnia (Salal-" bearded " lichen) site type.
The following summary of the composition of these site types is based on studies
largely centred in Climatic Division B, the most common in the Douglas fir region.
The modifications of these site types when occurring in other climatic subdivisions
will also be discussed briefly.
1. P type or Polystichum (Sword fern) site type.
This site type is characterized by a wide variety of hygrophytic plants.
The dominant-codominant combination consists of any two of the following:
Sword fern, May leaf, Oxalis, Vancouveria, and Wild lily of the valley.
Three or more of the following species are always present: Elderberry,
Devil's club, Woodrush, Lady fern, Deer fern, Maidenhair fern, Salmonberry,
Miner's lettuce, Tiarella, Fairy bell, Twisted stalk, and False hellebore.
Mnium moss appears to indicate this site when growing on the ground
and decayed logs.
Salal and Oregon grape are frequently absent from this site type, and, if
present, they grow with a low abundance and vigour.
2. P G type or Polystichum-Gaultheria (Sword fern-salal) site type.
This is an intermediate type between the first and the third. The
dominant-codominant combination consists of Sword fern or May leaf or
Oxalis or Vancouveria and Salal or Oregon grape.
One or two of the hygrophytic species listed above are generally present,
but more than two is indicative of the P type rather than the P G type.
One or more of the shrubs listed in the next site type may be present,
though their occurrence is not general.
The most indicative feature is the conflict between the dominants of the
P type and the G type for supremacy.
3. G type or Gaultheria (Salal) site type.
In this site type Salal and Oregon grape form the dominant-codominant
combination. Sword fern, May leaf, or Oxalis are generally present but do
not grow with the vigour or abundance characteristic of the better sites.
The absence of the hygrophytic group of plants can be considered as
evidence of this site type.
A number of shrubs occur quite frequently. They include Waxberry,
Ocean spray, Saskatoon berry, Wild rose, and Honeysuckle.
A characteristic of the G type is that Salal and one or more of the shrubs
frequently form a high shrub layer (over 4 feet tall).
Mnium moss is replaced by Dicranum moss in this site type.
Tree lichens are quite common. 00 24 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
4. G Pa type or Gaultheria-Parmelia (Salal-" pale green " lichen) site type.
Salal and Oregon grape invariably form the dominant-codominant
combination.
Sword fern and May leaf may be present but with a very low vigour.
The hygrophytic plants are entirely absent.
Any of the shrubs of the G type may be present.
A new group of plants indicative of poor sites may be noted. They
include Prince's pine, Coral root, Poque, Lupins, Kinnikinick, and several of
the Monotropacese family.
The most characteristic feature, however, is the increased abundance of
tree lichens. The most abundant and common species is Parmelia (provisionally called " pale green " lichen).
5. G U type or Gaultheria-V snea (Salal-" bearded " lichen) site type.
Again, Salal and Oregon grape invariably form the dominant-codominant
combination. Other plants of this site type include those mentioned under the
G Pa type.    Prince's pine and rose occur frequently and with fair abundance.
Some of the " dry " mosses, such as Racimitrium, Hypnum, Polytrichum,
and Dicranum, are indicative of this site type.
Tree lichens are most abundant and conspicuous. Besides Parmelia or
" pale green " lichen, Usnea or " bearded " lichen is notable.
Studies to date in Climatic Subdivisions A, C, and D are somewhat limited. It
appears, however, that the site types described above can be recognized in all climatic
divisions. There are some species though that tend to occur more frequently in one
climatic subdivision than another, thus modifying the general description.
In Climatic Subdivision A the following hygrophytic species occur frequently in
the P type: Bleeding heart, Swamp currant, Woodrush, Devil's club, Elderberry, Deer
fern, and Salmonberry. Two species, Blueberry and False azalea, while not good
indicators of site quality, seem to characterize Climatic Division A.
Climatic Subdivision C is characterized by the absence of those species typical of
Subdivision A. Species more common in Subdivision C than B include Brome-grass,
Silver green, Sweet Cicely, Bedstraw, Strawberry, Wild lettuce, Waxberry, Ocean spray,
Saskatoon berry, and Honeysuckle. A number of species are almost exclusive. They
include Mahonia or tall Oregon grape, Poison oak, Sandwort, Yerba Buena, Arbutus,
Bird cherry, and oak. Grass and Silver green in some cases occur as dominants in the
P and the P G types.    The shrubs may be found in all site types.
In Climatic Subdivision D the addition of the following species modify the general
description: Bunchberry, Queen's cup, Mountain blueberry, Pine lily, and False box.
Twinflower also occurs with considerable abundance.
In this brief summary no mention has been made of a number of species that
appear to have no indicator value, being common to all sites. It has not been possible
to mention a number of other characteristics, nor trends of vigour and abundance that
are important in site identification.
The height and volume growth of Douglas fir associated with each of these site
types is illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2. It should be emphasized that these stand statistics
have been computed independently for each site type. The inclusion or rejection of
any data was on the basis of the natural vegetation and not on mensurational data of
the stand itself. This is in contrast to the conventional method of classifying site
quality by the height-growth of dominant and codominant trees, as illustrated by the
British Columbia Forest Service and the United States Forest Service site curves shown
on the same figures. Fig. 1, Average height of dominant and codominant trees, by site types,
for Douglas fir.
3D 40 50 60 70 80    ""        90 100 10 120 130
AG E
Fig. 2. Average yield per acre in cubic feet, by site types, for Douglas fir.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946. 00 25
There are a number of reasons for believing that this classification of site by the
use of the natural vegetation is an improvement over the conventional method in which
sites are graphical abstractions derived from a purely mathematical treatment of height
data. The most practical advantage is that, in the field, changes in site are readily
observed, through changes in the ground-cover, as an area is traversed. This means
that sites can be accurately delineated and mapped. This is not possible when height-
growth is used as a criterion of site quality, unless very numerous samples of height
and age determinations are systematically taken over the area.
This study of site classification cannot be regarded as completed, for there are
several other climatic regions within British Columbia where an entirely new vegetation will be found. One phase, however, is believed to be completed in that sufficient
data have been studied to establish the principle that plant communities do indicate
site quality in the Pacific North-west.
During the past year a study was started relative to the identification of site types
in recently logged and burned areas. The vegetation on these areas is greatly modified
from that which was originally present under green timber. This is regarded as a
most important study, complementing the original study of site indicators. The results
to date would suggest that the ground-cover does indicate site quality within a few
years after burning. More information is needed before a definite statement on this
problem is possible.
PROVINCIAL PARKS.
Although no major change in Provincial Park acreage occurred during the past
year, there were several additions and subtractions. Kitsumgallum Park, 25 acres in
area and located on the shores of Kitsumgallum Lake, north of Terrace, British
Columbia, was created a Class "A" park. White Rock Park, a Class " C " park, was
eliminated as a Provincial Park and turned over to a local park board for administration. Water-power developments at Elk Falls necessitated the elimination of 246 acres
from Elk Falls Park.
The following table summarizes the Provincial Parks in British Columbia to
December 31st, 1946:—
Classification. Number of Parks. Acres.
Class " A "   17 288,681.6
Class " B "   4 7,054,206.0
Class " C "   27 3,994.4
Administered under special Park Acts  3 1,656,455.0
Totals     51 9,003,337.0
or 14,067.7 sq. miles.
As in preceding years, park funds were insufficient to undertake any large-scale
development-work, but the usual maintenance-work and small improvements were
carried on in all the most important parks.
On Vancouver Island the most northern park, Elk Falls, was closed to the public
because of the water-power construction project. However, the remaining Island
Parks—Stamp Falls, Little Qualicum Falls, Englishman River Falls, and John Dean—
were in charge of park attendants who recorded over a 10 per cent, increase in park
visitors from the year before. Little Qualicum Falls recorded over 4,400 visitors
during one summer month. Basic facilities, such as water-supply, camp-sites, and safe
swimming-pools—almost a necessity for such large numbers of people—were never
made in the original developments nearly ten years ago and have been impossible since.
All the Island Parks are increasing in popularity, and to meet this influx of visitors,
a considerable programme of renovation and expansion is urgently needed. 00 26 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Park furniture and signs were prefabricated during the winter and later placed in
position in the various parks. This method of construction proved to have many
advantages over work in the field.
Peace Arch Park at the International Boundary near Blaine continues to give many
thousands of visitors a very favourable and attractive welcome on their entry into
Canada. The painting of the arch, as a joint British Columbia and State of Washington project, was the main improvement carried out this year. The establishment of
picnic-grounds, parking area, and other necessary facilities would do much to prolong
the stay and add to the convenience of the many visitors.
Mount Seymour Park received considerable attention both in the attempts to have
a portion of road constructed and in general improvement-work carried on at the higher
levels. A special allotment provided for moneys to be used in road-construction, and
tenders were called for a 2.3-mile section of road. No acceptable tenders were received,
so authorization was given to the Forest Service to undertake the construction of the
first section of the road. By the end of December, 1946, 2.7 miles of the original right-
of-way had been reslashed and roughed out. An auxiliary project was the repair and
gravelling of the present access road to the parking lot.
The administration building at the 3,300-foot level received light and water systems, furnace, and other necessary improvements to make it more habitable for the
Park Ranger. The snow reached a depth of 22 feet around this building last winter and
gave a thorough test to the rugged type of construction. A dam and diversion-ditch
were completed, which will now make it possible to add to the Park an area previously
held by the Greater Vancouver Water District. The range of the ski-jump has been
extended by the erection of a 30-foot trestle. Considerable work was also done on the
main trail. Nearly a hundred applications for cabin-sites in this Park and the subsequent surveys, interviews, checking of plans, and inspection of sites occupied a great
portion of the year's general administration programme.
Manning Park received a Park Ranger for the first time, and temporary Ranger
headquarters were built during the summer. In expectation of the construction of a
commercial resort, a survey was made and stakes set for the main unit and also for
the final Ranger station. Seven fires were fought within the Park, and, although the
damage was greatly lessened by having a Ranger on duty, the need for a more comprehensive system of fire detection and suppression was strikingly apparent. A general
reconnaissance of the Park provided valuable information for planning lookouts, trails,
and camp-sites.
Wells Gray Park was administered almost directly by the District Forester at
Kamloops. A Ranger was in summer residence at the Hemp Creek headquarters but,
as most of his time was taken up on forest protection and land inspections, park
improvements were negligible. The need of a road to Dawson Falls to open the Park
to approved commercial concerns and tourists was shown by the number of inquiries
and plans presented by interested parties during the past year.
A small amount of trail-work was done in Tweedsmuir Park by local guides in an
endeavour to keep the many miles of trails in passable condition for trail-riding parties.
Five areas were examined during the summer for park potentialities, and considerable map preparation has been done in the study of a proposed park to embrace the
Forbidden Plateau on Vancouver Island. New maps are also in the course of preparation for Mount Seymour and Manning Park.
The Garibaldi Park film was edited and released during 1946 and, together with
the Tweedsmuir Park film, has proven to be one of the more popular of the seventy-five
films in the film library. The Mount Robson film has been edited but is not yet titled.
A start on a sound movie of Manning Park was made during the summer and should
be completed in 1947. Lightning Lake, Manning Park.
Picnic tables for Provincial Parks
'°n' inning Pa
Cabin-building in Mount Seymour Park.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946. OO 27
REFORESTATION DIVISION.
A new division was established near the end of the year to look after the reforestation programme. Formerly this work had been carried on as a section of the Economics Division but, with increased personnel and expenditures, a new division was
created to work towards the objective of twenty million trees annually.
FOREST NURSERIES.
The first seed-beds at the Duncan nursery were sown in the spring and, although
disappointing, the 50-per-cent. germination and survival was to be expected in the
development of a new nursery-site. Most of the loss was attributable to the excessive
rains during the early summer and the prevalence of weeds on a new area. All land-
clearing was completed, and the irrigation system was extended as far as supplies of
galvanized pipe would allow. A contract was let for the building of a workshop and
implement-shed, to be completed early in 1947.
At the Green Timbers and Campbell River nurseries, production was increased to
7,000,000 and 6,000,000 trees respectively. This was achieved by increasing the number of seed-beds and also by increasing the density of seed broadcast per square foot
by 20 per cent. Owing to a shortage of labour and materials, it was only with great
difficulty that the seed-beds were sown, and the use of student labour after school-hours
was necessary to complete the work.
Weather conditions for the 1946 season were generally abnormal, with May being
exceptionally dry, and June and July unusually wet. This wet weather was responsible
for excessive growth in the 2-0 stock, especially at Campbell River, and, as a result,
a considerable quantity of stock will have to be culled due to its large size.
Further experiments were carried out on the best fertilizer crop to use and, also,
on use of commercial weed-killers. The new 2-4-D weed-killer was tried out with great
success on practically all weeds, and especially on Canadian thistle and mare's-tail,
which are among the more serious pests. When, however, experiments were carried
out in the seed-beds, it was found that even the weakest solution, which had no effect on
the weeds, was fatal to the seedlings.
A machine for the purpose of spreading the soil over the seed-beds was designed
and constructed at Green Timbers, and tests have proved it very successful. With only
a few minor adjustments, the machine was used to spread 1,600 sacks of hardwood
sawdust for winter mulch.
SEED COLLECTIONS.
No collections were made in 1946, since the seed crop on the Lower Coast was a
complete failure for all forest species but, as a result of the large collection made in
1945, we still have on hand sufficient seed for two years' planting production.
RECONNAISSANCE AND SURVEY-WORK.
Considerable reconnaissance was made of logged lands on the Lower Mainland to
determine what areas may require reforestation. Of the 34,700 acres examined, only
10 per cent, could be planted. This is attributed to the fact that areas which have
been logged and burned will, if not fully restocked after five years have elapsed, have
grown up in deciduous growth to such an extent as to make planting of coniferous
species inadvisable.
Detailed surveys were made of areas previously examined, and maps were completed for four more planting projects with a total of 20,000 acres. 00 28
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
PLANTING.
A slight improvement in the labour situation made it possible to carry on five
planting projects whereby a total of 3,670,200 trees were planted on 6,000 acres. These
projects were located at Jordan River; Hillcrest, near Duncan; Robertson River Valley,
near Cowichan Lake; Loveland Lake; and Salmon River, near Campbell River. Private companies planted 3,854,200 trees on 4,700 acres, which exceeded the total of all
previous plantings by industry. The complete statistics for the 1946 projects and a
summary of planting for the last ten years will be found on page 60 of appendix.
No plantations were destroyed by fire during 1946 and total losses due to fire
remain at 621 acres.
Planting projects on Crown land were carried on under adverse weather and labour
conditions. In spite of the increased wages, it was difficult to keep crews up to strength
and, at one project, army personnel were used. This arrangement was not satisfactory
due to lack of interest by the men in the work and the fact that planting was not part
of their training.
Considerable progress was made through the year in the preparation of planting-
sites and the felling of snags on areas previously planted. A total of 11 miles of new
truck-trails were opened up and 156,120 snags were felled on 16,775 acres. Of this
total acreage, 9,500 acres are suitable for planting and the remainder are areas
previously planted. SOIL-SPREADER  DRAWN   BY TRACTOR.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946. OO 29
FOREST MANAGEMENT.
The estimated value of production for the year 1946 shows a material advance
over that of the previous year, largely due to advances in unit values supplemented by
some one hundred million feet increase in the total cut.
The 1946 grand total scale expressed in board-feet was 3,194,000,000 or, roughly,
100,000,000 feet in excess of 1945. All the forest districts show a gain with the exception of Prince Rupert.
The Management tables in the statistical portion of the report show details of
production, the highlights of which are as follows:—
Water-borne lumber trade remains about the same as in 1945, with the United
Kingdom and the Continent taking the bulk of the shipments. It is noteworthy that,
with the cessation of hostilities, war-torn countries overseas show a greatly increased
volume of shipments. The total volume of 745,000,000 is about one-half of the 1939
volume.
The pulp and paper industry maintained production levels, but values increased
materially.
Douglas fir is still the leading species cut, with hemlock supplying about one-half
the fir volume and equal in volume to that of cedar; spruce is in fourth place, with
about one-half the volume of the cedar.
Alienated lands, particularly Crown grants on Vancouver Island, still supply the
major volume, but timber-sales from vacant Crown lands are rapidly approaching an
equal production.    The third place is held by timber licences.
In the minor products, lodgepole pine pit-props shipped to the United Kingdom are
largely responsible for the large scale in lineal feet, totalling some 68,000,000; the
total cordage shows an increase, with a slight drop in hewn ties.
In the case of operating areas an appreciable increase is noted in the case of
timber-sales and alienated land. The total number of logging inspections reached an
all-time high but, with limited staff, the frequency of inspection was not adequate.
Trespass cases reduced somewhat from the previous year in number and in the
amount charged.
The number of pre-emption inspections fell off with the decrease in this class of
land alienation.
With the return of peace-time conditions and accelerated demand for land use,
there was considerable growth in the volume of land examination in advance of settlement. This type of work places a tremendous burden on the field staff with the added
activity in forest industry, with the result that the time is rapidly approaching when
land examination will require a staff of specialized officials.
Timber-sale cruises increased by some five hundred over the previous year, with
a corresponding advance with practically all types of forest materials involved.
In the matter of stumpage prices the general average price shows a slight increase
with accelerated demand and advance in values. At the same time the increase in all
species has amounted to but 20 cents per thousand feet in comparison with the year 1945.
The number of active sawmills in 1946 increased by some three hundred, mainly
of the portable or semi-portable type. This is a natural development by reason of the
unprecedented demand for lumber and attractive sale prices.
The total export of logs in board-feet was slightly over that of 1945 but considerably below the average of the past years for the simple reason that local milling facilities were ample to take care of the entire log output.
The total value of minor products shipped from the Province show an advance of
some $2,000,000, attributable in a large measure to pit-prop exports to the United
Kingdom. 00 30 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
With the acceleration in lumbering activity, the number of timber-marks issued
greatly exceeds that of the previous year, and other office routine was such that headquarters staff was incessantly faced with the difficulty of keeping abreast of the volume
of work.
Forest insect survey-work was maintained in co-operation with the Federal agencies, and a creditable showing made in box collections throughout the Province.
Direct forest revenue surpassed that of 1945, and timber-sale stumpage accounted
for $1,658,000 out of a total of $4,352,000. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946. OO 31
FOREST PROTECTION.
WEATHER.
From the forest-protection standpoint and considering the Province as a whole,
weather during the 1946 fire season was more favourable than it usually is. Usual
periodic hazard build-ups occurred throughout the season in all districts, notably in
early spring and mid-season but, generally, timely precipitation occurred, nullifying
any exceptionally serious condition.
In the Vancouver Forest District rainfall was a little above average, with a dry
May offset by an extremely wet June and July. Although August and September
offered only light precipitation, it occurred at opportune periods. Extreme hazard
periods were of short duration, permitting early control of any potentially threatening
situation. A distinct break in the weather early in September, followed by light fall
rains, closed the season.
In the Kamloops District an almost unprecedented spring hazard developed in the
northern portion of the district, accounting for many early range fires. This condition
continued almost unabated throughout most of the season and, as a result, that portion
of the district was a continuous trouble-spot for fire throughout the fire-season months.
Elsewhere in the district, weather conditions were normal, except for one series of dry
lightning-storms which, for a seven-day period in August, swept the southern section,
notably the Ashnola Valley, the area east of Okanagan Lake, and a 30-mile strip along
the International Boundary. Heavy electric storms were also in evidence in the Columbia River area but were abortive from a fire standpoint due to opportune precipitation.
Weather in the Nelson District was considerably more favourable than during
average seasons. Mean temperatures were generally lower and precipitation higher,
with the latter showing better distribution throughout the season. The month of July,
as usual, was extremely dry and was the most troublesome period experienced. Fortunately, electric storms were not experienced in serious proportions until the end of that
month, when a number of heavy disturbances occurred throughout the district, with
the conditions worst in the Creston-Cranbrook and Upper Arrow Lakes areas. Storms
were frequent and widespread during practically all of August, nine major storms being
recorded. However, these storms were usually accompanied or followed by rain, and
resulting fires were comparatively few. The longest intervals between measurable
precipitation were forty-nine and forty-one days in the Boundary and East Kootenay
areas respectively, extending from the middle of June to the end of August, and twenty-
one days in the West Kootenay between mid-July and the first part of August. High
winds were much less prevalent than in previous years—a very appreciable factor in
the lighter season experienced.
The season in the Coastal region of the Prince Rupert Forest District, including
Queen Charlotte Islands, opened with a moderate hazard, registering increase throughout May and the first week of June. Fortunately, weather was calm throughout this
period, and hazard did not assume dangerous proportions before the weather broke.
Heavy rains in late June and occasional heavy showers during July resulted in a light-
hazard level, which was maintained for the balance of the season until heavy fall rains
in early September. In the Interior portion of the district, snowfall during the winter
months was considerably heavier than the previous year's, and the usual January thaw,
with heavy rains, did not materialize. As a result, the snow remained light and dry
and disappeared rapidly early in the season. Hence, hazard build-up commenced early
in the fire season, and a peak spring hazard obtained throughout most of May. Heavier-
than-average rainfall throughout June and July gave favourable and safe conditions
until about mid-August, when a hazard period of roughly a month's duration developed. 00 32 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Copious rains early in September closed the season.    Electric storms were rare and in
all cases were accompanied by precipitation.
In the Fort George Forest District winter and early spring conditions were very
similar to those in the Interior of the Prince Rupert District, with resulting spring
hazard in April and May. General rains about the third week in May, except in the
Peace River and Rocky Mountain Trench portion where the dry period was more
protracted, eased the situation. In the portion of the district tributary to the Canadian National Railway and Quesnel, rainfall in June and July was heavier than average
and weather was variable. A period of dry weather developed in early August, and
by the end of that month conditions were becoming serious. Rains about mid-September alleviated the situation and closed the season. It is worthy of note that, while the
May and September rainfall in 1946 in this district was only approximately 80 per cent,
of the twenty-five-year average, occurrence evenly throughout the season resulted in
a season more favourable than the average.
FIRES.
Occurrences and Causes.
Number of fires occurring throughout the Province during the season was 1,707,
which is within 5 of the average over the previous ten-year period. For comparison
with tables which have appeared in previous reports, distribution of occurrence by
forest districts during the past decade is as follows:—
Fire Occurrence
during Ten-year
Period 1937-46, Percentage
Forest District. inclusive. of all B.C.
Vancouver   4,212 24.75
Prince Rupert  701 4.12
Fort George  1,570 9.23
Kamloops    5,188 30.48
Nelson  5,348 31.42
Total      17,019
The small but steady increase in occurrence in the northern portion of the Province
was again in evidence due, in large measure, to the general opening-up of these territories. In the table of occurrence by months the serious early spring hazard which
obtained is most marked, with something over 21 per cent, of all fires occurring during
May as compared to the ten-year average for that month of 11.5 per cent.
Lightning was again responsible for more fires than any other agency, with
approximately 30 per cent, attributable to this source. As compared with the last
several years, there was a notable decrease in fires attributable to railways operating,
and it is evident that locomotive-stack fires have been drastically reduced due to use
of improved type of coal and praiseworthy attention on the part of the companies to
fire-prevention. Campers and travellers accounted for approximately twice as many
fires as last season, an indication that, after the restricted recreation of war years,
many are again spending their holidays in forested areas. There was also a marked
increase in number of fires attributable to escaped brush-burning, probably due to the
particularly dry spring when most of this land-clearing work is carried out.
Cost of Fire-fighting.
Table No. 52, on page 96, gives full statistics under this heading. It should be
pointed out that total cost shown therein covers only expenditure in wages, food, and
transportation for crews actually fighting fire and is exclusive of items of forest-   REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946. OO 33
protection organization overhead, such as seasonally hired personnel. Further, the
cost shown represents only cost to the Forest Service and for the figure of total expenditure in fire-suppression for the Province, an estimated sum of $134,822 (Table No. 41)
expended by other agencies must be added.
Once again the greatest proportion of fire-fighting cost to the Forest Service,
approximately 63 per cent., occurred in fighting lightning-caused fires. The nature of
this type of fire, occurring for the most part in rugged, remote areas, is such that time
between detection and attack is invariably prolonged, resulting in increased costs.
Fires attributable to escaped brush-burning and campers were the two next most costly
types of fires experienced, running 16 and 8 per cent, respectively of total expenditure.
Total cost to the Forest Service for the season was only approximately one-half of
expenditure in 1945. This is attributable almost entirely to the more favourable
season experienced, as the total number of fires was not appreciably reduced.
Damage.
Damage occasioned through forest fires during the year is estimated at $357,984,
only about 25 per cent, of the 1945 figure. Of this total, approximately $192,000
represents damage to forest-cover, the remainder covering miscellaneous property such
as forest products, buildings, and railway and logging equipment destroyed incidental
to forest fires.
Slightly less than half of the total damage to forest-cover again occurred in the
Fort George District and was largely made up in destroyed second-growth and mature-
timber values. The part of that district east of the Rockies in the Peace River area
was the chief trouble spot.
Kamloops Forest District was next highest from the standpoint of damage to
forests, approximately $60,000 being the estimated value of cover destroyed in that
district. It is gratifying to note that acreage of accessible merchantable timber
destroyed in that district is, however, some 30 per cent, of the figure under that heading
for last year.
In the Vancouver Forest District, out of a total of 426 fires, only 34 occasioned
damage over $100, and of these only 14 involved damage over $1,000. Practically half
of the total damage estimated for this district was occasioned by industrial-operation
fires, about one-third by smokers' fires, and the remainder predominantly lightning fires.
Only 6 fires in the Nelson District exceeded 500 acres in extent, and only 2 of these
created appreciable damage. The over-all figure of damage to forest-cover in the
Nelson District was notably low as compared to many previous seasons.
FIRE-CONTROL RESEARCH AND PLANNING.
Planning.
After a four-year lapse during the war years, fire-control planning was recommenced during the past season on a modest scale. Two visibility mapping crews were
put in the field gathering information necessary for a revision of the primary lookout
network on the East Coast of Vancouver Island in the area from Victoria north to
Kelsey Bay.
A total of eighty possible lookout-sites were examined, and full data regarding
water-supply, possible trail or road location, etc., recorded. Visible area was mapped
and a panoramic set of photographs taken for each potential site.
Reports are now being prepared, and it is hoped to have some of the new sites
manned and in operation in the 1947 season. 00 34 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Panoramic Lookout Photographs.
A small amount of work was done on this project during the season, the effort being
limited by lack of trained personnel, suitable transport, and unfavourable photographic
weather.
Two points in Kamloops, one in Prince George, and two in Prince Rupert were
completed.
The new camera, built to our specifications by the National Research Council at
Ottawa, was used for the first time on this work and proved very satisfactory.
Fire-weather Studies.
Weather-recording.
During 1945 a fire-weather recording system was initiated to determine fire danger
from measurements of humidity and fuel moisture at altitude stations. The second
year of experience with this method of recording hazard has substantiated the principle
that fire weather is a function of the presence of dry continental air, characterized by
a pronounced temperature inversion. To be effective, however, it is essential that
stations be so located as to record extreme hazard. Stations too high or too low,
relative to the general surrounding terrain, will yield a milder record and thereby lead
to underestimation during a risk period.
Fire-weather information was received by radio twice daily at Victoria and Vancouver. Humidity at four-hour intervals was taken from hygrograph records and
plotted by individual stations on a monthly wall-chart. Fuel moisture measured at
8 a.m. and 4 p.m. was plotted on a similar graph. The graphical method readily portrayed intensity and trend of drying as indicated by humidity and prevailing inflammability as indicated by fuel moisture. This system enables the extent of relief
developed by moderating influences to be readily appreciated.
An arbitrary line was drawn at 60 per cent, relative humidity and, when the trend
was above this line, the chart was coloured blue, while red was used when humidity fell
below 60 per cent. This level was selected because wood material, exposed to a constant
humidity of 60 per cent., will stabilize at about 10-per-cent. moisture content, the critical
inflammability point. The colouring scheme worked satisfactorily, the volume of blue
indicated the extent of relief at any time, while the volume of red indicated the
deficiency prevailing.
Check-stations were again maintained in valley locations at the Cowichan Lake
Experimental Station and the Langford Suppression Camp. These recordings confirmed previous measurements in such locations and visibly demonstrated the greater
accuracy of ridge measurements. Attention was given to the question whether fire-
hazard could develop in valleys while conditions on ridges were registered as moist.
Results confirmed previous belief in this regard, provided that measuring location is
not too high.
Fuel-moisture sticks used during the season were for the first time dowelled
together in sets of three for 60-gram units and four for 100-gram units. This was
found to be a very satisfactory improvement and, for the future, it is proposed that all
sticks will be dowelled and used in 100-gram sets only. All 60-gram balances throughout the Province have been called in for conversion to 100-gram for future use.
Investigations.
Considerable advance has been made concerning the measurement of fire-hazard.
Similar advance has not developed in either the recognition of the responsible meteorological factors in the study of their advance and progress. Investigations towards this
end were planned for the season, but the programme was seriously curtailed by equip- REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946. OO 35
ment and instrument shortage. However, a number of minor investigations were
conducted, as outlined briefly in the following.
A study to determine variation of fire-hazard with altitude was carried out in the
Ladysmith region. Previous investigation in this field had been undertaken in the
northern Rocky Mountain region, where existence of thermo belt has been fairly well
defined. No such research had been carried out at the Coast and, with wide variation
of topography, more adequate information was necessary in order that comparative
hazard might be adequately appreciated. A series of complete weather-stations were
located at varying elevations from the 40- to 3,500-foot level, and fuel-moisture and
temperature stations maintained on intermediate 2,200-foot and 3,100-foot levels.
Records obtained indicated that the greatest intensity of risk in this area developed
from 2,000- to 3,000-foot altitude. Comparison with records of Forest Service lookouts
throughout the same risk period, however, indicated that the situation is not uniform,
and while the 2,000- to 3,000-foot level is the most dangerous in the Ladysmith area,
it is not possible to state that this level is the critical zone in other adjacent regions.
Obviously, therefore, independent investigations must be made within each zone. An
interesting finding in this experiment was the fact that practically no inversion
occurred at any of the experiment-stations set up. This was apparently due to a state
of onshore north-easterly wind movement proving again that inversions are confined
to higher valleys which receive an indirect flow of air and wherein, during the night
hours, calm conditions prevail.
A number of minor studies were made bearing on the broad question of progressive
increase or build-up of fire danger throughout the fire season.
The first of these, conducted with the co-operation of the Dominion Forest Products
Laboratory in Vancouver, was the investigation of absorption of fuel-moisture sticks
under varying conditions of temperature and humidity. The purpose of the study was
to obtain some appreciation of the speed and the extent to which sticks are kept to
changing humidities, and it was found when sticks were at a moisture-level close to
equilibrium with atmospheric conditions, the rate of increase approached the zero point.
A further experiment conducted was designed to ascertain trend of fuel moisture
in shady locations. In this study two sets of sticks were placed at both valley and
ridge locations—one set in the open, the other in the shade. In every case, fuel-
moisture content of the shaded sticks followed a similar general trend to that of the
sticks in the adjoining open locations. Moisture content was, however, about 3 per
cent, higher throughout the season. A thorough study under this head was made for
variation of fuel moisture between sticks placed on the ground and planted 12 inches
above the ground. Results indicated that, during each designated period, sticks on the
ground remained consistently higher than the sticks above the ground. Differences
between the two readings were greater in the morning than in the afternoon and, as
the season advanced, the differences between the two locations also lessened. The
findings indicated that the present method of exposing fuel-moisture sticks 12 inches
above the ground is entirely satisfactory and has rendered a suitable measurement of
inflammability.
An investigation to determine comparative inflammability measurement during
risk periods at Northern and Southern Vancouver Island stations was also conducted
during the season. As northern test indicators, valley and ridge weather-recording
stations were established in the vicinity of Port McNeill in the pulp zone and near the
south end of Nimpkish Lake in the fir zone. Fuel moistures and temperatures only
were recorded as no hygrographs were available. Results obtained indicated a mild
lowering occurred during hazard periods, but hazard at no time reached a dangerous
level and was in sharp contrast with the established Lower Vancouver Island stations.
Comparison of the fir and pulp areas showed almost identical trend and indicated con- 00 36 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
clusively that hazard in these areas is influenced by prevailing weather.    This study is
not considered complete and will be carried on again next year.
Finally, an investigation to determine loss of weight by fuel-moisture sticks when
exposed to weather influence was carried out at three Vancouver Island stations. Seven
sets of sticks were exposed at each of three locations—Langford, Alberni, and Elk Falls
lookouts. One set of sticks was picked up at two-week intervals at each location and
weight-loss determined. Little variation in weight-loss was noted between different
locations, and loss decreased steadily until August 1st, when it appeared to taper off
in a gradual manner. The total weight-loss throughout the season was less than 1 per
cent, despite excessive rainfall during the period exposed. The conclusion was that it
was unnecessary to make any adjustment in readings to counteract weathering loss in
fuel-moisture sticks.
FIRE-SUPPRESSION CREWS.
Sixteen fire-suppression crews were organized and, from mid-June to mid-September,
were stationed in localities where fires are frequent and rapid suppression action is
possible. Twenty crews had been planned, but the lack of suitable personnel and other
difficulties prevented two crews being established in each of the Vancouver and Fort
George Districts. Except for one crew of ten men, crews were composed as usual of a
foreman, a cook, and six men, and each was a self-contained, mobile unit. Crews were
distributed as follows:— Number
Forest District. of Crews.        Fires fought.
Vancouver   4 25
Prince Rupert  1 Nil
Kamloops   6 43
Nelson   5 27
Totals   16 95
Capable foremen and cooks were difficult to secure because of the higher wages
and longer period of employment available in private industry, and the type of crewman
desired was not readily obtained. In the past, crews have been made up of high-school
students and, though such crews have some advantages, the scope and term of their
employment is limited. It was intended this year to use as many adult crewmen as
possible, particularly young returned servicemen, but only a limited number accepted
and stayed at the work and, in the end, most crews were either students or a mixture
of students and adults. The mixed crews worked well, but their period of employment
was still limited by the school term. This limitation is a particular disadvantage in the
northern districts, where there is usually a flash hazard in May, before the crews can
be organized.
The sixteen crews fought 95 fires, compared with 132 fires fought by the sixteen
crews in 1945—a reflection of the lower fire-hazard this year. The crew at Burns Lake,
in the Prince Rupert District, could not be established until school closed in June and,
as the summer hazard did not develop, it was not employed on any fires. There were
no changes in fire-fighting equipment, except an increased use of tank-trucks, which
seem to be an excellent part of the organization.
During the time personnel were not fighting fire or standing by in hazardous
periods, considerable improvement-work was done on forest-protection roads, telephone
lines, buildings, and other installations. More could be accomplished if such work was
the chief function of the crews and fire-fighting secondary, but the first object is fire-
suppression and other work must be arranged so as not to interfere. The most efficient
balance is hard to maintain. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946.
OO 37
The scarcity of suitable men may be expected to right itself in time, but some
difficulties are perennial. It requires much time and work to organize, train, and
supervise crews each year. This work is done by Forest Officers in addition to their
other duties, whereas forest districts employing several crews would seem to require
an officer on this work alone for the fire season. When the greater proportion of
foremen and personnel are new to the job each season, as is now the case, the work is
not simplified nor the efficiency greatly improved year by year. It would be desirable
if capable foremen, at least, could be employed the year around to provide an experienced cadre for suppression-work.
RECORD OF SUPPRESSION ACTION, 1946.
Number
of Fires.
Subsequent Spread (by Number of Fires).
Size of Fire when attacked.
y& Acre
or less.
.4 Acre
to 1 Acre.
1 Acre to
5 Acres.
5 Acres to
50 Acres.
Over
50 Acres.
54
14
18
7
2
50
7
6
1
3
6
4
1
3
1
3
2
2
1
2
3
Totals 	
95
64
13
5
7
6
AIRCRAFT.
Tenders were called early in the year, and a two-year contract was subsequently
negotiated with a commercial air-line company for charter flying to cover forest-
protection requirements. Under the contract two float planes were made available,
based in the Fort George District, and two twin-motor land planes for the southern
portion of the Province, one based at Kamloops and one at Nelson. Although based
at specific points, all aircraft were available on call in cases of special necessity in other
forest districts. Usage was chiefly in fire-detection, but light transport work was
carried out to a considerable extent in the northern districts with the float planes based
there.    During the season approximately 336 hours of flying were completed.
Although the aircraft used were fitted with radio equipment, the type of installation obtainable was such that it left much to be desired so far as consistent communication with ground stations was concerned. This detracted to a marked extent from
immediate reporting of fires detected. At the close of the season, tests were carried
out with new-type equipment, and results of such tests give every indication of satisfactory communication next year. It is proposed that next season all aircraft will have
radio equipment capable of operating on the frequency of the district to which the
aircraft is assigned and also on a common frequency for use in the event of aircraft
being moved from one district to another.
Parachuting of fire-fighting equipment and supplies was carried out successfully,
as in past years, in the northern districts. During the season tests were also conducted
with a 6-foot diameter smaller chute obtained from the United States war surplus
supplies. It was found that these small chutes work very well with light loads, and
they are obtainable at considerably lower cost than chutes previously used. Orders
have been placed for further supplies of these chutes for the coming year.
MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT.
Automotive.
As in many other lines of endeavour, it was hoped that during the year we would
have been able to replace much of our old equipment, with resulting more dependable 00 38 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
and economical operation.    Unfortunately, due to labour conditions and causes beyond
our control, this was not possible.
In so far as automotive equipment is concerned, between the period September,
1945, and April, 1946, ninety vehicles were requisitioned under the then existing "A"
priority rating for purchase. At the close of 1946 seventy-two of these vehicles have
been delivered. This situation has meant retaining in service many old units which
should properly have been discarded some years ago, with resulting unreliable operation
and high cost.
Of the new units obtained, four 1-ton delivery-type vehicles were built up as
tankers. Design was essentially the same as earlier tanker models, with the exception
that water-pumps installed were of a more modern design.
One D-6 crawler tractor and hydraulic bulldozer was requisitioned during the year,
but delivery was not received. It is anticipated we may obtain this equipment early in
the new fiscal year.
Fire-pumps and Outboard Motors.
No new pressure pumps were purchased during the year, but twenty-seven forestry-
type units were obtained following disbandment of the civil defence organization.
These units were dismantled at the Marine Station, and, by careful selection and'
purchase of some additional new parts, sixteen complete units were distributed to the
districts and placed in service.
Outboards and their repair parts were also in short supply during the year. Out
of twenty-eight new units of various power sizes estimated as required for the season,
only ten were obtainable, and five of these were purchased in used condition and reconditioned for use.
Mechanical Inspection.
The services of a mechanical-maintenance inspector were obtained during the
year as an assistant to the mechanical superintendent. This made possible, for the
first time since 1939, proper inspection of all Forest Service automotive equipment,
fire-pumps, outboards, and tractors in the field during the year. It is proposed to
further supplement the inspection staff in the coming year if suitable personnel is
available.
FOREST SERVICE MARINE STATION.
As of April, 1946, the Marine Station was set up as a separate entity under direction of a superintendent responsible to head office, Victoria. This change in jurisdiction
was designed to relieve the Vancouver Forest District office of considerable work
involved in administration, supervision, and detail. The old name, Fraser River Repair-
station, was changed to Forest Service Marine Station as more in keeping with the
activities there and to clearly differentiate from commercial concerns operating on the
Mainland.
Looking towards ultimate expansion of the station and taking advantage of a
favourable opportunity, additional water-front property, to the extent of 4 acres
immediately adjoining the present station, was purchased at a reasonable cost.
Some further improvement of the old property was made in levelling, using river-
dredged material. Lighting equipment and electrical power circuits within the station
were modernized and extended to take care of increased load and to bring them in line
with the electrical code regulations. Some small alterations were made in office accommodation to meet the changed administrative set-up.
Purchase of shop equipment made necessary by extended activities at the station
and difficulties incurred in shopping out work included a 300-ampere Lincoln electric
welder, obtained from war surplus stocks, and a DeWalt all-purpose saw. '
roteit Setirice Matine Station J
on the   Tta5et Mlvet.
Pump-testing apparatus.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946. OO 39
Personnel of the station now totals twenty, including superintendent, foreman
shipwright, foreman mechanic, two marine mechanics, four ships carpenters, two
painters, three pump and outboard mechanics, one mechanic's helper, two clerks, and
three watchmen. Of this staff, nine are permanent appointments and the remainder
are on a temporary basis. Temporary staff fluctuates as requirements of the work
demand.
During the year thirty-two launches passed through the station for overhaul.
Delivery was obtained on three marine engines requisitioned last year, and two of these
installations have been completed. An additional power plant ordered during the year
is still to be delivered.
Construction of one new vessel, the launch " Cherry II.," was completed early in
the year, and the ship placed in operation in the Vancouver Forest District as an
Assistant Ranger boat. The craft is 35 feet over-all, with 9-foot beam, powered with
a marine Diesel unit. The keel of a similar launch of the same type has recently been
laid, and work is going ahead as materials become available.
Work on the pump and outboard floor of the station during the year comprised
overhaul and rebuilding of ninety fire-fighting pump units, overhaul of thirty-nine
outboard motors, and, in addition, construction of various pieces of equipment such as
compressors, alidades, etc. Due to the extreme shortage of repair parts, pump gears,
rotors, pistons, tanks, caps, and castings were manufactured at the station.
BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION.
Prevailing shortages of material and labour and general high costs prevented other
than urgent new construction. General maintenance-work and minor new construction
were carried out in various forest districts as in the past.
During the year tenders were called for construction of Ranger stations at Parksville and Birch Island. In the first-mentioned instance tenders were rejected on the
basis of excessive cost, and no bids were received for the Birch Island work. These
projects, with several others, are proposals for the coming year.
Plans and specifications were drawn and adopted for standard Ranger station
buildings. These were of two main types, designed to meet the situation where office
space is required within the Forest Service establishment and for the condition where
the office is elsewhere and only tool- and car-storage space is required.
Drawings and specifications were prepared for prefabricated lookout buildings, and
these will be fabricated at the Forest Service Marine Station. The first of these units
should be ready for erection early in the spring.
RADIO.
By the close of 1946 the increased size of district networks made necessary some
long-anticipated improvements in operating methods. Three major deficiencies had to
be overcome: (1) The lack of permanent operator-technicians at our district headquarters stations; (2) confusion caused by too many stations on a single frequency;
and (3) the fact that headquarters stations were located in the centres of population
and consequently in areas of maximum man-made interference.
The first problem was overcome early in the year by appointment of permanent
technician-operators to district headquarters at Vancouver, Kamloops, Nelson, and
Prince George. These men are qualified technicians and take care of all overhaul and
repair of equipment in their individual districts. They are responsible for the handling
of traffic on their local network and the proper co-ordinating of same on the Provincial
network.
The second deficiency, although not entirely overcome, was largely eliminated
during 1946.   Three new channels—3,392.5, 3,382.5, and 3,370 kilocycles—were obtained 00 40 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
on a temporary continuous basis and, it is hoped, will be permanently allotted to the
Service or others awarded. Further plans in this direction include the placing of
Prince Rupert headquarters station on its own frequency and the obtaining of an inter-
district frequency for use of headquarters stations only in the Provincial network.
This, it is hoped, will eventually be in the 5,000-kilocycle channel, but to date it has not
been possible to secure award on this wave-length.
Some progress was made towards the solution of the noise-level problem, but considerably more work is indicated. Development of an RCR-HQ type of four-channel
remote receiver was completed in Victoria during the late spring. Subsequently installation was made at Nelson District headquarters station at a previously chosen site just
outside the city. Improvement in operation of the station was so marked that no
comparison can be made with previous results.
In addition to the large four-channel remote receiver, single-frequency battery-
operated remote receivers were also tried out at Salmo and Kettle Valley, in the Nelson
District. In both cases there was very definite improvement in operation of the station,
but some mechanical details were found to need improvement in this model, and this
will be carried out before next season.
During the coming year it is proposed to install remote receivers at Kamloops,
Vancouver, and Victoria headquarters stations. Tests have already been carried out
and sites selected for these installations.
Although it was anticipated the supply situation would be relieved by the winter
of 1946, this condition did not develop. Obtaining of repair and structural parts in
Victoria has been more difficult than at any time since 1939. In addition, prices
increased considerably, and no immediate let-up is in sight for the coming year. New
PAC units ordered last spring were not received, and there is no indication when
delivery may be expected.
We have not been able to put VHF sets to useful purpose in any general plan of
operation. Our terrain is so rugged and the distance between stations such that sets
of this type do not lend themselves to general usage. In addition, our operation practice is such that reliance must be placed on any of our stations to transmit in all directions for purpose of relay when conditions are difficult. There still remains, however,
some possibility of using this type of set from lookout to Ranger station as an adjunct
to, and not in place of, the medium-frequency set. This may be a partial solution to
elimination of some stations from certain main schedules, thus allowing greater length
of time on the air for more active stations.
Following are type and number of sets now in use by the Service: SPF sets, 204;
PAC sets, 35; launch sets (50 watts), 10; launch sets (100 watts), 3; S-25 sets, 2;
VHF sets, 2; headquarters receiver remote installations, 2; Ranger station remote
receivers, 2; total, all types, 260. The majority of these units are operated only during
the fire-season months. Operation during off-season period of the year comprises the
Provincial headquarters stations network and individual district networks.
With the improvement in operation of the Provincial network, there has been a
marked increase in interdistrict traffic. As an indication of this increase in traffic
handled, Victoria station records show a total of 861 messages in 1944, 1,330 in 1945,
and 2,558 in 1946. These figures do not include weather data and reports, which
comprise many hundreds of additional messages during fire-season months.
SLASH-DISPOSAL AND SNAG-FALLING.
Section 113a of the " Forest Act," enacted in 1937 and subsequently amended from
time to time, was repealed in 1946 and a revised section 113a substituted. Although
final objectives remain the same, the new section 113a defines more clearly the intent
of the legislation and the general obligation of operators in meeting its requirements.
Subsection  (4)  is probably the most outstanding revision in so far as the logging IYKti>  Ul-   HJKbbl    btKVICb. I
Kadlo  /tan^mtttet-Aceceiiret^,      j£j
___^^^^   .f.-v/a''       „r_
a.ed a'
Type   SPF — 2-watt   portable
transmitter-receiver,  battery-
operated.  Weight 21 Ib. with
portable batteries.
Type RCR . . HQ—Four-channel remote-control receiver.
Type RCR . . SPF—Single-
channel battery-operated
remote-control receiver,
experimental model.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946. OO 41
operator is concerned, in that it relieves him from slash-burning until such time as he
is definitely instructed so to do by the Deputy Minister or any officer of the Forest
Service authorized by the Deputy Minister to give such instruction. The introduction
of subsections (7) and (8), defining slash- and snag-disposal as separate obligations
and providing for compensation accordingly, was a most desirable change and has been
favourably commented upon by the logging industry. Other changes made have
assisted materially in general administration of this section of the Act.
The personnel of the Slash-disposal Division in the Vancouver Forest District was
increased by the addition of two slash-disposal officers. This work is now being carried
on by four experienced officials, and their efforts account largely for the improvement
in slash-disposal practice.
In respect to total acreage burned, results achieved in slash-disposal in 1946 were
not up to expectations. This situation does not result from lack of interest or co-operation on the part of the logging industry but rather to uncontrollable conditions, such
as adverse weather and labour disputes.
In regard to weather, the year did not present average conditions, in that occurrence of favourable burning periods, during which safe and satisfactory burning could
be practised, failed to materialize.
Spring burning was washed out by a wet and cold winter condition prolonged into
May. This prevented conducting spring burning planned by many operations and, to
some extent, interfered with the planned progress of logging and fall slash-disposal.
In respect to spring slash-burning, it is of interest to note an increasing number of
operators undertaking the disposal of slash in this period. This practice has merit,
provided operators are willing to accept the additional risk and costs involved in
obtaining satisfactory burns.
Fall burning, while successfully conducted in some regions, must, considering the
district as a whole, be classified as unsatisfactory. Unfavourable weather occurring in
September was the chief factor causing this condition. Insufficient moisture up to
September 12th made broadcast burning prior to this date very risky, while subsequent
to that date, particularly in the Campbell River-Courtenay and Alberni areas, drying
periods were not of sufficient duration to allow a really satisfactory burning condition
to build up in slash.
The labour situation and voluntary operation closures during hazardous weather
were also contributing factors affecting slash-disposal in 1946. A loggers' strike
extending from May 15th to June 20th interrupted the planned progress of logging and,
as a result, many operations subsequently behind in their logging schedule were
prevented from burning.
However, very noticeable improvement in preparation for, and in the actual conduct of, slash-disposal was evident during the year. Operators were more inclined
towards undertaking the work of slash-disposal in line with approved practice and
gave more consideration to the protection of residual and marginal timber values than
in the past. " Goop," an incendiary developed during the recent war, was experimented
with by some logging operators. The results obtained were as a general rule below
expectations and placed the material in a class little better than Diesel oil for the
purpose of igniting slash or forcing or spreading fire.
The provisions of the new section 113a which require the falling of snags concurrently with logging were carried out in a most satisfactory manner. This new requirement has assisted materially in obtaining the desired results on small operations and
has also noticeably lessened the work involved in administration. At the year-end the
majority of operators had fulfilled their obligation 100 per cent., outstanding snag-
disposal being confined generally to immediately current logging.
In brief recapitulation a total of 57,424 acres of forest land was logged during
1946 in the portion of the Vancouver Forest District to which section 113a applies.    Of 00 42
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
this acreage, a total of 31,941 acres was examined and officially reported on. The
balance of 25,483 acres represents areas logged subsequent to September 1st and for
slash-disposal requirements will be dealt with in 1947.
Compensation for failure to comply with the provisions of the section 113a in
respect to 1945 and prior slash was levied during the year as follows:—
Number of
Operations.
_____ 33
Cause.
Failure to dispose of slash	
Failure to dispose of slash and fall snags  15
Failure to fall snags  22
Totals .
70
Acreage.
4,415.95
1,610.50
1,748.40
7,774.85
Detailed statistics on all slash-disposal for the year 1946 appear in tabular form on
pages 91-93 of this report. It will be of interest to note the marked reduction in
damage resulting from slash-burning. This, it is believed, is partially the result of
favourable weather conditions and, to a greater extent, to insistence of district officers
on observance of recognized practices in actual conduct of disposal.
PREVENTION.
On the Coast, in the Vancouver Forest District, no general closure was necessary
during the year. However, the major portion of the Sayward Forest was closed to
travel, except under permit, for the period July 1st to mid-September. Extensive plantations, naturally reforested areas, and major timber values in this forest warranted
this special precaution. Control was effected by patrolmen stationed on the highways
at point of entrance and exit to the forest. Stopping of all cars permitted counselling
caution in use of fire and smoking, and also allowed distribution of a specially prepared
combination map of the area and pamphlet appealing for co-operation in forest
protection.
In the Nelson Forest District sixteen regional travel closures were invoked for an
average duration of about three weeks during the most serious hazard period. These
closures all covered individual watersheds where values existing warranted closure
form of prevention.
In the Kamloops Forest District only one area in the Tulameen region was closed
to travel, primarily for watershed protection.
No closures were invoked in the Prince Rupert or Fort George Districts.
Following in tabular form is detail of all 1946 closures:—
Area.
District.
Effective
Date.
Date
suspended.
Sayward Forest	
Bear Creek	
Sand Creek	
Sheep Creek	
Erie Creek	
Lamb Creek	
Upper Kootenay River	
Hidden Creek	
Anderson and Five Mile Creeks	
Porcupine Creek	
Duhamel and Upper Lemon Creeks	
Tiger, Cambridge, Gorge, and Casino Creeks	
South Fork of Salmon River and Lost Creek	
Blueberry, Poupore, Sullivan, Murphy, McNally, Hanna, and
Topping Creeks	
Granby River	
Crawford Creek	
St. Mary River	
Pend d'Oreille River	
Vancouver.
Kamloops..
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
June 25
July 2B
Aug. 2
Aug. IS
Aug. 13
Aug. 13
Aug. 13
Aug. 13
Aug. 13
Aug. 13
Aug. 13
Aug. 13
Aug. 13
Aug. 13
Aug. 13
Aug. 13
Aug. 13
Aug. 13
Sept. 13
Sept. 17
Sept. 4
Sept.
Sept.
Sept.
Sept.
Sept.
Sept.
Sept.
Sept.
Sept.
Sept.
Sept. 4
Sept. 4
Sept. 4
Sept. 4
Sept. 4 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946. OO 43
Other prevention-work undertaken during the season throughout the Province
generally included timely prevention messages by press and radio, addresses to
service clubs and schools, participation in local fairs by means of forest-protection
exhibits, and posting of the usual highway and other fire-prevention signs. Routine
inspection of operations for required fire-fighting equipment and fire safety measures
were carried out as usual.
CO-OPERATION—OTHER AGENCIES.
Again we must express appreciation and thanks for very timely and valuable
co-operation received throughout the season from the United States Forest Service in
detection and patrolling of fires adjacent to the Border.
Valuable co-operation was also received throughout the year from press and radio
in timely articles and announcements. Some business concerns made the forest-
protection message part of their advertising, and it is worthy of note that one sporting-
goods merchant in the Kamloops District, who conducts a weekly broadcast of news of
primary interest to sportsmen, concluded each programme with a summary of existing
forest-fire hazard conditions and appropriate warning with respect to care with fire
in the woods.    Co-operation of this nature is most valuable and very much appreciated.
The R.C.A.F. again assisted greatly in the Coastal region in providing detection
flights, particularly in the Vancouver Forest District during hazardous fire-weather
conditions. Pilots are keen and most co-operative, and this assistance meets a most
pressing need and is without doubt the means of considerable saving in suppression
costs.
As usual, excellent co-operation was also received from the numerous honorary fire
wardens and fire-prevention officers active during the season in all districts. These
men, who voluntarily assume their duties year after year, fill a key position in the
protection picture in their various individual communities.
FIRE LAW ENFORCEMENT.
It was necessary to lay information in thirty-nine cases during the year over the
whole Province. This is slightly above the ten-year average but is not considered an
alarming situation in the light of population increase and expansion in forest industry.
Of the total prosecutions, conviction was obtained in all but two instances. Again it
must be reported that the greater proportion of prosecutions involved burning without
permit and clearly indicates that public education in regard to governing regulations
in this connection must be concentrated upon next year. It is worthy of note that no
case involving contravening a forest closure was recorded during the year. 00 44 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
FOREST RANGER SCHOOL.
Fulfilling a long-felt need of the Service, a Ranger School was established in 1945
and put into operation during the past year. The necessary staff appointments were
made in April, 1945, and the preliminary work of selecting a site for the school commenced shortly thereafter. Due to labour and material shortages, it was necessary to
locate buildings which would accommodate the school without too much remodelling,
and it was finally decided that the former relief and Alternative Service Workers' camp
at the Green Timbers Forestry Station could be adapted for temporary quarters, pending construction of suitable permanent buildings on the station. The work of remodelling the camp for school purposes, and preparing and arranging various courses of
study, occupied the staff of two during the remainder of 1945, but the school was ready
to open by the first week of January, 1946.
On January 7th, 1946, the Green Timbers Ranger School was formally opened by
the Honourable Minister of Lands and Forests, Mr. E. T. Kenney, in a short but
impressive ceremony in the lecture-hall. Twenty students, selected from the Ranger
and Assistant Ranger staffs of all five forest districts of the Province, were in attendance. Included in the group were two Rangers, ten Acting Rangers, and eight
Assistant Rangers.
The first three-month term was largely devoted to forest protection and included
lectures as follows:— Hours.
1. Part XL of the " Forest Act " and Operation Manual  40
2. Weather factors influencing fire-control and forest inflamma
bility   13
3. Fire occurrence, behaviour, and reports     6
4. Public relations and fire law enforcement  24
5. Preliminary fire organization  24
6. Fire suppression  18
7. Construction and maintenance of improvements  24
8. Mechanical equipment  44
9. Office methods and maps  18
10. Arithmetic review, simple trigonometry, logarithms  44
11. Calculation of traverses  10
12. Forest pathology  9
13. Forest entomology  12
14. Botany   36
15. General aspects of forestry  12
Both Departmental and outside assistance was obtained by the regular school staff
in the presentation of the above-outlined courses in order to give the students the
advantages of instruction from specialists in the various technical subjects. In this
connection, grateful acknowledgment is made for the lectures on meteorology delivered
by Mr. P. Brun of the Dominion Meteorological Service; for the course in forest
pathology given by Dr. J. E. Bier and his staff of the Division of Plant Pathology,
Dominion Department of Agriculture; and for the course in forest entomology given
by Mr. H. Richmond and his staff of the Division of Forest Entomology, Dominion
Department of Agriculture.
During the spring term an evening course in first aid was arranged in co-operation
with the St. John Ambulance Society, which sent out an instructor one night per week
during the term to give instruction in this important subject. All of the students
received certificates at the completion of the course.
The second term, or fall term, opened Monday, September 16th, and the following
three months were devoted to forest management, except for the completion of the REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946. OO 45
course in fire suppression, continued from the spring term.    Courses of study were
as follows:— Hours.
1. Fire suppression (continued)      15
2. Methods of surveying, survey instruments      82
3. Forest mensuration (cruising, volume tables, etc.)      88
4. Forest management, " Forest Act," Management Manual  100
5. Scaling    40
6. Stumpage appraisals, forest valuations    47
7. Silvics and the practice of silviculture in British Columbia     60
After completion of the regular spring term a short course in meteorology, weather
factors influencing fire-control, forest inflammability, fire occurrence and behaviour,
preliminary fire organization, and fire suppression was conducted in co-operation with
the industry. This course was open to company foremen, fire wardens, fire bosses, and
others nominated by the logging companies interested. This was in response to various
requests from the logging industry for such a course. Thirteen men, representing
nine of the major logging companies, took advantage of the offer and attended an
eight-day session commencing April 15th. Favourable comments on the value of the
course have since been received and, if there is a call for it, similar classes will be held
in future years.
During the year selection was made of a permanent school-site, approximating
6 acres, situated in Plots 24 and 25 of the Green Timbers Forestry Station, a short
distance east of the Nichol Road and back of the main nursery beds. This area is on
fairly high ground and can be made an attractive setting, as seen from the Pacific or
trans-continental highway, for the school buildings. The area has been cleared and
a contract has been let for the construction of gravelled access roads to all proposed
building locations, including necessary court space. This contract also includes the
gravelling of that part of the Nichol Road giving access from the Pacific Highway,
which is being opened up by the District of Surrey at our request. Work under the
contract was commenced in the fall but had to be suspended due to wet weather. 00 46 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
PUBLIC RELATIONS AND EDUCATION.
Normal activities were maintained by the Division during the year under survey,
as enumerated in detail below:—
Newspapers.—Forest-protection advertisements were inserted in ten daily, thirty-
five weekly, and eight other publications. In so far as the daily and weekly papers were
concerned, the advertisements comprised a series of three designs, the copy and ideas
for the advertisements being the work of this Division and the art-work being done by
the staff of the Government Printing Bureau. Special advertisements were designed
for the remaining publications. The appreciation of the Division is due to the press
for space in many publications which was freely devoted to editorials and other items
in aid of forest protection.
Radio.—The radio networks co-operated, as in previous years, with time devoted to
forest-fire hazard announcements and news items. This assistance is of immense value
and is gratefully acknowledged.
Motion Pictures.—During the year, sixty-one of the seventy-five films comprising
the Forest Service film library were used more extensively than ever before. Forest
Service films were shown to 371 different audiences, totalling 32,633 persons. This
brings our cumulative total recorded for 1945-46 to 49,180. The three most widely
circulated films were: " Exploring Tweedsmuir Park," shown fifty-one times to 3,089
persons; " Land of Timber," shown thirty-six times to 2,583 persons; and " Garibaldi
Park," shown thirty times to 2,478 persons.
The largest single audience recorded during the year was 1,200 persons at the
Bay Street Armouries, Victoria, B.C., who saw " Forest Farming," " Jack Frost," and
" Snow Thrills " on November 15th.
Forest Service Calendar.—The 1947 calendar was produced during the year in the
customary format. The greatest quantity ever printed was secured, but demand, as
usual, exceeded supply.
" Forest and Outdoors."—A total of 658 honorary fire wardens was appointed, and
each one provided with a year's complimentary subscription to the Canadian forest
conservation magazine, " Forest and Outdoors." A letter of thanks for his co-operation
and interest was forwarded to each appointee over the signature of the Minister.
Publications and Printed Material.—Two technical publications were edited during
the year, in assistance to the Operations and Economics Divisions respectively. A series
of forest-protection bulletins, ten in number, was also edited on behalf of the Operations
Division. Printing arrangements in connection with these and a number of minor
projects was also undertaken. The Annual Report for 1945 was edited and printing
supervised.
Public Meetings.—The staff of the Division addressed several gatherings on forestry topics and represented the Service at a number of Fish and Game Club meetings.
In some cases talks were supplemented by showing motion pictures from the Forest
Service film library.
Library.—The work of mounting index prints on individual cards was completed.
The acquisition of additional book-case space and an index-drawer stand enabled a
neater arrangement of this phase of Division work. A tabular statement of library
operations appears on page 100.
Posters and Signs.—Two new fire-protection posters were designed and printed,
and one sample of the new style " Scotchlite " road-sign secured for the consideration
of Service officers.
Exhibits.—Preliminary plans for exhibits at district agricultural fairs during 1947
were instituted, and it is anticipated two exhibits will be available for circulation in
1947. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946. OO 47
Staff.—An assistant to the Forester in charge was appointed in the last quarter of
the year.
It is evident, however, that the Division should have closer contact with the district
offices, and this can best be obtained by the appointment of individuals in each district
specifically assigned to public relations work. 00 48 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
GRAZING.
GENERAL CONDITIONS.
The generally prosperous condition of the live-stock industry over the past several
years continued during 1946. Prices remained steady at high levels and, on the whole,
range and hay-crops were good. The rancher, of course, was beset with many of the
difficulties common to all businesses during the current period of reconversion, as well
as with some problems peculiar to ranching alone. A noteworthy attitude of progress
is present among ranchers in general, and they are becoming much alive to the need for
improvements in their methods of production and for co-operative effort. An example
of this is the successful representations made by the ranchers for the establishment of
a range experimental station in the vicinity of Kamloops.
The winter of 1945-46 was distinguished by extremely heavy snowfall throughout
most range areas. This condition was followed by plentiful rains over most areas
during May and June and occasional showers during the balance of the summer season.
The only exceptions to these favourable conditions were in the Chilcotin area and in the
Quesnel district. As a result, stock came out of the feed-yards in the spring in fair
shape, considering the long feeding period, and, once on the range, all classes picked up
rapidly in flesh and came in this past fall in excellent condition. Sheep came off the
alpine ranges in good shape. Except on non-irrigated land around Williams Lake and
in the Chilcotin, hay-crops were fair to good. Haying conditions were excellent from
a weather standpoint, and high-quality feed was put up.
Ranchers report that, in the main, the labour situation is somewhat easier than it
has been for several years. The quality continues poor, as experienced help is hard to
get. Sheepmen report that it is all but impossible to get men, experienced or otherwise,
to act as herders.
After being at plague proportions for several years, the grasshoppers did not cause
any considerable damage during 1946. This is probably due to a parasite which is
afflicting the hoppers. Extensive oiling and poisoning was also carried out in certain
areas.
In some parts of the Interior the encroachment of certain undesirable weeds on
the range has become noticeable—so much so that in some districts they have practically
excluded all grasses.
MARKETS AND PRICES.
With cattle prices remaining steady at high levels, good returns were assured to
live-stock producers. Due to diversion of Prairie beef to Eastern markets the Vancouver market was able to absorb the usual heavy offerings of stock in October and
November without prices being depressed to any extent. The successful efforts of the
B.C. Live-stock Producers' Co-operative Association to spread offerings of grass-finished
beef over as long a period as possible also acted as a stabilizing influence. Some 53,497
head of cattle and 33,976 sheep and lambs were shipped in 1946. The 1946 wool-clip
ran to 277,339 lb., a slight decrease from the 1945 figure. Prices for good steers in
Vancouver ran from a low of $11.87 in January to $12.73 in July for an average of
$12.25, an increase of 63 cents per hundredweight over 1945. Lamb prices averaged
$13.31 per hundredweight, an increase of 70 cents over 1945. Wool prices remained
steady at an average of about 26% cents per pound.
There were seven major live-stock sales during 1946. At Quesnel the annual sale
totalled 1,306 head, or double the number sold in 1945. The Twenty-eighth Annual
Provincial Bull Sale, held at Kamloops, sold 129 bulls, the top price for a Hereford bull
being $3,000. The Interior Stockmen's Association sale broke all records, 1,147 cattle
being sold.    The annual ram sale held at Kamloops disposed of 79 rams, and the annual REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946. OO 49
Cariboo bull sale and fat-stock show and sale held in Kamloops in December grossed
$39,254, as compared with $34,930 in 1945. At this sale the boys' and girls' entries
accounted for 44 per cent, of all sales. At Elko, in the East Kootenay, the annual sale
was held by the Waldo Stock Breeders' Association.
LIVE-STOCK LOSSES.
As might be expected in a good grass-year, losses from poisonous weeds were
relatively light. Depredations by wolves and bears are reported to have increased very
considerably again this year. In the Cariboo District the situation is particularly
serious, and in the Okanagan bears are reported to be responsible for numerous killings
on the range. Coyotes are also very numerous and caused severe losses in lambs.
Ranchers and farmers are appealing through the B.C. Federation of Agriculture for
higher bounties on all predators. There have been no severe losses due to animal
diseases during the year.
RANGE RECONNAISSANCE.
Detailed information of topographical features, grass types, improvements, water,
and forest-cover must be secured in the field by examination and plotted on base maps
to permit of satisfactory range plans being set up. During 1946 we were able to
increase our staff of technically trained men having the qualifications necessary to
undertake such studies. Two intensive surveys were undertaken, covering a total of
407,680 acres. In the Clinton area some 338,880 acres were covered between the
Cariboo Highway and the Fraser River, and 68,800 acres in the Anarchist Mountain
area were also mapped. In addition to the value of the above surveys in dealing with
the immediate problems existing in the range areas concerned, they will form a valuable
basis for future administration. Such reconnaissance information is essential to the
sound management of Crown ranges. A large percentage of the current problems
arising in range administration could have been avoided if proper information had been
available earlier.
Further reconnaissance projects are planned for 1947, and it is proposed to carry
out this work as funds will allow until all our range areas are mapped.
CO-OPERATION.
Live-stock Associations continued to increase in number throughout the Province,
and reflect the desire of the ranching industry to co-operate for their mutual benefit
and in order to be able to deal as a unit with other industries and the Government.
They are encouraged in order to give the Department a close contact with men using
the range and to ensure a consensus of opinion on matters affecting all range-users.
When incorporated, such associations are given official recognition and a voice in range
management. In the Kamloops District sixty-one association meetings were held, fifty-
four of which were attended by Forest Officers.
GRAZING PERMITS.
The number of grazing permits issued continues to increase, as more individuals
find it necessary and desirable to make use of Crown ranges. The tabulation on page
100 shows the volume of business for 1946 and the past ten years.
COLLECTIONS.
Grazing fees are billed in the spring when the permit is issued, and accounts are
sent out at that time. These accounts are paid as the rancher has the funds and is
able to make payment.    The fact that our outstanding arrears have been shrinking 00 50
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
materially over the past few years reflects the fact that permittees have more money,
and accounts are paid more promptly.
RANGE IMPROVEMENT.
Scarcity of labour and materials again made it impossible to complete any large
number of the many necessary improvements planned. These will be carried forward
to 1947, and as much work accomplished along this line as conditions will allow. The
most successful wild-horse disposal programme ever carried out in the Province took
place during 1946. A total of 1,027 horses was shot, of which 306 were stallions and
658 mares. In addition, a considerable number of horses was rounded up and sold,
both wild horses on Crown ranges and private stock running at large. This wild-horse
disposal programme has made range available for some 5,000 head of cattle. This is
a very important achievement in districts where range is at a premium. The programme is continuing throughout the winter of 1946-47 in both the Cariboo and the
East Kootenay Districts, and it is expected that after this year the depredations of
wild horses will have been materially reduced.
The disposal of wild horses and the construction of necessary improvements to
the range, as well as proportionate cost of range reconnaissance, are paid from the
Range Improvement Fund. This fund is set up through statutory contribution of
one-third of all grazing fees collected. A statement of the status of the fund is found
on page 88. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946.
OO 51
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY, DECEMBER 31ST, 1946.
Victoria Office.
C. D. Orchard Chief Forester Victoria.
R. C. St. Clair Assistant Chief Forester  Victoria.
E. W. Bassett Forester—Operations Victoria.
R. R. Douglas Assistant Forester Victoria.
J. R. Johnston Assistant Forester Victoria.
J. H. Blake Marine and Structural Engineer Victoria.
W. C. Spouse Mechanical Superintendent Victoria.
G. A. Playf air Chief Radio Engineer Victoria.
H. E. Ferguson Radio Engineer Victoria.
E. B. Prowd Forester—Management Victoria.
G. M. Abernethy Assistant Forester Victoria.
W. S. Hepher Assistant Forester Victoria.
F. S. McKinnon Forester—Economics Victoria.
J. L. Alexander Forester Victoria.
D. M. Carey Assistant Forester Victoria.
A. E. Collins Assistant Forester Victoria.
E. H. Garman Assistant Forester Victoria.
W. Hall Assistant Forester Victoria.
J. W. Ker Assistant Forester Victoria.
C. P. Lyons Assistant Forester. Victoria.
H. M. Pogue Assistant Forester Victoria.
R. H. Spilsbury Assistant Forester Victoria.
R. C. Telford Assistant Forester Victoria.
A. Gordon Technical Forest Assistant Victoria.
A. C. Kinnear Technical Forest Assistant Victoria.
D. Macdougall Technical Forest Assistant Victoria.
G. Silburn Technical Forest Assistant Victoria.
D. M. Trew Technical Forest Assistant Victoria.
R. H. Boyd Acting Forest Ranger Victoria.
H. G. McWilliams Forester—Reforestation Victoria.
A. H. Bamford Assistant Forester Victoria.
E. G. Whiting Supervisor Victoria.
T. Wells Superintendent, Green Timbers Nursery__ New Westminster.
W. Turner Superintendent, Campbell River Nursery_ Campbell River.
J. R. Long Superintendent, Duncan Nursery Duncan.
Eric Druce Forester—Public Relations Victoria.
D. R. Monk Technical Forest Assistant Victoria.
R. D. Greggor Forester—Ranger School New Westminster.
J. A. Pedley Assistant Forester New Westminster.
J. G. MacDonald Superintendent,  Forest  Service  Marine
Station Vancouver.
S. W. Barclay Royalty Inspector Victoria.
H. H. Smith Chief Accountant Victoria.
R. G. Gilchrist Chief Draughtsman Victoria.
Districts.
Vancouver.
C. J. Haddon District Forester	
K. C. McCannel Assistant District Forester	
C. L. Armstrong Assistant Forester	
G. R. W. Nixon Assistant Forester	
D. B. Taylor Assistant Forester	
W. Byers Supervisor of Scalers	
A. C. Heard Assistant Supervisor of Scalers _
A. H. Waddington Fire Inspector (Slash)	
J. McNeil Fire Inspector	
R. Murray Supervisor..
4
-Vancouver.
-Vancouver.
..Vancouver.
-Vancouver.
Vancouver.
.Vancouver.
..Vancouver.
..Vancouver.
-Vancouver.
-Vancouver. 00 52
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Vancouver—Continued.
C. F. Holmes Supervisor (Slash) Vancouver.
G. G. Armytage Forest Ranger North Vancouver.
K. M. Bell Forest Ranger Pender Harbour.
W. Black Forest Ranger —Powell River.
E. T. Calvert Forest Ranger Mission.
L. C. Chamberlin Forest Ranger Thurston Bay.
E. W. Cowie Forest Ranger Nanaimo.
C. S. Frampton Forest Ranger Lake Cowichan.
S. C. Frost Forest Ranger Squamish.
R. J. Glassford Forest Ranger Qualicum.
J. P. Greenhouse Forest Ranger Langford.
A. C. C. Langstroth Forest Ranger Alert Bay.
R. Little Forest Ranger Harrison Hot Springs.
J. A. Mahood _Forest Ranger Chilliwack.
S. Silke Forest Ranger Courtenay.
H. Stevenson Forest Ranger Alberni.
P. E. Sweatman Forest Ranger Duncan.
T. J. W. Underwood Forest Ranger Campbell River.
C. M. Yingling Forest Ranger Lund.
R. W. Aylett Acting Forest Ranger Sechelt.
W. E. Jansen Acting Forest Ranger Port Hardy.
J. H. Robinson Acting Forest Ranger Thurston Bay.
E. P. Fox Chief Clerk Vancouver.
Prince Rupert.
District Forester
Prince Rupert.
-Assistant District Forester Prince Rupert.
. E. Mathieson	
J. S. Stokes	
M. O. Kullander Assistant Forester  — Prince Rupert.
S. G. Cooper Forest Ranger Terrace.
C. L. Gibson Forest Ranger Smithers.
I. Martin Forest Ranger Prince Rupert.
J. B. Scott Forest Ranger Masset.
L. G. Taft Forest Ranger Southbank.
H. W. Campbell Acting Forest Ranger Ocean Falls.
W. H. Campbell Acting Forest Ranger Hazelton.
S. T. Strimbold Acting Forest Ranger Burns Lake.
A. M. Davies Chief Clerk Prince Rupert.
R. G. McKee	
L. F. SwannelL
A. H. Dixon	
W. G. Henning	
A. H. McCabe	
W. N. Campbell	
G. A. Forbes	
J. S. Macalister	
L. A. Willington—	
C. L. French	
I. B. Johnson	
A. J. Kirk Acting Forest Ranger
W. V. McCabe .Acting Forest Ranger
A. V. O'Meara Acting Forest Ranger
R. B. Carter Chief Clerk	
Fort George.
District Forester Prince George.
Assistant District Forester Prince George.
Assistant Forester Prince George.
Fire Inspector Prince George.
Acting Supervisor of Scalers Prince George.
_Forest Ranger—
-Forest Ranger—
Forest Ranger ....
.Forest Ranger —
-Acting Forest Ranger..
-Acting Forest Ranger_.
Prince George.
Prince George.
McBride.
Penny.
Fort St. John.
_Pouce Coupe.
Fort Fraser.
Giscome.
-Vanderhoof.
.Prince George. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946.
OO 53
A. E. Parlow—
H. B. Forse .
Kamloops.
.District Forester	
L. B. B. Boutton....
I. T. Cameron	
H. K. DeBeck	
J. E. Milroy	
W. C. Pendray	
E. W. Robinson_	
C. B. W. Rogers—
W. P. MacDonald
..Assistant District Forester..
..Assistant Forester	
..Assistant Forester	
.Assistant Forester	
..Assistant Forester	
..Assistant Forester	
..Assistant Forester	
..Assistant Forester	
.Fire Inspector.
.Kamloops.
-Kamloops.
-Kamloops.
..Kamloops.
Kamloops.
Kamloops.
Kamloops.
Kamloops.
Kamloops.
Kamloops.
E. A. Charlesworth Supervisor of Scalers Kamloops.
J. Boydell Forest Ranger Salmon Arm.
R. B. W. Eden Forest Ranger Kelowna.
H. A. Ferguson Forest Ranger Chase.
J. M. Fraser Forest Ranger Merritt.
C. D. S. Haddon Forest Ranger Revelstoke.
J. W. Hayhurst..
M. A. Johnson...
.Forest Ranger Vernon.
.Forest Ranger	
..Forest Ranger	
—Forest Ranger	
J. W. McCluskey	
C. Perrin	
C. E. Robertson Forest Ranger
W. W. Stevens Forest Ranger
J. H. Templeman Forest Ranger Enderby.
C. Williams Forest Ranger Kamloops
Blue River.
Vernon.
Penticton.
Clinton.
Kamloops.
W. P. Cowan
J. H. Dearing-
_.Acting Forest Ranger_.
.Acting Forest Ranger..
T. L. Gibbs Acting Forest Ranger..
R. C. Hewlett Acting Forest Ranger
H. G. Mayson Acting Forest Ranger_
F. H. Nelson Acting Forest Ranger..
J. A. Sim  Acting Forest Ranger..
H. J. Parker Chief Clerk	
Nelson.
-District Forester	
-Assistant District Forester..
-Assistant Forester	
. E. Marling	
M. W. Gormely	
C. D. Grove-White
L. S. Hope Assistant Forester.
G. W. Minns Assistant Forester.
W. C. Phillips Assistant Forester.
D. H. Ross—-
P. Young	
T. W. Brewer..
G. T. Schupe...
.Fire Inspector.
.Fire Inspector.
_Supervisor_.
J. H. A. Applewhaite..
H. T. Barbour	
L. A. Chase	
H. J. Coles	
R. Damstrom	
W. D. Haggart	
J. H. Holmberg	
J. L. Johnson	
J. F. Killough	
C. J. McGuire	
H. C. Nichols	
G. C. Palethorpe	
G. T. Robinson	
R. 0. Christie	
H. L. Couling	
S. S. Simpson	
..Supervisor of Scalers..
-Forest Ranger	
-Forest Ranger	
-Forest Ranger	
.Forest Ranger	
..Forest Ranger	
-Forest Ranger	
.Forest Ranger	
.Forest Ranger	
..Forest Ranger.	
.Forest Ranger.—
.Forest Ranger	
.Forest Ranger	
.Forest Ranger	
Acting Forest Ranger..
_ Acting Forest Ranger..
. Chief Clerk	
_ Clearwater.
.Princeton.
.Alexis Creek.
-Birch Island.
.Barriere.
.Williams Lake.
-Sicamous.
..Kamloops.
-Nelson.
.Nelson.
-Nelson.
-Nelson.
..Nelson.
.Nelson.
.Nelson.
..Nelson.
..Nelson.
_ Nelson.
Creston.
-Cranbrook.
New Denver.
Golden.
Fernie.
Edgewood.
Grand Forks.
Invermere.
Kettle Valley.
.Canal Flats.
Rossland.
-Nelson.
..Kaslo.
.Arrowhead.
-Nakusp.
-Nelson.  APPENDIX  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946. OO 57
TABULATED DETAILED STATEMENTS TO SUPPLEMENT
REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE.
CONTENTS.
General.
Table No. Pack.
1. Distribution of Personnel, 1946  59
Reforestation.
2. Summary of Planting during the Years 1937-46  60
Forest Management.
3. Estimated Value of Production, including Loading and Freight within the
Province  61
4. Paper Production (in Tons)  61
5. Water-borne Lumber Trade (in M.B.M.)  62
6. Total Amount of Timber scaled in British Columbia during the Years 1945-46 •
(in F.B.M.)  63
7. Species cut, all Products (in F.B.M.)  64
8. Total Scale (in F.B.M.) segregated, showing Land Status, all Products, 1946.— 65
9. Timber scaled in British Columbia in 1946 (by Months and Districts)  66
10. Logging Inspection, 1946  68
11. Trespasses, 1946  69
12. Pre-emption Inspection, 1946  69
13. Areas examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of the " Land Act," 1946  70
14. Classification of Areas examined, 1946  70
15. Areas cruised for Timber-sales, 1946  71
16. Timber-sale Record, 1946  71
17. Timber-sales awarded by Districts, 1946  72
18. Average Stumpage Prices as bid per M.B.F. Log-scale, by Species and Forest
Districts, on Saw-timber cruised on Timber-sales in 1946  73
19. Average Stumpage Prices received per M.B.F. Log-scale, by Species and Forest
Districts, on Saw-timber scaled from Timber-sales in 1946  74
20. Timber cut from Timber-sales during 1946  75
21. Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1946  76
22. Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1946  77
23. Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc., 1946.— 78
24. Summary for Province, 1946  79
25. Timber-marks issued  79
26. Forest Service Draughting Office, 1946  80
27. Forest Insect Survey, 1946  80
Forest Finance.
28. Crown-granted Timber Lands paying Forest Protection Tax   81
29. Extent and Assessed Value of Timber Land by Assessment Districts  81
30. Average Assessed Values of Crown-granted Timber Lands paying Forest Pro
tection Tax, as compiled from Taxation Records  82
31. Forest Revenue  83 00 58 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Table No. Page.
32. Amounts charged against Logging Operations, 1946  84
33. Amounts charged against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1945-46  85
34. Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1945-46  86
35. Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1945-46  87
36. Scaling Fund  87
37. Forest Reserve Account  88
38. Grazing Range Improvement Fund  88
39. Standing of Forest Protection Fund, March 31st, 1946  89
40. Forest Protection Expenditure for Twelve Months ended March 31st, 1946—By
the Forest Service  90
41. Forest Protection  Expenditure  for  Twelve  Months  ended  December 31st,
1946—Reported Approximate Expenditure by Other Agencies  91
Forest Protection.
42. Summary of Acreage logged, 1946, and dealt with under Section 113A  91
43. Summary of 1946 Operations, Vancouver Forest District  92
44. Summary Chart A—Intentional Slash-burn  93
45. Recapitulation Slash-disposal, 1934-46  93
46. Fire Occurrences by Months, 1946  93
47. Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1946  94
48. Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years  94
49. Fires classified by Size and Damage, 1946  94
50. Damage to Property other than Forests, 1946  95
51. Damage to Forest-cover caused by Forest Fires, 1946  95
52. Fire Causes, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1946  96
53. Comparison of Damage caused by Forest Fires in Last Ten Years  97
54. Fires classified by Forest District, Place of Origin, and Cost per Fire of
Fire-fighting, 1946  97
55. Prosecutions, 1946  98
56. Burning Permits, 1946  99
Public Relations.
57. Forest Service Library  100
Grazing.
58. Grazing Permits issued  100
59. Grazing Fees billed and collected  100 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946.
OO 59
(i)
Distribution of Personnel, 1946.
Personnel.
Forest District.
Vancouver.
Prince
Rupert.
Fort
George.
Kamloops.
Nelson.
Victoria.
Total.
Permanent.
Chief   Forester,   Assistant   Chief   Forester,   and
Division  Foresters	
District Foresters and Assistant District Foresters....
Foresters and Assistant Foresters	
Supervisor of Rangers and Fire Inspectors	
Rangers	
Supervisor of Scalers and Assistants	
Scalers	
Inspectors, Royalty and Export	
Mechanical—Radio and Engineering Supervisor	
Surveys and Research Assistant	
Nursery Superintendents	
Nursery, reforestation, and parks	
Draughtsmen	
Clerks, stenographers, and messengers	
Superintendents    and    foremen — Forest    Service
Marine Station	
Mechanics, carpenters, and technicians	
Launch crewmen	
Miscellaneous	
Permanent	
Temporary permanent	
Total, permanent personnel	
Seasonal.
Assistant Rangers	
Patrolmen	
Lookout-men	
Dispatchers and radio operators	
Fire-suppression crewmen	
Cruisers and compass-men	
Miscellaneous	
Total, seasonal personnel	
Total, all personnel	
4
22
2
34
1
1*
37
7*
108
17*
28
16
15
16
42
129
21
5*
10
10
2
7
1
20
1*
9
1*
10
1*
25
1*
44
4*
13
8
12
26
25
17
13
48
2
5
2
15
1
1*
13
1*
39
2*
35
12
29
16
40
138
16
1
1*
4
5
8*
3
15*
6
4*
50
10*
105
39*
160
10
33
8
74
1*
5
34
1*
2
1*
4
5
8*
3
15*
12
6*
128
22*
3
10
1
12*
2
2*
112
71
■82
53
138
16
42
514
Total number of positions, " permanent " and " temporary permanent," occupied December 31st, 1946, was 410.
* Continuously employed but no voted salary for the purpose. 00 60
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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X> & REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946.
OO 63
Total Amount of Timber scaled in British Columbia during the Years 1945-46
(6) (IN F.B.M.).
Forest District.
1945.
1946.
Gain.
Loss.
Net Gain.
2,292,502,255
190,476,922
2,394,825,986
124,855,987
102,323,731
65,620,935
Totals, Coast	
2,482,979,177
2,519,681,973
54,115,835
145,480,381
178,895,616
219,764,482
62,580,526
184,613,649
201,613,808
225,175,176
8,464,691
39,133,268
22,718,192
5,410,694
598,256,314
673,983,159
75,726,845
3,081,235,491
3,193,665,132
178,050,576
65,620,935
112,429,641 00 64                            DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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Nels REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946.
OO 65
Total Scale (in F.B.M.) segregated, showing Land Status,
(*) all Products.
Forest District.
Totals,
1946.
Vancouver.
Prince
Rupert,
Coast.
Prince
Rupert,
Interior.
Fort
George.
Kamloops.
Nelson.
563,862,187
147,066,961
190,426,292
31,614,858
42,555,595
29,462
23,741,297
384,068,163
3,427,394
16,873,212
835,022,894
93,426,066
20,538,844
42,172,761
12,950,960
631,458
1
5.836.832         5.601.788
14,464,299
3,092,499
132,857
603,347,524
10,571,316
160,730,776
190,559,149
36,790,554
5,175,696
3,604,177
483,953
20,367,189
56,520,519
15,298,942
644,614
1,238
1,900,647
5,362,426
2,545,626
46,159,772
513,415
72,708
51,216,652
1,709,997
123,337,618
5,336,627
133,686,237
51,227,818
133,594,739
882,423,928
18,726,336
52,361,622
Pre-emptions,  S.R., and
1,085,885
19,352,183
233,609
106,500
3,896,764
21,593,022
4,272,470
16,470,105
5,009,804
15,190,576
19,450,134
10,133,258
1,310,109
27,995,516
14,099,882
14,923,892
Crown grants—
To 1887	
853,037,955
128,711,047
62,934,253
106,140,983
1887-1906	
272,514
3,845,761
5,455,548
1906-1914	
1914 to date	
Totals	
2,394,825,986
124,855,987
62,580,526
184,613,649
201,613,808
225,175,176
3,193,665,132
Timber from lands in the former Dominion Government Railway Belt which has passed over to the jurisdiction
of this Province is included under the various land status headings shown above.
Only timber from Indian reserves and other lands still under the jurisdiction of the Dominion Government is
shown under the heading " Dominion Lands." 00 66
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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5 00 68
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(10)
Logging Inspection, 1946.
Type of Tenure operated.
Forest District.
Timber-
sales.
Hand-
loggers'
Licences.
Leases,
Licences,
Crown Grants,
and
Pre-emptions.
Totals.
No. of
Inspections.
877
513
552
921
764
1
5
1,311
142
105
618
845
2,189
660
657
1,539
1,609
4,307
2,312
882
3,236
2,237
Totals, 1946	
3,627
6
3,021
6,654
12,974
Totals, 1945	
3,492
9
2,852
6,353
11,901
Totals, 1944	
3,373
4
2,540
5,917
11,648
Totals, 1943	
3,259
11
2,519
5,789
12,110
Totals, 1942	
3,086
18
2,569
5,673
13,753
Totals, 1941	
3,207
18
2,833
6,058
11,438
Totals, 1940	
2,864
12
2,272
5,148
10,968
Totals, 1939	
2,770
10
2,068
4,848
11,295
Totals, 1938	
2,674
23
1,804
4,501
10,828
Totals, 1937	
2,404
46
1,932
4,382
11,507
3,075
16
2,441
5,532
11,842 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946.
OO 69
(ii)
Trespasses, 1946.
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26
47
80
193
37
430
487
1,421
2,832,177
567,384
867,456
744,398
2,072,928
73,266
79,213
1,118,758
99,770
389,567
245
680
173
221
150
2,790
110
199
41,377
3
5
$10,453.01
1,755.52
1,900
4,593.53
783
9,166
3,618.98
34,097
7,109.59
Totals, 1946	
226
2,568
7,084,343
1,760,574
1,469
2,900
10,148
41,377
35,997
8
$27,530.63
Totals, 1945	
267
3,313
24,322,556
516,960
1,910
9,902
2,438
10
$37,877.12
Totals, 1944	
210
2,467
12,317,066
179,219
3,369
4,231
3,781
5
$29,193.16
Totals, 1943	
167
3,058
9,744,957
129,409
6,873
552
7,923
7
$23,725.29
Totals, 1942	
180
1,159
4,413,906
365,861
4,757
490
1,512
15
$14,391.61
Totals, 1941	
236
1,788
7,627,990
526,391
2,887
1,365
4,150
17
$24,253.10
Totals, 1940	
194
877
5,206,829
94,444
1,573
4,279
9,854
13
$14,088.24
Totals, 1939	
209*
571
6,905,268
94,818
3,147
5,206
46,729
26
$17,725.00
Totals, 1938	
149
816
4,309,030
203,195
3,014
1,185
7,530
10
$9,653.86
Totals, 1937	
156
1,147
8,239,813
143,860
1,607
2,132
35,017
7
$17,439.52
Ten-year average, 1937-46	
199
1,776
9,017,176
401,473
3,061
3,224
12,908
12
$21,587.75
* Christmas-tree cutting largely responsible for increase.
(12)
Pre-emption Inspection, 1946.
Forest District.
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert __
Fort George 	
Kamloops 	
Nelson  	
Totals
Number
EXAMINED.
1946.
Ten-year
Average,
1937-46.
58
200
36
121
91
351
145
486
48
110
378
1,268 00 70
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(is)
Areas examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of the
" Land Act," 1946.
Forest District.
Applications for
Hay and Grazing
Leases.
Applications for
Pre-emption
Records.
Applications to
Purchase.
Miscellaneous.
Totals.
No.
3
1
8
54
9
Acres.
435
160
1,065
22,705
3,356
No.
9
3
11
18
3
Acres.
616 ,
360 '
1,544
2,374
702
No.
183
32
48
111
92
Acres.
13,321
4,913
4,543
8.156
10,728
No.
138
14
4
16
1
Acres.
699
911
103
674
No.
333
50
71
199
105
Acres.
15,071
Prince Rupert	
Fort George	
Kamloops	
6,344
7,255
33,909
14,786
Totals	
75
27,721
44
5,598
466
41,661
173
2,387
758
77,365
(li)
Classification of Areas examined, 1946.
Forest District.
Total Area.
Agricultural
Land.
Non-agricultural Land.
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Estimated
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Acres.
15,071
6,344
7,255
33,909
14,786
Acres.
3,180
1,303
2,618
2,589
1,609
Acres.
11,891
5,041
4,637
31,320
13,177
Acres.
1,253
478
430
434
408
M.B.M.
20,593
10,158
4,345
4,855
3,046
Totals	
77,365
11,299
66,066
3,003
42,997 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946.
OO 71
(15)
Areas cruised for Timber-sales, 1946.
Forest District.
Number
cruised.
Acreage.
Saw-
timber
(M.B.M.).
Pit Props,
Poles, and
Piles
(Lineal Ft.).
Shingle-
bolts and
Cordwood
(Cords).
Railway-
ties
(No.).
Car Stakes
and Posts
(No.).
577
321
349
485
327
87,414
45,916
55,445
103,289
70,523
510,390
126,706
149,403
249,519
194,698
698,893
3,933,533
8,891,415
12,841,723
14,395,205
18,431
13,324
9,961
34,051
14,311
10,400
55,998
91,009
37,250
22,235
559,300
18,900
107,396
2,033,110
Totals, 1946	
2,059
362,587
1,230,716
40,760,769
90,078
216,892
2,718,706
Totals, 1945	
1,488
261,150
948,673
48,743,325
95,774
301,276
1,802,468
Totals, 1944	
1,476
334,729
1,205,308
8,166,829
137,737
483,363
1,345,439
Totals, 1943	
1,771
590,953
907,768
10,720,729
259,741
454,767
816,544
Totals, 1942	
1,469
305,222
794,676
8,562,739
100,232
381,106
743,500
Totals, 1941	
1,611
321,220
689,595
15,794,246
126,463
199,174
263,480
Totals, 1940	
1,620
300,480
572,562
11,309,288
72,157
314,644
512,042
Totals, 1939	
1,324
212,594
470,660
5,016,945
68,078
339,866
261,100
Totals, 1938	
1,486
325,403
482,680
5,747,765
126,329
804,240
169,900
Totals, 1937	
1,471
278,386
633,216
9,658,000
140,820
753,408
160,450
Ten-year average, 1937-46
1,578
329,272
793,585
16,448,064
121,741
424,874
879,363
(16)
Timber-sale Record, 1946.
District.
Sales
made.
Sales
closed.
Total
Sales
existing.
Total Area
under Sale
(Acres).
Area paying
Forest Protection Tax
(Acres).
Total
10-per-cent.
Deposit.
629
347
319
541
351
355
245
191
381
292
1,325
1,002
655
1,533
1,025
339,296
235,615
164,949
369,475
308,519
163,313
120,310
60,820
220,201
170,243
$451,703.33
179,067.62
93,942.81
183,143.43
159,797.55
Kamloops	
2,187
440
1,464
5,540
1,417,854
734,887
$1,067,654.74
Total	
2,627 00 72
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1946.
Operating.
Shut Down.
Forest District.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
No.
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
M.B.M.
No.
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
Shingles, M.
No.
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
M.B.M.
No.
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
Shingles, M.
339
149
210
321
209
7,715
1,085
2,097
2,000
2,359
53
1
2
3
8,573
5
20
6
55
17
17
209
67
250
94
121
2
1
2
3
125
5
28
50
35
Totals, 1946	
1,228
15,256
59
8,656
115
741
8
165
Totals, 1945	
931
13,590
51
7,054
137
808
7
150
Totals, 1944	
807
14,974
51
6,695
110
702
16
581
Totals, 1943	
614
13,623
54
7,411
120
646
19
829
Totals, 1942	
551
13,197
70
8,874
149
1,206
11
135
Totals, 1941	
557
13,820
76
8,835
129
1,083
5
63
Totals, 1940	
542
12,691
77
8,585
141
1,432
18
307
Totals, 1939	
461
11,698
84
7,926
147
1,907
24
537
Totals, 193S	
481
12,159
88
8,184
126
1,406
19
315
Totals, 1937	
434
11,042
80
9,124
131
1,685
16
402
Ten-year average,
1937-46	
661 _
13,205
69
8,134
130
1,162
14
348 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946.
OO 77
Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1946.
Species.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Totals.
29,533
6,798,548
5,250,162
11,914,274
6,688
7,422,510
19,179,900
1,552,457
72,000
12,702,205
37,892,722
1,559,145
72,000
28,446,805
5,452,121
28,446,805
5,452,121
13,994
971
291,286
13,126
24,492
53,358
1,317
2,129
329,772
67,455
1,317
9,529
11,658
Totals, 1946	
6,843,046
17,485,065
28,308,163
33,898,926
86,535,200*
Totals, 1945	
3,852,321
20,696,800
24,903,105
32,624,170
82,076,396
Totals, 1944	
6,724,297
29,051,958
33,851,519
32,027,805
101,655,579
Totals, 1943	
2,809,744
17,720,743
28,863,804
29,261,754
78,656,045
Totals, 1942	
2,639,167
18,960,886
27,618,347
106,793,550
156,011,950
Totals, 1941	
8,549,320
63,485,278
43,165,973
191,879,335
307,079,906
Totals, 1940	
4,697,188
37,567,582
24,865,886
150,396,702
217,527,358
Totals, 1939	
6,383,398
111,155,799
66,870,882
128,323,383
312,733,462
Totals, 1938	
4,386,370
98,637,490
74,650,653
81,998,569
259,673,082
Totals, 1937	
4,924,298
114,991,217
66,611,218
83,947,361
270,474,094
Ten-year average, 1937-46	
5,180,915
52,975,282
41,970,955
87,115,155
187,242,307
* Of this total, 82,008,715 F.B.M. were exported
F.B.M. were exported under permit from other areas.
from Crown grants carrying the export privilege;   4,526,485 00 78
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts,
Railway-ties, etc., 1946.
(23)
Quantity
exported.
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
Where markevted.
Forest District.
United
States.
Canada.
Other
Countries.
Vancouver—
 lin. ft.
2,197,638
1,836,591
463
681,880
19,910
901,702
439
102,842
1,507,385
$549,418.00
459,148.00
5,788.00
20,456.00
3,982.00
31,144.00
7,458.00
15,426.00
198,555.00
1,304,422
1,565,953
463
681,880
13,653
893,216
262,348
Piles 	
 lin. ft.
8,290
 posts
lin. ft.
6,257
901,702
Mine-props   	
 cords
 lin. ft.
 ties
 lin. ft.
 lin. ft.
439
102,842
211,705
Prince Rupert—
Hewn railway-ties 	
1,295,680
4,678
3,710,323
370,964
2,003
113,139
24,909
16
5,219
7,788,645
92,231
2,716
28,390
7,021,987
884,864
4,549,536
45,379
5,947
27,977
24
255,000
97,364
1,138,800
21,919
1,170.00
74,206.00
51,783.08
20,030.00
92,980.60
430,433.57
64.00
2,609.50
1,164,371.35
87,619.45
63,830.55
2,839.00
326,452.57
154,557.85
682,430.00
7,261.00
44,603.00
335,724.00
180.00
1,275.00
92,496.00
378,119.00
383,583.00
4,678
3,710,323
Fort George—
Poles 	
12,355
173
358,609
1,830
113,139
Hewn railway-ties 	
 ties
24,909
16
5,219
4,380,960
Kamloops—
 lin. ft.
 ties
 lin. ft.
3,407,685
92,231
2,696
28,390
143,668
Hewn railway-ties 	
20
Stubs  	
 lin. ft.
6,878,319
884,864
3,132,488
4,631
Nelson—
Poles 	
 lin. ft.
 lin. ft.
1,417,048
40,748
5,947
8,656
24
97,364
Piles 	
19,321
 lin. ft.
 ties
255,000
1,039,150
99,650
21,919
Total value, 1946	
$5,689,985.52
Total value. 1945  	
$3,502,002.00 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946.
OO 79
(Hi
Summary for Province, 1946.
Product.
Volume.
Value.
Per Cent, of
Total Value.
 lin. ft.
18,296,138
302,734
40
463
24,588
32,696
11,634,012
31,295
28,390
255,000
681,880
2,131,725
21,919
$3,112,958.43
273,096.05
244.00
5,788.00
5,152.00
419,584.55
431,802.57
482,494.57
2,839.00
1,275.00
20,456.00
550,712.35
383,583.00
54.71
4.80
0.01
0.10
0.09
7.37
 lin. ft.
7.59
8.48
Stubs	
 lin. ft.
0.05
Sticks and stakes	
 lin. ft.
0.02
0.36
9.68
6.74
Totals	
$5,689,985.52
100.00
(25)
Timber-marks issued.
1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.
1945.
1946.
272
101
99
275
58
1
16
13
1,724
4
3
2
20
211
85
101
282
64
1
16
5
1,853
11
6
2
17
160
85
92
250
79
2
9
4
1,709
19
6
2
1
190
98
104
283
72
2
5
11
2,017
9
5
1
4
280
89
81
234
51
1
9
10
1,893
8
6
1
1
329
115
106
337
53
2
3
16
1,898
6
15
Crown grants, 1887-1906	
Crown grants, 1906-1914	
Pre-emptions   under   sections   28
Indian reserves ,
15
2,637
35
Pulp leases	
Pulp licences	
2
Totals	
2,588
315
2,654
307
2,418
224
2,801
237
2,664
251
2,882
327
4,248
486
Transfers and changes of marks 00 80
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(26)
Forest Service Draughting Office, 1946.
Number of Drawings prepared or Tracings made.
Number of Blue-prints
or Ditto-prints made
from Draughting Office
Drawings.
Timber-
sales.
Timber-
marks.
Examination
Sketches.
Miscellaneous
Matters.
Constructional
Works, etc.
Totals.
Blueprints.
Ditto-
prints.
Totals.
83
53
68
42
60
44
45
71
39
28
i33
38
132
135
156
217
200
191
192
133
191
146
113
125
52
60
68
95
117
118
120
61
110
89
83
55
190
59
20
18
18
8
18
68
18
32
38
38
3
8
6
4
2
1
3
11
3
5
2
460
315
318
376
397
362
378
344
358
298
272
258
514
565
935
883
957
845
914
721
825
782
656
516
1,065
465
670
445
620
345
360
770
525
570
710
755
1,579
1,030
March	
1,605
1,328
1,577
June	
July	
1,190
1,274
1,491
September	
1,350
1,352
1,366
1,271
November	
ToMs, 1946	
Totals, 1945	
Totals, 1944	
Totals, 1943	
Totals, 1942	
Totals, 1941	
Totals, 1940	
Totals, 1939	
Totals, 1938	
Totals, 1937	
604
569
442
356
329
247
224
231
268
258
1,931
1,193
889
937
868
1,087
1,151
943
1,023
1,202
1,028
693
459
396
359
468
434
408
340
394
525
684
544
293
111
150
282
269
316
436
48
75
46
93
73
70
*
*
*
*
4,136
3,214
2,380
2,075
1,740
2,022
2,091
1,851
1,947
2,290
9,113
6,495
4,159
4,009
t
t
t
t
f
t
7,300
6,701
4,983
3,448
t
t
t
t
t
f
16,413
13,196
9,142
7,457
t
t
t
t
t
t
Totals for ten-
3,528
11,224
4,979
3,610
405
23,746
23,776
22,432
46,208
Average for ten-
353
1,122
498
361
68J
2,375
5,944|
1
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* Prior to 1941, Constructional Works,
t Average for six-year period only.
etc., included in Miscellaneous Matters,    t No record kept prior to 1943.
§ Average for four-year period only.
(27)
Forest Insect Survey, 1946.
Forest District.
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert
Fort George ____
Kamloops	
Nelson 	
Insect-box
Collections
made.
- 234
- 115
- 73
__    93
- 78
Negative
Reports.
17
4
7
7
2
Totals
593
37 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946.
00 81
(28)
Crown-granted Timber Lands paying Forest Protection Tax.
Year. Area (Acres).
1921  845,111
1922  887,980
1923  883,344
1924  654,668
1925  654,016
1926  688,372
1927  690,438
1928  671,131
1929 :  644,011
1930  629,156
1931  602,086
1932  552,007
1933  567,731
1934  557,481
1935  535,918
1936  515,924
1937  743,109
1938  754,348
1939  719,112
1940  549,250
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.
1945_
1946.
543,632
527,995
543,044
571,308
591,082
601,148
Average Assessed
Value per Acre of
Timber Land.
$10.33
11.99
11.62
15.22
40.61
39.77
39.01
38.62
38.41
44.74
43.77
43.73
41.18
37.25
37.13
36.61
23.32*
23.05
22.73
27.70f
26.99
26.34
25.15
25.28
26.32
26.64t
* From 1937 forest protection tax has been charged on areas assessed as timber land in their entirety, in
accordance with section 119 of the " Forest Act ** and section 33 of the " Taxation Act"; previously the levy was
on the timbered portion only.
t Approximately 155,000 acres assessed as timber land reverted to the Crown in 1939.
% That is, 169,456 acres logged-off land at $2 per acre, and 431,692 acres timber at $36.31 per acre.
(29)
Extent and Assessed Value of Timber Land by Assessment Districts.
Assessment District.
Acreage,
1946.
Increase or
Decrease over
1945.
Average
Value
per Acre.
Change in
Assessed Value
since 1945.
79,624
122,730
101,457
12,969
328
315
145,451
2,637
160
1,233
21,164
33,203
39,744
40,133
—254
+ 2,901
+2,745
*
*
*
+ 4,986
*
*
*
*
*
— 1,280
+968
$35.27
27.12
33.43
5.05
13.50
10.37
29.93
5.83
4.15
15.71
17.17
10.57
2.60
30.00
+ $0.81
+4.64
— 6.78
Fort Steele	
— .20
— 3.79
Kettle River	
*
Nanaimo	
Nelson	
Omineca	
Prince George	
+ .42
*
*
+ .56
— .01
*
Slocan	
+ .04
+2.70
Totals         	
601,148
+ 10,066
$26.64
* No change. 00 82
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(»)                           Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1945-46.
10-year Average.
Timber-licence rentals   $401,609.33 $456,232.00
Timber-licence transfer fees   1,675.00 1,272.00
Timber-licence penalty fees  10,453.79 19,837.00
Hand-loggers' licence fees   150.00 415.00
Timber-lease rentals   52,985.66 54,655.00
Timber-lease penalty fees and interest 16.22 279.00
Timber-sale rentals   58,910.22 36,129.00
Timber-sale stumpage   1,658,457.21 893,083.00
Timber-sale cruising   17,742.23 12,544.00
Timber-sale advertising   4,066.75 2,257.00
Timber royalty   2,023,237.70 1,962,495.00
Timber tax   7,875.71 42,789.00
Scaling fees (not Scaling Fund)       279.00
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund)_ 1,141.45 1,017.00
Trespass stumpage   47,323.99 22,731.00
Scalers' examination fees   70.00 358.00
Exchange   60.59 141.00
Seizure expenses   1,051.48 743.00
General miscellaneous   11,757.87 5,917.00
Timber-berth rentals, bonus, and fees . 21,723.41 22,975.00
Interest on timber-berth rentals  38.83 183.00
Transfer fees on timber berths  230.00 89.00
Grazing fees and interest  31,601.70 26,923.00
$4,352,179.14 $3,563,343.00
Taxation from Crown-granted timber
lands   244,980.89 238,223.00
Totals   $4,597,160.03 $3,801,566.00 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946.
OO 87
(S5)
Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1945-46.
Forest District.
Salaries.
War Service,
Temporary
Assistance.
Temporary
Assistance.
Expenses.
Total.
$73,790.13
25,465.81
32,378.40
41,947.43
44,683.62
104,234.19
$11,209.16
5,277.83
2,356.00
14,695.19
2,224.51
24,145.60
$56,429.71
28,715.52
25,284.79
23,020.15
19,526.37
40,521.11
$141,429.00
$225.00
182.26
59,684.16
60,201.45
79,662.77
Nelson	
72.58
436.25
66,507.08
169,337.15
Totals	
$322,499.58
$59,908.29
$916.09
$193,497.65
$576,821.61
4,000.00
15,363.68
12,986.91
166,732.29
27,772.02
4,345.68
Grazing range improvemer
ts*	
9,734.23
650,000.00
102,612.00
$1,570,368.42
* Contributions from Treasury to special funds detailed elsewhere.
N.B.—The above figures do not include amounts paid as cost-of-living bonus, totalling $56,583.85, made up as
follows:—
Salaries  $27,368.65
Temporary assistance  125.57
War service, temporary assistance       6,269.11
Expense       5,879.67
Reconnaissance       1,521.90
Forest research       1,214.43
Reforestation     11,512.01
Provincial Parks       2,692.51
$56,583.85
(16)
Scaling Fund.
Balance, April 1st, 1945 (debit)
Collections, fiscal year 1945-46 _
Expenditures, fiscal year 1945-46
Balance, March 31st, 1946 (debit)
Balance, April 1st, 1946 (debit) 	
Collections, nine months, April-December, 1946
$42,185.93
166,328.98
$124,143.05
205,764.04
$81,620.99
$81,620.99
166,581.71
$84,960.72
Expenditures, nine months, April-December, 1946     166,351.61
Balance, December 31st, 1946 (debit)
$81,390.89 00 88 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(*h Forest Reserve Account.
Balance brought forward, April 1st, 1945  $335,609.80
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1945 (under
subsection (2), section 32, " Forest Act")      102,612.00
$438,221.80
Moneys received under subsection (4), section 32, " Forest Act"    	
Expenditures, fiscal year 1945-46      51,354.48
Balance, March 31st, 1946 (credit)   $386,867.32
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1946 (under
subsection (2), section 32, " Forest Act ")     111,604.71
$498,472.03
Expenditures, nine months to December 31st, 1946      88,720.16
Balance, December 31st, 1946 (credit)   $409,751.87
(>s> Grazing Range Improvement Fund.
Balance, April 1st, 1945 (credit)   $29,769.83
Government contribution (section 14, "Grazing Act")      9,734.23
Other collections  9.00
Expenditures, April 1st, 1945, to March 31st, 1946
Balance, March 31st, 1946 (credit) 	
$39,513.06
7,702.09
$31,810.97
Government contribution (section 14, "Grazing Act")     10,533.90
Other collections   10.00
$42,354.87
Expenditures, April 1st, 1946, to December 31st, 1946      6,082.95
Balance, December 31st, 1946 (credit)   $36,271.92 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946. OO 89
(S9) Standing of Forest Protection Fund, March 31st, 1946.
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1945     $205,661.80
Expenditure  $1,072,537.23
Less refunds          17,450.41
    1,055,086.82
$1,260,748.62
(See detailed summary of net expenditure on page
90.)
Government contribution   $650,000.00
Collections, tax     249,229.50
Collections, slash and snags  $16,417.90
Less refunds       9,089.37
        7,328.53
      906,558.03
Balance (deficit), March 31st, 1946     $354,190.59 00 90
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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> REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946.
OO 91
an
Reported Approximate Expenditure for Twelve Months ended
December 31st, 1946, by Other Agencies.
Expenditures.
Forest District.
Patrols and
Fire-
prevention.
Tools and
Equipment.
Fires.
Improvements.
Total.
$130,144.00
5S8.00
$115,254.00
1,250.00
$115,857.62
1,291.27
3,520.81
6,139.14
8,013.00
$2,910.00
600.00
$364,165.62
3,699.27
3,520.81
6,139.14
35,938.00
Nelson	
2,275.00
23,250.00
2,400.00
Totals	
$132,977.00
$139,754.00
$134,821.84
$5,910.00
$413,462.84
$71,829.00
$83,634.00
$128,795.00
$4,025.00
$288,283.00
(w*   Summary of Acreage logged, 1946, and dealt with under Section 113a.
Acres.      Acres.
Total area logged, Vancouver Forest District      58,502
Total area logged in hazard area, Vancouver Forest
District      57,424
1946 slash covered by hazard reports  31,941
1946 slash logged after September 1st and carried over
to 1947 (including 1,793 acres on which snag-
falling only is required)  25,483
1946 slash covered by hazard reports-
1946 slash burned intentionally	
1946 slash burned accidentally	
57,424
31,941
1946 slash on which no burning was requested-
1946 slash on which additional time for burning has
been granted 	
1946 slash awaiting decision re compensation or additional time for disposal	
1946 slash on which compensation has been assessed	
15,474
. 1,467
7,028
308
7,664
Nil
31,941 00 92 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(**> Summary of 1946 Operations, Vancouver Forest District.
Total operations, hazard area, Vancouver Forest District      1,120
Number of intentional slash-burns     338
Number of operations on which slash was disposed of
by lopping and scattering or land-clearing         5
Number  of  operations  on  which  slash  accidentally
burned        28
Number of operations not required to burn     273
Number of operations given further time for slash-
disposal          6
Number of operations not considered necessary to deal
with under section 113a     212
Number of operations on which compensation has been
assessed       Nil
Number of operations pending decision re assessment
or further time for slash-disposal      137
Number of operations inactive in 1946       98
Number of operations snag-falling area only       28
Number of operations not advanced to a point requiring slash-disposal          6
1,131*    1,120
* Difference noted above is accounted for by some operations disposing of slash by both
accidental and intentional means and some conducting both spring and fall slash-burns.
Summary of Slash-hazard being carried for Disposal in 1947.
Acres.
Slash accumulated prior to 1946     5,661
Slash accumulated in 1946 (exclusive of 1,793 acres on which
snag-falling only requirement)  31,662
Total slash at January 1st, 1947  37,323 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946.
OO 93
an Summary Chart A—Intentional Slash-burn.
Operations conducting slash-burn	
Acres slash-burned in 1946—
Created prior to 1944	
Created 1944 	
Created 1945	
Created 1946	
401
1,058
8,565
15,474
338
Total.
Acres of forest-cover burned .
Total acres of area burned	
Net damage to forest-cover ....
Net damage to property on operations and cut products...
Cost of slash-disposal—
Operators 	
Forest Service	
Acreage hazard abated, 1946	
Cost to operator based on stand of 40 M. per acre
Cost to operator per acre	
Total damage	
25,498
258
25,756
$1,467.00
$4,343.00
$41,447.00
Nil
25,498
$0.04 per M.
$1.62
$5,810.00*
* Of this total, $4,262 damage occurred on one operation due to high winds at time of burn.
an
Recapitulation Slash-disposal, 1934-46.
Year.
1934.
1935..
1936..
1937..
1938..
1939..
1940..
1941..
1942..
1943-
1944..
1945-
1946..
Acres of Slash Burned.
Accidentally. Intentionally.
4,927
15,935
11,783
13,239
1,340
7,691
3,015
27,516
35,071
50,033
1,930
51,603
2,265
33,034
3,385
5,524
4,504
80,226
2,046
40,013
5,121
27,278
3,897
46,467
2,174
25,498
U6)
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1946.
Forest District.
March.
April.
May.
June.
July.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Total.
Per
Cent.
1
8
13
9
4
110
35
68
112
35
19
6
12
20
29
105
1
22
161
164
146
13
30
219
214
42
4
11
80
7
3
4
426
67
156
605
453
24.96
3.92
9.14
35.44
26.54
Totals	
35
360
86
453
622
144
7
1,707
100.00
2.05
21.09
5.04
26.54
36.44
8.43
0.41
100.00
58
196
188
575
476
200
9
1,702
3.41
11.52
11.05
33.78
27.96
11.75
0.53
100.00 00 94
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(47)
Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1946.
Forest District.
ti
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58
136
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112
117
10
21
105
73
22
13
29
48
5
10
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5
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2
3
2
47
16
10
66
20
3
1
5
20
3
426
67
156
605
453
24.96
3.92
Fort George	
9.14
35.44
Nelson	
26.54
Totals	
515
263
231
326
117
16
38
10
159
32
1,707
100.00
30.17
15.41
13.53
19.10
6.85
0.94
2.22
0.59
9.31
1.88
100.00
604
236
170
327
88
11
42
35
159
30
1,702
Per cent	
35.49
13.86
9.99
19.21
5.17
0.64
2.48
2.06
9.34
1.76
100.00
a*;
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years.
Causes.
1946.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
Total.
515
263
231
326
117
16
38
10
159
32
541
183
426
356
69
5
32
32
155
39
408
203
329
342
51
10
51
13
210
50
256
157
218
304
58
8
20
7
136
23
704
158
114
220
30
31
38
5
90
24
871
142
73
184
81
4
33
20
134
19
1,265
236
90
400
74
5
41
38
171
18
515
305
77
374
111
11
32
88
175
16
703
442
72
524
180
4
77
121
238
51
263
269
74
242
107
14
55
20
124
25
6,041
Campers	
2,358
1,702
3,272
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing)	
Road and power- and telephone-line con-
878
108
417
Incendiarism	
354
1,592
297
Totals	
1,707
1,838
1,667
1,185
1,414
1,561
2,338
1,704
2,412
1,193
17,019
(49)
Fires classified by Size and Damage, 1946.
Forest District.
Total Fires.
S
3
fc
Under % Acre.
o.s
hJO
O  03
Vi to 10 Acres.
Over 10 to 500
Acres.
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■SJ
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Over 500 Acres
in Extent.
o.s
c c
cj...
O  03
,. 9
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On fen
Damage.
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert	
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals	
Per cent	
Ten-year average, 1937-46
Per cent	
426
67
156
605
453
24.96
3.92
9.14
35.44
26.54
249
27
59
247
292
58.45
40.30
37.82
40.83
64.46
28.49
3.09
6.75
28.26
33.41
134
20
193
117
1,707
100.00
874
100.00
512
31.46
29.85
30.77
31.90
25.83
26.17
3.91
9.38
37.69
22.85
100.00
40
16
34
132
38
23.88
21.79
21.82
8.39
15.38
6.15
13.08
50.77
14.62
260
100.00
0.70
5.97
9.62
5.45
1.32
4.92
6.56
24.59
54.09
9.84
392
59
125
543
427
100.00
1,546
14
2
11
4
100.00
51.20
3.58
90.57
7.15
1,702
884
1,563
47
51.94
30.73
14.86
2.47
91.83
5.41 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946.
OO 95
(SO)
Damage to Property other than Forests, 1946.*
Forest District.
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
Buildings.
Railway
and
Logging
Equipment.
Miscellaneous.
Total.
Per Cent,
of Total.
Vancouver	
$50,809.00
1,700.00
1,447.00
805.93
956.20
$500.00
400.00
6,210.00
1,655.00
625.00
$77,489.00
$13,185.00
$141,983.00
2,100.00
13,042.00
4,367.43
4,822.20
85.37
1.26
4,000.00
12.00
1,385.00
1,894.50
3,241.00
7.84
Kamloops	
2.63
2.90
Totals	
$55,718.13
$9,390.00
$81,501.00
$19,705.50
$166,314.63
100.00
33.50
5.64
49.01
11.85
100.00
$100,399.00
$32,253.00
$89,611.00
$31,467.00
$253,730.00
39.57
12.71
35.32
12.40
100.00
* Does not include intentional slash-burns.    For this item see page 93.
<51>        Damage to Forest-cover caused by Forest Fires, 1946—Part I.*
Accessible
Merchantable Timber.
Inaccessible
Merchantable
Timber.
Immature
Timber.
Forest District.
a
tH
a"
fcS
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o og
Salvable
Volume of
Timber
killed.
OJ
U
p.
+; h «
ZoiA
pi
OJ
H
<-v
03 33
feS
Total
Volume
killed.
OJ*
ta
cd
s
CCJ
p
03 33
HJ
6 .3
03  03
OS  3
3,  03
Acres.
1,072
4,093
4,771
2,126
879
M.B.M.
3,276
26,765
24,184
4,969
4,798
M.B.M.
1,168
13,147
1,213
139
483
$
5,102
3,486
37,437
5,455
5,770
Acres.
162
4,676
50
312
560
M.B.M.
390
$
214
1,169
12
2,377
140
Acres.
1,627
2,466
8,364
18,165
2,423
$
16,516
1,185
150
2,347
2,240
14,385
26,642
5,343
12,941
63,992
16,150
57,250
5,760
5,127
3,912
33,045
64,071
4.27
92.58
25.24
29.87
1.90
7.42
2.04
10.89
3S.43
59,963
57,334
194,140
* Does not include intentional slash-burns.    For this item see page 93.
(s1)       Damage to Forest-cover caused by Forest Fires, 1946—Part II.*
Not satisfactorily
restocked.
Noncommercial
C0V33K.
Grazing or
Pasture
Land.
Nonproductive
Sites.
Grand Totals.
District.
-6
OJ
V, c
oj *.
to 3
60,0
A 3
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tots u
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03
631
CO
s
oi
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cd
n
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03
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03
s
03
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cd
3
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bo
CO
B
03
Q
Acres.
2,320
96
102
429
245
Acres.
605
100
151
4
Acres.
505
2,508
42,225
6,061
1,769
1
$    | Acres.
9751    1.564
$
416
746
12,698
18,339
707
Acres.
24
288
33,876
18,832
167
$
1
15
1,694
4,527
127
Acres.
2,691
13,012
21,651
2,950
3,333
$
634
3,253
5,413
720
2,428
Acres.
10,570
30,139
161,931
89,073
11,682
M.B.M.
3,666
26,765
24,334
7,316
7,038
$
23,858
651
10,674
1,842
576
3,000
50,792
40,047
2,302
10,505
82,313
59,902
Kelson	
15,091
Totals	
3,192
860
53,068
14,718
97,705
32,906
53,187
6,364
43,637
12,448
303,395
69,119
191,669
1.05
0.29
17.49
7.68
32.20
17.17
17.53
3.32
14.38
6.49
100.00
100.00
100.00
Ten-year average, 1937-46.
19,288
1,352
330,884
210,983
541,198
* Does not include intentional slash-burns.    For this item see page ! 00 96
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(52)          fire causes, Forest Service Cost,
and Total Damage, 1946.*
Causes.
No.
Per Cent.
Cost.
Per
Cent.
Damage.
Per Cent.
515
263
231
326
117
16
38
10
159
32
30.17
15.41
13.53
19.10
6.85
0.94
2.22
0.59
9.31
1.88
$98,115.49
12,461.08
462.74
24,860.41
4,301.08
62.71
7.96
0.29
15.89
2.75
$43,827.49
43,485.00
4,238.66
69,976.16
60,495.66
5,137.25
76,894.74
25,489.70
23,974.22
4,464.75
12.24
12.15
1.18
19.54
16.90
Road and power- and telephone-line con-
1.44
3,024.00
5,548.28
7,105.50
572.73
1.96
3.54
4.54
0.36
21.48
7.12
6.70
1.25
1,707
100.00
$156,451.31
100.00
$357,983.63
100.00
* Does not include intentional slash-burns.    For this item see page 93. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1946.
OO 97
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(55)
Prosecutions, 1946.
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$125.00
225.00
100.00
75.00
204.25
1
2
4
4
1
1
2
Totals	
39
28
2
1
8
24
$729.25
1
12
2
36
25
$594.28 REPORT OF FOREST
SERVICE
, 1946.
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(57)
Forest Service Library.
Classification.
Items received and catalogued.
Up to 1944.
1945.
1946.
Total.
365
3,317
926
13
80
61
12
126
79
390
3,523
1,066
4,608
154
217
4,979
48
1,294
51
1,523
32,464
35,281
(58)
Grazing Permits issued.
District.
No. of
Permits
issued.
Number
)F Stock under Permit.
Cattle.
Horses.
Sheep.
1,043
299
37
95.015
8,954
2.304
3,917
958
160
29.133
2,042
99
Totals, 1946	
1,379
1,378
1,320
1,221
1,130
1,064
8S1
790
738
807
1,071
106,273
109,201
101,606
93,497
84,788
77,774
74,404
69,447
72,774
75,123
86,489
5,035
5,064
4,862
4,844
4,797
4,180
3,958
2,758
2,248
2,328
4,007
31,274
Totals, 1945	
39,235
Totals, 1944	
40,858
Totals, 1943	
39,921
36,962
Totals, 1942	
Totals, 1941	
39,552
Totals, 1940	
37,132
Totals, 1939	
38,357
Totals, 1938	
37,060
Totals, 1937	
42,185
38,254
(59)
Grazing Fees billed and collected.
Year.
Fees billed.
Fees
collected.
Outstanding.
1939	
$21,348.41
23,338.28
23,781.19
25,116.02
24,680.37
28,554.02
30,066.34
80,120.38
$22,027.05
38,146.48
29,348.22
30,802.33
31,148.36
31,000.34
31,465.23
31,412.24
$42,012.10
27,203.90
21,636.87
15.950.56
1940 .'.	
1941	
1942	
1943	
1944	
7,036.25
5,637.36
4,345.50
1945	
1946	
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1947.
1,305-447-2485  

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