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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ANNUAL REPORT OF THE LANDS AND SURVEYS BRANCHES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF LANDS… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1946

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE
LANDS AND SURVEYS BRANCHES
OF THE
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS
AND FORESTS
FOR THE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST, 1945
HON. E. T. KENNEY, MINISTER OP LANDS AND FORESTS
PRINTED  BY
AUTHORITY OP THE  LEGISLATIVE  ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Chari.es P. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1946.  Victoria, B.C., January 30th, 1946.
To His Honour W. C. Woodward,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Lands and Surveys
Branches of the Department of Lands and Forests for the year ended December 31st,
1945.
E. T. KENNEY,
Minister of Lands and Forests. Victoria, B.C., January 30th, 1946.
The Honourable E. T. Kenney,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria,  B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Lands and Surveys
Branches of the Department of Lands and Forests for the twelve months ended December 31st, 1945.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
H. CATHCART,
Deputy Minister of Lands. PART I.
LANDS BRANCH.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of Superintendent of Lands     7
Revenue     7
Sale of Town Lots  11
Pre-emption Records  12
Pre-emption and Homestead Inspections  14
Pre-emption and Homestead Exchanges  12
Land-sales  13
Summary  15
Letters inward and outward  16
Coal Licences, Leases, etc  16
Crown Grants issued  16
Total Acreage deeded  16
Home-site Leases  17  DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
REPORT OF SUPERINTENDENT OF LANDS.
Victoria, B.C., January 29th, 1946.
H. Cathcart, Esq., I.S.O.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith report of land administration by the
Lands Branch of the Department of Lands and Forests for the year ended December
31st, 1945.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
C. E. HOPPER,
Superintendent of Lands.
SUMMARY OF RECORDED COLLECTIONS FOR THE YEAR ENDED
DECEMBER 31sT, 1945.
Total collections under—■
" Land Act "—
Land revenue—sundry   $188,986.51
Land-sales—principal and interest     294,034.56
Survey fees, sales of maps, etc.       25,080.57
  $508,101.64
" Coal and Petroleum Act "         7,999.10
" Petroleum and Natural-gas Act, 1944 "	
" Coal Act, 1944 "         2,057.00
" Soldiers' Land Act "—
Southern Okanagan Land Project  $138,396.23
Houses, South Vancouver  832.68
     139,228.91
" Better Housing Act "         5,129.91
" University Endowment Lands Administration Act "__._    176,637.22
Refunds—
Advances       $2,490.00
Votes         4,812.55
         7,302.55
Totals   $846,456.33 AA 8
REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS AND FORESTS, 1945.
REVENUE STATEMENT FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 3 1st, 1945.
Land Revenue—Sundry.
Victoria
Collections.
Agency
Collections.
Total
Collections.
Collections under " Land Act "—
$920.00
144,007.89
695.00
17,620.00
3,800.00
346.42
1.645.85
150.00
$920.00
$14.88
144,022.77
695.00
Crown-grant fees—
17,620.00
3,800.00
2,017.96
2,364.38
1,645.85
342.50
4,595.71
1,518.52
492.50
4,595.71
2,092.04
1,568.55
41.09
6,669.37
36.14
39.34
796.25
69.00
2,600.00
.    4,434.10
65.00
900.00
3,610.56
1,568.55
41.09
Former Dominion lands—
6,669.37
36.14
39.34
796.25
69.00
Collections under " Coal and Petroleum Act "—
2,600.00
4,434.10
65.00
900.00
Collections under " Petroleum and Natural-gas Act, 1944 "—
Collections under " Coal Act, 1944 "—
1,857.00
200.00
1,857.00
200.00
$190,553.04
$8,489.57
$199,042.61
Land-sales.
Collections under " Land Act "—principal and interest-
Country lands—
Reverted lands	
Country lands	
Pre-empted lands	
Townsites ,	
Former Dominion Railway Belt lands	
Special regulations	
Surface rights of mineral claims	
Indian Reserve cut-off	
Totals	
$44,491.18
2,163.90
431.86
1,255.69
15,135.60
957.00
$136
52
2
34.
.135.17
.999.55
.307.37
594.83
858.47
504.14
,944.80
255.00
$64,435.23 $229,599.33
  I
$180,626.35
55,163.45
2,739.23
35,850.52
858.47
15,639.74
1,944.80
1,212.00
$294,034.56
Survey Fees, Sales of Maps, etc.
Collections under " Land Act "—
$1,346.52
7,948.53
5,101.99
969.55
25.25
$9,688.73
$11,035.25
7,948.53
5,101.99
Lithographed maps	
969 55
Totals	
$15,391.84
$9,688.73
$25,080.57 REPORT OF LANDS BRANCH, 1945.
AA 9
REVENUE STATEMENT FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31st,
1945—Continued.
Summary of Revenue Collections.
Victoria
Collections.
Agency
Collections.
Total
Collections.
Land revenue—sundry	
Land-sales—principal and interest.
Survey fees, sale of maps, etc	
Totals	
$190,553.04
64,435.23
15,391.84
$8,489.57
229,599.33
9,688.73
$199,042.61
294,034.56
25,080.57
$270,380.11
$247,777.63
$518,157.74
Sundry Collections.
Collections under " Soldiers' Land Act "—
Southern Okanagan Land Project—
$72,566.99
24,226.12
1,134.76
62.50
200.00
5,885.94
34.S19.92
527.99
260.65
Office rentals (Votes 118, 121)	
Water rates—
$138,396.23
Houses, South Vancouver—
44.04
4,896.90
233.01
85,649.02
318.84
3,179.13
100.87
16,243.91
112.57
21,472.63
7,571.65
15,664.99
1,887.26
9,560.83
7,645.96
7,229.56
832.68
Collections under " Better Housing Act "—
5,129.91
Collections under " University Endowment Lands Administration Act "—
Land-sales—
Lease rentals—
Local improvements taxes—
Loan repayments—
Repossessed houses—
Interest	
Sundry collections	
i
176,637.22
Totals	
$320,996.04
$320,996.04 AA 10
REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS AND FORESTS, 1945.
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1 REPORT OF LANDS BRANCH, 1945.                                  AA 11
SALE OF TOWN LOTS, 1945.
Sale of lots placed on market after being offered at public auction:—
Lots.
Atlin   2 $140.00
Blue River   3 90.00
Celista   5 125.00
Clinton  15 950.00
Erickson   2 482.00
Golden, South  3 30.00
Hedley   3 85.00
Hope   2 115.00
Houston  17 815.00
Monroe Lake  9 225.00
McBride   7 310.00
Oliver  14 2,520.00
Prince George  30 10,185.00
Quesnel   28 3,541.50
Smithers  4 120.00
Terrace  9 596.00
Tulameen   2 175.00
Vananda   56 2,975.00
Vancouver  9 7,200.00
Vanderhoof   2 50.00
West Quesnel  23 1,438.00
Woodhaven   40 5,680.00
Zeballos   3 500.00
Various other townsites  21 3,080.20
Totals  309 $41,427.70
In the University Hill (Endowment Lands) subdivision of Lot 140, Group 1, New
Westminster District, 57 lots were sold at a sales price of $139,987.50.
Southern Okanagan Land Project, nil. (All Crown acreage in this area has been
taken off the market and is being held for rehabilitation purposes.) AA 12
REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS AND FORESTS, 1945.
PRE-EMPTION RECORDS, ETC., 1945.
Agency.
Pre-emption
Records
allowed.
Pre-emption
Records
cancelled.
Certificates
of Improvements issued.
Certificates
of Purchase
issued.
14
1
8
6
7
1
6
2
35
4
2
22
1
2
3
1
2
1
6
9
1
5
4
4
3
1
5
2
29
33
2
10
3
3
2
4
2
1
9
1
16
2
9
2
7
5
75
21
16
5
2
2
4
22
Atlin	
2
52
32
11
24
31
69
19
157
24
98
Penticton	
52
31
68
20
69
54
39
107
26
49
Totals	
115
131
177
1,056
PRE-EMPTION AND HOMESTEAD EXCHANGES.
Under 1934 Amendment to "Land Act" (now Section 39).
Year. No.
1935 	
                              41
1936  :_	
      ._                                         21
1937 	
    __                                37
1938 	
     __                                10
1939 	
3
1940      __
    ____    _                                   6
1941 	
      _                                           7
1942 	
_   ...                                                     4
1943      _
                                            _      2
1944 	
1945      _. _
Total   131 REPORT OF LANDS BRANCH, 1945. AA 13
LAND-SALES, 1945.
Acres.
Surveyed (first class)      8,450.13
Surveyed (second class)   10,522.55
Surveyed (third class)   10,065.02
29,037.70
Unsurveyed    3,013.47
32,051.17
Repurchases (section 134a)      1,100.97
Total  33,152.14 AA 14
REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS AND FORESTS, 1945.
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- AA 16 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS AND FORESTS, 1945.
STATEMENT OF LETTERS  INWARD AND OUTWARD,  1945.
Letters inward  23,646
Letters outward  20,413
MINING LICENCES, LEASES, ETC., 1945.
Licences under the " Coal and Petroleum Act "— no. Area (Acres).
Renewal licences issued   20 11,912.90
Leases under the " Coal and Petroleum Act "—
Leases issued  7 3,297.00
Leases renewed  5 1,580.70
12 4,877.70
Licences under the " Coal Act, 1944 "—
Licences issued       8 3,378.00
Sundry leases under the " Land Act "—
Leases issued  184        15,183.68
CROWN GRANTS ISSUED, 1945.
Pre-emptions   193
" Pre-emptors' Free Grants Act, 1939 "  42
Dominion homesteads   14
Purchases  (other than town lots)   :  809
Town lots   596
Mineral claims  84
Reverted  mineral claims   36
Supplementary timber grants   4
" Dyking Assessments Act "   10
" Public Schools Act "  2
Home-site leases   12
Miscellaneous    15
Total   1,817
Applications for Crown grants   2,108
Certified copies         12
Clearances of applications for leases of reverted mineral claims
given       170
Total Acreage deeded.
Acres.
Pre-emptions  35,009.88
Dominion homesteads   1,840.80
Mineral claims  (other than reverted)  2,876.27
Reverted mineral claims  1,358.13
Purchases of surveyed Crown lands (other than town lots) 43,891.41
Supplementary timber grants   57.83
Total   85,034.32 REPORT OF LANDS BRANCH, 1945.
AA 17
HOME-SITE LEASES  (NOT EXCEEDING 20 ACRES).
Number of
Leases.
Rental Collections received
during 1945.
Total Rentals
received.
Total rentals received from April 1st, 1929, to December 31st, 1944, inclusive
Leases issued January 1st to December 31st, 1925	
Leases issued January 1st to December 31st, 1926	
Leases issued January 1st to December 31st, 1927	
Leases issued January 1st to December 31st, 1928	
Leases issued January 1st to December 31st, 1929	
Leases issued January 1st to December 31st, 1930	
Leases issued January 1st to December 31st, 1931	
Leases issued January 1st to December 31st, 1932	
Leases issued January 1st to December 31st, 1933	
Leases issued January 1st to December 31st, 1934	
Leases issued January 1st to December 31st, 1935	
Leases issued January 1st to December 31st, 1936	
Leases issued January 1st to December 31st, 1937	
Leases issued January 1st to December 31st, 1938	
Leases issued January 1st to December 31st, 1939	
Leases issued January 1st to December 31st, 1940	
Leases issued January 1st to December 31st, 1941	
Leases issued January 1st to December 31st, 1942	
Leases issued January 1st to December 31st, 1943	
Leases issued January 1st to December 31st, 1944	
Leases issued January 1st to December 31st, 1945	
Leases existing at December 31st, 1945	
Lease rentals paid in advance for Crown grant during 1945	
Total revenue received, April 1st, 1929, to December 31st, 1945	
1
4
2
3
4
3
3
12
6
14
15
10
6
16
18
31
26
20
16
12
9
$10.00
77.50
30.80
17.75
27.00
14.10
25.25
72.30
47.95
73.85
87.75
57.80
33.75
112.75
175.89
268.41
222.23
162.30
105.00
122.00
70.46
$22,470.28
1,814.84
936.83
$25,221.95
Leases cancelled during 1945, 9.
Lease rentals paid in advance for Crown grant during 1945,  PART II.
SURVEYS BRANCH.
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page.
Report of the Surveyor-General, Surveys Branch  21
Report of Surveys Division  24
Table A—Summary of Office-work  24
Table B—List of Departmental Mineral Reference Maps  26
Table C—List of Departmental Reference Maps  27
Report of Aerial Photograph Library  30
Report of Geographic Division  30
Reports of Surveyors—
Triangulation Control Survey, covering Part of Drainage Area of Takla, Stuart,
and Babine Lakes in the Cassiar and Coast Districts (H. Pattinson)  34
British Columbia-Yukon Boundary Survey (N. C. Stewart)  37  REPORT OF THE SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
Victoria, B.C., January 2nd, 1946.
i
H. Cathcart, Esq., I.S.O.,
Deputy Minister of Lands, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the operations of the
Surveys Branch for the year ended December 31st, 1945.
The Surveys Branch has at present some forty-five employees as compared with
the pre-war fifty, but former employees are gradually returning from the armed forces,
and it is expected that the staff will soon be normal in numbers. It is organized into
three divisions—Surveys, Geographic, and Topographic—each with distinct though
related functions.
The Surveys Division deals with field-notes of all surveys of Crown lands, whether
made by the less than 10 per cent, of surveyors employed by the Government or by the
90 per cent, employed by private applicants for lands; checks these field-notes and prepares plans therefrom; it keeps an up-to-date record of the standing of surveys and
lands on some 282 large-scale reference maps drawn on tracing-linen, and covering all
settled areas in the Province; the Division has a modern blue and ozalid printing
department which serves all branches of the Government and supplies prints of reference and other maps to the public as required.
The Geographic Division is responsible for keeping the published maps of the
Province truly representative of the latest information available. That information is
collected from all sources, but has as its foundation the triangulation surveys and the
work of the Topographic Division; aside from our Surveys and Topographic Divisions
the main sources of information are surveys turned in by British Columbia Land Surveyors employed by private interests, the Forest and Water Rights Branches, the Public
Works and Mines Departments, and also the Geodetic, Geological, Topographical, and
Hydrographic Services of the Dominion Government, and prospectors and trappers.
The Division draws the maps, secures tenders from all lithographers in the Province
capable of handling the sheet size, and then supervises publication; the Division is also
equipped with photostatic camera, etc., for enlargements and reductions, and this serves
all Departments, as well as National Defence and, to some extent, the public.
The Topographic Division is the outdoor end of the Surveys Branch; it includes
a staff of British Columbia Land Surveyors specially skilled in topographic mapping;
these men spend their summers on field-work and their winters plotting contour maps
based on that work; their results are permanent in character, as topography changes
but little throughout the centuries, and their control-points on the ground are marked
for future generations by brass bolts set in rock and cement. It is important to keep
in mind the basic character of this work and the sure foundation it supplies for any
future appraisal of land, timber, water-power, or minerals, or for the location of transportation routes.
Due to its general mountainous character only a small proportion of the area of
the Province requires subdivision into farm-sites, but immense areas of mountain terrain are rich in resources of timber, mineral, and water-power, and the lowlands depend
largely for their prosperity on the development of the resources of this upland; for the
appraisal of these resources contour maps furnish by far the best and cheapest foundation, for in a country of such high relief contour-lines are as important as horizontal
21 AA 22 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS AND FORESTS, 1945.
distances. Every effort has been made to keep our mapping costs low, this being essential with our large area and small population; we have developed a system of using
vertical aerial photographs, taken at an altitude of about 15,000 feet, controlled by
oriented ground photographs taken from commanding positions and by a minimum
of triangulation to fix ground camera positions; for these ground photographs a surveying camera of known focal length is used, and from the ground photographs the
positions, horizontal and vertical, of any required number of points on the variable
scale aerial photographs can be obtained. The cost is less than that of photo-topography
as comparatively few ground camera stations are required, the aerial photographs supplying most of the topographic information. The plotting scale is usually V2 mile to
the inch with contours at 100-foot vertical intervals, but satisfactory larger scale maps
with a 50-foot contour interval could be produced from this information. The cost,
including aerial photography and everything up to the preparation of the map for lithography, is less than $25 per square mile, and this is apparently as low as any costs so
far obtained for comparable maps in Canada; our rough topography is offset by the
extensive views obtainable and this permits us to use the surveying camera for control
rather than the slower ground methods. Areas over which maps are required by the
Mines, Forest, or Public Works officials are given priority, but a sine qua non is aerial
photography.
The war has brought about great improvements in aerial photograph equipment,
much of it not yet in sufficient supply for civilian needs; aerial cameras henceforth will
be of wider angle and capable of giving pictures with the minimum of distortion over
their entire area; film and papers almost free from distortion are now produced, so that
with these improvements aerial coverage can be secured with fewer pictures, and the
intensity of ground control can be reduced, all of which means mapping at lower cost.
A practical helicopter would also help.
It is the settled belief of the Surveys Branch that good maps are a most useful
guard against costly errors in development. In British Columbia a large proportion
of the cost of surveys is entailed in getting men to and from the ground and from place
to place in the map area. With air photographs and with the triangulation and photo-
topographic methods of control now in use here, it costs but little more to collect the
information for plotting on a scale of % mile to the inch with 100-foot contours with
the object of publishing on the 1-mile scale than it does to get the information for the
4-miles-to-l-inch map with 500-foot contours. A large proportion of the extra cost of
producing the larger scale map is in office-work and printing. Topography is practically permanent, so our standard policy is to collect information for the large-scale maps
but to publish on any smaller scale called for by present needs; large-scale maps can be
produced as needed in future years without another costly ground survey, and at short
notice; moreover, even small-scale maps produced from complete information are better
than are such maps produced from less dense control.
The completion of the Alaska Highway on a route largely east of the Rocky Mountains has made Edmonton the supply-point for the Liard River country and Yukon. To
reach these areas and Alaska, travellers from most of British Columbia, as well as from
Washington, Oregon, and California, will have to cross the Rocky Mountains twice and
add 500 miles to the one-way distance; the projected road from Prince George through
the Pine Pass to the Peace River farming area has its value but does not change this
condition; our topographic surveys have shown that, if occasion calls for it, both mountain crossings can be avoided, the route can be shortened by 500 miles and maximum
altitude lowered over 1,000 feet by less than 400 miles of new construction along alluvial
valleys. The United States Army, using our contour map, surveyed for a railway by
this Finlay River-Kechika River route in 1942, and found that their grades throughout
could be kept under l1/^ per cent. REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL. AA 23
In 1945 we closed the last gap in the triangulation net which now extends from the
geodetic triangulation net near Prince George, via Parsnip, Finlay, Kechika, and Liard
Valleys to the Yukon boundary, and thence by way of the Turnagain River, Dease Lake,
Telegraph Creek, Skeena, Sustut, Driftwood, and across country to the geodetic net near
Endako. This closes a circuit approximately 1,200 miles in length and gives a firm
foundation for any further surveys in this great area which may some day need highways. All triangulation stations are permanently marked by brass bolts set in rock or
concrete and though computations have not been completed, preliminary figures indicate
a good closure.
In the years 1943 and 1944 astronomical stations near the 60th parallel of latitude,
being the boundary between British Columbia and Yukon, were set by the Geodetic
Survey of Canada. The position of each station was determined by observations on at
least forty pairs of stars, using the Talcott method, and results should, and probably
did, come within %0 second in astronomic latitude, or say 10 feet. In 1945 it was
arranged between Dominion and Province that survey forces of the latter should run
the boundary between points fixed from these astronomic stations, and Mr. Stewart's
report on this work is appended. This survey, as did work on the 49th parallel, draws
attention to the deviation of the plumb line from the vertical, due to unknown densities
within the earth; the swing of the plumb line was apparently about 12 seconds between
its extreme north and south positions along the 42 miles of line run; these deviations
affect every astronomic observation to a small but indeterminate extent; the Dominion
Geodetic Survey apparently plans some work on this problem and will have our data.
Some reposting is being done on the University Endowment Lands at Point Grey,
and a survey is being made in an effort to find a solution for a squatter situation near
Nelson; other surveys have been small and scattered.
Lieutenant-Colonel G. G. Aitken, M.C, Chief Geographer, retired in June due to
poor health, but did not do so until he could be sure that his beloved Geographic Division would be in good hands. He is a distinct loss to the Department, and it is fortunate that we had in Major W. G. H. Firth, his successor, one with long experience in the
Division and with all the qualities of a leader.
Reports compiled by F. 0. Morris and W. G. H. Firth for the Surveys and Geographic Divisions respectively, giving details of the work carried on under their supervision and of the maps published, as well as reports from the surveyors employed on
field-work, are attached hereto. Our trained men are gradually returning from the
armed forces, with the result that office and field staffs are getting back to normal
strength. It is in the field survey staff that the war has been felt most, as the strenuous
nature of the work calls for men of the military age-groups. It will be possible to place
additional survey parties in the field in 1946. The Surveys Branch runs smoothly, and
I have had the most whole-hearted co-operation from Messrs. Morris and Firth, and
from the topographic surveyors and all members of the staff.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
F. C. GREEN,
Surveyor-General. AA 24 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS AND FORESTS, 1945,
APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
SURVEYS DIVISION.
By F. 0. Morris, Assistant Surveyor-General.
This Division deals with the general correspondence, the supply of survey information to land surveyors and the general public, preparation of instructions for surveying,
checking survey field-notes and plotting official plans therefrom, clearing all applications, and many minor activities.
A blue and ozalid printing plant is maintained, rendering service to the various
governmental Departments.
Departmental Reference Maps.—In order to keep a proper graphic record of alienations and inquiries, reference maps, generally on the scale of 1 mile to 1 inch, and
mineral reference maps on the scale of 1,500 feet to 1 inch, drawn on tracing linen, are
maintained by the Surveys Division. There are now 202 reference maps and 80 mineral
reference maps, making a total of 282 maps. The work of keeping these up to date—
(1) by adding new survey information as it becomes available, and (2) by renewing
same when worn out with constant use and handling in the blue-print machines—forms
a considerable portion of the work of the Division. During the year six new reference
maps were made and six were recompiled. Tables B and C, attached hereto, give a list
of these reference maps.
Aerial Photograph Library.—A considerable portion of the Province has been
photographed from the air and an effort is made in this office to have on record one
copy of each of these aerial photographs. These are available for inspection and at
present total 127,754 views, consisting of 96,295 taken by Department of National
Defence, 23,603 by B.C. Forest Service, 7,805 by Western Canadian Airways, 1,473 by
Mackenzie Air Service, and 51 by United States Army Air Force. Index maps showing
the position of these aerial photographs are also on record and available for inspection.
Table A, which follows, summarizes the main items of work.
Table A.—Summary of Office-work for the Year 1945, Surveys Division.
Number of field-books received  161
„ lots surveyed   173
„ lots plotted  137
„ lots gazetted   200
„ lots cancelled   13
,, mineral-claim field-books prepared  77
„ reference maps compiled  12
„ applications for purchase cleared   850
„ applications for pre-emption cleared   164
„ applications for lease cleared  513
„ coal licences cleared   20
„ water licences cleared  98
„ timber-sales cleared   2,188
„ free-use permits cleared  298
„ hand-loggers' licences cleared   6
„ Crown-grant applications cleared   2,063
„ reverted-land clearances  956
„ cancellations made  458
„ inquiries cleared   772
„ placer-mining leases plotted on maps  76 APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
AA 25
Number of letters received  6,114
letters sent out  4,043
Crown-grant and lease tracings made  1,410
miscellaneous tracings made  108
Government Agents' tracings made  91
blue-prints made  28,043
Revenue received from sale of blue-prints   $7,934.53
Number of documents consulted and filed in vault  28,946 0>
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REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS AND FORESTS, 1945.
REPORT OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH LIBRARY.
Number of aerial views on file, December 31st, 1945 :-
Royal Canadian Air Force (A.)	
Royal Canadian Air Force (B.A.).
  90,433
  1,620
Royal Canadian Air Force trimetrogon (T.)—          4,242
United States Army Air Force (U.S.)  51
Western Canada Airways (W.C.A.)  6,238
Mackenzie Air Service (M.A.S.)  1,473
Canadian Airways, Ltd. (Alaska Highway obliques)  94
British Columbia Forest Branch (B.C.)  23,603
Total..
127,754
In addition to the above, 2,043 duplicate R.C.A.F. trimetrogon views were received
from Canadian Army, Pacific Command.
Aerial views received and taken on file during 1945: Royal Canadian Air Force,
19,089; British Columbia Forest Branch (B.C.), nil; and, in addition, 2,043 (A.)
duplicate prints were received.
During 1945, 11,423 photos were issued on loan and 6,827 were returned.
There are at present (December 31st, 1945) 10,221 photos (aerial) out on loan.
Views were issued as required by the various branches of departments of the
British Columbia Government and to the Royal Canadian Air Force and Royal Canadian
Naval Service, and, to a limited extent, to surveyors and others of the general public.
Topographic Survey Ground Views.—There are on file the ground views taken by
the Topographic Survey Branch from 1914 to 1945, and estimated to number something
over 38,000, also the corresponding photographic plates.
Aerial photo index maps number 105 and topographic ground photo index maps 73.
GEOGRAPHIC DIVISION.
By W. G. H. Firth, Chief Geographer.
Maps.
Published.
Name.
No. of
Copies.
Date of
Issue.
Dept.
Map No.
Scale.
Area in
Sq. Mi.
Wall map of British Columbia in four sheets...
British Columbia—Commercial—>
Showing rivers, railways, main roads, etc....
4,000
2,400
100
2,000
3,000
5,000
May, 1945
Dec., 1945
Dec., 1945
Dec., 1945
June, 1945
Jan., 1945
IA
IJ
1JF
US
lex
3e
1/1,000,000-15.78
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
27 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
366,255
366,255
366,255
366,255
366,255
17,000
British  Columbia   (small)   Land  Recording
In Course of Printing.
Nelson Degree Sheet..
4,000
April, 1946
2 m. to 1 in.
3,050
In Course of Preparation.
3H
4f
4d
2E
2b
3 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
9,350
3,100
3,050
17,200
17,000
Bella Coola	 APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.       AA 31
Geographic Board of Canada, Naming and Recording.
Number of map sheets or charts checked  21
Number of names checked  2,037
Number of new names recorded  335
In addition to the above a large number of names were dealt with in response to
requests through the Department or by correspondence.
Geographical Work for Other Departments and Public.
Fifty-six items, receipts and value of work  $1,221.73
Map Stock and Distribution.
Maps issued to Departments and public        20,973
Maps received into stock        20,800
Total value of printed maps issued  $6,997.80
Revenue from printed maps  $5,091.49
Photostat.
Total number of photostats made  3,330
Total value of photostats  $1,716.35
Value of photostats for Lands Department, etc      $751.25
Letters.
Letters received and attended to  2,111
Standard Base Map.
Duncan River Degree Sheet, compilation sheets complete____ 4
Fernie   Degree  Sheet,   including  contours,  sheets  partly
complete   2
Kettle  Valley  Degree   Sheet,   including  contours,   sheets
partly complete  ' 1
Standard Base Map, skeleton sheets compiled  2
School districts plotted from description  18
Triangulation.
Main, by least square adjustment, triangles adjusted  431
Secondary, by rectangular co-ordinates, stations  570
Triangulation index maps   3
Index-cards, records, new  694
Index-cards, records, old (rewritten)  305
Control nets supplied  52
At the close of the year 1945 there were 10,680 triangulation index-record cards
on file.
RESUME.
Lieutenant-Colonel G. G. Aitken, M.C, Chief Geographer, retired on superannuation, June 30th, 1945.
W. G. H. Firth appointed Chief Geographer, July 1st, 1945.
W. G. Thorpe appointed senior cartographer, July 1st, 1945.
E. H. Bowles appointed apprentice draughtsman (temporary), April 1st, 1945.
T. Hinton appointed draughtsman, Grade 2; returned from military duty, November 1st, 1945. AA 32 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS AND FORESTS, 1945.
G. Barnes appointed draughtsman, Grade 2; returned from military duty, November 1st, 1945.
A. E. Stone appointed junior draughtsman (temporary), December 1st, 1945.
H. Pattinson, B.C.L.S., appointed draughtsman (temporary), December 1st, 1945.
On account of indifferent health Lieut-Col. G. G. Aitken, M.C, retired after thirty-
three years' service on June 30th, 1945. On the inauguration of the Geographic Division in 1912 he accepted the position of Chief Geographer, coming to Victoria from the
Geological Survey (Mapping Division), Ottawa. The efficiency and high standard of
mapping-work attained by the Division is due in a large measure to his ability,
devotion to duty, and enthusiasm.
A growing demand for geographical data is reflected in the substantial increase
over previous years in the number of maps issued and the revenue therefrom. It would
appear that with greater business activities, particularly in the mining field and tourist
travel, this demand will increase during the ensuing year.
The five returned veterans now on the strength of the Division have shown fine
purpose and stability in adjusting themselves to civilian life. APPENDIX TO REPORT OF SURVEYOR-GENERAL.
AA 33
List of Lithographed Maps.
Map
No.
Year of
Issue.
Title of Map.
Scale,
Miles, etc.
Per
Copy.
Per
Dozen.
IA
lex
IE
lG
IH
lj
1JCA
1JC
1JD
1JE
ljF
lJGL
ljGC
lJS
IK
IL
2a
f2B
2c
2d
t2E
2f
3a
3d
3e
3f
3g
t3H
3j
3k
3m
3p
4 a
t4B
4c
t4D
4e
t4F
4g
4h
4.1
4k
4l
4m
4n
4p
4q
5a
5b
5C
5d
MRMl
MRM2
MRM3
MRM4
MRM5
MRM6
mrm7
mrm8
PWD
MD
I
1945
1930
1916
1943
1945
1923
1937
1937
1937
1945
1937
1937
1945
1925
1940
1938
1946
1929
1923
1946
1927
1944
1942
1940
1937
1945
1934
1935
1946
1942
1938
1929
1924
1927
1946
1936
1946
1925
1946
1943
1926
1921
1923
1926
1927
1930
1931
1939
1916
1929
1929
1929
1941
1927
1928
1928
1929
1929
1932
1934
1935
1944
1939
1930
Geographic Series—
Wall Map of British Columbia. In four sheets. Roads, trails,
railways, etc	
British Columbia. In one sheet. Showing Land Recording
Districts	
Kootenay, Osoyoos, and Similkameen	
Cariboo and adjacent Districts	
Northern British Columbia, Special Mineralogical Data	
British Columbia. In one sheet. Showing, rivers, railways,
main roads, trails, parks, distance charts, etc	
Ditto ditto and precipitation	
Ditto ditto and Land Recording Districts ....
Ditto ditto and Mining Divisions	
Ditto ditto and Assessment and Collection Districts	
Ditto ditto and Electoral Districts, Redistribution 1938.
Ditto ditto and Land Registration Districts	
Ditto ditto and Counties	
Ditto ditto and Census Divisions	
South Western Districts of B.C., Commercial and Visitors.
(Economic Tables, etc., 1929.)
Central British Columbia (contoured 1,000-ft. interval)	
Land Series—
Southerly Vancouver Island	
New Westminster and Yale Districts	
Northerly Vancouver Island	
Powell Lake	
Bella Coola	
Queen Charlotte Islands, Economic Geography (preliminary)	
Pre-emptors' Series—
Fort George	
Nechako (contoured)	
Stuart Lake (contoured)	
Bulkley	
Peace River (contoured)	
Chilcotin...	
Quesnel (contoured)	
Tete Jaune	
North Thompson (contoured)	
Lillooet	
Prince Rupert	
Grenville Channel (preliminary)	
Degree Series—
Rossland (contoured)	
Nelson (contoured)	
Cranbrook	
Fernie	
Upper Elk River	
Duncan River	
Windermere	
Arrowhead	
Vernon (contoured)	
Kettle Valley (contoured)	
East Lillooet, Economic Geography (contoured)	
Nicola Lake (contoured)	
Penticton (contoured)	
Lower Fraser Valley (preliminary)	
Hope-Princeton (contoured)	
Topographical Series—
Omineca and Finlay River Basins, Sketch-map of	
Howe Sound-Burrard Inlet (contoured), South sheet (special)....
„ „ ,, North sheet (special)	
Stikine River (contoured)	
Revelstoke-Golden (Big Bend-Columbia River) (contoured)	
Mineral Reference Maps—Printed.
Slocan and Ainsworth	
Trout Lake	
Lardeau River	
Nelson-Ymir	
Rossland-Ymir	
Grand Forks-Greenwood	
Greenwood and Osoyoos	
Barkerville and Lightning Creek	
Miscellaneous—
Highway and Travel Map of B.C	
B.C. Mining Divisions and Mineral Survey Districts	
Geographical Gazetteer of British Columbia	
1: 1,000,000
15.78 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
7.89 m. to 1 in.
15.78 m. to 1 in.
27
31.56
27
27
27
27
27
27
27
7.89
m. to 1 in.
m. to 1 in.
m. to 1 in.
m. to 1 in.
m. to 1 in.
m. to 1 in.
m. to 1 in.
m. to 1 in.
m. to 1 in.
m. to 1 in.
15.78 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
* 4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
3 m. to 1 in.
. m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
2 m. to 1 in.
5 m. to 1 in.
V- m. to 1 in.
Vz m. to 1 in.
5 m. to 1 in.
4 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
1 m. to 1 in.
20 m. to 1 in.
50 m. to 1 in.
$1.50
Free
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.75
.75
.75
.75
.75
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
MS
0J-H      .
-I d -
•   Bo
OH* —
p,T3  01
gISl-
9>
O  0J
.50
.50
.25
.25
.25
.25
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.25
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
.50
Free
1.50
$14.00
1.50
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
6.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
2.00
'2.00'
2.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
2.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
4.00
2.50
On ap.
12.00
t In course of compilation.
Note.—To avoid misunderstanding, applicants for maps are requested to state the  " Map  Number " of map
desired.
Maps listed above can be mounted to order in the following forms:   Plain mounted;   cut-to-fold any size;   with
wooden bars top and bottom to hang, etc.    Prices upon application.
We can  supply information  concerning maps  of  British  Columbia  printed  and  published  at Ottawa by the
Department of Mines and Resources.
Unless otherwise requested, maps will be sent folded.
Inquiries for printed maps—Address :—
Chief Geographer, Department of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.      January 3rd, 1946. AA 34 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS AND FORESTS, 1945.
TRIANGULATION CONTROL SURVEY.
By Hugh Pattinson, B.C.L.S.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
Surveyor-General, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the survey carried out
by me, under your instructions dated May 30th, 1945, covering part of drainage area
of Takla, Stuart, and Babine Lakes in the Cassiar and Coast Districts of British
Columbia.
The primary object of the survey, as defined in your instructions, was the extension south-easterly from stations " Blanchet" and " Old Fort" of my season 1944
triangulation, in order to make a rigid connection with two stations of the Geodetic
Survey network in the vicinity of Endako.
At the same time, my instructions directed me, where economically possible, to
make connections to existing cadastral surveys.
The average strength of the party throughout the season was eight men, this
number being supplemented occasionally by local Indians when necessity arose for
additional help. Transportation was principally by boat, but pack-horses, wagons, and
trucks were also used when the nature of the country demanded it.
Actual survey operations commenced on June 25th with the occupation of station
" Williams." Up to this time the party had been engaged in locating suitable points
and setting signals between Babine and Stuart Lakes. The extension of the triangulation south-easterly to connect with geodetic stations " Saddle " and " Taltapin " was
completed by September 17th. Between that date and the termination of field-work on
September 25th connection was made to a bench mark on the Canadian National Railway in the vicinity of Fort Fraser. Station " Wilson " (geodetic) and Fraser Forestry
Lookout were also tied to the network.
Connections were made to existing cadastral surveys as follows :•—
Lot 2087, Takla Narrows, Cassiar District.
Lot 2356, Trembleur Lake, Coast District.
Lot 4325, vicinity of Takla Landing, Coast District.
Lot 3599, north end of Stuart Lake, Coast District.
Lot 2856, island, Stuart Lake, Coast District.
Lot 2852, island, Stuart Lake, Coast District.
Lot 657, Cunningham Lake, Coast District.
Several of F. C. Swannell's Takla Lake triangulation stations were located and tied
to the main network.
Smoke from forest fires caused considerable delay during mid-season, necessitating
many repeat trips up the mountains. Station " Williams " was occupied seven times
before satisfactory observations were obtained.
Officials of the British Columbia Forest Service at Vanderhoof, Fort Fraser, and
Burns Lake rendered valuable assistance in various ways and their co-operation was
very much appreciated.
ACCESS.
The Canadian National Railway and Provincial highway both traverse the southern
part of this region. From the railway or highway at Vanderhoof, Burns Lake, and
Topley branch roads give access to Fort St. James on Stuart Lake and to Donald Landing and Topley Landing on Babine Lake. The roads to Fort St. James and Donald
Landing are well maintained and in good condition. That to Topley is not in such
general use and although passable for automobile traffic, is not as good as the others.
The region contains a very large lake area and the usual method of transportation is
by boat with outboard motor. Takla, Trembleur, and Stuart Lakes are all connected
by rivers navigable for small craft.    A 9-mile portage-road connects Babine and Stuart TRIANGULATION CONTROL SURVEY. AA 35
Lakes and it is only 5 or 6 miles by road from Stuart to Cunningham Lake. The type
of boat in general use is from 30 to 40 feet in length, flat-bottomed, costs from $50 to
$75 to build and will carry a load of from 2 to 3 tons. There is a tri-monthly passenger, freight, and mail service between Fort St. James and Takla Landing during
the summer months.    A daily stage operates between Vanderhoof and Fort St. James.
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS.
The region contains some of the largest lakes in the Province, the principal ones
being Babine, Stuart, and Takla. Babine Lake has an area of about 190 square miles
and is the second largest in the Province, Atlin Lake being first with 307 square miles.
Stuart and Takla Lakes are also large bodies of water, the former containing some 139
square miles. Babine Lake drains north-westerly by way of Babine River and empties
into the Skeena River. Takla and Stuart Lakes both drain south-easterly by way of
Stuart River and thence to the Nechako and Fraser waters. Among the smaller lakes
are Trembleur, noted for its sudden squalls, and Cunningham Lake. The former
divides Middle River and Tachie River and drains into Stuart Lake. Cunningham Lake
also drains into Stuart Lake by way of Nancut Creek.
The mountains generally consist of short, broken ranges with some isolated peaks
and knolls, the summits running between 4,000 and 6,000 feet above sea-level. Large
areas of flat or gently sloping ground extend north-westerly along the east side of
Stuart Lake between Pinchi Bay and Tachie Indian Reserve, and also east of Tachie
River. There are also extensive flats along the east side of Babine Lake and west of
Trembleur Lake. A fair proportion of these flat lands lie below the 2,500-foot contour
and should be suitable for cultivation when cleared and when better means of access
have been obtained.
FOREST-COVER.
The country generally has a medium coverage of spruce and jack-pine, with occasional patches of fir. Intermingled with the coniferous varieties are poplar, cotton-
wood, and birch. In some areas, notably between Pinchi Bay and the mouth of Tachie
Creek on the east side of Stuart Lake, poplar predominates. The best looking fir
timber noticed was on the west side of Stuart Lake between Stuart Portage and the
north end of the lake, where many trees ran to 30 inches in diameter. There are many
patches of good jack-pine, suitable for railroad-ties and mine-props, and some of these
areas are now being logged. Patches of spruce of commercial quality, in close proximity to the lakes, are numerous and some of these are now being logged off, particularly those areas in the vicinity of Donald Landing on Babine Lake where a good road
affords transportation to the railway at Burns Lake.
Some very extensive forest fires have occurred in the past, particularly in the area
around Matzehtzel and Tachek Mountains to the east of Babine Lake, and also in the
vicinity of Taltapin Mountain. Forest fires have also ravaged considerable areas
between Cunningham and Babine Lakes.
VEGETATION.
Those portions of the region where the forest-cover is predominately poplar
support a good growth of pea-vine, vetch, and wild grasses, which afford excellent
summer range for horses and cattle. Extensive wild-hay meadows are found from
Babine Portage along the valley of Sutherland River. Wild parsnip, poisonous to live
stock, has caused some trouble in this locality.
Wild strawberries, raspberries, gooseberries, red currants, black currants, huckleberries, blueberries, and cranberries were noticed in various portions of the region.
Quite a lot of hay is cut by the Indians at Old Fort Mountain, Cunningham Lake,
and Babine Portage. Swamp hay meadows are scattered throughout the region, and
there is some good summer grazing land on some of the higher slopes of the mountains. AA 36 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS AND FORESTS, 1945.
GAME AND FUR-BEARING ANIMALS.
Moose are plentiful, being particularly numerous along Middle River. Deer are
fairly plentiful in the southern portion of the region and are often seen along the road
between Vanderhoof and Fort St. James. No caribou, sheep, or goat were observed
during the season. Both wolves and coyotes are quite numerous. Among the more
valuable fur-bearing animals trapped are beaver, marten, mink, fox, lynx, wolverine,
and muskrat.
Of the game birds, blue and willow grouse are fairly plentiful, and ptarmigan
were seen in large flocks high up on the mountains. Canada geese, various species of
duck, and some wild swan were also noticed.
Most of the creeks and lakes abound with rainbow trout, char, and speckled lake-
trout. Sockeye salmon were seen in large numbers going up Middle River, and it
would seem that the recent increase is probably due to the installation of the fish-
ladder in the Fraser Canyon.
CLIMATE.
South of Takla Lake the country becomes drier. Showers occur frequently but
are generally of short duration. August was very dry, with only two wet days. June
was the wettest month of the summer season, with thirteen days on which rain fell.
In July showers occurred on twelve days, but these were generally light and only lasted
a short time. A very severe electric storm occurred on July 21st, when winds of gale
proportions blew our camp down and uprooted hundreds of trees in the vicinity of
Donald Landing on Babine Lake.
Light frosts occurred in the vicinity of Fort St. James on June 22nd. Snow fell
on the summit of Mount Williams on June 25th. The first severe frost in the fall
occurred on August 30th when we were camped at Cunningham Lake. Snow fell at
Fort Fraser on September 23rd and the surrounding mountains were white, but this
quickly melted on the lower levels. Average yearly precipitation is moderate, probably
not exceeding 20 inches.
GENERAL.
There are few permanent white residents north of Fort St. James and these generally live in the vicinity of the trading-posts. The principal resources of the region
are its fur, timber, and mineral deposits. The fur has been a source of revenue for
many years. Mineral development is more recent and is still confined mostly to
exploratory work on properties showing favourable surface indications. The pressing demand for mercury during the war was responsible for the speedy development
of Pinchi mercury-mine. Unfortunately, this property, which was operated by Consolidated Mining and Smelting Company, is now closed down until the demand for
mercury warrants reopening of same. Bralorne Mines moved the machinery from
their Silver Creek property to use elsewhere. Some development prospecting was done
by the Lita Exploration Company under the direction of Dr. Kidd in the Silver Creek
area.
Lumbering is probably more active in this region than ever before. Two small
mills were running steadily all summer near Donald Landing on Babine Lake. Two
more were under construction in the same vicinity. These mills saw around 8,000
feet per day and the sawn lumber is transported by trucks to the planer-mill at Burns
Lake for finishing. There is also a small mill being assembled near Topley Landing
on Babine Lake and Dave Hoy operates one at Fort St. James. Most of the logging
on Babine Lake is being done by Indians, who log the suitable areas adjacent to the
lake-shore and the logs are then towed in small booms to the mills. Jack-pine mine-
props are being cut in considerable quantity for shipment to Great Britain.    There is BRITISH COLUMBIA-YUKON BOUNDARY SURVEY. AA 37
a heavy demand for railway-ties, and at the present contract price of 50 cents per tie
the tie-hackers should have a profitable fall and winter.
Farming has been carried on for a good many years in the southern portion of the
region, around Fort Fraser and in other areas convenient to the railway. Farther
north there are few farms, due largely to lack of convenient access to the scattered
areas suitable for agriculture. One such area, probably the most convenient to transportation, extends along the east side of Stuart Lake between Pinchi Bay and Tachie
Indian Reserve. This area generally has a light to medium coverage of poplar. In the
vicinity of Babine Portage and in the valley of Sutherland River there are extensive
wild hay meadows and some good hillside grazing, making this area suitable for stock-
farming on a limited scale. The Old Fort Indians have quite a few cattle and horses
and cut considerable tonnage of hay on the southern slope of Old Fort Mountain. The
Indians at Babine Portage also keep some cattle and they cut hay at the east end of
Cunningham Lake and in the vicinity of the portage.
It seems almost certain that this great region of lakes will be a popular vacation
ground for tourists, hunters, and anglers. Douglas Lodge will be operating again
soon, and with fast launches and a plane will be able to set tourists down at cabin
camps close to the good fishing and hunting grounds without loss of time.
BRITISH COLUMBIA-YUKON BOUNDARY SURVEY.
By N. C. Stewart, D.L.S., B.C.L.S.
F. C. Green, Esq.,
British Columbia-Yukon Boundary Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the following report on the survey of that part
of the British Columbia-Yukon Boundary which extends easterly from the west side
of Teslin Lake approximately 42 miles.
This survey was carried out by the writer under the instructions given by you to
A. J. Campbell, D.L.S., B.C.L.S., but who, through illness, was unable to undertake the
field-work. These instructions called for the cutting and monumenting of the boundary
between certain astronomic observation-points established by J. E. R. Ross, D.T.S., in
1943, and C. H. Ney, D.L.S., in 1944.
After a study of existing data, especially air photos of the area through which the
boundary-line would run, Mr. Campbell thought it would be possible to readily lay out
a triangulation system that would give the necessary information to compute the
correct direction to run the boundary from one astronomic point to the next. This
would avoid cutting trial lines. On arrival in the field his reasoning was confirmed and
the survey was carried out in the way suggested by him.
The field party consisted of R. C. Mainguy, B.C.L.S., in charge of the running of
the line; A. G. Slocomb, B.C.L.S., in charge of triangulation; and R. D. Fraser and
H. Ridley as chainmen, all being members of the Topographical Survey of British
Columbia. In addition to the technical personnel there were two cooks, one cookee,
and from five to ten axemen, depending on the availability of the labour-supply.
Transportation was provided by three trucks and twenty-five pack-horses in charge of
a head packer, with three helpers. Boats with outboard motors were hired locally.
Two-way radios provided effective communication between the main party, the triangulation party, and McCleery's store at Teslin. The field season lasted from June 9th
to October 1st.
After carefully looking over the area a site for a base-line was selected, crossing
the Alaska Highway near Mile 782.    The ends of this base-line were marked by brass AA 38
REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS AND FORESTS, 1945.
plugs cemented in large granite boulders. The base-line was chained by two sets of
chainmen, one using a link chain and the other a foot chain. The chains were supported and a constant tension of 30 lb. applied. Slope angles were read with a transit.
Corrections for slope, temperature, and reduction to sea-level were made. Triangulation stations were set connecting the starting-point " D.l " on the west side of Teslin
Lake and " R.l," the first astronomic point to the east. The angles were then read
by the various instrument-men and the computations made by the writer. The point
" D.l " was established in 1900 by the surveyors who ran the boundary west of Teslin
Lake.
The actual cutting of the boundary commenced on July 1st. A good sky-line was
cut out and well blazed, with British Columbia blazing on the south side—i.e., blazes
quartering on the tree—and Dominion blazing on the Yukon side—i.e., one blaze facing
the line and two at right angles to the line. The line was frequently marked by monuments consisting of a bronze cap especially designed for the boundary. These were
cemented either in rock in-place, large boulders, or in a 30-inch pipe with flange on
the bottom. The latter type was sunk in the ground and where possible embedded in
a concrete block. All posts were marked by regulation mound and pits and bearing
trees.
The line was produced easterly in a series of chords 486 chains long, with a
fractional chord adjoining the next easterly astronomic point; hence the boundary is
entirely governed by the adjacent astronomic points. The first section of the line—
i.e., between " D.l " and " R.l "—was chained with a 300-foot tape and checked with
a 5-chain tape. Several points along the line were further checked by triangulation.
The chaining of the second and third sections was checked only by triangulation. In
every case the chain was supported, tension of 30 lb. applied, slopes read with a transit,
and a correction for temperature made. Vertical angles were read between transit-
stations so that a profile of the line could be made. Altitudes of several points along
the Alaska Highway were obtained from the Geodetic Service and these were connected
with our triangulation and subsequently to triangulated points on the line, thus giving
a check to the altitudes carried along the line itself.
As soon as the triangulation of the first section was completed Mr. Slocomb proceeded with the triangulation net along the boundary, tying in astronomic points
" N.l," " R.2," and " N.2," and after the completion of this work, he aided in the production of the boundary between " N.l " and " R.2." Views were taken from most of
the triangulation stations—these will be of value when topographic maps of the area
are required. It is to be noted that the production of the boundary from " R.2 " to
" N.2 " can be started as soon as the party arrives in the field next season.
The closure in latitude of the line as run at " R.l " was 1.7 links, and in longitude there was a disagreement of 5.0 links between the chained length and the triangulated distance. The closures at " N.l " and " R.2 " were of like order. The correlated values of the astronomic points as defined by triangulation, and by observation,
are given in the following table, assuming the position of 60th parallel as defined by
the astronomic observations at " R.l " to be correct:—
By Triangulation.
By Observation.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Latitude.
Longitude.
Difference.
D.l	
59° 59' 55".560
60° 00' 00".000
60° 00'04".744
59° 59' 58".847
59° 59' 52".471
132° 26' 18".800
132° 06' 52".550
131° 34'04".298
131° 11' 32".464
130° 45'57".612
60° 00'00".00
60° 00'00".00
60° 00' 00".00
60°00'00".00
132° 06' 52".56
131° 34' 11".80
131° 11'26".78
130° 46' 04".80
R.2 parallel	
N.2 parallel	
7".53 S.     7".19 E.
Note.—At the 60th parallel the Supplement to the Manual of Instruction for the Survey of Dominion Lands
gives the value of 1 second of latitude as 101.541 feet and 1 second of longitude as 50.853 feet. BRITISH COLUMBIA-YUKON BOUNDARY SURVEY. AA 39
PHYSICAL FEATURES.
Some forty-five years ago the boundary was run to Teslin Lake from the west.
The old line was well cut out and easily found. The crossing of Teslin Lake is about
20 miles south of Teslin Post-office. Here the lake is iy2 miles wide. We replaced
the old post with a concrete post, mound, and pits. On the east side of Teslin Lake
we made a similar monument, this post being numbered 200 (other posts on the
boundary being numbered consecutively from this one).
East of Teslin Lake the line goes over a high ridge, or mountain, whose wooded
western face rises steeply about 1,500 feet above the lake, and then down the eastern
slope more gradually to a valley-like area containing several lakes, the largest being
locally known as Four Mile Lake. At one time this lake was on a travelled route
between Teslin Lake and the Morley River country. From Four Mile Lake the
country rises gently to a point about 2 miles west of Morley Lake, when there is a
gradual descent to that lake. Just before reaching Morley Lake the Alaska Highway
was crossed, and here too the astronomic point " R.l " is located.
Morley Lake is nearly a mile wide at the boundary. It extends north 4 to 5 miles
and south some 3 miles. Adjacent to the boundary on the west side there is a fine
sandy beach. We were told that the Morley River above the lake is navigable for flat-
bottomed boats for 40 miles. The Indians claim the correct name for this lake and
river is " Morris," after one of the first trappers to locate on it.
Between Teslin and Morley Lakes the country is well wooded and there are few
swampy areas, but east from Morley Lake to Two Ladder Creek the land is boulder-
strewn, moss-covered, and generally wet underfoot, being wooded with scrub spruce and
balsam. East from Morley Lake (altitude, 2,607 feet) the boundary gradually ascends
to the top of a mountain ridge (altitude, 4,370 feet), crosses a more or less flat alpine
area along its crest, then descends more steeply through heavily wooded slopes to the
valley of the Smart River.
The Smart River (altitude, 2,697 feet) is 165 feet wide at the boundary, about
2 feet deep, very swift, and not navigable. ■ Very wet mossy ground wooded with scrub
timber continues to Two Ladder Creek, then there is a steep ascent to timber-line at
4,700 feet and up to the top of the bare ridge (altitude, 5,704 feet) that separates the
watershed of the Smart River from that of Logjam Creek, a tributary of the Swift
River.
Astronomic point " N.l " is located about IV2 miles east of this ridge near the
West Fork of Logjam Creek.
From this ridge easterly to the end of our season's work the character of the
terrain again changes, the boundary being located almost wholly in alpine or sub-alpine
country. Fortunately, the line did not fall on the higher peaks of the neighbourhood,
for these were often snow-covered. Along this section the creeks cross the boundary
almost at right angles, and the tops of the dividing ridges being just above timber-
line made it ideal for the production of the line with long shots from ridge to ridge.
Advantage was taken of this feature to run the line through from " N.l " to " R.2 "
for a closure before the cutting was completed in the valley-bottoms.
The main branch of Logjam Creek was crossed at an altitude of 3,800 feet.
Between it and Screw Creek the line skirts an open pass with a pretty lake at its summit. Screw Creek valley is quite open, provides good pasture for horses, and generally
is a pleasant alpine valley. The next valley to the east contains Partridge Creek (altitude, 3,540 feet), very similar to the Screw Creek valley but with slopes on either side
more heavily wooded. East of Partridge Creek the line again ascends above timber-
line, then follows a steep, wooded descent to the main Swift River Valley, in which is
located astronomic point "R.2" and the Alaska Highway (altitude, 2,900 feet). AA 40 REPORT OF MINISTER OF LANDS AND FORESTS, 1945.
CLIMATE.
From my diary I find that it rained on fifty-eight out of the 115 days we spent
in the field. G. S. Lord, of the Geological Survey, reported similar weather for 1943.
Judging from the dense growth of brush and moss it is likely that the weather of 1945
was not unusual for this district. The United States Army had a weather camp on a
ridge south-east of Morley Lake.    They reported the following for June and July:—
June.        July.
Number of days with precipitation  20 26
Monthly rainfall (inches)      2.33      3.45
Monthly average temperature  48°       50°
Maximum temperature   64°       69°
Minimum temperature  35°       35°
On the days when it was not raining it was usually cloudy or hazy, just the sort
of weather to breed mosquitoes, which were very numerous and hungry. The winters
are dry and cold, very similar to those of the Prairie Provinces, but with more snow.
FOREST-COVER.
Along the boundary on the west side of Teslin Lake there is a dense stand of lodge-
pole pine and spruce to 10 inches in diameter, intermixed with birch, poplar, willow,
and some balsam. Some of the birch reached 12 inches in diameter. Along the east
side of Teslin Lake there is a narrow belt of spruce to 14 inches in diameter and some
poplar and lodgepole pine, then a small area of small spruce and pine to the foot of the
steep part of the mountain. The mountain itself was more sparsely wooded, with
considerable poplar in the pine and spruce.
In the valley adjacent to Four Mile Lake there are some large groves of poplar, but
generally this valley is wooded with lodgepole pine and spruce, with much underbrush
of willow, soapallalie, and ground-birch. West of Morley Lake there is a dense stand
of lodgepole pine to 10 inches in diameter, with some spruce and poplar. As already
mentioned, the forest-cover east of Morley Lake consists of scrub spruce, balsam, and
some lodge-pole pine.
Along the west side of the Smart River valley there is a heavy stand of spruce
to 16 inches in diameter, and pine to 14 inches diameter, some of which, no doubt, could
be used commercially. The east side of the Smart River valley is wooded with scrub
spruce, balsam, and pine, with balsam predominating at the higher levels.
From the Smart River watershed to the crossing of the Swift River, the forest-
growth is mostly the stunted balsam and spruce usually found in alpine or sub-alpine
country and has little value, except for firewood and possibly mine-props.
Throughout the area open glades and meadows provided ample grazing for the
pack-horses, and in the alpine country there was very good feed, including bunch-grass.
Huckleberries were widely distributed and raspberries were found along the highway.
Other varieties of wild fruit included red currants, cranberries, mossberries, soapallalie, and kinnikinic. About 100 varieties of wild flowers were collected for the
Provincial Museum by Mr. Slocomb.
MINERALS.
A good specimen of chalcocite was found near the top of Weather Mountain, where
our Hazel High triangulation station is located. A mineralized area is situated in the
vicinity of astronomic point " N.l " on West Fork of Logjam Creek; here rusty streaks
were noted in the mountain sides. The Hudson Bay Exploration and Development
Company was drilling on a property about 1% miles north of the boundary at " N.l."
Quartz veins were seen on a mountain on which our Smart triangulation station was BRITISH COLUMBIA-YUKON BOUNDARY SURVEY. AA 41
placed.    Colours were panned in the Smart River, but not in quantity.    Some evidence
of early placer-work was seen on Two Ladder Creek.
GAME.
Moose, caribou, bear, both black and grizzly, goats, wolves, and coyotes were seen.
Although there probably are sheep, none was seen. The whole area is covered by
Indian trappers, who report catches of red, silver, and black foxes, mink, marten, lynx,
otter, wolverine, muskrat, beaver, weasel, squirrels, and of course wolves and coyotes.
Other wild life includes porcupine, marmots, coneys, chipmunks, and rabbits.
Bird life consists chiefly of blue and willow grouse, spruce partridge, ptarmigan,
hawks, eagles and owls, geese, ducks, and arctic tern. There are very few song-birds.
Discussion with the Indians leads one to believe that the game is more or less depleted,
and as the country appears very suitable for game, perhaps more rigid protection for a
few years would greatly increase the wild life.
Fish are plentiful in Teslin Lake, the varieties being whitefish, lake-trout, pike,
ling, inconnu, grayling, and suckers.    Spring and chum salmon sometimes reach the
lake.    We caught lake-trout, Dolly Varden, and grayling in Morley Lake, and grayling
in Smart River.    Four Mile Lake was full of pike and there was good fishing in Swift
River.
ACCESS.
The Alaska Highway provided access to our work. As already mentioned, the
boundary crossed the highway at Morley Lake and again at Swift River, some 30 miles
to the east, the road being not more than 8 miles from the boundary at any place.
However, it was necessary to cut a pack-trail near the line in order to establish the
eleven tent camps used for its production. A trail was made from the Morley River
crossing of the highway to Four Mile Lake and then on to Teslin Lake. East from
Morley Lake advantage was taken of the pioneer road along the slopes of Weather
Mountain, our trail branching from it on a ridge just west of Hazel Creek. Here,
owing to the prevalence of bears, we built a cache. From the cache our trail goes
northerly, reaching the boundary about 7 miles east of Morley Lake. Thence the trail
proceeds easterly close to and crossing the boundary in several places, fording the
Smart River just south of the line and joining the Hudson Bay Exploration Company
trail at Two Ladder Creek. This latter trail connects with the highway at Logjam
Creek. We followed this trail to a summit between Two Ladder Creek and Logjam
Creek, and proceeded north-easterly, crossing Mr. Ney's trail to astronomic point
" N.l," and again arriving at the boundary near the main branch of Logjam Creek.
From here easterly the trail follows close to the line to Partridge Creek, then proceeds
down the Partridge Creek valley, hitting the pioneer road about a mile west of the
Partridge Creek bridge on the highway.    About 45 miles of pack-trail were constructed.
DEVELOPMENT AND RESOURCES.
Up to the present no development has taken place adjacent to the boundary. Trapping, the only pursuit, has left but few marks on the land. The nearest settlement is
Teslin Post-office, 30 miles north-west of the boundary. Here there are two stores, two
churches, a stopping-place, police headquarters, field office of the Hudson Bay Exploration Company, and an Indian village. United States Army construction camps are
found every few miles along the highway; most of these are vacant now and are rapidly
deteriorating.
In the future there is a good possibility of development in mining and in lumbering
for local requirements. The Alaska Highway, if kept up, will no doubt attract a certain
number of tourists and big-game hunters. There are along Teslin Lake long vistas
very pleasing to the eye, and a boating trip on this lake, which is over 100 miles in
length, will long be remembered. VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfiei.d, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1946.
805-246-2749  

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