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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS HON. E. T. KENNEY, Minister C. D. ORCHARD,… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1946

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS     .
HON. E. T. KENNEY, Minister C. D. ORCHARD, Deputy Minister of Forests
REPORT
of
THE FOREST SERVICE
YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31st
1945
PRINTED BY
AUTHORITY OP THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Chables F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1946.  o
o
5-IUL--A    FAILILi
Strathcona Park.
o
ooo
9 o  Victoria, B.C, March 1st, 1946.
To His Honour W. C. Woodward,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
Herewith I beg respectfully to submit the Annual Report of the Forest Service
of the Department of Lands and Forests for the calendar year 1945.
E. T. KENNEY,
Minister of Lands and Forests.
The Hon. E. T. Kenney,
Minister of Lands and Forests, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—There is submitted herewith the Annual Report on activities of the Forest
Service during the calendar year 1945.
C D. ORCHARD,
Deputy Minister and Chief Forester.  CONTENTS.
Item. Page.
1. Introductory     9
2. Organization and Personnel—
Enlistments  11
Distribution of Personnel  15
3. Forest Economics  16
Air and Forest Surveys  16
Provincial Forests  16
Inventory of Forest Resources  16
Forest Research  17
Mensuration  17
Silvicultural Studies  22
Applied Management Studies  24
Soil Surveys and Research  24
Reforestation  25
Forest Nurseries _._  25
Planting  25
Provincial Parks  26
4. Forest Management  28
Water-borne Lumber Trade (in M.B.M.)  29
The Forest Industries—
Estimated Value of Production  30
Paper (in Tons)  30
Total Amount of Timber scaled in British Columbia during the Years
1944-45 (in F.B.M.)  30
Species cut, all Products (in F.B.M.)  31
Total Scale (in F.B.M.) segregated, showing Land Status, all Products,- 32
Timber scaled in British Columbia in 1945 (by Months and Districts)  33
Logging Inspection, 1945  35
Trespasses, 1945  35
Pre-emption Inspection, 1945  36
Areas examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of " Land Act," 1945  36
Classification of Areas examined, 1945  36
Areas cruised for Timber-sales, 1945  37
Timber-sales awarded by Districts, 1945  38
Average Stumpage Prices as bid per M.B.F. Log-scale, by Species and
Forest Districts, on Saw-timber cruised on Timber-sales in 1945  39
Average Stumpage Prices received per M.B.F. Log-scale, by Species and
Forest Districts, on Saw-timber scaled from Timber-sales in 1945  40
Timber cut from Timber-sales during 1945  41
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1945  42
Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1945  43
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts, Railway-ties, etc.,
1945  44
Summary for Province, 1945   44
Timber-marking, Timber-marks issued  45
Draughting Office, Forest Service, 1945  45
Forest Insect Survey, 1945  46 II 6 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Item. Page.
5. Forest Finance—
Crown-granted Timber Lands paying Forest Protection Tax  47
Extent and Value of Timber Lands by Assessment Districts  47
Average Assessed Values  of Crown-granted  Timber  Land paying  Forest
Protection Tax, as compiled from Taxation Records..—  48
Forest Revenue  49
Amounts charged against Logging Operations, 1945  50
Amounts charged against Logging Operations, Fiscal Year 1944-45  51
Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1944-45_  52
Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1944-45  53
Scaling Fund  53
Forest Reserve Account  54
Grazing Range Improvement Fund  54
Standing of Forest Protection Fund, March 31st, 1945  55
Forest Protection Expenditure for Twelve Months ended March 31st, 1945.  56
Reported Approximate Expenditure in Forest Protection by other Agencies,
1945  57
6. Forest Protection—
Weather  58
Fires—
Causes and Occurrence  59
Cost of Fire-fighting  60
Damage  60
Fire-control Research and Planning  61
Fire-suppression Crews  66
Aircraft  68
Mechanical Equipment  68
Cars and Trucks ,  68
Fire-pumps and Outboard Motors  69
Marine and Structural  69
Fraser River Repair-station  69
Launches  69
Building and Construction  70
Radio  70
Slash-disposal and Snag-falling  71
Forest Closures  74
Co-operation—other Agencies  75
Fire Law Enforcement  76
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1945  76
Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1945  76
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years  76
Fires classified by Size and Damage, 1945  77
Damage to Property other than Forests, 1945  77
Damage to Forest-cover caused by Forest Fires, 1945  77
Fire Causes, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1945  78
Comparison of Damage caused by Forest Fires in Last Ten Years  79
Fires classified by Forest District, Place of Origin, and Cost of Fire-fighting
per Fire, 1945  80
Prosecutions, 1945  81
Burning Permits, 1945  82 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945. II 7
Item. Page.
7. Public Relations and Education  83
Forest Service Library  84
8. Grazing—
General Conditions  85
Markets and Prices  85
Live-stock Losses  86
Range Reconnaissance  86
Co-operation  86
Grazing Permits  86
Grazing Permits issued  87
Collections  87
Grazing Fees billed and collected  87
Range Improvement  87
9. Personnel Directory, January 1st, 1946  88  REPORT OF THE FOREST SERVICE.
The year 1945 will be memorable in world history as marking the termination ol
hostilities in the second great world war and the profound relief and thankfulness
occasioned thereby. In the narrower field of Forest Service affairs the war's end gave
immediate promise of renewed activities through the return to civilian life of technical
personnel and skilled men who had been absent from Forest Service duty for four, five,
and six years while serving in the armed forces. The Service had a record of 167
enlistments, which necessitated curtailment in all lines of work and the complete elimination of some. In keeping with earlier promise, year's end saw many of these back
in old positions. The field staff was already somewhat relieved from some of the overpowering burdens of added duties, and plans were actively under way to revive such
important activities as research, aerial surveys, and extension of revision of forest
inventory. At this time we should once again acknowledge our deep debt of gratitude
to our associates who devoted so many years to Canada's service in the armed forces
and to those who, in most cases reluctantly staying at home, carried a double burden of
the more prosaic but vitally necessary work of forest administration.
Other departmental highlights of the year which merit special mention were the
reorganization of the Department, completion of the forestry inquiry, and creation of
a Public Relations Division.
The Department of Lands was reorganized as the Department of Lands and
Forests, with a Deputy Minister of Forests and a Deputy Minister of Lands. This, in
effect, makes the Forest Service a separate Department which has proved to be of
material assistance to the Service in the discharge of its various duties.
The Honourable Chief Justice Gordon McG. Sloan, sole Commissioner of the Royal
Commission on Forestry, appointed December 31st, 1943, completed his public hearings
in July, 1945. The Commissioner's report is not yet at hand but is promised for early
in the new year and may be confidently expected to point the way to greatly improved
forest practice and a promise of sustained-yield management that will finally put our
all-important forest resource and industry on a permanent basis.
This past year a Public Relations Division has been established to co-ordinate the
various activities in the Forest Service centring around this phase of the work.
The year 1945 has set a record in revenue collected by the Department, which
reached an all-time high of $4,211,865.09. Reflecting this increased revenue is the
increase in work in all phases of Forest Service activity during the past few years.
Details of the work accomplished will be found in the tabulation and text of this report
in the pages that follow.
Although market demand for lumber has been at a high level throughout the year,
shortage of labour in the woods was a serious limiting factor preventing any record
production.
The log-scale for 1945 was 2,926,320,824 F.B.M., being only slightly above the
figure for 1944.
Hazardous conditions throughout the Province were, on the whole, above average.
Although, in the Interior of the Province, spring weather was generally cold and wet,
this was followed by extremely dry conditions during July and August; this was particularly in evidence in the Kootenays, where the average rainfall during these months
was considerably below average. This condition was reflected in heavy fire-suppression
costs, especially in the Nelson Forest District.
9 II 10 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Experience this year substantiates the need for better detection and suppression
facilities, involving the use of more aeroplanes for detection and transportation where
feasible, and an increase in all types of fire-fighting equipment. The possibilities of
the use of the helicopter as a quick means of transportation to the seat of an outbreak
in our more inaccessible regions opens a vista of effective control measures not possible
in the past by any other means of transportation or improvements. The Forest Service
is keeping in close touch with the development of this type of aircraft in the event its
practical application to the forest-protection problem will materialize.
The co-operation received from all sections of the industry, as well as the general
public, has been most heartening and the Forest Service takes this opportunity of
acknowledging such helpful understanding in a year when conditions for all concerned
offered many difficult situations. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945. II 11
ORGANIZATION AND PERSONNEL.
The following members of the Forest Service have given their lives in the service
of their country or are officially reported as missing and presumed to have been killed:—
J. H. Benton, Surveys, Victoria.
L. A. Bland, Junior Draughtsman, Victoria.
N. H. Boss, Draughtsman, Nelson.
I. J. Burkitt, Ranger Assistant, Nelson.
H. E. Elsey, Research Assistant, Victoria.
J. A. Leighton, Clerk, Prince Rupert.
J. D. LeMare, Cruiser, Victoria.
A. C. Letcher, Patrolman, Vancouver.
D. E. Stephens, Dispatcher, Vancouver.
As at the end of 1945, available records show the following roster of enlistments.
Every effort has been made to make this record complete, but due to the fact that all
employees who left the Service to enlist did not inform us of their intention, it is
thought that some names are unavoidably omitted.
A. B. Anderson, Cruiser, Victoria.
Miss U. D. Anderson, Junior Clerk, Vancouver.
G. S. Andrews, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
A. A. Antilla, Assistant Ranger, Prince Rupert.
C. L. Armstrong, Assistant Forester, Kamloops.
Geo. Baldwin, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
G. J. Ballard, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
A. H. Bamford, Research Assistant, Victoria.
H. T. Barbour, Acting Ranger, Nelson.
H. I. Barwell, Draughtsman, Kamloops.
C. E. Bennett, Cruiser, Victoria.
J. H. Benton, Surveys, Victoria.
S. Benwell, Clerk, Victoria.
L. A. Bland, Junior Draughtsman, Victoria.
N. H. Boss, Draughtsman, Nelson.
C. L. Botham, Ranger, Prince Rupert.
J. Boydell, Ranger, Kamloops.
R. Bradshaw, Lookout-man, Nelson.
R. G. Bullen, Lookout-man, Vancouver.
I. J. Burkitt, Ranger Assistant, Nelson.
A. M. Byers, Surveys, Victoria.
G. A. Cahilty, Clerk, Kamloops.
C. H. Cameron, Dispatcher, Vancouver.
I. T. Cameron, Assistant Forester, Kamloops.
H. W. Campbell, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
H. C. Casilio, Draughtsman, Victoria.
C. W. J. Castley, Dispatcher, Vancouver.
L. A. Chase, Acting Ranger, Kamloops.
H. N. Cliff, Research Assistant, Victoria.
H. G. M. Colbeck, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
E. L. Collett, Helper, Vancouver.
R. W. Colmer, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
W. A. Conder, Lookout-man, Vancouver.
Alex. Corbett, Acting Ranger, Kamloops.
H. L. Couling, Assistant Ranger, Nelson. II 12 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
J. D. Creighton, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
R. E. Crellin, Dispatcher, Nelson.
L. E. Croft, Dispatcher, Nelson.
G. Crommett, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
F. W. Crouch, Compiler, Victoria.
R. A. Damstrom, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
A. H. Dixon, Ranger, Vancouver.
A. Dixon, Patrolman, Vancouver.
H. K. DeBeck, Grazing Assistant, Kamloops.
Miss E. S. Dobson, Stenographer, Vancouver.
R. R. Douglas, Assistant Forester, Kamloops.
W. L. Downey, Patrolman, Kamloops.
D. E. Dyson, Student Assistant, Vancouver.
Miss L. A. Edwards, Stenographer, Nelson.
J. H. Ellis, Dispatcher, Kamloops.
H. E. Elsey, Research Assistant, Victoria.
J. Eselmont, Lookout-man, Nelson.
G. H. Fewtrell, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
R. R. Flynn, Lookout-man, Nelson.
R. W. Foreman, Dispatcher, Vancouver.
Miss A. B. M. Frasier, Stenographer, Victoria.
W. R. Garcin, Clerk, Victoria.
W. W. Gilgan, Acting Ranger, Prince Rupert.
D. Gillies, Clerk, Vancouver.
A. Gordon, Supervisor, Victoria.
W. D. Grainger, Research Assistant, Victoria.
W. Hall, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
E. J. Hamling, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
I. Hanson, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
C. P. Harrison, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
W. D. Hay, Assistant Ranger, Fort George.
W. S. Hepher, Assistant Forester, Vancouver.
A. E. Hesketh, Patrolman, Nelson.
W. V. Hicks, Clerk, Victoria.
Miss G. P. Holden, Stenographer, Vancouver.
L. S. Hope, Assistant District Forester, Prince Rupert.
T. Hunter, Launch Engineer, Vancouver.
H. A. Ivarson, Clerk, Prince Rupert.
W. E. Jansen, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
F. J. G. Johnson, Ranger, Nelson.
M. A. Johnson, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
J. R. Johnston, Acting Ranger, Nelson.
M. L. Kerr, Assistant Ranger, Prince Rupert.
Miss M. E. Key, Stenographer, Vancouver.
A. C. Kinnear, Air Surveys Division, Victoria.
A. J. Kirk, Assistant Ranger, Fort George.
D. A. Kittson, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
D. Lamont, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
C. R. Lee, Draughtsman, Kamloops.
J. A. Leighton, Clerk, Prince Rupert.
J. D. LeMare, Cruiser, Victoria.
A. C. Letcher, Patrolman, Vancouver. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945. II 13
G. L. Levy, Clerk, Victoria.
S. Lockard, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
A. L. Lyttle, Scaler, Vancouver.
Miss G. M. MacAfee, Stenographer, Victoria.
D. J. MacKay, Junior Clerk, Victoria.
A. R. McLeod, Clerk, Vancouver.
D. L. Macmurchie, Parks, Victoria.
I. C. MacQueen, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
K. A. McKenzie, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
A. K. McKirdy, Patrolman, Kamloops.
A. G. McNeil, Clerk, Vancouver.
N. T. McPhedran, Dispatcher, Vancouver.
E. G. Marples, Lookout-man, Nelson.
0. V. Maude-Roxby, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
H. G. Mayson, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
G. W. Minns, Ranger, Prince Rupert.
C. W. Mizon, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
P. M. Monckton, Draughtsman, Victoria.
D. R. Monk, Draughtsman, Prince Rupert.
W. H. Murray, Draughtsman, Victoria.
A. J. Nash, Student Assistant, Nelson.
E. A. Nelson, Patrolman, Kamloops.
G. R. W. Nixon, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
E. R. Offin, Dispatcher, Nelson.
E. G. Oldham, Assistant Forester, Vancouver.
W. J. Owen, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
W. H. Ozard, Grazing Assistant, Kamloops.
A. E. Parlow, District Forester, Kamloops.
W. M. Patterson, Dispatcher, Vancouver.
J. C. Payne, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
W. C. Pendray, Assistant Forester, Kamloops.
G. A. Playfair, Radio Engineer, Victoria.
H. M. Pogue, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
N. M. F. Pope, Parks, Victoria.
B. V. Reed, Dispatcher, Kamloops.
A. E. Rhodes, Clerk, Victoria.
C. J. T. Rhodes, Draughtsman, Victoria.
G. M. Riste, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
A. B. Ritchie, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
A. G. Ritchie, Patrolman, Kamloops.
Miss M. B. Roberts, Junior Clerk, Vancouver.
1. C. Robinson, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
J. H. Robinson, Acting Ranger, Prince Rupert.
Miss K. M. Robinson, Stenographer, Victoria.
D. M. Roussell, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
C. R. Sandey, Launch Engineer, Vancouver.
E. L. Scott, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
G. A. Seymour, Patrolman, Fort George.
G. E. Shook, Patrolman, Kamloops.
D. A. Sims, Clerk, Vancouver.
A. Sirvio, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
C. J. C. Slade, Mechanic, Vancouver. II 14 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
A. W. Slater, Helper, Vancouver.
A. Smith, Patrolman, Fort George.
C. V. Smith, Clerk, Prince Rupert.
P. N. A. Smith, Draughtsman, Vancouver.
V. C. Smith, Launch Engineer, Vancouver.
D. W. Speers, Lookout-man, Nelson.
D. E. Stevens, Dispatcher, Vancouver.
W. C. Stevens, Assistant Ranger, Kamloops.
W. W. Stevens, Assistant Forester, Kamloops.
H. Stevenson, Ranger, Vancouver.
J. S. Stokes, Chief of Party, Victoria.
C. S. Stubbs, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
L. F. Swannell, Assistant District Forester, Fort George.
E. F. Taggart, Assistant Ranger, Fort George.
F. Tannock, Assistant Ranger, Vancouver.
J. H. Templeman, Ranger, Kamloops.
W. E. Thacker, Lookout-man, Nelson.
C. J. Wagner, Patrolman, Vancouver.
C W. Walker, Assistant Forester, Victoria.
W. E. Walker, Patrolman, Vancouver.
S. G. Watson, Clerk, Victoria.
F. V. Webber, Assistant Ranger, Nelson.
N. G. Wharf, Clerk, Victoria.
J. H. Wilcox, Lookout-man, Kamloops.
L. A. Willington, Assistant Ranger, Fort George.
L. N. W. Woods, Assistant Ranger, Fort George.
J. C Wright, Lookout-man, Kamloops.
W. J. Wright, Dispatcher, Nelson. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945.
II 15
(D
Distribution of Personnel, 1945.
Personnel.
Forest District.
Vancouver.
Prince
Rupert.
Fort
George.
Kamloops.
Nelson.
Victoria.
Total.
Permanent.
Chief   Forester,    Assistant   Chief   Forester,    and
Division  Foresters	
District Foresters and Assistant District Foresters..
Assistant Foresters	
Supervisor of Rangers and Fire Inspectors..
Rangers and Acting Rangers	
Supervisor of Scalers and Assistants	
Scalers..
Inspectors, Royalty and Export	
Mechanical—Radio Engineering Superintendent-
Surveys and Research Assistants	
Nursery Superintendent	
Nursery, Reforestation, and Parks	
Draughtsmen..
Clerks, Stenographers, and Messengers	
Mechanics, Carpenters, and Technicians..
Launch Crews	
Miscellaneous	
Permanent	
Temporary permanent-
Total, permanent personnel..
Seasonal.
Assistant Rangers	
Patrolmen	
Lookout-men	
Dispatchers and Radio Operators..
Fire Suppression Crewmen	
Cruisers and Compass-men	
Miscellaneous	
Total, seasonal personnel..
Total, all personnel	
22
2
25
2
33
6*
10*
16*
2
11
10
10
21
4*
275 55
74
1*
1
17
1
2
10
36
111
25
28
39
22
9
15
23
17
10
9
21
15
8
10
17
IB
3
1
15
68
7
24
27
....
4
....
8
108
■147
2
3
2
12
1
1
11
32
1*
33
29
7
25
13
32
108
20
1*
1
4
3*
2
12*
8
1*
52
4*
1*
1*
2*
25*
35
2*
8
71
4
25
1*
2
4
5*
2
12*
13
1*
126
4*
7*
14*
306
49*
119
98
64
75
47
131
16
41
16
472
Total number of positions, " permanent " and " temporary permanent," occupied December 31st, 1945, was 350.
* Continuously employed but no voted salary for the purpose. II 16 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
FOREST ECONOMICS.
Subsequent to the cessation of hostilities in Europe and the Pacific, the release of
technically trained men from the armed services has assisted materially in relieving
the shortage of foresters. There were twenty-one enlistments from this Division.
Not all of the returning men are rejoining the Forest Service and of those who are,
many are going into the District administrative organization. In addition, during 1945
the Economics Division lost two highly trained and experienced research foresters to
outside agencies. This loss has badly depleted the research staff where replacements
can not be made readily. The urgent need is for experienced technically trained men,
but these are not available and it will be a number of years before a new staff can be
trained.
AIR AND FOREST SURVEYS.
Air survey operations in the field continued to be suspended, due to the inability to
secure any aircraft suitable for photographic work. In the office, a preliminary forest-
type map was made up from the vertical air photos taken over a portion of the Kitimat
River valley and, as opportunity presents, this project will be extended to include the
entire Kitimat drainage.
For the first time in four years a forest survey party was in the field for the entire
season. A party of six men, with cook and boat engineer, carried out a full-scale survey of the forest resources of an area of approximately 674,000 acres situated on the
west coast of Vancouver Island. The region examined is roughly that which lies north
from the Alberni Canal to the south boundary of Strathcona Park and extending west
from the boundary of the E. and N. Railway Belt to the Pacific Ocean. It includes the
Great Central Lake, Sproat Lake, Henderson Lake, and Kennedy Lake drainages.
Forest-cover maps of the above region are being draughted and estimates of the
timber resources prepared, but it will be several months before the report has been
completed.
PROVINCIAL FORESTS.
No new Provincial Forests were created during the past year and only two very
minor eliminations occurred. Consequently the total number of forests in the Province
remains at fifty-three, with an area of 31,134 square miles.
INVENTORY OF FOREST RESOURCES.
This season the forest-atlas project provided for the current revisions for logging
and fires of the cover-maps at the Vancouver, Kamloops, Fort George, and Nelson
District offices, together with those on file at Headquarters in Victoria. A total of
1,082 maps was revised, of which seventy-four were new replacements.
Special individual instruction in cover-mapping "was given to Rangers at tneir
headquarters. This form of instruction does much to improve the quality of the maps
submitted by field officers.
With the easing of the labour situation in general, it has been possible to secure
additional draughting assistance, with the result that the District office forest-_ftlas
maps at Vancouver, Kamloops, and Nelson have been placed on a current revision basis.
Each report that goes through these District offices is routed through the draughting
section and any forest-cover information it might contain is recorded on the proper
map; thus the cover-maps at all times indicate the latest conditions relative to fire and
logging. This method of revising the forest atlas is a great advance and it is hoped
that the remaining District offices can be organized in the same way without delay. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945. II 17
FOREST RESEARCH.
Mensuration.
Thirty-one permanent growth and yield plots were remeasured, bringing the annual
re-examination programme up to date.
A study was inaugurated to determine the empirical yield of the hemlock types on
the west coast of Vancouver Island and the spruce-hemlock type of the Queen Charlotte
Islands through the use of permanent plots. A series of sixteen tenth-acre plots in
four lines constituted a unit. One series was established in the Douglas fir type, four
in the west coast hemlock type on Vancouver Island, and three in the spruce-hemlock
type of the Queen Charlotte Islands. In addition, three standard permanent plots were
established and data were obtained in five temporary units in the Queen Charlottes.
Volume table data were collected to check the standard hemlock table and for the preparation of tables for second-growth Sitka spruce.
An average annual increment of 700 board-feet, B.C. Rule, was attained in some
areas on the west coast. An over-all yield for all sites is estimated at 450 board-feet
per acre per year. Individual series showed a slightly higher yield in the Queen Charlotte types, with an estimated annual increment for all types of 500 board-feet, B.C.
Scale, per acre. The lower slopes and well-drained flats should yield 600 to 700 board-
feet per acre per year. A mean annual yield up to 1,200 board-feet, International Rule,
is obtained in the best lower-slope types. Although at sixty to eighty years there will
be a large volume per acre, there are so many small trees and growth in quality and
quantity is increasing so rapidly that a field examination shows that the stands are
not ready for cutting. A rotation of 100 to 120 years is indicated from the preliminary
studies. After this age the stands begin breaking down from various causes, but some
individual trees will continue to grow rapidly for centuries and become the giants now
found in the virgin stands. II 18
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Volume Tables.
The following volume table was prepared from data collected in a thirty-year-old
Douglas fir stand at Cowichan Lake Forest Experiment Station:—
Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga taxifolia.)
Table a. Total Cubic-foot Volume.
D.B.H.. O.B..
Total Height in Feet.
W
0JB3
£*>
3        I-
O oj
aca
ii
> o *
a
> o
<>
.2 8J
an
B3E-I
X
QO
in Inches.
10
20.
30.
40.
50.
60.
70.
80.
90.
100.
1
0.02
0.09
0.19
0.05
0.20
0.08
0.12
0.15
0.67
1.43
2.89
5.04
0.08
0.14
0.20
0.26
0.32
15.0
31.0
43.5
52.3
58.2
0.040
0.332
0.998
2.08
3.64
3
22
37
32
9
1
2
0.31
0.43
0.91
0.55
1.17
1.99
3.01
2
3
0.42
0.72
0.66
1.13
1.70
3
4
1.56
2.35
2.44
3.68
4
5
4.35
6
6
3.29
4.37
5.60
7.00
8.50
4.22
5.61
7.17
8.90
10.8
5.16
6.86
8.78
6.12
7.09
10.7
13.8
17.1
20.8
15.5
19.3
23.4
0.38
0.44
0.50
0.55
0.61
63.1
67.2
70.7
73.8
76.6
5.46
7.75
10.5
13.8
17.4
9
6
2
1
6
7
8
8.14
10.4
9.43
12.1
15.0
18.3
7
8
9
10
10.9
13.3
13.0
15.8
9
10
11
12.9
15.2
15.8
18.6
18.8
21.8
24.8
29.1
27.9
32.7
0.67
0.73
79.0
81.1
21.5
26.1
1
o
11
12
22.0
25.6
12
Buis
0
6
11
27
48
19
7
4
0
0
1
|  122
1
D.B.H. total height volume table. Basis, 122 trees, 30-year age-class, measured on thinning plots at Cowichan
Lake. Block indicates extent of basic data. Measurements plotted on basal area forms and volumes determined by
planimeter method. No allowance for defect. Table prepared by converting diameter height and volume to logarithms and solving by least squares. Formula derived V = 0.002304 Dt-8420 H1-1074 where V = volume in cubic
feet, D rz diameter inside bark in inches, and H = total height in feet. A monograph was prepared for above
formula and the D.I.B. axis regraduated to give D.O.B. using the formula D.O.B. ~ 0.0260 -f 1.0625 D.I.B. Table
values for individual trees read from monograph. Standard error of estimate ± 6.78 per cent. Aggregate difference, table 0.38 per cent. low. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945.
II 19
The following board-foot volume tables were prepared  from  data  previously
collected in the Upper Fraser Region:—
Table B.
Balsam (Abies lasiocarpa).
Total Board-foot Volume.
D.B.H.
Total Height in Feet.
No.
Class.
40.
50.
60.
70.
80.
90.
100.
110.
120.
130.
140.
Trees.
10
21
39
61
29
38
71
108
47
87
131
170
56
103
155
202
242
292
65
119
178
234
280
336
392
467
74
152
246
364
430
13
12
55
84
105
135
201
267
317
380
445
529
604
722
58
14
222
299
355
424
498
592
675
808
59
16
137
168
331
393
468
568
654
746
893
33
18
205
248
285
20
20
512
657
10
22
24
338
405
461
552
649
605
717
818
978
1,162
1,350
1,615
659
779
889
1,063
1,263
1,467
1,755
3
1
26
28
532
637
749
883
1,052
2
2
30
32
34
850
1,000
1,195
950
1,117
1,335
1,050
1,233
1,476
0
0
0
Basis
0
1
15
48
53
45
25
8
5
0
1
201
Block indicates extent of basic data. Prepared by frustum form factor method. Basis, 201 trees measured by
British Columbia Forest Service in Central and Northern Interior. Stump height, 2.5 feet. Top diameter inside
bark, 8 inches for trees up to 16 inches D.B.H. Top D.I.B. for trees larger than 16 inches D.B.H. is equal to one-
half D.B.H. Trees scaled by B.C. Log Rule in 16-foot logs with trimming allowance of 0.2 foot. Top sections
scaled as short logs.    Aggregate deviation 0.7 per cent.    Standard error of estimate of individual trees 15.2 per cent. II 20
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Table C.
Spruce (Picea Canadensis).
Total Board-foot Volume.
D.B.H.
Total Height in Feet.
No.
Class.
40.
50.
60.
70.
80.
90.
100.
110.
120.
130.
140.
Trees.
10
19
26
50
34
64
99
127
42
79
119
157
190
230
262
50
93
141
187
225
271
311
58
108
162
217
260
312
359
424
491
595
67
122
184
246
295
353
409
481
556
674
75
137
152
167
246
338
369
437
517
67
12
36
55
115
77
97
14
16
202
277
330
394
438
537
622
763
900
1,072
224
307
366
435
507
594
687
833
995
1,185
1,416
141
151
18
20
156
401
476
555
651
764
912
1,101
1,297
120
66
22
605
47
24
26
367
425
515
615
708
819
37
23
28
992
8
30
32
710
848
1,000
1,197
1,405
805
960
1,140
1,361
1,592
1,196
1,409
1,692
2,010
2,343
1
5
34
1,278
1,525
1,780
1,564
1,846
2,156
1
36
38
1,682
1,967
0
0
Basis
1
8
24
54
101
155
186
146
80
24
3
782
Block indicates extent of basic data. Prepared by frustum form factor method. Basis, 782 trees measured by
British Columbia Forest Service in Northern British Columbia. Stump height, 2.5 feet. Top diameter utilized
8 inches inside bark for trees up to 16 inches D.B.H.. top D.I.B. for trees larger than 16 inches is equal to half the
D.B.H. Trees scaled by B.C. Log Rule in 16-foot logs with trimming allowance of 0.2 foot. Top sections scaled
as short logs.    Aggregate deviation 0.4 per cent. low.
New alder volume tables were prepared for both cubic feet and board feet by the
logarithmic method, with several adjustments of the monograph derived from the
formula calculated from the basic data. The difference between the new tables and
those previously published was not significant. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945.                                   II 21
Growth Studies.
Spruce-Balsam Type.—Anticipated increase in staff will allow more attention to
be given to the spruce-balsam type of the Upper Fraser.    A summary was made showing the development of the virgin spruce-balsam type for a fifteen-year period.    The
study is based on thirteen permanent plots at Aleza Lake Experiment Station.    This
investigation shows the increase in diameter and volume and mortality by diameter
classes.
A general summary of the findings is as follows:—
The Increase due to Growth and Loss from Trees dying during a
Fifteen-year Period.
Spruce.
Balsam.
F.B.M.
Per
Cent.
F.B.M.
Per
Cent.
184.5
1.14
85.5
1.00
121.0
0.75
253.1
2.97
+63.5
+0.39
— 167.6
— 1.97
The volume of spruce which died from various causes is two-thirds of the gross
increment on the trees which survived.   The loss for balsam is three times the increment
due to growth.    The spruce increased 1.3 inches in diameter and the balsam 1.1 inches
in the fifteen-year period.    The net volume of the spruce stand above 18 inches D.B.H.
remained constant for the fifteen-year period, the loss from trees dying offsetting the
increment on the residual trees.    This indicates that a flexible diameter limit of 18
inches in selective logging would remove the unproductive portion of the stand.
Composition of Stand.
Gross Volume per Acre Board-feet, B.C. Scale.
Year.
Spruce.
Balsam.
Total.
F.B.M.
Per
Cent.
F-B-M-       Cent.
1928	
16,125
65.4
8,519    j    34.6    ]    24,644
6,005    |    26.0    |    23,083
1                1
1943	
17.078
1     74.0
1
The above table shows the change in composition which is taking place in the stand.    It
also shows that balsam forms an important part of the total volume.
Further analysis of a study of defect in balsam indicated that it was not as serious
as usually considered and that at least half of the gross scale was merchantable.
The large proportion of the gross increment lost through mortality and the
indicated defect in balsam has suggested studies of insect-damage and further study of
loss from decay in this species.
As part of a reproduction survey of white spruce in the Fort George Forest
District, a growth-study was made to find the rate of diameter growth under actual
residual stand conditions.    The trees checked were average trees chosen at random
to obtain a fair sample of all potential crop trees.
The total growth since logging was measured and broken down into successive five-
year intervals.    The growth for the past fifteen years was determined by inspection of
the data, interpolating where necessary.
3 II 22 DEPARTMENT OP LANDS AND FORESTS.
The stand tables compiled from the regeneration study, and presented in a later
section of this report, represent the development of the residual stand at five, fifteen,
and twenty-five years after logging. In order to predict a stand table for a future
stage, the growth for the past fifteen years was applied to the twenty-five-year stand
as follows:—
(1.) When the diameters of fifteen years ago were grouped by diameter
classes, it was found that present diameters formed a frequency distribution approximating a normal curve about the mean. When the mean
for each successive diameter class was plotted against diameter class,
the curve appears to be a straight line with the formula—
D_-        =3.82+ 1.047 (D. .„.)
15 years ' initial '
This states that in fifteen years the trees will grow 3.82 inches on the
average plus a small amount which increases with the initial diameter.
(2.) When the standard error of the mean for each successive diameter class
was plotted against diameter class, the curve again indicated a straight
line with the formula—
S.E. = 1.563-0.0076 (Din.t.al)
(3.) Assuming the growth rate in the next fifteen years to be the same as the
past fifteen years, a stand table for the forest at forty years after logging
can be prepared by applying the above frequency distribution to the
twenty-five-year stand table.    The result is as follows:—
D.B.H. Trees/Acre.      Vol./Acre.*
8
20.2
545
10
     14.7
910
12
10.1
1,110
14 -
  7.8
1,405
16 --
  6.7
1,675
18
  4.5
1,575
20
	
  2.1
840
22
  0.8
385
24 .-
-_      0.3
175
Totals   	
  67.2
8,620
* B.M. Volume—by B.C. Log Rule.
SlLVICULTURAL  STUDIES.
In direct contrast to conditions the previous year, the seed-crop for 1945 was
considerably above average for all species on Vancouver Island and the Queen
Charlotte Islands. The Lower Fraser Valley region had an irregular crop of Douglas
fir and this same condition prevailed over most of the adjoining Mainland Coast. On
Vancouver Island large, mature trees averaged over 5,000 cones per tree and 60 per
cent, of forty- to fifty-year-old trees carried an average of over 3,000 cones. Abies
grandis bore a very heavy crop similar to the cone production by this species in 1941.
Eighty per cent, of the observed trees bore " fair " or better crops (an average of 675
cones in the height class under 100 feet and 800 cones on trees over 100 feet high).
Rapidly growing trees of this species are frequently not able to carry loads of this
size to maturity.    The cone-bearing top breaks under wind-pressure in mid-season.
The schedule of annual examinations to be made in connection with the various
long-term projects in silviculture was maintained with some difficulty due to the lack
of experienced personnel.    These studies included the series of thinning and pruning REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945.
II 23
plots at Cowichan Lake; plots established to study the volume of seed produced by
stands of trees of various ages up to mature merchantable timber; plots which follow
the seed production of individual trees from year to year; and plots to study the rate
of natural regeneration and survival of natural seedlings under various conditions.
Exotic trees planted in the Lower Fraser Valley are now twenty years old.
Records for the thirteen species show that Larix dahurica is the only species of the
conifers and hardwoods tested there that has exceeded the growth of native Douglas fir.
It has made phenomenal growth thus far, the average dominant tree being now 43 feet
high and 7 inches D.B.H. Several other conifers have adapted themselves very well.
Sequoia gigantea has characteristically large diameter—11 inches D.B.H.—but a height
of only 25 feet. At the other extreme Fraxinus Americana has only 2 inches D.B.H.
for a height of 28 feet. Acer saccharum and Quercus borealis are making fair height-
growth but are even more spindly than the ash. Pinus resinosa and Pinus sylvestris
are promising species for this climate. Pinus ponderosa is susceptible to leader
damage and in height and diameter is five years behind the growth of Douglas fir.
A survey was completed of the cut-over land in the white spruce-balsam forests
extending east from Prince George to Dome Creek. Two hundred and seventy
temporary strip-plots were examined, aggregating 230 acres of plots uniformly
distributed throughout the main valley. It was found that, in general, areas which
had been logged, commonly to a 12-inch-diameter limit, but not burned, were regenerating satisfactorily and it will be reasonable to expect to cut a new crop of about the
same size and quality from the same land at the end of a 100-year rotation. Where
an area is more poorly stocked than average, the conditions are due to methods of
cutting which have created large openings. The key to successful regeneration appears
to be the preservation of the small-diameter spruce understory together with sufficient
standards to assure a reasonable crown cover. It is believed that this objective can
be reached only by a system of marking the trees to be cut, and experiments along this
line are now under way. The statistics which follow illustrate how these stands
respond to release and the manner in which seeding continues for a considerable period
subsequent to logging:-—
No. of Years
after Logging.
No. op Trees per Acre.
Trees per Acre
cut in Logging.
Diameter of Trees.
Total Trees
per Acre.
Up to 1.0".
1.1" to 7.0".
7.1"+.
37
37
37
5
15
25
48.7
53.6
48.9
32.3
49.6
61.5
15.8
22.4
29.7
96.8
125.6
140.1
Most areas of virgin timber which were burned only once are reproducing
satisfactorily.
Small areas of logged-and-burned, which are favourably situated with respect to
surrounding timber, are reproducing satisfactorily but the burning appears to have
set the area back about forty years by comparison with unburned logging. Reburns
are very unsatisfactory.
The mean annual increment is 110 to 120 F.B.M., but will undoubtedly be higher
than this under a form of management where all stands are marked prior to logging. II 24
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Permanent Study-plots established as at 1945.
Number of Plots.
Project.
Group.
371
22
39
14
4
2
1
1
7
7
1
4
6
432
47
On cut-over land—
In young stands—
In mature stands—
1,200
600
500
Total Area
of Plots
(Acres).
4.8
6.0
5.0
15 8
Natural regeneration in representative districts—
Applied Management Studies.
The studies of cutting plans carried out in co-operation with logging- companies on
Vancouver Island have been suspended for the past year due to a lack of suitable
personnel to supervise the work.
Selective logging in the yellow pine and Engelmann spruce types of the Okanagan
Valley has been proceeding on a tree-marking basis for the past three years and some
intensive study appeared desirable. During the past year series of study-plots were
established in the spruce type at Bolean Lake and in yellow pine near both Penticton
and Oliver. The general objective of the study will be to follow the development of the
residual stand and rate of regeneration subsequent to logging.
SOIL SURVEYS AND RESEARCH.
During the past few years the study of forest-site quality has been a major project.
In the annual report of the Forest Branch for 1944 a system of site classification based
on the ground vegetation was provisionally outlined. This study was continued during
1945 with encouraging results.
During the season 140 temporary plots were laid out for detailed examination.
In addition some forty permanent growth-and-yield plots were examined. These plots
are believed to sample the extreme climatic range of Coastal Douglas fir in British
Columbia. They also sample a wide range in site quality for Douglas fir second-growth
at ages varying from 30 to 120 years.
On these plots the ground-cover types suggested as representative of forest-site
types last year were critically re-examined. The field data have not been analysed as
yet, though it seems that only minor modifications in the description of ground-cover TVEKEhhX .-SAX. Ak
70 year old   Fir stand.
SW0R2) FERtt __ SA36AL
Fir stand   90 .years   old.
Maximum height of trees !30ft.
Diameters  up to 24 inches.
Fy stand 63years old. Height
of dominant trees   65 feet
and diameters up to 10 inches
i
mjnant trees are 55 ft.
tall,with diameters upto 7jns.  REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945. II 25
types need be made. Perhaps the most important change contemplated is a shift of
emphasis from Achlys or May leaf to Tierella or Star flower as a plant indicating good
sites. Tierella was found to be more specific as an indicator for it is less tolerant to
small changes of site quality.
The more intensive study this year indicates that micro-climatic changes between
different parts of the general Coastal Douglas fir region may be significant. For
instance, the tall Oregon grape or Mahonia, and wild Honeysuckle seem to be restricted
to the drier range, while other plants such as False Azalea and Blueberry occur in the
moister range. This moister range may also be transitional between the Douglas fir
and hemlock regional climates.
In addition to ground-cover data, complete information on the forest-cover was
taken. It will now be possible to correlate ground-cover types not only with height of
dominant trees but also with any other criterion such as volume, diameter of average
tree, mean height of stand, etc.
Soil samples were taken from each plot. These will be analysed with the object of
determining the importance of plant foods as factors influencing site quality.
A land-use examination was made at Bones Bay, on Cracroft Island. This is
situated within the Harbledown Forest Reserve. An appreciable area of arable land
was found.
REFORESTATION.
Forest Nurseries.
Development of the new nursery at Duncan has proceeded satisfactorily and seedbeds will be sown in the spring of 1946 to produce about 7,000,000 seedlings. The area
has been fenced and access roads built. Tile was laid, the irrigation system installed,
and the land cultivated as required in preparation for the seed-beds. Due to shortages
of man-power and material, no permanent buildings were erected.
Production at Green Timbers and Campbell River was interrupted due to a combination of circumstances. The lack of man-power for planting meant that the two-
year-old trees must be held over for another year and a shortage of seed would not
permit sowing for a full crop. Therefore, no seed-beds were sown in 1945. This
enabled the nursery crews to concentrate on maintenance-work and at the end of the
year both nurseries were in excellent physical condition and ready to operate at full
capacity in 1946.
The 2-0 stock was root-pruned again in the spring of 1945 and, in general, the
treatment had little effect due to the establishment of a heavy lateral root system the
previous year. As an experiment one bed of 2-0 stock was top-pruned and the result
was most unsatisfactory, due to the trees establishing double or triple leaders. The
experiments on cover-crops were continued.
The cone-crop was excellent and a total of 9,307 bushels was collected. To date
only 3,100 bushels have been threshed but yields appear to be good. Almost 0.5 lb. of
seed has been extracted from each bushel of cones, thereby further substantiating the
contention that seed collections should be concentrated in the years of better-than-
average seed-crop.
Planting.
Due to the serious shortage of labour suitable for planting projects, the Forest
Service planted only 160,000 trees during 1945. Private companies, however, were
somewhat more fortunate and were able to plant 1,035,000 trees. II 26
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
The complete statistics for the  1945 projects and all planting to date are as
follows:—
(3)
Area.
Previously planted.
Planted, 1945.
Trees
(in Thousands).
Acres.
Trees
(in Thousands).
Totals to Date.
Trees
(in Thousands) .
1945
Experimental	
Crown land*	
Private companies*	
Community forests	
Private planting (including farm wood-
lots)	
Grand totals ,
710.0
32,925.0
1,943.1
299.0
67.4
617.7
41,025.0
2,361.3
317.0
65.0
710.0
33,085.0
2,978.1
299.0
75.8
160.0
1,035.0
180.0
1,215.0
8.4
10.0
35,944.5
44,386.0
1,203.4
1,405.0
37,147.9
617.7
41,205.0
3,576.3
317.0
75.0
45,791.0
* A tota] of 53,000 trees on 60 acres previously reported opposite " Crown land " now transferred and reported
opposite " private companies."
No plantations were destroyed by fire during 1945. Losses due to fire to end of
1945 were 621 acres.
Eather unsatisfactory progress was made in the preparation of planting sites and
it was difficult even to maintain small crews. A total of 18 miles of new truck-road
was opened up and a total of 68,826 snags was felled on 4,181 acres. In the snag-
falling, 58,688 were 10 inches D.B.H. and over while 10,138 were less than 10 inches.
PROVINCIAL PARKS.
Memory Island Park in Shawnigan Lake was the sole addition during 1945 to the
Provincial Parks. It is 2.26 acres in extent and a Class " A " park. Other changes
included Medicine Bowls Park near Courtenay, which was cancelled because of conflict
with water requirements for the town, and Hamber Park, of Class " A " category,
which was changed to Class " B " for ease of administration.
The following table summarizes the Provincial Parks in British Columbia to
December 31st, 1945:—
Classification. No. of Parks. Acres.
Class " A "  16 288,908.5
Class " B "  1  4 7,054,206.0
Class " C "  28 4,109.2
Administered under separate Park Acts 5 3,465,895.0
Totals
53
10,813,118.7
or       16,895.5 sq. miles.
No large-scale improvement-work was possible during the past year. However,
the five Vancouver Island Parks—Elk Falls, Stamp Falls, Little Qualicum Falls,
Englishman River Falls, and John Dean—underwent a spring clean-up in preparation
for an estimated 20,484 visitors, a 27-per-cent. decrease from the preceding year.
Little Qualicum Falls Park was mapped in detail and a plan is now in preparation which
will provide for greater use of the park area.
The largest improvement programme was concentrated at Mount Seymour Park
where, in addition to further work on the administration building, a new piece of road
and parking lot were built and ski-runs and a ski-jump improved.
Manning Park received a further examination to determine the desirable scope of
commercial concessions. A camping-ground was established at Lightning Lakes to
lessen the damage from increasing numbers of visitors.   REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945. II 27
Besides the usual trail-maintenance work in Wells Gray Park, the Park Ranger
investigated proposed road and bridge sites. The main improvement-work was the
construction of a Ranger's cabin at the foot of Clearwater Lake.
The improvement and relocation of the main tourist trails in the southern portion
of Tweedsmuir Park was undertaken by contract. This work now makes it possible
for tourists to link up with the " Big Circle " boat trip in the northern part of the Park.
The Peace Arch Park at the International Boundary near Blaine is every year
extending a more attractive welcome for the thousands of visitors entering Canada by
way of the King George V. Highway. Picnic-ground facilities are now being planned
for the convenience of the many visitors.
The reconnaissance of park areas continued. Cultus Lake, Garibaldi, Hamber, and
Mount Robson Parks were examined, thus completing a study of all the large, important
parks in British Columbia.
Following the example established the previous year in Tweedsmuir Park, of
taking motion pictures and colour photographs to help publicize park attractions, Garibaldi and Mount Robson Parks were photographed. Approximately 3,000 people have
seen the Tweedsmuir Park film in the ten months following its completion. II 28 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
FOREST MANAGEMENT.
The total estimated value of production for the year 1945 shows an increase of
$1,000,000 over that of the previous year. The total cut remains approximately equal,
but shortage of lumber logs lowered slightly the lumber value.
The total scale expressed in board-feet is 3,081 million feet or 15 million feet short
of 1944. The reduced scale in the Coast region of the Prince Rupert District is due to
stoppage in Sitka spruce log production for war purposes in the Queen Charlotte
Islands.    All other districts show a gain excepting Nelson.
The following tables give details of production, and noteworthy features are briefly
mentioned.
Water-borne lumber trade statistics are resumed with the close of hostilities. The
United Kingdom has taken the bulk of lumber exports with Empire countries next.
The total shipments were about 50 per cent, of the pre-war volume.
The pulp and paper industry continued to experience difficulty in log-supply but
increased production over 1944.
Douglas fir again heads the list of species cut with hemlock gaining ground in
second place.    Cedar in third place gained slightly while spruce fell off.
By land status old Crown grants are still the source of main production with
timber sales gaining ground followed closely by timber licences.
The so-called minor products show an appreciable gain by reason of pit-prop production for the United Kingdom market, particularly peeled props from lodgepole pine
in the Interior. Scale in cords dropped while hewn tie output remained practically
the same as in previous year.
The total number of various land parcels or areas operated shows an increase all
along the line, which taxed the field staff to keep up inspection-work. The total
number of inspections made in 1944 was surpassed, but it has not been possible to
maintain the frequency of inspection necessary to maintain adequate supervision.
The natural sequence is an increase in trespass cases and the remedy is obvious,
namely, adequate staff to supervise properly the large number of small operators entering the industry in a period of short supply and keen demand.
Pre-emption inspections continue their decline with lessened land alienation of
this type.
Land examination in advance of alienation has reached a stage where the average
fieldman finds it difficult to fit it in with his many activities of other types and, with
increasing demand for settlement with the termination of the war, it is proving more
difficult to give prompt service.
Timber-sale cruises increased with augmented market demands.
Stumpage prices on sales of Crown stumpage averaged only 4 cents per thousand
feet advance on all species. Fir, cedar, hemlock, white pine, yellow pine, and larch
advanced while spruce and balsam declined.
Sawmills again increased in number, mainly in the portable and semi-portable
types, in keeping with the lumber shortage.
Log export decreased with greater local demand for raw material in sawmilling
and rigid control of export by Government agencies. Minor products exported show
the heaviest gain in pit-props for the mining industry in Great Britain.
Routine work in timber-marks and draughting increased in volume in sympathy
with accelerated activity in the industry. Headquarters staff was taxed to keep abreast
of the volume of work.
Forest-insect survey and collection of samples continued unabated, in co-operation
with Federal agencies active in this line of endeavour.
Direct forest revenue reached an all-time high of over $4,210,000 with timber-
sale stumpage the leading item. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945.
II 29
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DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(6)
Estimated Value of Production, including Loading and Freight
within the Province.
Product.
1939.
1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.
1945.
Ten-year
Average,
1936-45.
$50,379,000
$55,514,000
$64,596,000
$67,150,000
$66,520,000
| $81,495,000
1
$78,244,0001 $57,699,200
Pulp and paper	
16,191,000
22,971,000
27,723,000
27,457,000
25,697,000
30,391,000
33,782,000
|    22,734,200
8,560,000
9,620,000
11,550,090
12,822,000
8,332,000
[    10,006,000
10,544,000
9,298,400
2,039,000
737,000
4,779,000
740,000
4,707,000
*
5,397,000
*
4,697,000
*
7,218,000
*
7,855,000
*
4,240,700
851,900
•
6,100,000
6,000,000
1,210,000
Piles,   poles,  and
mine-props	
1,556,000
1,759,000
1,723,000
2,576,000
2,387,000
2,088,000
2,986,000
1      2,047,000
Cordwood,  fence-
posts   and  lag-
1,495,000
1,399,000
1,522,000
2,165,000
4,485,00(
|      8,303,000
2,621,000
2,139,300
Ties, railway	
360,000
258,000
204,000
221,000
268,000
484,000
507,000
404,500
Additional   value
contributed   by
the wood-using
1,500,000
1,600,000
2,000,000
2,500,000
2,800,000
1,600,000
1,500,000
1,775,000
Laths   and   other
miscellaneous
products	
1,400,000
1.400.000
1,500,000
1,500,000
1,400,000
1,500,000
1,500,000
1,410,000
Logs exported	
3,852,000
2,684,000
4,212,000
2,618,000
1,555,000
2,065,000
1,766,000
2,841,800
Pulp-wood   ex-
11,000
8,000
7,000
2,000
16,000
35,000
25,000
12,000
Christmas trees.—
141,000
72,000
176,000
162,000
227,000
236,000
271,000
128,500
	
150,000
150,000
|            90,000
54.000
44,400
Totals	
$88,221,000
$102,804,000[$119,920,000
|
$124,720,000
$118,434,000[$146,611,000
$147,655,000|$106,836,900
1
* Included in wood-using industry value.
(7)
Paper (in Tons) .
Product.
1939.
1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.
Ten-year
1945.          Average.
1936-1946.
216,542
50,870
262,144
68,428
275,788
75,463
252,559
74,915
211,696
63,026
1                       1
236,696   |       253,671   |       242.968
74.0S8  1         80.691   1         62 124
1
In addition to 310,575 tons of pulp manufactured into paper in the Province
171,839 tons were shipped out of the Province during the year.
Total Amount of Timber scaled in British Columbia during the Years 1944-45
(s) (in F.B.M.).
Forest District.
1944.
1945.
Gain.
Loss.
Net Loss.
2,284,466,824
234,700,631
2,292,502,255
190,476,922
8,035,431
44,223,709
2,519,167,455
2,482,979,177
43,142,632
127,269,560
173,374,910
233,378,527
54,115,835
145,480,381
178,895,616
219,764,482
10,973,203
18,210,821
5,520,706
13,614,045
577,165,629
598,256,314
34,704,730
3,096,333,084
3,081,235,491
42,740,161
57,837,754
15,097,593 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945.
II 31
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\r II 32
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Total Scale (in F.B.M.) segregated, showing Land Status,
do) all Products.
Forest District.
Totals,
1945.
Vancouver.
Prince
Rupert,
Coast.
Prince               „.    .
Rupert,     i     „f°r*
Interior,    j     George.
Kamloops.        Nelson.
i
554.733.120 1    46.677.924
894,562
2.629.921  1      6.751.566
15,610,203
7.107.893
531,395
627,297,296
118,133,474
209,010,910
39,088,122
8.689,814
133,931,181
	
209,542,305
	
39,088,122
32,934,242
20,462
13,350,391
310,154,372
3,493,988
24,489,349
859,855,070'
65,507,681
21,888,656
39,842,418
45,919,814
380,623
8,397,671
64,197,720
4,694,826
1,515,027
1,998,539
341,539
5,515,805
10,837,434
78,854,056
401,085
105,179
43,311,476
1,258,903
113,866,078
8,169,448
132,113,765
31,281,592
106,665,835
770,309,246
8,188,814
Pre-emptions,  S.R., and
miscellaneous	
Crown grants—
To 1887       	
1,208,823
9,372,929
3,741,153
17,418,420
3,812,379
8,300,159
15,057,144
12,170,358
144,139
24,322,914
9,571,918
10,022,449
52,497,639
879,416,168
1887-1906	
1906-1914	
1914 to date	
751,864
4,336,123
3,507,808
68,553
3,927,438
22,815,705
94,804,930
53,540,099
102,082,958
Totals	
2,292,502,255
190,476,922
54,115,835
145,480,381
178,895,616
919 764 482 1 3 DS1  23S 491
Timber from lands in the former Dominion Government Railway Belt which has passed over to the jurisdiction
of this Province is included under the various land status headings shown above.
Only timber from Indian Reserves and other lands still under the jurisdiction of the Dominion Government is
shown under the heading " Dominion Lands." REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945.
II 33
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Eh REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945.
II 35
(is)
Logging Inspection, 1945.
Type of Tenure operated.
Forest District.
Timber-
sales.
Hand-
loggers'
Licences.
Leases,
Licences,
Crown Grants,
and
Pre-emptions.
Totals.
No. of
Inspections.
716
881
409
854
632
1
8
1,152
263
269
574
594
1,869
1,152
678
1,428
1,226
3,740
2,255
801
3,030
2,075
Totals, 1945	
3,492
9
2,852
6,353
11,901
Totals, 1944	
3,373
4
2,540
5,917
11,648
Totals, 1943	
3,259
11
2,519
5,789
12,110
Totals, 1942	
3,086
18
2,569
5,673
13,753
Totals, 1941	
3,207
18
2,833
6,058
11,438
Totals, 1940	
2,864
12
2.272
5,148
10,968
Totals, 1939	
2,770
10
2,068
4,848
11,295
Totals, 1938	
2,674
23
1,804
4,501
10,828
Totals, 1937	
2,404
46
1,932
4,382
11,507
Totals, 1936	
2,354
35
1,883
4,272
11,138
2,949
18
2,327
5,294
11,659
(IS)
Trespasses, 1945.
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31
30
71
72
338
824
175
780
1,196
4,103,130
4,632,816
624,970
989,572
13,972,068
87,800
34,593
135,273
171,916
87,378
311
582
731
177
109
102
806
2,094
500
6,400
90
1
2
1
6
$14,513.83
3,155.31
	
2,354.92
Kamloops	
387
1,961
5,938.97
11,914.09
Totals, 1945	
267
3,313
24,322,556
516,960
1,910
9,902
2,438
10
$37,877.12
Totals, 1944           	
210
2,467
12,317,066
179,219
3,369
4,231
3,781
5
$29,193.16
Totals, 1943    	
167
3,058
9,744,957
129,409
6,873
552
7,923
7
$23,725.29
Totals, 1942	
180
1.J59
4,413,906
365,861
4,757
490
1,512
15
$14,391.61
Totals, 1941	
236
1,788
7,627,990
526,391
2,887
1,365
4,150
17
$24,253.10
Totals, 1940	
194
877
5,206,829
94,444
1,573
4,279
9,854
13
$14,088.24
Totals, 1939	
209*
571
6,905,268
94,818
3,147
3,014
5,206
46,729
26
$17,725.00
Totals, 1938      	
149
816
4,309,030
203,195
1,185
7,530
10
$9,653.86
Totals, 1937	
156
1,147
8,239,813
143,860
1,607
2,132
35,017
7
$17,439.52
153
501
2,067,130
75,272
1,632
2,452
13
$5,243.00
	
Ten-year average, 1936-45	
193
1,569
8,515,455
232,943
3,077
3,179
12
$19,359.00
* Christmas-tree cutting largely responsible for increase. II 36
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(u)
Pre-emption Inspection, 1945.       number examined.
Forest District.
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert
Fort George ...
Kamloops 	
Nelson 	
1945.
Ten-year
Average,
1936-45.
76
228
81
131
250
407
259
559
80
117
Totals
746
1,442
(is)
Areas examined for Miscellaneous Purposes of the
" Land Act," 1945.
Forest District.
Applications for      Applications for
Hay and Grazing  |      Pre-emption
Leases.                       Records.
Applications to
Purchase.
Miscellaneous.
Totals.
Vancouver	
No.
3
3
3
40
6
Acres.
664
162
1,161
8,639
1.391
No.
2
3
19
1
Acres.
79
No.
117
14
24
Acres.
7,645
1,112
2.127
No.
12
9
4
14
4
Acres.
582
477
330
2,389
1,669
No.
134
26
34
164
50
Acres.
8,970
1,751
4,058
440
2.683
160
Kamloops	
91    j      8,312
39    |      5.052
22,023
8,272
Totals	
55          12,017
1
25     |       3,362
285    |    24,248
1
43    |      5,447
[
408
45,074
(16)
Classification of Areas examined, 1945.
Forest District.
Total Area.
Agricultural
Land.
Non-agricultural Land.
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Estimated
Timber on
Merchantable
Timber Land.
Acres.
8,971
1,751
4,058
22,023
8,272
Totals	
45,075
Acres.
1,037
587
1,404
2,355
640
6,023
Acres.
7,934
1,164
2,654
19,668
7,632
39,062
164
602
115
M.B.M.
4,599
100
1,865
476
110
7,150 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945.
II 37
(">                            Areas cruised for Timber-sales, 1945.
Forest District.
Number
cruised.
Acreage.
Saw-
timber
(M.B.M.).
Pit Props,
Poles, and
Piles
(Lineal Ft.).
Shingle-
bolts and
Cordwood
(Cords).
Railway-
ties
(No.).
Car Stakes
and Posts
(No.).
320
314
243
373
238
45,757
49,574
41,595
67,975
56,249
363,356
138,914
118,312
216,558
111,533
396,618
8,970,195
7,207,597
16,772,494
15,396,421
7,820
13,434
42,598
21,050
10,872
7,600
121,339
66,874
85,503
19,960
22,638
152,300
Nelson	
Totals, 1945	
1,627,530
1,488
261,150
948.673
48.743.325
95,774
301,276
1,802,468
Totals, 1944       	
1,476
334,729
1,205,308
8,166,829
137,737
483,363
1,345,439
Totals, 1943       	
1,771
590,953
907,768
10,720,729
259,741
454,767
816,544
Totals, 1942       	
1,469    J    305,222
794,676
8,562,739
100,232
381,106
743,500
Totals, 1941	
1,611
321,220
689,595
15,794,246
126,463
199,174
263,480
Totals, 1940	
1,620
300,480
572,562
11,309,288
72,157
314,644
512,042
Totals, 1939       	
1,324
212,594
470,660
5,016,945
68,078
339,866
261,100
Totals, 1938       	
1,486
325,403
482,680
5,747,765
126,329
804,240
169,900
Totals, 1937	
1,471
278,386
633,216
9,658,000
140,820
753,408
160,450
Totals, 1936	
1,415
252,035
464,402
8,535,045
148.606
1.083.746
63,200
Ten-year average, 1936-45
1,513
318,217
716,954
13,225,492
127,594    |    511,559
1
613,812
• II 38
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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p.
H II 42
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(2:8)
Saw and Shingle Mills of the Province, 1945.
Operating.
Shut Down.
Forest District.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
Sawmills.
Shingle-mills.
No.
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
M.B.M.
Estimated
Eight-hour
No.               Daily
Capacity,
Shingles, M.
No.
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
M.B.M.
No.
Estimated
Eight-hour
Daily
Capacity,
Shingles, M.
265
123
174
190
179
7,483
985
1,719
1,504
1,899
45
1
2
3
6,971
5
28
50
29
11
32
44
21
267
61
112
211
157
3
4
100
Nelson	
60
Totals, 1945	
931
13,590
51
7,054
137
808
7
150
Totals, 1944	
807
14,974
51
6,695
110
702
16
581
Totals, 1943	
614
13,623
54
7,411
120
646
19
829
Totals, 1942	
551
13,197
70
8,874
149
1,206
11
135
Totals, 1941	
557
13,820
76
8,835
129
1,083
5
63
Totals, 1940	
542
12,691
77
8,585
141
1,432
18
307
Totals, 1939	
461
11,698
84
7,926
147
1,907
24
537
Totals, 1938	
481
12,159
88
8,184
126
1,406
19
315
Totals, 1937	
434
11,042
80
9,124
131
1,685
16
402
Totals, 1936	
410
11,401
86
8,859
122
1,699
10
315
Ten-year average,
1936-45	
579
12,820
72
8,154
131
1,257
14
363 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945.
II 43
(*»)
Export of Logs (in F.B.M.), 1945.
Species.
Grade No. 1.
Grade No. 2.
Grade No. 3.
Ungraded.
Totals.
Fir                               .    .   .
135,478
3,677,961
7,752,394
12,626,674
9,733
964
8,067,880
15,997,417
634,824
190,626
15,955,752
32,302,052
644,557
1,213
192,803
28,769,826
3,854,344
28,769,826
3,854,344
White Pine.      	
37,669
307,035
12,080
278
356,784
278
Totals, 1945	
3,852,321
20,696,800
24,903,105
32,624,170
82,076,396
Totals, 1944	
6,724,297
29,051,958
33,851,519
32,027,805
101,655,579*
Totals, 1943	
2,809,744
17,720,743
28,863,804
29,261,754
78,656,045
Totals, 1942	
2,639,167
18,960,886
27,618,347
106,793,550
156,011,950
Totals, 1941	
8,549,320
63,485,278
43,165,973
191,879,335
307,079,906
Totals, 1940	
4,697,188
37,567,582
24,865,886
150,396,702
217,527,358
Totals, 1939	
6,383,398
111,155,799
66,870,882
128,323,383
312,733,462
Totals, 1938	
4,386,370
98,637,490
74,650,653
81,998,569
259,673,082
Totals, 1937	
4,924,298
114,991,217
66,611,218
83,947,361
270,474,094
Totals, 1936	
4,028,567
107,007,342
49,061,362
58,731,564
218,828,835
4,899,467
61,927,509
44,046,275
89,598,420
200,471,671
* Of this total 78,599,890 F.B.M. were exported from Crown grants carrying the export privilege;   3,476,506
F.B.M. were exported under permit from other areas. II 44
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Shipments of Poles, Piling, Mine-props, Fence-posts,
(24) Railway-ties, etc., 1945.
Quantity
exported.
Approximate
Value, F.O.B.
Where marketed.
Forest District.
United
States.
Canada.
Other
Countries.
Vancouver—
 lin. ft.
2,550,243
1,476,214
2,064
29,000
16,900
49,574
24
134,846
1,306,286
$433,540
250,955
25,800
290
3,380
3,965
410
13,484
170,584
2,075,079
1,225,784
2,064
29,000
8,033
473,284
202,842
1,880
 lin. ft.
47,588
Fence-posts	
 posts
 lin. ft.
8,867
49,574
24
lin. ft.
 ties
134,846
478,770
Prince Rupert—
827,516
9,869
1,805,041
166,905
3,450
68,841
7,748
2,467
24,179
20,028
34,990
60,365
131,716
9,869
 lin. ft.
1,805,041
Fort George—
 lin. ft.
95,985
70,920
3,450
68,841
Mine-props	
 cords
 cords
7,748
	
5,454
5,285,350
150,220
4,338
32,520
2,713,249
552,201
3,312,715
216.712
8,758
23,149
101
65.624
124,537
1,187,779
2,727
787,947
142,709
65,069
3,252
81,763
63,178
496,907
34,674
70,064
277,800
750
533
118,310
178,166
5,454
3,132,200
Kamloops—
 lin. ft.
2,153,150
150,220
4,338
32,520
7,320
 ties
 cords
 lin. ft.
 lin. ft.
2,705,929
 trees
 lin. ft.
552,201
2,070,450
33,285
Nelson—
1,242,265
183,427
8,758
13,202
101
 lin. ft.
 cords
9,947
 lin. ft.
65,624
274
1,081,659
124,263
106,120
Total value, 1945	
$3,500,002
Total value. 1944	
$2,493,254
(25)
Summary for Province, 1945.
Product.
Volume.
Value.
Per Cent, of
Total Value.
 lin. ft.
 lin. ft.
Stubs	
 lin. ft.
 lin. ft.
Totals	
14,314,425
343,598
101
2,064
26,769
30,937
4,567,864
16,530
32,520
65,624
29,000
1,880,280
$2,194,635
321,384
750
25,800
5,847
377,859
109,907
202,190
3,252
533
290
257,555
$3,500,002
62.70
9.18
0.02
0.74
0.17
10.80
3.14
5.78
0.09
0.01
0.01
7.36
100.00 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945.
II 45
(X6)
TIMBER-MARKING.
Timber-marks issued.
1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
1944.
1945.
272
101
99
275
58
1
16
13
1,724
4
3
2
20
211
85
101
282
64
1
16
5
1,853
11
6
2
17
160
85
92
250
79
2
9
4
1,709
19
6
2
1
190
98
104
283
72
2
5
11
2,017
9
5
1
4
280
89
81
234
51
1
9
10
1,893
8
6
1
1
329
115
106
337
53
Pre-emptions under sections 28 and 29, " Land
Act"              	
2
3
16
1,898
6
15
2
Totals	
2,588
315
2,654
307
2,418
224
2,801
237
2,664
251
2,882
327
(27)
Forest Service Draughting Office, 1945.
Month.
Number of Drawings prepared or Tracings made.
Number of Blue-prints
or Ditto-prints made
from Draughting Office
Drawings.
Timber-
sales.
Timber-
marks.
Examination
Sketches.
Miscella-    \ Construc-
neous             tional
Matters.     Works, etc.
Totals.
Blueprints.
Ditto-
prints.
Totals.
January	
42
50
37
52
44
35
50
44
42
55
56
62
103
112
131
88
111
124
93
92
82
73
98
86
50
42
41
39
73
42
42
71
81
77
58
77
34
282
18
on
7
23
7
236
509
234
212
244
226
213
236
223
395
S>_.n
530
591
414
347
529
452
597
497
463
518
820
737
468
580
375
586
555
495
641
380
473
812
595
741
998
1,171
789
March	
May	
13                  3
16                  9
ir              in
1,084
1,238
877
936
1,330
1,416
1,478
28   ■
17
188
22
20
1
1
2
September	
1                     239
Totals, 1945	
569
442
356
329
247
224
231
268
258
233
1,193
889
937
868
1,087
1,151
943
1,023
1,202
1,080
693
459
396
359
468
434
408
340
394
307
684
544
293
111
150
282
269
316
436
377
75
46
93
73
70
*
*
*
*
3,214
2,380
2,075
1,740
2,022
2,091
1,851
1,947
2,290
1,997
6,495
4,159
4,009
t
f
t
t
t
t
t
6,701
4,983
3,448
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
13,196
9,142
7,457
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
Totals, 1944	
Totals, 1943	
Totals, 1942	
Totals, 1941	
Totals, 1940	
Totals, 1939	
Totals, 1938	
Totals, 1937	
Totals, 1936	
Totals for ten-
year period	
3,157
10,373
4,258
3,462
357
21,607
14,663
15,132
29,795
Average for ten-
316
1,037
426
346
m
2,160
4,888§
5,044§
9,932§
* Prior to 1941, Constructional "Works, etc., included in Miscellaneous Matters.
% Average for five-year period only. § Average for three-year period only.
t No record kept prior to 1943. II 46
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Forest District.
Vancouver 	
Prince Rupert
Fort George 	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Forest Insect Survey, 1945.
Insect-box
Collections
made.
Negative
Reports.
187
14
90
8
101
9
115
7
96
18
Totals     589
56 REPORT OF FOREST SI
„RVICE, 1945
II 47
_
FOREST FINANCE.
<w        Crown-granted Timber Lands paying Forest Prc
Year.                                                                                                          Area (Acres
1921                  845,111
section Tax.
Average Assessed
Value per Acre of
).              Timber Land.
$10.33
11.99
11.62
15.22
40.61
39.77
39.01
38.62
38.41
44.74
43.77
43.73
41.18
37.25
37.13
36.61
23.32*
23.05
22.73
27.70f
26.99
26.34
25.15
25.28
26.32:):
mber land in their entirety, in
Act " ;   previously the levy was
n 1939.
iber at $35.77 per acre.
ous assessment districts
1922                            887,980
1923                --     883,344
1924      -     654,668
1925      -_   _     654,016
1926                  688,372
1927      -_     _—_      690,438
1928      -     671,131
1929  644,011
1930       629,156
1931  602,086
1932   552,007
1933  567,731
1934       557,481
1935  535,918
1936  515,924
1937  743,109
1938   754,34?
1939  719,112
1940   549.25C
1941  543,632
1942 ______      527,995
1943  543,044
1944                                                       .        --    571,30S
1945  591.082
charged on areas assessed as t
and section 33 of the " Taxation
iber land reverted to the Crown i
75 per acre, and 427,042 acres tin
f timber land in the van
* From 1937 forest protection tax has been
accordance with section 119 of the " Forest Act'
on the timbered portion only.
t Approximately 155,000 acres assessed as tin
t That is, 164,040 acres logged-off land at $1.
The extent and assessed value o
are shown in the following table:—
(29)
Assessment District.
Acreage,
1945.
Increase or
Decrease over
1944.
Average Value
per Acre,
1945.
Change in
Value since
1945.
79,878
119,829
98,712
12,969
328
315
140,465
2,637
160
1,233
21,164
33,203
41,024
39,165
— 759
+20,304
— 3,887
*
*
*
— 978
*
*
— 195
*
*
*
+ 5,289
$34.46
22.48
40.21
5.25
17.29
10.37
29.51
5.83
4.15
15.15
17.18
10.57
2.56
27.30
+$0.14
+    .42
+ 5.27t
- .41{
+ 2.29t
*
+ 1.93
*
*
+     .20
*
*
- .01
- 2.16§
Fort Steele	
Kettle River	
Nanaimo	
Totals	
591,082
+ 19,774
$26.32
* No change.            t Increase in assessment value.
t Due to lower assessment value.           § Large proportion of logged-off land. II 48
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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£ II 52                              DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
(«.                             Forest Revenue, Fiscal Year 1944-45.
Ten-year Average.
Timber-licence rentals   $389,984.70 $474,006.00
Timber-licence transfer fees   1,875.00 1,334.00
Timber-licence penalty fees  6,912.27 22,662.00
Hand-loggers' licence fees   150.00 490.00
Timber-lease rentals   51,700.69 56,250.00
Timber-lease penalty fees and interest 33.85 353.00
Timber-sale rentals   52,037.82 32,340.00
Timber-sale stumpage   1,392,904.90 760,467.00
Timber-sale cruising  14,434.30 11,478.00
Timber-sale advertising  3,485.50 1,947.00
Timber royalty  1,994,919.82 1,931,059.00
Timber tax   9,048.75 44,980.00
Scaling fees (not Scaling Fund)        301.00
Scaling expenses (not Scaling Fund) _ 3,183.40 920.00
Trespass stumpage   35,197.96 18,555.00
Scalers' examination fees  275.00 377.00
Exchange   59.74 160.00
Seizure expenses   892.73 656.00
General miscellaneous  9,828.75 5,091.00
Timber-berth rentals, bonus, and fees 21,401.17 23,526.00
Interest on timber-berth rentals  42.45 142.00
Transfer fees on timber berths  82.04 78.00
Grazing fees and interest  29,202.69 25,226.00
$4,017,653.53      $3,412,398.00
Taxation from Crown-granted timber
lands           213,912.46 244,713.00
Totals   $4,231,565.99      $3,657,111.00 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945.
II 53
(S5)
Forest Expenditure, Fiscal Year 1944-45.
Forest District.
Salaries.
War Service,
Temporary
Assistance.
Temporary
Assistance.
Expenses.
Total.
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert..
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Victoria	
$66,907.77
24,096.61
24,558.04
38,434.87
39,581.02
87,343.39
$10,171.44
4,724.79
10,750.65
1,860.00
10,240.07
$320.00
2,447.26
$44,156.19
24,223.73
13,853.66
17,537.51
14,851.06
36,923.21
Totals..
$280,921.70
$37,746.95
$3,006.29
$151,545.36
Canadian Forestry Association	
Reconnaissance	
Forest Research	
Reforestation	
Provincial Parks	
Incidentals and Contingencies	
Rebate to Government of United States of America..
Grazing Range Improvements*	
Forest Protection Fund*	
Forest Reserve Account*	
$121,235.40
53,365.13
40,858.96
66,723.03
56,292.08
134,745.70
$473,220.30
4,000.00
6,763.37
10,766.93
95,364.35
22,479.25
2,369.13
181.12
10,737.61
500,000.00
92,181.55
Grand total     $1,218,063.61
* Contributions from Treasury to special funds detailed elsewhere.
N.B.—The above figures do not include amounts paid as cost-of-living bonus, totalling $44,387.30, made up as
follows:—
Salaries  $23,488.69
Temporary Assistance  405.82
War Service, Temporary Assistance       4,554.16
Expense	
Reconnaissance....
Forest Research...
Reforestation	
Provincial Parks..
5,348.52
626.78
718.42
7,025.48
2,219.43
44,387.30
(»<■) Scaling Fund.
Balance, April 1st, 1944 (debit)     $20,652.37
Collections, fiscal year 1944-45     172,324.44
$151,672.07
Expenditures, fiscal year 1944-45     193,858.00
Balance, March 31st, 1945 (debit)     $42,185.93
Balance, April 1st, 1945  (debit)     $42,185.93
Collections, 9 months, April-December, 1945     129,538.45
$87,352.52
Expenditures, 9 months, April-December, 1945      139,266.99
Balance, December 31st, 1945 (debit)     $51,914.47 II 54 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
<sr> Forest Reserve Account.
Balance brought forward, April 1st, 1944  $283,236.19
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1944 (under
subsection (2), section 32, "Forest Act")       92,181.55
$375,417.74
Moneys received under subsection (4), section 32, " Forest Act"     	
Expenditures, fiscal year 1944-45       39,807.94
Balance, March 31st, 1945  (credit)  $335,609.80
Amount received from Treasury, April 1st, 1945 (under
subsection (2), section 32, " Forest Act")     102,612.00
$438,221.80
Expenditures, 9 months to December 31st, 1945      33,664.96
Balance, December 31st, 1945 (credit)  $404,556.84
(38> Grazing Range Improvement Fund.
Balance, April 1st, 1944 (credit)  $23,518.69
Government contribution (section 14, " Grazing Act ")     10,737.61
$34,256.30
Expenditures, April 1st, 1944, to March 31st, 1945       4,486.47
Balance, March 31st, 1945 (credit)  $29,769.83
Government contribution (section 14, " Grazing Act ")       9,734.23
$39,504.06
Expenditures, April 1st, 1945, to December 31st, 1945       5,426.13
Balance, December 31st, 1945 (credit)  $34,077.93 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945. II 55
(39) Standing of Forest Protection Fund, March 31st, 1945.
Balance (deficit), April 1st, 1944  $179,944.73
Expenditure   $841,200.10
Less refunds  $25,003.71
Less refund from Dominion
Government      19,342.74
       44,346.45
     796,853.65
$976,798.38
(See detailed summary of net expenditure on page
56.)
Government contribution   $500,000.00
Collections, tax     235,311.83
Collections, slash and snags  $48,840.50
Less refunds     13,015.75
       35,824.75
     771,136.58
Balance (deficit), March 31st, 1945  $205,661.80 II 56
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
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II 57
(ti)
Forest Protection Expenditure for Twelve Months ended
December 31st, 1945.
Reported Approximate Expenditure by Other Agencies.
Expenditures.
Forest District.
Patrols and
Fire-
prevention.
Tools and
Equipment.
Fires.
Improvements.
Total.
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert	
$88,971.00
193.00
$93,064.00
945.34
$151,211.16
1,060.66
2,209.56
10,452.17
11,404.70
$7,050.00
650.00
$340,296.16
2,849.00
2,209.56
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10,452.17
Nelson	
2,450.00
24,500.00
1,800.00
40,154.70
Totals	
$91,614.00
$118,509.34    J    $176,338.25
$9,500.00
$395,961.59
Ten-year average, 1936-45	
$64,009.00
$74,266.00
$118,778.00
$3,446.00
$260,499.00 II 58 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
FOREST PROTECTION.
WEATHER.
In general, from a forest-protection point of view and considering the Province as
a whole, weather prevailing during 1945 created hazard conditions considerably above
average. The usual fluctuating and seasonal vagaries occurred as between various
Forest Districts, bringing periodic relief, but over-all weather was such that each
Forest District, during some period or periods of the season, experienced extremely
critical and dangerous hazard conditions.
In the Vancouver Forest District the total rainfall over the whole fire season period
was average, but the months of July and August were exceptionally dry with resultant
very hazardous conditions. Fortunately, what little rain occurred during these months
came at opportune times, in so far as hazard build-up and fire occurrence were concerned, and potentially extreme conditions were thus averted.
In the Kamloops and Nelson Districts, spring weather was cold and wet, and generally high humidity conditions prevailed—a condition which lasted until, roughly, the
beginning of July. Shortly after the early part of that month a prolonged drought set
in, bringing with it gradually increasing hazard, which reached extremely serious
dimensions during August which continued until the start of autumn rains near the
beginning of September. Some periodic and light rains occurred during this outstandingly dry period but, for the most part, these were scattered showers of short duration
accompanying electrical storms. In many cases, such showers, instead of relieving the
situation to any appreciable extent, actually created a more trying condition. Their
dampening effect was not generally sufficient to quench lightning fires set by the storm,
while at the same time they had the effect of causing such fires to lie dormant and undetected for several days. Some dry electrical storms also occurred during the season in
these districts and were the cause of a number of fires in remote areas, notably in the
Princeton, Blue River, and Revelstoke regions.
Illustrative of the critical conditions applying in these two districts, it is of interest
to note that figures of rainfall, as compiled by weather stations throughout the Nelson
District, show an average of 1.62 and 2.05 inches for the months of April and May
as against a long-term average of 1.23 and 1.76 inches respectively, thus exceeding
considerably the spring average. During June, although precipitation was sufficient,
figures from the same source indicate that a gradual tapering off commenced with 1.75
inches average in comparison with the long-term average of 2.11 inches. During July
and August there was a most marked deficiency, with only 0.57 and 0.56 inch being
recorded against the long-term average of 1.18 and 1.19 inches respectively for those
two months.    Immediately following, September rainfall was nearly double the average.
The season in the interior portion of the Prince Rupert District was also unusually
dry for that region. Small creeks dried up early in the season and many watercourses
which normally flow throughout the entire year were entirely dry by midsummer.
Snowfall during the preceding winter was somewhat less than average and, due to a
cold spring, remained on the ground longer than is usual, not entirely disappearing on
the lower levels until late spring. Rainfall during the month of April was exceptionally
light over the major portion of the interior section of the district, and growth of vegetation and native grasses was slow in making an appearance. Strong, drying, southwest winds were almost a daily occurrence during the month of May, which further
retarded herbaceous growth and was the largest factor responsible for a rather extreme
hazard which persisted during that entire month. Moderate precipitation in the form
of local showers, well distributed over the district, was the rule from early June until
late July, and during this period general hazard remained low and fire danger was
almost entirely confined to lightning strikes.    Electrical storms were, however, less in REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945. II 59
number than in an average year. Throughout August and the greater part of September hot, dry, windy weather prevailed and extreme conditions built up, being only
slightly modified during the latter part of September by longer nights and cooler days.
In the coastal region of the Prince Rupert District, with the exception of the Terrace area which experienced the driest summer for many years, weather conditions west
of the Coast Range and in the Queen Charlotte Islands were generally favourable for
fire-control. Hazardous periods occurred only at intervals throughout the season and
were of short duration. Only during the month of May, when a twenty-eight-year
record for hours of sunshine was established, did the hazard become notably intense.
In this particular period strong westerlies blew day after day over the district, adding
to the dry condition of vegetation and litter but fortunately the situation was relieved
with frequent heavy showers over the region from June 1st to the end of the closed
season.
In the Fort George District, which ordinarily represents a consistent early
spring flash-hazard, the usual condition was conspicuously absent, with only moderate
conditions applying. However, during the latter part of May a serious condition developed over the whole district with extreme hazard in the Fort St. James area, which was
only relieved with the usual June rains. Conditions again became dangerous in mid-
July and August with continuing dry and windy weather and, in this period, roughly
55 per cent, of the fires in that district occurred. The season tapered off sharply in
September with its attendant rains and extended periods of higher humidity.
FIRES.
Causes and Occurrence.
From the standpoint of number of fires occurring throughout the Province, the
1945 season was above average, with total occurrence of 1,838 fires, as compared to a
previous ten-year average of 1,686 fires. As an indication of trend and a comparison
with the table which appeared in the 1944 report, the distribution of fire occurrence, by
forest districts, for the past ten-year period is of interest and is as follows:—
Fire Occurrence
durina: Ten-year Period, Percentage
(1,2) Forest District. 1936-45, inclusive. of all B.C.
Vancouver   4,098 24.31
Prince Rupert  677 4.02
Fort George  1,518 9.00
Kamloops  5,036 29.87
Nelson  5,530 32.80
Total  16,859
It will be noted that there is a small continuing increase in occurrence in the
northern portion of the Province, due for the most part to the opening-up of these territories and to the fact that, with use of aircraft in the region, fires north of settled
areas are now being observed and fought which, a few years ago, would have remained
undetected.
Briefly dealing with causes, it is remarked that lightning, our only uncontrollable
cause, was again responsible for the origin of more fires than any other agency,
approximately 29 per cent, of the season's outbreaks being attributable to this source.
While occurrence from this cause is considerably above 1944 season, it is still some 6
per cent, below the ten-year average and, as usual, was concentrated in the Kamloops
and Nelson Districts, with a notable increase in the former.
Occurrence due to railways operating again showed a definite increase and it is not
anticipated that fires from this agency will materially decrease pending a return to II 60 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
normal conditions of traffic and coal-supply. The type of coal currently available and
continuing heavy traffic with capacity loads make for conditions against which every
effort of the railroad organizations has little, if any, control in so far as incidence of
fire is concerned.
Both smokers' and campers' fires showed a notable decrease during the year, but
occurrence from these causes is still high and a continued and expanded programme of
public education is indicated.
Cost of Fire-fighting.
In explanation of tabulation No. 53 as set out on page 78, it should be pointed out
that total cost shown therein covers only expenditure in wages, food, and transportation
for fire-fighting crews. It does not include items of forest protection organization
overhead, such as assistant rangers, patrols, lookouts, and suppression crews hired for
the season. Moreover, it is representative only of cost to the Forest Service and, for
the over-all picture of cost of fighting fire in the Province, an estimated sum of $176,338
spent by other parties must be added. This latter figure includes estimates and actual
figures obtained from private parties and concerns, such as logging operators, covering
cost of patrol, equipment, and fire-fighting on their own lands.
It is worthy of note that of the total cost of fire-fighting to the Forest Service,
approximately 68 per cent, occurred in fighting lightning-caused fires. Fires from this
cause, as is well known, occur for the most part in the more remote and currently inaccessible regions, and it seems clear that the only possibility of reducing costs from this
agency is by a step-up of detection organization and a planned development of access
trails and roads. Fire-fighting costs in this class of fires are invariably high, because
fires can seldom be attacked while in the incipient stage and still of small dimensions.
The average type of country which suffers from these fires is, as a rule, broken and
mountainous, affording poor coverage and leaving many areas blind from established
ground detection systems. A systematic patrolling by aircraft during hazardous
periods would seem to be part of the immediate answer to effect proper coverage.
The bulk of expenditure by other agencies, roughly 86 per cent, of the total figure
mentioned above under this head, took place in the Vancouver Forest District. Several
large operation fires which occurred in mid-season and persisted until the weather broke
are largely responsible.
Damage.
Total estimated damage for the year was $1,443,053. Of this figure, approximately
52 per cent, occurred in the Fort George District, 25 per cent, in the Vancouver
District, 21 per cent, in the Nelson District, and the greater part of the balance in the
Kamloops District, with damage in the Prince Rupert District negligible.
It is regrettable to have to report that in the Fort George District, where
heaviest damage occurred, roughly 96 per cent, of the total damage is representative
of destroyed accessible merchantable timber and immature stands. This is attributable
in large measure to the fact that a number of the major outbreaks in this district this
year centred in the Rocky Mountain trench—a region which as yet offers but poor
access for control measures.
In the Vancouver Forest District, of the total estimated damage of $341,695,
approximately 80 per cent, comprised damage to property other than forests, some
$120,000 of such representing destroyed railway and logging equipment alone.
Of total damage in the Nelson District, roughly 78 per cent, was damage to forest-
cover, chiefly accessible merchantable timber and immature stands. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945. II 61
FIRE-CONTROL RESEARCH AND PLANNING.
Planning.
Owing to continuing staff shortage, no new work was attempted under this head
during 1945, efforts being confined to a survey of work outstanding.
Briefly, in the Fort George, Prince Rupert, Nelson, and Kamloops Forest Districts a partial network of primary detection is already established or projected. This
network is designed to bring under observation as much as possible the areas exposed to
both high lightning- and man-caused fire occurrence in those districts. It is believed
in certain areas, notably in the Kamloops District, man-caused fire occurrence has been
given too little weight, with the result that it is found that many fires of this nature
occur in areas at present blind to existing lookouts. Likewise, since detection in
lightning-risk areas can not be controlled wholly by ground methods, it appears essential
if we are to achieve any appreciable degree of success that increased use of aircraft
for detection is indicated. An early examination is, therefore, planned, not only covering the feasibility of aircraft detection but to review existing ground protection facilities in order that a co-ordinated plan may be projected. This examination will have
in mind determination of the basic network required to adequately control all areas of
man-caused risk together with those areas of lightning risk most easily handled by
ground means; the remaining detection problem would then be completely handled
by aerial methods.
It is also noted that the transportation system, particularly in the back areas
exposed to lightning, has proven strikingly inadequate and, in Interior districts, large
fires have occurred whose size has been aggravated, not only by lack of early detection
but by inaccessibility to the extent that several days have, on occasion, elapsed before
fire crews were able to reach the scene of the fire and begin effective suppression action.
Rather than a programme designed to construct great mileages of truck- or horse-trails,
the development of hovering type aircraft, such as the helicopter, currently appears to
offer a future means through which this condition will be remedied. A certain minimum ground transportation system would still be required and future planning should
determine such basic road requirements in conjunction with hovering type aircraft.
In the Vancouver Forest District the man-caused fire problem is becoming acute
owing to the rapid increase in high-risk area accessible to travel. Lightning is a
minor factor and up to the present has not resulted in serious damage comparable to
that of the Interior districts. During 1937 and 1938 a survey was conducted to determine the minimum requirements for detection of man-caused fires in the Vancouver
District. Owing to the above-mentioned rapid increase in risk area through logging,
the network of lookouts established at that time has now become, to a certain extent,
obsolete, so that a revision programme is indicated. This revision survey was commenced during the 1945 season and it is anticipated will be completed in 1946.
A further study was commenced in the Douglas fir belt on Vancouver Island, from
Salmon River to Victoria, to determine requirements for adequate forest-fire control in
all phases of improvements, equipment, and man-power location required to hold fire
losses to a definite standard. With the expected return of field staff from the Services,
it is anticipated that this study will have been completed by the end of next year.
Panoramic Lookout Photographs.
During the summer of 1945 a special camera, built to specifications primarily for
this class of work, was received from the National Research Council. Lack of personnel, however, precluded use of the instrument and no lookout photography was carried
out during the season. II 62 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Dependent upon employment or training of suitable personnel, this project will be
continued in 1946 as time allows.
Fire-weather Studies.
Fundamental studies regarding the occurrence of forest-fire weather, its intensity
and relative risk, were undertaken in an organized manner commencing with the 1938
fire season. Owing to enlistments, work in this field was temporarily halted during the
period 1941-44, although records were maintained for future analysis. In the spring
of 1945 a critical examination of these records was undertaken in so far as the Vancouver Forest District was concerned.
During the 1938 season, fuel moisture measured at lookout points during the
progress of serious fires proved appreciably lower than measurements at lower altitudes.
Similar results were noticed by the late F. A. Macdonald following the 1934 season.
This fact became increasingly apparent during succeeding years and a study of research
conducted by the United States Forest Service in Idaho indicated this effect to be the
result of a " temperature inversion." During such periods, while very dry air was over
the region, characteristically high temperatures occurred during the daytime, with
extreme surface cooling at nights, at which time the cold air settled to the valley-
bottoms, leaving a strata of warmer air along hillsides and ridges. As a consequence,
relative humidity in the hillside zone remained consistently low at night, whilst that
in the valley-bottoms, owing to the cooler temperatures prevailing, made complete
recovery to the saturation point.
Fire danger increases markedly with a decrease in moisture content of forest fuels.
Each day, solar radiation and low relative humidity combine to lower this moisture
content. In the absence of precipitation, the only possible relief is that obtained from
higher humidities when these fuels tend to come into equilibrium with the atmosphere.
Should this higher humidity not prevail, with no nightly relief, inflammability is
unchanged and, therefore, the following day begins with an extreme condition.
As a result of this condition, forest fuels in the hillside zone receiving little, or no,
relief during the night become rapidly and progressively more inflammable each succeeding day. In the valley-bottom, on the other hand, owing to normally high night
humidities and with dew frequently being formed, fuels increased appreciably in
moisture content during the night, resisted combustion, and did not again become
inflammable until late the following day.
Following this investigation, it appeared that a more accurate measurement of
comparative fire risk would be obtained by watching the progress of a drying cycle as
indicated by fuel moisture content in the early morning hours at hillside locations and
by relating to it the intensity of the drying cycle as measured by maximum night
humidity recovery. Ten locations on the Lower Coast and Fraser Valley were selected
as indicating stations, where fuel moisture was read every daylight hour and humidity
measured on recording hygrographs or hygrothermographs. In addition, rainfall
was recorded and maximum and minimum thermometers established to determine the
temperature difference resulting between hillside and valley. No further Forest Service stations were located because additional recording humidity instruments were not
available in time for the 1945 season. Several logging companies co-operated, providing both rainfall and humidity measurements and records from their own machines.
Information from all sources radioed daily in the early morning and late afternoon was
plotted at the District Forester's office in Vancouver and also at Victoria headquarters.
The programme, however, fell short of complete district coverage and was concentrated
in the area of major hazard. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945.
II 63
VALLEY  STATION
 -HILLSIDE STATION-	
FUEL MOISTURE % 8A.M.-4P.M.   AUG.26-5ER 14-1944
DIAGRAM     1 II 64
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
As anticipated, during periods of extreme fire risk, night temperatures at hillside
locations were higher than in adjacent valleys, reaching a maximum difference of 20
degrees on July 7th and August 20th. In addition, relative humidity at hillside locations during such periods remained consistently low throughout the drying cycle,
reaching an unprecedented low at Mount Prevost Lookout in the Duncan area during
the night of July 6th and 7th when, for fifteen hours, the humidity remained approximately 9 per cent., resulting in an extremely intensive drying cycle which rendered
forest fuels highly inflammable and resulted in two major fires in the Ladysmith and
Gordon River areas.
HILLSIDE  STATION
DIAGRAM    2
RELATIVE   HUMIDITY AT A VALLEY LOCATION COMPARED WITH  THAT AT TWO
NEARBY  HILLSIDE LOCATIONS DURING A RISK PERIOD.
Coincidentally, fuel moistures at 8 a.m. were directly related to maximum humidities prevailing during the night hours and, during the same period, reached the low
point of 6 per cent, at Mount Prevost on the mornings of July 7th and 8th. Other risk
periods featured a similar trend of fuel moisture and humidity. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945.
II 65
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The correctness of the basic principles of this method of interpreting forest-fire
danger was thus established during the 1945 season. There still remain, however,
several pertinent problems to be investigated before the system will be entirely complete and applicable:—
(a.) At what level does the benefit from night humidity become ineffectual?
(b.)  At what level does the inflammability condition reach an extreme point,
or is this a function of individual drying cycles, wherein this level varies
with each cycle?
(c.)  What area is liable to be influenced by an extreme drying cycle as
indicated by one indication point?
Owing to lack of sufficient instruments and personnel, no attempt was initiated
during 1945 to answer any of the above or additional questions.    It is anticipated that,
with more recording instruments becoming available and with increased personnel, the
programme of fire-weather rating and investigation will be considerably extended
during 1946.
FIRE-SUPPRESSION CREWS.
As related in previous reports, stand-by fire-suppression crews were organized first
in 1942 and 1943 from Alternative Service Workers, and from the beginning were
found to be effective protection units. In 1944, because of the shortage of man-power,
sixteen crews of high school boys were employed. These proved to be remarkably
good at a quick get-away and an enthusiastic initial attack, both valuable qualities in
fire-fighting.
The policy of employing high school boys was continued in 1945, and by the end
of June sixteen crews were organized. About 50 per cent, of last year's boys returned,
but in many cases those of the desirable senior high school age found better-paid work
elsewhere and boys of around sixteen had to be used. This is too young for best
results. Foremen and cooks were difficult to get, because men with certain qualities of
leadership and character are needed to staff juvenile crews and men of any kind were
scarce. In addition, most good men are not attracted by work so temporary. Nine of
the sixteen foremen finally obtained were returned servicemen and possibly the rapid
return of forces from overseas will alleviate the difficulty next year.
The period of training was of necessity brief, as the fire season was in full swing
by the time crews could be organized, and further delays were caused by lack of foremen
for all crews.
Distribution of Crews.
Number of Fires
Forest District. Crews. fought.
Vancouver  8 52
Nelson   4 24
Kamloops   3 41
Fort George  1 10
Totals   16 127
As in 1944, the crews consisted of a foreman, a cook, and six boys, with the exception of one crew of ten boys. Standard equipment was a set of fire-fighting tools kept
ready for action on a light delivery or 2-ton truck, with some variations by districts.
Both Nelson and Kamloops tried out the tanker-truck with a crew and found it a
valuable combination in accessible areas. Fort George supplied its crew with a fire-
pump and a radio. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945. II 67
Record of Accomplishment of Suppression Crews during
1942 to 1945, inclusive.
Average Spread between
Time of Attack and be-
Number        fore being extinguished.
Size of Fire when attacked. of Fires. (Acres.)
Spot (up to % acre)   240* 0.12
Over % acre and up to 1 acre     94* 0.66
Over 1 acre and up to 5 acres     80* 10.10
Over 5 acres and up to 50 acres    50 103.00
Over 50 acres     14 693.00
<f 	
Total   478
* These figures do not include 7 additional fires which escaped and spread far over the average.
Record of Accomplishment of Suppression Crews during 1945.
Size of Fire when attacked.
Spot (up to % acre) 	
Over % acre and up to 1 acre     24f
Over 1 acre and up to 5 acres	
Over 5 acres and up to 50 acres	
Over 50 acres	
Total   122
Number
of Fires.
Average Spread between
Time of Attack and before being extinguished.
(Acres.)
62*
0.11
24f
1.05
23t
5.78
11
225.00
2
123.00
* Two additional fires escaped and spread to 23 acres and 65 acres.
t Two additional fires escaped and spread to 52 acres and 180 acres.
$ One additional fire escaped and spread to 697 acres.
Although the fire season was heavier this year than last, suppression crews were
used on about the same number of fires. Their record, as shown in the tables, continues to illustrate the well-known fact that fires are most quickly and most cheaply
suppressed when small. Many of the fires fought would have been large and costly
but for a crew's speedy arrival. The average get-away time was about 4 minutes and,
out of sixty fires for which such further figures are available, on fifty-two fires the
crew was at the fire in an average of thirty-seven minutes from the time advice was
received. This included travelling distances up to 22 miles by road. On the other
eight fires, because of unusual distance or inaccessibility, the average was nine hours
twenty minutes and these are instances where the suppression crew might better not
have been used at all had other man-power been available. It would be unfair to compare these figures with fires fought by the normal method with pick-up crews, as conditions are quite different, but the latter can not hope to approach this record no matter
how efficient our field staff. Our experience of the last four years has shown that suppression crews are a valuable part of our organization. It shows, too, that their value
is best utilized on readily accessible, small fires, where rapid action can be achieved.
If used on fires requiring many hours of travel or already beyond control of a small
crew, they become ordinary man-power.
As a relatively small part of the crews' time is spent in actual fire-fighting, one of
the problems each year is to keep them most effectively employed and still readily
available for fire calls. Their chief function being fire-suppression, the first consideration in locating crews is to place them in hazardous areas, and the second to locate them
on planned project work.    Since they must be near existing communications, it is not always possible to choose the project work most needed, which might be out of touch.
During hazardous " stand-by " periods, too, the crew may have to remain in the immediate camp area, when work is further confined. The problem is fully appreciated and
every effort is made to employ the crews to best advantage. Unless the means of
independent communication is available, the most effective use of crews on project work
will be somewhat limited.
The use of suppression crews during this and previous seasons has been most
valuable and successful. The exact extent of their employment is still to be determined
and we still have operating problems to solve, but they are beyond the stage of an
experiment and have become an integral part of our protection organization.
AIRCRAFT.
Early in the year tenders were called and a contract subsequently negotiated with
a commercial airline company for charter flying in connection with forest-protection
requirements. Under the contract, two pontoon-equipped aircraft were made available,
based in the Fort George District for the period of the fire-season months. One ship
was of the light reconnaissance type, primarily for fire-detection work, while the other
was of semi-transport type suitable for transportation of supplies and fire-fighters.
Although based in the Fort George District, aircraft were available on call in special
necessity in other Interior Forest Districts.
Over the season, approximately 210 hours' flying was carried out, roughly 68 per
cent, in the Fort George District, 18 per cent, in the Nelson District, and the remainder
in the Kamloops District. Flying in the last-mentioned two districts was confined
solely to reconnaissance and detection work, while in the Fort George District roughly
65 per cent, of flying-time was on detection and the balance on transport.
The stand-by seasonal charter arrangement worked out extremely well and proved
a far more practical working proposition than periodic charter, as and when required,
which has been the practice in previous years. It is evident, however, from the
season's experience, that it is wholly impractical to endeavour to fill the aircraft
needs of Kamloops and Nelson Districts with aircraft based in the North. Moreover,
there is a wide differential in the particular needs of the northern and southern
districts which clearly indicates use of different type aircraft for the respective regions.
In connection with aircraft, it should also be mentioned that, during the year, in
the Vancouver Forest District, at times of high risk or when reconnaissance of existing
fires was indicated, the R.C.A.F. provided valuable assistance in supplying aircraft
needs. It is hoped that this excellent co-operation may continue as a peace-time
function of the Coast R.C.A.F. establishments.
MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT.
Cars and Trucks.
Over the year, activities have been concerned mainly with the maintenance of
existing equipment. Scarcity of parts and skilled labour made it difficult to keep
equipment in good repair at all times.
Delivery was finally obtained on the twenty express-type vehicles mentioned in last
year's report, but the fire season was well advanced before all units were received.
Personnel returning to the Service from the armed forces occasioned a scarcity in
transport and it was necessary to retain in use a number of old vehicles for which
replacement units had been obtained.
With the cessation of hostilities, it was anticipated that new cars would be available
to replace a number of our present old, high-mileage trucks and, on this basis, an
additional twenty-five express-type units were requisitioned.    Strikes and reconversion REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945. II 69
delays, however, have so far prevented delivery of these new vehicles. In regard to
replacements generally, it will be necessary to enter upon a heavy replacement
programme as soon as new units are readily available. Out of a total fleet of 307
vehicles, 137 units are between seven and fourteen years old, and this, considered in the
light of the fact that the larger proportion are in use in Interior districts operating
on secondary and lower-class roads makes early replacement a vital necessity for
efficient organization.
With the easing of rationing restrictions, resumption of manufacture of new
machinery and repair parts, and the return to civilian industry of trained mechanical
personnel from the armed services, it is anticipated that the difficult maintenance-work
that has been necessary and the number of extensive rebuild jobs will be materially
reduced.
Fire-pumps and Outboard Motors.
No new pressure-pumps were purchased during the year, chiefly due to lack of
supply. Extensive maintenance and rebuild work carried out at the Fraser River
Repair-station again proved of outstanding value in keeping our pumping equipment
in order. It is now some years since a proper pump replacement programme has been
possible and new equipment is badly required.
Early in the year manufacturers indicated that a supply of outboard motors would
be available but we were disappointed in that only lighter units were finally obtainable.
Out of an order for fourteen motors, delivery was made on only one.
MARINE AND STRUCTURAL.
Fraser River Repair-station.
Purchases of machine-shop equipment were confined to small items only and
principally in maintaining efficiency. A small portable electric hoist of 1-ton capacity
was delivered on an order placed two years agQ, and was placed in use for lifting
engine and boat parts.    This piece of equipment has proved a valuable acquisition.
Additional area for use of the station in building and mooring facilities was
acquired by exchange from adjacent property-owners and has been reclaimed and
improved by pile-driving and dredge-fill. The additional area amounts to approximately 7,600 square feet and frontage thereof will provide tie-up accommodation for
one large or two of the smaller launches. Further improvement of the site was made
by levelling up low spots, using material obtained in dredging operations.
Launches.
Launch maintenance was carried on at the Fraser River Repair-station with minor
overhauls and repairs on most of the fleet. Modern engines were installed on the
launches " Wells Gray " and " A. L. Bryant," and three additional engines are on order
for other units although delivery has not been received to date.
Due to age and deterioration, three launches were sold by public auction and three
replacements purchased. The launches disposed of were the " Euclataw," Prince
Rupert District, 31 years old, with a mileage of 136,308 to her credit; the "Douglas
Fir," Vancouver District, 25 years old, mileage 59,748; and the " Cottonwood," Vancouver District, 22 years old, mileage 84,196. Launches purchased as replacements
were the " White Spruce," which was reconditioned with interior layout altered to
provide more convenient living and office accommodation and is now in service in the
Prince Rupert District; the "Poplar," reconditioned and a larger engine from stock
installed, now in use at Harrison Lake; and the " Departure Bay " (to be renamed), a
large seiner-type vessel which is currently being altered, reconditioned, and a new
engine installed preparatory to placing the vessel in use in northern waters.    The II 70 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
first-mentioned replacement was purchased from a private owner and the latter two
from War Assets Corporation.
Progress is being made on construction of one new launch at the Fraser River
Station. This is an improved Assistant Ranger type vessel and is slated as replacement
for one of our older boats which has reached a stage where early discard is essential.
Building and Construction.
Due chiefly to shortage of material and labour, high costs, etc., occasioned by war
conditions, no major construction was undertaken during the year.
Work was completed on the following projects:—
Alterations   and   additions   for   increased   storage   and   operating
space, stock-room, and bins, etc.____Fraser River Repair-station.
Relocation and renewal of pipe-line...Thurston Bay Ranger Station.
Fencing    area    and    hard-surfacing
roads  Chilliwack Ranger Station.
Alteration and addition  Alberni Ranger Station.
Alteration and addition  Langford Ranger Station.
Repairs to diversion dam Thurston Bay Ranger Station.
Dredging for safer mooring  Fraser River Repair-station.
Other construction of minor proportions, largely maintenance, was carried out in
the various Interior districts.
In addition to the above, the following work is in progress:—
Pile-driving  Fraser River Repair-station.
Clearing  Parksville Ranger Station.
Alteration to offices  ____Nanaimo Ranger Station.
Plans and specifications were prepared for the new Ranger headquarters' station
to be built on the site being prepared at Parksville, a warehouse building at Fernie, car-
storage sheds at Kamloops, and an Assistant Ranger headquarters at Sugar Lake, and
preliminary estimates were made for other projects, including the proposed Ranger
School project. Most of the projects for which plans and specifications were prepared,
it is anticipated, will get under way early in the new year.
RADIO.
As surplus army equipment was made available for purchase during the year, we
were able to add twenty portable SPF sets to our total equipment. These units were of
Forest Service design, built to army order, and a number of the units were in practically new condition. An additional eight units were purchased through usual
channels. Of the total of twenty-eight acquired, twenty-one were placed in service and
the balance will be distributed for use during the coming season.
The new model S-25 unit, which was designed in late 1944, was placed in operation
during the spring and has performed very satisfactorily. This set has a 25-watt output
in lieu of the 10-watt PAC and may, in time, replace the latter type. Another of these
sets is being constructed and it is anticipated it will be in use in the Northern Interior
early in 1946.
A modern three-channel transmitter, constructed at Victoria headquarters, was
installed at Nelson and has given good service, although our frequency of 3,430 kcs.
is not all that might be desired and does not consistently allow communication direct
between that headquarters and Victoria during part of the summer months.
A remote control system, complete with new masts and an insulated receiver house,
was installed at Vancouver District headquarters and has greatly reduced the noise REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945. II 71
pick-up from the adjacent repair-station, improving reception considerably. Satisfactory remote control has also been installed at Victoria headquarters and, though
noise is more evident there than at almost any other Forest Service station, generally
better reception has been experienced.
As an indication of traffic currently being handled as between Victoria and District
headquarters on daily schedule, it is interesting to note that a total of 1,330 messages,
with an average message length of twenty-seven words, passed through the Victoria
station during the year. This is an increase of roughly 70 per cent, over the number
of messages handled in 1944. In addition to these numbered messages, numerous
explanatory conversations and notes were handled and, during the period May 1st to
September 30th, approximately 400 daily weather reports passed through the station.
It was anticipated that the end of hostilities would throw on the market many previously unobtainable parts which would simplify the task of general maintenance and
construction. To date, however, the reverse has been true, inasmuch as conditions
have grown progressively worse in many lines and indications are that no immediate
relief is in sight.
As in the past, but with increasing emphasis, inter-district interference, due to
inadequate number of channels, made itself felt during the busiest part of the fire
season. Close adherence to schedule partly solved the problem but it is evident that,
during the rush of fire season activity, we can no longer hope to continue efficient
operation without new channels. Application has accordingly been made to the Department of Transport for new frequencies which will permit the use of a separate wavelength for each Forest District. Likewise, an additional frequency between 4,000 and
5,000 kcs. has been requested specifically for communication between District headquarters and Victoria. If this channel is granted, it is anticipated we will have dependable daylight communication throughout the year, effective to most distant points.
Improvements planned for the immediate future include a three- or four-channel
remote control system for Nelson headquarters, at least one headquarters transmitter
of the S-50 type, one or more type S-25 transmitters, and, if possible, the building of
UHF equipment for experimental work next season. Construction of all these units
will take place at Victoria headquarters.
It is believed that UHF transmission, whether of the AM or FM type, will play an
important part in Forest Service communication in the future. Experimental work in
the field is planned to determine which frequencies will give best results over our
mountainous terrain, how much noise reduction will be effected, the efficacy of directive
aerial systems, and the amount of power required. If we can replace, say, 25 per cent,
of our medium-wave sets with UHF, much channel crowding will be avoided and communication reliably improved.
The man-made noise level, which is such a serious drawback to good results
wherever a station is located in town, makes expansion in remote control another future
essential. Considerable success has been achieved to date and even better results are
anticipated when proper equipment again comes on the market.
Six years of war restricted expansion and limited the use of radio communication.
The advent of peace opens up almost unlimited possibilities in the radio field and it
seems safe to say that we may anticipate expansion in our radio system limited only by
funds available and the needs of our particular type of communication.
SLASH-DISPOSAL AND SNAG-FALLING.
The end of 1945 completes the eighth year in which the programme of hazard
reduction under section 113a of the " Forest Act " has been practised. Results achieved
during the year show marked improvement over past years and should be a worthy
contribution towards the long-term hazard reduction plan designed to give our young
forests increased protection from fire. II 72 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Reviewing final results from the standpoint of acreage burned, it is considered
that number of acres of current year's slash disposed of marks closely the maximum
that could be expected under conditions that have prevailed so far since enactment of
section 113a. By this statement, it is not inferred that our standard should be levelled
at the 1945 figure of accomplishment. On the contrary, there is good reason to anticipate a considerable increase in future years, provided the logging industry is able to
resume pre-war practice and improvement materializes in the labour situation.
During 1945 a total of 55,508 acres was logged over in that portion of the Vancouver Forest District to which the provisions of section 113a apply and, of this total,
33,673 acres was covered by hazard reports. This latter figure, it is thought, represents
about the maximum in relation to the total area logged that can reasonably be marked
for disposal in any current year. The difference between this amount and the total—
namely, 21,835 acres—according to our best estimate, represents lands logged subsequent to September 1st which, in the average year, marks the first day of the fall slash-
burning period.
Discussing the possibility of future increase in disposal of any current year's
slash, it is considered this can be partially accomplished by reduction of the acreage
carried for final decision in respect to application of compensation or extension. The
figure of 4,643 acres in this category, shown in summaries following, is largely comprised of operations where slash-disposal is not practised entirely in line with objectives
and ideals laid down. This carry-over of current year's slash, as a general rule, is
a prime factor in incomplete disposal of adjacent old-date slash. Such a situation
develops as a result of failure of the operator to adequately and conscientiously plan
for full slash-disposal. The condition can be corrected to a marked degree by strict
enforcement of the provisions of section 113a and close observance of the administrative policy.
The outstanding feature of the 1945 fall burning season was the ideal weather
obtaining during the period September 4th to October 14th. During this period, conditions for burning prevailed that offered encouragement to even the most reluctant
of operators. For the purpose of record, a brief resume of weather prevailing between
the above-mentioned dates is shown hereunder:—
September 4th:   Heavy rain, terminating a period of moderately high risk.
September 5th-14th:   Very good burning weather.
September 15th:   Heavy rain.
September 16th:   Light rain;   cloudy.
September 17th-18th:   Fair.    Slash too moist for burning.
September 19th:   Heavy rain—1.24 inches.
September 20th :   Light rain.
September 21st-22nd:   Fair.
September 23rd-24th:   Moderate rain.
September 25th-October 14th:   Good burning weather excepting on northerly
aspects.
Subsequent to October 14th:  Weather unfavourable to burning.
These conditions,  without  question,  accounted  for the very  favourable  results
obtained in 1945, applicable not only in respect to total acreage of slash burned but to
the reduced cost in disposal and damage to forest-growth.
Compensation was levied in twenty-three cases during the year under section
113A, covering non-compliance with the provisions of that section. Nine of these cases
involved failure to dispose of slash; seven, failure to dispose of slash and to fall snags;
and seven, failure to fall snags.
Relief under section 113b of the " Forest Act "was granted during the year in
respect to five operations involving areas of 1944 logging on which snag-falling was not REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945. II 73
completed. Of this total, two operators subsequently discharged their obligations and
received refund.
Considering the very difficult labour situation experienced by the industry in so far
as obtaining fallers, snag-falling under section 113a of the Act has been very satisfactory. Good fallers were particularly difficult to obtain and, generally speaking, do not
take kindly to the work of snag-falling. Operators are faced with a difficult situation
in obtaining a clean job of snag-falling currently with the falling of merchantable
timber and, if not obtained at that time, experience indicates the job seldom is satisfactorily completed, for it becomes almost impossible to obtain falling crews to mop up
snags after completion of logging.
The following summaries indicate results obtained from slash-disposal during
1945:—
<*s>   Summary Acreage logged, 1945, and dealt with under Section 113a.
Acres.      Acres.
Total area logged, Vancouver Forest District        59,699
Total area logged in hazard area, Vancouver Forest
District          55,508
1945 slash covered by hazard reports  33,673
1945  slash logged  after  September  1st and carried
over to 1946  21,835
—  55,508
1945 slash covered by hazard reports  33,673
1945 slash burned intentionally  19,456
1945 slash burned accidentally     1,612
1945 slash granted exemption from burning     6,978
1945 slash on which extension in writing has been
granted        984
1945 slash awaiting decision re compensation or extension      4,643
1945 slash on which compensation has been assessed .__       Nil
  33,673
(**) Summary of 1945 Operations, Vancouver Forest District.
Total operations, hazard area, Vancouver Forest District        840
Number of operations conducting slash-burning  386
Number of operations on which slash was disposed of
by lopping and scattering or clearing land  4
Number of operations on which slash accidentally burned 37
Number of operations exempted from burning  192
Number of operations granted written extensions  25
Number of operations exempt as not considered necessary to deal with under section 113a  209
Number of operations on which compensation has been
assessed   Nil
Number of operations pending decision re assessments
or extension    83
Number of operations inactive in 1945  30
Number of operations snag-falling area only  24
Number of operations not advanced to point requiring
'   slash-disposal  : _  2   -
992*     840
* Difference noted above is accounted for by some operations disposing of slash by both
accidental and intentional means and extension being granted over certain areas where only
partial disposal was accomplished. II 74 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Summary of Slash-hazard being carried for Disposal into 1946.
Acres.
Slash created prior to 1945     6,486
Slash created in 1945  27,462
Total slash at January 1st, 1946  33,948
(*s> Summary Chart A—Intentional Slash-burn.
Operations conducting slash-burn  386
Acres slash-burned in 1945— Acres.
Created prior to 1944     6,170
Created 1944   20,841
Created 1945   19,456
Total   46,467
Acres of forest-cover burned  206.00
Total acres of area burned     46,673.00
Net damage to forest-cover     $1,577.02
Net damage to property on operations and cut products ___ $22,046.25
Cost of slash-disposal—
Operators  . $58,169.13
Forest Service   Nil
Acreage hazard abated, 1945     46,467.00
Cost to operator based on stand of 40 M. per acre  $0.03 per M.
Cost to operator per acre  $1.25
Total damage  $23,623.27*
* Excessive  damage  includes  damage  amounting  to   $19,601   on  one  operation,   where
burning was conducted in areas of slash adjacent to active logging operations.
(J*6> Recapitulation Slash-disposal, 1934-1945.
Acres of Slash burned.
Year. Accidentally. Intentionally.
1934_J_  4,927 15,935
1935 :  11,783 13,239
1936  1,340 7,691
1937  3,015 27,516
1938  35,071 50,033
1939  1,930 51,603
1940  2,265 33,034
1941  3,385 5,524
1942  4,504 80,226
1943  2,046 40,013
1944  5,121 27,278
1945  -3,897 46,467
FOREST CLOSURES.
Travel closures were again placed in the Kamloops and Nelson Forest Districts
on watershed and industrial areas. In the Nelson District a number of new closures
were instituted, some at the request of private interests such as mining and logging
companies with heavy investment in buildings and equipment in particular areas. In
the Nelson District, too, it was noted this year that, as the number of closed areas
increased, recreationists concentrated on remaining open areas, with the result that REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945.
II 75
human risk in such areas became progressively worse until additional closures were
necessarily instituted. It is thus becoming increasingly apparent, as was pointed out
in our 1944 report, that the time is fast approaching when certain specified forest
parks must remain open on behalf of the tourist and holiday public during periods of
general travel closure to avoid much disappointment and hardship on the part of the
average vacationing public who, as a general rule, with a short holiday period to spend,
must plan long in advance.
On the Coast, in the Vancouver Forest District, only one closure was instituted
during the year. This was a general closure involving both travel and industrial
operations effective over the whole of that district from July 9th to July 16th. No
undue problems arose and operators co-operated to advantage in every respect.
History over the past few years in this region would appear to indicate that closures,
at least for short periods, are almost inevitable each summer, and the necessity of
loggers planning their operations so that a steady production of logs for the mills will
not be upset during closure periods is indicated.
Following is detail of 1945 closures:—
Effective
Date.
Date
suspended.
Sheep Creek....	
Erie Creek	
Lamb Creek	
Upper Kootenay River	
Duck Creek	
Hidden Creek	
Anderson and Five-mile Creeks	
Porcupine Creek	
Vancouver Forest District (complete closure)
Bear Creek	
Duhamel, Upper Lemon Creeks	
Koch Creek	
Cambridge, Tiger, Gorge Creeks	
Watersheds, S. Fork Salmon River and Lost
Creek	
Watersheds, Topping, Hannah, McNally, and
Murphy Creeks	
Watershed, Granby River	
Watershed, Crawford Creek	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Vancouver.
Kamloops...
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
Nelson	
July
July
July
July
July
July
July
July
July
July 10
July 16
July 16
July 23
Aug.   8
Aug. 8
Aug. 18
Aug. 18
Sept. 11
Sept. 11
Sept. 11
Sept. 11
Sept. 11
Sept. 11
Sept. 11
Sept. 11
July 16
Sept. 10
Sept. 11
Sept. 11
Sept. 11
Sept. 11
Sept. 11
Sept. 11
Sept. 11
CO-OPERATION—OTHER AGENCIES.
Warm appreciation is expressed for excellent co-operation received during the year
from the United States Forest Service in detection and patrolling of fires adjacent to
the border, particularly in the Kamloops and Nelson Districts. In the Kamloops area,
in at least one instance, the U.S.F.S. used smokejumpers on a fire on our side of the
border and assisted materially in suppression of what might otherwise have been a
disastrous conflagration. They likewise placed a plane at the disposal of our men when
our own chartered aircraft was not currently available.
Thanks are likewise due to commercial air lines and R.C.A.F. pilots flying the
Province for detection and reporting of many fires which might otherwise have
remained unknown for some time with disastrous results.
Excellent co-operation was also received from the numerous Honorary Fire
Wardens and Fire Prevention Officers active during the season in all districts. The
time spent and efforts of these men, who voluntarily assume their duties year after
year, cannot be too highly praised. II 76
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
FIRE LAW ENFORCEMENT.
During the season it was necessary to lay information in only thirty-one cases,
which may be considered a most satisfactory record, well below the ten-year average
and something less than half the number of cases involved during 1944. It is worthy
of note that seventeen of the total number of cases involved were for burning without
permit, indicating the need for further public education along this line. On the other
hand, only five cases involved contravening a forest closure—a very noticeable decrease
under this head as compared with previous years.
(47)
Fire Occurrences by Months, 1945.
Forest District.
March.
April.
May.
June.
July.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Total.
Per
Cent.
Vancouver .-.	
4
6
2
3
10
27
38
48
49
29
63
4
22
34
3.3
Ill
7
40
205
212
162
19
60
224
291
14
13
9
31
53
8
2
1
1
389
89
182
549
629
21.17
4.84
9.90
Kamloops	
29.87
34.22
Totals	
      j        25
191
156
575
756
120
15
1.838
100.00
      |     1.36
10.39
8.49
31.28
41.13
6.53
0.82
100.00
Ten-year average,
1936-45
57
189
201
571
463
194
11
1,686
1     3.38
11.21
11.92
33.87
27.46
11.51
0.65
100.00
(**)
Number and Causes of Forest Fires, 1945.
Forest District.
e
>>.s
tt i
a >,
Si!
"-•Si
ai
£
ta
ta
a)
c_ ta
5 cd
BO
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09
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to
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w
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X <eS
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56
5
37
27
52
11
149
22
22
8
3
22
4
2
44
10
2
2
389
89
21.17
Prince Rupert	
4.84
Fort George '.	
56
33
25
30
3
8
6
21
182
9.90
196
64
89
90
2
3
21
75
9
549
29.87
228
22
274
70
9
1
20
5
629
34.22
Totals           	
541
183
426
356
69
5
32
32
155
39
1,838
100.00
29.44
9.96
23.18
19.37
3.75
0.27
1.74
1.74
8.43
2.12
100.00
	
Ten-year average, 1936-45...
605
235
155
327
84
10
41
42
158
29
1,686 |
35.89
13.94
9.19
19.40
4.98
0.59
2.43
2.49
9.37
1.72
100.00
(49)
Number and Causes of Forest Fires for the Last Ten Years.
Causes.
I     I
1945. I 1944. I 1943. I 1942.
I I	
1941.
1910.
1939.
871
1,265
515
142
236
305
73
90
77
184
400
374
81
74
111
1938.
1937. I 1936.    Total.
Lightning ,	
Campers	
Railways operating	
Smokers	
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing)...
Road and power- and telephone-line con
struction	
Industrial operations	
Incendiarism	
Miscellaneous (known causes)	
Unknown causes	
Totals	
541
183
426
356
69
5
32
32
155
39
408
203
329
342
51
256
157
216
304
58
10 | 8
51 | 20
13 | 7
210 I 136
50 23
704
198
114
220
30
1,667 1,185 1,414
20
134
19
1,561
5 I
41
171 |
18
175
16
2,338 | 1,704
I	
703
442
72
524
180
4
77
121
238
51
2,412
263
269
74
242
524
256
81
321
107
78
14
6
55
29
20
74
124
152
25
26
1,193 J 1,547
6,050
2,351
1,552
3,267
98
408
418
i,585
291
16,859 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945.
II 77
(so)
Fires classified by Size and Damage, 1945.
Total Fires.
Under % Acre.
Vi to 10 Acres.
Over 10 to 500
Acres.
Over 500 Acres
in Extent.
Damage.
"*_  .
IS
*rt "^
13 .
rs ta
"ea   .
«_
■o
SI
Forest District.
H-d
H'S
HO
H-C
E-iO
H'S
HO
nr
BO
o
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0.2
o.a
°2
4S*
4JO
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VJ
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£s
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a
3
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(O —
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£
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.    QJ
B E
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.    QJ
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a
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to —
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<_ .;_
tut
h
QJ
-a
B
r
>
rr
PhEm
•A
CMfe
p.£
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kg
P.&.
rr
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Pnfe
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£
N»
o
Vancouver	
389
21.17
230
59.13
22.73
113
29.05
21.90
40
10.28
18.10
6
1.54
6.74
359
12
18
Prince Rupert	
89
4.84
31
34.83
3.06
42
47.19
8.14
15
16.86
6.79
1
1.12
1.12
85
3
1
182
9.90
66
36.27
6.52
49
26.92
9.49
36
19.78
16.29
31
17.03
34.83
137
23
22
549
629
29.87
34.22
274
411
49.91
65.34
27.08
40.61
165
30.05
31.98
28.49
83
47
15.12
7.47
37.55
21.27
27
24
4.92
3.82
30.34
26.97
509
590
34
22
6
147|23.37
17
Totals	
1,838
100.00|1,012
100.00
516| 	
100.001   221 [	
100.00
89
100.00
1,680
94
64
100.00
55.06
28.08[ 	
 |12.02| 	
4.84
91.40
5.12
3 48
...
Ten-year aver
1
age, 1936-45...
1,686
875
519
252| 	
40
1,551
88
47
100.00
51.90
30.78
114.95
2.37
91.99
5.22
2 79
(SI)
Damage to Property other than Forests, 1945.*
Forest District.
Forest
Products in
Process of
Manufacture.
Buildings.
Railway and
Logging
Equipment.
Miscellaneous.
Total.
Per Cent,
of Total.
$88,325.64
1,067.06
3,154.16
256.51
31,960.66
$11,074.50
$119,550.00
$53,827.00
150.00
2,080.00
1,011.00
2,623.00
$272,777.14
1,217.06
9,535.16
2,497.51
64,488.66
77.82
0.35
2,325.00
730.00
1,905.00
1,976.00
500.00
28,000.00
2.72
0.71
Nelson	
18.40
Totals	
$124,764.03
$16,034.50
$150,026.00
$59,691.00
$350,515.53
100.00
35.60
4.57
42.80
17.03
100.00
	
$95,566.00
$33,055.00
$84,959.00
$30,138.00
$243,718.00
	
39.21
13.56
34.86
12.37
100.00
	
* Does not include intentional slash-burns.    For this item see page 74.
<5%)       Damage to Forest-cover caused by Forest Fires, 1945—Part I.*
Accessible
Merchantable Timber.
Inaccessible
Merchantable
Timber.
Immature
Timber.
Forest District.
d
a
tH
<-6
<U —
A*
to
"SI'S
_H>J_
Salvable
Volume of
Timber
killed.
p
M
P.
., E ta
ai
0)
u
<•&
J_>   CJ
A'Z
QJ
H>5
QJ
5
C.
B
CQ
o
S
s
IDS
Z3
£ al
S 3
v-.
u ea
Acres.
3,299
47
57,768
6,851
23,470
M.B.M.
49,911
477
278,330
9,220
184.741
M.B.M.
40,111
240
1,585
240
77.R45
$
47,560
426
550,132
22,871
188,351
1
Acres, j M.B.M.
576  [  10,990
9  |          12
60  j        300
128  |         44
273  |       477
$
3,141
21
75
112
305
Acres.
2,712
113
47,164
13,565
16,417
$
14,536
168
167,304
13,380
41,373
Prince Rupert	
Totals	
91,435
522,679  |  120,021
809,340
1,046  |  11,823
3,654  |  79,971
236,761
25.91
97.78  |      22.96
74.08
0.30  |      2.22
0.33  [    22.66
21.67
62,247
60,566
202,970
* Does not include intentional slash-burns.    For this item see page 74.
7 II 78
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
<«)     Damage to Forest-cover caused by Forest Fires, 1945—Part IL*
Forest
District.
Not satisfactorily
Noncommercial
Grazing or
Pasture
Nonproductive
Cover.
Land.
Sites.
i
oj
0)
•ss
"8   TJ
•a      ■
Q)       T3
10
TJ
bo
TJ
OI
r-l
u
bO 3
_C_3
o a
►J 3
° B 3
-•-ri a
3 o 9
« B.S
s
ca
P
II
S
ej
Q
03  c
ri   rH
s
a
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i_   h
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P.
Grand Totals.
Vancouver	
Prince Rupert	
Fort George	
Kamloops	
Nelson	
Totals	
Per cent.	
Ten-year average, 1936-45.
Acres
3,897
199
373
212
2,798
7,479
Acres.
5,279
2
123
6
2,287
7,697
Acres.
124
97
21,632
2,740
34,091
2,195
226
5,783
713
3,255
12,172
Acres.
1,341
886
24,717
4,945
11,539
43,428
12.31
335
315
6,179
1,239
2,951
11,019
1.01
Acres.
60
111
6,230
5,515
207
12,123
3.43
14,787
3
6
311
276
30
0.06
760
Acres.
4,595
21,880
24,749
24,398
75,622
21.43
1,148
5,470
6,181
6,166
18,965
1.74
Acres.
21,883
1,464
179,947
58,711
90,887
352,892
100.00
344,259
M.B.M.
60,901
489
278,630
9,264
185,218
534,502
100.00
302,214
* Does not include intentional slash-burns.    For this item see page 74.
68,918
1,162
735,254
44,772
242,431
1,092,537
100.00
632,979
(SS)
Fire Causes, Forest Service Cost, and Total Damage, 1945.*
Causes.
No.
Per Cent.
Cost.
Per
Cent.
Damage.
Per Cent.
Lightning	
Campers	
541
183
426
356
69
5
32
32
155
39
29.44
9.96
23.18
19.37
3.75
0.27
1.74
1.74
8.43
2.12
$209,203.41
11,062.77
15,134.53
20,581.89
307.71
7.76
20,927.80
7,993.28
18,395.46
3,975.38
68.01
3.60
4.92
6.69
0.10
6.81
2.60
5.98
1.29
$356,917.29
15,883.74
58,577.27
41,069.88
37,938.23
284.50
289,305.29
498,914.38
30,966.20
113,195.75
24.73
1.10
4.06
Smokers	
Brush-burning (not railway-clearing)	
Road and power- and telephone-line con-
2.85
2.63
0 02
34 57
Unknown causes	
7.84
Totals	
1,838
100.00
$307,589.99
100.00
$1,443,052.53
100.00
* Does not include intentional slash-burns.    For this item see page 74. REPORT OF
FOREST SERVICE, 1945.                                     11 79
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II 81
(so)
Prosecutions, 1945.
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Totals	
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Ten-year-average,
1936-45	
34
19
$521.60 II 82
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P- REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945. II 83
PUBLIC RELATIONS AND EDUCATION.
As previously reported, a new division was established at the beginning of May to
deal with problems of public relations and education. Details below were formerly
incorporated with the Forest Protection Division's report under the sub-heading of
" Forest Protection Education " and in the Forest Economics Division report, as a table,
under the heading " Forest Branch Library."
Work to date has largely been concerned with centralizing in the new division the
various phases of forest education formerly dealt with by other divisions of the Service
and, at the same time, maintaining those activities.    These were as follows:—
Newspapers.—Forest-protection advertisements were run in ten daily and thirty-
five weekly papers, that being the extent of funds allotted for that purpose. These
advertisements consisted of a series of six illustrations and related text on the theme,
"What is Forestry?" Favourable comment has been received on the layouts and
material produced. Copy, including art work, was prepared by the Forest Branch. In
addition, forest-protection advertising was contracted for in four other periodicals.
Grateful acknowledgment is made to those papers who have generously given of their
space on the editorial, magazine, and other pages in the interests of forest-protection.
Radio.—Local radio networks co-operated generously in giving the necessary immediate advertisement in the matter of forest closures. Also, a number of spot announcements in the interest of forest-protection were given free of charge. In the months of
July, August, and September, while forest-fire-hazard conditions were high, Stations
CJVI, Victoria, and CBR, Vancouver, included a brief announcement of fire-weather
conditions on one of their daily newscasts. This co-operation is considered very valuable and is gratefully acknowledged.
Moving Pictures.—The existing library of motion-picture films has been used
extensively by Forest Service officers and by many of the public, in schools, service
clubs, Boards of Trade, and other similar organizations. It was possible to take a small
footage of motion-picture film on various forest industry and forestry activities, and
some progress has been made in editing this material. The Parks section of the Economics Division completed editing material secured in Tweedsmuir Park and the film
subject, " Exploring Tweedsmuir Park," was added to the film library. This film,
approximately 900 feet in length, photographed in colour, and attractively titled, has
been enthusiastically received wherever shown. It has been shown to forty different
audiences comprising a total of 3,500 people.
Forest Branch Calendar.—The usual calendar for the ensuing year (1946) was
prepared and distributed. The subject selected was "What is Forestry? " to correlate
this phase of Division activity with the newspaper advertising campaign of the summer
months, and continue that idea on into the following year.
" Forest and Outdoors."—Honorary Fire Wardens throughout the Province were
given a complimentary subscription to " Forest and Outdoors."
Library.—The arrangement of the photograph index has been slightly changed and
all index prints are in process of being mounted on individual cards.
Public Meetings.—The Forester in charge has addressed a number of public meetings on forestry topics in conjunction with the projection of motion pictures. II 84
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Forest Service Library.
Classification.
Items received and catalogued.
Up to 1943.
1944.
1945.
Totals.
353
3,268
863
12
49
63
13
80
61
378
3,397
Pamphlets, etc	
987
Totals	
4,484
124
154
4,762
50
1,175
48
1,294
31,289
33,758 REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945. II 85
GRAZING.
GENEEAL CONDITIONS.
In the Interior of the Province where our range country is located, prospects of
satisfactory summer feed on the open ranges is materially affected by weather conditions in the spring months, when the new grass has started its growth.
Although 1945 featured a long, cold, dry, early spring, which resulted in the grass-
growth being two weeks or more late, the following spring weather in most parts of the
Interior was warm with sufficient moisture, resulting in excellent grass-growth. The
exception was the Kootenay district where dry conditions were experienced in June.
In spite of a prolonged dry spell during July and August, the forage-growth did not
suffer unduly. Heavy rains early in October resulted in improved late conditions with
a good second-growth of grass, but this was nullified by heavy snowfall in late October
throughout most of the Interior, which continued to recur up to the end of the year.
Much good forage was lost thereby, which will call for a longer feeding season.
Owing to poor quality of the 1944 hay-crop, followed by a cold, early spring, cattle
came out of the feed-yards in poorer shape than on the average. As soon as forage-
growth commenced, stock fleshed out rapidly and the subsequent satisfactory grass conditions produced fine beef for the most part.
Excellent hay-crops were harvested this year, which is a saving feature in view of
the heavy and early snowfall, but in many cases lack of labour made it difficult to put up
the available hay into the stack, and in such cases a long winter feeding situation will
be a serious problem for some ranchers.
The difficult labour situation is to-day one of the ranchers' chief problems, further
aggravated by the inexperienced type of labour, where it has been possible to secure.
As a result, general maintenance of ranch projects, such as fencing and other improvements, is considerably behind.
The grasshopper plague was not as bad as 1944, although some sections of the
country were heavily infested. Prospects for 1946 are somewhat brighter as a large
percentage of the red-legged grasshoppers, which are difficult to control by poisoning,
show evidence of being afflicted with parasites.
The live-stock industry on the whole has enjoyed another satisfactory year and
with it a more progressive approach to the many problems of sound range management
is in evidence. The co-operative effort which is becoming more noticeable each year
is producing a more intelligent understanding of mutual problems affecting range
administration.
Administrative routine on the part of the Forest Service has continued to increase
during the war years and, with a reduced staff, many important projects, such as range
capacity surveys, have of necessity had to be postponed. However, with the end of
hostilities it is hoped to build up our organization to the point where much of this work
may be undertaken in the near future.
It is our understanding that the Dominion Government is again arranging for
re-establishment of the Tranquille Range Experiment Station, which will meet the
whole-hearted support of both the grazing industry and the Forest Service. It is felt
that such a station is badly needed in British Columbia, where many problems of range
management need investigation under capable and qualified personnel.
MARKETS AND PRICES.
In spite of a heavy offering of both cattle and sheep during 1945, prices were maintained at even a higher level than in 1944. Cattle marketings reached an all-time high,
being up some 35 per cent, over last year, and sheep approximately 20 per cent, over the
previous year.    In all, 52,373 head of cattle and 38,576 sheep and lambs were handled II 86 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
by the plants and yards up to November 30th, with continued heavy arrivals during the
month of December. High prices and an early winter are, in part at least, responsible
for such heavy shipments.
There were seven major range live-stock shows and sales held in 1945. Although,
in some cases, fewer animals were entered than last year, a continued improvement in
quality of animals was in evidence. At the Provincial Bull Sale and Fat Stock Show
held at Kamloops in March, Hereford bulls brought an average of $469.30, with a new
record high of $3,500 for the grand champion—a locally bred bull.
Good steers on the Vancouver market averaged from $11.04 in January to a high
of $12.20 in June. At the year end prices were being maintained around $11.60. The
better grades of cows were bringing from $8 to $9.50.
Lamb prices ranged from $11.52 to $14 per hundredweight with the demand strong.
Wool prices were about the same as 1944, averaging around 26% cents per pound.
With the meat contract with Great Britain running until 1946 and the continuance
of price controls, little price change is anticipated in 1946.
LIVE-STOCK LOSSES.
Losses from poisonous weeds this year have been comparatively small, although
predatory animals, particularly bear and wolves, have caused considerable losses. In
the southern areas coyotes caused heavy losses of lambs in some cases. In the Chilcotin
country, where the depredation of bears and wolves was serious, representations have
been made to the Game Department for assistance in combating this problem and it is
to be hoped that satisfactory assistance may be secured.
RANGE RECONNAISSANCE.
This feature of our grazing administration has fallen far behind during the war
years, because of lack of staff available for this work. Considerable knowledge of and
training in the various factors required is essential. Detailed information of topographic features, grass types, improvements, water, and cover must be secured in the
field by examination and plotted on base maps to permit of satisfactory range plans
being set up.
It is proposed to set up a field staff with proper technical qualifications, who will be
given the practical training required in the field, so that this work may be undertaken
with the least possible delay.
CO-OPERATION.
One aspect of the ranching business which has come to the fore in recent years is
the desire for broad organization to foster the interests of cattlemen generally. This
is evidenced by the formation of the B.C. Beef Cattle Growers' Association and the
affiliated B.C. Live-stock Producers' Co-operative Association.
The former is primarily interested in the general betterment of the industry and
improvement of quality of cattle throughout the Province. The latter association is
primarily concerned with orderly cattle marketing.
The local live-stock associations have been active during the year and several new
associations have been formed, or are in the process of organization.
In the Kamloops Forest District alone, fifty-three meetings were held, of which
forty-seven were attended by Forest Service officers. Every effort is made to attend as
many meetings as possible, as it is felt that the benefits accruing both to the ranchers
and the Department is invaluable.
GRAZING PERMITS.
To legalize use of the Crown ranges an annual permit must be secured from the
Forest Service.    By such means a rancher can establish his prior use to the range and
I REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945.
II 87
is assured of proper range allocation according to range capacity.
As the following tabulation will show, there has been a steady increase in the
number of permits issued, as well as a corresponding increase in the number of stock,
particularly cattle, under permit.
(ss)
Grazing Permits issued.
District.
No. of
Permits
issued.
Number
of Stock under Permit.
Cattle.
Horses.
Sheep.
Kamloops	
1,020
325
33
98,011
9,407
1,783
3,707
1,267
90
36,937
2,115
183
Totals, 1945	
1,378
1,320
1,221
1,130
1,064
881
790
738
807
700
1 002
109,201
101,606
93,497
84,788
77,774
74,404
69,447
72,774
75,123
75.224
83,383
5,064
4,862
4,844
4,797
4,180
3,958
2,758
2,248
2,328
2,061
3,710
39,235
Totals, 1944	
40,858
Totals, 1943	
39,921
Totals, 1942 	
36,962
Totals, 1941	
39,552
Totals, 1940	
37,132
Totals, 1939 	
38,357
Totals, 1938	
37,060
Totals, 1937	
42,185
Totals, 1936	
46,084
39,734
COLLECTIONS.
Total billings for 1945 again show an increase over any previous year. Collections
were slightly higher and outstandings lower. For a number of years past, collections
in part have been made on outstanding accounts. The further decrease in outstandings
reflects the improved conditions in the industry.
(59)
Grazing Fees billed and collected.
Year.
Fees billed.
Collections.
Outstanding.
1939                	
$21,348.41
23,338.28
23,781.19
25,116.02
24,680.37
28,554.02
30,066.34
$22,027.05
38,146.48
29,348.22
30,802.33
31,148.36
31,000.34
31,465.23
$42,012.10
1940	
27,203.90
1941	
21,636.87
1942	
15,950.56
1943	
9,482.57
1944         	
7,036.25
5,637.36
1945	
RANGE IMPROVEMENT.
With the scarcity of labour and materials still prevailing during 1945, twenty-seven
projects out of a total of sixty-three proposed had to be carried over into 1946. It is
expected that this labour problem will improve during the coming year, at which time
more of the projects approved will be completed.
A decided interest' in the horse-disposal problem throughout the Interior is in
evidence. During 1945, 681 horses were disposed of and a concerted effort is being
made this winter in almost every section of our grazing districts to continue this work.
This past fall the Cariboo, Belt, and Cranbrook grazing districts have been closed to
permit roundup or shooting of wild and useless horses, so that we expect the figures for
horse-disposal will show a decided increase in 1946. Such a project is considered a
primary range improvement, cost of which is borne by the Range Improvement Fund.
This fund is set up through statutory contribution of one-third of all grazing fees collected, statement of the fund being found elsewhere in this report. II 88
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
PERSONNEL DIRECTORY, JANUARY 1ST, 1946.
Victoria Office.
C. D. Orchard	
C. C. Ternan	
E. W. Bassett	
I. C. MacQueen..
J. R. Johnston...
R. Douglas	
J. H. Blake	
W. C. Spouse_____.
G. A. Playfair.___
..Victor:
_.Chief Forester	
.Assistant Chief Forester Victor
..Forester—Operation Victor
.Assistant Forester Victor:
.-Assistant Forester Victor
..Assistant Forester Victor
..Marine and Structural Engineer.—..Victor:
..Mechanical Superintendent Victor
..Radio Engineer Victor
E
H. E. Ferguson Radio Engineer Victor
, B. Prowd Forester—Management .Victor
S. E. Marling Assistant Forester Victor
G. M. Abernethy Assistant Forester Victor:
'. S. McKinnon Forester—Economics Victor
E. H. Garman Assistant Forester Victor
H. G. McWilliams Assistant Forester Victor:
R. H. Spilsbury Assistant Forester Victor:
A. E. Collins Assistant Forester Victor:
C. P. Lyons..
R. C. Telford	
G. Silburn	
D. M. Trew	
D. M. Carey	
H. M. Pogue	
Eric Druce	
R. D. Greggor Forester
.Assistant Forester	
.Assistant Forester.	
.Assistant Forester	
.Assistant Forester	
 Victor
 Victor
 Victor
 Victor
 Victor
Assistant Forester Victor:
Forester—Public Relations Victor:
Assistant Forester..
,B.C.
,B.C.
,B.C.
,B.C.
,B.C.
,B.C.
,B.C.
,B.C.
, B.C.
,B.C.
,B.C.
,B.C.
,B.C.
,B.C.
, B.C.
, B.C.
,B.C.
,B.C.
, B.C.
, B.C.
, B.C.
, B.C.
,B.C.
, B.C.
, B.C.
Ranger School New Westminster, B.C.
J. A. Pedley Assistant Forester New Westminster, B.C.
S. W. Barclay Royalty Inspector .Victoria, B.C.
H. H. Smith Chief Accountant Victoria, B.C.
A. E. Thompson Chief Draughtsman Victoria, B.C»
Districts.
Vancouver.
C. J. Haddon District Forester Vancouver, B.C.
K. C. McCannel Assistant District Forester Vancouver, B.C.
J. G. MacDonald Assistant Forester Vancouver, B.C.
G. R. W. Nixon Assistant Forester Vancouver, B.C.
D. B. Taylor Assistant Forester Vancouver, B.C.
W. S. Hepher Assistant Forester Vancouver, B.C.
C. L. Armstrong Assistant Forester Vancouver, B.C.
W. Byers Supervisor of Scalers Vancouver, B.C.
A. H. Waddington Fire Inspector Vancouver, B.C.
R. Murray Supervisor Vancouver, B.C.
C. F. Holmes Supervisor Nanaimo, B.C.
J. A. Mahood Forest Ranger Chilliwack, B.C.
P. E. Sweatman Forest Ranger Duncan, B.C.
E. T. Calvert Forest Ranger Mission, B.C.
G. G. Armytage Forest Ranger North Vancouver, B.C.
W. Black Forest Ranger Powell River, B.C.
J. McNeill Forest Ranger Langford, B.C.
R. Little Forest Ranger Harrison Hot Springs, B.C.
E. W. Cowie Forest Ranger Nanaimo, B.C.
R. J. Glassford Forest Ranger Qualicum, B.C. REPORT OF FOREST SERVICE, 1945. II 89
Vancouver—Continued.
S. Silke Forest Ranger Courtenay, B.C.
A. C. C. Langstroth Forest Ranger Alert Bay, B.C.
J. P. Greenhouse Forest Ranger Sechelt, B.C.
T. J. W. Underwood. Forest Ranger Campbell River, B.C.
C. S. Frampton Forest Ranger Lake Cowichan, B.C.
H. Stevenson Forest Ranger Alberni, B.C.
C. M. Yingling Acting Forest Ranger Lund, B.C.
S. C. Frost Acting Forest Ranger Squamish, B.C.
R. W. Aylett Acting Forest Ranger Port Hardy, B.C.
K. M. Bell Acting Forest Ranger Irvine's Landing, B.C.
L. C. Chamberlin Acting Forest Ranger Thurston Bay, B.C.
W. E. Jansen   Acting Forest Ranger Thurston Bay, B.C.
R. C. Swan Foreman, Fraser River Repair-
station Vancouver, B.C.
E. P. Fox Chief Clerk Vancouver, B.C.
Kamloops.
A. E. Parlow District Forester Kamloops, B.C.
H. B. Forse Assistant District Forester Kamloops, B.C.
I. T. Cameron Assistant Forester  Kamloops, B.C.
H. K. DeBeck Assistant Forester Kamloops, B.C.
W. C. Pendray Assistant Forester Kamloops, B.C.
W. W. Stevens Assistant Forester Kamloops, B.C.
J. P. MacDonald Fire Inspector Kamloops, B.C.
E. A. Charlesworth Supervisor of Scalers Kamloops, B.C.
J. W. McCluskey Forest Ranger Vernon, B.C.
C. Williams Forest Ranger Kamloops, B.C.
R. B. W. Eden Forest Ranger Kelowna, B.C.
C. E. Robertson Forest Ranger Clinton, B.C.
C. D. S. Haddon Forest Ranger Salmon Arm, B.C.
C. Perrin Forest Ranger Penticton, B.C.
J. W. Hayhurst Forest Ranger Vernon, B.C.
H. A. Ferguson Forest Ranger Chase, B.C.
J. M. Fraser Forest Ranger Merritt, B.C.
M. A. Johnson Acting Forest Ranger Revelstoke, B.C.
H. G. Mayson Acting Forest Ranger Barriere, B.C.
F. H. Nelson Acting Forest Ranger Williams Lake, B.C.
W. P. Cowan Acting Forest Ranger Clearwater, B.C.
R. C. Hewlett Acting Forest Ranger Birch Island, B.C.
J. H. Dearing Acting Forest Ranger Princeton, B.C.
J. A. Sim Acting Forest Ranger Sicamous, B.C.
T. L. Gibbs Acting Forest Ranger Alexis Creek, B.C.
H. J. Parker Chief Clerk Kamloops, B.C.
Nelson.
R. C. St. Clair District Forester   Nelson, B.C.
M. W. Gormely Assistant District Forester Nelson, B.C.
W. C. Phillips Assistant Forester Nelson, B.C.
L. S. Hope Assistant Forester Nelson, B.C.
G. W. A. Holmgren ____ Assistant Forester Nelson, B.C.
P. Young Fire Inspector Nelson, B.C.
T. W. Brewer Supervisor Nelson, B.C.
F. H. S. Pym Supervisor Cranbrook, B.C.
G. T. Schupe Supervisor of Licensed Scalers Nelson, B.C.
G. C. Palethorpe Forest Ranger New Denver, B.C. II 90 DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS.
Nelson—Continued.
H. C. Nichols Forest Ranger Rossland, B.C.
H. J. Coles Forest Ranger Golden, B.C.
R. Cameron Forest Ranger Fernie, B.C.
G. T. Robinson Acting Forest Ranger Kaslo, B.C.
L. S. Ott Acting Forest Ranger Nakusp, B.C.
J. H. Holmberg Acting Forest Ranger Grand Forks, B.C.
J. H. A. Applewhaite__Acting Forest Ranger Creston, B.C.
J. L. Johnson Acting Forest Ranger Invermere, B.C.
S. S. Simpson Chief Clerk Nelson, B.C.
Prince Rupert.
J. E. Mathieson Acting District Forester Prince Rupert, B.C.
M. O. Kullander Assistant Forester Prince Rupert, B.C.
I. Martin Forest Ranger Prince Rupert, B.C.
J. B. Scott Forest Ranger Queen Charlotte Isls., B.C.
C. L. Botham Forest Ranger Hazelton, B.C.
S. G. Cooper Forest Ranger Terrace, B.C.
C. L. Gibson Forest Ranger Smithers, B.C.
D. R. Smith Forest Ranger Burns Lake, B.C.
J. S. Stokes Forest Ranger Ocean Falls, B.C.
S. T. Strimbold Acting Forest Ranger Southbank, B.C.
L. G. Taft Acting Forest Ranger Hazelton, B.C.
A. M. Davies Chief Clerk Prince Rupert, B.C.
Fort George.
R. G. McKee District Forester Prince George, B.C.
L. F. Swannell Assistant District Forester Prince George, B.C.
A. H. Dixon Assistant Forester Prince George, B.C.
D. L. McMullan Assistant Forester Prince George, B.C.
W. G. Henning Supervisor Prince George, B.C.
D. H. Ross Acting Supervisor Prince George, B.C.
G. A. Forbes Forest Ranger Prince George, B.C.
W. N. Campbell Forest Ranger Fort Fraser, B.C.
E. W. Thomas Forest Ranger Penny, B.C.
W. Adamson Acting Forest Ranger Quesnel, B.C.
J. S. Macalister Acting Forest Ranger McBride, B.C.
A. V. O'Meara Acting Forest Ranger Vanderhoof, B.C.
A. B. Porter Acting Forest Ranger Prince George, B.C.
I. B. Johnson Acting Forest Ranger Pouce Coupe, B.C.
A. J. Kirk Acting Forest Ranger Fort Fraser, B.C.
C. L. French Acting Forest Ranger Fort St. John, B.C.
C. J. McGuire Acting Forest Ranger Summit Lake, B.C.
A. H. McCabe Acting Forest Ranger Aleza Lake, B.C.
R. B. Carter Chief Clerk Prince George, B.C.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles'F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1946.
1,305-346-3629      

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