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PUBLIC SCHOOLS OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Seventy-fifth Annual Report 1945-46 By the Superintendent… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1947

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Full Text

 PUBLIC SCHOOLS
OF THE PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Seventy-fifth Annual Report
1945-46
By the Superintendent of Education
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1947.  To His Honour C. A. Banks,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I beg respectfully to present the Seventy-fifth Annual Report of the Public Schools
of the Province.
G. M. WEIR,
Minister of Education.
January, 1947.  DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION.
1945-46.
Minister of Education:
The Honourable G. M. WEIR.
Deputy Minister                                               Assistant Superintendent of
and Superintendent of Education:                                              Education:
F. T. Fairey, B.A.                                         D. L. MacLaurin, B.A., Ph.D.
Chief Inspector of Schools:
H. L. Campbell, B.A., M.Ed.
Municipal Inspectors of Schools:
J.
F. K. English, M.A., B.Paed.,                           John Gough, M.A., Greater Victoria.
Greater Victoria.                                                   William Gray, M.A., North Vancouver.
C.
G. Brown, M.A., Burnaby.                                R. S. Shields, B.A., New Westminster.
K. B. Woodward, B.A., B.Paed., Surrey.
Inspectors of Elementary, Superior, Junior High, and High Schools:
J.
E. Brown, M.A., Victoria.                                  V. Z. Manning, B.A., Vancouver.
J.
N. Burnett, B.A., Penticton.                             A. S. Matheson, B.A., Kelowna.
c.
L. Campbell, M.A., Nanaimo.                           H. McArthur, B.A., Kamloops.
T.
G. Carter, M.C, Vancouver.                               H. H. Mackenzie, B.A., Vancouver.
c.
E. Clay, B.A., Grand Forks.                                F. A. McLellan, M.A., B.Paed., Kamloops.
E.
G. Daniels, B.A., New Westminster.             W. A. Plenderleith, M.A., D.Paed.,
C.
J. Frederickson, B.A., Cranbrook.                        F.R.S.A., F.C.P., A.M.R.S.T., Nanaimo.
s.
J. Graham, B.A., Pouce Coupe.                        H. D. Stafford, B.A., Courtenay.
E.
E. Hyndman, B.A., B.Paed.,                             L. B. Stibbs, B.A., Prince George.
Prince Rupert.                                                       B. Thorsteinsson, B.A., M.B.A., Vernon.
F.
A. Jewett, B.A., Nelson.                                    A. S. Towell, M.A., Abbotsford.
F.
P. Levirs, B.A., Prince George.                             C. I. Taylor, B.A., Kimberley.
W
. E. Lucas, B.A., B.Paed., Trail.                         A. Turnbull, B.A., M.C, M.M., Revelstoke.
STAFFS OF THE NORMAL SCHOOLS.
Vancouver:
A.
R. Lord, B.A., Principal.                                   Miss M. McManus, M.A., Mus. Bac.
T. R. Hall, B.A.
F. C. Boyes, M.A.
H. B. MacLean.
Enoch Broome, M.A., B.Ed.
E. G. Ozard, B.A.
H. H. Grantham, M.A.
H. 0. English, B.A., B.S.A., Principal.
H. C. Gilliland, B.A.
J. F. Hammett, B.A.
Miss H. R. Anderson, M.A., Ph.D.,
Vice-Principal.
Miss M. E. Maynard, B.A.
Mrs. M. Lee.
Miss J. Maxwell.
Mrs. R. L. Stewart.
Miss S. Shopland, B.A.
W. P. Weston, A.R.C.A.
Victoria:
Miss M. D. James (part time).
F. T. C. Wickett, A.R.C.O.
Mrs. Ethel Reese-Burns. MM 6 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
SPECIAL OFFICIALS.
Registrar:  T. W. Hall (on leave of absence).
Acting Registrar:   T. F. ROBSON.
Officer in Charge of Industrial Education:  H. A. Jones.
Inspector of Technical Classes:  Brigadier J. E. Sager, M.A. in Ed.
Director of Home Economics:   Miss J. L. McLenaghen, B.Sc.
Inspector in Home Economics:   Miss B. Rogers, B.Sc.
Assistant Inspector in Home Economics:   Miss C. M. Orr, B.A., B.Sc.
Officer in Charge of High School Correspondence:   Miss E. E. LUCAS, B.A., D. es L.
Officer in Charge of Elementary Correspondence School:  Miss Anna B. Miller.
Organizer of School and Community Drama:
L. Bullock-Webster, A.R.C.M., F.T.C.L., M.R.S.T.
Officer in Charge of Text-book Branch:  P. G. Barr.
Chief Clerk:  R. D. Smith.
Superintendent, School for the Deaf and the Blind:
C. E. MacDonald, LL.B., B.S. in Ed., LL.D.
Director, Recreational and Physical Education:   Ernest Lee, B.A., B.Sc.
Director, School Radio Broadcasts: P. J. Kitley, B.A.
Director, Educational and Vocational Guidance:   H. P. Johns, M.A.
Director, Summer School of Education:  C. B. Conway, B.Sc, M.S., D.Paed.
Research Assistant—Office of Chief Inspector:   Mrs. Muriel ScACE. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Report of the Superintendent of Education-
Report of the Chief Inspector of Schools	
Report on Normal Schools—
Vancouver 	
Victoria 	
Report of the Director of the Summer School of Education-
Report of the Officer in Charge of Industrial Education	
Report of the Director of Home Economics	
Report of the Superintendent of Schools, Vancouver..
Report of Municipal Inspectors—
Victoria 	
New Westminster	
North Vancouver and West Vancouver..
B u rnaby 	
Surrey 	
Report of the Superintendent, School for the Deaf and the Blind-
Reports of Officers in Charge of Correspondence Schools—
High School and Vocational Courses	
Elementary School Courses	
Report of the Officer in Charge of the Text-book Branch.
Report on Work of Adult Education	
Report of the Director of Recreational and Physical Education.
Report of the Organizer of School and Community Drama	
Report of the Secretary, Local Committee, Strathcona Trust-.
Page.
_     9
_    37
39
40
42
51
60
62
84
97
99
102
104
105
106
112
114
117
137
144
146
Report of the Commission on " Education of Soldiers' Dependent Children Act"  148
Report of the Director of Educational and Vocational Guidance  149
Report of the Director of School Radio Broadcasts  151
Statistical Returns—•
1. Summary of Enrolment and Average Daily Attendance_.
2. Recapitulation of Enrolment by Sex and Grades	
  157
  191
3. List of Teachers by District and Name and Type of School, showing Salaries 192  REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT
OF EDUCATION, 1945-46.
Education Office,
Victoria, B.C., February, 1947.
To the Honourable G. M. Weir,
Minister of Education.
Sir,—I beg to submit herewith the Seventy-fifth Annual Report of the Public
Schools of British Columbia for the school-year ended June 30th, 1946.
ENROLMENT.
The enrolment in the schools of the Province increased during the year from
125,135 to 130,605, and the average daily attendance increased from 107,599 to 114,590.
The percentage of regular attendance was 87.74.
The number of pupils enrolled in the various classes of schools is shown hereunder:—
Type of School.
Number of Pupils Enrolled.
Cities.
District
Municipalities.
Rural
Districts.
Total.
High schools	
Junior-senior high schools*	
Junior high schools	
Superior schools	
Senior high-elementary schools*.
Junior high-elementary schools*
Elementary schools	
Totals, 1945-46	
Totals, 1944-45	
12,866
10,365
4,683
38
713
1,208
45,605
1,244
5,806
844
136
1,410
16,752
842
2,061
142
2,067
3,975
19,848
14,952
18,232
4,825
2,949
4,824
2,618
82,205
75,478
26,192
28,935
68,769
130,605
125,135t
* Tentative classification.
t Includes 523 pupils enrolled in community districts not shown elsewhere on table for 1944-45.
Students.
In addition to the numbers given above, there were enrolled in the—
High Correspondence School classes, regular students (exclusive of the 2,388 officially registered in high, superior, or
elementary schools)       1,353
Elementary Correspondence School classses, regular students    1,563
Classes formed under section 13 (g) of the " Public Schools
Act"   3
2,919
Adult education—
Classes under the Canadian Vocation Training Programme    9,945
Night-schools     8,059
Carried forward..
20,923 MM 10
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
Brought forward	
Adult education—Continued.
Vancouver School of Art-
students.
  20,923
  820
Vancouver School of Navigation  265
High Correspondence School (adults only)   2,656
Elementary Correspondence School (adults only)  191
Recreational and Physical Education classes  25,013
Summer School of Education (1945 session)   830
Normal School, Vancouver  198
Normal School, Victoria  83
Victoria College  567*
University of British Columbia  6,998*
TotaL
58,544
* Includes special winter and spring sessions.
DISTRIBUTION OF PUPILS BY GRADE AND SEX.
The following table shows the number of boys and girls enrolled in each grade for
the school-year 1945-46:—
Grade.
Boys.
Girls.
Total.
255
8,155
7,347
6,791
6,131
6,086
5,985
5,876
5,483
4,841
3,859
2,704
2,186
496
252
7,056
6,559
6,213
5,983
5,827
5,679
5,676
5,669
5,339
4,332
3,217
2,294
314
507
Grade I	
15,211
Grade II	
13,906
13,004
Grade III	
Grade IV	
12,114
11,913
11,664
11,552
Grade V .'.	
Grade VI.                         	
Grade VII.           	
Grade VIII _.	
Grade IX	
11,152
10,180
8,191
Grade X	
Grade XL                      	
5,921
4,480
Grade XII - 	
Grade XIII.                             	
Totals	
66,195
64,410                          130,605
DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHERS AND PUPILS ACCORDING TO THE
DIFFERENT CLASSES OF SCHOOLS.
The number of teachers employed in the different classes of schools, the number of
pupils enrolled in each class of school, and also the average number of pupils per teacher
are shown in the following table:—
Type of School.
Number of Teachers.
Grade.
Special
Instructors.
Total.
Total
Pupils
Enrolled.
Percentage
of
Total
Enrolment.
Average
Enrolment
per Grade
Teacher.
High schools	
Junior-senior high schools*	
Junior high schools	
Superior schools	
Senior high-elementary schools*.
Junior high-elementary schools*
Elementary schools	
Totals	
* Tentative classification.
448
526
135
94
155
74
2,557
138
183
45
4
15
12
118
586
709
180
102
172
164
2,591
14,952
18,232
4,825
2,949
4,824
2,618
82,205
4,504
130,605
11.45
13.97
3.69
2.26
3.69
2.00
62.94
100.00
33.37
34.66
35.74
31.37
31.12
35.37
32.15
32.74 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
MM 11
TEACHERS' CERTIFICATES.
The following table shows the number of teachers employed and also the number
with or without university degrees:—
Type of School.
Number  of  Teachers.
With
University
Degrees.
Without
University
Degrees.
Total.
High schools	
Junior-senior high schools*	
Junior high schools	
Superior schools	
Senior high-elementary schools*.
Junior high-elementary schools*
Elementary schools	
Totals	
478
466
119
3
53
28
273
1,420
108
243
61
95
117
58
2,402
3,084
586
709
180
98
170
86
2,675
4,504
* Tentative classification.
COMPARISON OF ENROLMENT AND EXPENDITURE FOR
PUBLIC EDUCATION.
The enrolment in the schools of the Province for various years since 1877-78 and
also the cost of maintaining them are shown in the following exhibit:—
School-year.
No. of
Teachers
employed.
No. of
School
Districts.
Aggregate
Enrolment.
Average
Daily
Attendance.
Percentage of
Attendance.
Government
Expenditure
for
Education.
Total
Expenditure
for Public
Schools.
1877 78             	
56
69
128
267
429
607
816
1,597
1,859
2,246
3,118
3,668
3,784
3,854
3,948
3,959
3,912
3,873
3,942
3,956
4,025
4,092
4,194
4,220
4,248
4,224
4,055
4,162
4,354
4,512
45
59
104
169
213
268
189
359
374
575
744
788
792
803
811
830
821
827
762
773
763
741
721
720
730
696
661
654
650
86
2,198
2,693
6,372
11,496
17,648
24,499
33,314
57,608
62,263
67,516
94,888
108,179
109,588
111,017
113,914
115,919
116,816
11:5,792
117,233
116,722
118,431
120,360
120,934
120,459
119,634
118,405
115,447
119,043
125,135
130,605
1,395
1,383
3,093
7,111
11,055
16,357
23,195
43,274
49,377
64,746
77,752
91,760
94,410
96,196
99,375
103,510
104,978
103,389
101,893
101,873
104,044
106,515
107,660
108,826
103,192
102,085
93,473
102,999
107,599
114,590
63.49
51.36
48.54
61.85
62.64
66.76
69.62
75.12
79.30
81.09
81.94
84.82
86.17
86.65
87.23
89.29
89.86
89.30
86.91
87.27
87.85
88.49
89.02
90.34
86.26
86.22
80.96
86.52
85.99
87.74
$48,411.14*
60,758.75*
113,679.36*
174,775.43
290,255.26
473,802.29
544,671.60
1,663,003.34
1,885,654.11
1,663,796.60
3,176,686.28$
3,532,518.951
3,765,920.69$
3,743,317.081:
3,834,727.19*
4,015,074.37$
2,849,972.02$
2,611,937.80$
2,835,040.74$
2,972,385.04$
3,277,660.23$
3,524,962.69$
3,630,670.78$
3,585,769.00$
3,963,848.24$
4,028,397.88$
3,924,243.53$
4,244,898.82$
5,022,534,59$
5,765,205.50$
1882 83                    	
1887 88 	
1892 93                	
$215,056.22t
1897-98	
425,555.10
1902-03	
604,357.86
1907-08	
1,220,509.85
1912-13	
4,658,894.97
1913-14 	
4,634,877.56
1917 18 	
3,519,014.61
1922-23	
7,630,009.54$
1927-28	
9,261,094.98$
1928-29	
11,149,996.27$
1929-30	
10,008,255.66$
1930 31 	
10,061,387.99$
1931 32 	
9,719,333.81$
1932-33	
8,941,497.34$
1933-34	
8,213,369.04$
1934-35	
8,458,156.00$
1935-36   ..         	
8,775,353.78$
1936-37	
9.593,562.64$
1937-38	
10,193,367.08$
1938-39	
10,640,740.47$
1939-40	
10,521,684.92$
1940-41	
10,982,364.49$
1941-42	
11,120,801.94$
1942-43	
11,502,291.35$
1943-44	
12,231,029.35$
1944-45	
13,683,538.18$
1945-46	
14,818,625.81$
* The total expenditure for public schools was borne by the Government.
t This amount does not include the expenditure (not available) made for incidental expenses in city school districts.
J This amount includes the annual grant from the Government to the Provincial University. MM 12
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
COMPARISON OF ENROLMENT AND COST PER PUPIL TO
PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT.
The following table shows the enrolment during the last thirteen years and also the
cost to the Provincial Government of each pupil:—
School-year.
Total
Enrolment.
Cost per
Pupil on
Enrolment.
Cost per
Pupil on
Average
Daily
Attendance.
1933-34	
115,792
117,233
116,722
118,431
120,360
120,934
120,459
119,634
118,405
115,447
119,043
125,135
130,605
19.51
20.40
21.35
22.93
24.05
24.85
24.52
27.82
28.51
28.82
29.81
33.97
36.56
1934-35	
1935-36	
1936-37	
1937-38	
1938-39 	
1939-40  \
1940-41	
32.25
1941-42	
1942^3	
1943-44	
1944-45	
1945-46	
41.67 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT. MM 13
COST  PER PUPIL,  ON VARIOUS BASES,  FOR THE   SCHOOL-YEAR  1945-46.
Grand total cost of education  $14,818,625.81
Less—
Grant re salaries and enrolment, Victoria College     $9,996.77
Special grant to Victoria College     10,000.00
Grant to University of British Columbia  628,724.03
Normal School, Vancouver     47,788.35
Normal School, Victoria T     18,721.59
Cost of night-schools      16,185.06
Correspondence schools—
High school      71,755.75
Elementary school     28,547.71
Adult education  158,899.18
Special grant under section 13 (g) of Act  120.00
  990,738.44
Net cost for total enrolment of 130,605 pupils  $13,827,887.37
Cost per pupil for year on total enrolment  105.88
Cost per pupil per school-day (192 days) on total enrolment .  .55
Cost per pupil for year on average daily attendance of 114,590  120.67
Cost per pupil per school-day (192 days) on average daily attendance ____ .63
Net cost to Provincial Government for total enrolment of 130,605 pupils
for year ($5,765,205.50—$990,738.44)        4,774,467.06
Cost to Provincial Government per pupil for year on total enrolment  36.56
Cost to Provincial Government per pupil per school-day (192 days) on
total enrolment  .19
Cost to Provincial Government per pupil for year on average daily
attendance  41.67
Cost to Provincial Government per pupil per school-year (192 days) on
average daily attendance  .22
Cost per capita for year on population of 1,003,000 (1946 estimate)   *13.79
Cost per capita per school-day (192 days) on population of 1,003,000  *.07
Cost to Provincial Government per capita for year on population of
1,003,000   +4.76
Cost to Provincial Government per capita per school day (192 days) on
population of 1,003,000  t-02
* Computed on the net total cost of $13,827,887.37.
t Computed on the net total cost to the Provincial Government of $4,774,467.0 MM 14
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
CHILDREN OF FOREIGN PARENTAGE.
The number of children of foreign parentage attending the public schools of the
Province during the year 1945-46 was as follows:—
Type of School.
CO
a
«
CO
BO
t-l
O
_Q
O
_C
__:
BO
c
_s
c
EG
c
0.
f.
03
■a
-S
CQ
ffi
c
<-
oi
oi
a
.5
oi
O
a
'>
c.
-3
c
DO
a
'a
cd
u
u ffi
ffi C
£.§
o ffi
s
_C
o
B
a)
J_
-.
p.
3
at
a
3r°
o
<
u
Q
&.
6.
o
s
s
H_
fc
«
TO
P
<!6.
H
High schools	
285
319
20
61
130
212
29
191
74
129
179
559
201
414
2,803
Junior-senior high schools*	
457
80
24
95
216
536
15
376
185
187
363
734
363
849
4,480
110
126
68
1
3
5
30
90
45
70
23
264
14
1
76
30
62
35
53
71
60
229
187
92
52
186
328
982
1,329
Senior high-elementary*	
73
47
8
14
71
85
203
156
66
72
174
87
152
1,208
Junior high-elementary*	
77
22
1
21
26
17
7
10
3
24
26
138
23
39
434
1,470
916
1,109
491
1,468
3,167
305
1,019
553
1,028
1,508
4,057
1,551
3,853
22,495
Totals	
2,598
1,453
1,170
802
2,026
4,304
371
1,905
1,033
1,522
2,279
6,078
2,369
5,821
33,731
* Tentative classification.
NU1V
1BE
R OF SCHOOL
DISTRICTS.
The following table shows the number and classes of school districts in which
expenditure for school purposes was made during the school-year 1945-46:—
Municipal school districts     7
Large municipal school districts  30
Large rural school districts  37
Rural school districts (unattached schools)   12
TotaL
86 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
MM 15
HIGH SCHOOLS.
The enrolment in senior high schools during the school-year was 14,952; of this
number 7,140 were boys and 7,812 were girls. The number of schools, number of
divisions, number of teachers, and the enrolment for the school-year 1945-46 in each
district are shown in the following table:—
No. and Name of School District.
Number of
Schools.
Number of
Divisions.
Number of
Teachers.
Number of
Pupils.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
9
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
5
1
1
1
4
7
8
1
2
2
4
4
4
1
1
5
7
8
2
4
2
2
3
8
10
204
25
11
3
19
1
2
2
3
1
3
63
2
3
9
12
11
9
1
2
2
4
4
4
1
1
8
8
10
2
5
2
2
4
11
13
256
34
14
4
20
1
2
2
3
1
4
106
2
3
14
16
209
270
14
62
39
12. Grand Porks	
87
115
61
18
18. Golden	
20
155
207
246
22. Vernon	
37
23. Kelowna	
114
28. Quesnel	
30
31. Merritt	
42
33. Chilliwack      	
80
313
357
6,946
988
395
76
598
46. Sechelt	
45
41
53. Terrace 	
43
49
21
83
2,415
50
291
362
Totals	
57
448
586
14,952 MM 16
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
JUNIOR-SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS.
(Tentative classification.)
The enrolment in junior-senior high schools during the school-year was 18,232; of
this number 8,825 were boys and 9,407 were girls. The number of schools, number of
divisions, number of teachers, and the enrolment for the school-year 1945-46 in each
district are shown in the following table:—
No. and Name of School District.
Number of
Schools.
Number of
Divisions.
Number of
Teachers.
Number of
Pupils.
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
3
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
17
14
4
1
35
10
20
6
19
22
19
34
10
42
9
21
84
26
17
14
16
15
15
9
5
13
8
21
20
18
4
1
45
14
27
8
26
30
27
48
14
51
12
27
117
34
23
19
22
21
22
14
6
15
12
32
474
432
88
33
1,348
358
630
166
744
899
671
1,225
387
1,485
249
669
3,141
856
562
508
507
460
508
321
129
384
286
712
Totals	
38
526
709
18,232
JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS.
The enrolment in junior high schools during the school-year was 4,825; of this
number 2,481 were boys and 2,344 were girls. The number of schools, number of
divisions, number of teachers, and the enrolment for the school-year 1945-46 in each
district are shown in the following table:—
No. and Name of School District.
Number of
Schools.
Number of
Divisions.
Number of   Number of
Teachers.        Pupils.
1
2
3
1
1
11
74
30
3
17
17
99
39
4
21
406
2,640
1,048
Totals	
8
135
180
4,825
59.
61.
Totals	 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
MM 17
SUMMARY OF ENROLMENT IN HIGH AND JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOLS.
Type of School.
Number
of
Pupils
enrolled.
Boys.
Girls.
Average
Daily
Attendance.
Number of Pupils enrolled in Grades.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
XI.
XII.
XIII.
14,952
4,825
18,232
7,140
2,481
8,825
7,812
2,344
9,407
12,588.26
4,327.06
15,623.35
1,700
3,502
73*
1,601
3,627
1
3,819 | 4,539
1,524
3,705 1 3,179
3,383
2,258
2,619
1,687
519
274
Totals	
38,009
18,446
19,563
32,538.67
5,202
5,301
9,048 1 7,718
(
5,641
4,306
793
* Mount Newton and Mount Douglas High Schools enrol Grade VIII. pupils.
SUPERIOR SCHOOLS.
The enrolment in superior schools during the school-year was 2,949; of this
number 1,493 were boys and 1,456 were girls. The number of schools, number of
divisions, number of teachers, and the enrolment for the school-year 1945-46 in each
district are shown in the following table:—
No. and Name of School District.
Number of
Schools.
Number of
Divisions.
Number of
Teachers.
Number of
Pupils.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
2
1
1
1
1
3
2
1
4
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
21
4
5
3
2
2
2
7
4
s
19
5
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2
21
4
5
3
2
2
2
7
4
5
21
5
34
64
42
43
63
57
100
26. Birch Island	
52
844
37. Delta	
146
46. Sechelt	
147
91
46
37
56
146
87
613
201
Totals _ _	
29
94
98
2,949 MM 18
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
SENIOR HIGH-ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
(Tentative classification.)
The enrolment in senior high-elementary schools during the school-year was 4,824;
of this number 2,448 were boys and 2,376 were girls. The number of schools, number
of divisions, number of teachers, and the enrolment for the school-year 1945-46 in each
district are shown in the following table:—
No. and Name of School District.
Number of
Schools.
Number of
Divisions.
Number of
Teachers.
Number of
Pupils.
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
29
4
8
5
5
6
6
8
5
10
9
14
4
3
6
5
4
7
9
3
5
33
4
8
5
6
6
6
8
5
10
9
16
4
3
6
5
9
8
9
3
8
917
120
11. Trail	
279
13. Kettle Valley    	
171
18. Golden      	
149
176
28. Quesnel    	
199
246
136
309
251
399
141
58. McBride	
89
216
62. Sooke Rural _.	
162
136
64. Saltspring	
245
247
74. Quatsino	
97
139
27
155
170
4,824
JUNIOR HIGH-ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
(Tentative classification.)
The enrolment in junior high-elementary schools during the school-year was 2,618;
of this number 1,298 were boys and 1,320 were girls. The number of schools, number
of divisions, number of teachers, and the enrolment for the school-year 1945-46 in each
district are shown in the following table:—
No. and Name of School District.
Number of
Schools.
1
Number of j Number of 1 Number of
Divisions.      Teachers.        Pupils.
2
2
40
34
46
40
1,410
1,208
Totals	
4
74
86
2,618 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
MM 19
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.
The enrolment in elementary schools during the school-year was 82,205; of this
number 42,510 were boys and 39,695 were girls. The number of schools, number of
divisions, number of teachers and the enrolment for the school-year 1945-46 in each
district are showing in the following table:—
No. and Name of School District.
Number of
Schools.
Number of
Divisions.
Number of
Teachers.
Number of
Pupils.
1. Fernie	
11
7
6
5
6
7
13
11
13
7
10
5
14
3
5
5
6
8
9
33
10
10
15
23
9
6
18
12
5
8
3
6
17
24
16
28
5
5
48
6
17
8
10
7
2
8
10
4
2
3
1
8
8
9
12
8
23
8
11
22
21
7
22
9
35
15
26
11
58
18
14
16
36
11
14
9
17
40
24
42
55
40
9
7
18
15
6
10
6
6
62
55
36
67
11
40
674
53
88
30
37
42
22
15
28
6
2
3
1
24
12
13
13
9
33
9
11
22
21
7
23
9
36
15
26
11
59
18
14
16
38
11
14
9
17
40
24
43
56
40
9
7
18
15
6
10
6
6
62
56
36
67
11
41
769
53
94
31
37
42
23
15
28
6
2
3
1
24
12
13
13
9
33
9
191
710
3. Kimberley	
677
156
682
6. Kaslo	
174
1,194
387
733
282
11. Trail	
2,084
12. Grand Forks	
600
13. Kettle Valley	
176
618
1,353
357
393
18. Golden	
153
475
928
759
22. Vernon	
1,550
2,056
1,126
145
26.  Birch Island	
116
27. Williams Lake	
264
28. Quesnel	
323
29. Lillooet	
97
30. Ashcroft   	
214
31. Merritt	
204
120
33. Chilliwack	
2,336
2,001
1,457
36. Surrey	
2,509
37. Delta 	
375
1,569
22,701
1,927
3,246
1,020
1,301
1,480
783
46. Sechelt	
427
879
109
49. Ocean Falls 	
28
57
18
782
315
312
198
177
856
58   McBride    	
149 MM 20
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS—Continued.
No. and Name of School District.
Number of   Number of
Schools,    j Divisions.
1
Number of
Teachers.
Number of
Pupils.
34
16
24
12
10
8
14
6
2
8
6
8
10
16
7
5
11
1
44
18
177
18
21
8
29
17
13
28
9
38
44
16
10
6
14
12
44
18
181
18
21
8
29
17
13
28
9
39
44
16
10
6
14
13
923
320
6,554
62. Sooke Rural	
421
655
143
934
496
507
896
229
1,379
1,447
72. Campbell River	
292
73. Alert Bay	
221
113
255
111
Totals	
804
2,557
2,675
82,205
NUMBER OF SCHOOLS AND NUMBER   OF TEACHERS
IN EACH TYPE OF SCHOOL.
The following table shows the number of schools of each type and the number of
teachers employed in each for the school-year 1945-46:—
Type of School.
Number
of
Schools.
Number
of
Teachers.
57
38
8
29
27
4
804
586
709
180
98
170
86
2,675
Totals  	
967
4,504
* Tentative classification. REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
MM 21
TEACHERS' SALARIES.
The following table shows the highest, lowest, and average salary (in dollars
only) paid to teachers in each school district, distributed according to the grades to
which the majority of their teaching time was spent. Salaries of part-time teachers
are not included.
No. and Name of School District.
Grades
I.-VI.
Grades
VII.-IX.
Grades
X.-XIII.
Grades
I.-IX.
Grades
VII.-XIII.
Principals.
Special
Instructors.
1. Fernie—
High            	
$1,800
1,200
1,496
1,800
1,100
1,385
2,500
1,200
1,587
1,400
1,200
1,288
2,000
1,200
1,453
1,600
1,500
1,567
2,290
1,160
1,579
1,400
1,200
1,312
1,600
1,200
1,342
1,525
1,100
1,288
2,700
1,100
1,443
1,500
1,150
1,338
1,260
1,200
1,230
2,100
1,200
1,411
1,680
1,000
1,336
$2,128
1,200
1,672
2,000
1,200
1,554
2,020
1,600
1,842
1,500
1,500
1,500
2,020
1,500
1,814
1,600
1,400
1,500
2,700
1,675
2,145
1,260
1,260
1,260
1,900
1,440
1,702
1,500
1,500
1,500
2,350
1,250
1,817
1,800
1,350
1,608
1,500
1,500
1,500
2,000
1,500
1,692
2,400
1,400
1,823
$2,388
1,750
2,075
2,020
1,860
1,950
2,570
1,650
2,044
1,800
1,800
1,800
2,350
1,700
1,980
2,500
1,800
2,150
3,900
2,000
2,822
2,100
2,100
2,100
3,000
1,600
2,112
2,500
2,000
2,183
1,800
1,700
1,750
1,950
1,650
1,775
2,400
1,400
1,934
$1,315
1,200
1,268
1,600
1,200
1,310
1,670
1,100
1,307
1,400
1,150
1,258
1,400
1,100
1,235
1,400
1,100
1,220
1,600
1,100
1,227
1,700
1,100
1,292
1,600
1,150
1,298
1,600
1,140
1,323
1,300
1,100
1,240
1,250
1,200
1,213
1,400
1,150
1,225
$3,000
2,500
2,750
3,100
2,200
2,650
2,815
2,815
2,815
$1,998
1,817
1,908
2. Cranbrook—
High	
1,900
1,600
	
1,767
3. Kimberley—
High	
4. Windermere—■
High
5. Creston—
High	
3,000
2,900
2,950
1,800
1,500
1,633
6. Kaslo—
High
Average	
7. Nelson—
High	
$2,000
1,537
1,769
1,800
1,400
1,600
1,750
1,750
1,750
1,500
1,500
1,500
2,150
2,150
2,150
3,500
2,750
3,125
2.400
Low	
Average	
8. Slocan—
High
2,400
2,400
9. Castlegar—
High	
Average	
10. Arrow Lakes—
High
Average	
11.  Trail-
High	
4,200
3,200
3,700
12. Grand Forks-
High
13. Kettle Valley-
Low	
14. Oliver—
3,200
2,200
2,700
2,700
2,600
2,650
1,800
1,500
1,650
15. Penticton—■
1,200
1,200
1,200
2,300
1,560
1,911 MM 22
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
TEACHERS' SALARIES—Continued.
No. and Name of School District.
Grades
I.-VI.
Grades
VII.-IX.
Grades
X.-XIII.
16. Keremeos—
High	
Low	
Average	
17. Princeton—
High	
Low	
Average	
Golden-
High	
Low	
Average	
Revelstoke—
High	
Low	
Average	
Salmon Arm—
High	
Low	
Average	
Armstrong—
High	
Low	
Average	
22. Vernon—
High	
Low	
Average	
Kelowna—■
High	
Low.	
Average	
Kamloops—
High	
Low	
Average	
25. Barriere—
High	
18.
19.
20.
21.
23.
24
26.
27.
Low	
Average.	
Birch Island—
High	
Low	
Average	
Williams Lake-
High	
Low	
Average	
28. Quesnel—
High	
Low	
Average	
Lillooet—'
High	
Low	
Average	
Ashcroft—
High	
Low....	
Average	
31. Merritt—
High	
Low	
Average	
29.
30.
$1,350
1,200
1,250
1,440
1,200
1,330
1,500
1,200
1,300
1,840
1,200
1,545
1,560
1,100
1,284
1,240
1,100
1,164
1,830
1,100
1,351
1,800
1,100
1,301
2,700
1,200
1,656
300
200
,250
720
200
650
.200
456
500
300
350
.550
200
342
480
350
400
$1,000
1,000
1,000
1,560
1,500
1,540
2,500
1,560
1,915
1,800
1,500
1,633
2,000
1,350
1,566
1,950
1,300
1,612
1,640
1,300
1,531
1,900
1,370
1,688
1,475
1,475
1,475
1,700
1,700
1,700
1,400
1,400
1,400
$2,300
1,900
2,100
2,620
1,620
2,013
2,750
2,750
2,750
2,100
1,800
1,970
2,750
1,700
2,030
1,900
1,500
1,730
2,140
1,770
1,899
2,070
1,300
1,744
2,500
1,542
2,111
1,720
1,720
1,720
2,450
1,550
2,100
2,100
2,100
2,100
1,950
1,600
1,775
1,600
1,600
1,600
Grades
I.-IX.
$1,500
1,200
1,313
1,450
1,100
1,233
1,650
1,200
1,278
1,500
1,100
1,229
1,740
1,100
1,265
1,400
1,100
1,200
1,300
1,100
1,171
1,600
1,200
1,367
1,400
1,100
1,217
1,400
1,200
1,244
1,250
1,200
1,210
1,700
1,100
1,274
1,400
1,120
1,230
1,450
1,200
1,323
1,400
1,125
1,254
1,170
1,100
1,135
Grades        Princi-
VII.-XIII.       pals.
	
$2,000
2,000
2,000
1,800
1,800
1,800
1,800
1,600
1,700
1,400
1,400
1,400
2,300
2,300
2,300
1,500
1,500
1,500
2,000
2,000
2,000
2,020
2,020
2,020
1,900
1,700
1,800
1,800
1,800
1,800
1,750
1,750
1,750
Special
Instructors.
$2,800
2,800
2,800
3,000
2,800
2,900
3,240
2,420
2,787
3,600
2,160
2,880
1,620
1,740
2,040
1,600
1,820
1,700
1,400
1,550
1,975
1,342
1,734
2,400
2,400
2,400 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
MM 23
TEACHERS' SALARIES—Continued.
No. and Name of School District.
Grades
I.-VI.
Grades
VII.-IX.
Grades
X.-XIII.
Grades
I.-IX.
Grades
VII.-XIII.
Principals.
Special
Instructors.
32. Fraser Canyon—
High                           	
$1,300
1,200
1,260
1,950
950
1,239
1,725
1,100
1,269
1,788
1,020
1,234
1,620
1,000
1,175
2,220
1,060
1,340
2,700
1,000
1,419
3,900
1,100
1,863
2,965
982
1,720
2,400
1,000
1,459
2,070
1,000
1,327
2,090
1,000
1,354
$1,750
1,600
1,675
1,925
1,250
1,582
2,340
1,230
1,710
1,760
1,200
1,554
2,040
1,170
1,403
1,500
1,320
1,380
2,400
1,345
1,745
3,900
1,500
2,625
2,910
950
2,251
2,900
1,300
1,938
1,840
1,320
1,590
. 2,000
1,200
1,568
2,930
1,190
2,077
.2,780
1,500
2,024
2,100
1,300
1,750
2,360
1,400
1,852
$2,000
2,000
2,000
2,375
1,400
1,891
2,275
1,540
1,932
1,952
1,340
1,552
2,040
1,520
1,675
2,340
1,560
1,973
2,300
1,550
1,955
3,800
1,500
3,201
3,255
1,600
2,824
2,900
1,500
2,146
2,020
1,720
1,870
2,687
1,650
2,108
2,965
1,160
2,166
2,900
1,880
2,522
1,900
1,600
1,750
2,500
1,660
2,193
$1,500
1,200
1,294
1,200
1,020
1,155
1,700
1,100
1,301
1,470
1,350
1,418
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,180
1,180
1,180
$2,000
2,000
2,000
33. Chilliwack—
High	
$3,000
2,500
2,750
2,900
2,120
2,510
2,267
2,267
2,267
2,640
2,210
2,420
2,550
2,550
2,550
3,033
2,360
2,697
4,700
3,100
3,972
3,920
3,435
3,649
3,500
2,900
3,260
2,660
2,060
2,360
2,828
2,828
2,828
3,360
2,965
3,163
3,060
2,320
2,760
$2,500
1,525
1,858
34. Abbotsford-Mission—
High	
1,725
1,725
1,725
1,875
Low	
Average _	
35. Langley—
High	
1,875
1,875
Average	
36. Surrey-
High          	
1,380
1,380
1,380
2,030
2,030
2,030
37. Delta-
High	
2,140
Low _	
1,500
1,793
38. Richmond—
High                	
Average	
39.  Vancouver—
High                	
2,100
1,200
1,843
3,700
920
1,895
40.  New Westminster—
High                  	
2,605
2,100
2,353
41. Burnaby—
High	
2,200
1,100
1,833
1,180
1,180
1,180
1,600
1,500
1,550
2,270
1,860
2,003
2,600
1,600
2,058
42.   Maple Ridge—
High                               	
Average	
43.  Coquitlam—
High                      	
1,700
1,700
1,700
44.  North Vancouver—
High
1,025
1,390
2,400
1,200
1,755
1,500
1,150
1,350
2,500
1,140
1,542
45. West Vancouver—
High                            	
Low	
46. Sechelt—
High                                	
1,350
1,200
1,258
1,500
1,100
1,280
1,600
1,600
1,600
1,800
1,800
1,800
47. Powell River—
High    	
3,620
3,100
3,360
2,600
1,480
1,963 MM 24
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
TEACHERS' SALARIES—Continued.
No. and Name of School District.
Grades
I.-VI.
Grades
VII.-IX.
Grades
X.-XIII.
Grades
I.-IX.
Grades
VII.-XIII.
Principals.
Special
Instructors.
48. Howe Sound—
High	
$1,600
1,100
1,383
1,900
1,200
1,500
1,300
1,300
1,300
1,300
1,300
1,300
2,650
1,275
1,845
1,400
1,200
1,287
1,400
1,200
1,275
1,400
1,250
1,325
1,500
1,250
1,413
1,825
1,300
1,500
1,300
1,100
1,167
1,350
1,100
1,257
1,250
1,100
1,180
3,182
1,000
1,570
1,260
1,100
1,194
1,550
1,050
1,250
$2,450
1,600
2,025
2,400
1,950
2,117
$2,550
2,000
2,267
3,050
1,900
2,475
$1,550
1,200
1,363
1,300
1,300
1,300
1,400
1,350
1,375
1,600
1,600
1,600
1,400
1,400
1,400
1,640
1,200
1,282
1,750
1,200
1,361
1,300
1,200
1,230
1,600
1,200
1,343
1,550
1,197
1,281
1,300
1,100
1,250
2,200
1,100
1,197
1,450
1,100
1,208
2,683
1,640
2,143
1,700
1,100
1,290
1,780
1,200
1,468
$2,000
2,000
2,000
1,600
1,600
1,600
1,600
1,600
1,600
1,700
1,700
1,700
49. Ocean Falls—
High	
50. Queen Charlotte—
High      	
51. Portland Canal—
High                          	
52. Prince Rupert—
High	
2,500
1,600
2,023
2,725
2,100
2,338
1,640
1,640
1,640
2,200
2,200
2,200
$2,950
2,950
2,950
53. Terrace—
High	
2,140
1,750
1,945
2,000
1,800
1,900
2,050
2,050
2,050
1,800
1,800
1,800
54. Smithers—
High	
55. Burns Lake—■
High	
56. Vanderhoof—
High	
57.  Prince George—
High	
2,000
1,500
1,792
1,200
1,200
1,200
1,700
1,500
1,600
1,800
1,500
1,650
3,420
1,570
2,309
1,800
1,800
1,800
1,950
1,475
1,655
2,225
1,700
2,000
2,850
2,850
2,850
$2,075
1,775
1,925
58. McBride—
High	
1,900
1,900
1,900
1,900
1,600
1,767
59.  Peace River South—
High	
2,000
1,800
1,867
1,900
1,900
1,900
3,220
1,500
2,466
2,550
2,550
2,550
60. Peace River North—
High	
Low	
61. Greater Victoria—
High	
4,200
2,875
3,524
3,202
1,625
2,236
Low	
62.  Sooke Rural—
High	
1,800
1,800
1,800
63. Saanich—
High	
2,330
1,550
1,995
2,325
2,325
2,325
1,880
1,320
1,600
Low	 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
MM 25
TEACHERS' SALARIES—Continued.
No. and Name of School District.
Grades
L-VI.
Grades
VII.-IX.
Grades
X.-XIII.
Grades
I.-IX.
Grades
VII.-XIII.
Princi
pals.
Special
Instructors.
64. Saltspring—■
High	
$1,200
1,100
1,160
2,150
1,100
1,269
1,700
1,300
1,418
1,680
1,100
1,400
1,770
1,070
1,384
1,300
1,200
1,268
1,790
1,100
1,475
1,950
1,080
1,336
1,400
1,250
1,325
1,200
1,200
1,200
1,400
1,250
1,350
1,800
1,200
1,406
$1,200
1,200
1,200
1,625
1,400
1,632
1,850
1,200
1,513
1,900
1,400
1,668
1,960
1,400
1,710
1,550
1,400
1,450
2,000
1,280
1,679
2,400
1,390
1,855
$1,800
1,800
1,800
2,650
1,500
1,939
2,400
1,700
2,050
2,220
1,740
1,940
2,260
1,960
2,163
2,100
1,700
1,900
2,800
1,700
2,058
2,500
1,680
2,020
$1,400
1,100
1,200
1,800
1,140
1,358
1,600
1,300
1,400
1,425
1,425
1,425
1,200
1,200
1,200
1,650
1,100
1,340
1,300
1,200
1,225
1,500
1,250
1,317
1,600
1,100
1,315
1,508
1,200
1,320
1,400
1,200
1,250
1,500
1,140
1,277
$1,800
1,800
1,800
1,600
1,500
1,550
65. Duncan—
High	
$1,500
1,500
1,500
66. Lake Cowichan—■
High	
67. Ladysmith—
High   	
$2,620
2,620
2,620
3,500
3,250
3,375
68. Nanaimo—
High                                   	
2,060
1,350
1,818
69. Qualicum—-
High           	
1,950
1,950
1,950
70. Alberni—
High 	
3,200
2,250
2,817
1,975
1,575
1,775
71. Courtenay—
High                         	
1,660
1,660
1,660
2,050
2,050
2,050
1,800
1,625
1,706
72. Campbell River—
High          	
73. Alert Bay-
High    	
74. Quatsino—■
High   	
2,250
2,250
2,250
2,920
2,920
2,920
99. Unattached districts—
High	
2,750
2,750
2,750
3,300
3,300
3,300
3,750
3,750
3,750
1,475
1,440
1,458 MM 26 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
SALARY CLASSIFICATION.
The following table shows the number of teachers in the Province receiving the
annual salary indicated for the school-year 1945-46. Part-time teachers are not
included.
Number of Number of
Salary. Teachers. Salary. Teachers.
?1,000-1,099 101          $2,800-2,899  66
1,100-1,199 284            2,900-2,999  57
1,200-1,299 574            3,000-3,099  42
1,300-1,399 405            3,100-3,199  33
1,400-1,499 335            3,200-3,299  72
1,500-1,599 304            3,300-3,399  11
1,600-1,699 283            3,400-3,499  30
1,700-1,799 214 3,500-3,599 125
1,800-1,899 252            3,600-3,699  9
1,900-1,999 197            3,700-3,799  6
2,000-2,099 184            3,800-3,899  18
2,100-2,199 327            3,900-3,999  20
2,200-2,299 135            4,000-4,099  3
2,300-2,399    88            4,100^,199  6
2,400-2,499    70            4,200-4,299  2
2,500-2,599    67            4,300-4,399  1
2,600-2,699    58            4,500-4,599  2
2,700-2,799    59            4,700-4,799  5
EXPENDITURE FOR EDUCATION FOR SCHOOL-YEAR 1945-46.
Minister's office:
Salaries        $10,820.00
Office supplies, etc.   603.86
Travelling expenses, etc  3,629.24
  $15,053.10
General office:
Salaries   $34,948.06
Office supplies, etc.   2,617.26
Travelling expenses, etc  792.52
  38,357.84
Text-book Branch:
Free text-books, maps, etc  105,071.37
Correspondence schools—high:
Salaries  $64,673.88
Office supplies, etc  36,543.75
Revision of courses, etc  5,555.84
Travelling expenses, etc  214.83
Science Equipment  1,543.51
Incidentals   49.35
Less—
Dominion Government grant  $13,339.15
Fees     23,485.96
$108,580.86
36,825.11
71,755.75 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT. MM 27
Correspondence schools—elementary:
Salaries        $23,826.62
Office supplies, etc  4,674.50
Travelling expenses, etc  46.59
  $28,547.71
Industrial education:
Salaries   $17,595.00
Office supplies, etc  1,561.00
Travelling expenses, etc  4,757.17
Grants in aid  6,403.73
Night-schools  16,185.06
$46,501.96
Less Dominion Government grant  2,717.37
Inspection of schools:
Salaries  _.  $110,895.80
Office supplies, etc  17,656.32
Travelling expenses, etc  50,106.64
$178,658.76
Less—
Amount paid by School Boards  $11,143.91
Amount paid by Department of
Mines, etc      1,600.00
12,743.91
Normal School, Vancouver:
Salaries (less deduction for rent, $468)  $43,496.66
Office supplies, etc  3,508.00
Travelling expenses, etc  997.45
Fuel, light, water, etc  2,764.75
Books, bindings, periodicals, etc  969.11
Allowance to demonstration school  2,325.00
Maintenance (Public Works Department)  1,531.01
Programmes of Study, etc  417.60
Nursing and health services  1,300.00
Incidentals   968.77
$58,278.35
Less Normal School fees         10,490.00
Normal School, Victoria:
Salaries   $19,685.00
Office supplies, etc  1,608.86
Travelling expenses, etc  549.78
Transportation   of   students   to   outlying   practice-
schools   255.41
Incidentals   367.64
43,784.59
165,914.85
47,788.35 MM 28 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
Normal School, Victoria—Continued:
Fuel, light, and water (by Public Works)  $298.55
Maintenance and repairs (by Public Works)  86.35
$22,851.59
Less Normal School fees  4,130.00
School for the Deaf and the Blind:
Salaries (less deductions for rent, $2,757.89)  $42,632.13
Office supplies, etc  951.27
Laundry and janitor supplies  1,370.05
Travelling expenses, etc  669.04
Fuel, light, water, etc  2,372.53
Maintenance and repairs (by Public Works)  3,385.79
Furniture, fixtures, equipment, etc  2,376.49
Provisions, etc.  7,791.37
Incidentals   1,216.38
$18,721.59
$62,765.05
Less fees for extra-Provincial children  510.00
  62,255.05
Regular salary grants (to March 31st, 1946)  $1,795,088.21
Basic grants (April to June, 1946)    1,299,154.42
       3,094,242.63
Special salary grant under section 13 (g) of the Act  120.00
Salary grant to Vancouver Unit, Tuberculosis Control  340.00
Supplementary salary grants:
Cities      $155,975.32
District municipalities          78,800.65
Rural school districts          97,252.60
         332,028.57
Grants re " Special Assistance in the Cost of Education Act "  173,371.72
Supplementary aid re teachers' salaries in rural school districts  220,411.00
School buildings, erection and maintenance, school desks, and special aid
to school districts  183,122.93
Education of soldiers' dependent children  12,818.97
School tests, High School and Senior Matriculation examinations        $31,812.91
Less fees for examinations and certificates         17,146.31
  14,666.60
Conveying children to central schools         208,825.66
School libraries  5,702.73
Summer schools and teacher-training for special certificates        $24,475.86
Less fees from outside teachers, sales of books,
etc.   4,135.93
■ ■ 20,339.93
Official Trustee, Community School Districts:
Salary   $2,400.00
Expenses   907.75
$3,307.75
Less paid by districts  1,267.28
2,040.47 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
MM 29
Board of Reference-
Adult education:
Extension and adult education and education of the unemployed	
Recreational and physical education for youths over
school age       $68,196.59
Less contribution of Dominion Government         16,015.75
Urban occupational training	
War emergency and rehabilitation training.
Student-aid bursaries	
Apprentice training 	
School radio broadcasts:
Salaries (less amount paid by Canadian Broadcasting
Corporation, $1,087.50) 	
Office supplies, etc	
Scripts, actors' fees, etc	
Travelling expenses, etc	
Educational direction and supervision:
Salaries 	
Travelling expenses, etc	
Supplies, books, periodicals, etc	
Division of Tests and Measurements	
Purchase of tests for resale to schools	
Preparing, purchasing, administering, scoring tests_
Printing school magazines	
Less sale of tests to schools..
Educational and vocational guidance:
Salaries 	
Office supplies, etc	
Printing and mimeographing	
Travelling expenses, etc	
Incidentals	
Less Dominion Government grant-
$2,764.43
1,614.61
3,652.80
757.85
$10,877.93
1,360.92
5,009.36
5,491.01
3,375.89
107.14
623.50
$26,845.75
8,085.96
$4,245.00
1,189.73
1,693.00
545.10
72.80
$7,745.63
1,613.46
Grants re tuition fees paid by Rural School Boards under section 137 (3)
of the Act	
Grants re lunch equipment in rural schools	
Incidentals and contingencies	
University of British Columbia:
General grant	
Teacher-training 	
Interest on cost of stadium, etc.
Cost-of-living bonus 	
Law faculty 	
$573,837.53
15,500.06
270.00
29,116.44
10,000.00
$157.05
16,893.66
52,180.84
7,592.14
10,519.88
66,770.40
4,942.26
8,789.69
18,759.79
6,132.17
9,049.50
162.08
24,636.90
628,724.03 MM 30
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
Special grant to Victoria College-
Cost-of-living bonus	
         $10,000.00
  34,613.70
     $5,765,205.50
Amount expended by districts (including debt charges)      9,053,420.31
Grand total cost of education  $14,818,625.81
Total cost to the Government-
Provincial Grants and Costs borne by each District.
The following table shows the amount of Provincial education grants paid direct to
school districts for the school-year 1945-46 and also the net cost borne by school districts during the school-year 1945-46:—
No. and Name of School District.
Government.4
District.
Total.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
Fernie	
Cranbrook	
Kimberley	
Windermere	
Creston	
Kootenay Lake	
Nelson	
Slocan	
Castlegar	
Arrow Lakes	
Trail	
Grand Forks	
Kettle Valley	
Southern Okanagan
Penticton	
Keremeos	
Princeton	
Golden	
Revelstoke	
Salmon Arm	
Armstrong	
Vernon	
Kelowna	
Kamloops	
Barriere	
Birch Island	
Williams Lake	
Quesnel	
Lillooet	
Ashcroft	
Merritt	
Fraser Canyon	
Chilliwack	
Abbotsford-Mission..
Langley ....
Surrey	
Delta	
Richmond	
Vancouver	
New Westminster	
Burnaby	
Maple Ridge	
Coquitlam	
North Vancouver	
West Vancouver.	
Sechelt	
$51
39,
42,
12,
58,
14,
57,
17,
30,
18,
85,
25,
19.
48,
71
16
29,
17
28
46,
36,
90,
107.
65,
8,
9,
20,
22,
13
15
6,
18,
129
110,
50,
123,
22
68,
796,
104,
218,
57,
61,
118,
30,
23,
,046.00
301.88
327.54
586.24
955.73
244.14
,803.99
791.50
,562.05
,388.71
877.02
,900.52
,603.86
,611.69
469.97
935.80
,038.13
340.72
,663.43
,845.36
801.02
715.18
940.25
042.52
662.62
221.33
,506.18
,256.94
218.85
305.44
,331.56
201.06
639.08
937.51
816.42
896.32
,935.89
,047.33
644.74
134.42
583.69
797.58
625.88
754.81
405.29
,718.18
$52,113.99
49,649.43
78,048.27
9,241.38
66,787.14
10,477.36
120,057.50
15,652.57
24,034.21
12,389.13
191,646.51
28,122.32
10,392.64
49,941.78
141,310.54
18,850.34
33,900.84
12,329.79
37,972.27
32,851.69
40,705.23
121,876.34
108,869.68
88,308.28
5,181.24
6,239.25
23,454.82
25,795.64
17,038.40
16,034.53
15,253.27
18,912.69
165,426.26
162,450.68
58,285.51
146,622.06
44,740.76
91,534.36
3,854,842.88
320,168.17
366,868.70
59,977.37
71,258.05
208,635.31
95,559.00
37,795.90
$103,160.32
88,951.31
120,375.81
21,827.62
125,742.87
24,721.50
177,861.49
33,444.07
54,596.26
30,777.84
277,523.53
54,022.84
29,996.50
98,553.47
212,780.51
35,786.14
62,938.97
29,670.51
66,635.70
79,697.05
77,506.25
212,591.52
216,809.93
153,350.80
13,843.86
15,460.58
43,961.00
48,052.58
30,257.25
31,339.97
21,584.83
37,113.75
295,065.34
273,388.19
109,101.93
270,518.38
67,676.65
159,581.69
4,651,487.62
424,302.59
585,452.39
117,774.95
132,883.93
327,390.12
125,964.29
61,514.08
* Includes the total of regular salary grants paid to rural-school teachers during the period September, 1945, to
March, 1945, inclusive. REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
MM 31
Provincial Grants and Costs borne by each District—Continued.
No. and Name of School District.
Government.*
District.
Total.
47. Powell River	
48. Howe Sound	
49. Ocean Falls	
50. Queen Charlotte	
51. Portland Canal	
52. Prince Rupert	
53. Terrace	
54. Smithers	
55. Burns Lake	
56. Vanderhoof	
57. Prince George	
58. McBride	
59. Peace River South	
60. Peace River North	
61. Greater Victoria	
62. Sooke	
63. Saanich	
64. Saltspring	
65. Cowichan	
66. Lake Cowichan	
67. Ladysmith	
68. Nanaimo	
69. Qualicum	
70. Alberni	
71. Courtenay	
72. Campbell River	
73. Alert Bay	
74. Quatsino 5	
Unattached.
Atlin	
Bamfield	
Camp 300	
Dumaresq	
Fort Nelson	
Hecate-Tahsis	
Kildonan	
Port Renfrew	
Telegraph Creek	
Tofino	
Ucluelet	
University Hill	
Zeballos	
Totals	
14,
12,
4,
2,
40,
18,
17,
14,
14,
57,
21,
72,
29,
232,
22,
21,
16,
51,
19,
24,
80,
12,
42,
68,
21,
7,
5,
438.57
862.56
011.22
447.75
122.70
333.43
857.11
250.81
037.31
601.09
470.51
055.23
380.37
498.44
873.64
199.33
766.57
821.94
490.04
379.35
838.19
516.79
213.70
708.46
942.83
709.33
477.17
583.39
653.71
,245.68
055.67
966.35
144.56
713.68
146.80
192.80
288.60
692.35
336.74
452.42
$104,023.10
20,701.49
37,566.51
5,546.52
5,596.20
103,156.42
13,920.27
19,763.23
11,009.37
13,645.81
69,116.09
7,072.74
65,468.82
24,539.99
771,581.81
27,587.23
63,340.26
10,216.20
59,756.98
55,893.60
35,804.81
106,161.52
22,640.20
77,030.87
81,828.08
20,595.64
8,004.21
9,668.03
1,144.67
3,305.31
339.49
798.14
2,614.93
708.22
1,657.95
706.17
1,687.36
3,067.92
17,075.70
1,474.37
$4,076,211.89
$9,053,420.31
$147,
35,
49,
9,
7,
143,
32
37,
25,
28,
126,
28,
137
54,
1,004,
49,
85,
27,
111,
75,
60,
186
34,
119
150,
42,
15,
15.
,461.67
564.05
577.73
994.27
718.90
489.85
,777.38
014.04
046.68
246.90
586.60
127.97
,849.19
038.43
455.45
786.56
106.83
038.14
247.02
,272.95
643.00
,678.31
,853.90
739.33
770.91
,304.97
481.38
,251.42
1,798.38
4,550.99
1,395.16
1,764.99
3,759.49
1,421.90
2,804.75
1,898.97
3,975.96
3,760.27
25,412.44
1,926.79
$13,129,632.20
* Includes the total of regular salary grants paid to rural-school teachers during the period September, 1945, to
March, 1945, inclusive.
. MM 32
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
EXAMINATIONS, 1946.
University Entrance Examinations.
June.
August.
Subject.
Number of
Candidates.
Number
passed.
Number of
Candidates.
Number
passed.
3,698
3,717
4,117
3,761
3,609
4,512
832
3,422
106
1,087
346
698
11
363
82
5
17
15
28
411
137
87
50
3,362
3,443
3,573
3,629
3,041
4,001
694
2,925
87
962
319
517
11
307
75
5
15
15
28
411
137
87
46
306
256
324
109
421
265
105
312
21
42
12
84
1
34
4
1
1
2
4
2
1
215
209
266
67
328
83
Latin III	
45
121
9
15
6
28
1
18
4
1
1
2
Industrial Arts (B) III	
4
2
Bible Study IV	
1
Senior Matriculation Examinations.
857
263
108
170
798
376
394
250
299
122
257
118
727
157
4
34
1
6
725
214
94
136
590
253
337
172
219
80
235
80
549
122
3
29
6
119
50
31
46
140
100
24
64
39
34
13
1
26
121
28
1
6
4
90
24
20
33
87
57
14
35
25
21
Latin IV	
21
3
Greek I	
Greek II	
4 REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT.
MM 33
SCHOLARSHIPS.
University Entrance.
The Royal Institution Scholarships awarded in June, 1946, by the University of
British Columbia to the students who ranked first and second in their respective districts
were won by the following:—
District.
Name.
High School.
Per
Cent.
Scholarship.
Philip Sheffield, Abbotsford   	
95.4
93.1
91.4
91.4
87.5
87.1
93.4
92.2
92.6
92.2
87.3
86.2
91.4
84.9
92.0
88.1
$175
No. 1
(1) Denis Hugh Pratt	
Oak Bay.           	
175
(2) Anna Maria Attfield*	
175
175
No. 2	
175
175
No. 3	
(1) Gilbert Charles Eugene Semail	
175
175
No. 4    	
(1) Gilbert Cecil Power Gray	
(2) Walter David Duerksen ,	
175
175
No. 5    	
Philip Sheffield, Abbotsford   	
175
No. 6	
(2) Eleanor Barbara Trehearne	
(1) Irene Louise Kirshfelt	
Chilliwack	
175
175
175
No. 7    	
175
Trail	
175
* These two students tied for second place in District No. 1.
Owing to special circumstances, an extra scholarship of $175 was awarded to Sara-
Lee Tidball, of Penticton, with a standing of 84.3 per cent. Miss Tidball, because of
illness, was unable to complete the examination in English Language.
In addition to the above, fifty-two candidates obtained Honour standing of 80 per
cent, of more.
Senior Matriculation.
The winners of the scholarships awarded in June, 1946, by the University of
British Columbia on the results of the Senior Matriculation examination to (1) the
two students obtaining the highest standing in the Province; (2) the student obtaining the highest standing in districts other than the City of Vancouver, the City of
North Vancouver, the District Municipalities of North Vancouver, West Vancouver,
and Burnaby, and the City of New Westminster; (3) the three students obtaining the
next highest standing in the areas of Vancouver Island (exclusive of Victoria area) and
Northern Mainland (exclusive of North Vancouver and West Vancouver), the Fraser
Valley, Yale, and Kootenays were:—
Name.
High School.
Per
Cent.
Scholarship.
(1) Helen Joan Allison	
Eric Stanley Goode	
(2) William Herbert Weldon.
(3) Robert Vincent DeVito...
Alfred Milton Alden	
Shirley Anne Stevens	
Trail	
John Oliver, Vancouver.
Trail	
Trail	
Trail	
Kelowna	
92.8
90.8
89.2
88.2
87.8
87.0
$200
200
200
200
200
200
In addition to the above, twenty-six candidates obtained Honour standing of 80
per cent, or more. MM 34 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
LEGISLATION.
By Order of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, dated November 27th, 1944, Dr.
M. A. Cameron, head of the Department of Education, University of British Columbia,
was appointed sole Commissioner ".   .   .   to inquire into the existing distribution of
powers and responsibilities between the Provincial Government and the school districts
and to appraise the present fiscal position of the school districts in British Columbia."
Dr. Cameron presented a report which contained far-reaching recommendations,
all of which were accepted by the Government.    The chief recommendations were:—■
(1.)   To abolish the existing school districts, approximately 650 in number,
and to divide the Province into seventy-four large administrative areas,
each under a single School Board.
(2.)  To grant financial assistance to School Boards on the basis of:—
(a.)   A standard basic salary scale for teachers.
(b.)  An allowance for current expenses, based upon the average daily
attendance of pupils.
(c.) Special grants for supervision, based on the number of pupils
in the district.
The impletion of these recommendations necessitated a complete revision of the
" Public Schools Act," R.S.B.C. 1936, chapter 253. The changes necessary were planned
at a series of conferences of School Inspectors and officials of other Departments
of the Government. The draught of the amendments to the " Public Schools Act " was
undertaken by Dr. S. J. Willis, former Deputy Minister and Superintendent, who
placed his knowledge and skill at the service of the Department, and for which we are
specially grateful.
The amendments to the " Public Schools Act" were passed by the Legislature and
received the assent of the Honourable the Lieutenant-Governor in Council on April 12th,
1946. The recommendations contained in the Cameron Report were made effective
at once.
The report for the school-year 1945-46, therefore, is based upon the operation of
the schools of the Province under the old organization from July 1st, 1945, to March
31st, 1946, and under the new organization from April 1st, 1946, to June 30th, 1946.
Because the change took place within a school-year, it does not reflect fully the influence
of the new legislation, and therefore comparisons with other years cannot properly be
made. Such comparisons will have to await the report of a full school-year under the
present organization, the first of which will be the school-year 1946-47.
ASSISTANCE OF OTHER DEPARTMENTS OF THE GOVERNMENT.
I wish to express great appreciation to the Deputy Ministers and officials of other
Departments of the Government who assisted so generously and willingly in the great
amount of work which had to be done. Particularly I would mention officials of the
Department of Lands for their assistance in defining the boundaries of the new school
districts; the Department of Finance and the Taxation Branch for their co-operation
in working out the implications of the changed financial structure; the Department
of Municipal Affairs for their assistance in co-ordinating the " Public Schools Act"
with the " Municipal Act" and giving valuable suggestions in the framing of the new
Act; and to the Department of the Attorney-General, and particularly to the Legislative Counsel. It is true to say that the recommendations of the Cameron Report which
were put into effect on April 1st, 1946, could not have been done without the splendid
spirit of helpfulness shown by all those mentioned. REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT. MM 35
RETIREMENTS.
During the period covered by this report, the Department has lost the services of
several senior officials—D. L. MacLaurin, B.A., Ph.D., Assistant Superintendent of
Education; H. B. King, M.A., Ph.D., Chief Inspector of Schools; Miss J. L.
McLenaghen, B.Sc, Director of Home Economics; T. W. Hall, Registrar—and the
following Inspectors: J. B. DeLong (Vancouver) ; F. G. Calvert (Vancouver) ; A. F.
Matthews (Kamloops) ; and H. H. MacKenzie (Vancouver)—all of whom retired on
superannuation after many years of splendid work in the cause of education in this
Province. In addition, H. M. Morrison, Ph.D., Courtenay, left the Department to accept
a position with the Civil Service Commission as Chief Personnel Officer.
The Normal School staffs suffered from the retirement of the following: From
Vancouver Normal School, W. P. Weston, A.R.C.A., F.R.S.A., for many years in charge
of the Art department in that institution; from Victoria Normal School, Miss H. R.
Anderson, M.A., Ph.D., Vice-Principal, and Mrs. E. Reese-Burns, Mrs. Barbara Smith,
B.Sc, and F. T. C. Wickett, A.R.C.O.
D. L. MacLaurin, B.A., Ph.D.
Dr. MacLaurin served the Province of British Columbia for many years as teacher,
Inspector of Schools, principal of the Victoria Normal School, and Assistant Superintendent with the Department of Education. A great many of our most valuable teachers
received training and inspiration from Dr. MacLaurin during the many years in which
he was principal of the Victoria Normal School. His knowledge of the Province, gained
through many years as School Inspector in the Interior, combined with his skill as a
teacher and high executive ability, made him a most efficient principal of the Victoria
Normal School. It was natural that he should be promoted to assist with the general
administrative work of the Department as Assistant Superintendent, a position which
he filled with great skill for many years. His colleagues in the Department wish him
many years of happiness in his retirement.
H. B. King, M.A., Ph.D.
Probably few men in this country have influenced the course of education as has
Dr. King. A teacher all his life and a student of education all his life, he brought his
outstanding ability and energy to bear upon educational problems and with great
courage worked unceasingly for the changes which he felt were imperative.
Dr. King came to the Department of Education from the principalship of Kitsilano
Junior-Senior High School, Vancouver, not only one of the first, but the largest
institution of its kind in British Columbia. Dr. King was its first principal and
remained long enough to establish it firmly as one of our great educational institutions.
Dr. King was brought to the Department in 1934 by the Honourable G. M. Weir,
M.A., D.Paed., Minister of Education, who had decided upon major changes in the
school curriculum. Dr. King came as technical adviser to the Minister and undertook
the organization of committees set up to revise the Programme of Studies and to
co-ordinate their work. He threw himself into this task with great energy and skill
and is therefore responsible in great measure for the general pattern of the curriculum
as it now prevails in this Province.
In 1939 Dr. King was appointed Chief Inspector of Schools, and as such was
responsible for supervision and inspection of schools, and thus had opportunity to
direct the practical application of the work he had done as technical adviser.
He retired on superannuation in October, 1945, carrying with him the gratitude of
the Department and the esteem of all with whom he worked so energetically. MM 36 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
It is difficult to single out for special mention from all those who have given such
valued service to education in this Province. Messrs. DeLong, MacKenzie, Calvert,
and Matthews were all senior men with many years of valuable experience, and their
loss will be felt in the Department of Education.
APPOINTMENTS AND TRANSFERS.
The following appointments and transfers have been made to fill vacancies caused
by retirements: F. T. Fairey succeeds Dr. S. J. Willis as Deputy Minister and Superintendent ; H. L. Campbell succeeds Dr. D. L. MacLaurin as Assistant Superintendent of
Education, and also assumes the position of Chief Inspector of Schools in succession to
Dr. King; J. F. K. English succeeds Mr. Campbell as Municipal Inspector of Greater
Victoria; Miss Bertha Rogers succeeds Miss J. L. McLenaghen as Director of Home
Economics. The following new appointments to the inspectoral staff have been made
during the year: C. L. Campbell, J. Chell, C. E. Clay, S. J. Graham, W. S. Grant,
E. E. Hyndman, F. P. Levirs, W. E. Lucas, L. B. Stibbs, C. I. Taylor, and Miss M. Orr.
I have the honor to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
F. T. FAIREY,
Superintendent of Education. EDUCATIONAL DIRECTION AND SUPERVISION. MM 37
EDUCATIONAL DIRECTION AND SUPERVISION.
REPORT OF HAROLD L. CAMPBELL, B.A., M.Ed., ASSISTANT SUPERINTENDENT OF EDUCATION AND CHIEF INSPECTOR OF SCHOOLS.
The school-year 1945-46 has been an eventful one. The implementing of the
Cameron Report presented many problems, educational and administrative. To the
solution of these the Inspectors of Schools and other Departmental officials have given
loyal and enthusiastic attention, and any success which has been attained may be
attributed to their efforts.
The following are among the matters which seem significant in retrospect:—
Central Curricidum Committee.—This Committee was reconstituted and assigned
specific duties and powers.    Meetings were held in October, November, March, and
May.    Membership included the following:—
Mr. Harold L. Campbell, Chief Inspector of Schools (Chairman).
Dr. M. A. Cameron, Head, Department of Education, University of British
Columbia.
Mr. James Gordon, Principal, Kitsilano Junior-Senior High School, Vancouver.
Mr. William Gray, Municipal Inspector of Schools, North Vancouver.
Mr. A. R. Lord, Principal, Provincial Normal School, Vancouver.
Mr. H. N. MacCorkindale, Superintendent of Schools, Vancouver.
Mr. E. M. White, Principal, Vancouver Technical School, Vancouver.
Mr. C. B. Wood, Registrar, University of British Columbia.
Muriel MacKay Scace, Director of Educational Reference and School Service
(Secretary).
During the year many curricular matters received the attention of the Committee,
and the following new curricula were issued by the Department of Education:   Commercial Studies for Grades IX. to XII., Social Studies for Grades I. to VI., Mathematics
for Grades X. and XL
Text-book Adoptions.—On the recommendation of a special committee the Department decided to adopt, as from September, 1947, a new set of basic readers for Grades
I. to III., inclusive.
A new anthology of poetry for Grade X., a new Social Studies text for Grade VI.,
and a new Mathematics text for Grade X. were adopted by the Department as from
September, 1946.
Examination Studies.—In connection with the University Entrance examinations
of June, 1946, four studies were made under the direction of Miss Verna Turner, M.A.,
Director of the Child Study Department of Greater Victoria Schools. These studies
included an analysis of the examinations and the student achievement in English,
French, Social Studies, and Mathematics. With a view to improving instruction,
reports on these examinations, showing instructional weaknesses and strengths, are
being published in the Departmental journal, British Columbia Schools (Secondary
Edition).    .
Grouping of Functions.—During the year a slightly more formal terminology and
classification of functions has evolved. The more purely professional aspects of the
work of the Department of Education now include the following, each under a director:
Division of Curriculum, Division of Educational and Vocational Guidance, Division of
In-service Teacher-training (Summer School), Division of Elementary Correspondence
Instruction, Division of High School Correspondence Instruction. To these have been
added during the year: Division of Educational Reference and School Service, Division
of Tests, Standards, and Research, and Division of Visual Education.
. MM 38
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
Departmental Educational Journals.—Two years ago the Department undertook
to publish a magazine, The Rural School, for quarterly issue to rural-school teachers.
This proved so successful that there came a demand for it from all elementary-school
teachers. Thus the journal British Columbia Schools (Elementary Edition) came into
existence. During the school-year 1946-47 a British Columbia Schools (Secondary
Edition) will make its appearance.
Departmental Conferences.—During the year two conferences of Inspectors of
Schools and administrative officials were held on instructions from the Deputy Minister. The first of these was primarily administrative, and concerned itself with interpreting and planning the new organization which came into effect on April 1st, 1946.
The second conference, while of necessity dealing to some degree with administrative matters, was largely concerned with the more professional aspects of education.
The following addresses were a part of the programme of the Conference: " Looking
Forward in Health and Physical Education," Mr. Ernest Lee; "Revised Regulations
on the Qualifications of Teachers for Grant Purposes," Mr. T. F. Robson; " Promotional Policies," Mr. H. L. Campbell; " Directing Secondary Education," Dr. M. A.
Cameron; " Investment in Youth—A Picture," Mr. C. G. Brown; " Guidance Services," Mr. H. P. Johns; " Transportation Contracts," Mr. Don Smith; " Place of
Workbooks," Mr. J. Gough; " Intangibles of Supervision and Educational Administration," Dr. H. Clay Skinner; "The Functioning of the Division of Tests and Standards," Dr. C. B. Conway; "Standardized Printed Forms for Inspectors' Use," Mr. H.
McArthur; "Planning and Construction of School Buildings," Mr. H. N. MacCorkindale; "An Adequate Public Relations Programme," Mr. C. J. Frederickson; "Administering Education for Fast and Slow Learners," Dr. Bernardine Schmidt; "Patterns
and Procedures for the Election of Permanent Boards," Dr. Wm. Plenderleith; " School
Radio," Mr. A. S. Matheson; " Duties and Functions of Senior Principals," Lieutenant-
Colonel J. N. Burnett; "Education for a Better Day," Dr. M. M. Thompson; "Patterns for Securing Approval of Extraordinary Expenditure," Mr. E. G. Daniels; concluding address, Lieutenant-Colonel F. T. Fairey.
In concluding this brief report, I should like to pay a small tribute to my predecessors in office, Dr. D. L. MacLaurin and Dr. H. B. King. From my long association with each of these gentlemen, I have profited greatly. I should further like to
acknowledge and to express my thanks for the generous support given me by the
Inspectors of Schools and administrative officials during a very strenuous and trying
year. PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOLS. MM 39
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOLS.
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL, VANCOUVER.
REPORT OF A. R. LORD, B.A., PRINCIPAL.
The forty-fifth session of the Vancouver Normal School opened on September 10th,
1945, and closed on June 14th, 1946.    Attendance and results were 'as follows:—
Men.
Women.
Total.
32
31
166
154
198
185
In addition, twenty-one men, taking training at the Vancouver Technical School
for Industrial Arts certification, were in attendance during the fall term for courses in
Educational Psychology and Principles of Teaching.
Distinction standing was awarded to ten students: Marion Allan Burns, Burquit-
lam; Elizabeth Ann Crowther, West Vancouver; John Franklin Ellis, Vancouver;
Gwendolyn Helen Galliford, Vancouver; Geoffrey Wallace Harris, Vancouver; Marjorie
Gladys McGillivray, Powell River; Francis Frederick Sloat, B.A., New Westminster;
Sheila Mary Walley, North Vancouver; Alma Miriam Wright, Vancouver; Ruth lone
Wright, Burquitlam.
A gold medal for outstanding ability in Physical Education was won by Miss Ida
Marie Mitzi Switzer, Vancouver.
Nineteen students—sixteen men and three women—were in receipt of rehabilitation allowances because of former service in the armed forces. Their presence proved
to be a real strength to the school through their initiative, dependability, and, especially, through unusual qualities of leadership. Teachers such as they will bring much to
British Columbia schools.
Several staff changes became necessary during the year. Mr. Herbert H. Grantham, M.A., was appointed instructor in Science and Mathematics at September 1st to
fill the vacancy created by the retirement of Mr. A. E. C. Martin. On the same date
the duties of nurse, formerly under Miss Carswell, were assumed by Miss J. Maxwell.
Both appointees have given very satisfactory service.
Mr. W. P. Weston, A.R.C.A., and Mr. Ernest Lee, B.A., B.Sc. in P. E., left on March
31st, the former on three months' leave before retirement and the latter to take over
his duties as Provincial Director of Physical and Recreational Education. Mr. Weston
had given outstanding service to this school for thirty-five years, and we had, perhaps,
received some reflected glory from his national, even international, reputation. Mr.
Lee had few Canadian equals in the field of physical education and, in addition, was a
sane psychologist.
The loss of these two men was all the more serious through occurring at the end
of March, a date when replacements were both undesirable and impossible without disruption of public school staffs.
The general organization of the school was continued as in former years, with the
session divided into two terms each, culminating in a four-week teaching practicum.
For the first time, however, it was possible to have some students from the Interior
spend their second practicum in ungraded or two-room schools in their home districts.
This plan, which was an experiment, proved so satisfactory that it will be continued in MM 40
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
the future. Inspectors of Schools deserve our special thanks for help generously given
at a good deal of personal inconvenience.
An attempt was made during the winter to provide some training in youth leadership. The need for this type of training has been realized for several years, but the
obstacles of an overloaded curriculum and inadequate accommodation seemed to be too
serious to justify an attempt. Social deterioration of the Fairview area, however,
brought about a situation where evening activities had to be provided for teen-age
boys and girls who were on the streets until late hours. Provision was made for two
groups of boys, 12 to 14 years and 14 to 16 years, and for two similar groups of girls.
Every effort was made to confine membership to those who would otherwise be on the
streets.
Members of the Normal School and Model School staffs gave generously—and
gratuitously—of their time to act as supervisors four evenings a week, and Normal
students in large numbers volunteered to assist. Instruction in various phases of woodwork, sewing, gymnasium activities, as well as games and social evenings was provided.
Normal students gained valuable experience, and for the first time in several years no
Hallowe'en damage was reported in this district.
Much has appeared in both the professional and the public press concerning the
desirability of " raising the standards " of teachers' certificates. Any one who has
been associated with the training of teachers must be fully in accord with this desire.
It may be in order, therefore, to express the hope that in the near future two years of
Normal School training will be required for a first-class certificate, that admission will
be with University Entrance standing, and that the two years' training will receive
full credit toward a standard bachelor's degree.
PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOL, VICTORIA.
REPORT OF H. 0. ENGLISH, B.A., B.S.A., PRINCIPAL.
The thirty-second session of the Provincial Normal School, Victoria, opened
September 10th, 1945, and closed June 14th, 1946. Eighty-three students were in
attendance. Diplomas were awarded to eighty students. Dorothy May Millner and
Ruth Alberta Churchill received Honour standing. Miss Millner was the winner of
the Dr. V. L. Denton Memorial award for 1945-46.
The following table presents a summary of the enrolment:—
Men.
Women.
Total.
21
1
59
2
80
Failed	
3
22
61
83
In the Strathcona Trust Physical Training Course, eighty-three students received
certificates. Three students, Francis Joseph Mitchell, Grace Elizabeth Brock and
Dorothy May Millner, were awarded distinguished certificates.
The St. John Ambulance Association issued certificates to those students who were
successful in the course in First Aid, as follows: Nineteen First-aid certificates, five
Voucher awards, and one Medallion award. PROVINCIAL NORMAL SCHOOLS. MM 41
Life-saving classes were conducted during the second term. Nine students received
bronze medallions from the Royal Life Saving Society.
A new instructor, Mr. Joseph F. Hammett, B.A., joined the faculty September 1st,
1945, as instructor in Arithmetic and Art. Mr. Hammett served during the war in
the R.C.A.F. as squadron leader. Prior to the war he taught for several years in
elementary schools on the Lower Mainland.
When Mrs. Barbara Hinton Smith, under instruction from her doctor, tendered her
resignation, we were fortunate to secure the services of Miss Marguerite Perry.
The services of Miss Marian James, Primary Supervisor of Victoria Elementary
Schools, were again made available on a part-time basis through the courtesy of the
Victoria School Board.
Two members of the faculty retired at the end of the school-year. Mr. F. T. C.
Wickett, who came to the school in 1931 as instructor in music, retired July 31st, 1946.
Dr. H. R. Anderson had completed twelve years on the faculty when she retired July
31st, 1946. Miss Anderson was instructor in English and Psychology. Mrs. E. Reese-
Burns was forced by ill-health to retire from the faculty March 31st, 1946. Mrs.
Reese-Burns provided instruction in Speech and Drama.
For the fourth year in succession the Normal School conducted classes in Memorial
Hall, where increased registration severely taxed all available accommodation. Officials
of Christ Church Cathedral, as in the preceding years, spared no pains to make our
occupancy of the hall as satisfactory as conditions would permit. The faculty of the
Normal School appreciated the atmosphere of friendly co-operation that prevailed
throughout the year.
Demonstration classes were again made available in the various city schools,
where demonstration lessons were provided by Miss James or by the teachers of the
classes selected. The whole Normal School migrated each week to the school selected
for the demonstration and each week became more convinced that no teacher-training
programme would be complete without opportunities such as these to observe skilful
and efficient teachers guide the learning activities of groups of children.
During the session the students devoted approximately two months to observation
and practice-teaching in selected class-rooms. A total of 192 class-rooms in 60 schools
were used during the year. As in former years, many of these class-rooms (102) were
in rural schools, in widely separated parts of the Province.
Included in the health programme was a series of lectures arranged by the school
medical officer, Dr. J. L. Murray Anderson. Among those giving special lectures were
Dr. J. L. Murray Anderson (two), Miss Dorothy Tait, Dr. F. 0. R. Garner, and Dr.
W. C. Mooney.
To the principals of the schools and the teachers of the many classes in which our
students gained valuable experience, to the School Inspectors, both municipal and
Provincial, to the lecturers from the Provincial Board of Health, and to the staffs of
Provincial Museum, Archives, Provincial Library and Public Library, who co-operated
so readily and gave so generously of their time to ensure the success of our teacher-
training programme, the faculty of the Normal School feels deeply indebted. MM 42 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
SUMMER SCHOOL OF EDUCATION.
REPORT OF C. B. CONWAY, B.Sc, M.S., D.Paed., DIRECTOR.
The thirty-third session of the Provincial Summer School of Education was held
from July 2nd to August 2nd, 1946, with 888 teachers in attendance. This is the third
increase in enrolment since 1943, when the war-time low of 697 was reached. The
increase in the number of men students was significant, but the proportion of men is
still much too low to provide adequate replacement of the male elementary-school
teachers who retire, move up to high school, or leave the profession each year. During
the current year 159 men were in attendance, but 102 of these were taking Industrial
Arts courses, 39 of them with the assistance of the Department of Veterans' Affairs.
Twenty-six of the remainder were secondary-school teachers. Therefore only 22 men
were training for elementary-school positions, and many of these will leave the elementary schools in one or two years. If we intend to fill boys' counsellors', physical education instructors', principals', or other typically male positions in even the largest of our
elementary schools, a complete re-evaluation of the profession from the point of view
of young men will have to be made. In order to raise the professional status of elementary-school teaching, the possibility of a two-year combined academic and teachef-
training course carrying full University credit should be seriously considered. It might
be necessary to provide an alternative one-year course with a second year to be completed in summer sessions or in-service courses until the present teacher shortage has
disappeared, but there should be no insurmountable difficulties in this connection.
The year under review has been a notable one in many ways. One unusual feature
has been the tremendous increase in the number of evaluations of certificates and
courses which were taken in other Provinces. During the summer session a corresponding increase in the number of interviews regarding the certification of students
tooks place. This is due, of course, to the recommendations of the Cameron Commission, as a result of which grants are now based on the grades of certificates held by
teachers. Over 10 per cent, of our teachers have received their training in other
Provinces. Many of them, along with many of our own teachers, had incomplete certification in British Columbia. While the work of straightening out their certificates
has proved to be somewhat difficult, and perhaps even a little burdensome at times, a
much larger number of teachers should now know where they stand, and the stimulus
towards further certification should be of great benefit.
A second feature became evident during the summer session. It was that the
student-body was definitely of higher quality as well as noticeably more serious-minded
than the ones in the years in the immediate past. No proof of either of these attributes can be given, but both were evident to many members of the staff. The Director
found himself in the unique position of having to encourage students to forget their
work temporarily in order to improve the attendance at social and recreational affairs.
Living accommodation for the students proved to be just as difficult to find in both
Vancouver and Victoria as it was in 1945. A small dormitory was rented, but most of
the students seemed to prefer accommodation in private homes. Tribute should be
paid at this time to the hundreds of non-professional landladies who have responded to
our house-to-house canvasses, advertisements, and other appeals for accommodation for
Summer School students during the past five years. They have made it possible for
accommodation to be secured for almost 1,000 persons during times when only thirty
or forty rooms were listed as vacant in both cities.
The shortage of texts and course-supplies continued during 1946, and in many cases
it was a great inconvenience to the students.    Our library facilities again were over- SUMMER SCHOOL OP EDUCATION. MM 43
taxed, but the librarian, Miss Enid McKee, of Victoria, did a splendid job of maintaining a fair distribution of books, so that each student had at least some access to the
references which were available. The Summer School library now contains several
thousands of volumes, many of which are loaned to teachers during the winter months
through the facilities of the Teachers' Professional Library.
COURSES AND ENROLMENT.
During 1946 a new registration procedure was put into effect, and registration
was completed with much greater dispatch, in spite of the increase in enrolment.
Indiscriminate changes of students' programmes after the opening of the session have
been reduced to a great extent by the new $2 change of registration fee.
The number of courses per student remains at a high level, which partially explains
the serious attitude of the students which was mentioned above. It also causes serious
overcrowding of the facilities for classes and increases the load which each instructor
must carry.
The two Senior Matriculation courses showed a sharp increase in enrolment
because of the disadvantage at which those who have incomplete certification now find
themselves on most salary scales. The time devoted to each course was increased to
two hours in an attempt to decrease the percentage of failures. This move seems to
have been highly successful, and its continuance is recommended.
The enrolment for all courses and the total enrolment are summarized below.
Instructors who taught for less than one week are not included in the totals.
Courses.
Instructors.
Enrolment.
39
34
73
64
64
64
28
15
43
39
32
31
727
161
Totals for 1946	
888
Totals for 1945    	
830
Totals for 1944         	
796
Totals for 1943 -	
697
Victoria Section.
Methods and Philosophy of Education: Enrolments.
1. Principles and Techniques of Elementary Education  121
35. The Activity or Enterprise in the Elementary School     89
239. Workshop in Audio-visual Education      33
Organization and Administration:
32. Intermediate Demonstration and Laboratory Class, Grades
IV., V., and VI     99
63. Introduction to Educational Supervision      39
Psychology:
113. Child Psychology   122
Individual Development and Guidance:
127. The Education of Exceptional Children  76
186. Educational and Vocational Guidance, Workshop B  30
150. Growth and Development of Children  48
English:
213. Senior Matriculation English     66
Social Studies:
313. Senior Matriculation World History     62 MM 44 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
Practical Arts: Enrolments.
356. Modern Art in the Middle and Upper Grades  29
360. Elementary Practical Arts   61
604. Practical Typewriting   40
Library:
412. Children's Literature  48
413. Cataloguing and Classification  33
Music Education:
440. School Music in the Primary Grades  70
440H. Music in High School Grades  30
445. Intermediate Harmony and Counterpoint  20
449. Musical Form  21
450. Practice-teaching under Supervision  14
455. Eye and Ear Training in Music  29
Physical Education and Health:
500. Introduction to Physical Education  24
502. Play and Playgrounds  30
515. Applied Anatomy and Physiology of Exercise  36
523. Teaching-practice in Physical Education  5
527. Elementary School Physical Education Laboratory  59
528. High School Physical Education Laboratory  29
529. Physical Education for Rural Schools  22
540. Fundamental Rhythm   28
544. Elementary Folk-dancing   44
547. Techniques of the Modern Dance  32
Primary Education:
592. Social Studies and Science in the Primary Grades  157
593. Reading in the Primary Grades  199
595. Fine and Industrial Arts and Play Materials  68
597. Arithmetic in the Primary Grades  92
Home Economics:
650. Curriculum and Methods in Home Economics  20
652. Applied Art in Home Economics  27
655. Appreciation in Dress   101
Vancouver Section.
Art Education:
383. Pictorial Composition  28
384. Art Appreciation  27
385. Needlecraft and Applique  27
386. Lettering  26
Commercial Education:
620. Stenography Theory and Methods  14
625. Elementary Book-keeping  16
628. Business Law  35
629. Correspondence and Filing  16 Course 356:   Co-operative work on an industrial montage.
■ !HSb J__3_-__i--E'% 3f     !     R8
^^fcs35    m   I   1 if 1
k M5_7 \ ■ '■l
Various types of weaving by the Practical Arts class. . '
'«■:,
i '■$■•■
'.■.■.;;:i ■.■■;.
.-
fi
/r
Tri-dimensional illustration of a Congo unit
Models and mural combined to form a British Columbia scene. SUMMER SCHOOL OF EDUCATION.
MM 45
Industrial Arts Education: Enrolments.
220. Teaching Methods for Industrial Arts in a Junior High
School     51
224. Free-hand sketching applied to the Industrial Arts	
225. Draughting applied to Woodwork and Metalwork	
241. Advanced Plane and Solid Geometrical Drawing	
242. Free-hand Sketching applied to the  Industrial Arts
High School 	
243. Draughting applied to Woodwork and Metalwork	
Prerequisite to Drawing	
227. Elementary Woodwork	
228. Elementary Wood-turning	
229a. Farm Mechanics 	
231. Elementary Electrical Theory	
229b. Farm Mechanics	
229c. Farm Mechanics	
232. Elementary Electrical Shop-work	
234. Art Metalwork 	
for
235. Elementary Sheet-metal Work	
249. Advanced Sheet-metal Work	
Prerequisite to Metalwork	
236. Elementary Machine-shop Work 	
238. Teaching Methods for Industrial Arts in Senior High School
245. Advanced Woodwork (Bench-work) 	
246. Advanced Wood-turning	
247. Practice in the Use of Wood-working Machinery;   care and
maintenance	
248a. Farm Mechanics 	
248b. Farm Mechanics 	
Prerequisite to Woodwork	
250. Advanced Machine-shop Work	
15
12
27
13
6
3
9
7
6
8
9
6
9
6
4
7
2
9
3
9
9
6
1
5
20
Student Courses.
Total in 1946
Total in 1945
Total in 1944
Total in 1943
Courses per Student.
Average in 1946
Average in 1945
Average in 1944
Average in 1943
2,613
2,380
2,394
2,028
2.9
2.9
3.0
2.9
FACULTY.
In 1946 two workshops were conducted with several part-time instructors, and two
instructors taught only one course. This caused the number of the instructional staff
to show an increase from thirty-nine to forty-three during the current year. All were
outstanding experts in their fields and devoted their energies unstintingly towards the
assistance of the students. The way in which they co-operated with each other and
with the administrative staff, too, was a joy to behold. Mention also should be made
of the twenty-two other employees who laboured long and hard in the buildings, office, MM 46 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
cafeteria, stock-room, and book-store in order to make the summer session a success.
The heartfelt thanks of the Director, who is retiring from the Summer School this year
to take over another division, are extended to this .year's staff and to the staffs of
preceding years.    It has been a great privilege to work with them.
During the past session, the instructors were as follows:—
Abercrombie, William T., B.A., Principal, Fairview High School of Commerce,
Vancouver.
Alder, Mrs. Lorna Call, B.S., M.A., Assistant Professor of Elementary Education, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.
Amess, Fred A., Instructor in Commercial Design, Vancouver School of Art,
Vancouver.
Anderson, J. L. Murray, M.B.E., M.D., D.P.H., Medical Health Officer, Victoria.
Bailey,   Miss  Jean,   B.A.,   Elementary  Teacher,   Richard   McBride   School,
Vancouver.
Barker, Miss Amy, B.A., Girls' Counsellor, Templeton Junior High School,
Vancouver.
Binning, B. C, Dip. V.S.A., Instructor, Vancouver School of Art, Vancouver.
Bostwick, Mrs. Irene, Mus. Bac, Associate Professor of Music, University of
Washington, Seattle.
Broome, Enoch B., M.A., Instructor, Vancouver Technical School, Vancouver.
Burton, J. Stuart, B.A., B.Paed., Vice-Principal, Burnaby North High School,
Burnaby.
Collins, Miss Kathleen E., Helping Teacher, Prince George.
Cryderman, Miss Hilda, B.A., Vernon Junior High School, Vernon.
Flury, Mrs. Bernice, R.N., Nurse, Victoria City Schools.
Fouracre, A. J., Central Junior High School, Victoria.
Gibson, W. S., Industrial Arts Instructor, Victoria.
Grant, George, B.A., Instructor in Health and Physical Education, Rossland
Junior-Senior High School, Rossland.
James, Miss Marian D., Primary Specialist, Supervisor of Primary Education, Victoria Public Schools.
Johns, Harold P., M.A., Provincial Director of Educational and Vocational
Guidance, Victoria.
Johnston, Miss Effie, Primary Teacher, Dawson Annex School, Vancouver.
Jones, H. A., Provincial Director of Technical Education, Victoria.
Jones, W. R., Head of Commercial Department, Mount View High School,
Victoria.
Kilpatrick, Gordon, B.A., Department of Visual Education, Board of School
Trustees, Vancouver.
Kitley, Philip J., B.A., Director of School Broadcasts, CBR, Vancouver.
Lythgoe, Ernest W., Industrial Arts Instructor, Nanaimo.
Melvin, Miss Grace, D.A., Head of Department of Design, Vancouver School
of Art, Vancouver.
Miller, Edward F., Principal, Lonsdale School, North Vancouver.
Milley, C. E., B.A., Commercial Specialist, Fairview High School of Commerce,
Vancouver.
Mott, Victor, Graduate, Fashion Art School, San Francisco, Studio of Interior
Decoration and Design, Victoria.
McKee, Miss Enid M., B.A., Victoria High School, Victoria.
McManus, Miss Mildred, Mus. Bac, M.A., Music Instructor, Provincial Normal
School, Vancouver. SUMMER SCHOOL OP EDUCATION. MM 47
Orr, Miss Mildred C, B.A., B.Sc. (H.Ec), Assistant Inspector of Home Economics, Department of Education, Victoria.
Pollock, J. R., B.A., Director, Department of Visual Education, Board of
School Trustees, Vancouver.
Porter, Miss Kathleen, Instructor, Margaret Jenkins School, Victoria.
Quayle, Thomas A., Metalwork Instructor, Victoria High School, Victoria.
Russell, Albert E., Sheet-metal and Welding Instructor, Vancouver Technical
School, Vancouver.
Schmidt, Miss Bernardine G., Ph.D., Supervisor of Remedial Reading and
Sight Conservation, Indiana State Teachers College, Terre Haute,
Indiana.
Shadbolt, J. L., Instructor, Vancouver School of Art, Vancouver.
Shopland, Miss Stella, B.A., B.L.S., Librarian, Provincial Normal School,
Vancouver.
Skinner, H. Clay, B.S., M.A., Ph.D., Head of Department of Psychology, Arizona State College, Tempe, Arizona.
Spencer, Kenneth A., Woodwork Instructor, Burnaby South High School,
Burnaby.
Smillie, R. A., M.D., D.P.H., School Health Inspector, Victoria.
Stirling, Franklin S. M., Instructor in Metal and Electricity, John Shaw High
School, Nanaimo.
Thompson, Miss Betty Lynd, M.A., Associate Professor of Physical Education
for Women, Oregon State College, Corvallis, Oregon.
Weir, Miss Erma, B.E., M.S., Instructor in Physical Education, Oregon State
College, Corvallis, Oregon.
White, J. S., Draughting Instructor, Victoria High School, Victoria.
Williams, William J., Instructor, T. J. Trapp Technical School, New Westminster.
Wright, Stanley J., B.Sc, Electrical Instructor, Vancouver Technical School,
Vancouver.
Two most regrettable deaths occurred among the instructors this year:   Inspector
J. E. Sager passed away before the session opened and Mr. W. R. Jones afterward.
Both were excellent men.
REGISTRATION.
The following changes in the character of the enrolment have been revealed by
comparison of the information given by students during registration with that given
during pre-war years:—
(a.) More students with thirteen or more years of experience are in attendance. Many of these are married women who have been out of the
teaching profession for several years and have returned because of the
shortage.
(b.) The low Normal School enrolment of recent years is being reflected in the
enrolment of those with one to three years of experience.
(c.) A smaller number of elementary teachers now hold university degrees, if
Summer School enrolment may be accepted as a criterion for the profession as a whole.
(d.) The certificates held by the students are, on the average, not as high as
they were in former years. The number of students with second-class
certificates has increased, although the number now teaching has
decreased. The number of those who hold temporary certificates because
their Senior Matriculation standing is incomplete has increased sharply MM 48 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
during the last three years. During the current year approximately one
student in five held a temporary British Columbia certificate.
(e.) A higher proportion of the students now hold positions in larger towns
and cities and in schools with a larger number of divisions. This is due
to the decrease in qualification of those who are able to obtain employment
in larger centres.
Teaching Experience of the Students.
Number of
Students.
13 or more years  176
10 to 12 years     51
7 to   9 years     57
4 to   6 years _-_  113
1 to   3 years  366
Less than 1 year     66
Not reported     59
Total  888
Grades in which Students were teaching in 1946.
(N.B.—A few teachers, who taught the grades shown in parentheses, have been
included in more common categories.) Number of
Teachers.
Grades I. to VIII. (I. to X.)____'  97
Grades VII. to XII. (VII. to XL, VII. to X.)  53
Grade I.   49
Grades VII. and VIII. (VII. to IX., VII.)  47
Grade II.   46
Grades I. and II  42
Grade III  42
Grades IV. to VI. (IV. to V., IV. to VII.)  39
Grades I. to III  37
Grades I. to IV  35
Grades V. and VI. (V. to VIII., V. to IX., V. to X.)  32
Grade IV  31
Grade II. and III. (II. to IV., II. to VI., II. to XI.)  30
Grades I. to VI. (I. to V, I. to VII.)  30
Grade VIII. (VII. to IX., VIII. to XII.)  28
Grades IX. to XII. (IX. to XL, IX.)  25
Grade V.  24
Grades III. to IV. (III. to V., III. to VI., III. to XII.)  24
Grade VI.   20
Grades VI. to VIII. (VI. to IX., VI. to VII., VI. to XI.)  17
Grades X. to XII. (X. to XL, XL to XII., X. to XIII.)  15
Grades IV. to VIII. (IV. to XII.)  12
Kindergarten   3
Not reported or not teaching  110
Total  888 SUMMER SCHOOL OP EDUCATION. MM 49
Number of Divisions in the School.
Divisions. Schools.
Eight or more  254
Seven      22
Six     20
Five     37
Four     34
Three      38
Two      75
One     50
Not reported  358
Total	
Certificates Held by the Students.
1946. 1945.
Academic, permanent      35 37
Academic, interim     16 13
Specialist       25 19
First-class, permanent  218 210
First-class, interim  264 277
Second-class, permanent     54 31
Second-class, interim      5 9
Third-class, permanent      3 1
Temporary   187 157
Non-resident (teaching in British Columbia)     25 69
No certificate     17 8
Not reported     46 30
Totals (less 7 duplicates)  888 830
Degrees held by the Students.
Master of Arts     3
Bachelor of Education     1
Bachelor of Arts  45
Bachelor of Science and Bachelor of Science (H.E.)  21
Bachelor of Scientific Agriculture     2
Bachelor of Music     1
Others      5
Total  78
EXTRA-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES.
A full programme of events was scheduled for the 1946 session in order to give
assistance to the teachers in obtaining mental and physical relaxation before returning
to their schools. Although the attendance in some cases was not quite as high as in
former years, a very large number of students participated.
The 11 o'clock musical programmes, which have become so well known that no
description of them is necessary, were given almost every day. They were interspersed
with moving-picture programmes screened by students of the Visual Education Workshop.    Many films of outstanding educational value were included. MM 50 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
Sporting events which were held included tennis, Softball, baseball, badminton,
bowling, and table-tennis tournaments. A beach party, a splash party, and a trail ride
on horseback were notably successful.
Expenditures during the session were approximately equal to receipts, and the
Students' Activity Fund is still in sound condition. The surplus on hand as of October,
1946, and subject to audit, is approximately $670.
The following statement deals with the affairs of the preceding or 1945 session and
is taken from the report of the auditors, Ismay, Boiston, Dunn & Co., chartered
accountants.
Receipts.
Activity fees paid by students (less refunds)  $1,478.00
Additional income (cash receipts, cafeteria, etc.)       671.02
$2,149.02
Disbursements.
Fees and expenses of artists, lecturers, etc  $1,149.78
Social affairs, dances, picnics, teas, sporting events, etc        668.77
Miscellaneous charges, services, rentals, etc       218.02
Surplus for 1945        112.45
$2,149.02 INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION. MM 51
INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION.
REPORT OF H. A. JONES, OFFICER IN CHARGE.
This report is for the school-year 1945-46 and covers the work of the following:—
(a.)  Industrial Arts (Woodwork and Draughting)  in elementary schools.
(6.) Industrial Arts (Woodwork, Draughting, Metalwork, and Electricity) in
junior and senior high schools.
(c.) Industrial Arts Option Courses in high schools—"A" Woodwork and
Draughting, and " B " Metalwork and Draughting — for University
Entrance.
(d.) Vancouver Technical School.
(e.)   High School Commercial and Agricultural Courses.
(/.)  Vancouver School of Art.
(g.)  Night-schools.
(h.)  Teacher-training.
(i.)  Vocational Schools' Assistance Agreement.
Very little expansion has taken place this year in the Industrial Arts department
of the various schools of this Province because of the shortage of trained teachers, the
difficulty of obtaining tools and equipment, and the shortage and cost of building
materials.
The work of inspection of Industrial Arts centres was undertaken by Brigadier
J. E. Sager, who, after a distinguished career overseas, applied his knowledge and
experience for the improvement of standards of education and in particular the field of
Industrial Arts. His sudden death was a distinct shock to all our teachers and his
many friends. He will long be remembered for his energy and devotion to duty, and
in his passing the teaching profession has suffered a serious loss.
Lieutenant-Colonel C. J. Strong, who was trained with Brigadier Sager, was
appointed Inspector of Technical Classes on July 1st, 1946. He is well qualified for
this position, and it is with confidence that we look to the future of Industrial Arts in
this Province.
The Industrial Arts departments of our high schools and the Vancouver Technical
School have done outstanding work during the war years under the capable and
energetic direction of Lieutenant-Colonel F. T. Fairey, who is now Deputy Minister
and Superintendent of Education. Graduates of our schools have earned for themselves an enviable record in the technical branches of the armed services and in war
industry. We look forward now to expansion in technical and vocational training to
prepare our young people for peace-time living. The lessons learned during the war
indicate that we cannot afford to be caught unprepared in the future. Our young
people must have a good general education in addition to training in special skills
according to their interests and abilities. World competition now will be the driving
force, and in order to even retain our present standard of living, we must teach our
pupils to understand and apply modern techniques of production. They must be introduced to new fields of endeavour developed by war research and trained in such a
manner that they will co-operate with their fellow workers and employers in working
for the common good with satisfaction to themselves.
In the last annual report on the work of this branch it was stated that efforts were
being made to secure tools and other equipment for the schools through the War Assets
Corporation. Inspectors in all districts were asked to obtain from the School Boards
in their areas lists of their requirements and to submit these lists to this Branch.
These articles were to be divided into two groups, as follows:— MM 52 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
(1.)  Articles which the School Boards desired to purchase.
(2.) Items which the School Boards desired to obtain on the basis of indefinite
loan.    These articles would have no commercial saleable value, but would
be useful for demonstration or research purposes.
When the above returns were received by this Department, they were listed on
charts, and a duplicate list sent to the War Assets Corporation.
To date the response to our requests has not been up to our expectations.    Some
small quantity of material has been given to School Boards on the basis of indefinite
loan, but the quantity is very small compared with the needs of the schools.    Recently,
releases are showing some increase, particularly in cafeteria equipment and furniture.
Priority claims have been recognized in the following order:—
(a.) Federal Government Departments.
(b.) Provincial Government Departments,
(c.)  Municipalities.
id.)  Public bodies.
It is hoped that larger releases soon will be made to School Boards to assist them
in providing better facilities at a reasonable cost.
INDUSTRIAL ARTS.
Elementary Schools and Junior High Schools.
Most of our junior high schools now are offering full exploratory courses in
Industrial Arts, which include Draughting, Woodwork, Electricity, and Metalwork.
The Industrial Arts programme should satisfy the needs of the pupil, and it is well
to appreciate the fact that these have changed since the war. With the development
of new materials, new machines, and new processes and techniques, new situations have
arisen, and courses should be arranged to meet present and future conditions. Regardless of their future vocations or professions, pupils, when they work in school shops,
meet on common ground. Here they may create material things in accordance with
their individual ideas and interests and, in doing so, reveal their own interpretation
and understanding of modern industrial civilization. Here they may explore and
experiment, and may make use of Mathematics, Science, and other subjects. The
finished project is a tangible result of technical knowledge and skill, and is also an
expression of the full integrated personality of the individual.
There are forty school districts in which Industrial Arts shops are established:
Abbotsford-Mission, Alberni, Armstrong, Burnaby, Chilliwack, Coquitlam, Courtenay,
Cranbrook, Creston, Delta, Duncan, Fernie, Kamloops, Kelowna, Kimberley, Ladysmith,
Maple Ridge, Nanaimo, Nelson, New Westminster, North Vancouver, Ocean Falls,
Oliver, Penticton, Powell River, Prince George, Prince Rupert, Princeton, Revelstoke,
Richmond, Saanich, Salmon Arm, Saltspring Island, Surrey, Trail, University Hill,
Vancouver, Vernon, Greater Victoria, and West Vancouver.
Senior High Schools.
The High School Graduation course includes options in Draughting, Woodwork,
Metalwork, and Farm Mechanics. Many pupils take advantage of the Industrial Arts
course in high schools, and some also have taken advantage of an Industrial Arts course
in Grade XII. Several students have taken pre-vocational courses in Architectural and
Engineering Drawing, and now have been placed in draughting offices.
Due to the present housing shortage a great deal of interest has been shown in
Architectural Drawing and Building Construction. Most progressive teachers have
given more emphasis to these two branches of Industrial Arts, and high school pupils
have applied their knowledge by working on small school-building projects or by assist- INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION. MM 53
ing contractors in their spare time. It is felt that more Architectural Draughting
should be given in the high school Draughting course, as all boys are potential home-
makers and take a great delight in planning their future home, or in helping their
parents to plan a new house.
INDUSTRIAL ARTS OPTIONS FOR UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE.
Many pupils taking the University Entrance course have taken advantage of the
Industrial Arts courses. They have a choice of taking a three-year course in Draughting and Woodwork or Draughting and Metalwork, for which they can receive 15 credits.
Students who have attended university have found that the Draughting courses
taken in high school have been very helpful in the work towards a Science degree, and
that the practical work done in high school has given new meaning to Science and
Mathematics.
The total number of individual elementary and junior and
senior high school shops in the Province (of which forty-
six are general shops) is        158
The total number of individual elementary and junior and
senior high school instructors is         135
The total number of pupils participating is:—
Elementary school   3,451
Junior high school  7,499
Senior high school  4,118
  15,068
VANCOUVER TECHNICAL SCHOOL.
The report which follows has been prepared by Mr. E. M. White, B.A.Sc, principal
of the Vancouver Technical School:—
" The year 1945-46 has been one of gradual transition from war-time training to
one of peace. We now occupy the ground floor of the girls' building which, during the
war, was used for R.C.A.F. training. This accommodation now is being used for our
Automobile Mechanics department, and we may safely say that we have as good
accommodation as can be found anywhere. This is one of our major shops with three
instructors.
"Another interesting development has been the utilization of one of our war-time
buildings for a foundry. Business-men of the foundry industry in the city have shown
a very definite interest in the training of young men in Foundry Practice. Students of
Grade XII. in Machine-shop will be given instruction in Foundry Practice.
" We also are hoping to give courses in Pattern-making and Moulding.
" This year the construction of a five-room bungalow, on a lot adjacent to the school,
was undertaken by the boys of Grade XII., who elected Building Construction as their
shop option. The whole experiment has shown how necessary it is to bring these
students into contact with real situations. The programme has been much hampered
by lack of materials, but it will be completed next year.
" The girls' department is worthy of mention, where girls in Grade XL and XII.
take Hairdressing, Tailoring and Dressmaking, and Food Servicing. Students taking
Hairdressing must have 1,000 hours of practice and theory before writing their British
Columbia hairdressers' examinations. This is accomplished by taking four %-hour
periods each day in Grades XL and XII.
" This school offers the following courses:—
" (1.) High School Graduation (University Entrance).—This course is designed
particularly for those students who will proceed to Applied Science in MM 54 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
Engineering.   These students take French in addition to English, Social
Studies, Mathematics, Science, and Technical Options.
"(2.) High School Graduation (Technical).—This course is essentially the
same as the one above, except that students do not take French, and
more emphasis is placed on Sciences such as Physics, Chemistry, and
Electricity.    In Grade XII. the course offers a gradual specialization
in one shop, with related Draughting.
"(3.)  Special Courses for students who have completed Grade XL or XII.
in Sheet Metal,  Cookery, Printing, Woodwork,  Machine-shop, Motor
Mechanics, Diesel Engineering, Draughting, and Electricity.
" We are still in need of replacement of equipment which long ago should have been
discarded.   We had hoped that we might have received some from War Assets in return
for the use made of equipment during the war, but so far the results are disappointing
and negligible.
" The total number of students attending the Technical School in 1945-46 was 1,142.
" Night-school classes in the following subjects were held at the Technical School:
Building Construction, Diesel Engineering I. and II., Draughting, Dressmaking, Electricity, Electrical Engineering I. and II., Machine-shop Practice, Motors I., Motor
Engineering II., Plumbing, Printing (first and second year), Radio, Refrigeration,
Sheet Metal I. and II., Shop Mathematics, Technology of Metals, Welding, and Woodworking.    The students enrolled in 1945-46 numbered 899.
"Practically all courses have attracted members of the armed forces. The enrolment from this source was so large that extra classes in Welding, Building Construction,
and Woodwork were organized for members of the armed forces alone. A large number
of discharged veterans were also enrolled."
HIGH SCHOOL COMMERCIAL AND AGRICULTURAL COURSES.
Many of our high school pupils have taken Commercial courses in addition to the
basic courses so necessary for a good " all-round " general education. At the present
time it is very difficult for business-men to obtain efficiently trained help. The Commercial courses have been revised with the full assistance and accord of business-men,
and a start on the revised courses will be made in September, 1946.
School Boards have been assisted this year by an additional grant for those pupils
who have spent 50 per cent, or more of their time on Commercial work. This was done
under the Vocational Schools' Assistance Agreement between this Province and the
Dominion Government. The money so provided must be used to expand vocational
education so that, with added funds, School Boards may be able to provide better
equipment and give more efficient training.
The schools and their enrolments are as follows:—
Students. Students.
Abbotsford-Mission   113 Fernie  54
Alberni   70 Howe Sound   6
Armstrong  12 Kamloops  103
Burnaby  542 Kelowna  223
Chilliwack  205 Keremeos  18
Coquitlam  126 Kimberley   193
Courtenay  50 Ladysmith  56
Cranbrook   22 Langley  80
Creston   81 Maple Ridge  103
Delta   84 Merritt  33
Duncan   157 Nanaimo .  165 INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION.
MM 55
Nelson
Students.
123
New Westminster    276
North Vancouver      258
Oliver	
Peace River South
Penticton	
Powell River	
Prince George	
Prince Rupert	
Princeton	
Revelstoke 	
80
32
163
112
82
86
63
32
Students.
Richmond   180
Saanich  14
Surrey  321
Trail  120
Vancouver   3,753
Vernon  140
Greater Victoria  810
West Vancouver  220
Windermere  3
Total
9,364
This Province is undoubtedly behind in the teaching of Agriculture. In districts
almost entirely devoted to agriculture, one finds formal academic courses only offered
in the high schools. It is only reasonable to suppose that some of these high school
pupils would take courses in Agriculture, provided that basic courses for a good general
education were given at the same time.
It is hoped that, when the Vocational Schools' Assistance Agreement starts to
function, more School Boards will offer vocational courses in Agriculture. Most school
shops now are equipped to offer courses in Farm Mechanics, and, with the assistance of
local farmers, very good courses in Agriculture can be offered, provided that a sufficient
number of trained instructors can be found.
Agricultural courses were offered in the last school-year in the high school
grades of:—
Students.
Abbotsford-Mission   22
Burnaby   21
Chilliwack   129
Creston   40
Duncan   59
Grand Forks  21
Kamloops  59
Kelowna  60
Ladysmith   26
Langley  25
Lillooet    10
Students.
Maple Ridge  33
New Westminster  34
North Vancouver  27
Oliver  51
Peace River South  14
Penticton  25
Richmond   189
Salmon Arm   32
Surrey  23
Terrace   11
Total  911
VANCOUVER SCHOOL OF ART.
The following courses are offered:—
1. The Elementary Diploma Course.—This course calls for two years of study.
The first year of this course should be considered a prerequisite to any branch of Art
study. In the second year a number of elective subjects are offered in order to meet
the needs of students who plan for a two-year course only.
2. The Advanced Diploma Course.—This course calls for a further two-year period
of training and is open to students who have attained the Elementary Diploma. The
Advanced Diploma Course may be taken in the departments of Drawing and Painting,
Commercial Art, or Design (the latter includes Crafts and Interior Decoration).
Certain subjects of equal credit value within these courses are interchangeable.
3. High School Graduation Course in Art.—This course is free to any Vancouver
high school student who has completed Grade X. Students take Grade XI. and XII.
academic subjects during the morning at high school and attend Art School during the MM 56 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
afternoon.     Two half-years of this course equal the first year of the Elementary
Diploma course.
The report which follows was prepared by the principal of the school, Mr. Charles
H. Scott, A.R.C.A., F.R.S.A. (Lond.), Dip. G.S.A.:—
" I beg to submit my report covering the Vancouver School of Art for the session
1945-46.    This session completes the twenty-first year of the school.
" The session was remarkable for the very large increase in day-school enrolment.
This situation was caused largely by the number of returned service men and women
seeking various forms of Art education. The situation also was due to a larger
entrance group than the school has had for many years. This large increase, amounting to 100 per cent, above the session 1944-45, called for additional accommodation and
additional staff. The school was fortunate in obtaining Messrs. Thomas, Robinson,
Kerr, Kastner, and Woods as part-time teachers during the year. Mr. Shadbolt
returned from overseas and resumed teaching duties in October, 1945.
"Three entrance dates (September, January, and May) were arranged for the
rehabilitation students in order to suit their varying dates of discharge from the services. Classes attended by these rehabilitation students did not cease with our normal
classes on May 31st, but will continue until July 31st. This is done at the request of
the Department of Veterans' Affairs. The period of training to which these students
are entitled varies according to their period of service. Thus, a number already have
received the training due to them, and many are now in gainful occupations as a result
of such training.
" The increase in enrolment, particularly that part of it created by the rehabilitation students, has meant a large increase in the volume of office-work. Interviewing
and counselling of rehabilitation students also has occupied a considerable part of my
time.
" The night classes and Saturday classes opened in October, 1945. There was a
large enrolment, but this could have been larger had the school not been forced to turn
students away owing to lack of space. The whole situation points to the need for more
Art School accommodation, as the present rooms are altogether too small and too few.
" During the month of May the work of the school was examined by Mr. John
Kyle, acting as assessor for the Department of Education. An excellent report of the
school was made to the Department."
The following were the registrations for the year in the various branches of the
school:—
Day-school  219
Night-school and Saturday classes  565
Summer School      36
Total  820
NIGHT-SCHOOLS.
It is pleasing to note that school planning is being done with the full appreciation
of the needs of adult education. Reconversion to peaceful living is now under way, and
our night-schools can help considerably in offering suitable courses during this period
of readjustment. The war has forced us to learn new techniques, and war research
has opened up new fields of learning. To-day a good basic education is necessary in
order to achieve a greater measure of success in any chosen occupation and in the field
of human relations.
With the reduction in working-hours many adults are faced with the problem of
how to make the most satisfactory use of their leisure time.    School Boards have the INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION. MM 57
responsibility of satisfying the educational needs of the community, and night-schools
offer a suitable organization to provide some of these needs.
This year, for the first time, additional grants have been given to School Boards
for the vocational courses they have offered. This was done by agreement between the
Dominion and Provincial Governments to share equally a proportion of the cost of
vocational night-school classes.
Vocational courses should be offered to satisfy the needs of workers in the community. Courses should be planned with the full approval of local business or industry,
and an integrated pattern should be worked out covering a period of years, so that the
result will be a greater satisfaction in the job and greater productivity. If the courses
offered at night-schools are beneficial to business and industry, then industry should
be encouraged to assist School Boards in any way possible.
It is hoped that in the coming year more School Boards will operate night-school
courses to satisfy their local needs. This, in turn, will create a greater interest in
school activities, make better use of school facilities, and assist in a more efficient and
satisfying mode of living.
Instruction in the subjects listed below was given to 8,059 students.
Subjects.—Accountancy (Advanced), Anatomy and Figure Construction, Arithmetic (Commercial), Armature-winding, Art, Arts and Crafts, Art Metalwork, Automotive Engineering, Aviation, Bench-work in Wood, Book-keeping, Building Construction, Business Machines and Operation, Cabinetmaking, Carpentry and Joinery,
Chemistry, Child Arts, Child Development, Choral Singing, Clothing A and B, Clothing
Construction, Club Organization and Management, Coal-mining, Cooking, Commercial
Law, Diesel Engineering, Draughting, Drawing (Advanced, Commercial, Life and
Still), Dress Appreciation, Dressmaking, Doll and Soft-toy Making, Electricity, Electricity (Practical), Electrical Engineering,English for new Canadians, English (Senior
Matriculation, Commercial, and Remedial), First Aid, French, General Science, General
Shop-work, German, Group Work, Handicrafts, Health, High School Subjects, Home
Crafts, Household Arts, Industrial Arts and Play Materials, Interior Decoration, Journalism, Leadership Course for Co-operative Play Groups, Leatherwork, Lino-cutting,
Machine-shop (Theory and Practice), Mathematics (Senior Matriculation and Practical), Mechanical Drawing, Metalwork, Methods in Art-teaching, Mining, Modelling
(Cardboard), The Modern Home, Motors, Music Appreciation, Music (Knowledge of),
Music (Youth Leadership), Painting (Water-colour, Oil, and Figure), Physics, Physical Culture, Plumbing (Theory and Practice), Pottery and Ceramics, Practical Orchestral Training, Pre-school Education, Printing, Psychology, Public Speaking, Pulp
and Paper Making, Radio, Radio (Elementary Principles of), Radio Communication,
Radio Script-writing, Refrigeration, Russian, Salesmanship, Scottish Language (Gaelic),
Sheet-metal Draughting, Sheet-metal Work, Shorthand (Elementary and Advanced),
Short-story Writing, Show-card Writing, Social Recreational Training, Social Studies,
Spanish, Stationary and Marine Engineering, Steam Engineering, Technical Draughting, Technology of Metals, Typewriting (Elementary and Advanced), Voice Culture,
Welding, Women's Keep-fit Class, Woodwork, and Youth Leadership (Scouters' and
Girl Guides' Qualifying Course). MM 58
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
Summarized Statement of Attendance and Teachers in Evening Vocational
Schools for period July 1st, 1945, to June 30th, 1946.
Municipality
or School.
Total
No. of
Subjects.
Total
No. of
Classes.
Total
Enrolment, all
Classes.
Number op Individuals
enrolled.
Teachers.
Male.
Female.
Total.
Male.
Female.
Total.
3
7
3
3
3
5
5
2
5
3
5
1
8
5
3
5
5
3
1
3
68
18
32
1
4
6
2
3
4
6
6
2
4
1
5
1
7
5
3
5
5
2
1
3
136
28
37
2
107
89
27
53
63
129
108
38
65
31
174
31
130
82
87
79
97
33
30
56
4,611
565
1,329
45
18
24
9
6
39
33
16
2
18
10
172
1
83
28
54
59
18
6
26
42
2,462
235
716
27
89
65
18
47
24
96
92
36
47
21
2
30
47
54
33
20
79
27
4
14
2,149
330
613
18
107
89
27
53
63
129
108
38
65
31
174
31
130
82
87
79
97
33
30
56
4,611
565
1,329
45
2
2
1
1
3
1
2
3
1
5
1
6
3
5
2
1
1
3
90
16
32
1
3
4
1
1
3
3
2
1
2
5
1
2
1
29
8
7
5
6
Cranbrook	
2
2
3
4
5
2
Maple Ridge	
4
1
5
1
8
5
4
5
4
2
1
Saanich	
Vancouver	
3
119
24
Victoria	
39
1
Totals    	
278
8,059
4,104
3,955
8,059
182
73
255
TRAINING OF INDUSTRIAL ARTS TEACHERS.
The class which was started last year in order to train war veterans as Industrial
Arts teachers has proved to be a successful venture. The work of training was arranged
by the Department of Veterans' Affairs and undertaken by the Canadian Vocational
Training Programme under the direction of Mr. Henry Hill and the supervision of
Lieutenant-Colonel J. W. Inglis. Brigadier Sager, Inspector of Technical Classes,
supervised the practice-teaching which was carried on in various schools through the
courtesy of the Vancouver School Board. Mr. A. R. Lord, principal of the Vancouver
Normal School, arranged to give the men the required courses in Techniques of Teaching and Educational Psychology. Reports from all instructors indicate that the men
took their assignments very seriously and carried them out to very high standards.
I wish to report that all the veterans who completed this course now have been
placed and soon will have completed the requirements for the Industrial Arts teacher's
certificate for junior high schools. The remainder of their training for the Senior
High School certificate will be taken at Summer Schools. It was felt that, after some
teaching experience, the men would be in a better position to benefit from the more
advanced training.
The Summer School this year showed an enrolment of 102 students, of whom 56
were veterans. A group of 20 veterans now are starting a training course which will
provide us with more Industrial Arts teachers for the coming year.
I believe that the veterans will bring to the teaching profession a new outlook and
sterling qualities developed during the war years, and this is bound to have a good
effect on the students in our schools. INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION. MM 59
VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS' ASSISTANCE AGREEMENT.
The Province of British Columbia and the Dominion Government have signed an
agreement for a ten-year period to expand the facilities for vocational education on the
secondary-school level. The general purpose of this agreement is to train the youth of
the country so that they will be better fitted to offer their services to employers, and
help in developing our natural resources.
The Dominion and Provincial Governments will give financial assistance to Boards
of School Trustees during the lifetime of this agreement on condition that the School
Boards use the funds so provided for the extension of present facilities for vocational
training. To be eligible for grants, School Boards are required to submit plans for
vocational courses to the office of the Director of Technical Education for approval.
Grants will not be paid for projects which have not received prior approval.
Vocational Training is defined as that training which leads directly to gainful
employment, and which takes at least 50 per cent, of school-time. Vocational courses
may be offered in Grades X. to XII. in a secondary school, and should meet local needs.
In order to be of assistance the Department of Education is preparing courses in the
following families of occupations: Forest Industries, Mining, Fishing, Agriculture,
Communications and Transportation, Manufacturing and Mechanical Occupations,
Construction, Business Occupations, Public Service Occupations, Personal Service,
Home-making, and Artistic Occupations.
At the present time the situation regarding grants is not quite clear, so that
nothing can be done until some definite arrangements can be made with Ottawa. It is
hoped that a definite understanding can be reached at a conference of the Vocational
Training Advisory Council in Ottawa during October, 1946. By the time this report
is published, it is expected that details regarding the amount of assistance will have
been decided and will be in full effect.
. MM 60 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION—HOME ECONOMICS.
REPORT OF MISS JESSIE L. McLENAGHEN, B.Sc, DIRECTOR.
The work in Home Economics continues to grow, which is an indication of the
interest of communities and the recognition of the usefulness of this subject by students,
parents, and educators.
During the past year there have been 141 centres in operation, employing 135
Home Economics teachers. As the number of students, teachers, and centres steadily
increases, so is the field of Home Economics broadening and taking in the many
activities and problems of home-making and family membership. Although a comprehensive combination course continues to hold the largest enrolment, some centres are
experimenting with 5-credit courses specially adapted to the needs of a local group.
During the year plans were made for several new centres in rural areas—one of
which will be in operation in the fall of 1946. To staff these departments, where Home
Economics teachers are only required on a part-time basis, young teachers with some
Home Economics background have been selected to take training at Summer School to
enable them to qualify for the new Rural School Home Economics certificate. The
requirements for this are three years' work in Home Economics in senior high school,
a Permanent first-class certificate (or higher), 10 credits in Home Economics courses
at the Provincial Summer School, plus, for permanent certification, two years' successful
teaching of the subject. A candidate for training for rural certification is only accepted
on the recommendation of the Inspector of her district. The first teacher to fulfil all
the requirements for this certificate is Miss Gladys Bloomfield, of Richmond. Three
other teachers who are taking this special training will be teaching junior Home
Economics this fall.
The past year has brought many requests for suggestions in planning new centres,
expanding old ones, and adding rooms. Most school buildings now make provision for
Home Economics departments as a matter of course. Favourable space-allotments and
suitable locations for these rooms are being given careful consideration. Most requests
for plans show a desire to incorporate in Home Economics laboratories the newer trend
towards making food-rooms more home-like by the use of unit kitchens. Information
and ideas obtained on a visit to the Home Economics centre at Bremerton, Washington,
have proved most helpful in planning laboratories for British Columbia. The actual
building of rooms has, unfortunately, been delayed because of shortages of material.
During the year a new type of register for recording the attendance and marks for
Home Economics classes has been in use. This attempts to systematize the keeping of
records, so that an accurate picture of each student's work—for the purpose of granting
credit—may be given.
The problem of staffing Home Economics departments continues to be a grave one.
Few of our instructors have returned to teaching from the armed services. Many
centres need to increase their staffs. The percentage of Home Economics graduates
entering the teaching-field continues to be small. Several of our instructors resigned
at Christmas, and, as it was found impossible to get replacements, the high school
students in their classes had to complete their year's Home Economics by correspondence.
Although this year the first class in Home Economics at the University of British
Columbia was graduated, only three students accepted appointments as teachers. It is
hoped that the number of Home Economics graduates from the University is going to
increase, and that many of the fine and enthusiastic students taking this subject in our
high schools will be encouraged to take the teaching option. INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION-HOME ECONOMICS. MM 61
The Home Economics Department at the University of British Columbia continues
to grow. Miss Eileen Cross, formerly Home Economics teacher at Nelson, has been
appointed to the Extension Department and will carry the work of Home Economics to
many parts of the Province. We congratulate Miss Cross on her appointment and wish
her every success in this new field.
The convention of the Canadian Home Economics Association was held in July at
Digby, Nova Scotia. As Miss Alma Snyder, our Provincial representative, was unable
to attend, Miss Charlotte Black, of the Home Economics Faculty at the University,
represented British Columbia. Miss Black reports an interesting and inspiring time.
The next convention is scheduled for the summer of 1948, and will be held in Alberta.
This year three courses were offered at Summer School. Two were given on Art
related to Home Economics. Mr. Edward Miller conducted No. 652—Applied Art in
Home Economics (with a registration of 29), and Mr. Victor Mott gave No. 655—
Appreciation in Dress (with a registration of 102). The students were most enthusiastic about the help they had received from these classes. A third course, No. 650—
Curriculum and Methods in Home Economics, was conducted by Miss Mildred Orr,
Assistant Inspector in Home Economics. There was an enrolment of twenty students
for this—composed of 1946 graduates, students working for rural certification, and
students with a year's experience as teachers of Home Economics. All who took the
work expressed the keenest satisfaction.
It is with mixed feelings that I turn my work over to Miss Bertha Rogers. One
cannot leave a post one has held for twenty years without experiencing deep regret at
the severing of connections, but I am convinced that the future of Home Economics
could not be in more capable hands than those of Miss Rogers and Miss Orr, her
assistant, and no one will watch the development of the work with greater interest and
enthusiasm than I. MM 62
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
VANCOUVER CITY SCHOOLS.
REPORT OF H. N. MacCORKINDALE, B.A., SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS.
ENROLMENT.
Year.
Elementary.
Junior High.
Senior High.
Total.
1937	
25,348
24,338
23,556
23,032
23,091
22,014
22,383
22,394
22,737
4,266
4,165
4,080
4,149
4,354
4,175
4,540
4,396
4,294
9,506
10,016
9,856
9,471
8,741
7,166
7,139
7,913
8,295
39,120
1938                    	
38,519
1939	
37,492
1940	
36,652
1941        	
36,186
1942	
33,355
1943	
34,062
1944       	
34,703
1945	
35,326
Enrolment Variation.
(October of each year.)
Years Compared.
Elementary.
Junior High.
Senior High.
1930-31	
272
—342
—870
—388
—357
—145
—485
— 1,010
—782
—524
59
— 1,077
369
11
343
31
25
222
—4
—57
-124
—188
— 101
— 85
69
205
—179
365
— 144
—102
813
1931 32    	
437
1932 33   	
80
1933 34   	
362
1934 35                 	
279
1935 36   	
1936-37	
1937-38	
510
1938-39	
1939 40   	
—385
—730
— 1,575*
— 27
774
382
1940-41	
1941-42	
1942-43	
1943-44	
1944-45	
* Japanese withdrawn.
In the year 1938 the senior secondary-school enrolment in the city reached an
all-time maximum. This was caused mainly by the large number of births following
World War 1.
Since 1938 there'has been an average annual decrease in enrolment of approximately 300. Three factors have contributed considerably to this decrease: (1) Removal
of Japanese in 1942 from the Pacific Coast area; (2) the withdrawal of many high
school students to enlist in the armed forces or to accept employment in the war-time
industries; and (3) decrease in births in the years affecting the senior secondary-
school grades.
It will be observed from the above table of relative yearly enrolments that the
secondary school has increased 774 in October, 1944, over October, 1943. There was
still a further increase in October, 1945, of 382 over October, 1944.
The increase in secondary-school enrolment in the past two years can be attributed
in part to the policy of National Selective Service.   The officials of this service did not VANCOUVER CITY SCHOOLS.
MM 63
encourage boys and girls 16 and 17 years of age with only partial secondary education
to leave high school to accept employment in war industries.
The Guidance Programme of Selective Service pointed out to these young people
the necessity of completing their high school education before accepting a job, thus
avoiding a difficult post-war adjustment programme. On the other hand, it must be
observed that these young people themselves were most anxious to complete their
secondary education. In fact youth was among the first to realize that in a competitive
post-war economy every person must have a good educational training if they are to
succeed in their vocation.
In estimating school enrolment, the influx of school population from places outside
the city must be considered. The table below shows the geographical origin of new
pupils enrolled in the Vancouver city schools between September 4th, 1945, and
November 30th, 1945.
Origin.
Elementary.
Secondary.
Total.
710
218
140
121
7
139
40
8
1
1
2
1
333
88
46
34
5
96
12
3
2
1
1,043
2. Alberta	
306
186
155
12
235
52
11
9. Other parts of British Empire	
3
2
11. China           	
2
1
1,388
620
2,008
For the past nine years our Bureau of Measurements, under the direction of
Inspector R. Straight, has made this summary of shifting school population. The
figures listed below indicate the trends through these years:—
1936, 2,012; 1937, 2,249; 1938, 1,865; 1939, 1,760; 1940, 2,294; 1941, 2,931;
1942,3,372;   1943,2,388;  1944,2,420;   1945,2,008.
The Federal Department of Statistics at Ottawa has indicated that Vancouver is
one of the crowded areas in the Dominion. This city has had a greater rate of increase
in population since 1941 than either Toronto or Montreal. It should be borne in mind
that Toronto is twice the size of Vancouver and Montreal three times. The press is
continually reminding us of the very serious housing problem of this city. I can assure
you that the question of properly housing the children of this city in schools in the next
few years should give us all deep concern. The number of births in the City of Vancouver in proportion to population is almost as high as any other part of the Dominion.
For example, in 1933 there were approximately 3,300 births in this city; in 1939 there
were 4,300 births—an annual increase of 1,000 over a six-year period. In 1942 the
number of births had risen to 6,600 and in 1943 to 7,500. In the two remaining years,
1944 and 1945, the birth-rate level has remained about the same as for 1943. This
means that there have been more than 37,000 children born in the City of Vancouver
during the war years. MM 64 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
From school attendance and birth-rate records over a period of twenty-five years
it is expected approximately 29,000 of these children born in the last six years in the
City of Vancouver will register in our schools. This is almost 11,000 more than are
registered in the first six grades of the elementary schools to-day.
The school administrative staff makes an annual study of population trends in
order to predict future school enrolment. Over a period of years very accurate predictions have been made. The birth-rate trend at the end of 1942 impressed upon the
Board of School Trustees the necessity of preparing a plan for future school accommodation.
SCHOOL ACCOMMODATION.
Through questionnaires completed by school principals and other members of the
staff, the needs of the system were recorded by school districts. From a city planning
point of view the future school needs in regard to sites and types of buildings were
tabulated. These tabulated results fell roughly into two general groups: (1) Additional class-rooms to meet increasing enrolment needs, and (2) alterations and additions necessary to modernize the school buildings.
Upon closer study it was found that certain projects must be given definite priority.
This led to three classifications of projects: (1) Very urgent, (2) urgent, and (3) very
necessary.
In preparation for a long-term building programme the Board early in 1944
appointed Mr. E. D. King as their school architect. Mr. King and his department have
made an excellent contribution to the long-term building plan anticipated by the Board.
It should be further stated that two magnificent reports by the Elementary School
Principals' Building Committee and the Secondary School Principals' Building Committee have been of tremendous assistance to the Board, architect, and administrative staff
in the preparation of the actual plans.
It should be noted that no attempt has been made to advocate a standardized plan
for any type of school. This scheme has been tried in other countries but was found
impractical because sites are not uniform as to slopes, aspects, levels, positions, and
sewer services.    Any one of the above features may alter a plan entirely.
However, the Board and its officials have, through the principals' and teachers'
building committees, endeavoured to standardize the equipment and fittings of certain
kinds of rooms for certain types of schools and then leave to the architect the task of
incorporating these into the larger plant required.
In December, 1944, a first step was taken by the Board towards the long-term plan.
A school by-law for $1,500,000 was endorsed by approximately 86 per cent, of the
voters.    This by-law provides for the following:—
(a.) New school buildings:—
(1.) First unit of a secondary school at Gladstone Avenue and Twenty-
seventh Avenue.
(2.) A primary school near Sixty-seventh Avenue West and Adera Street.
(3.) First unit of an elementary school in the vicinity of Twenty-fourth
Avenue West and Trafalgar Street.
(6.) Alterations and additions to:—
(1.) Templeton Junior High School.
(2.) King Edward High School.
(3.) Lord Byng High School.
(4.) Livingstone Elementary School to be converted to a first unit of a
secondary school.
In December, 1945, a second step was made in the building plan by submitting to
the ratepayers of the city a by-law for $1,000,000. This by-law was endorsed by
approximately 90 per cent, of the voters.    It will provide for the following:— VANCOUVER CITY SCHOOLS. MM 65
(1.)  An addition to the Begbie Elementary School.
(2.) First instalment of auditoriums, gymnasiums, and lunch-rooms for elementary schools in the system. (This is part of a long-term plan to
modernize approximately forty elementary schools.)
(3.) First unit of an elementary school, Forty-third Avenue West and Montgomery Street.
(4.)   New school-sites.
(5.)   First unit of a school administration building.
These by-laws total $2,500,000.    Further by-laws will have to be submitted before
the end of the present calendar year.
BUILDING PROGRAMME.
I. Begbie School Annex (Seventh Avenue East and Rupert Street).
This school was planned to take care of the primary-grade children in the southeastern section of the Begbie School district and to relieve crowded conditions in the
main Begbie School. It is located on a 3%-acre site, bounded on the east and west by
Cassiar and Rupert Streets and on the north and south by Seventh and Eighth Avenues.
Two acres have been graded for landscaping and to provide separate playgrounds for
girls and boys.
The construction of this building is particularly notable in that it is the first school
building in Vancouver to be financed entirely out of current revenue and to be completely
free of debt on completion. The contract price of $46,204 was provided by a special tax
levy over previous years, augmented by rentals from certain school properties.
Complete plans and specifications for the building were drawn by Mr. E. D. King,
the school architect, and his staff. In his planning, the architect made good use of the
recommendations contained in the report submitted to the School Board by the principals' committee on elementary school buildings.
The school, as planned and completed, is a one-story frame building on a concrete
foundation and contains four class-rooms, a fairly large assembly-room, toilets, kitchen,
teachers' room, health-service room, and boiler-room. The latter occupies the only
excavated portion of the site.    All other rooms are arranged on one-floor level.
Outside the building, covered play-spaces for boys and girls are located at the east
and west entrances, adjacent to the toilet accommodation.
Inside the building are two wide, well-lighted corridors, with doors and drinking-
fountains recessed in the walls. Situated at the intersection of the corridors are two
plate-glass corner display-cases for the exhibition of pupils' work.
All class-rooms and the assembly-hall open off the main east-west corridor. Each
class-room is 26 by 36 feet to allow for activity work and is well lighted by modern
sun-controlled windows which occupy the greater portion of the outer wall and extend
to the ceiling. These windows may be completely covered with draw-curtains of
translucent material.
A large bay window with seats and book-cases provides a suitable library corner,
and each room contains a work alcove with counter, sink, and running water. Ample
storage-space is provided by continuous cabinets the full length of the outside wall
under the 3-foot stools of the windows, as well as above and below the counter in the
alcove. In the wide cloak-room further storage-space for oversize material is provided
in a large compartmented cabinet which can be locked. The cloak-room also contains,
on either side, individual locker boxes with a bench below.
Blackboards are placed on three walls with a continuous 3-foot strip of tack-board
above.
The assembly-room, 30 by 40 feet, is provided with wide corner windows from floor
to ceiling and window seats.    The corridor wall, at the opposite end, is also glazed to MM 66 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
permit outside observation. Both sets of windows are curtained with draw-curtains of
opaque material. There is a continuous tack-board strip around the room at blackboard height.    A stage alcove is placed at the corridor end of the room.
Sliding doors give access from the assembly-hall to the kitchen, which is fully
equipped with sink, electric range, cabinets, and serving-counters.
The kitchen also opens into the second corridor, at the south end of which is the
main entrance, with teachers' office, and health-service room and toilet on either side.
Floors throughout are covered with mottled linoleum of a neutral tone.
The building is heated by a system of forced air, dampered to control the supply of
warm or cold fresh air.
Adequate artificial lighting is supplied in each class-room by six 750-watt semi-
indirect fixtures which develop a verified coverage of 26% foot-candles at a work-level
of 24 inches.
Construction of the school was started by the Marwell Construction Company on
March 22nd, 1945, and completed on January 7th, 1946, at which time it was occupied
by the kindergarten groups—one Grade I. and one Grade II. class.
The building was officially opened on February 1st, 1946, by the Superintendent
and Deputy Minister of Education, Lieutenant-Colonel F. T. Fairey.
II. David Lloyd George School Annex (Sixty-second Avenue West and
Adera Street).
This building was planned to avoid the necessity for primary-grade children living
west of Granville Street to cross the main artery of Granville Street in order to attend
the David Lloyd George School.
The school is located on the eastern portion of the 3.5-acre Shannon Park, which is
bounded east and west by the Granville Street lane and Adera Street and north and
south by Sixty-second and Sixty-third Avenues; 1.2 acres of this area is devoted to
the school-site.
By-law money provided the contract price of $47,178. Construction was begun by
the Kennett Construction Company on May 21st, 1945. The building was completed on
May 1st, 1946, at which time it was occupied by one Grade I. and one Grade II. class.
It Was officially opened on May 10th, 1946, by Miss Emily J. Trembath, formerly
Primary Supervisor of Vancouver City Schools.
The school is the same size as the Begbie School Annex, described above, and the
plans and specifications are in all respects similar.
III. Templeton Junior High School Addition (Georgia Street East and
Templeton Drive).
Construction on this addition commenced May 15th, 1945. This new wing consists
of six class-rooms and a library which will seat approximately 100 students. Off the
library are two excellent student conference-rooms and a librarian's work-room. All
rooms are acoustically treated. This addition will be ready for use at the opening of
school September next.    Cost, $64,416.
IV. Moberly Elementary School (Fifty-ninth Avenue East and
Ross Street).
Late in July, 1945, the Moberly Elementary School of fourteen class-rooms was
almost completely destroyed by fire. After considerable discussion by the School Board
and the officials with representatives of the insurance companies concerned, satisfactory
financial adjustments were made.
To draw plans and specifications for a partially destroyed building to be restored
by contract is no easy task. The Board, in its wisdom, decided to employ workmen
under the direction of our own building superintendent and architect to restore the VANCOUVER CITY SCHOOLS. MM 67
building. Before doing so, however, every care was taken in order to modernize the
plant as much as possible and to provide certain features such as an auditorium and
lunch-room.
It is with considerable pride that the Board of School Trustees is able to report
that this building will be completed when school opens next September.
The New Building Committee of the Board is to be congratulated on the numerous
projects which have been dealt with satisfactorily in spite of tremendous handicaps
caused by the shortage of labour and building materials.
BUILDING MAINTENANCE.
The current replacement value of the buildings and equipment of the Vancouver
City  school   system   is   approximately   $14,000,000.    The   1945   building-maintenance
budget, to meet the requirements for the repairs and renewals on this capital investment, was $200,000.    This sum was supposed to provide for:-—■   .
(1.)   The maintenance and repair of equipment.
(2.)  The construction in our shops of a considerable number of new pieces
of equipment.
(3.)  The alterations to school plants to provide better teaching facilities and
improved school lunch-room accommodation.
(4.)  The maintenance of the buildings themselves.
After a study of the distribution of costs among the four items above it is correct
to say that very little more than 1 per cent, of the replacement value of the buildings
was used for their maintenance in 1945. This sum is much too small when compared
with depreciation allowances accepted in business and industry. How far would 1 per
cent, of a privately owned building go towards maintaining it? The neglect of proper
maintenance of our school buildings must be corrected in 1946, otherwise the capital
assets of the School Board are going to depreciate at a very much accelerated rate.
A good building and maintenance programme is one that provides for repairs and
renewals as soon as deterioration is detected. Quick action by the maintenance staff
of such deterioration keeps cost of repairs to a minimum and maintains buildings and
equipment to a point of maximum utility.
During the war years, because of the difficulty of procuring certain types of school
workers, it was impossible to paint the exterior of a great number of our buildings.
Such action has caused accelerated depreciation in values which will take years to
overcome and large sums of money to recondition. It should be in the best interests
of the city for us to maintain our capital assets at their maximum value. I sincerely
hope that the trustees for the year 1946-47 will see to it that the building-maintenance
budget is increased by at least $60,000 over the budget for 1945-46. In the light of
conditions as they exist to-day, this is a very modest request indeed.
I have complained somewhat of the inadequacy of the budget for building maintenance. I can assure you this is not a reflection on the magnificent work performed
under most trying conditions by our building superintendent, Mr. Beechy, and his staff.
The fire at the Moberly School last July caused many upsets and inconveniences to the
maintenance staff. I wish to personally commend them for the most efficient way in
which the emergency was met.
BUREAU OF MEASUREMENTS.
I. Testing.
(ft.)   Number of individual intelligence tests given, 733.
(&.) Number of pupils given group intelligence or achievement tests, 9,888.
(This applies to the tests actually administered by the personnel of the Bureau of
Measurements.) MM 68
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
(c.) Intelligence tests were given to 176 prospective Grade Ib. pupils who were
under 6 years of age prior to December 1st, 1945. (Pupils who were 6 years of age in
December, 1945, were tested.) Seventy-eight of the 176 were admitted on trial to
Grade Ib., and the remainder, 98, were rejected as being unlikely to succeed in the work
of the first grade. The Detroit Beginning First-grade Intelligence Test (Revised)
was administered during September to all pupils of Grade Ib.
(d.) For June, 1946, achievement tests in the fundamental subjects were given to
approximately 3,000 pupils of Grades VI. and VIII.—the Grade VI. pupils in junior
high school areas for promotion to junior high school and the Grade VIII. pupils in
senior high school areas for promotion to senior high school. These standardized tests
assist the principals and Inspectors in maintaining levels of achievement.
(e.) As in former years, probationary classes in nursing of the Vancouver General
Hospital were given intelligence tests—one class each in March and October.
(/.) At the request of rehabilitation officers of Canadian Vocational Training,
three candidates were given one or more of the following tests: Intelligence test, test
in Mathematics, English test, mechanical aptitude test.
(g.) As a part of the rehabilitation programme of the Department of Veterans'
Affairs, 112 candidates were given one or more of the following tests: Intelligence test,
test in Mathematics, English test, mechanical aptitude test.
II. Other Activities.
(a.) Analysis of results of junior and senior matriculation examinations, June,
1945.
(&.) Tabulation of the results of the achievement and intelligence tests given to
junior high school entrance pupils and to senior high school entrance pupils. The
following table shows the scores made on the Dominion tests, group achievement test,
Form B, by Vancouver Grade VIII. pupils in 1945 and 1936:—
Median Score,
June, 1945.
Median Score,
June, 1936.
Canada Norm
(Authors').
Ontario Norm
(Authors').
26.5
14.7
14.9
17.8
7.6
29.0
19.8
15.5
20.3
11.3
28.0
16.0
13.0
17.0
10.0
29.0
16.0
14 0
18.0
11.0
(c.) Compilation of statistics on the geographical origin of new pupils enrolling in
Vancouver schools, September 4th, 1945, to November 30th, 1945, inclusive.
(d.) Compilation of statistics on age-grade census for September, 1945, and promotion summary for June, 1945.
(e.)  Tabulation of the Oriental school population as at June.
(/.) Three hundred and fifty-five applications for transfers of pupils across school
boundaries dealt with.
(g.)  Sixty cases of application exemption from school attendance dealt with.
(h.) The total number of home visits made by members of this department, exclusive of those made by the Supervisor of Special Classes, was 293.
(i.) Forty school records were transcribed and sent to the correspondence instruction departments of the Department of Education, Victoria, B.C., at the request of
their Directors.
(/.) Preparation of outlines of courses offered in the secondary schools during the
school-year 1946-47. Copies of these were forwarded to all elementary and secondary
schools. VANCOUVER CITY SCHOOLS.
MM 69
(k.) Sorting and forwarding to principals of secondary schools the applications of
students for choice of course, approximately 3,600.
(I.) Questionnaire on Industrial Arts and Commercial courses: The information
contained in this questionnaire is requested each year by the Director of Technical
Education for the Province of British Columbia. The results of the questionnaire
were compiled in the Bureau of Measurements. The tabulation shows the number of
pupils in Vancouver schools taking Industrial Arts and Commercial courses (Bulletin
118 of the Bureau of Measurements). Copies of Bulletin 118 were forwarded to each
trustee, the Director of Technical Education, officials of the Vancouver School Board,
and to each principal.
(jn.) Student employment: The usual co-operation was given to National Employment Service (Selective Service during the war) in the registering of elementary and
secondary school students for work during the Christmas holidays. In June, students
planning to withdraw from school were, at the request of National Employment Service, registered on N.E.S. Form 701. This form enables Employment Service to give
better guidance to " first jobbers."
in.)   Community Arts Survey:   In the fall term a questionnaire, which was a part
of the Community Arts Survey conducted by the Junior League, was sent to the school
principals.    Results of the survey were published by the Junior League of Vancouver.
(o.) Record and medical cards and requests for same handled:—
Number of cards coming into office (record card and medical
card for the same pupil counted as one card)  20,701
Number of requests for cards made by schools (record card
and medical card for the same pupil being counted as one
request)     11,885
Requests which the Bureau of Measurements made to schools
for cards which had not been sent to office (record card
and medical card for the same pupil being counted as one
request)        3,271
I should like to thank Inspector Straight and the members of this Bureau for the
very capable assistance and co-operation I have received at all times.
VISUAL EDUCATION.
The following is the annual statistical report of this department for the school-year
1945-46:—
Projectors.
Screens.
Films.
Slides.
Gramophone
Records.
Score.
Poster
Sets.
Total
Aids.
Silent.
Sound.
Film.
Glass.
September
37
57
88
44
81
79
106
58
76
40
2
15
11
13
28
21
14
10
36
8
121
271
436
120
392
336
348
224
233
91
501
679
533
337
861
763
852
545
598
383
160
324
431
139
310
283
342
180
209
68
163
127
297
76
260
193
122
252
142
420
509
490
302
93
488
339
388
341
271
198
32
13
15
11
3
2
9*
1,486
1,963
2,111
822
2,435
2,024
2,172
1,613
1,578
1,217
61,353
105,610
November
December	
123,654
73,512
113,815
February	
March	
110,025
121,949
105,562
May	
June	
102,243
62,944
Totals	
666      |    158
2,572
6,052
2,446     |   2,052     |    3,419
71
14
17,421
980,658
* Slide sets. MM 70 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
Record of visual aids available from the Visual Education Department:—
Number of film titles      650
Number of film-strips  1,335
Number of 2-inch glass slides     902
Number of 3%- by 4-inch glass slides       38
Number of sets of 3%- by 4-inch glass slides       21
Number of microscopic slides      622
Record of borrowers of visual aids outside Vancouver City schools:—
Number of outside schools      119
Number of private borrowers        28
Number of churches, organizations, commercial firms        94
Record of production from July, 1945, to June, 1946:—
Pictures taken on photographic assignments      501
Glass slides produced      984
Number of film-strips produced (ten titles)        43
Pictures copied       586
Enlargements made   1,014
Footage of 16-mm. film photographed  1,000
Reflex copies, health charts  2,433
One of the most interesting phases of the year's work involved the preparation of
film-strips on the vocational opportunities for young men and women in British Columbia industries. These film-strips are tailored to the Vocational Guidance programme
in the secondary schools and are edited by Mr. Johns, Director of Educational and
Vocational Guidance for the Department of Education. They have been made possible
through the co-operation of the B.C. Products Bureau of the Vancouver Board of Trade.
Twenty-five industries have co-operated in this undertaking this year, and an additional
twenty-five have indicated their intention to co-operate in 1946.
During the past year the department compiled material for an audio-visual manual.
This manual is of loose-leaf form and includes all aids available from the Visual Education Department, including the gramophone records and physical education equipment.
One section of the manual is devoted to the programme of studies, where the visual aids
are correlated under the units to which they apply. Other sections include the listing
of films, film-strips, glass slides, etc., in such a manner as to form the most ready
reference for teachers. Suggestions for the better use of visual aids in teaching are
also included.
Mr. J. R. Pollock, our Visual Education Director, received his discharge from the
Royal Canadian Air Force in August and returned to serve the department on September
1st, 1945. He was very much impressed by the capable way in which Mr. Kilpatrick
maintained the high standard of service in the department. The cramped quarters
under which the staff worked certainly did not make their work any easier. Many
complimentary remarks were received from principals, teachers, and representatives
of business firms about Mr. Kilpatrick's work while Mr. Pollock was on leave of absence.
The work of this department, particularly during the last year, has been outstanding.
I wish to report the resignation of Mr. Pollock as head of this department. He
has accepted the position of Inspector of Schools with the Department of Education
for the Province of British Columbia in charge of visual education.
Naturally I am very sorry to lose Mr. Pollock's services. Diligently for nineteen
years he served this Board. On the other hand, I am delighted to know that the
larger field of visual education of this Province is in such capable hands. The Department of Education is to be congratulated. I am anticipating great advances in the field
of visual aids in the schools of this Province under the direction of Mr. Pollock. VANCOUVER CITY SCHOOLS. MM 71
HEALTH SERVICES.
Dental.
The Board of School Trustees decided to open an additional dental centre in 1945,
to be located in the Cecil Rhodes School, corner of Fourteenth Avenue and Alder Street.
This clinic was opened and operating by Easter time. This centre serves fifteen schools
located in the Granville South, Kerrisdale, and West Point Grey districts.
The other four clinics are located at Laura Secord, Tecumseh, Florence Nightingale, and Aberdeen Schools. The Laura Secord clinic serves twelve schools, all situated
in the east end of the city; Tecumseh clinic serves ten schools situated in the South
Vancouver area, also Norquay School and Charles Dickens School north of Kingsway;
Florence Nightingale clinic serves six schools and takes care of all extraction and dental
emergency cases. The Aberdeen clinic serves eleven schools situated in the West End,
West Point Grey, and Kitsilano areas. All the clinics are and have been carrying
extremely heavy loads.
Children in Grades I. and II. will, in my opinion, have 95 per cent, of dental caries,
and are the heaviest loads at the present time. In reviewing details of defects in
Grades IV. and VI., I find conditions improving, no doubt due mainly to dental services
being available to these children at such an early age and to the value of health education from teachers, nurses, and lastly the parents.
Dental decay (caries) is widely prevalent among children. Our school staff should,
therefore, grasp the opportunity to promote dental health through educational channels.
Programmes of dental health education should be instituted with the objective of motivating children to go regularly to their dentist or a dental clinic for the required dental
care. If a child has not been to a dentist within six months, it is usually safe for the
teacher or nurse to assume that he or she needs attention and to urge such attention.
The most glaring neglect of teeth in our school children to-day is found among children
at the age of 10 years or under.
The policy in our school clinics has been for some years to endeavour to reach the
child just prior to entering school and then every six months after they have been
completed. I would like to quote some figures at this point with reference to the results
of our system of rechecking each child six months from the date of completion. Our
records for the year 1944 show that for this period over 70 per cent, did not require any
further dental services. For the year 1945 the results show that 1,481 were rechecked,
and of these 75 per cent, required no further services.
I feel quite gratified with the results of the work of this division in accomplishing
a real benefit to our school children. Keeping in mind that our dental programme provides complete dental treatment (diagnosis, necessary fillings, extractions, prophylaxis,
and in cases where oral malformations may create a hygienic problem), children should
not be selected for dental treatment by tongue-depressor inspections which reveal only
extensive decay. Our emergency services are available to all school children, both in
elementary and secondary schools.
The following is a detailed report of all operations:—
Number of patients  11,001
Number of treatments       457
Number of fillings  23,562
Number of cavity linings     1,701
Number .of emergency cases     1,302
Number of children rechecked     1,481
Number of permanent teeth extracted       632
Number of foundation teeth extracted     5,902
Number of ansesthetics    4,425 MM 72 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
Number of completed cases    3,791
Number requiring prophylaxis only    3,189
Medical and Nursing.
It has been difficult to maintain the number of routine physical examinations of
students in secondary schools during the latter part of the year because of shortage of
doctors' time. However, with the return of men from active service this condition
should improve.
Examination of pre-school children was started last May in many schools, and in
many cases was continued into July.
In some schools during the spring term only those Grade IV. students who were
referred by the nurse were given physical examinations.
Some of our previous routines were revised at the beginning of the 1945-46 term.
It was decided that the nurse in the school would routinely do physical inspection on
Grade IV. students and make referrals to the doctor as she previously did with Grades
II., III., VI., VIII., IX., XL, XII., and XIII. In this way more time is made available
for those students who have defects.
It was also decided that the nurse should screen the classes for students eligible
for the goitre-prevention programme. Any student found to have a palpable thyroid
gland 'is now referred to the doctor for his decision.
Previously the nurse had started the term by weighing and measuring all students.
This was followed by vision and hearing tests, and at a later date the physical inspection
was completed. This was found to be an unsatisfactory method, both because of the
time wasted and the difficulty for the nurse to gain a composite picture of the student.
In the new procedure the nurse will complete all the above examinations at one time.
It was also decided that if on this physical inspection the student was found to have an
alveolar abscess, the category could be made " Bd " without referall to the doctor.
Because of the temporary decrease in doctors' time in secondary schools, it was
necessary to speed up the policy of examinations for major athletics in order that they
could be completed before the end of the playing season. It was decided that we would
make more use of the information on the student's health record, referral by the
physical education teacher, and screening by the nurse. Students who have had an
illness since last seen by the doctor, or who were new to the area, were to be given an
examination for athletics. Any who were previously on restricted activity and were
desirous of entering major athletics were also to be given a recheck for athletics.
With regard to readmission of students following an absence due to illness of
more than two school-days, a more definite policy was decided upon after complete discussion by the medical staff of the Metropolitan Health Committee and the Vancouver
City Schools Health Committee. It was decided that if there was reason to suspect that
the illness might have been a communicable disease, the child could only be readmitted
by the nurse, the same to hold true if contact with communicable disease was suspected.
Also if the child has a certificate from the private doctor advising readmission or a
release from quarantine following communicable disease, that child must be seen by
a school nurse or school medical officer before readmission. A new form was drawn up
for the use of the Quarantine Department to allow space for the counter-signature of
the nurse or doctor.
A new form for use in the recording of defects found on physical examination and
referral examination was also adopted this year. This form, if proper use is made of
it, will give a more accurate picture of the number and types of defects suffered by
the students.
At the beginning of this year it was also decided that communicable skin conditions
occurring in the schools should be reported to the Quarantine Department, just as other VANCOUVER CITY SCHOOLS. MM 73
communicable diseases. This has given a week-by-week picture of these conditions and
has shown that skin conditions are a real problem, and their control consumes a great
deal of nursing time.
Special Activities.
Goitre-prevention.—This year approximately 11,790 children within the city are
taking natrodin tablets for the prevention of goitre.
Smallpox Vaccination.—In the late winter months the occurrence of several cases
of smallpox in Washington caused some alarm. The rush on the regular immunization
clinics was instantaneous. Regular vaccination clinics have been held yearly in all
schools, but the response in the secondary schools has never been very great. In order
that standing in long line-ups would not be necessary for these students, it was decided
to hold vaccination clinics in all junior and senior high schools. Again the school
personnel came to the fore with full co-operation, and it was possible to complete the
whole procedure within a few days.
During the 1944-45 term 1,895 students were given primary vaccinations and 187
were revaccinated. The figures for the 1945-46 term show that 4,386 students received
primary vaccinations and 8,425 were revaccinated. This marked increase has raised
the percentage of students vaccinated from 65 per cent, to 68 per cent. In the clinics
within the city during the intensive spring campaign 12,744 school children were
vaccinated.
Diphtheria Immunization.—This aspect of our special services in school health
work received a great deal of attention this year. An increase in the number of cases
of diphtheria during the fall of 1945 made us very conscious of the fact that regular
toxoid clinics had never been undertaken in the secondary schools. It was estimated
from our figures that only 50 per cent, of the high school students had ever received
toxoid, and the number who had been given reinforcing doses was negligible. Therefore, the possibility of a greater increase in the incidence was real, and plans were
made to remedy the situation.
It was decided to hold toxoid immunization clinics in all the secondary schools.
Every principal of the schools involved was visited, and the response from them was
very gratifying. In every case the organization of the clinics within the school was
splendid and did much to make the whole campaign run smoothly.
The staff decided that reaction tests must be done on all students and teaching
staff before they could receive either the series or reinforcing dose. In many cases
several years had elapsed since the original series and the question arose as to the
adequacy of 1 cc. of toxoid as a reinforcing dose. Since no information is available
on this subject, it was decided to run the clinics in two high schools as a research
project. Kitsilano and Lord Byng High Schools were chosen, and the students were
given a Schick test before and after receiving the toxoid, both series and reinforcing
doses.    Complete figures are not yet available on the result of this project.
As a result of this campaign in the secondary schools, the number of students who
received toxoid has risen sharply over last year. In 1944-45 only 92 students in Grades
VII. to XII., inclusive, received the series, while this year's figure is 1,494. In the
1944-45 term only 426 in the same grades received reinforcing doses, and the figure
for this year is 4,016. However, in spite of this, only 64 per cent, of the present total
school population has received diphtheria toxoid.
Nutrition.—Mrs. Chapman, our nutritionist, has continued her educational programme in the schools. Lunch surveys have been planned with the co-operation of
Miss Allen, Supervisor of Home Economics. Several talks have been given to parents.
Miss Kinney, Supervisor of Cafeterias, reports a 35-per-cent. increase in the sale of
milk in the school cafeterias.    She attributes this to the nutritional educational pro- MM 74
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
gramme both within and outside the schools. An excellent bulletin on lunches for
children was printed and distributed to every school. This was the work of the
nutritionist and the Supervisors of Home Economics and School Cafeterias.
Audiometer Testing.—Our audiometrist and lip-reading instructor, Miss Casey,
has continued her programme in the schools. The number of children given audiometer
tests is approximately 4,000, and over 600 of these have been referred to the school
doctor for examination. Lip-reading lessons are being given to all children for whom
it is recommended, and Miss Casey does a follow-up on many of the most handicapped
children. Time is also spent discussing the disabilities of these children with their
teachers and parents.
Surveys.
Tuberculin Survey.—In the spring the annual tuberculin testing of the students in
Strathcona and Central Schools was carried out. This is the third year that this survey
has been done, and it will be seen that the figures show a gradual increase in the number
of positive reactors.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1,205
897
106
137
243
23.5
1,228
950
102
130
232
21.8
1,037
180
17.4
These schools were chosen because of their high incidence of Orientals in the
population. Since these students are in the 6-15 age-group, this is a big incidence of
positive reactors and indicates a definite need for continued follow-up. Although a
positive reaction does not necessarily mean the individual has tuberculosis, it does mean
that he has received an infection which he may or may not overcome. Also a positive
reaction indicates the presence of a source of tuberculosis and, therefore, is a definite
challenge to our control of this disease.
Secondary-school X-ray Survey.—This year we were again able to X-ray all
students from Grade IX. to Grade XIII., inclusive. This was done through the co-operation of the Provincial Division of Tuberculosis Control. Two mobile units were in
operation, and the survey started on November 19th and was concluded on December
14th. No cases of active tuberculosis have been found amongst the students. Approximately 8,835 students were X-rayed.
Staff X-ray Survey.—Staff surveys for tuberculosis are planned to be given every
two years. In the spring of this year every member of the school system, including
principals, teachers, engineers, nurses, sweepers, janitors, stenographers, cafeteria
helpers, garden-maintenance staff, and officials were X-rayed. No active cases were
found.
Communicable Disease.—Communicable disease in the schools this year has not
been of a serious nature.   A mild epidemic of mumps and chicken-pox was experienced.
Communicable skin conditions have increased considerably and have become a real
problem in the school. At the beginning of the year the increase in pediculosis made
special measures imperative. A new treatment consisting of 15 per cent. Lethane in
deodorized kerosene was used but was later found unsatisfactory due to the odour.
Since the whole family of the infested child is required to take the treatment, this
feature was objectionable to the adults. It has been replaced by emulsion of benzyl
benzoate.
J •VANCOUVER CITY SCHOOLS. MM 75
Ringworm of the body and scalp continues to be troublesome. Ringworm of the
scalp is a greater problem because of its chronicity. Due to the fact that many children
were losing months of school-time and also since there was little evidence of spread
within the class-room, it was decided to give the following policy of exclusion a trial.
A student may be readmitted after he has been under adequate medical care for two
weeks, providing he is showing improvement, and providing he continues treatment and
reports regularly for examination.
There was also an increase in the number of cases of contagious conjunctivitis
during the spring and early autumn months.
Eight cases of tuberculosis among school children have been discovered in routine
X-ray. It is alarming to note that in every instance there was a case of tuberculosis
in the home—in six the father was the source, in one the mother, and in one an older
brother. A 15-year-old boy died of miliary tuberculosis, the diagnosis being made at
autopsy. The source was not found in this case, and all the children in the class were
X-rayed with negative chest plates for all. Besides the above, one 12-year-old boy was
found to have a tuberculous kidney, a high school girl had a tuberculous appendix
removed, and a 15-year-old boy had a tuberculous inguinal gland. Suitable follow-up
has been made on all these cases.
The detailed communicable disease report is as follows:—
Scarlet fever      135
Chicken-pox       967
Mumps  1,056
Measles        16
Rubella        26
Whooping-cough   4
Infectious jaundice  6
Epidemic meningitis         3
Anterior poliomyelitis  2
Impetigo       401
Pediculosis       169
Ringworm       251
.     Scabies      426
Contagious conjunctivitis         91
Vincent's angina   7
Salmonelloses  3
Typhoid fever  1
Educational Activities.
Early in the year pamphlets were prepared and distributed to all the teachers
through the Vancouver City Schools Health Committee. The material included notes on
diabetes as it affects school children and the common cold.
Later in the year a chart of information on the commoner acute communicable
diseases was distributed, and each teacher and nurse in the system received one. It was
prepared by the medical staff of the Metropolitan Health Committee and printed by the
Vancouver School Board.
I wish to take this opportunity of thanking Dr. Willits for the magnificent work
which she has done as Acting Director of the School Health Services while Dr. C. H.
Gundry was on leave of absence with the armed services overseas.
Dr. Gundry rejoined the services of the Vancouver School Board on December 1st,
1945. On behalf of the Board and the administrative staff I wish to say how pleased
we are to have Dr. Gundry with us again.    Particularly do we look forward to the MM 76 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
continuing of the fine work which he instituted in the mental hygiene department of
our school health services.
The principals and their staffs of the various schools, I believe, are becoming very
sensitive of the present health needs of our community. This is evidenced by their
willingness to have good-health committees in their schools. The work of the Central
Health Committee, made up of representatives of principals, teachers, nurses, doctors,
and janitor-engineers, under the guidance of the Superintendent of Schools and the
Director of Medical Health Services for the Metropolitan Health area, has done considerable to stimulate health habits and health consciousness. Because of the number
of rejects for war services, there has been a new emphasis placed on health and physical
education. A revision of the present health curriculum is definitely indicated by the
Department of Education and urgently required. The Central Health Committee of the
Board has been endeavouring to make effective the following basic objectives:—
(1.)  A healthful environment must be provided for the child in his complete
living at home and in school.
(2.)  A  health  guidance  programme  is  imperative.    Daily  observations  by
teachers, nurses, and doctors must be systematically complete.
(3.)  An emergency health condition demands immediate care.    By means of
charts our complete staff has been kept on the alert in order to recognize
these emergency symptoms.
(4.)  Accurate health information must be taught.    The child needs to know
how to develop good health for himself and how to avoid illness and
accidents, as well as protect the health of others.
(5.)  Sound health habits  and  attitudes need to be established.    It is not
enough to know what things are good for one's health without sound
health habits being established along with this information.
(6.)  Certain types of children require a modified school programme.    Particularly is this true for the physically and mentally handicapped.
Materials for instructions, such as film charts, slides, and models, are essential
to good health-teaching.   There is very little of this material in our schools for the use
of health instruction.    It has been difficult to procure in war-time.    Further, I have
delayed procuring such material until the whole health course for British Columbia has
been revised by the Department of Education.
FIRST AID AND HOME NURSING.
Instruction in First Aid and Home Nursing, directed towards certification in these
subjects, has continued through the year, with increased interest on the part of both
teachers and students.   The following figures give the results of the tests tried.
Number Number
Type of Certificate. examined. passed.
Senior First Aid  254 204
Junior First Aid  741 652
Preliminary Home Nursing     82 81
In addition to the foregoing figures, it should be emphasized that all students in all
grades from VII. to XII., inclusive, received instruction in First Aid, Home Nursing,
and Safety Education as part of the Health Education course. Through the combined
efforts of the St. John Ambulance Association and the Canadian Red Cross Society,
free text-books and pamphlets are issued to all students intending to qualify for the
awards of the association. The following number of books and bandages were
distributed during the year:—
Junior first-aid books  1,214
Senior first-aid books      541 VANCOUVER CITY SCHOOLS.
MM 77
Triangular bandages
1,755
143
Junior home-nursing books ,	
Roller bandages      143
JUNIOR RED CROSS.
Under the able direction of Miss E. Waller, formerly with the National Committee
of War Finance (School Section), the activities of the Junior Red Cross in schools
continue to attract more students. This is most encouraging because, in addition to
the health programme given, there is a definite attempt made in the Red Cross programme to deal directly with citizenship training in the national and international field.
The following figures show the number of Red Cross branches and the membership:—■
Number.
Branches.
Members
44
7
253
129
8,303
2,724
Totals	
51
382
12,258
Activities.
1. Cash donations:—
Crippled and Handicapped Children's Fund  $1,245.02
National Service Fund (for overseas relief)     2,418.57
Total.
$3,663.59
This sum was raised through bazaars, concerts,  self-denial,  sale of handwork,
penny cards, and paper drives.    All members are encouraged to earn their donations.
2. Articles for veterans' hospitals:—
Ash-trays and painted vases      800
Puzzles, book-markers, games, etc  1,009
Tray favours and Valentine, Easter, and Christmas cards, etc. _ 4,000
Book-covers      120
Wash-cloths       210
Total.
6,139
3. Articles made in school from Red Cross materials (other than those mentioned
elsewhere), 5,055.
4. Articles specially made for Junior Red Cross nurseries overseas (dresses,
nighties, sweaters, socks, quilts, afghans, toys, etc.), 1,746.
In concluding this part of my report I wish to express my appreciation and deep
gratitude to Miss Waller, the teachers, and Junior Red Cross members for this
magnificent achievement.
NIGHT-SCHOOLS.
The following centres were in operation:—
King Edward High School, Twelfth Avenue and Oak Street.
Vancouver Technical School, Broadway and Clinton Street.
Fairview High School of Commerce, Broadway and Granville Street.
Grandview High School of Commerce, First Avenue and Commercial Drive.
King George High School, Nelson and Burrard Streets.
John Oliver High School, Forty-third Avenue and Draper Street. MM 78 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
Lord Tennyson School, Tenth Avenue and Cypress Street.
Music Studio, 322, 445 Granville Street.
School for English for New Canadians, top floor, 337 Carrall Street.
The Lord Tennyson School, which had not formerly been operated as a night-school
centre, was in use during the 1945-46 school-year for a period of seven weeks, though
for only one evening weekly. Training carried on in the building consisted of qualifying
courses for Scouters and Guiders, which in turn formed a part of the Youth Leadership
training programme conducted in the night-schools throughout the year.
Courses.
During the 1945-46 school-year 137 classes were conducted in the Vancouver night-
schools, an increase of 30 over the total for the preceding year. This must not be
interpreted as meaning that 137 different subjects were taught, for in the early part of
the year there were 7 classes registered in high school Mathematics alone. Actually, 61
different subjects were included in the programme, with students working at as many
as four levels in some.
During the year a number of courses formerly prominent in the night-school programme were revived after having been discontinued for one or more of the war years.
These included Senior Matriculation English, German, Advanced Accounting, Business
Law, Salesmanship, and Ground-school Work in Aviation. Choral Music made its
reappearance after a lapse of many years.
New work in the 1945-46 programme included instruction in the operation of
business machines, a series of lectures for parents on the subject of " Pre-school Education," qualifying courses for Scouters and Guiders, a course for kindergarten teachers
relating to Fine and Industrial Arts and Play Materials, a training in Domestic Refrigeration, and a series of addresses for the general public on " Our City, Vancouver."
Special mention should be made of the last-named of those new courses, that relating to " Our City, Vancouver." The purpose of this course was to give the general
public an opportunity to become acquainted with the workings of many of the administrative departments and boards having to do with our civic government and welfare.
The Night-school Department has reason to be extremely grateful to the thirteen
executive officers who gave so willingly of their time and effort to make the series of
addresses a comprehensive one. Moreover, the public response was decidedly encouraging, in so far as 239 persons registered as members of the class.
Youth Leadership courses, offered jointly by the Kiwanis Club of Vancouver and
the Vancouver School Board, again attracted large numbers of group leaders, who were
warm in their praise of the training received and the inspiration gained through
attendance at their different classes.
In-service Teacher-training courses included in the night-school programme during
the year were as follows: Course 150—Growth and Development of Children; Course
444—Introduction to Music, Literature and History; and Course 595—Fine and Industrial Arts and Play Materials. In addition, three classes in Senior Matriculation
English were organized in early January for teachers wishing to improve their certification standards. Attendance for all these In-service Teacher-training courses was
regular, and the efforts of the students were commended most highly by the teachers.
Courses offered at the different centres were as follows:—
King Edward High School.—Accounting (Advanced) ; Cabinetmaking and Woodworking; Child-development; Choral Music for Women; Commercial Arithmetic;
Commercial English; Commercial Law; Cookery; Dressmaking (Elementary and
Advanced);   Fine and Industrial Arts and Play Materials;   Gaelic Reading;   General VANCOUVER CITY SCHOOLS. MM 79
Science; High School Subjects—English (Elementary, Intermediate, and Advanced),
French (Elementary and Advanced), German III., Health Education, Mathematics
(Elementary, Intermediate, and Advanced), Social Studies; Keep-fit Classes for
Women; Mining and Prospecting; Music Appreciation; "Our City, Vancouver"
(lecture course) ; Practical Mathematics; Psychology; Public Speaking; Radio
Communication; Radio Script-writing; Russian; Senior Matriculation subjects—
Chemistry (lecture and laboratory), German A, Mathematics, Physics (lecture and
laboratory); Short-story Writing; Spanish (elementary and advanced) ; Steam
Engineering;  Voice Culture.
Fairview High School of Commerce.—Aviation (Ground-school Work) ; Book-keeping; Dressmaking; Operation of Business Machines; Pre-school Education (for
parents and teachers) ; Public School subjects; Senior Matriculation English; Shorthand, Pitman (Elementary and Advanced) ;  Typewriting (Elementary and Advanced).
Vancouver Technical School.—Acetylene Welding; Bench-work in Wood; Building
Construction (Elementary and Advanced) ; Diesel Engineering (Elementary and
Advanced) ; Draughting (Elementary and Advanced) ; Draughting, Mechanical (Elementary and Advanced) ; Dressmaking; Electricity (Elementary and Advanced) ;
Machine-shop Practice (Bench-work, Lathe-work, Shaper-work, Milling, Theory and
Heat Treatment); Motor Engineering (Elementary and Advanced); Plumbing;
Printing (first year and second year composition) ; Radio Engineering; Refrigeration (Domestic) ; Sheet-metal Work (Elementary and Advanced) ; Technology of
Metals.
Grandview High School of Commerce.—Book-keeping; Shorthand, Pitman; Typewriting.
John Oliver High School.—Dressmaking;   Woodworking.
King George High School.—Child-development; Dressmaking; Youth Leadership
courses ((a) Group Management, (b) Handicrafts, (c) Music, (d) Organization of
Group Games, (e) Psychology of Youth, (/) Social Recreational Training).
Lord Tennyson School.—Qualifying course for Scouters; qualifying course for
Guiders.
Music Studio (322, 445 Granville Street).—Knowledge of Music.
School for English for New Canadians (337 Carroll Street).—English for New
Canadians.
Gymnasium, Kitsilano High School.—Keep-fit Classes for Women.
Attendance.
Registration for courses in the Vancouver night-schools during the 1945-46 session
were high in comparison with those of any of the recent war years, as is evident from
an examination of the February figures for the years 1942 to 1946, inclusive, and the
November figures for 1942 to 1945, inclusive.
Following are the enrolments for the months specified:—
Year. February. November.
1942  2,013 2,141
1943  1,876 2,392
1944  1,655 2,753
1945   2,140 3,317
1946  3,176 	 MM 80
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
Total subject enrolments by centres from month to month throughout the school-
year were as follows:—
Centre.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
April.
May.
June.
546
284
100
17
12
78
1,557
845
420
120
65
265
141
1,539
816
419
101
63
252
127
1,418
755
380
77
64
236
127
1,510
739
519
80
61
228
125
1,441
663
499
66
54
195
134
124
1,174
565
369
48
51
214
108
124
456
17
195
39
108
81
391
17
162
25
295
17
127
Grandview High School of Commerce
25
Totals	
1,037
3.413
3,317
3,057
3,262
3,176
2,653
896
595
464
The largest enrolment shown for any one month of the year, 3,413, must not be
regarded as the total enrolment in night-school classes for 1945-46. Actually, the total
exceeded 4,300, but of these, many were registered for classes that met for only a
limited period of time. For example, the 239 students who attended the course on
" Our City, Vancouver " are not included in the 3,413 because they did not register
until January. Such is true in the case of several other classes that were organized in
January or later.
Throughout the October-to-March term many members of the active services, both
men and women, attended night-school classes under the sponsorship of the Canadian
Legion Educational Services. In fact, there were few groups at the King Edward
High School, the Vancouver Technical School, and the Fairview High School of Commerce in which the services were not represented. So great was the demand for
instruction in Woodworking, Building Construction, and Dressmaking that special
classes in these subejcts had to be organized for the services alone. Incidentally,
March 31st, 1946, saw the termination of Canadian Legion benefits towards night-
school work.
Attendance at classes in secondary school and Senior Matriculation subjects far
exceeded that of previous years. In the high school subjects alone, registrations in
November, 1945, were 413, as compared with 315 in November, 1944. Likewise, a considerable increase was evident in the number of applications for examinations in
University Entrance and Senior Matriculation courses. A comparison of the figures
indicating the number of papers for which applications were made over the past four
years gives some picture of the growth.      Following are the figures:—
June, 1943.
June, 1944.
June, 1945.
June, 1946.
University Entrance papers	
Senior Matriculation papers	
61
22
40
23
95
23
142
81
Totals	
83
63
118
Staff.
During the 1945-46 school-year the night-school staff—inclusive of principals,
teachers, laboratory assistants, and tool-boys—totalled 110, an increase of 19 over the
total for 1944-45.
In general, the teachers are well qualified in their particular fields of work and are
keenly aware of the responsibilities associated with their positions. Their loyalty and
their sincere efforts on behalf of their students are deserving of the highest commendation. VANCOUVER CITY SCHOOLS. MM 81
Administration.
Brief mention should be made in this report concerning the administration of
night-schools for the past year.
In the King Edward High School, the Vancouver Technical School, the Fairview
High School of Commerce, and the Grandview High School of Commerce, matters of
student registration, class organization, and other details of an " internal " nature have
been left in the hands of specially appointed night-school principals. The fact that
these principals were members of the day-school staffs in the respective schools has
made for the most effective use of accommodation and equipment, and for a greater
degree of co-operation than was previously possible between the day and evening schools.
The work of the Director of Night-schools has been varied in its nature, including
programme planning, the publicizing, of night-school activities, the counselling of
prospective students, the meeting with various groups for discussions relating to
possible extension of the night-school programme, and the general administration of all
centres in which classes were conducted.
Eighty-five evenings of the Director's time, from September till June, inclusive,
were given over in part or in whole to the visiting of night-school centres.
The 1946-47 Programme.
The 1946-47 night-school programme as at present planned is not radically different
from the programme of the school-year just ended.
More attention will be given to such avocational courses as Woodworking, Sewing,
and Music; and new subjects along such lines as Wood-carving, Leathercraft, and
Weaving will be offered. Likewise, more courses of a general-knowledge type—Current
Events, Parent Education, and so forth—are being included in the programme.
The Point Grey Junior High School has been selected as a trial night-school centre
for the 1946-47 season. Some publicity has already been given to the proposed programme for the school, and the Night-school Department is hopeful that the courses
offered will be warmly supported. An attempt will be made, too, to increase the
offerings at the John Oliver High School and at one centre in the East End.
One other point of interest relates to the date of opening of evening classes.
In 1945, Academic and Commercial classes began on September 10th, while other groups
started their work on October 1st. In 1946 practically all courses are scheduled to
commence on September 16th. Evening instruction in many centres in Canada and the
United States begins within one week of the opening of day-schools; in Vancouver the
opening date for 1946 has been set for two weeks after day classes commence.
The Director of our night-school and his staff are to be commended on the excellent
work that has been done during the past year.
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION.
At no time in the world's history has vocational training aroused greater interest
than it does to-day.
Let me quote from an article, " Education and Experiments in Industry," published
in the British Isles recently:—
" Vocational Education is an integral part of the productive processes hardly less
indispensable than capital, raw materials and labour.
" In a civilization dominated by power machine industry, efficiency in production
demands employees who are highly skilled, not so much manually as mentally.
" Modern technical methods require of the employees a lively intelligence and
sufficient knowledge to understand the increasing complex and fluctuating processes of
manufacture, rather than a long and patient training in muscular movements and MM 82 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
manual dexterity. ... As technical progress continues the need for a higher standard
of vocational education among the employees becomes greater."
To British Columbia, and to Vancouver in particular, vocational training will be of
real economic importance and is bound to play a vital part in the future social life of
our city and Province. Vocational education must be an integral part of our economic
structure.
To achieve better facilities for the vocational training of the youth of our city and
Province, we must make every effort to have the various agencies concerned give every
co-operation towards the establishment of a first unit of a large centrally located
vocational school. It is my belief that the Federal and Provincial Governments are
interested in a project of such national importance.
In regard to vocational education, our school system is behind some parts of the
Dominion and other cities on the Pacific Coast. We should make a start soon to lay the
foundation for a long-term plan for such training.
PRIMARY AND KINDERGARTEN CLASSES.
This department consists of 8 kindergarten, 221 Grade I. and II. classes, and 93
Grade III. classes. Last September the Grade III. classes were added to the department.
To help Miss E. Roy, our Primary Supervisor, the Board of School Trustees
appointed Miss G. Whitaker as her assistant. This appointment was made in preparation for the large increase in primary classes that is anticipated in the next six years.
Plans for teacher-training in primary work will be necessary to make a satisfactory
adjustment throughout the other grades.
Some of the in-service training activities were as follows:—
(1.)  A course of twelve lectures and demonstrations was given to all our new
appointees to the primary staff.
(2.)  A course of six lectures on primary library problems and reading techniques were given to the entire primary staff.
(3.)  Several conferences were held with the kindergarten teachers and other
primary teachers interested in kindergarten techniques.
(4.) All principals of the elementary school in general conferences were given
instruction and demonstrations in teaching techniques in the primary
grades.
(5.)  Many lectures were given to parents on:—
(ft.)  The changes from home to school life.
(b.) Helpful hints to parents of children starting school.
During the year two new kindergarten centres were started.    The one at Norquay
School was opened in September and the other at the Begbie Annex in January.    Both
centres are operating on the double-shift plan—approximately twenty-five in the morning and twenty-five in the afternoon.    Only children 5 years of age but not old enough
to enrol in Grade I. are admitted.   These two new centres are meeting a very definite
community need.    It is anticipated that more centres will be opened next year.
I am particularly pleased with the very constructive supervision that is being done
by Miss E. Roy and her assistant Miss G. Whitaker. An excellent preparation has been
made by this department to cope with the expected increase in enrolment in our
kindergarten and primary classes during the next few years.
General Supervision.
Space does not permit me to explain in some detail the excellent work being done
by all the supervisors in other departments. To Inspector R. Straight of the secondary
schools, to Inspector 0. J. Thomas of the elementary schools, to the principals and VANCOUVER CITY SCHOOLS.
MM 83
supervisors of special subjects, I am most grateful for their untiring efforts in performing such excellent work.    No one could expect better co-operation and support.
RETIREMENTS.
The following members of the staff were granted superannuation.   These teachers
are to be commended for their loyal and efficient service:—
Name.
School.
Appointed to Staff.
T. S. Baynes	
February, 1922.
Miss E. B. Bell	
August, 1908.
Miss J. E. R. Fisher	
F. J. Harris	
October, 1917.
August, 1917.
R. R. Kersey	
September, 1921.
February, 1918.
August, 1912.
Grandview High School of Commerce
September, 1927.
Mrs. D. M. Yewdall	
IN MEMORIAM.
I report with deep regret the death of the following teachers who have served our
system so faithfully:—
Name.
School.
Appointed to Staff.
Date of Death.
J. T. E. Palmer	
John Oliver High	
August, 1911	
R. W. Millard    ..      .           	
March, 1943	
December 13, 1945.
G H. Hind                                                          	
Manual Training	
September, 1931	
December 31, 1945.
September, 1920	
April 15, 1946.
J. H. Hall	
August, 1911	
May 23, 1946.
A. S. Curtis            	
Point Grey Junior.
June 29, 1946.
CONCLUSION.
I have every reason to be appreciative of the excellent co-operation which I have
received from the Mayor, City Council, Library Board, Parks Board, Fire Department,
Police Department, and all the officials associated with these organizations.
To the principals, teaching staff, and officials of our own Board, I am most grateful
for their competent service and support. Without their fine team-work our task would
have been impossible.
I should not neglect to mention the kind way in which the press and its representatives have assisted me during the entire year.
To the Board of School Trustees, I am particularly indebted for their support and
guidance.
May I, in conclusion, sir, express to you and the officials of your Department my
thanks and appreciation for the help which has been given to me on every occasion.
With such co-operation I look forward with confidence to the successful solution of the
many difficult problems which lie ahead. MM 84 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS.
SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF VICTORIA.
REPORT OF J. F. K. ENGLISH, M.A., B.Paed., MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR
OF SCHOOLS.
The starting-point of a modern school programme of liberal education begins with
the immediate experiences of the child or pupil—those which they enjoy in their daily
lives and in their environment. Thus the educational resources of the neighbourhood
—its historical, geographical, and scientific possibilities—will naturally be made use of
by our elementary and junior high schools. Along this approach will come Physical
Education, Music, Art, and the various handicrafts. As the pupil progresses through
the school system, he will take on in due course the more intellectual and abstract subjects such as Languages, Physical Sciences, and Mathematics. Modern methods of
instruction stress the importance of making these as meaningful as possible. The whole
period of education in our public school system will follow roughly the organic development of the child from the more or less physical aspects through the concrete to the
abstract stages.
The variety of subjects now commonly found in our school system is there for a
definite purpose. We expect that a study of these will result in certain desirable outcomes, commonly known as knowledge, habits, skills, interests, appreciations, attitudes,
and ideals. Both the modern curriculum-maker and the progressive teacher will often
ask themselves what knowledge should be gained from a study of this subject or that
unit? What habits? What skills? What interests and appreciations will be developed?
Even in the study of Mathematics, Languages, and Sciences, these questions will arise.
While the traditional school sought chiefly intellectual outcomes, the modern school aims
at more—namely, the attainment of emotional, social, and assthetic goals. It is the
" whole individual " which is being educated or trained, not merely his mind. In order
to stimulate and to foster this desirable all-round development of the pupil, the school
programme must be adjusted accordingly, and so we find in practically all of our
elementary and secondary schools provision has been made for Physical Education,
Music, Art, Library, Guidance, various co-curricular activities, and a limited amount
of student (pupil) self-government.
It cannot be denied that many of our schools (here as elsewhere) fall short in their
attempts to carry out such a comprehensive programme. It may be that in some cases
the ideals of a liberal education have not been properly conceived or interpreted.
In other instances, principals and teachers may be too closely allied to tradition.
Whatever the reason, it cannot be stressed too much that efficiency, good judgment,
and common sense are requisites in the application of these newer theories and methods.
In the educational world, as elsewhere, there are pitfalls to ensnare the unwary.
We should, therefore, not be in haste to disregard what centuries of experience have
shown to be valuable in the " old " and to accept, because it is novel, the latest in
the " new."
Victoria College.
(Dr. John M. Ewing, Principal.)
The outstanding feature of the year has been the enormous increase in registration
due to the influx of returned personnel. As a direct result of this influx accommodation
has been taxed beyond all reason, classes have been unduly large, the teaching-load of
instructors has been extremely heavy, and the administrative function has been carried
out through an endless series of improvisations. REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS. MM 85
Despite these handicaps, however, the work of the College—as attested by examination results—has been soundly done, and standards of scholarship have been maintained.
Every effort has been made to preserve the personal touch, so that no student should be
denied the benefit of guidance and stimulation.
In the interest of veterans, two extra sessions of the College have been held—
winter and spring. This procedure is in line with modern practice and has afforded
many veterans the opportunity to advance at an accelerated speed. It should be noted
that the special D.V.A. grant in respect of each returned student has made the additional sessions possible, and there is great satisfaction in the fact that the work of
returned men and women has amply justified everything done in their behalf.
Administratively, the most important event of the year has been the adoption of
a new " Memorandum of Agreement" by the Victoria Board of School Trustees, the
Provincial Department of Education, and the University of British Columbia. Under
the terms of this Agreement, a College Council, representative of the three authorities
concerned, and vested with broad powers, has been set up for the government of the
College.
During the year the equipment of the College has been much improved. The same,
however, cannot be said of the building situation. Every square inch of space has had
to be utilized, irrespective of its suitability. Locker-rooms have been turned into
class-rooms and study-halls; classes have had to be held at very inconvenient times;
laboratories have been crowded out; and students have had to put up with congested
and very uncomfortable conditions.
To be quite frank, the one fundamental need of the College is adequate accommodation, and unless this need is met, the whole future of the institution will be placed in
serious jeopardy.
The following courses were added in 1945-46:   Botany I.A, Commerce I., German
I.A, History IV., Physics IV., together with Pre-Normal and Pre-Business programmes.
Although there was little demand for the Pre-Business programme during this
year, there is a strong probability the demand will be forthcoming when the general
employment situation changes.
There were two formal and many informal functions at the College. The formal
occasions were:—
(a.)  The Annual Assembly, held in the High School Auditorium on the evening
of   November   23rd.    Lieutenant-Colonel   Fairey,   Deputy   Minister   of
Education, was the speaker and many distinguished guests were present.
(b.) The Awards Banquet, held in the Empress Hotel on the evening of March
21st.    On this occasion the College Council made its first public appearance, and Dr. S. J. Willis replied to the welcome extended by the student
body.
Mr. Ronald Shepherd, president of the Alma Mater Society, handled student affairs
very well indeed, and proved himself a thoroughly acceptable leader of the whole
student-body—which was no small accomplishment.
Activities were much as in former years with, however, two noteworthy additions:—
(a.) With the enthusiastic support of returned personnel, a College Forum
was established, by means of which free and open discussion was encouraged and speaking ability developed.    As an indication of the Forum's
effectiveness the College won both of its debates against the University.
(6.) An active and strongly supported branch of the Students' Christian
Movement came into existence under the chairmanship of Mr. Michael
Creal.
Registration for 1945-46   (inclusive of students  attending  regular and winter
sessions) was 536, as compared with 261 in 1944-45. MM 86
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
This was made up of 413 students in first year and 123 students in second year.
Of these, 60 first-year and 6 second-year students withdrew. The total number of
returned students was 231, of which number 227 were men and 4 were women.
The registration in the spring session was 76—56 in first year and 20 in second
year.    Of these students, 71 were men and 5 were women.
The geographical distribution of students was as follows:—
District.
Regular.
Winter.
Spring.
191
121
97
20
44
13
4
15
11
9
4
5
1
1
36
13
13
3
7
2
2
Totals	
490
46
76
The total amount of fees to be collected for 1945-46 was $67,557. The total
amount payable by June 30th, 1946, under the special D.V.A. grant was $27,671.
Although this comes more properly within the year 1946-47, it should be mentioned here that a summer session is to be held in July and August. The courses to
be offered will be English I., Mathematics I., and Physics I.
The grateful thanks of the College are due to the College Council, and to the three
authorities it represents, for warm interest and constructive support. In particular,
the wise guidance of Dr. S. J. Willis and the generous co-operation of Mr. J. F. K.
English have been of inestimable value.
In closing, I should like to pay my personal tribute to all my colleagues on the staff
of the College. Through every sort of difficulty and discomfort, and in face of endless
work, they have carried on without a word of complaint. They have proved in no
uncertain fashion that—physical conditions be what they may—it is the staff that
makes a college.
Victoria High School.
(Mr. H. L. Smith, M.A., Principal.)
During the school-year just completed the enrolment at the Victoria High School
was in excess of the previous year by approximately 41 students.
Following are comparative figures (September) :—
1944-45. 1945-46.
Grade IX  236 232
Grade X  309 362
Grade XI  409 382
Grade XII.  :  217 236
1,171 1,212
In my opinion, with the improved conditions resulting from the conclusion of the
war, and with a staff strengthened by the return of experienced teachers from the
armed services, and several energetic and capable new members, the general standard
of the work accomplished has been raised during the past year.
Because this school is a composite, or general, high school, whose enrolment comprises pupils from all walks of life with varying interests and wide ranges of academic
ability, great care has been taken to make the courses of instruction sufficiently elastic
to provide for the individual differences of the boys and girls in attendance. Special
classes organized for slow-learning pupils have well justified the care and patience REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS. MM 87
bestowed upon them by enthusiastic and self-sacrificing instructors. With Departmental authorization an extended programme of Physical Training has been inaugurated.
In passing, I wish especially to pay tribute to the popularity and efficiency of the
Home Economics Department of this school. Since these classes were first established
here some eight years ago, a phenomenal growth in the number of girls taking this
subject has resulted. Last year ten different courses were offered to some 350 girls.
A course in Child Care and Family Relations was offered for the first time in
September, 1945.
Some 250 students graduated from the school in June, a large proportion of whom
completed University Entrance.
The Victoria High School has been a pioneer in student government. This year
our students' association has done most efficient work. The extra-curricular and
patriotic interests of the school have also been well sustained.
In conclusion I wish again to pay tribute to the enthusiastic co-operation of a most
capable staff.
Central Junior High School.
(Mr. A. T. Hunkin, B.Sc, M.A., Principal.)
The enrolment at this school is at an all-time high of 573 students, which has taxed
the accommodation here to the utmost. Fewer pupils than usual withdrew to go to work.
Special provision was made this year for individual differences in the students by
grouping them according to their abilities and needs and by adapting the subject-
matter.
Students took full advantage of the optional courses offered in Grades VIII. and
IX.    Exceptionally large groups enrolled in Art and Music.
The school cafeteria has functioned well this year. The standard "of service, both
as to quality and quantity, is very good. Space is provided for about 250 students and
the dining-hall is usually filled at lunch-time.
During the past year extensive use has been made of our visual education equipment for instructional and entertainment purposes. Sound films shown totalled 39;
silent films, 22; and film-strips, 45. Regarding the use of films and strips for classroom instruction, available material was best suited to the Social Studies and Science
Departments. In January the school received delivery of a Victor sound projector and
a crystal microphone was obtained to be used in conjunction with the projector. The
microphone has proved to be of considerable use in connection with auditorium
assemblies. During the spring months weekly noon-hour showings of entertainment
films were held.    The programmes proved to be very popular and were well attended.
This is the seventh consecutive year that students of the Central Junior High
School have pledged themselves with 100-per-cent. membership for the service of
Junior Red Cross. There was no urging of students for membership and there was
no fee. The students simply promised to try to be good citizens, to keep healthy, and
to be of service to others. Our students this year so far have donated $1,150 to Red
Cross. Of this amount, $650 was collected by penny-sacrifice and $500 was part of
the proceeds of our Christmas bazaar. Also, the students of the school donated $75
to the local Lions' "Janet Blue Baby Fund." An article about the Red Cross activities
of Central Junior High School appeared in the 1945 bulletin of the International Red
Cross, published in Geneva.
Owing to several factors the activities of the Drama Club at Central Junior High
School have been somewhat curtailed. During the first term all efforts of the staff
were concentrated upon Junior Red Cross work. However, for the last three months
the members of this club have read many plays and have conducted rehearsals on MM 88 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
practically every afternoon of the week. One play, " Box and Cox," has been presented; another, "Archibald," should be ready before the end of May. Several of the
Grade IX. pupils participated in a broadcast from CJVI entitled "A Day at the Junior
High School." Meetings have been held during the school's club period on Friday
afternoon.
At the beginning of the year for the Physical Education programme, all girls were
classified according to the exponent system (height, weight, age), as seniors, intermediates, and juniors, and divided into three houses. A great variety of indoor exercises were carried out, including Danish and Swedish drills, folk-dancing, group games,
and rhythms. Particular attention was paid also to posture, and wherever possible
individual adjustments were made, all students endeavouring to improve their own
posture rating. All girls have been graded on individual tests set on the activities
taught during the term. A good percentage of the girls participated in intramural
sports. From November to April approximately 90 girls took part in the interhouse
basketball league. Over 100 girls will be playing in the softball league, just commencing. Badminton and table-tennis have been popular. A small swimming club
functioned during the winter, its members practising for the swimming gala.
Boys' Physical Education, Health, and Cadets.
This year the " house system " of athletics was introduced into this school. Classification of boys as senior, intermediate, or junior was again done by means of the
"exponent system," the advantages of which are: (a) Keener competition, (b) more
boys take part, (c) less chance of accidents. Health Education was stressed. Among
other things, weight charts were kept by each boy. From this chart each pupil could
tell whether he was of normal weight, underweight, or overweight. Also a smoking
campaign was carried out among the Grade VIII. and Grade IX. boys only. Progress
was made as the results given below will show:—
Smokers.
October,
April.
Per cent.
Decrease.
Grade IX	
I
47 (41.2%)         |        32 (21.3%)
20 (31.4%)         |        13 (19.1%)
Grade VIII	
12.3
67 (37.8%)
45 (24.2%)
13 6
It would seem worth while to carry on each year with this campaign. A programme
of twenty of the fundamental health rules was checked periodically by each individual
student and percentages were recorded. Progress was made in all classes but one.
Percentage increases ran from 0 to 18 per cent., with an average of 9 per cent. In
addition to the regular programme carried on, football, basketball, and fastball were
emphasized. Cadet-training was organized along the following lines: Each class was
kept as a platoon and, as far as possible, had its own N.C.O.'s Each period, cadets
were inspected for appearance and marked on dress, attitude, effort, steadiness, and
work.
Primary Department.
(Miss Marian James, Primary Supervisor.)
During the past year the teachers of the Primary Department, Grades I., II., and
III., have endeavoured to meet the needs of the young children in their care in an
admirable way. Within each class, groups have been formed, and the teachers have
worked hard to organize the school programme to allow each child to work happily at
his maximum rate of learning. The teachers have attempted to learn as much as
possible about the facts of child-development and the guiding of the physical, social,
and mental growth of the children in their groups. REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS. MM 89
Understanding of the child's behaviour in the school situation demands some
knowledge of his experiences at home, so the teachers have encouraged the parents to
visit their classes to observe regular activities as well as special programmes. Both
fathers and mothers have been welcome visitors in many class-rooms. In some schools
study groups for parents and teachers have been formed and are proving very successful
in developing a relationship of co-operation between the home and school.
The primary class-rooms are becoming more and more attractive due to the effort
of the School Board to redecorate many rooms. The teachers have tried to select
materials conducive to the children's growth and to arrange their class-rooms to
facilitate the wise guidance and evaluation of the pupil's activities.
Each primary class-room now has a library cupboard, a library table and chairs or
benches. Carefully chosen, well-illustrated books are a constant source of information
and pleasure to the children. Good reading habits are being formed, which should
prove valuable to the children as they advance into the higher grades of our schools.
Circulating libraries were made available early in the school-year and are proving very
satisfactory. The pupils and teachers are taking very good care of the books. Not one
copy was lost or destroyed during the year.
Health education is an integral part of the primary programme. The children are
being helped to understand the need for certain essential desirable health habits and to
form these habits. The school doctor, nurses, and dentist are helping the teachers and
parents give the children the best physical care possible. The Junior Red Cross plays
an important part in the primary health programme.
Social Studies is being taught to give the children a greater appreciation of the
services of members of the family and the community and to broaden their understanding and knowledge of their environment. Through group discussions, dramatization,
construction, excursions, picture-study, and reading, the children are being led to see
the social relationship of the school, the home, and the community. Customs and homes
of children of other lands are studied to create an interest in other lands and peoples.
Elementary Science is closely integrated with the work in Social Studies. Children
are being given first-hand opportunities to observe, experiment, and investigate certain
phases of nature. The children are acquiring real knowledge, as well as enjoyment,
which will help them to better understand their environment. The plants and aquariums
in the class-rooms afford an ever-present source of observation. The children learn the
habits and needs of these forms of life and gain a feeling of responsibility for their care.
There were thirty-eight regular classes in the Primary Department. In a few
cases the classes were too large to enable the teachers to look after the needs of all the
children.
Meetings of the primary teachers were held at the Educational Centre throughout
the year. The demand for professional books and magazines showed the eagerness of
the teachers to study the best materials available on child-development and techniques
of teaching.
The three pre-primary classes established last year have continued to function with
remarkable success. In September the number of pupils applying for admission in each
district was so great that the enrolment in each class was raised to sixty pupils. There
has been a waiting list for each class during the year. Pupils have been accepted as
soon as a vacancy occurred. Parents and teachers are most enthusiastic and are eager
to extend the opportunity for this year of pre-primary education to all children.
The pre-primary stands as a portal through which the child passes into his
elementary-school experience. The programme is planned to help the child adjust
himself to working with others. The teachers have aimed to develop attitudes and
understandings that will make children sensitive to the rights and feelings of others
so that behaviour becomes a flexible growing thing. MM 90
PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
The teachers have tried to give the children many varied experiences which encourage their physical, social, and mental growth. Stories, poems, songs, and pictures are
used to help the children create new ways of doing things and of working together.
Bulbs, plants, fish, caterpillars, magnets, scales, thermometers, and countless other
things are used to help the children develop the ability to observe and to question.
The children learn to use every minute of their time, as there is always plenty to do.
Rest periods are considered most important to prevent overstimulation of the children.
Rhythms and games provide for good physical development.
Child Study Department.
(Miss Verna Turner, M.A., Director.)
The first work of this department during the fall term consisted in placing candidates in the three Crafts classes, testing reading ability and scholastic aptitude at
Victoria College, and checking standardized test and other entries on the permanent
record cards of all pupils in the Victoria school system. Following this check, all pupils
in the Crafts classes were tested in arithmetic and reading; then all pupils in the city
schools in Grades II., IV., and VIII. were tested for scholastic aptitude. Case-study
books were brought up to date for all pupils in the Crafts classes, and some additional
case-studies were made for pupils new to the school system. The rest of the term was
used to test pupils in Grades II. to XIV. who, for one reason or another, had never
taken a scholastic aptitude test.
Achievement tests were given in January, February, March, and April. In January
a spelling survey was made in Grades III., V., VII., and IX. This was followed by a
reading survey in Grade VI., a survey of basic library and study skills in Grade IX.,
and arithmetic and reading surveys in Grade VIII. During May and June all Grade I.
pupils were given a mental ability test, all Crafts cases were retested in reading and
arithmetic, and a city-wide survey was made for possible candidates for 1946-47
Crafts classes.
All of the findings of the Child Study Department, together with conclusions and
suggestions, were passed on to the teaching staff in a series of mimeographed bulletins,
class record sheets, and error studies, all of which were used in the solution of school
problems relating chiefly to guidance and remedial education.
The following table shows the extent of this year's testing programme from Grade
I. to Grade XIV., as well as the purposes served by the tests:—
Table showing the Testing Programme administered in the
Victoria Schools, September, 1945, to June, 1946.
SCHOLASTIC APTITUDE TESTS.
Name of Test.
Grades
tested.
Number
tested.
Purpose of Testing.
Pinter-Cunningham Primary, Form A
Pinter-Cunningham Primary, Form A
II.
I.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.-XII.
X.-XII.
XIII.-XIV.
IV.-VIII.
462
500
109
329
66
82
70
418
112
100
457
192
~~2,897~
1. To complete I.Q. records to four levels of maturity:—
Kuhlmann-Anderson	
annually in Grades II., IV., VIII., and XIII.
Dominion Advanced, Form B	
Otis Intermediate	
doubtful cases, particularly at the pre-high-
school level.
I REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS.
MM 91
Table showing the Testing Programme administered in the Victoria Schools,
September, 1945, to June, 1946—Continued.
ACHIEVEMENT TESTS.
Name of Test.
Grades
tested.
Number
tested.
Purpose of Testing.
Craft
classes
f     ungraded.
36
35
39
38
37
37
426
14
366
381
383
439
425
513
526
334
VI.
IX.-XIII.
III.
V.
VIL
IX.
IX.
VIII.
VIII.
XIII.-XIV.
Study Skills Test	
Total	
4,029
to administration.
The results of testing were made available to the teachers by means of class record
sheets and bulletins. The Staff Bulletin Book, Volume II., was sent out first in January,
1946, and by June, 1946, it included the following studies made by the Child Study
Department this year:—
(1.)  Summary of the Results of testing the General Intelligence and Reading
Ability of the Freshmen and Sophomores at Victoria College, September,
1944 and 1945.
(2.) Results of the 1946 Survey Test in Spelling given to all Victoria Pupils
in Grades III., V., VIL, and IX. in January, 1946.
(3.) Results of testing 425 Grade IX. Students in Work-type Library Reading
and Study Skills, February, 1946.
(4.) Results of the Survey Test in Reading given to all Grade VI. Pupils in
Victoria in January, 1939, 1943, 1944, 1945, and 1946.
(5.)  The Frequency and Nature of Typical Errors made on the Grade VI.
Reading Test used in Victoria Schools in January, 1939 and 1943-46.
(6.)  Results of testing all Grade VIII. Pupils in Victoria in the Fundamentals
of Arithmetic in March,  1946, as compared with Results obtained in
March, 1940, on the Same Test.
(7.) Results of testing all Grade VIII. Pupils in Victoria in Reading as compared with Results obtained on the Same Test in Previous Years.
Primary-Junior-Senior Crafts Department.
(Miss Verna Turner, M.A., Director.)
There were twenty pupils in the primary Crafts class and twenty also in the junior
Crafts class this year. In both classes reading was stressed, and marked improvement
in interest was accompanied by significant gains in reading ability as measured by
standardized tests. Class-room activities centred round handicrafts, especially clay-
work, woodwork, and spatter-painting in the primary class. In the junior class the
boys received training in woodwork at Quadra School, while the girls learned to sew
with Miss Lawrence in their own class-room.    The boys, too, made their own manual
. MM 92 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
training aprons. Both boys and girls participated in two major projects—beautifying
their own class-rooms and making articles for a class-room bazaar.
When pupils in the junior Crafts class reach the age of 13 years they are promoted
to the senior Crafts classes. These classes are held at Central Junior High School,
where the pupils may profit from the platoon system in Art, Shopwork, Home Economics,
and Physical Education. There was one senior Crafts class this year—twenty pupils,
all boys. The class had an activity period of forty-five minutes every day in their own
class-room, where they learned woodwork at their work-bench, or leathercraft at tables,
or cardboard-work (making boxes and projects such as model farms, Fort Victoria,
etc.), or clay-modelling. In addition, they had three forty-five-minute periods of Art
work with Mr. Johns in the Art room and eighty minutes once a week with Mr. D'Arcy
in the Industrial Arts room. Physical Education periods were given regularly twice a
week in the gym or outdoors, and irregularly, as weather and time permitted, games
were played outside to relieve tensions and improve general health.
The home-room teacher played an indispensable role in the school life of the Crafts
pupils. It was she—Miss McRae in the primary, Miss Lawrence in the junior, and
Miss Gordon in the senior—who provided the personal guidance and individual help
in the skill subjects. Credit is also due to the staffs of the Central Junior High School
and George Jay School for their understanding and co-operation with the teachers of
the Crafts classes on many occasions. To the principals of these two schools, a special
word of thanks is due. With their help, problems of various sorts were quickly solved
and happy school relationships maintained.
Commercial Education.
(Mr. R. H. Heywood, B.A., Director.)
Victoria High School employs five fully trained Commercial instructors. All of
them hold Specialist certificates, all have had business experience, and three of them
hold university degrees. A full range of subject-matter is offered to students, and
the following table shows the extent to which they avail themselves of Commercial
Courses: Commercial Optional
Subject. Students. Students.
Typing I  92 182
Typing II  89 25
Shorthand I.   45 7
Shorthand II.   22 1
Clerical Practice I.   29 1
Clerical Practice II.   12 0
Secretarial Practice I.   35 0
Secretarial Practice II.   24 0
Junior Business   82 23
Record-keeping  61 1
Business English  80 0
Business Arithmetic   40 8
General Business   16 18
Non-vocational students continue to enrol in large numbers for Commercial options.
Although students who take only one, two, or three Commercial subjects cannot be
regarded as fully-trained office-workers, they often find application for their Commercial skills in whatever employment they later take.
The efficient office-worker should possess many skills and a wealth of background
knowledge: mastery of the " tool " subjects of Shorthand and Typewriting. If she is
to adjust herself quickly to an office situation, she must be familiar with all types of REPORTS OP MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS. MM 93
office appliances. Now that war-time shortages have eased, Victoria offices will be
installing new and up-to-date office machines. If our school is to give modern business
training, therefore it must add to its equipment and instruct pupils in the use of
calculators, posting-machines, and voice-writers. During the past year the Board
purchased a Ditto Rotary duplicator, a small Kardex unit, and a Line-a-time Copyholder. This new equipment has been most valuable to us. The Commercial Department also acknowledges the courtesy of the Sun Directories, Limited, in placing a
directory at its disposal in each of the past two years.
Industrial and Technical Education.
(Mr. George Anstey, Supervisor.)
The following is a report of the Industrial Arts and Technical shops in the City
of Victoria for the school-year 1945-46.
No changes or additions have been made to our accommodation, and only one new
subject has been added to the fairly complete list of shop subjects;  Shop Sketching has
been introduced to take the place of Mechanical Draughting for those boys who have
no interest or aptitude for the latter accomplishment.
The total number of students taking shop-work is about the same as last year.
They are as follows:—
Grade XII.      41
Grade XI     34
Grade X.  108
Grade IX  170
Grade VIII  253
Grade VII.   255
Special      39
Total   900
It may be noted from the above that the largest drop in enrolment occurs between
Grades X. and XL The natural drop due to students leaving school and changing
courses is accented because University students who have taken the Technical course
up to Grade X. are compelled to give more time to academic studies to secure the
required number of credits in the compulsory subjects.
Numbers of students in attendance at school shops according to grades and
subjects:—
Grades IX. to XII  353
At senior high school shops—
Auto Mechanics      58
Carpentry and Concrete     33
Metalwork   276
Shop Sketching     21
Technical Draughting  320
Woodwork   214
Grades VII. and VIII  547
Elementary Woodwork, Metalwork, Electricity, and Draughting—
At Junior High School  183
At Quadra Street School  182
At Sir James Douglas School     74
Elementary Woodwork, Electricity, and Draughting—
At South Park School    72
At Victoria West School    36 MM 94 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
Guidance and Placement Department.
(Mr. R. H. Heywood, Director.)
Group Guidance.
Two departures from previous practice were made during the current year: registration teachers undertook the responsibility for Group Guidance of their own classes;
all classes were held following roll-call on Monday morning instead of being staggered
throughout the week and at different hours of the day. These arrangements have
decided advantages from an administrative view-point and will be continued next year
with certain modifications for Grade XII. students who require the services of specially
trained counsellors for their vocational studies.
Counselling.
The counselling service continued to operate on the same arrangements as heretofore.    Counsellees were assigned to counsellors by alphabetical divisions of surnames
as follows:— Girls. Boys.
A-D Mrs. H. Hodson. Mr. H. D. Wallis.
E-La Miss E. McKee. Mr. C. L. Campbell.
Le-P Miss L. Maxwell. Mr. N. Harwood.
Q-Z Miss J. Roberts. Mr. H. D. Dee.
Each counsellor is responsible for approximately 150 students. In addition to
handling special problems of maladjustment, the counsellors discuss a great variety of
routine problems with students.
Preliminary Reception.
Early in November the staff of the school and the executive of the students'
association were host to new students and their parents. Various features of the
school organization and the philosophy on which it is based were first outlined to parents
and students in a joint assembly. After the assembly the students enjoyed themselves
at a dance, while parents were given the opportunity to meet staff members and discuss
with them problems of common interest.
Social Guidance.
Last year, in an effort to raise the " tone " of school dances, regulations for dress
and conduct were laid down by the staff. This action followed discussion in Guidance
meetings of the functions that a school dance should perform. On the whole, the
students responded well, though some of the girls objected to our regulations concerning dress. To deal with this situation, Miss Maxwell, Chief Girls' Counsellor, called an
informal meeting at which four of the senior girls, their mothers, and the girls' counsellors discussed the matter of suitable dress for dances. The results, which were in the
nature of a compromise, proved satisfactory to all concerned.
Vocational Counselling and Placement.
All members of the graduating class were interviewed by the Placement Officer with
a view to assisting students in formulating plans for the period following graduation.
A large proportion of Grade XII. students intend to enrol at Victoria College, in the
University of British Columbia, or other institutions of higher learning. A few of
these require guidance because they have made plans that will sorely tax their capabilities. Most of them, however, students of better-than-average ability, know what they
want to do and are embarking on college careers with their eyes open.
Prospects were never brighter for those with specific vocational skills. Last year's
Commercial class was 100 per cent, employed within a week after graduation, and from
present indications no girl or boy with business training will have any difficulty in REPORTS OP MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS.
MM 95
finding work this year. The most serious problem, as usual, will be the placement of
students of average ability, or lower, who have no specific skills to sell. They will
probably be able to find work of some sort, but many of them are career-conscious
without realizing their own limitations.
The placement Department continued to work with local employers and the National
Employment Service in placing students for permanent and part-time work. Since the
last report was given, the following placements have been effected:-—
Permanent.
Stenographer  20
Typist and clerk     3
Book-keeper     4
Receptionist      4
Laboratory secretary	
Bank clerk     1
Delivery  	
Sales-clerk 	
Canvasser  	
Waitress 	
Apprentice cook      4
Farm help	
Postal helper  	
Apprentice machinist     1
Domestic help  :	
Chores 	
Miscellaneous     1
(1)
(1)
(2)
Totals  38 (4)
(N.B.—Figures in parentheses represent assisted placements,
in the other set of figures.)
Temporary or
Part Time.
9
23
(1)
(4)
1
63
(23)
4
1
(1)
9
1
(1)
3
4
24
143
(30)
They are
included
Department of Speech Therapy.
(Miss M. Crickmay, Director.)
During the year 1945-46 seventy-nine children with speech difficulties have been
examined. Of these, forty-seven were found to be suffering from articulatory disorders, twenty-six were found to be stammerers, and six had cleft palates and hare-lips.
Thirty-five of these children needed immediate treatment, and nineteen of them have
received treatment to date, the treatment being individual and consisting of two twenty-
minute periods twice a week. In addition, seven children have been treated indirectly
through their parents; that is, the parent is interviewed and advised as to the way in
which she can help the child overcome his difficulty. Close contact is kept with the
parent, who makes a report either in person or by telephone approximately once a
month. Three children have been helped by one or two individual interviews, the
purpose of the interviews being to allay the child's anxiety over his speech difficulty
and to show him how he can overcome it himself. From these figures it will be
realized that twenty-nine of the thirty-five children who needed immediate treatment
have been helped directly, or indirectly (this is through their parents), to overcome
their difficulties.
Sixteen of the nineteen children who have received direct personal treatment have
shown very great improvement, and by the time the schools close in June, ten will no
longer be in need of treatment.    The seven children who have been helped through their MM 96 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
parents and the three who have had only one or more interviews have, according to the
reports of both parents and teachers, shown marked improvement.
This year the work has gone with particular success. This is partly due to the
fact that a headquarters for the work has at last been established at the Central Junior
High School, in the now-evacuated Health Centre. A central office, the need for which
had been persistently pointed out for some time, has made it possible to organize the
work in a far more efficient way. Parents are now interviewed there, and children
come after school-hours for special treatment, thus saving both time and energy.
One of the most interesting features of the year's work has been the success of
treating, through their parents, children who are beginning to stammer. An example
will show the method used in treating these cases.
Donna T., aged 5 years, attending one of the pre-primary classes in the city, was
reported by the teacher to be stammering badly. The mother was interviewed and
she corroborated this, and revealed the fact that the child was becoming very emotional
over her speech difficulty, stamping her foot and rushing away in tears when she could
not get her words out. The mother was trying to do her best but, through lack of real
understanding of the problem of stammering, was mishandling the situation. The
causes of stammering were explained and the mother was given detailed instructions as
to the way in which she should handle Donna in future, and also pamphlets and mimeographed material on the subject. According to arrangement she phoned me in one
month and reported that she had followed the instructions to the last detail and that,
as a result, Donna's speech was noticeably improved. She was no longer " blocking "
badly, or reacting emotionally to her speech difficulty. The teacher had also noticed
the improvement. Further instructions were given and the mother is to phone again
in one month's time.
This is only one of many cases that have been handled along similar lines, and with
equal success, during the year. It cannot be sufficiently emphasized that the treatment
of the parents is as important a part of this work as the treatment of the child, and
that the success of the work is very largely due to adjustment, " tremendously handicapped in his efforts to get an education, unable in many cases to do any other kind of
work than common labour . . ." Dr. Papurt made the contention that the elimination of the speech defect would, in many cases, eliminate the original cause.
Conclusion.
The school-year was well advanced when I entered upon my duties as Municipal
Inspector of Schools for Victoria in succession to Mr. Harold L. Campbell, who was
appointed Chief Inspector of Schools for the Province. I wish to record my appreciation publicly for his kindly efforts in aiding me to become established in this position.
During his term of office as Municipal Inspector he gave much of his ability, energy,
and time towards creating a school system of which any city might be proud.
I wish, also, to pay tribute to the Victoria School Board, to the teaching staff and
other officials in the system, for the welcome, understanding, and tolerance which I have
received since my appointment. The many courtesies extended to me from time to time
by the Mayor and Aldermen of the city are likewise gratefully acknowledged.
The Greater Victoria School District, No. 61.
The implementation of the Cameron Report by the Provincial Government at the
last session of the Legislature and the subsequent amendments to the " Public Schools
Act" created seventy-four larger units of administration throughout the Province.
The Greater Victoria School District, from the standpoint of population and material
wealth, is one of the most important of these units.    Perhaps no event in our educa- REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS. MM 97
tional history has been of such consequence, nor one so full of potential opportunities
to advance the cause of education.
The Greater Victoria School District comprises the former Municipal School District of Victoria and the District Municipalities of Oak Bay, Saanich (inner wards),
and Esquimalt. A rural section, including View Royal and Craigflower, as well as
small portions of Langford and Colwood, was included in this new educational area.
A temporary School Board of nine members was selected from the previously existing
Boards on the following basis: Victoria, four members; Oak Bay, two members;
Saanich (inner wards), two members; and Esquimalt, one member. No trustee represents the rural area directly, but an advisory committee of four persons, co-operating
with the Board and its officials, takes care of educational affairs.
The inaugural meeting of this new Board was held on April 18th, 1946, at which
time standing committees were named as follows: Finance, Building and Grounds,
Education and Public Relations. Throughout the remainder of the term the schools
continued to function as formerly, with only slight changes in organization of staff and
policies. The process of unifying procedures and methods, differing considerably in
the four former districts, will be gradual. The new organization brought together
under one administration some 9,500 school pupils, 340 teachers, and 90 other employees
of the previously existing Boards. It was soon apparent that the new Board as well as
the administrative and teaching staffs were imbued with the spirit of co-operation and
were not only willing but also determined to work together for the common good of the
Greater Victoria school system.
SCHOOLS OF THE CITY OF NEW WESTMINSTER.
REPORT OF R. S. SHIELDS, B.A., MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR
OF SCHOOLS.
The general organization of the city school system remained the same and served
the educational requirements of approximately 3,900 pupils.
The standard of work achieved in all phases of school procedure was most satisfactory; this was to be expected, as the greater number of our teachers have consistently improved themselves in scholarship and professional knowledge through graduate
and undergraduate study at our own and other universities and summer schools. Our
principals have demonstrated genuine professional leadership and have worked most
successfully in the development of pupil social attitudes for effective participation in
citizenship.
We are not unmindful of certain limitations in elementary- and secondary-school
development due to overloaded programmes carried on with inadequate plants and
equipment—namely, certain testing programmes, provision for guidance, extra-curricular activities, etc.—nevertheless, academic successes have been outstanding, more
noticeable in the secondary level where competitive examinations still prevail. At the
T. J. Trapp Technical High School four scholarships were won during the year: the
Hamber scholarship by Anna Madsen, the Kiwanis scholarship by Phyllis Henderson,
the Victoria Cross Fund award by Dawn Eddy and Bill Ritchie; Stanley Broder and
Murray Woodward were prize-winners in the Occupational Survey projects. At the
Duke of Connaught High School, Luce Gamache was successful in winning the University Women's scholarship, Albert Knudsen the Kiwanis Club scholarship, Eva Holm
the bursary from the Department of Education, and Phyllis Decker the Victoria Cross MM 98 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
scholarship;  Maurice Campbell, Howard Mortison, and Dick Kennedy also won valuable
prizes in Provincial Art competition.
Space in this report will admit of only a few remarks on certain departments.
I see no reason why New Westminster should not continue to be outstanding in the
field of music; we have highly qualified, capable teachers of Music and alert, enthusiastic pupils who have a keen sense of the cultural value of this subject.
True it is that facilities for the teaching of Music and accommodation for practising, etc., could be improved—too often, with the development of the present-day course
of study, no building provision has been made for subject accommodation; yet progress
has been made and activities leading to a pleasurable participation and love for bands,
choirs, broadcasting programmes, quartettes, glee clubs, orchestras, etc., have been
noticeably helpful. May I mention the broadcasting of a number of our glee clubs and
express pleasure at the many favourable comments received.
Throughout the year, through the courtesy of Mr. Burton Kurth, Vancouver
Schools Musical Director, a number of our secondary pupils were given the opportunity
of hearing many fine symphony concerts in Vancouver.
I am pleased with the continued advanced training which our Music teachers are
seeking.
Slowly but surely our school libraries are becoming more able to contribute to the
fulfilment of the educational aims of the schools: elementary-school libraries, with one
exception, are the least developed—space, flexibility, and content require more consideration in all schools. Appreciation is herewith expressed of the co-operation received
from the city librarians, Miss Cameron and her associates, in making available facilities
of the Carnegie Library and for the guidance and assistance given to our teacher-
librarians. I wish to thank also the Parent-Teacher Associations in creating keen
parent interest in the reading requirements of our pupils.
That the emotional and social needs of the pupils has its important place in everyday pupil life is indicated by the whole-hearted interest in the work of the drama,
encouraged greatly by Major Bullock-Webster and most capably carried out by representative groups of teachers under the chairmanship of Mr. E. H. Lock, B.A., Department of English at the Duke of Connaught High School. This department has achieved
notable successes. We are pleased to report the winning of the drama festival scholarship—Banff School of Fine Arts—by Bruno Gerussi, a student at the T. J. Trapp
Technical High School.
Tests and examinations—both objective and occupational—were held as deemed
advisable in view of our expressed philosophy of education. The general results were
satisfactory.
Definite progress has been made in the field of audio-visual education. All schools
in this inspectorate are fully equipped with motion-picture facilities, silent and sound;
all schools have at least one radio. Other phases of this programme are carried out
successfully and cheerfully: purposeful school journeys, field-trips, invasions, etc.;
travelling libraries of still pictures are beneficially used; museum materials, models and
exhibits of educational interest are on hand; charts, maps, graphs, etc., are on constant
display.
Two significant questions are constantly in mind in evaluating the results of this
phase of work:—
(a.)  What educational purposes can be achieved through the use of visual
materials for pupils of varying abilities ?
(b.) How can these educational materials be combined with other experiences
to produce maximum educative effectiveness?
I am satisfied the work in the upper elementary grades and secondary schools along
vocational lines is sound.    A detailed report on the type of procedure will be given in REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS. MM 99
a later report. Mr. Harold Johns, Director of Vocational Education, Department of
Education, has been of great assistance.
The past year has seen the return of all of our teachers from active service; they
have come back broadened by their experiences and are creating in their various fields
an atmosphere of loyalty and sound citizenship, ever emphasizing the influence of true
education in democracy.
Too much credit cannot be given in this report to the work of the school health
services. The Medical Department, with Dr. D. A. Clark in charge and Miss Doris
Bews, R.N., and Miss E. Young, R.N., as assistants, has kept the health of our pupils
at an enviable level; that we have had no epidemics and resultant loss of pupil-days is
not due to luck.
The Dental Clinic—Dr. G. T. Lawrence with dental nurse, Mrs. Elaine Tyler,
assisting—has had one of its best years and is considered one of the most effective
dental clinics operating. A detailed study of its organization is open for inspection
at all times. The health lectures given by representatives of both clinics have been
most helpful.
The immediate future will see progressive changes in the school building programme of this area. Our Board of School Trustees, an able and conscientious group
of public-spirited citizens, is planning a necessary, ambitious building scheme to take
care of all secondary-school pupils in the city. This programme has the recommendation of the Town Planning Commission and the active co-operation of the City Council,
who have marked for school purposes, at the request of the School Board, 35 acres of
land bounded by Eighth and Sixth Streets and Eighth and Tenth Avenues. Conferences
are now being held by the Board with all concerned, and a more detailed report will be
given in a later report.
At the close of the term Miss Gertrude M. Wells and Miss Florence Urquhart were
granted superannuation. We do appreciate the years of service given by these teachers,
and, with their many former students, we wish them health and happiness.
The general successes of the year have been due to the hearty co-operation of those
interested in the development of our citizens, especially to a keen and capable Board of
School Trustees who give graciously of time and ability without monetary consideration.
SCHOOLS OF NORTH VANCOUVER AND WEST VANCOUVER.
REPORT OF WILLIAM GRAY, M.A., MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR
OF SCHOOLS.
The outstanding feature of the year 1945-46 was the implementing of Dr.
Cameron's Report on Educational Finance by means of amendments to the School Act.
In preparation for these amendments much information pertaining to each school district had to be obtained, and, following the passing of the amendments, much time was
taken up in organizing new School Boards, in interpreting the changes to these Boards,
and in assisting the secretaries with the preparation of new reports and forms. Consequently less time was available for the supervision of schools and the various teaching
staffs, and less thought was given to aspects of education usually considered in normal
years.
One effect of the adoption of the principle of larger administrative units in this
inspectorate was to reduce the number of school districts from three to two and to add
to these two a considerable portion of hitherto unorganized area. MM 100 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
North Vancouver School District, No. 44, includes all of the City of North Vancouver and the District Municipality of North Vancouver, together with a large area of
rural territory to the north not previously included in any school district. There are,
however, very few residents of this added area at the present time.
West Vancouver School District, No. 45, includes all of the District Municipality
of West Vancouver and a large area to the north similar to that included in the North
Vancouver district.
Each of these new districts is a complete educational unit, providing instruction to
the end of high school. Of the 4,620 pupils who attended school in this inspectorate
during the year, 72 per cent, were enrolled in the schools of North Vancouver and 28
per cent, in those of West Vancouver.    In all, 146 teachers were employed.
North Vancouver.
The present temporary School Board for the new North Vancouver district was
made up of four members of the former city Board and three members nominated by
the Commissioner for the District Municipality, who had carried out the duties of a
School Board for that district.
The advantages of the new organization are already apparent. Geographically the
City of North Vancouver is bounded on three sides by the district municipality, and
actually the administration offices of the latter are situated in the city. One high
school located within the city limits serves the whole area. For the first time the
district representatives have a say in the operation of that school. Likewise, the
centres for Industrial Arts and Home Economics are located in the city schools, the
pupils from the schools of the district municipality being given instruction at those
centres. Under the new organization the teaching staff will be a unit, with one salary
schedule, with similar working conditions, and with opportunity for transfer and
promotion within a larger system.
As in neighbouring school districts, the School Board of this district is faced with
some overcrowding. An interesting house-to-house canvass, carried out by high school
students under the direction of the School Board, revealed some enlightening figures.
Without considering any new residents to the area, the school enrolment by 1951 will
be 20 per cent, higher than at present, requiring at least ten more class-rooms. This
information, combined with the fact that new residential areas are being opened up
through this school district, points to the need of formulating a comprehensive building
plan. The School Board is working in conjunction with the Town Planning Commission towards this end. One of the main difficulties facing the Board is that of raising
the necessary funds for building purposes. The debt-refunding plan of the city places
definite restrictions on borrowing, while the situation in the district municipality is
even more acute, since interest payments on debt have been suspended during the past
ten years while a Commissioner has been in charge. The solution appears to lie in
the creation of a school building fund from yearly surpluses, until such time as new
debentures can be profitably issued. It was somewhat in this manner that the new
Burrard View Elementary School, in the eastern Deep Cove area, was constructed.
This is a modern school of six rooms, replacing five separate buildings scattered
throughout the area. Ten years ago the enrolment there was 35, while at the present
writing it is 208. This fine new school provides much-needed accommodation for the
children of that rapidly developing area.
In each of the schools a number of children cannot go home for lunch, and the
Board, during the past year, has given its attention to lunch-rooms. Invariably local
Parent-Teacher Associations have co-operated with the Board to improve lunch-room
facilities and have supplied volunteer help. REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS. MM 101
In another direction improved facilities have been provided; namely, in the organization of a library pool, whereby books are issued to the various schools at regular
intervals from a central supply. Old books have been discarded and newer, more
attractive books will each year be added to the stock. Trustees understand the need
of providing suitable reading material for the pupils and are willing to assign more
money for this purpose.
West Vancouver.
In this district the existing School Board became the temporary Board for the
newly formed district without change in personnel. The three schools, two elementary
and one junior-senior high, provide instruction through all grades to the completion of
high school graduation. The schools are well staffed and equipped, the present Board
doing all in its power to provide the best of working conditions. By voluntary arbitration a new salary schedule was drawn up, comparing favourably with any in the Province. In addition, a Trustee-Teacher Committee has been set up to discuss from time
to time working conditions of the teaching staff.
From the standpoint of the pupils themselves an extensive programme of repairs
and alterations has been carried out, with the object in view of improving conditions
under which the pupils work. The old Hollyburn building has been reconstructed and
modernized throughout, and interior decorating of all the schools has made them more
attractive. Lunch-room facilities have been improved and extended, since a large
number of the pupils come to school by bus from considerable distances.
This School Board has also worked in conjunction with the Town Planning Commission, and sites for future buildings are being considered.
There is considerable overcrowding in the high school, and plans for a new building
have been in progress for some time, but, as elsewhere, the scarcity and high cost of
building materials are proving a deterrent. In the meantime other temporary accommodation is being provided. Incidentally the proposed new high school is being planned
with a view to meeting community needs, in accordance with the modern trend of
linking school and community.
General.
After six years, from 1940 to 1946, the sale of war savings stamps in the schools
of the North Shore was discontinued. During that period a total of $58,808 was paid
for stamps by the school children of this area, an excellent investment and a worthwhile contribution to the Government's war effort.
The new division of Educational and Vocational Guidance, directed by Mr. H. P.
Johns, has been useful to both principals and teachers, and, as a result, the work of
Guidance in the schools has been greatly stimulated as well as more efficiently organized. The competition in job analyses, sponsored by the B.C. Products Bureau of the
Vancouver Board of Trade, is an excellent example of one type of stimulation.
The work of inspection has been greatly simplified and aided by the co-operation
received from the School Boards of North and West Vancouver, from the Commissioner
of the District of North Vancouver, and from officials of the Department of Education.
In particular, I wish to express my appreciation to Dr. S. J. Willis, who retired as
Superintendent at the end of September, for assistance in my work and his sympathetic
understanding of the many problems arising from it, and to Dr. H. B. King, who at the
same time retired from the position of Chief Inspector of Schools, for his stimulating
help. I am indebted also to each of their worthy successors for aid in performing my
duties during the remainder of the year.
PROVINCIAL LIBRARY
VICTORIA, B. C. MM 102 PUBLIC SCHOOLS REPORT, 1945-46.
SCHOOLS OF THE DISTRICT MUNICIPALITY OF BURNABY.
REPORT OF C. G. BROWN, M.A., MUNICIPAL INSPECTOR
OF SCHOOLS.
School Accommodation.
As anticipated, the school enrolment for 1945-46 increased to over 6,000 pupils and
the teaching staff was increased to 191 teachers. The problem of accommodating these
pupils called for some reorganizational plans. Gilmore Avenue School operated a
double shift on a rotary system, whereby no grade was required to continue on double
shift for more than one month at a time. Edmonds Street School also organized the
primary grades on a double-shift plan. To relieve Sperling Avenue School, a primary
class was formed in the Cliff Avenue United Church Hall. Likewise, a church hall on
Clinton Street was utilized to accommodate the intermediate grades from Riverway
East School. A special class-room was equipped in the Industrial Arts building to
take care of the overflow in the Capitol Hill School.
New Developments.
The new North Burnaby High School was opened in January 1946. This school
provides for 600 students and has facilities to allow a full programme of activities as
a composite high school. The opening of the new high school permitted the organization of a new elementary school (Rosser Avenue) in the former high school building.
To provide greater educational opportunity for retarded pupils, a special class was
formed at the Kingsway West centre. The class was composed of sixteen pupils from
the West Burnaby district.
A very interesting accomplishment of this year was the production of a motion-
picture film in colour, with sound recordings, featuring the activities of the Burnaby
schools. The film is entitled " Investment in Youth " and demonstrates this theme
quite effectively. Mr. Ken West, of Burnaby, and Mr. Roth Gordon, of Vancouver,
collaborated with the School Board in producing the picture.
In co-operation with the Health Department, a lighting survey was made in the
schools, and the Board has done much to improve the lighting situation through
interior decoration and better light equipment. Both from a psychological and physical
point of view, a decided improvement has been effected.
Testing Programme.
To evaluate the progress of the pupils in the respective grades and to establish
norms for future guidance, a comprehensive testing programme was conducted throughout the Burnaby schools.    The following tests were administered:—■
Kuhlmann-Anderson Intelligence Tests  Grades I.—III.
Dominion Group Tests of Intelligence Grades IV.-IX.
Otis Intelligence Tests (higher examination)  Grades X.-XII.
Morrison-McCall Spelling Test  Grades III.-IX.
Ayres Spelling Tests Grades III.-IX.
Dominion Achievement Tests in Silent Reading (primary) Grade I.
Prrogressive Reading Tests Grades IV.-IX.
Compass Survey Arithmetic Tests Grades VIL, VIII.
Progressive Arithmetic Tests Grades IV.-IX.
In addition to this general testing programme, both the Burnaby high schools
conducted a reading survey and instituted remedial procedures to raise the reading-
levels of high school students.    Other schools used various tests at different times of REPORTS OF MUNICIPAL INSPECTORS. MM 103
the year as their needs arose.    Mr. Burton, Miss E. McKinnon, and Mr. L. Prior did
commendable work in this respect.
Health Services.
The health services are expanding in Burnaby.    These include:—   .
Child Health Centres.—Five child health centres have been established where preschool children are examined and directions given regarding immunization and corrective measures.    Pre-school children attending the clinics in 1945 totalled 1,395.
School Health Inspection.—The school medical services are administered by the
unit director, Dr. A. Weston Black, and five public health nurses. All high school
athletes were examined in September, all pupils in Grades I., IV., VIL, and X. were
given physical examinations during the year, and all other students were inspected by
the fi