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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Provincial Fisheries Department REPORT WITH APPENDICES For the Year ended… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1947

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Provincial
Fisheries Department
REPORT
WITH APPENDICES
For the Year ended December 31st
1945
printed by
authority of the legislative assembly.
VICTORIA,  B.C.:
Printed by Chables F. Baotiild, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1946.  To His Honour Colonel W. C. Woodward,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I beg to submit herewith the Report of the Provincial Fisheries Department for
the year ended December 31st, 1945, with Appendices.
GEORGE SHARRATT PEARSON,
Commissioner of Fisheries.
Provincial Fisheries Department,
Commissioner of Fisheries' Office,
Victoria, B.C. Honourable George S. Pearson,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
SIR,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial
Fisheries Department for the year ended December 31st, 1945, with Appendices.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
GEORGE J. ALEXANDER,
Assistant Commissioner. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT FOR 1945.
Page.
Value of Canadian Fisheries and the Standing of the Provinces in 1944     7
Value of British Columbia's Fisheries in 1945     8
Capital, Equipment, and Employees     9
The Canned-salmon Pack for British Columbia, 1945     9
British Columbia's Canned-salmon Pack by Districts  10
Review of British Columbia's Salmon-canning Industry, 1945  17
Other Canneries (Pilchard, Herring, and Shell-fish)  18
Mild-cured Salmon  19
Dry-salt Salmon  19
Dry-salt Herring  19
Pickled Herring  19
Halibut Production  20
Fish Oil and Meal  21
Net-fishing in Non-tidal Waters  22
Condition of British Columbia's Salmon-spawning Grounds  23
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon (Digest).    (No. 31.)  23
Herring Investigation  23
Pilchard Investigation  25
Shell-fish Investigation  26
International Fisheries Commission, 1945  27
APPENDICES.
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon. (No. 31.) By
Wilbert A. Clemens, Ph.D., Department of Zoology, The University of British
Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.  31
Tagging of Herring (Clupea pallasii) in British Columbia: Insertions and
Recoveries during 1945-46. By Albert L. Tester, Ph.D., Pacific Biological
Station, Nanaimo, B.C.   43
Condition of the Butter-clam Fishery in British Columbia.   By Ferris Neave,
Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C  67
Report on Investigations of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries
Commission for 1945.    By B. M. Brennan, Director  75
Salmon-spawning Report, British Columbia, 1945.   By Major J. A. Motherwell,
Chief Supervisor of Fisheries  78
Statistical Tables  85  REPORT of the PROVINCIAL FISHERIES
DEPARTMENT FOR 1945.
VALUE OF CANADIAN FISHERIES AND THE STANDING OF
THE PROVINCES, 1944.
The value of the fisheries products of Canada for the year 1944 totalled $89,418,571.
During that year British Columbia produced fisheries products to the value of
$34,900,990, or 39 per cent, of Canada's total.
British Columbia in 1944 led all the Provinces in the Dominion in respect to the
production of fisheries wealth. Her output exceeded that of Nova Scotia, the second
in rank, by $11,238,935.
The market value of the fisheries products of British Columbia in 1944 was
$2,513,026 less than in the year previous. There was an increase in the value of salmon
amounting to $882,925.
The capital invested in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1944 was' $33,550,302,
or 49.8 per cent, of the total capital employed in fisheries in all of Canada. Of the
total invested in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1944, $14,483,292 was employed
in catching and handling the catches and $19,067,010 invested in canneries, fish-packing
establishments, and fish-reduction plants.
The number of persons engaged in British Columbia fisheries in 1944 was 18,576,
or 22.9 per cent, of Canada's total fishery-workers. Of those engaged in British
Columbia, 12,426 were employed in catching and handling the catches and 6,150 in
packing, curing, and in fish-reduction plants. The total number engaged in the
fisheries in British Columbia in 1944 was 662 more than in the preceding year.
The following statement gives in the order of their rank the value of fishery
products of the Provinces of Canada for the years 1940 to 1944, inclusive:—
Province.
1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.
$21,710,167
9,483,326
4,956,618
2,002,053
3,035,100
1,988,545
714,870
450,574
403,510
4,994
$31,732,037
12,634,832
6,484,831
3,233,115
3,518,402
2,842,041
952,026
440,444
414,942
6,652
$38,058,559
15,297,446
7,088,302
4,103,345
4,194,092
3,577,616
1,639,539
585,782
492,182
3,056
$32,477,964
21,653,933
11.128,864
5,292,268
5,927,125
4,564,551
2,860,946
1,154,544
795,000
2,495
$34,900,990
23,662 055
11,962,645
5,358,677
Ontario      .. 	
Manitoba..	
4,938,193
3,581,795
2,598,975
Saskatchewan. 	
1,482,223
929,887
Yukon  	
3,131
$45,118,757
$62,258,872
$75,040,919
$85,857,690
$89,418,571
SPECIES AND VALUE  OF FISH  CAUGHT  IN  BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
The total marketed value of each of the principal species of fish taken in British
Columbia for the years 1940 to 1944, inclusive, is given in the following table:—
Species.
1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.
$13,757,091
1,397,999
172,999
$20,879,104
1,650,731
470,958
$22,419,881
1,985,705
243,113
$14,740,298
2,517.038
244,062
$15,623,223
Halibut                         	
2,679,657
Halibut-livers -	
257,288
$15,328,089
$23,000,793
$24,648,699
$17,501,398
$18,560 168 N 8
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
Species and Value of Fish caught in British Columbia—Continued.
Species.
1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.
$15,328,089
4,426,390
632,393
$23,000,793
4,665,260
1,781,876
$24,648,699
8,223,754
2,016,607
$17,501,398
7,809,630
2,756,416
$18,560,168
Herring  	
Pilchard 	
6,758,626
2,222,181
780
359,798
77,944
132,822
80,628
46,866
16,354
60,596
2,002
27,851
14,574
3,235
7,491
2,460
555
3,452
3,887
88
398,316
98,970
189,527
83,253
30,470
8,115
116,111
676,903
155,965
193,840
104,021
42,670
7,222
57,862
978,973
148,226
399,923
34,743
49,320
10,417
82,318 ,
1,600
72,619
150,551
9,792
736
3,526
271
5,932
9,504
21
1,353,900
Clams    	
174,673
414,758
52,495
271,231
Shrimps    	
10,451
149,754
Flounders..	
14,555
15,832
3,095
5,920
3,675
986
2,478
1,492
25
47,086
24,829
51,375
8,042
2,552
1,965
390
5,235
8,960
7
132,136
284,828
Perch      	
13,741
3,278
3,915
1,444
5 866
16,456
540
Grayfish, etc.—
13,117
29,328
531,355
29,569
23,250
1,178,242
31,135
18,982
2,028,875
16,756
60,930
3,661,131
8,263
Oil	
146,112
63,210
137,624
69,062
298,349
60,872
178,667
41,857
92,890
21,136
730
50
119,035
567
2,094
162,159
804
44,860
23,913
61,686
80,295
11,483
5,760
21,045
158,184
56,216
261,160
93,373
Tuna 	
42,194
165,966
68,040
12,564
323,068
14,050
Totals ....
$21,710,167
$31,732,037
$38,059,559
$32,477,964
$34,900,990
VALUE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FISHERIES IN 1945 SHOWS
SUBSTANTIAL INCREASE.*
The value of the fisheries of British Columbia in 1945 amounted to $44,531,858,
an increase of $9,630,868 or 28 per cent, as compared with 1944. The salmon-fishery,
the most important single fishery in the Dominion, showed an increase of 633,930 cwt.
or 59 per cent, in the quantity caught and an increase of $4,012,418 in landed value or
55 per cent. The total marketed value of this fish was $25,424,954, an increase of
$9,801,731 or 62 per cent. Salmon accounted for almost 57 per cent, of the total
marketed value of the fisheries of the Province.
Herring came second in order of value, at $8,423,136. There was an increase of
38 per cent, in quantity landed and of 25 per cent, in value marketed.
Halibut advanced to third place, as compared with fourth in 1944, with a marketed value of $3,318,215.
Grayfish livers and the vitamin oil produced from them were the fourth item in
order of value, at $2,347,631. The quantity of oil produced fell by 21 per cent, and
the value by 36 per cent.
* These figures are taken from the Advance Report on the Fisheries of British Columbia, Dominion Bureau of
Statistics, Department of Trade and Commerce. BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 9
The total quantity of fish taken, including shell-fish, was 5,440,291 cwt., an increase
of 857,065 cwt. from the 4,583,226 cwt. taken in 1944, and the value to fishermen at
the point of landing was $21,200,645, an increase of 18 per cent, from the previous year.
CAPITAL, EQUIPMENT, AND EMPLOYEES.
Capital.—The value of the capital invested in the fisheries in 1945 was $37,128,455,
an increase of 9 per cent, over the 1944 figure of $33,712,952. The amount invested
in vessels and gear required for landing operations was $18,193,201, and that in fish-
processing establishments was $18,935,254.
Employees.—There were 13,292 persons engaged in primary and 6,038 in secondary
operations in 1945, a total of 19,330 for the industry. There were 829 more persons
engaged in catching and landing the fish and 112 fewer persons in the processing end
of the industry.
THE CANNED-SALMON PACK FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1945.
The total canned-salmon pack canned in British Columbia in 1945 amounted to
1,739,312 cases, according to annual returns submitted to the Provincial Fisheries
Department by the licensed canners. This was 641,755 cases greater than the number
canned in the year previous, but it must be remembered that in 1944 the salmon-pack
in British Columbia was the smallest since the depression years of 1931-32. The
1945 pack was 98,896 cases above the average annual pack for the previous five years
and was 100,279 cases greater than the ten-year average. The 1945 pack consisted of
329,001 cases of sockeye, 12,801 cases of springs, 2,922 cases of steelheads, 218,886
cases of cohoes, 825,513 cases of pinks, and 350,188 cases of chums. In each instance
half-cases have been dropped.
An examination of the pack figures by species shows that, while the sockeye-pack
of 329,001 cases was larger than the previous year's pack of this species by 81,287 cases,
it was, nevertheless, 126,297 cases less than the pack in 1941, which was the cycle-year
for most of the sockeye caught and canned in 1945. The pack in 1945 was also 39,784
cases less than the ten-year average for this species.
The reader is referred to the next section of this report for a breakdown of the
sockeye-salmon pack figures by districts.
There were 12,801 cases of spring salmon packed in 1945, which was 6,561 cases
less than were canned in 1944. The canned-salmon pack of spring salmon, however,
must not be taken as an indication of the catch as most spring salmon caught in British
Columbia enter the fresh, frozen, or mild-cured trade. Those canned are usually caught
incidental to fishing for other species. Steelhead trout are not salmon but a few are
caught and canned each year incidental to fishing and canning operations. The pack
is, accordingly, mentioned in the pages of this report. In 1945 the pack of steelheads
amounted to 2,922 cases. This is compared with 3,926 cases of steelheads in 1944 and
3,095 cases canned in 1943.
The cohoe-pack in 1945, amounting to 218,886 cases, was greater than the previous
year's pack of this species by 37,340 cases. This figure is slightly higher than the
total pack of cohoe for 1942, the cycle-year, but is still 17,320 cases less than the ten-
year average for this species.
The pink-salmon pack in 1945, amounting to 825,513 cases, was most encouraging.
The 1945 pack sets something of a record for this species, certainly in recent past years.
The 1945 pack was the highest for this species since 1930, in which year there were
canned 1,111,937 cases of pink salmon. The total pink-salmon pack in 1945 was 295,324
cases greater than the cycle-year for this species.
The chum-salmon pack in 1945, amounting to 350,188 cases, though 94,872 cases
greater than in the year previous, was still 164,466 cases below the average annual
. N 10
REPORT OP PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
pack for this species for the previous ten years, and if it is assumed that chum salmon
are four-year fish the 1945 pack was 576,613 cases below that of the cycle-year 1941.
The reader is referred to the next section of this report for a breakdown of the
figures for each species by districts.
BRITISH COLUMBIA'S CANNED-SALMON PACK BY DISTRICTS.
Fraser River System.
In 1945 there were packed in British Columbia from Canadian caught salmon
credited to the Fraser River a total of 221,351 cases. This was 90,468 cases more than
were canned from this source in 1944. The 1945 pack consisted of 79,977 cases of
sockeye, 6,130 cases of springs, 270 cases of steelheads, 11,615 cases of cohoe, 95,748
cases of pinks, and 27,610 cases of chums. It will be noted that 1944 was an " off "
year for pink salmon on the the Fraser River and that in 1945 the pink-salmon pack
amounted to 95,748 cases or slightly more than the difference in the total packs for the
two seasons.
Sockeye Salmon.—In 1945 the total pack of canned sockeye salmon produced from
Fraser River caught fish by Canadian and American canners amounted to 133,031
cases. Canadian fishermen caught 79,977 cases while American fishermen took 53,054
cases. The catch percentages of the fishermen of the two countries are 60.1 per cent.
for the Canadian fleet and 39.9 per cent, for the American fleet, according to figures
supplied by the Department of Fisheries for the State of Washington. For convenience
in comparison the percentages for the Fraser River sockeye catch by American and
Canadian fishermen are tabulated below:—
1930	
1931	
1932	
1933	
1934	
1935	
1936	
1937	
1938	
1939	
1940	
1941	
1942	
1943	
1944 !	
1945	
American.
Per Cent.
Canadian.
Per Cent.
78.00
22.00
68.00
32.00
55.00
45.00
71.00
29.00
72.00
28.00
47.00
53.00
25.00
75.00
38.00
62.00
42.00
58.00
44.50
55.50
37.50
62.50
39.30
60.70
37.20
62.80
37.42
62.58
29.77
70.23
39.90
60.10
The 1945 pack of Fraser River sockeye was disappointing when compared with the
sockeye-packs for the preceding cycle-years. The pack in 1945 was the smallest for
this cycle on record. Not since 1921 has the pack fallen below 150,000 cases. It will
be noticed also that of the total sockeye-pack produced on the Fraser River in 1945
the Canadian portion of the pack, amounting to 60.1 per cent., was the smallest
Canadian percentage caught since 1939.
The reader is referred to the salmon-spawning report of the Chief Supervisor of
Fisheries in the Appendix to this report for details of the escapement to the Fraser
River spawning-grounds.
Spring Salmon.—In 1945 there were 6,130 cases of spring salmon canned from fish
caught by Canadian fishermen and credited to the Fraser River.
I BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 11
Cohoe Salmon.—The cohoe-pack in 1945 from Fraser River caught fish was 11,615
cases. This is compared with 15,564 cases in 1944 and 8,809 cases in 1943. In 1942
the pack of cohoe salmon on the Fraser River amounted to 10,542 cases.
Pink Salmon.—In 1945 the pack of pinks on the Fraser River was 95,748 cases.
This is compared with 1943, the cycle-year, when the pack amounted to 29,860 cases.
It will be remembered, however, that in 1943 for some reason the run of pinks did not
materialize. Comparing with previous cycle-years the pack in 1941 was 102,388 cases,
in 1939, 95,176 cases, and in 1937, 94,010 cases.
Chum Salmon.—The chum-salmon pack on the Fraser River in 1945 was 27,610
cases, which was quite disappointing as it was anticipated that the chum-salmon pack
in 1945 from Fraser River fish would amount to at least 50,000 cases. Excluding the
low pack in 1944 the Fraser River chum-salmon pack in 1945 was the lowest since 1937.
It would appear that the Fraser River is in a period of low production so far as chum
salmon is concerned.
In using the canned-salmon pack figures as an index of the run to any river system
other factors should be given equal consideration; namely, the escapement to the
spawning areas and the quantities of the species under consideration finding a market
in other outlets. For instance, on the Fraser River in 1945 it is known that large
quantities of chum salmon were frozen.
Skeena River.
The total canned-salmon pack produced on the Skeena River in 1945 amounted to
221,471 cases of all varieties. This is compared with a total Skeena pack of 149,948
cases for 1944 and 133,589 cases for 1943. The pack of all varieties of salmon on the
Skeena in 1942 amounted to 152,418 cases. In 1945 the Skeena River pack was composed of 104,279 cases of sockeye, 2,382 cases of springs, 1,561 cases of steelheads,
34,201 cases of cohoes, 69,783 cases of pinks, and 9,264 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The 1945 sockeye-salmon pack on the Skeena River of 104,279
cases was the largest since 1940, when 116,507 cases were canned. Previous to 1940
the pack had not reached the 100,000-case mark since 1930, when 132,372 cases were
canned. The runs of sockeye to the Skeena River are composed of four- and five-year-
old fish. If the pack in 1945 is indicative of the total run to this river it would appear
to reflect a successful survival from the 1940 spawning. The 1945 Skeena River
sockeye-pack was 36,082 cases greater than the 1944 pack and was 36,903 cases greater
than the annual pack for the previous ten years.
According to the spawning report of the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for the
Federal Government there was a very heavy escapement of sockeye salmon to the
Babine Lake portion of the Skeena watershed but, unfortunately, water conditions were
such that there was a heavy loss of salmon before spawning. Apparently the sockeye-
salmon run to the Skeena River in 1945 was a successful one but, owing to the heavy
mortality caused by water conditions, one should not be too optimistic with respect to
the returns in 1949 and 1950.
The writer of this report has previously remarked on the general falling-off of
production of sockeye salmon for the Skeena River system. In the pages of this
Department's report for 1944 there was included a graph showing the general trend of
the sockeye-packs of the Skeena River. The Federal Department of Fisheries has now
inaugurated a Skeena River salmon investigation which should eventually indicate the
reasons for the low production and also indicate the corrective measures. It is
gratifying to note the improvement in the Skeena River sockeye run for 1945.
Spring Salmon.—The spring-salmon pack on the Skeena River in 1945 amounted
to 2,382 cases. This is compared with 1,500 cases in 1944 and 1,783 cases in 1943.
There were 6,374 cases of spring salmon canned on the Skeena River in 1942.   Spring N 12 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
salmon find their principal outlet in the fresh- and frozen-fish trade;   therefore, the
canned-salmon pack figures for this species are no indication of the size of the run.
Cohoe Salmon.—The Skeena River in 1945 produced a pack of cohoe amounting to
34,201 cases, which was 14,010 cases greater than the cohoe-pack for this district for
the year previous. Cohoe are considered to be three-year fish. The cycle-year for the
1945 run was, therefore, 1942, and in that year the cohoe-pack was 44,081 cases.
According to reports from the spawning-beds, the escapement was satisfactory. The
1945 pack of cohoe on the Skeena River was 902 cases above the ten-year average for
this species.
Pink Salmon.—In 1945 the Skeena River produced a pack of pink salmon amounting to 69,783 cases. This was the largest pack of pink salmon produced on the Skeena
River since 1939, when 95,236 cases were packed. The 1945 pack was 20,946 cases
greater than the year previous and 15,274 cases above that of the cycle-year 1943. The
Skeena River pink-salmon pack for 1945 was 5,747 cases above the average for the
previous ten years and 3,890 cases greater than the average for the previous five
cycle-years.
The seeding of pinks was reported as being heavy and compared favourably with
the brood-year of 1943, although the fish were individually of smaller size.
Chum Salmon.—There is never a large pack of chum salmon on the Skeena River
and the year 1945 was no exception. In that year the Skeena River produced 9,264
cases of chum salmon. This is compared with 8,741 cases in 1944 and 6,597 cases in
1943. The average annual pack of chum salmon on the Skeena River for the previous
ten years was 10,205 cases.
In all cases in this report where catch figures for the various salmon-streams in
British Columbia are used as a means of indicating the possible size of the run to the
individual streams, the reader is cautioned to give due consideration to the escapement
to the spawning-beds of the respective river systems. The annual report on the salmon-
spawning beds of British Columbia, issued by the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for the
Federal Government, is reproduced in full in another section of this report. The
reader is referred to this report for information as to conditions on the different
spawning-beds.
Nass River.
The total canned-salmon pack of all species of salmon produced on the Nass River
in 1945 was 54,980 cases, which was 6,116 cases less than the year previous but may be
considered close to the average-sized pack for this river system in recent past years.
Sockeye Salmon.—The Nass River produced a pack of 9,899 cases of sockeye salmon
in 1945. This low pack was very disappointing, being the lowest sockeye-pack produced
on the Nass River since 1933 when the pack amounted to 9,757 cases. The sockeye
runs to the Nass River are admittedly unpredictable because the races comprising the
different runs are so badly mixed from the standpoint of year-classes. The Chief
Supervisor of Fisheries reported that sockeye were found in very satisfactory quantities on the principal spawning-beds of this area; nevertheless, the low pack in 1945
must be considered as quite disappointing. In 1941, one of the immediately preceding
cycle-years, the pack amounted to .24,876 cases, while in 1940, another of the immediately preceding cycle-years, the pack was 13,809 cases. The 1945 pack of Nass River
sockeye was 8,912 cases less than the average for the previous ten-year period.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are never a factor in the Nass River production.
In 1945 there were 202 cases of this species canned. This is compared with 681 cases
in the year previous and 1,002 cases in 1943. Spring salmon on the Nass River are
caught incidental to fishing for other species, hence the smallness of the pack and
extreme variation in size from one year to another. BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 13
Cohoe Salmon.—The Nass River in 1945 produced a pack of 3,895 cases of cohoe
salmon. Not since 1939 has the pack of cohoe dropped to such low figures. In that
year the cohoe-pack amounted to 1,996 cases. In 1942, the cycle-year for this species,
the Nass produced a canned-salmon pack of cohoe amounting to 15,487 cases. The 1945
pack was 6,307 cases less than the ten-year average.
The Chief Supervisor of Fisheries reports that the seeding by cohoes on this river
system was heavy.
Pink Salmon.—The production of canned pink salmon on the Nass River in 1945
was 35,918 cases, which was 4,064 cases above that for the year previous and 18,249
cases greater than the pack for the cycle-year 1943. The 1945 pink-salmon pack from
the Nass was 103 cases above the ten-year average.
The Chief Supervisor reported an unexpectedly heavy supply of pinks observed
on the Nass River spawning-beds.
Chum Salmon.—The Nass River is never a heavy producer of chum salmon, although
the 4,981 cases of this species packed in 1945 were considerably less than the annual
packs for this species for recent past years. The pack in 1944 amounted to 9,143 cases,
while in 1943 the pack amounted to 10,146 cases. The pack in 1941, the cycle-year for
this species, was 6,246 cases.
The Chief Supervisor of Fisheries reported that in certain areas the seeding of
chums was reported as heavy, but only light in other parts of the Nass River
tributaries.
Rivers Inlet.
Rivers Inlet in 1945 produced a total pack of 135,412 cases of all species of salmon.
This was composed of 89,735 cases of sockeye, 1,191 cases of springs, 260 cases of steelheads, 17,516 cases of cohoes, 9,916 cases of pinks, and 16,793 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The Rivers Inlet pack of sockeye salmon in 1945, amounting to
89,735 cases, while above the recent small packs for this species on this inlet was,
nevertheless, smaller by 3,643 cases than the pack in 1941, one of the cycle-years.
In 1940, the other cycle-year, the Rivers Inlet sockeye-pack amounted to 63,469 cases.
The reason for quoting two cycle-years in this instance is that the runs of sockeye
salmon to Rivers Inlet are composed of four- and five-year-old fish. In 1945 the Rivers
Inlet sockeye-pack was 21,412 cases above the average annual pack for this species for
the previous ten years. It must be remembered, however, that the year 1936 is
included in the ten-year period for which the average was struck, and in that year
a strike occurred which reduced the pack to 46,351 cases.
The Chief Supervisor of Fisheries reported that, notwithstanding a good catch
commercially, the whole spawning-area undoubtedly had been well seeded.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are caught and canned in Rivers Inlet only incidental to fishing for other varieties. In 1945 the canned pack of spring salmon
amounted to 1,191 cases, compared with 805 cases in 1944, and 765 cases in 1943. In
1942, 985 cases were canned, while in 1941 the pack amounted to 1,692 cases.
Cohoe Salmon.—In 1945 Rivers Inlet produced a canned pack of cohoe salmon
amounting to 17,516 cases. This pack is compared with the 1942 pack, the cycle-year
for this species, which amounted to 8,467 cases. The 1945 pack was 4,864 cases greater
than the ten-year average for this species.
The Chief Supervisor of Fisheries reported a good supply of cohoe on the
spawning-grounds.
Pink Salmon.—Rivers Inlet is never a large producer of pink salmon but some are
taken each year during the sockeye-fishing season. In 1945 the pack of pink salmon
on Rivers Inlet amounted to 9,916 cases. This was the largest pack of pink salmon for
the inlet since 1939.    In 1944 the pack amounted to 5,289 cases, while in 1943, the cycle- N 14 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
year, the pack was 8,347 cases. Fairly heavy supplies of pinks were reported from
the spawning areas.
Chum Salmon.—Previous to 1935 chum salmon were not fished in Rivers Inlet,
except incidental to the sockeye-fishery there. Since 1935 the annual pack of chum
salmon for this inlet has varied from 5,000 cases to a high in 1945 of 16,793 cases.
The previous high was 15,874 cases in 1942. In 1941, which may be considered the
cycle-year for this species on Rivers Inlet, the pack was 15,442 cases. The average
annual pack in recent years for chum salmon on Rivers Inlet amounted to 10,543 cases.
The escapement to the spawning-beds was excellent.
Smith Inlet.
Smith Inlet is primarily a sockeye fishing and canning district, although other
species are caught and canned to some extent, generally incidental to fishing for sockeye salmon. In 1945 the total pack of canned salmon in Smith Inlet amounted to 21,682
cases. Of these 15,014 cases were sockeye. The balance of the pack was made up of
26 cases of springs, 28 cases of steelheads, 560 cases of cohoes, 2,362 cases of pinks,
and 3,692 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The 15,014 cases of sockeye salmon packed in Smith Inlet in
1945 exceeded the pack of the year previous by 11,849 cases, although in 1944 the pack
was the lowest on record and must not be taken as a criterion. The cycle to which
.1945 belongs produced 21,495 cases in 1941, 25,258 cases in 1937, 37,369 cases in 1933
and, excluding the 1944 low pack, the ten-year average for sockeye on Smith Inlet was
21,482 cases. If the small pack of 1944 is included the ten-year average amounts to
18,634 cases.
According to the report of the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries the sockeye seeding
in the Smith Inlet area was good.
Spring Salmon.—Smith Inlet, like Rivers Inlet, produced a small amount of spring
salmon incidental to fishing for other species. In 1945, 26 cases of spring salmon were
canned from Smith Inlet caught fish. This is compared with 66 cases in 1944 and 118
cases in 1943.
Cohoe Salmon.—Smith Inlet is not a cohoe-producing area. However, in 1945,
560 cases were canned from fish caught incidental to the sockeye-fishery. In the year
previous the cohoe catch produced 343 cases, while in 1943, 541 cases were canned.
Pink Salmon.—Smith Inlet is not a pink salmon fishing area. This species also,
like cohoe and springs, is incidental. There were 2,362 cases of pinks canned in Smith
Inlet in 1945, 498 cases in 1944, and 556 cases in 1943.
Chum Salmon.—Smith Inlet is not considered a chum salmon area but in recent
past years there has been some fall seining for chums. The pack, however, is never
large, although the 3,692 cases canned in 1945, while somewhat greater than the 2,122
cases produced in the year previous, is still considerably lower than the ten-year average
for this area. Smith Inlet has produced as many as 15,000 cases of chum salmon in
a season.
Reports from the spawning-beds indicate that seeding was satisfactory.
Queen Charlotte Islands.
Salmon-fishing for canning purposes in the Queen Charlotte Islands is conducted
for pinks and chums only. Pinks frequent the Queen Charlotte Islands in the even-
numbered years. In the odd-numbered years there is no run of pink salmon to the
Queen Charlotte Islands. In 1945 the total canned-salmon pack for fish caught in the
Queen Charlotte Islands amounted to 18,053 cases. This figure is composed of 4 cases
of springs, 1,108 cases of cohoe, 4,809 cases of pinks, and 12,132 cases of chums. BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 15
Cohoe Salmon.—The 1,108 cases of cohoe salmon canned from fish caught in the
Queen Charlotte Islands district in 1945 must not be taken as a measure of the Queen
Charlotte Islands production of this species. A heavy demand by the freezers, and
the consequent higher prices offered, diverted most of the Queen Charlotte Islands
cohoe catch to the frozen-fish trade at the expense of the canners. A comparison of
the canned-salmon pack of this species for 1945 with previous years, therefore, is of
little value, except probably for the record. In 1944 the Queen Charlotte Islands produced sufficient cohoe to fill 19,615 cases, and in 1943 the canned-salmon pack of Queen
Charlotte Islands cohoe amounted to 14,488 cases. In 1942, the cycle-year for this
species, there were 16,935 cases canned from Queen Charlotte Islands caught cohoe.
There would appear to have been a good run of cohoe in the Queen Charlotte
Islands, according to reports from the spawning-grounds issued by the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries. We quote: " A heavy seeding by cohoes occurred in the streams
tributary to Masset Inlet on the west coast of Graham Island "; and again, " A heavy
seeding by cohoes occurred in the streams tributary to Skidegate, Cumshewa and Selwyn
Inlets, and the lower east coast and west coast."
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon occur in the Queen Charlotte Islands every second
year, the runs coinciding with the even-numbered years. The year 1945 was an " off "
year for pink salmon in the Queen Charlotte Islands, there being canned 4,809 cases
of this species caught incidental to fishing for other varieties. This is compared with
313 cases in 1943, the cycle-year, and 524 cases in 1941. In 1939 from this cycle there
were canned 2,123 cases of pink salmon.
Chum Salmon.—The pack of chum salmon canned from Queen Charlotte Islands
caught fish in 1945 amounted to only 12,132 cases. Whether or not these figures are
indicative of the run it is difficult to say. The early runs of chum salmon to many of
the Queen Charlotte Islands streams have been showing signs of some depletion, and
in 1945 the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries took extra precautions in order to permit as
large a quantity as possible to proceed to the spawning-areas. Reports indicate, however, that the late runs of chums to the various chum-salmon streams were quite heavy.
The pack for 1945, however, was an exceedingly small one when compared with the
packs of the immediately preceding years. In 1944 there were 81,916 cases of chum
salmon packed from Queen Charlotte Islands caught fish, while in 1943 the pack of
chums from this area amounted to 35,370 cases. In 1942 the pack was 43,801 cases,
while in 1941, 76,745 cases were canned.    In 1940 the pack was 164,911 cases.
The Chief Supervisor of Fisheries reports that the supply of chums was medium
in the north Queen Charlotte Islands area, fair to light in the southern area, and a light
seeding on the west coast.
Central Area.
For statistical purposes the Central Area comprises all the salmon-fishing areas
off the coast of British Columbia between Cape Calvert and the Skeena River except
Rivers Inlet. The total pack of all varieties of salmon canned from fish caught in this
area in 1945 was 574,080 cases, and was made up of 24,109 cases of sockeye, 542 cases
of springs, 590 cases of steelheads, 45,462 cases of cohoe, 364,385 cases of pinks, and
138,992 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The principal sockeye-fishing grounds of the Central Area are
Fitzhugh Sound and Burke and Dean Channels, while some sockeye are also taken in
the vicinity of Banks Island and Principe Channel. There is a small gill-net sockeye-
fishery conducted in Gardner Canal. Because of the widely scattered area and separate
races of salmon to the different parts of the area, no attempt is made to report separately on the different populations. There were 24,109 cases of sockeye packed in the
Central Area in 1945, compared with 32,715 cases in 1944 and 20,854 cases in 1941, the N 16 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
cycle-year.    The 1945 pack was 860 cases greater than the average for the previous five
years.
The reader is referred to the report on the spawning-grounds published elsewhere
in this report for details of the escapement to the various spawning-beds.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are caught and canned in this area to some extent,
but, as in other areas, the canned pack is from fish caught incidental to fishing for other
varieties. Much of the spring salmon caught in this district finds a market in the
fresh, frozen, and mild-cured trades, consequently the canned-salmon pack figures do
not indicate the extent of the run or the size of the catch. The Central Area, in 1945,
produced 542 cases of canned spring salmon. This is compared with 643 cases in 1944
and 547 cases in 1943, while the pack in 1942 amounted to 723 cases.
Cohoe Salmon.—The cohoe-pack in the Central Area in 1945 amounted to 45,462
cases. This figure is compared with 25,823 cases canned from Central Area caught fish
in 1944 and 26,645 cases in 1943. The canned pack of cohoe salmon from Central Area
fish in 1942, the cycle-year for this species, was 31,274 cases. The pack in 1945 was
10,578 cases greater than the five-year average for this area.
Pink Salmon.—The Central Area has always been considered a good producing
area for pink salmon. The runs, however, as judged by the canned-salmon pack, for
a few years showed a decided drop. In 1943 there was a particularly large run of pink
salmon to the Bella Coola District and, largely as a result of that run, the pack in 1943
amounted to 288,109 cases. The catch of 1945 pinks is the result of the 1943 spawning,
and the 364,385 cases of pinks canned from Central Area caught fish in 1945 is a definite
indication of a successful spawning in 1943. The Central Area packs of pink salmon
for the cycle-years to which the 1945 cycle belongs were as follows: 1943, 288,109
cases;   1941, 66,130 cases;   1939, 150,498 cases.
The reader is referred to the report of the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for details
of the escapement. It is indicated that the seeding of the Bella Coola area was
exceedingly heavy.
Chum Salmon.—The Central Area produced a pack of 138,992 cases of chum
salmon in 1945, which was 35,067 cases greater than the average for the previous
five-year period and is compared with 80,793 cases packed in 1944 and 109,101 cases
of chums packed in 1943.
Vancouver Island.
The total canned-salmon pack credited to Vancouver Island in 1945 amounted to
492,281 cases, composed of 5,988 cases of sockeye, 2,323 cases of springs, 128 cases of
steelheads, 104,528 cases of cohoes, 242,590 cases of pinks, and 136,742 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The 5,988 cases of sockeye credited to Vancouver Island in 1945
is compared with 5,288 cases in 1944 and 7,185 cases in 1943. There were 40,273 cases
of sockeye credited to Vancouver Island in 1941, the cycle-year. The 1945 pack was
16,151 cases less than the average annual pack for this species for the previous five
years.
Spring Salmon.—Large quantities of spring salmon are caught in the waters off
Vancouver Island each year. Most of these fish, however, are taken by troll and find
a market in the fresh- and frozen-fish trade. The trap catch on the lower east coast
of Vancouver Island also finds a market principally as fresh, frozen, or mild-cured.
The amount of spring salmon canned from Vancouver Island caught fish consists principally of spring salmon taken in the seines while fishing for other varieties, consequently the pack figures are not indicative of the size of the catch. In 1945 Vancouver
Island was credited with 2,323 cases of spring salmon. In 1944 the pack was 3,068
cases, while in 1943, 2,937 cases were canned.
Cohoe Salmon.—Vancouver Island produced a pack of 104,528 cases of cohoe in
1945.    This figure is compared with 79,813 cases of this species canned in 1944 and BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 17,
81,837 cases in 1942, the cycle-year. The cohoe-pack for Vancouver Island in 1945 was
3,142 cases greater than the average for the previous five7year period.
Pink Salmon.—There were 242,590 cases of pink salmon canned from Vancouver
Island caught fish in 1945. This is the largest pack of pink salmon credited to this
district since 1937, when 318,780 cases were canned. The 1945 pack is compared with
130,825 cases in 1943, the cycle-year, and 177,292 cases in 1941, also in this cycle.
The pack of pinks in 1945 was 119,736 cases above the average for the previous five
years.
Chum Salmon.—The 1945 pack of chum salmon from Vancouver Island caught fish
amounted to 136,724 cases, compared with 56,029 cases in 1944 and 132,843 cases in
1943. While the 1945 pack figures are considerably above those recorded in the year
previous, the chum-salmon pack for Vancouver Island is still very much below the
Vancouver Island recorded production for previous years. We again present herewith
a table showing the chum-salmon pack of Vancouver Island for recent past years for
comparison:— cases.
1944  .  56,029
1943 132,843
1942 383,005
1941 593,016
1940  . 279,064
1939  . 212,949
1938 266,566
1937 203,900
1936 347,951
1935  . 143,960
1934 210,239
In comparing Vancouver Island pack figures for recent past years with the pack
figures for this area in pre-war years, due consideration must be given to two factors.
First, the heavy demand of the freezers for Vancouver Island caught chums, particularly during the latter war years. Offsetting this, however, it must be remembered
that previous to the war large quantities of Vancouver Island chum salmon were salted
and shipped to the Orient. When these facts are taken into consideration, there would
appear to be a falling-off in the chum-salmon catch in the Vancouver Island area.
In all cases where not specifically mentioned, the reader is referred to the report
on the spawning-areas issued by the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for the Federal
Government, which is published in full in the Appendix to this report. A consideration
of the escapement, together with the pack, is essential to a proper appraisal of the runs.
REVIEW OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-CANNING
INDUSTRY, 1945.
The Provincial Fisheries . Department licensed twenty-nine salmon-canneries for
operation in British Columbia in 1945.    All of these operated.    The number of salmon-
canneries operating- in the Province in 1945 was one less than the number operated in
1944, although the number of licences issued in 1945 was two less than in the year
previous.    The operating canneries were located as follows:—
Queen Charlotte Islands	
Skeena River      7
Central Area     4
Rivers Inlet     1
Johnstone Strait      3
Fraser River and Lower Mainland   10
West coast of Vancouver Island     3
Nass River      1 . N 18 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
It will be noted from the above that the location of the operating canneries in
1945 was slightly different from those operated in 1944. In the Queen Charlotte
Islands in 1945 there were no salmon-canning operations. On the Skeena River seven
canneries operated in 1945 compared with eight in the year previous. In the Central
Area and in Rivers Inlet the same number operated in 1945 as in the year previous,
but in Johnstone Strait area three canneries operated in 1945, one more than operated
in this area in the year previous. The Fraser River and Lower Mainland, west coast
of Vancouver Island, and the Nass River each had ten, three, and one operations
respectively, the same number as operated in these areas in the year previous.
Since the beginning of the war the number of canneries operating in the Province
has each year been considerably less than before the war. Generally speaking, the
shortage of labour and technical help has forced a consolidation of operations in many
cases. Companies owning and operating a number of canneries have been forced to
close down one or more of their operating plants and consolidate their operations.
In other cases different companies have come to working agreements to can each other's
fish in different areas. These consolidations and joint operations have been forced
on the companies during the war years, but one may expect these arrangements to be
continued in the post-war era, particularly in those instances where the consolidation
or joint operation has been successful to the participants.
In 1945, as in the previous war years, the bulk of British Columbia's canned-
salmon pack was taken over by the Federal Government for the British Ministry of
Food, although, as in 1944, a small amount was made available for domestic consumption. In 1944 this amounted to 250,000 cases, while the amount allocated for domestic
consumption in 1945 was 300,000 cases. This amount, of course, was not nearly
enough to satisfy Canadian needs, but the distribution of even this small amount in
Canada had the effect of keeping the canners' labels before the public.
Again in 1945, as in the year previous, and in order that as much as possible of
the salmon-catch of British Columbia would be canned, certain restrictions upon the
disposal of salmon were again in effect as in 1944, 1943, and 1942. The Provincial
Government in 1945 again refused to permit the operation of salmon dry-salteries and
the Federal Government also placed an embargo on the export of fresh salmon in
certain categories, except under export permit. These measures, no doubt, were the
means of diverting considerable quantities of salmon to the canneries which might
have found an outlet in other markets had these regulations not been in effect.
OTHER CANNERIES   (PILCHARD, HERRING, AND SHELL-FISH).
Pilchard.—Six pilchard-canneries were licensed to operate in British Columbia in
1945. This was one less than was licensed in 1944, although in that year only six of
the seven pilchard-canneries licensed actually operated. In 1945 all but one of the
licensed pilchard-canneries operated on the west coast of Vancouver Island. The
pilchard-fishery of British Columbia is centred largely off the west coast of Vancouver
Island and most of the catch is reduced to meal and oil. However, the war-stimulated
demand for highly concentrated proteins has increased the demand for canned pilchards
along with other canned fish.
In 1945 the six pilchard-canneries produced 79,536 cases of canned pilchards.
The pack of canned pilchards in the year previous was 78,772 cases. It will be recalled,
however, that the pilchard-catch in 1945 was a very poor one, otherwise there is no
doubt but that the canned pack would have been very much greater.
Herring.—In 1945 twenty-two plants were licensed to can herring in British
Columbia, but only twenty of these plants actually got into operation. Herring have
been canned in British Columbia for a number of years but, previous to the war, the
canned-herring pack was comparatively small, averaging around 25,000 cases annually. BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 19
On the outbreak of hostilities, however, the demand for canned herring increased
enormously. The herring-canning industry of the Province was, in one year, enlarged
from a comparatively insignificant branch of our fisheries to one of the most important.
In 1939, the first year of the war, the industry in British Columbia produced
418,000 cases of canned herring and since that time the annual pack has been over
1,000,000 cases. In 1945 the twenty operating plants produced 1,307,514 cases of
herring compared with 1,190,762 cases in 1944.
Shell-fish Canneries.—In 1945 nine plants were licensed to can shell-fish, although
only six of these operated. The shell-fish canning operations in British Columbia are
never large and the production fluctuates considerably. In 1945 the six operating
plants produced 2,797 cases of crabs, 15,675 cases of clams, and 250 cases of abalone.
MILD-CURED SALMON.
There were eight licences issued by the Provincial Fisheries Department in 1945
covering tierced-salmon plants, although only six of these actually got into production.
The six plants produced 1,697 tierces of mild-cured salmon in 1945. In the year
previous six operating plants produced 2,300 tierces of mild-cured salmon.
DRY-SALT SALMON.
Previous to 1939 there have been varying amounts of chum salmon dry-salted for
shipment to the Orient. In some years the production of dry-salt salmon reached
fairly large proportions. While the demand for dry-salt salmon in the Orient during
the war has not been a factor, nevertheless there has been a small demand for dry-
salt salmon to meet certain Canadian trade. Due, however, to the increased demand
occasioned by the war for inexpensive protein foods such as canned salmon, the Provincial Government declined to issue salmon dry-saltery licences again in 1945. There
has been no production of this commodity since 1938.
DRY-SALT HERRING.
Dry-salt herring, previous to the outbreak of the war, was produced in large
quantities in British Columbia for shipment to China. However, since the outbreak
of the war the bulk of the herring-catch in British Columbia has been canned. In
order to divert as much as possible of the herring-catch to the canneries, no herring
dry-salteries have been permitted to operate in British Columbia since 1940.
Late in 1945 U.N.R.R.A. asked the British Columbia producers to dry-salt a quantity of herring for China. The necessary plant and equipment was not available for
a large production and, because of the lateness of the season, only one plant was able
to get into production, and then for a short period only before the season closed.
There were 302 tons of dry-salt herring produced in British Columbia in 1945, the
first since 1940.    The whole of the 1945 production was for the account of U.N.R.R.A.
PICKLED HERRING.
The business of pickling herring in British Columbia attained fairly large proportions during World War I., due largely to the fact that European supplies of pickled
herring were unavailable. After the Armistice in 1918 the demand for British
Columbia pickled herring dropped off rapidly and for many years no pickled herring
was produced in British Columbia. Again, during World War II., the demand for
pickled herring was revived, due largely to the fact that again the source of supply,
which was Europe, was cut off and Canada and the United States have had to look
elsewhere for this product. Since 1940 production of pickled herring in British
Columbia has not been large, but it is hoped that this industry will be maintained to
some extent at least in the post-war years. N 20 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
The production in 1940 amounted to 5,500 barrels and since that time the production has varied. In 1944 the production amounted to 125 barrels, and, in 1945, 819
barrels of pickled herring were produced by six operating plants, although ten plants
were licensed to operate.
HALIBUT PRODUCTION.
The halibut-fishery on the Pacific Coast of North America is regulated by the
International Fisheries Commission and is shared in by the nationals of both Canada
and the United States. The Commission regulates the fishery on a quota basis and on
that account there is very little fluctuation in the total amount of halibut landed from
year to year. For the purpose of regulation the coast has been divided into four
areas, the principal areas from the standpoint of production being Areas Nos. 2 and 3.
Area No. 2 comprises the waters of the Washington and British Columbia coasts from
the approximate vicinity of Willapa Harbour in the south to Cape Spencer in the north.
Area No. 3 comprises the waters from the northern boundary of Area No. 2 to the
Aleutians. The other two areas, Nos. 1 and 4, from which production is small, comprise the waters south of Area No. 2 and the Bering Sea respectively.
In 1945 the catch-limit for Area No. 2 was 24,500,000 lb. and for Area No. 3,
28,000,000 lb. The catch-limits for the same areas in 1944 were, for Area No. 2,
23,500,000 lb., and for Area No. 3, 27,500,000 lb. The quota for 1945 was, therefore,
1,500,000 lb. greater than the quota allowed for 1944. These quotas are exclusive of
the halibut caught incidentally while fishing for other species with set-lines in the
areas closed to halibut-fishing. In 1945 the fourth increase in the halibut quota in
succession was allowed by the International Fisheries Commission. In doing so the
Commission pointed out that the action was taken purely on account of the exigencies
caused by the war, and that there is a definite possibility of the quotas being lowered
when the nations' needs for protein food are less demanding.
The total landings of halibut by all vessels in all ports in 1945 amounted to
54,665,000 lb. Of this amount 24,980,000 lb. were taken in Area No. 2 and 29,156,000
lb. were taken in Area No. 3. There were 529,000 lb. landed from Area No. 1. The
total landing's by all vessels in Canadian ports in 1945 was 19,680,000 lb. Of this
amount 11,967,000 lb. were caught in Area No. 2 and 7,713,000 lb. were reported to
have been caught in Area No. 3. The 19,680,000 lb. landed by all vessels in Canadian
ports in 1945 are compared with 18,698,000 lb. landed by ail vessels in Canadian ports
in 1944.
The total landings by Canadian vessels in Canadian ports in 1945 amounted to
15,109,000 lb., compared with similar landings in 1944 amounting to 13,262,000 lb.
Of the total Canadian landings in Canadian ports 11,720,000 lb. were reported to have
been taken in Area No. 2 and 3,389,000 lb. are reported to have been taken in Area
No. 3. In addition to the above, Canadian vessels landed a total of 162,000 lb. of
halibut in American ports, 30,000 lb. of which were taken in Area No. 2 and 132,000
lb. were taken in Area No. 3. American vessels landed 4,571,000 lb. of halibut in
Canadian ports in 1945.
The average weighted price paid for Canadian halibut in Prince Rupert in 1945
was 17.48 cents per pound, and for all Canadian landings in Canadian ports 17.54 cents
per pound.
Halibut-livers have been a source of revenue to the halibut fishermen for a number
of years because of their high vitamin content. The calculated value of the halibut-
livers sold by the Canadian and United States fleets in 1945 was $1,220,000. Of this
amount Canadians received $148,000.
Statistical information furnished herewith is supplied by the International Fisheries Commission and is gratefully acknowledged. BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 21
FISH OIL AND MEAL.
Fish-oil and edible fish-meal have been an important branch of British Columbia's
fishery production for a number of years. Previous to the war pilchard and herring
were the principal species used for the production of oil and meal. Since the outbreak
of the war and the consequent increase in the demand for natural sources of vitamins,
other species have been found to yield oils of higher vitamin content and an increased
demand for these products has stimulated activity in this field. Dogfish-livers, shark-
livers, codfish-livers, cannery waste, and viscera are all utilized for the production of
fish-oil, much of which finds a market in the pharmaceutical field. In addition to the
high vitamin oils used in the medicinal field, British Columbia fish-oils of the lower
vitamin potencies find an outlet in many manufacturing processes, such as the production
of soaps, paints, linoleums, printers' ink, etc. Other vitamin-bearing fish-oils produced
in British Columbia are sold in large quantities for the feeding of poultry and live stock.
Fish-liver Oil.—The fish-liver oil production of British Columbia since the outbreak of the war has reached quite important proportions in the Provincial fisheries
economy. It has been known for some time that the livers and viscera of certain
Pacific fishes were a valuable source of vitamins, and the increasing demand for
a natural source of Vitamin A has been the chief cause for the continued rise in
production of fish-liver oil.
Since 1942 the Provincial Fisheries Department has required licences for the
operation of fish-liver reduction plants. In 1945 eleven fish-liver reduction plant
licences were issued, ten of which operated. These ten plants in 1945 processed
6,281,195 lb. of livers, producing 445,858 imperial gallons of oil.
Pilchard Reduction.—The pilchard-fishery of British Columbia is conducted principally off the west coast of Vancouver Island and, while the bulk of the pilchard-
catch is taken off-shore, in latter years the fishing-vessels have been proceeding farther
south to meet the pilchard run on its northern migration from California waters.
In 1945 there were six pilchard-reduction plants licensed to operate. These six
plants produced 5,812 tons of meal and 1,273,329 imperial gallons of oil. The production of these six plants in 1945 was considerably below the 1944 figures. In that year
seven plants produced 8,435 tons of meal and 1,675,090 imperial gallons of oil.
Herring Reduction.—The reduction of herring to meal and oil in British Columbia
has become an important branch of our winter fishery. Herring are caught from
October to March and, while heretofore the reduction of herring was conducted largely
on the west coast and on the south-east coast of Vancouver Island, latterly, particularly
during the war years, the industry has spread and now practically covers the entire
British Columbia coast. Since 1941 the demand for a high protein food at low cost
to meet the exigencies of the war caused the Government to take such action as would
divert as much as possible of the herring-catch from the reduction plants to the
canneries. The Provincial Government in 1942, 1943, 1944, and again in 1945, licensed
herring-reduction plants on the west coast of Vancouver Island on the distinct understanding that no herring caught on the east coast would be utilized for reduction in
west coast plants, while reduction plants operating on the east coast were licensed on
the distinct understanding that no herring caught on the east coast of Vancouver
Island would be used for reduction purposes except that portion of the catch unsuitable
for canning. The Provincial Government's regulations were supplemented by further
regulations of the Federal Government which prohibited the delivery of east coast
caught herring to any one except a licensed herring-cannery. As a result of these
regulations and the desire of the canners to can as much as possible of the herring-
catch, the reduction plants operating on herring produced less than would otherwise
have been the case. N 22 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
There were eleven herring-reduction plants licensed to operate in British Columbia
in 1945. These eleven plants produced 5,525 tons of meal and 521,649 imperial gallons
of oil. These figures are compared with the production of ten plants operated in 1944
which produced 9,539 tons of meal and 717,655 imperial gallons of oil.
Whale Reduction.—Whale reduction has been fairly consistent in recent past years
in British Columbia waters, but since 1944 there has been no whaling conducted by
Canadian plants in British Columbia waters.
Miscellaneous Reduction.—Dogfish and fish-offal reduction plants are licensed to
operate each year in British Columbia. These plants produce meal and oil from cannery
waste and from the carcasses of dogfish. The oil from the dogfish carcasses is not to
be confused with dogfish-liver oil, which is reported in another section of this report.
In 1945 nine plants were licensed to operate in British Columbia. These plants
produced 4,552 tons of meal and 513,442 imperial gallons of oil. These figures are
compared with the production of ten plants operating in 1944, which production
amounted to 2,721 tons of meal and 301,038 imperial gallons of oil.
NET-FISHING IN NON-TIDAL WATERS.
Under section 23 of the Special Fishery Regulations for British Columbia, fishing
with nets in certain specified non-tidal waters within the Province is permissible under
licence from the Provincial Commissioner of Fisheries. This fishery is confined almost
exclusively to the residents living within reasonable distance of the lakes in the Interior
of the Province. As the number of licences issued has been increasing, and as statistics
are now available covering the catch for recent past years, it was deemed advisable that
this information should be contained in the annual report of the Provincial Fisheries
Department. There will be found in the Appendix to this report a table showing the
name and number of lakes in which net-fishing has been permitted, together with the
number and approximate weight of the various species of fish taken from each lake.
It will be noted from the statistical data that there are three different kinds of
fishing licences issued for net-fishing in the non-tidal waters of the Province—namely,
fur-farm, ordinary, and sturgeon. Licensed fur-farmers, under subsection (1) of
section 23 of the Special Fishery Regulations for British Columbia, are permitted to
take coarse fish by the use of nets of suitable mesh in the non-tidal waters of the
Province under licence from the Commissioner of Fisheries.
There were twenty-five licences issued to fur-farmers in the 1945-46 season,
whereas in the 1944-45 season the number of fur-farmers who were issued fishing
licences was thirty-six. The coarse fish taken under these licences are used as food
for fur-bearing animals held in captivity. Ordinary licences permit the licence-holder
to use a specified number of pieces of net to take fish other than salmon, trout, or
sturgeon in the non-tidal waters of the Province for the licensee's own use or, in
certain specific cases, the product may be sold.
During the 1945-46 season there were eighty-four ordinary fishing licences issued.
This number is compared with seventy-one ordinary fishing licences issued in the year
previous.    In the 1945-46 season there was also issued one sturgeon-fishing licence.
The total number of all non-tidal fishing licences issued in the 1945-46 season was
110. This is compared with a total of 108 in the 1944-45 season and 106 in the year
prior to that.
The reader is referred to the table in the Appendix to this report for a detailed
account of the fish taken by licensed nets in the non-tidal waters of the Province during
the 1945-46 season. BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 23
CONDITION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-SPAWNING GROUNDS.
Owing to this Department having discontinued making inspections of the various
salmon-spawning areas of the Province, we are indebted to Major J. A. Motherwell,
Chief Supervisor of Fisheries, and the officers of his Department who conducted the
investigations, for furnishing us with a copy of his Department's report. His courtesy
in supplying us with this report is gratefully acknowledged.
Major Motherwell's report on the condition of British Columbia's salmon-spawning
grounds will be found in full in the Appendix to this report.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
(Digest.)     (No. 31.)
There will be found in the Appendix to this report another paper, No. 31, in the
series " Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon." Paper No. 31 is
again contributed by Dr. W. A. Clemens, Department of Zoology, University of British
Columbia.
In commenting on the general characteristics of the sockeye runs to the various
river systems, Dr. Clemens points out that the sockeye run to Rivers Inlet in 1945 was
composed of 57 per cent, four-year-olds and 41 per cent, five-year-olds, and that the run
of 1941 contributed in a large part to the pack of 1945. The return from this spawning
was considered quite satisfactory. Dr. Clemens predicts that the return in 1946 will
be the product of the spawnings of 1941 and 1942. In 1941 there was a large pack and
the streams were reported as having been well seeded. The 1941 brood-year had already
produced a considerable number of four-year-old fish which should produce, therefore,
a fair number of five-year-olds in 1946. Dr. Clemens suggests that the run to Rivers
Inlet in 1946 might be expected to be a medium-sized one.
Commenting on the Skeena River sockeye run, Dr. Clemens says the return in 1946
will be the product of the spawnings of 1941 and 1942. In the former year the pack
was 81,767 cases and the escapement was described as very satisfactory. Since this
year did not produce a very large number of four-year-old fish, there should be a fair
number of five-year-old fish in 1946. In 1942 the pack was 34,544 cases and the escapement was only fairly good. The return from the 1942 spawning should be relatively
small. Therefore, Dr. Clemens thinks that the size of the run in 1946 will depend
largely upon the return of five-year-old fish, which will not be large.
With regard to the run to the Nass River, Dr. Clemens says that, as the return in
1946 will be derived largely from the brood-years of 1941 and 1942, and as both years
produced packs of over 20,000 cases and a very good escapement, there would seem to
be reasonable grounds for expecting a run in 1946 which would produce a pack of close
to 20,000 cases.
Dr. Clemens continues to discuss the age-group compositions of the runs to the
various river systems. For a more detailed account of the analysis of the runs the
reader is referred to Dr. Clemens' paper published in the Appendix to this report.
HERRING INVESTIGATION.
The herring investigation, financed jointly by the Fisheries Research Board of
Canada and the Provincial Fisheries Department, was continued during 1945 by Dr.
A. L. Tester, Mr. J. C. Stevenson, of the Pacific Biological Station, and their assistants.
The results of the tagging and tag-recovery programme for the 1945-46 season
are given in detail in the Appendix to this report. Additional information has been
obtained regarding the extent of mixture between runs in the Queen Charlotte Strait
area and along the Central coast-line. N 24 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
In the Queen Charlotte Strait area fish which were tagged while spawning in the
vicinity of Retreat Passage and Clio Channel were found during the following fishing
season in the vicinity of Clio Channel, Belleisle Sound, and Mackenzie Sound, but not
in the same proportion: relatively more Clio Channel tags were recovered from Clio
Channel, and relatively more Retreat Passage tags were recovered from Belleisle Sound
and Mackenzie Sound. It was also found that fish tagged several years previously at
Kingcome Inlet returned to the adjacent fishing-grounds of Belleisle Sound and Mackenzie Sound, rather than to the more distant fishing-grounds of Clio Channel. No
tags were recovered from small catches made in Seymour Inlet and larger catches made
towards the head of Knight Inlet. The former probably constitutes a local run, supplied by local spawning-grounds. The status of the run to the head of Knight Inlet is
uncertain, interpretation of the results being complicated by the fact that practically
all of the fish were small, immature or maturing individuals that would not have been
available for tagging on the spawning-grounds.
The results for the Central coast-line area indicate that the run to the " inside "
fishing-grounds of Tolmie Channel vicinity was not supplied by spawning-grounds along
the " outer " coast-line. The runs to the main outside fishing-grounds—Laredo Channel
vicinity and Hevenor Inlet—were made up mostly of fish from local spawning-grounds
and to a lesser extent from more distant spawning-grounds, the contributions decreasing
with distance.
A new type tag detector, discussed in the report for last year, has been built and
used for recovering tagged fish from the unloading system of a reduction plant. Its
performance was satisfactory and its use in future years should increase the efficiency
of tag recovery.
Experiments to determine the extent of mortality among tagged fish were continued. A rate of tagging mortality of about 60 per cent, for fish tagged during the
fishing season was previously reported. In an experiment still under way the mortality rate would seem to be even higher for ripe fish tagged during the spawning season.
Reliable estimates of tagging mortality rate and its variation with size, sex, and condition of the fish and skill of the tagger are essential in attempting to make quantitative
estimates of rates of recruitment and rates of fishing mortality from tag recoveries.
The present experiments must be regarded as preliminary; more thorough experiments
should be undertaken when time and facilities are available.
The sampling of the commercial catches and spawning runs undertaken by Mr.
Stevenson was considerably increased in 1945-46 over the previous year. In 1944-45
a total of 137 samples was taken, while during the current season 198 samples, comprising 19,822 fish, were studied. Of this latter total, 181 samples (18,125 fish) were
from the commercial catches with 17 samples (1,697 fish) from the spawning runs.
The start made a year ago by both investigators on a comprehensive study of the age,
length, and weight composition of samples collected since 1935-36 has not been continued, due largely to lack of sufficient time and to the fact that such a study is closely
associated with other phases of the investigation which as yet are not sufficiently
advanced.
A special study of the occurrence of 2-year herring in the catches is being made.
In recent years the number of herring of this age has increased in certain major areas
as the fishing season progressed. The purposes of this study are: (1) to study the
nature of the increase in two-year fish; (2) to determine the extent of this phenomenon
in the British Columbia herring-fishery; (3) to determine how many years it has shown
up in the samples and to find out whether the phenomenon was not revealed in earlier
years because of the inadequacy of the sampling; and (4) to find out if such an increase
in 2-year fish bears any relationship to the numbers of 3-year fish, to the length, weight,
and maturity of 2-year fish, and finally to the catch. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
N 25
A study has been made of the growth of herring in the Queen Charlotte Strait
fishery, using length and age data in the samples taken from the beginning of the
fishery in 1939-40 until 1944-45. The results have been presented for publication in
the Progress Reports of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada.
The collection of spawning reports from fisheries inspectors and of daily catch
records from fishermen was continued. In addition to the latter, a system of collecting
records of the daily landings of herring at processing plants, including information on
tonnage, seine-boat, tender, area of fishing, and disposal was introduced.
On the basis of previous catch, age composition, and spawning intensity predictions
were made of the expected abundance of herring on the various fishing-grounds. These
predictions were moderately successful. The large runs to Barkley Sound and Sydney
Inlet were anticipated.
An analysis of the herring situation on the west coast of Vancouver Island was
made. It was pointed out that there had been a decrease in catch in recent years as
compared with early years which could not be satisfactorily explained by any of the
following possible causes: reduced fishing effort, reduced availability, imposition of
catch restrictions, fishing-off of accumulated stock, unfavourable balance between rate
of increase from growth and rate of decrease from natural mortality assuming a constant supply of young. It was decided that the decline was due to decreased recruitment
which might be caused by prolonged unfavourable conditions for survival of the young
, (less likely), or decreased spawning because of increased fishing intensity (more likely).
A plan was proposed whereby an intensive investigation of the herring of the west
coast of Vancouver Island would be inaugurated, accompanied by a change in regulations to assist in arriving at a positive conclusion as to the effect of fishing intensity
on recruitment, and thus a positive conclusion as to the need for catch restrictions.
The effect of fishing activity on recruitment would be studied by imposing contrasting
conditions of exploitation—intensive fishing for two years followed by no fishing in
the third year, the sequence to be maintained for four cycles or twelve years. It was
indicated that over a twelve-year period the expected total catch with eight years of
fishing would be as large as the total catch with twelve years of fishing under present
regulations, allowing for a moderate increase in fishing intensity in the open years.
The plan has been placed before the industry for consideration.
PILCHARD INVESTIGATION.
The programme of pilchard investigation has remained curtailed, with effort
directed along only three lines—namely, examining or " sampling " the catch to determine its length, weight, sex ratio, and age characteristics; recovering tags from fish
which were tagged in previous years; and collecting catch statistics from the fishermen
and from the processors. The work has been carried out by Dr. J. L. Hart, of the
Pacific Biological Station, with the help of Mr. W. E. Barraclough and Miss Dorothy
Furk. Age-determinations were made as the result of a co-operative arrangement with
the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
Sampling showed male and female pilchards to be present in the catches in approximately equal numbers. Females were longer and heavier than males and fish taken
during the summer up to September 12th were larger than those taken during the
autumn, October 3rd to November 30th. These relationships are shown in the following tabulation:—
Average Lengths
( Millimetres ).
Average Weights
(Grams).
Male.
Female.
Both.
Male.
Female.
Both.
1                 1
237.2         242.6    |    239.9
234.5     !     241.0     1     237.8
205.8
195.8
218.6
215.4
212.2
205.8 N 26 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
The fish are longer and heavier than in the years immediately preceding as the
following comparison for summer fish with the sexes combined shows:—
Length Weight
Year. (Millimetres). (Grams).
1945  239.9 212.2
1944  236.6 199.1
1943  235.2 179.9
The increase in average length and weight of the individual fish is related to the
growth of the brood of fish produced in 1939. These fish still comprised 32 per cent,
of the total catch after having provided a substantial share of the catch since they were
first exploited by the regular pilchard-fishery in 1941. The 1939 year-brood together
with the broods of the preceding and succeeding years constitute 68 per cent, of the
catch as sampled in 1945.    This result is compared with those of previous years in the
accompanying tabulation:  Percentage of Percentage of
Fish in 3rd, 4th, Fish in 6th, 7th,
Year. and 5th Years. and 8th Years,
1940  44 47
1941  64 33
1942  71 27
1943  54 43
1944  32 64
1945  27 68
The high percentages of older fish in the last three years are undoubtedly caused
by the failure of the pilchards hatched since 1940 to supply fish to the British Columbia
fleet to any great extent.
Nine tags were recovered between August 24th, 1945, and the end of the herring
season of 1945-46. Eight of these tags had been put out by the California Division of
Fish and Game and one of them by the Oregon Fisheries Commission. None originated
in Canada. The most recent of these had been out for four years, the oldest for nearly
eight. The total number of tags recovered per ton of fish processed (9/34,000 =
0.00026) is substantially higher than would be expected on the basis of a 70-per-cent.
decline from the concentration of the previous year (30/100 X 26/59,000 = 0.00013).
The 1945 season provided an extreme example of the recent tendency for fishing to
extend late into the season. In the first week of October only 45 per cent, of the year's
total catch had been landed. This is comparable with the following figures for recent
years: 1944, 86 per cent.; 1943, 78 per cent.; 1942, 65 per cent.; 1941, 86 per cent.,
and the following figures based on meal production for a series of years earlier in the
history of the fishery: 1934, 100 per cent.; 1933, 100 per cent.; 1932, 95 per cent.;
1931, 96-)- per cent.; 1930, 97+ per cent. Although the fishing units have remained
practically constant in number and have improved in efficiency, the pilchard-catch of
34,302 tons was the lowest since 1940 and the fourth lowest since the fishery became
well organized in 1926.
SHELL-FISH INVESTIGATION.
In the Appendix to this report will be found a paper by Mr. Ferris Neave, of the
Pacific Biological Station at Nanaimo, on the condition of the butter-clam fishery in
British Columbia. In this paper Mr. Neave discusses the present regulations and their
effectiveness, together with the distribution of butter-clams, the density of population,
growth rate, and age and size at maturity. The frequency of spawning and setting is
also briefly discussed in connection with the life-history of the species. Mr. Neave also
describes the equipment used by diggers and how the beaches are dug, together with the
catches and amount earned by the diggers. Mr. Neave briefly discusses the various
clam-producing districts under the following headings:   Northern British Columbia, BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 27
Central British Columbia, Queen Charlotte and Johnstone Strait, northern Strait of
Georgia, south-east coast of Vancouver Island, and other areas.
Under the heading of conservation, Mr. Neave is of the opinion that under present
economic conditions and with the present digging methods it is unlikely that the butter-
clam stock of any large district could be depleted through over-fishing to a point which
would preclude recovery. The beaches are never completely exploited, even as regards
legal-sized clams, while in some instances the nature of the ground or the inconvenience
of its location may give an additional measure of protection. Mr. Neave goes on to
say that some spawning takes place before legal size is attained, although exploitation
in conjunction with the irregular seeding of the clam-beaches, which is a natural
occurrence, can produce periods of commercial scarcity.'
With respect to the complaints of depletion which have been made regarding the
clam-beaches on or near the south-east coast of Vancouver Island, Mr. Neave points out
that these have been exploited longer and more heavily than any other, and it is here
that evidence of over-fishing might be expected. The small catch and low availability
of clams in 1939 and 1940 followed a period of heavier than average annual catches.
The subsequent improvement in the catch per unit of effort and in total catch shows,
however, that depletion had not proceeded far enough to preclude a fairly rapid
recovery. Exploitation in this area has probably become heavy enough to reflect in
some degree the wide natural variations in the annual seeding of young clams.
Further on in the same section Mr. Neave suggests that, while continued unrestricted exploitation would probably result in a fluctuating annual production, a more
stable fishery would probably result from the application of a yearly quota, representing
a quantity somewhat less than the yields obtained in the most productive years. Mr.
Neave feels that by limiting the annual catch in the area in question to 500 tons an
additional safeguard would be provided for the stocks of butter-clams without reducing
the long-term output, while the introduction of more intensive methods of exploitation
would probably make a quota imperative.
For a proper understanding the reader is referred to Mr. Neave's paper which is
published in the Appendix to this report.
INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES COMMISSION, 1945.
The regulation of the Pacific halibut-fishery was continued by the International
Fisheries Commission under authority of the Halibut Treaty of 1937. This was accompanied by continued observations of the fishery and investigations of the condition of the
stocks of halibut upon which the successful administration of the fishery has depended.
The halibut-fishery regulations for 1945 became effective on February 24th.
Except for a few modifications to provide for new developments they were substantially
the same as those for 1944. The opening date of the fishing season was changed from
April 16th to May 1st upon recommendation of the fleets. The catch-limit for Area 2
was increased from 23,500,000 to 24,500,000 lb. and that for Area 3 from 27,500,000 to
28,000,00 lb., in keeping with the improved condition of each stock.
A provision of the regulations under which the Commission could set any date
between November 1st and November 30th as the beginning of the closed season was
eliminated to provide a definite date, midnight of November 30th, as the beginning of
the statutory closed season. Permits for the retention of halibut caught incidentally
by set-line boats fishing for other species in areas closed to halibut-fishing were made
invalid at midnight of November 15th, fifteen days earlier than in 1944.
Area 2, including the grounds off Washington, British Columbia, and south-eastern
Alaska, was closed to halibut-fishing at midnight of June 15th when its catch-limit was
attained. Area 1, south of Area 2 and without any catch-limit, was closed at the same
time as Area 2 as provided in the regulations.    Areas 3 and 4 were closed at midnight N 28 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
of September 24th when the catch-limit of Area 3 was reached. Limited amounts of
incidentally caught halibut were landed under permit from the closed Area 2 until
November 15th.
The total catch of halibut on the Pacific Coast in 1945 amounted to 54,665,000 lb.
Of this, 529,000 lb. were landed from Area 1, south of Willapa Harbor, Wash.;
24,980,000 lb. from Area 2, between Willapa Harbor and Cape Spencer, Alaska; and
29,156,000 lb. from Area 3, between Cape Spencer and the Aleutian Islands. No
halibut-fishing was done in Area 4, which includes the Aleutian Islands region and
Bering Sea. The above Area 2 total included 920,000 lb. of halibut landed under permit
as the incidental catch of set-line vessels fishing for other species after the area was
closed to halibut-fishing.
The halibut-catch of the Canadian fleet in 1945 was 15,301,000 lb. This was
1,993,000 lb. more than in 1944 and the largest Canadian catch since 1914. Canadian
vessels secured 11,750,000 lb. or 47 per cent, of the Area 2 total, and 3,551,000 lb. or 12
per cent, of the Area 3 total. These Canadian shares of the catch-totals from Areas 2
and 3 were the highest since regulation of the halibut-fishery began.
Scientific investigations upon which regulation of the fishery depends were continued by the Commission. The statistical and biological data collected provide the
means of determining the success of past and present regulations and of guiding the
course of future action. Vessel operation was necessary for carrying out some phases
of the investigation.
The abundance of halibut as measured by the average catch per standard unit of
fishing effort showed some decline in both Areas 2 and 3 from the unusually high points
reached in 1944. In Area 2 it was about 4 per cent, below the level of 1944 and intermediate between the levels of 1943 and 1944. In Area 3 the catch per unit fell to
approximately the level of 1942 and 1943.
Temporary declines in the catch per unit of effort can be expected from natural
fluctuations in availability of halibut and from natural variability of statistical data.
Unless continued through several consecutive years, declines do not necessarily reflect
adverse changes in the relative abundance of the stocks. The levels of abundance in
Areas 2 and 3 in 1945 were still 131 and 104 per cent, respectively above the all-time
low levels of 1930.
Observation of the changes occurring in the age and size composition of the
marketable stocks of halibut in Area 2 were continued by sampling the landings of
vessels of the halibut fleet. In spite of the short season of fishing more than 12,000
halibut were measured from sixteen fares, and material for the determination of ages
was taken from about 2,000 of these.
It was evident from the changes in the size composition of the stocks that the
decline in the catch per unit of fishing effort this year was due in large part to the
fishing-out of the very abundant size-groups that contributed heavily to the 1943 and
1944 catches, and to the lower abundance of the younger groups succeeding them. The
reduced appearance of young fish was in accord with observations of the success of
spawning five and six years earlier.
The investigation of the success of spawning, temporarily abandoned in the winter
of 1943-44 because of war-time conditions, was resumed. A chartered vessel was
operated for two months in the Cape St. James area off the British Columbia coast.
These studies indicated that the production of spawn was greater than from 1939 to
1942 but was below the high level attained in 1937.
The rapid growth of the otter-trawl fishery and its expansion to important halibut-
grounds has become a matter of concern to the Commission because of the unfavourable
effect otter-trawling could have on its rehabilitation programme for the halibut-fishery.
Some observations of the amount, size, and condition of halibut caught by otter-trawl BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 29
gear were made. They showed need for comprehensive investigations of the effect of
trawling, both with respect to the stocks of halibut and the stocks of other species.
Members of the Commission were, as in 1944, Mr. G. W. Nickerson and Mr. A. J.
Whitmore for Canada, and Mr. Edward W. Allen and Mr. Charles E. Jackson for the
United States.    Mr. Nickerson served as chairman and Mr. Allen as secretary.
A meeting of the Commission was held at Vancouver, B.C., on April 19th to
examine recommendations of the halibut fleets for revision of the 1937 treaty. A memorandum on suggested treaty changes was subsequently distributed to all branches of
the halibut industry for their consideration prior to the holding of a public hearing.
The hearing was held at Seattle on November 29th and was attended by representatives
of the halibut fleets, otter-trawler organizations, fish-dealers, and other interested
persons. The need for treaty revision was discussed in detail and further suggestions
for treaty changes were received.
The annual winter meetings of the Commission were held at Seattle, Wash., from
November 28th to 30th, inclusive. In addition to the above-mentioned hearing, meetings were held with the Conference Board composed of representatives of the halibut-
fishing fleets of Washington, British Columbia, and Alaska to discuss the results of the
Commission's investigations and receive recommendations for the regulation of the
fishery in 1946. A meeting was also held with representatives of Pacific Coast otter-
trawler organizations to discuss problems arising from the incidental capture of halibut
in the trawl-fishery.  BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 31
APPENDICES.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
(No. 31.)
By W. A. Clemens, Ph.D., Department of Zoology, The University
of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.
INTRODUCTION.
The runs of sockeye salmon to Rivers Inlet and the Skeena River in 1945 were
rather large, with packs of 89,735 and 104,279 cases respectively and with very good
escapements. The conditions in these two areas in this year appear to represent very
satisfactory conditions with the commercial catches and the escapements in reasonable
balance.
The run to the Nass River was evidently small. The pack was exceptionally small,
9,899 cases, but the escapement was very satisfactory according to the Fishery Inspector
because the run was early and considerable numbers of fish passed up the river before
the fishermen started operations.    Moreover, there were fewer fishermen than usual.
The reports on the spawning escapements have been supplied through the courtesy
of Major J. A. Motherwell, Chief Supervisor of Fisheries, Vancouver.
DESIGNATION OF AGE-GROUPS.
Two outstanding features in the life-history of the fish have been selected in
designating the age-groups—namely, the age at maturity and the year of its life in
which the fish migrated from fresh water. These are expressed symbolically by two
numbers, one in large type, which indicates the age of maturity, and the other in small
type, placed to the right and below, which signifies the year of life in which the fish
left the fresh water.    The age-groups which are met most commonly are:—
31( 41—the " sea-types " or fish which migrate in their first year and mature
at the ages of three and four years respectively.
32—" the grilse,"  usually  males,  which  migrate  in  their  second  year and
mature at the age of three.
42, 52—fish which migrate in their second year and mature at the ages of
four and five respectively.
53, 63—fish which migrate in their third year and mature at the ages of five
and six respectively.
64, 74—fish which migrate in their fourth year and mature at the ages of
six and seven respectively.
1. THE RIVERS INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1945.
(1.) General Characteristics.
The pack of sockeye salmon at Rivers Inlet in 1945 was 89,735 cases. The run was
composed of 57 per cent, of four-year-old and 41 per cent, of five-year-old fish, and it
is thus evident that the run of 1941 contributed in large part to the pack of 1945 in
view of the fact of the smaller size of the four-year-old fish. The return was very
satisfactory in that it produced a rather large pack and a very good escapement. N 32 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
The return in 1946 will be the product of the spawnings of 1941 and 1942. In the
former year there was a large pack of 93,378 cases, and the streams were reported as
having been well seeded. The samplings of the commercial catch showed 59 per cent,
of the 42 year class and 40 per cent, of the 52 year class. While the 1941 brood-year
has already produced a considerable number of four-year-old fish in 1945, it should
also produce a fair number of five-year-olds in 1946. In 1942 there was a pack of
79,119 cases and a very good escapement. The sampling of the commercial catch
revealed 91 per cent, of five-year-old fish. It is probable that a considerable number
of four-year-old fish will appear from the 1942 sampling. There should therefore be
a medium-sized run in 1946.
The number of four-year-old fish returning in 1946 will be of particular interest
as they will be the product of a spawning of predominantly five-year-old fish.
(2.) Age-groups.
The data for this year's study are obtained from twenty-nine samplings of the
commercial catch from July 2nd to August 3rd, inclusive, representing 1,171 fish. The
42 age-group is represented by 662 individuals forming 57 per cent. The 52 age-group
consists of 483 individuals or 41 per cent. Taking into account the smaller size of the
four-year-old fish, it is evident that these fish were considerably in excess in the commercial catch. On the other hand, the Fishery Inspector reported that very many
large sockeye of weights 8 to 13 lb. were observed in the streams and was of the opinion
that many of these could not have gilled in the size of mesh used in the commercial
nets. It is possible therefore that the actual number of five-year-old fish was somewhat larger than indicated by the samplings.
The 5:J and 6;i age-groups are represented by nineteen and seven fish respectively
(Table I.).
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths of the males and females of the 42 age-group are 20.9 and 21.2
inches respectively, and the weights are 4.3 and 4.4 lb. respectively. The fact that the
males are slightly shorter and lighter than the females is interesting but not exceptional since a similar occurrence was recorded in 1943. In this area only are the two
sexes in the four-year-old age-group nearly equal in size and the condition may possibly
be related to selection by the gill-net mesh.
The average lengths and weights of the males and females of the 52 age-group are
24.2 and 23.9 inches and 6.6 and 6.4 lb. respectively, and they are not exceptional in
any way.
The detailed information concerning the distribution of the lengths and weights
is given in Tables II. and III. and comparative data in Tables IV. and V.
(4.) Distribution of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 671 and of females 500, percentages
of 57 and 43 respectively. In the 42 age-group the males predominate with a percentage of 70, while in the 52 age-group the females predominate with a percentage
of 61.    The distribution of the sexes in 1945 is not exceptional (Table VI.). BRITISH COLUMBIA.
N 33
Table I.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs.
Year.
Percentage of Individuals.
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
87,874 cases)....
64,652 cases)—.
89,027 cases) ...
126,921 cases).
88,763 cases)-.
112,884 cases)..
61,745 cases)—-
89.890 cases)—.
130,350 eases).
44,936 cases)-.
61,195 cases)-.
53,401 cases)-.
56,258 cases)„
121,254 cases).
46,300 cases)-
60,700 cases)-.
107,174 cases) .
94.891 cases)-
159,554 cases).
65,581 cases)....
64,461 cases)—.
60,044 cases)....
70,260 cases)-
119,170 cases)..
76,428 cases) —
69,732 cases).-.
83,507 cases)...
76,923 cases)...
135,038 cases)..
46,351 cases)....
84,832 cases)-.
87,942 cases)-.
54,143 cases)
63,469 cases) ...
93,378 cases)...
79,199 cases)-
47,602 cases) —
38,852 cases) —
89,735 cases)....
21
80
35
13
26
39
57
46
5
49
81
74
43
23
59
81
55
77
49
53
67
44
77
57
53
60
27
67
69
76
57
79
20
65
87
74
61
43
54
95
51
18
24
54
77
38
16
40
18
48
44
27
65
20
41
46
37
70
32
28
40
91
91
23
41 N 34
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
Table II.-—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 19U5, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
18%-
19	
19%-
20	
20%-
21	
21%-
22	
22%—
23 -
23%—
24	
24%	
25	
25% —
26	
26%—
27	
27%	
Length in Inches.
Totals .
Average lengths..
Number o. Individuals.
M.
6
12
45
76
96
75
39
56
29
15
11
3
463
1
5
23
38
40
36
34
12
21.2
M.
1
1
10
21
31
22
17
13
21
16
18
10
190
24.2
1
4
27
22
37
34
43
49
48
17
6
3
2
293
23.9
M.
15
23.2
F.
21.7
M.
25.8
Total.
6
13
50
100
134
119
81
128
85
95
73
68
64
70
34
26
13
11
1
1,171
Table III.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 19' 45, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Weight in Pounds.
Number op Individuals.
M.
M.
M.
Total.
3	
3%—
4	
4%.-
5	
5%-
6% —
7	
7%—
8%-
9%-
10.	
161
98
53
42
13
Totals.
463
Average weights .
4.3
2
24
70
49
37
14
3
199
4
13
39
37
22
15
18
14
14
8
5
1
1
15
35
40
48
46
48
31
16
10
293
6.4
4.5
8.0
7.0
10
113
234
168
140
139
108
72
63
50
31
25
12
5
1
1,171 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
N 35
Table IV.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of the £2 and 52
Groups, 1912 to 1945.
Year.
42
52
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41  — -    —
1912-41 (conversion)  —	
1942       	
22.4
21.6
21.9
20.5
21.1
20.9
22.4
21.6
21.3
21.1
21.0
21.2
25.4
24.6
25.0
24.3
23.5
24.2
24.7
23.9
23.8
1943  -	
23.7
1944                 .   ..   .
23.3
1945	
23.9
Table V.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of the b2 and 52
Groups, 191k to 191,5.
Year.
4
2
5
2
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41                            -     	
4.9
5.1
4.1
4.6
4.3
4.8
4.6
4.4
4.4
4.4
7.0
7.2
6.8
6.2
6.6
6.5
1942           —       ' 	
6.4
1943	
6.3
1944 	
1945	
6.0
6.4
Table VI.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1945.
42
h
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
Year.
M.
F.              M.
1
F.
Total
Females.
1915—41 (average).  	
1942         -  	
63
61
62
67
70
37
39
38
33
30
34
35
34
33
39
66
65
66
67
61
50
38
36
59
57
50
62
184S  , 	
1944
64
41
1945        	
43
2. THE SKEENA RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1945.
(1.)  General Characteristics.
The run of sockeye salmon to the Skeena River in 1945 was large in that it produced a pack of 104,279 cases and a large escapement. It should be recorded that the
Fishery Inspector reported that considerable numbers of fish died off the mouths of
some streams tributary to Babine Lake because of the extended period of very low
water.
The return in 1946 will be the product of the spawnings of 1941 and 1942. In the
former year the pack was 81,767 cases and the escapement was described as very
satisfactory. Since this year did not produce a very large number of four-year-old
fish there should be a fair number of five-year-old fish in 1946. In 1942 the pack was
34,544 cases and the escapement was only fairly good.    The return from the 1942 N 36 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
spawning should be relatively small. It would appear that the size of the run in 1946
will depend largely upon the return of five-year-old fish and in any case will not be
large.
(2.) Age-groups.
The analysis of this year's population is based upon 1,820 fish in thirty-nine random samples of the commercial catch taken from July 2nd to August 17th, inclusive.
The 42 age-group is represented by 364 individuals or 20 per cent., the 52 by 1,156 or
63 per cent., the 53 by 212 or 12 per cent., and the 63 by 88 or 5 per cent. The percentage of four-year-old fish is exceptionally low and correspondingly that of the five-
year-old fish is exceptionally high, a condition not paralleled since 1920 and 1924.
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths and weights of the males and females in the various age-
groups are given in Tables X and XI. and do not present any unusual features.
The detailed distributions of lengths and weights are shown in Tables VIII.
and IX.
(4.) Distribution of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 684 and of females 1,136, percentages
of 38 and 62 respectively. The representation of males is very low and approaches
the low record in 1942 of 33 per cent. The females predominate in both the 42 and
52 age-groups with percentages of 59 and 65 respectively (Table XII.). BRITISH COLUMBIA.
N 37
Table VII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs.
Year.
Percentage of Indivdjuals.
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1986
1937
1938
1989
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
(108,413 cases)..
(139,846 cases)..
(87,901 cases)....
(187,246 cases)..
(131,066 cases)-.
(92,498 cases)—.
(52,927 cases) —
(130,166 cases)-
(116,553 cases)..
(60,923 cases) —
(65,760 cases)....
(123,322 cases)..
(184,945 cases) _
(90,869 cases)....
(41,018 cases) —
(96,277 cases ) —
(131,731 cases)..
(144,747 cases).
(77,784 cases) —
(82,360 cases)-.
(83,996 cases)—.
(34,559 cases)-.
(78,017 cases)—
(132,372 cases)..
(93,023 eases) .__
(69,916 cases)-
(30,506 cases)-
(54,558 cases)	
(52,879 cases) —
(81,973 cases)....
(42,491 cases) —
(47,257 cases) —
(68,485 cases)-
(116,607 cases) .
(81,767 cases)-
(34,544 cases) —
(28,268 cases)-
(68,197 cases)-
(104,279 cases)..
57
50
25
36
34
57
51
27
15
69
70
56
23
51
62
62
51
62
39
40
44
57
58
49
67
45
64
50
80
37
20
43
50
75
64
88
29
34
60
71
22
16
29
69
45
26
28
39
30
52
30
37
36
34
31
20
40
15
35
15
52
54
39
52
63
13
6
6
12
9
9
7
6
8
28
7
5
7
18
11
11
16
11
4
8
7
16
7
12
18
5
6
4
2
1
2
12
2
1
2
2
4
5
4
1
1
3
6
4
5 N 38
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
Table VIII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1945, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Length in Inches.
Number of Individuals.
42
h
h
63
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
20                       	
1
6
11
12
23
21
36
13
18
6
2
1
5
13
34
49
43
46
14
6
3
1
1
2
15
19
69
64
92
59
56
16
6
1
2
7
24
71
124
200
170
116
29
13
2
4
9
18
16
13
10
6
8
2
2
6
13
32
22
24
8
8
4
3
2
1
1
12
3
9
10
4
2
2
1
3
6
15
8
8
3
2
20%	
11
32
21%	
65
121
22%.. .            	
130
23	
212
23%	
198
24	
338
24%	
264
25	
239
25%	
102
26    -                  	
78
26%	
18
27...                   	
8
27%	
1
58  	
1
Totals	
149
215
400
756
90
122
45
43
1,820
22.6
22.3
24.9
24.1
23.3
22.6
25.0
24.3
Table IX.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1945, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Number of Individuals.
Weight in Pounds.
42
52
53
63
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
3%	
16
26
33
41
25
4
4
24
63
65
43
17
2
1
5
20
34
85
70
78
64
29
10
4
1
4
21
69
143
199
161
111
34
11
3
4
9
21
25
12
12
4
1
2
3
8
34
37
24
8
8
2
6
8
8
10
6
3
1
1
1
9
17
7
4
4
1
3
4	
56
i%	
159
5 ---.-. -	
247 -
5%	
6	
6%	
7	
71/0	
109
46
14
5
1
8	
8%	
9	
9%	
Totals	
149
215
400
756
90
122
45
43
1,820
5.2
4.9
6.7
6.1
5.6
5.0
6.7
6.2 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
N 39
Table X.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1945.
4
2
5
2
5
3
6
3
Year.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41 -	
1912-41 (conversion) - —
1942	
1943
23.7
23.0
22.6
21.9
22.4
22.6
23.1
22.4
22.3
21.9
21.7
22.3
25.8
25.1
25.2
25.1
24.8
24.9
24.9
24.2
24.3
23.9
23.9
24.1
24.2
23.5
24.1
23.3
22.5
23.3
23.4
22.7
23.7
22.6
21.7
22.6
25.8
25.1
26.3
25.8
25.0
25.0
24.8
24.1
24.9
24.7
1944      	
23.7
1945	
24.3
Table XI.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1945.
42
°2                                  °3
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41	
5.4
4.9
4.7
5.1
5.2
5.0                6.8
4.7                6.7
4.6                6.8
4.6                7.0
49        1          67
6.1
6.0
5.9
6.1
6.1
5.7
5.8
5.5
5.3
5.6
5.1
5.4
4.9
4.6
5.0
6.8
7.2
7.3
7.1
6.7
6.0
1942  	
1943
6.6
6.1
1944          	
5.8
1945	
6.2
Table XII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females, 1915 to 1945.
Year.
42                                 52
1
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
Total
Females.
M.
F.
M.
F.
48
42
50
54
41
52
58
50
46
59
43
25
31
34
35
57
75
69
66
65
46
33
43
48
38
54
1942.. -	
67
1943 -     	
1944 -	
57
57
1945	
62
3. THE NASS RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1945.
(1.) General Characteristics.
The pack of 9,899 cases on the Nass River in 1945 is the fourth lowest on record,
but as stated previously it may not indicate closely the size of the run since the fishing
intensity was apparently low. There is no evidence, however, to lead to the conclusion
that the run was large.
The return in 1946 will be derived largely from the brood-years 1941 and 1942.
Both years produced packs of over 20,000 cases and very good escapements. There
would seem to be reasonable grounds for expecting a run in 1946 which would produce
a pack close to 20,000 cases.
(2.) Age-groups.
The material for the 1945 study consists of data for 725 fish obtained in twenty-
five random samplings from July 2nd to August 17th, inclusive. It is probable that
the samplings do not adequately represent the run in 1945 for two reasons.    The fishing N 40
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
was not uniform in that many fishermen left the Nass River for the Skeena area as
the season progressed. Also, the Nass River fish were delivered to canneries on the
Skeena River where there was difficulty in segregating the Nass fish.
The 42 age-group is represented by 333 individuals or 46 per cent., the 52's by 78
or 11 per cent., the 53's by 269 or 37 per cent., and the 63's by 45 or 6 per cent. The
percentage of four-year-old fish is the highest on record and probably is the result of
inadequate sampling in the later part of the season.
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
The measurements and weights were not taken in the detailed manner as in previous years so that the records tend to be concentrated on the even numbers. However,
this does not affect the average values.
The average lengths and weights of the males and females are given in Tables
XVI. and XVII. and indicate no unusual features. The detailed distribution of lengths
and weights are presented in Tables XIV. and XV.
(4.)  Distribution of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 277 and of females 448, percentages
of 38 and 62 respectively. The percentage of males is exceptionally low and again may
be related to the inadequacy of the sampling. The representation of males is particularly low in each of the 42, 52, and 53 age-groups (Table XVIII.).
Table XIII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Principal Age-groups
from 1912 to 1945 and Packs.
Year.
Percentage of Individuals.
1912 (36,037 cases).
1913 (23,574 cases).
1914 (31,327 cases).
1915 (39,349 cases).
1916 (31,411 cases) .
1917 (22,188 cases)..
1918 (21,816 eases).
1919 (28,259 cases).
1920 (16,740 cases ).
1921 (9,364 cases) -
1922 (31,277 cases)..
1923 (17,821 cases)-
1924 (33,590 cases).
1926 (18,945 cases)-.
1926 (15,929 cases)..
1927 (12,026 cases)..
1928 (5,540 cases) —
1929 (16,077 cases)..
1930 (26,405 cases)..
1931 (16,929 cases).
1932 (14,154 cases)..
1933 (9,757 cases) —
1934 (36,242 cases)..
1935 (12,712 cases)..
1936 (28,562 cases)..
1937 (17,567 cases)..
1938 (21,462 cases)..
1939 (24,357 cases)..
1940 (13,809 cases)..
1941 (24,876 cases)..
1942 (21,085 cases)-
1943 (13,412 eases) .
1944 (13,083 cases) ..
1945 (9,899 cases)....
15
4
19
9
10
30
7
8
10
6
11
4
23
12
8
30
25
28
10
28
35
13
11
16
22
21
14
23
37
22
5
15
46
27
12
41
14
17
15
16
22
14
7
2
6
12
7
6
9
15
17
4
7
9
10
7
4
4
13
8
7
7
13
15
11
63
71
45
59
66
71
45
65
72
75
91
77
91
67
63
81
61
60
54
67
61
55
74
73
67
68
70
66
59
52
66
67
32
37
2
2
10
4
9
6
6
8
1
6
2
2
13
4
10
6
5
7
10
4
5
15
38
6 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
N 41
Table XIV.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1945, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Length in Inches.
Number of Individuals.
4
2
52                  53
€
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
1
14
6
35
12
39
3
12
4
4
66
14
72
14
31
1
4
4
2
1
3
2
18
2
11
6
23
5
23
7
19
3
2
1
3
6
31
9
66
17
26
6
3
1
2
3
5
2
4
2
5
4
4
3
5
2
3
5
21%	
6
22	
86
22%...                 	
26
23    .                             	
156
23%	
44
24	
185
24%	
3    1        3
35
25	
11
3
3
3
16
3
3
101
25%	
26	
24
37
26%	
7
27	
Totals	
13
123
210
29
49
101
168
24
21
725
23.4
22.8
25.0
24.4
24.7
24.0
25.1
25.5
Table XV.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1945, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Weight in Pounds.
Number of Individuals.
4
2
h
53
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1
M.           F.
M.
F.
4	
1
3
27
22
57
4
9
5
13
97
36
47
9
3
1
7
4
8
5
1
1
1
1
2
4
19
5
16
1
2
4
15
32
5
31
7
5
1
1
1
3
29
34
66
16
16
3
3
2
9
4
6
1
3
9
2
6
7
4%	
19
5	
159
5%	
113
6	
234
6%	
45
7	
101
7%	
22
8	
20
8%	
2
9	
2
9.4      ....	
1
Totals	
123
210
29
49
101
168
24
21
5.7
5.3
7.0
6.4
6.5
5.9
7.2
7.1 N 42
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
Table XVI.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1945.
Year.
42
52
53
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41  -	
1912-41 (conversion) 	
1942. - -   	
24.5
23.8
23.9
22.8
23.5
23.4
23.7
23.0
23.2
22.2
22.7
22.8
26.3
25.6
26.1
26.1
25.7
25.0'
25.2
24.5
24.9
24.8
24.6
24.4
26.1
26.4
24.9
24.1
24.8
24.7
25.3
24.6
24.3
23.5
23.8
24.0
27.7
27.0
26.9
27.1
26.8
25.1
26.4
26.7
26.0
1943 	
1945	
26.8
26.8
26.5
Table XVII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1945.
42
h
h
63
Year.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41 :  	
1942 	
6.0
5.8
5.2
5.7
5.7
5.4
5.1
4.7
5.0
5.3
7.3
7.1
7.6
7.7
7.0
6.4
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.4
6.9
6.2
5.9
6.7
6.5
6.2
5.6
5.3
5.7
5.9
8.0
7.5
7.9
8.2
7.2
7.0
6.7
1943-           	
1.44
6.9
7.1
1945	
7.1
Table XVIII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1945.
Year.
F.
5
2
5
3
6
5
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
47
53
45
55
63
37
48
52
44
56
70
30
67
33
47
53
74
28
45
55
39
61
60
40
37
63
38
62
53
47
Per Cent. ! Per Cent.
Total Total
Males.       Females.
1916-41 (average).
1942	
1943-   	
1944	
1945	
42
51
53
37
51
68
49
47
63
47
45
54
50
38
53
56
46
60
62 BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 43
TAGGING OF HERRING (CLUPEA PALLASII) IN BRITISH COLUMBIA:
INSERTIONS AND RECOVERIES DURING 1945-46.
By Albert L. Tester, Ph.D., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
CONTENTS. PAGE.
Introduction  43
Tagging  44
Tags  44
Recovery methods and apparatus  46
Recoveries  48
Detectors  48
Magnets  48
Mixing between ma j or areas  49
General  49
West coast of Vancouver Island  50
South-east coast of Vancouver Island  50
Northern Strait of Georgia and Discovery Passage  50
Queen Charlotte Strait  50
Central coast-line .  50
Mixing within major areas  51
West coast of Vancouver Island  51
South-east coast of Vancouver Island  51
Northern Strait of Georgia and Discovery Passage  51
Queen Charlotte Strait .  51
Central coast-line   52
Summary  54
Acknowledgments  55
References  55
Detailed list of tags used in 1946  65
INTRODUCTION.
As stated in previous reports the objects of this investigation are (1) to add to the
general knowledge of the life-history of herring in British Columbia waters, (2) to
determine the extent of herring movements, and (3) to determine the strength of the
tendency for herring to form local populations. In addition, it is hoped that some
information will be obtained on the rates of exploitation of the populations supplying
the various fishing-grounds.
This is the tenth annual report on the investigation. During the ten years of
work considerable information has been obtained on the movements of herring and on
the amount of mixture between major areas (west coast of Vancouver Island, south-east
coast of Vancouver Island, northern Strait of Georgia and Discovery Passage, Queen
Charlotte Strait, Central coast-line, and Northern coast-line). For certain major areas
considerable information has also been obtained on the amount of mixture between runs
to individual fishing-grounds. It. is proposed to summarize and publish the information
which has been collected over the ten-year period.    The investigation will then be N 44
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
directed primarily at determining the rate of exploitation of the population in one
major area, the west coast of Vancouver Island.
The present article includes only the results for the season 1945-46.
TAGGING.
Methods of tagging were similar to those of other years. Herring were obtained
at spawning time from the spawning-grounds by means of small purse- or drag-seines,
or from commercial bait-pounds. They were usually held, often overnight, in small
bait-pounds prior to tagging operations. As in the past few years, " hand " rather
than " gun " tagging was used exclusively. Every possible care was taken to avoid
unnecessary injury to the fish during capture, retention, and tagging.
Data on the eighteen taggings made during the spring of 1946 and similar data on
other taggings yielding recoveries during the 1945-46 fishing season are included in
Table I. As in past years, individual taggings are referred to by code; e.g., 9C, 10B,
etc., throughout the report. Tagging localities are shown on the accompanying map.
Detailed data on the 1946 taggings, including the reference letters or numbers for use
in identifying recoveries, are included in Table VII., which is placed at the end of this
report for ready reference.
It will be noted that the 1946 taggings were made mostly along the south-east coast
of Vancouver Island (10,028), in the northern part of the Strait of Georgia and
Discovery Passage (11,664), and along the west coast of Vancouver Island (28,148).
A small tagging was also made in the Queen Charlotte Strait area (1,691). These
numbers, in comparison with those used in the major areas in the previous five years,
are shown in the following recapitulation:—
Locality.
Number of Tags used in each Year.
1940-41.
1941-42.
1942-43.
1943-44.
1944-45.
1945-46.
Fall and Winter.
496
697
1,409
1,197
3,949
998
200
9,759
5,977
2,491
Spring.
7,494
8,065
5,465
6,893
14,668
5,077
14,528
15,062
6,023
4,220
6,132
8,716
6,485
11,979
10,028
11,664
1,691
28,148
Northern Strait of Georgia and Discovery Passage
1,497
3,493
20,399
Totals	
24,571
23,017
30,828
45,965
48,988
51,531
TAGS.
Internal metal tags used during the 1945-46 season conformed for the most part
in size and weight with Type B (Tester, 1945a, page 46). Some lots were slightly
thinner and lighter than the original Type B, but they did not differ sufficiently to be
designated as a separate type.
In last year's report it was shown that there was no significant difference in tagging mortality or in recovery efficiency between nickel-plated (Type A) and silver-plated
(Type B) tags of approximately the same weight and dimensions.
Data for tags used in the spring of 1945 and recovered during the current season
enable a comparison to be made between Types A and B and the thinner, lighter tags
of Type C.    Both kinds were used in each of two taggings, Retreat Passage (91) and BRITISH COLUMBIA.
N 45
SO-ANGER   ISLAND
Devastation   Channal
9P- UNION PASSAGE
-90- RACEY INLET
SM-PARSONS  ANCHORAGE
9L-CAMPBELL    ISLAND
7M,8M,9M,-GUNBOAT
PASSAGE
9K-TAKUSH   HARBOUR
60-KINGCOME    INLET
9J.I0H,-CRAMER
PASSAGE
9G-VINER   SOUND
6L,7L,8J,8K,9I,-RETREAT
PASSAGE
9H-CUTTER   CREEK
7N - CHATHAM   CHANNEL
4N.6N.7K,- CLIO   CHANNEL
6P,I0S,-CAHNISH   BAY
7J,81,9F,-0EEPWATER   BAY
7G-DESERTED   BAY
7D,8D,9E,I0G,-SKUTTLE   BAY
IOE - BAYNES    SOUND
IOF-PENDER   HARBOUR
IOD-QUALICUM    BAY
8B.9C,IOC,-DEPARTURE   BAY
98, IOB,-LADYSMITH
HARBOUR
6G-KUPER     ISLAND
9D,I0A,-PREV0ST
- SOOKE N 46
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
Parsons Anchorage (9N).    In the data which follow, only recoveries from days on
which both kinds were used are included:—
Code.
Type of Tag.
Number
recovered.
Number
used.
91
4
12
43
53
296
1,269
9N
1,525
1,925
Application of the Chi-square test gives no significant association (P = 0.9)
between relative number of recoveries and type of tag. Until evidence to the contrary
is forthcoming, it will be assumed that number of recoveries is not associated with type
of tag (A and C). However, in view of the possibility of a relationship between type
of tag, rate of mortality due to tagging, and efficiency of recovery, efforts will continue
to be made to keep the type of tag uniform in respect to dimensions, weight, and plating.
RECOVERY METHODS AND APPARATUS.
As in previous years tagged fish were recovered by the use of tag detectors installed
in the unloading system of a cannery and a reduction plant, and tags were recovered
by magnets or other devices in the meal-lines of reduction plants.
The detector located at the Imperial Cannery, Steveston, in previous years was
again in use. It operated from September 24th, 1945, to January 17th, 1946, and ran
efficiently on 91 per cent, of the fish entering the cannery. A new type detector (Tester,
1945b) was used for the first time at the Alert Bay reduction plant. It operated from
October 19th, 1945, to January 19th, 1946, and ran with a fair degree of efficiency on
80 per cent, of the fish passing through the plant.
In both old and new type detectors the method of recovery of the tagged fish is the
same. Fish from the unloading apparatus slide down a wooden chute, through a
rectangular water-proof case containing coil windings, and over a trap-door which is
transversely pivoted on an axle. When a fish containing a tag passes through the coil,
an electrical impulse is generated and transmitted to an electrically controlled air-valve
which momentarily reverses a head of compressed air applied to a double-acting piston
connected to the trap-door. The net result is that the trap-door opens momentarily at
right angles to the flow of fish, allowing some to be by-passed. The tagged fish is later
isolated by repassing the trapped fish through the coil.
The difference between the old and new type detector lies in the principle of detection and thus in the elements and circuits of the control cabinets and the structure of
the detector coil.
In the old type detector an electrical field is set up by feeding a high-frequency
oscillating current into four coils arranged in Wheatstone bridge formation. The
detector or pick-up coil in the chute actually consists of a pair of identical coils the
electrical properties of which are balanced by means of variable condensers and resistances against those in a second pair of identical coils, similarly encased, and usually
referred to as the balancing coil. At a point close to, but not exactly coinciding with,
perfect balance the field in the pick-up coil is extremely sensitive to the presence of a
metal object such as a tag. The presence of this metal object creates an off-balance
disturbance in the form of a surge of current which is amplified by means of vacuum
tubes, etc., until it is sufficiently large to operate a sensitive relay.
In the new type detector a stable electromagnetic field is set up by feeding a smooth
direct current to a primary coil winding. The primary coil is overwound at its ends
by two secondary coils which are spaced from each other and are separated from the BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 47
primary by an electrostatic shield. A disturbance in the field caused by the movement
of a metal object such as a tag causes a small current to be induced in the secondaries,
which are connected in series opposition. This current is then amplified by recently
developed amplification circuits and operates a sensitive relay as before. The apparatus
thus uses one coil case, containing three separate windings, rather than two coil cases
each containing two coil windings. The circuits involved are of simpler design than
in the old type. The control cabinets are of modern all-steel construction, with the
elements suitably shielded to reduce interference.
The chief disadvantage of the old type detector was its instability. The point of
maximum sensitivity was extremely critical and there was a constant " drifting " from
this point for reasons largely unknown but probably related to variation in the characteristics of elements such as vacuum tubes and resistors with variation in temperature
and other atmospheric conditions. This required frequent testing of the field with a
tag and frequent tuning to maintain sensitivity—usually at least every five minutes.
This interrupted the operation of the machine and fish slid by, untested for tags, in
the short intervals required for testing and tuning. With the new type detector no
balancing or tuning is required. Once switched on it will run continuously and efficiently without further attention on the part of the operator.
The old detector was extremely sensitive to " outside " and " line " interference.
False trips were frequently caused by the operation of near-by motors or electrically
operated tools such as drills. While the new detector is also affected to some extent by
these sources of interference, its operation during the current season indicates that it
is somewhat less susceptible. The two secondary coils are so arranged and initially
balanced to reduce this interference to a minimum. It is, however, somewhat more
sensitive to vibration. This difficulty was overcome by mounting the large and heavy
pick-up coil on sponge rubber and by maintaining the line voltage at the rated requirement (110-115 volts), using a variable line transformer and thus assuring maximum
sensitivity at minimum load.
The difference in basic principle involved in the two types of detector results in a
difference in the way in which an activating current is produced. In the old type the
presence of a tag, either stationary or moving, creates an impulse; in the new type only
a moving tag creates an impulse, and the strength of the impulse increases with the
speed of movement. The latter should be a slight advantage in timing the trap-recovery
system for it allows some compensation for variable speeds of flow of the fish. It is a
slight disadvantage in isolating the tagged from the trapped fish as care must be taken
to move all fish sufficiently fast in the coil for the expected impulse to register. However, this can be overcome to some extent by stepping up the sensitivity so that a very
slight movement is recorded.
During its first year of operation the new type detector was somewhat less efficient
at recovering tags than was desirable because of unexpected difficulties in timing the
action of the trap-door. This was due to a great difference in the speed of flow of
fish from load to load; fresh fish slid more rapidly down the chute than stale fish, and
large fish slid more rapidly than small fish. It was not possible to maintain a uniform
rate of flow by the use of a large stream of water down the chute, as has been done in
other plants, because of interference with subsequent processing of the fish. The difficulty was overcome towards the end of the season by the use of a specially designed
delayed-action system in the trap circuit by means of which the time that the trapdoor remained open could be varied to suit the speed of flow of the fish.
The electric circuits of the new type detector were designed by Dr. A. C. Young,
then of the National Research Council, now of the British Columbia Research Council.
The working unit was designed and constructed by Mr. F. J. Bartholomew, of the
Electric Power Equipment Company, Ltd., Vancouver, B.C. N 48
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
RECOVERIES.
Detectors.
The Steveston detector operated mostly on fish from the south-east coast of Vancouver Island (Swanson Channel, Porlier Pass vicinity, and Nanoose Bay), but also
on fish from Discovery Passage (Deepwater Bay), Queen Charlotte Strait (Clio Channel vicinity), and the west coast of Vancouver Island (Barkley Sound and Sydney
Inlet). One hundred and forty-five tags were recovered. One of these (9H) was
found loose in the detector fish-bin but is practically certain to have come from fish
from the vicinity of Clio Channel and is thus included.
The Alert Bay detector operated entirely on fish from Queen Charlotte Strait,
including Clio Channel vicinity (Port Harvey, Bones Bay, Clio Channel, Serpentine
Pass, and lower Knight Inlet), the head of Knight Inlet, Belleisle Sound, Mackenzie
Sound, and Seymour Inlet (Nugent Sound).    Fifty-seven tags were recovered.
Information on the number of tags recovered by detectors according to locality of
tagging and locality of recovery is included in Table II.
Magnets.
The number of tags recovered from reduction plants, chiefly by means of electromagnets in the meal-line, is shown in the following tabulation:—
Location of Plant.
Name of Plant.
Code.
Number of
Recoveries.
West coast of Vancouver Island-
Strait of Georgia	
Queen Charlotte Strait-
Central coast-line	
Northern coast-line..
Total	
Ucluelet	
Ceepeecee.	
Imperial	
Gulf of Georgia-
Alert Bay	
Namu	
Butedale	
Port Edward	
C
E
A
L
K
B
H
I
13
7
8
26
102
41
189
58
No tags were submitted from reduction plants at Redonda Bay, Kildonan, and
Nootka, although a few should have been recovered at each if the magnets had been
in effective operation.
For each tagging the recoveries are listed in Table III. according to plant making
the recovery (in code), reported locality of recovery, and less-likely alternative locality
of recovery (with remote alternative localities in brackets), As in past years the
certain or probable locality of recovery is the author's unbiased interpretation based
on plant records of daily tonnages processed from each fishing locality, method of processing, and knowledge of the average lag between the time the tag enters the plant
and the time the tag is found on the magnet. In most cases the interpreted locality
of recovery is a general area rather than a particular fishing-ground. It should be
stressed that the accuracy of the interpretation is dependent on the accuracy of the
information supplied with the recovery and the accuracy of plant records. Even with
recoveries listed as " certain or probable " there is the possibility of error.
The results given in Table III. are further summarized according to locality of
tagging and presumed locality of recovery in Table IV.
The relatively small number of tags recovered by magnets (and detectors) from
the west coast of Vancouver Island is due mostly to lack of extensive tagging in that
area in recent years, but also to lack of recoveries from two of the four west coast
reduction plants.    The small number of magnet recoveries from the south-east coast BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 49
of Vancouver Island and from Discovery Passage is due to lack of opportunity for
recovery. Only two magnets were in operation, one at the Imperial and the other at
the Gulf of Georgia plant. Practically all of the fish from these two major areas were
canned and, as pointed out in previous years, only a small percentage of the tags
entering the canneries remain in the offal on which the reduction plants operate.
In addition tags were removed from fish destined for canning by the tag detector
at the Imperial Cannery. The relatively large number of tags recovered from the meal-
line of the Alert Bay reduction plant from Queen Charlotte Strait fish, as compared
with the smaller number recovered by the tag detector, may be explained by the fact
that the detector was not in effective operation during short periods when fish with a
high concentration of tags (from Clio Channel vicinity) were passing through the
plant. Recoveries from the northern Central area were made exclusively by magnets;
none of the fish passed through either of the two tag detectors.
MIXING BETWEEN MAJOR AREAS.
General.
The number of tags recovered by detectors, by magnets, and by both means of
recovery is summarized according to method of recovery, major area of tagging, and
major area of recovery in Table V. It may be calculated that for detector returns
7.9 per cent., for magnet returns 6.0 per cent., and for both detector and magnet
returns 6.6 per cent, of the tags came from a different major area from that in which
they were originally used. This rough calculation indicates that, as in previous years,
mixing between the fish of major areas is limited.
A more refined estimate of the dispersal of tagged fish from the major area of
tagging was made by calculating the total probable number of tags in the catches and
weighting this to the number originally used. In calculating the probable number of
tags in the catches the following recovery data were used: West coast of Vancouver
Island—magnet returns (Ucluelet and Ceepeecee); south-east coast of Vancouver
Island—detector returns (Imperial) ; Discovery Passage—detector returns (Imperial) ;
Queen Charlotte Strait—detector returns (Alert Bay and Imperial) and magnet
returns (Alert Bay) ; northern central coast-line—magnet returns (Namu, Butedale,
and Port Edward). In each case the number of recoveries was multiplied by the total
tonnage caught in the major area and divided by the tonnage mechanically searched
for tags; no correction was made for varying efficiency of recovery. In weighting the
results according to number of tags used, the probable number of tags in the catches
was multiplied by 10,000 and divided by the number of tags originally used, omitting
the few taggings which have consistently produced no returns. The results included
in Table VI. give the probable number of tags in the catches if 10,000 tags had been
used in each major area.
Based on the above calculations, an estimate of the dispersal from the major area
of tagging for fish tagged previously and recovered in the 1945-46 catches is given
in the following tabulations:— Average
Year Percentage
Series. Released. Dispersal.
9  1945 8.5
8  1944 3.9
7  1943 17.0
6  1942 0.0
5  1941 0.0
There was a general tendency for tagged fish released in 1945 and 1943 to wander
from the major tagging area to a greater extent than those released in other years.
The unweighted grand average amounts to 5.9, a value similar to that obtained by N 50 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
rough calculations above and of a similar order of magnitude to that obtained in most
of the previous years.
The following discussions, based on the data of Table VI., indicate the nature and
extent of the dispersal of fish from the major area in which they were spawning when
tagged. The results are subject to several sources of error, probably the greatest of
which is the unknown dispersal of fish to areas where no fisheries were active and
where, therefore, there was no opportunity for the recovery of tags.
West Coast of Vancouver Island.
No movement to any other major area was indicated during 1945-46.
South-east Coast of Vancouver Island.
Movement of fish tagged in 1945 (7.2 per cent.) and 1944 (21.7 per cent.) to the
west coast of Vancouver Island is indicated. This is considerably greater than that
observed in previous years. The results are based on magnet recoveries and there is
the possibility of error in the interpretation of the major area of recovery if plants
which operated on fish from the south-east coast failed to include this information
accurately in the plant records, or if accurate information on date of recovery was not
supplied by the person making the recovery. However, it is fairly certain that there
was some movement of south-east coast fish to the west coast fishing-grounds.
Although one tag from Discovery Passage (81) and one from Queen Charlotte
Strait (9H) were recovered from south-east coast of Vancouver Island catches, in
general the results are in agreement with the theory, advanced in previous years, that
the majority of the fish migrate to and from the south-east coast area by way of the
Strait of Juan de Fuca. If this is the case, and they spend the summer on feeding
grounds off the west coast of Vancouver Island, some mixture with west coast runs
might be expected.
Northern Strait of Georgia and Discovery Passage.
A dispersal to other major areas of 27, 12, 13, and 0 per cent, for tagged fish
released in 1945, 1944, 1943, and 1942 respectively is indicated. Mixture took place
mostly with fish of Queen Charlotte Strait and to a lesser extent with those of other
areas. These results are in essential agreement with the theory that the fish migrate
to and from the area by way of Johnstone Strait; some mixture with Queen Charlotte
Strait and Central coast-line fish might be expected.
Queen Charlotte Strait.
A dispersal to other major areas of 9, 0, 22, and 0 per cent, for tagged fish released
in 1945, 1944, 1943, and 1942 respectively is indicated. The extent of mixture with
fish of other major areas appears to vary considerably from year to year. It may be
noted that fish tagged in 1943 showed a considerable tendency to wander in 1943-44
—relatively large numbers were present in Discovery Passage and along the southern
Central coast-line in that season (Tester, 1944). Probably the percentage dispersal
indicated for both 1944-45 (7 per cent.) and for 1945-46 (22 per cent.) would have
been much larger if large quantities of herring from the southern Central coast-line
had been caught, as was the case in 1943-44.
Central Coast-line.
A dispersal to other major areas of 3, 27, and 0 per cent, for tagged fish released
in 1945, 1944, and 1943 respectively is indicated.    The large dispersal for fish tagged BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 51
in 1944 is apparent rather than real and is due to lack of opportunity for recovery
of 1944 tags within the major area. The 1944 tagging was made along the southern
Central coast-line whereas the 1945-46 recoveries came from the northern Central
coast-line. It has been shown in previous years that there is a tendency for mixing
to be limited between southern Central and northern Central coast-line fish. The
desirability of considering each of these localities as a separate major area will be
discussed later.
MIXING WITHIN MAJOR AREAS.
West Coast of Vancouver Island.
In view of the small number of tags used in this major area in recent years, the
small number recovered in 1945-46, and the confusion in interpreting the locality of
recovery from magnet returns there is little information concerning the extent of mixture between Sydney Inlet and Barkley Sound, the two main fishing-grounds in 1945-46.
It is certain that some tags used at Matilda Inlet (8N), near Sydney Inlet, in 1944
were recovered from catches made on both fishing-grounds. A suggestion of a greater
concentration of tagged fish in the locality of tagging is given by the fact that tag
detectors recovered one 8N tag from 2,462 tons of Barkley Sound fish and one 8N tag
from 245 tons of Sydney Inlet fish.
South-east Coast of Vancouver Island.
This major area may be divided into three smaller areas (Nanoose Bay locality,
Porlier Pass locality, and Swanson Channel locality) in each of which fisheries were
operative and in each of which taggings were made during the spring of 1945 (9C, 9B,
and 9D respectively). Recoveries are shown in Table II. Of particular interest is the
large number of Nanoose Bay locality tags (9C) recovered from the Swanson Channel
locality. These fish would either have remained in the Swanson Channel locality
or would have worked their way along the south-east coast of the island towards
Nanoose Bay for spawning. If it is assumed that the fish present in each locality
during the fishing season would have remained there to spawn, the results show no
significant tendency for the three runs to form separate local units.
Northern Strait of Georgia and Discovery Passage.
The east shore of Discovery Passage, including Deepwater and Cahnish Bays,
is the only fishing-ground in this area. The results for 1945-46 again show that the
fishery is supplied mostly by herring which spawn in the northern part of the Strait
of Georgia (Skuttle Bay) and in Discovery Passage (Deepwater and Cahnish Bays).
One tag originally used at Deserted Bay, toward the head of Jervis Inlet, was also
recovered.
Queen Charlotte Strait.
From a consideration of detector and magnet returns it may be seen that fish
tagged in the vicinity of Clio Channel, in the vicinity of Retreat Passage, and at King-
come Inlet were found in catches made from practically all 1945-46 fishing-grounds
except Seymour Inlet and upper Knight Inlet. It seems reasonably certain that no
or very few tags were present in the catches in these two localities. The former is close
to the northern boundary of the Queen Charlotte Strait area; the latter is towards
the head of a long fjord, some 50 miles from the closest tagging locality. The results
for 1944-45 also showed a lack of tags in catches from the head of Knight Inlet.
There appears to be a relationship between the concentration of tags in the catches
and the size of the fish. This is shown in the following tabulation in which the
estimated concentration of tags per 100 tons of fish is based on magnet and detector N 52
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
returns from the Alert Bay plant (omitting magnet recoveries of doubtful locality of
return), and in which the size of the fish is shown as the percentage over 152 mm.
in length as derived from samples:—
Fishing-grounds.
Catch
(Tons).
Tags per
100 Tons.
Percentage
over 152 Mm.
Mackenzie Sound	
Clio Channel vicinity.
Thompson Sound	
Belleisle Sound	
Upper Knight Inlet...
Seymour Inlet	
255
2,620
114
2,780
925
87
10.6
6.7
5.3
0.7
0.0
0.0
76
56
(No samples.)
20
2
29
Small fish, 152 mm. or less in length, were practically all immature and would not
have been available for tagging on the spawning-grounds. Thus tagging data gives
no information on either the spawning-grounds or the wanderings of these fish which
formed the bulk of the catch on several of the fishing-grounds. Recalculation of the
above results for large fish only still indicates a low concentration of tags per 100 tons
in Belleisle Sound. (3-5), and presumably also in upper Knight Inlet and Seymour
Inlet, as compared with Mackenzie Sound (13.9) and Clio Channel vicinity (12.0).
The following tabulation, based on the data of Tables II. and IV., gives the total
number of tags recovered according to locality of tagging and locality of recovery,
omitting tags of doubtful origin (the data are neither sufficiently accurate nor complete
for more refined calculations) :—
Area of Tagging.
Clio Channel
Vicinity.
Thompson
Sound.
Belleisle
Sound.
Mackenzie
Sound.
63
36
1
4
1
2
7
5
3
The majority of the recoveries from fish tagged in the vicinity of Clio Channel
and Retreat Passage came from catches made in the vicinity of Clio Channel. The
results indicate that the fish spawning in the vicinity of Clio Channel contribute to
a relatively greater extent to the Clio Channel fishery than the fish spawning in the
vicinity of Retreat Passage; and that the fish spawning in the vicinity of Retreat
Passage contribute to a relatively greater extent to the catches made in Thompson,
Belleisle, and Mackenzie Sounds than the fish spawning in Clio Channel.
The number of recoveries of Kingcome Inlet tags in Belleisle Sound and Mackenzie
Sound catches is unexpectedly large considering the fact that the tagging was made
three and one-half years previously (March, 1942) and involved only a relatively small
number of fish (1,776), and also considering the fact that the Belleisle Sound fish were
mostly small. This suggests that most of the fish tagged at Kingcome Inlet have tended
to return to the north-eastern part of the major area. While tags from this tagging
have been recovered from Clio Channel vicinity in previous years, this is the first
opportunity that has been available for comparing the number of recoveries with those
in other parts of the area.
Central Coast-line.
Practically the entire 1945-46 catch was made in the northern part of the Central
coast-line area, chiefly in the vicinity of Laredo Channel (including Surf, Racey, Chap-
pel, Green, and Helmcken Inlets and Meyers Passage), but also at Tolmie Channel
(including Klemtu Passage and Devastation Channel) and at Hevenor Inlet. The
returns, all recovered by magnets, are included in Table IV. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
N 53
One tag used at Gunboat Passage in the spring of 1943 (7M) and four used
at Gunboat Passage in the spring of 1944 (8M) were recovered from the vicinity
of Laredo Channel, indicating a small addition of fish of these two taggings in the
southern part of the area to the fishery in the northern part. The remainder of the
tags were all of the 9-series, used in the spring of 1945, and originally distributed
in a series of taggings made at more or less regular intervals along the Central coastline.    These will be considered in detail.
The following tabulation shows the probable number of tags in the catches if the
same number (10,000) had been used in each tagging:—
Code.
Place of Tagging
Tolmie Channel
Vicinity.
Laredo Channel
Vicinity.
Hevenor
Inlet.
9K.
9L.
9M
9N.
90.
9P.
9Q.
Takush Harbour	
Campbell Island	
Gunboat Passage	
Parsons Anchorage...
Racey Inlet	
Union Passage	
Principe Channel	
Catch (tons)
6,244
4
82
83
379
190
183
113
8,147
20
60
1,347
Relatively few tags were present in the catches from the vicinity of Tolmie Channel
—only three were recovered from 4,166 tons mechanically searched for tags. The fish
were mostly small; in the samples examined 36 per cent, were over 152 mm. in length
as compared with 100 per cent, in both Laredo Channel vicinity and Hevenor Inlet.
Thus the majority of the fish would not have been mature and subject to tagging on
the spawning-grounds in the spring of 1945. However, even among the large fish, the
probable relative concentration of tags per 100 tons (0.6) is much less than that in the
catches from* either Laredo Channel vicinity (12.7) or Hevenor Inlet (5.9). It may be
concluded with reasonable certainty that the fish caught in Tolmie Channel vicinity,
which might be classed as an " inside " locality, constitute a local run which does not
spawn to any great extent on the major spawning-grounds which are used by the runs
to " outside " localities and on which taggings were made.
The results for catches made in the vicinity of Laredo Channel (Surf Inlet to
Meyers Passage) show that the majority of the tags were used on spawning-grounds
closest to the fishing-grounds. The large spawning-grounds in the vicinity of Parsons
Anchorage at the southern end of Laredo Channel contributed mostly (36.7 per cent.),
followed by Racey Inlet at the northern end of Laredo Channel (18.4 per cent.).
Substantial contributions were made by spawning-grounds at Union Passage (17.7 per
cent.) and in Principe Channel (10.9 per cent.), some 30 and 45 miles to the north
of Racey Inlet. Smaller contributions were made by spawning-grounds at Gunboat
Passage (8.0 per cent.) and Campbell Island (7.9 per cent.), some 40 and 45 miles to the
south of Parsons Anchorage. A minor contribution was made by spawning-grounds
in Takush Harbour (0.4 per cent.), Smith Inlet, about 100 miles to the south.
Hevenor Inlet catches contained mostly tags used in Principe Channel, the closest
tagging locality, and also some tags used in Union Passage, the next closest tagging
locality, but none from any other localities to the south. Thus mixture with fish
spawning in the Laredo Channel vicinity took place in a southerly, but not in a northerly
direction. Although the catch in Hevenor Inlet was smaller than that in the Laredo
Channel vicinity, the probable relative concentration of Principe Channel tags per 100
tons of fish was greater (4.4) in the former than in the latter (1.4). Thus relatively
more Principe Channel fish joined the Hevenor Inlet run than the Laredo Channel run,
although the actual contribution was less if the populations are considered proportional
in magnitude to the catches. N 54
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
The present results, together with those of previous years, indicate that the Central
coast-line area should be considered as two major areas, the southern Central and the
northern Central, with the dividing line in the vicinity of Milbanke Sound. On this
basis the 1945-46 data (9-series) may be divided as follows:—
No. of
Tags used.
Recoveries from Northern Central.
Area of Tagging.
Actual.
Probable
Total.
Probable Total
(Uniform
Tagging).
|
9,377                              40
11.022                             197
55.2
276.3
59
251
The results, adjusted for uniform tagging (10,000 tags in each area), indicate
a mixture of southern Central with northern Central fish of 59 x 100/310 or 19 per cent,
for tags used in the spring of 1945.
SUMMARY.
A new type tag detector was used during the 1945-46 fishing season. This differs
in basic principle from the old type and is more positive in action and more satisfactory
in performance.
There was no significant difference in percentage recovery between thin, light tags
used in the spring of 1945 and tags of the usual dimensions and weight used in other
years.
As in previous years mixing between the fish of major areas was limited in extent,
amounting to about 6 per cent, on the average. Fish tagged in the northern Strait of
Georgia and Discovery Passage in the spring of 1945, those tagged along the south-east
coast of Vancouver Island in the spring of 1944, and those tagged in Queen Charlotte
Strait in the spring of 1943 appeared to wander to a greater extent than those tagged
in other areas and years.
Along the south-east coast of Vancouver Island mixing took place between runs
to Swanson Channel, Porlier Pass, and Nanoose Bay vicinities, but there is no reliable
information on its extent. The results for 1945-46 are in agreement with the theory
that fish supplying the south-east coast fishery migrate to and from the area by way
of the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
As in previous years the fishery at Deepwater Bay and at Cahnish Bay was
supplied mostly by fish spawning in the northern part of the Strait of Georgia and
in Discovery Passage. The results are in agreement with the theory that the fish
supplying the fishery migrate to and from the area by way of Johnstone Strait.
Interpretation of the amount of mixing between runs to the Queen Charlotte
Strait area is difficult because of the large number of small fish in the catches and lack
of knowledge of the absolute size of the runs. The indications are that fish tagged
in the vicinity of Clio Channel and in the vicinity of Retreat Passage join the runs
to several fishing-grounds, with the former contributing relatively more to those in the
vicinity of Clio Channel and the latter contributing relatively more to those at Thompson, Belleisle, and Mackenzie Sounds. The results also indicate j that fish tagged at
Kingcome Inlet tend to return mostly to the same general locality. Fish tagged on the
main spawning-grounds of the Queen Charlotte Strait area were not found in small
catches made in Seymour Inlet, at the northern boundary of the area. Likewise, tagged
fish were not found in catches made in upper Knight Inlet, but in this case the fish
were mostly very small and would not have been available for tagging on the spawning-
grounds. BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 55
Relatively large numbers of tags used along the Central coast-line were recovered
from catches made in the vicinity of Laredo Channel and Hevenor Inlet. Most of the
tags which were recovered were originally used on spawning-grounds in close proximity
to the fishing-grounds (Parsons Anchorage in the former, Principe Channel in the
latter). Although fish tagged in the vicinity of Principe Channel and Union Passage
joined runs in the vicinity of Laredo Channel to the south, fish tagged in the vicinity
of Laredo Channel did not join the run to Hevenor Inlet to the north, thus showing
mixture in a southerly but not in a northerly direction. Very few tags were recovered
from a large catch made in the vicinity of Tolmie Channel, indicating that this run
constituted an " inside " local population which was not supplied by fish spawning
on grounds along the outer coast-line. The results suggest that the Central coast-line
should be considered as embracing two major areas, the southern Central and the
northern Central, with the dividing line in the vicinity of Milbanke Sound.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
The investigation has been assisted by the co-operation of several companies and
numerous individuals of the fishing industry. British Columbia Packers, Limited,
again permitted the installation and operation of tag detectors at the Imperial Cannery
and Alert Bay reduction plant. Reduction-plant crews of several companies assisted
in returning tags found on magnets.
Nelson Brothers Fisheries, Limited, and Canadian Fishing Company, Limited,
loaned the seine boats " Western Commander " and " Pacific Sunset" for spring tagging-
work. The captains (I. Sande and 0. Brune) and crews gave every assistance in
tagging.
The services of Dr. A. C. Young, loaned through the courtesy of the National
Research Council of Canada, in designing the new type tag detector are gratefully
acknowledged. Appreciation is also expressed to Mr. F. J. Bartholomew, of the Electric
Power Equipment Company, Limited, for the personal interest which he has taken
in producing a satisfactory detector unit.
Field-work was largely undertaken by Mr. A. G. Paul and Mr. R. S. Isaacson, who
operated tag detectors throughout the fishing season. Assistance in tagging was given
by Mr. J. C. Stevenson, M.A., Mr. A. G. Paul, and Mr. I. Jepson.
The investigation has been conducted under joint financial arrangement by the
Fisheries Research Board of Canada and the Fisheries Department of the Province
of British Columbia. Thanks are again extended to Dr. R. E. Foerster and to Mr. G. J.
Alexander, of the respective organizations, for their continued support and assistance.
REFERENCES.
Tester, A. L.    Tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in British Columbia:   Insertions
and recoveries during 1943-44.    Report, B.C. Provincial Fisheries Department,
1943, pp. 53-74, 1944.
Tester, A. L.    Tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in British Columbia:   Insertions
and recoveries during 1944-45.    Report, B.C. Provincial Fisheries Department,
1944, pp. 45-61, 1945a.
Tester, A. L.   A new type herring tag detector.   Progress Reports (Pacific), Fisheries Research Board of Canada, No. 64, pp. 62-63, 1945b. N 56
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
Table I.—Summary of the Tagging Data for Taggings producing Returns during the
1945-46 Fishing Season and for Tags inserted during the 1946 Spawning Season.
Tagging
Code.
4N
5Q
6L
6N
60
6P
7D
7G
7J
7K
7L
7M
7N
8B
8D
8G
81
8J
8K
8M
8N
9A
9B
9C
9D
9E
9P
9G
9H
91
9J
9K
9L
9M
9N
90
9P
9 Q
10A
10B
IOC
10D
10E
10F
10G
10H
101
IOJ
10K
10L
10M
ION
10P
10Q
10R
10S
Date.
Mar. 21, 1940	
Mar. 8, 9, 1941	
March. 15, 1942	
Mar. 28, 1942	
Mar. 30, 1942	
Apr. 21, 22, 1942	
Mar. 7, 8, 12, 13, 1943..
Mar. 29, 1943	
Mar. 17, 18, 1943	
Mar. 22, 1943	
Mar. 28, 1943	
Mar. 31, 1943	
Apr. 5, 1943	
Feb. 24, 25, 1944	
Mar. 2, 3, 1944	
Mar. 12-15, 1944	
Mar. 31, 1944	
Mar. 6, 1944	
Mar. 27, 1944	
Mar. 20, 1944	
Mar. 26, 27, 1944	
Oct. 10, 1944	
Feb. 17, 1945	
Mar. 10-12, 1945	
Mar. 13, 1945	
Mar. 15, 1945	
Apr. 3, 4, 1945	
Mar. 19, 20, 1945	
Mar. 22, 1945	
Mar. 9, 12, 1945	
Mar. 7, 14, 15, 1945	
Mar. 26, 1945	
Apr. 1, 1945	
Mar. 20, 21, 1945	
Mar. 25, 1945	
Mar. 26, 1945	
Mar. 30, 1945	
Mar. 27, 28, 1945	
Feb. 16, 1946	
Mar. 6-8, 1946	
Mar. 12, 1946	
Mar. 14, 1946	
Mar. 15, 1946	
Mar. 10, 1946	
Mar. 16, 1946	
Mar. 23, 1946	
Feb. 26, 27, 1946	
Feb. 28, Mar. 1, 1946...
Mar. 19, 1946	
Mar. 19, 20, 1946 ....
Mar. 30, 1946	
Mar. 8, 9, 1946	
Mar. 5, 6, 1946	
Mar. 13, 1946	
Mar. 15, 1946	
Apr. 30, 1946	
No. of
Tags
inserted.
000
776
498
495
000
099
493
.978
017
830
021
999
997
026
Oil
220
409
934
555
227
1G6
319
155
177
754
310
450
523
010
039
570
.506
,952
.060
148
,754
085
,691
,914
545
,941
,947
,574
.542
.961
,182
,542
,617
Method of
Capture of
Fish.*
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.P.
B.S.
B.S.
s.s.
B.P.
B.P.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
CB.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
S.T.
S.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
S.S.
CB.S..S.S.
S.S.
B.S.
S.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
CB.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.P.
Place of Tagging.
Bend Island, Clio Channel.
Kendrick Arm, Nootka Sound.
Retreat Passage.
Clio Channel.
Kingcome Inlet.
Cahnish Bay.
Skuttle Bay, near Sliammon.
Deserted Bay, Jervis Inlet.
Deepwater Bay, Discovery Passage.
Bend Island, Clio Channel.
Retreat Passage, Shoal Harbour.
Gunboat Passage.
Chatham Channel.
Departure Bay.
Skuttle Bay, near Sliammon.
Kuper Island, near Clam Bay Spit.
Deepwater Bay, Discovery Passage.
Retreat Passage.
Retreat Passage, Shoal Harbour.
Gunboat Passage.
Matilda Inlet, Clayoquot Sound.
Sooke, Strait of Juan de Fuca.
Ladysmith Harbour.
Departure Bay.
Selby Creek, Prevost Island.
Skuttle Bay, north of.
Deepwater Bay, Discovery Passage.
Viner Sound.
Cutter Creek.
Retreat Passage.
Cramer Passage.
Takush Harbour, Angle Inlet.
Brown Narrows, Campbell Island.
Gunboat Passage.
Parsons Anchorage, Laredo Sound.
Racey Inlet, head.
Union Passage, southerly entrance.
Anger Island, Principe Channel.
Selby Creek, Prevost Island.
Ladysmith Harborr.
Departure Bay.
Qualicum Bay.
Baynes Sound, Grassy Point.
Pender Harbour, Canoe Pass.
Skuttle Bay, near Sliammon.
Cramer Passage.
Pipestem Inlet, Barkley Sound.
Banfield Inlet, Barkley Sound.
Whitepine Cove, Herbert Inlet.
Refuge Cove, Sydney Inlet.
Refuge Cove, Sydney Inlet.
Ewin Inlet, Nootka Sound.
Queen Cove, Esperanza Inlet.
Clanninick Cove, Kyuquot Sound.
Clanninick Cove, Kyuquot Sound.
Cahnish Bay, Discovery Passage.
* B.S.rrbait-seine ;   S.S.=shore-seine ;   S.T.—salmon-trap ;   B.P.=bait-pound ;   C.B.S.=commercial bait-seine. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
N 57
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> N 58
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
Table III.—List of the Tags recovered by Magnets in Reduction Plants according to
Tagging, Plant, and Area of Recovery.
(The " certain or probable " area of recovery is that used in tables dealing with
magnet recoveries which follow.    For explanation, see text.)
Code.
Tagging.
Plant.
No.
of
Tags.
Area, of Recovery.
Reported.
Certain or Probable.
Alternatives.
4N
5Q
6L
6N
60
7J
7K
7L
7M
8B
8D
8G
81
8J
8K
8M
8N
H
E
K
K
K
K
K
K
A
L
B
K
H
K
C
K
L
H
H
K
K
K
K
H
K
K
K
K
L
H
H
B
C
Bones Bay	
1
Belleisle Sound	
Bones Bay .'.	
Thompson Sound	
Mackenzie Sound ,
Port Harvey, etc	
Belleisle Sound	
Belleisle Sound	
Belleisle Sound and
Bones Bay
Satellite Channel
(offal)
Bones Bay, Knight
Inlet
Surf Inlet	
Bones Bay and Belleisle Sound
Bones Bay	
Belleisle Sound and
Bones Bay
Surf Inlet	
Barkley Sound	
Mackenzie Sound	
Nanoose Bay	
Bones Bay	
Bones Bay	
Thompson Sound	
Port Harvey, etc	
Mackenzie Sound	
Belleisle Sound and
Bones Bay
Bones Bay, Belleisle
Sound, Barkley
Sound
Bones Bay	
Belleisle Sound	
Belleisle Sound	
Port Harvey, etc	
Bones Bay and Belleisle Sound
Alert Bay area	
Surf Inlet	
Deepwater Bay	
Surf Inlet	
Barkley Sound	
Clio Channel vicinity	
West coast V.I	
Clio Channel or Belleisle
Sound
Clio Channel or Belleisle
Sound
Thompson Sound.
Mackenzie Sound	
Queen Charlotte Strait....
Belleisle Sound	
Clio Channel or Belleisle
Sound
Clio Channel or Belleisle
Sound
Discovery Passage	
Belleisle Sound	
Laredo Channel vicinity.
Clio Channel or Belleisle
Sound
Clio Channel vicinity	
Clio Channel or Belleisle
Sound
Laredo Channel vicinity.
Barkl'ey Sound	
Mackenzie Sound	
South-east coast V.I	
Clio Channel vicinity	
Clio Channel vicinity	
Thompson Sound	
Queen Charlotte Strait...
Mackenzie Sound	
Clio Channel or Belleisle
Sound
Clio Channel or Belleisle
Sound
Clio Channel vicinity	
Belleisle Sound	
Clio Channel or Belleisle
Sound
Queen Charlotte Strait...
Clio Channel or Belleisle
Sound
Clio Channel vicinity	
Laredo Channel vicinity.
Discovery Passage....:	
Laredo Channel vicinity.
Barkley Sound	
Klemtu Passage.
Several grounds in major area.
Other grounds in major area.
Other grounds in major area.
Other grounds in major area.
Several grounds in major area.
Other grounds in major area.
Other grounds in major area.
Other grounds in major area.
South-east coast V.I.
Oth'er grounds in major area ; southeast coast V.I.; (Discovery Passage ).
Other grounds in major area ; (Mackenzie Sound).
Other grounds in major area.
Klemtu Passage.
Other grounds in major area.
Other grounds in major area ;   (Discovery Passage ; southern Central).
(Porlier Pass.)
Other grounds in major area.
Discovery Passage.
Klemtu Passage.
Klemtu Passage.
Belleisle Sound.
Several grounds in major area.
Other grounds in major area.
Other grounds in major area.
Barkley Sound; south-east coast
V.I.;   (Discovery Passage).
Klemtu Passage.
Other grounds in major area.
Other grounds in major area.
Several grounds in major area.
Other grounds in major area.
Belleisle Sound; Barkley Sound;
south-east coast V.I.
Other grounds in major area ; (Discovery Passage; Queen Charlotte
Strait).
Northern Central; Queen Charlotte
Strait.
Other grounds in major area ; (Mackenzie Sound).
(Porlier Pass.) BRITISH COLUMBIA.
N 59
Table III.—List of the Tags recovered by Magnets in Reduction Plants according to
Tagging, Plant, and Area of Recovery—Continued.
Code.
No.
of
Tags.
Area of Recovery.
Tagging.
Plant.
Reported.
Certain or Probable.
Alternatives.
C
B
L
L
A
A
E
C
C
A
E
K
H
B
H
H
H
L
L
H
H
K
K
L
L
L
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
K
H
5
4
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
3
2
1
2
1
1
1
6
4
1
21
8
2
7
12
Sydney Inlet or Barkley
Sound
(Porlier Pass.)
,
Several grounds in major area.
9A
Swanson Channel 	
Hardy Bay, Knight
Inlet
Barkley Sound or
Satellite Channel
(offal)
Barkley Sound (offal)
?
f
South-east  coast  V.I.   or  Discovery
?
Passage.
South-east coast V.I. ;   Queen Char
9C
?    	
lotte Strait;   (Discovery Passage).
South-east     coast     V.I.;      Barkley
?
Sound;   (Knight Inlet;  Discovery
Passage).
Barkley    Sound;    south-east    coast
West Coast V.I	
V.I.;     (Knight  Inlet;    Discovery
Passage).
Several grounds in major area.
9D
(Porlier Pass.)
Sydney Inlet or Barkley
Sound
f
(Porlier Pass.)
Bones Bay or Barkley
Sound
?
West Coast V.I	
Strait;  south-east coast V.I.; Discovery Passage.
Several grounds in major area.
9E
Several grounds in major area.
?
Discovery   Passage;    northern  Cen
Surf Inlet                	
tral ;   Queen Charlotte Strait.
Other grounds in major area ;   (Mac
9F
kenzie Sound).
Klemtu Passage.
Northern Central;   Queen Charlotte
Surf Inlet                	
Strait.
Other grounds in major area;   Dis
covery Passage;   Queen Charlotte
Strait.
Hardy Bay, Knight
Inlet
sage.
9G
Clio Channel vicinity	
sage.
Klemtu Passage.
Surf Inlet
Mackenzie Sound	
Mackenzie Sound	
Clio Channel or Belleisle
Sound
covery Passage;   Queen Charlotte
Strait.
Other grounds in major area.
Thompson Sound.
Bones Bay; Knight
Inlet
Clio Channel or Belleisle
Sound
sage.
Barkley    Sound;    south-east    coast
Bones Bay,  Belleisle
Sound,   and  Barkley Sound
Thompson Sound	
V.I.;   (Discovery Passage).
9H
Thompson Sound.
V.I.;   (Discovery Passage).
Serpentine Pass and
Belleisle Sound
Knight Inlet           	
Clio Channel or Belleisle
Sound
Thompson Sound.
Belleisle Sound and
Bones Bay
Clio Channel or Belleisle
Sound
Other grounds in major area.
Mackenzie Sound	 N 60
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
Table III.—List of the Tags recovered by Magnets in Reduction Plants according to
Tagging, Plant, and Area of Recovery—Continued.
Code.
No.
of
Tags.
Area of Recovery.
Tagging.
Plant.
Reported.
Certain or Probable.
Alternatives.
9H
H
H
A
L
L
K
K
K
K
H
H
B
L
L
L
L
K
K
K
K
B
H
H
L
B
K
K
H
H
B
B
I
B
B
H
H
I
4
1
3
3
5
6
1
2
3
6
2
1
14
4
Tolmie Channel	
Deepwater Bay	
Bones Bay or Barkley
Sound
Clio Channel vicinity	
Northern Central.
Northern Central;   Queen Charlotte
Strait.
Barkley    Sound;     south-east    coast
V.I.;   (Discovery Passage).
Barkley    Sound;     south-east   coast
V.I. ;   (Discovery Passage).
Barkley    Sound;     south-east    coast
V.I.;   (Discovery Passage).
Other grounds in major area.
Other grounds in major area.
Other grounds in major area.
Klemtu Passage.
Northern Central.
Finlayson Channel.
South-east coast V.I.; Discovery Passage.
South-east coast V.I.; Discovery Passage.
Barkley Sound; south-east coast
V.I.;   (Discovery Passage).
Barkley Sound; south-east coast
V.I.;   (Discovery Passage).
Several grounds in major area.
Other grounds in major area.
Other grounds in major area.
Other grounds in major area ; (Mackenzie Sound).
Klemtu Passage.
Queen Charlotte Strait or northern
Central.
South-east coast V.I.; Discovery Passage.
Other grounds in major area ; (Mackenzie Sound).
Other grounds in major area.
Other grounds in major area.
Clio Channel vicinity	
Clio Channel or Belleisle
Sound
Clio Channel or Belleisle
Sound
Thompson Sound.
91
Bones Bay,  Belleisle
Sound,  and  Bark-
lay Sound
Thompson Sound	
Belleisle Sound and
Bones Bay
Mackenzie Sound	
Clio Channel or Belleisle
Sound
Tolmie Channel	
Finlayson Channel
Clio Channel vicinity	
Knight Inlet	
Clio Channel or Belleisle
Sound
Clio Channel or Belleisle
Sound
Thompson Sound.
9J
Bones Bay,  Belleisle
Sound,   and  Barkley Sound
Thompson Sound	
Belleisle Sound and
Bones Bay
Surf Inlet	
Clio Channel or Belleisle
Sound
Laredo Channel vicinity	
Surf Inlet	
7
Port Harvey and
Knight Inlet
Surf Inlet	
9K
Bones Bay and Belleisle Sound
Clio Channel or Belleisle
Sound
Clio Channel or Belleisle
Sound
9L
Surf Inlet	
Other grounds in major area; Discovery Passage; Queen Charlotte
Strait.
Other grounds in major area ; (Mackenzie Sound).
Other grounds in major area ; (Mackenzie Sound).
Laredo Channel vicinity	
Laredo Channel vicinity	
Surf Inlet	
Surf Inlet	
Surf Inlet	
Other grounds in major area ; (Mackenzie Sound).
Other grounds in major area ; (Mackenzie Sound).
Laredo Channel vicinity	
Tolmie Channel vicinity.
Surf Inlet	
Surf Inlet        	
covery Passage;   Queen Charlotte
Strait.
Other grounds in major area. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
N 61
Table III.—List of the Tags recovered by Magnets in Reduction Plants according to
Tagging, Plant, and Area of Recovery—Continued.
Code.
No.
of
Tags.
Area op Recovery.
Tagging.
Plant.
Reported.
Certain or Probable.
Alternatives.
9N
H
H
H
B
B
I
H
B
I
H
H
H
B
B
I
I
I
H
H
H
B
I
I
I
K
1
63
4
9
6
13
14
1
6
1
24
1
2
2
3
10
1
2
1
11
4
9
8
1
1
Surf Inlet	
Surf Inlet and Meyers
Passage
Surf Inlet	
covery Passage;   Queen Charlotte
Strait.
covery Passage; Queen Charlotte
Strait.
kenzie Sound).
Surf Inlet .... 	
kenzie Sound).
90
Surf Inlet 	
covery Passage ;   Queen Charlotte
Strait.
Surf Inlet
kenzie Sound).
9P
Surf Inlet      	
Surf Inlet and Meyers
Passage
Surf Inlet   ...
covery Passage; Queen Charlotte
Strait.
covery Passage; Queen Charlotte
Strait.
kenzie Sound).
kenzie Sound).
Surf Inlet    .
?
9Q
Surf Inlet	
Surf Inlet and Meyers
Passage
Surf Inlet	
Strait.
covery Passage ; Queen Charlotte
Strait.
Surf Inlet    	
covery Passage; Queen Charlotte
Strait.
Hevenor Inlet	
kenzie Sound.
Surf Inlet           	
?
? N 62             REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT,
1945.
'TO°i
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REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
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Eh BRITISH COLUMBIA.
N 65
Table VII.—Detailed List of Tags inserted during the Spring of 1946.
Identification
Marks.
Date released.
Tagging
Code.
Where released.
No. of
Tags used.
P23001-23300*
ALLAf
AMMAf
ANNAf
cue
CKKC
CMMC
CNNC
cooc
DEED
DIID
DNND
DPPD
DUUD
DWWD
DXXD
DYYD
DZZD
EAAE
EBBE
ECCE
EDDE
EHHE
EIIE
EJJE
EKKE
ELLE
EMME
ENNE
EOOE
EPPE
ESSE
ETTE
EUUE
EWWE
EXXE
EYYE
EZZE
HAAH
HBBH
HCCH
HDDH
HEEH
HUH
HJJH
HKKH
HLLH
HMMH
HNNH
HOOH
HPPH
HSSH
HTTH
HUUH
HWWH
HXXH
HYYH
HZZH
IAAI
IBBI
ICCI
IDDI
IEEI
Mar. 10
Feb. 26,
Feb. 26,
Feb. 27,
Feb. 16
Feb. 28,
Mar. 6
Mar.
Mar. 15,
Mar. 15
Mar. 15
Mar. 15,
Mar. 15,
Feb. 28,
Feb. 16,
Feb. 26
Feb. 26,
Feb. 28,
Mar. 1
Mar. 5
Mar. 6
Mar. 6
Mar. 8
Mar. 9
Mar. 9
Mar. 13
Mar. 13
Mar. 13
Mar. 6
Mar. 7
Mar. 7
Mar. 10,
Mar. 10,
Mar. 19
Mar. 19
Mar. 19
Mar. 19,
Mar. 20,
Mar. 12,
Mar. 12,
Mar. 12
Mar. 12
Mar. 15
Mar.
Mar.
Mar. 14
Mar. 14
Mar. 15
Mar. 15
Mar. 8
Mar. 10,
Mar. 15
Mar. 15
Mar. 20,
Mar. 20
Mar. 16,
- Mar. 16,
Mar. 16,
Mar. 16
Mar. 16,
Mar. 16,
Mar. 23
Mar.  23
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
1946
10F
101
101
101
10A
10J
10P
ION
10R
10R
10E
10R
10R
10J
10A
101
101
10J
10J
10P
10P
10P
ION
ION
ION
10Q
10Q
10Q
108
10B
10B
10F
10F
10K
10K
10K
10L
10L
10C
10C
IOC
10C
10E
10B
10B
10D
10D
10E
10E
10B
10F
10E
10E
10L
10L
10G
10G
10G
10G
10G
10G
10H
10H
Pender Harbour	
Pipestem Inlet	
Pipestem Inlet	
Pipestem Inlet	
Prevost Island, Selby Creek	
Banfield Inlet	
Queen Cove, False Channel	
Ewin Inlet	
Clanninick Cove	
Clanninick Cove	
Clanninick Cove	
Clanninick Cove	
Clanninick Cove	
Banfield Inlet	
Prevost Island, Selby Creek	
Pipestem Inlet	
Pipestem Inlet	
Banfield Inlet	
Banfield Inlet	
Queen Cove, False Channel	
Queen Cove, False Channel ,
Queen Cove, False Channel	
Ewin Inlet	
Ewin Inlet	
Ewin Inlet	
Clanninick Cove	
Clanninick Cove	
Clanninick Cove	
Ladysmith Harbour	
Ladysmith Harbour	
Ladysmith Harbour	
Pender Harbour	
Pender Harbour	
Herbert Inlet, Whitepine Cove.
Herbert Inlet, Whitepine Cove.
Herbert Inlet, Whitepine Cove.
Refuge Cove	
Refuge Cove	
Departure Bay	
Departure Bay	
Departure Bay ;	
Departure Bay	
Baynes Sound, Grassy Point	
Ladysmith Harbour	
Ladysmith Harbour	
Qualicum Bay	
Qualicum Bay	
Baynes Sound, Grassy Point	
Baynes Sound, Grassy Point	
Ladysmith Harbour	
Pender Harbour	
Baynes Sound, Grassy Point	
Baynes Sound, Grassy Point	
Refuge Cove	
Refuge Cove	
Skuttle Bay, near Sliammon	
Skuttle Bay, near Sliammon	
Skuttle Bay, near Sliammon	
Skuttle Bay, near Sliammon	
Skuttle Bay, near Sliammon	
Skuttle Bay, near Sliammon	
Cramer Passage	
Cramer Passage	
297
640
653
647
562
552
496
481
482
519
524
512
505
951
.,008
994
980
,006
,036
,078
,053
,334
025
010
,026
,069
,033
,080
,035
994
899
952
991
L.004
984
953
935
954
996
978
989
989
999
530
516
525
535
502
623
532
514
503
521
535
523
531
525
515
461
527
526
533
638
*=Type A.
5
t=Type C.
Remainder:=Type B. N 66
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
Table VII.—Detailed List of Tags inserted during the Spring of 1946—Continued.
Identification
Marks.
Date released.
Tagging
Code.
Where released.
No. of
Tags used.
IHHI
Mar.  23,  1946
Mar.  30,  1946
Mar.  30,  1946
Mar.  30,  1946
Apr.  30,   1946
Apr. 30,  1946
Apr.  30,   1946
10H
10M
10M
10M
10S
10S
10S
520
ITTI
531
IUUI
522
IWWI
521
IYYI
525
IZZI
594
JAAJ
498 BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 67
CONDITION OF THE BUTTER-CLAM FISHERY IN
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
By Ferris Neave, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
The commercial clam-fishery of British Columbia became established about forty
years ago. During this period the butter-clam (Saxidomus giganteus) has been the
mainstay of this industry, which, while not ranking among the larger fisheries of the
Province, nevertheless produces annual catches value.d at from $45,000 to $70,000 to
the fishermen.
As long ago as 1913 the view was expressed that clam-beds in certain areas might
become exhausted through overfishing (Thompson, Rept. B.C. Comm. Fish., 1912).
When, in the winter of 1937-38, the Fisheries Research Board of Canada began an
investigation of the clams and clam-fishery of the Province, there was a widespread
belief among clam-diggers that serious depletion had occurred in many of the beaches
located in Southern British Columbia.
Since previous statistics on clam-production made no distinction between the
several species of clams involved, nor showed the fishing effort expended in producing
the annual catch, a system of recording catches was introduced (by D. B. Quayle) in the
season of 1939-40. This provided for detailed information on the species and quantities taken, the particular beaches exploited, the number of diggers involved, and the
time (number of " digging-tides ") expended. With the co-operation of the Dominion
Department of Fisheries and the industry, the collection of these statistics has been
continued to the present time. At the same time biological studies were undertaken
to provide a basis for determining the effectiveness or otherwise of present regulations
and for the future guidance of the fishery.
REGULATIONS.
Protective regulations at present in force prohibit (1) the taking of butter-clams
less than 2% inches long and (2) the taking of butter-clams between July 1st and
September 30th in areas south of Queen Charlotte Sound. No other limitations are
embodied in the " Fisheries Act," nor is a licence required for the commercial digging
of clams.
DISTRIBUTION  OF BUTTER-CLAMS.
The general geographic distribution covers the whole of the British Columbia coast.
The preferred habitat is in the lower part of the intertidal zone in beaches composed of various admixtures of mud, sand, shell, gravel, and stones. Very few are
found in areas of pure mud or fine sand. No clam-digging is carried on below the level
of the lowest tides and the extent to which the species populates infratidal levels is not
known. Since, however, the preferred type of bottom does not usually extend much
below the lowest tide-marks, it can not be assumed that large stocks of butter-clams
exist beyond the limits of present exploitation. In some beaches—for example, Seal
Island, near Comox—butter-clams become relatively scarce at a level well above that
of a zero tide.
There are very few large, continuous areas which combine a favourable tidal level
with a suitable structural composition. Cowichan Bay beach (25 to 40 acres), False
Narrows (35 acres), and Seal Island (14 acres) are outstanding examples in the southern part of the Province. In general, productive butter-clam areas vary in size from
a few square yards to 3 or 4 acres. Numerous such beds exist throughout the coastal
region, particularly on the shore-lines of islands. N 68 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
DENSITY OF POPULATION.
The distribution of clams within a suitable tract of beach is often irregular, being
determined not only by the activities of diggers but also by the random manner in which
the settlement of larva, takes place. Considering only those clams which have attained
legal size, populations up to 25 lb. per square yard have been found to exist over considerable areas of undug territory. This represented about seventy-five individual
clams per square yard. In an extreme instance 25 square feet yielded 179 lb., or 64 lb.
per square yard. The usual legal-sized population of commercially productive beds at
the present time does not run more than 5 to 12 lb. per square yard.
GROWTH RATE.
The growth rate varies considerably in different beaches and different areas. It
appears to be affected mainly by the amount of food available and the temperature of
the water. Growth is generally more rapid in beaches exposed to tidal currents than
in situations where exchange of water is small. The legal length of 2V_ inches appears b
to be attained in four and a half to five years in favourable localities in the Strait of
Georgia and on the west coast of Vancouver Island. In less favourable beaches in these
waters at least one more year is required, while in the northern part of the Province
many populations do not reach legal size, on average, until 7, 8, or 9 years old. Butter-
clams can, on occasion, live for twenty years or more. In southern beaches at the
present time clams over 12 years of age are relatively scarce.
The average weight of an individual which has just reached legal size is about
2% oz.    A weight of more than 1 lb. is occasionally attained by old clams.
AGE AND SIZE AT MATURITY.
The attainment of sexual maturity is related to size rather than to age. Fully
developed reproductive cells first appear when the clams have an average length of about
1% inches. This means that reproduction can take place for the first time at from
3 to 5 years of age, depending on the growth-rate. There seems to be little or no
difference between the sexes in the size at which they mature.
FREQUENCY OF SPAWNING AND SETTING.
Although all butter-clams larger than 1% inches in length can be regarded as
mature, the appearance of new crops of young clams in the commercial beaches is quite
irregular. It is unusual, at least in Georgia Strait waters, to find a series of successive
year-classes well represented in the same spot at the same time. It is frequently
obvious that the clams in a beach tend to fall into a very small number of main size-
groups, with few individuals of intermediate size. While marked differences often
exist between the age-compositions of closely adjacent populations, it is probable that
in some years reproduction is generally poor throughout large districts. There is evidence that the majority of clams in certain beaches fail to spawn in some seasons. On
other occasions there may be an unfavourable distribution of the settling larvse.
In any case it is evident that the annual seedings of individual beaches vary greatly in
magnitude, with resultant subsequent fluctuations in the available crops of commercial-
sized clams.
DIGGERS AND EQUIPMENT.
Most of the commercial clam-digging is performed by Indians who visit the beaches
during low-tide periods and sell their catches to buyers stationed at convenient points.
The product of each digging-tide may be sold separately or may be accumulated for two
or three days. The standard implement is a long-handled potato-fork. The five-tined
variety is preferred but has been unobtainable during the past two or three years, so that many diggers have had to use a four-tined fork. In the latter implement the distance between adjacent tines is % to % inch greater, permitting clams to slip through
somewhat more easily, particularly when the ground is loose in texture. Since most
of the favourable low tides occur at night during the season when butter-clams are dug,
the digger's equipment ordinarily includes a gasoline lantern and a pointed (preferably
iron, but sometimes wooden) stake on which the lantern is hung.
Although the open season extends throughout the year in the northern and central
districts and from October 1st to June 30th in the southern part of the Province, operations are in practice limited to a shorter annual period. This may begin (in different
years and different areas) at any time between the end of October and sometime in
January and may end as early as March or April. This curtailment of the season is
due in part to a tendency for diggers and canners to be engaged with other types of
products in the autumn, and to the less attractive colour of the clams after they have
begun to feed heavily in the spring.
LIMITATIONS ON DIGGING.
Because of the comparatively low levels at which butter-clams are numerous, digging is not usually practicable for a period of more than four or five hours centring
on the time of low tide. In the Strait of Georgia digging is practically limited to
occasions when the tide falls below a level of 2% feet above the datum. Tide-tables
show that such tides should occur on about eighty occasions between November 1st and
April 30th, but weather conditions may significantly reduce the number of effective
working-tides. The time available for working the lowest portions of the intertidal
zone is of course much less than at higher levels. Another type of limitation is imposed
by the nature of the ground which, when excessively heavy or stony, may make digging
unprofitable even when clams are numerous.
EXPLOITATION OF BEDS.
Butter-clams are not dug individually but the selected ground is turned over and
the clams are culled as they come to light. Beaches, however, are not dug thoroughly
or systematically since each digger endeavours, by observation of surface indications
or by experiment, to select favourable spots. Too much experimentation results in lost
time and selection of the best spots is by no means perfect, but the catches obtained
are usually better than would result from completely random digging. A proportion
of the clams present (possibly at times in the neighbourhood of 20 per cent.) are not
secured, some being overlooked, some buried again before being picked up, and some
missed through not digging sufficiently deeply. Digging usually proceeds in an irregularly centrifugal manner with the lantern as a central point, the light being moved at
times to illuminate new ground. Even in areas which have the appearance of being
thoroughly dug over, pockets of undug ground are apt to remain under the positions
occupied by lanterns, beneath excavated material, and between the peripheries of
individual digging operations.
The area of ground actually turned over by a digger in the course of one low-tide
period probably does not exceed, on average, 25 or 30 square yards—or at least his
catch is not greater than the complete exploitation of this area of ground would provide.
Unless prices or economic conditions were to change radically, diggers would probably be reluctant to operate on beaches where clams fail to show concentrations of 4 lb.
per square yard.
It is evident that clam-beaches are seldom if ever depleted, by digging alone,
to a condition approaching the extinction of even legal-sized clams. N 70
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
Table I.—Average Catches of Butter-clams in Important Coastal Districts.
District.
1939-40.
1940-41.
1941-42.
1942-43.
1943-44.
1944-45.
200.7
120.0
138.0
182.7
198.2
124.7
149.9
558.1
272.3
186.7
153.8
159.1
352.2
287.4
248.2
175.2
202.4
300.6
282.1
274.7
198.0
218.9
418.9
Central British Columbia	
Queen Charlotte Strait, etc	
South-east Vancouver Island—
259.1
280.5
212.2
(b.)   Sidney district -  .
229.3
(The figures represent the number of pounds taken by a digger during one low-tide period.)
Table II.—Production of Butter-clams (in Pounds) reported in Recent Years
from Various Districts.
District.
1939-40.
1940-41.
1941-42.
1942-43.
1943-44.
1944-45.
1,198,067
504,179
1,340,915
122,256
428,145
1,382,124
140,000
923,055
255,917
330,901
741,421
417,934
195,615
236,825
430,742
828,407
123,300
362,655
330,745
593,520
602,009
472,260
1,066,008
367,225
1,000,840
949,200
383,130
CATCHES AND AMOUNTS EARNED.
Average catches per man-tide for whole seasons and over large districts are shown
in Table I. These vary from a minimum of 120 lb. in the Chemainus area in 1939-40
to a maximum of 558 lb. in Northern British Columbia in 1941-42. Individual catches
or catches made on particular beaches, of course, vary much more widely, depending
on local circumstances and the ability and industry of the digger. Clam-digging can be
and is conducted at whatever tempo the temperament or inclination of the digger may
dictate. At the present time most good diggers would consider an average catch of
100 lb. or 150 lb. hardly worth while. A single expert digger working under exceptionally favourable conditions has been observed to obtain a ton of clams in one low-tide
period of not much more than four hours.
The price paid to the digger for the raw clams in recent seasons has varied in
different years and in different districts from about 1 cent to 3 cents per pound. The
gross earnings for a night's work are usually between $2 and $10 per fork. The overhead expenses usually consist mainly in the operation of a small gasoline boat. The
latter may serve more than one digger and frequently provides living-quarters for the
digger's family.
CLAM-PRODUCING DISTRICTS.
From the point of view of the commercial butter-clam catch the coast can be divided
into a number of districts, defined in part by geographic features but perhaps to
a greater degree by their relation to certain buying and shipping points.
Total catches reported to the Fisheries Research Board for these districts are
given in Table II.
Northern British Columbia.
The islands between the Nass River in the north and Grenville and Principe Channels in the south have not been regularly or heavily exploited until recent years. Since
1940-41, however, they have yielded a yearly average of nearly 500 tons, making this
district one of the most productive in the Province.
The catches have come from about twenty general localities, the largest contributions having been made by Dundas Island, Metlakatla, Stephens Island, Kitkatlah
J BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 71
Inlet, and Fin Island.    Except for the last-named, each of these designations covers
a number of individual beaches.
The average catch per man-tide has been consistently higher than in any other
district during the same period. The annual variations which are apparent are probably due at least in part to weather conditions, quality of diggers, and the incentive
offered for crossing rather wide stretches of open water.
On the assumption that a digger exploits on average about 25 square yards per tide,
the 1945 catch from this district (300 tons) would represent only about 8 acres of
ground actually dug.
Central British Columbia.
This district, as here understood, comprises the territory between Whale Channel
and Smith Sound.
During the past five seasons (1940-41 to 1944-45) it has produced an annual catch
of butter-clams varying, according to reports received, from about 60 tons to 250 tons.
The average catch per man-tide has been high or fairly high throughout this period,
and the fluctuations in production have apparently been due to variations in the attractiveness of prices offered or to the accessibility of buyers rather than to the availability
of clams.
The commercial catches have come from about forty localities, the greater number
of which are in waters adjacent to Milbanke, Fitzhugh, and Queens Sounds.
The territory actually worked in order to produce the 1945 catch of 236 tons is
estimated at about 10 acres.
Queen Charlotte and Johnstone Straits, etc.
For present purposes this district is defined as extending from Cape Caution,
Queen Charlotte Sound, to Nodales Channel at the northern end of Discovery Passage.
The main shipping-centre for this territory is Alert Bay.
This district was first exploited on a large scale in the season of 1936-37. During
this and the succeeding eight seasons an average catch of more than 500 tons has been
obtained, in spite of reduced digging activity in 1943 and 1944. This catch has come
from at least 100 recognized localities, some of which include several individual beaches.
The latter, with few exceptions, are very small in size and are widely scattered. They
are most numerous in the profusely islanded area fringing the eastern end of Queen
Charlotte Strait.
The average catch per man-tide (recorded during the six seasons beginning with
1939-40) has been of the same order of magnitude as in the Central district, and while
some annual variation is evident improved averages have been apparent during the last
three seasons.
It is considered that the 1944-45 catch of 533 tons represented the digging of about
20 acres of ground.
Northern Strait of Georgia, etc.
For convenience, the area lying south of Nodales Channel and embracing the Strait
of Georgia to about longitude 124° may be treated as one district, although the butter-
clam fishery tends to be localized around two or three separate centres.
About a dozen localities are recorded among the islands adjacent to the extreme
northern end of the Strait of Georgia. Digging here is irregular from year to year
but does not make an important contribution to the total catch for the Province. The
main shipping-centre for clams from these beaches is Quathiaski Cove.
The substantial importance of the district as a whole is in large measure due to a
single very productive beach situated at the northern tip of the Seal Islets (commonly
called "Seal Island"), near Comox.   This beach, the productive portion of which is about N 72
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
14 acres in extent, has been dug commercially for about forty years. It is probable
that in certain seasons it has yielded 400 tons or more of butter-clams. No digging
was permitted between 1939 and 1942. Beginning with the latter year digging has
been controlled by the Fisheries Research Board. A short open season has been
declared each year and production has been limited to about 100 tons per annum. After
being exploited to this extent for five consecutive seasons the beach is still capable of
yielding very high catches per unit of digging effort expended. Information concerning the Seal Island operations is given by Neave (Repts. Prov. Fish. Dept., 1941-44).
The annual production and average catches per man-tide are summarized in Table III.
Table III.—Production of Butter-clams and Average Catches per Man-tide
at Seal Island (in Pounds).
1942.
1943.
1944.
1945.
1946.
Total production	
235,757
236,825
209,211
207,160
196,072
Average catch per man-tide	
599.9
601.1
792.5
435.6
443.6
About eight other localities within an 18-mile radius of Seal Island have been dug
in recent years. Operations on these beaches, most of which are situated on Vancouver
Island, Denman Island, and Hornby Island, are supplemental to the Seal Island catch
and usually take place immediately before or after the open season at the latter
locality. They are not large or numerous enough to be important in the general
catch for the Province.
South-east Vancouver Island.
The east coast of Vancouver Island between Nanaimo and Victoria and the adjacent
islands in the Strait of Georgia for many years provided the main portion of the commercial butter-clam catch. The district has been exploited regularly for about forty
years.
The clam-catch statistics available for most of this period include a (presumably
small) quantity of little-neck clams and in later years probably include considerable
quantities of butter-clams landed in this area but actually dug elsewhere. The average
annual catch of butter-clams for the period 1905 to 1935 was probably 400 to 500 tons,
and during the latter hall of this period a substantially greater average catch was made.
During the recent period for which detailed statistics have been obtained annual
catches reported in the four seasons from 1939-40 to 1942-43 were only from 165 to
215 tons. In 1943-44 the total rose to nearly 300 tons and in the following season
(1944-45) reached 500 tons. This increase in production was accompanied by a steady
rise in the average catch per man-tide, as shown in Table I.
About seventy known localities have contributed to the commercial catch. The
collective area of these beaches can be tentatively set at between 150 and 200 acres.
A very considerable proportion of this total is contributed by two beaches—namely,
Cowichan Bay beach (25-40 acres) and False Narrows (35 acres). The latter is
mainly under lease. Estimates of the areas of a considerable number of individual
beaches have been made by Thompson (Rept. B.C. Comm. Fish., 1912) and Quayle
(MS. Rept., 1938).
The amount of ground thoroughly exploited in making the 1944-45 catch of 500
tons is considered to have been about 25 acres.
Other Areas.
Certain contributions to the total clam-catch of the Province have been made by
beaches located in Fishery District No. 1—namely, Boundary Bay, Burrard Inlet, and BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 73
Howe Sound. Most of the clams from these localities have been sold fresh on the
Vancouver market, a large percentage being little-necks. No important production of
butter-clams has been reported in recent years.
The west coast of Vancouver Island produced a substantial quantity of butter-
clams in 1938 but has otherwise contributed only small catches at irregular intervals.
The exploitation of this area has been held back by transportation difficulties, weather
conditions, and unfavourable reports on the toxicity of clams in certain localities.
Conservation.
Under present economic conditions and with present digging methods it is unlikely
that the butter-clam stock of any large district could be depleted through overfishing
to a point which would preclude recovery. As already explained, beaches are never
completely exploited even as regards legal-sized clams, while in some instances the
nature of the ground or the inconvenience of its location may give an additional
measure of protection. Moreover, some spawning can take place before legal size is
attained. On the other hand, exploitation in conjunction with the irregular seeding
of the clam-beaches which is a natural occurrence can apparently produce periods of
commercial scarcity. There is no evidence that exploitation has reached this point
in any large area outside the Strait of Georgia.
Frequent complaints of depletion have been made with respect to the clam-beaches
on and near the south-east coast of Vancouver Island, and it is in this area, which has
been exploited longer and more heavily than any other, that evidences of overfishing
might be expected.
The small catch and low availability of clams in 1939-40 (see Table I.) followed
a period of heavier than average annual catches. The subsequent improvement in the
catch per unit of effort and (in 1943-45) in total catch shows, however, that depletion
had not proceeded far enough to preclude a fairly rapid recovery. Exploitation in this
area has probably become heavy enough to reflect in some degree the wide natural
variations in the size of the annual seedings of young clams.
Some individual beaches, of course, have at times suffered a very considerable
degree of depletion through digging. There is, however, no evidence that consistent
overfishing is taking place in the district as a whole at the present time. The 1944-45
catch of 500 tons probably represented the exploitation of only about 15 per cent, of
the productive clam-bearing ground, although in view of the selection practised by
diggers it may have entailed the removal of a somewhat higher percentage of the
commercial-sized clams.
Continued unrestricted exploitation would probably result in a fluctuating annual
production. A more stable fishery (unless economic conditions determined otherwise)
would result from the application of a yearly quota, representing a quantity somewhat
less than the yields obtained in the most productive years. The past history of the
industry suggests that this area could sustain an annual production of 500 tons more
or less indefinitely. Quantitative samples from various beaches lead to the opinion
that the present population of commercial-sized clams (at a time of fairly high abundance) is not less than 2,500 tons. In the controlled operations at Seal Island an
annual catch equal to about one-fifth of a large initial stock has been successfully
maintained during the last five years. The fishing effort required to produce 500 tons
would of course still vary from year to year, but the general tendency of such a quota
would be to prevent extreme fluctuations in production and in catch per unit of effort.
It is felt that by limiting the annual catch to 500 tons an additional safeguard would
be provided for the stocks of butter-clams, without reducing the long-term output.
Since the annual production during the last few years has averaged considerably less
than 500 tons, the present time would appear to be favourable for introducing such
a regulation. N 74 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
The introduction of more intensive methods of exploitation (for example, ploughs,
dredges, or hydraulic procedures) would probably make a quota imperative. Even
with a quota such methods might be undesirable. The possible results might include
(a) greater destruction of young clams, (b) over-exploitation of some beaches and
under-exploitation of others, (c) the removal of the fishery from the hands of the
Indians to whom it has long been a valuable asset.
With the implements at present in use the regulation setting a minimum size-limit
does not appear to have a great deal of effect on catches. There is little effort on the
part of diggers to reject undersized clams. Nevertheless, commercial catches of
butter-clams seldom contain a significant proportion of individuals less than 21/_ inches
long. In view of the possibility of changed conditions, however, it would seem desirable to retain this regulation.
It would also appear highly desirable to continue the present system of recording
catches and fishing effort in all districts, since these data afford a means of recognizing
trends and changes in the condition of the fishery. Conservational interests would
also be well served by the accumulation of much more extensive data than are now
available on the size and characteristics of all important beaches. An estimate of the
total productive area in each district would be of great value.
It is further suggested that future investigations might well include a study of
the spawning and early life-history of the butter-clam, in order to facilitate an understanding of the conditions necessary for successful reproduction and the prediction of
population trends in the beaches.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
The data forming the basis for this summarized report have been obtained in the
course of a programme of investigation carried out by the Fisheries Research Board
of Canada, which has received financial and other assistance from the Provincial
Fisheries Department. Grateful acknowledgment is made to companies and buyers and
to the officers of the Dominion Department of Fisheries on whom great reliance has
been placed in the matter of obtaining statistics. The writer also wishes to point out
that the programme was established and much of the information now available was
obtained by Mr. D. B. Quayle, whose records and personal advices have been freely used. BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 75
REPORT ON INVESTIGATIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL PACIFIC
SALMON FISHERIES COMMISSION FOR 1945.
By B. M. Brennan, Director.
The International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission, created in the year 1937
to rehabilitate the badly depleted sockeye-salmon fishery of the Fraser River system,
will have completed eight years of study and research at the end of this 1945 season.
Much valuable and constructive information has been gathered during this period, both
from an engineering and biological approach to correction of the many factors that
have influenced and contributed to the decline of this valuable resource.
The International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission met three times in executive session during the year 1945. The first meeting was held beginning April 20th
in Vancouver, B.C. The second meeting took place at Seattle, Washington, beginning
August 9th. The third meeting occurred at Vancouver, B.C., December 4th, 1945.
Members of the Commission are: Edward W. Allen, Chairman; Fred J. Foster, Member; A. L. Hager, Member; Charles E. Jackson, Member; Tom Reid, M.P., Member;
and A. J. Whitmore, Secretary.
ENGINEERING PROGRAMME.
Hell's Gate.—The work of the Commission during the season of 1945 was highlighted by the successful passage of the runs of sockeye salmon through the incompleted fishway structures at Hell's Gate. Although the 12-foot-wide section of the
left bank fishway was not usable during this season, the right bank fishway and the
20-foot-wide section of the left bank fishway were completed sufficiently to allow unobstructed passage of the sockeye salmon past the Gate. Lack of recaptures from tags
released below Hell's Gate showed plainly that there was no accumulation of fish
blocked below the Gate. Fish were observed after passing through the fishways on
their way up-river.
Our studies and observations on the spawning-grounds told a more conclusive
story. Sockeye salmon arrived in some spawning areas two weeks earlier than in
previous years. The fish were in splendid condition and were not battered or bruised
as has been the case during times of blockades. Indians in the Stuart Lake district
could not remember seeing sockeye salmon in such splendid condition, and Indians in
other districts were surprised when fish arrived in the " green " state and not red,
soft, and in the poor condition of former years. The increase in numbers of fish
found on the various spawning-grounds was the most welcome indication of the
improved conditions at Hell's Gate, and only the Chilko run failed to reflect an increase
in its spawning population. If the conditions of Hell's Gate had not been partially
overcome in 1945, the runs again would have been severely blocked and a heavy mortality would have surely occurred.
The fishways at Hell's Gate will be fully completed in time for the 1946 run of
sockeye.
Bridge River Rapids.—Both engineering and biological studies of the stretch of
difficult water at Bridge River Rapids, just above the confluence of Bridge River and
the Fraser River proper some 6 or 7 miles north of the town of Lillooet, were continued
through the season of 1945. These studies showed that adverse conditions for passage
of salmon exist at certain water-levels, and steps were immediately taken by the Commission to let the contract and to begin work in December on the two fishways—one
at each series of falls 900 feet apart on the west (or right) side of the river. These
fishways will be completed and in operation for the season of 1946.
Adams River Dam.—Another important obstruction to migrating sockeye salmon
was the Adams River dam, located 475 yards below the outlet of Adams Lake and 55 N 76 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
miles north-east of Kamloops, B.C., and originally constructed for the impounding of
water for use in driving logs by splashing methods. The dam had ceased to be of use
and was in such a state of disrepair that it had become a menace to the migration of
sockeye salmon on their way to their spawning-grounds. Arrangements were made
whereby the Commission was authorized to demolish this structure. Actual removal
of the dam began on November 3rd and was completed on December 1st, 1945. During
the removal operation water-gauges were employed in order to determine whether any
changes might occur in river or lake levels. From these readings it was found that
the level of Adams Lake was unchanged by the removal operation.
Farwell Canyon.—The study of the suspected obstruction at Farwell Canyon on
the Chilcotin River was continued again this season. Tagging experiments were conducted below and above the area in question to verify the length of delay and possible
damage to the migrating sockeye salmon proceeding to their spawning-grounds at
Chilko Lake.
Other Projects.—Studies were also continued by both the engineering and biological divisions at Keighley Holes, a suspected obstruction in the Chilko River approximately 71 miles above Farwell Canyon, and at Skookumchuck Rapids, 18 miles above
Harrison Lake. No serious condition was found at these possible obstructions during
the water-levels of 1945.
A reconnaissance survey was made of the other projects listed under the Fraser
River correction programme in order that plans could be formulated to undertake the
necessary remedial measures.
BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS.
Tagging Programmes.—The release of tagged fish at various points throughout
the treaty waters furnished basic information in the detection and study of obstructions, in the determination of the times and routes of migration, and in the enumeration of populations in the spawning-streams. In 1945 the following tagging experiments were conducted:— „   ,
Number
Place. of Tags.
Swiftsure   39
Sooke   1,425
Skookumchuck   1,784
Hell's Gate  5,176
Bridge River Rapids   2,928
Farwell Canyon  i  2,973
Siwash Bridge   179
Keighley Holes   67
Soda Creek  20
Various spawning areas  1,136
Total  15,727
Catch Statistics.—Studies were continued this year on the commercial catch from
both sides of the International Boundary, and the statistics of the catch, the landings,
and information obtained from the log-books of the fishermen have been carefully
analysed in preparation for the actual regulation of the commercial fishery which
begins in 1946. From our records it was found that in 1945 the Canadian fishery took
969,444 sockeye and that 716,685 were landed from American waters. The total catch
of 1,686,129 sockeye was only 36 per cent, of the catch of 1941.
Indian Fishery.—The catch statistics from the Indian fishery for 1945 show that
a total of 43,959 sockeye were taken as compared with the 52,920 caught in 1941. BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 77
Spawning-ground Escapement.—More than 60,000 sockeye were found on the
spawning-grounds of the Stuart Lake system this season, compared to a spawning of
10,000 in the brood-year. From a spawning of 5,230 sockeye in the brood-year of 1941,
20,286 were observed on the Nechako system and over 3,000 sockeye were counted in
the Horsefly River from a spawning of 1,050 in the brood-year. There were counted
through the weir on the Bowron River 4,078 sockeye salmon as compared to a count
of 1,199 sockeye in 1941. The Raft River, in the North Thompson system, contributed
3,300 sockeye from a spawning of 250 in the brood-year. From a very poor spawning
of four-year-old sockeye salmon totalling 50 fish in 1941 in the Adams River, 1,064
four-year-old sockeye were observed in 1945. In addition, large numbers of three-
year-old sockeye appeared this year, totalling approximately 57,000. This year's run
of sockeye salmon to the Chilko system was disappointing, for from a spawning of
280,000 in 1941 only 200,000 returned this season. From these estimates the spawning escapement increased to 116 per cent, of the 1941 population and a contrast to the
decrease found in the commercial and Indian catches. N 78 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
SALMON-SPAWNING REPORT, BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1945.
By Major J. A. Motherwell.
GENERAL.
Sockeye.—Very satisfactory supplies of parent sockeye were found in the more
important areas such as the Nass, Skeena, Rivers Inlet, and Smith Inlet. This also
applies to the most northerly portions of the Fraser River watershed, such as Stuart
Lake-Francois Lake systems. The Chilco system was reasonably well seeded, although
the supplies were some 43 per cent, less than in the brood-year of 1941. In the
Shuswap-Adams River system, where only a small return was expected, some 6,000
parent four-year-old sockeye were observed and 56,000 three-year-olds.
Fraser River sockeye are predominantly four-year fish, so, obviously, it would
require four or five cycles to show any appreciable increase as a result of the unusual
conservation measures which were put into effect by the Federal Department of
Fisheries. Now, after twenty-five years of such effort for the restoration of the sockeye
runs, most encouraging results are being obtained: for instance, in the Shuswap-Adams
River district, where the run of one cycle particularly has been built up from 70,000
to over 2,000,000 fish; in the Chilco area, where two at least of the cycles have been
built up from 3,000 or 5,000 parent fish on the spawning-grounds to 350,000; and in
the Stuart Lake-Francois Lake system, where the increases have been also very encouraging. With this very considerable increase in the sockeye runs, coupled with the
assurance of easy passage at Hell's Gate due to the completion this year of very
efficient facilities in the way of fishways which should in due time be a very large
factor in the building up of the Fraser River sockeye run to the areas above Hell's
Gate, the picture is a very bright one. If conservation measures such as have been
enforced during the last twenty-five years on the Fraser River system can build up the
runs as they have done, there seems little doubt but that with the passage at Hell's
Gate being made easy the areas above Hell's Gate should in time be restored to their
original state of productivity.
Springs.—The supplies of this variety were reasonably satisfactory.
Cohoes.—Excellent supplies of cohoes were found on the spawning-beds, particularly in the Queen Charlotte, Nass, Alert Bay, and Comox areas, and the areas on the
west coast of Vancouver Island.
Pinks.—A heavy seeding by pink salmon occurred in the Nass, Skeena, Grenville-
Principe, Bella Coola, Bella Bella, Alert Bay, Quathiaski, Comox, and Fraser River
systems.
Chums.—The chum seeding was not as satisfactory as there was reason to expect.
The exceptions were several streams of the Nass area, the Bella Bella and Alert Bay
areas.
IN DETAIL.
Queen Charlotte Islands Area (North).—A heavy seeding by cohoes occurred in
the streams tributary to Masset Inlet and on the west coast of Graham Island. This
is an " off " year for the pink variety. The supply of chums was medium. Unusual
conservation measures were taken to permit a larger percentage of the chum run to
escape to the spawning-grounds.
Queen Charlotte Islands Area (South).—A heavy seeding by cohoes occurred in
the streams tributary to Skidegate, Cumshewa and Selwyn Inlets, and the lower east
coast and west coast. The chum seeding was fair in the Skidegate Inlet area, light
in the Cumshewa Inlet, only fair at Selwyn Inlet, and fair in the lower east coast
streams with the exception of Salmon Creek which had a heavy seeding. Only a light
seeding occurred  in the streams tributary to the west coast.    Extra conservation BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 79
measures were enforced in the South Queen Charlotte area as well in order to protect
the chum runs.
Nass Area.—Sockeye were found in very satisfactory quantities on the principal
spawning-grounds of this area; that is, the Meziaden Lake district. The spring-
supplies were found quite good in the several streams tributary to the lower Nass.
A heavy seeding by cohoes occurred and an unexpectedly heavy supply of pinks was
observed. The chum seeding in Toon and Kitsault Rivers was reported as heavy but
only light in other parts of the area. The percentage of escapement was much greater
than normal, due to less intensive fishing in the approaches to the Nass River.
Upper Skeena Area.—Sockeye: The inspecting officer stresses the extremely heavy
escapement of this variety to the Babine Lake portion of the watershed, and the large
size of the fish individually. Unfortunately, due to an unusually dry season, the streams
in many cases were so low that the loss of salmon, unspawned, amounted to as high as
from 25 to 50 per cent, of the escapement. Practically all sockeye streams received
good escapements of parent fish, although the seeding, due to the above-mentioned
cause, was not as good as it should have been. Outstanding streams from the standpoint of good escapement were Fulton River, Pierre Creek, Twin Creek, Fifteen Mile
Creek, Tacheck Creek, Nine Mile Creek, Morrison Creek, and both upper and lower
Babine River; in fact, practically all streams tributary to Babine Lake, including the
Babine River, received heavy supplies of sockeye salmon. An interesting feature was
the fact that the take by the local Indians for their food supply was 25 per cent, less
than the total of the previous year.
The heavy run of sockeye reported as passing Moricetown Falls during the season
undoubtedly provided a satisfactory seeding of the Morice Lake and River spawning-
grounds. This escapement was good, notwithstanding the fact that the Indians obtained
a larger number of fish at the falls than usual. This is confirmed by the observations
of the inspecting officer at the Nanika River. An attempt was made at a later examination of the streams in the Morice River and Lake watershed, by means of an aeroplane, but this effort did not produce the results desired although the inspecting officer
reports that he is of the opinion that the area has been adequately seeded by sockeye.
The seeding by springs in the Babine area compares favourably with that of other
recent years. A satisfactory seeding was observed in the Bulkley River-Morice Lake
system. The supplies of cohoe in the Babine area were quite satisfactory. The seeding by pinks in the Babine River was heavy and compared favourably with that of the
brood-year of 1943, although the fish, individually, were smaller in size.
Lower Skeena Area.—A heavy run of sockeye was observed to Williams Creek, the
main spawning-stream in the Lakelse Lake system, an improvement over that of the
cycle-year. A fairly heavy run to Schullabuchan Creek, medium supplies found in the
Kalum Lake area, somewhat less than the seeding of 1941. Satisfactory supplies in
the Ocstahl River system. A good seeding by spring salmon at Johnson Creek in the
Ocstahl River system, and a heavy run to Cedar River and Clear Creek. A good seeding by cohoe salmon in the tributaries to the Skeena, and the Ocstahl River and tributaries. Pinks were abundant in all the spawning-beds of this area, the supply at
Lakelse River being particularly heavy, as was the case at the Ocstahl River and
tributaries.
Lowe Inlet Area.—A reasonably good»run, together with a reduction in the intensity of fishing, due partly to conservation measures, provided a satisfactory seeding of
sockeye in this area. Cohoe supplies appeared to be satisfactory, although the streams
were so high that it was difficult to make an accurate estimate. All " pink " streams
in the southern portion of this area were well seeded by this variety. Due to special
closure of fishing for conservation purposes the seeding of the northern streams was
satisfactory.    The chum-supplies were only fair. N 80 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
Butedale Area.—A good seeding of sockeye salmon in the Gardner Canal area.
In other parts of the district the seeding was fairly good. The cohoe supplies were
quite good, particularly in the Gardner Canal system. The supplies of this variety
appear to be building up. A heavy seeding by pinks throughout the whole area. The
run in this odd year cycle now exceeds that of the even year cycle. A heavy seeding
by chums, particularly in the streams tributary to Kynoch Inlet, Poison Cove, Kiltinsh
River, and Price Creek.
Bella Bella Area.—The sockeye supplies were entirely satisfactory for this area.
There was a good late run to the Ellerslie district. The cohoe seeding was also satisfactory on all spawning-grounds. The pink-supplies were generally heavy but late to
many of the streams. Nearly all chum-spawning areas contained heavy supplies of
that variety, particularly the Roscoe Inlet area. With the exception of a few minor
instances parent salmon had no difficulty this year due to lack of water.
Bella Coola Area.—The sockeye seeding is reported as definitely heavy, especially
to the Bella Coola-Atnarko River watershed. Spring supplies were also very satisfactory at such areas as Kimsquit, Dean, and Bella Coola Rivers. A medium to heavy
spawning of cohoes was observed. The pink seeding was exceptionally heavy in most
streams of the area. In the brood-year of 1943 most of the heavy spawning occurred
in the Bella Coola-Atnarko River area. This season nearly all streams carried above
average supplies, particularly the Quatna, Elcho, and Cliff Rivers. The supplies of
chums were only medium.
Rivers Inlet Area.—The sockeye supplies in the streams tributary to Owekano
Lake were found to be very good and an improvement over the brood-years of 1940
and 1941. All rivers were found to be well seeded, with the possible exception of the
Asklum, although there is no reason to believe that even in that stream there was not
a reasonably good seeding. Conditions in the main streams, such as the Waukwash,
Shumahalt, Genesee, Quap, and Whonnock Rivers, were very satisfactory. Notwithstanding a good catch commercially the whole area undoubtedly has been well seeded.
Changed conditions in several streams, such as the Markwell, for instance, require
the attention of an engineer, and this is being arranged for in ample time to have
conditions corrected before the next salmon run.
The inspecting officer, in connection with the sockeye run to the Rivers Inlet area,
comments in part as follows:—
" The mathematical expected weight of the commercial takings of this year's run
of sockeye was computed at 5.5 lb. by the writer. The actual average weight of sockeye
taken commercially over the entire season was only 5.16 lb. During the commercial
run this occasioned some anxiety to the writer. I have now to report that of all the
sockeye seen on the entire spawning-beds of Owekano Lake, 50 per cent, were large
sockeye. Sockeye were seen in many rivers, both dead and alive, which I am satisfied
to believe could never be gilled in the size of mesh used in commercial gill-nets in
Rivers Inlet. The heaviest weight recorded by the inspecting party showed to be 13
lb. True, this was exceptional, but many were 8, 9, and 10 lb., and in quantity dead
and wasted sockeye of 8 lb. were found on the bars. This fact, witnessed and observed
by the representatives of the industry, verifies my report of 1940 as being a good
escapement. I sensed, and still believe, that the industry as a whole doubted the
accuracy of my 1940 report, following a not very successful commercial run. It was
some personal satisfaction to have these representatives of the industry present this
year and see the ratio of escapement which very apparently were derived from 1940."
A good supply of cohoes was found on the spawning-grounds, and fairly heavy
supplies of pinks, although this variety was not fished to any great extent. The chum
seeding was excellent. BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 81
Smith Inlet Area.—The sockeye seeding is reported as good. The comment of the
inspecting officer is that it was the best he had seen in his thirteen years of experience
at this point. In the Geluck River, which is the main spawning-stream, sockeye were
found on every bar, and the pools of the river still held numbers of sockeye not yet
ready to spread out on the bars. The conditions at Delabah River, the second most
important stream, were good. The cohoe supplies were satisfactory. The pink spawning in Nekite River was heavy, and the chum-supplies good.
The moving of the boundary at the commencement of the season to permit of larger
escapement evidently produced the expected results.
The Department's inspecting officer was accompanied by representatives of the
fishermen and the operators on this year's survey of both Rivers and Smith Inlet areas.
Their presence was very welcome and it is hoped that such evidence of the interest of
the industry will be continued.
Fraser River Watershed.
Prince George Area.—The sockeye seeding over the whole area again demonstrates
the gradual building up of the supplies of this variety, and shows a very satisfactory
increase over the cycle-year of 1941. With the increased supplies of parent stock on
the spawning-grounds future runs should build up more rapidly, particularly in view
of the excellent conditions now obtaining at Hell's Gate due to the completion this year
of very efficient fishways. Sockeye reaching the Stuart Lake, and Fraser-Francois
Lake watersheds during the year approximated 80,000 fish, compared with 18,000 in
the brood-year of 1941. Conditions on the spawning-grounds were satisfactory. The
inspecting officer comments on the fresh condition of the sockeye arriving which shows
that they were evidently not delayed on their way to the spawning-grounds. The
supplies of springs were again light this year, although better than the last two years.
Quesnel Area.—The main sockeye-spawning streams are the Chilcotin River and
Lake system, the Bowron River and Lake system, and the Quesnel River and Lake
system. The Chilcotin spawning showed a decrease of approximately 43 per cent, over
that of the brood-year of 1941, the number on the spawning-grounds being estimated
at 200,000 fish, compared with 350,000 in the brood-year. The seeding, however, was
felt to be reasonably satisfactory, and in the light of previous experience in this area
there is every reason to expect increased runs in the future, particularly when the
main obstructions are removed from the rivers.
It is encouraging to observe that the cycle represented by the year 1945, similar
to that as represented by the year 1941, is building up most satisfactorily. From an
estimated spawning-stock of 3,000 parent fish in 1925 in the Chilco system the following increased supplies were observed:—
1929      70,000
1933   100,000
1937   110,000
1941   350,000
The salmon in these years are reported to have arrived in good condition.
In the Bowron system 4,000 fish were counted, compared with 1,100 in the previous
brood-year. In the Quesnel system the number estimated was 2,500, compared with
1,000 in the br6od-year. The inspecting officer states that this is the best showing for
the past ten years. The quantities of spring salmon on the spawning-grounds were
average.
Kamloops Area.—It is estimated that approximately 6,000 four-year-old sockeye
were present on the spawning-grounds of the Shuswap system, and over 56,000 three-
year-olds.    This, of course, is a great improvement over the brood-year of 1941 when N 82 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
very few fish were present. The particular areas heavily populated in the year under
review were the Adams River and Little River particularly, and Scotch Creek. In
Raft River, North Thompson system, it is estimated that over 3,000 parent sockeye
were on the spawning-grounds. This was a great improvement over conditions found
in the brood-year of 1941. The inspecting officer comments on the splendid physical
condition of the spawning salmon. Considerable improvement in the spawning of
spring salmon was observed throughout the Kamloops area. This also applies to the
cohoe variety.
Pemberton Area.—A heavy seeding of sockeye took place, especially in the Birkenhead River, the most important stream of the system, where it is estimated that 80,000
sockeye were present, compared with 50,000 in the brood-year of 1941. Some 500
individuals spawned in the Seton Lake system. Fair supplies of springs were observed
throughout the whole system, particularly in the Squamish River and tributaries.
Satisfactory supplies were also found in Tyaughton Creek in the Bridge River area.
The cohoe seeding was satisfactory, particularly in the Birkenhead and Upper Lillooet
Rivers, and at Gates Creek in the Anderson-Seton Lake system. In the Squamish
River and tributaries the supplies were normal. The pink seeding in the Squamish
River system was heavier than that of the brood-year of 1943, although not equal to
conditions obtaining in some former years. The supplies were adequate, however.
The chum-supplies did not equal those of the years 1941 or 1942. However, the inspecting officer estimates that there was a reasonably good seeding.
Chilliwack Area.—No sockeye were observed in the Chilliwack River, above Sweltzer
Creek, and the Cultus Lake seeding is reported as being light, some 9,300 parent fish
of this variety being counted. The seeding by springs was also light. The cohoe
seeding is reported as just fair with the exception of the upper portion of the Chilliwack system, which was well seeded. The pink seeding was particularly heavy in most
of the streams used by this variety. This applies particularly to the Chilliwack and
Coquihalla Rivers and the Jones and Silver Creek systems. The chum seeding was an
average one, although below expectations in the Coquihalla system. As these fish
arrived after the heavy rains, the results will no doubt be more satisfactory than in
the case of other varieties which have been affected to some extent by flood-water
conditions.
Harrison Area.—Excellent supplies of spawning sockeye were observed on the
beds at Morris Creek. A satisfactory seeding occurred also at Harrison River rapids
and at Silver Creek. The seeding by springs can be considered only fair. This also
applies to the cohoe variety. Pinks spawned in very considerable quantities, particularly at Morris Creek and Chehalis River.    The chum seeding was only fair.
Pitt Lake Area.—A good seeding of sockeye salmon occurred under favourable
conditions in the tributaries to the upper Pitt River, particularly Four Mile, Seven
Mile, and Boise Creeks. Fair supplies of cohoes were observed. A good seeding by
pinks in the Alouette River watershed, and fair in the streams tributary to Pitt Lake.
A satisfactory seeding by chums in the Alouette River watershed.
Lower Fraser Area.—A light seeding of cohoes in the Coquitlam and Brunette
Rivers, but a better showing in the Serpentine and Nicomekl Rivers. Very satisfactory supplies of pinks in the Coquitlam and the other streams usually frequented by
this species. The chum-supplies were fairly satisfactory compared with recent years
in the Coquitlam River and the several other streams frequented by this variety.
North Vancouver Area.—A very good seeding of cohoe salmon occurred in the
Capilano and Seymour Rivers. Smaller supplies were observed in the Indian River,
Lynn, Mission, and McKay Creeks. The seeding by pinks in the Capilano, Seymour
River, and Lynn Creek systems was very light, although a very heavy seeding took
place in the Indian River system.    The chum seeding in the Capilano and Seymour BRITISH COLUMBIA. N 83
River and Lynn Creek systems was light, and only fair in Indian River and Nelson
Creek.
Alert Bay Area.—There was an excellent escapement of sockeye to the spawning-
grounds of the Nimpkish River, normal runs to Keough, McKenzie, Fulmore, and
Quatse Rivers, and some increase at Kahweiken and Kleena Kleene Rivers. An average
seeding of springs occurred, with the Nimpkish River showing a slight increase over
1939. There was a heavy seeding of cohoe salmon in the Mainland streams, estimated
at 50 per cent, greater than in the brood-year. The streams on the Vancouver Island
shore contained medium supplies. The pink seeding in the streams on the Mainland
side was the heaviest in the past twelve years. On the Vancouver Island shore, however, with the exception of Klicksevi River, the seeding was light. Most satisfactory
chum spawning conditions prevailed throughout the whole area, with a few exceptions.
Quathiaski Area.—A very good seeding of sockeye in Phillips River and at Hayden
Bay was observed. This also applies to the spring variety in Campbell River. Other
streams in the district were adequately seeded by springs. The cohoe supplies were
found to be reasonably good, although somewhat less than those of the brood-year.
Notwithstanding this being the " off " year for pinks, a heavy seeding was observed in
the Bute Inlet area, and an unexpectedly good seeding of Bear River. The chum seeding was not satisfactory. All streams in this area suffered from lack of water during
the salmon runs.
Comox Area.—The seeding by springs was quite satisfactory. Cohoes showed an
improvement over the brood-year in Oyster River and Courtenay River. The conditions in the Qualicums, French Creek, and Englishman River were disappointing. The
pink seeding was extremely heavy in the Courtenay River system, particularly the
Tsolum River. The supplies in the other streams of the area were light. The chum
seeding is reported as reasonably good, with the exception of French Creek and Englishman River. In most of the streams in the Comox area there may have been some loss
of salmon eggs due to heavy freshets.
Pender Harbour Area.—A sockeye seeding comparable with that of the brood-year
was observed at Saginaw Creek which is the main sockeye stream in this area. A normal
supply of springs was observed. There was a satisfactory seeding by cohoes, and a
heavy supply of pinks observed in all the main " pink " streams. The inspecting officer
comments that the supplies in Toba Inlet area were the greatest in the past twelve
years.    The chum seeding was found to be satisfactory.
Nanaimo Area.—Sockeye and pinks do not frequent this area in commercial quantities. A satisfactory seeding of cohoe salmon took place, as was also the case with
the chum variety.
Ladysmith Area.—An average, seeding of springs and a heavy supply of cohoes on
the spawning-grounds.    The spawning by chums was good under favourable conditions.
Cowichan Area.—The seeding by springs was fairly good. The supply of cohoes
was very good in the Cowichan River and a satisfactory supply was observed in the
Koksilah River. It is expected that the recent work by the Department at the falls in
the latter stream will result in larger supplies in future proceeding to the extensive
spawning-grounds which have now been made accessible to the salmon. The chum
seeding was disappointing at the date of inspection, but further supplies were still
arriving and there is reason to believe that the conditions with this variety would be
reasonably satisfactory.    The supply of steelhead trout apparently is being maintained.
Victoria Area.—The cohoe seeding was disappointing and the chum-supplies on
the spawning-beds were only fairly satisfactory.
Alberni Area.—The sockeye seeding of the Somass, Sproat, and Anderson Lake
systems is reported as very satisfactory. The number of fish counted through Stamp
Falls fishway was the largest on record.    In addition, of course, there would be the N 84 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
usual natural escapement over the falls. The salmon had no difficulty in passing over
the low dam at the outlet of Great Central Lake. An adequate escapement was also
observed in the Hobarton River. With the exception of Nitinat River, all streams
frequented by the spring variety have been adequately seeded. The cohoe seeding is
reported as being exceptionally good in all the rivers of this sub-district. The chum-
supplies were again disappointing over the whole area, although several of the streams
showed an improvement over the previous year.
Clayoquot Area.—The sockeye-spawning beds in the Kennedy Lake area, which is
the chief spawning-system for this variety, were found to be splendidly seeded; an
increase over the brood-year of 1941. The sockeye seeding at Megin River, a somewhat
less important system than Kennedy Lake, is reported as the heaviest in the past ten
years. A heavy seeding by springs occurred throughout this sub-district. A heavy
seeding by cohoes was also observed on all the spawning-grounds. The supply of
chums was found to be only fair.
Nootka Area.—Not a commercial sockeye area. The seeding by springs and cohoes
is considered normal. With the exception of Tahsis River the spawning of chums is
reported as almost a failure.
Kyuquot Area.—A very satisfactory seeding of cohoes is reported, particularly in
the Tashish, Artlish, and Kaouk Rivers. Whilst the chum-supply showed improvement
over that of the last two seasons it was still not as good as expected. There was little
commercial fishing, however, and most of the run passed safely to the spawning-
grounds.
Quatsino Area.—Whilst this is not a large producer of sockeye salmon there was
a good seeding at Mahatta River and the average showing in Ma Jack and Fisherman
Rivers. A good average supply of springs in Marble Creek, which is the chief spawning area, was observed, but conditions in the Klashkish River and East Creek were not
so satisfactory. Water conditions in Marble Creek were good during the entire season.
The cohoe-supplies were above average, the escapement being heavy at Buck Creek,
Spruce, Rupert, Mahatta, and Fisherman Rivers. This was the " off " year for pinks.
The chum-supply was disappointing throughout the whole sub-district. Spawning
conditions, due to low water up to October 15th, were unsatisfactory. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
N 85
STATISTICAL TABLES.
PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON, SEASON 1945.
Showing the Origin of Salmon caught in each District.
District.
Sockeye.
Springs.
Steelheads.
Cohoe.
Pinks.
Chums.
Total.
Fraser River	
79,977
6,1301
4
202
2,382
1,1911
26
542
2,323
270J
841
1,561
260
28
590
128
11,615
1,108
3,895
34,2011
17,5161
560
45,4621
104,528
95,7481
4,809
35,9181
69,7831
9,916
2,362
364,385
242,5901
27,610
12,132
4,9811
9,264
16,793
3,692
138,992
136,724
221,3511
18,053
9,899
104,2791
89,735
15,014
24,109
5,988
54,9801
221,4711
Rivers Inlet	
Smith Inlet	
135,412
21,682
574,0801
492,2811
Totals 	
329,0011
12,801
2,922
218,8861
825,513
350,1881
1,739,3121
Note.—6,670 cases of blueblacks are combined with cohoes in this table for Vancouver Island.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL SALMON-PACK BY SPECIES
FROM 1937 TO 1945.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
329,0011
12,801
350,1881
825,513
218,8861
2,922
247,714
19,362
255,3161
389,692
181,5461
3,9261
164.889
10,658
363,3471
530,189
186,043
3,095
666,570
24,7441
633,834
270,6221
211,138
4,649
455,298
51,593
926,801
427,774
430,513
3,454
366,402
17,740
643,441
213,904
224,522
1,207
269,887
16,098
386,590
620,595
245,097
796
447,450
15,356
541,819
400,876
301,081
1,036
325,836
16,174
Chum -  	
Pink      	
447,760
585,574
133,489
844
Totals	
1,739,3121
1,097,5571
1,258,2211
1,811,558
2,295,433
1,467,216
1,539,063
1,707,798
1,509,677
STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL SALMON-PACK OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA BY DISTRICTS.
Total packed by Districts in 1937 to 1945, inclusive.
1945.
1944. •
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
Fraser -	
221,3511
221,9131
135,412
21,682
54,9801
492,6241
591,3481
130,8831
149,9481
59,391
6,1941
61.096
193,459
496,587
126,541}
133,589
79,6971
21,942
52,3331
347,7101
496,407
549,617
152,4181
105,539
23,777
100,1421
536,8031
343,2601
431,299
200,497
138,650
32,109
71,330
985,835
398,152
46,561
152,363
195,355
88,665
33,998
60,441
419,579
516,815
199,241
205,604
83,502
28,727
55,946
590,736
375,307
277,084
223,413
122,363
44,921
113,970
458,554
467,493
231,848
133,165
Rivers Inlet	
Smith Inlet  -	
108,782
35,502
49,042
608,798
342,350
Grand totals —
1,739,3121
1,097,5571
1,258,2211 1,811,558
2,295,433
1,467,216
1,539,063
l,707,798t
1,509,677*
* Including 527 cases of Alaska cohoe packed at Skeena River.
t Including- 5,779 cases of Alaska sockeye and 26,828 cases of Alaska cohoe packed at Skeena River. N 86
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
TABLE   SHOWING THE  TOTAL
ARRANGED IN ACCORDANCE
SOCKEYE-PACK  OF  THE   FRASER  RIVER,
WITH THE FOUR-YEAR CYCLE, 1895-1945.
British Columbia
Washington _._	
Total
British Columbia .
Washington	
Total.
British Columbia -
Washington	
Total	
British Columbia-
Washington	
Total-
British Columbia..
Washington __	
Total.
British Columbia .
Washington	
Total.
British Columbia .
Washington __
Total .
British Columbia _
Washington 	
Total.
British Columbia-
Washington	
Total.
British Columbia.
Washington 	
Total .
British Columbia .
Washington	
Total .
British Columbia.
Washington „ —
Total-
British Columbia-
Washington 	
1895—
1907—
1923—
1927-
1931-
1939—
1943—
395,984
1896—
356,984
1897— 860,459
1898—
256,101
65,143
72,979
312,048
252,000
461,127
429,963
1,172,507
508,101
480,485
1900—
229,800
1901— 928,669
1902—
293,477
499,646
228,704
1,105,096
339,556
980,131
458,504
2,033,765
633,033
204,809
1904—
72,688
1905— 837,489
1906—
183.007
167,211
123,419
837,122
182,241
372,020
196,107
1,674,611
365,248
59,815
1908—
74,574
1909— 585,435
1910—
150,432
96,974
170,951
1,097,904
248,014
156,789
245,525
1,683,339
398,446
58,487
1912—
123,879
1913— 719,796
1914—
198,183
127,761
184,680
1,673,099
335,230
186,248
308,559
2,392,895
533,413
91,130
1916—
32,146
1917— 148,164
1918—
19,697
64,584
84,637
411,538
50,723
155,714
116,783
559,702
70,420
38,854
1920—
48,399
1921— 39,631
1922—
51,832
64,346
62,654
102,967
48,566
103,200
111,053
142,598
100,398
31,655
1924—
39,743
1925— 35,385
1926—
85,689
47,402
69,369
112,023
44,673
79,057
109,112
147,408
130,362
61,393
1928—
29,299
1929— 61,569
1930—
103,692
97,594
61,044
111,898
352,194
158,987
90,343
173,467
455,886
40,947
1932—
65,769
1933— 52,465
1934—
139.238
87,211
81,188
126,604
352,579
128,158
146,957
179,069
491,817
62,822
1936— 184,854
1937— 100,272
1938—
186,794
54,677
59,505
60,259
160,531
134,641
117,499
244,359
321,435
54,296
1940—
99,009
1941— 171,290
1942—
446,371
43,511
59,354
110,605
263,458
97,807
158,363
281,895
709,829
31,9731
1944—
88,515
1945— 79,977
19,1161
37,059
53,054
Total
51,090
125,574
133,031 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
N 87
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES.
Fraser River, 1930-45, inclusive.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
79,977
6,1301
27,610
95,7481
11,615
2701
88,515
12,5771
13,8031
130
15,564}
293
31,9731
3,5051
52,149
29,8601
8,809
244
446,371
9,688
82,573
134
10,542
309
171,290
34,038
95.070
102,388
28,266
248
99,009
4,504
35,665
12
13,028
145
54,296
5,993
30,150
95,176
13,557
69
186 794
Springs  	
4,308
58,778
Pinks	
63
27,127
14
Totals 	
221,3511
130,8831
126,5411
549,617
431,299
152,363
199,241
277,084
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
Sockeyes -	
Springs    — .
Chums     	
Pinks          	
100,272
5,444
20,878
94,010
11,244
184,854
15,126
31,565
62,822
9,401
8,227
111,328
24,950
139,238
16,218
104.092
2,199
11,392
52,465
5,579
34,391
92,746
13,901
65,769
28,701
14,948
385
16,815
23
40,947
9,740
251
13,307
8,165
657
103,692
21,127
68,946
30 754
28,716
25,585
27,879
Totals	
231,848
260,261
216,728
273,139
199,082
126,641
73,067
277,983
Skeena River, 1930-45, inclusive.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
Sockeyes -	
Springs -	
Chums -	
Pinks	
Cohoes - 	
Steelheads - -   -
104,2791
2,382
9,264
69,7831
34,2011
1,561
68,197
1.5001
8,7411
48,837
20,1911
2,481
28,2681
1,783
6,597
54,509
40,4791
1,952
34,544
6,374
11,421
52,767
44.0811
3,231
81,767
4,985
10,707
50,537
50,605
1,896
116,507
6,118
4,682
47,301
20,614
133
68,485
4,857
7,773
95,236
29,198
55
47,257
4,318
16,758
69,610
52,821
42
Totals 	
221,4711
149,9481
133,589
152,4181
200,497
195,355
205,604
190,806
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
42,491
4,401
10,811
59,400
15,514
21
81,973
4,5511
15,2971
91,389
25,390
33
52,879
4,039
8,122
81,868
23,498
14
70,655
8,300
24,388
126,163
54,456
114
30,506
3,297
15,714
95,783
39,896
267
59,916
28,269
38,549
58,261
48,312
404
93,023
9,857
3,893
44,807
10,637
768
132,372
7,501
5 187
Pinks —
275 642
Cohoes    	
Steelheads  — -	
29,617
58
Totals-   	
132,638
218,634
170,420
284,096
185,463
233,711
162,986
450,377 N 88
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES-^Coritinued.
Rivers Inlet, 1930-45, inclusive.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
89,735
1,1911
16,793
9,916
17,5161
260
36,5821
805
2,705
5,2891
13,921
88
47,6021
765
11,448
8,347
11,466
69
79,199
985
15,874
954
8,467
60
93,378
1,692
15,442
4,807
23,202
129
63,469
1,226
9,025
3,329
11,561
55
54,143
745
5,462
12,095
10,974
83
87,942
Springs  —   —
1,209
7,759
Pinks —- —   	
9,063
16,285
Steelheads — 	
105
Totals.             	
135,412
59,391
79,6971
105,539
138,650
88,665
83,502
122,363
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
84,832
917
9,415
7,536
6,012
70
46,351
5811
11,505
6,4321
7,1221
19
135,038
429
7,136
4,554
8,375
39
76,923
436
895
2,815
4,852
79
83,507
449
677
5,059
3,446
82
69,732
459
944
3,483
7,062
29
76,428
325
429
5,089
6,571
32
119,170
434
492
18,023
756
105
Pinks - 	
Totals  	
108,782
72,0111
155,571
86,000
93,220
81,709
88,874
138,980
Smith
Inlet,
1930-45
inclusive*
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
Sockeyes  -	
15,014
26
560
2,362
3,692
28
3,165
66
343
4981
2,122
666
15,010
118
541
556
5,693
24
15,939
8
1,813
527
5,490
21,495
124
1,955
749
7.741
45
25,947
142
1,102
755
6,015
37
17,833
215
3,880
3,978
2,771
50
33,894
68
Cohoes   	
Pinks	
Chums  	
1,058
1,761
8,076
Totals — - 	
21,682
6,1941
21,942
23,777
32,109
33,998
28,727
44,921
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
Sockeyes	
25,258
21
241
483
9,494
5
12,788
30
310
65
1,653
42
31,648
216
1,201
4,412
12,427
24
14,607
164
3,941
6,953
15,548
43
37,369
354
5,068
19,995
8,841
87
25,488
48
273
1,148
165
20
12,867
122
112
824
133
36
32,057
290
1,460
16,615
1,660
103
Cohoes .— _	
Pinks	
Chums -	
Totals	
35,502
14,888
49,928
41,256
71,714
27,142
14,094
52,185
* Previously reported in Queen Charlotte and other districts. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
N 89
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES—Continued.
Nass River, 1930-45, inclusive.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
9,899
202
4,9811
35,9181
3,895
841
13,083
6811
9,143
31,854
6,102
2321
13,412}
1,0021
10,1461
17,669
9,768
335
21,085
1,515
12,518
49,0031
15,487
534
24,876
519
6,246
22,667
16,648
374
13,809
1,716
5,461
29,278
10,060
117
24,357
708
2,500
26,370
1,996
15
21,462
773
15,911
Pinks   	
61,477
14,159
Steelheads  - —- —
188
Totals    	
54,9801
61,096
52,3331
100,1421
71,330
60,441
55,946
113,970
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
Sockeyes  	
17,567
1,251
10,080
8,031
12,067
46
26,5621
2,167
20,6201
75,8871
11,842
496
12,712
560
17,481
25,508
21,810
143
28,701
654
2,648
32,964
9,935
311
9,757
1,296
1,775
44,306
3,251
49
14,154
4,408
14,515
44,629
7,955
10
16,929
1,439
392
5,178
8,943
26,405
1,891
3,978
Pinks
79,976
1,126
84
Totals    	
49,042
139,5751
78,214
75,213
60,434
85,671
32,881
113,460
Vancouver Island District, 1930-45, inclusive.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
Sockeyes —-	
5,988
2,323
136,724
242,5901
104,528
128
5,2881
3,0681
56,0291
49,092
79,8131
165
7,185
2,937
132,843
130,825
73,8461
74
51,961
5,407
383,005
14,474
81,8371
119
40,273
8,038
593,016
177,292
166,908
308
15,177
2,454
279,064
33,785
88,885*
214
16,259
2,889
212,949
235,119
123,388
132
27,965
4,254
266,566
Pinks  	
70,108
89,471
190
Totals —  	
492,2811
193,459
347,7101
536,803}
985,835
419,579
590,736
458,554
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
25,427
2,359
203,900
318,780
52,244
88
32,6961
6,340
347,951
82,028}
90,625
105
22,928
6,525
143,960
191,627
104,366
21
27,282
1,630
210,239
54,526
78,670
18,397
4,875
96,642
172,945
60,019
147
27,611
10,559
70,629
33,403
63,637
91
22,191
4,055
16,329
81,965
50,953
40
24,734
3,431
177,856
Pinks   	
89,941
44,382
1
Totals  	
608,798
559,746
469,427
372,347
353,025
205,930
175,541
340,395
* Bluebacks are included with the cohoe-pack for Vancouver Island. N 90
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES—Continued.
Queen Charlotte Islands, 1936-45, inclusive.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
157
20
81,916
90,993
19,615
1
53
1
38
43,801
83,329
16,935
41
149
236
76,745
524
27,421
11
16
62
164,911
44,966
8,897
1
36
45,519
2,123
3,020
179
66
40,882
57,952
16,616
2
140
72,689
13
4,631
85
Springs-
Chums	
Pinks 	
Cohoes 	
4
12,132
4,809
1,108
227
35,370
313
14,488
69,304
89,355
19,920
Totals -
18,053
192,702
50,224
144,145
105,086
218,852
50,699
115,695
77,475
178,891
Central Area, 1936-45, inclusive.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
Sockeyes	
24,109
32,715
21,101
17,470
20,854
32,042
26,158
36,178
29,987
27,499
Springs	
542
643
547
7231
460
1,518
655
540
1,641
830
Chums 	
138,992
80,793
109,101
79,152
111,587
135,802
79,384
127,089
110,493
99,592
Pinks -	
364,385
162,986
288,1091
69,434
66,130
54,478
150,498
130,842
97,321
246,378
Cohoes -	
45,462}
25,823
26,645
31,274
45,218
49,886
44,426
56,716
25,009
45,824
Steelheads —
590
666
397
355
330
506
392
433
614
373
Totals-
574,080}
303,626
445,900}
198,408}
244,579
274,232
301,513
351,798
265,065
420,496
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS, 1930 TO 1945, INCLUSIVE.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
79,977
104,2791
89,735
15,014
9,899
5,988
24,109
88,515
68,197
36,5821
3,165
13,083
5,288}
32,883
31,973}
28,268}
47,602}
15,010
13,412}
7,185
21,437
446,371
34,544
79,199
15,939
21,085
51,961
17,471
171,290
81,767
93,378
21,495
24,876
40,273
22,219
99,009
116,507
63,469
25,947
13,809
15,177
32,484
54,296
68,485
54,143
17,833
24,357
16,259
34,514
186,794
47,257
Rivers Inlet- -  	
Smith Inlet	
87,942
33,894
21,462
27,965
36,357
Totals	
329,001}
247,714
164,889
666,570
455,298
366,402
269,887
441,671*
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
100,272
42,491
84,832
25,258
17,567
25,427
29,989
183,120
81,973
46,351
12,788
28,562}
34,430}
27,584
62,822
52,879
135,038
31,648
12,712
22,928
32,417
139,238
70,655
76,923
14,607
28,701
27,282
20,438
52,465
30,506
83,507
37,369
9,757
18,397
26,106
65,769
59,916
69,732
25,488
14,154
27,611
21,685
40,947
93,023
76,428
12,867
16,929
22,199
29,071
103,692
132,372
119,170
32,057
26,405
24,784
39,198
Smith Inlet	
Totals  -	
325,836
414,809
350,444
377,844
258,107
284,355
291,464
477,678
216 cases of Alaska sockeye packed in British Columbia canneries are not shown in the above table for the year 1936.
* 5,779 cases of Alaska sockeye packed at Skeena River are not shown in the above table for the year 1938. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
N 91
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SPRING-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA, BY DISTRICTS, 1934 TO 1945, INCLUSIVE.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.*
1940.
Fraser River  - - 	
6,1301
4
202
2,382
1,191}
26
542
2,323
12,577}
20
681}
1,500}
805
66
643
3,068}
3,505}
9,688
38
1,515
6,374
985
8
7231
5,407
6
34,038
236
519
4,985
1,692
124
460
8,038
383
4,504
62
1,002}
1,783
765
118
547
2,937
1,716
6,118
1,226
Smith Inlet                                                                 	
142
1,518
2,454
Totals -
12,801
19,362
10,658
24,744}
50,475
17,740
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
6,993
36
708
4,857
745
215
655
2,889
4,308
66
773
4,318
1,209
68
540
4,254
5,444
140
1,251
4,401
917
21
1,641
2,359
15,126
227
2,167
4,551}
581}
30
830
6,340
9,401
63
560
4,039
429
216
687
6,525
16,218
258
654
8,300
436
Smith Inlet         	
164
2,116
1,630
Totals      	
16,098
15,536
16,174
29,853
21,920
29,776
* In addition to the above there were packed 1,118 cases of springs out of cold-storage stocks, catch of 1940.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE COHOE-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA, BY DISTRICTS, 1934 TO 1945, INCLUSIVE.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.*
1940.
11,615
1,108
3,895
34,201}
17,516}
560
45,462}
104,528
15,564}
19,615
6,102
20,191}
13,921
343
25,823
79,813}
173
8,809
14,488
9,768
40,479}
11,466
541
26,645
73,846}
10,542
16,935
15,487
44,081}
8,467
1,813
31,274
81,837}
701
28,265
27,421
16,648
50,605
23,202
1,955
45,218
166,908
31,187
13,028
8,897
10,060
20,614
11,561
1,102
Nass River     	
Rivers Inlet  - - 	
Smith Inlet   	
49,886
88,885
20,489
Totals     -	
218,886}
181,546}
186,043
211,138
391,409
224,522
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
13,557
3,020
1,996
29,198
10,974
3,880
44,426
123,388
14,658
27,127
16,616
14,159
52,821
16,285
1,058
56,716
89,471
26,828
11,244
4,631
12,067
15,514
6,012
241
25,009
58,244
527
28,716
19,920
11,842
25,390
7,122}
310
45,824
90,625}
24,950
5,461
21,810
23,498
8,375
1,201
41,831
104,366
11,392
8,315
9,935
54,476
4,852
3,941
53,850
78,670
Queen Charlotte Islands -  	
Smith Inlet	
Alaska    	
Totals -	
245,097
301,081
133,489
229,750
231,492
225,431
* In addition to the above there were packed 39,104 cases of cohoe out of cold-storage stocks, catch of 1940. N 92
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE PINK-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA, BY DISTRICTS, 1934 TO 1945, INCLUSIVE.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
95,748}
4,809
35,918}
69,783}
9,916
2,362
364,385
242,590}
130
90,993
31,854
48,837
5,289}
498}
162,986
49,092
12
29,860}
313
17,669
54,509
8,347
556
288,109}
130,825
134
83,329
49,003}
52,767
954
527
69,434
14,474
102,388
524
22,667
50,537
4,807
749
66,130
177,292
2,680
12
44,966
29,278
47,301
3,329
755
54,478
33,785
825,513
389,692
530,189
270,6221
427,774
213,904
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
95,176
2,123
26,370
95,236
12,095
3,978
150,498
235,119
63
57,952
61,477
69,610
9,063
1,761
130,842
70,108
94,010
13
8,031
59,400
7,536
483
97,321
318,780
89,355
75,887}
91,389
6,432}
65
246,378
82,0281
111,328
1,479
25,508
81,868
4,554
4,412
94,190
191,627
2,199
53,398
32,964
126,163
2,815
Smith Inlet    --           - - —	
6,953
157,336
54,526
Totals    -„   	
620,595
400,876
585,574
591,535}
514,966
436,354
STATEMENT SHOWING THE CHUM-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA, BY DISTRICTS, 1934 TO 1945, INCLUSIVE.
1945.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.*
1940.
27,610
12,132
4,981}
9,264
16,793
3,692
138,992
136,724
13,803}
81,916
9,143
8,741}
2,705
2,122
80,793
56,029}
63
52,149
35,370
10,146}
6,597
11,448
5,693
109,101
132,843
82,573
43,801
12,518
11,421
15,874
5,490
79,152
383,005
95,070
76,745
6,246
10,707
15,442
7,741
111,587
593,016
3,908
35,665
164,911
5 461
Skeena River - - -	
4,682
9,025
6,015
135,802
279,064
2,816
Smith Inlet  -  - 	
Alaska    	
Totals-- - - -	
350,188}
255,3161
363,347}
633,834
920,462
643,441
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
30,150
45,519
2,500
7,773
5,462
2,771
79,384
212,949
82
58,778
40,882
15,911
16,758
7,759
8,076
127,089
266,566
20,878
72,689
10,080
10,811
9,415
9,494
110,493
203,900
31,565
69,304
20,620}
15,297}
11,505
1,653
99.592
347,951
8,227
86,298
17,481
8,122
7,136
12,427
125,953
143,960
104,092
38,062
2,648
24,888
895
15,548
117,309
210,239
Nass River  -	
Rivers Inlet        _
Smith Inlet ,	
Totals - -	
386,590
541,819
447,760
597,488
409,604
513,181
* In addition to the above there were packed 6,339 cases of chums out of cold-storage stocks, catch of 1940. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
N 93
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF PILCHARD PRODUCTS
PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1930 TO 1945.
Season.
Canned.
Meal.
Oil.
1930-31   --	
Cases.
55,166
17,336
4,622
2,946
35,437
27,184
35,007
40,975
69,473
7,300
59.166
72,498
42,008
94,512
78,772
79,536
Tons.
13,934
14,200
8,842
1,108
7,628
8,666
8,715
8,483
8,891
906
4,853
11,437
11,003
15,209
8,435
5,812
Gals.
3,204,058
1931-32  _  	
2,551,914
1932-33 	
1,315,864
1933-34
275,879
1934-35  -  	
1,635,123
1935-36      	
1,634,592
1936-37         	
1,217,087
1937-38     - - 	
1,707,276
1938-39
2,195,850
1939-40               -                                     	
178,305
1940-41           	
890,296
1941-42 •  	
1,916,191
1942-43                                                           	
1,560,269
1943-44
2,238,987
1944-45 -  -     -	
1,675,090
1945-46    	
1,273,329
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF HERRING PRODUCTS
PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1935 TO 1945.
Season.
Canned.
Dry-salted.
Pickled.
Meal.
Oil.
1935-36                                           -                	
Cases.
26,143
20,914
27,365
23,353
418,021
640,252
1,527,350
1,253,978
1,198,632
1,190,762
1,307,514
Tons.
14,983
16,454
10,230
7,600
7,596
5,039
Tons.
892
779
502
591
26
100
Tons.
5,313
10,340
14,643
18,028
22,870
10,886
8,780
4,633
7,662
9,539
5,525
Gals.
328,639
1936-37-   - 	
1937-38       -	
786,742
1,333,245
1938-39 -	
1,526,117
1939 40                                      — -             -
1,677.736
1940-41          .-   .              	
923,137
1941-42           -   .
594,684
1942 43                                         -                 	
323,379
512,516
1943 44                                                              -
302
1944-45          -   -       -      	
717.655
1945 46        	
521,649
The above figures are for the season, October to March 31st, annually.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF MEAL, OIL, AND FERTILIZER,
PRODUCED FROM SOURCES OTHER THAN HERRING AND PILCHARD,
1935 TO 1945.
From Whales.
From
Fish Livers.
From other Sources.
Whalebone
and Meal.
Fertilizer.
Oil.
Oil.
Meal and
Fertilizer.
Oil.
Tons.
211
332
268
273
181
270
130
62
Tons.
354
687
527
512
434
561
205
90
Gals.
426,772
763,740
662,355
543,378
Gals.
Tons.
2,226
2,857
2,445
2,059
3,559
4,998
5,410
4,768
4,332
2,721
4,560
Gals.
260,387
1936 37
356,464
266,009
1938 39
186,261
331,725
1940 41
361,820
619,025
255,555
134,553
415,856
1941 42
405,340
1942-43	
1948-44 	
1944-45
916,723
822,250
545,736
445,858
338,502
60,000
301,048
1945 46
513,442 N 94
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1945.
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Number of non-tidal fishing licences issued—
Fur-farm fishing licences  25
Ordinary fishing licences  84
Sturgeon fishing licences  1
110
VICTOEIA, B.C. :
Printed by Chaeles F. Banmbld, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1946.
1,305-946-7014 

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