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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Department of Agriculture FORTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT 1946 British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1947

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 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Department of Agriculture
■FORTY-FIRST-
ANNUAL REPORT
1946
VICTORIA, B.C. :
Printed by Don McDiarmid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1947.  To His Honour C. A. Banks,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
I have the honour to submit herewith for your consideration the Annual Report
of the Department of Agriculture for the year 1946.
FRANK PUTNAM,
Minister of Agriculture.
Department of Agriculture,
Victoria, B.C., January 2nd, 1967.  CONTENTS.
Page.
Department of Agriculture Officers       7
Report of Deputy Minister       9
Report of Statistician    30
Report of Provincial Apiarist    34
Report of Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes     37
Report of Superintendent of Women's Institutes     39
Report of Supervisor of Boys' and Girls' Club Work     43
Report on Soil Classification     50
Report of Markets Branch    55
Report of Horticultural Branch     59
Report of Field Crops Branch     84
Report of Plant Pathologist '. -     92
Report of Entomologist  100
Report of Live Stock Branch  111
Report of Recorder of Brands  119
Report of Dairy Branch ■.  121
Report of Poultry Branch  125
Report of Land-clearing and Farm Labour  129
Reports of District Agriculturists—
Peace River District  136
Bulkley and Skeena Districts  139
Nechako and Burns Lake Districts  144
Prince George District  148
Cariboo and Lillooet Districts  150
Kamloops and Nicola Districts  157
Shuswap and Grand Forks Districts  161
East Kootenay District  165
Fraser Valley (East) District  170
Fraser Valley (West) District  173
Courtenay District  181
Appendices—
No.   1. Estimate of Honey-crop  184
No.   2. Exported Nursery Stock and Seeds  185
No.   3. Commercial Fruit Production in Canada, 1940-45  186
No.   4. Statement of Grain threshed  188
No.   5. Movement of Grain Screenings  189
No.   6. Average Prices for Cattle  190
No.   7. Average Prices for Lambs  190
No.   8. Average Prices for Hogs  191
No.   9. Inspected Slaughterings of Live Stock  192
No. 10. Dairy Premises inspected and graded  194
No. 11. Cattle T.B.-tested  194
No. 12. Slaughter-house, etc., Licences  195
No. 13. Land-clearing Operating Costs and Revenue  197
No. 14. Cattle and Hide Shipments, 1946  198  BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
DIVISION AND STAFF MEMBERS, 1946.
Minister of Agriculture:
Honourable Frank Putnam.
Minister's Secretary :
Mrs. I. M. Miller.
Deputy Minister:
J. B. Munro, M.B.E., M.S.A., Ph.D.
Secretary:
Miss A. E. Hill, Victoria, B.C.
Assistant Deputy Minister and Provincial Horticulturist :
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A.
Administrative Division:
George H. Stewart, Statistician, Victoria, B.C.
C. C. Kelley, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor, Kelowna, B.C.
H. L. Woolison, Chief Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
Miss F. L. Brooks, Assistant Accountant, Victoria, B.C.
A. J. Hourston, General Assistant, Victoria, B.C.
J. S. Wells, Clerk, Victoria, B.C.
Angus Davie, Junior Clerk, Victoria, B.C.
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes, Victoria, B.C.
Mrs. Stella E. Gummow, Superintendent of Women's Institutes, Victoria, B.C.
Miss E. Lidster, B.S.A., Supervisor of Boys' and Girls' Clubs, Vancouver, B.C.
W. H. Turnbull, Assistant Provincial Apiarist, Vernon, B.C.
A. H. Shotbolt, Exhibition Specialist, Victoria, B.C. (retired).
T. Menzies, Clerk, Victoria, B.C. (retired).
E. O. MacGinnis, M.H., Markets Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
Animal Industry Division :
W. R. Gunn, B.S.A., B.V.Sc, V.So., Live Stock Commissioner and Chief Veterinary
Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
A. Knight, B.V.Sc, V.S., Chief Veterinary Inspector, Victoria, B.C. (retired).
John C. Bankier, B.V.Sc, Veterinary Inspector and Animal Pathologist, Victoria, B.C.
M. Sparrow, V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
J. E. Bennett, B.V.Sc, V.S., Provincial Veterinary Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
G. M. Clark, B.V.Sc, V.S., Veterinary Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
F. C. Wasson, M.S.A., Dairy Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
Henry Rive, B.S.A., Dairy Commissioner, Victoria, B.C. (deceased).
F. Overland, Dairy Inspector, Vancouver, B.C.
G. Patchett, Dairy Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
J. D. Johnson, Dairy Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
G. H. Thornbery, Assistant (Milk Records), Victoria, B.C.
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., Poultry Commissioner, New Westminster, B.C.
J. R. Terry, Poultry Commissioner, Victoria, B.C. (retired).
W. H. Pope, Poultry Inspector, Victoria, B.C.
George Pilmer, Brands Recorder, Victoria, B.C.
Thomas Moore, Brands Inspector, Kamloops, B.C.
Wm. MacGillivray, Director, Agricultural Development and Farm Labour, Victoria, B.C.
J. E. Beamish, B.E. (Agr.), Assistant Director of Land-clearing, Victoria, B.C.
A. McNeill, Inspector of Beef Grading, Vancouver, B.C. W 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Animal Industry Division—Continued:
G. A. Luyat, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Kamloops, B.C.
Shirley G. Preston, M.S.A., District Agriculturist, Smithers, B.C.
G. A. Muirhead, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm, B.C.
James E. Manning, District Agriculturist, Salmon Arm, B.C. (resigned).
T. S. Crack, District Agriculturist, Pouce Coupe, B.C.
C. F. Cornwall, District Agriculturist, Williams Lake, B.C.
J. S. Allin, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Cranbrook, B.C.
K. R. Jameson, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Prince George, B.C.
George C. Axen, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Burns Lake, B.C.
F. C. Clarke, M.S.A., District Agriculturist, New Westminster, B.C.
A. E. Donald, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Chilliwack, B.C.
D. S. Gibbons, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Courtenay, B.C.
J. G. L. Gray, B.S.A., District Agriculturist, Quesnel, B.C.
Plant Industry Division:
James Travis, Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
N. F. Putnam, M.Sc, Assistant Field Crops Commissioner, Victoria, B.C.
Walter Sandall, District Field Inspector, Vancouver, B.C. (retired).
E. W. White, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Victoria, B.C.
E. C. Hunt, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Nelson, B.C.
M. S. Middleton, B.S.A., District Horticulturist, Vernon, B.C.
J. L. Webster, B.S.A., Horticulturist, Vancouver, B.C.
Ben Hoy, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Kelowna, B.C.
R. P. Murray, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Penticton, B.C.
M. P. D. Trumpour, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Penticton, B.C.
G. R. Thorpe, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Creston, B.C.
H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector, Vernon, B.C.
C. R. Barlow, District Field Inspector, Salmon Arm, B.C.
A. W. Watt, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, West Summerland, B.C.
John Tait, District Field Inspector, Summerland, B.C. (retired).
W. Baverstock, District Field Inspector, Vernon, B.C.
John A. Smith, B.S.A., District Field Inspector, Oliver, B.C.
T. G. J. Whitehead, Clerk, Vernon, B.C.
V. Tonks, Secretary, Horticultural Branch, Victoria, B.C.
G. L. Foulkes, Secretary, Horticultural Branch, Victoria, B.C. (retired).
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc, Plant Pathologist, Vancouver, B.C.
W. R. Foster, M.Sc, Assistant Plant Pathologist, Victoria, B.C.
Iver J. Ward, B.S.A., Provincial Entomologist, Vernon, B.C. Report of the Department of Agriculture.
REPORT OF THE DEPUTY MINISTER.
J. B. Munro, M.B.E., M.S.A., Ph.D.
The Honourable Frank Putnam,
Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the report of the Department of Agriculture for the year ended December 31st, 1946.
NEW LEGISLATION.
At the First Session of the Twenty-first Parliament of British Columbia several
Acts of interest and importance to the agricultural industry were passed. Chief among
these was the " Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance Act." This Act provides for the
deduction by a packer on certain animals of the bovine species from the purchase price
and the payment by the packer to the Minister of Agriculture of 30 cents for each
animal bought by him. All the moneys collected under this Act shall be paid into a
Trust Fund in the Department of Agriculture, from which fund there may be paid out
from time to time, at the discretion of the Minister, amounts not exceeding in total the
amounts so collected. The amounts paid out shall be: (1) " For such expenses that
are necessary and incidental to the administration of the Act," and (2) " To such association of beef cattlemen as the Minister deems to be representative of the beef cattlemen of the Province for the promotion of work for the benefit of the beef cattle
industry."
The Act further contains provisions giving authority to any official appointed by
the Minister for the purpose of inspecting books of accounts and records relating to the
purchase of animals. This Act provides for a fine to be imposed on any one who fails
to comply with the provisions of the Act or the regulations made thereunder. The
" Beef Cattle Producers' Assistance Act " came into effect on the 1st day of June, 1946.
The amendment to the " Stock-brands Act" provides for licences issued by the
Minister and for the payment of fees prescribed. It also authorizes the Minister to
require the applicant for a licence to furnish a bond in favour of the Crown. Any
moneys recovered under such a bond may be used in paying defaulted claims for the
price of stock bought by or through the holder of the licence.
When selling stock, it is now compulsory for the seller to give the buyer a memorandum evidencing the sale of the stock. The simplest way to do this is to use a copy
of the regular Form 3, which is used when stock are to be shipped. Cross out the heading " Memo, of Stock or Hides for Shipment " and write in the words " I have this day
sold the undernoted stock to [name of buyer] "; then give particulars of the stock
below, insert the date of sale, and sign the form.
When stock is to be driven on the hoof more than 20 miles within the Province or
to a place outside of the Province, notice in writing must be given to the nearest Brand
Inspector with full particulars, and this notice in writing may now be given by delivering it or sending it to the Inspector, or by telegraphing it, before commencing the drive.
Twenty-four hours' notice must be given to the Inspector when stock or hides are
to be shipped by rail, truck, or other road vehicle, no matter what distance the stock or
hides are to be moved. W 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
If it is not practicable for the Inspector to inspect before loading stock or hides
that are to be shipped by truck, the shipper must give the carrier Form 3 properly completed and signed. This is the shipper's responsibility, and he must attend to this
himself instead of leaving the form to be filled up by the Inspector, as has frequently
been the case in the past.
It is an offence now under the Act for the trucker to receive stock or hides unless
he gets the completed Form 3 from the shipper.
The stock or hides, of course, must still be inspected by the Inspector where most
convenient to him, and the truck carrier must present the Form 3 to the Inspector.
Slackness or neglect in filling up Form 3 properly will result in the shipment being held
up and delayed.
Stock going by truck out of any inspection district must not be moved until it has
been inspected by the Inspector in that district.
In the case of stock being trucked to a rail loading-point in another district, if not
inspected beforehand the shipper must give the trucker two copies of Form 3, and the
trucker must deliver one to the Inspector of the district in which the shipment starts
and the other to the Inspector at rail loading-point.
If from a public stockyard, the stock must be branded with the stockyard sale-mark
and Form 3 or Memo, of Sale given to the carrier, who shall present same to the Inspector at unloading-point for inspection of the stock in the regular way.
In the case of stock coming from the Coast but not from a public stockyard, if the
stock is not branded with the buyer's brand before shipment, it should be branded with
the buyer's brand before leaving the unloading-point.
It is now compulsory when shipping more than a quarter of beef for the shipper
to make out three copies of Form 4; one is to be sent to the Inspector nearest destination and one given to the carrier, as at present, and the third copy must be given to
the Inspector at point of shipment.
An Act to amend the " Milk Act " was passed because formerly the council of a
municipality was authorized to pass regulations, one of which was " for prohibiting
except in the case of milk obtained from a dairy-farm classed as Grade A . . . the
delivery or sale of milk unless the milk is pasteurized within the meaning of subsection
(1) of section 17."
To enable the City of Vancouver to require compulsory pasteurization of all milk
sold in that city, this subsection was amended by striking out the words " except in the
case of milk obtained from a dairy-farm classed as Grade A pursuant to certificate
under subsection (2) of section 7 " in clause (h) of subsection (1) of section 10, and
substituting " notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (2) of section 7."
Section 10 was further amended by adding subsection (4), which reads: "The
power conferred by clause (h) of subsection (1) shall not be exercised by any municipality to which the ' Municipal Act' applies." This gives municipalities such as the
City of Vancouver the power to enforce pasteurization of all milk sold within their
boundaries without submitting a plebiscite to its electors.
The " Public Utilities Act" was amended to permit of the appointment of a separate Commission, known as the " Milk Board," to be appointed by the Lieutenant-
Governor in Council. This Board, which consists of one member, has jurisdiction over
milk and exercises with respect to milk all powers, duties, and functions conferred by
this Act upon the Public Utilities Commission to the extent to which such are exercisable in relation thereto.
The amendment further makes provisions for the imposition of licensing fees upon
the distributer of milk for the purpose of raising revenue adequate for the costs and
expenses of administration of the Act in relation to milk, and determines the basis on DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 11
which such fees shall be imposed and borne, and makes provision for the collection of
such fees, including penalties to enforce payment.
By Order in Council No. 1328, passed on June 19th, 1946, Ernest C. Carr was
appointed under this Act, and his duties commenced in British Columbia on the 15th
day of July, 1946.
FEDERAL CO-OPERATION.
During the war years British Columbia's Agricultural Production Committee
worked in close association with the Federal Agricultural Supplies Board in all of its
undertakings, which included feeds, seeds, and flax-fibre administration, as well as fertilizer and feed-grain freight assistance. For this reason it is interesting to here
present a fairly complete picture of the work of the Agricultural Supplies Board from
its inception in the early war years until March 31st, 1946.
During that period the Feeds Administration paid out in freight assistance to
British Columbia $6,221,672.19 on 971,505 tons of grain and mill-feeds, at an average
freight cost of $6.40 a ton. The summary of British Columbia's freight assistance
claims includes 13,617,760 bushels of wheat, 11,336,706 bushels of oats, 4,525,000 bushels
of barley, 809,957 bushels of corn, and 500 bushels of rye. In addition, there were
229,576 tons of mill-feeds and 9,367 tons of screenings moved under the freight subsidy
policy in that period, which extends from November 18th, 1941, to March 31st, 1946.
The poultry products section of this Special Products Board has had a particular
interest in British Columbia's poultry-farmers. In the poultry products section, special
work has been done in securing for the British market both shell-eggs and egg-powder.
British Columbia had the satisfaction in the late fall of 1945 of seeing approximately
100,000 cases of eggs shipped by the " Columbia Star." Again, in October of 1946,
129,000 cases of eggs were shipped to the British market by the " Saxon Star." Plans
have already been made for increasing the poultry production in the coming year as the
total egg production for Canada is to be increased by 10 per cent, to meet the British
requirements.
The bonus on clean wool, which was first approved to apply to the 1943 wool-clip,
was continued for the clip of 1946. Under it the Dominion and Provincial Governments
contributed an equal share, not exceeding 4 cents a pound from both Departments. The
object of the bonus is not necessarily to obtain a greater quantity of wool, but rather
to emphasize the importance to the farmer of improving the quality of our wool-clip.
The Provincial expenditure for the current year has been $6,669.56, and assurance was
received from the Chairman of the Agricultural Supplies Board that the Federal Government would contribute a like sum for this purpose.
The wool bonus paid by the British Columbia Department of Agriculture for 1943,
1944, and 1945 on the same basis as 1946 was $5,700 in 1943, $7,165.70 in 1944, and
$7,258.32 in 1945.
The programme for the production of certain field root and vegetable-garden seeds
which are imported into Canada was not continued with respect to the 1946 annuals or
the biennials for 1947. This measure was initiated early in the war years to ensure
that sufficient seed was produced in Canada for Canadian needs. British Columbia was
alert to her opportunity for vegetable-seed production and benefited materially by the
Dominion-Provincial seed programme. Our seed-growers have possibly felt more keenly
than the growers of other Provinces the loss of this Federal support.
Measures taken since early in the war to ensure supplies of certain essential field
root and vegetable-garden seeds which prior to the war were supplied chiefly from
Europe have been terminated. European sources of supply are once more available,
which along with the expanded Canadian production ensures adequate supplies. However, the Agricultural Supplies Board entered into contracts with the growers to pro- W  12
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
vide that any seed produced under contract and not disposed of through commercial
channels would be purchased by the Canadian Government at the price agreed. At the
end of March, 1946, the Board had purchased from the growers seed of a number of
varieties to the value of $63,428.10.
In addition, the Board felt responsible for contracts placed in the spring of 1945
for the production of the following biennial vegetable-seeds in 1946: Beets, 100,000 lb.;
cabbages, 10,000 lb.; carrots. 100,000 lb.; cauliflower, 1,000 lb.; onions, 112,000 lb.;
parsnips, 3,000 lb.
The action of the Agricultural Supplies Board has been deeply appreciated by the
seed-growers of British Columbia, and it is confidently expected that seed production in
this Province will remain an important branch of the agricultural industry in years
to come.
The financial assistance to British Columbia for agricultural lime and fertilizer
subvention was continued throughout the year on the basis of former years. Under
the agricultural lime policy the Dominion Government pays approximately one-half of
the production and distribution costs incurred by the Provincial Government. In British Columbia the costs have been borne at the rate of 75 cents per ton paid to the manufacturer of the lime from Dominion Government sources, plus $1 paid to the farmer
towards the cost of transportation at the rate of $1 per ton paid by the Provincial
Government. The cost of this policy to the Provincial Government was $4,506.16 for
the fiscal year ending March 31st, 1946, and was $2,334.34 for the balance of the
calendar year 1946.
LIME COMMITTEE.
The Lime Committee is composed of Dr. D. G. Laird, chairman; Cecil Tapp, of the
Dominion Department of Agriculture; and G. L. Landon, of the Provincial Department
of Agriculture.
The marked increase in the use of lime, as shown in the previous year, did not
continue due entirely to lack of supplies. The demand for lime was the heaviest on
record, but deliveries by the producing companies were disappointing. Higher prices
paid by industrial users of lime products resulted in a considerable proportion of lime
going to industry rather than to agriculture.
The following statistical table gives the data for the past eleven years in applications approved by the Committee:—
Fiscal Year.
Total Number
of Applications
approved.
Total Amount
of Subsidy
paid out.
Total Tonnage
used.
1935-36.
1936-37.
1937-38.
1938-39.
1939-40.
1940-41.
1941-42.
1942-43.
1943-44.
1944-45.
1945-46.
277
394
416
529
352
259
208
205
327
427
407
$1,110.'30
1,208.37
1.411.79
2.355.50
1,390.91
1,440.86
1,259.49
1,393.24
3,435.50
5,007.59
4,506.16
2,220.10
2,416.74
2,825.58
4,711.00
2,781.83
2,881.73
2,519.00
2,510.75
4,287.64
5,554.71
4,747.41
It is very disappointing to note a reduction in the amount of lime used during the
year, particularly in view of the need for lime in the Fraser Valley. Attempts were
made during the year to distribute available supplies to various producer groups, such
as cannery pea- and bean-growers, etc. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 13
As stated in last year's report, farmers could assist greatly in remedying the situation by taking lime in bulk during the summer and fall months. Too much demand is
placed on the producing and distributing companies for lime during the months of
February, March, and April.
Lime is being produced from quarries on Texada Island, Blubber Bay, and Agassiz
Lime-quarry; marlime from Lake Cheam, Princeton, and other points in the Interior
of the Province. Gypsum is produced at Falkland and is used entirely in the Okanagan
and at Salmon Arm. Increasing quantities of lime products are being produced in
the Princeton district, and the quality is comparatively good.
The manufacturers' subsidy paid by the Dominion Government was continued
during the year and assisted in maintaining production.
The price of ground limestone varied from $3.50 per ton at Agassiz Quarry to $6.50
per ton. Probably the average price of ground limestone was $5.50 per ton and the
average price of hydrated lime was $11.50 per ton.
AGRICULTURAL FOOD BOARD.
In the years 1940-41 prices of nearly everything that people in the cities and rural
dwellers purchased were increasing rapidly. In order to control inflationary tendencies, a system of price controls was instituted in the Dominion on December 1st, 1941.
To maintain and increase production under ceiling prices, subsidies were paid to producers of essential foods and materials. At first the subsidies to producers of farm
products were paid by the Wartime Prices and Trade Board, but later the Agricultural
Food Board was established and assumed the payment of agricultural producers' subsidies in the spring of 1943. This Board was established by Order in Council, under
the authority of the " War Measures Act," and was given wide powers and responsibilities in connection with the war-time production of food in Canada and its division of
essential uses. The producer subsidies, which were a direct payment to farmers in
addition to their returns under ceiling prices, were necessary to maintain or increase
the production of food. Subsidies were paid to primary producers by the manufacturers or distributers, who were the first receivers of the raw products. When the processor furnished proof to the Agricultural Supplies Board that he had paid the full
subsidy to the producer, he was reimbursed out of Government funds. It was necessary
that this subsidy be paid in addition to any legal or contract price, and was shown as
such on the statement of settlement with the producer.
Subsidies at varying rates were used as a means of directing supplies into desired
lines of production. For example, under the war-time prices and subsidy programme
milk production was greatly increased, and this increase provided an unrestricted supply
of fluid milk, together with more butter than was available before the war, and at the
same time large quantities of cheese and concentrated milk products were exported to
meet overseas requirements. The main purpose of the fluid milk subsidy was to
encourage the producers of milk to meet increased demands, and it was paid on a
selective basis.
The Dairy Branch of the Provincial Department of Agriculture co-operated with
the Agricultural Food Board. The Branch knew the local conditions and reviewed the
situation, considering the need and amount of the subsidy that should be requested.
They also reviewed the applications and forwarded them 'to Ottawa with the Provincial
recommendation. It was left to the Board to recommend a price increase where the
prevailing retail price was low or to otherwise alter the recommendations of the Provincial Dairy Branch.
The subsidy payment was made only until the summer of 1946, when Ottawa
announced its intention to relinquish the payment of milk subsidies.    That brought W 14 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
about the necessity for the appointment of a Provincial Milk Board. This was accompanied by Order in Council appointing E. C. Carr as Chairman of the Provincial Milk
Board. Mr. Carr opened his office in Vancouver during July of this year and is now
operating for the benefit of both producer and consumer of milk.
FEED-GRAIN CERTIFICATES.
During the twelve-month period from December 1st, 1945, to November 30th, 1946,
there was transported into British Columbia a total of 107,454 tons of wheat, 52,626
tons of oats, 35,368 tons of barley, 30,498 tons of mill-feed, and 41 tons of corn. The
total tonnage for this period was 225,498 tons, which was an increase of 26,572 tons
during the current year.
The subsidies from the Dominion Department of Agriculture for the assistance of
feeders of live stock in British Columbia have been maintained throughout the year, and
in addition to the initial payment of a subsidy to the grain-growers in the Prairie Provinces, our farmers benefited by the freight subsidy policy. This freight subsidy is paid
by the Federal Government on car-loads of feed-grains, and is on the basis of the actual
freight from Edmonton or Calgary to the destination in this Province.
Applications for feed-grain certificates, which entitle the buyer to the reduced
freight rate on the maximum car-loads of grain from Prairie points to British Columbia Coast districts, are made by purchasers who send in their Dominion Grain Inspection Certificates and freight bills. These individuals are given the Special Feed-grain
Certificate under C.F.A. Tariff 145.
SOIL-SURVEY.
In co-operation with the Experimental Farm Services of the Dominion Department
of Agriculture, the British Columbia Department of Agriculture has issued Report
No. 2, being " The Soil Survey of the Prince George Area of British Columbia." This
is the second of a series of soil-survey publications describing important agricultural
areas in British Columbia. Report No. 1 dealt with the soils of the Lower Fraser
Valley and was issued in 1938 by the two Departments jointly. Each report completed
in itself is intended to present a brief description of the surveyed area. The parent
materials from which the soils are derived were deposited during the glacial and postglacial periods. The surface geology plays a major role in determining the use of the
soils and other resources. In this district a detailed study of the climate will play a
part in directing the course of agricultural development, and the native vegetation is of
unusual importance from the agricultural point of view; therefore, a study has been
made of the forest types in order to divide them roughly into divisions based on the
cost of clearing land.
A soil-map is published in the report, and a scale of V/z miles to the inch is used.
It gives the location and extent of the classified soils and the location of roads, rivers,
and streams. An added feature is the land-class map, which suggests possibilities for
agricultural extension in the surveyed area.
This area centring on Prince George covers 714,597 acres. Of this, there are
about 690,869 acres of land and 23,728 acres of lakes and rivers. The report has been
reviewed and edited by Dr. A. Leahey, of the Dominion Department of Agriculture.
1946 Soil-survey, Peace River.
In reporting on the work of the soil-survey in 1946, L. Farstad, B.S.A., states that
" soil erosion by wind and water is becoming a serious problem in the area of the
Peace River District thus far surveyed." In view of climatic conditions and the fact
that rapid settlement is opening up timbered areas, the problem promises to become DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 15
even more important. Wind erosion is represented at present by patchy drifting and
has resulted in serious losses to surface soil and structure in several isolated places, but
certain other soil types may be affected by this type of erosion in the future.
Water erosion is more likely to be a serious problem as time goes on. The presence
of so many moderately heavy surface soils with heavy subsoils suggests that over much
of the area infiltration and water will be relatively slow. On the sloping cultivated
lands, rapid spring thaws and heavy summer showers result in considerable surface
run-off and soil-removal.
The area surveyed comprises most of the south-east section of the Peace River
Block. The mapped area extends from the Alberta boundary west to Arras (Range 17)
and includes Townships 78 to 82. Also mapped are Townships 23, 24, 25, and 26 in
the south-east corner of the Block. This newly mapped area covers approximately
322,000 acres.
Agriculture.—The system of agriculture followed is similar to that of northern
sections of Alberta and Saskatchewan. Wheat is grown extensively except where frost
hazards and other conditions favour the production of coarse grains. A moderate
amount of alfalfa is grown, much of which is used for seed production. Sweet clover
and red clover is also grown to a limited extent. Little grass is grown. Most of
the districts do not contain many cattle or other live stock. The lack of adequate
water-supplies and, to some extent, pasture are in many cases a handicap to live-stock
production.
The greatest degree of agricultural development occurs in the Pouce Coupe,
Dawson Creek, Rolla, and Doe River districts. This development corresponds in general with the distribution of the better soil types in the surveyed area.
Soils.
Soil-classification.—The present report is to be regarded as preliminary work
designed to supply information available to date. Final classification of the profiles
into soil association and member units will require further field and laboratory work.
The following statements include a considerable amount of definite information on the
soil-types, as well as some information requiring further study and revision.
The soils were mapped and classified according to features observed in the soil
profile. These include colour, structure, texture, stoniness, depth, and the number of
horizons. All these features are the result of the combined effects of the soil-forming
factors—climate, parent material, relief, drainage, and maturity.
The soil profiles have, therefore, been classified according to zonal features, type
of soil-development, and kind of parent materials. On the basis of the above factors,
soil associations have been established. Further separation, where advisable, of the
association is made on the basis of drainage. These members in turn are separated
into phases according to topography, stoniness, presence of gravel, and erosion. A preliminary classification of the soils of the area is as follows:—
Soils of the Shallow Black Zone:—
Shallow black soils developed on calcareous glacial till deposits.
Shallow black soils developed on lacustrine deposits.
Soils of the Grey Wooded (Podsol) Zone:—
Shallow podsol soils developed on brown glacial till.
Podsol soils developed on grey glacial till.
Grey to grey-brown podsolic soils developed on heavy lacustrine deposits.
Deep podsol soils developed on sandy alluvial deposits.
Podsol soils developed on modified residual deposits. W 16 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Organic deposits:—
Muskeg soils.
Shallow peat soils.
As indicated on the above table, two major soil zones are presented—the Shallow
Black and the Grey Wooded.    These zones do not constitute large well-defined belts, but
occur rather as large islands or mixtures of the two.
Soils of the Shallow Black Zone.
The soils belonging to the Shallow Black Zone are characterized by a dark-brown
to black surface horizon, high in organic matter. They represent soils developed under
a grass-land cover, although in many cases the virgin areas are now covered with a
deciduous tree growth. The native fertility of these soils is quite high, and they were
the first types to attract settlers in the area.
Shallow Black Soils developed on Calcareous Glacial Till Deposits.—This group of
soils consists of loam and clay-loam types developed on glacial till that has been modified
somewhat by the action of water. They occur mainly in the Pouce Coupe, Rolla, and
Kilkerran farming districts.
The topography ranges from undulating to moderately sloping and has a gradient
of 1 to 8 per cent.
Drainage is adequate on the undulating and gently sloping phases but inclined to
be somewhat excessive on the steeply sloping lands.
Stones are not as serious a handicap as in some of the other glacial soils. Large
glacial boulders requiring removal are relatively few in number. Small stones and
pebbles, however, frequently occur throughout the profile.
The typical profile of this group of soils may be recognized by a dark-brown to
black soft cloddy to faintly columnar surface layer (A) 5 to 9 inches in thickness, a
pale brown (B) with a weakly developed columnar structure, a weak brown (B2) of
blocky structure and containing considerable free lime. The parent material or C
horizon encountered at 20 inches consists of a dark-brown limy material arranged in
horizontal bands and containing varying quantities of rounded stones. This banding
nature suggests lacustrine origin, but the stones and topography are more suggestive
of glacial origin. The exact origin of these soils is therefore unknown, and therefore
they have been classed as glacial till soils modified somewhat by the action of water.
In many local areas a weak solonetzic profile is evident. Associated with this type
of soil-development is a grey-brown somewhat platy upper A and a leached A2. The
B horizon is tough, compact, and impervious. The development of these undesirable
features is associated with solonetz soils.
Closely associated with the black till soils and occurring in depressional areas are
small leached (podsolic) patches which have developed under a cover of trees in locations having relatively moist conditions. In cultivated fields these grey patches are
commonly seen occupying slight depressions, and have been termed " bluff " podsols to
distinguish them from the upland podsol soils.
In general these black glacial soils are quite fertile and productive. Soil drifting
on exposed knolls is frequently serious. Destructive water erosion (sheet and rill) in
many fields has reached an advanced state, and immediate control measures should be
initiated to prevent further damage to these highly fertile lands.
Shallow Black Soils developed on Lacustrine Deposits.—The soils belonging to this
association are of a clay texture and have developed on uniformly heavy lacustrine
deposits. The largest area of these soils occurs in the Rolla district. Smaller areas
are found along the margins of Pouce Coupe, Rolla, Saskatoon, and Dawson Creek
basins. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 17
The topography is dominantly level to undulating. Several rolling areas having
peculiar dune-shaped mounds occur in the vicinity of Doe River and Pouce Coupe Creek.
The origin of these formations is not known.
Drainage is variable, being adequate on the undulating lands and restricted on the
level and flat areas. Generally a shallow peaty surface is associated with the flat,
poorly drained areas.
Stones are rare or absent, except in the few localized areas where the clay has been
mapped as a complex with the glacial soils.
Soils of the Grey Wooded Zone (Podsol).
The soils belonging to the Grey Wooded Zone are characterized by light-grey (A2)
horizon just below the surface. The soils of this zone, although developed in much
the same climate as the black, are considerably lower in organic matter and nitrogen.
The main factor influencing the formation of these soils appears to be the effect of a
long-established forest-cover. Agriculturally the grey soils are inferior to the black
and therefore have been avoided to a certain extent by settlers.
Shalloiv Podsol Soils developed on Brown Glacial Till.—This association consists of
medium-textured soils developed on moderately heavy glacial till. These soils, in general, occur on the higher lands surrounding the black and on the slopes of the uplands
leading to the rough morainic areas south and east of Pouce Coupe.
The topography is typically rolling, ranging from gently to moderately rolling.
Drainage is extremely variable.    The uplands and crests of rolls are well drained,
but poorly drained and often peaty areas are common in the lowlands.
Stones are common, varying in size from pebbles to huge boulders.
A moderate to heavy stand of poplars appears to be characteristic of this type
of soil.
The profile represents a shallow podsolic type of soil formation. A brief description of the well-drained member is as follows:—
The Ax horizon is thin or absent; where present, it is a dark-grey colour with
a weak platy structure.
The A2 horizon is very striking in appearance, being a light-grey colour, a
loose platy structure, and a gritty feel.    It ranges from 4 to 6 inches in
thickness.
The B horizon is brown to brown-grey in colour, very compact, heavy in texture, and a coarse nutty structure.    Stones and pebbles are common in
this horizon.
The parent material consists of brown low-lime unassorted till containing
varying amounts of stones and pebbles.
Field observations of this soil-group seem to indicate that this is a fair agricultural
soil.    Its podsolized nature and poor physical condition are undesirable features.    Also
considerable heavy clearing has to be undertaken before this soil can be cultivated.
Considerably more information is required in regards to both its composition and agricultural adaptations.
Podsol Soils developed on Grey to Grey-brown Glacial Till.—This group of soils
consists chiefly of medium-textured types developed on glacial till and morainic deposits.
They occupy much of the rolling upland associated with the mountain slopes and foothills in the south-east portion of the area.
The topography varies from gently rolling and sloping to hilly.
Drainage is generally adequate, but under cultivation it may prove to be excessive
on the steeply sloping lands.    Numerous poorly drained bog and peat deposits are
associated with this soil-group.
Stones are generally quite numerous and may offer serious obstacles to cultivation. W 18 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
A heavy cover of poplar with some pine and spruce is characteristic. However, in
many cases recent fires have modified the original vegetative cover.
The profile, where not disturbed by fires or clearing, is characterized by a 2-inch
layer of moss, leaves, twigs, etc., in a partial state of decomposition (A0).
The A1 horizon is generally absent.
The A2 horizon is very highly leached and shows a well-developed platy structure
in the upper portion.    In depth this horizon varies from 6 to 12 inches.
The B horizon is brown to grey-brown in colour, very compact and heavy in texture.
The structure consists of hard angular fragments which grade into the massive stony
subsoil without any marked line of separation.
The parent material is a greyish unassorted till frequently containing many stones
and pebbles.    Lime is rarely encountered in the true parent material.
From the standpoint of soil-fertility, structure, topography, clearing of trees and
stones, these soils are among the poorer agricultural soils in the area. Little of this
type of soil has been cultivated, but it has been demonstrated that the fertility of this
soil can be greatly improved by suitable methods of cropping and manuring.
The least desirable of the soils belonging to this group are those having profiles
whose A2 extends below the plough depth. These highly leached soils are associated
largely with the rough stony lateral and terminal moraines, and have little agricultural
value under present conditions.
Podsolic Clay Soils on Heavy Lacustrine Deposits.—This soil consists of heavy-
textured soils developed upon clay to heavy clay lacustrine deposits. These soils are
associated with the black lacustrine soils and occur chiefly in the north-east section of
the area, in the vicinity of Doe River and Shearer Dale.
The topography consists of undulating and gently rolling areas. Bogs and peaty
areas are associated with the rolling phase.
Drainage is generally adequate, the flat areas generally showing evidence of poor
internal drainage. The peat and bog areas associated with this group are assumed to
be due to a period of poor drainage these soils went through at an earlier stage in their
development.
Stones are generally absent throughout the entire mapped area.
A heavy aspen and black poplar cover is associated with these soils.
The profile exhibits a shallow type of podsolic development somewhat similar to
brown till soils occupying the higher elevations.
In certain areas the profile exhibits a curious mixture of podsolic and solonetzic
development.
In wooded areas there is normally a mixed organic matter and dark mineral soil
on the surface (A0 and Ax) about 2 inches in thickness.
The A2 horizon, only moderately leached, varies from 4 to 6 inches in thickness and
has a platy-nutty type of structure.
The Bx horizon is a brown to dull-grey colour, hard and compact, and of a medium
blocky structure.
The B2 horizon is greyish-brown, slightly less compacted than the B1( and exhibits
considerable banding.    Lime is present in the lower portion of this horizon.
The parent material is a dark-grey to brown laminated clay streaked with lime
and salts.
Field crops and buildings observed on this soil-type are far superior to the other
podsolized soils in the mapped area. These soils are sufficiently leached to be classified
as podsols, and their potential fertility is lower than the nearly black lacustrine soils.
Under cultivation they have been chiefly used for grain-growing, and yields have been
low in general. Recently the production of alfalfa and clover seeds on these soils has
become increasingly important. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 19
Deep Podsol Soils on Sandy Alluvial Deposits.—This association includes the light-
textured soils developed upon alluvial sandy deposits, and they occur chiefly as narrow
inextensive belts along Doe Creek in Township 81, Ranges 14 and 15.
The topography is chiefly undulating. Near Doe River Post-office and in Township
81, Range 15, small areas of moderately to steeply sloping phases occur.
The drainage is good on the undulating phases, but inclined to be excessive on the
more sloping lands.
Stones are rarely encountered.
Tree cover consists of poplar with small amounts of pine. A large portion has
been burned over and is now covered with a scrubby second growth consisting mainly
of poplars and willows.
The profile, where not disturbed, is characterized by a 1- to 2-inch surface layer of
organic matter overlying a shallow grey-brown horizon of mixed mineral and organic
matter (Ax). The A2—a highly leached layer—extends to a depth of 6 or 8 inches, is
a light-grey colour, and has a platy structure. The B horizon is a light-brown, slightly
compacted, fine sandy loam. The parent material on C horizon is a moderate-brown
sand, less compact than the B above and generally laminated.
The above profile represents the alluvial fine sandy-loam type. This type has also
been mapped in combination with the lacustrine clay, and in one area occurs as a shallow mantle overlying glacial till.
In most cases this soil is moderately to severely leached. It lacks structure, and
is quite low in organic matter. The sandy texture and low moisture-holding capacity,
accompanied with the undesirable features mentioned above, indicate low native
fertility.
Podsol Soils developed on Modified Residual Deposits.—This group of soils consists
of sandy-loam and loamy-sand types occupying several elevated sand ridges in the Doe
River and Sweetwater districts. These soils are derived mainly from the weathering,
in place, of the consolidated sandstones which underlie a considerable portion of that
area.
The soil is thoroughly leached of the more soluble materials and is non-calcareous
throughout.
Only small areas of this type have been mapped and appear to have little agricultural value.
Organic Deposits.
Muskeg Soils.—The muskeg soils consist of several feet of raw and partially decomposed peat. They generally consist mainly of highly acid sphagnum mosses, and support a scrubby stand of shrubs and black spruce. Such soils are of extremely low agricultural value and of very limited distribution.
Shallow Peat Soils.—This group consists mainly of the half bog type of soil. They
have a surface layer of semi-decomposed peat underlain by a poorly drained mineral
soil. In most cases these peats are somewhat saline and support mainly a growth of
sedges and willows. In most cases the areas of shallow peat are too small to permit
separation on the map. W 20 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
DOMINION-PROVINCIAL FARM CONFERENCE.
At the agricultural conference held in Ottawa in early December of 1946, British
Columbia was represented by the Minister and Deputy Minister of Agriculture. These
meetings were under the chairmanship of A. M. Shaw, C.M.G., B.S.A., Chairman of the
Agricultural Supplies Board. The conference lasted three days, and the following
matters were fully discussed:—
(a.)  Grains, Forage-crops, and Feeds.
(b.) Live Stock, Meats, Wool, and Horses.
(c.)  Dairy Products.
(d.) Eggs and Poultry.
(e.)  Fruits and Vegetables, including Potatoes and Canning Crops, Maple
Products, and Honey.
(/.)  Dried Beans, Dried Peas, Husking Corn, Flax-seed, Rape-seed, Sunflower-
seed, Soy-beans, Sugar-beets, Fibre Crops, and Tobacco.
(g.)  Forage-crops and Vegetable-seeds.
Important factors affecting Canadian agricultural production were also dealt with
in detail by agricultural officials.
Of major importance to British Columbia was the suggestion that each Province
should pay attention to the production of increased quantities of flax or linseed. British
Columbia has not been doing her share in the growing of crops required in the production of high-protein meals. In.the past we have been largely dependent upon the
fishing industry for production of animal proteins, but in 1946 this source practically
failed. The growing of flax-seed for the manufacture of linseed-meal is of immediate
concern to many of our farmers. We urgently require more high-quality vegetable
proteins than we have at present. There are facilities available, in Vancouver and
elsewhere, that can be used for the extraction of linseed-oil and the manufacture of
oil-cake. The poultry and dairy industries demand such linseed-meal, and they will
require greater quantities for maximum production of eggs and milk.
The demand for high-protein feeds for live stock and poultry has been increasing
in recent years, and we have been repeatedly in short supply. The 1946 Canadian
production of 263,000 tons of vegetable proteins included 80,000 tons of linseed, 45,000
tons of soy-beans, 1,800 tons of sunflower-seed, and 1,500 tons of rape-seed. In addition,
there were approximately 33,000 tons of gluten-meal and 33,000 tons of alfalfa-meal.
Besides these there were many thousands of tons of brewers' and distillers' dried grains.
There were also about 15,000 tons of peanut cake and meal and 8,000 tons of copra-meal
imported. Of course, vegetable proteins make up only part of the protein diet of our
live stock. Canadian cattle, hogs, and poultry have, in 1946, consumed nearly 79,000
tons of animal proteins, chiefly the product of abattoirs and fish-reduction plants.
The total Canadian acreage under flax in 1946 was only 81 per cent, of the recommended 1,250,000 acres. Of this area, British Columbia is credited with a total of only
500 acres of flax, exclusive of the fibre flax which is grown in the Fraser Valley. The
Peace River and Central British Columbia had some fine crops of flax in 1946, but the
heaviest yields were recorded for the Creston district in the previous year. The seed-
flax yield, on the average, throughout Canada is reported to be only between 7 and 8
bushels to the acre. On account of the low Canadian yield and the fact that our British
Columbia acreage was below our 1943-45 average, Ottawa has asked that we increase
the growing of flax in 1947 to at least 2,000 acres. It should be possible for the Peace
River, Central British Columbia, and the East Kootenay, particularly, to take a definite
interest in increasing their acreages.
Flax is a fairly good crop to grow on well-prepared breaking, and it may be that we
can, with profit, advocate its production on lands that will be cleared, broken, and DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 21
thoroughly tilled early in the coming spring. The total Canadian requirement is for
the crop of flax-seed from 1,500,000 acres, so British Columbia's proportion of this area
is being set very low when we ask for a crop of 2,000 acres. I would much prefer to see
the flax area extended to 5,000 acres, and this would yield, perhaps, an average of 15
bushels per acre, with many fields going as high as 20 or 25 bushels. This would ensure
vegetable protein being turned out by our processing plants at a rate that would, at least
in part, supply our protein-feed requirements.
Our Province has dropped out of the growing of soy-beans since 1943, but while in
Ottawa we learned that a new variety of soy-bean, the Earliana, is producing well under
climatic conditions prevailing in the vicinity of Toronto. Our experience in British
Columbia with such varieties as Kabott, Minsoy, Pagoda, and Mandarin was not very
encouraging, but the Earliana may have possibilities. At farmers' meetings in some
districts it may be well to suggest that the growing of flax will help out in the protein-
feed shortage, but in such sections as the Okanagan, Grand Forks, and Kamloops
districts, and the Lower Fraser Valley it will be well to stress the advisability of once
more growing soy-beans, in an experimental way at least.
In the Prairie Provinces some progress has been made with the production of
rape-seed and sunflower-seed, there having been 26,500 acres of the former and 20,712
acres of the latter produced in 1946. We do not think that British Columbia would be
well advised to attempt the production of either of these oil-seed crops, although Canada
is asking for 28,000 acres of sunflower-seed to be produced in 1947. Rape-seed is
undesirable on British Columbia farms, and sunflowers do not mature well in some
localities.
It was recommended at the Dominion-Provincial Conference that the Canadian
Government should retain the present policy of paying the freight from the Prairie
Provinces on feed-grains to the farmers of Eastern Canada and of British Columbia.
The amount paid in freight assistance for British Columbia from November 18th, 1941,
to March 31st, 1946, covered 971,505 tons at an average rate per ton of $6.40, making
a total of $6,221,672 on feed-grains and mill-feeds to this Province alone. In requesting
that this same policy remain in force, it was with the understanding that any encouragement being given to the barley-growers of Canada would be extended only to farmers
of the Prairie Provinces (which includes both the Peace River Block and the East
Kootenay, which come under the control of the Canadian Wheat Board).
You will note from the following list that an increase in barley production for
1947 is being asked in place of the 6,730,500 acres grown in 1946. Canada is asking
for at least 8,000,000 acres of barley in 1947. This production will mainly take place
in the Prairie Provinces. In order to place the production of barley on an equal footing
with wheat, it has been suggested that a bonus be paid to the growers of barley in 1947. W 22
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The following is a summary of agricultural recommendations for 1947:—
Unit.
1946
Production.
1947 Recommendation.
1947 Per-
centage of
1946 Yield.
Grain and field crops—
Wheat	
Ac.
Ac.
Ac.
Ac.
Ac.
Ac.
Ac.
Ac.
Ac.
No.
No.
No.
No.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Doz.
Lb.
Ac.
Ac.
Ac.
Ac.
Ac.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
25,900,000
13,162,700
6,730,500
1,399,300
246,500
518,000
10,223,000
1,540,400
520,600
4,350,000
1,720,000
770,000
1,275,000
16,910,000,000
270,100,000
139,775,000
193,000,000
30,000,000
14,500,000
40,000,000
345,000,000
315,000,000
59,200
1,008,500
91,700
125,200
15,840
7,712,000
4,097,000
8,855,000
8,423,000
13,352,000
24,000,000
14,310,200
8,000,000
1,453,400
265,000
487,100
10,223,000
1,540,400
516,000
5,175,000
1,720,000
770,000
1,100,000
17,893,000,000
295,000,000
183,000,000
201,600,000
30,000,000
14,500,000
40,000,000
378,500,000
315,000,000
60,000
1,500,000
96,400
125,200
21,000
12,000,000
7,000,000
10,000,000
8,000,000
15,000,000
93
Oats            	
109
119
104
107
Eye	
94
100
Alfalfa hay	
100
Potatoes	
Meat animals (marketings) —
99
119
Cattle    	
100
100
90
Dairy products—
Milk (total)                            	
106
109
131
104
100
100
100
Eggs and poultry—
110
100
Oil-seed crops—
101
149
Other crops—
105
100
133
Seed crops—
156
171
113
95
112
STAFF CHANGES.
Appointments to the Provincial agricultural staff in 1946 included the following:—
January 1—E. J. Raven, Clerk; T. Moore, Brand Inspector; Mrs. F. B. Colton,
Stenographer (formerly casual labour) ; Miss J. S. Hamilton, Stenographer (formerly casual labour).
February 11—J. S. Wells, Clerk (reinstatement).
March 1—Mrs. M. T. McAloney, Stenographer.
March 13—Miss F. E. Clegg, Stenographer.
March 18—W. H. Pope, Poultry Inspector.
April 1—A. E. Donald, B.S.A., District Agriculturist; G. C. Axen, B.S.A.,
District Agriculturist; Mrs. S. E. Gummow, Supervisor, Women's Institutes; Miss E. L. Lidster, B.S.A., Supervisor, Boys' and Girls' Clubs
(formerly Assistant District Agriculturist, casual) ; Miss H. M. Oulton,
Stenographer; Mrs. L. V. Frasier, Stenographer (formerly casual labour).
April 13—T. G. J. Whitehead, Clerk.
May 2—Miss G. H. Gagne, Stenographer. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 23
May 19—A. W. Watt, B.S.A., District Field Inspector.
June 15—D. S. Gibbons, B.S.A., District Agriculturist.
June 27—J. C. Bankier, B.V.Sc, Animal Pathologist and Veterinary Inspector.
July 1—Mrs. I. M. Miller, Secretary (casual labour from June 6th).
July 1—N. F. Putnam, M.Sc, Assistant Field Crops Commissioner.
July 4—Miss B. Chisholm, Messenger.
August 1—G. D. Johnson, Dairy Inspector;   K. R. Jameson, B.S.A., District
Agriculturist.
August 15—J. L. G. Gray, B.S.A., District Agriculturist.
September 1—M. P. D. Trumpour, B.S.A., District Field Inspector.
September 9—Miss P. K. Westman, Stenographer.
September 11—Miss K. Norris, Stenographer.
September 23—Miss J. I. Trehearne, Stenographer.
October 14—H. A. Davie, Clerk.
October 15—Miss P. H. Bellamy, Stenographer (part time).
October 29—Miss E. Nicholls, Stenographer (part time).
November 12—Mrs. J. Palmer, Stenographer.
November 18—W. L. Reynolds, Clerk.
Transfers.—James Travis, who for a number of years has served as District
Agriculturist, was transferred from the Grand Forks District and promoted to fill the
position of Field Crops Commissioner, rendered vacant by the death of S. S. Phillips.
F. C. Wasson, M.S.A., who has served the Department for the past twenty-three
years as Dairy Inspector, was appointed on April 1st to fill the position of Dairy
Commissioner, replacing the late Henry Rive, who died on March 13th, 1946.
Also on April 1st L. W. Johnson was promoted to the office of Superintendent of
Farmers' Institutes from chief clerk in the general office of the Department of
Agriculture.
G. L. Landon, B.S.A., who for many years has served the Department as District
Agriculturist in various parts of the Province, was promoted to Poultry Commissioner,
replacing J. R. Terry, who has retired on superannuation.
The following are additional transfers: E. J. Raven from general office to Land
Registry Office, March 6th; Miss R. Bertschi from Government Agency at Prince
George to District Agriculturist's office at Prince George, April 14th; Miss D. V. Smith
from general office to Markets Branch, September 1st; Mrs. E. W. Baardsen from
Markets Branch to Milk Board, September 1st; Miss E. M. Bell from Live Stock Branch
to Women's Institutes, October 1st.
In the Live Stock Branch, following the retirement of Dr. A. Knight, Dr. W. R.
Gunn has been named Chief Veterinary Inspector and now directs the activities of the
veterinarians as well as ocher live-stock officials.
We have to record the death on March 13th of Henry Rive, B.S.A., who had served
the Department of Agriculture since April, 1911. He had charge of all dairy-work over
a long period and was instrumental in the creation of various Departmental activities,
including field crop improvement and junior judging contests.
Resignations.—Miss A. F. Radcliffe, Stenographer, January 31st; Mrs. D. C.
Masse, Stenographer, March 16; Mrs. Y. Eaton, Stenographer, March 31st; Miss D. M.
Newman, Secretary, June 30th; J. E. Manning, District Agriculturist, June 30th;
Miss B. Chisholm, Messenger, August 31st; Miss W. Laitinen, Stenographer, September 7th; Miss K. Norris, Stenographer, September 26th; Mrs. F. B. Colton, Stenographer, October 22nd; T. Menzies, Clerk, general office, October 31st; W. L. Reynolds,
Clerk, December 31st. W 24 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Superannuated—R. Cahilty, Brand Inspector, February 28th; J. R. Terry, Poultry
Commissioner, May 31st; J. Tait, District Field Inspector, July 31st; G. L. Foulkes,
Clerk, Horticultural Branch, August 31st; Mrs. V. S. McLachlan, Superintendent of
Women's Institutes, March 31st; A. Knight, B.V.Sc, V.S., Chief Veterinary Inspector,
September 30th; A. H. Shotbolt, Exhibition Specialist, September 30th; Walter
Sandall, Field Inspector, Vancouver, September 30th; Miss H. Leighton, Clerk-
Stenographer, October 31st.
For the past seven years E. J. Chambers, M.B.E., Administrator of Fresh Fruits
and Vegetables for British Columbia, has served the Department of Agriculture on the
Agricultural Advisory Committee of the Canadian Federation of Agriculture at
Ottawa. The services rendered by Mr. Chambers have been very much appreciated,
and it was with regret that he resigned this appointment in the early autumn.
The Honourable Frank Putnam has nominated Dr. J. B. Munro, M.B.E., as his
successor, and in a communication recently received from the Honourable J. G. Gardiner, P.C, he intimates that this recommendation has been accepted and that Dr. Munro
has been appointed on the Agricultural Advisory Committee of the Canadian Federation of Agriculture, replacing E. J. Chambers, M.B.E.
KOCH TREATMENTS.
Since the close of the Government's Koch treatment investigation, which was reported on pages 20 to 25 of the Fortieth Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture, it appears that a considerable number of veterinarians within this Province are
using the Koch (glyoxylide) treatment with satisfactory results. The recent reduction
in cost of the glyoxylide has enabled many dairy-cattle owners to subject their whole
herds to the treatment.
During the season of 1946 a fair-sized herd on Vancouver Island was losing young
heifers at the time of first calving. The trouble was diagnosed as Johne's disease, and
a concentration of infection was found in this isolated herd that had sustained many
losses; however, for a period of some few months there were no deaths in the herd,
then four cases broke out in raflid succession during the spring. This trouble was
brought to the attention of Dr. W. R. Gunn, Live Stock Commissioner, who, at the
request of the owner, inoculated all animals in the herd and one week later reinoculated
the four animals which showed clinical symptoms of Johne's disease, using the Koch
treatment. The suffering of the animals with the scouring was stopped immediately,
and the herd has continued to make steady improvement ever since. However, this
herd is being watched with a view to ascertaining what the condition may be in the
coming spring.    The general tone of the herd has been greatly improved.
IMPORTED AND EXPORTED PLANT PRODUCTS.
This report covers data relating to imported nursery stock, exported nursery stock,
exported plant products, and interprovincial nursery stock from all points east of Manitoba.    The imported plant products will be reported elsewhere.
There has been an increase in the total number of nursery stock imports during the
last year in shipments, volume, and value. The increase in volume is chiefly in fruit-
trees, small fruits, ornamentals, roses, fruit seedlings, perennial roots, bulbs, aquatic
plants, peach-pits. A decrease has occurred in ornamental seedlings, plants, scions,
and rose-eyes.
The exports of nursery stock for the past year to sixteen countries again are almost
double those of the year previous, increases being almost ten times in bulbs, fifty times
in roses, three times in fruit-trees, fifty times in small fruits, and four times in perennial roots, double the amount of vegetable-seed to Russia and approximately six times DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 25
in total value.    There was a very great decrease in fruit seedlings, and no spruce-cones
were exported.
Interprovincial shipments from points east of Manitoba have increased about 40
per cent, in quantity and about one-third in value over the previous year. The total
quantity is about 40 per cent, more than last year. The greatest increase has been in
small fruits, ornamentals, roses, roots, and bulbs.
Surveys.
A check survey of the Lower Fraser Valley for the pear-psylla (Psylla pyricola
Foerst) was carried out by W. D. Touzeau and W. E. Woods as a co-operative arrangement between our Division and the United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau
of Entomology and Plant Quarantine.
The San Jose and European fruit-scale surveys were continued in the Okanagan, in
the packing-houses at Kelowna, Oliver, Osoyoos, and Keremeos, by a staff of temporary
employees under the supervision of H. F. Olds, financed co-operatively by the fruitgrowers, the Provincial and Federal Departments of Agriculture.
W. D. Touzeau and W. E. Woods spent the major portion of the summer and fall in
the Okanagan on a survey for the Oriental fruit-moth. The districts surveyed were
Osoyoos, Oliver, Keremeos, and as far north as Penticton.
Grain-elevators and storage-warehouses in the Vancouver area were given routine
inspections.
Items op Interest.
The shipments of bulbs from the Netherlands were seriously delayed this year due
to unloading errors at Montreal and other ports. Shipments were mixed and sent to
incorrect destinations before being rerouted to British Columbia. As during last year,
parts of shipments consigned to firms in Eastern Canada were cleared in Montreal or
Toronto and then shipped to British Columbia as free goods (see note under Interprovincial Shipments). Again certain shipments of bulbs for points in British Columbia were cleared and inspected in Montreal, these not being recorded at this office.
By special permission of the Customs, soldiers in Holland and England were allowed
to ship parcels of bulbs to Canada without Customs entry. These were recorded as so
many parcels only by this office. All bulbs were from the Netherlands—220 mailed in
Holland, 4 in England.
A shipment of holly-trees from the Netherlands was allowed into the nursery, subject to treatment for tar-spot and scale.
There were no spruce-cones shipped from the Queen Charlotte Islands to Washington this year.
Nuts from Spain, Brazil, India, and Nigeria have been arriving in considerable
quantities. Storage insect pests were found frequently, and the shipments were fumigated at the Johnston National Storage warehouse, the largest being 16,800 bags of
peanuts from Nigeria weighing 136,000 lb. One shipment of 431 cases of walnuts from
India was so badly infested with Tribolium and saw-tooth grain-beetles that the Food
and Drug Department condemned the lot and it was destroyed.
During the winter months of the 1945-46 season sixty-six cars of table-stock potatoes from California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, Oregon, and Washington were found to be infected with bacterial ring-rot. Two cars were returned to
Idaho and one to Washington. The remaining car-loads were disposed of in various
ways, but only where seed-potatoes were not grown, the outlets being chiefly to deep-sea
ships' stores, hotels, institutions, and out-of-town camps.
In June twenty crates of plums from Seattle were discovered to be infested with an
unknown insect larva.    These were returned to the shipper. W 26 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
During the past year several shipments of fruit were refused entry from California, Oregon, and Washington because there was no certificate stating that they were
free from the Oriental fruit-moth.    These were as follows:—
Apple:  Oregon, 1;  Washington, 2.
Peach:  California, 3; Washington, 2.
Pear: California, 6.
One case of apples was returned to Washington and one case of pears was returned
to California.    The balance of the shipments was destroyed under Customs supervision.
The first shipment from Hongkong since the war arrived in Vancouver January
24th, 1946, consisting of 12 lb. of melon-seeds.
Four car-loads of mixed feed-oats, weighing 340,000 lb., were shipped during the
summer to Puerto Rico.
Rice from Arkansas and California has arrived at the Canada Rice Mills in considerable volume, the bulk of the shipments being consigned to the Oriental trade within
Canada.
Shipping News.
For the year ended November 30th, 1946, 1,536 deep-sea and coastwise vessels
docked at Vancouver. Of this number, two brought nursery stock and fifteen brought
plant products as part of their cargo. This represents an increase of boats arriving
and of shipments.
Passengers' Baggage.
Three passengers via the Great Northern Railway brought in twenty assorted
plants.    These were released after inspection.
Imported Nursery Stock.
The following table covers the period from December 1st, 1945, to November 30th,
1946:—
Fruit-trees   33,889
Small fruits   346,828
Ornamental trees and shrubs  33,276
Roses  35,694
Fruit seedlings  329,750
Ornamental seedlings  9,550
Plants  1,325,605
Roots   272,656
Bulbs  4 bu. 2 pk. 6 qt. 2% pt. and 3,868,244
Scions—
Fruit   78
Ornamental   185
Rose    912
Aquatic plants  833
Total  4 bu. 2 pk. 6 qt. 2V2 pt. and 6,257,500
Miscellaneous.
Rose-eyes   6,825
Peach-pits   1,161,091
Hazelnuts   6
Redwood-burl  1
Cranberry-cuttings lb. 1,400
Aquatic seed  2 bu. and lb. 61 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 27
Inspections  1,077
Containers  5,194
Value  $171,386.08
The countries of origin for the importations were: Alaska, Australia, Belgium,
Bermuda, Eire, England, France, India, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Northern
Ireland, Scotland, the United States of America, Venezuela.
Interprovincial Nursery Stock.
The following table includes shipments from Canadian Provinces east of Manitoba.
The shipments from the Prairie Provinces have been inspected by the staff of the Provincial Department of Agriculture.
Total shipments to British Columbia for the year December 1st, 1945, to November 30th, 1946 :—
Fruit-trees   937
Small fruits   14,485
Ornamental trees and shrubs  3,426
Rose-bushes*   4,821
Fruit seedlings  5,190
Ornamental seedlings  113
Plants  7,132
Roots  7,169
Bulbs* 3 pk. 1 qt. and 1,395,545
Scions     101
Asparagus-roots   3,859
Horseradish-roots  139
Rhubarb-roots   157
Vegetable plants  2,008
Potato-eyes   25
Onion-sets   1,600
Total  3 pk. 1 qt. and 1,446,707
Total shipments   2,293
Containers  5,880
Value  $33,028.83
* Included in the above are bulbs from Bermuda, bulbs and rose-bushes from Holland, and one rose-bush from
England. These were cleared at eastern ports and shipped west as free goods: Bermuda—1 shipment, 1 container,
430 bulbs, value $47.10 ; England—1 shipment, 1 container, 1 rose-bush, value $2 ; Holland—1 shipment, 1 container,
230 rose-bushes, value $96.60, and 65 shipments, 85 containers, 50,265 bulbs, value $1,753.80 ; totals—68 shipments,
88 containers, 50,926 bulbs and rose-bushes, value $1,899.50.
Interceptions.—Seven daffodil bulbs for soft-rot; 1 gladiolus corm for hard-rot;
33 peony corms for soft-rot, dry-rot; 16 tulip bulbs for Botrytis; 1 cherry-tree for
root-gall.
Prohibited Entry into British Columbia.—Regulation No. 3 Domestic: Five-needle
pine, 1.
Regulation No. 5 Domestic:  Hazel-trees, 2;  filbert-trees, 6.
Regulation No. 6 Domestic:  Peach-trees, 2.
Interceptions, Nursery Stock, 194-5-46.—Fifteen apple-trees for hairy-root, root-
gall; 1 cherry-tree for root-gall; 1 Malus tree for root-gall; 7 peach-trees for root-
gall; 32 pear-trees for root-gall; 8 plum-trees for root-gall; 7 prune-trees for root-
gall; 1 Prunus tree for root-gall; 5,000 anemone for Teeneid larvae (storage insect) ;
27 begonia for soft-rot;   1,360 crocus for hard-rot, mites;   65 daffodil for basal rot, W 28 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
bulb-fly; 15 Erythronium for soft-rot; 5 Fritillaria for soft-rot; 97 Galanthus for
basal rot; 158 gladiolus for hard-rot, scab; 340 hyacinth for soft-rot, yellows; 250 iris
for basal rot, Penicillium mould; 10 lily for lesser bulb-fly; 86 Muscari for basal rot;
438 narcissus for basal rot, dry-rot, soft-rot, bulb-fly; 32 Oxalis for soft-rot; 168 Scilla
for basal rot, soft-rot, Penicillium mould; 769 tulip for fire, chalk-rot, hard-rot, Penicillium mould, scald.
PRAIRIE FARM REHABILITATION ACT.
This Federal Act has been in operation in other Western Canadian Provinces in
recent years, but an effort has been made to extend its operation to British Columbia.
In this connection the Minister of Agriculture visited Ottawa in May, 1946, and
discussed possible plans. Since that time, under Federal supervision, work has been
commenced in the Pemberton Meadows district of British Columbia, and it is hoped
that an area of several thousand acres may shortly be reclaimed from annual inundation
by high spring floods. The Pemberton Meadows district contains some excellent land
and offers possibilities for mixed farming and dairying.
BROOD DISEASES OF BEES.
When the Provincial Apiarist learned of the experimental work initiated by
Professor Leonard Haseman, of the Department of Entomology, University of Missouri,
using sulpha drugs for controlling American foul-brood several years ago, we were
frankly skeptical of the results reported. However, the Missouri Bulletin No. 482
was obtained and the suggestions for using 0.5 gram of sulphathiozole to each gallon
of sugar syrup fed to bees was followed.
During the present season W. H. Turnbull, Assistant Provincial Apiarist, has
intimated that several of our bee Inspectors are convinced that sulphathiozole, when
used under supervision, gives promise of benefit to the bee-keeping industry. He points
out that it is not advisable to completely discard our fire method of dealing with severe
cases of American foul-brood and indicates that all brood diseases of bees may not
be controlled by the use of sulpha drugs. However, when package bees are so costly,
he has made available to many commercial bee-keepers tablets of sulphathiozole and
has given them instructions regarding its use.
In other Provinces and in many of the States bee-keepers have received new hopes
that their heavy losses of bees may be a thing of the past because several sulpha drugs
other than sulphathiozole are being found useful in combating American foul-brood
diseases. It is yet too soon to make a definite announcement regarding the new
treatment of brood diseases, but we are encouraged by the response to 0.5 gram of
sulphathiozole to the gallon of sugar syrup used as feed for a diseased colony; and it
is hoped that the many experimental colonies thus treated in the fall will come through
the winter in good condition.
KING'S DOMINION DAY HONOURS.
The King's honours list, naming many Canadians for outstanding contribution
during the war years, included numerous agriculturists, some of whom have been
instrumental in assisting to maintain British Columbia's place among agricultural
producing sections of the Dominion. Among those in British Columbia receiving
awards were the following:—
Eric W. Hamber, former Lieutenant-Governor and now Chancellor of the University of British Columbia, was made a Companion of the Order of St. Michael and
St. George, as were also William A. McAdam, British Columbia's Agent-General in
London, England, formerly of Victoria, and Dr. Norman A. McKenzie, President of DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 29
the University of British Columbia. Commanders of the Order of the British Empire
are Mrs. Phyllis Ross, formerly Mrs. Phyllis Turner, Administrator of Fats and Oils
for the Wartime Prices and Trade Board, Vancouver; Christopher Spencer and Austin
C. Taylor, of Vancouver, were likewise honoured.
Officers of the Order of the British Empire included Captain G. R. Bates, formerly
of Courtenay; Dr. William J. Knox, of Kelowna; Dr. G. M. Shrum, University of
British Columbia, Vancouver; and William H. Malkin, Vancouver, while P. de N.
Walker, Deputy Provincial Secretary for nearly forty years, was made a Companion
of the Imperial Service Order.
Among the Members of the British Empire in the Dominion Day honours list were
Edward J. Chambers, Administrator of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables, Vernon; Joseph
C. Child, Vancouver; Hugh Dalton, Vancouver; Cyril Heady, Cloverdale; David B.
Johnstone, Kamloops; Francis E. Leach, Chief Inspector of Explosives, Vancouver;
Arthur K. Lloyd, General Manager B.C. Tree Fruits, Kelowna; Dr. J. B. Munro,
Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Victoria; K. K. Reid, New Westminster; Frederick
Smelts, Vancouver; John B. Sutherland, of the Wartime Prices and Trade Board,
Vancouver;  and Frederick W. Taylor, Vancouver.
There were many other individuals named among those honoured in the July 1st
civil honours list, and most of them are interested in agriculture, although perhaps not
directly concerned with agricultural practice.
WARBLE-FLY CONTROL.
During the year 1946 a total of 4,950 lb. of 4-per-cent. derris powder, which
included all stocks then in storage at the Government Fumigation Station, was released
to Rotox, Limited, of Vancouver, where it was prepared according to formula, packeted,
and shipped as instructed to various parts of British Columbia in quantities based
upon the number of animals to be treated. All parcels were shipped from the warehouses of Rotox, Limited, 1624 Third Avenue West, Vancouver, by freight, express,
and parcel post. Total amount contained in these consignments was as follows: 2,656
lb. 4-per-cent. derris powder and 4,661 lb. prepared warble-wash.
Stocks of derris powder 4-per-cent. were replenished April 15th, 1946, from which
none has been withdrawn to date; 7,000 lb. to the account of the Live Stock Branch
and 1,000 lb. to the account of the Horticultural Branch is stored at the Government
Fumigation Station.
DEPARTMENTAL PUBLICATIONS.
During the last twelve months this Branch has received some 5,000 letters requesting bulletins, circulars, and general information on agriculture. We have, during this
period, distributed by request over 45,000 bulletins and circulars together with 129,498
mimeographed stencils on various subjects of agriculture. To date this office has
requisitioned for reprint and revision 66,800 publications.
The following is a list of revised and new publications:—•
Fortieth Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture, 1945.
Statistics Report, 1945.
Climate Report, 1945.
Horticultural Circular No. 33: The Strawberry-root Weevil.
Horticultural Circular No. 36: The Onion-thrips.
Horticultural Circular No. 42: Top-working of Fruit-trees.
Horticultural Circular No. 53: Selections of Orchard Sites and Soils.
Horticultural Circular No. 55: Raspberry Culture.
Horticultural Circular No. 56: Currant and Gooseberry Culture. W 30 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Horticultural Circular No. 57: Blackberry Culture.
Horticultural Circular No. 60: Pruning Fruit-trees.
Horticultural Circular No. 62: Planting Plans and Distances.
Horticultural Circular No. 66: Fire-blight.
Horticultural Circular No. 71:  Insecticidal Dusts, their Preparation and Use
as Insecticides.
Horticultural Circular No. 73: Diseases of Fruit-trees.
Control of Tree-fruit Pests and Diseases Chart.
Orchard Survey Chart of Kootenay District.
Orchard Survey Chart of Okanagan District.
Field Crops and Garden Spray Calendar.
Field Crops Circular No. 5: Peat and Muck Soils.
Field Crops Circular No. 10: Cereal Smuts.
Field Crops Circular No. 11: Soil-fertility.
Field Crops Circular No. 13:  Soiling and Annual Forage Crops.
Field Crops Circular No. 16: Growing Alfalfa for Feed.
Circular No. 2: Vancouver and Gulf Islands.
Circular No. 53:  Feeding of Farm Live Stock in British Columbia.
List of Publications, 1946.
A list of publications may be obtained upon request to this Branch.
REPORT OF STATISTICIAN.
G. H. Stewart, Statistician.
A synopsis of agricultural conditions in British Columbia for the year 1945 is given
because it is still too early to more than estimate the value of the current year's
production. The total gross value of agricultural production in British Columbia for
1945 was the highest ever recorded. Estimated at $103,679,430, the 1945 total is
$6,148,314 or 6.3 per cent, above the revised estimate of $97,531,116 for 1944 and
$54,277,419 or 109.8 per cent, over 1939, the year immediately prior to the war.
Increases were recorded in the revenue from eggs, poultry meat, dairy products,
fodders, potatoes, seeds, fur-farming, cattle and calves, sheep and lambs, vegetables,
and tree-fruits other than apples. These increases are in part offset by decreases
shown in the revenue from hogs, apples, grains, honey, wool, and hops.
The total value of imports is placed at $43,564,551, as compared with $40,549,141
in 1944, an increase of $3,015,410 or 7.4 per cent. The gain in imports was particularly
marked in the case of live stock and feed-grains.
Imports from other Provinces are valued at $40,439,685, compared with $38,650,198
in 1944, while imports from foreign points increased from $1,898,943 in 1944 to
$3,124,866 in 1945.
The total value of exports is placed at $28,152,502. The 1945 values are the
highest ever recorded and exceed the total of the previous year by $390,048.
HORTICULTURAL CONDITIONS.
Climatic conditions during the year 1945 were, on the whole, most satisfactory.
The winter period in the Coast areas was mild with heavy rains in some sections, resulting in the flooding of low-lying lands. In the Interior the weather was moderate, with
no extremes of temperature. Snowfall was light and carried a high moisture content,
which helped to fill irrigation reservoirs.    The spring in all sections was cool and DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 31
backward, and while the blossoming period was about the same as last year, the
continued cool weather delayed the ripening of small fruits in Coastal sections and
the setting-out of such crops as tomatoes in the Interior.
Fine and, in the Interior, particularly warm weather prevailed during the summer
months. This was, for the most part, continuous until about the middle of October
and was marked by low precipitation. In the Okanagan and Kootenay Districts rain
was general, with some snowfall during the early part of November. While no
extremely low temperatures were recorded, the thermometer in some Interior fruit
areas did drop to slightly above zero.
FRUITS.
Following the peak year of 1944, the 1945 apple-crop showed a considerable
reduction. Plums and apricots also showed a decrease. On the other hand, pears,
peaches, prunes, and cherries showed an increase, this being particularly noticeable
in the case of peaches. The peach-crop was the largest ever recorded, and if extremely
hot weather during the early part of the season had not reduced the size of the fruit,
the total crop would have been much heavier.
Strawberries, raspberries, and blackberries showed a material increase over the
1944 crop, with but little change in production from that of the previous year in so
far as loganberries and other small fruits were concerned. Based upon the 1945
demand and plantings which have been made during the past two years, the prospects
are for an increased production in 1946, particularly of strawberries and raspberries.
The total production of all fruits in 1945 amounted to 361,880,000 lb., valued at
$20,167,446, as compared with 475,894,000 lb., valued at $21,731,311, in 1944, indicating
a decrease of 114,014,000 lb. or 23.9 per cent, in volume and $1,563,865 or 7.2 per cent,
in value.
The total production of commercial apples for 1945 is estimated at 246,118,000 lb.,
of a value of $10,365,128, as compared with 375,046,000 lb., value $13,983,758, in 1944.
The 1945 pear-crop is estimated at 25,742,000 lb., as compared with 24,588,000 lb.
in 1944.    This crop is the largest ever produced in the Province.
Production of prunes in 1945 amounted to 17,056,000 lb. This crop also is the
largest ever produced in the Province. Of the other fruits, the estimated commercial
production and value for 1945 are as follows, with corresponding figures for 1944
placed within brackets: Plums, 3,544,000 lb., $192,215 (5,172,000, $285,908) ; peaches,
32,782,000 lb., $1,845,365 (26,208,000, $1,609,788) ; apricots, 4,358,000 lb., $319,071
(7,286,000, $488,647) ; cherries, 9,804,000 lb., $1,415,105 (7,268,000, $1,084,663) ;
strawberries, 6,888,000 lb., $1,645,627 (4,356,000, $701,803) ; raspberries, 9,330,000 lb.,
$1,422,222 (6,810,000, $1,033,847) ; blackberries, 1,174,000 lb., $117,640 (1,146,000,
$108,479) ; loganberries, 1,446,000 lb., $179,765 (1,660,000, $195,649) ; bush-fruits,
3,394,000 lb., $207,379 (3,978,000, $226,690).
VEGETABLES.
Vegetable acreage shows very little change from that of the previous year. While
there is little difference between the 1944 and 1945 acreages planted to tomatoes, the
late plantings of this crop necessitated by spring conditions considerably hampered
the development of the plants. Production was also curtailed in some districts by
early frosts. The tonnage of onions produced was about the same as in 1944. While
the spring was backward, the growing season generally was good and harvesting
conditions excellent.
Lettuce and celery crops were satisfactory, although the early crops were a little
later than usual. Some loss was incurred in certain districts from early November
frosts. W 32 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Greenhouse production of vegetables shows little change from that of the previous
year.
The aggregate of all vegetable-crops for the year 1945 was 96,102 tons, of a value
of $6,593,990, as compared with 95,735 tons, of a value of $6,251,792, produced in 1944.
The production of forced rhubarb is estimated at 88 tons, of a value of $21,360,
as compared with 18 tons, valued at $4,320, in 1944.
A decrease of 20 tons is recorded in the quantity of field rhubarb produced. The
1945 crop amounted to 1,145 tons, valued at $75,704.
The quantity of field cucumbers produced in 1945 is estimated at 2,543 tons, as
compared with 2,373 tons in 1944.
Field tomatoes produced amounted to 21,682 tons, as against 23,454 tons in 1944—
a decrease of 1,772 tons.
The production of hothouse tomatoes in 1945 amounted to 1,965 tons, valued at
$735,696, as compared with 1,882 tons, valued at $823,672, in 1944.
The following vegetable-crops showed an increase in production over the previous
year: Cabbage, cantaloupes, cauliflower, carrots, lettuce, and turnips. On the other
hand, asparagus, beans, beets, celery, and corn showed a decrease.
FIELD CROPS.
The winter of 1944-45 was comparatively mild in all sections of the Province, with
no extremes of temperature. A cool spell in June retarded development, but this
set-back did not last long, and the summer period was relatively favourable. In the
middle of August the weather was warm and dry, resulting in lighter yields of some
of the grain-crops. When harvesting got under way, it was apparent that yields were
somewhat below those of the 1944 season, but that the quality of most products was
high.
The production of all grains amounted to 7,028,000 bushels, valued at $5,391,000,
as compared to the 1944 production of 7,422,000 bushels, valued at $5,590,000.
Wheat production in 1945 is estimated at 2,544,000 bushels from 106,000 acres,
a yield per acre of 24 bushels, as compared with 2,530,000 bushels from 97,300 acres,
or 26 bushels per acre, in 1944. Oats yielded 3,563,000 bushels from 79,000 acres, as
compared with 3,701,000 bushels from 76,300 acres in 1944—yields per acre of 45.1
bushels and 48.5 bushels respectively. The yield of barley is estimated at 523,000
bushels from 16,500 acres, as compared with 683,000 bushels from 19,900 acres in 1944,
the average yields per acre being 31.7 bushels and 34.3 bushels. Rye is estimated to
have yielded 24,000 bushels from 1,200 acres, as compared with 24,000 bushels from
1,100 acres in 1944—yields per acre of 20.1 bushels and 21.5 bushels respectively. The
production of mixed grains is estimated at 196,000 bushels from 5,300 acres, or 37
bushels per acre, as compared with 255,000 bushels from 6,500 acres, or 39.2 bushels
per acre, in 1944. The production of dry peas was down from that of the previous
year.
The production of all fodders in 1945 amounted to 811,000 tons, valued at
$13,877,000, as compared with 742,000 tons, valued at $12,578,000, produced in 1944.
Hay and clover production in 1945 amounted to 490,000 tons from 231,000 acres,
or 2.12 tons per acre, as compared with 424,000 tons from 223,000 acres, or 1.90 tons
per acre, in 1944. Alfalfa yielded 203,000 tons from 72,500 acres, or 2.80 tons per
acre, as compared with 202,000 tons from 76,000 acres, or 2.66 tons per acre, in 1944.
Fodder-corn yielded 47,000 tons from 4,500 acres, or 10.50 tons per acre, as compared
with 51,000 tons from 4,700 acres, or 10.75 tons per acre, in 1944. Grain-hay is
estimated to have yielded 71,000 tons from 34,000 acres, as compared with 65,000 tons
from 32,500 acres in 1944—yields per acre of 2.10 tons and 2 tons respectively. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 33
The total yield of potatoes in 1945 was 81,700 tons from 16,500 acres, as compared
with 95,200 tons from 17,000 acres in 1944, the respective yields being 4.95 tons and
5.60 tons.
Turnips, etc., yielded 19,550 tons from 2,100 acres, or 9.30 tons per acre, as compared with 27,000 tons from 2,700 acres, or 10 tons per acre, in 1944.
The aggregate value of all field crops in 1945 is estimated at $23,679,000, as
compared with $22,665,000 in 1944, an increase of $1,014,000.
DAIRYING.
Total fluid-milk production in British Columbia during 1945 shows a substantial
increase, which is reflected in the total butter manufactured. This increase is, in its
entirety, credited to the Fraser Valley, all other parts of the Province showing a
decrease.
The production of cheese and ice-cream shows little change from last year. Prices
for all dairy products remained stable.
The make of creamery butter during the calendar year 1945 was 6,205,307 lb.,
being an increase of 565,969 lb. or 10 per cent, over the production in 1944. The output
of creamery butter during 1945 was the highest ever recorded. The average price of
creamery butter for the year was 36.8 cents per pound, or 1 cent higher than the
1944 price.
The amount of Cheddar cheese manufactured was 748,825 lb., as compared with
the final estimate of 834,196 lb. in 1944.    The average price of Cheddar cheese for
1945 was 21 cents per pound, or a decrease of seven-tenths of a cent per pound under
the 1944 price.
The production of evaporated milk amounted to 593,693 cases, as compared with
576,625 cases in 1944, an increase of 17,068 cases.
The total production of milk produced in British Columbia, and used in all dairy
products, amounted to 641,905,000 lb. in 1945, as compared with 625,544,000 lb. in 1944,
an increase of 16,361,000 lb.
The total value of dairy production in 1945 is estimated at $21,230,578, as compared with $19,713,681 in 1944, an increase of $1,516,897.
LIVE STOCK AND POULTRY.
The situation in the range live-stock areas found live stock coming through the
winter in rather poor condition due to a somewhat short feed-supply for last winter.
The spring season did not warm up very rapidly and conditions were somewhat backward. Grasshoppers constituted quite a problem. However, the quality of grass on
the range was better this year and firmer beef was produced.
Prices have been very satisfactory, especially for plainer cattle. Cows sold better
than usual. The fall sales throughout the Province saw a very keen demand for this
class of cattle, and stockmen generally took advantage of this keen demand to cull
their herds and clean up the ranges.
Marketings of cattle and calves and sheep and lambs were considerably higher
than during the previous year, while hog marketings were down.
Numbers of cattle on farms in British Columbia at June 1st, 1945, reached an
all-time high. The total of 416,700 head represented an increase of 35,200 head or
9.2 per cent, over the numbers at June 1st, 1944.
In the case of cattle most of the increase occurred in cattle other than milk cows.
Milk cow numbers showed only a very slight increase, being placed at a total of 98,700
at June 1st, 1945, as compared with 96,300 for the previous year. W 34 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Swine production in British Columbia for the year 1945 showed a sharp reduction.
The June 1st survey indicated 68,500 pigs on farms, as compared to 98,200 in 1944,
a reduction of 29,700 head or 30.2 per cent.
Sheep-breeders in the Province reduced their flocks during 1945 by 9,100 head or
by 6.1 per cent. The June 1st survey indicated 138,900 sheep on farms, as compared
to 148,000 in 1944.
Numbers of hens and chickens showed a small decrease from 4,155,000 to 4,096,000,
a decline of 59,000 or 1.4 per cent.
Turkey numbers at June 1st, 1945, reached the highest level yet recorded. The
total of 76,600 head represented an increase of 21,100 head or 38 per cent, over those
of the previous year.
The production of farm eggs in 1945 is estimated at 27,652,000 dozens, compared
with 28,046,000 dozens in 1944, a decrease of 394,000 dozens. Returns to the producer
ranged higher than during the previous year.
MISCELLANEOUS.
In British Columbia the summer was exceptionally dry, which made it necessary
to irrigate tobacco areas; plenty of rain fell towards the end of the season, however.
Harvest conditions were almost ideal, and in most cases the crop was well cured and
handled. The yield of tobacco in 1945 is estimated at 155,700 lb. from 130 acres, or
1,198 lb. per acre, as compared with 143,000 lb. from 152 acres, or 941 lb. per acre,
in 1944.
Hops yielded 1,533,650 lb. from 1,557 acres, as compared with 1,784,150 lb. from
1,521 acres in 1944—yields per acre of 985 lb. and 1,173 lb. respectively. The average
value per pound of hops in 1945 is estimated at 80 cents, as compared with 73 cents
in 1944.
In British Columbia cool backward weather prevailed until the end of June, and
little or no honey was stored by the bees. The colonies showed some gains by the
middle of July, but more rain would have greatly improved the bee pasture. The
production of honey in 1945 is estimated at 1,017,000 lb., of a value of $172,890,
as against 1,267,895 lb., of a value of $215,542, in 1944, a decrease in quantity of
250,895 lb.
The value of flower, vegetable, and field-crop seed production during the year is
estimated at $2,067,665, as compared with the 1944 estimate of $1,789,631, an increase
of $278,034 or 15.5 per cent.
The value of bulb production in 1945 is estimated at $345,250, as compared with
a value of $283,500 in 1944, an increase of $61,750.
The revenue derived from fur-farming during the year is placed at $552,000, as
compared with a value of $441,000 in 1944.
REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL APIARIST.
W. H. Turnbull, Assistant Apiarist.
The winter of 1945 and 1946 was very mild and bees came through in good shape.
Practically all bee-keepers producing honey for market who wintered their bees report
90 per cent, wintered well and built up rapidly in the spring.
Some loss from starvation was reported in the districts around the Cities of Victoria, Vancouver, and New Westminster due to a shortage of stores left in the fall and
also to the bees storing honey-dew and fruit-juices late in the season.   All these districts DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 35
are overstocked with bees and, as the cities develop, pasture for them is getting less
each year. Although there was a shortage of sugar for the feeding of bees in the
spring, we had the largest reported importation of package bees to date.
Most of the commercial bee-keepers replaced their winter losses and increased from
10 to 25 per cent, by importing package bees. Some 6,000 packages were brought in
between March 25th and May 15th. The heaviest importations were in the Okanagan
Valley, where an increasing number of bee-keepers are gassing their bees in the fall
and starting fresh in the spring with imported package bees. This procedure is being
adopted by about 70 per cent, of the bee-keepers in that area of British Columbia lying
north of Quesnel, and reports seem to bear out the wisdom of the practice.
The early spring season was very good for building-up of wintered-over colonies
and especially for package bees. Unfortunately for the bees in the Coast area a cool
wet spell developed, and a very heavy loss from starvation was reported. The colonies
surviving did not recover in time to take advantage of the short honey-flow in July.
The season in the Coastal areas was very disappointing, as there was practically no
surplus stored around the cities and there was a very low average on the Island and
Lower Mainland districts.
The bee-keepers in the Kootenays were in much the same position, and reports of
very low production due to adverse weather conditions were received from there. The
Interior valleys were much better, and the heaviest surplus in years was reported from
practically every point.
A new system of gathering figures for a crop report was adopted. A questionnaire
was mailed to all bee-keepers with over ten colonies of bees, and of 144 sent out, 91 were
returned completed. This gave us a very complete and comprehensive report, which,
taken with the new and revised list of bee-keepers, also completed this year, gave a very
clear picture of the honey production of the Province.
The number of bee-keepers who have cancelled their registrations was materially
less, with only 44 being reported. The number of new bee-keepers registering was also
below average, with 359 being reported. This is accounted for by the fact that no
sugar permits were granted to new entrants into the business.
The granting of sugar permits for feeding bees has been handled altogether by
this office, and a very rigid system of checking has been devised in order to stop the
abuse of this privilege, and also to help conserve sugar-supplies as much as possible.
The issuing of sugar permits was discontinued on November 17th, 1945, and was commenced again on February 1st, 1946. Since that date 877 permits have been issued in
the spring, with 32,370 lb.; 286 permits have been issued in the summer and fall, with
54,360 lb.
FIELD-WORK.
Apiary inspection began on March 1st this year in the Coastal areas, and early
field-work was confined, as usual, to the checking of reported losses during the winter
and early spring, and granting Certificates of Inspection for the moving of bees; also
examining dead colonies for the purpose of destroying them if found infected with
American foul-brood. A systematic inspection began April 1st and a part-time staff
of seven Inspectors in addition to the Assistant Provincial Apiarist carried on from
April to September. Three part-time Inspectors were appointed in the Kootenays,
and the systematic and thorough inspection work of C. B. Twigg in the Creston district
and of A. S. Homersham in the Nelson district was outstanding. A summary of the
work of the individual Inspectors follows:— W 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
A Summary of Inspectors' Work for the Year 1946.
Inspector.
District.
Examined.
Disease,
American
Foul-brood.
Percentage.
Apiaries.
Colonies.
W. H. Turnbull
235
175
78
22
77
383
191
225
3,374
912
154
72
400
1,673
640
793
9
28
8
13
67
9
35
0.86
W. J. H. Dicks, B.S.A.
0.86
A. S. Homersham	
A. E. Pittaway	
Kootenays	
3.54
C. B. Twigg                           .   ..
3.25
4.00
1 41
4.41
Totals	
1,387
8,018
169
An increasing number of field-days were held under the auspices of the British
Columbia Honey Producers' Association, and in almost every case an Inspector was
present at the different meetings. This work is of growing importance as much educational work can be done at these meetings.
Dr. J. B. Munro took a very active interest in bee-keeping this year, attending the
annual meeting of the British Columbia Honey Producers' Association, Central Executive, at Vernon; a field-day at Nelson; and also the annual meeting of the Kootenay
Division. He visited a number of apiaries in the Peace River Block and Northern
Central British Columbia, as well as a large number of systematic inspections on Vancouver Island. Your Provincial Apiarist attended some thirty-five meetings of beekeepers during the winter months and most of the field-days in the Interior in the
spring and early summer. He also made a survey of crop conditions on the Coast and
Island districts in July.
In August a trip was made into the Prince George and Vanderhoof districts, when
much information of value to future honey production was obtained.
A new picture of four reels has been purchased, " The Realm of the Honey Bee,"
and it will be used in educational work during the coming winter.
LOSS FROM SPRAY POISON.
Very little loss from this cause was reported this year in orchard areas. The substituting of cryolite for arsenate of lead in codling-moth control-sprays had a lot to do
with the lighter loss reports. More or less serious damage was reported from Vancouver Island areas due to the heavy spraying for tent caterpillar.
BROOD-DISEASES.
The educational work being carried on this last two years has begun to bear fruit,
as only thirty-two samples of brood-disease were submitted for microscopic examination, of which twenty-one were found to be American foul-brood. Many bee-keepers
are learning to detect and destroy American foul-brood, which goes a long way in controlling disease. This office has made sulphathiozole tablets available to bee-keepers at
cost, and some 3,000 tablets have been distributed. These are being fed with sugar
syrup as a disease preventive. Each Inspector has been conducting a series of unofficial
" tests," and some remarkable results have been shown in the control of American foul-
brood by the systematic use of this drug. It is too early yet to make any definite statement, but it is well worth continuing experimental work along these lines.
Office-work this year was increasingly heavy, some 4,006 letters being received and
4,937 mailed, of which 1,163 were sugar permits. With the bee-keeping public finding
that by submitting their problems to the .office of the Provincial Apiarist they can get DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946.
W 37
information and advice promptly, they are making full use of the opportunity, resulting
in a much heavier correspondence.
Co-operation with the fourteen divisions of the British Columbia Honey Producers'
Association has resulted in a much closer touch being kept with the industry as a whole.
REPORT OF FARMERS' INSTITUTES.
L. W. Johnson, Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes.
At the close of the year there were 204 Farmers' Institutes in British Columbia,
with twenty-two of these not reporting for the year 1945. Some fourteen of the
twenty-two have not reported for two consecutive years and will shortly be struck from
the Register, as required by the " Societies Act." The 182 Institutes reporting showed
a membership of 7,300.
District.
No. of
Institutes.
No. not
reporting.
Membership.
24
22
18
21
32
19
12
14
15
27
2
2
2
2
5
1
1
7
860
355
'< C "—Nechako	
337
" D "—Kamloops	
404
3,130
625
559
240
419
364
From annual returns submitted by Institutes covering the year 1945, receipts
amounted to $534,973.78; expenditures, $499,150.40; assets, $152,583.27; and liabilities, $24,614.56. Purchase of commodities by Institutes for members was as follows:
Stumping-powder, caps and fuse, $50,458.95; feed, $298,431.87; fertilizer, seed, etc.,
$27,903.37; miscellaneous, $80,457; while two Institutes sold produce on behalf of
their members in the amount of $10,315.72; property held by Institutes and which
consists of land, buildings, and bonds amounted to $41,577.46.
DISTRICT MEETINGS.
All districts held annual meetings during the year which were attended by the
Superintendent, the Minister of Agriculture attending six and the Deputy Minister
eight. All districts considered a number of resolutions, the majority of which were
endorsed and passed to the Advisory Board for their consideration.
The date of each meeting, together with the name of the Advisory Board member
elected and number of resolutions considered, is shown in the following table:—
Date of Meeting.
Advisory Board Member.
rio. of
Resolutions.
1 A"
•B "
•C"
'D "
•E"
■F"
'G"
'H"
"I "
'J"
November 14th	
June 20th and 21st.
June 20th to 26th...
May 27th	
November 29th	
June 7th	
May 28th	
June 28th	
June 3rd	
July 19th	
A. I. Hiscock, R.R. 1, Victoria
Geo. Brandon, Telkwa	
T. E. Gerhardi, Fort Fraser	
Wm. Harrison, Pritchard	
A. H. Peppar, loco	
W. Shipmaker, Edgewood	
J. Woodburn, Salmon Arm	
E. L. Greenlee, Canim Lake	
A. B. Smith, Cranbrook :....
F. Jamieson, Pouce Coupe	
17
21
30
31
17
11
24
5
13
12 W 38 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
ADVISORY BOARD.
The annual meeting of the Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes was held in
Victoria from February 4th to 6th. The Board considered 131 resolutions and endorsed
107 of them. Owing to the fact that the Legislature was not in session at the time of
the Board meeting, a committee of four members of the Board and the secretary were
appointed and approved by the Honourable Minister of Agriculture to meet with the
Select Standing Committee on Agriculture to discuss certain resolutions requiring
Government approval.
SELECT STANDING COMMITTEE ON AGRICULTURE.
The Select Standing Committee on Agriculture met the Advisory Board of
Farmers' Institutes committee on March 11th. Fifteen resolutions were presented to
the Legislative Committee and were as follows:—
Agricultural Schools.
B.C. Chemurgy Co-operative Association.
District Agriculturists (increase in).
Fertilizer Costs.
Stumping-powder (increase in number of cases for rebate).
Cancer Clinic.
Dental Services in Remote Areas.
School Taxes.
Farmers working out Taxes.
Old-age Pensions.
System of Land Tenure.
Christmas Tree Permits.
Adams River Power Development.
" Motor-vehicle Act " re Trailers.
Fish Reduction Plants in Central British Columbia.
Following this meeting, Mr. LeBourdais, chairman, presented the report of his
Committee to the Legislature, which was as follows:-—
" Mr. Speaker :
" Your Select Standing Committee on Agriculture begs leave to report as follows:—
"Your Committee, authorized by Resolution of the Legislative Assembly to consider specific matters connected with the agricultural industry, held five sittings.
" The Government's land-clearing scheme was fully discussed with Mr. William
MacGillivray, Director of the Land-clearing Branch, and it was suggested that when
an application for land-clearing is accepted terms required for payment of land-clearing
under the ' Farmers' Land-clearing Assistance Act' shall be arranged between the
land-owner and the Committee hereafter named and may be spread over any period
but not in excess of ten years, such arrangement to be subject to the approval of the
Director.
" The Advisory Board of Farmers' Institutes presented to our Committee eleven
resolutions dealing with the following: Stumping-powder, cancer clinic, dental services
in remote areas, school taxes, working out taxes, old-age pensions, system of land tenure, Christmas trees, Adams River power development, the fish reduction plant in
Central British Columbia, and one dealing with the ' Motor Vehicle Act.'
" The stumping-powder resolution requesting increase of rebates to twenty cases
in any one fiscal year was approved, as also was the one urging the setting-up of free
cancer clinics, the working-out of taxes, the Adams River power development, payment
of adequate old-age pensions, fish reduction plants, and the appointment of additional
District Agriculturists.    It was recommended that a committee be set up to investi- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 39
gate all phases of the proposed agricultural schools, while the holding of travelling
dental clinics in remote areas of the Province was strongly approved. The resolution
asking for specific action with regard to fertilizers was referred to the Provincial
Fertilizers Board and one requesting greater consideration in the matter of granting
Christmas tree permits was sent to the Forestry Committee and the resolution respecting the movement of trailers and tractors hauling agricultural machinery was recommended to the officials responsible for the administration of the ' Motor Vehicle Act.'
Only the resolutions dealing with school taxes and land tenure systems were tabled or
not recommended.
"At one session of our Committee the specific question of dealing with an 'Agrol-
ogists Act' and another Bill known as the ' Creamery Act' was thoroughly canvassed,
and it was decided that both of these Bills should be withheld. It was moved and
seconded that the proposed Bill requested by the agrologists be held over for further
study and resubmitted to the Select Standing Committee on Agriculture at the next
Session, and it was further recommended that the outline of this Bill be referred,
during the course of the year, to recognized farm bodies throughout the Province. The
Act for the regulation of creameries and dairies was referred to recognized farm bodies
for further consideration during the year.
" Your Select Standing Committee on Agriculture at one of its sessions received
a report from the Agricultural Production Committee relative to its activities in the
past and its intentions with respect to promoting agricultural production for the current year. This Committee, which is composed of the chiefs of the several branches,
has done excellent work in keeping the public informed and advising farmers on agricultural needs.
" Your Committee wishes to commend them for their work.
" All of which is respectfully submitted.
" Louis LeBourdais, Chairman."
CONCLUSION.
Now that the men from the services are back and from the interest and enthusiasm
shown in all districts during this past year, it would appear that membership in
Farmers' Institutes will be greatly increased next year, which will be the fiftieth anniversary of this movement in British Columbia.
REPORT OF WOMEN'S INSTITUTES.
Mrs. Stella E. Gummow, Superintendent.
The position as Superintendent of Women's Institutes was assumed by me on
April 1st upon the retirement of Mrs. V. S. MacLachlan. She, with Miss Hilda
Leighton, gave faithful and devoted service to the Women's Institute Branch for many
years. Their support and help which they gave me so willingly when I took over this
position is appreciated. I also appreciate very much the co-operation and assistance
given by the staff of the Department of Agriculture. I also wish to express my
appreciation to the Agriculturists and Horticulturists in the different districts, who
helped in every way to make my visits to the Institutes pleasant and worth while.
MEMBERSHIP.
Number of Women's Institutes in British Columbia, December
31st, 1946 W 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Total membership of Women's Institutes in British Columbia  4,300
Institutes organized during the year        13
The newly organized Institutes are Bouchie Lake, Brackendale, Buffalo Creek,
Cawston, Francois Lake, Houston, Horsefly, North Fraser Lake, Palling, South Canoe,
Terrace, Westsyde, and Windermere.
Meetings attended were as follows: Provincial conference, May 28th, 29th, and
30th; district meetings, 12; joint meetings of two or more Women's Institutes, 12;
individual meetings of a Women's Institute, 20;   bazaars and flower-shows opened, 8.
I also attended the B.C. Federation of Agriculture convention, held in Vancouver,
December 3rd and 4th, and addressed it on the work of the Women's Institute.
Delegates were present from 149 Women's Institutes at the Provincial conference
in May. The following officers were elected: President, Mrs. A. S. Dennis, North
Fraser District; Vice-President, Mrs. E. Tryon, Parksville, North Vancouver Island
District; Secretary-Treasurer, Mrs. P. Calder, Vancouver, South Fraser District;
Directors, Mrs. J. H. East, Keremeos, Okanagan District, and Mrs. R. W. Chalmers,
Thrums, Kootenay District. Conveners of standing committees were appointed as
follows: Citizenship, Mrs. T. Dutton, McBride, Central Interior District; Social
Welfare, Mrs. D. Fines, Fort St. John, Pineview Institute, Peace River District;
Agriculture, Mrs. R. Doe, Salmon Arm, Salmon Arm District; Industries and Handicrafts, Mrs. V. S. MacLachlan, Victoria, South Vancouver Island District.
Many Institute members who were not official delegates attended the conference,
and it was a meeting which provided much interest and showed a great deal of
enthusiasm. The programme was arranged to take in the work of the standing committees, with outstanding speakers leading in the discussion of each of the topics.
One of the features of the programme was the C.B.C. Farm Broadcast from the
floor of the convention, with Institute members taking part. A spot broadcast of the
Peace River experiences of one of the delegates was also given.
Following the Provincial meeting, I attended a meeting at Hope and district
meetings at Westbank, June 7th, of the Okanagan and Similkameen, and June 9th the
Salmon Arm and District meeting at Armstrong. From there I returned to Vancouver
and went north to cover the Central British Columbia area. With your permission
this area is now divided into three districts, corresponding to the Farmers' Institute
districts of British Columbia—these are the Bulkley-Tweedsmuir, the Central Interior,
and the Cariboo. The request for these changes was made at the three meetings held
in conjunction with the Farmers' Institutes at Francois Lake, Prince George, and
Canim Lake.
At Francois Lake, women from seventeen districts were present, and the following
Institutes are now included in this district: Forestdale, Francois Lake, Glenwood,
Houston, Palling, Quick, Terrace, Telkwa, and Topley. You will note that of the total
of nine Institutes in this Bulkley-Tweedsmuir District, four of them have been
organized this year, and women were also present from other districts that will, I hope,
be able to organize as their numbers increase.
At Prince George, delegates were present from Prince George, Vanderhoof,
Cariboo, Woodpecker, Fort Fraser, Dunster, and McBride Institutes, with women also
present from Beaverly. The Central Interior District is now made up of the following:
Cariboo (Pineview), Dunster, Fort Fraser, Fraser Lake, McBride, North Fraser Lake,
Northside (Vanderhoof), Prince George, Tete Jaune Cache, and Woodpecker.
The third meeting, in conjunction with the Farmers' Institute, was held at Canim
Lake, with delegates present from Buffalo Creek, Forest Grove, Watch Lake, and
Bouchie Lake. The Cariboo District now includes the following: Buffalo Creek,
Dragon Lake, Forest Grove, Horsefly, North Bridge Lake, Watch Lake, and Bouchie
Lake. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 41
Meetings were also held at Terrace, where a new Institute was organized; at
Telkwa, with Glenwood and Quick attending; at Houston; Topley, with Forestdale
present;   and at Fraser Lake, which was attended by North Fraser Lake.
The Peace River was visited in July, with the district meeting at Groundbirch
attended by seventeen Institutes. I also visited Beatton River, with North Pine
present; Fort St. John, with Baldonnel and Pineview attending; Clayhurst, with
Shearer Dale and Doe River in attendance; and Pouce Coupe, attended also by Landry
and Lakeview. I also was present at the Farmers' Institute meeting at Montney and
talked to them of the work of the Women's Institute, at their request. I also addressed
a group of Montney women who were interested in forming a Women's Institute group.
Returning from the Peace River, I visited the new Institute of Tete Jaune, and
went on to McBride, with the near-by Institute of Dunster attending the meeting.
My next stop was at Little Fort, where women were present from the Birch Island
and Clearwater Institutes. At Kamloops I addressed a group at Westsyde, who later
organized as an Institute, and spoke to the Beresford Women's Institute in the evening.
In September, in company with Miss Leighton, I visited Golden, which never before
had been visited by the Superintendent or any officer of the Board. We then met a
group at Windermere which decided to organize as a Women's Institute and now has
fifty members. Triangle Institute at Flagstone was visited, and from there we came
on to Creston where a meeting was held, with Camp Lister and Wynndel attending.
Crawford Bay was visited on the way to a district meeting at Nelson. This district
meeting was well attended, with twelve Institutes represented. From Nelson we visited
Kaslo, Robson, Salmo, and then went on to Nakusp for the district meeting which was
attended by nine Institutes. We then went on to Needles, and I visited Greenwood,
Midway, Rock Creek, and Cawston before returning to Victoria.
I returned in time to attend the North Vancouver Island District meeting at
Parksville. This was followed by the South Vancouver Island conference at Victoria,
the South Fraser at Langley Fort, and the North Fraser District conference at Mission.
On my way back I attended the eighteenth anniversary meeting of Burrard Women's
Institute at loco, and the Hazelmere Women's Institute.
In November I went to Sooke to address the thirty-seventh anniversary meeting
of that Institute, which is one of the oldest in the Province. Corsages and silver spoons
were presented to three of their charter members who were present.
I have travelled some 6,000 miles in British Columbia since June 1st and have been
impressed by the enthusiasm of the women for the work of the Institute. They are
making a fine contribution to community life in promoting the work of the Women's
Institutes as outlined in their aims and objects.
The work of the Women's Institute is carried out under the convenership of key
women in the Province under the headings of the standing committees. Citizenship is
encouraged and developed by welcoming newcomers, new Canadians, and war brides.
They are encouraged to become members of the Women's Institute and in that way are
introduced to the life of the community. I have met war brides from the British Isles
and the Continent, and these newcomers are being made to feel at home in a spirit
of friendliness and good comradeship. They, in turn, are contributing much to the
communities in which they have settled. It is interesting to note that one of our new
Institutes, Houston, is made up largely of women from the Netherlands who are settlers
in the district.
In social welfare the Institutes are happy to have completed their Othoa Scott
Fund, which now stands at $10,000. This money is invested in registered bonds and
the interest used yearly to help any child recommended for help by any of the Institutes
in the Province. Institutes are also helping to set up health units in the different communities and are working hard for travelling dental clinics in the rural areas.    Two W 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Women's Institute members are on the Health Committee of the B.C. Federation of
Agriculture, Mrs. A. S. Dennis, President, and Mrs. E. Tryon, Vice-President of the
Provincial Board.
The Home Economics Committee is concentrating on a scholarship fund for rural
girls. Their objective is $100 an Institute over a four-year period, and the interest on
this fund will be used to finance scholarships for rural girls who will take the Home
Economics course at the University of British Columbia.
Great interest is also being taken in home and rural improvement, with emphasis
on rural electrification and running water in the homes. Much activity is being devoted
to devising ways to make some progress towards these improvements in rural living.
Fall fairs and flower-shows are being sponsored in many of the communities either
entirely or in part by the Women's Institutes. Particular attention is being given to
the junior sections in competition work, and in this way agriculture is being promoted
and helped.    Boys' and Girls' Clubs are also being encouraged.
Handicrafts are coming to the fore now that war-work is not occupying the time of
the women. Rug-making and weaving, pottery, and crafts of all kinds are increasing.
A show is being planned for next year, and it is planned that a Women's Institute section will be a part of the Canadian Pacific Exhibition to be held in Vancouver next year.
The war services report of the Women's Institutes is a most creditable one, and
the following is not an accurate record, being rather an understatement, as complete
records are not available:—
Jam for Britain*  162.35 tons
Red Cross    $19,000.00
V-bundles       $1,625.00
Queen Elizabeth Fund _•_      $1,600.00
Spitfire Fund      $1,000.00
Donation to Mobile Kitchen (English)  $87.35
Ambulance Fund         $252.00
Lord Mayor of London         $293.50
Milk for British Children      $1,165.50
Queen's Canadian Fund.:.      $1,000.00
New articles sewn for the Red Cross  72,455
For V-bundles  23,763
Knitted articles made  84,613
Hospital supplies made  11,560
New blankets donated  154
Quilts for the Red Cross  1,714
Wool-filled comforters made from British Columbia wool 8,284
Made-over articles of clothing  59,968
Miscellaneous articles  4,812
Ditty bags, average cost $3  496
Parcels of food sent to men and women in services  1,289
* The Women's Institute also helped every local Red Cross Branch that made jam.    One thousand pounds of
fruit was also donated and $2,628.20 for sugar for jam.
The Women's Institutes co-operated in every community effort to help raise funds
to help the people of Britain. They collected clothing for U.N.R.R.A. in the different
drives that were made for used clothing.
It is difficult to cover completely the activities of such a resourceful and active
group as the Women's Institute, but I hope that I have given you in part an idea of
the scope and extent of their work. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946.
W 43
REPORT OF BOYS' AND GIRLS' CLUBS.
Miss Echo Lidster, B.S.A., Supervisor.
This year the Boys' and Girls' Clubs did not show much increase, but in general the
quality of the crops and live stock used as project material was of a high standard.
Following is a table showing the membership for the past two years:—■
Number op Clubs.
Membership.
1945.
1946.
1945.
1946.
Beef. .                                	
15
55
8
63
11
22
50
8
49
13
1
144
492
70
531
96
222
514
74
429
139
8
Totals	
152
143
1,333
1,386
CLUB LEADERSHIP.
The club work is growing faster than is the supply of local leaders to handle it.
The voluntary local leader is the liaison between the Department and the club members,
and upon him rests the ultimate success of a club in his district.
District fieldmen have numerous duties to perform and an extensive territory to
cover, and although they do their utmost to foster these projects, it is physically
impossible for them to devote as much time to the actual organization of a club programme as they would like and as is necessary. Hence the importance of a competent
local organizer cannot be overlooked.
In the tour to many far corners of the Province this summer it was evident that
the most successful clubs were in districts where the District Agriculturist was able to
work in close co-operation with a capable club leader.
It is strongly recommended that in future clubs be organized only where a District
Agriculturist is himself able to give adequate supervision or where he can rely upon
a good local organizer. It is not the number of clubs organized on paper that will bring
credit to the Province, but the number of boys and girls we can " graduate " in ten
years' time who are well informed about their project, and their Province, and confident
that they have put some real work into a worthy community effort which has been of
value, not only to themselves, but to their community as well, that will reveal progress.
The optimum number of members to take part in one club programme under one
leader is determined by the experience and ability of the leader, as well as conditions
prevailing in a given district. However, it is suggested that an average of fifteen
members is quite enough for one person to be responsible for, as this number will
require all the supervision that one organizer can effectively give. It is understood
that for many and varied reasons some members will fail to complete their project;
but those clubs on record which have the least number of such fatalities are those to
which efficient and constructive leadership was consistently given. This is only possible
where a leader is not required to dissipate his energies and abilities over a great
number and area but is permitted to concentrate on a limited group. Thus club work
will continue to be a pleasure to them and not become a burden.
A fairly thorough coverage of club work in the Province was made during the
months of June, July, and August, when the East Kootenay, Okanagan, Cariboo, Central
British Columbia, Vancouver, and Gulf Islands were visited in company with the district W 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
fieldmen in each area.    The only exception was Kamloops and environs, which had to be
massed because of transportation difficulties.
Later on this fall a memorandum was sent out to all District Agriculturists in
order for them to record some of the problems which they are encountering in regard
to club work in their area. In all replies received, it was pointed out that there was
need for more leadership, co-operation from parents, and a more continuous year-round
programme. Actually those three points are inseparable, for with adequate leadership
a more planned programme is possible, and naturally most parents will respond if they
find that their children are gaining from the experience given them.
PUBLICATIONS.
Early this spring a manual was published for the use of club leaders which contained rules and regulations regarding the clubs, as well as the parliamentary procedure
advocated for conducting meetings. These were found to be most useful throughout
the Province. Judging competitions and classes to give instruction on all phases of
agriculture have long been a part of the club programme. However, the method of
expressing the different points in a class depended a great deal on the instructor taking
the class. Thus it was thought advisable that those sets of reasons which were compiled in the New Westminster office last year would be of use to the entire membership
in the Province and consequently have been made available to them.
There is a great need for more written material as a guide for members and
leaders alike on each project, and it is hoped that an attempt can be made to remedy
this need for the coming year.
With the development of a girls' work project in the National competitions it was
felt that it was time to start a similar project in this Province. Two clubs are at
present being organized—one at Matsqui and one at Salmon Arm. However, here
again there is no leadership material available, and the groups must depend on the
ingenuity of their leaders. Some instructions have been received from the University
Extension Department and some from the Supervisor of Girls' Work in the Province of
Alberta. It is realized that very little can be done until a graduate in the field of home
economics is appointed who really understands the principles of the work involved and
can give proper direction and supervision.    However, at least a start has been made.
This year saw the revival of a lamb club at Chilliwack. It is the first time for
some years that a project in sheep has been in operation.
Due to an infestation of potato-beetle in the Chilliwack Valley it is difficult to grow
potatoes in that area for the purposes of a club project. However, corn does grow very
well, and a group of young people was organized under the leadership of Douglas K.
Taylor, of the Agassiz Experimental Farm staff, to take part in a corn project in order
to demonstrate just what might be done with this crop.    It was a great success.
Another member of the Experimental Farm staff, Tom Anstey, was in charge of
a small group of boys growing grain at Agassiz. Neither one of these clubs was under
Departmental guidance this year.
ELIMINATION CONTESTS.
The Provincial elimination contests in dairy, swine, and potato projects were held
at Chilliwack on September 12th.
Dairy Contest.—This contest was won by Stan Keith and Harry Bryant, of Chilliwack, twenty-three members competing. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946.
W 45
POULTRY TEAM.
Left to right: Les Staley, Lois Marleau, and Dave Roberts (coach).
SWINE TEAM.
Left to right: A. E. Donald (coach), Bob Nicholson, Fred Bryant (coach),
and Bob Colliss. W 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The rating of the top three teams competing in the competition was as follows:
Individual
Contestant's Name and Club. Score. Total.
Harry Bryant, Chilliwack  557
Stan Keith, Chilliwack  548
Alf. Levy, Langley  495
Marion Goddard, Langley  482
Gordon Urquhart, Langley  479
June Hagelstein, Langley ._ 467
Potato Contest— '.  .
Dorothy Blair, Richmond _.  557
Ralph Gilmore, Richmond :  498
1,105
977
946
1,055
Jean Davis, Langley  509
Harold Davis, Langley  524
—       1,033
George Wright, Richmond '.  450
Keith Maddocks, Richmond  477
Swine Contest—
Bob Colliss, Chilliwack  473.5
Bob Nicholson, Chilliwack  499.5
927
973
Poultry Contest.—This competition was held at Cloverdale on September 21st, and
the top three teams were as follows:—
Individual
Contestant's Name and Club. Score. Total.
Lois Marleau, Surrey  360
Leslie Staley, Surrey  356
  716
Marvin Bell  352
Walter Baines  331
  683
Earl Norman  362
Elaine Anderson  165
  527
There was no up-country competition in these classes, so these were also the
Provincial winners. The beef project was the only elimination contest to be held at
Armstrong.    The top three teams were as follows:—
Individual
Contestant's Name and Club. Score. Total.
Lome Shannon, South Kamloops _'__. 534
Steve Mikulosik, South Kamloops  494
        1,028
Rita Sadlier-Brown, Lower North Thompson  512
Olga Matuga, Lower North Thompson  509
1,021
Agda Schmidt, Barriere " A "  499
Rita Cochran, Barriere "A"  493
■  992 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946.
W 47
DAIRY TEAM.
mmrv fiiSSIlPIp
■-»'       -'   * . ' v
Left to right: Harry Bryant, Fred Bryant (coach), and Stan Keith.
POTATO TEAM.
Left to right: Ralph Gilmore, Jack Maddocks (coach), and Dorothy Blair. W 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
THE NATIONAL CONTESTS.
This was the first year that British Columbia was able to enter five teams in the
National contests held at Toronto, and teams were entered in the potato, dairy, swine,
poultry, and beef competitions.
Potato Team.—Dorothy Blair and Ralph Gilmore, coached by Dave Blair and Jack
Maddocks, took first place, with Dorothy Blair having the high individual score of 565
out of 600.    Four Provinces competed.
Poultry Team.—Lois Marleau and Les Staley took second place, coached by Dave
Roberts and G. L. Landon.    Five teams competed.
Dairy Team.—Harry Bryant and Stan Keith, coached by Fred Bryant, took third
place.    Nine Provinces competed.
Beef Team.—Lome Shannon and Steve Mikulosik, coached by Russell Philip, took
fourth place.    Seven teams competed.
Svnne Team.—Bob Colliss and Bob Nicholson, coached by Arthur E. Donald and
Fred Bryant, took fifth place.    Five teams competed.
This year marked the reopening of the Royal Agricultural Winter Fair, and also
the return of the National competitions to that event. This was the first Royal since
1938, and also the first time that all competitions were held at the fair. In previous
years the grain and potato events had been conducted separately. The only exception
this year was the newly formed girls' work project, which was held in the Ontario
Parliament Buildings in another part of the city.
Some criticism was expressed regarding the showing of the animals in various
classes, as expert showmanship was not always available. However, it is a point that
will be kept in mind for next year. Also it was unfortunate that it was necessary to
hold grain and potato competitions in the display portion of the Coliseum, in which the
displays were in the process of construction. The accompanying noise was not conducive to the best work on the part of contestants.
The girls' work project had seven teams entered in this, its first, year of operation.
Considerable discussion ensued as to the final form the competition would take. However, it finally evolved with the events as follows:—
(1.)  A   demonstration   of  practical   work  to   illustrate   machine  and  hand
sewing:—
Hand-sewing.—Three-quarters of an hour to make a bound buttonhole.
Machine-sewing.—Three-quarters of an hour to lengthen the band on
a skirt and replacing the band on the skirt.
(2.)  Judging competitions of 18 minutes each:—
Blouses to be judged.—Considering patching and laundry.
(3.)  Four dresses to be judged as to style, material, and workmanship.
(4.) Four models to be placed on their suitability of costume for occasion,
ability to model, and personality.
(5.)  Following this, ten questions had to be answered on theory regarding
sewing and dress.
Eighty-four boys and girls took part in the competitions, and of the seven high-
scoring individuals in each project, four of these were girls.
A whole day was allocated to the boys and girls to see the fair and to observe the
judging. This was well worth while and certainly to the advantage of every member
of the teams, as they were able to see the best of live stock collected at one time
anywhere in Canada.
They were treated to one night at the Royal Horse Show, a most satisfying
experience. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946.
W 49
Their side-trip to Niagara included a visit to the Ontario hydro-electric plant there,
and this was the first time that this was available to them since the war.
Their trip to  Ottawa  included  an  excursion  into  the  Gatineau  Hills.    It
altogether a most educational, informative, and enjoyable trip.
was
BEEF TEAM.
Left to right: Steve Mikulosik and Lome V. Shannon.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
During the year in this Province the various Fair Associations have contributed
largely to the promotion of this movement. The Pacific National Exhibition designed
and donated a crest to be used by club members, as well as continuing its usual support
in the form of the Boys' and Girls' Show at Chilliwack. In addition, all local Fair
Boards featured the junior shows, and this, with the efforts of the larger exhibitions
held at Chilliwack, Kamloops, and Armstrong, has done much to strengthen club work
in their respective districts.
Appreciation for the untiring efforts of the District Agriculturists and their club
leaders in the interests of this movement is expressed. It is understood that this type
of extension work comprises only a small portion of the entire field of extension work
for which District Agriculturists are responsible. However, it is felt that through
these clubs a firm foundation can be laid upon which a stronger structure can be built
in the field of adult extension, as these club members emerge as the farmers and
home-makers of to-morrow.
. REPORT ON SOIL CLASSIFICATION.
C. C. KELLEY, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor.
Plans covering soil surveys of the previous season were drafted in the early part
of the year. Land-drainage problems of tree-fruit growers, co-operation with the
Bureau of Reconstruction, and revision of the Prince George Soil Survey Report were
also undertaken.
Revision of the report was necessary owing to delay of publication during the war.
The bulletin " Soil Survey of the Prince George Area, British Columbia," Report No. 2,
Kelowna, B.C., came off the press in December.    It is now available for distribution.
PEMBERTON VALLEY.
A reconnaissance soil survey of the Pemberton Valley was undertaken in May and
completed in June. From the river delta in Lillooet Lake the survey was carried up-
valley approximately 36 miles, the area being about 20,000 acres. Throughout the
valley the soils have the same composition, excepting a few gravel fans of tributary
streams.
The Pemberton Valley, about a mile wide, is a heavily glaciated U-shaped trench,
bottomed with fine-textured river sediments. Active glaciation still exists at the headwaters, and large quantities of rock flour are carried to the main stream by tributaries.
The volume of Lillooet River varies with warm and cool weather during the summer
months. The major element of the river-load is fine sand, which is mainly deposited
along the channel. This load, which contains silt and clay, is increased by addition
of pumice and volcanic ash from post-glacial volcanism in the headwaters.
The unusual feature of these materials is their fertility. While geological material
is not soil and seldom fertile, this material conducts itself as a fertile soil.
Deposition of material by the river is characteristic of levee formation. The levee
is the highest ground situated along the river and composed of fine sands and silt, the
texture being sandy loam without stones or gravel. This changes to silt loam on the
slope of the levee and then to light clay in the meadow and ponded areas.
The ponds and meadowed areas fill with water during the freshet. At this stage
of the river the clay is carried near the surface, whereas silts and fine sands drift along
the river-bottom. Only clay is carried into the flooded meadows and ponds in the
central parts of the flood-plain. The clay settles in quiet water, giving the meadows
and ponds a clay surface texture.
Native vegetation consists of forest along the river-banks, sedges in the meadows,
and water-lilies, toullies, etc., in the ponds. T,he big growth occurs as a band along the
levees, where the water-table is about 2 feet below the surface, except in flood stages.
Where the water-table is close to the surface or above it, tree-growth is frustrated,
although the whole area is seeded annually. Willows tolerate the most water and form
the wet fringe of the forest. Where willows cannot survive, the sedges take over,
forming the so-called meadows. Beyond the sedge-growth again are the ponds where
toullies and water-lilies dominate. This drainage association occurs on a downward
slope from the river, which amounts to 5 feet or more in different places.
A noteworthy feature is that swamped and meadowed areas will become available
for cultivation after drainage, hence the acreage of open land in the valley is important. In this regard an aerial photographic survey was requested for the purpose of
correcting the position of the river and for separating with accuracy the different types
of growth.    The aerial survey was undertaken during the summer.
Mean annual temperature is 46° F., annual precipitation is 35.22 inches, and the
frost-free period is about 129 days.    These conditions are cooler and less humid than DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 51
the Lower Fraser Valley. In part the cooler conditions are due to the high mountains
that border the valley and partly to cold, wet soils which reduce the effect of climatic
heat.    After drainage the drier and warmer soils would be a stimulating factor.
The Pemberton Valley should be developed as a mixed farming region, with 80-acre
farm units. It is a potential supplier of whole milk and other dairy products likely to
be in demand during the next decade if the Coast population continues to increase.
During the soil survey a Regional Planning Committee of local people was formed
to plan the post-drainage future of the area. At this time the Pemberton townsite
received attention from the Town Planning Branch, Bureau of Reconstruction, and a
plan for any new subdivisions is available.
WESTBANK SURVEYS.
In July and August detailed soil surveys of two " Veterans' Land Act " irrigation
proposals were undertaken on the west side of Okanagan Lake, near Kelowna. These
are the Westbank Indian Reserve cut-off, 259 acres, and the Stevens property, Westside,
1,814 acres.
Following the surveys, these areas were reviewed by the Okanagan Reclamation
Committee, whose technical recommendations have been submitted to the Department
of Veterans' Affairs.
EAST KOOTENAY RECONNAISSANCE.
In September a reconnaissance was made of the Purcell Trench from Kootenay
Lake to the border of Idaho, of the Rocky Mountain Trench from the American border
to Golden, and of the Columbia River valley between Revelstoke and Arrowhead.
Little information is available as to agricultural possibilities in this region, which
is now being studied by the International Joint Commission. The purpose of the reconnaissance was to locate areas of potentially arable land worthy of more detailed study
and make a preliminary examination of the soils and climates.
Creston.
The Creston locality contains the most extensive area of agricultural land in the
Purcell Trench. It also leads the Kootenay region in agricultural development, although
present production is not more than 20 per cent, of the possibilities.
The climate is summer dry, and irrigation of the heavy clay soils on the benches is
required for maximum yield. The locality is suitable for hardy tree-fruits and mixed
farming. It has an important future as a producer of whole milk and other dairy
products for the Kootenay region. With full agricultural development this area would
play an important role in the Provincial economy.
At present there is a large increase of urban population and population on small
holdings, without real prospects in sight for new production. No doubt the pre-war
urban population was in equilibrium with rural production. Hence the problem of
holding the war-gained population, here and elsewhere in the tree-fruit areas, is related
to increased agricultural production by means of new land reclamations.
American Border to Canal Flats.
Outstanding features of the Rocky Mountain Trench, from the American border
to Canal Flats, are high elevation, summer dry climate, and calcareous soils.
Elevations range from about 3,500 feet on the west side of the trench to about
2,800 feet at the foot of the Rockies on the east side. The general slope from west to
east consists of a till plain with rolling topography, through which the Kootenay River
has cut a median trough.    The benches of the Kootenay River are composed of silt, W 52 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
and most tributary stream terraces are gravelly. Elevations of the terraces are from
2,500 to 2,700 feet above sea-level.
Native vegetation on the till plain and higher benches consists of scattered Pon-
derosa pine, fir, larch, lodgepole pine, and aspen, with scanty undercover of shrubs and
grasses, all of which are stunted. An unusual feature is antelope bush (Purshia tri-
dentata), which flourishes at Oliver and Kaleden in dry sandy soils at elevations below
1,500 feet. Here it is abundant up to 3,200 feet elevation, but the plants are stunted in
comparison with those in the Okanagan. Taken as a whole, the native vegetation
expresses a summer dry extreme.
Mean annual temperature in this district is 40° to 42° F. This compares with
39° at Prince George, 44° to 45° at Creston, and 46° to 50° in the Okanagan tree-fruit
area. Precipitation varies from 10 to 19 inches annually, the damp spots being small
areas north of Bull River and from Elko to Roosville.
The soils derived from the till plain are gravelly sandy loams with gravelly substratum and rolling topography. The till-plain soils are unsuitable for cultivation.
The Kootenay River is lined with stratified silts on both sides of the channel, but most
of the higher terraces are narrow and unimportant. Of greater interest are some of
the gravelly terraces of tributary streams, some of which could be irrigated.
Excepting a narrow valley from Cranbrook to Moyie Lake, the till plain and silt
deposits are high in lime content. Limestones have contributed largely in the composition of their parent materials.
The post-glacial trench of the Kootenay River is floored with second bottoms, most
of which are subject to overflow during exceptional freshets. These bottoms cover a
large acreage, as yet uncultivated, and their future for agriculture depends on control
of the river-level.    The soils are silt loams containing a large amount of lime.
In the area between Canal Flats and the American border, enlargement of agricultural production consists of opportunities for new cattle-ranches and enlargement of
existing herds. This is dependent less on range than upon an increased supply of
winter feed. Winter-feed supply eould be increased by irrigation of favourably
situated river terraces for production of alfalfa, sweet clover, and other lime-loving
crops. Slow progress in this direction is probably due to lack of adequate local experience with irrigation practices.
Canal Flats to Spillimacheen.
From Canal Flats to Spillimacheen, in the Rocky Mountain Trench, the rolling,
non-arable till plain covers less of the valley area, and there is greater acreage in the
form of silt-benches, tributary stream deposits, and post-glacial fans. Since cultivated
agriculture is based on water-sorted materials with gentle topography, there is more
potentially arable land and less range. The soils have the same high lime content as
those farther south.
The silt terraces and fans are non-arable without irrigation, but arable with irrigation. On the assumption that irrigation is possible, the valley area from Canal Flats
to Spillimacheen would support the only large community based on agriculture in the
Rocky Mountain Trench. A family could be supported on each 60 to 80 acres of
irrigated land.
Throughout the district there is gradually increasing humidity from south to
north, with well-distributed but inadequate summer rainfall. Farming is undertaken
between 2,600 and 2,900 feet elevation, compared with 1,800 to 2,000 feet elevation at
Creston and 1,000 to 1,800 feet elevation in the Okanagan Valley. Mean annual temperature is about 40 °F. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 53
The native vegetation is semi-open fir, lodgepole pine, and aspen, with bunch and
secondary grasses in open areas. There is a scanty shrub undercover of snowberry and
a few other plants.    The soils are transitional grey-brown podsols.
The type of agriculture should be mixed farming, with emphasis on dairying.
The size of the farm unit is based on the size of the dairy herd required to maintain
buildings and modern equipment for the handling of dairy products. At minimum this
is about twelve milking cows, which requires maintenance for twenty-five to thirty head.
In this climate the acreage irrigated should be large enough to feed the herd winter
and summer on the farm. There should be no dependence on free pasture, and acreage
is required to take advantage of specialized crops when these are profitable.
In this area the stage of development is pioneer. There are undersized, inadequate
farms producing grain, alfalfa, and potatoes, the latter being the cash crop. Varieties
of hardy apples, such as crab-apples, Transparent, Wealthy, Mcintosh, and certain
hardy stone-fruits are produced for local use.
There is a small irrigation district at Edgewater, originally planned as a tree-fruit
area, the subdivision being 10-acre farms. In this area a noteworthy feature is the
ability of the limy silts to produce abundant crops of alfalfa, grain, and potatoes when
sufficient water is applied. Vegetable-gardens are excellent, with the exception of lime-
sensitive crops, which show lime-induced chlorosis.
Canal Flat and Columbia River Flats.
Canal Flat is a low-lying area in the valley-bottom between the influx of Kootenay
River to the Rocky Mountain Trench and Columbia Lake. At the highest point the
Flat is less than 10 feet above river-level, and most parts of the area are subject to
flood at high water. Composed mostly of limy silt, in part underlaid by gravel, the
Flat was originally deposited as a flood plain of the Kootenay River. There would be
little difficulty at this point in turning the Kootenay River into Columbia Lake.
In part the Canal Flat is swampy with sedge cover, and the remainder supports a
light forest of aspen, cottonwood, willow, and scattered fir. There is little evidence of
any serious attempt at reclamation.
The Columbia River flats compare with the Pemberton Valley on a larger scale,
with more swampy conditions. Over a width of more than a mile the flats extend from
the north end of Lake Windermere to Golden.
The soils are typical of this kind of formation. There are narrow levees only about
100 feet wide, compared with a width of 400 feet or more in the Pemberton Valley.
The soils on the levees are fine sandy loams, with silt on their inner slopes and clay in
the ponded areas.
Native vegetation consists of cottonwood and aspen on the levees, willow on more
frequently flooded areas, and extensive sedge meadows, the latter being too wet to
harvest the hay. The balance of the flats, covering more than 50 per cent, of the area,
is occupied by lily ponds.
Throughout the flats area the muddy Columbia River follows a winding course,
with a gradient of only a foot, more or less, to the mile.
Arable land in the flats area consists of fine-textured fan deposits of tributary
streams. The higher parts of the stream fans, mostly silt loams, are above flood-level.
Most of these are large enough for one farm unit, and on some of them farms are established. The main advantage of these locations, aside from a water-supply, is the free
pasture afforded at low water.
Spillimacheen to Golden.
The main valley forks at Spillimacheen. There is a reduction of about 50 per cent.
in the width of the Columbia River valley, which turns to the north. W 54 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The lands along the east side of the valley are only an eighth to a quarter mile wide
where they slope to the river flats, and they appear to be a combination of fans and
lake-shore formations. Lands on the west side of the valley are even more limited.
Over a length of 40 miles on the east side of the valley from Spillimacheen to Golden,
the area of arable soils does not exceed 2,000 acres, the elevation being about 2,650 feet.
After removal of the comparatively thick forest cover there is room for twenty to
thirty farms, but the bulk of this land is already settled. While 60 to 80 acres of cultivated land is desirable, the present farms are 20 to 30 acres, and these are irrigated
from streams tributary to the main valley.
The soils are limy silt loams, like those elsewhere in the Rocky Mountain Trench.
Biological pressure indicates annual precipitation approximately the same as at Salmon
Arm. Irrigation is required for satisfactory farm operation. Mean annual temperature is 39° F., comparable with the climate at Prince George and Quesnel.
REVELSTOKE TO ARROWHEAD.
To the south of Revelstoke the valley of the Columbia River is a mile to a mile and
a half wide, the river swinging from one side to the other on its way to Arrowhead.
Mountains on each side rise to 7,000 feet, several being around 9,000 feet elevation.
The higher summits have glaciers on their shaded slopes. The highest river terraces
are about 1,500 feet above sea-level.    The elevation of the river is about 1,400 feet.
The valley is filled by a series of three or four terraces composed of non-calcareous
fine sandy loams and silt loams. There are gravelly terraces at entry points of tributary streams.
Native vegetation consists of cedar, hemlock, white pine, cottonwood, birch, aspen,
vine maple, willow, and a dense undercover of shrubs and bracken. Biological pressure
is most nearly comparable with the Lower Fraser Valley.
Mean annual temperature is 43° F., which compares with Westwold, the latter
being slightly cooler. This temperature is too low for commercial tree-fruits at the
present time. Annual precipitation is 39.74 inches at Revelstoke. An increase in the
density of native growth towards Arrowhead indicates greater precipitation in southern
parts of the valley.
Agriculture is restricted by the density of the native growth. Land-clearing by
primitive methods is a slow process, and cultivated acreages are small. Present development consists of stump farms, with 5 to 10 acres cultivated. Under these conditions
it would be well for local farmers to study the possibilities of specialized crops.
The area contains enough potentially arable land for an agricultural community,
but it cannot become an important producer until mixed farming is practised and farms
attain 40 to 60 acres of cultivated land.
OKANAGAN FALLS AND OLIVER.
In October a detailed soil survey of the Indian reserve cut-off at Okanagan Falls
was undertaken. This is a " Veterans' Land Act" irrigation proposal, amounting to
about 60 acres. In the same month detailed attention was given to three separate areas
on the Oliver project, amounting to about 1,800 acres.
During the balance of the year orchard drainage problems and office-work in connection with the season's field surveys were the major activities. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 55
REPORT OF MARKETS BRANCH.
Ernest MacGinnis, M.H., Commissioner.
The close of the first year since cessation of hostilities has seen the maintenance
of a strong demand for all food commodities. Price ceilings and controls for the most
part have been maintained. Firm contracts made between the British and Canadian
Governments on dairy products, eggs, and meats have done much to stabilize production of these lines. An outlet for 2,250,000 boxes of British Columbia apples to the
British market has helped reduce the surplus from a record crop. Recent negotiations
between joint representation of Nova Scotia, Ontario, and British Columbia fruitmen
with the Dominion Government leave them confident that some centralized action will
replace the stability afforded by Dominion authority during the war years. Some
form of Dominion marketing legislation is being sought.
Potatoes and other vegetables have found a ready sale, a quantity of potatoes
having been exported. Reports of heavy frost and disease losses in Alberta and Saskatchewan, and a lighter crop in the interior of the Province, indicate the likelihood of
a clean-up of Coast-grown potatoes. The Seventh Annual Potato Show, held this year
in New Westminster, with the crowning of a Potato Queen, did much, with attractive
displays, to publicize the potato. The glucose plant at New Westminster has again
taken care of a large tonnage of processing.
FLOOR PRICES.
It is interesting to note that for the first time since its organization in 1944 the
Agricultural Prices Support Board took direct action to bolster the price of a Canadian
agricultural product—Maritime potatoes. It is reported that the Board will (1) buy
for processing at $20 per ton for No. 1 potatoes or (2) buy in the spring of 1947
stored potatoes at $1 for 75 lb. or $26.66 per ton. In the United States the price
support programme for potatoes is based on $38 per ton, sacked and delivered to carrier, for No. l's. Faced with a record crop, Department officials place the surplus
above total requirements at over 2,500,000 million tons, or slightly more than the total
Canadian crop.
In preparation for the application of a type of support programme on 1947 production a system of reduced acreage goals has been set up through the United States
Department of Agriculture county agricultural conservation committees. The reduced
goals are stated to approximate the average production for the years 1941-45, and
only farmers conforming to recommended acreage will be eligible for support loans.
The top news in the British Columbia poultry world is twofold: (1) The shipment of 129,000 cases of eggs to Great Britain in November, and (2) the development
of turkey flocks to supply the local market, which until recently has depended upon
imports. Last year British Columbia sent 3,000,000 dozen eggs to Britain; this year
almost 4,000,000 dozens were loaded, of which 50 per cent, were produced in Alberta.
MARKETING BOARDS.
In December, 1945, a " Marketing of Primary Products Act" was passed in Tasmania. Boards are set up following petitions from.the interested producers, and the
Crown is not deemed to be represented by a Marketing Board. The Governor, on
recommendation of the Board, may make regulations for controlling, regulating, or
restricting the production of a commodity; regulating the issue of licences for producers, lands, businesses, etc., empowering the Board to refuse to accept products not
grown under licence. A Board constituted in respect to potatoes shall not enter into
an agreement with the Commonwealth or a state or other authority unless the agree- W 56
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
ment provides for payment at a reasonable price and that areas allocated for production
of potatoes, after the first allocation, shall be determined by the needs of the consuming public.
As the marketing of tree-fruits, potatoes, and certain vegetables has been effective under legislation for the past eleven years, it might be of interest to comment on
the results achieved. A brief memorandum on new marketing legislation recently
passed in Australia, and which is much more restrictive than that in effect here, is
also appended.
Comparative Prices per Bushel for Potatoes.
Year.
Canada.
British
Columbia.
Nova
Scotia.
Ontario.
Alberta.
1935	
$0.48
.68
.38
.55
.64
.50
.74
.90
1.07
.86
1.22
$0.57
.81
.57
.66
.66
.72
.84
1.35
1.20
1.14
1.44
$0.56
.68
.51
.65
.70
.56
.79
.90
1.30
1.05
1.30
$0.67
.81
.34
.35
.55
.67
.79
1.14
1.32
1.06
1.41
$0.41
1936	
.57
M37 	
.45
1938	
.36
1939     	
.90
1940     	
.49
1941	
.62
1942	
.69
1943     	
.96
1944	
.75
1945	
1.16
$8.02
.73
$9.96
.90
$9.00
.80
$9.11
.83
$7.36
.66
The above table shows a British Columbia average of only 7 cents more per
bushel than Ontario, but a glance at the yearly average will show a greater levelling-
out of prices from year to year under a controlled marketing plan.
During the past eleven years of its operation the British Columbia Coast Vegetable
Marketing Board has developed the farm business into a $2,000,000 annual turnover,
and the British Columbia Vegetable Co-operative Association, the farmer-owned
marketing agency, has completed its second season of operation. It is now completing
construction of an up-to-date vegetable warehouse and cold storage on spur track
convenient for truckers.
The first Board was set up January 23rd, 1935, and composed of Arthur Swenson,
A. H. Peterson, and Joseph Maxwell, and authorized to carry on until May 31st, 1935.
This first scheme gave the Board, by itself or through agencies, the power to •" conduct
a pool, or pools, for the equalization of returns received from the sale of the regulated
product."
On June 27th, 1935, a new scheme was authorized, naming Leslie Gilmore, A. H.
Peterson, and A. W. McLelan as the members of the Board. December 16th, 1936,
was the date of the next scheme, and on December 30th, 1938, the third and last
scheme named Arthur J. Swenson, A. H. Peterson, and A. W. McLelan as Board members. At that time the Register of Producers was divided into First and Second
Districts.
The Board for 1939-40 was composed of Messrs. Coleman, Ford, and Howland;
1940-41—Messrs. Gilmore, Ford, and Primeau; 1941-42—Messrs. Gilmore, McLelan,
and Howland; 1942-43—Messrs. Gilmore, McLelan, and Mangles. The present Board
is made up of Messrs. Les. Gilmore (chairman), A. Swenson, and R. M. Mangles, with
Earl Mackay, manager. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946.
W 57
British Columbia Coast Vegetable Co-operative Association Sales Recapitulation
April 1st, 1945, to March 31st, 1946.
Variety.
Sacks.
Average
Price.
Value.
Potatoes—•
53,198
158,298
78,901
94,743
6,330
104,447
54,445
583
37,632
44,342
4,533
3,907
45,874
7,298
$50.84
40.46
46.66
40.95
33.77
73.29
59.88
13.45
63.11
45.90
46.78
76.54
36.46
70.98
$135,230.74
No. 2 Gems	
364,553.56
No. 1 Whites	
184,092.56
No. 2 Whites	
194,015.64
10,690.47
382,765.68
163,028.57
Culls	
392.67
118,744.34
101,779.07
Beets	
10,604.40
14,954.68
83,625.87
25,902.66
Summary.
Potatoes	
Vegetables
Sacks.
611,134
143,646
Totals
Value.
$1,624,768.35
355,756.66
754,781        $1,980,525.01
It is interesting to record that in the eleven years since its inception, the British
Columbia Fruit Board has marketed through its agencies $100,000,000 worth of tree-
fruits. This is all the more remarkable when it is recalled that six of these were war
years, when the ordinary channels of trade were not available and that the average per
package value of the 1944 bumper crop was 22 per cent, lower than the average for the
more normal 1942 crop. Increased production is shown by the percentages handled in
different years; for example, 51 per cent, of the total eleven years' packages were
marketed in the five years 1941-45. It is observed that 64 per cent, of the total value
was realized from the same last five years.
In view of the above a note on the Board personnel might be valuable for record
purposes: 1934-38—W. E. Haskins, O. W. Hembling, and G. A. Barrat; 1939-40—W.
E. Haskins, P. E. French, and G. A. Barrat; 1941-45—G. A. Barrat, P. E. French, and
C. J. Huddleston.
Prior to 1939 the Board did not have a single designated agency, but looked upon
each shipper as a marketing agency. From 1939 onwards B.C. Tree Fruits, Limited,
has been the sole selling agency recognized by the Board.
Since its organization this Board has had very few cases in the Courts. It has
inaugurated a very close tie-up with locals of the British Columbia Fruit Growers'
Association, whose delegates elect the members of the Board and the board of governors
for the agency. In this way the growers regulate and control their own business: first
through the fruit-growers' parliament, the annual meeting of the British Columbia
Fruit Growers' Association, and later in the election of their representatives on the
two marketing bodies.
From the latest estimates of fruit and berry production for 1946 it would appear
that British Columbia produced the following percentages of the total Canadian crop:
Apricots, 100; loganberries, 100; pears, 70; plums and prunes, 70; raspberries, 63;
apples, 48;  cherries, 44;  strawberries, 37;  and peaches, 32. W 58 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The following table indicates the huge movement of over 78,000,000 packages of
tree-fruits, with a total value approximating $100,000,000, during the eleven years of
the Board's operation:— Packages. value.
1935  5,709,000 $5,621,000
1936 ■  5,131,000 4,962,000
1937  6,259,000 6,127,000
1938  7,179,000 6,882,000
1939  7,372,000 6,372,000
1940  6,776,581 5,637,000
1941  6,378,000 7,176,152
1942  7,717,000 10,059,905
1943  5,582,000 11,337,244
1944  11,531,000 19,596,596
1945  8,741,000 16,330,349
Totals  78,375,581      $100,101,246
During the war years, 1940-45, British Columbia shipped to Great Britain the
following quantities of fruits and vegetables: Strawberries, 2,717,960 lb. in S02 and
4,911,350 lb. in pulp S02; raspberries, 4,088,400 lb. in S02 and 224,000 lb. in pulp S02;
green-gages in S02, 427,310 lb.; plum and prune pulp in S02, 3,615,115 lb.; black
currant pulp in S02, 128,014 lb.; fresh onions, 800,000 lb.; dehydrated onions, 527,760
lb.;  tomato puree, 115,192 gallons;  fresh apples, 2,704,102 boxes.
These products, which were exported by the Special Products Board, may be summarized as 8,056 tons of fruit in S02, 400 tons fresh onions and 264 tons dehydrated
onions, and 54,082 tons of fresh apples.
Continuing the record of Marketing Boards the following synopsis of the British
Columbia Interior Vegetable Marketing Board summarizes the Board personnel
throughout the eleven years and seasonal movement of main crops from 1939 to 1945,
inclusive.
The first Board was elected in April, 1935, the members being T. Wilkinson, R. B.
Homersham, and E. Poole, and the personnel remained the same until the middle of
1940, when Lieut.-Col. Poole resigned upon being accepted into the Canadian Active
Army, L. R. Stephens taking his place. For the years 1941 and 1942 the personnel of
the Board remained as W. Wilkinson, R. B. Homersham, and L. R. Stephens, but in the
early months of 1942 Mr. Stephens resigned owing to his being called to Ottawa to take
up important duties with the Wartime Prices and Trade Board.
For the remainder of 1942 Messrs. Wilkinson and Homersham carried on. In 1943
the two grower members accepted the shipper nomination of F. A. Lewis, and these
three carried on till the end of 1944, when Mr. Lewis resigned due to ill-health, his
place again being filled by Mr. Stephens, who remained as the shipper member for 1945
and 1946. Except, therefore, for some changes in the shipper member the Board has
remained the same throughout, but it is regretted that in November, 1946, Mr. Homersham passed away after having served on the Board for eleven years. His passing will
be a blow to the producers of the Interior, and the knowledge he brought with him to
the Board will be hard to replace.
The Board elected for 1947 consists of T. Wilkinson, Captain George Hilliard, and
A. McGibbon, with L. R. Stephens as the shipper nominee. Throughout the entire life
of the Board, the Interior Vegetable Marketing Agency, Limited, has been the sole
agency designated by the Board.    There has been very little need to resort to Court DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946.
W 59
action, the one outstanding case being during the winter of 1937-38, when the validity
of the Act was up before the Privy Council. The case ended in a compromise due to
financial exhaustion and the fact that the handing-down of the Privy Council's decision
was expected shortly.
TONNAGES MOVED.
It will be seen from the following table that the quantities moved have, in many
cases, shown a very healthy increase, the outstanding cases being tomatoes and cucumbers for the fresh market:—
Seasonal Movement of Main Crops.
Commodity.
1939.
1940.
1941.
1942.
1944.
1945.
1946
(to
Oct. 31).
Fresh Market.
Cantaloupe	
crt.
Cucumbers	
...pkg.
Processed.
487
26,054
284
715
83,077
17,864
8,289
6,637
265,800
44
7,960
120
105
455
35,835
622
977
82,977
20,192
6,242
6,220
302,017
64
20,718
50
50
700
43,155
1,328
1,019
76,468
19,755
8,606
10,483
301,518
268
18,362
235
421
403
842
38,635
2,076
1,320
78,665
16,625
7,821
10,312
312,934
229
19,743
960
3,776
913
570
7521
42,795
2,163J
1,436}
124,502
24,255
6,657
11,985
344,290
127
22,(
3,074
2,215
400
1,020
46,612
1,824
1,124|
155,087
18,990
8,107
12,072
308,839
195
17,335
630
2,179
1,307
3,471
665
1,947
40,310
2,8821
1,0361
173,751
27,572
7,757
8,8301
320,809
1,0601
17,3251
141
2,1281
188}
4,800}
1,7961
1,3381
44,155
2,0051
1,039}
220,936
30,652
10,0071
7,6441
388,553
14,473
835}
1,3301
1831
4431
776}
REPORT OF HORTICULTURAL BRANCH.
W. H. Robertson, B.S.A., Provincial Horticulturist.
CLIMATIC CONDITIONS.
No low temperatures were recorded during the winter period in any of the fruitgrowing sections of the Province. There was a heavy snowfall in the Kootenay areas
and on the higher elevations of the Okanagan and Coast sections, which ensured a
satisfactory supply of water where irrigation is a factor in production. In the Coast
sections the rainfall was not excessive. On the whole the spring was from five to
seven days earlier than in 1945. This is indicated by the following blossoming-dates
from Kelowna:—
1942.
1943.
1944.
1945.
1946.
Apr.  15
Apr.  24
Apr.   28
May     8
Apr.   22
May     1
May     3
May   15
Apr.  20
Apr.  27
Apr.   29
May   10
Apr.   22
May     1
May     6
May   15
Apr.  16
Apr. 26
Apr.  29
Following blossoming the spring continued cool, with the result that many ground
crops did not make the usual amount of growth. Cool weather continued throughout
the summer with considerable rainfall, which, on the whole, was satisfactory, particularly in the Coast districts.    In the Interior the cool weather with the absence of the W 60
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
usual extreme heat had a delaying effect on such crops as cantaloupes, tomatoes, etc.
It should be noted also that in July a most damaging hail-storm was experienced in
the Okanagan. This storm centred in the Kelowna area and caused heavy loss to fruit,
vegetable, and seed crops. The late summer and fall conditions were excellent for
harvesting in all districts, and it was not until the middle of November that cool
weather was experienced, with light snowfall in the Coast areas and heavy snowfall
in the Interior and particularly in the East Kootenay. At this date mild weather prevails and the covering of snow in the Interior sections should ensure the trees coming
through the winter in satisfactory condition.
HORTICULTURAL CROPS.
Tree and Small Fruits.
The past year has, in many ways, been a difficult one for the fruit-grower in
British Columbia. A strike of loggers and mill-workers caused a material shortage
in box-shook of all kinds. This, coming as it did in the late spring, affected particularly the small-fruit shippers and also delayed the manufacture of box-shook fox the
tree-fruits. Later in the season the steel strike made it difficult to secure nails for
box-making and lidding. However, these difficulties were eventually surmounted, and
the largest crop on record was marketed or, in the case of apples, is in the process of
marketing at the present time.
The following table shows the actual fruit production for 1945 with the estimated
fruit production for 1946:—
Kind.
Year.
Production.
Kind.
Year.
Production.
1945
1946
1945
1946
1945
1946
1945
1946
1945
1946
1945
1946
1945
1946
1945
1946
Boxes.
5,747,841
8,915,000
130,766
203,300
612,926
744,000
Crates.
236,273
237,000
1,137,036
1,111,500
1,639,101
1,712,000
217,925
406,200
490,196
382,500
1945
1946
1945
1946
1945
1946
1945
1946
1945
1946
1945
1946
1945
1946
1945
1946
Crates.
382,629
505,500
518,305
655,600
96,180
65,195
74,280
2,904
3,475
17,022
Peaches....,	
18,400
5,101
5,520
Lb.
2,949,569
2,360,000
Controlled prices on small fruits as established by the Wartime Prices and Trade
Board in previous years were removed in 1946. This resulted in higher prices and
also an increase in the cost of picking. Plantings of small fruits were also increased,
and it is expected that with satisfactory winter and spring conditions in 1947 the
volume of these fruits for the coming year will be much larger than it has been for
some time.
It will be noted from the table submitted that there is a marked increase in the
production of apples over 1945. The estimated production of 8,915,000 boxes is the
largest recorded crop in British Columbia, the previous largest crop being in 1945,
when the production was 8,749,855 boxes. Pears also show an increase, as well as
peaches, apricots, and plums. The decrease in cherries is undoubtedly due to weather
conditions at blossoming-time as well as during the harvesting period. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946.
W 61
The growers of tree-fruit in the Okanagan and Kootenay areas, and particularly
the producers of apples, have many problems to contend with. One of the most
important is the percentage of Cee grade in proportion to the higher grades. In the
past it has been pointed out that more attention should be paid by the grower to
certain phases of orchard management, such as pruning, fertilization, and tree-removal.
B. Hoy, District Field Inspector, Kelowna, has touched briefly on these points in his
annual report, and as they are in line with statements submitted in previous reports,
it seems advisable to again quote his remarks on this matter as they apply to all other
districts as well as to the Kelowna area:—
" The apple-crop was the largest in the history of the district. It will probably
total over 3,000,000 boxes. This increase in crop during the past three years over the
preceding years cannot be attributed to any one factor. It is perhaps due to the cumulative effect of better fertilizing practice over the past five years, coupled with several
mild winters and good growing seasons.
" The problem of old trees and too many Cee grade Mcintosh still persists.
Growers are realizing to a greater extent than ever the need for wider spacing in old
orchards, and several are beginning to take action either by complete removal of every
other tree where the orchard is crowded or of very heavy cutting out of interfering
branches on those trees slated for removal. This latter method, while not as satisfactory as the former, does prevent overpruning on those trees that are to remain and
gives them more light and growing-space. Undoubtedly this tree-removal idea will
grow, and increasing numbers of trees will be removed each year. This tree-removal
programme should not cause any general decrease in production, but should increase
the percentage of Fancy and Extra Fancy Mcintosh.
" Much interest is being shown in new varieties, especially Spartan and Jubilee.
A few trees of these varieties are coming into production, and there should be enough
apples during the next two or three years to get some indication of how well the trade
will receive them."
A tree-fruit survey of the Okanagan and Kootenay areas is made every five years.
The last survey was made in 1945, and compilation of the data was completed in 1946.
The following table indicates the number of trees of the different kinds of fruit as
shown by the last survey and in comparison with the figures obtained in the surveys
conducted from 1920 to 1940, inclusive:—
British Columbia Tree-fruit Survey, 1920-4-5.
OKANAGAN.
1920.
1925.
1930.
1935.
Apples	
Pears	
Plums	
Prunes	
Cherries (sweet)..
Cherries (sour)....
Apricots	
Peaches	
Apples	
Pears	
Plums and prunes
Cherries (sweet)..
Cherries (sour)....
Apricots	
Peaches	
1,103,550
61,819
21,981
44,940
23,629
9,091
31,991
47,378
1,147,511
70,254
20,874
33,420
28,854
7,152
51,107
52,425
1,137,851
84,589
16,689
31,029
30,686
4,571
43,770
47,157
1,130,554
106,438
16,395
56,883
43,603
2,452
56,640
132,297
1,091,849
150,863
16,115
93,227
47,228
1,139
45,361
182,957
1,052,037
230,330
17,232
137,994
68,289
886
85,525
298,339
KOOTENAY.
483,312
30,445
50,170
21,566
8,196
204
2,189
378,096
21,820
25,031
22,822
4,942
712
1,505
289,546
18,254
13,792
30,086
2,784
983
2,142
244,557
25,914
17,339
38,762
2,123
2,613
6,143
161,631
23,824
10,159
30,141
1,402
2,033
6,680
143,216
24,027
19,294
29,512
1,079
2,222
6,728 W 62 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The small-fruit survey of all districts in the Province was again conducted this
year. The increased plantings and the necessary tabulation involved makes it impossible to submit the final figures at this date.   A full report will be submitted later.
Vegetables.
The following table indicates the approximate acreage in these crops during the
past year, in comparison with the 1945 acreage:— Estimated       Estimated
Acreage, Acreage,
Kind. 1945. 1946.
Tomatoes  1  3,588 3,488
Onions  1,236 1,540
Lettuce      746 778
Celery       447 556
Cucumbers       262 338
Cabbage  1,121 830
Cantaloupes     237 448
The potato acreage for 1946 is estimated at 19,000 acres, as compared with 16,500
acres in 1945. This increased acreage, together with fair crops, should supply a sufficient tonnage to take care of domestic requirements. If this can be done, the heavy
importation of potatoes which was necessary last year would be unnecessary for the
1946-47 season. A source of possible bacterial ring-rot distribution will also be
materially reduced.
The tomato acreage was slightly smaller than in 1945, and due to weather conditions the canning pack of this crop was materially reduced from that of the previous
year. Shipments of rn5e greens and semi-ripes, however, were, on the whole, good and
the price satisfactory.
Onion acreage, while larger than last year, did not produce the expected tonnage
due to cutworm and wireworm damage. The crop, however, was harvested satisfactorily, and the tonnage available will be sufficient to meet all market requirements.
The cold, backward weather of the spring and early summer particularly affected
the cantaloupe-crop, of which the acreage was almost double that of last year. This
being essentially a hot-weather crop, many of the plantings produced but a small percentage of the anticipated crop, thus causing a considerable loss to the growers.
Greenhouse vegetable crops, such as tomatoes and cucumbers, show little change.
All such crops were disposed of at satisfactory prices.
Seed Production.
In 1939 the value of vegetable- and flower-seed production in British Columbia was
as follows: Vegetable-seed, $72,130.20; flower-seed, $26,456.30. With the increased
demand for seed of all kinds due to war conditions the value of production increased,
and in 1945 the value of vegetable-seed was $1,479,493.86 and flower-seed $155,893.85.
Even with the reduction in contracts for vegetable-seeds it is anticipated values for
vegetable-seed will at least equal those of 1945 and flower-seed values will exceed those
of last year.
A full report on the seed work in the Province has been submitted by J. L. Webster,
horticulturist in charge of all seed work. As it is impossible to publish the full report,
extracts are herewith submitted:—
"Estimate of 1946 Seed Crop.—The following table shows the trend on production.
It is evident that we have just passed the peak in production, with 1946 estimates on the
higher-priced items being somewhat below 1945.
" In addition, values—that is the values per pound received by firms and growers
for each kind—are now substantially lower. This will result in a considerably lower
total value for 1946. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 63
" The following data show the estimated 1946 yields as compared with the final
yields of 1944 and 1945 :—
"British Columbia Seed Production.
" Vegetable-seed.
1946.
1944.          1945. (Estimated.)
Kind.                              Lb.           Lb. Lb.
Asparagus                75                  100 300
Bean      215,000           357,000 399,000
Beet        65,000             45,000 44,000
Broccoli               25          	
Brussels sprouts                50          	
Borecole or kale            130         	
Cabbage  6,300 11,700 12,000
Carrot  222,000 260,000 203,600
Cauliflower  5,636 2,090 1,020
Corn (sweet)   30,000 25,000 23,100
Cucumber  9,000 16,300 18,590
Leek   4,800 3,150 2,225
Lettuce  30,000 58,900 66,000
Muskmelon   150 550 220
Onion   223,000 320,000 226,300
Onion-sets   29,000 28,000 38,000
Parsley   530 400        	
Parsnip   30,600 13,100 12,860
Pea   1,900,000 2,046,000 3,270,600
Pepper  .  65 110 50
Pumpkin  1,800 1,700 2,250
Radish  140,000 115,000 95,100
Spinach  35,900 20,900 14,200
Squash   4,500 2,800 2,600
Tomato   5,700 3,600 1,020
Turnip, swede   103,000 47,000 12,900
Vegetable marrow   10,300 14,100 9,800
Watermelon    120 500 210
Citron   400 230 400
Cress            995
Totals  3,073,081        3,393,230        4,457,340
" It is very encouraging to report that the amounts and total values of flower-seed
grown in the Province will again show a substantial increase in spite of the very serious
reduction in pansy-seed. Contracts for flower-seed have increased with United States
firms, particularly on items such as Portulaca, cosmos, pansy, annual phlox, Geum,
verbena, petunia, and some other annuals and quite a range of perennials. Many large
United States firms appear to desire to place a portion of their crops in British Columbia, particularly in items like pansy, Portulaca, and cosmos.
" The following is the Departmental November estimate for flower-seed for 1946
as compared to total values in 1944 and 1945: 1944, $119,940; 1945, $155,893.85; 1946
(estimated), $185,000.
"Markets for Vegetable and Flower Seed.—During the war and up until the 1945
crop-year very substantial contracts for a wide range of vegetable-seed were received
through the Special Products Board at Ottawa.    This, together with some recent outlets W 64 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
for surplus items to U.N.R.R.A., has taken care of the greater percentage of our production. At the same time very satisfactory orders from Canadian firms, and some
American firms, were received, the demand being increased as a result of stimulus for
vegetable production by home and market gardeners.
" Production of vegetable-seed has been on such a large scale in such items as
onion, carrot, cauliflower, radish, etc., that British Columbia has been producing annually two or three times the normal Canadian requirement. For example, the average
amount of onion-seed used in Canada annually is about 65,000 lb. and in carrot-seed
approximately 70,000 lb.; in 1945 British Columbia produced 351,000 lb. of onion and
310,600 lb. of carrot. This shows that if anything approaching such volume production
of seed in British Columbia is to be maintained, large and permanent export markets
must be found. Actually, considerable American onion and carrot seed is imported into
Canada each year, reducing our Canadian market and increasing the amounts which we
are required to ship out of the country.
"As the contracts with the Special Products Board are very small for 1946, and
may cease altogether after 1947, the possibility of British Columbia being able to continue to market anything approaching the 1945 volume and value is exceedingly remote.
" The situation in Canada is rather disorganized because of the numerous offerings
of surplus items at low prices by American firms. This has caused the Canadian
dealers to buy carefully for fear of being caught with a surplus or a carry-over in face
of a further decline in the market.
" The British Government has not yet permitted the purchase of either vegetable
or flower seed from any of the countries on dollar currency, thus preventing our British
Columbia firms from dealing directly with British firms. This situation is working a
hardship on the seed industry in British Columbia. It would appear that continued
effort should be made to have the British Government permit trading in the more essential vegetable-seed items.
" Representation has been made to authorities concerned in Ottawa by the British
Columbia Seed Growers' Association and the British Columbia Co-operative Seed
Association.
" The visit of F. O. Blake, manager of the latter firm, to England during February
and March of 1946 was largely to contact seed firms there and to ascertain the true
situation concerning the importing of seeds direct from Canadian firms by the British
firms. The information he secured was not very encouraging and was to the effect that
it might be two years before trading could be resumed in vegetable-seed and somewhat
longer in the case of flower-seed.
" Representations have been made through various officials to put the situation
before the British authorities. Just prior to the writing of this report, H. F. E. Smith,
Industrial and Trade Representative at British Columbia House, London, was requested
upon his return to England to make a strong plea for renewal of business between
Canadian and British firms.
" The various seed-producer firms, and in particular the British Columbia Cooperative Seed Association, have been redoubling their efforts to secure a greater share
of the Canadian and American business.
"An effort is also being made to secure markets in several other countries.
"Difficulty in maintaining a Range of Seed.—As prices of vegetable-seed are reduced
or return to their more normal or pre-war levels, it is becoming very evident that growers
of such items as the vine-seeds (squash, melon, pumpkin, cucumber, etc.), spinach,
radish, cauliflower, corn, tomato, and several other kinds are finding it more difficult
to produce at prevailing competitive prices. Also it is a problem to get some of the
lesser-used or small-volume varieties produced on account of the difficulty of growing
small acreages.    The problem is, therefore, whether the seed firms should try to con- DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 65
tinue to grow a full range of kinds and varieties in British Columbia or to grow only
the items which are more easily grown or which return the growers a greater profit.
" If economics—that is, the present comparative costs of production—were to
dictate what shall be grown, these marginal items would gradually be dropped from
production. However, the problem is not that simple because it is believed that by
the use of special equipment and machinery costs of production of many kinds can be
lowered considerably. Another very important point is that our British Columbia firms
find that having a fairly complete line or range of kinds and varieties very materially
assists the volume of business done with the retail type of seed house in Canada. Considering the above points, it appears that British Columbia firms should make every
effort to keep up the growing of the present range of kinds and varieties, even though
only small amounts of some varieties are required and even though at present other
varieties are difficult to grow and therefore not profitable. To accomplish this it may
be necessary:—
(1.)  For grower firms to establish several careful seed-growers, each with a
greater number of kinds and varieties in smaller volume.
(2.)  To pay these growers a higher price than other or volume growers—in
some cases probably a price higher than seed could be obtained from
American or other sources.
(3.)  For the firms, Government experts and others to give such growers more
assistance in the matter of direction and advice, equipment, etc., and be
prepared to make or recommend favourable adjustments in the matter of
prices and volume to be grown.
(4.)  On kinds of seed where volume production at lower or competitive prices
is essential, financial assistance in the matter of machinery or equipment
may have to be provided either by seed firms or by Government agencies.
An important crop coming in this category is corn, which is discussed
further in this report.
" Flower-seed Production Problems.—As was shown earlier in this report, the
production of flower-seed has increased steadily during the past four years to an
estimated total of $185,000 in value this year. This increase has come about chiefly
by contracts from United States being placed in British Columbia, although a substantial volume is also contracted for and sold in Canada.
" It was inevitable that many problems in connection with the growing, harvesting,
threshing, and cleaning of the various kinds and varieties of flowers should be
encountered. Only a handful of growers, including the members of the three firms
contracting in the Province, are in any way familiar with flower-seed growing, and even
they have encountered serious problems. It follows, therefore, that we were called
upon for information on various points with which we were not familiar. At present,
however, after observing the various crops over a period of several years, it has been
possible for us to acquire considerable information. In addition, the trip to the
flower-seed growing areas in California was particularly helpful.
" The problems encountered have chiefly to do with the technique or practical
cultural methods employed in growing the crops. A number of these points are noted
in the following remarks:—
" 1. Maintaining purity or quality on the strain or variety grown. This is an
involved problem taking into account the knowledge of the type required, the selection
and roguing of the plots and the problem of cross-pollination.
" In the matter of selection, actually years of experience are required to definitely
appreciate what is the desired type in certain kinds and varieties. Maintaining the
range of colours in a mixture is a complicated problem. W 66 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" 2. The problem of finding out which are the most suitable districts for growing
each of the many varieties to be produced.
" There are several quite distinct climatic zones in British Columbia, but in so far
as flower-seed growing is concerned, the Southern Coastal region and the Southern
Interior are the areas of major importance, although some of the early-maturing hardy
annuals would probably do just as well in frost-free districts farther north.
" Great differences in yield, time of seeding, harvesting, and methods of handling
exist between the Coastal and the Interior districts. It has been a constant problem
for the three grower firms to determine which area is best suited for each of the
various kinds.
" A slight variation in climate can express a marked difference, affecting the
success or failure of many crops. It has become apparent that a few crops can be
grown only under the Coast climate. A few crops require hot, dry Interior conditions.
Some kinds can be grown in both areas, but much more cheaply in the Dry Belt because
of a more economical method of harvesting. Some kinds appear to grow well in the dry
Interior, but the seed crop is often a failure either because of blasting of blossoms due
to heat or damage from fall frosts.
" 3. The proper procedure or method to be followed in the actual growing of each of
the many kinds and varieties required. This has to do with the time of seeding, whether
or not the variety should be first seeded under glass and later pricked off into flats
for still later transplanting; or whether seed can be sown direct in the field—and if so,
what date should the seed be sown. It also has to do with thinning or transplanting
distances, application of fertilizer, weeding, irrigation, etc., and, finally, at which stage
should harvesting begin. Some crops must be harvested by hand-picking; in others
the heads or branchlets are cut by hand, several cuttings or pickings being required.
In a few crops the whole plants are cut and easily handled.
" Proper drying of the harvested crop is also very important. Then there is the
problems of threshing—both as to time and method. Cleaning of seed is the last
operation in which some peculiar problems arise, largely interlocked with methods of
harvesting.
" 4. Lowered costs of production. Because of the highly mechanized methods used
in flower-seed production in California, we, in British Columbia, are constantly faced
with the problem of evolving better methods and more specialized equipment, etc., to
assist in reducing production costs.
"' During the past four years when prices of flower-seed have been quite high,
growers have been managing to do very well with very little equipment.
" Indications are that prices are now moving steadily lower, and if we, in British
Columbia, are going to stay in the business and maintain anything like our present
volume, the greatest attention must be given towards lowering our costs of production.
" The greatest factor affecting these costs is labour. The amount of labour
required in seeding, transplanting, thinning, weeding, harvesting, and drying is generally much higher here than in California because of our lack of mechanical equipment.
" Labour costs can be lowered by more efficient methods of production, chief of
which is the use of specially adapted labour-saving machinery. Our growers should
devote considerable time and thought to the development of various labour-saving
devices.
" 5. Other problems not included under the foregoing general headings, such as
artificial drying of late-maturing seed crops; marketing problems; pests and diseases;
and so on.
" We are endeavouring to assist in the flower-seed work as far as our knowledge
and contact permit. It must be admitted, however, that someone more experienced in
flower-seed work would be able to give more assistance to the growers. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 67
" Seed-corn.—There appears to be a splendid opportunity to increase the production
of sweet-corn seed in several of our Interior districts. This has been pointed out to
various seed-growers and firms in British Columbia from time to time. Considerable
time has been spent and much information has been made available to those showing
any interest in the possibilities of this crop.
" We apparently do not, at the present time, produce sufficient sweet-corn seed to
supply our own British Columbia needs, let alone take care of any orders from other
parts of Canada.
" In our Interior Dry Belt, conditions are very similar to those existing in Idaho,
where 80 per cent, of the United States requirements of sweet corn are now produced.
The area from Lytton to Kamloops and extending eastward possibly as far as Chase
appears to be ideally suited for sweet corn. Similarly, any part of the Okanagan from
Vernon southward to the border is well adapted. The latter area seems to offer greater
possibilities for securing acreage because there is less competition from higher-priced
crops such as exists in the Okanagan.
" There has been ample proof that top-quality seed-corn can be produced in the
above Dry Belt areas. Year after year Golden Bantam seed and other varieties of
similar season have been produced successfully. Even varieties maturing two weeks
later than Golden Bantam appear to be quite safe from the standpoint of length of
season.
" In field corn, both in open-pollinated and in hybrid varieties, excellent results
have been secured from crops observed over a period of ten years. It might also be
noted here that G. A. Luyat this year won first in the hybrid field-corn class at the
Royal Winter Fair in Toronto, with an exhibit of twenty cobs of his own corn grown
at Kamloops. This is no small feat when it is considered that he was competing against
the best corn-growers in Ontario—in a Province which produces over 50,000,000 bushels
of field corn annually.
" While feed-corn can be dried in outside cribs, seed of both sweet and field must
be dried artificially.
" As has been noted, there are as yet no effective commercial driers in British
Columbia, and corn-seed growing can never succeed on a commercial scale until one or
more driers are in operation.
" Seed-beans.—Contracts for the growing of seed of canning and garden beans in
British Columbia have been received in very large volume from seed firms throughout
Canada. Many contracts for 1946 crops could not be accepted, and it appears now that
orders are being turned down for 1947 crop deliveries.
" As we have pointed out in previous articles and reports, a high-quality seed-bean
is produced in our Interior Dry Belt, and buyers are beginning to realize this fact.
Actually, our British Columbia beans are the best which can be produced in Canada
from the standpoint of freedom from disease, germination, and general quality. Possibly
the greatest factor is freedom from bacterial blight and anthracnose, both seed-borne
diseases which are easily kept under control in our Southern Dry Belt.
" The problem in seed-beans, therefore, is not one of marketing, for the demand is
greater than the supply. We are interested in getting more beans produced, and to do
this, must show our farmers that seed-beans are a profitable and economic crop which
can be fitted into their mixed-farming programme. A farmer with a fair acreage of
clean, irrigated land is well advised to grow beans at present prices. A suitable seeder
and a row-crop tractor equipped with the cultivator tools are probably the most essential
implements required.
" A bean cutter or harvester and threshing-machine or combine adjusted to
eliminate splitting and cracking are also necessary. W 68
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" British Columbia should be able to produce about 1,000,000 lb. of garden and
canning bean-seed, which would take care of the Canadian requirement.
" Export of the Canadian Wonder and Masterpiece varieties of seed-beans to the
United Kingdom has been a worth-while item during the war, and there is no reason
why this business should not increase in future years.
" While food-beans are always in demand, prices are not as attractive as for seed-
beans in view of the extensive Ontario production. However, early-maturing varieties
of lima beans can be a very profitable crop in the Lytton-Ashcroft district, probably
better than any other district in Canada.
" The Seed-producing Sections of the Pacific Coast States.—Besides the usual
inspection trips made throughout the Province, a visit was made to the important
seed-growing areas of Washington, Oregon, and California in company with C. Tapp,
of the Plant Products Division. This trip was of a month's duration, from May 14th
to June 11th. It was made in the interests of the seed growers and firms of British
Columbia to acquire information which might be of value to the industry. An extensive
report was prepared, mimeographed, and sent out to seed-growers, seed firms, and
various Department of Agriculture officials in the Province. Some of the main headings
and subjects covered in the report were as follows: Object of the Trip; General
Impressions; Discussion of Visits to Special Areas, Seed Firms, and Experimental
Stations; Flower-seed Growing; General Remarks on Flower-seed Growing; Farm
Machinery and Equipment; Brief Summary; and Concluding Remarks. (This report
is available upon request.)
" Conclusion.—We have passed the peak of production on vegetable-seeds, although
flower-seed and field-crop seeds have continued to increase in volume and total value.
The demand for vegetable-seed was the first to feel the impetus of the war in 1940,
when it became evident that a large volume was needed to supply not only the United
Kingdom, but many other countries formerly dependent on Europe. It was expected
that the demand would diminish after the conclusion of the war, and we have been
surprised that it has held up so well to this date.
" It must be remembered that the consumption of vegetable-seed is not a large item
in a nation's economy. British Columbia continues to produce more than 75 per cent,
of Canada's requirements, in addition to exporting even larger amounts of onion and
carrot than are sold in Canada.
" Therefore, seed growers and firms should be well satisfied with our past record
of production and sales. They should be prepared for a further decline in 1947 in view
of the increase in seed production in Europe and the over-all world seed-supply situation.
" In addition to the market situation, it would appear that our attention should be
directed towards: (1) Lowering costs of production, and (2) maintaining or improving
the quality of our product. These two factors govern the success or failure of our
industry."
FIELD INSPECTION WORK.
Fire-blight Inspection.
Fire-blight inspection was carried out during the past season,
indicates the results of such inspection:—
The following table
District.
Total Acres
inspected.
Inspected
and passed.
Not
passed.
168
5,000
4,600
166
4,696
4,600
2
304
2,476
2,476
Totals	
12,244
11,938
306 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946.
W 69
Nursery Stock Inspection.
Inspection of all nurseries is undertaken each year with a view to seeing that all
fruit stock supplied to growers is free from insect pest and disease. The following
table outlines briefly the results of the 1946 inspection:—
Number
inspected.
Number
passed.
Number
condemmed.
52,059
17,680
17,362
13,296
31,023
2,463
49,747
16,726
17,100
12,609
30,477
2,460
2,312
954
Plums and prunes	
262
687
546
3
Totals           	
133,883
129,119
4,764
Twenty-five inspections made;  3.5 per cent, of inspected stock condemned.
Bacterial Ring-rot Control.
A local outbreak of bacterial ring-rot located in the Comox Valley was dealt with
last year and has received further attention this year. A heavy importation of potatoes
during the past season has also added to the possibility of further outbreaks of this
disease. The whole matter has been, to a large extent, under the supervision of the
Assistant Plant Pathologist, who is reporting fully on this situation.
HORTICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION-WORK.
Pruning Demonstrations.
One-day pruning demonstrations were held in all of the horicultural districts.
A great many of those attending were returned servicemen who will be working on
fruit-farms either as farm-help or as owners. It is planned to hold similar schools
during the coming winter. The following table shows the number of schools held and
the number attending:—
District. I
Vancouver Island	
Lower Mainland	
Okanagan	
Kootenay	
o. of
istrations.
No. of
Pupils.
16
452
9
279
16
737
3
46
Totals.
44
1,514
Trial op Table-corn.
The table-corn trials on Vancouver Island were under the supervision of E. W.
White, who reports as follows:—
" A small quantity of table-corn seed of four varieties—namely, Marcross, Span-
cross, Earligold, and King's Cross Bantam—was secured. Some of this seed was distributed to E. C. Gillingham, R.M.D. 4, Victoria, on April 25th, and some to H. Robinson, Duncan, on May 18th.
" The test at Mr. Gillingham's was quite successful, but that at Mr. Robinson's was
a failure due to the fact that the plot became overgrown with weeds during the wet
period in June and July.
" The following are some of the salient facts regarding the test at Mr. Gillingham's:— W 70 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" Length of row:  156 feet.    117 hills.
"Distance between hills: 16 inches; two seeds to a hill; seed soaked in water
before planting.
" Distance between rows:   3 feet.
" Date of planting:  May 11th, 1946.
" Date plants showing above ground:  May 19th, 1946.
" Fertilized with sulphate of ammonia at the rate of 200 lb. per acre one week after
corn was well up.    Fertilizer watered in.
" First picking Spancross, Earligold, and Marcross:   August 24th.
" Last picking Spancross, Earligold, and Marcross:   September 1st.
" First picking King's Cross Bantam:  September 1st.
" Last picking King's Cross Bantam:   September 14th.
" Yield Spancross 251 No. 1 marketable ears:  Average 2.14 ears per hill.
" Yield Earligold 141 No. 1 marketable ears:  Average 1.21 ears per hill.
" Yield Marcross 143 No. 1 marketable ears:  Average 1.22 ears per hill.
" Yield King's Cross Bantam 254 No. 1 marketable ears: Average 2.17 ears
per hill.
" Plot irrigated regularly from July 15th till harvesting completed.
" Selling price per dozen:   50 cents.
" Estimated gross return per acre:  $750.
" In addition to the above yield, there was another estimated 10 dozen small ears
per variety which were used at home and given away.
" All varieties were good to excellent in quality. All were twelve-rowed type; the
Spancross, Earligold, and Marcross were much the same type, the cobs being about
9 to 10 inches long and plump. The cobs of King's Cross Bantam were longer and
thinner.
" Mr. Gillingham plans to make a more extensive planting next year, particularly
of Spancross and King's Cross Bantam."
Control of Apple-scab with Fermate.
The spray-work with Fermate was undertaken at Salmon Arm by C. R. Barlow,
District Field Inspector, in collaboration with officials of the Dominion Pathological
Service. A report on the work carried out is herewith submitted. This demonstration-
work was started in 1944.
" This demonstration-work was started in 1944 with the principal objective of
finding a material, or combination of materials, the use of which, while giving efficient
control, would cause less foliage damage than that commonly caused by the use of lime-
sulphur, which is at present the standard material used to control apple-scab. The
material used was Fermate (ferric dimethyldithiocarbamate), alone and in combination with lime-sulphur, and with Sulforon. With the completion of this year's work
the experiment has been conducted over a three-year period, and sufficient data are
now available to warrant arrival at some conclusions.
" The variety on which the tests were made was Mcintosh Red. The materials
used on the different plots (which is presented in tabulated form) were the same as
those used in the two previous years. The percentage of clean and infected fruit on
the various plots will also be found in the table. If reference is made to the tabulation accompanying your Inspector's reports for 1944 and 1945, it will be noted that
the results obtained this year, in so far as the actual control of scab is concerned, very
closely resemble those of the two previous years—namely, that Fermate used alone was
slightly less effective than where used in combination with lime-sulphur or Sulforon,
or where lime-sulphur was used alone; that Fermate where used in combination with
either lime-sulphur or Sulforon was slightly more effective than where lime-sulphur DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946.
W 71
was used alone; that in all three years a heavy percentage of the fruit on the unsprayed
check-plot was infected with scab; that satisfactory commercial control was obtained
on all sprayed plots.
" In all three seasons during which the experiment has been conducted, there has
been no visible injury to the foliage on the plots where Fermate was used either alone
or in combination, while considerable dwarfing, crinkling, and burning of the foliage
occurred on the plot on which lime-sulphur was used. Although the orchard practice
followed on all plots was identical, the vigour of the trees on the plots where Fermate
was used was, as indicated by the colour and size of the foliage, markedly superior to
that on the plot where lime-sulphur was used.
" With regard to cost of materials, at present prices the cost of the Fermate-lime-
sulphur combination is more than four times that of lime-sulphur used alone, while
that of the Fermate-Sulforon formula is only 38V2 cents per 100 gallons greater than
that of lime-sulphur alone. From the above comparison, and having in view the close
similarity of the results obtained with the two combination formulas, it seems clear
that the Fermate-Sulforon combination is the more economical of the two. It should
be noted that Fermate, as it is now being manufactured, no longer requires the use of
a spreader, and this can now be omitted from the combination sprays.
" The general use of the Fermate-Sulforon formula for apple-scab control in the
Salmon Arm-Sorrento area has several advantages over the use of lime-sulphur as at
present generally applied—namely, as good or better control, improved vigour in the
trees as a result of a minimum of foliage-injury, less discomfort to the operators in
applying the spray, and facility of transportation of materials, with an attendant saving in the cost of labour involved. It is thus apparent that the small extra cost of
materials as compared to the cost of lime-sulphur would be more than counterbalanced
by the advantages gained.
" In summary it would now appear to be advisable to recommend to the growers in
the Salmon Arm-Sorrento area the use of the Fermate-Sulforon formula in place of
the lime-sulphur formulas at present employed to control apple-scab.
" In the following table will be found the tabulated data relative to this year's
work:—
'Results of Experiment in Control of Apple-scab at Salmon Arm, 1946.
Spray.
Fruit free
from Scab.
Fruit
scabby but
marketable.
Culls due
to Scab.
Fermate, 2 lb. to 100 gals, water	
| Fermate, 2 lb., and lime-sulphur, 1 gal. to 100 gals, water	
Fermate, % lb., and Sulforon, 4 lb. to 100 gals, water	
Lime-sulphur, i% gals, to 100 gals, water, in " pink " stage...
Lime-sulphur, 1% gals, to 100 gals, water, in " calyx " stage..
Lime-sulphur, 1% gals, to 100 gals, water, 19 days later	
No sprays applied	
Per Cent.
92.0
98.6
97.2
96.8
Per Cent.
8.0
1.4
2.8
2.7
42.9
Per Cent.
Nil
Nil
Nil
0.5
8.3
" Note.—The applications on all plots were made concurrently with the applications made on Plot 4, namely:—
In the ' pink' and ' calyx ' stages, and nineteen days later.
' Fruit free from Scab ' indicated no scab whatever.
' Fruit scabby but marketable ' indicates that the amount of scab on the apple
did not total more than one-half inch on the aggregate.
' Culls due to Scab ' indicates that the total amount of scab exceeded one-half
inch in the aggregate." W 72 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Deblossoming Sprays.
This project has now been carried on for four years in the same area. During
that period the work has been under the supervision of H. H. Evans, District Field
Inspector, Vernon. The following is the report submitted by Mr. Evans on the work
done in 1946:—
" This project has been undertaken in an effort to establish the value of chemicals
as thinning agents at pre-blossom and blossom stages.
" The continued co-operation of T. P. Hill, manager of the Coldstream Ranch, is
deeply appreciated in providing the same block of trees annually for this work.
" The work was carried out by W. Baverstock and your official. Materials used
were dinitro-ortho-cresol and the ammoniated salt of dinitro-ortho-cresylate, with soybean flour as the spreader.
" One spray only on May 9th and 10th was applied this season. The period chosen
was with trees 20 to 25 per cent, in blossom. The whole block carried a uniform heavy
bloom.    Weather was clear, warm, but windy at the time of spraying.
" Blossom-kill and foliage-injury checked May 17th, and thinning results checked
July 3rd.
"Plot 1:  Dinitro-ortho-cresol 40 per Cent, at 3 Lb. per 100 Gals.
Blossom-kill medium to good.    Foliage-injury slight, no spur-injury.    Thinning results only fair, clusters, too bunchy.    Plot required considerable
hand-thinning.    Fruit medium small to medium large.
"Plot 2: Ammoniated Dinitro-ortho-cresylate at 3 Lb. per 100 Gals.
Blossom-kill severe.    Foliage-injury severe.    Very slight spur-kill.    Thinning
results too heavy on lower two-thirds of tree, upper one-third still too
bunchy.    Fruit-size medium to large, no hand-thinning required.
"Plot 3: Dinitro-ortho-cresol at 2% Lb. per 100 Gals.
Blossom-kill light.    Foliage-injury very slight.    Thinning results very poor.
Fruit small to medium.    Crop heavy and required hand-thinning.    (Very
poor.)
"Plot 4-' Ammoniated Dinitro-ortho-cresylate at 2% Lb. per 100 Gals.
Blossom-kill medium  severe,  too  bunchy  on  tops.    Foliage-injury  medium
severe.   Thinning results very good.   Fruit-size medium to large.    (Very
good.)   Breaking of bunches on tops of trees, only hand-thinning required.
"Check-plot:   Untreated.
On this plot the crop set heavy and bunchy. Fruit remained small to small
medium on account of late thinning. In tree-growth it was very noticeable by mid-July that all sprayed plots (even where foliage-injury was
severe) had more thrifty foliage and better terminal growth than the
check-plot."
Buffalo-tree Hopper-control.
As reported by H. H. Evans, District Field Inspector, Vernon:—
" This project, commenced in 1945, is an endeavour to obtain control of this insect
with D.D.T. (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane).
" The block, connsisting of 300 four- and five-year-old top-worked trees, was split
into four plots. On account of oil-injury to buds in 1945 this was omitted from the
current season's work.
" Spring emergence of hoppers:  May 24th.
" Hoppers not active on trees:  September 6th.
" Plots checked for injury:  October 22nd.
" Seven trees per plot and five limbs per tree were checked for hopper-incisions. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946.
W 73
" Plot Set-up and Results.
Plot.
Date sprayed.
Material and Quantity per 100 Gals.
Incisions
per Limb
averaged.
1
D.D.T., 2 lb. of 50 per cent, wettable	
14 6
2
6 0
3
9 0
4
Check-plot—unsprayed	
22.4
" No hoppers were in evidence at October 22nd, indicating that ovi-position cycle
was completed.
" There was a noticeable difference in appearance of the trees on the treated and
untreated plots.    Untreated trees appeared more stunted in growth.
" Results of the two seasons' work are quite encouraging. The present intention
is to continue the work for another season."
Pear-thrip Control.
Pear-thrip has for many years been an outstanding pest in many pear-orchards
throughout the Province. Various sprays have been applied with indifferent results.
In the 1945 report for the Branch certain sprays were outlined in which D.D.T. was
included, and, as shown, most satisfactory results were obtained. This work was again
undertaken in 1946 by B. Hoy, District Field Inspector, Kelowna, and an official of the
Dominion Entomological Branch. In concluding his report on this work, Mr. Hoy goes
on to say:—■
" Because of the excellent results obtained last year, Bankhead Orchard Company
and neighbouring orchards sprayed all of their pears in the dormant period with D.D.T.
50 per cent, at 1 lb. per 100 gallons, plus % gallon of stove-oil. In 1945 thrip-russeting
damaged the crop to such an extent that about 60 per cent, was shipped Cee grade.
This year there was practically no loss caused by thrip."
Control of Mites.
As reported by B. Hoy, District Field Inspector, Kelowna:—
" European red-mite gave considerable trouble in some orchards, but damage was
not so general as in 1945. Where dormant oil spray was used, infestation was light in
the spring and early summer, but in most instances by late August the insects had built
up a very heavy population.
" Pacific mite generally did little damage to the crop, but was spread over a wider
area than ever before. Practically no measures have been taken for the control of this
insect by the growers to date. With greater use of D.D.T., Pacific mite will increase
and control-sprays will be necessary. The experimental area sprayed with D.D.T. in
1945 and sprayed in 1946 with cryolite in the calyx and first two covers, followed by
D.D.T. for the balance of the season, showed the heaviest infestation of mites in the
orchard.
"Some experiments for controlling red-mite were conducted by the writer in cooperation with P. Venables and H. Andison, of the Dominion Entomological Branch, on
pear-trees in Bankhead Orchard. These tests indicated that 1 lb. of D.N. Ill per 100
gallons of spray, included in two sprays not more than ten days apart, would reduce the
infestation considerably.
" The ammonium salt of dinitro-cyclohexylphenol at % lb. per 100 gallons was even
more effective and produced no harmful effects on the folliage or fruit.    This is the W 74 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
cheapest material as well as one of the most effective we have used. This compound is
not on the market, and it is questionable whether it is good policy to recommend it
owing to difficulties growers may experience in mixing it."
Demonstration-work in the control of mites is also reported by R. P. Murray, District Field Inspector, Penticton:—
" Trials were made with a selenium compound called ' selocide' for control of the
European and Pacific mites. Two plots wTere laid out—one at Keremeos and one at
Penticton. The plot at Penticton had very few Pacific mite, but was badly infested
with European red-mite.    The varieties were Delicious and Yellow Newton.
"Plot 1 was selocide, 1 pint; summer oil, 65 viscosity, 92 U.R., a commercial
emulsion.
" Plot 2: Selocide, 1 pint; summer oil, 65 viscosity, 76 U.R. emulsified with soybean flour; water, 100 gallons. This gave a thorough clean-up of the European red-
mite, with no damage from either type of oil. The manufacturer supplying the material
was skeptical of the heavier type oil that is commonly used in the valley, but it was
tried to see if the two materials were compatible. At Keremeos the plots were heavily
infested with both European and Pacific mite, and the same procedure was repeated;
in addition, one plot was sprayed only with precipitated sulphur, as recommended for
Pacific mite. The selocide gave satisfactory controls on both Pacific and European
red-mites, but, as was expected, the precipitated sulphur controlled only the Pacific mite.
" Whether or not this material can be safely recommended is still in doubt, although
it is an excellent spray against mites, but the possibility of building up a dangerous
soil residue of selenium from this product is not known. Since other materials are
available that will give satisfactory controls of these two mites, it would probably be
safer to leave this material alone until the results of more investigational work are
available."
Codling-moth Control.
The demonstration-work in the control of codling-moth, and as undertaken in the
Kelowna area under the supervision of B. Hoy, District Field Inspector, is a fair
standard of similar work carried out in other sections. As to the Kelowna demonstration-work, Mr. Hoy makes the following report:—
" The summer of 1946 was perhaps the most unfavourable to codling-moth of any
season for fifteen years or more. Cool weather prevailed throughout the early summer,
and there were no prolonged hot periods throughout July, August, or September.
Because of these unfavourable conditions, codling-moth control was generally good.
" Very little nicotine sulphate of fixed nicotine was available, so most of the spraying was done with cryolite. Where infestation was particularly heavy in 1945, some
growers used phenothiazine in two and three cover-sprays on the first brood. In most
cases they were pleased with the results, but nearly all complained of the difficulties in
applying it. Phenothiazine, when in contact with the skin, produces a burning effect
similar to sunburn, and those members of spray crews who did not use any protection
had sore faces for a while. Those who used calamine lotion regularly reported no
trouble at all. This insecticide is nearly the equal of D.D.T. for controlling codling-
moth, but does not mix as readily with other sprays, and the burning of the skin is an
objectionable feature.
" H. Andison, of the Dominion Entomological Branch, co-operated in the codling-
moth work in Keloka Orchard. The results in this experiment with D.D.T. were similar
to those of other investigators in the North-west. Excellent control resulted in all plots
were D.D.T. was used, but mite infestation, especially with low concentrations, was
generally heavier than in the check-plot. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 75
" Xanthone was also used this year, and, as last year, the foliage on these plots was
free from mites and the healthiest of any of the plots.
" Assistance was given to the Dominion Entomological Branch in applying trunk-
sprays at Westbank and also in checking these plots later in the summer. Owing to the
small number of worms found, the results were not conclusive. The work did indicate
that in applying trunk-sprays, the mixture of 40-per-cent. dinitrocresol and oil can be
applied safely without using an emulsifier. There is apparently enough bentonite in
the dinitrocresol 40 per cent, to emulsify the oil sufficiently for codling-moth trunk-
sprays.
" Owing to results obtained in codling-moth experiments over a period of years,
changes will be made in recommendations on the new spray calendar. In these recommendations alternative sprays are given for codling-moth and information about materials that can be combined with these sprays for mite-control. A summary of these
recommendations that has been prepared under the direction of the B.C.F.G.A. Spray
Committee is appended to this report.
" During the summer, parasites shipped from the Dominion Parasite Laboratory at
Belleville, Ont., were released in the Kelowna district.
" Releases of Ephialtes caudata in the Pridham Orchard were made on June 13th,
July 2nd, July 30th, August 28th, September 13th, and October 9th. Cryptus sexanu-
latus were released on the same dates in the Keloka Orchard at East Kelowna."
In view of the reference made to the recommendations prepared under the direction
of the B.C.F.G.A. Spray Committee in Mr. Hoy's report, it seems advisable that these
recommendations be included in this report. They are therefore submitted as a matter
of record and for future reference:—
Summ-ary of New Spray Recommendations for 1947 by
B.C.F.G.A. Spray Committee.
New materials for the control of codling-moth and mites will appear on the 1947
spray calendar. As there are alternative sprays suggested for many orchard-pests,
dealers must know grower requirements in advance if they are to have stocks available.
The following is a brief summary of the recommendations that will appear in the new
spray calendar. In order not to be disappointed, study the following recommendations
and place your orders as soon as possible.
Dormant Sprays.—1. Oil of 220 viscosity in all dormant sprays to replace the 110
viscosity formerly recommended.
2. Three gallons of lime-sulphur plus 1 gallon of oil per 100 gallons of spray for
blister-mite, San Jose and European scale.
3. Forty-per-cent. dinitrocresol, 1% lb. plus 2 gallons emulsified oil (emulsifier
must not contain lime) for black cherry-aphis, apple and plum aphis, apple mealy-bug,
peach twig-borer, and light infestations of San Jose scale.
4. Water-soluble dinitrocresol compounds may be substituted for dinitrocresol-oil
at manufacturer's directions.
5. D.D.T. 50 per cent., 1% lb. to 100 gallons of water for pear-thrips.
Pre-pink, Pink, and Calyx.—1. Apple and pear mildew—the same as last year.
2. Lime-sulphur, 1% gallons and ferric dimethyldithiocarbamate 1 lb. to 100 gallons of water in pink, calyx, and first cover for apple-scab in district where this disease
is prevalent.
3. Lime-sulphur, 1 gallon to 9 gallons of water in pink for control of peach twig-
borer.
Summer Sprays per 100 Gallons of Spray.—1. Cryolite, 4 lb. plus % to % lb.
spreader in calyx and all cover-sprays where control has been satisfactory. W 76 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
2. D.D.T. 50 per cent., lx/2 to 2 lb. in any or all codling-moth cover-sprays. Use
the heavier dosage where codling-moth infestation is heavy and difficult to control.
Cover-sprays should be timed as recommended for cryolite last year. Mites and woolly
aphis usually become very numerous where D.D.T. is used, and it will be found necessary to include a miticide in at least two to three cover-sprays.
3. Phenothiazine, at % to 1 lb. plus 1 quart of stove-oil, nearly as effective as
D.D.T. against codling-moth when used in first three cover-sprays. Should not be used
in the second brood, but may be followed by any of the other recommended mixtures.
4. Xanthone, 2 lb. plus 1 quart of stove-oil emulsified with tall oil-monoethanola-
mine plus zinc sulphate 1.5 oz., is effective against codling-moth and European red-mite.
In order to increase its efficiency against codling-moth, it can be combined with D.D.T.
or perhaps purchased in a mixture of these materials sold by the manufacturers. Must
not be used until the third cover-spray because of tendency to russet very small fruits.
Miticides.—To be effective, the following materials should be used in at least two
to three consecutive cover-sprays to begin as soon as mites appear:—
1. Derivatives of dinitro-cyclohexylphenol. The manufactured product is used at
1 lb. per 100 gallons of spray. May be combined with D.D.T. or cryolite and is effective
against European red-mite and Pacific mite. Must not be used with sprays containing
oil, lime-sulphur, or lime.
2. Xanthone may be used as described above.
3. Precipitated sulphur as recommended on last year's spray calendar has given
good control of Pacific mite, but is not effective against red-mite.
Summer Sprays for Aphis and Pear-psylla. — Forty-per-cent. nicotine sulphate
combinations as recommended in former years.
Derris-oil at manufacturer's directions may be combined with cryolite or D.D.T.
Instructions for mixing these sprays will be contained in the new spray calendar
which should be in your hands early in January. The above summary contains information as to quantities needed and the uses of the various sprays. Though some of these
materials are more effective than you have used in the past, do not attempt to cut down
on the gallonage per tree or number of sprays.    None of them will perform miracles.
Apple Powdery-mildew Control.
This disease appears in the Okanagan particularly, and some demonstration-work
in the control of this trouble has been undertaken by R. P. Murray, District Field
Inspector, Penticton, who reports as follows:—
" Apple powdery-mildew has been causing serious losses to growers with susceptible
varieties such as Jonathan and Mcintosh. Some work done last year indicated earlier
applications than those recommended showed promise of better control.
" This season two plots were laid out at Penticton and sprayed with lime-sulphur
1-60. Plot 1 was sprayed during the delayed green tip, early cluster bud, and cluster
bud. Plot 2 was sprayed with lime-sulphur 1-60 in the early cluster-bud and full
cluster-bud stages. It was planned that another plot sprayed at the recommended
times—namely, cluster bud and calyx—would be available, but the grower inadvertently
sprayed the remainder of the orchard in the earlier stages and no third plot was possible. Spray dates for these applications were April 12th, April 26th, and May 1st.
Under all treatments the fruit remained quite free of mildew, but the plot receiving
the three sprays was definitely better than the plot receiving only two sprays. This
was particularly noticeable in the improved foliage on this plot; apple-size at harvest
was about equal on both plots, averaging 125 to the picking-box. The following is a
summary of the results:—
Two  sprays   (Lime-sulphur  1-60)—Early  Cluster  Bud  and  Cluster  Bud:
Number of apples checked, 469;  number with mildew, 27 or 5.76 per cent. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 77
Three Sprays (Lime-sulphur 1-60)—Delayed Green Tip, Early Cluster Bud,
and Cluster Bud: Number of apples checked, 1,507; number with mildew,
10 or 0.66 per cent.
" From observations over the past two seasons it is indicated that early sprays are
more effective in controlling powdery mildew than later sprays.    It is intended to again
carry on some trials next season, putting on the first mildew spray in the greep-tip
stage or as soon as mildew spores are found to be developing, and to try to keep the
new growth covered until the calyx spray is applied for codling-moth."
Mealy-bug Control.
Mealy bug has been found on Vancouver Island, in the Okanagan, and in the
Kootenays. In the first two areas the infestation has been local, and the owners of
infested orchards have secured satisfactory results with dormant sprays.
In the Kootenays, where the infestation may be considered general, satisfactory
control is being obtained through the use of recommended sprays. In this area the
recommendations and the results obtained are commented on by E. C. Hunt, District
Horticulturist, Nelson:—
" Mealy bugs in the West Kootenay District are now being kept well under control
in most sections with the recommended dormant oil spray of 100-110 viscosity oil plus
1% to 2 lb. of dinitrocresol 40 per cent, and % lb. of soya flour used as a spreader-
amulsifier to 100 gallons of water. This dormant oil spray not only controls the mealy
bugs, but will also control black cherry-aphis, rosy apple-aphis, San Jose scale, blister-
mites, and oyster-shell scale. Growers using this dormant oil spray last year for the
first time were more than pleased with the results, and many stated that it was the
best spray they had ever used in the control of black cherry-aphis and mealy bugs.
Two cherry-orchards in the Creston area were sprayed with this material for the
control of black cherry-aphis by the writer and Mr. Morgan, of the Dominion Entomological Branch, and the plots or orchards were later checked by Mr. Andison and
reported to be almost 100 per cent, free of black cherry-aphis. The date of application
of these sprays was March 28th, with little or no delayed growth or injury to the trees.
Most of the injury to trees caused by dormant oil sprays is due to poor emulsification
of the oil and late applications, with the trees too far advanced.
" Parasites are making good headway in the control of the mealy bugs in a number
of sections of the district and have spread over a considerable area from the point of
liberation. Further distribution of the mealy-bug parasites is being made each year
in the Kootenay District by taking material from mealy-bug parasite-infested orchards
to new locations. So far this method of introducing this parasite to mealy-bug infested
orchards has proven quite successful and should help out the natural spread to quite
an extent. George Wishart, from the Dominion Entomological Laboratory, Belleville,
Ont., spent two days in the Kootenays checking on the spread of the mealy-bug parasites and reported satisfactory results."
Coryneum-blight Control.
As reported by E. C. Hunt, District Horticulturist, Nelson:—
" This disease is prevalent on peach and apricot trees in many sections of the district where these fruits are grown. The disease attacks the fruit-buds, spurs, small
twigs and limbs, and in severe cases some of the large limbs. The disease also causes
spotting and gumming of the fruit in severe infestations. Little, if any, work on the
control of the disease has been carried out in this district, and as the peach-growing
industry is on the increase in the Kootenay, it was thought some experimental spraying
with the recommended materials in the control of coryneum blight should be under- taken. An orchard was selected near Nelson for the experiment (Jenson & Frederick-
son Orchard, North Shore, Nelson). The experiment is a co-operative one between the
British Columbia Department of Agriculture (Horticultural Branch) and the Dominion
Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Summerland. The spraying was carried out in this
orchard on September 23rd, 1946, by your District Horticulturist and Dr. M. F. Welsh,
of Summerland. The material used was Bordeaux 6-6-40. The age of the trees
sprayed ranged from 2 to 12 years old. In this orchard twenty-six peach-trees and
eight apricot-trees were sprayed. Eleven unsprayed peach-trees and eight unsprayed
apricot-trees were left as checks. If possible, a pink spray will be applied next spring
to complete the test, and the results on the control checked some time next year."
Red Stele of Strawberries.
This is one of the most serious diseases with which the growers of the fruit in the
Coast districts have had to contend. During the past year work has been undertaken
by W. R. Foster, Assistant Plant Pathologist, and G. E. W. Clarke, District Horticulturist, Abbotsford. Mr. Clarke, in his report on this work, makes certain recommendations that should be of assistance to growers:—
" The British Sovereign is the leading variety in the Fraser Valley, and there has
been considerable evidence of disease, identified as red stele by W. R. Foster, Assistant
Plant Pathologist, Victoria. Further investigations were carried forward this year
as a means of overcoming and controlling this situation. In some areas the disease
makes it practically impossible to grow this variety.
" In starting on the control of this disease problem, it was considered necessary
to:—
(1.)  Start an educational campaign.
(2.) If possible, obtain foundation stock free from this disease, and to encourage the production of certified plants.
(3.)  Obtain disease-resistant varieties.
(4.)  Try cultural control methods.
" During the past year growers and grower organizations have been made
acquainted with the disease and its serious nature, and as a result it is anticipated that
a large number of growers will be buying the best planting stock available in the
coming years or will be looking for resistant varieties that will be commercially
profitable.
" A survey was made during the early part of 1946 with Mr. Foster to locate among
the more progressive and careful growers British Sovereign stock free from red stele.
A few growers in the district have been practising plant selection for several years for
type and freedom from disease, and in several of these propagation plantings some
stocks were deemed to be suitable for commercial propagation with a view to making
inspections in the spring of 1947 and issuing inspection certificates.
" Over thirty growers' plantings were checked during the summer, and it is
expected that a favourable quantity of certified commercial planting stock will be available after the early spring inspection. The support and interest on the part of the
growers has been very encouraging.
" Small quantities of the following resistant varieties were obtained by Mr. Foster,
and these were planted on the farm of W. R. Redman, Bradner, in an area where red
stele was in evidence in a British Sovereign planting. These plantings were made in
the spring of 1946, and to date most varieties have made fair to good growth, but no
report can be made at this time as to their resistance to red stele. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 79
Heals Seedling. Temple. U.S. 3203.
Corvallis. Pathfinder U.S. 3204.
Cooper. Aberdeen. S 67.
Chesapeake. U.S. 3374. Dresdin.
Starbright. U.S. 3205. Dorsett.
North Star. U.S. 3378. Coleman President.
Red Star.
" In checking the commercial plantings for red stele it had been noted that in many
instances where plants were slightly ridged and the drainage good, they were usually
in better condition than plants growing under less favourable conditions.
" In view of this, arrangements were made with Mr. Redman to make a ridge
planting in the spring of 1945, to be compared with the usual level planting.
" On one side of the strawberry-field two ridges 6 feet apart were ploughed up and
ridged. These ridges were extremely high, as after being flattened off they were over
1% feet above the field-level.
" British Sovereign plants were planted 12 inches apart in the row.
" The remaining part of the field was planted on the level, with no ridging, 42
inches between rows and 24 inches in the row.
" This being newly cleared land, it was hoped to be able to obtain plants for the
spring of 1946;  consequently, after July no runners were cut.
" In the spring of 1946, in company with Mr. Foster, this planting was inspected.
" On the level planting there was evidence of red stele in every case examined,
except on two plants at the end of a row which was slightly raised.
" On the ridge planting no evidence of red stele was found, except on runner plants
at the part of the ridge on the same level as the ordinary planting.
" The crop of fruit taken from the ridge planting was in every respect superior to
the level planting.
" This ridge planting has made strong development during the year, and prospects
are favourable for another season.
" From this trial it indicates that some measure of control may be expected by good
drainage and improved cultural methods."
Little Cherry.
This virus first made its appearance in the Kootenay around Willow Point. It has
now spread to practically all sections of the Kootenay area. Up to the present it has
been confined to the Kootenay area, although this year it was reported in the Southern
Okanagan and also south of the boundary, in the State of Washington. The general
situation in the Kootenay is outlined in the following report from E. C. Hunt, District
Horticulturist, Nelson:—
" This virus of the sweet-cherry crop has now spread to practically all the cherry-
producing areas of the West Kootenay District. Little cherry has shown up this year
at Kaslo, New Denver, Upper Arrow Lakes, Renata, Crawford Bay, and has spread over
a wider area in the Creston district. It would seem now, with the spread of little
cherry to all parts of the district, that one of the most profitable fruit-crops of the
Kootenay will be put out of business in a very short time. The Kootenay Bay cherry-
orchard, where a lot of experimental work has been and is still being carried out in
connection with the control of little cherry, was again fertilized this fall with a 16-20-0
fertilizer at the rate of 10 lb. per tree, and another application of ammonia nitrate at
5 lb. per tree will be made in the spring. This should keep the trees in good growing
condition for any work that might need to be carried out in the orchard next year.
All experimental and investigational work in connection with little cherry is now being
carried out by the Dominion officials of the Science Service, Department of Agriculture. W 80 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Your assistant has co-operated in every way possible with the Dominion officials in
their work with little cherry, such as locating suitable isolated cherry-trees for experimental work and making evaluation of same. Numerous trips were made with the
same officials in connection with little-cherry infestations at a number of points
throughout the district and work that was being carried on in the experimental cherry-
orchard at Kootenay Bay. During the season a great many virus investigators and
horticulturists visited the district to see and study little cherry in its different stages,
and your assistant spent considerable time with the different men or groups of men,
giving them as much information as possible on the virus in its various stages of development, from light or first infestation to trees that were 100 per cent, infected. Your
assistant also made a trip to the Okanagan for inspection of cherry-orchards in that
district for little-cherry trouble. A week was spent on this work, covering the area
from Penticton to Osoyoos. A report covering this trip has been submitted to your
office."
The seriousness of this virus from the standpoint of the Okanagan is well presented in the report submitted by M. S. Middleton, District Horticulturist, Vernon:—
" The discovery this summer of a Bing cherry-tree infected with the little-cherry
virus disease in the Hanbury Orchard at Osoyoos was very alarming as the Okanagan
was considered free of the disease.
" The disease, which was first found in the West Kootenay District, has spread very
fast in that area and apparently no control is known. With this in mind your assistant
requested that E. C. Hunt, District Horticulturist for the Kootenay District, be asked
to come over to the Okanagan at the time the disease could best be observed and spend
some time going over a few of the cherry-orchards. This was arranged, and Mr. Hunt
and the writer spent a week going over cherry-trees from Osoyoos to Kelowna.
" The result was that a limb on one tree at Osoyoos was pronounced to have little-
cherry disease by Mr. Hunt. This tree was later examined by pathologists, who,
although they were not positive, felt that the tree should be pulled out and destroyed.
This was done immediately after the crop was harvested. In the meantime buds were
taken from the infected limb on the tree and will be budded to a healthy tree in the
Kootenay for verification.
"A few other trees in the Oliver area were pronounced doubtful by Mr. Hunt, and
as we worked north, the stage of maturity was not far enough advanced to be able to
definitely determine the presence of the disease.
" Following Mr. Hunt's visit, it was decided to send all our extension officials over
to the Kootenay so that they might see the disease in its advanced stages and familiarize themselves with its appearance and symptoms. Two parties visited the Kootenay
and were shown over the area by Mr. Hunt, and all returned greatly impressed with the
seriousness of the disease in the Kootenay and felt that every effort should be put forth
to keep it out of the Okanagan, if at all possible. The District Field Inspectors who
made the trip were John Smith, Oliver; R. P. Murray, Penticton; Alex. Watt, Summer-
land; B. Hoy, Kelowna; H. H. Evans and W. Baverstock, Vernon; and C. R. Barlow,
Salmon Arm.
" It has been suggested that complete surveys of all the cherry-trees in the
Okanagan be made during the summer when the fruits are at the proper stage of
maturity for best observation. All suspected trees will be marked, and later it is hoped
that these trees can be re-examined and passed upon by qualified pathologists before
any infected trees are removed. It will be necessary to have a conference in order to
deal with the situation.
" There are some 68,000 sweet-cherry trees in the Okanagan; 26,000 of these are
in the area from Kelowna south. About one-third of the plantings are young trees
under 5 years old and about half are over 10 years of age.    In nearly every orchard in DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 81
the south these trees are all in comparatively small blocks of a few trees in extent, while
in the north the total number of trees is greater, but most of the plantings are in larger
blocks. Some outside assistance may be necessary in order to carry out a tree-to-tree
survey at the proper time. However, there is a difference of from two to three weeks
in the stage of maturity from the south to the north which might be taken advantage
of in carrying out this survey."
CHERRY POLLINATION.
As reported by R. P. Murray, District Field Inspector, Penticton:—
" This season many of the growers in the Penticton district were induced to buy
commercial pollen from the United States to try to improve their cherry set. In order
to check on this, two plots were laid out at Penticton, and pollen was applied in a water
solution of 1 ounce to 25 gallons and sprayed at low pressure, about 75 lb., and the other
was mixed 1 ounce to 1 lb. diatamaceous earth and applied with a duster. The trees
were in full bloom at the time of application, with temperatures well over 70°.
At harvest-time no improvement could be noted where artificial pollination had been
tried. The variety pollinated in all cases was Bing. The results of this trial were
borne out by the results obtained from the various growers who also tried artificial
pollination. One grower even tried placing the pollen at the entrance to his bee-hives,
but was no more successful than where it had been applied mechanically."
DEVELOPMENTS IN ORCHARD EQUIPMENT.
Spraying and irrigation are two important phases of orchard-work. Any improvement in equipment that will reduce the work and increase the quality of production is
to the advantage of the industry as a whole. Certain changes are being recommended
in the method of spray application and also in the method of distributing irrigation-
water. These recommendations have not, as yet, been fully proven. They are, however, worthy of consideration, and as they have been dealt with in the report submitted
by John A. Smith, District Field Inspector, Oliver, it seems advisable to quote from his
report on this work:—
" Growers are showing a great deal of interest in the new types of spray-machines
being offered. The fog generator or aerosol sprayer and the Buffalo turbine are the
two types that are attracting most attention. These machines have many points in
common, inasmuch as they both use concentrates, cover acreage in about 10 per cent.
of the time that conventional machines take, are light and easily manceuverable,
moderately priced, and the human element is largely eliminated, inasmuch as the
gunmen are not required.
" These features have proved so attractive that many growers have placed orders
for delivery next season. Practically all the orders have been for the fog-generator
type, although some growers are planning to have the turbine sprayer.
" If available, there should be several of the new machines in the district next
season, in spite of the fact that they are largely untested for Pacific North-west
conditions and very little is known of the spray technique or of suitable spray mixtures.
" Then there is also the matter of irrigation. Several sprinkler irrigation systems
have been installed in the district during the last few years. Indications are that this
method of irrigating will expand greatly in the future.
" The system consists of self-locking, portable, light-weight steel or aluminium pipe
with low-head sprinklers. The pipe is moved from part to part of the orchard as
required.
" Among the advantages claimed are the prevention of erosion, economy of water,
and reduction of labour.    There are other minor considerations, such as the elimination W 82 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
of flumes and ditches, which make orchard operations easier to carry out, and orchards
also will not become boggy in parts.
" The cost of installation is fairly high, about $125 per acre.
" From observations this season, orchards that were sprinkled appeared in excellent
shape, and the cover-crop, getting an even supply of water over the area, succeeded
better than on furrow-irrigated lots."
SOIL-IMPROVEMENT.
The use of commercial fertilizers in orchard-work has been increasing each year.
A certain amount of demonstration-work with fertilizers and cover-crops with a view to
soil-improvement is being carried out in a number of the horticultural districts. The
use of sod mulch is also receiving some attention. In all of these soil-improvement
programmes a knowledge of soil, moisture, and general growing conditions is essential.
Mulching for soil-improvement has been tried out, not only in the tree-fruit areas,
but also in small-fruit sections as well. E. W. White, District Horticulturist, Victoria,
in his 1945 report, dealt with this subject. His 1946 report gives further information
on this matter and is herewith submitted:—
" This subject is becoming of increasing interest as a means of weed-control, as a
conserver of moisture, and as a reducer of labour costs. Some further comments on
this year's observations may prove of interest.
" The grower in Gordon Head mentioned last year with the % acre of Latham
raspberries which yielded so well ran into difficulties this year, due to the heavy
precipitation from September 1st, 1945, to April 30th, 1946. The plot lies naturally
low, and, as mentioned earlier, practically all soil was saturated for an eight-month
period. A number of canes were killed out, and yields were down about one-third
from 1945.
" The Duncan grower mentioned last year has continued and extended his mulching
programme, with excellent results.
" The acre of new land cleared last year was mulched during the winter of 1945-46
and planted this spring. During planting operations the mulch was just moved
sufficiently for the plants to be set. The planting comprises a number of different
varieties, and on the whole the growth has been excellent. On another area being used
for plant propagation, no mulch was applied before planting; but about the middle of
the summer when plant-growth was becoming extensive, the whole area was mulched
with sawdust. Any plants which were covered soon pushed themselves through the
sawdust, and young plants sent out their root system through the sawdust to the soil.
If this sawdust mulch will keep down weeds in the propagating-bed, the ease of digging
in the spring will be increased tremendously. In this case, of course, it remains to be
seen what the final results will be.
" Raspberries, loganberries, boysenberries, and blackberries, all grown under mulch
conditions and partial shade, produced excellent yields and quality of fruit.
" The Saanich grower referred to last year who mulched a new planting of 1%
acres of strawberries in the fall of 1944 and had a yield of 12,256 lb. of fruit in 1945
again had an excellent crop this year, totalling 14,556 lb., an increase of 2,300 lb. over
1945. The tilth of this planting would be considered far from ideal, as it was found
convenient to use a small mattock-like tool to do the hoeing and weeding in the spring
clean-up. This material was left in the rows as a mulch, and no horse or motor
cultivation was attempted.
" This grower plans to take off a third crop from this planting in 1947.
" Another Saanich grower, in April of this year, mulched % acre of bearing loganberries with hemlock, spruce, and cedar sawdust. No fir sawdust was used. This
mulch was applied to a depth of 5 to 6 inches.    There was an excellent crop of fruit DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 83
produced, and at this time the planting is practically free from all weed-growth.    Time
will tell whether this type of mulching has any injurious effect on plant-growth.
" This grower also applied twenty units of alder and maple sawdust and shavings
on % acre of newly cleared light soil intended for strawberry production. This material
was thoroughly incorporated with the soil by ploughing and harrowing. On November
16th and 17th 2,500 strawberry plants were set out on part of this area, as well-grown
plants were available and the land was ready for planting. The balance of the area will
be planted in the spring. It will be interesting to watch comparative results on this
planting.
" Several growers again used the method of placing the straw in every fourth row
when cleaning up after the strawberry harvest. The rows mulched in this manner in
1945 appeared to develop earlier ripened fruit in 1946 than the unmulched rows, and
no decrease in production was noticeable.
" Bulb-growers are also using mulch material to advantage. The Experimental
Station at Saanichton has run a mulching experiment on tulips for the past two years,
using waste hay in a finely divided condition applied about 4 inches deep in the fall.
The object was to try to reduce the heavy settling of clay soils and thereby facilitate
digging operations, and to determine the effect on yield. Digging conditions have not
been improved materially, but increase in the size of bulbs has been quite striking.
In 1945 the mulched plots produced, by weight, 30 per cent, more bulbs measuring
10 cm. and larger than did the unmulched plots, and in 1946 the mulched plots produced
20 per cent, more saleable-sized bulbs.
" Other experiments on mulching are being carried on at the Experimental
Station."
AGRICULTURAL LIME.
Ground limestone and hydrated lime for soil-amendment purposes is extensively
used, particularly in the Fraser Valley and Vancouver Island areas. Hydrated lime has
a value in that it is quick acting in its results; on the other hand, it is high in price.
Ground limestone on the whole is reasonable in price. These two materials, as well as
marl, have not been available in quantities, and available supplies have nowhere met the
agricultural demand. Many companies have indicated during the past year their
interest in increasing the available supply of ground limestone.
It is generally considered that at least 25,000 tons of ground limestone could be
used each year. Some authorities indicate an even higher figure. What will be
available in 1947, it is impossible to say. It is hoped that more will be available in the
future than has been obtainable in the past.
At the present time there is a Dominion-Provincial subsidy paid on ground limestone, which should induce the purchase of this product by the agriculturist when the
material is procurable. The subsidy consists of a rebate of $1 a ton to the purchaser
on the price paid. One dollar is also paid to the manufacturer upon presentation of
invoice indicating that he has sold ground limestone to the farmer at $1 less than the
basic price established by the Wartime Prices and Trade Board for the commodity
which he manufactures. Briefly, therefore, the agriculturist is receiving a $2 subsidy
on each ton of ground limestone which he purchases.
The above outlines the agricultural-lime situation as it stands at the present time.
CROP ESTIMATES AND REPORTS.
With regard to the Horticultural News Letter for British Columbia, this publication
was issued, as in the past, from our Vernon office and was edited by M. S. Middleton,
District Horticulturist for the Okanagan Horticultural District, who reports as follows:—
" The Horticultural News Letter was again issued from the Vernon office during
the 1946 season.    This was issued every two weeks from May 18th to September 21st, W 84 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
a total of ten issues.    Approximately 300 copies of each issue were sent out.    The
following crop estimates were compiled and issued with the News Letter:—
Small-fruit estimates, June 1st.
Vegetable acreages, June 15th.
Stone-fruit estimates, June 29th.
Tree-fruit estimates, July 13th.
Revised tree-fruit estimates, August 24th."
The officials of the Horticultural Branch in co-operation with the Dominion officials
also compiled for the Statistical Branch the necessary records relative to the annual
production and value of the fruit, vegetable, and seed crops produced in the previous
year.
Other reports pertaining to horticultural matters were also compiled as required.
REPORT OF FIELD CROPS BRANCH.
James Travis, Field Crops Commissioner.
Much snow fell throughout most sections of the Province during the winter months.
Particularly heavy falls (above normal) were experienced throughout the Central
Interior and the British Columbia Peace River Block. Temperatures to as low as 30°
below during January were recorded for these areas. There being no sustained thaw
during the freeze-up period, the snow afforded ample protection to all clover-fields and
fall-sown grains. Soil-moisture conditions during spring were ideal, but, generally
speaking, low soil temperatures retarded growth and delayed spring seeding and planting operations.
During the summer months fine weather prevailed, with the exception of July,
when heavy rains were experienced throughout many sections. Harvesting and
threshing conditions during August and September were favourable, with only minor
interruptions. Harvesting throughout the Creston Valley was held up somewhat with
early fall rains during late August and early September. October ushered in a cooler
period, with heavy rain precipitation, also snow throughout the Interior sections and
to a lesser degree at the Coast, continuing through November.
Throughout the Interior districts of the Province, grain, potato, and pea crops
were reported to be the heaviest in years. The growing season throughout the Fraser
Valley was retarded, while the rainfall during April and May was above normal. An
unfavourable haying season in this section resulted in some losses and much poor-
quality hay.
This Branch has consistently endeavoured to introduce and disseminate the latest
information in agricultural research in order that the practical farmers may keep
apace with their scientific coworkers to make for a more efficient and profitable farming enterprise. Agricultural research investigations are continually bringing forward
new agricultural chemicals, better cultural practices, as well as new varieties and
strains of crop plants.
It has been the concern of the Branch, first, to evaluate this latest information as
it applies to local conditions throughout the Province, and, second, to demonstrate to
the farmer the advantages to be gained by adopting the new methods. In this connection the Branch has continued to co-operate with the various district representatives
and farmers throughout the Province in supplying materials for experimental and
demonstration purposes. These materials include chemical weedicides, fertilizers, also
pasture-, forage-, and cereal-crop seeds.    During the past season 350 lb. of atlacide and DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 85
30 lb. of 2-4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2-4-D) were distributed for experimental
work on weed-control, also 13,400 lb. of commercial fertilizers were purchased for
experimental trial plots. One thousand seven hundred and six pounds of grass and
legume seeds were distributed for similar purposes.
PASTURE AND HAY EXPERIMENTS AND DEMONSTRATIONS.
With a view to determining the most suitable and profitable grasses and clovers
for pasture and hay crops in their respective areas, the resident officials representing
the Department of Agriculture, working in co-operation with the local farmers, are
studying the performance of many kinds, varieties, and strains of grasses and legumes.
In this connection, experiments are being conducted this season throughout the Bulkley
and Nechako Valleys, Salmon Arm, and Vancouver Island. Progress reports on these
experiments to date are encouraging.
HYBRID FIELD-CORN TESTS.
As predicted in the Annual Report of 1945, there has been a marked increase in
plantings of hybrid strains of field corn this year throughout those sections of the
Province which have shown an adaptability to this crop. A fairly wide selection of
hybrid strains was procured for experimental purposes, and, as previously, these were
supplemented by contributions from Dr. S. E. Clarke, Agrostologist, Experimental
Farm, Swift Current, Sask., who has co-operated for a number of years with this
Department in an endeavour to establish records which would indicate those numbers
most suitable to the respective areas, both from a grain and silage standpoint.
M. S. Middleton, District Horticulturist, Vernon, has repeatedly organized and
supervised the corn tests throughout the North and South Okanagan. His report of
the season's operations, supplemented by tabled data of the field-corn test-plots, has
been made available to this Branch, together with that of G. A. Luyat, District Agriculturist, Kamloops, covering the territory around Kamloops, Ashcroft, Lytton, and
Nicola. These informative reports present an excellent picture of the hybrid-corn
situation and are herewith submitted in detail.
Excerpt from 1946 annual report of M. S. Middleton, District Horticulturist,
Vernon:—
" Hybrid Field-corn Tests.—The purpose of this test was to try out the different
hybrid varieties in the North and South Okanagan to ascertain which varieties were
most suitable in these areas, first, as ensilage and, second, as seed or grain corn.
" The seed was supplied through Dr. S. E. Clarke, Experimental Station, Swift
Current, Sask., from seed which he brought in from Ontario and the United States.
" The seed was distributed from this office, and the grower planted it and staked
the different plots. The fields were examined from time to time during the season,
and in the fall actual weight of an average 24-foot row was weighed and the green
weight per acre computed from this. The dry-matter content was taken of a representative stalk, which was chopped up and sent to Swift Current for dry-matter determination. Unfortunately, the green weight of the sample was not taken, so that the
weight of dry matter is only an indication as to the earliness of maturity.
" In the South Okanagan the hybrid No. 696 and No. 625 were outstanding for
ensilage. N.K.M. 2 was also very promising for this area. No. 240 and No. 275 were
good for grain varieties.
" In the North Okanagan the hybrid No. 531 and No. 355 were the best of the
varieties tried at Grindrod this year.
" The season was not a good one for corn, the weather being too cool, and at
Grindrod the frost on September 21st froze the leaves and stopped any further develop- W 86 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
ment of the plants. However, a very good crop of ensilage was harvested, and the
various hybrids did much better than the regular varieties of corn as grown by farmers
in the areas."
LOGGED-OFF LAND SEEDING.
The seeding of logged-off lands is reported on by Mr. L. Todhunter, as follows:—
"(a.) Campbell River Area.—Some 2,000 acres of the above area were seeded to
timothy and alsike clover, sweet clover, white Dutch clover, and subterranean clover
immediately after the forest fire which occurred in the fall of 1938, and an inspection
of the various plots was made in October, 1946.
" The seeded areas, with the exception of sweet clover and white Dutch clover,
would appear to be now firmly established.
" It was noted that a plot known as the ' football field ' at Elk Falls seeded to white
Dutch clover, and which was also treated with artificial fertilizer and lime, and which
at the time of last inspection in 1945 showed excellent results in response, especially
with regards to native grasses, had been destroyed through the erection of a camp and
workshops on the area.
" The area, comprising some 1,200 to 1,500 acres, seeded to timothy and alsike
appears to be now firmly established, and there is much evidence of natural reproduction, new growth being extremely rank, particularly in the timothy. There was also
much more alsike clover in the area than at the time of previous inspection.
" While the catch of sweet clover was somewhat disappointing, there are still some
plants remaining which had scattered their seed, and quantities of'new plants were
noted, ranging in height from 2 to 6 inches.
" At this time there was much more white Dutch clover noted that in the fall of
1942 had almost entirely disappeared, but which would now seem to be staging a
comeback.
" In all areas seeded to subterranean clover, the growth is excellent and the plants
are spreading, as evidenced by the larger and more numerous clumps. In some
instances the plants have formed a compact carpet, choking out all weeds.
"(6.) North West Logging Company.—This plot of approximately 10 acres, situated on the North West Logging Company Road No. 155, about 3.2 miles from the
main highway, which was seeded in January, 1944, to mixed grasses and clover, and a
plot of reed canary-grass (dry-land strain), has produced excellent results, although
the soil is poor, stony, and dry, there being now a good stand of mixed grasses and
clover, and an exceptionally good stand of reed canary-grass. The plants are vigorous
and healthy, and in many instances the seed spikes of the reed canary-grass reached
a height of from 5 to 6 feet. It was noted in this case that the plants are now spreading outside the area originally seeded."
B.C. FIELD CROPS UNION.
This union of British Columbia farmers has been in operation for the past thirteen
years, its purpose being to make available to growers sufficient material to carry on a
wide field of experiments with varieties of cereals, legumes, and grasses. It is interesting to note that alfalfa maintains its popularity, and there is increasing interest being
taken in the hybrid field-corn section.
During the shipping season of the current year seventy-seven shipments of farm
seeds of various kinds were dispatched from the Vancouver office of the Field Crops
Branch.
The membership in the B.C. Field Crops Union for 1946 was 102 members.
Twenty-five tests, covering various forage-crops, cereals, and roots, were available
to the members and ninety tests were conducted altogether. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 87
The distribution of the membership was as follows: Vancouver Island, 13 members; Interior, 9 members; Central British Columbia, 22 members; Kootenays, 11
members; Lower Mainland, 9 members; Cariboo, 10 members; Boundary, 3 members;
Peace River, 20 members;   Okanagan, 5 members.
FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS AND DEMONSTRATIONS.
Coupled with investigations covering suitable kinds of crops is the establishment
of a reasonable concept of the soil and its supply and balance of plant nutrients. The
use of properly selected fertilizers in adequate amounts will replace the losses of fertility which occur through cropping and other means. Following along the lines
already described, the resident officials representing the Department of Agriculture
have laid down a number of experiments and demonstrations for the treatment of
certain crops. Included in these tests are: Pasture treatment at Prince George,
Quesnel, and Vancouver Island; pasture, hay, clover, and grass seed, Bulkley Valley;
alfalfa-seed crops, British Columbia Peace River Block; field corn, Kamloops; wild-
hay meadows, Williams Lake; range-land, East Kootenay; potatoes and vegetable-
seed, Grand Forks;   field peas and alfalfa, Creston Valley.
FERTILIZER BOARD.
Meetings of the British Columbia Fertilizer Board were attended by representatives of this Branch as required. At these meetings the necessity for various mixes
was discussed. The question of providing a special fertilizer to meet the special conditions for potato and small-fruit production was considered at a special meeting, which
was attended by members of the fertilizer trade and leading producers of these crops.
It was agreed that a 2-15-12 mix would, in some measure, meet these requirements.
For the 1946-47 season the Board recommended the following: 0-12-20, 2-16-6,
4-12-8, 6-18-12, 6-30-15, 8-10-5, 10-20-10, 2-12-10, 6-7-6, 8-35-6, 17-6-6, 2-15-12.
SOIL ANALYSIS.
Up to November 15th of this year 601 samples of soil were received by this Branch
for analysis. This is an increase of well over 200 samples over 1944, when 372 samples
were dealt with. The analyses were carried out by the Spurway method, giving the
pH of the sample, together with the presence of available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium.
The soil analytical work has been undertaken by members of the Branch.
In connection with this service, personal contacts are arranged in co-operation
with the local officials representing the Department of Agriculture whenever practicable, whereby the applicant has an opportunity of discussing mineral deficiencies or
other conditions as revealed by the analysis and receive suggestions regarding cultural
practices, crop-rotation, and maintenance of soil-fertility.
SEED PRODUCTION.
Field-root and forage-crop production continues to expand. A startling increase
in alfalfa-seed is recorded for the British Columbia Peace River Block. This district
is also turning its attention to clover- and grass-seed production, for which there is
good return and keen demand for all available supplies.
Vetch yields were down in the Fraser Valley because of weevil damage and other
factors. Field peas yielded heavily, especially throughout the Armstrong section.
Some alfalfa-seed growers in this area secured an increase in yield when an early crop
of hay was first taken off. W 88 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The following list gives an indication of the seed production as estimated for 1946
in comparison to the actual production in 1945:— Estimated
Production, Production,
1945. 1946.
Lb. Lb.
Alfalfa       150,837 530,000
Red clover      450,000 480,000
Alsike      130,000 400,000
Alsike-timothy (mixture)         35,000 200,000
Timothy-alsike (mixture)       150,000 100,000
Sweet clover         90,000 130,000
White clover (Ladino)           1,940 1,000
Timothy      450,000 650,000
Brome         57,000 50,000
Crested wheat-grass         2,000 10,000
Creeping red fescue          1,000 2,000
Meadow-fescue          2,000 	
Orchard-grass         10,000 7,600
Perennial rye         7,000
Reed canary-grass           2,100 2,000
Red-top           1,500 	
Field corn (open-pollinated)           7,000 5,600
Field corn (hybrid)  -          1,000 	
Field peas   4,000,000 5,000,000
Mangel        43,282 37,400
Sugar-beet      357,117 374,000
Fibre flax      128,800 168,000
Oil flax        20,160 252,000
Vetch          76,000
Canary seed         60,000
THRESHERMEN'S RETURNS.
Appendix No. 4 tabulates the amount of grain threshed in the various districts, as
submitted by the district agricultural officials.
AVAILABLE STOCK SEED SUPPLIES.
A supply of stock seed of cereals has been made available to this office by the
Agronomy Department, University of British Columbia, through a co-operative arrangement between the University and the British Columbia Department of Agriculture.
This seed is distributed to farmers throughout the Province at a special price. The
following is a list of the stock seed made available this year:—
Red Bobs 	
wneav.
Lb.
        620
Jones' Fife
195
Kharkov 	
              472
Dawson's Golden Chaff
1,222
Ridit	
       1,100
Victory	
Oats.
3,193
Eagle	
                 847
Alaska 	
      266 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 89
Rye.
Prolific      772
Storm  1,259
PRODUCTION OF REGISTERED SEED.
The production of registered and certified seed of cereal and forage field-crop
varieties has become increasingly important during the past few years. The individual
farmer and organization producing registered seed provide a valuable source of pure-
seed stocks for the commercial grower. The inspection and registration of cereal and
forage crops is carried out by representatives of the Plant Products Division, Dominion
Department of Agriculture, in compliance with the " Seeds Act."
The following table gives in summary the number of acres and estimated production
of varieties inspected for registration in British Columbia by the Plant Products
Division during the past season:—
Total Acreage and Estimated Production of Cereal and Forage
Crops inspected for Registration in British Columbia.
Variety.
Wheat-
No. of
Acres.
Estimated
Production,
1946.
Bu.
Garnet 	
     17.00
500
Marquis 	
     31.00
1,480
Red Bobs — _ -  _
  182.20
6,555
Thatbher	
  292.00
9,730
Jones' Fife	
       5.70
183
Dawson's Golden Chaff	
       0.60
14
Kharkov     _ ..    	
       0.60
9
Oats—
Ajax                .    _  -. _ 	
     10.50
680
Alaska	
       0.40
20
Banner 	
       3.00
180
Eagle	
       0.70
30
Exeter	
       0.25
25
Larain	
       2.75
220
Legacy         	
     50.00
4,500
Vanguard        	
       5.00
500
Victory           	
  545.30
44,857
Barley—
Newal	
     86.00
5,200
O.A.C. 21                   	
     22.00
880
Olli 	
       5.70
265
Plush                       	
       8.00
435
Titan 	
     15.00
900
Trebi 	
     40.00
750
Rye-
Prolific 	
       2.58
48
Storm
       4.25
130
Flax-
Fibre              -     - -    .
  291.00
3,073
Oil (Redwing)               	
  266.00
4,260
Alfalfa—Grimm	
  604.50
176,800*
Brome
  220.00
12,100*
* Estimate in pounds. W 90 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
WEED-CONTROL.
Two Weed Inspectors were appointed during the past season for the Peace River
Block. Robert Shearer, Rolla, was appointed Weed Inspector for the south side and
Alex. McClintock, Fort St. John, for the north side of the Peace River.
In order to encourage and to assist municipalities and individual farmers to
establish a campaign of weed-control, the Branch has furnished the District Agriculturists and officers of the Department with certain equipment and material, including
supplies of the most recent chemical weedicides for experimental and demonstration
purposes.
The following is quoted from N. F. Putnam's report:—
" On trips through the various sections of the Province special attention was given
to the extent of weed infestation. Personal visits were made to farms, and weed-
control suggestions were made. It was encouraging to note that those farmers who
practised a crop-rotation, including well-managed pastures, had at least kept weeds
under control, if not completely eradicating them.
" Complaints to headquarters regarding weed infestations have received attention,
and where necessary these have been referred to the Provincial Police.
" During the past season experimental work was undertaken in the Armstrong
area in an effort to determine the most efficient methods of control for hoary cress
(Lepidium draba L.), field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.), and leafy spurge
(Euphorbia Esida L.). The tests include different cultural practices and the use of
chemical weedicides at different rates and time of application. It is anticipated these
experiments will continue for several years to get as reliable information as possible.
" Experimental work on weed-control is also being carried on by the district
representatives, and the results of these are included in their annual reports. Special
consideration is being given to the new chemical weedicide, commonly known as 2-4-D.
This chemical preparation is finding a relatively new use as a selective weedicide.
Although results to date are of a limited nature, some encouragement is foreseen in the
use of 2—4—D in control of many common weeds. However, there is great variability in
reaction of various weeds to this chemical, and much more information is necessary
before definite conclusions can be reached."
It will be noted that it is the intention of the B.C. Agronomists' Association to
resume meetings which were suspended during the war period. A place on the agenda
for the January, 1947, conference has been allotted for discussion on weed aspects in
British Columbia by districts and control by the use of chemicals.
SCREENINGS.
With regard to the movement and supervision of grain screenings the greater
portion of this business is centred in and around Vancouver. This work has been
under the supervision of Walter Sandall, District Inspector for this Department. In
reviewing the work undertaken during the past season, Mr. Sandall reports as follows:—
"Grain Screenings.
" Grain screenings is a by-product, originating in the recleaning process of wheat
at the elevator. It is delivered from the cleaners in various separations and graded
accordingly.
" A pamphlet issued by the Board of Grain Commissioners of Canada (Bulletin
No. 4) provides for five grades of screenings, which are identified as follows: Oat
screenings, No. 1 feed, No. 2 feed screenings, uncleaned screenings, and refuse screenings, graded according to official standards. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 91
" In compliance with the British Columbia ' Noxious Weeds Act' and regulations
thereunder, grain screenings which contain weed-seeds in excess of the percentage
allowed by the ' Canada Grain Act' of the Dominion or the regulations made thereunder from time to time for No. 2 feed screenings shall not be removed from any grain
elevator, mill, or warehouse to any place within the Province, except only by virtue of
permit duly signed by the Minister or by a person authorized in writing by the
Minister, and issued at the office of the District Field Inspector, Court-house, Vancouver.
" Permits above referred to consist of two specific forms; that is, one permitting
removal of low-grade screenings by a dealer or grain merchant and one a Feeder's
Permit, which entitles the holder to remove low-grade screenings conditional to prescribed regulations. These permits are available only to certain areas, mainly within
the boundaries of Greater Vancouver. Care is exercised in preventing the removal of
low-grade screenings to farming districts, where the high percentage of weed-seeds
contained in such screenings may become a general menace through the introduction
of many varieties of weeds.
" During the ten months ended October 31st, 1946, twelve Permits to remove
Screenings, and one Feeder's Permit have been issued covering the removal of various
quantities of low-grade screenings for local use. All permits expire on December 31st
in the year of issue or when the quantities indicated on the permit have been exhausted,
whichever is the sooner.
" A permit is not required for the removal of oat screenings, No. 1 and No. 2 feed
screenings.
" Managers' Reports.
" Complying with section 4 of the regulations under the ' Noxious Weeds Act,'
managers' reports, the forms for which are supplied by the Provincial Government, are
submitted in duplicate each month by all British Columbia grain-elevators and Vancouver dealers who handle screenings to the Hon. Minister of Agriculture through the
office of the District Field Inspector, Court-house, Vancouver. These reports show the
movement of all grades of screenings, the name and address to whom they are delivered,
date of delivery, quantity, grade, number of permit, if any, and whether for local use
or export.
" The original copies of these reports are submitted each month to the Field Crops
Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Victoria.
" Movement of Screenings.
" Managers' reports show that for ten months ended October 31st the local dealers
have received the following quantities of screenings, which is generally ground and
used as a base in mixed feeds and sold to British Columbia consumers: 3,393 tons of
No. 1 feed, 902 tons of No. 2 feed, and 27 tons of uncleaned screenings. Low-grade
screenings accumulated at British Columbia grain-elevators have been exported to the
United States, where it is used chiefly for stock-feeding, and amounted to 13,817 tons of
refuse in addition to 1,698 tons mixed feed-oats.
" Grades which may be ground.
" Section 11 of the Screenings Regulations requires that screenings which contain
weed-seeds in excess of the percentage allowed by the ' Canada Grain Act' or regulations thereunder for No. 2 feed screenings shall not be ground or otherwise manufactured for sale within the Province. To comply with the above regulations, feed
merchants who obtain low-grade screenings from elevators reclean them in order to
raise same to the required grade before grinding; the refuse accumulated from this
reclean ing process is usually exported to the United States, where it is used in stock-
feeding yards. W 92 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
" ' Noxious Weeds Act.'
" In the interest of weed-control and to ascertain if the Screenings Regulations are
being complied with, occasional visits are made to the warehouse of dealers in stock-
feeds who are purchasers of screenings in Vancouver, New Westminster, and Fraser
Valley points. Observational visits are made to the local grain-elevators when
necessary."
Appendix No. 5 shows the quantity of screenings of each grade removed from
British Columbia grain-elevators each month, ending October 31st, 1946, as compiled
from the managers' reports.
It will be seen from a perusal of the summary that the higher grades of screenings
have been used this year by dealers for grinding and processing for local consumption,
while the lower grades are being exported.
PRIZE-WINNERS AT CHICAGO INTERNATIONAL HAY AND GRAIN
SHOW AND TORONTO ROYAL WINTER FAIR.
Again British Columbia growers have demonstrated the high quality of their
agricultural produce, not only at the local fairs throughout the various regions of the
Province, but also at the Toronto Royal Winter Fair and the Chicago International Hay
and Grain Show.
In the grain and seed show of the Toronto Royal, R. U. Hurford, Courtenay, V.I.,
won first prize in the class of " any other variety of potatoes " with his sample of White
Rose. Bert Young, Koksilah, V.I., stood well up in the classes in which he exhibited,
with a second prize for a sample of Dawson's Golden Chaff wheat; third, for a sample
of Trebi barley; and fifth, with a sample of Victory oats. G. A. Luyat, Kamloops, who
has been keenly interested in hybrid-corn production, won first place in the class open
to Manitoba and Western Provinces, with his twenty ears of hybrid corn.
Mrs. A. Kelsey, Erickson, won the world championship wheat crown at the Chicago
International Hay and Grain Show with a sample of Reward wheat, to become the first
world wheat " queen."
W. S. Simpson, of the British Columbia Peace River Block, won equal honours in
the rye class at the same show with his first-prize sample of Hurricane rye, a variety he
developed on his own farm at Sweetwater, and his sample of Eagle oats was placed
seventh.
From the Bulkley Valley, Charles Hunter, Colleymount, won second prize, and H. A.
Durban, Grassy Plains, sixth prize, each with a sample of timothy-seed.
Provincial honours were also awarded Peter Tjebbes, Grand Forks, who procured
a record crop of 60,268 lb. of Netted Gem potatoes from an officially measured acre
chosen at random from a 17-acre field.
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL PLANT PATHOLOGIST.
J. W. Eastham, B.Sc, Plant Pathologist.
Special-delivery tags to the number of 1,519 were issued for shipments from the
Prairie Provinces, an increase of 255 over last year. Returns have been made for
1,210 of these. Of the orders shipped under these, 326 contained bulbs, 256 ornamentals, 214 potato-eyes, 115 small fruits, 69 rhubarb, 66 asparagus, 50 greenhouse
plants, 47 fruit-trees, and 4 sand-cherries, nearly all in small quantities. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 93
In addition, 96 untagged shipments were inspected at Vancouver. Of these, 26
contained bulbs and herbaceous plants, 33 ornamental shrubs, 10 fruit-trees, 50 small
fruits (chiefly strawberries), 4 Caragana plants (556 plants). The largest individual
shipments were 3 of onion-sets, one of 9,000 lb. and two of 1,000 lb. each.
There were 19 small shipments of potatoes, containing one to six sacks each, from
the Prairies during April and May, and totalling 4,340 lb. Of these, 15 were from
•Alberta and 4 from Saskatchewan. All these were found free from bacterial ring-rot.
An additional shipment from Rosetown, Sask., of 90 lb., was found to be infected with
bacterial ring-rot and was destroyed by inceration.
Only one fall shipment was received, 100 lb. from Alberta, and was free from
disease.
PLANT-DISEASES.
The number of local inquiries on diseases and pests was about as usual, and no new
ones of any consequence were reported. Black-knot of plums (Dibotryon morbosum)
seems, however, to be on the increase throughout the Lower Fraser Valley and will
have to be regarded as a disease of major importance. Although it has been found
occasionally for many years past, it has been chiefly in old neglected orchards. So far
it has been found only on plums, no case on cherry having been reported.
Plum-pockets, or bladder-plums (Taphrina pruni), also appears to be occurring
more frequently, although only reported from the Vancouver area.
WEEDS AND POISONOUS PLANTS.
Annual Vernal Grass (Anthoxanthum aristatum Boiss).
This differs from the sweet vernal grass (A. odoratum), now common at the Coast,
chiefly in the annual habit, but is also smaller, with looser panicles and rather smaller
spikelets. It is of European origin and is reported in literature as having been found
in British Columbia, though the writer has not seen it previously. It was sent in from
Barnston Island, Port Kells, as an agricultural weed. This appears to be the first
report of its being a weed in the Province, and it will probably be found of minor
importance only.    It is stated to have become common in Western Oregon.
Silene Cserei Baumg.—A careful examination was made of the situation in the
railway-yards at Prince George. In spite of the liberal use of atlicide, supplemented
by hand-pulling, the weed still persists in some quantity. The plants found were
mostly stunted ones, only a few inches high and easily overlooked, but were producing
seed-pods, so that it would appear that eradication is not likely to be completely effected.
It appears now that the onus is passing to the growers of alsike-clover seed, and it will
be necessary for them to keep careful watch for the appearance of the weed on their
farms and to carry out careful roguing before seeds are matured. At McBride a careful search was made, especially of the railway-yards, but no specimen of the plant was
found, so that the Prince George infestation remains as an isolated introduction.
No other record of the weed in Canada has been traced.
Tall Larkspur (Delphinium scopulorum Gray var. glaucum (Wats.) Gray).
Also known as D. glaucum Wats, and D. Brownii Rydb. See Annual Report for
1944 under D. Brownii. Further observations were made on the distribution of this
important stock-poisoning plant. It is abundant from Vanderhoof to Smithers and
south to Francois and Ootsa Lakes. At Smithers it was found abundant in spots, but
not so general as a little farther east. It was not observed at Prince George or
McBride, but one or two plants seen along the railway near Aleza Lake were probably
this species. It occurs sparingly at Quesnel. These observations refer to cultivated
levels.    In the mountains it is stated to occur as far south as California. W 94 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Sun Spurge (Euphorbia Helioscopia L.).
This was brought into the office for identification from a Vancouver garden. This
European annual is common as an introduced weed in parts of the East, but not in the
West. The only other British Columbia record is at Windermere, where it is abundant
along roadsides, etc., near the former Dominion Experimental Station (Annual Report
for 1938). It has been reported in recent years from the State of Washington (Whatcom County), immediately south of Vancouver.
Bulbiferous Water-hemlock (Cicuta bulbifera L.).
This is a widespread native plant of Eastern North America, given in floras as
extending westwards into British Columbia and Oregon. The writer, however, has
never found it in the southern part of the Province. H. Groh reported finding it at
Reid Lake, about 20 miles north-west of Prince George (Can. Weed Surv., 3rd Rpt.,
1944), and a visit was made to this place. The plant was found very sparingly at Reid
Lake itself, but abundant at a small lake, or large slough (Mud Lake?), a little east
of it. It differs from our common water-hemlock (C. Douglasii) in the very narrow
leaf-segments, with the upper ones bearing numerous small bulblets in their axils. It is
reputed to have the same poisonous qualities as other members of the genus, but aside
from its rarity, its smaller size, especially as regards the root system, would seem likely
to reduce the chances of fatal poisoning.
Plagiobothrys hispidulus (Greene) Johnst.—This plant of the borage family, which
has no English name, is, in the writer's experience, quite uncommon. It was, however,
sent in by Mr. Allin, District Agriculturist, as being a weed of cultivated land on a
farm in the Cranbrook district. It is a rather small annual plant and not likely to be
of any consequence, except under exceptional circumstances.
Horse-mint (Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds. var. mollissim-a Borkh.).
This European introduction, not previously reported in the Province, was found
forming large beds along the railway-track near Pemberton Station and extending into
adjoining fields. It differs from our common wild mints in having the flowers mostly
in terminal spikes, leaves sessile or nearly so, and the whole plant grey pubescent, the
under-side of the leaves densely so. It is hardly likely to become a weed of any consequence, although mints are often difficult to eradicate on account of their vigorous
creeping rhizomes.
Hooker's Thistle (Cirsium Hookerianum Nutt.).
This is generally regarded as an alpine or subalpine species, but it was quite conspicuous as a weed in cultivated fields at Bridge Lake and in from the Cariboo Highway
along the Canim Lake Road. It is rather like the common bull thistle (C. lanceolatum),
but the heads of flowers are yellowish-white instead of purple, the inner involucral
bracts not spine-tipped and the outer conspicuously webbed with cottony threads.
The leaves, also, are scarcely decurrent down the stem. This is not likely to be more
than a local weed and, although it appears to have the habit of the better-known species,
may not persist under cultivation.
Narrow-leaved Hawksbeard (Crepis tectorum L.).
Although this is now widely distributed in Cariboo and Chilcotin (Annual Report
for 1944), its northern limit as previously observed was at Cottonwood Creek, north of
Quesnel. This year a colony of perhaps a hundred plants was found near a sawmill at
Nulki Lake, south of Vanderhoof, probably from seeds brought in with hay. As the
" seed " has a well-developed pappus for wind-dispersal, we may expect it to spread DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 95
widely from this new focus.    It appears to be a weed chiefly of roadsides and waste
places, hay and grain fields.
Orange Hawkweed (Hieracium aurantiacum L.).
This plant is often cultivated in gardens for its handsome orange-red flower-heads.
Although a stray plant is occasionally found as a garden escape, it has not been previously found established in the wild in this Province. However, along the roads around
Pemberton village, it was found this year forming large patches, evidently of some
years standing, and well established. In parts of Eastern Canada it has been found a
troublesome and persistent weed of upland pastures, and is known as devil's paintbrush.    It spreads both by leafy stolons and wind-borne " seeds ".
Goat's-beard (Tragopogon).
These plants, of European origin, have long been known in the Southern Dry Belt,
but for the most part only one species, T. pratensis L., was recognized. Recently H.
Groh (Sci. Agr. 26: 1-6, 1946) has pointed out that a closely related species, T. dubius
Scop., is more prevalent in the south. The first extension of either species northwards
to Prince George was noticed about four years ago by the District Agriculturist there.
This year specimens of T. dubius were collected at Prince George and of T. pratensis at
Quesnel, so that both forms are extending northwards. As agricultural weeds they
are chiefly important in grain and hay crops and are not usually reported as serious.
One farmer at Sheep Creek, in the Chilcotin, however, told the writer that they were
the most serious weeds of grain in that district.
OTHER WORK.
The visit to Central British Columbia gave an opportunity also for general
botanical collecting, especially at Aleza Lake and McBride, districts not previously
visited by the writer, and 432 sheets were added to the herbarium from the trip. These
include one species not previously recorded from British Columbia and a number of
northern species recorded rarely, or not at all, so far south. Some interesting extensions of distribution of other species were obtained.
The supplement to Henry's Flora of Southern British Columbia, on which the
writer has been engaged for some time past, is now nearing completion. Arrangements
have been made for its publication under the auspices of the Provincial Museum. The
final revision of the manuscript is now well under way, and it is hoped to have it in the
printer's hands before March 31st, 1947. Special attention has been given to the
grasses, weeds, poisonous and forage plants, so as to make it of value to District Agriculturists and others, as well as to botanical students in the strict sense.
The following excellent report on plant pathology has been prepared by my assistant, W. R. Foster, M.Sc. :—
" Little cherry, red stele root-rot in strawberry, bunt in winter wheat, late blight
of potato, and verticillium wilt of tomatoes seem to be the five most important diseases
in British Columbia this year. Little cherry continues to spread, and the prospect of
a control in the near future does not appear to be very bright. For red stele disease
of strawberry a good control in a suitable resistant variety should be available within
a few years, and in the meantime losses can be reduced by using healthy British Sovereign plants on new land and improving the drainage. Some fairly suitable resistant
varieties are available for use on infected land. For the first time verticillium wilt
has been found to be causing serious losses in outdoor tomatoes. There is no satisfactory control for verticillium wilt on infected land, other than a long rotation with non-
susceptible crops.    New land should be used for susceptible crops when possible.    The W 96 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
changing of a number of cultural practices which have been favouring the disease
should reduce losses to some extent even on infected soil. The Province continues to
be practically free of bacterial ring-rot.
" Little-cherry Disease.
" The little-cherry disease is one of the most important problems confronting the
fruit industry of British Columbia. This disease has now spread to practically every
fruit-growing district in the Kootenays. It was observed in Kaslo, New Denver, and
Renata for the first time this year. Some small cherries resembling the little-cherry
disease were also received from Nakusp. Every tree in the following districts seems to
be affected: Nelson, Willow Point, Harrop, Procter, Balfour, Queens Bay, and Taghum.
In a tree-to-tree survey of twenty-four orchards in the Creston district in July the
number of affected trees varied from 0 to 92 per cent. The disease is widely distributed
and well established in this area. The small fruit district, called the ' Canyon,' across
the Goat River from Creston, still appears to be free.
"A practical economic control of most virus diseases of stone-fruits is obtained by
periodic examination of the trees in an orchard and prompt removal of any affected
trees. The rate of spread of the little-cherry disease for a number of years has been
too rapid to apply this method. Growers in the Kootenays are not advised to undertake
any new plantings of cherries. Growers in the same area are also recommended to
apply a combined dormant insect spray for mealy-bug and black aphis. Dr. J. Marshall's formula for this area per 100 gallons of spray is: Dormant oil (actual oil), 2
gallons, emulsified by soya flour % to 1 lb.; dinitrocresol 40 per cent., 2 lb. In the
Okanagan every grower should be on guard and keep a sharp lookout for small bitter
cherries at picking-time (leaving some of them on the trees) and report any suspicious
cases to the District Horticulturist.
" Red Stele of Strawberry.
" Red stele, a root-rot disease, is easily the most serious problem confronting the
strawberry-growers. Most of the growers in the Coastal regions have lost some of
their crop from this disease. G. E. W. Clarke, District Horticulturist, estimates a loss
of 20 per cent, or 1,000 tons of berries, and also a loss of 10 per cent, in plants killed,
in the Fraser Valley.
" The prospects of finding a satisfactory economic control for this disease are
bright. The most practical method of control is by either finding or developing a suitable resistant variety. The following varieties are under observation in the Fraser
Valley for their resistance to red stele and their horticultural value: Aberdeen, Banner,
British Sovereign, Chesapeake, Coleman President, Cooper, Corvallis, Dorset Dresden,
Heal's Seedling, Marshal, North Star, Pathfinder, Pitt, Red Star, S-67, Starbright,
Temple, U.S. 3203, U.S. 3204, U.S. 3205, U.S. 3374, U.S. 3378, and Valentine. Pitt, a
chance seedling developed in the Fraser Valley, is very resistant, but the quality of the
fruit is poor. The development of a new resistant variety by crossing some of the
known resistant varieties and British Sovereign is being conducted at the Experimental
Station, Saanichton, and the Experimental Farm, Agassiz. Ridging, which helps to
improve the drainage, appears to reduce the severity of the disease.
" Two articles on red stele have been published during the year, one in Country
Life and the other in two Fraser Valley newspapers.
" Bunt in the Northern Okanagan.
" The varieties of winter wheat, Ridit and Hussar, resistant to bunt in the
Northern Okanagan for nearly fifteen years, have become susceptible.    In the Annual DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 97
Report of the Department of Agriculture for 1937 it was suggested that this would
likely happen: 'Although these varieties have been fairly resistant up to the present
time they will eventually become smutty and will have to be replaced by other varieties.'
By far the most practical and hopeful method of control of bunt in this area is the use
of a new resistant winter-wheat variety. It is necessary to use a resistant variety,
since chemical seed treatment only prevents one source of infection—namely, seed
contamination—and not soil-borne infection, which takes place in this area from spores
in the soil scattered by the wind during threshing operations. Any new and recommended resistant variety will eventually become smutty and have to be replaced by
another variety. The limitations in adaptability and commercial quality of the smut-
resistant wheats, and the presence of physiologic races of the two fungi responsible
for bunt, have limited the general use of one or two smut-resistant varieties in the
different wheat-growing areas. Oro is resistant to all races of Tilletia caries but is
susceptible to one race of T. foetida. Ridit is resistant to all races of T. foetida but
susceptible to one race of T. caries. A new resistant variety called ' Wasatch,' with
stronger straw than Ridit and of a hard red winter-wheat type, is recommended.
Experiments conducted in the Northern Okanagan have proved that the percentage of
bunt from soil-borne infection is very high from September 15th to the end of October.
Seeding as early as possible before September 15th will reduce the amount of smut.
In addition to growing a new resistant variety and planting early, seed treatment is
advocated to kill the bunt spores on the seed.
" We have found, for the most part, bunt-control by the application of cultural
practices is not popular, mainly because these practices usually modify long established
farming methods. The growing of a resistant variety like Wasatch offers the main
hope for control for a number of years.
" Late Blight of Potatoes.
" The late-blight disease of potatoes caused more damage in most districts in the
Coastal area of British Columbia than it has for a number of years. The above-average
precipitation of June and early part of July seems to have favoured it.
"The following publicity was given: (1) An article, 'Late Blight of Potatoes,
Most Serious Disease,' was published in the May issue of Country Life; (2) a warning
to Coast growers to spray their potatoes was broadcast over CBR in June; and (3) an
article, ' Protect Potatoes from Late Blight Rotting,' was forwarded to every Coast
newspaper and to the British Columbia Coast Vegetable Marketing Board.
" For the first time a discoloration of the vascular system was observed after
applying one method of preventing late-blight tuber-rot; namely, the killing of tops
with weed-killers. This discoloration caused by weed-killers is quite unusual and may
be attributed to poor coverage along with low soil-moisture. Tests conducted at different places indicate that it does not impair the value of the potatoes for seed. From
many observations in the field the killing of the tops by weed-killers appeared to reduce
the amount of late-blight rot of the tubers.
" Verticillium Wilt in Tomatoes.
" The wilt disease of tomatoes, which caused serious losses in the Lillooet district
in 1946, was found to be due to a parasitic fungus called Verticillium albo-atrum. The
distribution was widespread in the area, and in a number of fields nearly 100 per cent,
of the plants were affected. The estimated loss was about 35 per cent. The small
amount of foliage remaining after an attack of this disease exposed many of the fruits
to sun-scald.
" The fungus lives in the soil and infects susceptible plants through the roots. It
invades the water-conducting vessels in the stem and root area, thereby cutting off the normal supply of water and mineral foods. The fungus grows up through the tomato-
stems and occasionally into the fruit, where the seed may become contaminated and be
responsible for carrying the disease over into another crop. This fungus can infect
a wide range of plants—tomato, pepper, eggplant, potato, raspberry, apricot, peach,
elm, rose, etc.
" For control it is necessary to, first, use clean seed; second, raise young plants
under sanitary conditions; and, third, rotate crops. Seed from diseased plants should
not be used, and all seed should be treated with a seed dust, such as Arasan or Semesan.
Tomato seedlings should be grown in virgin soil or, if this is not possible, the soil and
flats should be sterilized before planting by steaming or with formaldehyde. The
greenhouse benches should be washed off and sterilized. Practise a crop-rotation of at
least six years with immune crops; for example, corn, onion, bean, squash, and pumpkin.
" The incidence of this wilt is closely related to the temperature of the soil and air:
when the temperature is low, affected plants wilt rather suddenly and die prematurely;
when the temperature is moderately high, as it must have been at Lillooet, there is
practically no wilting of the foliage, but the leaves develop yellow patches and slowly
dry up from the base of the plants upward; at high temperatures the attack dies down.
Any cultural practice which increases the temperature should help to reduce losses;
for example, later planting, postponing the first irrigation as long as possible, using
plant bands, avoiding excessive irrigation, ridging, etc.
" The most practical method of preventing this disease would be the finding or the
development of a resistant variety. Unfortunately, only a moderate degree of resistance has been found, and that only in late varieties that set poorly.
"A new soil fumigant is reported from New Zealand to be worthy of trial.
" Bacterial Ring-rot of Potatoes.
" British Columbia seems to be in a particularly fortunate position, compared with
most of the potato-growing areas of North America, in being practically free of bacterial ring-rot. The success so far seems to be largely due to Provincial Government
regulations; inspection of imported potatoes, usually by Dominion Fruit Inspectors;
the use of large quantities of certified seed; the method of marketing; and publicity.
The Provincial regulations have played an important part in keeping a check on
imported potatoes and also in the handling of any local outbreak. The Dominion Fruit
Inspectors have given excellent assistance by examining most of the imported cars of
potatoes. The use of a higher percentage of certified seed for planting than is the
case in a number of the Provinces has undoubtedly helped. Ring-rot has been given
considerable publicity in newspapers, agricultural magazines, radio, showing of a
coloured movie, distribution of coloured charts and a circular letter to all Farmers'
Institutes, and agents of the Marketing Board.
"A thorough inspection was made of potatoes in the Courtenay district by H. P.
Allberry and D. S. Gibbons, District Agriculturist. The amount of disease was reduced
by about 98 per cent., but a trace was found on five farms. The source of seed was the
same for all and was suspected of having had a trace of ring-rot the previous year, but
not one specimen suitable for laboratory confirmation was found.
" Field inspection was started at the Coast, but was stopped because it was found
to be a waste of time on account of the late-blight disease being prevalent over a long
period of time. The late-blight disease makes it difficult to recognize field symptoms.
The best time for finding ring-rot seems to be at digging-time. The next best time
appears to be an inspection of the field during a period of a few days immediately
after digging.
" The inspection of most of the imported table-stock potatoes was carried out by
the Dominion Fruit Inspectors.    Confirmation of suspected samples by laboratory tests DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946.
W 99
was conducted by officials at the Dominion Plant Pathology Laboratory, Saanichton,
and Provincial Plant Pathology Laboratory, Victoria. The following excerpts are
taken from Supervising Fruit Inspector W. J. Coell's report:—
" ' Due to the shortage of potatoes for consumer trade, importations started at the
end of January, 1946. The spring weather being backward, and our own early-potato
crop late, necessitated importation of Californian potatoes to June 26th. ... No
evidence of ring-rot was found in the Californian new potatoes which may be due to
the fact of immaturity of the tubers. We cannot speak so well for the shipments of
old potatoes which were received from Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, Nebraska,
and California. The large majority of these potatoes were U.S. No. 1 size B grade.
This grade left a lot to be desired from the standpoint of quality and freedom from
disease. What few cars were received of U.S. No. Ia size and U.S. Commercial were
found to be freer of disease. . . . There is some danger that, due to the shortage of
certified seed this past spring, some consumers may have planted some of the small
U.S. potatoes in their gardens. . . . The potatoes held under detention were permitted sale to agreed destinations outside of growing areas such as ship stores and for
manufacturing purposes where all wastage could be properly destroyed. ... As
shortages were cleared, owners were instructed to have the storage space sprayed with
the formula as recommended by the Division of Botany and Plant Pathology. We
sincerely trust it will not be necessary for such large importations again, but should
such be the case, U.S. No. B size old potatoes should be eliminated or limited, as, while
some ring-rot was found, there is no assurance that some did not get through.'
" A summary of inspections of imported table-stock potatoes is given in the following table.
"Inspection of Imported Table-stock Potatoes for Bacterial Ring-rot in 1946.
From.
To.
Crop.
Weight in
Tons.
Percentage
detained for
Ring-rot.
U.S.A	
Vancouver	
Vancouver	
Old	
7,370.7
599.2
4,055.9
175.0
100.0
1,375.0
23.0
Old    .
0 0
U.S.A	
0.0
U.S.A	
Old	
42.8
U S.A.   .
Nelson	
Old                    	
0.0
U S.A. .
Old	
27.2
" In an attempt to keep ring-rot away from potato-producing areas and to reduce
to a minimum the chance of spreading the disease, potato-crops or imported potatoes in
which any ring-rot has been found are shipped to any of the following areas: Prince
Rupert and Coastal north; Coastal points that are isolated, such as Ocean Falls, Port
Alice, Powell River, etc. (excluding Bella Coola); lumbering, mining, and fishing camps
on the Mainland coast, as well as on the coast of Vancouver Island; Government institutions, hospitals, potato-chip manufacturing plants (not fish-and-chip eating-houses);
ocean shipping; local Coastal shipping; Army, Navy, and Air Force camps, as supplied
under Government contract.
" On April 13th, 1946, the following directive, to be effective on and after April
22nd, 1946, was sent to the wholesalers in British Columbia: ' In future and in order
to prevent the build-up of a surplus quantity of potatoes affected with bacterial ring-rot,
any carload of potatoes which, on inspection, is found to have ring-rot, will have to be
returned to country of origin."
" The inspection of imported certified seed-potatoes was conducted mostly by the
Dominion Certification Service. No ring-rot was found in fifty cars examined, thirty-
two from other Provinces and eighteen from United States. W 100 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
"As long as we import potatoes, we are increasing the likelihood of getting ring-
rot. Even with the painstaking care taken by Inspectors, some ring-rot cars are likely
to escape detection."
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL ENTOMOLOGIST.
I. J. Ward, B.Sc, Entomologist.
Agricultural production in British Columbia reached an all-time high during 1946.
This resulted in a corresponding increase in entomological control-work. Many new
insecticides developed during war years were available for general use. An increased
amount of extension-work was required to acquaint the public with the proper use of
some of the new materials.
After a period of several years in which insecticides were in short supply, the
public became very conscious of the outstanding new developments that had taken place
in entomology. It was now possible to control many insect pests that could not be dealt
with adequately before.
A new period in entomology had been reached. The insecticide D.D.T. (dichloro-
diphenyl-trichloroethane) may be termed the most outstanding insecticide known to
modern science. This does not mean that it is a cure-all, as it has proven to be far
from that. It is spectacular in its control-action against some insect pests and has
little or no effect on others. It has resulted in an enormous amount of research towards
the development of new pesticides. The public knows that much insect injury can
now be avoided by adopting the proper control measures.
Many pests were present in outbreak numbers during the year, but averaging ail
crops throughout the Province, damage was held to a minimum. As people obtain
further knowledge of these newer chemicals, better results will still be possible.
Co-operation was maintained with agriculturists and horticulturists of the British
Columbia Department of Agriculture, as well as with members of the Dominion Division of Entomology, throughout the year.
FIELD CROPS INSECT PESTS.
Colorado Potato-beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata).
(a.)  East Kootenay District.
C N. Barnhardt was in charge of potato-beetle control in the East Kootenay District for the period June 1st to August 31st.
The work undertaken was more effective than at any time in the past twenty years.
Continued improvement is expected now that D.D.T. is readily available. This is
by far the most effective insecticide that has yet been tried. With a minimum amount
of work it is possible to prevent economic loss of crops.
There has been a gradual improvement in control measures since 1927, when a
total of 33,000 lb. of poisoned dust was used in the East Kootenay District of British
Columbia. During 1946 a total of less than 8,000 lb. was used throughout British
Columbia.
The effort to prevent a continued spread of the potato-beetle has been difficult, but
results have been encouraging. New infestations will undoubtedly occur from time to
time, but improved insecticides will make the task of control easier. Supervised control is still essential for complete success. This is the only way that spot outbreaks
can be treated adequately, as growers tend to neglect light infestations. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 101
Cranbrook, St. Eugene, Mission, and Cherry Creek.—Potato-beetles emerged from
the soil at Cranbrook about May 15th. The first eggs were observed on June 7th.
A period of cool, wet weather followed, and it was necessary to dust two or three times
following rains. Excellent kills were obtained with 0.75-per-cent. rotenone dust and
3-per-cent. D.D.T. dust. By midsummer it was difficult to locate a beetle in the immediate Cranbrook district. This remarkable improvement in conditions was expected
following the improved control obtained in 1945. No infestation occurred in the Cherry
Creek district during the year.
Bull River, Fort Steele, Wasa, and Ta Ta Creek.—A few beetles were found on the
Chow Long property at Fort Steele during the year, but no infestations occurred at
Bull River, Wasa, or Ta Ta Creek.
Mayook and Wardner.—One infestation persisted at Wardner during the year, but
none was found at Mayook.
Jaffray, Baynes Lake, Elko, Dorr, and Waldo.—Infestations occurred at all places,
with the exception of Elko, but they were very light compared with 1945. Thorough
efforts were made to clean up the infestations as completely as possible during the year.
Gold Creek, Newgate, Grasmere, and Roosville.—Infestations were general on
practically all farms, but in lower intensity than last year. The district was the most
heavily infested in the whole Province. When growers realized this, they made every
effort to obtain good control.
Fernie, Hosmer, Natal, and Michel.—Very few beetles were found at Fernie during the year. None was found east of Fernie, indicating an improvement in the Crows-
nest District.
Springbrook, Sheep Creek, Premier Lake, and Skookumchuck.—Spot infestations
occurred at Springbrook and were carefully controlled. This appears to be the most
northern limit of infestation above Cranbrook. The Premier Lake outbreak has been
completely controlled.
Skookumchuck to Radium Junction.—No infestation was found during the summer.
Radium Junction to Golden.—No beetles found.
Cranbrook to Creston.—No beetles found.
Erickson, Canyon, Camp Lister, and Huscroft.—No beetles found.
The above districts have all had infestations in past years and are still listed for
future reference.
Creston to Gray Creek.—Eight infestations were found in the Wynndel area and
all dusted.    No infestations were located towards Gray Creek.
Kootenay Flats.—Periodic inspections of potato-crops in the Kootenay Flats were
made at various times during the year. Not a single infestation was located. This is
the first year for several years that the Kootenay Flats have been free of an infestation.
Summary of Potato-beetle Dust Distribution.
On hand in Obtained in
1945. 1946.
Lb. Lb.
D. Bradley, Creston Co-operative  200 500
H. Anderson, Jaffray  375 300
E. Quail, Fernie  100 500
J. Mojak, Dorr  225 70
A. Munro, Newgate  100 500
S. J. Morrow, Baynes Lake  125                 	
A. Spencer, Wynndel Co-operative  200 50
J. Lancaster, Grasmere  100 840
C. Jensen, Ta Ta Creek  200                 	
Cranbrook   4,469 5,000
PROVINCE     LIBRARY
VICTORIA, B. C. W 102 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Of the 5,000 lb. of Rotox dust shipped to Cranbrook, 1,140 lb. were reshipped to the
Castlegar district for control of the new infestations located in that area. A total of
200 lb. of Rotox dust remains at Cranbrook.
For the past two years 3-per-cent. D.D.T. dust was tried for potato-beetle control.
It was found to be superior to any other insecticide used and worked equally well on
both larvae and adults. It retained its killing power for a far longer period than the
rotenone dusts, and thus reduced the number of applications of insecticide required.
A total of 6,000 lb. of 3-per-cent. D.D.T. should be sufficient for the Kootenay District
in 1947.
Three or four rotary-type dusters should be purchased during 1937 to replace
machines that are worn out in the Kootenay area.
(b.)  Castlegar District.
A new area of potato-beetle infestation was discovered in the Castlegar district in
early July. C. N. Barnhardt started detailed survey-work on July 10th. It was soon
apparent that beetles were widely scattered within a radius of several miles of Castlegar. There had apparently been some beetles in the district for at least three years,
but they had not been reported to agricultural officers. As soon as poisoned dust and
dusters were made available to growers, they made a real effort to eradicate the pest.
The condition was much improved by the end of the summer, and no serious trouble
is anticipated in dealing with this outbreak. Only a small area of land is suited to
agriculture, and there is a maximum amount of isolation in the rugged mountain ranges.
At the end of August a report of another infestation was received from Renata,
on the Arrow Lakes. Mr. Barnhardt visited the area to check and found no sign of
potato-beetles. Lady-beetle larvae and pupa? were common, and one grower reported
that he considered these were potato-beetle larvae. This mistaken identity on the part
of growers has often occurred.
Mr. Anderson, of Anderson's Feed Company, Castlegar, acted as distributer for
poisoned dust. Mr. Barnhardt did a good deal of the actual control-work for this year
and acquainted growers with the work.
Mr. Barnhardt should be able to supervise control measures in Castlegar during
1947, as well as do the East Kootenay work. The use of D.D.T. in place of 0.75 per
cent, rotenone will mean fewer applications of dust. The total area of infestation is
now materially reduced.
(c.)  Boundary Area.
Grand Forks, Greemvood, Midway, and Rock Creek.—A careful check of these districts was kept during the year. No potato-beetles have been found since 1943. Grand
Forks is now one of the most important seed-potato areas in the Province, with the
acreage doubled since 1945.
(d.) South Okanagan Valley and Similkameen.
Control-work was undertaken again by H. B. Parsons in 1946.
A very careful survey of all properties infested in 1945 was made, and all infestations dusted as needed.    Because of the mild winter a heavy growth of volunteer
potatoes from last year's plantings appeared among other vegetable-crops.    These
contributed to the scattered outbreaks and made it more difficult to control.
Conditions generally this year show a great improvement over those of last year.
Location of infestations were as follows:— 1945. 1946.
Osoyoos  27 20
Cawston   20 6
Oliver     5 8 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 103
Penticton 	
Keremeos _.__.
Similkameen
945.
1946
3
3
1
2
0
2
All infestations were light and scattered. There were no heavy infestations whatever, a complete contrast to the previous season.
Another new area of infestation was found in the Oliver district, at the south end
of the airport. These included five small garden-plots, and all were cleaned up in a
short period of time with the use of 3-per-cent. D.D.T. dust. Another small light
infestation in the Fairview district was cleaned up by using D.D.T. dust. No further
outbreak was found on these plots for the remainder of the season.
Two new infestations were found in the Similkameen during the year—one on the
Indian reservation. Both of these infestations were light and were given careful
attention. It was necessary to go through United States territory to reach the Indian
reservation at Similkameen. Reports were received of potato-beetle infestations at
Orville and Nighthawk, bordering towns in the State of Washington. It may have
been possible that the South Okanagan-Similkameen outbreak originated from the
State of Washington to the south.
While Mr. Parsons was working on tuber flea-bettle survey in September, an
infestation was reported at Naramata and one in the Kelowna district. It was not
possible to determine the accuracy of these reports at this time of the year, so they
remain in doubt.    They will be investigated thoroughly in the spring.
There was a great improvement this year in potato-beetle conditions over that of
last. The number of individual infestations was reduced, and beetles were not numerous enough to do any severe damage. Many of the outbreaks were limited to one or
two plants in a field and were wiped out soon after being located. At the end of the
season few infestations were active.
Materials used.
Materials used included 770 lb. of Rotox 0.75 per cent, dust, 305 lb. of 3-per-cent.
D.D.T. dust, and 65 lb. of 10-per-cent. D.D.T. dust.
The 3-per-cent. D.D.T. dust was very much superior to dusts used in the past,
mainly rotenone 0.75 per cent, dust and calcium arsenate 1 to 6 dust. Where dusting
was done on the new infestations south of the Oliver airport, one application was
sufficient to clean up the pests. The D.D.T. retained killing power for five weeks after
rain washed the foliage.
During 1947 a total of 1,000 lb. of 3-per-cent. D.D.T. should be sufficient for control-
work in the South Okanagan-Similkameen.
Growers co-operated very well with Mr. Parsons in an effort to make the control
campaign a success, even when busy owing to the shortage of labour prevailing during
the season.
Potato-beetle Control in 1947 in British Columbia.
Control-work will be undertaken with added vigour in 1947. Infestations are now
mainly in the " spotty " stage, and dusting can be more thorough. It will be pretty
well a complete D.D.T. control programme.
There is every hope that the extensive potato-growing areas of the Province can
be spared from a spread of this pest.
Grasshoppers.
Melanoplus m. mexicanus was the main economic species in the recent outbreak.
There was a marked improvement in grasshopper conditions throughout most of British W 104 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Columbia during the year. Cool, wet weather that prevailed in most areas during the
spring was unfavourable to grasshopper-development. Parasites were known to be
building up rapidly during 1945, and by midsummer, 1946, in some areas they were
actually more numerous than grasshoppers.
The heaviest outbreaks in the Province remained in the extensive open range-land
areas of the Nicola and Kamloops district. Grasshoppers were first attacked by parasites on the lower range-levels, and by late summer parasitism was common above 2,500
feet elevation.
A minimum amount of baiting was required during the year, and greatly improved
crops of range grasses, hay, and grain were apparent.
A brief outline of conditions in various parts of British Columbia is as follows:—
(a.) East Kootenay District.—Populations reduced to normal numbers, except for
a few small isolated areas of little economic importance in the extreme south-east corner
of the Province.    The outbreak is definitely over.
(b.) Boundary Area.—Grain and hay crops were excellent in the Bridesville, Myn-
caster, and Rock Creek areas. Parasites terminated already decreasing outbreaks, and
conditions are now normal.
(c.) South Okanagan.—Spotty infestations occurred in Kelowna in early summer
but were quickly controlled by parasites. No crop damage occurred. In Penticton,
Oliver, and Osoyoos no outbreak was present.
(d.) North Okanagan.—Spotty infestations occurred in the Vernon and Armstrong
districts during the spring, but inclement weather and the activity of parasites reduced
the population to a minimum by midsummer. No loss of crops occurred during the
year. Alfalfa-seed crops and nectar-producing crops were much improved over 1945.
Honey yields were noticeably improved during the year.
In early spring it was apparent that crickets had hatched in well-above normal
numbers in the Vernon and Larken districts. The main species involved was Anabrus
longipes, and the species Steiroxys trilineata was also present in outbreak numbers.
It was feared that truck crops would suffer damage in Vernon, as has occurred during
two previous outbreaks in the past thirty years. A period of cool, wet weather resulted
in a reduction of the cricket population, and no crop damage resulted. There is still a
chance that this cricket population will increase over a limited area in 1947.
(e.) Kamloops District.—No damage to truck crops occurred throughout the Kamloops area during the year. Grasshoppers hatched in outbreak numbers on the Tranquille Range land during early spring but were greatly reduced by a high rate of
parasitism. Damage to range-land was not extensive. Conditions are expected to be
normal in 1947.
(/.) Nicola Valley.—The most noticeable improvement in any district occurred in
the Nicola Valley during the year. Parasitism was very high, and only a minimum
amount of baiting was required. Growth of grasses was excellent. Conditions should
be close to normal in 1947. The outbreak just now subsiding in the Nicola was the
most serious in modern history.
(g.) Princeton-Similkameen.—Grasshopper conditions rapidly approached normal
during the year.
(h.) Cariboo District.—In a small area adjacent to Clinton the grasshopper population was well above normal. Damage was done to hay and grass crops. This was a
very isolated area, and there is no chance of the outbreak becoming more widespread.
Northern range-land areas of the Cariboo had returned to a normal population
during the year.
(i.) Central British Columbia (Smithers and Telkwa).—The Smithers-Telkwa
area was checked with S. Preston, E. R. Buckell, Dr. R. Handford, and Professor G. J.
Spencer during August.    Apart from the Clinton area this was the only area to show DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 105
a grasshopper population increase during the year. Light damage was done to hay
and grain crops. This outbreak was considered unusual, as, normally, climatic conditions are not suited to grasshopper outbreaks. A dry, warm spring apparently made
it possible for a maximum number of grasshoppers to hatch and complete maturity
e,arly. Heavy frosts in August terminated the outbreak early, and it is believed that
only a relatively few eggs were deposited. No heavy outbreak is expected in 1947,
although conditions will require checking at hatching-time.
Grasshopper Forecast for 1947.
All of the extensive open range-land areas in the Province are expected to be free
of grasshoppers during 1947. Damage to cultivated ground crops will be light. Any
outbreaks that do occur will be confined to isolated areas. There is seldom a year goes
by without at least a minor outbreak occurring in some portion of the Province. The
outbreak that subsided in 1946 was the most widespread in the past sixty years.
Cutworms.
A serious outbreak occurred throughout almost all of the field crops districts in
British Columbia. In some areas it was the most extensive outbreak that had occurred
in sixteen years. Poisoned baiting was general, and crop-loss was held to a minimum.
Where baits were applied to soil before seeding or planting out, almost complete control
was obtained.
Several growers dusted crop rows with a 3-per-cent. D.D.T. dust, with some very
encouraging results. More experimental work with D.D.T. is required before recommendation can be made definite, although there already is considerable evidence that
D.D.T. has its place in the control of cutworms on certain crops.
The cutworm situation will be watched carefully in the spring of 1947, and more
detailed tests with D.D.T. will be carried out.
Flea-beetles.
Flea-beetles are rapidly becoming some of our most important pests of ground
crops.
The species attacking brassica crops has become very general within the past ten
years and requires extensive control to prevent heavy crop damage. Until recently 0.75
per cent, rotenone dust provided the most effective control, although it was found this
year that 3-per-cent. D.D.T. dust was effective on crops on which it may be used. Most
growers now adopt control measures early enough to prevent extensive damage.
Injury to radish-seed crops in the Grand Forks area was avoided after one application of 3-per-cent. D.D.T.
Potato Flea-beetle (Epitrix tuberis Gent.).
This insect has been present in British Columbia for less than ten years and, in
this brief period, has become one of our most serious pests.
It was first found in the Lower Fraser Valley in 1939 and is now general throughout the valley in quite serious outbreak proportions. The first official record of its
presence in the Interior occurred at Princeton during the late summer of 1944.
Surveys undertaken during 1945 and 1946 showed that a very rapid spread of this
insect has occurred throughout the Interior of the Province. It is now general in
light infestations from the International Boundary through the Okanagan Valley,
Salmon Arm district, Kamloops district, Ashcroft district, and connecting with the
infestation in the Coast area. There is no report of it, as yet, from Grand Forks to
the eastern portion of the Province or north of the Clinton district in the Cariboo. W 106 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The spread of this pest has been extremely rapid, and it may prove to be a serious
threat to potato-growing.
Control recommendations for the Fraser Valley have been worked out by R. Glen-
denning, of the Dominion Division of Entomology at Agassiz, and research-work is
continuing.
The Dominion Division of Entomology will be undertaking investigations throughout the Interior during 1947, and the Provincial Department will be doing extension-
work. Co-operation will be maintained with the Interior Vegetable Marketing Board,
as they are very anxious to obtain economic control of this serious pest. The Coast
Vegetable Marketing Board operates a glucose plant to handle their seriously damaged
potatoes. It would not be possible to pay freight on seriously injured potatoes from
the Interior to the Coast.
As yet, few heavy infestations have occurred in the Interior, although with light
infestations general over a wide area there is danger that this insect may become
extremely serious. This will be one of the major problems of extension-work on field
crops insects during 1947. There is already considerable evidence that D.D.T. may be
a very useful insecticide in control programmes. The Merritt district is, at the present
time, moderately infested and will serve as an ideal area for experimental control-work.
Onion-maggot (Hylemyia antiqua).
Although this pest causes loss of onion-crops throughout the British Columbia Dry
Belt area yearly, conditions were very much improved in 1946.
The use of a 4-per-cent. calomel dust for control is proving out well. Growers now
realize that the first application of dust should be made before egg-hatching occurs if
satisfactory results are to be obtained. It is considered that the fairly general use
of this insecticide, together with proper timing of applications, is largely responsible
for the improvement in onion-crop yields. Both onion bulb crops and seed crops were
excellent throughout the Interior during the year.
Onion-thrips (Thrips tabaci).
A marked increase in onion-thrips population occurred over a large area of the
Interior during the year. It was very fortunate that the general infestation originated
late in the summer, and only a minimum amount of crop damage resulted.
Control tests were carried out with 3-per-cent. D.D.T., with encouraging results.
For efficient results it was found that control measures had to be adopted when the
infestation was found to be very light. It was very difficult to obtain satisfactory
control if the population had built up to a high peak. The onion-thrips picture will
have to be watched very carefully in the spring of 1947 in case it suddenly flares up.
If the opportunity presents itself, further tests with D.D.T. sprays and dusts will be
carried out
Cabbage-maggot (Hylemyia brassicx).
The cabbage-maggot was considerably less during the year. As with the control
of onion root-maggot, 4-per-cent. calomel dust is providing excellent control.
Cabbage-worm (Pieris rapse).
This was not a serious pest during the year. It is not a difficult pest to control,
and undoubtedly the more general use of insecticides has been a factor in the control.
The acreage of cabbage-crops was very light as compared with that grown for
war-time needs in 1945. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 107
White-grubs or June-beetles.
White-grubs do damage to a variety of ground crops throughout the Province each
year. Injury is seldom extensive in any one district. Unfortunately, no satisfactory
control with the use of insecticides is as yet known.
Dr. Kenneth King, of the Dominion Division of Entomology at Victoria, is undertaking investigations towards control of this pest. With many new insecticides now
available there is promise that satisfactory control wwill be possible in the near future.
Parsnip Web-worm.
No reports of damage to crops by parsnip web-worm were received during the year.
Wireworms.
From observations undertaken during the year, it appears definite that wireworm
infestations are increasing in various parts of the Province. The main species showing
an increase is the irrigated-land form of wireworm.
During the year Dr. Kenneth King, of the Dominion Division of Entomology, was
placed in charge of wireworm research. Trips were made with Dr. King throughout
various parts of British Columbia to check wireworm conditions. It is believed that
the most widespread and serious infestation is in the extensive seed-growing area of
Grand Forks. Other infestations occurred at Kelowna, Vernon, Kamloops, Central
British Columbia, and the Coast areas. More reports than usual from growers concerning wireworm damage to crops were received during the year.
During July a week was spent with Dr. King and four Grand Forks growers visiting the United States Department of Agriculture wireworm research laboratory at
Walla Walla, Wash., and checking on experimental control-work being done. Excellent
results were being obtained with soil fumigants. In early fall some soil-fumigation
work was supervised by Dr. King in the Grand Forks area and in the Coast region.
There seems every hope that satisfactory control of wireworms is now possible with the
use of some of the newer insecticides. The research-work undertaken by Dr. King will
be followed very carefully, as it will mean a lot to be able to make satisfactory recommendations to growers.
Wheat-midge.
During 1944 the loss of grain-crops as a result of attack by the wheat-midge in
some portion of Lumby, Enderby, and Grindrod was 50 per cent, or more. This year
it is doubtful that the crop-loss would amount to 3 or 4 per cent.
Aphides.
Climatic conditions generally were favourable for the rapid increase of aphides
during the year. The grey cabbage aphides built up rapidly by early summer, and this
was followed by heavy parasitism. Very little control with insecticide was undertaken
as the price of cabbage was considerably lower than in 1945. In general, satisfactory
control by dusting or spraying is always obtained against aphides.
ORCHARD PESTS.
• Very detailed orchard-insect investigations are undertaken by the Provincial Horticultural Branch and the staff of the Dominion Division of Entomology under Dr. J.
Marshall. As this phase of insect-work is covered in the report of the Provincial Horticulturist, no mention is made in this report of orchard-pest conditions. Contact was
maintained throughout the year with horticulturists and members engaged in fruit-
insect investigations.    This was done to keep in touch with research being done in W 108 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
order to make it possible to assist fruit-growers during trips to various parts of the
Province.
GREENHOUSE PESTS.
Greenhouse insects were controlled more efficiently during the year with the use
of some of the newer insecticides. Successful control of the chrysanthemum-midge,
leaf-hoppers, and tarnished plant-bugs was obtained in experimental spraying with
D.D.T. Complete control of some species of aphides resulted from the use of the new
insecticide, benzene hexachloride. Rotenone-oil combinations were, widely used as a
substitute for nicotine products and, with some species of insects, were reported to be
more effective.
INSECTS IN HOPYARDS.
The main pests in the hopyards in the Kamloops area were aphides, red spider
mites, and white-grubs.
It was necessary to use alternative materials for nicotine products against aphides.
The Ord Hopyard, at Kamloops, reported a dust containing hexaethyl tetrophosphate as
the most promising material yet tested. This insecticide is very volatile, and excellent
kills were obtained of the aphides that were very well protected by the foliaceous bracts
of the hops.
White-grubs do some damage yearly to the hop-vines.
HOUSEHOLD INSECTS.
House-flies.
The extensive use of residual sprays of D.D.T. in dwellings, restaurants, and public
buildings reduced the population of flies noticeably during the year. Some restaurant
operators reported they were able to keep free of flies for the first time.
Mosquitoes.
This was a high-water year, and in most districts wet weather prevailed during
the spring. It was a serious mosquito year, with some towns reporting them for the
first time in years. Requests for control measures were numerous. With new materials available it is believed that many towns will be adopting organized control in the
future.
Cockroaches.
Control tests in several public buildings were made during the year, and best
results were obtained with a combination of D.D.T. and pyrethrum dust. The German
cockroach was found the most difficult to control. The Oriental cockroach was readily
controlled with 10-per-cent. D.D.T.
Bedbug (Cimex lecturlarius).
Formerly, most control-work was done with hydrocyanic acid gas fumigation. This
was both dangerous and expensive. The work may now be accomplished thoroughly
and cheaply with one residual spray of D.D.T. An interesting report was received
from an operator controlling insects in a large number of bunk-houses in an industrial
camp in the Coast area. In 1945 he spent $1,500 on various insecticides suggested by
commercial insecticide firms without obtaining satisfactory control of bedbugs. In
1946 he purchased 50 gallons of D.D.T. residual spray, obtained perfect results, and
had some material left over. It is believed that numerous infestations were completely eradicated during the year. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 109
Box-elder Bug (Leptocoris trivittatus).
The outbreak continues in the Interior, although in lowered intensity. These pests
are annoying to householders, as they hibernate in dwellings. More spraying was done
during the year with D.D.T., again proving it to be most effective.
Earwigs.
Very many more reports of outbreaks throughout the Interior were received this
year. At one time it was considered that earwigs would never develop to any extent
in the Dry Belt area. This theory now has to be disregarded, as an annual increase in
population becomes apparent.
Fleas.
No outbreaks of fleas as household pests were reported during the year in the
Interior.
OTHER INSECTS IN OUTBREAK PROPORTIONS.
Fir-tree Tussock-moth (Hemerocampa pseudotsuga).
A heavy outbreak occurred on ornamental Douglas fir trees in the city of Vernon,
destroying many beautiful trees. Many householders cut trees down to avoid tremendous numbers of crawling caterpillars. It was difficult to spray tall trees. Where
small trees were sprayed with D.D.T., good results were obtained.
A few reports of rash on humans caused by the urticating hairs of the caterpillars
were received. A few infested trees were also observed at Monte Lake, 40 miles west
of Vernon.
Grape Leaf-hoppers.
These were present in the heaviest outbreak I have ever seen, in the Kamloops
district. Some damage was done to grape-crops, although, on the whole, excellent control was obtained with D.D.T. sprays. Virginia creeper was also heavily attacked,
causing considerable annoyance to householders who grew this creeper for shade on
verandas.
Tent-caterpillars.
A serious infestation occurred over the southern portion of Vancouver Island.
Every effort was made to obtain control by using arsenical and D.D.T. sprays, but this
was difficult with the infestation very general. Fortunately, in the past the parasite
of this pest has given complete control during the second or third year of infestation.
Fall Web-worm.
This insect was not as general this year as in 1945, although heavy webbing was
observed in shrubs and trees throughout the Okanagan Valley. The spray programme
for orchard pests prevented orchard trees from being attacked.
LIVE-STOCK INSECTS.
Warbles.
Some assistance was given to Dr. W. Gunn, Live Stock Commissioner, with his
warble-control programme in the spring. There is evidence that warbles are increasing throughout British Columbia, particularly in areas where growers have neglected
control. Fortunately, more of the larger cattle-ranchers now realize that warble-
control results in increased returns, and several new power-sprayers were purchased
in 1945. Cattle can be treated very quickly and efficiently with these power-sprayers,
and there is every indication that more will be obtained. A long-term experiment is being undertaken in the Dominion Division of Entomology, Live-stock Insect Laboratory, Kamloops. A large beef herd in the Cariboo District is being used. The animals were sprayed once before being turned out on the
range, and after one year's operation the average number of grubs per animal was
reduced by 50 per cent.
Operators of dairies and creameries co-operated whole-heartedly in assisting with
warble-powder distribution, knowing it would increase production of dairy products.
Extension-work on warble control should be maintained throughout the year, and,
if possible, control-work should be supervised. At the present time it is too difficult
to get cattlemen to fill in and return Warble-fly Report forms, and a great deal of
valuable information is lost. Research-work and extension-work should go hand in
hand, as one group of workers can greatly assist the others.
Tick-control (Dermacentor andersoni stiles).
Contact was maintained with J. D. Gregson and G. Holland during the year to
keep in touch with some of the experimental work undertaken at the Dominion Livestock Insect Laboratory at Kamloops.
In past years numerous materials have been tested on cattle in an effort to find
one that would protect them against the paralysis tick. Of 125 mixtures tried, none
was entirely successful, and ticks caused serious loss of cattle.
The new material, benzene hexachloride, was tested in 1946. From laboratory and
field tests this proved to be an acaraeide more promising than any hitherto tested.
A test was made on 150 cattle at Merritt, using 6 lb. of gammexane to 100 gallons of
water. One pint of the solution was sprayed on the neck and crown of the head of each
animal. Examination was made two weeks later of seventeen cattle that were available. Of twelve treated animals, only two bore ticks, and these had died before attaching. The five untreated controls were either infested with bunches of ticks or bore
scars where ticks had recently been rubbed off. In no instance was there any suggestion of damage to the animals by the strength of material used. This is another case
of where one of the new insecticides may prove successful against a very destructive
pest.
Cattle-lice.
Many reports of successful control of cattle-lice with D.D.T. sprays and dusts
were received during the year.
GENERAL.
Control pamphlets were prepared for distribution to growers as required during
the year. Articles for the press and agricultural papers aided entomological extension-
work.
Horticultural Circular No. 71, Insecticidal Dusts, was completed. This was brought
up to date and now covers control of several new insects. It deals with control by
" dusts " only and covers all the important field crops insects in the Province. A revision
of the bulletin Sprays is now needed.
A new bulletin, Control of the Onion-thrips, was completed, and a write-up,
" Resume of Infestations and Control of the Colorado Potato-beetle in British Columbia,
1911-1946," for publication in Proceedings of the Entomological Society of British
Columbia was prepared. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 111
REPORT OF LIVE STOCK BRANCH.
Wallace R. Gunn, B.V.Sc, B.S.A., V.S., Commissioner.
The winter of 1945-46 was long and quite hard, making it necessary to feed for a
longer period than usual in many parts of the Province. As a result, disease and
disease-like conditions appeared in many districts. In fact, some of these conditions
had not been seen for many years, and stockmen had almost forgotten about many of
them. Some stockmen almost refused to accept the suggestion that they were primarily
the result of deficiencies.
HORSES.
Horse-breeding in British Columbia and in the Dominion has a somewhat uncertain
future. The situation has changed but very little since last year. We, in this
Province, have not removed very many of our horses. The Prairie Provinces have
been slaughtering their surplus horses in large numbers. They have been shipping
quite a large number to Europe. We have been breeding very few draught horses.
The number of stallions enrolled this year has gone down slightly from last year, as can
be noted by the figures given below:—
1946: A, 10; B, 9;  C, 0; D, 3; E, 5;  F, 0.
1945: A, 15; B, 6; C, 4; D, 3; E,3;  F, 1.
We, perhaps, have as many draught stallions as in past years, but quite a number
of these have been removed from service for the time being.
Light-horse breeding is quite active, with the demand for riding-horses quite
strong. Buyers are constantly scouting the country on the lookout for suitable riding-
horses of the type favoured by different riding clubs.
Our policy of controlling the importation of horses by requiring vaccination against
encephalomyelitis and requiring that only registered stallions which pass inspection by
Federal Stallion Inspectors can enter the Province has very definitely stopped the
practice of dumping unsound, inferior stallions into this Province. During the year
the following number of mares, geldings, and registered stallions were given permits
to enter the Province. Racehorses come in under quarantine and return to their point
of origin at the end of the racing season.
The number of permits issued was 291, covering 790 mares, 844 geldings, 4 stallions, 6 entire colts (to be castrated when 2 years of age), and 239 racehorses, making
a total of 1,883 horses.
BEEF CATTLE.
It might be said that the beef-cattle industry has had a very satisfactory year,
with prices somewhat better than in 1945. The average price for good steers in
Vancouver in 1945 struck an even price during midsummer of $11.50 and held at that
price until November 8th, when prices dropped 15 cents. The average price for 1946
was somewhat higher, beginning with $11.75, with an increase of 10 to 20 cents per
hundred, reaching a spring high of $12.25 in late February and a high for the season
on July 4th of $13.25, ranging from $12.25 to $12.50 and $12.65, dropping to $12.15 in
November, where it remained until the end of the month. For more detail refer to
Appendix No. 6 and compare it with Appendix No. 13 in the report for 1945.
The summarized reports of sales held in British Columbia during the year of 1946
are as follows:—
Provincial Bull Sale and Fat Stock Show, Kamloops,
March 12th to 14th, 1946.
There were six car-lots (15 head) selling at an average price of $14.96 for a total
of $13,739.40.    The top price was $15.50.    The average net weight was 1,017.55 lb. W 112
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The average price for 1945 was $14.69 and the top price was $17.25. The average net
weight per steer was 999 lb. in 1945.
Twenty-six groups of five cattle averaged $14.93, with a total of $18,076.21. The
top price was $16.75. The total net weight was 127,410 lb. and the average net weight
1,061.75 lb., compared to an average net weight of 819 lb. in 1945.
There were 75 head of singles, which included 14 boys' and girls' calves (two of
which were not exempted under Wartime Prices and Trade Board regulations), and
8 head of spares.
The spares sold for an average of $12.93 per hundredweight; the open singles for
an average of $16.57. The top price was $55 per hundredweight for the champion steer
of the show; two other steers sold for $19 per hundredweight. The 12 head of boys'
and girls' singles which were exempted sold for an average of $16.65 per hundredweight.
1946. 1945.
Total sales  $41,926.40        $36,755.59
Total number sold         288 255
This sale was exempted under Wartime Prices and Trade Board order. Your
Commissioner acted as chairman of the culling committee.
Of the 288 head sold, 242 head were sold to the central plants in Vancouver. These
graded: AA, 190 head; A, 43 head; B, 4 head;  C, 1 head.
Breeding Stock sold.
1946.
1945.
Bulls.
No. of
Head.
Average
Price.
Top
Price.
Total.
No. of
Head.
Average
Price.
Top
Price.
Total.
3
92
5
21
g
$100.00
423.09
309.00
417.22
245.71
$100.00
3,000.00
350.00
$300.00
38,925.00
1,545.00
5
91
8
22
$203.00
484.39
297.50
$220.00
3,500.00
460.00
$1,015.00
44,080.00
2,380.00
735.no
5,160.00
1,815.00
S12 72
575.00
6,880.00
226.87   1       500.00
Total number of bulls	
Total breeding females..
Total fat stock	
Total sale of bulls	
1946.
129
         288
  $47,745.00
Total sale of fat stock     41,926.40
Total sale of breeding females	
Grand totals  $89,671.40
1945.
131
25
255
$55,070.00
36,755.59
6,875.00
$98,700.59
Southern Interior Stockmen's Association Fourth Annual Feeder Sale
and Bull Sale, Okanagan Falls, September 12th, 1946.
Summary of Sales.
Commercial Cattle.
No. of
Head.
Average Price
per Head.
Average Price
per Cwt.
Total
Receipts.
1
498                   $110.20
$11.94
12.91
11.42
8.57
13.61
9.40
$54,893.79
1,996.78
16,578.80
21,843.00
3,565.24
2,286.08
15
68
258
85
18
133.11
109.04
84.66
41.94
127.00
Bulls              	
1,122
$108,588.88 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 113
1946—11 head _____
Breeding Stock (Bulls).
Average Price.
            $269.99
Receipts.
$2,960.00
1945—8 head 	
       325.63
2,605.00
There were 14 head of boys' and girls' calves which sold for $183.81 average per
head, an average price of $21.23 per hundredweight and a total price of $2,573.38.
There were 14 head of boys' and girls' calves sold in 1945 for an average of $114.39
per head and $14.33 per hundredweight, for a total of $1,601.41.
1946. 1945.
Total cattle          1,147 891
Total receipts   $114,122.26        $72,997.81
Waldo Stock-breeders' Association Fifth Annual Fat Stock and
Feeder Sale, Elko, September 14th, 1946.
At this sale 487 head sold for $35,563.91.
British Columbia Sheep-breeders' Ram Sale, Kamloops,
September 28th, 1946.
Summary.
Suffolk rams— 1946.                         1945.
Average   $42.11                     $49.45
Total (52)   2,190.00        (55)  3,270.00
Hampshire rams—
Average   32.29                       49.49
Total (25)   800.00        (32)  1,530.00
Rambouillet rams—
Average   30.00                       27.14
Total (1)   30.00          (7)     190.00
Romnelet rams—
Average   25.00                       47.00
Total (1)   25.00          (6)     410.00
A total of 79 rams sold for $3,045, and an average of $38.43.
Central British Columbia Livestock Association.
Due to the fact that the cattlemen of Central British Columbia sold many of their
cattle to visiting buyers, the Central British Columbia Livestock Association found it
impossible to hold what would have been their fifth annual sale. The previous sales
were held at Kamloops, usually in early October.
Cariboo Stockmen's Association Ninth Feeder and Fat Stock Show and
Bull Sale, Williams Lake, October 17th and 18th, 1946.
This we believe to be Canada's largest commercial cattle sale. The figures presented by the sales committee make it impossible to give any very complete information.
There were 2,174 head of cattle as groups in the yards and 41 head of singles in
outside pens. The top price of 50 cents per pound went to the 893-lb. champion steer
entered by Ray Webster, a junior from Horsefly. There were 66 Hereford bulls sold
for $22,310. The champion, bred by Earlscourt Farms, Ltd., was sold to Glen Walters
and L. Hodgens, of Horsefly, for $925. This was the high price for the sale. There
were 11 head of Shorthorn bulls sold for $2,300. W 114 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
There were 74 head exempted from price ceiling under Wartime Prices and Trade
Board order. These graded: AA, 60 head; A, 10 head; B, 2 head; C, 1 head; and
one animal lost its tag and was not graded.
Quesnel Cattlemen's Association Third Annual Sale, Quesnel,
October 24th, 1946.
Here again the information contained in the reports was too meagre to give
worth-while information. There were 1,362 cattle of all kinds presented. The top
price paid was $11.80.
Christmas Fat Stock Show and Sale, Kamloops, December 6th, 1946.
There were three car-lots (15 head) which sold for an average price of $14. The
1945 average was $13.93. The top price was $14.25, against a top price of $14.50 in
1945. The total was $6,964.48. There were fifteen groups of 5 head which sold for
an average of $14.26 and a total of $11,046.89. Last year's average was $13.88. The
top price this year was $15. Five head of spares averaged $13.03 for a total of
$926.90. Thirty head of open singles averaged $16 for a total of $4,743.32. Last
year's average was $15.82.    The top this year was $50 for the reserve champion.
The Armstrong "A" Boys' and Girls' Club had 11 entries, which averaged $16.61
for a total of $1,644.56.    Last year's average was $19.96.    The top price was $18.
Armstrong " B " Boys' and Girls' Club had 12 entries, which averaged $16.17 for
a total of $1,778.67.    Last year's average was $14.95.
Barriere "A" Boys' and Girls' Club had 9 entries, which averaged $15.81 for a
total of $1,231.80.    Last year's average was $13.97.
Barriere " B " Boys' and Girls' Club had 7 entries, which averaged $13.80 for a
total of $857.20.
Kamloops South Boys' and Girls' Club had 11 entries, which sold at an average
price of $14.80 for a total of $1,617.36.    The 1945 average was $16.43.
Lac la Hache Boys' and Girls' Club had 4 entries, which sold at the average price
of $15.67, with a total of $560.53.
The Lower North Thompson Boys' and Girls' Club had 14 entries, which sold at
an average price of $15.79 and a total of $2,235.71.    Last year's average was $14.83.
Notch Hill Boys' and Girls' Club had 7 entries, which sold at an average price
of $12.93 for a total of $730.28.
Salmon Arm Boys' and Girls' Club had 8 entries, which sold at an average of
$17.09 for a total of $1,130.43.
Westwold Boys' and Girls' Club had 15 entries, which sold for an average of $16.04
and a total of $2,320.15.    The 1945 average was $14.28.
The group for non-club members had 4 entries, which averaged $33.50 for a total
of $1,269.63. Last year's average was $14.28. In this group was the grand champion
steer, which sold for $90 per hundredweight.
Five head of boys' and girls' lambs sold for $199.85.
There was a total of 102 head of junior entries, which averaged $17.11 per
hundredweight for a total of $15,373.32.
Summary.
1946. 1945.
Total number of cattle          265 242
Total sales of cattle  $39,054.91        $34,835.96
Total sales of sheep  199.85 95.00
Grand totals   $39,254.76        $34,930.96 DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 1946. W 115
Your Commissioner acted as chairman of a culling committee under Wartime
Prices and Trade Board order. This committee exempted all cattle from price ceiling
except three head of singles and one group of five head.
To sum up this situation it might be said that with markets as strong as they have
been, this type of marketing has proved very satisfactory for the producers. All markets during these years have been able to take care of large numbers of plainer cattle.
This comes as a result of large shipments of canned meat going to European markets.
It might be well, however, for producers to take note of advice which is constantly being
given by this Branch to cull their herds very carefully and get rid of plainer cattle
which grade down, since when the market gets back to normal and when Canada is
again on a surplus basis, there will be very little demand for this class of cattle for the
fresh-meat trade. It is possible that we may, in this country, continue to process and
can our plainer cattle; but even if we do, it is questionable whether we can compete on
our own market with Argentine and South American canned beef.
Cattle Marketing in British Columbia.
There has been some effort made to do more finishing of cattle, but this still is one
of the great problems facing the industry. Supplies of grain are available up to the
present on a free-freight basis, but the uncertainty of the continuation of this policy
has prevented those interested in finishing cattle from undertaking the work as a regular practice. It is hoped that our granary in the Peace River Block may be tapped (in
the not too distant future). When a regular supply of grain can be obtained from that
part of the Province, cattle-finishing should become a regular practice. As more cattle
become available on the market, prices for unfinished cattle will definitely go down, and
producers will have to finish more of their cattle or have them finished in regular feed-
lots.    The possibility of some cover-crop feeding is being looked into.
Bull-control Areas.
The bull-control area plan has been established as a policy in five areas. Only
three of these areas, however—namely, the Columbia Bull-control Areas, the Newgate-
Grasmere Bull-control Area, and the Waldo Bull-control Area—have functioned actively
under this policy. The two former areas functioned very smoothly, with no conflict
and good co-operation from the producers. In the Waldo district there was some considerable conflict. This area has been functioning as a one-breed area (Aberdeen
Angus), which perhaps contributes somewhat to the problem. All of these areas were
voluntarily established, including the Aberdeen Angus area. Later in the year, however, the situation seemed to clear, and it is hoped that the little personal differences
have been straightened out. The soundness of the policy is very evident, and unless
something such as this can be established in many more districts, improvement in the
cattle of these districts cannot be expected.
DAIRY CATTLE.
This branch of the live-stock industry has had quite a successful year, with the
over-all production for the Province down about 3 to 4 per cent, over the previous year.
This reduction is due to several reasons, but chiefly lack of suitable labour.
It takes more than disinterested, transient labour to serve the needs of this industry.
The dairy-cattle industry requires highly scientific direction if it is to reach its proper
plane of economic efficiency.
Calfhood vaccination against brucellosis and artificial insemination will be dealt
with under separate headings. W 116
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
SHEEP.
This branch of the live-stock industry had quite a good year. See Appendix No. 7
for average prices of lambs from January 1st to November 30th, 1946. Sheepmen
report considerable trouble with predators. Herders on many ranges have to bed down
closely at night and are inclined to use the same bed-grounds for long periods. This is
making it hard for the Inspectors of this Branch to clean up foot-rot in some of these
flocks.
Tick-control work and internal-parasite control work is making progress.
The following is a summary of live stock killed by dogs:—
Year.
Goats.
Sheep.
Poultry.
Number.
Compensation.
Number.
Compensation.
Number.
Compensation.
1941	
1
1
109
74
111
179
108
190
$988.50
828.00
1,156.25
2,124.50
1,294.25
2,167.50
203
306
489
521
497
415
$440.16
1942	
243.48
1943	
484.77
1944    ...                	
465.94
1945	
$30.00
25.00
408.74
1946	
629.28
SWINE.
Swine production has been attracting a little more attention this year, with a few
brood sows being placed in several sections of the Province.
The future of swine-raising rotates around feed-supplies and the type of dairying
being carried on. So long as the free-freight policy on grain remains in force or where
there is any volume of home-grown