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BC Sessional Papers


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OF the
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty
1946.  To His Honour W. C. Woodward,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I have the honour to submit herewith for your consideration the Annual Report
of the Department of Agriculture for the year 1945.
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., January 2nd, 1946.  CONTENTS.
Department of Agriculture Officers      6
Report of Deputy Minister       7
Report of Statistician     26
Report of Markets Branch _'    30
Report of Horticultural Branch     35
Report of Field Crops Branch     61
Report of Provincial Plant Pathologist     66
Report of Provincial Entomologist     71
Report of Chief Veterinary Inspector     81
Report of Dairy Branch     83
Report of Poultry Branch     87
Report of Soil Survey Branch     88
Report of Women's Institutes     92
Report of Boys' and Girls' Clubs     94
Report of Agricultural Development and Extension Branch     98
Report of Live Stock Branch  104
Report of Recorder of Brands  116
Reports of District Agriculturists—
Peace River District  118
Bulkley and Skeena Districts  120
Nechako and Prince George Districts  127
Cariboo and Lillooet Districts ■_  134
Kamloops and Nicola Districts  138
Shuswap and Revelstoke Districts  144
East Kootenay District  147
Grand Forks District  152
Lower Mainland District  159
No. 1. Feed-grain Imports  165
No. 2. Estimate of Honey-crop  165
No. 3. Exported Nursery Stock and Seeds  166
No. 4. Coast Vegetable Marketing Agency, Sales Recapitulation  167
No. 5. Coast Vegetable Co-operative Association, Vancouver Sales Recapitulation  168
No. 6. Interior Vegetable Marketing Agency, Total Movement of all Commodities, 1939-44  169
No. 7. Amount of Grain threshed in 1944  170
No. 8. Movement of Grain Screenings  171
No. 9. Dairy Premises inspected and graded  172
No. 10. Cattle T.B.-tested  172
No. 11. Milk-testers' Licences  173
No. 12. Boys' and Girls' Clubs  175
No. 13. Average Prices for Cattle  179
No. 14. Average Prices for Lambs  179
No. 15. Average Prices for Hogs  180
No. 16. Inspected Slaughterings of Live Stock  181
No. 17. Slaughter-house Licences  183
No. 18. Cariboo Feeder and Fat Stock Show and Sale  185
No. 19. Cattle and Hide Shipments, 1945  186 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICERS.
Honourable Frank Putnam, Minister.
Miss D. N. Newman, Minister's Secretary, Victoria, B.C.
J. B. Munro, M.S.A., Ph.D., Deputy Minister.
Miss A. E. Hill, Secretary, Victoria, B.C.
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A., Assistant Deputy Minister and Provincial Horticulturist.
Ernest MacGinnis, Markets Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
George H. Stewart, Statistician, Victoria, B.C.
H. L. Woolison, Chief Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
L. W. Johnson, Chief Clerk, Victoria, B.C.
A. J. Hourston, General Assistant, Victoria, B.C.
A. H. Shotbolt, Exhibition Specialist, Victoria, B.C.
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Survey, Kelowna, B.C.
T. Menzies, Clerk, Victoria, B.C.
E. W. White, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
E. C. Hunt, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Nelson, B.C.
M. S. Middleton, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
G. E. W. Clarke, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Abbotsford, B.C.
J. L. Webster, B.S.A., Horticulturist, Vancouver, B.C.
Ben Hoy, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
R. P. Murray, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Penticton, B.C.
G. R. Thorpe, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Creston, B.C.
H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector, Vernon, B.C.
C. R. Barlow, District Field Inspector, Salmon Arm, B.C.
John Tait, District Field Inspector, Summerland, B.C.
W. Baverstock, District Field Inspector, Vernon, B.C.
John A. Smith, B.S.A., Field Inspector, Penticton, B.C.
G. L. Foulkes, Secretary, Horticultural Branch, Victoria, B.C.
V. Tonks, Secretary, Horticultural Branch, Vernon, B.C.
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc, Plant Pathologist, Vancouver, B.C.
W. R. Foster, M.S.A., Assistant Plant Pathologist, Victoria, B.C.
I. J. Ward, B.Sc, Entomologist, Vernon, B.C.
S. S. Phillips, B.S.A., Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.    (Deceased.)
Walter Sandall, District Field Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
W. R. Gunn, B.S.A., B.V.Sc, V.Sc, Live Stock Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
Henry Rive, B.S.A., Dairy Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
F. C. Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
F. Overland, Dairy Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
G. Patchett, Dairy Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
G. H. Thornbery, Assistant (Milk Records), Victoria, B.C.
A. Knight, B.V.Sc, V.S., Chief Veterinary Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
M. Sparrow, B.V.Sc, V.S., Provincial Veterinary Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
J. E. Bennett, B.V.Sc, V.S., Provincial Veterinary Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
G. M. Clark, B.V.Sc, V.S., Provincial Veterinary Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
J. R. Terry, Poultry Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
George Pilmer, Brand Recorder, Victoria, B.C.
Thomas Moore, Brand Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
Wm. MacGillivray, Director of Agricultural Extension and Development, Victoria, B.C.
J. E. Beamish, B.E. (Agr.), Assistant Director of Land-clearing, Victoria, B.C.
G. A. Luyat, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, New Westminster, B.C.
James Travis, District Agriculturist, Grand Forks, B.C.
Shirley G. Preston, M.S.A., District Agriculturist, Smithers, B.C.
G. A. Muirhead, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.
T. S. Crack, District Agriculturist, Pouce Coupe, B.C.
C. F. Cornwall, District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, B.C.
James E. Manning, District Agriculturist, Prince George, B.C.
J. S. Allin, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cranbrook, B.C.
F. C. Clark, M.S.A., District Agriculturist, New Westminster, B.C.
Miss Echo Lidster, B.S.A., Assistant District Agriculturist, New Westminster, B.C.
J. B. Munro, M.S.A., Ph.D.
The Honourable Frank Putnam,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the report of the Department of Agriculture for the year ended December 31st, 1945.
At the Fourth Session of the Twentieth Legislature one piece of legislation of
great importance to the agricultural industry was passed. This was the ".Farmers'
Land-clearing Assistance Act," which authorizes the borrowing from time to time of
a sum of money not exceeding $500,000 by means of short-term loans for the purpose
of purchasing tractors, caterpillars, bulldozers, forced-draught burners, and other
machinery and equipment suitable for the clearing and development of land for agricultural purposes, and the payment of administrative costs, salaries, wages, and other
expenses for labour services and matters incurred in carrying out the purpose of
the Act.
Regulations for the purpose of carrying into effect the provisions of the Act
according to their true intent will be made and these will deal with the form and terms
of contracts to be made with owners or occupiers, the inspection and valuation of land
in respect of which contract is proposed to be made under the Act, and prescribing
rules whereby persons in any area may make recommendations as to land suitable for
clearing and development under the Act in that area as to the order of precedence that
should be observed in making equipment and machinery available.
There were several other amendments to legislation which may be of concern to
the farmer, such as " An Act to provide for improving the Availability and Supply of
Electrical Power," the Act to amend the " Soldiers' Land Act," the Act to amend the
" Water Act, 1939," the Act to amend the " Game Act," and the Act to amend the
" Sumas Drainage, Dyking, and Development District Act."
During the present year the preliminary soil-survey party working under the
joint auspices of the Provincial and Federal Departments of Agriculture has completed
its preliminary report on the Terrace-Hazelton districts. This report, submitted by
Dr. D. G. Laird and L. Farstad, has been made available to the Bureau of Post-war
Rehabilitation and Reconstruction in Victoria.
This reconnaissance soil-survey covers the area lying between Terrace and Hazelton, and deals with a trough-shaped valley of the Skeena River and its tributary
streams, including the Kitsumgallum, Lakelse, Kitwanga, Kispiox, and Bulkley. In the
Kitsumgallum and Lakelse regions the valley is a broad longitudinal depression from
1 to 10 miles wide, extending from the sea at Kitimat northward to the Nass River.
At Hazelton the valley of the Skeena is joined by the broad drift-covered valley of
the Bulkley. It is bordered on the south-west by the Rocher Deboule and Hudson Bay
Mountains and on the north-east by the isolated Babine Range.    The Kispiox River,
which flows in a southerly direction, joins the Skeena 8 miles north of Hazelton. It is
a broadly terraced north-south depression floored by glacial and terraced alluvium and
bordered by high mountains.
Careful examination of the geology of the area shows that it contains stratified
clays, sands, and gravel, possibly of marine and fresh-water origin. The soils are
divided into four groups, according to the origin of the geological deposits. They are
(1) glacial till, (2) lacustrine deposits, (3) alluvial deposits, and (4) recent deposits.
The report shows a preliminary scheme of classification and deals first with soil
associations of the Gray Wooded Zone. Drainage is moderately good on the average
on the gently rolling and undulating phases, excessive on the steep slopes, and slow or
restricted on the low-lying or depressional areas.
This preliminary report, which is now being mimeographed for distribution, contains much information that will be of practical value to farmers of the district who
are developing their properties. One observation that the soil surveyors have made
is that soils in this association are high in natural fertility and tend to improve rapidly
in productivity after several years of intelligent use. The soil responds to applications
of barnyard manure, green manuring crops, and commercial fertilizers.
This report includes areas of various extent, covering 155,300 acres in all.
Following the survey of the western section of Central British Columbia Messrs.
Laird, Farstad, and Todhunter completed the preliminary soil-survey in the Fort St.
James area where the work consisted of traversing the main road with side traverses
along section lines at intervals of 4 to 5 miles. It is obvious that such a broad survey
does not permit the separation of small areas of different soil-types nor the appraisal
of individual farm units. The actual traversing of lands is only the first step in modern
soil-survey and, while of a cursory nature, information obtained is none the less
valuable. This shows that in the Fort St. James area there were 110,000 acres of clay
of a heavy texture derived from lacustrine deposits. These areas are quite extensive
and occur chiefly in the Pinchi, Fort St. James, and Necoslie districts.
The surveyors have mentioned the frequent occurrence of summer frosts as an
undesirable characteristic of this area from an agricultural view-point.
The approximate acreage of the different soils surveyed in British Columbia in
1945 is given as follows:—
Approximate Acreage of Different Soils.
Gray Wooded Soil Zone. Acres.      Acres.
Barrett sandy loam  50,000
Doughty clay  1,000
Hazelton sandy loam  24,600
Hazelton gravelly sandy loam  3,900
Kispiox sandy loam  2,600
Cedar silt loam  2,700
Alluvial soils, undifferentiated  2,600
Total      87,400
Pacific Coast Soil Zone.
Lakelse clay  17,700
Kitsumgallum loamy sand  34,400
Skeena sandy loam  7,300
Remo, undifferentiated   6,500
Total      65,900 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 9
Miscellaneous Deposits. Acres. Acres.
Organic soils       2,000
Undifferentiated rough, stony, and mountainous soils   	
Total        2,000
Fort St. James Area.
Fort St. James clay  106,000
Pinchi clay       4,000
Total    110,000
Grand total    265,300
This is a continuation of the report that appeared in 1944 on pages 7 and 8.
Further particulars regarding soil-surveys are this year included in the annual report
of C. C. Kelley of the Soil Survey Branch.
The death of the Honourable K. C. MacDonald, Minister of Agriculture since 1933,
occurred on November 19th, 1945. For twelve years the Honourable Dr. MacDonald
had guided the destinies of this Department, and his passing is very much regretted
by every member of the departmental staff as well as by many farmers throughout
British Columbia.
On October 21st, 1945, the late Sperry S. Phillips, Field Crops Commissioner, was
accidentally electrocuted through contact with a live wire during a storm on the
southern part of Vancouver Island. Mr. Phillips had held the position as head of the
Field Crops Branch for less than one year. He had been promoted to fill the position
formerly occupied by the late Cecil Tice. Previously he had been engaged as Assistant
Field Crops Commissioner. He was possibly best known to British Columbia farmers
through his association with Boys' and Girls' Clubs, of which he served as Supervisor.
On April 13th, 1945, H. E. Waby, District Agriculturist for the Salmon Arm area
of the Province, died after a brief illness. Mr. Waby had retired from the Government
Service three years previously but at the request of the Minister of Agriculture he
had rejoined the staff to assist in agricultural work during war-time.
The deaths of these three outstanding figures have been particularly felt by the
agricultural industry within the Province of British Columbia because each of them
in his own way contributed largely to agricultural development.
Superannuations.—During the past year six officials of the Department have been
superannuated at their own requests. These include A. W. Finlay, Provincial Apiarist,
Court-house, New Westminster, who had been head of the Apiary Division for the past
eleven years. His successor has not as yet been appointed but W. H. Turnbull, of
Vernon, B.C., is Acting Provincial Apiarist.    Mr. Finlay retired on August 31st, 1945.
C. P. L. Pearson, Assistant Accountant, retired on superannuation on August 31st,
1945, for reasons of health. He had been with the Department of Agriculture since
Dr. J. -D. Macdonald retired on superannuation on September 30th, 1945, after
having been attached to our veterinary staff since 1919.
C. B. Twigg, District Field Inspector at Creston, retired on superannuation on
September 30th, 1945, after serving twenty-five years in that position.
W. H. Thornborrow, Chief Accountant, Department of Agriculture, retired on
October 31st, 1945, after having served in the Accountant's Office for twenty-five years. V 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
R. Cahilty was superannuated on December 31st after having served with the
Department of Agriculture for thirty years.
Resignations.—Miss G. Camsell, Stenographer, March 17th; Mrs. S. M. Dickson,
Stenographer, March 31st; Mrs. M. F. Sick, Stenographer, April 25th; Miss C. M.
Bigland, Laboratory Assistant, June 30th; Miss D. Hassen, Stenographer, July 14th;
Miss M. Syrnyk, Stenographer, August 13th; Miss W. D. Mitchell, Stenographer,
October 14th; Miss W. C. Smith, Junior Clerk, August 31st; Miss M. M. Bracken,
Junior Clerk, December 26th;   Miss G. F. Turcotte, Stenographer, November 20th.
Appointments.—Dr. J. E. Bennett, Veterinary Inspector, January 1st;   Dr. G. M.
Clark, Veterinary Inspector (on casual labour from January 12th), April 1st;   Miss
W. D. Mitchell, Stenographer (on casual labour from February 12th), April 1st;   Miss
D. C. MacKinnon, Stenographer   (on casual labour from January 17th), April  1st
G. A. Muirhead, District Agriculturist (on casual labour from January 1st), May 1st
Miss W. C. Smith, Junior Clerk, May 1st; Miss D. M. Hughes, Stenographer, May 25th
Miss M. R. Galganetz, Stenographer  (on casual labour from June 4th), August 1st
L. W. Johnson, Chief Clerk, August 1st;   Mrs. Y. Eaton, Stenographer, September 1st
Miss M. M. Bracken, Messenger, September 14th;  G. R. Thorpe, District Field Inspector, October 1st;   Hon. F. Putnam, Minister, November 21st;   Miss A. F. Radcliffe,
Typist, November 13th;   J. E. Beamish, Assistant Director, Farmers' Land-clearing,
November 10th;   Mrs. G. F. Iverson, Stenographer, December 1st.
Transfers.—Miss E. M. Bell, Stenographer, from Provincial Secretary's Department, May 1st; Miss Z. E. Parsonson, Stenographer, from Government Agency, Williams Lake, September 1st; H. L. Woolison, Chief Accountant, from Controlling and
Audit Branch, October 15th; F. C. Clark, District Agriculturist, from Colony Farm,
November 1st.
Reinstatement.—J. A. Smith, District Field Inspector, from military service,
November 5th.
The following list of publications has been submitted by Thomas Menzies, who as
clerk in charge of publications has efficiently carried on the work of distributing
departmental literature during the war years:—
Thirty-ninth Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture.
Climate of British Columbia, 1944.
Agricultural Statistics Report, 1944.
Seed Production Series No. 1:  Cabbage Seed.
Seed Production Series No. 2:  Spinach.
Seed Production Series No. 13:  Pea and Bean Seed Production.
Seed Production Series No. 14:  Sweet Corn Seed Production.
Horticultural Circular No. 55:  Loganberry Culture.
Horticultural Circular No. 43: Gardening on a City Lot.
Horticultural Circular No. 61: Making Lime-sulphur at Home.
Horticultural Circular No. 45:  Anthracnose.
Horticultural Circular No. 55:  Raspberry Culture.
Horticultural Circular No. 64: Varieties of Fruit recommended for Planting
in British Columbia.
Horticultural Circular No. 58:  Strawberry Culture.
Poultry Bulletin No. 63:  Poultry-house Construction.
Poultry Circular No. 32:  Ducks—Fattening Young.
Poultry Circular No. 25:  Egg Hatching—Hints on.
Poultry Circular No. 19: Poultry Rations for Chicks and Layers. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 11
Live Stock Bulletin No. 64:   Goat-raising in British Columbia.
Live Stock Bulletin No. 99:   Sheep—Care and Management of.
Field Crops Circular No. 14:  Drainage—Farm.
Field Crops Circular No. 15:  Potato-diseases.
Miscellaneous Bulletin No. 92:  Bee Culture in British Columbia.
Miscellaneous Circular No. 40:   Okanagan Valley, The.
A list of publications may be had upon request to this Branch.
The number of feed-grain certificates issued by this Department for 1945 shows
that for the twelve-month period from December 1st, 1944, to November 30th, 1945,
there was transported into British Columbia a total of 102,646 tons of wheat, 46,907
tons of oats, and 27,676 tons of barley. In addition there were 18,450 tons of mill-
feeds and 2,734 tons of corn brought in. The total tonnage for the twelve months was
198,415, this being 12,000 tons more than the importations of the previous year. The
wheat, oats, and mill-feeds all showed decided increases.
The existing subsidies from the Dominion Department of Agriculture for the
assistance of feeders of live stock in British Columbia was maintained throughout the
year and, in addition to the initial payment of a subsidy to the grain-growers in the
Prairie Provinces, our farmers benefited by the freight subsidy policy.
This freight subsidy is paid by the Federal Government on car-loads of feed-grains
and is on the basis of the actual freight from Edmonton or Calgary to the destination
in this Province.
As in former years, applications for feed-grain certificates, which entitle the buyer
to the reduced freight rate on the minimum car-loads of grain from Prairie points to
British Columbia coast districts, are made by purchasers who send in their Dominion
grain inspection certificates and freight bills. These individuals are given the special
feed-grain certificate issued under C.F.A. Tariff 145.
Details of feed-grain importations will be found in Appendix No. 1.
In accordance with the " Eggs Marks Act," chapter 82, R.S.B.C. 1936, and amendments thereto, imported eggs and egg products entering British Columbia by the
Pacific Coast ports are examined upon arrival. If found to comply with the regulations as set out in the above Act, they are released to the importer or otherwise held
until such requirements have been fulfilled.
During the first ten months of the year no arrivals of imported eggs or egg
products were reported into the Ports of Victoria or Vancouver.
While imported eggs are worthy of consideration, British Columbia poultrymen
are much more interested this year in the export to Britain of fresh eggs in the shell.
There was sent to the British Isles by the steamship " Columbia Star " a shipment of
2,700,000 dozens of British Columbia shell eggs. This constituted the largest single
shipment of eggs from this Province ever to go direct to the British Isles. According
to information received the shipment arrived on December 6th and was well received.
Since the return to the Department of Major L. W. Johnson, who had been absent
on overseas service with the army for the past six years, he has assisted the Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes in matters pertaining to this branch of farm organization.    His report on Farmers' Institute activities follows:— V 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
There are 200 Farmers' Institutes in British Columbia, totalling approximately
7,000 members and divided into ten districts, as shown in the following table:—
No. of Approximate
District. Institutes. Membership.
" A "—Vancouver Island and Gulf Islands  24 800
" B "—Skeena and Bulkley Valley  22 350
» c "—Nechako Valley   18 350
" D "—Kamloops   22 400
" E "—Lower Fraser Valley   32 2,800
<<F"—West Kootenay   17 550
" G "—Okanagan and Shuswap   12 500
" H "—Cariboo   13 250
" I "—East Kootenay   14 450
" J "—Peace River   27 550
During the year one institute was dissolved by the Registrar of Companies for
failure to file returns as called for by the " Societies Act." One of the oldest institutes
in the Province—namely, Metchosin—was revived during the year and restored by the
Registrar of Companies, and Fruitvale Agricultural Association, after having resolved
to carry on institute work in conjunction with their agricultural association work,
requested the Registrar to change its name to Fruitvale Agricultural Association and
Farmers' Institute, and same was duly approved.
During the year the Farmers' Institute movement in this Province suffered the loss
by death of two prominent farmers who for a number of years had been very active
in institute work. They were Robert Blackburn, of Prince George, and E. J. Down, of
Mr. Blackburn was elected as Advisory Board member for District " C " in 1924
and was re-elected to that office each succeeding year since that time. During most of
that same period Mr. Blackburn also held the office of secretary of the same district.
Mr. Down was elected as president of District " C " in 1930 and was re-elected to
that office each succeeding year until 1943 when, at his own request, he resigned.
Not only has District " C " suffered the loss of two very prominent farmers who
took a keen interest in institute work and affairs, the Farmers' Institutes as a whole
have lost two of the most ardent supporters, and their understanding and sound advice
will be long remembered.
Advisory Board Meeting.
The meeting of the Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes was held in Victoria
from February 19th to 22nd. The Board considered a large number of resolutions
that had been passed by district institutes at their annual meeting held during 1944
and endorsed sixty-nine of them, which were then referred to the various Provincial
and Federal Departments concerned, and in many instances satisfactory replies have
been received or action promised or undertaken.
All members of the Board met with the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture
and presented to them some fourteen resolutions that would require legislative action.
Select Standing Committee on Agriculture.
Following the meeting of the Select Standing Committee and the Advisory Board,
the Committee presented to the Legislative Assembly the following report:—
" Your Select Standing Committee on Agriculture begs leave to report as follows:—
" Your Committee, authorized by Resolution of the Legislative Assembly to consider specific matters connected with the agricultural industry, held four sittings.
" We wish to pay tribute to the Agricultural Production Committee, with whom we
held one sitting, for the way it has kept the producers of this Province informed on DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945.
V 13
agricultural developments, markets, and trends. The chiefs of all branches of the Provincial Department of Agriculture serve on a Special Committee which was appointed
on September 12th, 1939, by the Honourable the Minister of Agriculture, and has
competently discharged its duties.
" The Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes presented to our Committee a dozen
resolutions dealing with the following specific subjects: Land-clearing machinery,
school taxes on land, water-supply in Peace River District, protection of beaver, bounty
on coyotes and wolves, rehabilitation policies, removal of Japanese, rural electrification,
Adams River power, loss-leaders, range horses, and grading of side roads.
" Some of these matters have been brought directly to the attention of the Departments concerned. The bounty on coyotes has already been increased to five dollars, and
assurance has been given that the bounty on wolves will be increased. It is expected
that land taxation for school purposes will be more equitably distributed. The Committee realizes that a Commission is at present sitting on the matter of school and educational costs and is of the opinion that the land is bearing too much of the educational
costs. Matters such as land-clearing machinery and rural electrification are subject to
legislation which is at present before the House, and it is the opinion of this Committee
that the Resolution which we endorsed and presented to the House regarding land-
clearing last Session is being fully acted upon.
" The resolution presented by the Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes regarding
the removal of Japanese was given particular attention and this Committee concurs in
the opinion expressed by the Farmers' Institute delegates ' that no person of Japanese
ancestry should be allowed to own or lease land, or have any interest in land, or in any
body corporate directly or indirectly, and that any land or interest in land, or in any
body corporate held by such person of Japanese ancestry, or by any agent or trustee in
trust for him be forthwith forfeit to the Crown.'
" Your Committee recommends that steps be taken by the proper authorities to
develop the Adams River power so that land in the area, suitable for agricultural purposes and desirable for the rehabilitation of returned soldiers, may be irrigated and
made available at the earliest opportunity. .. _ _.   __, _,   .
Louis LeBourdais, Chairman.
District Meetings.
All ten districts held annual meetings during the year and in all but one instance
either the Minister of Agriculture, Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, or an official
from the Department representing them was in attendance. All districts again passed
a number of resolutions which will be considered by the Advisory Board when they
again meet early in the New Year.
The place and date of each meeting held, together with the name of the Advisory
Board member elected, is shown in the following table:—
Place of Meeting.
Advisory Board Member.
" A"
November 21st.__  	
June 20th and 21st.	
" B "
" C "
June 19th and 20th	
R. Blackburn, Prince George*
"D "
May 26th _____ _	
__ E ..
November 16th ___ ___	
" F "
Nakusp ,   _ -	
" G"
May 23rd   	
" H "
June 26th 	
" j „
May 17th	
" J "
July 26th -- _	
♦Owing to th:1 death of Mr. Blackburn, the alternative Advisory Board member, T. E. Gerhardi, Fort Fraser,
i'l assume these duties. V 14 . BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Co-operative Activities.
From annual returns submitted by institutes covering the year 1944 it was
found that 126 institutes were carrying on co-operative buying for their members as
compared with 119 in 1943.
Co-operative buying of stumping-powder, fuse, and caps amounted to $41,720.46
in 1944 compared with $27,576.00 in 1943 while seed, feed, fertilizers, etc. amounted to
$373,614.51 in 1944 compared with $249,187.11 in 1943.
The reports also show a wide range of commodities purchased through these institutes, amounting to several thousands of dollars, and include such articles as flour and
groceries, hardware, gas and oil, coal, salt, crates, binder-twine, and live stock.
From the foregoing it will be seen that co-operative buying for members by institutes has greatly increased and that a large number of institutes are now carrying on
a worth-while endeavour and community undertaking.
Representations were made to the Division of Explosives, Department of Mines and
Resources, to rescind war-time regulations in regard to stumping-powder.
The Federal authorities agreed that in view of the nature of explosives stored by
Farmers' Institutes and the improved security situation that licensed magazines formerly operated by institutes could be reopened without a watchman.
" The War Measures Act " and regulations made under it are still in force, and
until P.C. 2903, July 4th, 1940, is repealed it is still necessary for purchasers of explosives to obtain an Explosives Purchase Permit, and it is felt by the Division of Explosives that a continuance of this restriction for the time being will not prove unduly
irksome if powder can be obtained by institute members at their own magazines. The
restriction limiting the sale of explosives to owners or operators of magazines licensed
by the Division is still in force.
This office made further representations to the Explosives Division requesting that
present regulations requiring the purchaser of stumping-powder to make application
to the police in person be eased somewhat to provide such application and issuance of
a permit being made by mail.    This matter is still under consideration.
British Columbia feels justly proud of her Boys' and Girls' Clubs and the individual
members who competed in the national contests at Toronto, where a team representing
our potato project won first place and a dairy team won second place against the rest of
the Dominion. The clubs had been under the supervision of the late S. S. Phillips,
Field Crops Commissioner, whose untimely death in October last left the club work
without any directing head. James Manning, District Agriculturist at Prince George,
was summoned to Victoria to take charge of this work in a temporary capacity. He
accompanied four judging teams to Toronto and returned with a fair share of the prizes
which had been awarded. A complete report of the Boys' and Girls' Clubs appears in
the latter part of this publication.
On December 19th these winning boys and girls were guests at a banquet tendered
by the Vancouver Exhibition Association held in Vancouver. The Honourable the
Minister was in attendance along with G. L. Landon and his two assistants, F. C. Clark
and Miss Echo Lidster, to whom much of the credit for the success of the junior clubs
The Junior Farmer Clubs are clubs which are organized in rural areas with the
object of providing farm young people with instruction in the various phases of agriculture as well as with experience in group work.    These clubs represent the more DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945.
V 15
important phases of agriculture to be found in their particular area and are operated
under the rules and regulations laid down by the Canadian Council of Boys' and Girls'
Clubs with headquarters at Ottawa. This Council was organized in 1931 to co-ordinate
junior club activities in Canada, and is composed of representatives of Provincial and
Dominion Departments of Agriculture, agricultural colleges as well as various industrial firms, and breed organizations interested in the promotion of club work among
rural young people.
Actual supervision of the club work in British Columbia is done by the Provincial
Department of Agriculture through the district agricultural offices in co-operation with
local club leaders.
In the Fraser Valley the clubs which have the largest membership are the dairy
and poultry clubs, which each had a membership of some 300 young people in 1945.
The potato and swine clubs have a much smaller membership. The latter project was
reduced in numbers this year because of the high price of hogs, which involved a much
greater initial financial expenditure than most could afford to pay.
A summary of the activities of the British Columbia Agricultural Production Committee, which was established by the Honourable K. C. MacDonald on September 12th,
1939, and whose personnel included Dr. J. B. Munro, Chairman; G. H. Stewart, Statistician ; J. A. Grant, and Ernest MacGinnis, Secretary, with all other Branch heads ex
officio members.
Each year since its inception this Committee has interpreted the agricultural production programmes laid down at Ottawa at the Dominion-Provincial Conferences and
emphasized the extent to which it was anticipated British Columbia farmers would
participate in that programme.
Some of the principal subjects on which direction was given in the eighty-one
circulars issued by the British Columbia Agricultural Production Committee were:—
Agricultural production—
Fibre flax.
requirements and estimates.
Farm broadcasts.
Linseed flax.
Eggs and poultry.
Medicinal roots and herbs.
(1.)  Recipes.
(2.)  Preservation.
(1.)   Seed.
(3.)   Flock-approval.
(2.)  Disease.
(1.)   Grain rates.
(2.)   Coarse, sowing of.
Production costs.
(3.)   Hog-feed, mixes.
Seeds—garden and field crop.
Farm machinery.
(1.)  Repairs.
(2.)  Quotas.
(1.)  Feed.
(3.)  Exchange—second-hand.
(2.)  Policy.
Farm labour survey.
(3.)  Improvement.
(4.)  Marketing bacon.
(1.)  Apple recipes.
Tanning of hides.
(2.)  Preservation.
Victory gardens.
(3.)   Strawberries. V 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Grateful recognition should be given to the editors of the daily and weekly press
for the space accorded the various circulars published by the Committee. Mailing-list
for these circulars included, in addition to the above, Agricultural Associations,
Farmers' Institutes, and Women's Institutes.
The Committee was represented at the Dominion-Provincial Agricultural Conference, December 3rd to 5th, by the Deputy Minister and the Statistician who accompanied the Honourable Frank Putnam.
The recommendations brought back from this Conference are that in dairy production the yields should be increased. This is also true of the production of such legume
seeds as alfalfa, alsike, and red clover, and it is estimated that our potato-crop should
be materially increased in 1946. In other lines crop production should be kept as close
to the 1945 figure as possible.
Due to the retirement of A. W. Finlay, Provincial Apiarist, the Deputy Minister
was requested by the late Minister of Agriculture to carry on in the capacity of Provincial Apiarist. This arrangement was continued from August 31st until December
31st, 1945. Able assistance in all apicultural matters was given by W. H. Turnbull,
E. R. Freeman, V. E. Thorgeirson, and H. L. Johnson, and the following report is based
upon information submitted from the Apiarist's office at Vernon:—
Bees went into winter quarters in the fall of 1944 in very fair condition. About
50 per cent, of the bee-keepers took advantage of the sugar ration of 20 lb. per
colony to feed their bees. This ensured ample stores of a good quality in the brood-
nest, which was used up in the winter and in early brood-rearing. This together with
an early spring and an abundance of spring flowers with fine weather was responsible
for the rapid build-up to storing strength. Weather conditions in the areas adjacent
to the coast turned cool and damp with the result that there was an abnormal amount
of swarming which was very hard to control under the circumstances, and this resulted
in weakened colonies by the time the main honey-flow came on. The result was that
many colonies hardly put up winter stores and the average honey surplus in these areas
was very low. The Interior districts as a whole had the same building-up conditions
but lacked the cool, wet spell so that bees were able to start storing a surplus much
earlier than otherwise, and there was a minimum of swarming.
Some really fine crops of honey were obtained. One apiary in the Prince George
district averaged 350 lb. from package bees introduced on April 18th, 1945. Another
apiary in the Westbank district of the Okanagan Valley averaged 375 lb. from package
bees.    This seemed to prove that conditions were fairly uniform all over the Interior.
Reports of a sugar shortage have made quite a difference in the number of colonies
put away for winter as many bee-keepers who usually gas their bees are wintering
this season.
The number of new bee-keepers this year reached a total of 1,032 registered with
this office, while the number of cancellations reached 1,302. This brings the total
registered bee-keepers to 4,386. A decided falling-off in the average number of hives
per colony has taken place this year. This was accounted for, to a great extent, by the
shortage of labour on the farms. Commercial apiaries are increasing in number of
hives kept.
A new interest seems to have developed in the producing areas of the Province and
a decided trend towards better bee-keeping is noted. This will no doubt result in a
greatly increased production in the future, especially so when sugar is again available
for fall feeding and for the very necessary feeding of new package bees. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1945.
V 17
Inspection work was carried on as usual this season and results continue to show
that we are winning in our fight to control American foul-brood.
per Cent.
W. H. Turnbull	
1.57     .
A course of instruction was carried on in the winter and spring in conjunction
with the high schools. Classes were held in Kamloops, Salmon Arm, Vernon, Peach-
land, Oliver, Grand Forks, Trail, Nelson, Fruitvale, Creston, Cranbrook, Prince George,
and Vanderhoof. Forty-nine meetings were held and practically 100 per cent, of the
bee-keepers in these districts attended, many of them having to travel 20 to 30 miles
from the country. In the Coast districts meetings were held in different parts and
your inspectors were in attendance to answer questions and give advice in every way.
These winter meetings were followed up later by field meetings which were very well
received and practical results were noted on later inspections. Judging at fall fairs
was another activity carried on by the inspection staff.
An unofficial test was carried on this year by your inspection staff, using sulpha-
thiazole for the control of American foul-brood. The Inspector in the Fraser Valley
had twenty-six individual tests and the results shown were remarkable. In six tests
conducted in the Interior reports seemed to confirm the findings at the Coast. Your
Inspectors are of the opinion that the use of sulphathiazole for this purpose will be a
factor in the prevention and control of this disease. We recommend that official tests
be carried out next season.
Office-work has been abnormally heavy this year. This is caused, to a great extent,
by the sugar permits being issued through this office. A total of 2,072 permits were
issued between January 1st and June 30th, while 1,078 were issued between October
15th and November 17th, making a total of 3,150 permits issued. A closing date for
the issue of permits was November 17th but more than 250 applications were turned
down after that date.
The records are all transferred from an old ledger system to a new card-index
which will assist greatly in keeping more accurate records.
An estimate of the honey-crop by districts is shown in Appendix No. 2.
The following report for the year 1945 has been prepared by G. V. Wilby, M.Sc,
with the approval of the Chief of the Plant Inspection Division of the Federal Department of Agriculture and H. F. Olds, District Inspector, in charge of the Vancouver
This report covers data relating to imported nursery stock, exported nursery stock,
exported plant products, and interprovincial nursery stock from all points east of Manitoba.    The imported plant products have already been summarized by G. H. Stewart.
There has been a noticeable increase in the total number of nursery stock imports
during the last year. While the number of shipments was slightly fewer, the total
quantity of plants, etc., was just about doubled. The increase was chiefly in ornamental stock, roses, fruit, and ornamental seedlings, plants, roots, and bulbs.    There V 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
was a decrease, however, in fruit-trees, small fruits, and scions. The decrease in
fruit-tree stock was due largely to shortage of labour in the United States and Canada,
the decrease being made up by the importation of double the quantity of fruit seedlings
over that of the year previous.
The exports of nursery stock for the past year are almost double those of the
previous year, substantial increases being noted in small fruits, ornamentals, fruit
seedlings, plants, and bulbs, and about nine times the quantity of spruce cones from the
Queen Charlotte Islands. There has been a marked decrease in the number of roots,
scions, rose-eyes, and vegetable and flax seed, and the total values are about 75 per cent.
of those for 1943-44.
Interprovincial shipments from points east of Manitoba have increased about 25
per cent, in quantity and about 20 per cent, in value over the previous year. The total
quantity is about 40 per cent, less than last year due to the smaller quantities of forced
bulbs from Ontario for planting out in British Columbia. The greatest increase has
been in fruit-trees, small fruits, fruit seedlings, assorted roots, and vegetable plants.
The pear psylla (Psylla pyricola Foerst) survey is still continuing in the Okanagan
area under the combined authorities of the United States Department of Agriculture,
Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, and the Dominion and Provincial Departments of Agriculture. The Dominion Government's share of the work is supervised
by L. L. Reed and W. D. Touzeau.
The San Jose scale survey-work also continued under the supervision of H. F. Olds,
both in the orchards and in the packing-houses at Kelowna.
Grain-elevators of the Lower Mainland have been visited throughout the year and
have been found to be very clean. In one or two of the grain-mills spider-beetles have
been found and suitable treatment was recommended and carried out.
Items of Interest.
With the cessation of hostilities in Europe shipments of bulbs from Holland were
resumed and a considerable percentage of these were destined to British Columbia. In
several instances parts of shipments, which were cleared in Montreal, were originally
consigned to firms in Eastern Canada and then reshipped to British Columbia as free
goods (see note under Interprovincial Nursery Stock). Certain shipments of bulbs for
points in British Columbia were cleared and inspected in Montreal; of these there is no
record kept at this office.
During the past year there has been a very pronounced increase in the numbers of
imported fruit and ornamental seedlings and a decrease in the numbers of fruit-trees
from the United States. This has been due largely to labour shortages and insufficient
supplies of stock.
This year there has been a very large increase in the quantities of exported spruce
cones from the Queen Charlotte Islands, all consigned to the seed-extraction mill at
Roy, Washington.
Rice, which has been difficult to obtain on the local markets, has been coming into
the rice-mills at Woodward Landing in quite large quantities from Arkansas and
California, and has practically all been allocated to the Oriental consumers in British
Columbia and other Canadian areas.
Nuts are returning to the markets again in some quantities—almonds, filberts, and
pignolias from Spain, cashews and pistachios from India, peanuts from Brazil and
Mexico, and walnuts from India. Insect infestations were fairly heavy in some of the
almonds and the peanuts from Brazil and the shipments had to be fumigated. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 19
From time to time reports of insect pests in households and stores have been
reported to this office. Practical remedial measures were suggested or, in serious cases,
commercial fumigators were recommended. The chief offenders were carpet-beetles,
spider-beetles, grain-weevils, silverfish, and carpenter-ants.
For the first time in six years all old grain has been cleared from the British
Columbia grain-elevators and all wheat now being handled is from the 1945 crop.
Shipping News.
For the year ended November 30th, 1945, 1,221 deep-sea and coastwise vessels
docked at Vancouver. Of this number four brought nursery stock and six brought
plant products as part of their cargo. This represents an increase of boats arriving
over last year but a decrease in shipments.
Imported Nursery Stock.
The following table covers the period from December 1st, 1944, to November 30th,
Fruit-trees  16,514
Small fruits  93,813
Ornamental trees and shrubs  18,388
Roses   263
Fruit seedlings  329,904
Ornamental seedlings  25,386
Plants   4,652,984
Roots   195,952
Bulbs   306,196 and 14y2 qt.
Scions  2,036
Total      5,641,436 and 14y2 qt.
Rose-eyes   8,200
Peach-pits   663,550
Aquatic plants  6 bu.
Aquatic seed  11 bu. 2 qt. 10 lb.
Peppermint-roots  22,000 lb.
Inspections   894
Containers   2,316
Value   $67,383.77
The countries of origin for the importations were: Australia, Belgium, Bermuda,
Colombia, Eire, England, France, Holland, New Zealand, Northern Ireland, Scotland,
and United States of America.
Interprovincial Nursery Stock.
The following table includes shipments from Canadian growers in the Provinces
east of Manitoba. The shipments from the Prairie Provinces have been inspected by
the staff of the Provincial Department of Agriculture.
Total shipments to British Columbia for the year December 1st, 1944, to November
30th, 1945:—
Fruit-trees   7,442
Small fruits   10,197
Ornamental trees and shrubs  2,052 V 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Rose-bushes   547
Fruit seedlings  10,397
Ornamental seedlings  160
Plants   7,405
Roots  2,263
Bulbs*  948,986
Scions   51
Asparagus-roots  2,193
Horseradish-roots   138
Rhubarb-roots   39
Vegetable plants  2,480
Total         994,350
Total shipments  ,  1,662
Containers  3,078
Value  .  $21,544.34
* Included in the above are Dutch and English bulbs which cleared Customs at eastern ports and were purchased
in Ontario: Holland—11 shipments, 34 cases, 134,814 bulbs, value $4,303.62; England—1 shipment, 2 cases, 3,200
bulbs, value $300 j  total—12 shipments, 36 cases, 138,014 bulbs, value $4,603.62.
Interceptions included 1 poplar-tree for Cytospora sp. canker, 1 apple-tree and 4
pear-trees for root-gall, 102 Galanthus bulbs for soft-rot, and 2 hyacinth bulbs for
yellows (Dutch stock).
Prohibited entry into British Columbia under Regulation No. 6, Domestic, were
201 peach-trees.
Interceptions, Nursery Stock, 1944-45.—Eleven apple-trees for hairy-root, root-
gall; 2 apricot-trees for root-gall; 72 cherry-trees for hairy-root, root-gall; 24
pear-trees for root-gall; 18 plum-trees for black-knot, root-gall; 1 plumcot-tree for
black-knot; 100 strawberry plants for red stele disease; 1,739 crocus for hard and soft
rot, mites; 104 daffodil for soft-rot; 9 hyacinth for yellows; 20 iris for soft-rot; 383
narcissus for basal and soft-rot, greater narcissus bulb-fly; 129 Scilla for soft-rot;
574 tulip for tulip fire;   24 winter aconite for soft-rot.
Subsequent to the information published last year on pages 16 and 17 of the annual
report the Committee appointed by the Honourable the Minister of Agriculture has
concluded its preliminary investigations of the Koch therapy as- applied to certain
veterinary diseases.
In view of the fact that the Minister, under whom this work was carried on, is
now deceased the Committee considers it advisable to print herewith the report that
was prepared for his consideration on the completion of the work on September 28th,
1945. This was the last time that the late Minister was able to meet with members
of the Committee to discuss with them the outcome of the Koch investigation.
It is gratifying to the Committee to be able to return a satisfactory report based
upon the Minister's request for a studied and candid opinion of this rather new type
of veterinary therapy.
" At the last public appearance of the Honourable K. C. MacDonald as Minister of
Agriculture, he expressed his pleasure in being able to attend and join in the deliberations of the ' Koch Investigation Committee,' held in the Court-house in Vancouver
on September 28th, 1945.
" The Minister explained that the purpose of carrying out this investigation was
to seek some means of benefiting the dairy herds of British Columbia which were DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 21
affected by mastitis though all precautions were taken that were known of at the time.
The Minister thought the evidence as presented by the veterinarians indicated that
nothing could be added and he wished to assure the members of the Committee that
his sole interest was the welfare of the dairy population of the Province. He had
reached the years when he realized that there was no finality to any question when
the matter of possible treatment arose and that the least that could be done was to
investigate the Koch treatment.
" This Committee meeting included members of the British Columbia Veterinary
Association, the University of British Columbia, and the Provincial Department of
Agriculture, also the Presidents of all dairy breeds. The personnel of the Committee
is as follows:—
Honourable K. C. MacDonald ...Minister of Agriculture.
Dr. J. B. Munro Deputy Minister of Agriculture.
Dr. D. H. Arnott Representing the Koch Treatment, London, Ont.
Dr. F. W. B. Smith President, British Columbia Veterinary
Association, Vancouver.
Dr. W. R. Gunn Live Stock Commissioner, Department
of Agriculture, Victoria.
Dr. Jos. E. Bennett Secretary,   British   Columbia   Veterinary Association, and Veterinary Inspector, Department of Agriculture,
Dr. S. N. Wood University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
Dr. M. Sparrow Vice-President, British Columbia Veterinary Association, Steveston.
Dr. J. G. Jervis Veterinary Surgeon.
Dr. G. F. R. Barton Veterinary Surgeon.
R. H. Irwin Representing the dairymen.
W. A. Gooder Representing the Koch Treatment in
British Columbia.
" The Chairman explained that in the summer of 1944 he had been informed that
the glyoxylide treatment had been used with good results among dairy herds suffering
from mastitis. Upon making the suggestion to Dr. MacDonald that the use of this
treatment be investigated the Minister was favourable to the idea of getting the fullest
possible information and requested that Dr. D. H. Arnott be communicated with. Dr.
Arnott supplied copies of the books published by Dr. Koch and the five pamphlets which
he himself had written on the use of the Koch treatment on farm animals. After careful study of the literature the Minister considered it advisable to have a personal interview with Dr. Arnott and in reply to an invitation he came to British Columbia in
September, 1944, for this purpose. At the outset there was some skepticism as to
what the results might be but each meeting has brought forth some new information
and following the initial meeting of September 25th, 1944, results beneficial to the
dairy industry have accrued. On May 12th last the progress reports were decidedly
good but those which will come up for discussion now appear to be the most satisfactory to date. The Chairman then called upon Dr. Bennett to present his report on
mastitis investigation.    This report stated:—
" ' The Minister of Agriculture for British Columbia, the Honourable K. C. MacDonald, undertook an investigation to determine the merits or demerits of the Koch
treatment for mastitis and various other conditions. V 22
" ' The investigation began in November, 1944, and was conducted for a period of
eleven months.
" ' The original idea was to determine if this treatment was of value in treating
mastitis and other animal ailments.
" ' During the investigation other conditions were met with, such as sterility or
infertility, and redwater.    These were examined and given the Koch treatment.
" ' The results of the treatment, seventy-one cases of mastitis, are shown on Chart
No. 1 All cases presented were treated, none being rejected on account of severity.
Some considered hopeless were treated.
" ' Chart No. 1.
" ' The following is the record of seventy-one cases of mastitis treated with the
Koch Treatment, ten months' observation:—
No. of
Recurrence, Months
after Treatment.
No. given
no Recurrence.
2 1 3
*»■       :     Dosf   j   *«*«*
dry or
1-12 days
1-8 months
Dry to freshen
13                   20
8         1           7
18.3                28.1       !       26.76
42.1       [         9.8
" ' A consistent result ivas a definite softening of the udder after treatment. The
disappearance of fibrous tissue was noticed in a considerable number of cases. In no
case ivas any other treatment used in conjunction with the Koch treatment.
" ' Milk samples were taken on the first visit and treatment administered, a second
sample taken in one week, and further samples taken at monthly intervals. These
samples were drawn as aseptically as possible, kept in a special case containing ice and
delivered to the laboratories within twenty-four hours. The findings of both laboratories were found to coincide very closely.
" ' The bacteria count, the leucocyte count, and the chloride test were used.
" ' During the first week after giving the treatment there was a decided drop in
bacteria, leucocytes, and chlorides. Several bacteria counts dropped from several million down to almost normal and below. Twenty-eight out of fifty cases showed normal
or below within a month.
" ' It appears this treatment had a beneficial effect on digestion, also on the skin
and coat.
" ' Several owners stated that " as much or more milk was produced " although
the cows were denied silage, which was a requirement during treatment. Seventy-one
point nine per cent, of the owners consulted were satisfied with the treatment.
"' Seventy-one cases of mastitis were treated. They were divided into three
categories according to their lactation period. The class ' one to twelve days' lactation '
were all acute cases, as were some of the cases that were near freshening. These
acute cases with extensive inflammation seemed to respond better than the more
chronic ones—this can be noted in the percentages shown. Any recurrence is shown
for six months after treatment and, in some cases at least, is directly due to reinfection from poor sanitary conditions.
" ' The doubtful cases were ones that showed a recurrence, did not give a clear-cut
response, or were interfered with by injecting the udder with various materials.
" ' Seventy-two per cent, of cases treated were given one dose only. The unsatisfactory class included ones that were more or less hopeless and where the treatment
had been interfered with. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1945.
V 23
" ' Of nineteen that have freshened, eight or 42 per cent, have come in without
any recurrence of the disease. The seven quarters dry or lost include ones that were
dry or badly affected the last lactation period. One quarter that was affected for
a long period and badly atrophied (shrunken) made a complete recovery.' "
[In the discussion which followed the presentation of this report it was brought
out that four dairy cows had been withdrawn by the decision of the owners and further
it was explained that of the sixty-seven cows remaining 207 quarters of their udders
had been affected. The loss of only seven quarters in the above total was considered
extremely satisfactory.]
The report continued:—
" Dr. F. W. B. Smith, speaking for the Veterinary Association, stated ' that they
were happy that Dr. MacDonald was instrumental in bringing this investigation about
and he assured him that they appreciated his efforts.'
" It was further brought out that five cows suffering with cystic ovaries were
among those responding favourably to the Koch treatment.
" It was moved by Dr. F. W. B. Smith ' That the report be adopted with the amendments above recorded.'
" Dr. Bennett was then called upon to present his report dealing with ' Sterility
and Infertility of Cows.' Before doing so he explained that in cases of cysts of the
ovaries these had disappeared following the Koch treatment without any manipulation.
He considered this very remarkable.
" Chart No. 2.
"Sterility or Infertility Cases treated with Glyoxylide (Koch Treatment).
Months Sterile
after Injection.
In Calf.
Cont. estrum
No estrum
No estrum
No estrum
No estrum
No. 6	
No. 24     	
Esther    .   	
Tipo  ... ,
Betty    -	
21..  _~   	
Cont. estrum
Three times artificial
6837            -       -           	
Total cases, 29.
Per cent, favourable, 70.
Average time sterile before injection, 5.7 months.
Average time sterile after injection, 1.7 months. V 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" The foregoing report shows that out of twenty-nine cases of sterility treated with
the Koch treatment there were twenty-one that responded.
" The average time sterile before treatment was 5.7 months. The times bred were
4.9. The time sterile after treatment was 1.7 months, but owners were advised not
to breed on the appearance of the first estrual period but to wait for the second appearance so as to be sure of a normal twenty-one-day return. Some would no doubt have
conceived on the first heat, thereby reducing the 1.7 figure somewhat.
" It must be remembered that any and all abnormal conditions were left precisely
as found.    No attempt was made to correct these by manipulation or other treatment.
" Of the twenty-one that responded, two had cysts only of the ovaries, three had
cysts and vaginitis, four had retained corpus luteum and vaginitis, three had retained
corpus luteum only, eight had vaginitis only, and one had fibrous ovaries.
" Of the eight not responding, two were nymphomaniacs, two had cysts and
vaginitis, three had cysts, and one had retained corpus luteum and vaginitis.
" The percentage of favourable response compares well with other treatments used,
which in a considerable number of cases have to be repeated, whereas, with very few
exceptions, one injection of the Koch treatment was all that was used.
" In summing up, it appears this treatment has considerable merit in constitutional
derangements and imbalance, as found in sterility and infertility. The intelligent use
of this material combined with known manipulative treatment, in our opinion, would
give more satisfactory results than either treatment alone. The now known treatments
for sterility are said to produce about 60 per cent, favourable results with one to several
treatments. The Koch treatment, according to our findings, has produced this percentage with one treatment with only one exception.
" Dr. Bennett pointed out that five of the cows included in this sterility report
that had responded satisfactorily to the glyoxylide treatment were cows suffering from
mastitis as well as sterility.
" This report was thoroughly discussed before its adoption was moved by Dr.
F. W. B. Smith, seconded by Dr. S. N. Wood, and carried unanimously.
" Dr. D. H. Arnott was then called on for some remarks and he expressed himself
as being grateful to the Minister of Agriculture, the Chairman, and gentlemen present.
The misunderstanding that made it so difficult for the members to get together a year
ago had been overcome. As he had said before, our best scientists will be engaged on
this for ten years before they will be able to define the far on borders of the Koch
treatment. The objects of the Committee were limited to the use of the treatment for
mastitis, infertility, and contagious abortion.
"As a medical man he had the utmost faith that the oxidation process of the body
is restored by the use of glyoxylide (Koch treatment). ' Life is promoted, sustained,
and reproduced by the use of food. For good health the supply must be adequate in
amount and in variety. For the best normal results it is necessary that the food be
well digested, and also that the potential energy contained therein be transferred into
living energy throughout the body at a vigorous rate, burning the food properly in each
individual cell where it unites with oxygen for this purpose. This living chemical
reaction is spoken of by medical science as " internal respiration," and it must take
place continuously because Nature has provided the body with no reservoir wherein
oxygen may be stored, to be drawn upon at will or in time of need. It is upon the
degree approaching perfection with which food is thus turned into living energy consistently that conditions requisite for good health are best maintained, that disease is
best resisted, that life is best reproduced. It is Dr. Koch's belief that a normal supply
of these essential carbon compounds often can be renewed by the hypodermic administration of the reagents which he discovered.' This was the author's foreword in
connection with Bangs' disease. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 25
" He felt that the members had done great work—had not thrown him out. They
had spent one year, he believed, a year of tremendous importance, getting very close to
the control of the chemistry that goes on in the living cell and to influence it favourably
in the light of faltering function.
" Dr. Arnott holds that in the treatment of 100 cows suffering from common
seriously destructive diseases the use of the Koch therapy would give exceptionally
good results. The laboratory technicians by using standard methods would identify
various different bacterial types as the provocative agents; nevertheless, from the
injection of the Koch material, recovery would result in an important percentage of
instances regardless of the several different kinds of micro-organisms considered
responsible for these troubles.
" In additional numerous other gross pathological states, which appeared to be
entirely unrelated, would yield to the Koch treatment.
" Dr. Arnott drew particular attention to one fact deduced by the veterinarians.
This was that the cow suffering from suppressed menstruation was benefited by the
Koch treatment the same as was the case as the cow suffering from continuous estrum.
" These things would be easily and repeatedly observed during the clinical investigation; and the restoration of good health and normal functioning would justify the
conclusion that these gross and apparently separate pathological states stemmed from
a common origin, that their cause had been put under control by the Koch injection.
There is a strong natural tendency for the body to return to normal where permitted
to do so and the Koch treatment initiates the first step in the removal of the obstacle
in question.    From there on the recovery simply continues as a natural process.
" In the further discussion Dr. S. N. Wood expressed the opinion that if the Koch
treatment had not been a cure in every instance the evidence from the treatment is
sufficient to recommend its further use. He therefore seconded Dr. Smith's resolution
' That the observations justify a recognition of the working hypothesis of biological
oxidation of the Koch treatment, meriting its further use in veterinary therapy.' This
resolution carried unanimously.
" Dr. W. R. Gunn, Live Stock Commissioner, then read from correspondence with
J. T. Wilmot, of Falkland, B.C., of horses suffering from fistulous withers and with a
blood reaction positive to the infection of Brucella Abortus. At first these swellings
were tense and could not be moved but after treatment with glyoxylide they became
smaller and could be moved, and the report received on September 22nd stated the
trouble had cleared up and the mare had been ridden without any bad results. In
talking with Mr. Wilmot, Dr. Gunn stated, ' Mr. Wilmot was very enthusiastic about the
treatment and will use it in other cases.'
" In the discussion that followed, Dr. S. N. Wood said he had no comments to make
and he thought Dr. Gunn's report was fair.
" It was moved by W. A. Gooder, seconded by Dr. R. E. Sargent, ' That Dr. Gunn's
report be received.'    This was carried unanimously.
" Following this the Chairman asked Dr. Sargent if he had any statement to make.
He remarked that ' not to a large extent for purely agricultural purposes.' Nearly two
years ago he became interested in the Koch treatment when he saw it being used on a
friend who was suffering from a heart ailment and she was still alive. He then gave
an outline of three dogs treated for different diseases and in each case they had recovered and were quite normal. In the last case this dog had gone all to pieces and was
suffering from a severe attack of eczema. It seemed a hopeless case and looked like
something picked out of the dump. The dog now looked like something seen at the
New Westminster Dog Show, had taken on a silken coat and was being got ready for
hunting this fall." MAO LI TSI PLANTS.
In 1939 it was reported that seeds of the Mao li tsi had been sown under glass in
1936 and that the seedlings had been established on Vancouver Island. These plants
of Actinidia chinensis have proved hardy for Southern Vancouver Island and they have
now come into bearing. Flowers first appeared on several vines, particularly at 1949
Waterloo Road, Saanich, and 1826 Belmont Avenue, Victoria, in June of 1944. These
plants again bloomed in 1945 and fruit has matured at both locations, the most abundant being at the former address. The fruit is somewhat late in ripening, some still
clinging to the vines at the end of December.
Further plants are being grown from seed matured in Victoria and an attempt has
been made to propagate by means of cuttings taken after the growing season. As this
plant is dioecious it is hoped that the use of cuttings may be successful.
The efforts made during the past season to purchase land-clearing machinery have
been successful and there are now in hand or on the way seven complete land-clearing
units. It was hoped that these would have been in use during the season, but the
actual work of clearing land has been delayed and it is not expected that work will commence until after the New Year.
The appointment of a Director of Land-clearing was announced in March last and
now an Assistant Director has been appointed. The new appointee is James E. Beamish, B.E.  (Agr.), who will assist William MacGillivray in land-clearing.
Recently there has been received at the Department of Agriculture office a little
publication by F. W. Andrew, issued in April, 1945, and dealing with the District and
Municipality of Summerland. This readable story deals not only with the area but
with many of the pioneers of the district and includes the names of a number of officials
of the Provincial Department of Agriculture. It is a booklet that is worthy of the
attention of any one who is interested in the Okanagan Valley, and it shows what has
been accomplished by one progressive pioneering group.
The year 1945 has been outstanding in many ways. The agricultural industry
this year has produced more wealth than in any previous year, yet farming has been
kept on an even keel and no branch has produced excessively. In vegetable-seed production the outlook does not look as hopeful as it did during war years. However, the
seed-growers have firmly established their industry and are looking to the rest of
Canada as a satisfactory and growing market for their product.
In June of this year the Deputy Minister of Agriculture finished and presented his
thesis on the " Language, Legends, and Lore of the Carrier Indians of British Columbia," and having completed his studies of Canadian history he was honoured on June
25th by the Ottawa University, which conferred on him the degree of Doctor of
G. H. Stewart, Statistician.
The agricultural production of the Province of British Columbia reached its
highest level of all time in the year 1944, which is the period covered in this report.
The gross value of production is estimated at $97,737,916. This is an increase of
$10,222,370 or 11.6 per cent, over the preceding year and $48,335,905 or 97.8 per cent.
over 1939, the year immediately prior to the war.
Increases are recorded in the revenue from farm animals, poultry meat, dairy
products, fruits and vegetables, grains, hops, honey, and seeds. These increases are in
part offset by decreases shown in the value of eggs, fodders, potatoes, and tobacco.
The total value of imports is placed at $40,549,141, as compared with $36,854,623
in 1943, representing an increase of $3,694,518 or 10 per cent.
Imports from other Provinces are valued at $38,650,198, compared with $34,553,856
in 1943, while imports from foreign points decreased from $2,300,767 in 1943 to
$1,898,943 in 1944.
The total value of exports is estimated at $27,762,454 in 1944, as compared with
$16,866,173 in 1943, an increase of $10,896,281 or 64.6 per cent. The 1944 values are
the highest ever recorded.
At no point throughout the Province were low winter temperatures recorded such
as prevailed during the previous season. Snowfall was light in all sections, and particularly in those areas where irrigation is essential this fact was viewed with alarm.
Spring growth started about the same time as in the previous year but late spring rains
and occasional summer showers materially helped the general growing conditions.
During the latter part of August there was considerable rainfall, and these rains
continued in sufficient quantity to meet the needs of maturing crops without greatly
interfering with the harvesting. This late rainfall also definitely increased the size of
the apple-crop, which would have been large even under drier conditions.
While there was a general increase in the production of all fruits, it was in the
production of tree-fruits that the increase was most outstanding, and the records show
that in 1944 British Columbia harvested the largest apple-crop ever produced in this
Province. Small fruits, such as strawberries, raspberries, loganberries, etc., also show
an increase over the production of 1943.
On the whole, seasonal conditions were satisfactory from a harvesting standpoint
and the prices obtained were in line with those of the previous year.
The total production of all fruits in 1944 is estimated at 475,894,000 lb., valued at
$21,731,311, as compared with 244,208,000 lb., valued at $13,148,737, in 1943, indicating
an increase of 231,686,000 lb. or 94.8 per cent, in volume and $8,582,574 or 65.2 per
cent, in value.
The total production of commercial apples for 1944 is estimated at 367,494,000 lb.,
of a value of $13,730,240, as compared with 186,196,000 lb., value $7,800,479, in 1943.
Of the other fruits, the estimated commercial production and value for 1944 are as
follows, with corresponding figures for 1943 within brackets: Crab-apples, 7,552,000
lb., $253,518 (3,326,000, $113,109) ; pears, 24,588,000 lb., $1,288,873 (14,142,000,
$741,621) ; plums, 5,172,000 lb., $285,908 (2,570,000, $145,829) ; prunes, 12,222,000 lb.,
$702,695 (8,522,000, $594,464) ; peaches, 26,208,000 lb., $1,609,788 (9,650,000, $680,-
233) ; apricots, 7,286,000 lb., $488,647 (1,244,000, $101,738) ; cherries, 7,268,000 lb.,
$1,084,663 (5,226,000, $941,462); strawberries, 4,356,000 lb., $701,803 (3,492,000,
$735,063) ; raspberries, 6,810,000 lb., $1,033,847 (5,238,000, $870,483) ; blackberries,
1,146,000 lb., $108,479 (966,000, $111,471) ; loganberries, 1,660,000 lb., $195,649
(1,312,000, $153,391) ;   bush-fruits, 3,978,000 lb., $226,690 (2,158,000, $138,923). V 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
While the vegetable production as grown in victory gardens may not have been as
large as the production of previous years, still there was sufficient produce to take care
of at least a portion of the demands. The commercial production of vegetables satisfactorily met the demands of the fresh market as well as the requirements of the
dehydrators and canning-factories. In the case of tomatoes, some difficulty was
experienced early in the season with the shipments of mature green and semiripes
from certain sections, but on the whole the production of this crop was excellent.
The onion-crop showed some loss in the early part of the season due to various
insect and disease troubles.
All vegetable-crops showed an increased acreage over 1943 with the exception of
asparagus. The asparagus acreage has been materially reduced due to the removal
from the coast areas of the Japanese residents, and also because of the fact that certain
large acreages in the Interior were ploughed up and were later devoted to seed
The production of field rhubarb is estimated at 1,165 tons, of a value of $75,865, as
compared with 1,616 tons, valued at $100,822, in 1943.
The quantity of field cucumbers produced in 1944 amounted to 2,373 tons, of a
value of $192,688, an increase of 616 tons or 35 per cent, over the previous year.
A decrease of 36 tons is recorded in the quantity of hothouse cucumbers produced.
The 1944 crop amounted to 187 tons, valued at $51,745.
Field tomatoes produced in 1944 amounted to 23,454 tons, valued at $1,283,637, as
compared with 21,433 tons, valued at $1,292,410, in 1943, indicating an increase in
volume of production of 2,021 tons or 9.4 per cent. The production of hothouse
tomatoes in 1944 amounted to 1,965 tons, valued at $735,696, as compared with the
1943 production of 1,930 tons, valued at $720,006.
Other vegetables produced in 1944 amounted to 66,573 tons, valued at $3,907,841,
as against the 1943 production of 67,769 tons, of a value of $4,017,346.
The aggregate of all vegetable-crops for the year 1944 was 95,735 tons, of a value
of $6,251,792, as compared with 94,854 tons, of a value of $6,385,245, produced in 1943.
The winter of 1943-44 was generally mild all over the Province and as a result
there was little winter-killing of legumes, grasses, and fall-sown grains.
Good growing conditions prevailed during the spring months. Hay-crops made
good growth and although rainfall was below normal in some areas no serious damage
was reported. The production of fodders averaged somewhat better than in 1943,
whilst the yields of certain grain-crops, such as oats, barley, and mixed grains, were
slightly lower than those of the previous year.
Wheat production in 1944 is estimated at 2,530,000 bushels from 97,300 acres,
a yield per acre of 26 bushels, as compared with 2,059,000 bushels from 79,200 acres
or 26 bushels per acre in 1943. Oats yielded 3,701,000 bushels from 76,300 acres, as
compared with 3,627,000 bushels from 72,400 acres in 1943, yields per acre of 48.5
bushels and 50.1 bushels respectively. The yield of barley is estimated at 683,000
bushels from 19,900 acres, as compared with 693,000 bushels from 20,100 acres in
1943, the average yields per acre being 34.3 bushels and 34.5 bushels. Rye is estimated
to have yielded 24,000 bushels from 1,100 acres, as compared with 29,000 bushels from
1,400 acres in 1943, yields per acre of 21.5 bushels and 20.8 bushels respectively.
The production of mixed grains is estimated at 255,000 bushels from 6,500 acres
or 39.2 bushels per acre, as compared with 270,000 bushels from 6,700 acres or 40.3
bushels per acre in 1943. The yields of other crops, in bushels, are as follows, with the
1943 figures within brackets: Peas, 186,000 (159,000); beans, 18,000 (13,000); flaxseed, 25,000 (76,000). DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 29
The production of all grains amounted to 7,422,000 bushels, valued at $5,491,000,
as compared with a production of 6,926,000 bushels, valued at $4,948,000, in 1943.
The total yield of hay and clover in 1944 amounted to 424,000 tons from 223,000
acres or 1.90 tons per acre, as compared with 393,000 tons from 213,800 acres or 1.84
tons per acre in 1943. Alfalfa yielded 202,000 tons from 76,000 acres or 2.66 tons per
acre, as compared with 179,000 tons from 71,400 acres or 2.5 tons per acre in 1943.
Fodder corn yielded 51,000 tons from 4,700 acres or 10.75 tons per acre, as compared
with 50,000 tons from 4,500 acres or 11.12 tons per acre in 1943. Grain hay is estimated to have yielded 65,000 tons from 32,500 acres, as compared with 59,000 tons
from 29,500 acres in 1943, yields per acre of 2 tons and 2 tons respectively.
The production of all fodders amounted to 742,000 tons, valued at $12,665,000, as
compared with 681,000 tons, valued at $12,922,000, produced in 1943.
The total yield of potatoes in 1944 was 95,200 tons from 17,000 acres, as compared
with 108,100 tons from 18,800 acres in 1943, the yields per acre being 5.6 tons and
5.75 tons respectively.
Turnips, etc., yielded 27,000 tons from 2,700 acres or 10 tons per acre, as compared
with 34,900 tons from 3,200 acres or 10.9 tons per acre in 1943.
The average prices up to December 31st received by growers at the point of production for the 1944 crops are estimated as follows, with the revised prices for 1943
within brackets: Cents per bushel—wheat, 98 (96) ; oats, 51 (50) ; barley, 66 (70) ;
rye, 86 (80) ; peas, 210 (190) ; beans, 215 (200) ; flax-seed, 244 (205) ; mixed grains,
63 (61). Dollars per ton—hay and clover, 18 (20) ; alfalfa, 18.5 (21) ; fodder corn,
6.3 (6);   potatoes, 38 (40);   turnips, etc., 19  (18).
The aggregate value of all field crops in 1944 is estimated at $22,287,000, as
compared with $22,822,000 in 1943.
The dairy industry this year has shown increased activity, particularly in the
Lower Mainland area where crop conditions have been good and market values for
fluid milk have been satisfactory. On the whole, production of most dairy products
shows a considerable increase.
Total milk production on farms amounted to 626,933,000 lb., representing a gain
of approximately 52,000,000 lb. over the 1943 production.
The butter output of creameries in 1944 was 5,639,338 lb., as compared with
4,874,787 lb. in 1943, an increase of 764,551 lb. or 15.6 per cent.
Factory cheese is estimated at 834,196 lb. in 1944, as compared with the final
estimate of 718,063 lb. in 1943, representing an increase of 116,133 lb. or 16.1 per cent.
The production of ice-cream was also greater than that of the previous year. The
combined output of ice-cream and ice-cream mix amounted to 1,688,426 gallons in 1944,
as compared with 1,669,659 gallons in 1943.
The production of evaporated milk is estimated at 576,625 cases in 1944, as against
549,733 cases in 1943, an increase of 26,892 cases.
The quantity of fresh milk consumed is estimated at 27,600,000 gallons in 1944,
as compared with 26,100,000 gallons in 1943.
Substantial increases are recorded in the 1944 production of skim-milk powder
and casein.
The total value of dairy production in 1944 is placed at $19,713,681, as compared
with the 1943 production of $18,438,111, an increase of $1,275,570.
A new high record of numbers of cattle on farms was established at June 1st of
this year.    The total of 381,500 head represents an increase of 5,500 head over numbers V 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
on farms a year previously. Numbers of cattle have been increasing throughout the
war period and this increase is now being reflected in increased marketings of cattle
and calves as well as an increase in total milk production. Prices for beef cattle were
somewhat below the prevailing prices for 1943.
A substantial increase is recorded in numbers of hens and chickens on farms at
June 1st.
The total numbers and values of farm live stock in British Columbia at June 1st,
1944, are estimated as follows, with the corresponding figures for 1943 within brackets:
Horses, 61,600, $6,198,000 (62,170, $6,428,000) ; milk cows, 96,300, $8,475,000 (93,700,
$8,058,000) ; other cattle, 285,200, $16,127,000 (282,300, $15,203,000) ; total cattle,
381,500, $24,602,000 (376,000, $23,261,000) ; sheep, 148,000, $1,655,000 (132,000, $1,475,-
000) ; hogs, 98,200, $1,727,000 (89,800, $1,439,000).
The total value of all these descriptions of farm live stock in 1944 amounted to
$34,182,000, as compared with $32,603,000 in 1943, an increase of $1,579,000.
The total numbers and values of farm poultry in 1944 are estimated as follows,
with the 1943 figures in brackets: Hens and chickens, 4,155,000, $5,111,000 (3,561,600,
$4,452,000) ; turkeys, 55,500, $200,000 (46,300, $155,000) ; geese, 8,000, $23,000 (8,500,
$24,000) ; ducks, 11,000, $15,400 (10,300, $14,400).
The total value of farm poultry in 1944 amounted to $5,349,400, as against
$4,645,400 in 1943.
The production of farm eggs in 1944 is estimated at 28,046,000 dozens, as compared with 24,041,000 dozens in 1943, an increase of 4,005,000 dozens or 16.6 per cent.
A considerable increase in new bee-keepers was again registered this year from
all parts of the Province. Due, however, to unfavourable weather conditions during
the greater part of the season the total honey-crop was considerably below normal.
Production in 1944 is estimated at 1,267,895 lb., of a value of $215,542, as compared
with 1,275,760 lb., of a value of $197,743, in 1943.
The season was generally favourable in so far as hops are concerned. Hops yielded
1,784,150 lb. from 1,521 acres, as compared with 1,554,800 lb. from 1,544 acres in 1943,
yields per acre of 1,173 lb. and 1,007 lb. respectively. The 1944 crop averaged 73 cents
per pound, as against an average of 70 cents per pound in 1943.
Tobacco yielded 143,000 lb., valued at $38,100, from 152 acres, as compared with
267,100 lb., valued at $63,600, from 220 acres in 1943, the yields per acre being 941 lb.
and 1,214 lb. respectively.
Due to increased planting in 1944 and satisfactory harvesting weather the estimated value of seed production greatly exceeded that of the previous year. The total
value of flower, vegetable, and field-crop seed production for the year 1944 amounted
to $1,789,631, as against $1,297,965 in 1943, an increase of $491,666 or 37.8 per cent.
The total value of floricultural and ornamental nursery stock, etc., sold during
the year amounted to $565,500, an increase of $22,900 over the total for the year
The value of bulb production for 1944 is placed at $283,500, as compared with
a value of $212,400 in 1943, an increase of $71,100 or 33.4 per cent.
The revenue derived from fur-farming during the year is placed at $360,000, as
compared with a value of $309,000 in 1943. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 31
Ernest MacGinnis, Commissioner.
This annual report, the seventh made during war years, reflects many changed
trends in the marketing and distribution of agricultural products during that period.
One of the most important influences was the system of firm contracts, notably
meat and eggs, made by the Dominion Agricultural Supplies Board, with which the
closest liaison has been maintained with Great Britain for certain commodities, finally
culminating in a deal for eggs and poultry meat which will not expire until the end
of 1947. Such contracts as these created a definite demand for the specific commodity
with a designated quality standard, and the problem became one of producing the food
with which to fill the order instead of seeking an outlet for a commodity already produced—a distinct reversal of the ordinary procedure. This led to the need of organizing
production and supplying labour for harvesting crops, which was further accentuated
after V-E Day and the resultant increased demand for food for many points in Europe.
It is gratifying to observe that all Boards set up under the " Natural Products
Marketing (British Columbia) Act " have contributed in no small way by their operation to the general stabilization and good name of the commodities for which they are
responsible. Perhaps their outstanding achievement has been the general maintenance
of high-quality standards throughout the period of the war. Scarcity of experienced
help for farms, transportation, packing-houses, and box-factories were but a few of the
problems with which commodity Boards had to contend. Despite the many handicaps
production has been of uniformly high quality and marketed in a condition which
should be of value in retaining old associations and in seeking new outlets in the postwar years.
The British Columbia Fruit Board was faced at the beginning of the war with
the problem of finding a market for half its apple-crop which was normally exported.
By the maintenance of high quality and aggressive marketing methods it has been
uniformly successful in disposing of these millions of boxes. In addition to powers
originally conferred upon it by the " Natural Products Marketing (British Columbia)
Act " through the British Columbia Fruit Board, its agency, Tree Fruits Limited,
developed a three-way contract with its growers and received certain further wartime powers from the Dominion Government. Altogether an outstanding job has been
done and British Columbia fruit-growers face the post-war era with a Canadian and
international reputation for choice varieties of fruit conveniently and attractively
packaged and of uniformly high quality.
In the 1944 report reference was made to a meeting of your Commissioner at
Edmonton with John A. Peacock, of the British Food Ministry, when the feasibility
of shipping fresh British Columbia eggs under refrigeration to the British market was
demonstrated. G. R. Wilson and W. Longfellow, representing the Dominion Government and the trade respectively, were present on that occasion to confirm technical
It is gratifying to record now that this autumn almost 3,000,000 dozens of British
Columbia fresh eggs were loaded at New Westminster on refrigerated ships for Liverpool, said to be a world's record shipment of eggs and valued at about $1,000,000. It is
further of interest to note that representations are being made which, when consummated, will lead to the complete implementation of the original proposal to Mr. Peacock
—the establishment of a refrigerated shipping service from British Columbia to British
ports as a regular feature from January to June. V 32
The quality of this product is uniformly high, all stock being reinspected before
shipment and showing a minimum of rejects.
In the matter of poultry meat a new and progressive trend is developing rapidly
in the establishment of up-to-date killing and grading stations at a number of important poultry-raising Fraser Valley centres.
Canadian potato production is only 70 per cent, of 1944 crop due to 5 per cent,
decrease in acreage and low yield per acre because of adverse weather conditions at
planting-time and prevalence of insects and disease in the growing season.
From the subjoined table it will be observed that British Columbia's estimated
86-per-cent. crop is due to a decline both in acreage (3 per cent.) and yield per acre
(10 per cent.).
Yield per Acre.
(Estimated. )
(Estimated. )
(Estimated. )
Cent, of
Trince Edward Island 	
Nova Scotia   	
Manitoba —  	
Saskatchewan   .'
Alberta   -
The United States potato-crop, however, is better than average, being 435,395,000
estimated bushels for 1945 compared with 379,436,000 for 1944, which was an average
crop. The State of Washington estimates 12,255,000 bushels for 1945, compared with
10,340,000 in 1944 and a ten-year average of 8,713,000.
The 1944 potato-crop supply became exhausted in the early spring of the following
year. Early potatoes were in large demand because of that shortage and they cleaned
up in considerably less than normal time. The digging of second earlies, therefore,
was undertaken several weeks before the usual time, the result being that a smaller
tonnage was produced of both these crops. The 1945 main crop was called upon to
supply the demand at a time normally filled by second earlies; the net result has been
that serious inroads were made on the 1945 main crop and this, associated with slightly
smaller acreage and lighter yields, has upset growers' calculations. This condition is
more acute across Canada but it will be possible to import potatoes later on in the
season from the United States. Of the three large producing areas in Alberta, Leth-
bridge and Brooks are normal but Edmonton had a much lower than normal yield.
This condition, together with a crop failure in Eastern Alberta and Western Saskatchewan, made heavy inroads on available stocks produced in Alberta with resultant heavier
than usual demand being made upon British Columbia supplies.
The needs of processors for the production of glucose is a comparatively new element in the Lower Mainland potato picture, 1,900 tons of local potatoes having been
purchased by the plant during the year. In addition an almost equal quantity was
imported for use in this way.
In the Interior of the Province the diversion of potatoes to dehydration, largely
to the account of the Special Products Board, had a direct impact on the increased DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945.
V 33
production shown and with a withdrawal or curtailment of these orders the general
production picture would appear to require considerable reduction.
Interior Vegetable Marketing Board.
Sales to
Sales for
1942 _	
1943  ....	
Returns as agency sales averaged $29.25 per ton on potatoes processed and $36.73
to the fresh market, an average of $34.63 during the war period. The part played by
controlled marketing in this record can not be fully appreciated.
The apple-crop on the North American continent for 1945 was much below average.
As estimated on October 1st the apple-crop of thirty-five States was 66,754,000 bushels,
compared with 124,754,000 bushels in 1944 and a ten-year average of 119,046,000
Conditions in Canada are almost identical, as shown in the October estimate
Crop, 1944.                Est174|ted'
per Cent,
of 1944.
This continent-wide catastrophe to apple-growers resulted largely from adverse
weather conditions early in the season and will be reflected in the marketings of
British Columbia fruit, the only Province with a crop up to average. The growers'
closely knit selling organization, Tree Fruits, Limited, is doing an efficient job in
meeting the demand in a systematic way, using quotas on former sales as a basis
for distribution.
Some 100,000 new type of apple-cartons are being packed in the Okanagan Valley
in an experiment to market the fruit in bruise-proof packets. At the packing-houses
the apples instead of going into wooden boxes are each nested in a fibre tray like eggs
in egg-crates. Trays of apples are then placed in the corrugated cartons which have
wooden posts in each corner to take the weight when the boxes are packed. V 34
Table showing the Values of Named Fruits produced in British Columbia
during the war-years 1940-44.
Plums and
Apples    $39,039,000
Pears        3,827,000
Stone-fruits      $11,440,000
Berries        7,458,000
It is possible to list a few of the horticultural products sent from British Columbia
to Great Britain during the war years and to show the quantities.
Strawberries and raspberries, 8,275,510 lb., valued at $750,000; 2,724,966 boxes
of fresh apples valued at over $3,750,000; evaporated apples, 6,750,000 lb., valued at
$500,000. In addition, 4,000,000 lb. of green-gages, prunes, plums, and black currants
valued at $175,000. Millions of pounds of vegetables in dehydrated form and almost
a million pounds of fresh onions were also shipped. A commodity breakdown under
" processing " from the British Columbia Interior Vegetable Marketing Board, 1939-44
crops, appearing in another section of this report, shows a marvellous increase in the
production of vegetables processed for shipment overseas.
Matters of outstanding importance to this Province which were discussed at meetings of mthe Western Section of the National Committee on Agricultural Engineering
(L. B. Thomson, Chairman) included land-clearing, rural electrification, farm buildings,
and the use of the aeroplane in agriculture both in farming operations and the transportation of perishable food products by air.
A resolution was passed incorporating the following: " That a sub-committee on
land clearing and development be set up immediately, that special service be given to
British Columbia by training agricultural engineers, the personnel of which is suggested from the Western Section to (a) study the needs of British Columbia, (6) survey
the experience in Canada and the United States, and (c) survey and report for all
post-war plans to guide emergent post-war development plans."
Interim reports by the sub-committee on rural electrification, of which G. N. Denike
is Chairman, on the two test areas in Alberta, where special study is being given to the
problems of rural electrification, were presented and it was decided to ask the National
Committee on Agricultural Engineering to prepare an adequate code covering farm
The relation of the Canadian Standards Association to the United Nations Standards Co-ordinating Committee and the need for standardization of components of farm
equipment, such as bearings, wheels, guards, tires, etc., was presented, indicating that
grades of steel and methods of heat treatment were now receiving special attention.
It was noted that some marked degree of interchangeability had been accepted in so far
as attachments were concerned but component parts needed to be standardized to a far
greater extent than at present, and the opinion of the Committee was that standardization of parts should achieve the maximum of interchangeability. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 35
An interim report on the result of the farm machinery survey made in Alberta
included the following general observations: The post-war demand for new equipment
promised to be very heavy with a general trend towards modernization and a strong
trend towards power equipment for the newer areas. It was interesting to note that
a very large proportion of the cost of new machinery would be paid for in cash with
a small percentage to be carried on notes.
The Farm Buildings Sub-committee (Prof. J. MacGregor Smith, Chairman)
reported progress and that plans for buildings would be sent, when found suitable, to
the Chairman of the National Agricultural Engineering Committee, to be carried
through in consultation with and under the direction of the Chief Architect, Central
Experimental Farms, Ottawa. Farm-houses, cottages for farm-help, farm-workshops,
piggeries, and barns, their plans, roofing, water-supply, and sewage-disposal systems
are some of the items covered in the work of the sub-committee.
A new sub-committee (Prof. J. R. W. Young and your Commissioner) has been
appointed to secure information relative to the present and possible future use of the
aeroplane in agriculture, (a) in farm and ranch operations and (o) in the transportation of perishable commodities to market, and already inquiries are under way considering such controlling factors as optimum maturity, temperature and time as affecting
such living and perishable products in our choicest varieties of fruit and vegetables.
Consideration is also being given in the field of transportation to such items as
continuity of operation, pay-loads both ways, minimum hauls, temperature-controls,
and other basic features fundamental to a commercially profitable venture.
During the year it was my privilege to attend the convention of the Canadian
Federation of Agriculture at Regina, when a draft for Dominion-wide Marketing Act
covering natural products was approved. I also attended a meeting of the British
Columbia Fruit-growers' Association Convention at Kelowna, and the Western Section
of the National Agricultural Engineering Committee—two meetings, one at Edmonton
and one at Winnipeg.    The Elko Community Stock Sale in September was also attended.
During the year I spent a great deal of time in Vancouver in connection with the
important work being done for production by the Dominion-Provincial Emergency
Farm Labour Service. No trips have been undertaken during the year on purely
marketing matters.
The whole marketing set-up with Dominion contracts and controls, the question of
floor prices, export credits, the impact of U.N.R.R.A. and F.A.O., and possibility of the
necessity for the establishment of quotas if buying power is not fully sustained are
being watched very closely.
In conclusion, during the year the finest co-operation has been extended by the
officials of the Dominion Fruit Inspection Branch and all Provincial Departments with
which we had had any dealings.
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist.
Climatic conditions during the past year have, on the whole, been most satisfactory.
The winter period in the coast areas was mild with heavy rains in some sections, resulting in the flooding of low-lying lands. In the Interior the weather was moderate with
no extremes of temperature. Snowfall was light and carried a high moisture content
which helped to fill irrigation reservoirs.    The spring, in all sections, was cool and V 36
backward, and while the blossoming period was about the same as last year the continued cool weather delayed the ripening of small fruits in coastal sections and the
setting-out of such crops as tomatoes in the Interior.
The following table indicates the blossoming dates over a period of years in the
Kelowna district:—
Apricots ..'   	
Apr.    1
Apr.  16
Apr. 20
Apr. 25
Apr. 15
Apr. 24
Apr. 28
May    8
Apr. 22
May     1
May    3
May  15
Apr. 20
Apr. 27
Apr. 29
May  10
Apr. 22
Pears      —	
May     6
May   15
Fine, and in the Interior particularly, warm weather prevailed during the summer
months. This was for the most part continuous until about the middle of October and
was marked by low precipitation. Since the middle of October there have been heavy
rains in the coastal sections. In the Okanagan and Kootenay districts rain has also
been general with some snowfall during the early part of November. While no 1owt
temperatures have to date been recorded the thermometer in some Interior fruit areas
did drop to slightly above zero. Present indications are that there will be a satisfactory
supply of soil-moisture for trees and other over-wintering crops.
Tree and Small Fruits.
Final figures indicating the total fruit production for the current year are not 5Tet
available. The following table, however, shows the actual production for 1944 and
the estimated production for 1945 as compiled on November 1st of this year:—
Prices on all fruits were established by the Wartime Prices and Trade Board.
The price for strawberries may be taken as an example and the following extract from
the report of E. W. White, District Horticulturist, details the arrangement so clearly
it has been thought advisable to quote it:—
" The basic price of $3.48 per 24-pint crate was maintained but Vancouver Island
growers were allowed an express differential of 22 cents per crate, making the price
to the grower $3.70.    Wholesale and retail mark-up was cut from 1944 for the first DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 37
period. The wholesaler was allowed 41 cents, making the price $4.11, and the retailer
was allowed 96 cents, making the price to the consumer $5.07. Individual hallocks
were sold at 21 cents each which actually brought the price to $5.04 per crate. These
prices were to cover the period June 1st to 18th but owing to the lateness of the season
the date was extended to June 25th. The basic price for the second price period was
$2.88 plus 22 cents, or $3.10 to the grower, wholesale mark-up 34 cents, $3.44, retail
mark-up 88 cents or $4.32 per crate to the consumer. Individual hallocks retailed for
18 cents. Wholesale and retail mark-ups were higher for the second period than in
1944. The price to the consumer was cut for the first period but increased slightly
for the second period.
" As in 1944 most of the crop was sold direct to the retailer or consumer. Very
few berries were sold retail during the second price period as a strong demand developed
from the various processors and offers up to 32 cents per pound of fruit were made.
This only lasted for a day or two and most of the tonnage was sold at 25 cents per
pound.   A considerable tonnage was moved at the end of the season to the processors."
Strawberries, raspberries, and blackberries show some increase over the 1944
crop with but little change in production from that of the previous year in so far as
loganberries and other small fruits are concerned. Based upon the 1945 demand and
plantings which have been made during the past two years the prospects are for an
increased production in 1946, particularly of strawberries and raspberries.
Following the peak year of 1944 when a record production of over 8,500,000 boxes
of apples were shipped, the 1945 crop showed a considerable reduction with an estimated production of approximately 5,500,000 boxes. Plums and apricots also showed
a reduction. On the other hand pears, peaches, prunes, and cherries show an increase,
this being particularly noticeable in the case of peaches. This peach-crop was the
largest ever recorded and if extreme hot weather during the early part of the season
had not reduced the size of the fruit the crop would have been much heavier.
In the annual reports of this Branch for the past two years attention has been
drawn to the fact that orcharding, and particularly the production of apples, was a
long-time proposition. Furthermore it has been pointed out that many orchards were
showing a declining yield due to age. These facts have been ably presented in the
past by B. Hoy, District Field Inspector, Kelowna. In his 1945 report Mr. Hoy again
presents certain facts relative to orchard practices, which are herewith submitted:—
" The apple-crop this year was considerably smaller than in 1944, estimates of
varying agencies ranging from 55 to 65 per cent. Trees generally made good growth
and the size of fruit was good. Packing agencies complained that quality was not as
good as desired. They would like to see firmer apples with a larger percentage of red
colour, especially in Mcintosh. On our lighter, well-drained soils this is relatively easy
to accomplish in young and medium-aged orchards but on the heavier soil it has
always been a problem. This problem is greater in older orchards because of difficulties in handling cover-crops and cultural practices generally. Many of the old
trees are very crowded and unless fertilized reasonably heavy the size of fruit is
small and crops light. Fertilizer increases growth and size of foliage and the apples
produced do not have as good finish and quality as apples harvested from these trees
ten to fifteen years ago.
" There is an opinion among many that the use of a non-nitrogenous sod crop
supplemented with fertilizer may be the answer to the above problem. By this method
it is considered easier to control the amount of nitrogen. A few growers have seeded
their orchards to sod crops and are practising this method. It will be a few years
before we can be sure that this practice will be any better than those methods now
commonly used. " The removal of every other tree in some of our old orchards where the trees are
very large is being considered by some growers. Many of them are of the opinion
that something of this sort is necessary but only a very few have actually removed
trees to give more growing space to those that are left. In orchards where it has been
done the owners are pleased with the results.
" It is probable that wider spacing, so as to let in more sunlight and air and
provide more room for tree development combined with good cultural practices, will
result in better quality of fruit at a lower production cost per box.
" The only other alternative in many of our crowded orchards seems to be a gradual
renewal of the orchard.
" Growers who contemplate thinning out their orchards during the next few years
should, perhaps, have their attention drawn to pruning practices. It would be better
to do the most severe pruning on those trees that are to be removed. The present
system is to prune all trees alike. Where trees are crowding badly and heavy heading-
back of side branches is practised it will be found that all trees are denuded of much
of their fruiting wood. By doing the most severe pruning on the trees marked for
removal the remaining trees would have the advantage of more growing space and be
in better condition when the final removal takes place. The problem of handling old
orchards is one that requires considerable attention."
It should be noted at this time that an orchard survey of the Okanagan and Kootenay tree-fruit plantings is made every five years. The first was completed in 1920
and during the past year a survey similar to those in the past has been conducted.
This survey will be completed in so far as field-work is concerned about the end of
1945. Tabulation of figures collected will be undertaken next year and publication
of the completed charts will also be made at that time.
Vegetable acreage shows very little change from that of last year. The following
table shows the estimated acreage of some of the most important vegetable-crops for
1944   and   1945:  Estimated Estimated
Acreage, Acreage,
Kind. 1944. 1945.
Tomatoes  _•_  3,592 3,588
Onions   1,399 1,236
Lettuce       731 746
Celery      496 447
Cucumbers       241 262
Cabbage   1,009 1,121
Cantaloupes       295 237
While there is little difference between the 1944 and 1945 acreages planted to
tomatoes, the late plantings necessitated by spring conditions considerably hampered
the development of the plants. Production was also curtailed in some districts by early
fall frosts. The total tonnage is not expected to be any larger than last year. The
tonnage of onions produced will be but slightly lower than that of 1944 as while the
spring was backward the growing season generally was good and harvesting conditions excellent.
Lettuce and celery crops were satisfactory although the early crops were a little
later than usual. In some sections losses from celery-blight were reduced by effective
dusting with copper-lime dust. Some loss was suffered, however, in certain districts
from the early November frosts.
There has, during the war years, been a considerable acreage planted to vegetables,
such as cabbage, carrots, etc., which have been used for dehydration purposes.    Due DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945.
V 39
to the fact that there will not be the same need in the future for this type of product
it is not unlikely that acreages of many of these crops will be reduced in 1946.
Greenhouse production of vegetables shows little change from that of previous
year. There was approximately the same production of greenhouse tomatoes as in
the past. On the other hand greenhouse cucumbers show a slight reduction. These
are the two principal vegetables grown under glass.
A survey of the greenhouse area in the Province was made during the past season
and the details of the survey are given in the following table:—
Greenhouse Survey, 1945.
No. of
No. of
Area in
Square Feet.
Totals    .
Other Horticultural Crops.
Grapes.—At the present time the principal plantings are in the Okanagan. The
largest acreage is around Kelowna but vineyards are found as far north as Vernon;
there is also a small acreage in the Oliver-Osoyoos area. Small plantings have also
been made in the Fraser Valley and on Vancouver Island. The total Provincial planting is about 475 acres.
Blueberries.—This crop is cultivated and produced in a commercial way only in
the Fraser Valley and principally on Lulu Island and in the vicinity of New Westminster. With the acreage that has been planted during the past two years there
should be considerable tonnage within a couple of years. There seems to be a demand
for this crop both as fresh fruit and for freezing purposes. No difficulty is anticipated
in marketing the future crop.
Nuts.—Marked interest has been shown in the production of filberts, walnuts, etc.,
during the past few years. There have been small plantings in many parts of the
southern part of the Province. None of these plantings, however, can be considered
commercial except those made in the Fraser Valley and on Vancouver Island. Relative
to plantings in the Fraser Valley, G. E. W. Clarke, District Horticulturist, reports as
" Filberts are the most extensively planted of the nuts, and with the prices being
obtained numerous inquiries are received throughout the year as to the possibilities
and future of this crop. During the war considerable new acreage has been set out
and in a few years production will reach a considerable tonnage. The increasing
yields are bringing more attention to the matters of cleaning, drying, and grading,
which is necessary for the handling of a desirable, high-quality product.
" The planting of walnuts and chestnuts is receiving attention but as trees take
so many years to come into bearing few plantings are being set out in an extensive way.
"Almonds are not being grown on an extensive scale although there is a large
number of trees throughout the district.
" The Pioneer, a hard-shelled almond, is an attractive type of tree, bears early and
fairly well. Other varieties have not proven satisfactory from the standpoint of
Hops.—The major plantings of hops are in the vicinity of Agassiz and Sardis in
the Fraser Valley and Kamloops in the Interior.    Coast plantings show little change V 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
in acreage. New plantings have been made in the Interior and it is believed that these
plantings will be considerably extended during the next few years. Harvesting was
carried out this year under most satisfactory weather conditions.
Tobacco.—Tobacco is grown only in the Fraser Valley and the acreage has dropped
during the war years from over 400 acres to 140 acres in 1945. Spring planting conditions were unsatisfactory due to weather conditions. The crop made a good growth and
was harvested satisfactorily. This crop is of the Virginia flue-cured type and is baled
here and shipped east for further processing.
Bulbs.—The production of bulbs such as narcissi, tulips, iris, all show a decided
increase. The following table indicates the results of bulb-surveys as made every two
years since 1929:—
Year. No. of Acres. Year. No. of Acres.
1929  159% 1939  257%
1931  200 1941  315y2
1933  203V2 1943  360%
1935  209% 1945  482%
1937  249y2
An inspection of bulb-fields is made each spring by Dominion and Provincial
officials. This inspection is of value to the producers in that it brings to their attention
the presence of various diseases, and at the same time recommendations are made as to
the best controls to follow. Over a period of years a marked improvement has been
noted. While this inspection service is at present voluntary the time will undoubtedly
come when growers will request not only that field inspection will be compulsory but
some form of compulsory bulb inspection previous to shipping shall be put into effect.
Seed production in British Columbia has shown a marked increase during the past
six years. Growers across Canada were requested to increase their seed production in
order to meet the needs of not only the domestic market but also the requirements of
the British and other countries. The result is that at the present time British Columbia produces approximately 70 per cent, of the total Canadian vegetable-seed production.
The estimated value of vegetable-seeds for 1945 stands at $1,302,666.
At the present time the outlook for future seed production of all kinds does not
look very satisfactory as contracts for 1946 production are far below those of the past
four years.
An excellent review of the whole situation is given in the report for 1945 as
prepared by J. L. Webster, Horticulturist, who is in charge of the seed extension
programme for the Province. Extracts from Mr. Webster's report are herewith
"Estimates and Yields, 1944 and 1945.—Production of carrot and onion seed shows
a noticeable increase over 1944. In fact both these items will apparently be the largest
ever harvested in the Province. A few other crops will probably show a slight increase,
especially lettuce and cucumber. However, some other items, including beet, cauliflower, parsnip, radish, spinach, and turnip, will be noticeably down from 1944.
" Compilation of the values made from the November estimates indicates that the
total returns for 1945 vegetable-seed production will be approximately the same or
slightly more than the record 1944 totals.
" The prospects for contracts for vegetable-seed for 1946 do not appear to be
bright and it is expected production for that year may be down very considerably
unless market prospects improve. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 41
" The following is a comparison of 1944 yields with estimated production for 1945,
calculated from our November estimate:—
" British Columbia Seed Production.
"Vegetable-seed. ,„.. ,__ i.945-  .,
a 1944. (Estimated.)
Kind. Lb. Lb.
Asparagus   75 100
Beans   215,000 357,000
Beets  65,000 45,000
Broccoli   25            	
Brussels sprouts   50            	
Borecole or kale  130            	
Cabbage    6,300 11,700
Carrots   222,000 260,000
Cauliflower   5,636 2,090
Corn  (sweet)    30,000 25,000
Cucumber    9,000 16,300
Leek   4,800 3,150
Lettuce   30,000 58,900
Muskmelon   150 550
Onion   223,000 320,000
Onion-sets   29,000 28,000
Parsley   530 400
Parsnips   30,600 13,100
Peas  • 1,900,000 2,046,000
Pepper   65 110
Pumpkin    1,800 1,700
Radish   140,000 115,000
Spinach   35,900 20,900
Squash   4,500 2,800
Tomato   5,700 3,600
Turnip, Swede   103,000 47,000
Vegetable marrow   10,300 14,100
Watermelon   120 500
Citron _-_ _      230
Totals   3,072,681 3,393,230
" General Comments on the Seed Industry in British Columbia.—The climatic and
soil conditions of certain parts of British Columbia have been shown to be well suited
to the production of high-quality seed of many of the vegetable-crops.
" During the rapid expansion in seed-growing which has taken place during the
past four years a great deal has been learned regarding the adaptability or suitability
of the various districts to a wide range of seed-crops.
" The term ' adaptability or suitability ' in so far as our work with seed production
is concerned chiefly refers to economic or competitive production. Factors which determine the most suitable districts are: The number of seed-crop failures in a district over
a period of years: the average yield per acre compared to other districts; freedom from
serious diseases or pests; extent of suitable land available; and how these seed-crops
fit into the rotation or farm practice in the district.
" Cost of production is now becoming more of a factor than has been the case in
the past because of the decline in prices.    Climate, soil, and mechanization of seed- V 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
growing largely determine cost of production and suitability of district for economic
production. The seed market is now becoming very competitive owing to seed surpluses in various lines which were built up because of the war emergency. A number
of European countries which formerly exported large quantities of seed have again
entered the picture and some are offering substantial quantities of seed at fairly low
" While substantial quantities of vegetable-seed are purchased on the open or ' spot'
market the larger amounts are usually contracted for in advance. At the present time
seed firms, especially wholesale seed dealers, are very cautious in regard to contracting
or buying and appear to be waiting until various lots of surplus seed are offered at
what they anticipate will be a comparatively low price.
" The vegetable-seed requirements of Great Britain have now been largely satisfied
by our previous two years' contracts with the Special Products Board at Ottawa and the
large United States deliveries through Lend-Lease.
" Very considerable amounts of surplus seed have been turned over to U.N.R.R.A.
and distributed to various parts of the world. It is hoped our Government will see fit
to direct further surpluses to U.N.R.R.A.
" It is now evident, due to the monetary difficulties in Great Britain, that little
seed will be required for export to that country.
" Up until the time of writing the British Government has not allowed British
firms to resume trading direct with Canadian firms—in other words, no seed imports
are as yet permitted by the British Government. Apparently certain British firms
could place contracts in this Province for considerable flower-seed and certain varieties
of vegetable-seed if the British Government would allow trading direct with British
seed firms.
" Seed distributed.—In former years seeds of considerable value were obtained by
this Department and distributed to seed-growers throughout the Province. As the
industry has since developed and is now in a good financial position it is able to obtain
most of its own seed requirements from the wholesale firms with which it is dealing.
We have constantly been in the position of advising the various firms wThat strains to
purchase and to suggest sources of supply.
" Because of our rather handicapped position with regard to offering hybrid corn-
seed it was felt necessary to make a start in production. Accordingly two shipments
of inbred lines to produce Golden Cross Bantam were obtained from Purdue University
and distributed to two British Columbia firms.
" In addition 60 lb. of Rust Resistant Kentucky Wonder bean-seed were obtained
to commence seed production of this resistant strain. Substantial amounts of two
new beans and two squash were also obtained and distributed. Assistance was given
the Field Crops Branch in obtaining three lots of single cross hybrid field corn of the
following varieties:  Canada 355, 531, and 625.
" Other hybrid sweet corn stocks were obtained for trial as well as two hybrid
cucumber and four hybrid tomatoes.
" Inspection Trips.—Three inspection trips of approximately three to four weeks'
duration are made through the Southern Interior each year. These are made during
approximately the following dates: April 1st to 25th, to coincide with spring planting;
July 1st to August 15th, to check on crop performance of various strains; October 1st
to November 1st, to advise on harvesting, threshing, cleaning, and storage of roots
and bulbs.
" In the Fraser Valley and on Vancouver Island various trips are made during
different times of the year.
" Owing to the large number of seed-growers (over 500) who are scattered
throughout the various districts it is now virtually impossible to call on all of them. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 43
It should be noted that the various contracting seed firms now each have a number of
fieldmen whose duties are to continually check on the growing crops. In addition the
District Inspectors (Provincial) are now more experienced and better able to advise on
seed-growers' problems in these respective districts.
" It might be also noted that as most of our vegetable-seed crops are grown for
certification they are inspected at proper intervals by a Seed Inspector of the Dominion
Department of Agriculture.
" Although it is not possible for us to visit growers as frequently as in previous
years when there were fewer growers, they are, on the whole, fairly well taken care of
by the several Departments concerned.
" Field and Flower Seed.—While vegetable-seed work has occupied the major part
of our time, two other phases of seed work have been receiving considerable attention—
namely, the growing of field-crop seed and flower-seed.
" The field-crop seed work in some respects overlaps vegetable-seed in that the
field roots, principally mangel, sugar-beet, Swede turnip, and field carrot, have always
been included in our work.
" Some assistance has been given to growers of field-corn seed, both open-pollinated
and hybrid, also alfalfa and red clover. To a lesser extent some seed-growers of field
peas, vetch, alsike clover, orchard-grass, perennial rye, kale, and rape have been
" In connection with field corn it may be of interest to report that three crops of
the hybrid seed-corn have been grown in British Columbia during the past four years.
These were as follows: One acre Ontario 531, by A. Woods, Sicamous, 1941; one acre
Canada 355, by J. W. Owen, Ashcroft, 1943; three acres Canada 625, by G. A. Luyat,
Kamloops, 1945. The above were all double-cross hybrids and produced from single-
cross material procured from the Experimental Farm at Ridgetown, Ontario, by this
Department. The hybrid seed grown to date has germinated well and crops produced
from them have compared favourably with that from the same hybrid varieties obtained
from Ontario.
" Corn-growing has been stimulated in the Southern Interior because of successful
crops which have been secured and because of the need for seed-corn and also the
complete lack of feed-grain corn in British Columbia. In co-operation with the Acting
Field Crops Commissioner and the Department of Agriculture at Kamloops several
trial lots of early or grain hybrid types were distributed. (This is apart from the
work done by others on hybrid silage types.) There is an excellent opportunity to
produce a good portion of our British Columbia seed-corn requirement in several parts
of South Central British Columbia, principally in the Kamloops district. In addition it
has been demonstrated that grain corn can be economically produced, using the new
early-maturing hybrids. In the Kamloops district and certain sections of the Okanagan,
Lillooet, Lytton, and Ashcroft districts there are many large farms where grain corn
can be very profitably grown. The Kamloops district could quite conceivably become
quite an important feeder district for finishing cattle from the South Central Interior.
"A trip through the cattle-ranging country from Merritt to Westwold has been
previously reported, describing the very limited stands of alfalfa and other good hay-
crop plants. A good opportunity exists in this area for the growing of intensive
acreages of alfalfa-seed of the hardy varieties, such as Grimm's and Ladak.
" Recommendations for a change in the system of alfalfa-seed growing in the
North Okanagan have been made. Two of the more important suggestions are that an
early spring clip be first taken from fields to be saved for seed, also that thin stands be
specially sown for seed-producing fields.
" Seeding dates for the over-wintering of Swede turnip and sugar-beet stecklings
have been studied and reported on. V 44
" Efforts have been made to encourage the growing of more perennial rye and
orchard-grass for seed in the Fraser Valley.
" Flower-seed growing has expanded considerably in the last three years, as will
be noted from the total values of each of the last two years and the tentative estimate
of $150,000 for 1945. There are approximately forty farmers or gardeners growing
seed for three British Columbia contracting firms. An effort has been made to assist
where possible in various problems pertaining to the growing of certain kinds and
varieties. A bulletin on flower-seed growing is being prepared at the present time,
which is entailing considerable time and effort."
Fire-blight Inspection.
A factor in the control of fire-blight in the Okanagan fruit districts has been the
continuous fire-blight inspection which has been carried out each year. The following
table indicates the acreage inspected during the past season:—
Total Acres
and passed.
Penticton    _.	
13.198                     13 106
Nursery Stock Inspection.
All nurseries were inspected as in the past and all nursery stock produced, with
the exception of ornamentals, was passed or rejected, depending upon condition. The
following table indicates briefly the results of the past season's work:—
Thirty-three inspections made; 2.8 per cent, of inspected stock condemned.
Bacterial Ring-rot Control.
British Columbia has up to the present been very fortunate in the fact that there
has been but very little bacterial ring-rot make its appearance in the potato-producing
areas. Several small outbreaks which have occurred have been satisfactorily dealt
with. The largest outbreak to date was found this year in the Comox Valley on Vancouver Island. All farms on which ring-rot was found have been quarantined and the
crop dealt with according to regulations. This area will be carefully watched from now
on for the next two years and every attempt made to eliminate this disease.
This Province is one of the few areas where ring-rot is practically non-existent—
a rather important fact, not only from the standpoint of possible loss to the producers DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 45
but also because British Columbia each year is increasing her export of certified seed-
potatoes.    The fact that ring-rot is not present is undoubtedly a factor in this trade.
Pear Psylla Control.
In the four years that pear psylla has been present in the Province there has been
a gradual extension of the infested area. First making its appearance in the Oliver
district of the Southern Okanagan it has gradually extended northward. This year it
was found as far north as Vernon.
In 1943 and 1944 spraying work was carried out in all infested orchards by the
officials of the United States Department of Agriculture. This year, due to the extension of area and their inability to supply spraying equipment, these officials found that
they would have to curtail their work. They agreed to and did supply the necessary
nicotine, and with some equipment which they also supplied and the co-operation of the
growers sprays were applied throughout Summerland and south to the International
Boundary. In this work the Provincial and Dominion Department of Agriculture
officials co-operated. The necessary scouting work was, during the remainder of the
season, carried out by Dominion and United States Department of Agriculture officials.
What the programme may be for 1946 in so far as this work is concerned has not yet
been decided. It would appear, however, that due to the fact that this pest is so widespread it now becomes a matter for growers to deal with through the medium of their
regular spraying schedules.
Pruning Demonstrations.
Pruning demonstrations were held at various points throughout the Province.
The following table indicates the main facts relative to such demonstrations:—
No. of No. of
District. Demonstrations. Pupils.
Vancouver Island  13 574
Lower Mainland  10 331
Okanagan      7 228
Totals  30 1,133
Trial of Washington State Forcing Tomato.
The report of this trial work is submitted by E. W. White, District Horticulturist:—
" Seed of this new forcing or greenhouse tomato was secured January 4th, 1945,
from Dr. C. L. Vincent, Associate Horticulturist, The State College of Washington,
Pullman, Wash., where it was developed.    The seed was placed with Riddle Bros.,
Vernon Street, Victoria, for trial on January 6th, 1945.
" The seed was planted about January 20th and four double rows (about sixty-four
plants) were set out in a late greenhouse about April 1st. The balance of the house
was V.121. This variety has proved quite satisfactory from one season's test. The
plants were more vigorous than V.121 and the fruit was larger but there were not so
many fruits to a truss. The average yield would be about the same. The season of
ripening was about the same as V.121 and the fruit was smooth and well formed,
However, Riddle Bros, would not consider discarding V.121 for Washington State
Forcing at the present time. It is planned to grow more plants for the early main crop
next year and give it a further test." Bean Trials for Rust Resistance.
This trial work was undertaken during the past season in the Fraser Valley and
was under the supervision of G. E. W. Clarke, District Horticulturist. Mr. Clarke's
report follows:—
" In recent years bean rust in some of the bean-growing areas of the Fraser Valley
resulted in considerable loss and damage to the cannery crops in particular.
" The Kentucky Wonder is the variety preferred by some of the canners, but due
to the increase in rust growers are hesitant to grow this variety. The Blue Lake, a
pole bean variety, while not quite as good a bean in quality and texture, has been more
resistant to this disease and for this reason has produced yields of 4 and 5 tons and
under good conditions 8 and 9 tons to the acre.
" This past year, while a late season, rust infections were not as severe as in the
two previous years of 1943 and 1944. There was, however, very little contracted
acreage in the- Matsqui district.
" D. Rennie, Matsqui, contracted with the cannery to grow one-half acre of beans.
Mr. Rennie grew Rust-resistant Kentucky Wonder on trial in 1944 and agreed to grow
one-quarter acre of Kentucky Wonder and one-quarter acre of the Rust-resistant
Kentucky Wonder. This latter variety was obtained by the Provincial Horticultural
Branch, Victoria, B.C.
" The Rust-resistant Kentucky Wonder was seeded on land which had been severely
infected with bean rust the previous year.
" The Kentucky Wonder was seeded at a distance of 50 yards where beans had not
been grown previously. A few scattered hills of Rust-resistant Kentucky Wonder were
seeded in the planting of Kentucky Wonder.
" Picking of beans on the Kentucky Wonder planting commenced August 10th and
prospects were favourable for a good crop but as picking advanced bean rust became
general and yields decreased, and picking on this planting stopped on September 12th
as bean rust became general in the beans.
" The Rust-resistant Kentucky Wonder beans were later maturing as picking- did
not start until August 20th. Picking of beans continued until October 5th. This
variety is resistant to the development of bean rust, but during September rust was to
be noted to a minor extent on some of the foliage but was not in evidence on the beans.
" The scattered hills of Rust-resistant Kentucky Wonder in the Kentucky Wonder
planting, while showing evidence of rust infection on the foliage, remained strong and
vigorous while the Kentucky Wonder were defoliated and withered with the infection.
"Returns show yields for the season: Kentucky Wonder, 1,850 lb., and Rust-
resistant Kentucky Wonder, 2,700 lb.
" The Rust-resistant Kentucky Wonder closely resembles the Kentucky Wonder but
the bean is slightly smoother and of better texture with very little evidence of string
even when oversized. The length of time required to mature is considered a drawback
under some conditions."
Deblossoming Sprays.
Deblossoming spraying-work as carried out in the Vernon district was undertaken
under the supervision of H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector. The following is taken
from his report:—
" This project, commenced in 1943, is being continued in an effort to establish the
value of chemicals as a thinning agent on apples.
" The excellent co-operation of T. P. Hill, Manager of the Coldstream Ranch, in
providing the same block of Wealthy apple-trees annually, thus giving continuity to the
work, is deeply appreciated. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 47
"It is unfortunate that results from the work in 1945 can not be considered reliable
owing to disturbance of proper functioning of the trees, caused by variable bud and
twig injury from the application of a dormant oil spray for control of oyster-shell scale.
" This injury varied from light to heavy spur-bud kill, also weakening and retardation of growth in development of unkilled buds, as indicated by weak undersized
blossoms and spur leaves and very uneven opening of the clusters. On the pre-blossom
sprayed plots this injury appeared to be aggravated by the dinitro compounds.
" Outside of the oil-killed spurs and twigs all trees were back in good growth by
late July.    No attempt was made this season to evaluate influence on biennial bearing.
" The work was carried out by your official, assisted by W. Baverstock.
" Materials used were dinitro-ortho-cresol, ammoniated dinitro-ortho-cresylate, and
dinitro-cyclohexylphenol, with sodium lauryl sulphate as the wetting agent. Quantities
used as noted in the formula are the materials as supplied by manufacturers.
" Spray applied, pink, May 19th; Weather clear and warm.
" Spray applied, full blossom, May 25th: Partly cloudy and hot.
" Blossom-kill and foliage-injury check made May 28th.
" Thinning results checked July 9th and August 8th.
" Pre-blossom Spray.
" Plot 1: Dinitro-ortho-cresol 40 per Cent, at 4 Lb. per 100 Gals.
Foliage-injury medium to severe. Blossom-kill heavy. Thinning results.
Crop light to medium, fruit well thinned, only slight bunching. Fruit
size medium, fairly uniform, good.
" Full-blossom Sprays.
"Plots 2 and 9:  Ammoniated Dinitro-ortho-cresylate 50 per Cent, at 2x/\_ Lb. per
100 Gals.
These two plots were grouped on account of light crop prospects on many trees.
Foliage-injury light.    Blossom-kill medium.    Thinning results very fair
to good, slight bunching, quite a few doubles but all fruit sizing well, good.
" Plot 3:  Check—no Sprays.
On trees in crop fruit heavily clustered, early thinning required to ensure
fruit sizing.
" Plot 4:  Dinitro-ortho-cresol 40 per Cent, at 2.2 Lb. per 100 Gals.
Foliage-injury light.    Blossom-kill medium.    Thinning results very fair, clusters still too bunchy.    Fruit size uneven.
" Plot 5: Dinitro-ortho-cresol 40 per Cent, at 3 Lb. per 100 Gals.
Foliage-injury medium.    Blossom-kill medium to heavy.    Thinning results—
crop too much reduced, clusters still too bunchy.    Fruit size medium to
" Plot 6: Dinitro-cyclohexylphenol 40 per Cent, at 2.2 Lb. per 100 Gals.
Foliage-injury very slight.    Blossom-kill very slight.    Thinning results practically nil, plot required to be thinned.    Fruit size small to medium.
" Plot 7: Dinitro-cyclohexylphenol 40 per Cent, at 3 Lb. per 100 Gals.
Foliage-injury and blossom-kill very light.    Thinning results very poor, clusters much too bunchy, plot required thinning.   Fruit size small to medium.
" Plot 8: Ammoniated Dinitro-cresylate 50 per Cent, at 1.9 Lb. per 100 Gals.
Foliage-injury and blossom-kill light. Thinning results poor to fair, clusters
still too bunchy. Fruit size small to large. Full-crop trees required
thinning. "As before stated, above results are not entirely reliable owing to outside influences.
On account of non-arrival of materials it was only possible to spray one plot at the pre-
blossom period.
" Three Anjou pear-trees were again selected in a block of pear-trees belonging to
W. R. Greive, Coldstream, for a blossom-thinning test. Ammonium dinitro-cresylate
at li/> lb. to 100 gallons water was applied at full bloom. Foliage-injury was light;
blossom-kill very heavy. It would appear that pear blossom is very sensitive to this
chemical. Trees treated in 1944, fully recovered from the spray-injury, did not carry
the blossom load of unsprayed trees, neither was the fruit set any larger. It is expected
that further work will be conducted in 1946 with pre-blossom and full-blossom applications."
Bee-repellent Sprays.
Sprays in connection with this work have been undertaken for the past four successive seasons by H. H. Evans and W. Baverstock, of the Vernon office. Details of this
work for the past year are outlined in Mr. Evans' annual report and are as follows:—
" The work was again conducted in co-operation with H. Hayes, orchard owner,
W. H. Turnbull, District Apiary Inspector, and the North Okanagan Bee-keepers' Association through the good services of F. Bettschen, of Vernon, who supplied the thirty-
eight bee colonies and assisted in checking for signs of arsenical or cryolite poisoning.
" The main object of the past season's work was to test different commercial brands
of crude carbolic as to possible toxicity to foliage and fruit in an effort to establish the
safety margin of tar acid content of available materials.
" Samples were procured from and specifications provided by the following firms:—
Canadian Industries, Ltd.—Commercial crude, tar acid content 30 to 35 per
Commercial Chemicals, Ltd.—Commercial crude, tar acid content 30.9 per cent.
Vancouver Drug Co.—Refined crude, tar acid content 17 per cent.
" The 3-acre block was divided into five plots.    As the Vancouver Drug material
had been proven in the two previous years' work it was used on only one plot at a
strength 50 per cent, above the recommendations to growers.    The two other materials
were used at single and double strength quantities.    Duponol was used as the emulsi-
fier and wetting agent.    Arsenate of lead was used in the delayed calyx and first
cover-spray and cryolite in the second and third covers at 4 lb. per 100 gallons.    Crude
carbolic was added as follows:—
Plot 1: Vancouver Drug Co., 3 oz. per 100 gals.
Plot 2: Commercial Chemicals, Ltd., 2 oz. per 100 gals.
Plot 3:  Commercial Chemicals, Ltd., 4 oz. per 100 gals.
Plot 4: Canadian Industries, Ltd., 2 oz. per 100 gals.
Plot 5: Canadian Industries, Ltd., 4 oz. per 100 gals.
" Dates of application were June 7th and 20th, July 4th and August 2nd.   Weather
conditions were variable at the two early spray periods but hot and dry at the two later
" In checks made throughout the season no evidence of spray-injury appeared in
any of the plots. Reports received of effects on the bees indicated no sign of poisoning
throughout the season.
" From the 1945 work it would appear there is a fairly wide margin of safety as
to tar acid content of the crude carbolic which may be used as bee repellents.
" As no work has been done on the effect of the repellent material on other insects,
or its compatability and influence in combination with spray materials other than lead
arsenate and cryolite, it would appear advisable for research investigators to conduct
some definite experimental work along the lines suggested. " The total number of sprays for all areas to which addition of repellents are necessary to avoid bee poisoning has not been established. In the North Okanagan the
danger period appears fairly definite as from the first cover-spray to completion of the
first-brood spray period. As considerable lime-sulphur is used in sprays earlier than
first cover it is possible for this material to have sufficient repellent action to afford
Brassica Seed-weevil and Flea-beetle Control.
Two one-half-acre blocks of Swede turnip-seed crop, grown in the Armstrong district, were used in this work and is reported on by H. H. Evans:—
" Four-per-cent. DDT dust applied June 1st and 18th. With the flea-beetle very
prevalent and the seed-weevils building up rapidly in the district it appeared advisable
to obtain some information on DDT. Arrangements were made for the above acreage
and dusting was done by your official with a Savage rotary duster.
" On the Boss property the adjoining 1% acres of turnip-seed was dusted four
times from May 23rd to June 20th by the owner with a commercial derris dust. Prior
to application of DDT the Boss plot had received one application of derris. At June
1st, with the plants showing scattered first bloom, flea-beetle infestation was medium
to heavy with no severe plant-injury. On the few plants checked weevil counts showed
five to fifteen adults per plant.
" On June 18th flea-beetle infestation was greatly reduced but weevil appeared
more numerous. At this time it was difficult to make counts owing to full bloom and
large size of plants. At harvest-time weevils were very numerous on the maturing
plants. At threshing the operator separated the plots. Total yield per acre of the two
plots showed little difference in comparative yield; actual loss from weevil was estimated at about 10 per cent.
" On the Graves lot no dusting had been done prior to June 1st; at this time very
severe flea-beetle injury had occurred to both foliage and flower-heads of the turnips.
Seed-weevil were also very numerous. At June 18th flea-beetle were heavily reduced on
the DDT plot but very numerous on grower plot which had received only one dusting
of derris. Adult weevil appeared about equally numerous over the whole block. The
grower-treated plot received one more dusting with derris on June 20th. Crop-loss in
this block was estimated at about 50 per cent, and on the DDT plot at about 30 per cent.
" Observations on these two fields over the season would indicate DDT as being
very effective in flea-beetle control but not as effective in control of seed-weevil. Two
applications of DDT appeared as effective as four of derris dust. More effective control might have been obtained if the first dusting of DDT had been made earlier."
Pear-thrip Control.
Relative to pear-thrip control the following quotation is from the report of B. Hoy,
District Field Inspector, Kelowna:—
" Thrip damage was not as heavy as in 1944. The heaviest damage centred in
Bankhead and adjacent orchards. None of the controls used in past years were effective
in controlling this pest. This spring this office co-operated with the Dominion Entomological Branch and conducted extensive experiments in Bankhead orchard. The
report on this work has been prepared by H. Andison, who sums up the results as
(1.) Average number of adult thrips trapped per cage covering 9 sq. ft. of
soil surface in a check-plot was 1,210 during the period March 28th to
April 20th. Maximum number of thrips trapped in a cage was 2,810
thrips. No reference found in the literature records as high a population
as was found in this orchard. V 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
(2.) Soil cages were placed in field too late (March 28th) to capture total
thrips population emerging from plots.
(3.) Air temperature within the cotton-covered emergence cages averaged
4.5° C. higher than the temperature outside.
(4.) A 3-per-cent. DDT-talc dust at 200 lb. per acre showed promise as a
ground treatment to control newly emerged adults. Average of 246
thrips per cage as compared to 1,210 thrips per cage for check-plots.
(5.) DDT 1 lb., acetone 3 qts., Tergitol 0.5 pt. did not appear to be an effective
soil spray when applied at 4 gals, per tree-plot or 400 gals, per acre
(1,275 thrips per cage).
(6.) Calcium cyanamid at 200 lb. per acre as a soil treatment seemed to have
little or no effect in reducing the number of the thrips captured in the
emergence cages (1,030 thrips per cage).
(7.) DDT 0.5 to 1 lb. in stove-oil 1 to 2 gals, emulsified with Duponol W.A.
paste 4 oz. and 3-per-cent. DDT dust directed against the adults at green
tip and cluster bud stages (April 13th and 16th) gave excellent control.
Averaged less than one living thrip per bud as against thirty-two living
thrips per bud on the checks.
(8.) Dormant oil 4 gals, applied March 2nd by the owner to control European
red-mite appears to have no appreciable effect on pear-thrips control.
Average twenty thrips per bud.
(9.) DDT 0.5 lb., distillate oil 1 gal., Duponol W.A. paste 2 oz. applied to
Anjou and Bartlett trees at calyx period (May 21st) to control thrips
larva; caused some severe leaf-injury. Circular brown lesions appeared
between the veins on Anjou leaves, resulting in a 30-per-cent. leaf and
fruit drop.
(10.) Enclosing adult thrips in sleeve cages on tree branches of plots corroborated more extensive bud examinations for control data—i.e., in order of
effectiveness materials were: DDT 1 lb., stove-oil 2 gals. (97 per cent,
kill) ; DDT 0.5 lb., stove-oil 1 gal. (88 per cent, kill) ; and 3-per-cent.
DDT-talc dust (84 per cent, kill) ; checks 16 per cent. Also showed that
adult thrips did not die within the buds but were found on the floor of
the cage."
Codling-moth Control.
The presence of codling-moth and its satisfactory control is the limiting factor in
the successful production of apples in British Columbia. The control-work that is being
done is undertaken by the Provincial Department of Agriculture in co-operation with
Dominion officials. This work is centred in the Kelowna district and is in charge of
B. Hoy, District Field Inspector, whose report follows:—
" Losses from codling-moth in 1945 were heavier than in 1944. The crop was light
and weather conditions during the second brood were ideal for codling-moth development.
" The spray schedule was the same as in previous years, with the exception that
tank-mix fixed nicotine was recommended for second-brood sprays. Owing to a shortage
of nicotine only a small percentage of growers were able to take advantage of this spray.
It was the first time this mixture had been used in quantity and the opinions of growers
on its value as an insecticide when compared with cryolite or arsenate of lead vary.
The majority of growers, however, were satisfied that it was equal to the other materials
for codling-moth control and had added advantages of being of some benefit in reducing
mites with no residue problem.
" Co-operation in applying trunk sprays in Keloka orchards was given by this office.
These sprays were applied in Keloka orchards but treatments did not give as good con- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 51
trol as in 1944. In searching for a reason for poorer control we were of the opinion
that a too stable emulsion was used. A new emulsifier called Duponol (sodium lauryl
sulphate in paste form) was shipped to us instead of the powdered sodium lauryl sulphate. Believing that a greater quantity of the paste, owing to the moisture content,
should be used, a very stable emulsion resulted that would stand up for days. The
emulsions used in the original experiments would break as soon as agitators in the
sprayers stopped. Another reason for this belief is that in demonstrations in the
southern end of the valley this spring, where a quick-breaking emulsion was used, the
results were exceptionally good. In nearly all cases there were 75 and 80 per cent, of
the over-wintering worms killed. Further work will be done with trunk sprays next
spring as there is a great need for a reliable method of reducing over-wintering
" The Dominion Department of Agriculture again carried out a series of experiments in the Frank Turton, formerly Hart, orchard at East Kelowna. Canadian cryolite made by the Aluminum Ore Company of Canada was tested against natural cryolite
(Kryocide) and ' Grasselli' arsenate of lead. The results of this test indicate that the
Canadian-made cryolite is equal to arsenate of lead and other brands of cryolite commonly used in this area for the control of codling-moth.
" The addition of dicyclohexylamine of sale of dinitro-cyclohexylphenol (D.N. Ill)
was added to various spray mixtures. Where this material was used in mixtures containing casein-lime as a spreader the foliage on the sprayed trees was inferior to those
where casein-ammonia spreader was used. This improvement was due to the decrease
in Pacific mites. Lime in the mixture evidently has an antagonistic effect to the
activity of D.N. 111.
" It is believed by some investigators that European red-mite development was
greater on trees sprayed with cryolite than on those sprayed with arsenate of lead.
There was no indication of any increase in red-mites on cryolite-sprayed trees over
those sprayed with arsenate of lead in the work done in the Turton orchard this year.
" A new plot was used in Keloka orchard for the demonstrations of the Provincial
Department of Agriculture. Last year this work was carried on with the assistance of
the Dominion Entomological Branch. H. Andison assisted with the spraying and,
together with Mr. Marshall, Mr. Morrison, etc., assisted in the checking.
" The materials examined this year were (DDT) dichlorodiphenoltrichloroethane,
fixed nicotine and bunker-oil, dibenzo gamma pyrone (Genecide) and a mixture of
fixed nicotine and DDT prepared by the Tobacco By-products and Chemical Corporation
of Louisville, Kentucky. The check-plots were sprayed throughout the first brood with
4 lb. cryolite plus one pint of 65 vis. bunker-oil per 100 gallons of spray. One-quarter
pound of casein-lime spreader (Fluxit) was substituted for the oil in second-brood
" DDT proved to be the best codling-moth killer of anything we have tried. In
plots sprayed with DDT the infestation was reduced from about 60 per cent, in 1944 to
less than 2% per cent, this year. The adjoining checks ran 8% and 12% per cent.
Though codling-moth control was excellent there was considerable damage from Pacific
mite on DDT-sprayed trees and the drop was 36 and 54 per cent, against 24 and 17 per
cent, in the nearest check-rows. Owing to leaf-drop caused by mites and DDT fruit
was smaller than the adjoining check-plot. As mentioned before it is important that
we examine materials that can be introduced into the regular codling-moth sprays and
try to find a satisfactory mixture that will give a good mite as well as codling-moth
control at a reasonable cost.
" Codling-moth control with ' Genecide ' was about equal to cryolite, but the colour
of fruit and foliage and the general vigour of the trees was better than the adjoining
check-plots.    ' Genecide,' as used this year, gave excellent mite-control.    This material V 52 •     BRITISH COLUMBIA.
might come into more general use as a codling-moth and mite spray if the price could
be lowered.
" Radio bulletins sponsored by the British Columbia Fruit-growers' Association
and dealing with codling-moth control were prepared by this office and broadcast over
" Temperature and humidity records were taken at Keloka orchard and the Warman
orchard in the Belgo district throughout the summer. Codling-moth control in Keloka
orchard with five and six sprays is difficult, but in the Warman orchard there was
excellent control with three first-brood sprays only and this year with three first-brood
and one second-brood. The reason for these temperature and humidity records is to
determine what influence, if any, slight differences have on codling-moth control."
Phenothiazine in Codling-moth Control.
A report on this work in the Penticton district is submitted by R. P. Murray, District Field Inspector:—
" Although considerable experimental work has been done with this material at
Kelowna this is the first year it has been used on a commercial scale in the Okanagan.
After considerable trouble 1,300 lb. of micronized phenothiazine were obtained and
allotted to four orchards that were very wormy in 1944. The material was late in
arriving and could not be applied until the second cover-spray for first brood. By this
time the weather was quite warm and some of the men applying it were rather badly
burned. This difficulty could be overcome by the use of proper masks and also by applying the phenothiazine earlier in the season when the weather is cooler and there is less
tendency to burn the skin.
" This material was used at the rate of % lb. plus 1 quart of stove-oil emulsified
with casein-lime spreader to 100 gallons of water. No difficulty was encountered in
" Records for only two orchards are available. In one orchard the infestation in
1944 was estimated at 60 per cent., in the other only a part of the crop was picked.
Both properties were operated by new owners this season, one of whom had never done
any spraying before; the other is an experienced orchardist, which could probably
account for the difference in results.
" Spray Programme. " Hart Orchard.
Calyx and first cover:   Arsenate of lead 4 lb. per 100 gals, plus % lb. casein-
lime spreader.
Second and third cover:   Micronized phenothiazine % lb. plus 1 qt. stove-oil.
Fourth, fifth, sixth:   Cryolite 4 lb. per 100 gals, plus casein-lime spreader
y4 lb.
Seventh cover:  Fixed nicotine 21/2 lb. plus 1/2 gal. summer-oil.
" Control.
Variety. No. Apples counted. Worms. Stings.
Rome Beauty  1,000 10.3% 11.0%
Winesap   1,000 7.6% 8.4%
" Spray Programme. " Western Farms.
Calyx and first cover: Cryolite 4 lb. plus 14 lb. casein spreader per 100.
Second and third cover:   Micronized phenothiazine % lb. plus 1 qt. stove-oil.
Fourth, fifth, sixth:   Cryolite 4 lb. plus % lb. casein spreader.
Seventh cover:   Fixed nicotine 21/2 lb., summer-oil 1/2 gal.
" Control.
Variety. No. Apples counted. Worms. Stings.
Macintosh   2,300 1.56% 1.82% DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 53
San Jose Scale Control.
San Jose scale is now found throughout the Okanagan and particularly in that
area extending from the International Boundary to Vernon. This pest has also been
present for a number of years in other sections of British Columbia. In the Okanagan,
however, it is of particular importance from a commercial standpoint as its presence
may be a deciding factor in the export apple trade.
Growers have been urged to make dormant spray applications for the control of
this insect. Where this has been done excellent results have been obtained, as indicated
by the checking of fruit moving through the packing-houses.
Consistent and thorough spraying is essential in all orchards where San Jose scale
is found. With a view to ascertaining the best sprays to recommend some work was
carried out during the past season by R. P. Murray, District Field Inspector, and the
following statement indicates the work done by him on this project:—
" In co-operation with Dr. Jas. Marshall, of the Dominion Entomological Branch,
the following experimental work was done on a block of Yellow Newtowns and Delicious
in the Testalinda district at Oliver.
" This orchard was rather heavily infested in 1944 and although the infestation
was not uniform there were enough heavily infested trees in each block to give the
various materials used a fair trial.
" The sprays were applied March 21st and the apples checked October 5th. The
spraying was done under rather unfavourable weather conditions; wind and a couple
of light showers delayed the work and it took two days to apply 1,800 gallons of spray.
" It is interesting to note that the trees in Plot 1, sprayed with a heavy type oil,
showed little or no delayed dormancy as was the case where a lighter type oil was
used on Plots 2 and 3. Also on Plot 4, using a light western oil plus dinitrocresol, satisfactory results were obtained. Since this last spray is a valuable aphicide it could be
used on an extended scale for dormant spraying. It possibly carries enough dinitrocresol to be effective against blister-mite.
" When the checking was done only the fruit was inspected, 500 apples per tree
were examined and five trees per plot or 2,500 apples per plot were examined for results.
Because of the poor crop on some trees this could have made a slight difference either
way in the final results.    It is hoped these trials will be repeated in 1946.
Plot. Materials used. Average per Plot.
1. Heavy oil (western vis. 204), 4 gals.  6.5
2. Light oil (mid-continent vis. 108), 4 gals.  2.3
3. Light oil (western vis. 106), 4 gals.  21.6
4. Light oil   (western vis. 106), 2 gals.;   dinitrocresol 40 per
cent., 1% lbs.   18.6
5. Light oil (western vis. 106), 2 gals.;  DDT, 9.6 oz     6.2
6. Light oil (western vis. 106), 2 gals.;  lime-sulphur, 2 gals. .... 13.9
7. Lime-sulphur, 10 gals.  49.4
8. No spray   70.6 "
Mealy-bug Control.
Mealy bug is found at the present time in the Okanagan, on Vancouver Island, and
in various Kootenay districts. Most of the control-work both by spraying and with
parasites has been carried out in the Kootenay and under the direction of E. C. Hunt,
District Horticulturist. Mr. Hunt's report on the work done during the past season is
herewith submitted:—
" Practically all of the growers are keeping this insect fairly well under control by
the use of the recommended sprays and during the past season there was little, if any, V 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
damage caused by the mealy bug to the apple-crop. The past season, however, was not
so favourable to the mealy bugs as they seem to thrive better and build up very fast
under a cool, damp summer rather than a warm, dry one.
" Some experimental spraying was carried out again in the control of mealy bug.
Control-sprays were under test at Boswell and Creston this year and were conducted in
co-operation with the Dominion Entomologist, Dr. James Marshall, of Vernon, B.C.
The main object of the experimental sprays this year was to test out DDT, the much
advertised insecticide, with other materials recommended in the control of mealy bugs.
The results showed that the DDT has possibilities in the control of this insect. The
checking on the results was, however, too late to give a true picture of the control for
the different materials tested out. The Boswell experiment was not very definite as far
as results go. In the first place the infestation was light and very patchy, due to a
large extent to the mealy bug parasites, which had been liberated in that area about
five years ago, being present throughout the orchard. At Creston the results were
somewhat more reliable and a fair idea of what the results should be with the different
materials under test.
" Summary of Results of Experiments on Control of Mealy Bug at Boswell
and Creston, Season 1945.
Average Egg-masses per 10 Pieces
of Spur Wood 1 Foot long.
Plot. Material per 100 Gals. Boswell. Creston.
1. Ammonium    dinitro-cyclohexylphenate    (Dows
C-508), 0.5 lb.;   Duponol W.A. Paste,* 4 oz.    6 56
2. Same as Plot 1 but tank-mixed, 0.5 lb.  ____ 28
3. DDT,  0.5 lb.;   acetone,  1  pt.;    Duponol  W.A.
Paste, 4 oz.  16 	
4. DDT, 0.5 lb.;   acetone, 1 pt;   distillate oil (38
S.S.U.   viscosity),   1   gal.;    Duponol   W.A.
Paste, 1 lb     4 22
5. Distillate  oil   (38   S.S.U.   viscosity),   6   gals.;
Duponol W.A. Paste, 1 lb     0.4 19
6. Check—no spray  20 138
* Duponol W.A. Paste was the emulsifier.
" DDT in combination with distillate oil did not give as good control of the mealy
bugs as DDT alone or distillate oil alone. There does not seem to be any reason for
using this combination (Plot 4) in the control of the mealy bugs. Either Plot 3 or Plot 5
should give good commercial control of the mealy bugs under Kootenay conditions, but
more important than any spray recommended is thoroughness of application. It would
also seem that mealy bugs in most all sections of the district will be kept under control
quite satisfactorily by the mealy-bug parasites that have been introduced and liberated
in many sections of the district during the past five or six years. Some quite large
acreages of apple-orchard that once were badly infested with the mealy bugs are now
quite free of the insect due to the work of the parasite. Little, if any, commercial loss
was caused by the mealy bugs this past season to any of the fruit-crops."
Work with " Little Cherry."
" Little cherry " work has, during the past two years, been largely taken over by
the Plant Pathologists of the Provincial and Dominion Departments of Agriculture.
A full report covering the past season's work will undoubtedly be submitted by the
Provincial Pathologists. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 55
This disease is found at the present time only in the Kootenay areas. A brief
statement on the situation contained in the annual report of E. C. Hunt, District Horticulturist, is as follows:—
" The ' little cherry' trouble has reached nearly all the cherry-producing areas in
the West Kootenay District. The investigators are very sure now that the trouble is
a virus as the result of their work carried out in the Kootenay Bay cherry-orchard
during 1943, 1944, and 1945. This cherry-orchard is being left in for another year's
work and the trees were given another fall application of a complete fertilizer (6-8-12)
this year at the rate of about 15 lb. per tree for the larger trees. Ammonia nitrate will
be applied to the orchard in the spring so with good growing weather next year the
trees should be in a healthy and vigorous condition. The Dominion and Provincial
plant pathological investigators will no doubt make a detailed report covering their findings during the past three years in connection with this serious cherry trouble. At
this time the sweet-cherry growing industry here in the Kootenay does not look very
bright, and unless something can be done to prevent the spread of the ' little cherry'
trouble one of the most profitable fruit-crops of this district will be eliminated."
Control of Apple-scab.
Spraying for apple-scab is essential in a number of the orcharding districts of the
Province. In the Salmon Arm area, due to favourable weather conditions and reasonably satisfactory spray applications, the loss from apple-scab this year was negligible.
Some work was done this year in the use of Fermate for scab-control. The trials were
conducted by C. R. Barlow, District Field Inspector, in co-operation with the Dominion
Science Service Division. The following is an extract from Mr. Barlow's annual
" This work was commenced in 1944 and the details and results obtained were
contained in your Inspector's annual report for 1944. These results were very encouraging and suggested that Fermate in combination with either lime-sulphur or Sulforon
might have a definite place in the spray schedule for the Salmon Arm and Sorrento
districts. It was deemed advisable, however, that before specific recommendations were
made to the growers that the experiment should be repeated this year. This has
accordingly been done, and it is unfortunate that owing to the fact that weather conditions were exceptionally unfavourable to the development of scab the disease was almost
non-existent on any of the sprayed plots, and as a consequence no definite conclusions
can be arrived at from this year's work. In view of these circumstances your Inspector
would suggest that still another repetition of the experiment be made next year before
any recommendations for the use of Fermate or otherwise are made to the growers.
Details covering the work undertaken are given in the following table:—
"Apple-scab Control with Fermate, Salmon Arm, 1945.
No. Apples No. Apples
Plot. Spray applied. counted. infected.
1. Fermate,  2  lb.;    S.S.  spreader,  5  oz.;   water,
100 gals   1,057 1
2. Fermate,  2  lb.;    S.S.   spreader,   5  oz.;    lime-
sulphur, 1 gal.; water, 100 gals     457 	
3. Fermate, 10 oz.;  S.S. spreader, 5 oz.;  Sulforon,
3% lb.; water, 100 gals     427 2
4. Lime-sulphur, 1-40 in pink;  lime-sulphur, 1-60
in calyx and cover      368 	
5. Check—unsprayed      662 405 V 56 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" Note.—All sprays applied in pink, calyx, and cover stages. The heavy proportion
of infected fruit on the check-plot can not be taken as a fair criterion of the degree of
infection on unsprayed trees in the district generally as conditions in the check-plot
were exceptionally conducive to the development of scab."
Recommendations are also made by E. C. Hunt, District Horticulturist for the
Kootenay, in his annual report and are as follows:—
"Apple-scab has been less prevalent this past season than for a number of years;
even in the unsprayed orchards considerable commercial fruit was harvested in many
sections of the district.    Weather conditions throughout the season were unfavourable
for the spread and development of apple-scab.    Sprayed orchards produced a very clean
crop of fruit.    No new spray materials have been tested that have given any better
control than what has been the general recommendation in the control of apple-scab for
a number of years—i.e., lime-sulphur, 1% gallons;  calcium arsenate, 4 lb.;   and water,
100 gallons.    Four applications are necessary in most sections of the district on the
susceptible varieties for the control of the disease.    The first spray should be applied
in the pink stage and then followed up every two weeks until the four applications have
been made.    Growers with large acreage and short on spray equipment should start
with the pre-pink stage in order to get over their orchards before their trees are in full
bloom.    The calcium arsenate may be left out of the pre-pink or pink spray, then use
lime-sulphur 1 gallon to 40 gallons of water.    As much as three pounds of hydrated
lime to the 100 gallons of the combination spray of lime-sulphur and calcium arsenate
will reduce foliage-injury to some extent and usually more than pay for the extra cost
involved.    There is far less danger from lime-sulphur spray-injury to the foliage and
blossom if a pre-pink or pink spray is applied previous to a calyx spray or a cover-spray
of lime-sulphur."
Lettuce Variety Trials.
A summary of the lettuce trials in the Armstrong district during 1945 is submitted
by H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector, who was in charge of this project:—
" This work in 1945 was an extension of the plot trials conducted in previous years.
" The object was to obtain a second year's field performance record for the full
growing season on the two new varieties, Great Lakes and Imperial No. 456.
" Spring, summer, and fall plantings were made and checked for maturity range
against New York No. 12 and No. 515 for the spring crop and Imperial No. 44 for the
fall crop.    These are standard varieties for the district.
" Following is a summary of observations and records of performance taken over
the season:—
" Great Lakes variety true to type rogues less than 3 per cent.
" Imperial No. 456 variety badly mixed as to type and actual rogues 11 per cent.;
these conditions were consistent in the various plots.
" Two locations of the plots were on the peat-muck soils and two on sandy silt loam.
" Growers and shippers think very favourably of these two new varieties and will
be including them in their crop programme as being adaptable to all-season planting."
Sweet Corn Trials.
This work is most satisfactorily dealt with in the report of H. H. Evans, District
Field Inspector.    Mr. Evans' report follows:—
" This project continues several years' work in testing varieties and hybrids of
sweet corn as to their quality, yield, maturity range, and general market adaptability.
Many varieties and hybrids have been tested since the plots were started in 1935. The
present selection constitutes the nearest to all-round perfection of the series. All are
very high in quality, cover a long season for use, and are adapted to either home or
market garden production. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1945.
V 57
" The only drawback to a few varieties is their low-cobbing habit, with possibility
of damage and loss from depredations of pheasants in the Okanagan.
" The following table presents performance detail:—
" Sweet Com Comparison Table.
" Seeded May 10th;  plots, yl00 acre.
Type, Colour, and Condition.
Yield in
per Hill.
Ready for
3 feet 8 inches
Cob low set, small, medium long;   small
Aug.   2
O.E. 520,
core, well filled;   grain mottled, large,
medium   depth,   sweet,   rich,   slightly
4 feet 6 inches
Cob low set, medium long, medium size;
Aug.   4
O.D. 529,
small  core,  well  filled;    grain  golden,
large, deep, sweet, rich, tender
4 feet 9 inches
Cob  low  set,  medium   size  and  length;
Aug.   2
Ste. C. 43,
small core, spotty filling ; grain yellow,
medium   size   and   depth,   sweet,   rich,
slightly tough
4 feet 6 inches
Cob medium high set, medium size and
Aug.   6
Ste. G. 41,
length;   small core, well filled ;   grain
golden, medium size, deep, sweet, rich,
and tender
Topcross Ban
6 feet
Cob high set, long, medium, large;   core
Aug. 15
tam, 8-rowed,
medium   size  and  depth,   sweet,   rich,
Perron strain
slightly tough
Golden Cross
5 feet 2 inches
Cob   high   set,  long,   large;    core  small,
Aug. 21
well    filled;     grain    yellow,    medium
depth,    small    medium,    sweet,    rich,
slightly tough
6 feet 4 inches
Cob  high  set,  long,  large;    core  small,
Aug. 15
well filled;   grain golden, large, deep,
rich, sweet, slightly tough
Topcross Ban
6 feet 4 inches
Cob high set, long, large;   core medium
Aug. 15
tam, 12-14-
small, well filled ; grain golden, medium
rowed, Maine
size,   deep,   rich,   medium   sweet,   skin
No. 6721
slightly tough
" The variety Dorking was a complete failure in germination. Dorick almost
complete failure.
" These varieties are an excellent selection of high-rating corns. The drop in
rating of Pickaninny is accounted for solely on colour—its purple mottling did not
appeal to those given some for edibility tests."
General soil-improvement work is being undertaken in all districts. Cover-crops
and various fertilizer trials comprise a large part of the various investigations that
are being carried on. Sod mulching is also receiving some attention. Space does not
permit covering this work in detail. The use of an alfalfa mulch in an orchard in
Salmon Arm is detailed in the annual report received from C R. Barlow, District Field
Inspector, Salmon Arm. With regard to this work Mr. Barlow makes the following
" When this work, the details and objects of which are explained in your Inspector's
annual reports for 1941 and 1942, was initiated it was the intention to carry it on over
a longer period of time than has been found to be practicable. It is unfortunate that
this spring the orchard in which the work was being carried out was leased for five
years on a crop-share basis, and the present operator, owing to shortage of labour, was
unable to carry on the programme which had been hitherto followed. As a consequence
the only records obtainable this year were those relative to terminal growth for 1944, V 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
which were taken by your Inspector this spring. The records which have been secured,
however, of which the following is a very brief summary, are interesting and informative and enable some conclusions to be reached.
" Costs.—In the years 1941, 1942, and 1943 an average of 11 tons per acre per
year of alfalfa mulch was applied to the mulched plot at an average cost of $12.06 per
acre per year. This figure includes cost of cutting, hauling, and spreading but not the
value of the alfalfa as hay. It should be noted, however, that the tonnage of mulch
applied, which is referred to above, represents tonnage in the green state and not cured
as hay. In 1944 no mulch was applied. The mulched plot was disked one way each
spring at an average annual cost of $2.50 per acre. Thus the total average annual cost
of operation (not including value of alfalfa) was $14.56 per acre.
" The check-plot was double-disked annually at an average cost of $4 per acre and
single-disked twice subsequently each year at a cost of $2.50 per acre per cultivation.
Thus the average annual cost of cultivation on the check-plot was $9.50 per acre, or
$5.06 less than the costs on the mulched plot, not including value of alfalfa.
" Condition of Soil.—The physical condition of the soil on the mulched plot shows
a marked improvement over that in the clean cultivated or check plot. In the latter the
soil appears to be strikingly deficient in humus, easily becomes compacted by rains and is
consequently low in capacity to absorb and hold moisture, while in the former the
opposite conditions obtain.
" Terminal Growth and General Vigour of Trees.—For the past three years the
colour and size of the foliage on the mulched plot have indicated superior vigour in the
trees as compared with those on the check-plot. The average length of ten terminal
growths on all trees made in 1942, 1943, and 1944 were measured each year and
recorded as follows:—
Mulched Plot. Check-plot.
Year. ■ Inches. Inches.
1942     9.45 4.78
1943  11.14 3.87
1944     7.91 3.52
Average      9.63 4.06
" It will be seen from the above that terminal growth on the mulched plot was consistently more than double that on the check or cultivated plot.
" Yield and Quality of Fruit.—Following application of the alfalfa mulch in 1942
and 1943 a deterioration in colour was noted in the fruit on the mulched plot, and it was
thought that this might be attributable to an oversupply of available nitrogen derived
from the alfalfa as no artificial fertilizer or manure had been applied to either check
or mulched plot during the period of operation of the experiment, also a proportion of
the fruit on the mulched plot ran to undesirably large sizes. Accordingly it was
deemed advisable to discontinue the application of the mulch in 1944, and instead the
mulched plot received a thorough disking, both ways, in the spring and was not cultivated again during the season. This year the trees on the mulched plot have produced fruit of a desirable average size, and colour has been well up to the excellent
standard of that produced on the check-plot.
" The average yield per tree, expressed in loose boxes, on both plots for the years
1941, 1942, 1943, and 1944 are as follows:—
' Mulched Plot. Check-plot.
Year. Boxes. Boxes.
1941  16.4 8.8
1942  5.1 4.8
1943  19.5 10.3
1944  23.2 7.8
Average   16.05 7.9 DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 59
" Note.—The low yields in 1942 were largely the result of heavy loss from apple-
" It will be seen from the foregoing that the average yield per tree for the four
years was 8.15 loose boxes greater or more than double that on check-plot.
Mice.—In 1943 the mouse population in the mulch plot increased very rapidly
though fortunately no injury to the trees occurred.
" Conclusions.— (a.) While the costs of substituting alfalfa mulch, as outlined, for
clean cultivation are high if the value of the alfalfa is included, they are not so high
as would at first appear, as the use of the mulch would seem to largely obviate the
necessity of applying nitrogenous artificial fertilizers.
"(6.) That the use of the mulch has had a beneficial effect on the physical condition of the soil.
"(c.) That the use of the mulch has improved the vigour of the trees and has
materially increased terminal growth.
"(d.) That the mulching method has resulted in increased yields, as compared
with those on the clean cultivated plot.
"(e.) That too long continued application of the mulch can lead to a deterioration
in the quality of the fruit, but that this can be regulated by careful management.
"(/.) That mice could constitute a hazard which should be taken into account
where the mulch is used.
" It would appear that the use of an alfalfa mulch could be safely recommended
as an alternative to clean cultivation methods in many locations where a supply of
alfalfa is readily and cheaply available at Salmon Arm and that such a method would
prove advantageous."
The use of mulching material of various kinds is receiving increasing consideration. Supplementing his 1944 report on the subject E. W. White, District Horticulturist, outlines in his 1945 report some general facts relative to the matter. They are
as follows:—
" This subject was discussed last year and some remarks were made in reference
to observations made over a period of a few years. Further comment might be in
order, based on this year's observations.
" Mention was made last year of a grower in Gordon Head with a planting of %
acre of Latham raspberries which had been under mulch for a period of six years.
Production had been increased from 15 crates to 150 crates. This year this grower
harvested lQd1/^ crates. This was at the rate of 1,562 crates per acre. It should be
pointed out that the rows in this planting only average about 5 feet apart, where the
average distance would be 6 to 8 feet apart. The rows are also more or less matted;
that is, they are not kept to individual hills a definite distance apart. This plot, of
course, was fertilized and had two irrigations.
" This year this grower mulched his entire vegetable-garden and claimed to have
had excellent results. Among other things, he claimed to have had no loss from carrot
rust-fly, which in previous years had ruined his carrot-crop. The explanation of this
might be that the mulch spread along the sides of the rows prevented the fly from
depositing her eggs near the surface of the soil.
" The Duncan grower mentioned last year has continued his mulching programme
and has also extended it with excellent results. A new planting of everbearing strawberries was made where the mulch was first applied and the plants set through the
mulch. These plants made excellent growth and produced an excellent crop this fall.
A new planting of British Sovereign was also made where no mulch was applied. This
was partly due to the fact that a supply of mulch was not available and partly due to
the fact that this planting is being used as a propagating bed. V 60 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
"An acre of new land has been cleared this year by bulldozer and is being mulched
at the present time for planting next spring. This planting should really give a good
test of this practice.
" The Saanich grower referred to last year as having mulched a new planting of
1XA acres of strawberries had an excellent crop this year. He planted 12,500 plants
and harvested 12,256 lb. of fruit. His picking season extended from June 3rd to July
18th and during the period he picked every day except two half-days. As reported last
year, this grower had a crop of oats between the rows last fall due to the grain which
was left in the straw. The winter was not severe enough to kill the growth and it was
necessary to hand-pull the oat plants in the spring. The increased yield on this plot
over the average yield would easily pay for the extra labour.
" In regard to mulching, one problem which needs attention is to get the threshers
to improve their threshing method so that less grain is left in the straw. This would
also be a decided benefit to the grain-grower.
" Several strawberry-growers in Saanich adopted the method reported last year as
being used by one grower of placing the straw from four rows into one. One grower
used the straw from nine rows and placed it in a single row. The same difficulty has
occurred this year of the grain in the straw growing and producing an excellent green
crop. Where oat-straw is used there is always the possibility of winter conditions
killing the growth, but where wheat-straw is used the growth would persist all winter.
" The Duncan bulb-grower who used mulch last year on his newly planted bulbs
claimed to have had excellent results.
"A further observation was made this year of one grower using sawdust to dig
into the soil to lighten up a heavy clay.
" The Dominion Experimental Station at Saanichton is continuing its experiments
with mulching on various crops."
The Horticultural News Letter was again issued through the summer period from
May 19th to September 22nd. This publication was issued every two weeks, making
a total of ten issues. The News Letter, in addition to containing information relative
to horticultural conditions in the different fruit-growing districts, also contains, periodically, estimates covering possible production of the various fruits and vegetables
produced in the Province.
In addition to the estimates contained in the News Letter, estimates on fruit-crop
production were issued on the 15th of the months of June, July, August, and September.
A final estimate was also prepared under date of November 1st, giving as near as could
be ascertained not only the figures on production but on estimated value of all fruits.
This estimate was issued from the Victoria office while the News Letter was mailed
from the Vernon office and was edited by M. S. Middleton, District Horticulturist for
the Okanagan.
Horticultural publications at present in use by the Department were revised and
reissued as required. The only new publication was a circular entitled " Sweet Corn
Seed Production," compiled by J. L. Webster, Horticulturist. All of these publications
are in heavy demand and particularly by new residents of the Province. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 61
S. S. Phillips, B.S.A., Field Crops Commissioner.
Practically all sections of the Province experienced a fairly mild winter with no
extremes of temperature during the winter period. Snowfall on the whole was light
and the spring somewhat backward and cool in comparison with other years. During
the summer months fine weather prevailed with high temperatures recorded particularly
in the southern areas. Harvesting was completed under very satisfactory conditions
and fair weather prevailed up until the middle of October. After that period there
was a change with rain and early snowfall becoming general throughout the Interior
sections of the Province. Heavy rainfall has been general in the Coast sections since
the first of November together with rain and snow throughout Interior areas.
The past season has been a most satisfactory one from the standpoint of field-root
and forage-crop seed production. While in some cases there has been a reduction in
so far as certain seeds" are concerned many of the seeds produced indicate an increase
over last year. The following table gives a fair indication of the seed production as
estimated for 1945 in comparison with the actual production in 1944:—
Production, 1944. Production, 1945.
Lb. Lb.
Alfalfa      65,000 240,000
Red clover  .  437,000 397,000
Alsike   345,000 154,000
Alsike-timothy (mixture)      31,000 	
Timothy-alsike (mixture)       40,000 250,000
Sweet clover      65,000 90,000
White clover  ......      5,000 	
White clover (Ladino)       7,500
Timothy   232,500 450,000
Brome  .     90,000 	
Crested wheat-grass       1,000 	
Creeping red fescue           500 1,700
Meadow-fescue   500
Orchard-grass  : _~~      6,000 2,500
Orchard-grass  (perennial rye mixture)      32,000 	
Perennial rye       2,300
Reed canary-grass       2,100
Red-top    ,      1,500
Field corn (open-pollinated)      18,000 12,000
Field corn (hybrid)       1,200 1,200
Field peas   480,000 400,000
Mangel   125,000 48,100
Sugar-beet   439,000 357,117
Fibre flax   258,000 60,000
Attention is also being paid to the production of hybrid field corn and most of this
work is under the supervision of J. L. Webster, who reports a most satisfactory season
and an encouraging outlook for the future of this particular type of production. V 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
A supply of stock seed of cereals and roots has been made available to this office by
the Agronomy Department of the University of British Columbia through a co-operative
arrangement between the University and the British Columbia Department of Agriculture. Producers throughout the Province are notified of the possibility of securing
stock seed as listed and such seed is made available to them at a special price. The
following table indicates the supply of such stock seed obtained from the University of
British Columbia and the quantity of each kind:— Lb.
Kharkov wheat       910
Dawson's Golden Chaff wheat      925
Jones' fife wheat      728
Alaska oats       595
Ridit fall wheat      341
Victory oats  3,145
Red Bobs wheat      546
Prolific rye .      886
Eagle oats      826
Storm rye      762
Chancellor peas       263
Liral fibre flax      147
Only one Weed Inspector was appointed during the past season for the Peace River
Block. This Inspector devoted his attention to weed-control on the north side of the
Peace River.
As time permitted, inspections were made in various sections of the Province by
officials of this Branch with a view to ascertaining not only the extent of weed-dispersal
but also for the purpose of outlining to growers the best methods for controlling weeds
which may- have been apparent in their crops.
Considerable attention has been directed through the press and from other sources
regarding the possibility of weed-control with a new chemical known generally as 2-4D.
This weed eradicator goes under several names, depending entirely upon the organization having it for sale. Numerous trials were made both in the Interior and on the
Coast with 2-4D and results as reported by various district officials indicate promising-
possibilities. The result, however, of one year's work is not sufficient to warrant any
definite statement.
On weed-control work this Branch has endeavoured to give the farmers the best
information available and it furthermore appreciates the co-operation of the producer
in controlling weeds on his own property. Such weeds as hoary pepper grass (Lepi-
dium draba L.), field bindweed (convolvulus arvensis L.), and leafy spurge (Euphorbia
Esula L.) have to be checked in their spread in all sections of the Province, and it is
hoped that either 2-4D or some other weed-control chemical which may be introduced
will be of use in this work.
This union of British Columbia farmers, which was established in 1933 for the
purpose of carrying out tests and experimenting with new varieties of field crops,
weed-killers, etc., has been given every encouragement during the past year. Among
the crops grown in 1945 the hybrid corn of different varieties has been outstanding.
Mr. Phillips secured seed of the following varieties:— DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 63
Vancouver Island, Lower Mainland, and Cariboo:   Canada 355, early maturing;   Canada 531, medium maturing.
Okanagan, certain areas of Kamloops and Kootenays:   Canada 531, medium
maturing;   Canada 625, late maturing.
These hybrids have been selected for their outstanding performance in hybrid
corn tests conducted throughout the Province over a period of years.
During the year seventy-six shipments of farm seeds of various kinds, amounting
in total weight to 1,013 lb., were sent out from the Vancouver office of the Field Crops
Branch, mostly by parcel post, the larger shipments by express.
The membership in the organization at the present time totals ninety members.
The distribution of the membership is as follows:  Vancouver Island, 17 members;
Interior, 12 members;  Central British Columbia, 24 members;  Kootenays, 8 members;
Lower Mainland, 14 members;   Cariboo, 8 members;   Boundary, 2 members;   Peace
River, 5 members.
As in previous years trials with hybrid and standard varieties of field corn were
conducted in co-operation with the Federal Forage Crops Division. Six varieties were
tried out at various areas and reports are on file giving the details relative to planting,
harvesting, and average weight per 24-foot row together with analyses as to dry matter
and yields in tons per acre.
Many of the hybrid strains were also planted in a commercial way for silage production at points such as Salmon Arm,* Enderby, Armstrong, Lumby, Revelstoke, etc.
The results of these plantings have been closely watched during the past season and
indications are that increased plantings of hybrid strains will be made in 1946.
During the present year there has been much interest taken in the manufacture
of crushed lime for agricultural purposes. The bonus of $1 per ton paid by the Provincial Government has been issued direct to the farmers applying the lime on their
own properties. This bonus totalled $5,756.89 and was paid at the rate of $1 per ton.
This was in addition to the Federal Government subsidy of 75 cents per ton which is
paid to manufacturers of ground lime. The work of issuing these subsidies has been
handled by the British Columbia Lime Committee, consisting of Dr. D. G. Laird, Cecil
Tapp, and G. L. Landon, Secretary. This office has handled the work in connection
with the administration of the subsidy to manufacturers of lime.
Several individuals and farmers have been successful in acquiring new lime properties and machinery for the manufacture of crushed lime rock. These are now in
operation and are making available a good quality product to the farmers.
Meetings of the British Columbia Fertilizer Board were attended by representatives of this Branch as required. At these meetings the necessity for various mixes
was discussed and recommendations made to Ottawa relative to same. For the 1945-46
season the Board recommended the following: 0-12-20, 2-12-10, 2-16-6, 4-12-8, 6-7-6,
8-10-5, 10-20-10, 6-18-12, 6-30-15, 8-35-6, 17-6-6.
During the past season over 372 samples of soil were submitted to this Branch for
analytical purposes. The analyses as carried out by the Spurway method indicate the
pH of the sample submitted together with the presence of nitrates, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium. The number of samples tested in 1945 shows a considerable increase
over the number analysed in 1944 when 264 samples were dealt with. The soil analytical work as undertaken has been under the supervision of A. J.
Hourston, of this Department.
With regard to grain screenings the major portion of this work is centred in and
around Vancouver. This work has been under the supervision of Walter Sandall, District Inspector for this Department. As to the work undertaken during the past season
Mr. Sandall submits the following report:—
" Grain screenings is a by-product, originating in the recleaning process of wheat
at the elevator. It is delivered from the cleaners in various separations and graded
" A pamphlet issued by the Board of Grain Commissioners of Canada (Bulletin
No. 4) provides for five grades of screenings which are identified as follows: Oat
screenings, No. 1 feed, No. 2 feed screenings, uncleaned screenings, and refuse screenings, graded according to official standards.
" In compliance with the British Columbia ' Noxious Weeds Act' and regulations
thereunder grain screenings which contain weed-seeds in excess of the percentage
allowed by the ' Canada Grain Act' of the Dominion or the regulations made thereunder from time to time for No. 2 feed screenings shall not be removed from any grain-
elevator, mill, or warehouse to any place within the Province except only by virtue of
permit duly signed by the Minister or by a person authorized in writing by the Minister
and issued at the office of the District Field Inspector, Court-house, Vancouver.
" Permits above referred to consist of ttvo specific forms—i.e., one permitting
removal of low-grade screenings by a dealer or grain merchant and one a Feeder's
Permit which entitles the holder to remove low-grade screenings conditional to prescribed regulations. These permits are available only to certain areas, mainly within
the boundaries of Greater Vancouver. Care is exercised in preventing the removal
of low-grade screenings to farming districts where the high percentage of weed-seeds
contained in such screenings may become a general menace through the introduction
of many varieties of weeds.
" During the ten months ended October 31st eleven Permits to remove Screenings
and four Feeder's Permits have been issued covering various quantities. All permits
expire at the end of year of issue.
" A permit is not required for the removal of oat screenings, No. 1 and No. 2 feed
" Managers' Reports.
" Complying with section 4 of the regulations under ' Noxious Weeds Act,' managers' reports, the forms for which are supplied by the Provincial Government, are
submitted in duplicate each month by all British Columbia grain-elevators and Vancouver dealers who handle screenings to the Hon. Minister of Agriculture through
the office of the District Field Inspector, Court-house, Vancouver. These reports show
the movement of all grades of screenings, the name and address to whom they are
delivered, date of delivery, quantity, grade, number of permit, if any, and whether for
local use or export.
" The original copy of these reports is submitted each month to the Field Crops
Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria.
" Movement of Screenings.
" Managers' reports show that for ten months ended October 31st no low-grade
screenings have been received by local dealers or other consumers from British Columbia grain-elevators, the grades as supplied for local consumption have been No. 1 and DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 65
No. 2 feed and mixed feed-oats, totalling approximately 1,937 tons. This is 1,371 tons
less than for the corresponding period last year. Low-grade screenings have been
exported to the United States, amounting to 4,522% tons in addition to 666% tons of
mixed feed-oats.
" Grades which may be ground.
" Section 11 of the Screenings Regulations requires that screenings which contain
weed-seeds in excess of the percentage allowed by the ' Canada Grain Act' or regulations thereunder for No. 2 feed screenings shall not be ground or otherwise manufactured for sale within the Province. To comply with the above regulations feed merchants
who obtain low-grade screenings from elevators reclean them in order to raise same
to the required grade before grinding; the refuse accumulated from this recleaning
process is usually exported to the United States where it is used in stock-feeding yards.
" ' Noxious Weeds Act.'
" In the interest of weed-control and to ascertain if the Screenings Regulations are
being complied with, occasional visits are made to the warehouses of dealers in stock-
feeds who are purchasers of screenings in Vancouver,_ New Westminster, and Fraser
Valley points.   Observational visits are made to the local grain-elevators when necessary.
"Appendix No. 8 shows the quantity of screenings of each grade removed from
British Columbia grain-elevators each month, ending October 31st, 1945, as compiled
from the manager's report. It will be seen from a perusal of the summary that only
the higher grades of screenings have been used this year by dealers for grinding and
processing for local consumption while the lower grades are being exported."
Wilh reference to the seeding of logged-off lands, the work as carried out in 1945
was undertaken by L. Todhunter, of this Department. Mr. Todhunter's report on this
work is as follows:—
"(a.) Campbell River Area.—An inspection was made of this area in the early
summer of 1945 and despite adverse weather and soil conditions the whole of the plots
appeared to have survived the preceding winter in excellent shape.
" The sweet clover, of which there was a decidedly poor catch, now appears to be
making better progress. Quantities of young plants were in evidence, especially in the
plot located in an area on the south side of the road just before making the turn for
Elk Falls.
" In a small plot located about a quarter of a mile south of the present forest
nursery the subterranean clover continues to make good growth and is spreading
rapidly although the area is now becoming infested with willows and alder. Other
areas seeded to this type of clover are also showing good growth and in many instances
have formed compact masses of variable size to the detriment of other plants which
have been entirely choked out.
" The white Dutch and alsike clover, which had.almost disappeared, have made a
remarkable comeback and are now growing vigorously, with the exception of the plot
known as the football field which was seeded to white Dutch alone. This plot was also
treated with fertilizer and whilst this did not improve the clover it has most certainly
encouraged the growth of native grasses.
" The areas seeded to timothy show excellent growth and this has apparently now
become firmly established. Much new growth was noted and it would appear that
reproduction from the previous year's plants had been entirely satisfactory.
" The whole area now makes good range for the few cattle that are in the vicinity. "'(&.) North West Logging Company.—A plot of approximately 10 acres located
on the North West Logging Company Road No. 155, about 3.2 miles from the highway,
and which had recently been burned over, was seeded to reed canary-grass (dry-land
strain) and mixed grasses and clover. An inspection of this area was made in November, 1945, when it was noted that the reed canary in particular had made exceptionally
good growth. There was much evidence of reseeding and there were large quantities
of young plants firmly rooted from 2 to 4 inches in height.
" The other grasses and clovers had made good growth but nothing in comparison
to the reed canary-grass.
" It may be stated that the soil of this area is a loamy sand, porous and of a poor
moisture-holding capacity."
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc, Plant Pathologist.
Special delivery tags to the number of 1,264 were issued and returns have been
received for 750 of them. Of these orders, 214 contained ornamentals (including
shrubs and herbaceous perennials), 134 bulbs, 82 small fruits, 71 fruit-trees, 60 rhubarb, 37 potato-eyes, 36 asparagus, and 50 greenhouse plants. In addition 78 untagged
shipments were inspected at Vancouver, of which 32 contained small fruits, 25 ornamentals, 11 sand cherries, 7 fruit-trees, and the rest miscellaneous plants.
Owing to the local potato shortage there was a great increase in private shipments
of potatoes, chiefly from Alberta. Shipments inspected numbered 103, totalling 298
sacks, 20 crates, and 1 carton. No indications of bacterial ring-rot were found in any
shipment.    The 20 crates were of certified seed.
This was made in the company of Mr. Phillips, the Acting Field Crops Commissioner, from July 11th to July 31st. Ootsa Lake was the farthest point reached, the
territory covered being much the same as last year except that from Clinton a trip was
made to the Gang Ranch, returning to the Cariboo Road at Williams Lake via Dog
Creek and Alkali Lake. A considerable collection was made of grasses, weeds, and
poisonous plants as well as other specimens for the herbarium.
Silene Cserei Baumg.—On visiting Prince George in 1944 an unfamiliar catchfly
or campion was found to be extremely abundant in the yards of the Canadian National
Railway. Owing to the difficulty in getting specimens identified it was not reported on
in the 1944 annual report. It was identified by an eastern specialist on the genus as
Silene fabaria (L.) Sibth. & Sm. with the proviso that this species may not be distinct
from S. Cserei Baumg. As S. fabaria, so far as I can find, appears to be recorded in
North America only from North Dakota it was remarkable to find it at Prince George.
Later information is that S. fabaria and S. Cserei are distinct though very closely related
species and that our plant should be referred to S. Cserei. As this species has been
recorded from Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Ohio, and Wisconsin its occurrence here is not so surprising. It is stated to be a native of Europe
and Asia Minor.    It does not appear to have received any English name.
This plant is annual or perhaps, in some cases, biennial. In appearance it much
resembles the well-known bladder campion but has a straight tap-root instead of creeping root-stocks, the inflorescence is longer and the calyx and capsules smaller.   Vigorous DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 67
plants reach a height of 3 feet or more and may have six or more flowering stems from
the one root and strongly decumbent at the base. Plants grown in dry soil are usually
single-stemmed and much shorter. It is a most prolific seeder. One stem in the
herbarium has 150 seed capsules, so a strong plant may produce 1,000 or more capsules.
The significance of the plant to the farmers of the district lies in the fact that these
seeds are about the same size as those of alsike clover, an important crop in the district.
Alsike-seed containing it would be difficult to free from it.
Although the plant must have been present for some years in the railway-yards,
inquiries and visits made by Mr. Manning in the district seemed to give ground for
believing that the weed had not yet got abroad int» farming land and that if the sources
of infestation in the railway-yards could be cleaned up this danger might be avoided.
A careful search was made of the railway-yards at Vanderhoof, Burns Lake, Smithers,
Quesnel, and Williams Lake but no sign of this weed was found.
In the spring of 1945 a mimeographed circular was put out by Mr. Manning, calling
attention to this weed and the danger from it. This was distributed to seed-growers
and others in the district.
The Canadian National Railway has been very co-operative and treated the yards
with a heavy application of Atlicide on the young plants, which proved very effective.
On my visit in July, 1945, only a few plants could be found in flower and Mr. Manning
undertook to have these hand-pulled at once.
Unfortunately, while this report was in preparation word came from the Dominion
Plant Products Division at Ottawa that seeds of this weed have been found in timothy-
seed from the Prince George area. It appears, therefore, that the weed has obtained
a foothold in the seed-producing areas. It is probably not present in any quantity and
it is important that all growers in the district learn to recognize it and pull it before
it goes to seed, otherwise much loss and inconvenience will be incurred.
Hoary Cress (Lepidium Draba L.).
On the way to the Cariboo we visited Armstrong where this weed is causing serious
trouble. In some cases a bare fallow with constant cultivation had not weakened the
weed sufficiently to allow a crop to be grown. This weed has been present here for
thirty years as it is given in Henry's Flora from Armstrong. It seems probable that
the new infestation is an extension of the old one as the form of the plant is the same—
viz., the species proper with heart-shaped pods. According to H. Groh ("Hoary
Cresses in Canada," Sci. Agri. 1940) later introductions are mostly var. repens, distinguished by the pods being lens-shaped and not heart-shaped. This latter form is supposed to have been introduced with seed of Turkestan alfalfa.
Loisel's Mustard (Sisymbrium Loeselii L.).
This was first found in British Columbia along the railway and highway near
Campbell Creek, east of Kamloops. It appears to have been first reported by H. Groh
in 1939. On our visit to Armstrong it was found to be extending along the branch
highway to that place. In 1943 the writer found a few plants by the roadside at
Athalmer, in the Columbia Valley. This year it was found on the Gang Ranch and
along the roadside from there to Dog Creek and as far as Alkali Lake. As a roadside
weed it is generally rather dwarf and does not seem of any special importance. However, plants growing in a cultivated field at the Gang Ranch were 5 feet high, widely
branching and with hundreds of seed-pods. Its appearance here gave the impression
that it might prove the most serious weed of any of our mustards. It is also evident
that it has spread considerably in the Province. V 68 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Leafy Spurge (Euphorbia Esula L.).
Our visit to the Gang Ranch was made on account of an infestation of this weed.
On the way there from Clinton we found another one at Kosters on the east side of the
river. In both these cases Atlicide had been used without much result. The Gang
Ranch infestation was unusual in that the weed was spreading chiefly along an irrigation-ditch.    Previously known infestations are at Kamloops, Armstrong, and Tappen.
Globe-podded Hoary Cress (Hymenophysa pubescens C. A. Mey).
This has the appearance and habits of the common hoary cress and may be easily
confused with it before the pods are developed. These are quite distinctive, being
spherical and hairy, while in common hoary cress they are flat and glabrous. In the
flowering-stage plants can be distinguished by examination of the ovary which is
pubescent. Whether or not this will prove as bad a weed as its relative we have as
yet insufficient evidence, but from the similarity in growth and habit there does not
seem much doubt that they will be equally serious weeds.
A small infestation of this weed was found in a grain-field at 141-Mile, Cariboo
Road, where it was found in association with Russian knapweed (Centaurea repens).
It was of interest to note that the knapweed extended through and considerably beyond
the limits of the Hymenophysa, suggesting a more rapid rate of spread.
Previously known infestations have occurred at Cawston, near Keremeos; Kamloops and the Nicola district, and there are several records from the Peace River area.
The plant is a native of Southern Russia and the seed is believed to have been
introduced into North America as an impurity in the seed of Turkestan alfalfa.
Russian Pigweed (Axyris amarantoides L.).
This weed was found growing abundantly at Fort St. James, the most northerly
record in British Columbia west of the Rocky Mountains, although H. Groh reports it
as extending to 56 degrees latitude in the Peace River Block. Observations made this
year support those of 1944, that it is chiefly a weed of roadsides and waste places and,
as yet, is not giving much trouble in cultivated land.
The only new plant disease to report from the Lower Mainland is red stele of
strawberry (Phytophthora fragarix) which has proved destructive in some places in
the Fraser Valley.    It is being investigated by Mr. Foster.
A considerable number of plants have been sent in for identification, principally
grasses, weeds, and plants suspected of poisonous or medicinal properties. About 1,000
sheets have been added to the herbarium, including some good series of grasses and
related plants received by exchange from Alberta botanists.
The annual report for 1945 on plant diseases was prepared by W. R. Foster,
Assistant Plant Pathologist, and is herewith presented as supplementary to the report
of the Plant Pathologist.
Bacterial Ring-rot of Potatoes.
This has been found in the crops of six commercial growers and three growers for
home use in the Courtenay district of British Columbia. The intensity of bacterial
ring-rot, except in the crop of one grower, is low. H. P. Allberry, of Sandwick, a former experienced certified seed grower, has been appointed as an inspector. Growers
with affected crops have been given (a) details re control, (6) a copy of Domestic Ring-
rot regulations, and (c) detention slips and tags.    A considerable amount of publicity DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945.
V 69
has been given in the district by (1) articles in the paper and (2) a lecture showing
ring-rot in coloured movies.
Inspection of potatoes in the bin before planting-time and in the field in August is
planned.   An effort will be made to see that planters, diggers, sacks, etc., are disinfected.
Growing of certified seed potatoes, the best hope of cleaning up the outbreak
quickly, has been stressed in the press, by lecturing, and correspondence.
Bacterial Ring-rot in Courtenay District in 1945.
Burbank  - , __.
Burbank ■       _„_ 	
Burbank -   - __ ___
Campbell River     _
Campbell River   ___ ___ _ 	
0 2
♦Columbia Russett      ,   	
2 8
* Certified three years ago.
Red Stele Root Disease of Strawberry.
My attention was directed to a diseased condition in strawberries in the Fraser
Valley in July, 1944, by G. E. W. Clarke, District Horticulturist, Abbotsford. Oospores,
resembling those of Phytophthora fragarise, the cause of the red stele root disease of
strawberry, were found in April, 1945. The symptoms described for red stele also
agree with those of the disease in the Fraser Valley. A quick survey indicates that
red stele is well established and widespread in the Fraser Valley. It was also found
in the Kootenays at Willow Point and Wynndel and on Vancouver Island at Ladysmith.
The District Horticulturist, G. E. W. Clarke, estimated a loss of about 600 tons last
summer for the Fraser Valley from this disease.
Symptoms of Disease.
The red stele disease is most evident in the spring and early summer when a severe
dwarfing and death in the lower, poorly drained parts of the field is observed. Badly
affected plants produce little or no fruit and many may die during the first dry period
in the spring. Plants slightly to moderately infected during early spring partially
or fully recover during the warm months.
The above-ground symptoms are the result of the damage done to the roots by
the fungus. The fine fibrous roots are destroyed first and only the coarser rat-tail-like
ones are left. From the small roots the fungus slowly advances into the larger ones,
invading mainly the central cylinder or stele, killing that portion and causing it to
turn red. The outer part or bark of the large infected roots continues for a while to
appear healthy but later this dies too and turns dark, beginning at the tips or lower
ends of the roots.
Predisposing Conditions.
Phytophthora fragarise, the cause of the red stele disease, is favoured by cold,
wet soil. V 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The greatest hope and most practical method of controlling red stele and reviving
the strawberry industry is in the finding or development of a suitable resistant variety.
The following resistant varieties received from the United States Department of
Agriculture have been planted in badly infected soil and will be grown for observation: Aberdeen Pathfinder, Temple, AF-430, U.S. 3202, U.S. 3204, U.S. 3205, U.S. 3374,
and U.S. 3378.
The attention of J. J. Woods, Superintendent of the Experimental Station, Saanich-
ton, and M. B. Davis, Dominion Horticulturist, has been directed to the seriousness of
this problem. The development by breeding of a new variety resistant to red stele
comes under their jurisdiction. According to Mr. Woods a project to develop a resistant variety has been started.
The red stele disease has so much potentiality for harm and is so difficult to cope
with when once introduced that it is impossible to place too much emphasis on the
importance of preventing its introduction into non-infested strawberry regions. An
inspection service has been offered for all nurseries and individuals selling plants in an
attempt to have plants free of red stele available for planting on new land or after
a long rotation has followed an affected crop.
Western X of Peaches.
In August, 1945, a survey of many peach-orchards in Osoyoos and Oliver for the
Western X disease was made in co-operation with the Dominion Laboratory of Plant
Pathology at Summerland. In the State of Washington it is considered to be their
most serious virus disease of fruit-trees. Western X disease does not seem to have
materially decreased the commercial production of peaches as yet in the Okanagan but
at least two orchards appear to have been seriously affected. It affects all commercial
peach varieties grown in British Columbia.
Although virus diseases of fruit-trees are comparatively new to British Columbia
we can fortunately benefit from the experiences in the peach districts of the United
States where they have had virus disease—for example, yellows, little peach, and
rosette—for about half a century.
In the United States it has been repeatedly demonstrated that control is more
effective and less expensive when proper measures are taken early and prior to the
time that infection becomes widespread in an orchard or district. They have found
that no virus disease of fruit-trees has been completely eradicated by tree-removal
methods, but there are several outstanding examples of effective economic control by
such measures. Apparently successful control programmes have been dependent upon
repeated seasonal inspections, the recognition of the diseased condition from visible
symptoms, and the immediate removal of all possible sources of infection. Before the
adoption of preventive measures—i.e., inspection for and destruction of infested trees
to keep the disease to a minimum—a number of sporadic heavy losses occurred from
the wiping-out of orchards and even entire peach districts. By prompt removal and
replanting, when a tree affected by a virus disease like peach yellows is found, orchards
have remained in commercial production where past experience has proved that inattention to proper control measures resulted in the final destruction of plantings. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 71
Western X Disease Survey, 1945.
District. Normal. Diseased.
Osoyoos (south-west) __  10,384 93
Osoyoos (south-east)   4,067 48
Osoyoos (north) and Testalinda   3,712 86
Oliver (west)   11,746 215
Oliver (north)   5,044 74
34,953 516
Total, 35,469.    Percentage affected, 1.4.
" Little Cherry " of the Kootenays.
" Little cherry " disease continues to spread in the Kootenays. In a survey made
in July, 1945, it appears to be general in Taghum, Nelson, Willow Point, Longbeach,
Balfour, Harrop, and Procter, and patchy at Mirror Lake, Kootenay Bay, Crawford
Bay, Gray Creek, Boswell, Creston, South Slocan, Bonnington, and Robson.
The rapid spread of the " little cherry " virus, previously noted in one of the commercial orchards, took place in the experimental orchard at Kootenay Bay. Nineteen
trees had the disease for the first time in 1944 and in 1945 every bearing tree throughout the main central part of the orchard, forty-six in number, was affected.
The manner in which it is spread is unknown, but the rapid rate of spread indicates that insects are probably responsible. Two common insects of cherry-trees in
the affected area that might be responsible for spreading the virus are the black cherry-
aphis and the mealy bug. It has been observed that the disease seems to spread much
more slowly in an orchard in which insect sprays have been applied and also in
neglected orchards in which growth is poor from lack of water and fertilizers.
1. Apply a combined dormant mealy-bug and black-aphid spray to orchards in the
Kootenays that are free, or have some trees free, of " little cherry." The amounts
recommended by Dr. J. Marshall, Dominion Entomological Laboratory, Summerland,
per 100 gallons of spray are: (a) Dormant oil (actual oil), 2 gallons, emulsified with
soya flour, % to 1 lb.; (o) dinitrocresol 40 per cent., 2 lb.; and (c) water, about 98
2. Cherry nursery stock should not be grown in an affected area.
3. A careful survey of patchy areas.
I. J. Ward, B.Sc, Entomologist.
The increase in agricultural production in British Columbia during the past few
years has resulted in a corresponding increase in insect abundance. Control measures
have become more important yearly to minimize damage to vitally needed crops. Certain valuable insecticides were scarce during war-time. It was necessary to substitute
insecticides in many cases and where no alternatives were available those in short
supply had to be used sparingly in a manner that would provide maximum control. V 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
In spite of many difficulties arising during a very short period it is definite that
growers in general throughout the Province are giving more thought to control than
at any previous time. There is every indication that the public is conscious of the
necessity of controlling all types of injurious insects.
A great deal of publicity has been given regarding the important role insecticide
played during the war. New insecticides were tested and widely used. Undoubtedly
some of these war-time insecticides will be valuable for the control of insect pests
during peace-time. Growers will be requesting and receiving more information on
entomological work.
It was possible to spend more time in actual field studies this year than during
1944. This made it possible to check on the abundance of injurious insects in various
districts; to check on the effectiveness of control measures being adopted and from
this information a reasonably complete idea of control bulletins required was gained.
Co-operation was maintained with Agriculturists and Horticulturists of the British
Columbia Department of Agriculture and with members of the Dominion Division of
Colorado Potato-beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata).
(a.)  East Kootenay District.
C. N. Barnhardt was in charge of control operations for the period June 8th to
September 8th.
Cranbrook, St. Eugene Mission, and Cherry Creek.—Cranbrook remained the centre
of heavy infestation, with beetles numerous in the early part of the season, particularly
on potatoes grown by the Chinese market-gardeners. Dusting was first started on
June 16th. Extremely effective control was obtained by using Rotox derris dust 0.75
per cent. This was used in larger quantities than in 1944 and by the end of the season
it was difficult to find a single beetle on some of the commercial plots. Less calcium
arsenate 1—6 dust was used.
One fairly heavy infestation and a spot infestation occurred at St. Eugene Mission
early in the summer. These were thoroughly dusted with Rotox and calcium arsenate
dusts and by midsummer it was impossible to locate any beetles.
At Cherry Creek, Joe Sun was supplied with 100 lb. of Rotox dust for 4 acres of
potatoes and he undertook such a thorough job of control that it is doubtful if any of
the beetles remained to over-winter.    This was the only infestation at Cherry Creek.
Bull River, Fort Steele, Wasa, and Ta Ta Creek.—Spot infestations were located at
Fort Steele and Wasa only.    Dusting was carried out and control was excellent.
Mayook and Wardner.—No infestation was found at Mayook. One infestation was
found at Wardner and this was thoroughly dusted with good results.
Jaffray, Baynes Lake, Elko, Dorr, and Waldo.—Infestations were found in all of
these places but Elko, the heaviest being located at Jaffray. Growers co-operated well
and obtained good control.
Newgate.—Infestations were found at all farms in Newgate. Growers were asked
to co-operate in a sincere effort to eradicate the pest and did so with very satisfactory
Fernie, Hosmer, Natal, and Michel.—One heavy infestation was found at Fernie
and spot infestations occurred from Fernie to Hosmer. All growers obtained good
results by dusting with materials obtained from E. Quail, Fernie. Natal and Michel
had no beetles. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 73
Springbrook, Sheep Creek, Premier Lake, and Skookumchuck.—Spotty infestations
were found at Springbrook. Mr. Barnhardt hand-picked beetles and dusted thoroughly.
No sign of an infestation was found at a later date. This appeared to be the limits of
the infested area to the north of Cranbrook as no sign of beetles was found in the
remaining areas to the north.
Skookumchuck to Radium Junction.—No beetles found at any time during the
Radium Junction to Golden.—No beetles found.
Cranbrook to Creston.—No beetles found.
Erickson, Canyon, Camp Lister, and Huscroft.—No beetles were found at Canyon,
Camp Lister, or Huscroft. Erickson district had light infestations, but the farmers
did a thorough job of dusting with calcium arsenate supplied by Creston Farmers'
Creston to Gray Creek.—Infestations were found on some farms, but good results
were obtained with calcium arsenate supplied by Creston Farmers' Institute. Growers
at Wynndel and Sirdar had rather heavy infestations but obtained good control with
calcium arsenate supplied by the Wynndel Co-operative.
There was no commercial loss of potatoes due to the Colorado potato-beetle throughout the entire East Kootenay District.
Although it was the first year that Mr. Barnhardt was engaged in potato-beetle
control-work his work was very thorough and conscientious. In areas of infestation
virtually every potato-patch was inspected.
One week was spent with Mr. Barnhardt early in June to acquaint him with the
work and an inspection trip of the area was made late in the summer.
It is definite that yearly advances are being made in the control of this pest and
with the improved insecticides now being used it seems certain that the area of infestation will gradually be reduced.
This annual programme of control has done much to protect other potato-growing
areas from infestation.
Insecticidal dust used in the East Kootenay District during 1945 amounted to
7,560 lb. as against 7,153 lb. during 1944.
Experimental Dusting with 3-per-cent. DDT Dust.—On August 29th an infestation
at Cranbrook was dusted with 3-per-cent. DDT dust. Dusting was done at 7.30 a.m.
and by 9.30 a.m. beetles were partly paralysed but did not appear to be dead until
11 a.m. DDT dust gives promise of giving excellent control and it would seem
advisable to carry on further work in 1946, starting at the beginning of the season
with a 5-per-cent. dust.
Recommendations.—The excellent control obtained in 1945 may be attributed to
the increased use of Rotox dust (0.75-per-cent. Rotenone content). A small amount
was used in 1943 for test purposes and it proved to be very effective against larval and
adult stages of the insect. It was particularly valuable for the control of the adult
stage as a contact insecticide. The adult insect feeds relatively little and the stomach-
poison, calcium arsenate, was not entirely effective. During 1944, 500 lb. of Rotox dust
were used and this amount was increased to 1,500 lb. in 1945. This insecticide was in
short supply during war years and for this reason was used sparingly and only in areas
where effective control was most essential. Now that it is more easily available it is
considered advisable to use more 0.75-per-cent. Rotenone dust and less calcium arsenate
dust. Mr. Barnhardt has recommended that 5,000 lb. of Rotox dust be supplied for
the control-work in the East Kootenay District in 1946.
The calcium arsenate dust now on hand will be used up and no further supplies
should be purchased. It has been pointed out that this dust is not very effective for
the control of the beetle stage and growers dislike using it very much.    Indications are that DDT dust will take the place of calcium arsenate as it is both a contact poison
and stomach-poison.    Experimental dusting will be continued in 1946.
(6.)  Boundary Area.
Grand Forks, Greenwood, Midway, and Rock Creek.—No infestations have been
located in these areas since 1943. Careful inspections were made on two occasions
during the summer months and these were followed up by frequent checks made by
J. Travis, District Agriculturist, Grand Forks.
Much credit is due Mr. Travis for the thorough supervision of control-work in
Potato acreage has increased greatly at Grand Forks during the past two years and
it means a great deal to growers to have the area free of this destructive pest.
(c.)  South Okanagan Valley and Similkameen.
H. B. Parsons was in charge of potato-beetle control in the above areas for a period
of three months, mid-June until mid-September. Unfortunately it was necessary for
him to assist in the pear psylla control campaign for the first two weeks in June. This
time could have been used to good advantage in the Oliver-Osoyoos area on potato-beetle
control. This was the first year that a supervisor was appointed for control-work in
the South Okanagan-Similkameen although control measures were undertaken in 1944.
No infestations were found at Okanagan Falls or Kaleden this year.
Infestations were generally light although quite widespread. Those located during
the year were as follows: Osoyoos, 27; Cawston, 21; Oliver, 5; Penticton, 3; Keremeos, 1.
The three infestations at Penticton were located late in the summer and indicated
a spread of the pest over 1944. All were close together in the part of town close to
the Canadian Pacific Railway station.
Thorough control measures were adopted and several subsequent checks were made
without finding any trace of infestation.
Infestations observed at the end of the season were as follows: Osoyoos, 3; Cawston, 2;   Oliver, 5;   Penticton, 0;   Keremeos, 1.
Insecticides used were as follows: Rotox derris, 750 lb.; calcium arsenate 1-6
dust, 250 lb.; DDT dust, small amount for test purposes only.
Work will have to be continued in this area in an effort to prevent a continued
spread of the potato-beetle to other potato-growing areas.
It may be necessary to start work as early as May 1st as crops in the Osoyoos area
are very early. Most of the potatoes grown are of the early variety and over-wintering
beetles emerge early.
Considerable information is now available regarding this new area of infestation
and there is every hope that continued control measures will result in stamping out the
pest as was possible in the Boundary area.
Note on Potato-beetle Control in British Columbia.
The record of potato-beetle control in British Columbia undertaken by the Department of Agriculture has proven this effort to be well worth while.
In the East Kootenay District the area and intensity of the infestation has been
steadily reduced since 1926. An inspection of the area in late summer, 1945, led me to
believe that continued effective control would make eradication of the potato-beetle
Thorough control measures in the Boundary area for a few years resulted in
eradications of the pest.
Effective control has been obtained in the South Okanagan-Similkameen area. There has been no commercial loss of potatoes due to this insect in any part of
British Columbia this year.
The widespread peak in the grasshopper outbreak throughout the British Columbia
Interior Dry Belt area during 1943 and 1944 showed definite signs of receding this
Grasshoppers hatched at least a month later than in 1944 and early damage to
irrigated ground crops was not extensive. The most serious damage was done to range
grasses, hay crops, and in a few isolated instances to grain crops.
The heaviest infestations occurred in the Nicola Valley, Kamloops range-land area,
and parts of the North Okanagan. In other areas by late summer the grasshopper
population was showing a rapid return to normal.
Throughout 1943 and 1944 the outbreak consisted mainly of one species only,
Melanoplus mexicanus mexicanus, the most destructive grasshopper in North America.
However, during 1944 the roadside grasshopper, Camnula pellucida, began to increase
to outbreak proportions in the Nicola Valley. This added to the severity of the outbreak on the Nicola range-land. Fortunately Camnula pellucida is not considered too
difficult to control and for this reason added little to the control campaign adopted.
Grasshopper conditions throughout 1945 are outlined for the Interior Dry Belt
(a.) East Kootenay District.—The grasshopper population showed a rapid decline
over 1944. Hatching of eggs occurred very late and by midsummer parasites had
increased in large enough numbers to reduce the population to normal. Damage
throughout the area was negligible.    The outbreak is considered over.
(b.) Boundary Area.—Grasshoppers hatched in the Bridesville, Myncaster, and
Rock Creek areas in fairly large numbers towards the end of June. Parasites were
controlling them effectively by midsummer and damage to range grasses, hay-crops,
and grain-crops was negligible during the year. No damage occurred to crops in the
Grand Forks area. The grasshopper population should be normal in the Boundary
area in 1946.
(c.) South Okanagan.—The grasshopper population was light throughout the
season. Only a small amount of money was spent for control purposes in the Oliver
Grasshopper-control Zone.    The situation should be normal in 1946.
(d.) North Okanagan.—Grasshoppers hatched in large numbers in various parts
of this district during June. The infestation was more of a " spotty " nature than
during 1944. This was particularly noticeable in the Vernon area. Damage was done
to some sections of range-land as well as to some hay and grain crops. Very little
injury was done to irrigated ground crops. Most injury to range grasses, hay and
grain crops, and in a few instances damage to ground crops occurred in the Larkin and
Armstrong areas. The infestation was by no means general and control measures
were not extensive. Heavy parasitism was observed during late summer and indications are that the grasshopper population in the North Okanagan will approach normal
in 1946.
(e.) Kamloops District.—The outbreak was confined generally to range-land areas
where damage was extensive. Parasites increased rapidly in numbers throughout the
summer and were present in countless millions before grasshopper activity ended.
Heavy parasitism was particularly noticeable at the low range-levels and decreased at
the higher levels. Practically no damage was done to ground crops in the valley and
control measures were not necessary. A continued reduction in grasshopper population
is forecast for 1946 with scattered infestations expected on the higher range-levels.
(/.) Nicola Valley.—The heavy outbreak that occurred on the range-land during 1944 continued again this year. The roadside grasshopper, Camnula pellucida,
increased in numbers to add to the population of Melanoplus mexicanus mexicanus. V 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Damage to range-land was extensive although a thorough control programme was
adopted. Control measures undoubtedly were effective in reducing the amount of
crop-loss that otherwise would have occurred. By late summer parasites were increasing in tremendous numbers and the effect of reducing the grasshopper population was
particularly noticeable on the lower range-land. The percentage of parasitism was
considerably less on the high range-land.
There is every evidence that the Nicola outbreak has now passed its peak intensity
and a marked improvement should occur in 1946. Control measures will be required,
with most baiting needed on the high range-land:
(g.) Princeton-Similkam.een.—An improvement in grasshopper conditions was
observed during the year. Although nymphs emerged in moderate numbers during the
spring, parasites increased in numbers over 1944 and by midsummer were responsible
for reducing the population. Damage to range grasses and all other crops was very
light.    In 1946 the situation should show a return to normal.
(/..) Cariboo District.—During 1944 the grasshopper population was showing a
rapid decline, with heaviest infestations confined to the lower range-levels. A further
decrease in population occurred in 1945 due to the abundance of parasites. Crop
damage in the district was light. The infestation should show indications of a return
to normal during 1946.
Grasshopper Forecast, 1946.'
With the exception of Kamloops, Nicola, and some parts of the North Okanagan
districts the grasshopper population throughout the Interior Dry Belt areas should
approach normal in 1946. Where infestations continued in 1945 many species of
parasites built up steadily through the summer and these should do much in 1946
towards terminating the most serious and widespread outbreak that British Columbia
has experienced for many years.
Cutworms were prevalent during the spring in practically all areas where field
crops were grown. This is the second year in a row that moderate damage has been
done to early crops by these pests. It may have been due to the fact that precipitation was relatively high during the spring. Wet weather appears to be favourable
to cutworms and unfavourable to the parasites responsible for natural control. The
use of poisoned baits was general and crop-loss was held to a minimum.
Flea-beetles continue to show an increase in numbers in almost all agricultural
The species attacking Brassica crops is most widespread but may be controlled
readily by using a dust containing 0.75 per cent. Rotenone. A good number of growers
now have dusting-machines and control measures are improving yearly, minimizing
A heavy infestation of flea-beetles was observed on approximately 65 acres of
radish being grown for seed on the Kootenay Flats, Creston. Damage was apparent
but crop-loss could not be estimated. Infestations occurred on radish grown for seed
at Grand Forks although injury was light and no control was undertaken. An increase
in flea-beetle population in this area will warrant the adoption of control measures.
Potato Flea-beetles.
Two species of flea-beetles are common on potatoes in the Fraser Valley and parts
of the Interior.
The tuber flea-beetle, Epitrix tuberis, is possibly the most serious pest of potatoes
in British Columbia at the present time.    The larva, of this species feed on the tubers, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 77
penetrating to a depth of one-quarter inch. The scarring resulting from the feeding
tunnels means that a great deal of the potato is wasted in peeling. Where heavy infestations occur potatoes are unmarketable. The most serious infestations occur in the
Fraser Valley. In 1944 this species was first found in the Interior at Princeton and
a survey undertaken in 1945 indicated a spread of the pest over 1944.
Experimental control-work has been carried out by R. Glendenning, Dominion
Division of Entomology, Agassiz. The use of arsenical or cryolite dusts have to date
proved quite effective in the Fraser Valley although several dustings are required.
From a test undertaken in 1945 at Princeton there is evidence that these insecticides
are equally effective for control in the Interior although further tests will have to be
The other species of flea-beetle on potatoes is seldom of economic importance. It
feeds on the foliage only, never damages the tuber, and has to be present in large
numbers to injure the foliage sufficiently to retard plant-growth. It is readily controlled by the application of 0.75-per-cent. Rotenone-bearing dust.
Onion-maggot (Hylemyia antiqua).
This continued to be the most serious pest of onions in the Interior. During 1945
growers increased control measures noticeably and crop-loss was less than in 1944.
Two or three applications of 4-per-cent. calomel were required for commercial control.
The first dust must be applied early (loop stage of the onion seedling) with subsequent
dustings at ten-day intervals. Unfortunately some growers waited for signs of an
infestation before using calomel dust and control measures were a failure. With the
possibility that dusting equipment will now be more readily available it is expected
that control measures will be increased.
Onion-thrips (Thrips tabaci).
Only one heavy infestation was observed during the year. This occurred on approximately 2 acres of onions at Grand Forks where part of the crop was grown for
bulbs and part for seed. Unfortunately the grower did not report damage until late
in the season and the infestation was so severe that the entire crop appeared to be
destroyed. It is fortunate that other large onion-crops in the district were not infested.
Control recommendations were given more to hold the pest in check than in hopes of
saving the crop.    No other serious outbreaks were observed or reported in the Interior.
Cabbage-maggot (Hylemyia brassicas).
Damage due to this pest was less severe throughout the Interior than during 1944.
The use of a 4-per-cent. calomel dust in most cases provided adequate control. The
cabbage-maggot requires control measures annually, particularly for early plantings.
In the Vernon district, where some 5,000 tons of cabbage were grown for dehydration,
crops were generally excellent.
Cabbage-worm (Pieris rapes).
This insect was of little importance again this year. The use of Rotenone dusts
used to control Brassica flea-beetles effectively controls the cabbage-worm.
White-grubs or June-beetles.
Reports of crop damage by white-grubs were more numerous in 1945 than during
the previous two years. This is believed due to the fact that more sod-land, where
infestations occur, has been broken and planted to crops. As no satisfactory insecti-
cidal control measures have yet been worked out it is necessary to recommend that
crops be planted that are not readily attacked. V 78 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Parsnip Web-worm.
An infestation occurred on 4 to 5 acres of parsnips at Armstrong. Thorough
dusting with 35-per-cent. cryolite dust was carried out as soon as the infestation was
observed and loss of seed crop was very light. Last season on this farm the seed
loss was 50 per cent, as control was started too late.
Wireworms cause damage yearly in British Columbia and no effective insecticidal
control is at present feasible. In the Interior most serious crop damage occurs in the
Grand Forks, Kelowna, and Kamloops districts. Recent correspondence suggests that
some research on wireworm-control may be undertaken in British Columbia by the
Dominion Division of Entomology.
Turnip-seed Weevil.
Damage to Brassica seed crops occurred again in the North Okanagan with the
centre of heavy infestations being at Armstrong. Experimental control with DDT
proved of no value. In the Coast area Mr. Glendenning has found control by parasites
Although the loss of grain-crops in some parts of the North Okanagan in 1944 due
to wheat-midge infestation was 50 per cent, or more, crop-loss this year was very light.
It may be considered the normal loss that occurs annually in such places as Lumby,
Enderby, and Grindrod.    This year's infestation was as forecast at the end of 1944.
Aphids of ground crops were abundant in the Interior during 1944. The cabbage-
aphis was particularly severe in the North Okanagan and control measures were
required throughout the entire growing period. Very little trouble was experienced
this year. No dusting of cabbage for aphis-control was required until mid-June and
the acreage involved was very small. Aphis infestations on other ground crops were
Orchard insect investigations are dealt with thoroughly by members of the Provincial Horticultural Branch and staff of the Dominion Division of Entomology under
Dr. J. Marshall. To avoid any duplication of the report prepared by the Provincial
Horticulturist little mention is made of orchard pests. The one exception is a brief
article on the pear psylla control programme mentioned under Special Investigations.
Contact was maintained throughout the year with members engaged in orchard-
pest control programmes. This was done to keep in touch with research undertaken
and to assist in extension work while travelling throughout British Columbia.
Greenhouses were visited in the Okanagan, Kootenay, and parts of the Lower
Fraser Valley during the year.
These were found to be causing damage in all the areas mentioned and some
difficulty had been experienced by greenhouse operators in obtaining effective control.
It appears that most effective control is obtained when poisoned baits of different
formula, are alternated from time to time. Damage to various plants was difficult to
estimate although rather serious injury was observed to tomato seedlings in greenhouses operated by Chinese at Armstrong. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 79
Orange Tortrix Leaf-roller.
A heavy infestation of this insect was observed in a greenhouse at Vernon during
the year. Serious damage was done to many types of potted plants. Practically all
common types of insecticides proved of no avail for control. Finally a DDT spray
consisting of % lb. DDT to 100 gallons of water together with Duponol paste as a
spreader was tried. This was an effective spray although several applications were
required. This pest was reported from Victoria several years ago but to my knowledge
the infestation at Vernon is the first in the Interior.
Infestations were observed in the Lower Fraser Valley and at Vernon. A test
made at Vernon with DDT spray at the rate of y^ lb. to 100 gallons of water with a
spreader added appeared to give excellent control under greenhouse conditions.
Tarnished Plant-bug.
This has been a serious pest of flowers of the aster family in some greenhouses.
Tests made in a greenhouse at Vernon with DDT spray at the rate of % lb. DDT to
100 gallons of water together with a spreader appeared to provide effective control.
Infestations were found to be common in restaurants, warehouses, and many public
buildings. The present control recommendations were not too effective. Continued
use of sodium fluoride will hold the cockroach population to low numbers but eradication is difficult. Tests made this year using 10-per-cent. DDT dust did not provide
effective control. It is generally believed that at least a 20-per-cent. DDT dust is
required or else one of lower strength combined with some other contact insecticide.
Bedbug (Cimex lectularius).
Infestations of this insect were common throughout the Okanagan, being particularly severe in the south. This is attributed to the fact that many agricultural workers
have been brought in during the past few years and housed in temporary wooden
shacks.    Tests with a 5-per-cent. DDT residual spray gave excellent control.
Box-elder Bug (Leptocoris trivittatus).
This pest has caused considerable annoyance again this year to many householders
throughout the Interior. Very little spraying is done in an effort to control them.
Some householders have removed trees on which they feed to be rid of the insects.
A few cases of earwigs causing annoyance by entering homes were reported at
Vernon this year, although there appeared to be no increase in numbers throughout
the Dry Belt area over 1944.
A widespread outbreak of the common dog-flea occurred in homes in Vernon during the hot summer months. Most of the infestations were in basements and could
be traced to the combination of a dog and a sawdust-pile. The application of 5-percent. DDT dust provided immediate and thorough control.
Spectacular control of house-flies was observed in houses, barns, and dairies during
the year where residual sprays of DDT were used. V 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
With the advent of the power-spraying procedure in warble-control it is anticipated that great strides can be taken towards the elimination of this pest.
In some areas in British Columbia excellent work has been done for a number of
years with very gratifying results. In other areas it seems certain that warbles are
Where control is undertaken cattle are unmolested by flies and put on more weight
during the summer months. They are not run down during the balance of the year by
the toxicity and irritation of hundreds of grubs. The gain in untrimmed carcasses and
unmarred hides or in milk production is also very noticeable. There are few large
cattle-ranchers carrying out control in British Columbia at the present time in spite
of the fact that animals can be treated quickly and at a cost of a few cents per head.
Where control measures have been adopted ranchers are enthusiastic over the ease with
which cattle can be handled on the range.
In the Williams Lake district over 4,000 head were treated by power-sprayer during
the spring, showing an increase in control during the year.
■ While the majority of ranchers in British Columbia are in favour of warble-control,
it is a fact that the average farmer does need pushing as too often his apparent enthusiasm lapses when the control season approaches. There is also need of more power-
sprayers for warble-control in British Columbia.
During 1944 a serious tick outbreak occurred in the Nicola Valley. Some 400 head
of cattle were paralysed and 100 killed. Precautions were taken in 1945 to prevent a
repetition of this by keeping animals from infested pastures during the spring. Eight
head of cattle were lost during the year at Pavilion and eighty cattle were so heavily
infested with ticks at Merritt that they had to be treated with gasoline as an emergency
measure.    Of the many tick repellents tested in recent years none has proved adequate.
Cattle Lice.
This pest is a serious one in the Prairie Provinces during the winter months but
apparently is not of great importance in British Columbia. Studies are being undertaken in the Dominion Livestock Insect Laboratory, Kamloops, but it has not been
possible for members of that office to maintain the needed contact with farmers.
Pear Psylla Control.
Meetings were held early in the year between members of the United States
Department of Agriculture, the Dominion Department of Agriculture, and the Provincial Department of Agriculture to decide on a pear psylla control programme for the
It was acknowledged that the area of infestation in the South Okanagan had
increased to such an extent that the United States Department of Agriculture could
no longer undertake the work, as had been done the two previous years.
An agreement was reached whereby the United States Department of Agriculture
would supply all spray materials and some spray-machines if deemed necessary.
Two sprays were to be applied on all pear-trees from Summerland to the International Boundary, including Cawston-Keremeos. Spraying was a grower responsibility. Distribution of material and supervision of spraying was to be done by
members of the Dominion and Provincial Departments of Agriculture. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 81
Meetings were held by the British Columbia Tree Fruits Board over a period of
two weeks in April and growers were advised of the need of co-operating fully in
completing the spray programme. Speakers were members of the Tree Fruits Board,
Dominion Government officers, and the Provincial Entomologist.
Questionnaires and circular letters were prepared in the Provincial office at Vernon
and sent to some 2,000 growers to obtain information on materials needed and to
provide instructions on spray procedure.
Growers co-operated well and carried out the spray programme completely during
the year.
Scouting crews of the United States Department of Agriculture continued placing
out traps in orchards during the year to collect the insects and in this way determine
the extent of spread of pear psylla. During the spring of 1945 Summerland was considered the most northern limit of the infestation. By late summer infestations had
been found as far north as Vernon.
At the time of writing no word has been received of a pear psylla control programme in British Columbia for 1946.
Tuber Flea-beetle Survey.
During June, July, and August a survey was undertaken in co-operation with E. R.
Buckell, Dominion Division of Entomology, Kamloops, in an effort to determine the
extent of the infestation in the Interior. H. B. Parsons, engaged in potato-beetle
control, assisted in this work.
Sweepings of potato acreages were made, and the insects collected were placed in
vials of alcohol for future determination. All material was forwarded to Mr. Buckell's
office and at date of writing complete details on infested areas were not available.
Information gained from inspection of tubers indicated a spread of the pest over
1944. At Princeton the area and intensity of the outbreak was more pronounced.
Heavy infestations occurred on garden-plots at Allenby, elevation 2,700 feet, above
Princeton. Infestations were found at Hedley and Keremeos. Moderate damage was
observed on tubers from the B. Casorso property, Bear Creek, on Okanagan Lake,
across from Kelowna.
This last infestation suggests the pest to be already widespread in the Interior.
A determination of the insects collected during the year is awaited to gain more complete information.
Anson Knight, B.V.Sc, V.S., Chief Veterinary Inspector.
The dairymen and the stockmen engaged in the production of beef cattle have had
a prosperous year. Feed conditions throughout the range country have been quite
satisfactory and the crops for winter feed will be adequate to carry their stock through
this winter. There has been no disease of an acute type that has become in any way
widespread. What cases were reported were promptly dealt with and the progress of
the disease arrested.
Considerable improvement, both in dairy lines and beef production, has been noticed
in the type of animals raised. This is due largely to the use of better sires. As prices
for dairy products and beef have been good for a number of years our stockmen are in
a position to select and pay for better type of sires. V 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The following diseases have been dealt with throughout the year:—
Hemorrhagic Septicemia.—Two outbreaks of this disease were reported on two
farms. The owners were advised to use preventive measures, such as inoculation, and
this disease did not become at all prevalent throughout the neighbourhood.
Rhinitis.—This disease was quite prevalent throughout Alberta this past season.
One case was reported up in the Peace River but upon investigation it was found due to
pulmonary conditions, and this disease did not become widespread throughout the Peace
Parasites.—Parasites amongst swine are quite prevalent. Considerable instructional work has been done amongst farmers engaged in the production of swine, and
they are now in a position to recognize the trouble and take measures to curtail the
onset of these parasites.
Actinomycosis (Lump-jaw).—Four cases were observed amongst dairy cattle on the
Lower Mainland and one in Central British Columbia. Those animals that showed evidence of the disease in the early stages were treated with good results. The advanced
cases were destroyed.
Mastitis and Sterility.—During the year seventy-one cases of mastitis and thirty-
two cases of sterility have been treated during an investigation into the merits or
demerits of the Koch treatment (glyoxilide) and various other pathological conditions,
such as red-water. The results of the findings indicated that the material has merit.
Throughout the investigation 473 examinations were made on the mastitis cases and
eighty-five for sterility. Three red-water cases were examined several times. Blood
samples were also taken from Bangs' reactors for examination.
Calf hood Vaccination.—This method of protecting cattle against bovine brucellosis
has become quite popular within the large dairy sections of the Province, and appears to
be working satisfactorily as a preventive measure against abortion.
Foot-rot.—About 10,000 head of sheep were examined for this disease. Several
flocks were found to be infected. These flocks were quarantined and visits were made
to the infected premises to check up on the treatment advised. The co-operation of the
owners was appreciated. All of the flocks were cleaned up and allowed to go on the
range for the grazing season.
An outbreak amongst dairy cattle was reported near Williams Lake. Five head of
dairy cows died. No evidence of disease of a contagious nature was found, but on postmortem and examination of the feed it was found that the loss was due to nutritional
disturbances with acute impaction of the third stomach. The quality of. the hay was
of a very low nutritional value and practically indigestible.
Tuberculosis.—Four thousand three hundred and seventy head of cattle on dairy-
farms were tested for tuberculosis and fifty-four reacted to the test. Fifty-one out of
the fifty-four reactors were destroyed and the carcasses disposed of by burying or burning. Three reactors are held in quarantine for retest. The disposal of reactors is
carried out under the supervision of the Veterinary Inspector. The stables where
animals were housed were cleansed and disinfected.
The inspection applies only to milk-vendors who sell milk to the public for human
consumption. During the year 3,133 premises were visited and stables, milk-houses,
and dairy cattle inspected. There were 64,292 head of cattle. Of these, 40,629 were
milk cows. Classification of dairy premises was: A, 292; B, 2,389; C, 130; ungraded,
322. The ungraded premises are not eligible for any grade. The great majority of
these are parties who keep a few cows to supply the household with milk or for the
purpose of feeding milk to young stock and swine. Others send a small amount of cream
to creameries or cheese-factories. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 83
Due to the increase in population in cities, towns, and villages during the war milk-
vendors have been obliged to go farther afield for milk supplies. Many dairy-farmers
formerly patronizing creameries or cheese-factories are now selling their milk chiefly
through the dairy plants in the towns. These dairy-farms are being checked up to see
that they comply with the regulations. The determining factors towards sanitary
improvement of dairy premises during the war were lack of materials and labour. Some
regulation should be approved whereby any party contemplating selling milk for human
consumption should first apply to the Government or an Inspector to have his premises
inspected and graded, and make it obligatory on the part of milk-vendors to supply the
Department with a list of their milk-shippers. At the present time the Department has
no means of obtaining a list of vendor's patrons.
Appended is a list of districts in which T.B. testing was carried out, and also the
dairy inspections.
Henry Rive, B.S.A., Dairy Commissioner.
The seasons of the year under report have been none too favourable to production
of dairy products in the greater part of the Province. A cold, late spring, followed by a
hot, dry summer, brought a heavy strain on pastures and consequent premature drawing
on reserves of hay. Forage-crops in general were of good quality but not of sufficient
quantity to offset the shortage of aftermath and almost complete failure of second-crop
alfalfa. Grasshoppers did considerable damage in the Okanagan. Root-crops were only
fair and corn suffered from drought and early frosts. Snow in October caused early
feeding in Central British Columbia. Some farmers in the Fraser Valley have had to
cut down their herds to a size consistent with their supply of feed.
There are some bright spots in the picture nevertheless. The labour situation is
definitely better. The production in the Fraser Valley is up. Average production per
cow in herds on test has shown a large increase. Poor producers are being weeded out.
Total dairy production will again show a slight increase due entirely to production trends
on the Lower Mainland and on Vancouver Island. This increase seems to centre around
the great milk-market centres of the Pacific Coast ports where climatic conditions are
ideal and prices favourable to the production of milk. Indications are for an increase
of 5 per cent, in butter, a decrease of 10 per cent, in Cheddar cheese, and a slight
decrease in ice-cream manufactured.
Prices have remained stabilized under Wartime Prices and Trade Board control
with subsidies paid as in war-time.    Subsidies are guaranteed until April 30th, 1946.
Twenty-four butter-factories, two cheese-factories, one milk-powder plant, two con-
denseries, and two casein plants have operated this year. Several plants are devoted
entirely to the manufacture of ice-cream and an ever-increasing number of milk-
pasteurizing plants are operating throughout the Province. The labour situation,
though easing, has not settled down entirely. There is considerable shuffling of personnel from plant to plant since the lifting of the job-freezing order. Factory equipment
is still in very short supply, but plant improvements are going ahead gradually and some
new equipment is coming through. One high-temperature, short-time pasteurizer has
been installed in Vancouver.
All dairy plants throughout the Province have been regularly visited by Dairy
Inspectors of this Branch.    Careful inspection has been made of buildings, equipment, V 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
utensils, sanitation, method of handling products, storage-rooms, and disposal of waste.
The grading and testing of milk and cream at the plants has been frequently checked
and reported upon. It has been evident that certain regulations are not being observed
and that there is need for revision of the Act to give the necessary power to enforce
them. Certain changes in the regulations are also needed to bring about fairness to all
The increase in the butter-output this year has not been participated in by creameries in the Interior of the Province where a decided decrease is shown. The unfavourable price for butter-fat in relation to beef prices, together with the demand for labour
in more remunerative fields, has caused the production of churning cream to fall off
seriously and at least two of the creameries have had to close down for the winter.
In those districts where a lively market for fluid milk exists, such as in the Fraser
Valley, the flush season has seen more milk produced than could be readily used as such,
with a result that much was separated and made into butter. This huge localized and
seasonal surplus was sufficient to overshadow the short supply in other districts and
result in an over-all increase in butter production this year. It seems possible that the
six-million mark will be reached by the close of the year.
We have two cheese-factories in the Province. The production was down 10 per
cent, this year. A Federal subsidy of 20 cents per 100 lb. is paid on milk for cheese-
making and will be continued until April 30th, 1946. A Federal regulation requiring
the holding of cheese for ninety days at specified temperatures, unless made from pasteurized milk, has resulted in a more mature product being offered for sale. This regulation, originally meant as a health protective measure, may result in a larger per capita
consumption of cheese in this country and it is sincerely hoped that British Columbia
will be in a position to share in supplying this increased demand. No better Cheddar
cheese can be made anywhere than that made in this Province.
Cottage cheese has an important place in the dairy industry to-day and is becoming
increasingly popular on the tables of British Columbians. One plant produces an average of 5,000 lb. a day and several plants are making lesser amounts. The secret of success in cottage cheese is to use good milk and turn out a uniform product. It is the
repeat sales that count. Cottage cheese provides an outlet for surplus milk of good
quality which would be otherwise wasted in many dairies.
Two eondenseries have run to capacity this summer and milk powder is finding its
way into more products every day.    Two casein plants operate part time.
Since the sale of ice-cream is still regulated by quota, there is little difference in
production over last year. A slight decrease is reported due to movement and demobilization of the armed forces.    Total production amounts to about 1,500,000 gallons a year.
The past year has seen a continuation of the greatly increased demand for fluid
milk.    Production has been stimulated by subsidies which bring the price to from 65 to 85 cents per pound of butter-fat, according to the districts and season, as compared to
about 43 to 48 cents for cream for butter-making. Scarcity of milk in some centres
has caused firms to canvass the former cream-shippers to persuade them to sell fluid
milk, with a result that creameries and cheese-factories in these areas have suffered
a shortage of supply of a serious nature. Competition of this sort does not, as a rule,
contribute to good quality, and operators of milk plants should keep in mind that they
are the final judges of the product on its way to the consumers and never for a moment
allow their standard of quality to be in danger. The Inspectors are willing at all times
to assist in any way to prevent undesirable milk from finding its way to the fluid market,
but they ask the co-operation of the man on the receiving platform, who can do so much
towards maintaining the reputation of his firm. The methylene blue test, used frequently and intelligently, can be of great value in the elimination of high bacteria-count
milk. The operation is simple and takes very little time considering the amount of
information it gives.
Many new, small milk-pasteurizing units are commencing operation throughout the
Province and pasteurized milk is now obtainable in nearly all districts where the population warrants the investment necessary.
On Vancouver Island local milk received in Victoria has increased about 10 per cent.
and imports from the Mainland have increased a like amount. This seems to have
relieved the shortage that existed last year and probably indicates a peak has been
reached in consumption until the quota is taken off ice-cream and restrictions removed
from cream sales.
In the Okanagan considerable strain has been put on dairies to locate enough milk
for the increased population and the camp at Vernon. Milk from the cheese district of
Armstrong has been utilized to augment the supply.
The subsidy on milk was 35 cents per 100 lb. from May 1st to September 30th and
55 cents from October 1st to April 30th, 1946.
Although the situation has eased somewhat there is still great difficulty in securing
suitable men for supervisors in cow-testing association work. Two good men have
resigned during the year and two former supervisors have been re-employed. Three
new men have been trained for the work. There are twelve associations in operation,
employing fourteen supervisors. Two associations, Richmond and Delta, are still on
forty-day testing periods. There are on test at present 358 herds, making up a total of
about 8,200 cows, an increase of 21 per cent, in the number of herds and 26 per cent, in
the number of cows as compared to last year.
The average production per cow of all breeds on test in 1944 was 8,474 lb. of milk,
4.38 per cent, fat or 372 lb. per cow, an increase of 14 lb. per cow over 1943. This is the
outcome of three years of higher milk prices, enabling producers to buy more concentrates, and is also a striking illustration of the value of cow-testing.
The Thirteenth Annual List of Dairy Sires (Holstein Section) was completed early
in the year. The Fourteenth Annual List of Dairy Sires (Ayrshire, Holstein, and
Guernsey Sections) is now ready and the Jersey section is well on the way. The Sixth
Annual List of Cows with a Ton of Butterfat or More has been compiled as Dairy
Circular No. 54 and contains records of 559 cows. Revised Rules and Regulations
governing Cow-testing Associations is published as Dairy Circular No. 12. Seven
Parental Production Summaries have been compiled. Valuable information is to be had
in these publications and any dairy-farmer in need of a dairy sire would do w.ell to study
these lists before making a purchase, as it should be remembered that the only true
measure of a sire's value is the production record of his progeny. V 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Herd-improvement work, under the direction of G. H. Thornbery, has had a hard
struggle to keep going during war years. It has been very difficult to keep supervisors
or to hire new ones. Much time has been spent trying to breach gaps to keep associations going, and before any new associations can be organized or inoperative ones
re-established a fieldman devoting part of his time to inspecting the work of and relieving supervisors for holidays and the rest of his time to extension work and compilations
in this office is recommended. Modern trends in dairy-farming are making more
demands on the knowledge of a supervisor and these men are soon going to need more
special training for the job.
Artificial insemination has been undertaken by two units in the Fraser Valley and
one in the Okanagan. The latter has experienced a severe setback after an unsuccessful
start. The Fraser Valley units are doing good work. It should be noted that some
cows have not been tagged on insemination and consequently their calves do not qualify
for tags under the Cow-testing Association Regulations.
For the purpose of preparing applicants for positions as cow-testing supervisors,
two short courses have been held this year, as a result of which three men have been
employed as supervisors.
In order that the earnings of the Cow-testing Association supervisors might be
more in line with rates of pay in other lines of endeavour, the late Hon. K. C. MacDonald raised the maximum monthly subsidy payable by this Department to cow-testing
associations to $75, with the proviso that fees collected by the association be not less
than this amount and provided the association was on a thirty-day testing basis.
A cream-grader's licence examination course was held at the North Okanagan
Creamery Association creamery at Enderby from November 12th to November 23rd
inclusive. This course was staged at Enderby for the benefit of those applicants in the
Interior but not excluding any from other parts of the Province if they desired to
attend. Accommodation available was another factor in choosing Enderby. Fourteen
applications were received, ten men registering for the course. Eight of these took the
entire course and four of the latter took instruction in milk-testing. Very keen interest
is shown in these courses and much more than cream-grading is involved. There exists
a genuine desire on the part of the participants to acquire knowledge of anything pertaining to the dairy-plant work. The time is at hand now to establish a dairy-school in
this Province where these men can acquire the knowledge they seek. They should not
have to go to other Provinces to attend dairy short-courses.
The Department is grateful to the managers and owners of the creameries at
Vernon, Enderby, and Salmon Arm for allowing the use of their facilities in the holding
of this course.
During the year thirty-one applicants for testers' licences were examined, eighty-
two testers' licences and thirty-six combined testers' and graders' licences were issued.
Sixty-two creamery and dairy licences were issued.
One verification test was made during the year.
MEETINGS. of this Branch have attended meetings at Calgary, Alberta; Langley
Prairie, Kelowna, Vernon, Grindrod, Enderby, Inonoaklin Valley, Sidmouth, Chilliwack,
Pitt Meadows, Fairbridge Farm, Sumas, Richmond, and Saanich. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 87
The Thirteenth Annual List of Dairy Sires (Holstein Section), being Dairy Circular No. 50, and the Fourteenth Annual List of Dairy Sires (Ayrshire, Holstein, and
Guernsey Sections), Dairy Circular No. 53, were the publications of the year.
All correspondence and inquiries have been dealt with. All claims for Federal subsidies on butter-fat have been checked and forwarded to Ottawa. The two stenographer-
clerks, Miss Jewkes and Miss Hughes, have shown willingness, faithfulness, and efficiency in the performance of their duties.
Inspectional and instructional work has been carried out by Provincial Dairy Inspectors, F. C. Wasson, F. Overland, and G. Patchett, under the " Creameries and Dairies
Act." In addition to routine inspection, checking grades and tests, and assisting in
creamery and cheese-factory work, a new test known as the " phosphatase test " is being
used this year. A convenient field-kit is carried by the Inspectors and milk is quickly
tested for phosphatase; the presence of this enzyme shows that milk has not been efficiently pasteurized.    This new service has been warmly welcomed by the industry.
Throughout the war the staff of the Dairy Branch has kept a watchful eye on
quality of product and no opportunity has been lost to remind the operators that quality
once lost is hard to regain. It is a pleasure to note that we have come through the war
with flying colours in this regard and much of the credit goes to the producer for his
tenacity of purpose.
The officials of this Branch were permitted to attend a short course at the University of British Columbia in April of this year. The course dealt with some of the
newer tests and analysis of dairy products and was much appreciated by those attending.
It is felt that much good can come out of courses of this kind.
The dairy industry in British Columbia has continued to be influenced by war conditions even after the cessation of hostilities, but it is expected that next year will see
more stable conditions prevailing and a great future awaits the men of foresight in the
industry in British Columbia to-day. The butter industry has undergone trying times
but indications are that subsidies will be removed, floor prices set, and losses, if any,
borne by the Federal Government out of a fund set aside for the purpose.
J. R. Terry, Poultry Commissioner.
The poultry industry enjoyed a good year in 1945, continuing the progress made
during the war years. Production of baby chicks dropped somewhat as compared with
1944. There was a heavy export of hatching-eggs and baby chicks outside the Province
to other Provinces, and particularly hatching-eggs to Pacific Coast States.
Export of market-eggs in shell and dried continued to Great Britain and an outstanding shipment of 100,000 cases of eggs was made from the Port of New Westminster. This is the largest individual shipment of shell eggs ever made from Canada
and made up most of the cargo of the refrigerated boat. Those interested in export
trade from British Columbia are anticipating beneficial effect from this shipment.
A number of new poultry-killing plants were opened in the Fraser Valley to handle
the volume of poultry. Particular mention should be made of the new plant constructed
by Surrey Co-operative Association at Cloverdale, one of the best-equipped modern plants
in Canada. With the return of veterans from the armed forces many inquiries have been
received about poultry-farming and indications point to many newcomers in the industry
in 1946.
Egg prices for Grade A Large varied from the low of 30 cents per dozen to the high
of 41 cents per dozen to the producer.
There was considerable increase in hatching capacity for baby chicks and baby
poults. The development of turkey production has been remarkable, particularly the
increased demand for poults. Thousands are now being hatched in the Fraser Valley
and on Vancouver Island for shipment all over Western Canada.
Incidentally mention should be made of the development of turkey-raising on slatted
porches. This method of management is creating much interest and many inquiries are
being received.
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor.
The first part of the year was devoted to the preparation of reports and maps covering field activities of the previous summer, and with farm-drainage problems, surveys
of municipal airports, and the Regional Advisory Committee for Rehabilitation and
A method of procedure was drafted for the Advisory Committee, including an
organization chart, and assistance was given with the work of organizing citizens' committees for rehabilitation and reconstruction. Articles were prepared for the press in
connection with regional planning.
Field-work was undertaken in April at Creston to determine the amount of arable
land, quality of soil, and duty of water in the proposed North Creston Irrigation District. Total acreage classified amounted to 5,265, of which 2,678 acres are suitable for
The proposed irrigation district is a small part of the area capable of improvement
in this part of the Kootenay River Valley. The Kootenay River Flats amount to about
40,000 acres, of which 17,200 acres are dyked and the balance is subject to flooding.
The area of arable terrace, which includes the proposed irrigation district, Creston,
Erickson, and Camp Lister, covers approximately 30,000 acres. With such resources
the future of this locality is promising.
Between June and November field-work was undertaken on twelve gravity and pumping irrigation proposals in the Thompson River Valley region and one at Lillooet. This
work was done at the request of the Soldier Settlement Board and " Veterans' Land Act "
department to determine the amount of land suitable for settlement in each area. Taken
together the total acreage surveyed amounts to 16,424 acres, of which 14,595 acres are
potentially arable.    A summary of these projects from east to west is as follows:—
An area on Balmoral Flats, between Tappen and Notch Hill, consists of 1,550 acres
to be irrigated by gravity from White Lake. The lake produces about 4,800 acre-feet
of water during the irrigation season, with minimum 1,960 and maximum 7,500 acre-
feet. About 430 acre-feet are required for present licences. The lake has an area of
1,400 acres and by raising the level 4 feet 5,600 acre-feet of storage is created. Requirements of the scheme are under 4,000 acre-feet, hence the proposed storage would be
ample. A diversion canal only 2 miles long is required and capital cost is estimated at
$21.45 per acre. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 89
Approximately 2,233 acres were soil-surveyed. The soil is a uniform heavy clay
with gently sloping and gently undulating surface. There are about 443 acres of small,
scattered, and cultivated fields; 222 acres of small, scattered areas of slash with stumps
in place; and 1,478 acres of heavy clearing. Commercial timber has been logged but
a strong second growth presents a land-clearing problem.
Climatic conditions are cooler than those at Salmon Arm but slightly milder than
Armstrong. Between Salmon Arm and Sorrento irrigation is necessary owing to the
shape of the Pacific climatic curve, which features high winter precipitation followed
by summer dryness. While two or three summers in five have sufficient moisture for
half or two-thirds of a crop by Okanagan standards, the five-year average is something
less than half a crop. With irrigation and 60-acre farm units under cultivation mixed
farming can be carried on successfully.
The area surveyed at Westwold consisting of 5,177 acres of deep loam and clay loam
soils already cleared, irrigated by gravity and farmed. The farm unit should be 80
acres, used for mixed farming.
The climate of the area compares with Armstrong in the Okanagan Valley. Mean
annual temperature at Armstrong and Westwold is 43° F. The greatest extreme at
Armstrong is —39° and at Westwold —37°. Annual precipitation is 16.90 inches at
Armstrong and 15.21 inches at Westwold. The frost-free period at Armstrong is 107
days and 102 days at Westwold.
The chief handicap to production at Westwold is the method of irrigation. There
is no storage and water can not be fed to the soil as required throughout the season.
The spring freshet, which declines in June, is applied to the land, after which the soil
dries up for the balance of the season. The requirements call for pooling of the water
licences, the formation of a water-users' community, and provision of storage water for
use in July and August.
Chase Flats, on the west side of Chase Village, amounts to 812 acres. The area is
cleared, cultivated, and irrigated by gravity and pumping. The soils consist of deep,
black, clay loam and loam derived from the fan of Chase Creek.
No meteorological data are available. Native vegetation, soil-colour, local experience with tree-fruits, and the date of tomato plantings indicate a climate similar to
Vernon. At Vernon the mean annual temperature is 46° F.; precipitation, 15.53 inches;
and frost-free period, 150 days.    At Chase the record extreme may reach —30° F.
In this area the range of temperature over 24 hours is important, sun-scald being
the chief drawback to the production of tree-fruits. Therefore a farm unit of 60 acres
should not have more than 5 acres of hardy tree-fruits at the start. The balance of the
land should be used for mixed farming.
The present gravity irrigation system from Chase Creek runs short in July and
August owing to lack of storage. This deficit may be made up by storage or pumping
plant capacity amounting to 1,000 acre-feet. The required system should deliver 3 acre-
feet in the growing season.
In the vicinity of Pritchard land to be served by a gravity project and four pumping proposals was classified. The gravity project would irrigate about 3,830 acres.
The water-supply is obtainable by diversion of Bear Creek into Nisconlith Lake (980
acres). The lake is located about 195 feet directly above and at the east end of the land
to be irrigated. About 500 k.w. can be developed at the end of the siphon from the lake
where it enters the diversion canal, and this power would serve the four pumping projects (1,806 acres) on the south side of the Thompson River.
The soils consist of light clay, clay loam, silt loam, loam, and sandy loam of considerable depth. There are small areas of rolling topography dotted with kettle-holes
and areas of narrow bench severely gullied. In general the topography is gently undulating and sloping. Border-land conditions occur between grassland and forest. Native vegetation
ranges from open, park-like forest with Ponderosa pine and some fir of all ages to bunch-
grass and sage.    In parts of the area land-clearing will enter as a reclamation cost.
There is no meteorological datum. The native vegetation and soil-colours indicate
a climate that dries rapidly from Nisconlith Creek down-stream along the Thompson
River to Monte Creek, about 12 miles to the south-west. In this short distance there is
repetition of all climatic variations met with between Vernon and Penticton, separated
by 70 miles in the Okanagan Valley. Hence the annual mean temperature at Nisconlith
Creek is probably 46° F. and precipitation about 16 inches while at Monte Creek the
mean temperature is about 48° F. and precipitation about 10 inches annually. Downstream from Pritchard the amount of summer heat is equal to the summer heat of the
soft-fruit area in the Okanagan Valley.
Type of farming should be vegetable and field crops with not more than 5 acres of
hardy tree-fruits at the start. Farm units of 40 acres are recommended, with an irrigation works capable of 9 acre-inches per month.
The land to be served by two pumping irrigation proposals about 7 and 9 miles east
of Kamloops along the South Thompson River was classified. Scheme No. 5, in lots 296
and 297, contains only 33 acres of well-drained loam, the balance of 249 acres being
strongly alkaline silt loam. It was recommended that alkali land of this type when
Government-owned should be held in reserve until a method of reclamation has been
Pump Scheme No. 1, which covers 379 acres, contains 150 acres of well-drained and
229 acres of alkaline silt loam. The well-drained part can be developed as an enlargement of the small-holdings procedure. Farm units of 20 acres are regarded as adequate
for production of field crops, vegetables, and hardy tree-fruits.
The climate is similar to Kamloops, where summer heat compares with Penticton
and Summerland, but the winter extreme is —28° as opposed to —12° and —17° F.
There is more winter sunshine and less cloud ceiling than in the Okanagan, hence a
greater prospect of tree damage by sun-scald. Annual mean temperature is 48°, the
same as at Penticton and Summerland, and annual precipitation is 10.17 inches, compared with 10.98 and 10.33 inches. At Kamloops the frost-free period is 164 days,
compared with 152 days at Penticton and 176 days at Summerland.
Two pumping irrigation proposals were examined in the vicinity of Walhachin.
Area No. 1 consists of about 70 acres on a terrace 20 to 40 feet above the Thompson
River. The soil is loamy sand 12 to 14 inches thick, underlaid by stony and gravelly
bench. Drainage is excessive, with stones up to 12 inches diameter appearing on the
surface in thin places. Deeper loamy sand in parts of the area is featured by scattered
blowouts. At one time the land was flumed, planted to tree-fruits, then abandoned.
Scheme No. 1 is regarded as sub-marginal for soldier settlement.
Area No. 2 occupies 527 acres between the main highway and a bridge crossing the
Thompson River to Walhachin. This area has been irrigated, planted to tree-fruits,
and abandoned. There are about 382 acres of arable land and 145 acres of non-arable
land. The arable land consists of two stony river-terraces invaded by a large colluvial
fan whose source is a coulee in the adjacent hill to the north. The fan material is loam
mixed with variable amounts of angular stone.
On the upper part of the fan the angular rock content is too great for cultivation,
but ample soil exists among the stones for the rooting of trees. Downward on the slope
the amount of stone becomes less until a stone-free area is reached around the fringe
of the fan apron. The stone-free area consists of several feet of loam on stony river-
bench. There is a thin cover of sage, topography is sloping and suitable for irrigation,
the soil is fertile and the pumping lift is about 345 feet to the highest point. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 91
The district between Savona and Ashcroft is the driest in British Columbia, annual
precipitation at Ashcroft being 6.88 inches. There is no temperature datum. Annual
mean temperature is probably 49° or 50° F.
Chief obstacles in the way of development are the small arable acreage and high
capital and maintenance costs. More extensive survey-work is indicated before a
decision is taken regarding an irrigation scheme in the vicinity of Walhachin.
On the east side of the Fraser River at Lillooet a series of terraces covering 1,368
acres of arable land were classified. The soils are loam, sandy loam, and loamy sand
about 2 feet or more in depth, underlaid by gravel terrace. While high in potential
water usage they compare with similar soils profitably cultivated at Oliver in the
Okanagan Valley.
The native vegetation is partly sage and in part open Ponderosa pine and scattered
fir of all ages, the larger sizes being logged off. Some land clearing is required, particularly on the highest bench.
The climate is similar to the climate at Oliver. At Oliver the lowest temperature
on record is —21°, at Lillooet —20°. The annual mean temperature is 50° F. in both
places. Annual precipitation at Oliver is 9.13 inches, and Lillooet is slightly more humid
with 12.21 inches. The frost-free period is 162 days at Oliver and 171 days at Lillooet
on a ten-year average.
The type of farming should be hardy tree-fruits and vegetable and seed crops similar to those produced in the Southern Interior. Agriculture could be established successfully on 20-acre farm units if charges for water do not exceed $10 per acre annually
and capital cost is not more than $150 per acre.
Development of this area is of prime importance to the Lillooet community. Farming of the terraces would increase local output to a stage where important social services,
now lacking, could be supported. Such development, however, could be made possible
only by low-cost power.
At present no electric power is available for the project. The scheme calls for a
power plant on Cayuse Creek, where a maximum of 2,300 horse-power could be developed,
and pumps on the Fraser River. An alternative source would be power from Bridge
During the summer it became apparent that irrigation and soil surveys could not
provide the complete data necessary for decisions in-regard to these projects. This
assumption was based on the conclusion that the type of farming in the several areas
should have the aspect of a branch of the Okanagan agriculture, with such modifications
as prove to be necessary.
The required information was not obtainable from local sources, but it was available
from horticulturists who grew up with the tree-fruit industry of the Okanagan Valley.
Accordingly a committee composed of Dominion and Provincial Government Horticulturists, Agriculturists, and Water Rights Branch Engineers from the Thompson and
Okanagan Valleys was organized and taken on a field-trip over the several areas, excepting Creston, after they had been surveyed, and asked to pass judgment upon them.
For each area the committee suggested the type of farming, the size of the farm
unit, the duty of water, the maximum water tax, and highest price the settler should
pay for his farm. From this material a brief will be produced stating the conclusions
of the committee and reasons for them. It is thought that the brief will speed decisions
by the Department of Veterans' Affairs.
The last two months of the year were devoted chiefly to the preparation of reports
and soil-maps describing areas classified in 1945. REPORT OF WOMEN'S INSTITUTES.
Mrs. V. S. MacLachlan, Superintendent.
Two outstanding visitors have been guests of the British Columbia Women's Institutes during the year. In March Miss Elizabeth Christmas, General Organizer of the
English Women's Institutes, was sent out by the British Ministry of Information to
address women's organizations across the continent and thank them for the gifts of
food and clothing sent to England. In flying from New York Miss Christmas was
delayed by bad weather, but would permit no change in her heavy programme though
she had had only about five hours' sleep in three nights. She spoke in Victoria, Vancouver, Agassiz, Kelowna, Vernon, and Penticton. In Victoria heads of local organizations were invited to meet her at a luncheon given by the Department of Agriculture,
and it was arranged for her to go to tea at Government House to meet the Provincial
officers of the Canadian Girl Guides. She was an able speaker and gave vivid descriptions of conditions in England. Miss Christmas wrote most grateful letters regarding
her reception in this Province and sent the office a number of useful handbooks of the
English Women's Institutes.
In May H.R.H. Princess Alice informed the office that she wished to meet members
of the Women's Institutes while in Victoria. Arrangements were made by the office,
and with the co-operation of the Lake Hill Women's Institute and the South Vancouver
Island District Board a meeting was held in the Lake Hill Community Centre.
Conveners read reports of the work of the district and there was an exhibit of craft
work. Princess Alice, speaking on the important part which women would have to
play in the rehabilitation of returning men and women, urged the establishment of
community centres. Her Royal Highness took tea with the members, and all Presidents were presented to her. A letter of thanks received from the lady-in-waiting said
in part: " Her Royal Highness was much impressed by the variety and very high
standard of exhibits shown, and you all deserve great credit for having arranged such
an interesting exhibition in what was, after all, a very short time. What delighted
Her Royal Highness was that several of your Institutes are making special provision
for the ' 'teen age ' groups."
In June the Federated Women's Institutes of Canada held their biennial meeting
in Victoria and were entertained at a banquet in the Empress Hotel by the Department of Agriculture, when the late Hon. K. C. MacDonald spoke on " Marketing." The
programme for these meetings was arranged by this office, which involved a good deal
of difficult work as the Secretary lived in Montreal and the President in Ontario, but
the representatives of the nine Provinces seemed satisfied with the result.
District conferences were held in Haney, Chilliwack, Lazo, Kamloops, Victoria,
Sunset Prairie, and Burns Lake. Burns Lake was the first conference for Central
British Columbia and the office is greatly indebted to M. Connolly, M.L.A., who gave
much valuable help and allowed his stenographer, Mrs. Whittles, to make all local
arrangements as there is no Institute at Burns Lake. Members seemed to find the
conference both useful and enjoyable. I attended the conferences at Kamloops, Sunset
Prairie, and Burns Lake, and en route visited Institutes in the North Thompson, Peace
River, and Central British Columbia districts. Several Institutes had never been
visited before. I also visited Bella Bella on the coast, and attended the meetings in
Victoria, Lazo, Haney, and Chilliwack.
Institutes carried on their war-work with unremitting vigour until the end of the
war, and are still making clothing for Europe and China. Every Institute that could
raise sufficient funds purchased Victory Bonds, and some of them have been regularly DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 93
responsible for selling War Savings Certificates in their community. New Denver's
sales average over $100 per month. Most Institutes have members on the local women's
committee for the Wartime Prices and Trade Board and carry out the varied requests
of the Consumer Branch. Miss Byrne Sanders stated that their co-operation in recent
surveys of supply and demand " resulted in a very real success."
Final reports on Institute war-work have not yet come in, but it is noteworthy
that up to the end of last year the Women's Institutes made 82,311 lb. of jam for the
Red Cross Jam for Britain and canned 13,603 tins of fruit, as well as giving much
fruit and money for sugar.
The making of wool-filled comforters for Britain was inaugurated by the British
Columbia Women's Institutes in 1940, the first ones being sent direct to Canada House
for distribution in London. Later the quilts and comforters were shipped through
the Red Cross and British Bundles to simplify shipping problems. Up to the end of
1944, 5,602 comforters were sent. Over 30,000 articles of made-over clothing were
sent in the same way, and countless knitted and other articles.
The Women's Institutes are definitely not a fund-raising organization, but they
sent over $1,400 towards a mobile canteen for Britain and over $750 for their own
Provincial Fund for Bombed-out Britons. This money is sent direct to H.M. Queen
Elizabeth and several grateful letters have been received from her.
This work has been accomplished by farm women who also bore the heavy burden
of additional farm-work through the labour shortage and the fact that both sons and
daughters enlisted in large numbers in the armed forces.
Now that the Red Cross Units are closing down, Institutes are gaining new members, and a former Red Cross Unit at Fort St. John is just organizing as a Women's
Interest in crafts is reviving and many inquiries are received for information
on weaving and spinning. Through the courtesy of the Markets Branch a sample
of British Columbia flax was given to a skilled spinner and weaver from Montreal who
visited Victoria recently. She is delighted with it and says it is better flax and better
prepared than any she can get in the East. She urged strongly that the hand spinning
and weaving of this flax should be promoted, and is sure there is a good market for
the flax among handicraft workers.
Community welfare is always a main objective of the Women's Institutes and
many are now working to establish community centres as war memorials. The 'Teen
Age Canteen of Lake Hill Women's Institute is a particularly successful project.
Children's Garden Clubs have been organized all over the Province and the annual
flower show is reappearing in many places. For this the Department of Agriculture
offers five books as prizes to any Institute that applies for them.
This fund to aid crippled children now has $9,400 in Victory Bonds and hopes to
complete its objective of $10,000 within the year. Children from White Rock and
Burton and Topley have been assisted this year.
The third series of Institute broadcasts was given over CBR last spring.
Three films on handicrafts were sent out from England for exhibition in this
Province. Unfortunately they arrived at short notice and were available only for a
very short time. The East appears to be quite unable to realize how long it takes to
disseminate information in this Province. However, with the co-operation of the
National Film Board the office managed to get the films shown at a number of centres. V 94
Three Institutes have gone into abeyance for lack of members but hope to revive
when their communities get back to normal. New Institutes have been organized at
Camp Lister, Fort St. John, and Sea Island. This latter is in a new housing project.
There are now 173 Institutes with a total membership of 3,897 women. During the
year 1,444 letters and reports have been received and 927 letters sent out, as well as
the monthly bulletin and other circulars.
The Provincial Board of Women's Institutes has become affiliated with the British
Columbia Federation of Agriculture and sent two representatives to the recent convention in Vancouver; Mrs. V. B. Robinson, of Penticton, Vice-President of the Board,
read a paper on Institute work.
J. E. Manning, Supervisor, Pro Tem.
The untimely and much-regretted death of S. S. Phillips, late Secretary, Boys' and
Girls' Clubs, permits us to preface this report with a short outline of his association
with the work, and to acknowledge with sincerity his contribution towards it.
As District Agriculturist of the Bulkley Valley he organized his first club in 1928,
with members obtained from the Smithers and Telkwa areas. At the same time he
gave instruction in judging each week to a large class of children, and the same year
sent a judging team to New Westminster Exhibition. In the following three years he
expanded the work and had calf, swine, and poultry clubs in operation, and sent judging
teams to both the New Westminster and Vancouver Exhibitions, one of which won the
Poultry Cup in 1929. On his transfer to Victoria in 1932 he maintained his interest
in club work and was eventually appointed Secretary of Boys' and Girls' Clubs.
The Thirty-fifth Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture (1940) carried
the first report on boys' and girls' work signed by Mr. Phillips as Secretary. Previous
to this such reports were incorporated in the reports of the District Agriculturists.
Mr. Phillips was in charge of the elimination contests almost from their inception.
His winning personality made his appointment as Secretary a most suitable one. He
was the friend of hundreds of club members and their parents, all of whom will regret
his passing.    His contribution to this important work was a large one.
As indicated in the following table there was an increase in the number of clubs
this year but a drop of 123 in the membership, but reports received from the Supervisors indicate that almost all projects had been completed satisfactorily:—
Number of Clubs.
1944.               1945.
Beef. ...  	
Note.—The average membership of our clubs for 1945 was 8.75. It has been noted
that in most of the other Provinces membership usually exceeds 12 per club. The
average age for British Columbia club members is 14 years. DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1945.
V 95
•   ....
Kamloops.  .    	
The present method of paying out prize-money, whereby the Provincial Department
of Agriculture advances the Dominion's share, has won the universal approval of all
concerned. It now remains for the District Agriculturists to submit the final club
returns on Form P.T. 31 by mid-November to allow all prize-money to be in the
members' hands well before Christmas.
Rule 4 of the dairy project frequently comes in for some criticism owing to the
statement that " members must own their calves." No ownership by the member is
called for in the beef calf club rules. It is considered the opinion of most, if not all,
the District Agriculturists that a change should be made in this rule, and the word
" raise " be substituted for " own." The pure-bred associations have objected to the
term " own " for a long time because it has meant transferring calves to their children
from time to time and this leads to complications. Indeed it is well known that the
breed associations frown on such transfers, and this has meant that transfers are
rarely, if ever, made.    It is recommended that the alteration be made at once.
Rule 3 of the General Rules asks that members send in their report cards within
two weeks after final judging has taken place. It is recommended that District Agriculturists bring this rule to the attention of all organizers, who in turn would notify
the members.
After conferring with several District Agriculturists on the matter, it is further
recommended that when new report forms or cards are printed that those for the poultry
project be altered to read that October 31st be the date when the forms are to be sent
in fully completed and September 30th be the date printed for all other report forms.
Provincial preliminary elimination contests were held at Chilliwack Exhibition on
September 12th in the dairy, potato, and swine projects.
Dairy Contest.—This contest was won by the Langley team of Gordon Berry and
Ian Paton.    The complete record of this event is as follows:—
Individual Total
Contestant's Name and Club. Score. Score.
Gordon Berry, Langley  534.5
Ian D. Paton, Langley  486.0
Harry R. Bryant, Chilliwack  433.5
Stanley Keith, Chilliwack ... 458.0
■         891.5
Ronald Tarves, Cloverdale  420.5
Jack Tarves, Cloverdale  470.0
         890.5 V 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Individual Total
Contestant's Name and Club. Score. Score.
Jennie Vanderhoek, Abbotsford    411.0
Nellie Vanderhoek, Abbotsford  406.5
Marie Cullen, Cobble Hill  194.0
Helen Shearing, Cobble Hill  372.0
Owing to the illness of Marie Cullen the Cobble Hill Club was unable to complete
the contest.
Potato Contest.—This contest was won by Joyce Maddocks and Arthur Maddocks,
of the Richmond Club.    The contestants' names and scores are as follows:—
Individual      Total
Contestant's Name and Club. Score. Score.
Joyce Maddocks, Richmond  519
Arthur Maddocks, Richmond  490
Ann N. Catherwood, Mission  415
Joe Ordog, Mission  357
Harold Davis, Langley  380
Jean Davis, Langley  334
It is interesting to note that Joyce and Arthur Maddocks won the elimination contest last year when no potato team was sent to Toronto.
Swine Contest.—Owing to the fact that there was only one swine-judging team
entered for the competition it was decided to withdraw this project, but to allow the
members of the team to undergo a complete examination for the purpose of gaining
valuable experience. The team was entered by Chilliwack and their names are Bob
Colliss and Bob Nicholson.
Poultry Contest.—A special contest was held at Langley for the purpose of choosing a team for the Toronto eliminations. Nine members took part in this contest and
Henry Hardbattle and Fred Mclnnis were chosen to represent the Province.
Final Elimination Contests, Armstrong, September 18th, 1945.
Dairy Contest.—The Dairy Club from Langley won this contest and they were
coached chiefly by Tom Berry.    The contestants' names and scores were:—
Individual     Team
Contestant's Name and Club. Score. Score.
Gordon Berry, Langley 531%
Ian Paton, Langley  523%
Leonard Pickering, Prince George  361
David Skidmore, Prince George  415
—■ 776
Beef Contest.—The Armstrong beef team, Norman Marshall and Dick Marshall,
won this contest. The team was coached by H. McCallum, of Armstrong. The contestants' names and scores were:—
Individual     Team
Contestant's Name and Club. Score. Score.
Norman Marshall, Armstrong  393
Dick Marshall, Armstrong  388
Laura Donchi, Vinsulla  347
Olga Matuga, Vinsulla  339
        686 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 97
Individual      Team
Contestant's Name and Club. Score. Score.
Lorna Durban, Southbank  376
Albert Stone, Southbank  305
S. Mikulosik, Knutsford .  336
A. Mikulosik, Knutsford   337
Gordon Earl, Newgate   306
Marion Earl, Newgate   279
Phillip Pringle, Westwold   299
Alex Culling, Westwold  272
British Columbia, although now entitled to enter five teams for reasons stated
earlier, entered teams in the following four projects:  Dairy, beef, poultry, and potatoes.
The British Columbia teams maintained their last year's record by winning two
first places. The dairy team—Gordon Berry and Ian Paton—coached by Tom Berry,
took first place, with Ian Paton making the highest score. Eight Provinces competed
in this contest.
The potato team—Joyce Maddocks and Arthur Maddocks—coached by J. Maddocks,
Dave Blair, and Sid Gray, took first place, with Arthur Maddocks having the highest
individual score.    Three Provinces competed in this contest.
The poultry team—Henry Hardbattle and Fred Mclnnis—were coached by a number of persons and took fourth place.    Four Provinces competed.
The beef team—Norman and Dick Marshall—coached by H. McCallum, were sixth,
with six Provinces competing.
The judging competitions were held at the Ontario Agricultural College, Guelph,
and the arrangements that had been made for them were generally very satisfactory.
The fourth year students of the college handled all the cattle, and by showing them to
advantage greatly assisted the contestants. There was some criticism expressed by
some of the Provincial representatives in the choice of the beef classes this year. The
rules of the contest call for breeding classes to be included, but in place of these there
was one " market " class and three yearling-heifer classes. When this matter was
mentioned at a Council meeting it was intimated that this situation would not occur
again. There was some misunderstanding among the contestants in the poultry contest, and the matter was aired before the Council. It appears that some of the judged
birds had disqualifying features which should haVe been ignored, but which some
contestants took into consideration. In future contests birds will be chosen that are
without disqualifying features.
There were a great many inquiries as to whether the Royal Winter Fair would be
reopened in 1946 or not. At one of the Council meetings the President of the Fair
said that he could not give any assurance that it would be reopened in 1946 owing
to the fact that some of the buildings were still occupied by the military authorities,
but he hoped the buildings would be vacated in plenty of time to allow the Fair to take
place next year.
Sixty-two boys and girls took part in this competition, which was remarkable for
the number of family teams—that is, teams composed of brothers and sisters. There
were ten such teams.
The good records made by our teams indicate very clearly the diligence of both
the team members and their coaches. There was also plenty of evidence of ex-members
of Toronto teams acting as organizers and coaches, and this is as it should be.
In reporting a successful year of club activities it is fitting to acknowledge the
assistance given by the Vancouver, Victoria, Chilliwack, Armstrong, and Kamloops
Exhibition Associations, the staff of the Dominion Department of Agriculture, certain
of the staff of the University of British Columbia, the direction given by our District
Agriculturists, and particularly the work done by the organizers and coaches of all
the clubs.
Details of the organizations will be found in Appendix No. 12.
William MacGillivray, Director.
At the last session of the Legislature the " Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance
Act " was approved, which made the sum of $500,000 available for the purpose of
purchasing, maintaining, operating, and transporting machinery suitable for land-
clearing purposes. This legislation was enacted as a result of requests to the Government over a period of many years by farmers' groups in various parts of the Province, who had maintained that the clearing of land under present-day conditions
required the most modern type of machinery in order to make it possible to undertake
work of this nature on an economic basis.
Early in the spring the late Hon. K. C. MacDonald made every effort to obtain
suitable crawler-type tractors but, unfortunately, owing to the very serious shortage
and the urgent demand for this type of machinery for war purposes, both on the
European front and in the Pacific, the Department of Munitions and Supply at Ottawa
and the War Production Board at Washington refused to grant priorities for the purchase of the units that were required.
Immediately after V-J Day, when priorities were removed, orders were placed for
eight modern crawler-type tractors with three different firms. Up to the present four
of these machines have been delivered in Vancouver, and in addition one has been purchased from the War Assets Corporation. Delivery of the remaining units has been
promised for the early spring. Unfortunately all of this type of tractor is manufactured in the United States, and labour conditions there have seriously interfered with
deliveries, not only of the tractors themselves but of the equipment considered essential
for the successful operation of each unit.
J. E. Beamish, B.E. (Agricultural), has been appointed Assistant Director of
Land-clearing. Previous to joining the Royal Canadian Engineers, with whom he
served overseas, Mr. Beamish was employed by the P.F.R.A. Board in the Province of
Saskatchewan, where he had very considerable experience in handling machinery of
the type that will be used in land-clearing. He was for a number of years manager
of the large reclamation project at Maple Creek, Saskatchewan.
Owing to the prolonged illness of the late Minister of Agriculture it had not been
possible to have the regulations governing this programme approved by the Lieutenant-
Governor in Council.    It is anticipated the Hon. Frank Putnam, Minister of Agricul- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 99
ture, will have these approved early in 1946. Full details of the plan and its operation
will then be made available to the farming public through farm organizations and
the press.
It is considered that the establishment of local agricultural development committees composed of farmers and others vitally interested in the agricultural development
of their areas will be essential to the successful operation of the plan. These committees, in conjunction with local District Agriculturists and other officers of the
Department, will be required to scrutinize all applications for assistance under the
plan and to advise the Department as to the acreage that should be cleared on each
farm. The committee will also decide where the machinery shall commence and the
itinerary that will be followed in each area.
No land will be cleared that is not potentially good agricultural land. Every
effort will be made to encourage farmers and ranchers not to denude their land of all
cover but to leave sufficient timber, brush, etc., to conserve the soil and water and
prevent further loss from erosion. This will be particularly applicable to the Peace
River District and certain sections of Central British Columbia where, if some such
provision is not made, conditions similar to those existing on the Prairies in the last
decade might very well be anticipated.
During the past season your Director has visited Central British Columbia, the
Cariboo, and the Peace River sections of this Province with a view to studying the
needs of each district and consulting with Farmers' Institutes and other agricultural
bodies. In addition he was able to make two trips to the State of Washington and to
the State of Idaho, and two visits to the Province of Alberta, with a view to observing
the operation of land-clearing projects both publicly and privately operated. Much
valuable information has been obtained from the work which is being conducted in
these neighbouring areas.
Many farm organizations are of the opinion that in addition to land-clearing equipment, well-digging machinery and the necessary equipment for the construction of
dug-outs or stock-watering dams should be made available to those sections of the
Province where their use is urgently required. The observations of your Director
indicate that the Government should give very serious thought to these representations, as progress in certain sections of the Province is being retarded through the
inability of the settlers to purchase the type of equipment that will make it possible
for them to improve existing conditions and further develop and extend their holdings.
Your Director has taken every opportunity of discussing matters of agricultural
extension with officials in the United States and in the other Provinces of Canada who
are actively engaged in that phase of agricultural administration. The discussions
held have been most interesting and most enlightening, and a great deal of valuable
information has been secured which your Director believes could be used to very
material advantage in developing a broader and more effective agricultural extension
service in this Province.
For the third year in succession a Dominion-Provincial agreement on farm labour
was negotiated between the Department of Labour at Ottawa and the Department of
Agriculture for British Columbia. Generally speaking the agreement was similar in
terms and scope to those which had been in operation during the previous two seasons.
The agreement provided for the operation of a plan to recruit and to distribute
farm labour in British Columbia, the cost to be shared on a fifty-fifty basis by the V 100 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Dominion and by the Province. The administration of the plan was made the responsibility of the Province, who agreed to maintain the advisory body, called the Dominion-
Provincial Farm Labour Committee, on which the Dominion Department of Labour was
The Committee appointed consisted of: Hon. K. C. MacDonald, Minister of Agriculture, Victoria; Col. G. A. Endacott, Regional Supervisor, Provincial Department of
Labour, Vancouver, Chairman; Wm. McKinstry, Regional Superintendent, Unemployment Insurance Commission, Vancouver; G. J. Davidson, Primary Products Adviser,
National Selective Service, Vancouver; Wm. MacGillivray, Director, Dominion-
Provincial Emergency Farm Labour Service; and Ernest MacGinnis, Markets Commissioner, Department of Agricultui'e, Victoria, Secretary.
The same general programme which had proved effective in the previous years
was continued in 1945. Considerable assistance was obtained from local War Agricultural Production Committees in the areas in which they still functioned, and this was
particularly noticeable in certain parts of Vancouver Island, the Fraser Valley, and the
Okanagan Valley. Offices were maintained at Victoria, Vancouver, and at New Westminster on a year-round basis. During the season when labour was most urgently
required branch offices were established at Mission, Haney, Abbotsford, Kamloops,
Vernon, Kelowna, West Summerland, Penticton, Oliver, Osoyoos, Keremeos, Creston,
and at Duncan on Vancouver Island. The placement officers in charge of these
branches were employed on a full-time basis, mostly from the beginning of May until
the end of October. In addition arrangements were made with capable citizens at
Sidney, Vancouver Island; Ladner, Chilliwack, Salmon Arm, Armstrong, and Peach-
land whereby the service was adequately represented at those points. The District
Agriculturists at Pouce Coupe, Smithers, Prince George, Williams Lake, Cranbrook,
and Grand Forks gave very material assistance to the farmers in their districts in
arranging for labour at critical times, and by maintaining an adequate contact with
the head office at Vancouver.
During the 1943 and 1944 seasons T. Everard Clarke and Dr. J. C. Berry had
acted part time as area supervisors for the Interior and for the Fraser Valley respectively, but now found it impossible to continue in those capacities owing to pressure
of other work. Both men had been of very material assistance in establishing the
organization in the districts concerned, and their wide knowledge of agriculture generally and their intimate acquaintance with their particular areas were of the greatest
possible value.
Stewart Dixon, formerly on the staffs of the British Columbia Department of
Agriculture and the Agricultural Division of the British Columbia Electric Railway
Company, and recently discharged from the Army, was appointed to succeed Dr. Berry
in the Fraser Valley. No immediate appointment was considered necessary in the
On Vancouver Island C. M. Smith, the office manager at Victoria, also assumed
the duties of general supervisor for the entire area following the appointment of S. S.
Phillips as Field Crops Commissioner.
Managers of National Selective Service offices in various parts of the Province
gave very valuable assistance to us at all times, and the co-operation received both
from the regional office in Vancouver and from the staffs of the other offices at outside
points is very much appreciated.
While hostels for girls and young women at strategic points in the Fraser Valley
had not been as successful as expected, it was decided again to accept the kind offer
of the Y.W.C.A. to supervise any that might be established.
The Farm Labour Service Committee of that nationally known organization again
functioned under the capable direction of Mrs. Jean M. Smith.    Mrs. E. M. Curtis, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 101
who was appointed supervisor of farm labour hostels, earlier in the year conducted
a vigorous advertising and recruiting campaign in an effort to stimulate interest
among suitable-age girls to register for work in the Fraser Valley hostels. Unfortunately this effort was no more successful than those of previous years, and it did not
seem possible to interest sufficient numbers of the right type girls in fruit-picking.
Owing to the smaller apple-crop in the Interior less help was handled than in 1944.
Final figures indicate that approximately 15,000 temporary workers were placed by
l-epresentatives of the Service in various parts of the Province. In addition about
1,050 single men and married couples were placed in permanent farm, ranch, and
orchard employment during the year.
Spot checks made show that over 70 per cent, of those permanent placements are
still in the jobs to which they were directed or are employed on other farms in the
There is no doubt but that the assistance given in securing help for dairy-farms
has contributed materially to establishing the record production of milk in the Fraser
Valley this past year.
Small-fruit Picking.
Vancouver Island.—Following the plan adopted in previous years our Victoria
office recruited most of the help required for the harvesting of small fruits in the
Saanich and Gordon Head areas. No difficulty was encountered in providing the help
required, and the previous arrangement entered into with the local committee at Royal
Oak whereby a special bus service distributed the workers in the morning and returned
them to Victoria in the afternoon was maintained, and again proved satisfactory.
In addition Miss Gildea, of the Strathcona Lodge School for Girls at Shawnigan
Lake, again very kindly arranged that Miss Hoadley of her staff and about thirty of
her pupils should form the nucleus of a girls' hostel at Mount Newton High School.
This generous and practical gesture on the part of Miss Gildea was much appreciated
by all concerned.
Fraser Valley.—Hostels supervised by the Y.W.C.A. were again maintained at
Hammond and Abbotsford. Unfortunately at the former point the general calibre of
the girls recruited was much below the standard of previous years and it was found
necessary to close down the hostel earlier than had been anticipated. The girls at
Abbotsford were exceptionally hard working and it was with considerable regret that
we found it necessary to close the hostel owing to an outbreak of stomach 'flu. The
office at New Westminster was able to supply the help required in the farm area adjoining that city, although at times it taxed the resources of the staff to capacity.
Recruiting for women and girls who would pick berries at points in the Valley,
where it was necessary to live away from home, did not prove effective, and consequently we found it necessary to request the National Employment Service to bring
425 women and girls from Saskatchewan and Alberta to meet the shortage that
threatened to cause a very material loss both of fruit and revenue to the growers.
These girls were mostly used on farms in the Mission and in the Yarrow districts.
The reception depot at Mission was very much appreciated by the girls arriving from
the Prairies, as it enabled them to rest and clean up on their arrival. In the opinion
of the growers who employed them the women and girls who came from the Prairies
this year were better workers than those of previous years. A large number of these
women and girls were afterwards used in the food-processing plants at Mission, Haney,
Ashcroft, Kamloops, and West Summerland. At all these points they appeared to give
satisfaction. As far as we are aware no loss of fruit was reported through lack of
pickers where placement officers were given an opportunity of obtaining the necessary
help. 141686
"ft   R  r
__A__£l________"_r___*\0 I V 102 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Our officers were able to recruit, with the assistance of the Vancouver office, all
the help required to harvest the crop of beans and corn for canning, etc. In Chilliwack
the local committee was able to secure all of the help necessary to harvest the canning
crops in that section.
General Farming.
Sufficient help was obtained to meet all requirements for silo-filling, haying, pea-
threshing, and potato-digging throughout the Fraser Valley.
Interior Ranching Areas.
Very material assistance was rendered to ranchers in the Merritt, Nicola, and
Kamloops districts in securing men for haying and for grasshopper-control.
Interior Fruit-ranching Districts.
While the apple-crop was more than 3,000,000 boxes short of the record yield in
1944, considerable increases were shown in the yields from certain other tree-fruits,
particularly peaches. Consequently, owing to the highly perishable nature of this
commodity, all resources were strained to the utmost to provide the help that was necessary to save the crop. Several hundred workers were sent from the Vancouver and
New Westminster offices to points in the Okanagan, and in addition a recruiting campaign conducted among the Doukhobors in the Nelson area provided several hundred
more workers.
Under the auspices of the Y.W.C.A. a girls' camp was established at East Kelowna
and operated very successfully for a short time. Owing to lack of continuity of employment it was necessary to have this closed down after a few weeks' operation, but it was
later reopened under the management of a committee of local growers to whom certain
financial assistance was given by the Service. We believe that this camp was one of
the most successful operated in the Province.
At Penticton the local committee again operated two hostels which were of very
material assistance to the growers, and they were operated on a very satisfactory basis.
At West Summerland arrangements were again made by the local committee to
accommodate a considerable number of workers. Generally speaking the Okanagan
situation was handled very creditably, the placement officers made every effort in their
power to meet the requirements submitted to them for help, and it is gratifying to
learn that a greater measure of co-operation was obtained from growers than in previous seasons.
Again our local officers gave considerable assistance to National Selective Service
in obtaining help for canneries, packing-houses, etc.
The situation at Kamloops was handled to the satisfaction of all concerned and
the Creston crop was secured without loss.
At various points in the Province very material assistance was rendered by the
Army, Navy, and Air Force. Personnel from those services were made available when
certain emergencies arose, and growers who employed them speak highly of their
Other Activities.
During the season representatives of the organization have been asked to carry
out various other duties in connection with the investigation of military rejects in agriculture, conscientious objectors, and investigations were also made, when so required
by the authorities concerned, in connection with applications for postponement of military service or compassionate farm-leave. Ottawa Conference, 1945.
The Third Dominion-Provincial Conference on Farm Labour was held in Ottawa
on December 5th, 6th, and 7th, following the Annual Conference on Agricultural
Production. This Conference was attended by the Hon. Frank Putnam, Minister of
Agriculture, Dr. J. B. Munro, Deputy Minister, and by your Director.
In addressing the Conference, Arthur MacNamara, Deputy Minister of Labour,
indicated that in his opinion farm labour might very well be less plentiful in 1946 than
it had been during the past year. He felt that every possible encouragement should
be given to farmers to employ permanent help now rather than wait until spring,
when the resumption of industrial employment might seriously interfere with the
help available for farm-work.
The agenda covered a wide variety of topics and many outstanding speakers
addressed the Conference. It was the general opinion of all the Provinces, except
those in the Maritimes, that a continuation of the Dominion-Provincial agreement on
farm labour would be essential in 1946. There was some speculation as to the place
that a permanent Dominion-Provincial programme on farm labour might occupy in
post-war years, but it was felt that final examination of such a project should be
deferred until the next conference in 1946.
Western Farm Labour Conference, 1945.
As in the previous year a conference of those actually associated with farm labour
in the Western Provinces was held at Edmonton in May, 1945. George V. Haythorne,
Associate Director, National Selective Service, presided, and was accompanied by other
Service officials of the Department of Labour from Ottawa. The Conference proved
of real value and will likely be continued in 1946.
Once again farmer and producer groups throughout the Province have indicated
by way of resolutions that they appreciated the service rendered to them during the
past season, and that the continuation of the service in 1946 would be not only desirable
but essential. A resolution to this effect was unanimously approved at the recent meeting of the British Columbia Federation of Agriculture.
All who are interested in the provision of farm labour must give serious thought
to certain conditions that will influence the quantity and quality of help available.
Housing accommodation is one of the great difficulties in persuading persons of the
right type to engage in permanent farm-work, and your Director feels that producer
organizations must give some thought, both as groups and as individuals, to remedy
the present unsatisfactory situation.
Your Director, early in the year, was appointed to represent the agricultural
interests of British Columbia on the Regional Advisory Board to the Department of
Labour, which is presided over by Fred Smelts, Regional Director.
Another closer contact with the Department of Labour was created through the
appointment of your Director to membership of the Agricultural Labour Survey Committee for British Columbia, the Chairman of which is A. D. Paterson, Ladner. Mr.
Paterson, both in his present office and formerly as Agricultural Representative on the
Mobilization Board, has been of very great help to our organization and has given
most valuable service to British Columbia agriculture.
It is a pleasure to indicate the very cordial relations that have existed with the
personnel of the Department of Labour. Messrs. Haythorne and Hare in Ottawa have
given every possible assistance to us, and we have appreciated very much indeed their
occasional visits to the Province.    I wish to express my very sincere appreciation of V 104 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
the cordial co-operation that has been available from the Regional Director, the
Regional Superintendent, the Primary Products Adviser, and the Alternative Service
Officer in the Pacific Region.
Throughout the season very valuable assistance has been given at various points
by members of the staff of the Department of Agriculture.
It would not be possible to close this report without paying tribute to the unswerving support given the Farm Labour Service by the late Hon. K. C. MacDonald. Since
its inception in 1943 he regarded the Service as of primary importance to agriculture
in this Province, and his advice and generous assistance made our task that much
We also mourn the passing of the late Sperry Phillips, who was our Area Supervisor on Vancouver Island during the first two years of our operation. His intimate
acquaintance with the farmers on the Island and their problems enabled him to render
most valuable service to the organization.
I wish to express my very keen appreciation of the untiring efforts of the field
staff, each and every one of whom has given most excellent service.
Wallace R. Gunn, B.V.Sc, B.S.A., V.S., Live Stock Commissioner.
The winter of 1944-45 was a long hard one with surplus feed-supplies being
entirely used up in most districts. In Central British Columbia the more fortunate
farmers had hay enough to do until late April, which was not sufficient for the needs
of the live stock; others were out in February. The hay situation was reported acute
in the Prince George district as early as February, with feed being brought in from
the Prairies. The late winter further depleted feed-supplies in the Boundary District,
the Kootenays, and the Peace River Block, and a lot of stock went out very thin.
Excessive live-stock losses were reported in the Cariboo but this was greatly
exaggerated. There were some losses, however, and a lot of cattle went out quite thin.
All parts of the Province, generally speaking, were short of feed.
A late spring generally means poor spring grass. Pastures improved in most
southern and coastal districts during late April and during early May in the northern
Some sections of the Kamloops area, especially the Nicola-Douglas Lake districts,
have been suffering from grasshoppers for the last few years, which has affected supplies of feed and pastures. This problem has to be faced, and with more labour and
intelligent management available in the district it will be corrected.
Pastures were quite good throughout the Province except for a period during the
spring due to cold weather. The early snowfall in most sections called for early feeding
of cattle and indications are that feed-supplies will be short again this year. Last
year's heavy demands exhausted most of the surplus feed-supplies. This accounts for
heavy late-November and early-December marketings of feeder and stocker cattle.
The future of horse breeding in British Columbia and Canada is not too clear to
the average person. We hear of the thousands of head which are to be slaughtered
and processed in the newly established plants at Swift Current and Edmonton.    We DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 105
also learn that some European countries have completed arrangements for the purchase
of work-horses in Canada. We hear on every hand that the horse is no longer needed
as a draught animal since machines will take their places almost entirely.
A reduction in horse numbers is very necessary, especially the inferior range, wild
or semi-wild, and Indian horse which contributes nothing to the industry and only uses
up badly needed range. There could be a reduction in horse numbers in many farming
districts. Here again we see no real effort being made in an organized way to remove
the inferior, poorly bred stock, and especially the unsound stock.
The result is certain to be disappointing. I believe that many good sound horses
are being sacrificed and certainly there is no attempt being made to retain the choice
sound mares and see to it that the Class A stallions of good blood lines are kept. A few
years hence, when it is too late, we are sure to awaken to the fact that we have completely lost lines of blood which have been the backbone of their respective breeds.
The economy of the country, in my opinion, calls for horses as the cheapest and
most satisfactory form of power in many sections of the Province. A study of local
conditions, class of power needed, type of work to be done, and power replacement costs
must be given thought.
I am constantly recommending an intelligent breeding programme for the Province, but lack of adequate help in the field makes it difficult to implement such a policy.
This is a timely piece of work requiring immediate attention.
Classification of stallions under our " Horse-breeders' Registration and Lien Act "
shows the following enrolments:—
1945—"A," 15;  "B,"6;   "C,"4;  "D,"3;   "E,"3;   " F," 1.
1944—"A," 21;  "B,"10;   "C,"5;  "D,"7;  "E,"4;  " F," 3.
The light-horse business is quite active. The excellent work being done by the
British Columbia Racing Breeders' Society is helping along this good work. I have
received many inquiries during the year about the breeding of light horses.
A study of beef cattle markets for the year 1945, when compared with 1944, shows
prices to be higher during the latter part of the year. It might be said that there was
little difference in prices for cattle in British Columbia during 1945 over the previous
year until about August. The average price for good steers in Vancouver in 1944
struck an even price of $10.85 and only changed on November 9th by dropping to S10.7K
During the same period in 1945 the price in Vancouver for good steers on August 30th
was $11.50 and held at that price with but little change until November 8th when prices
dropped about 15 cents. For more detail refer to Appendix No. 13 and compare with
Appendix No. 10 in the report of 1944.
It might be said that records were made in marketings this year. The over-all
increase will perhaps be 20 per cent.
In the greater Williams Lake district there were 14,476 cattle marketed during the
first eleven months, compared to 10,939 for the entire year of 1944, which is 3,437 more
head or a 31-per-cent. increase.
In the greater Clinton district there were 6,601 head shipped for the eleven months'
period, as compared with 5,227 head for the year 1944. This is an increase of 1,374
head or 26 per cent. In the Kamloops district there is less change, with 10,319 head
shipped during the eleven months' period of 1945, compared with 9,656 head for the
year 1944.    This is an increase of 847 head.
The Nicola district shipped 8,835 head for the eleven months of 1945, compared to
6,889 for the year 1944, which is an increase of 1,946 head or 28 per cent.
The other districts will be about the same as in 1944 in their shippings. For full
details I would refer you to the report of the Brand Recorder. V 106
The summarized reports of sales held in British Columbia during the year 1945
are as follows:—
Provincial Bull Sale and Fat Stock Show, Kamloops,
March 13th to 15th, 1945.
Seven car-lots (fifteen) averaged $14.69 for a total of $15,431.03. The top price
was $17.25. The average net weight was 999 lb. The average price for 1944 was
$13.85, and the top price for 1944 was $16.10.
Thirteen groups of five cattle averaged $14.10, with a total of $9,147.06. The top
price was $17.75, and average net weight was 819 lb. The average for 1944 was $13.48,
and the top price was $16.25 for that year.
Seventy head of singles in the classes for spares averaged $12.83, and sold for
$955.99. The top price was $13.10. The average price in 1944 was $12.20, and the
top price was $13.
Sixty-four head of singles in the regular classes averaged $15.88 for a total of
$9,149.84. The top price was $110 for the champion. Last year's average was $16.33,
with the top price $90.    The average net weight was 875 lb.
Fourteen head of boys' and girls' singles averaged $21.45 for a total of $2,071.67.
The top price was $75. The 1944 average was $19.60, and the top price $35. One
animal was a resale.    The average net weight was 685 lb.
1945. 1944.
The total sales  $36,755.59        $42,714.02
Total number sold         255 322
This sale was exempted under the Wartime Prices and Trade Board order. Your
Commissioner acted on a culling committee to select cattle eligible for exemption. Of
the 255 head contributed, only six head of singles were culled, one of which was a boys'
and girls' entry.
In the groups of fifteen head all carcasses but two were placed in the " A A " (top)
grade by the Federal Beef Grader. The other two carcasses were placed in the " A,"
or second, grade.
In the thirteen groups of five head only twelve groups were slaughtered at central
plants and all graded " AA."
Five of the seven spares were killed under supervision and placed in the " AA "
Of the sixty-four head in the regular single classes five head were culled by the
committee and eighteen head were not killed under supervision. Of those graded,
forty-one carcasses graded " AA " and five graded " A."
In the thirteen boys' and girls' entries one animal was culled. Three head were
not slaughtered under inspection.   Nine carcasses graded " AA " and one graded " A."
Breeding Stock sold.
No. of    Average
Head.       Price.
No. of
Aberdeen Angus bulls- _ -
Hereford bulls (over 18 months) ___
Hereford bulls (under 18 months)..
Hereford females 	
Shorthorn bulls (over 18 months)...
Shorthorn bulls (under 18 months)
$370.00 j $1,255.00
1,750.00 | 47,837.00
310.00 J 620.00
425.00 | 8,250.00
460.00 | 5,470.00
520.00 I 2,295.00 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945.
V 107
1945. 1944.
Total number of bulls         131 139
Total number of breeding females           25 25
Total number of fat stock         255 322
Total sales of bulls  $55,070.00 $57,920.00
Total sales of breeding females       6,875.00 8,250.00
Total sales of fat stock     36,755.59 42,714.02
Grand total sales  $98,700.59        $108,364.02
An all-time high price of $3,500 was paid by Eldorado Ranch, Kelowna, for the
Hereford bull Circle J Domino 2nd, No. 157741; sire, Donald Domino, No. 125739;
dam, W S Gay Lass 1157th, No. 105646;  bred by Bulman Bros., Westwold, B.C.
Southern Interior Stockmen's Association Third Annual Feeder Sale and
Bull Sale, Okanagan Falls, September 12th, 1945.
This sale has moved out of the experimental stage and is now being well supported
by the responsible cattlemen of the entire area.
Summary of Sales.
Commercial Cattle.
Price per
Price per
Heifers (yearlings and 2-year-olds)	
Bulls         —                 ■	
Totals, 1944     _  	
Steers in 1944 averaged $9.93 per hundredweight.
All heifers in 1944 averaged $6.98 per hundredweight.
Breeding Stock.
Price per
Price per
Boys' and girls' calves
Total head of cattle sold         891
Total receipts   $72,997.81
Waldo Stock-breeders' Association Fourth Annual Fat Stock and
Feeder Sale, Elko, September 15th, 1945.
There was a total of 951 head of cattle of all classes sold for a total of $55,192.79.
At the 1944 sale there were 566 head sold for $29,110.77. At the 1943 sale 975 cattle
sold for $51,713.11. V 108
Central British Columbia Livestock Association Fourth Annual
Feeder Sale, Kamloops, October 4th, 1945.
This sale showed considerable improvement in the quality of the cattle offered.
Buyers, generally, showed their appreciation of the better quality.
1945. 1944.
Total number of head         457 804
Total sales   $27,571.69        $39,762.59
Averages. 1945. 1944.
Two-year-old steers  $10.48
One-year-old steers        8.76
Butcher heifers	
One-year-old heifers 	
Fat calves 	
Veal calves  .'	
Cariboo Stockmen's Association Eighth Feeder and Fat Stock Show and
Bull Sale, Williams Lake, October 12th and 13th, 1945.
This sale is Canada's largest commercial cattle sale, and it broke all its previous
records with this year's offering of 2,703 head.
Breakdown of Cattle.
99 bulls   $29,395.00
2,703 cattle  211,802.36
Boys' and girls' calves  4,708.79
10 pure-bred heifers   1,835.00
Cow and calf  380.00
Grand total   $248,121.15
The show cattle at this sale were exempted from ceiling price under Wartime
Prices and Trade Board order, and were culled by a committee of which your Commissioner was a member. Of the 223 head presented, nine head were culled, largely from
the junior classes. These came mostly from a new club just entered for the first time.
Only 188 head were slaughtered under supervision. Of these, 149 carcasses graded
" AA," 37 graded " A," and 2 graded " B."
The two top grades are approved as satisfactory under Wartime Prices and Trade
Board order, which shows the culling to have been quite accurate. It may be said,
however, that where the cattle were grass-fed and only warmed up on grain they were
not accepted so well by the retail trade and the consumer, which means that more
attention will have to be given to finishing our cattle in regular feed-lots.
Average Prices and Weights (Comparative).
Average Weight per
Average Price per
100 Lb.
1945.      1      1944.
i.oi7          l.ono
7 43
7 40
8 00
Singles (exempt from price ceiling)    	
Singles (not exempt from price ceiling).. —	 DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 109
Quesnel Cattlemen's Association Second Annual Sale, Quesnel,
October 25th and 26th, 1945.
There was a big increase in the number of head sold. The largest contributor
was the Frontier Cattle Company.
Summary.            1945. 1944.
Total number of cattle          680 275
Average price per head   $68.66 	
Top price per hundredweight           $10.50 $10.50
Total sales   $46,000.00* $15,568.03
* Approximately.
Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale, Kamloops, December 6th, 1945.
There were three car-lots (fifteen head) which sold for an average price of $13.93,
a top price of $14.50, and a total of $6,340.84. There were twelve groups of five head,
which sold for an average price of $13.88, a top price of $14.50, and a total of $8,336.16.
Seven head of spares averaged $12.25 for a total of $821.98.
Fifty-seven head of singles in the open classes averaged $15.82, with a top price of
$90 for the grand champion steer of the show, contributed by Earlscourt Farms,
Lytton, and bought by Woodward's, Limited, Vancouver. This class also included the
reserve champion of the class, a 775-lb. yearling steer entered by V. E. Ellison, Oyama,
which sold for $40 to David Spencer, Ltd., Vancouver. The total for the class was
The Armstrong " A " Beef Calf Club had nine entries with an average price of
$19.96, and a top price of $55 for the champion of the junior classes and reserve champion of the show, entered by Claire Wood, Armstrong, and sold to Safeway Stores, Ltd.
The total for this club was $1,699.83.
The Armstrong " B " Beef Calf Club had ten entries, which sold for an average
of $14.95, a high of $17.50, and a total of $1,432.42.
The Barriere Beef Calf Club had fourteen entries, which averaged $13.97, a top
of $18.25, and a total of $1,805.41.
The Kamloops South Beef Calf Club had eleven entries, which averaged $16.43,
with a top of $40 for the entry of Margaret Hamilton, which was bought by Salmon
Arm Meat Market.    The total for this club was $1,590.35.
The Lower North Thompson Beef Calf Club had fifteen entries, which averaged
$14.83, with a high of $16.50, and a total of $2,171.63.
The Westwold Beef Calf Club had eleven entries, which averaged $15.40, with a
high of $21 for the entry of Alastair Turner, and a total of $1,567.38.
There were four head of non-club junior entries, which averaged $14.28 for a total
of $418.49.
There was a total of seventy-four boys' and girls' entries, which averaged $15.60
for a total of $18,685.51.
There were six head of boys' and girls' lambs sold, and one of these resold for a
total of $95.
Summary. 1945. 1944.
Total number of cattle         242 325
Total sales of cattle  $34,835.96        $38,017.63
Total sales of sheep  95.00 230.00
Grand total  $34,930.96        $38,247.63
This year's sale shows eighty-three head fewer cattle than last year, which can be
explained in part as due to a shortage of labour on ranches and farms.    Also a very V 110 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
interesting side is that, due to the last few years' culling and grading of exempted
cattle under Wartime Prices and Trade Board order, cattlemen have been paying closer
attention to the finishing of their cattle so as to make sure that they get into the
exempted classes.
Organized Cattle Sales.
The support received by these sales from local cattle producers showed improvement. The buyers gave very good support to all the sales this year. It was very
interesting to note the close relationship between the prices paid and the quality of the
cattle offered.    This was particularly noticeable at the Kamloops Christmas Sale.
Cattle Marketing in British Columbia.
As pointed out last year there is a great need for better finishing of large numbers
of our cattle which go from farms and ranches not equipped to properly finish cattle.
Associated with all these factors are many fundamentals which must be given close
consideration if costly errors are to be avoided.
Bull-control Areas.
The bull district plan for controlling bulls on the range, as outlined under the
" Animals Act," was not satisfactory. Ten years ago we began work with the cattlemen
on a new plan of administration, which came into effect this year as an amendment to
the " Animals Act," whereby self-contained districts can be constituted as " bull-
control " areas. These areas, when established, are administered under a committee
of three, made up of two local stockmen and a representative of this Department.
Under this plan all cattlemen must furnish bull service for all breeding females
turned out. They must put out suitable, active, unrelated, pure-bred bulls of the beef
breeds, and these must be replaced whenever their progeny are ready to be bred.
The following areas have been constituted: Columbia Bull-control Area, Uncha
Valley Bull-control Area, Hosmer Bull-control Area, Waldo Bull-control Area, and
Newgate-Grasmere Bull-control Area. There are regulations respecting bull-control
areas, and special regulations which apply to the Waldo Bull-control Area as a one-
breed (Aberdeen Angus) area.
This branch of the live-stock industry has had a successful year, with subsidies to
support dairy-product prices. From reports received production is down in some outlying districts but is definitely up in the Fraser Valley, which is our most intensive
dairying district.
Dairy cattle have been in quite strong demand generally. Milk has been scarce
on Vancouver Island and considerable supplies have had to come in from the Mainland.
The producer-vendor dairymen have been somewhat disturbed over the future of their
market and have been reducing their herds, or going out of business, in quite a few
instances. The whole question of standards will have to be reviewed if confidence is
going to be retained. The future of the industry calls for consideration of fundamentals.
Calfhood vaccination against brucellosis will be dealt with under the section
" Nutrition and Animal Health."
The artificial insemination clubs established in the Fraser Valley, the Okanagan,
and Vancouver Island are progressing satisfactorily, generally speaking.
This branch of the live-stock industry had a very successful year. Prices could be
said to be quite good. See Appendix No. 14 for average prices of lambs from January
1st to November 30th, 1945. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945.
V 111
Sheepmen report that the ranges were quite dry. The late spring prevented range
flocks going out as early as usual. This slowed up the lambs, especially in the case of
twins. The lambs came off the ranges in quite good shape, however. Weed-losses
were about average but predators, especially bear, were quite bad. During the lambing
the coyote was at its worst as usual. The losses chiefly from the last two causes would
be between 3 and 4 per cent.
Work being done in some districts in the control of internal parasites in farm
flocks is showing very good results. If more help were available in the field a great
deal more could be accomplished.
The following is a summary of live stock killed by dogs:—
1942—  .. 	
British Columbia Sheep-breeders' Ram Sale, September 29th, 1945.
Hampshires.—Thirty-one head sold for an average price of $49.49 and a total of
$1,530. The high price was $150 for a three-star ram contributed by Irene Talbot,
of Westwold.
Suffolks.—Fifty-five head sold for an average price of $59.45 for a total of $3,270.
The high price was $170 for an entry bred by A. C. Stewart, Abbotsford, and contributed by Irene Talbot.
Rambouillets.—Seven head sold for an average price of $27.14 and a total of $190.
The top price was $45 for an entry by H. E. Talbot, Westwold.
Dorset Horn.—One entry by Charles Turner, Salmon Arm, sold for $25.
Romnelets.—Six head sold for an average of $47 and a total of $285. The top
price was $60.    The only contributor was W. A. Cameron, Kelowna.
Corriedales.—Seven head sold for an average of $58.57 and a total of $410. The
highest price paid was $70.    The only contributor was R. W. Hall, Falkland.
The grand total for 107 rams was $5,710, an average of $53.36 per head.
Wool shipped in 1945 by British Columbia Sheep-breeders' Association.
District. Shippers. Lb.
Kamloops .  112 200,456
South Okanagan !  15 72,758
North Okanagan  43 35,111
Kootenay  59 6,892
Skeena  87 19,425
Cariboo :  95 11,580
Vancouver Island  84 25,805
Lower Mainland  82 24,387
Totals  562        396,414 V 112 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Swine production has again approached what might be called its " normal level "
for the Province.
Swine production in British Columbia will depend upon modifying factors, such
as type of farming being carried on and upon home-grown feed-supplies. Shortsighted production campaigns which do not keep these basic principles in mind result
in disappointments. We are fast reaching that place. There is a way to correct this
situation, but it can not be done as long as there is multiple direction.
See Appendix No. 15 for average prices for hogs, January 1st, 1945, to November
30th, 1945.
It is safe to say that very few people, even stock-raisers themselves, ever stop to
consider the economic importance of nutrition and animal health. A visibly sick
animal alarms the average stockman, but does he ever stop to think that economically
speaking it is not the actual death losses which cost him the most but it is the animals
that are not producing efficiently. For example, it is generally acknowledged that the
efficiency of a dairy herd suffering from brucellosis is reduced approximately 25 per
cent. In beef herds where the nutrition is poor, calf-crops quite often drop as much
as 15 per cent, or more.
Every side of live-stock production warrants the closest attention, but it should
be kept in mind that production in general is so modified by errors of nutrition and the
inroads of animal disease that it is imperative that this be dealt with as a beginning.
Mineral Deficiency.
In the field of nutrition years of work with the stockmen has resulted in a marked
improvement in the situation, although there is much yet to be done. Lack of supplies
of suitable mineral mixes has slowed up the work and as a result quite a lot of territory
will have to be covered again.
There are technical sides of the great problem of nutrition which call for very
careful direction.    If that side is lost sight of, most undesirable results will be secured.
We stand to-day at almost the beginning as far as vitamins and their place in
live-stock nutrition is concerned. Here again the situation calls for a full scientific
knowledge of the subject as a preliminary to the proper application of these accessories
in our animal nutrition.
Analyses of correspondence coming into the Live Stock Branch together with field
observations encourage us to give more attention to this work. Field-work done over
the past few years would seem to indicate a very close relationship between vitamins
and minerals in the nutritional picture. The part that these two factors play in the
defence of the animal body against diseases can not be ignored. Renal calculi in steer
calves and in some other classes of live stock is perhaps one of the best examples of the
part that mineral combinations and vitamin deficiencies can play in the development
of disease-like conditions in live stock.
Field observations commenced by your Commissioner almost ten years ago gave
this lead, and while workers since that time have come forward with what would seem
to be quite definite proof of the correctness of this reasoning there have been other
workers who have seemed to disprove this argument. Work done personally in the
field is sufficiently encouraging, however, to warrant our continuing to advise the adoption of certain methods of management as a reasonably effective control. There may
come a time when some worker can point conclusively to quite specific items in a particular combination as being responsible, but in the interim we are satisfied that our DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 113
reasoning is sufficiently right so that when followed out in simple practice by the
stockmen very satisfactory results are secured.
Calf Scours.—This is another disease-like condition tied in very closely with errors
of nutrition. Vitamin A is the important element found lacking in the diet of affected
calves. Vitamin D and certain of the Vitamin B group are also contributory. This
condition has been taking a very heavy toll of calves the last few years. Our early
contribution in the way of treatment was to suggest the use of cod-liver oil or other
light vitamin-carrying oils.    This is now shown to be correct.
Hemorrhagic Septicemia.—This condition in the field is more properly called
" shipping fever," and includes a group of infective micro-organisms with the organism
responsible for hemorrhagic septic_emia being perhaps the major one in the picture.
" Shipping fever " is fast becoming of real importance to the entire live-stock
industry. With cattle marketing methods rapidly changing and the tempo increasing,
this complex disease infection is becoming of first importance.
It seems unfortunate that the industry does not take a more serious view of the
situation and that influential groups insist upon overlooking the control of this disease.
They continue to go forward with the development of over-all market machinery which
is certain to not function satisfactorily. To be successful it requires full appreciation
of the situation on the part of all sections of the industry, and finally a decision to work
closely together.    It is encouraging to find some groups becoming interested.
The disease is not new to either dairy or beef herds, or for that matter to swine
herds and even sheep, but it is in the cattle herds that we find the greatest losses. Up
until recently it rarely reached epizootic proportions amongst dairy cattle, but with
feeder cattle being moved into dairying districts the disease is taking on added
The general control of this and certain other diseases calls for wider authority
under our Acts, or more general authority. The application of such authority might
perhaps best be applied in the form of a policy. It may be said that such policies may
be rather restrictive, but it can easily be shown that most of the restriction will be
upon small groups trading on the industry, and perhaps not even essential in the
picture. These groups, where needed, can easily adjust their business to comply with
the needs of the industry.
Coccidiosis.—This disease is a major one and where existent is very costly to
cattlemen. Work commenced by your Commissioner in the early '30's, based upon the
excellent research work of Dr. E. A. Bruce, Dominion Animal Pathologist, Saanichton,
enabled us to get the severe and widespread outbreaks under control. With the field-
work personally done and the educational programmes carried out stockmen have been
in a position to prevent outbreaks becoming epizootic. The disease still continues to
be a definite threat to the industry.
Necrotic Stomatitis.—This disease still makes its appearance over widely distributed areas, which indicates its general distribution. Very severe and extensive
outbreaks which appeared in the early '30's were dealt with by your Commissioner in
much the same way as were the coccidiosis outbreaks. Under our over-all approach
as it is being applied it is expected that the incidence of this disease will be reduced to
the place where it, too, will cease to be a problem.
Blackleg.—As predicted, this disease is extended each year, with breaks being
reported in new districts. A very bad and costly outbreak appeared in the greater Williams Lake area. Wrong diagnosis in the beginning resulted in very heavy losses. Other
new territories were invaded in the south part of the Province. A different approach
has to be taken with this disease from that adopted with diseases such as the last two
referred to. V 114 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Equine Encephalomyelitis.—It might be said that the incidence of this disease was
very limited during 1945. We realize that there were cases which we no doubt did not
learn about, but on the whole it was a quiet year. There were six cases reported in
the greater Kamloops area, but these were promptly dealt with by Dr. G. M. Clark,
Veterinary Inspector. The usual pre-season instructions were sent out to all committees and newspapers within the area. It may be said that with no severe outbreaks of
the disease appearing for the last few years that less vaccinating is being done. This,
of course, all contributes to the weakening of the defences and when ideal conditions
obtain some year a real outbreak will occur. The occasional appearance of the disease
here and there indicates that the reservoirs established a few years ago are still there,
and that only a suitable arrangement of the necessary factors are needed to produce an
extensive outbreak.
Caseous Lymphadenitis.—Perhaps it is too soon to speak out and say that we have
won. I can say, however, that we have not had a case of caseous lymphadenitis
reported this year from any of the abattoirs under inspection. All flocks under
quarantine made their regular shipments to inspected plants and no cases of caseous
lymphadenitis were reported found on post-mortem this year.
It is realized that there are still, no doubt, some small centres of infection about
premises and in some sheep flocks, but your Commissioner feels very gratified over the
success of the policy adopted in 1941, in which all flocks showing the disease existent
upon post-morten findings of Inspectors at the central abattoirs were quarantined.
The flocks were not inconvenienced, except that they must respect the ranges used by
clean flocks and they were not permitted to sell stock except for immediate slaughter.
This policy was given a mixed reception. Those sheepmen who realized what was
being aimed at gave it their hearty support. A very few sheepmen, who felt that they
were being hindered, objected and insisted that it could not be cleaned up, that it was
widely distributed in deer, and that it was to be found all over the world.
Your Commissioner pointed out that in such countries as Australia and New
Zealand the incidence of caseous lymphadenitis had reached such proportions that it is
to-day of great economic importance, and that the disease in British Columbia could
be held in such control by a quarantine policy that it need never become of any economic
importance to our sheep industry.
We will enter 1946 with not a single flock under quarantine. This we consider
to be a real accomplishment, and we certainly wish to thank the sheepmen for their
co-operation in securing this result.
Your Commissioner realizes that in the years to come no doubt the disease will
make its appearance again in the odd flock, but it is felt that such breaks will be small
and by giving immediate attention they can be brought under control. Further over-all
attention to disease control as included in our future programme will tend to eliminate
any small centres of the infection.
Johne's Disease.—Progress has been made in the eradication of this disease from
the centre on Vancouver Island, where it was uncovered in 1942 by your Commissioner.
It has apparently been eradicated from all herds, except perhaps one herd where the
incidence was found to be quite high in the beginning. It is hoped that this year will
see this centre cleaned up.
Your Commissioner wishes to thank the Dominion Health of Animals Division for
supplying Johnin for making the necessary tests, and also Dr. E. A. Bruce, Animal
Pathologist, Dominion Science Service, Saanichton, for his kindly assistance in checking-
Internal and External Parasites.—Our programme on Saltspring Island in co-operation with the Saltspring Island Sheep-breeders' Association has secured very excellent
results in the control of the sheep-tick (" ked ").    Assistance in the way of a grant was DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 115
given this association in 1943 to build a portable dip. Plans were furnished by the Live
Stock Branch, and dip material supplied. Derris powder (Rotox brand specially activated) was supplied as the basis of the dip. Such good results were secured with the
eradication of ticks and the cleaning-up of fleece infections that sheepmen have lost their
interest in going after the last tick on the odd sheep. This is where the final accomplishment of the desired results usually fails and it may be necessary to strengthen such
policies by some supporting legislation.
Along with the dipping programme on Saltspring Island has gone a programme of
treating flocks with phenothiazine for internal parasites. The results have been quite
encouraging but with this plan, too, we have found too many sheepmen inclined to
neglect treating when sheep seem to be in good health. There are some who just do not
co-operate.    Here again control may be necessary.
Where our warble-fly programme has been carried out over a period of years it has
been noticed that other external parasites such as lice have been greatly reduced.
Calfhood Vaccination against Brucellosis.
A study of this policy as it is applied in British Columbia is receiving the hearty
support of cattlemen, especially dairymen. As. stated by the Secretary of one of our
Brucellosis Control Associations, " Farmers now consider it routine." They have
examined its merits and its weaknesses, and they realize that while it will not give full
protection under all circumstances, they feel that it gives a very high measure of protection and that it certainly is the best means available for the control of this great
scourge.    It is the first step.
The work is extending to many new sections of the Province and beef cattlemen are
showing quite keen interest in the policy. Your Commissioner follows closely all work
being done in the field of brucellosis control. When research workers add improvements
these are considered and included in the application of our policy.
A tabulated statement on the work accomplished to date follows (our year begins
July 31st) :  No. of Calves
First year (July 31st, 1941, to July 31st, 1942)  3,098
Second year (July 31st, 1942, to July 31st, 1943)  5,778
Third year (July 31st, 1943, to July 31st, 1944)   7,022
Fourth year (July 31st, 1944, to July 31st, 1945)  8,318
Total for four years  24,216
Vaccinated from July 31st, 1945, to November 30th, 1945     2,455
Total calves vaccinated from July 31st, 1941, to November 30th, 1945  26,671
A steady increase is shown in the work. A lack of sufficient veterinary practitioners
to undertake the work, however, is all that is preventing it from extending greatly.
Warble-fly and Tick Control.
The work of warble-fly control began in 1930, 1931, and 1932 with small field-trials
in individual herds. The organized control-area plan was instituted in the spring of
1933. The late H. E. Waby, then District Agriculturist at Salmon Arm, organized the
first area in Deep Creek Valley, Enderby, and the first application was made in this area
by Mr. Waby and your Commissioner on February 10th to 14th, 1933.
Since that time the work has extended to every part of the Province. The Provinces immediately to the east have studied our plan and are to-day following out a similar
policy, with very good results.
While we have used power-spray equipment in treating, for some years we have not
used this method of treating to the same extent as they are doing to-day on the Prairies. This is due to several reasons. Our major effort was first made in the smaller farm-
herds and concentrated dairy-cattle districts, such as in the Fraser Valley. This was
done as a demonstration to the larger cattlemen. Hand application was the most suitable plan in such herds. Secondly, in some districts the moving of power equipment in
the winter-time would be difficult. Lastly, the securing of power equipment during war
years was almost impossible. It is expected that a number of power machines will go
into the large cattle-raising areas of the Province this year in time for our 1946 warble-
fly control programme.
Difficulty in securing complete reports from associations makes it impossible to
furnish a detailed report.    Some reports can be given in general form.
In the greater Fraser Valley areas some 70,000 head of cattle were treated. In the
Cariboo District, from Clinton to Quesnel, east to Bridge Lake and Horsefly, and west
to Alexis Creek, despite many handicaps, well on to 30,000 head of cattle were treated.
In the Peace River Block there were 2,901 cattle treated in fifty-nine herds in fifteen
different districts and only 349 warbles were found. This is a very good record. The
data were very carefully compiled by T. S. Crack, District Agriculturist.
The reports show a higher incidence of warbles in some areas, which means that
some cattle were missed the year before or new territory was added.
In the Nicola area some 3,600 head were reported to be treated.
In the Salmon Arm district some 600 head were reported as being treated.
In the Ashcroft, Cache Creek, Hat Creek, and Upper Hat Creek area something
over 4,100 head were treated. In District C 111 herds were treated, including 1,125
head, and only 379 warbles were found.   This shows very fine progress.
In the greater Bulkley Valley the reports are equally encouraging. Some districts
are entirely warble-free.
In the Grand Forks-Boundary country some very good work has been done.
Richard E. Norris, Secretary of the Farmers' Institute, co-operated very well with the
District Agriculturist. In that area over 3,000 head were reported as treated, and the
average infestation is less than 21/2 warbles per animal.
In the greater North Thompson area some 2,800 head were treated. In the area
between Kamloops and Savona some 2,000 head were treated. In the South Okanagan
and Princeton districts approximately 2,500 head were reported as treated and at least
1,000 head in the immediate vicinity of Vernon. The Kootenay District got off to a very
good start and it is expected that good progress will be made this coming year.
As stated above, orderly reports have been very difficult to secure since considerable
work is being done by volunteer workers. The reported treatments listed above do not
show all the cattle treated. It would be safe to say that there were many thousands of
cattle treated which have not been included in these listings. An estimate of 125,000
head would be a conservative one.
As far as tick control is concerned, little can be added to what was said in last year's
report. The Dermacentor andersoni, or wood-tick, still continues to be of considerable
importance to Dry Belt stockmen. The year 1945 was an average year, unlike 1944
when losses were very high in some areas, such as the Nicola district.
George Pilmer, Recorder of Brands.
Shipments of beef cattle inspected in 1945 again made an all-time high record,
amounting to 73,261 head, an increase over the 1944 total of 59,945 of 13,316 head, or
22 per cent. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 117
The chief increases by districts were: Williams Lake, 14,580 (increase 3,641, 33
per cent.) ; Clinton, 3,363 (increase 942, 39 per cent.) ; Kamloops, 12,001 (increase
1,848, 18 per cent.) ; Nicola, 8,982 (increase 2,093, 30 per cent.) ; Ashcroft, 4,974
(increase 1,672, 50 per cent.) ; Similkameen, 3,477 (increase 995, 40 per cent.) ; Grand
Forks, 1,969 (increase 656, 50 per cent) ; Cranbrook-Fernie, 2,285 (increase 1,134,
99 per cent.) ; Peace River, 3,097 (increase 920, 40 per cent.). Central British Columbia with a total of 2,874 showed a drop of 1,310, 31 per cent.
Shipments to Prairie and Eastern Provinces also showed a decided increase,
amounting to 8,965 head, as compared with 5,001 head in 1944, or 80 per cent.
The total number of hides shipped was 25,227, as compared with 23,154 the previous year, an increase of 2,073, 9 per cent.
A detailed report is given in Appendix No. 19.
Brand inspection work was carried on by the Provincial Police as usual at fifty-one
shipping-points in the following district:—
Cariboo.—Quesnel, Alexis Creek, Bella Coola, Clinton, Bridge River, and Lillooet.
Kamloops-Nicola.—Lytton, Spences Bridge, Ashcroft, Blue River, and Chase.
Okanagan and Similkameen.—Salmon Arm, Enderby, Armstrong, Vernon, Lumby,
Revelstoke, Nakusp, Kelowna, Penticton, West Summerland, Princeton, Keremeos,
Oliver, Greenwood, and Grand Forks.
South-east British Columbia.—Rossland, Trail, Fruitvale, Castlegar, Salmo, Nelson, Kaslo, New Denver, Creston, Cranbrook, Kimberley, Fernie, Natal, Invermere, and
Central British Columbia and Peace River.—Smithers, Hazelton, Terrace, Burns
Lake, Vanderhoof, Prince George, McBride, Red Pass, Pouce Coupe, and Fort St. John.
Inspectors paid by the Department attended to the work at fifteen shipping-points
as follows: Kamloops, Williams Lake, Soda Creek, Lac la Hache, 100-Mile House, Clinton, Pavilion, Nicola, Kitwanga, Telkwa, Houston, Endako, Dawson Creek, Savona, and
Copper Creek.
New inspectors were appointed during the year as follows:—
J. E. Pollard, Deputy Brand Inspector, to act at Kamloops during sick-leave of
R. Cahilty, Kamloops, September 21st to December 31st.
Thomas Moore, Kamloops, Brand Inspector, in place of R. Cahilty, retired,
December 31st, 1945.
Raymond Leighton, Deputy Brand Inspector at Savona.
D. E. Rosseau, Deputy Brand Inspector at Copper Creek.
By the retirement at the end of the year of Mr. Cahilty the Department has lost the
services of an Inspector who gave conscientious and efficient service for thirty years.
" Bob " had become an institution in Kamloops. Nothing in the way of live stock
moved without his knowledge and his vast fund of information and experience was
always available to stockmen. In the person of Mr. Moore the Department believes it
has secured a man of considerable experience and ability who will give the stockmen
good service.
The appointment of Deputy Inspectors at Savona and Copper Creek will save time
and expense for the Kamloops Inspector, and it is hoped it will also be possible to appoint
a Deputy Inspector for the North Thompson and possibly Monte Creek.
To facilitate shipments from Central British Columbia to the annual sale at Kamloops on October 4th the undernoted were appointed as Deputy Inspectors without pay
from September 18th to October 2nd: W. Kidd, Smithers; F. Conner, Burns Lake;
N. Williams, Vanderhoof;   and B. Blackburn, Prince George. V 118 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Although the expense has increased, the Clinton Ranchers' Association again
employed a rider for their range as they feel they can not afford to be without this
valuable and necessary service.
Preliminary discussions have been held with the Commissioner of Police and the
stockmen in regard to the appointment of two constables experienced in live-stock work
and " Stock-brands Act " enforcement who will be available for range-riding in various
parts of the Province, and it is hoped to hold a meeting soon between representatives of
the stockmen, the Police Department, and this Department to make arrangements for
the work and for the sharing of the expense.
Meetings were held at Kamloops in November with the leading stockmen and the
Brands Commissioners, and various suggested amendments were thoroughly discussed.
Agreement was reached on a number of important points, and other matters are being
discussed further; a circular regarding these has been sent to all stock associations
for their views. It is hoped that several worth-while changes will be made in the Act
at the next session of the Legislature.
The complete brand-book for 1944 was issued and showed 3,095 cattle brands and
1,632 horse brands on record, a total of 4,727, as compared with 2,358 cattle brands and
1,273 horse brands, a total of 3,633, in 1940, an increase of 30 per cent.
With the co-operation of some of the stockmen's associations and through the efforts
of the Brands Inspectors a much larger number of books were sold and better distribution
has been obtained.
Prosecutions were necessary in only three cases during 1945, as follows: Not
keeping records of cattle bought, two at Vernon; branding with unregistered brand,
one at Smithers.
The number issued during 1945 was as follows: Slaughter-house, forty-seven;
hide-dealers, eighty; stock-dealers, ninety-nine; horse-slaughterers, eighteen; and
beef-peddlers, ten.   A total of 253, an increase of sixteen over last year.
A complete list of the licensees appears in Appendix No. 17.
T. S. Crack, District Agriculturist.
The weather throughout the growing season was very dry, leaving the district
with very much lighter crops than usual. Harvesting was carried out under exceptionally good conditions. The average grade for wheat has been No. 1, oats and barley,
2 C.W. Very little frost was recorded during the season, with practically no damage
to grain. The winter started very early this year with a heavy fall of snow, the
temperature reaching as low as 30° below zero. From appearances now it looks as
though there might be a shortage of feed for the winter but there should be plenty of DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1945. V 119
commercial seed-grain for spring seeding.    Alfalfa grown for seed has done very well,
some fields threshed as high as 600 lb. to the acre, the average being from 250 to 450 lb.
Field Crops.
The alfalfa-seed crop for this year is estimated at 300,000 lb. and altaswede clover
at 25,000 lb., sweet clover at 90,000 lb. and timothy at 9,000 lb. Most of this seed has
been purchased by the Peace River Co-operative Seed-growers. Little or no winterkilling was experienced last spring.
Estimated Acreage for 1945. yi „
Acres. Lb.
Alfalfa    500 200,000
Altaswede clover   200 25,000
Sweet clover   700 90,000
Timothy  150 9,000
Wheat   30,000 600,000
Oats   23,000 800,000
Barley      5,000 150,000
Flax      5,000 40,000
A large quantity of stock seed was seeded by farmers last spring, which all yielded
far better than the commercial seed.
Altogether thirty fields were inspected for registration.
Weeds.—The chief weeds found throughout the district are stinkweed, sow-thistle,
and Canada thistle, although this year I found some downy brome and Russian thistle
around the railway-yards in Dawson Creek, which were pulled, and up to freeze-up no
more trace was found of these two weeds. Several meetings and discussions have been
held through the district regarding cultivation methods and farm practices for the
eradication of weeds. So far as Canada thistle and sow-thistle are concerned a marked
improvement has been shown.
Farm Labour.—Owing to the completion of the Alaska Highway and other activities throughout the district, the farm labour situation was not so serious this year as
it has been for the past few years. Very few farmers reported shortage of help either
for the spring work or the harvest.
Grasshoppers.—Several reports were received from north of Peace River regarding
damage done by grasshoppers, which were investigated last spring. Poison-bait was
mixed and scattered around the edges of the fields affected. No further complaints
have been received since that time.
Live Stock.
Warble-fly Control.—The t