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PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Annual Report of The Social Assistance Branch of the Department of the Provincial… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1947

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Full Text

 PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Annual Report of
The Social Assistance Branch
of the
Department of the Provincial Secretary
For the Year ended March 31 st
1946
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Don McDiaemid, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1947.  Victoria, B.C., November 25th, 1946.
To His Honour C. A. Banks,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour :
The Annual Report of the Social Assistance Branch for the year ended March 31st,
1946, is herewith respectfully submitted.
GEORGE S. PEARSON,
Minister of Health and Welfare.
Office of the Minister of Health and Welfare,
Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C. Social Welfare Branch,
Victoria, B.C., November 25th, 1946.
The Honourable G. S. Pearson,
Minister of Health and Welfare, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit the Annual Report of the Social Assistance
Branch for the year ended March 31st, 1946.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
E. W. GRIFFITH,
Deputy Minister of Welfare. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Assistant Director of Welfare	
Child Welfare Division	
Collector of Institutional Revenue	
Family Service	
Medical Services Division	
Mothers' Allowances	
Old-age Pension Board	
Research Consultant	
Social Allowances	
Page.
...     9
_ 13
... 24
... 29
... 31
... 32
... 39
... 50
... 51  REPORT OF THE SOCIAL ASSISTANCE BRANCH.
Victoria, B.C., November 21st, 1946.
E. W. Griffith, Esq.,
Deputy Minister of Welfare.
Sir,—I have pleasure in submitting the Annual Report of the Social Assistance
Branch for the year ended March 31st, 1946. Following the procedure of last year the
reports of the various divisions comprising the Social Assistance Branch will be found
in the pages following.
It is not my intention to deal in detail with the report of any particular division,
as the heads of divisions will have drawn attention to the items particularly referring
to their administrations. I should, however, like to make a few comments of a general
nature.
The year under review has been momentous in that after six years of war and
having disposed ourselves to meet the problems engendered thereby, we find ourselves
coping with other difficulties arising after the cessation of hostilities. During the war
years employment opportunities were presented as probably never before in our history.
These were readily grasped by many partially employable persons who previously were
in receipt of some form of assistance. The demand for workers being so great, considerable number of teen-age children found the lure of a pay envelope stronger than
continuing their education, and many wives and mothers whose main interests had
heretofore been in caring for their homes and families accepted employment. Such
opportunities for these types of persons are naturally not now so numerous. The
return of husbands and fathers after long absences in the forces presents its own
distinctive problems. It must be borne in mind that in many instances these men are
returning to their homes almost as strangers. From this it will be seen that problems,
both economic and social, are presented. Many adjustments are necessary, and the
adjustment period varies greatly. It has been and is our duty and privilege to grant
financial assistance where required and render all other help possible to these families
in their difficult situations. Our Family Services Division and Child Welfare Division,
where children are involved, appear to be the ones feeling the greatest impact of the
transition from war to peace.
The " Social Assistance Act" came into operation during the year, and the regulations thereto promulgated. This legislation is progressive in its intent and coverage
and has met with general acceptance throughout the Province. Some municipalities
have, however, voiced objection to their financial participation. With a better knowledge
of the Act and experience in its application, I feel their objections will be withdrawn.
Our relations with the departments of the Federal Government with which we come
in contact remain cordial. Over the past few years we have made contacts for the
Dependents' Allowance Board, Dependents' Board of Trustees, etc. These are of course
rapidly decreasing, but at the request of the Department of National Health and Welfare, we agreed to obtain further information as required in the administration of
Family Allowances in this Province. In this particular phase of our work we often
call upon municipal social workers or private agencies where it would appear they
could, with advantage to all concerned, make the contacts. The co-operation received
from the municipalities and private agencies is acknowledged with appreciation. At
this point I feel I should mention that in determining the amount of social assistance
to be granted a family, Family Allowances are not considered as income. S 8 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Staff problems have been many, and are dealt with by the Assistant Director of
Welfare in her report. In the coming year I am hopeful that field staff will be available in numbers sufficient to enable the too heavy case-loads to be reduced and to permit
the extension of our services to some extent.
In considering plans for the future, many discussions have taken place on our
method of supervision of workers. It appears to be the concensus of opinion that our
supervision must be decentralized to permit the best possible utilization of the services
of our field staff and to render most efficient service.
I wish to again express my appreciation of the assistance and co-operation I have
received from various municipal officials, the heads of divisions, supervisors, and social
workers. In spite of many difficulties our field staff has remained loyal and industrious
and have, in my opinion, completed a year of commendable work. The experience we
have gained since the formation of the Social Assistance Branch will greatly aid us in
meeting the problems, old and new, in the coming year.
Respectfully submitted.
C. W. Lundy,
Director of Welfare. REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL ASSISTANCE BRANCH, 1945-46.
S 9
ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF WELFARE.
Major emphasis was given during this year to the stabilizing of the rural district
staff and supplying the acute needs of the divisional offices for supervisors. There
were more transfers of staff than is desirable, but these, nevertheless, have been necessary in every instance. In view of the number of resignations the appointments made
during the year have provided only a slight easing of the pressures on both field service
staff and the divisional supervisors.
Case-loads have grown rather than lessened. The increase may be attributable to
family disorganization which inevitably arises in war-time, to our ageing population
which has been able to make little provision for retirement, to the disabilities of those
suffering from chronic disease, and in no small way to the work done by the staff in
interpreting to the general public the services the Provincial Government is providing.
Additional staff in the field and new cases accepted for service placed greater responsibility on the supervisors in divisional offices, who must review and sanction each case
carried and at the same time give the social worker in the district advice on the proper
handling of difficult situations. This has meant that divisional staffs had to be
increased, and to some extent the field staff has been drawn upon to supply this need.
Added to the divisions of the Social Assistance Branch, whose social work personnel is provided by the general administration, has been the Psychiatric Division (Provincial Mental Hospital and Child Guidance Clinic), the Old-age Pension Board, and
the Boys' Industrial School. When qualified staff can be found, the Girls' Industrial
School and the Provincial Infirmary will also be added. This provides that the social
workers employed within the Provincial Secretary's Department are under the jurisdiction of the general administration of the Social Assistance Branch, thus co-ordinating the supervision of the general work done by the field staff and making for unity
of purpose in social welfare services and planning. Applications for positions from
qualified social workers have fallen far short of our needs, and for this reason in-service
training for carefully recruited staff has continued throughout the year. Two three-
month courses given were comprised principally of men from the armed forces and
included social workers from two municipalities. The statistics given below closely
follow the set-up of last year's report in order that comparisons may easily be made.
DISTRICT OFFICES.
During the year under review district offices were opened at Quesnel and Salmon
Arm. Due to shortage of staff the Williams Lake office was closed during the year
and Smithers remained closed.
PERSONNEL.
Actual appointments made during the year totalled forty-two. To offset this there
were twenty-eight resignations, which means an actual increase of only fourteen. Six
members of the staff were given leave of absence—one to join the armed forces and
five to return to university for further study. The following figures show the number
of social workers in both divisional and district offices:—
Staff as at April 1st, 1945.
Staff as at March 31st, 1946.
Men.
Women.
Total.
Men.
Women.
Total.
28
4
36
64
4
35
5
36
71
5
.32
3
36
27
68
30
40                  36
5         |        35
76
40
Totals	
35                  63
98
45                  71
1
116 S 10 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Taking the above figures at their face value, it would appear there is an increase
of eighteen instead of fourteen, but this is due to the return of several members of
our staff from the armed forces who inadvertently were not shown in last year's figures.
In addition to divisional offices shown last year, the Boys' Industrial School,
Psychiatric Division, and Old-age Pensions have been added. The total of forty as at
March 31st, 1946, in divisional offices is made up as follows:—
General Administration      2
Child Welfare Division  13
Social Allowances, etc.      4
Old-age Pensions  .    2
Psychiatric Division      6
Division of Tuberculosis Control      7
Division of Venereal Disease Control     1
Research Consultant      1
Training Supervisor      1
Temporary war services ;    2
Boys' Industrial School     1
Total  40
MUNICIPAL STAFF.
At the end of the fiscal year there were twenty-one Provincial district offices and,
in addition, there were four municipal offices under our scheme of staff amalgamation
with a staff of twenty-two social workers. Visits have been made to every district
office in the Province.
MUNICIPALITIES.
One of the objects of the " Social Assistance Act " is to provide, with the co-operation of the local municipal government, a uniform service to all people of this Province
who are eligible for such service.    The regulations call for the following:—
(1.) Each municipality with a population of 10,000 or over as at the latest
Federal census is required to employ at least one social worker on a full-
time basis and such additional ones as may be determined by the Director
on a case-load basis.
(2.) Each municipality with less than 10,000 population as at the latest
Federal census shall either employ a full-time social worker or arrange
with the Social Assistance Branch of the Department of the Provincial
Secretary to undertake social work within the municipality, the Social
Assistance Branch to be reimbursed on the basis of 15 cents per capita
of the population per annum, the municipality to provide office services.
(3.) Where the case-load warrants the employment of more than one social
worker, the Social Assistance Branch may either assign to duty in a
municipality an equivalent number of social workers or reimburse the
municipality 50 per cent, of the cost of salaries paid to municipal social
workers and 50 per cent, of the cost where a municipality is required to
employ only one social worker.
(4.) Where two or more municipalities desire to operate social administrative
services on an amalgamated basis, they may arrange for apportionment
of the cost as between municipalities on a population or a case-load basis,
but for purposes of reimbursement by the Social Assistance Branch
under the provisions of the preceding subsections, the amalgamated area
may be treated as a unit. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL ASSISTANCE BRANCH, 1945-46. S 11
(5.)   Salary reimbursements to municipalities shall be limited to 50 per cent,
of the  salary paid to  Provincial social workers  under departmental
schedules.
(6.)   In each municipality there shall be an officer responsible for administering social assistance.
At the end of our fiscal year three municipalities had agreed to employ their own
workers, four were on a worker-for-worker basis and twenty-five on 15-cents-per-capita
basis.    There are sixty-three municipalities in British Columbia, but as the Act has
only been in operation for a very short time, it will be some months before all agreements are completed.    In addition to municipal offices, there are twenty-one Provincial
social assistance offices throughout the Province.
CASE-LOADS.
The case-loads reported from the field for the month of March, 1946, were as
follows:—
Social Assistance Branch—
Social Allowance  5,505
Mothers' Allowance  953
Family Services   489
Old-age Pension   17,503
Child Welfare Division   3,340
Provincial Board of Health— '
Tuberculosis Division  486
Venereal Disease Division     9
Hospitals and Institutions—
Mental Hospital   403
Child Guidance Clinic  58
Hospital clearance   15
Welfare institutions .— 46
Provincial Infirmary   33
Collections  42
Federal services—
Dependents' Board of Trustees   127
Dependents' Allowance Board  21
Directorate of Social Science  30
War Veterans' Allowance   6
Total  29,066
The number of cases worked on for the Federal Government for the twelve months'
period amounted to 3,946. The average case-load carried by the district workers (Provincial and municipal) as at March 31st, 1946, was 320, as against 341 at the beginning
of the fiscal year.
SUPERVISORS' COUNCIL.
The Supervisors' Council, composed of the officials from each division, has continued to meet monthly and give valuable help and counsel to the general administration. A sub-committee of the Council was set up to assist the staff from the divisions
who are responsible for the direct supervision of the field staff. The function of this
committee was to study methods of supervision practised by each division in order to
obtain uniformity. A second sub-committee was appointed to study and develop a new
policy manual. This committee has done valuable work in this regard, and it is
expected that the policy manual will be issued within the next year. S 12 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
STAFF DEVELOPMENT.
Two three-month in-service training courses were conducted in the year under
review. The first, from October 1st to December 30th, 1945, included ten students.
The second course, from February 25th to May 6th, 1946, was composed of eight
individuals, of whom two were from municipalities.
Graduates from schools of social work who joined our staff had a minimum of six
weeks' orientation in district offices adjacent to Vancouver before being placed in
district offices throughout the Province.
PUBLICATIONS.
The Resources Manual (Provincial Section) was published; 318 copies have been
distributed to our own staff and other departments of the Government and interested
individuals. Our staff bulletin was published every two months and increased its
publication from 245 copies to 313.
Various articles of an interpretive nature were prepared for publication in other
periodicals.    Additions to the library were continued and widely circulated.
CONFERENCES.
Three staff members attended the Annual Pacific North-west Institute of the
Family Welfare Association of America at Shawnigan Lake from July 30th to August
4th. A regional conference was held in Kamloops in May, 1945, at which a case-work
institute was given by Miss Marjorie Smith, head of the Department of Social Work.
Regional Supervisors' Conference was held in Victoria in January, 1946, to discuss
plans for decentralization.
STUDENT PLACEMENT.
Psychiatric, Tuberculosis, and Child Welfare Divisions provided field-work for
nine students, and ten students received their field-work in our district offices.
It may be said that the work of the past year has been directed to perfecting as
far as possible our' department as a whole. From evaluation of standards of work,
staff needs, administration policies, and job analyses, it is possible to foresee the trends
of the future. The work done in the early months of 1946 in preparation for the major
operation of decentralizing administration leads us to predict that this objective will
soon be realized.
Respectfully submitted.
Amy Leigh,
Assistant Director of Welfare. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL ASSISTANCE BRANCH, 1945-46. S 13
CHILD WELFARE DIVISION.
The fiscal year 1945-46 saw the end of six years of war in Europe and Asia. The
exigencies of these war years made extraordinary demands on Governments, industries,
families, and children, and the fields of both public and private social welfare alike felt
the resulting impacts keenly. The Federal Government and all branches of the armed
forces referred the problems of men in the services and their families to both public
and private social agencies of the Province, and this responsibility was accepted by
these agencies without question. The problems referred were not different to those
referred to social agencies in peace-time, but they were made new and pressing by the
many urgencies created by war.
Wives and mothers, finding the task of rearing children a difficult one with the
husband and father away; children bewildered and alarmed by the insecurities of
adults around them, and behaving in ways which in turn bewildered and alarmed not
only the parents but the adult members of their community as well—all received what
help we could give them. Young girls, able to find jobs away from their families, but
unable to cope with the complexities of living in centres where large war industries or
troop concentrations were located, came to us, and many children born out of wedlock
for whom care must be provided were placed in our care either by the mothers themselves or by the Court.
Now, at April 1st, 1946, demobilization is well under way, and a world too long
geared to the business of war is striving hard to focus its attention on peace-time
activities. Social workers are becoming retrospective as to what has taken place within
the social agencies during the past six years and as to what their role should be in
this period of reconversion and rehabilitation.
The Social Assistance Branch, like all Provincial services, has undergone tremendous changes in these war years, and in this report we will try to set forth what some
of these changes have meant to the services given to children by the Child Welfare
Division and chart to some extent at least what its goals for the future should be.
Figures do not necessarily signify trends, nor are they always indicative of the
standard of service rendered. However, in reviewing the number of families and children our workers have tried to serve and the service given, as well as the need for such
services, we have been able to determine some of the gaps in our programme and to
consider ways and means whereby these may be met in the future.
PROTECTION OF CHILDREN.
During 1939-40, the first year of the war, the Child Welfare Division carried 1,239
" protection " cases, in which some form of family breakdown had occurred and the
well-being of the 3,700 children involved was endangered. There were 558 " new"
families referred that year. The first full year of war, 1940-41, showed a slight drop
in the number of new families but a 27-per-cent. increase in the total families served;
1941-42 brought a 72.6-per-cent. increase in new referrals (725 families), and 1942-43
almost the same number. In 1943-44, 912 families were referred, and a total of 2,581
families with nearly 7,000 children were served. In this last full year of war we served
more than twice the number of families as were served in the first.
With the formation of the Family Service Division of the Social Assistance Branch
in 1944-45 our new cases di-opped to 735, but the Child Welfare Division carried a peak
load of 2,952 families, involving about 9,000 children. The Family Service Division
has been in operation a full year now, and as a result the Child Welfare Division has
accepted only those families in which the children were in need or likely to be in need
of protection as defined by the " Protection of Children Act." The'new "protection "
cases in this past fiscal year numbered 444, but a total of 2,582 families with 4,144
children were served. S 14
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
These 4,144 children were those whose families for one reason or another were not
providing them adequate care and protection. In most instances some adjustment was
made within the family or through relatives, thus enabling the children to remain
within the family group. However, with 137 of the families the situation was so
serious and urgent that the Child Welfare Division had to admit to care 200 of the
children involved.
Last year's report recommended a more equitable distribution of costs between
the Provincial Government and municipalities, and as a result the Government agreed
to pay, as from October 1st, 1945, 80 per cent, of the per capita rate for non-ward care
for children with municipal residence. This has been a tremendous help in our
preventive work with children, and because municipalities need not be so concerned
about " costs," they are, we feel, more interested in our efforts to strengthen family
relationships.
However, municipalities are still finding the 100-per-cent. cost of ward care heavy,
and particularly the smaller ones with less financial security. An order for maintenance was recently made against a municipality under the " Protection of Children
Act " for a family of eight children, the oldest 13 years and the youngest a few months.
The municipal officials recognized that the children had to be made wards of the
Superintendent, but the cost of maintaining each child until it reaches the age of 18
is staggering when the municipality's financial resources are limited.
Cases carried in 1944-45 under " Protection of Children Act."
Region.
Carried
over as at
April 1st,
1945.
New.
Reopened.
Transferred in.
Closed.
Transferred out.
Child
Placement.
Carried
over as at
April 1st,
1946.
1	
334
951
292
171
152
66
232
58
27
61
26
57
14
5
9
24
42
16
13
32
220
738
173
113
112
27
42
18
8
32
64
122
63
46
38
139
2    	
380
3	
126
4	
49
5	
72
Totals	
1,900
444
111
127
1,356
127
333
766
" CHILDREN OF UNMARRIED PARENTS ACT."
We could find reason for alarm in our work with unmarried parents during these
past six years if we stopped to consider only our case-load numbers. Since the Child
Welfare Division is responsible for collections under the " Children of Unmarried
Parents Act " in addition to case-work services, the total number of cases in any one
year includes a large number of cases " carried over " from year to year for collection
purposes. In the number of " new " cases only, therefore, can we attempt to estimate
the increase of illegitimacy during these years.
The following is a table of new cases referred, and total cases known since April
1st, 1939:—
New Cases.
Increase over
1939-40.
Increase over
Preceding
Year.
Total Cases
as at
March 31st.
Per Cent.
Per Cent.
1939-40	
1940-41	
1941-42	
1942-43	
1943-44	
1944-45	
1945-46	
• Decrease.
300
360
382
492
576
573
500
20.00
27.33
64.00
92.00
91.00
66.66
20.00
9.16
28.79
17.07
0.52»
12.73»
1,364
1,438
1,651
1,908
2,271
1,942
2,487 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL ASSISTANCE BRANCH, 1945-46.
S 15
It is difficult to estimate the meaning of these figures, and it would be unfair to
do so without taking into consideration at least two important factors; namely, the
spectacular increase in British Columbia's population during the war years, and the
expansion of social services throughout the Province, which made it possible for unmarried mothers, who otherwise would not have been known to an agency, to seek and
obtain help for herself and child. It would seem important at this time to remember
that even an increase of 66.66 per cent, in six years represents a comparatively small
group out of British Columbia's total population of young girls and women. Unmarried
parenthood is usually a symptom of unstable or unsatisfying relationships in that young
person's own home, and a good proportion of records show that these unmarried
mothers' own parents were also known to social agencies because of unsatisfactory
home conditions or relationships. If we are to curb illegitimacy, parents must be
helped to realize how important a sound and happy family life is to their growing
boys and girls.
A good deal of publicity has been given the reputed increase of unmarried mothers
in their teens during the war years. A comparison of the age-groups of unmarried
mothers known to us during the first three years of the war and this last year of war
is rather interesting in this regard:—
Under 19.
20-29.
30-39.
40-49.
50 and
over.
Not
given.
Total.
1939-40	
1940-41	
109
108
68
88
165
191
243
314
17
35
53
47
4
11
6
7
2
3
14
12
44
300
360
1941-42	
1945-46	
382
500
A further breakdown of the " under 19 " and " 20-29 " groups during this past year
is also enlightening. Of the 88 " under 19," 4 were aged 14 and 15, 25 were 16 and 17,
and 59 were 18 and 19. In the 314 between 20 to 30, 100 were 20 or 21, 141 were 22
to 25, and 73 were 26 to 30. Unfortunately we do not have the comparative figures in
the " under 19 " group for the first three years, but it is apparent from the figures
available that the bulk of unmarried mothers are in the normal child-bearing age-group,
which is from 20 to 29.
The war years show an interesting increase in the number of illegitimate children
born to women 25 to 35 years of age. Some are married women separated from their
husbands by the circumstances of war and emotionally unable to stand the added
responsibilities of being both mother and father to a family during the husband's
absence. With the return of their husbands, their situation is a difficult one. Frequently they have had to choose between husband and the baby. The decision is
invariably to relinquish the baby, but in many instances it has been a hard decision
to make and has carried with it much heartbreak. We have placed many of these children in satisfactory adoption homes, and have been able to assist husbands and wives
to a more satisfactory relationship by helping them to understand their problems more
fully.
The teen-age unmarried mother presents a different and, in many ways, a more
complicated problem, since frequently we cannot look to her own family for the support
and help she needs. Too often they failed her during her growing-up years, and usually
she must make plans for herself and her baby apart from the family group. S 16
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Cases carried in 1944-45 under " Children of Unmarried Parents Act."
Pending.
Region.
Carried
over as at
April 1st,
1945.
New.
Reopened.
Transferred in.
Closed.
Transferred out.
Carried
over as at
April 1st,
1946.
1	
128
398
59
39
64
82
287
34
20
24
3
4
1
9
37
10
4
6
101
427
57
26
54
19
58
7
6
12
102
2	
241
3	
39
4	
5	
31
29
Totals	
688
447
8
66
665
102
442
Orders and Agreements.
1	
61
9
1
13
20
10
54
2	
266
31
3
36
99
26
211
3	
48
5
15
16
9
43
4	
44
3
1
9
7
4
46
5	
37
5
2
10
6
28
Totals	
456
53
5
75
152
55
382
COLLECTIONS UNDER THE "CHILDREN OF UNMARRIED
PARENTS ACT."
Collections from putative fathers under the " Children of Unmarried Parents Act "
have increased markedly during these six years, due to a large extent to the co-operation received from the Dependents' Allowance Board and Commanding Officers in the
armed forces. There is a decrease this year, as expected, but it is also interesting to
hear of putative fathers who, now demobilized from the forces, are of their own accord
getting in touch with the workers to arrange for continued payments.
Collections during 1944-45 were two and a half times as much as in 1939-40, and
in 1945—46 the statistics show almost the same increase.
1939-40  $13,928.35 1943-44  $35,614.63
1940-41     19,426.54 1944-45     34,013.48
1941-42     24,700.29 1945-46     32,012.75
1942-43     29,807.92
What future collections will be, it is difficult to predict. This is dependent to a
large extent upon how quickly reconversion to peace-time industries is achieved.
A change in thinking is apparent as we concentrate on our work with unmarried
parents. We wonder as to the harmful effect of Court action under the " Children of
Unmarried Parents Act" on a young unmarried mother or putative father. Again,
when the putative father is a married man, how constructive is action against him if
it results in hardship to his family and a widening of the breach between himself and
his wife and children. If the putative father is young and single, it may seem right
for him to contribute towards the support of his illegitimate child; but when he
becomes older and wants to marry, too often his income is not sufficient to maintain
a family and still continue his payment to the unmarried mother. Looking back over
some of the cases we have known, we wonder how often such a situation has been
a factor in causing young men to stay away from marriage and responsibility and to
become " drifters " from one field of employment to another. We have also seen young
unmarried mothers who have kept their babies, and have been promised monthly support from putative fathers which they did not get, grow bitter and vindictive as the
years go by. All putative fathers do not pay regularly, and in many instances it
becomes a sixteen-year task of reminding or compelling him to meet his monthly pay- REPORT OF THE SOCIAL ASSISTANCE BRANCH, 1945-46. S 17
ments. In many cases it would seem best for all concerned if a cash settlement could
be made in the beginning. This might enable both to establish permanent ties and
lessen the possibility of limiting the fullness of their future lives because of an unwise
relationship in their youth. There is need for research study in this field in order
that we may learn of our shortcomings and as a result base our future practices and
procedures on a better knowledge of the problem as it exists in British Columbia.
CHILDREN IN CARE.
Our Child Placement programme has perhaps undergone more change than any
other during these years. Because in the past the majority of our children were cared
for by Children's Aid Societies, it is not possible to give comparative figures for the
past six years. However, a review of the foster-homes of the past two years and the
children cared for in these homes does indicate the increased responsibility the Government has been prepared to assume for children who must be removed from their homes.
During 1944-45 we had about 200 approved foster-homes throughout the Province,
with some 193 pending investigation and approval, and a total of 352 children were
cared for throughout the year in Child Welfare Division foster-homes. During the
past year we had 339 approved homes, with 108 pending, and during this year a total
number of 456 children were cared for in our foster-homes. Of these, 204 were wards
of the Superintendent of Child Welfare, 203 were non-wards, and 49 children cared for
from other agencies.
As at April 1st, 1946, we had a total of 358 children in Child Welfare Division
foster-homes: 194 were wards of the Superintendent of Child Welfare, 124 were non-
wards, and 40 children from other agencies, as compared to April 1st, 1945, when we
had 178 wards, 108 non-wards, and 33 children from other agencies.
Certainly our service to children cannot be evaluated by the numbers in care.
In fact, the increased numbers give us cause for serious thought as to why children
are being taken into care, and what the results of placement have been to the children
concerned. We are giving careful thought to every request for admission of a child
to care in order to be quite certain that everything possible has been done to enable
that child to remain with his own family, and also to determine whether or not we
have at our disposal the particular type of care required to meet that child's particular
needs. If not, why remove him? It is, however, almost impossible under our present
system of supervision to give our workers in the field the help and guidance they need
in meeting the difficult problems they encounter in this respect.
A brief review of the 44 children admitted from 30 families during January,
February, and March, 1946, gives a vivid picture of some of these problems. Under
our present system of supervision from divisional office there is no question but that
each of these 44 children had to be admitted to care. However, if our supervisors
were in district office, our case-work services to families would be improved, and it is
possible that some children now removed would be able to remain in their homes under
supervision. Of the 44 children admitted to care during the three months referred
to, 14 were illegitimate; 4 of these were children of unmarried mothers and 3 were
born to married women by men other than their husbands. These 7 children were in
our care for short periods only, pending either adoption placement or completion of
the mother's own plans for care of her child. The remaining 7 illegitimate children
were born of so-called " common-law unions." One of these children, a boy of 14, had
been born to his mother prior to her present marriage and had for years been a source
of contention between the mother and the stepfather. At the time the family became
known to this district worker, the child was in serious difficulties in the community and
had to be removed.
Of the 30 remaining children, 29 were legitimate and 1 had been legally adopted
some years ago.    This boy's adoptive mother had died, and following his adoptive S 18
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
father's remarriage, there was constant friction in the family, with the result that this
boy developed some serious behaviour problems and had to be removed. Apparently
he has adjusted well in his new foster-home, but will require careful supervision if the
damage wrought by those years of unhappiness is to be overcome. Among the 29
legitimate children, only 10 were living with both own parents. The remaining 19
children came from twelve broken homes. The parents of 9 children were separated;
the parents of 2 were divorced; 1 was the child of a widower; 4 children of one family
had to be taken into care when their sole surviving parent was sent to jail; 2 were
orphans; 1 infant had to be placed when the mother was committed to the Provincial
Mental Hospital, the father having placed the 4 other children with relatives who were
unable to take this small baby.
Of the 10 children living with both parents, 2 from two families were committed
to the Superintendent of Child Welfare under the " Juvenile Delinquents Act "; another
child, who was previously committed to the Girls' Industrial School from her home, was
placed in a foster-home upon parole because her own home was not suitable for her
return; 2 children from two families were made wards of the Superintendent of Child
Welfare because of serious neglect; another of the 10 children was a 14-year-old
unmarried mother who came into care pending confinement; and 4 were children taken
into care temporarily because of the sudden illness of the mother.
These are all serious family situations, and we are finding it increasingly difficult
to give to the district workers the help and direction required. Only when we achieve
supervision of workers in district offices will we be in a position to say with certainty
that all that could had been done to make it possible for a child to remain with his
own family.
Supervision of children in foster-homes and help for our foster-parents suffers
greatly under our present system. We are aware daily of gaps in our child-care programme, but not until the method of supervision of workers in the field is improved,
thus raising the standards of job performance throughout the Province, would it be
advisable to develop a type of care to complement our foster-home programme.
We continue to use the services of the three Children's Aid Societies for receiving-
homes for children admitted to care from areas near Vancouver and Victoria, and for
children requiring special care or attention. One hundred and eighty-five children
were cared for in this way during the fiscal year; of these, 130 were non-wards in
care for temporary periods and 55 wards of the Superintendent of Child Welfare. In
addition, 2 wards of the Superintendent of Child Welfare were committed to the Provincial Mental Hospital, 3 to the Boys' Industrial School, while 6 wards went to relatives
in other Provinces. By reciprocal arrangement we assumed responsibility for supervision of 7 wards of other Provinces now living in British Columbia with relatives or
foster-parents.
In total we assumed responsibility for 657 children during the fiscal year and, as
at April 1st, 1946, continued responsibility for 490 children.
Foster-homes carried, 1945-46.
Region.
Carried
over as at
April 1st,
1945.
New.
Reopened.
Transferred in.
Closed.
Transferred out.
Carried
over as at
April 1st,
1946.
1	
70
81
140
66
36
48
40
41
38
9.9
3
2
4
29
35
35
27
12
1
1
4
89
87
146
79
2	
3	
4	
5	
Totals	
ana       I       irq
3
6
447
"•"" REPORT OF THE SOCIAL ASSISTANCE BRANCH, 1945-46. S 19
Approved    339
Not approved  252
Total  591
FAMILY ALLOWANCES.
In July, 1945, the Federal " Family Allowances Act" became effective, and children in foster-homes were termed eligible. Since that time we have issued 1,611
cheques to foster-mothers, and disbursed $13,329. The allowance is used for foster-
children in the same way as it is used for children in their own homes; it is not applied
to maintenance or credited to municipalities. Family Allowances are a real resource
in our work with children. Through it some are being taught the use of bank accounts,
others are being given an opportunity to develop talents in instrument-playing, singing,
dancing, or, as in one instance, even boxing. Still others have been able to buy a
much-coveted bicycle, wagon, or skates. Foster-parents are eager to use this money
thoughtfully and in the interests of the children in their care. One child was in
hospital for some time, and the foster-parents, recognizing how important it would be
for him to feel " remembered," used the Family Allowances cheque to pay for bus fare
to see him weekly. Beyond the price of any gift they might bring him was the knowledge that his foster mother and father had not forgotten him, and wanted him to get
well and come " home." Yes, Family Allowances for foster-children are constructive.
We acknowledge with thanks the helpful co-operation we have received from the British
Columbia Regional Family Allowances Office.
ADOPTIONS.
We feel that the increase in adoption placement work indicates that sound and
acceptable practices of child care have been developed in British Columbia in this field
throughout the years. It is difficult to estimate the number of private placements made
in a year, since many do not come to our attention before legal notification of intention
to adopt is submitted, and this may be some time after the child has been placed in the
home. However, an increasing number of requests for children for adoption are being
received by the Division and the Children's Aid Societies, and prospective adopting
parents generally seem more eager to obtain children from recognized social agencies.
Last year's report referred to a policy we hoped to form with hospitals, through
the Inspector of Hospitals, whereby we would be notified of all illegitimate births
occurring in hospitals. This was achieved this year, and while it is too soon to estimate
the number of private placements this policy has averted, we are confident that we are
reaching a number of unmarried mothers who otherwise would not know of available
services and might, from necessity, arrange a private adoption placement. Too often
such placements are made soon after the baby's birth and before the mother is in a
position to consider her resources and know definitely what she wants and is able to
do for her child. In a number of these referrals, the mother had thought vaguely of
adoption placement but did not know where to go. In others, adoption placement was
being asked because of the lack of finances. During the war years when employment
was easy to find and wages were high, fewer unmarried mothers wished to relinquish
their children for adoption. Now that the more highly paid jobs are no longer available, an increasing number of mothers, apparently fearful of the economic factors as
well as the social, are asking adoption placement of their babies.
During the past fiscal year the Child Welfare Division placed 35 children in
approved adoption homes throughout the Province, and the three Children's Aid
Societies 121. Unfortunately comparative figures for the preceding five years are
not available, but this is thought to be about a 30-per-cent. increase over any past year. S 20
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
During the six years there has been a 61.81-per-cent. increase in completed adoptions and a consistent increase in requests for children for adoption.
Completed adoptions, 1939 to date:—
1939-40  126
.1940-41  160
1941-42  157
1943-44  234
1944-45  292
1945-46  330
1942-43  144
The following table gives a rather graphic picture of the number of children in
adoption homes and the number of adoption applications received and studied during
the past six years: —
Adoption
Homes.
... 163
_ 190
1939-40	
1940-41	
1941-42  216
1942-43  439
1943-44  518
1944-45  524
1945-46  635
Children
in Homes.
253
344
534
763
1,043
1,185
1,351
As at April 1st, 1946, 748 children were under supervision in adoption homes, and
312 homes were awaiting placements.
Adoption Cases carried in 1945-46.
Children in Home.
Region.
Carried
over as at
April 1st,
1945.
New.
Reopened.
Transferred in.
Completed.
Closed.
Transferred out.
Carried
over as at
April 1st,
1946.
1 _	
2	
3	
4	
5	
163
385
62
38
61
80
318
53
40
28
18                    15
26                    31
5 |           16
1         |             2
6 3
79
197
23
17
14
31
114
14
11
36
14
28
19
1
5
152
421
80
52
43
Totals	
709                519
I
56                  67
1
330                206                  67
1                      1
748
Approved Homes.
Region.
Carried
over as at
April 1st,
1945.
New.
Reopened.
Transferred in.
Closed.
Transferred out.
Carried
over as at
April 1st,
1946.
1    	
51
40
28
26
10
18
18
7
7
12
1
4
1
10
13
22
5
2
36
25
14
15
4
1
3
11
1
3
43
2	
47
3                 	
32
4                         	
5      	
18
Totals	
155
62
6
52
94
19
162
Homes waiting Approval.
1       	
60
52
37
21
24
22
60
22
19
13
1
5
3
1
2
2
2
12
1
1
43         j
55
25
17
21
10
10
22
5
2
2                     	
54
3                 	
4 -	
5	
20
17
Totals	
194
136
12
18
161
49
150 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL ASSISTANCE BRANCH, 1945-46. S 21
OVERSEAS CHILDREN.
During the war years the public and private agencies of British Columbia cared
for 211 overseas children as their quota of the total number brought to Canada under
the auspices of the Children's Overseas Reception Board. The majority of these children have been returned to the United Kingdom during the past two years. As at
April 1st, 1946, we have only 25 left in the Province; some of these are awaiting the
arrival of their parents in Canada, others are completing their education before returning, and a few have found work and are remaining, by special arrangement, to establish
themselves as citizens of Canada.
The placement and supervision of these overseas children was a unique and interesting experience; with few exceptions they responded well to placement. Much could
be learned through research study of the methods and techniques used, not only in the
placement and supervision of this group of children, but also of the study and choice
of foster-homes used.
EXPENDITURES AND COLLECTIONS.
The increased volume of work carried by the Child Welfare Division during the
past six years has meant an accompanying increase in expenditures. On the credit
side, however, there has also been an increase in collections made from parents and
municipalities. Cost of maintaining children in foster-homes is our largest expenditure and naturally reflects the increase in cost of living during the war.
The following tables show the number of days' care provided for children and
paid for by the Provincial Government during the past six years, and also the amounts
collected from parents and municipalities:—
Children cared for in Child Welfare Division Foster-homes.
1939-40 	
Collected
1940-41
Collected
1941-42
Collected
1942-43
Collected
1943-44
Collected
1944-45
Collected
1945-46
Collected
No. Days' Care.
Expenditures.
41,003
$23,233.94
1,527.83
$21,706.11
42,119
$19,220.60
1,665.50
17,555.10
42,301
$22,415.57
3,182.27
19,233.30
49,415
$32,075.25
7,625.07
24,450.18
52,762
$37,342.59
10,532.79
26,809.80
69,637
$55,565.01
18,930.74
36,634.27
94,513
$73,729.36
33,791.91
39,487.45 S 22
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Children in Care of the Three Children's Aid Societies,
chargeable to provincial government.
1939-40 	
Collected
1940-41 	
No. Days' Care.
137,966
150,678
Expenditures.
$99,632.33
5,305.23
Collected
1941-42     161,078
Collected      	
1942-43 	
Collected
1943-44 	
Collected
1944-45 	
Collected
141,114
148,746
150,147
1945-46     151,335
Collected      	
$111,881.64
12,402.30
$119,123.93
17,359.26
$126,201.17
20,488.58
$133,531.96
21,795.96
$143,636.52
23,984.94
$150,926.07
25,808.20
$94,327.10
99,479.34
101,764.67
105,712.59
111,736.00
119,651.58
125,117.87
A comparison of the changes in per capita per diem rates during these years gives
a graphic picture of the increase in cost of living, and also tells something of the
improved supervision given.
Children's Aid Societies per Capita per Diem Rates.
Vancouver.
Catholic.
Victoria.
1940	
$0.74
.757
.887
.907
.953
.99
$0.72
.73
.7809
.9006
.9881
.984
$0.72
1941               	
1942	
.87
1943	
.928
1944	
1945	
9466
STAFF CHANGES.
The staff changes in the Child Welfare Division during these years are, we feel,
indicative of the desire on the part of the Government to provide the best possible care
and supervision for children who must be reared apart from their own families.
In 1939-40 the staff of the Child Welfare Division comprised the Superintendent
and Deputy Superintendent, three social workers, and five clerical staff members.
In 1945-46, following our decision to establish " specialized" sections within the
Division, we had, besides the Superintendent and the Deputy, a supervisor as the head
of each of the four sections (Protection, Placement, Adoption, Unmarried Mothers),
and six social workers. The clerical staff numbered twenty-two—a head book-keeper
and three assistants, a head filing clerk and two assistants, thirteen stenographers, one
statistician, and one receptionist. This was a minimum staff to carry the volume of
work and give the kind of service we hoped for. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL ASSISTANCE BRANCH, 1945-46.
S 23
During this past year we have reaffirmed our thinking on the value of the
" specialized " sections as outlined in last year's report. It has not only made us more
aware of what we are doing for children and families, but also has shown what we
are not doing for them!
Divisional supervisors may give much time and thought to a particular child's
difficulty or a family's difficulties, but unless the worker who is dealing with that
family or child can have the full benefit of this thinking, it is of little avail. We are
satisfied that the worker cannot be given this help by our present system of supervision
by memo., and the Child Welfare Division, as other divisions, looks forward to the day
when the policy of decentralization is set up.
The past six years have been full, and changes have taken place rapidly. In
review, perhaps more than at the time the changes came about, we are aware of a
gradual but definitely improved standard of service to families and children. Also,
we are conscious of an increased desire on the part of Government to safeguard children
and ensure them good health and educational facilities, and a safe childhood. During
the depression years we learned what deprivation and years of discouragement can
do to a family's morale. A high percentage of to-day's " problem parents " were
children of that era. During the war years we learned anew of the innate courage
and fearlessness of youth. In our pride in them we seemed to become more aware of
how important to the future of our country are the children of our various communities.
We have endeavoured in this report to set out some of the things the Child Welfare
Division has done in an effort to foster this awareness in communities, and to outline
future plans which would ensure increased help and guidance to families and more
thoughtful care and training for children apart from their parents. " In our children
rests our future " is a true and vital statement. They are to-morrow's parents, and
their ideals and attitudes will shape our future destiny.
A review of the work of the Child Welfare Division during the war years would
be incomplete without an expression of appreciation of the way in which the three
Children's Aid Societies of this Province accepted increased responsibilities throughout
this period. Out of this war experience has come a knowledge that with the rapid
development in the field of public welfare there is need for the private agency to clarify
its future function. The three Children's Aid Societies of British Columbia are
cognizant of this, and are planning future policies and practices which will allow each
agency to continue to make a maximum contribution to the total child welfare services
in this Province and the Dominion.
Summary of Total Cases
carried During Year 1945
-46.
" Protection of
Children
Act."
Foster-
homes.
Adoption.
" Unmarried
Parents Act."
Region.
Child in
Home.
Approved
Home.
Home
waiting
Approval.
Pending.
Orders
and Agreements.
1	
450
1,282
380
216
254
118
123
181
107
62
276
760
136
81
98
80
75
57
38
25
85
119
74
42
40
222
726
103
63
95
84
2   	
336
3	
68
4       	
57
5	
44
2,582
591
1
1,351
275
360
1,209
589
Ruby McKay,
Superintendent of Child Welfare. S 24
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
COLLECTOR OF INSTITUTIONAL REVENUE.
I submit herewith report of the activities of this office for the fiscal year April 1st,
1945, to March 31st, 1946.
PROVINCIAL TUBERCULOSIS UNITS.
Total Admissions, Deaths, and Discharges, Department of
Veterans' Affairs, Provincial, and Municipal.
Month.
Admissions.
Deaths.
Discharges.
D.V.A.
Mun.
Prov.
Total.
D.V.A.
Mun.
Prov.
Total.
D.V.A.
Mun.
Prov.
Total.
1945.
8
11
12
19
22
11
14
32
18
24
16
14
48
33
46
32
66
41
30
43
40
35
27
36
22
24
15
20
21
19
10
19
24
12
15
23
78
68
73
71
109
71
54
94
82
71
58
73
2
2
4
1
2
1
2
1
7
10
10
6
12
10
13
10
5
8
11
4
3
3
8
4
6
5
3
5
7
5
2
4
10
15
20
10
22
15
16
16
14
14
15
9
11
14
11
8
8
8
14
18
17
11
10
12
35
25
30
41
25
25
25
32
38
22
19
40
12
18
10
13
10
7
14
7
13
12
17
14
58
57
51
62
43
40
53
57
68
1946.
January	
45
46
March	
66
Totals	
201
477  [  224
902
15
106
55
176
142
357
147
646
Contracts (private paying) made during the fiscal year 1945-46:-
1945—
April	
May	
June	
July	
August	
September.
October	
November..
December...
1946—
January	
February	
March	
20
24
27
32
38
26
21
45
25
40
26
22
Total.
346 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL ASSISTANCE BRANCH, 1945-46.
S 25
Admissions, Deaths, and Discharges by Municipalities.
Municipality.
Admissions.
Deaths.
Discharges.
1
1
10
1
4
6
1
1
2
2
2
3
2
1
1
5
3
3
8
3
14
2
4
2
3
2
8
1
8
7
4
5
1
12
4
313
3
20
5
6
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
3
1
1
2
1
71
8
1
2
1
IS
2
1
3
2
1
1
District of Delta	
1
3
2
1
1
2
5
1
1
2
7
District of North Cowichan	
1
8
5
1
2
2
1
2
4
1
10
2
6
7
2
221
1
17
7
447
106
357 S 26
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Number of Patients, Patient-days, and Total Municipal Collections.
Municipality.
No. of Patients
in Hospital,
April 1st, 1945,
Municipal
Charge.
No. of Patient-
days charged
Municipality,
April 1st, 1945, to
March 31st, 1946.
Total Municipal
Collections,
April, 1945. to
March, 1946.
1
20
4
1
1
1
4
6
5
2
3
6
2
1
1
2
9
9
5
1
2
1
2
2
10
1
11
Q
6
1
2
8
192
1
22
7
1
191
79
3,863
1,036
737
1,382
291
147
387
287
404
365
879
1,781
1,527
538
59
4
1,730
2,228
308
165
944
981
4,255
501
2,544
1,160
626
805
35
1,283
477
138
193
4,125
115
3,349
1,288
1,793
365
359
1,428
3,721
75,761
796
8,697
2,031
365
$152.80
63.20
3,090.40
828.80
District of Chilliwhack	
589.60
1,105.60
232.80
Village of Creston	
117.60
309.60
229.60
323.20
292.00
703.20
1,424.80
1,221.60
430.40
47.20
3.20
1,384.00
1,782.40
246.40
132.00
755.20
784 80
City of New Westminster	
3,404.00
District of North Cowichan	
400.80
City of North Vancouver	
2,035.20
District of Pitt Meadows	
28 00
1,026.40
City of Port Moody	
3,300.00
2.679.20
1,030.40
1,434.40
292.00
287.20
1,142.40
2,976.80
60,608.80
636.80
6,957.60
1,624.80
292.00
City of Trail	
Totals	
356
136,523
$109,218.40
Municipal collections, fiscal year 1945-46  $109,218.40
Municipal collections, fiscal year 1944-45     117,249.60
Decrease, 1945-46        $8,031.20
Transportation arranged for sixty-two patients:   $1,001.84 expended on transportation. REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL ASSISTANCE BRANCH, 1945-46.
S 27
Statement of Collections (other than Municipal), Fiscal Year 1945-46.
Month.
Private
Paying.
Department
of Veterans'
Affairs.
War
Veterans'
Allowances.
Old-age
Pensions.
Dependents'
Allowances.
Silicosis
and Indian
X-rays.
Total.
1945.
April	
May —	
June	
July	
August	
September	
October	
November	
December	
1946.
January.	
February	
March	
Totals	
$3,343.83
5,301.08
3,276.19
2,807.24
4.168.57
4,577.90
2,854.34
4,194.25
2,765.40
4,631.72
4,393.55
6,286.30
$48,600.37
$6,353.90
7,173.40
7,542.00
6,934.70
6,185.70
6,948.40
8,537.30
8,638.90
9,474.30
20,167.60
428.90
$156.77
90.00
60.00
45.00
92.00
72.58
190.79
131.36
189.00
109.35
159.37
130.65
$100.00
100.00
100.00
75.00
75.00
86.00
75.00
75.00
75.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
$521.67
417.74
434.00
414.02
592.00
567.48
517.33
417.08
215.16
197.85
126.15
52.00
$505.54
558.00
206.30
64.00
174.59
106.26
30.59
124.77
$10,981.71
13,082.22
11,970.19
10,482.26
11,177.27
12,252.36
12,174.76
13,456.59
3,419.15
14,619.48
24,977.26
7,122.62
8,385.10
$1,426.87
$1,061.00
,,472.48
$1,770.05
$145,715.87
Collections, fiscal year 1945-46
Collections, fiscal year 1944-45
Increase, 1945-46 	
$145,715.87
133,434.48
$12,281.39
Provincial Mental Hospital, Essondale, 1945-46.
Month.
Contracts.
Estates
located.
Collections.
Private
paying.
Estates.
Home for
Aged.
1945.
19
28
34
18
22
28
22
25
18
24
14
20
20
21
27
20
18
19
14
14
10
18
15
30
$2,157.25
2,199.41
3,222.27
8,090.24
2,301.51
1,957.45
1,861.65
3,910.75
2,122.93
3,539.97
2,449.55
6,129.49
$2,441.63
772.04
2,851.73
2,721.71
373.53
2,770.95
1,071.28
679.40
541.08
1,115.03
4,021.65
1,061.03
$19.00
19.00
19.00
19.00
19.00
19.00
19.00
19.00
1946.
March	
Totals	
272
226
$39,942.47
$20,421.06
$152.00
$39,942.47
31,797.88
$20,421.06
31,622.29
$152.00
882.18
$8,144.59*
$ll,201.23t
$730.18f
* Increase.
t Decrease.
Total Provincial Mental Hospital collections, $348,782.29, include the above amount
of $39,942.47.
Total Provincial Home for the Aged collections, $39,529.94, include the above
amount of $152.
(N.B.—All private paying contracts in connection with the Provincial Mental
Hospital are made through this office, but it is optional whether maintenance accounts
are paid to this office or direct to the hospital.)
(N.B.—All collections re estates of patients in the Provincial Mental Hospital are
remitted by this office direct to the Inspector of Municipalities, Victoria.) S 28
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Provincial Infirmary, Marpole.
Estate Collections, Fiscal Year 1945-46.
1945.
April 	
May 	
June 	
July 	
August  ....
September
October ...
November
December
1946.
January _
February _
March 	
  $222.65
  503.65
  92.44
  1,121.36
 :  129.86
  44.82
  164.39
  892.96
 1  320.88
  879.76
  135.50
  31.50
  $4,539.77
Provincial Infirmary collections, fiscal year 1945-46  $4,539.77
Provincial Infirmary collections, fiscal year 1944-45  4,353.61
Total
Increase
$186.16
Number of estates of patients in the Provincial Infirmary administered by this
office during 1945-46, 27.
J. G. McRae,
Collector of Institutional Revenue. REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL ASSISTANCE BRANCH, 1945-46. S 29
FAMILY SERVICE.
Family Service is, as the term implies, a service to families. In this sense it covers
all categories and is the type of service which the social worker takes to individuals and
families in need.
For purposes of administration it is necessary to differentiate between the generalized service to families and that which is given under the supervision of the Child
Welfare Division and other specialized agencies.
Family Service Division is responsible for the administration of general services,
including Family Service where no financial aid is given, Mothers' Allowances, and
Social Allowances, the latter two of which are dealt with under their respective
headings.
The family is the basic unit of society. Social work has always concerned itself
with the family as the primary social unit, and social case work has developed to assist
the individual in his struggle to relate himself to his family, to his natural group, and
to his community. The individual's manner of living is conditioned by his own and the
community's concept of the family pattern. It is through his feelings and his experience that we work in our efforts to help him take responsibility for himself. When the
family, either as a group or in its individual members, suffers disruption, the community suffers. The aim of Family Service, therefore, is to strengthen and maintain
the family in the knowledge that " the things men live for and live by, the things that
are most precious to them and that give life meaning, are to be found in the stuff of
which the family is made."
Referrals for Family Service have come from the following sources:—
(1.)   Direct request from the individual or family concerned.
(2.)   Other Divisions of the Social Welfare Branch.
(3.)  Juvenile Courts and industrial schools.
(4.)   Public and private agencies, within the Province and without.
(5.)   School for the Deaf and the Blind.
(6.)  Junior Red Cross.
(7.)  Federal Departments:—
(a.)  Department of National Defence  (military services and overseas wives).
(&.)   Department of National  Health and  Welfare   (Family  Allowances).
The changing picture in the extension of services since the establishment of the
Family Service Division in October, 1944, has not yet permitted the development of
a statistical pattern.    The following statistics will give some indication, however, of
the scope of Family Service.
General Statistics.
Cases carried over from the year 1944-45  132
New cases opened in the year 1945-46  676
Cases closed in the year 1945-46  293 S 30 BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
Classification of New Cases on Basis of Referral.
Total.
Families making direct request for service in connection with
the following major problems  281
Potential neglect        7
Marital problems   103
Criminal offences    32
Juvenile delinquency     28
Ill-health      12
Behaviour problems of children     33
Counselling service on a variety of problems     66
Cases   referred   for   continuing   and   follow-up   service   from
divisions giving specialized services  211
Child Welfare division   166
Mental hospital        7
Tuberculosis social service      14
Inspector of Hospitals office       4
Provincial Police      16
Family Courts       4
Cases referred from industrial schools     26
Cases referred from public and private agencies     80
Cases referred from the School for the Deaf and the Blind       2
Cases referred from Junior Red Cross     10
Cases referred from Federal Departments     66
(a.)   Department of National Defence     21
(b.)  Department   of   Health   and   Welfare    (Family
Allowance, January to March, inclusive)     45
Total new cases  676
Counselling service is a major function and in terms of results has been most
effective.    The following case is typical.
Mr. Blank was in the prime of his manhood and was proudly building towards
a home for his wife and three children when he became afflicted with a paralysis which
left him so badly crippled that after many months he could only get about with the aid
of crutches. When Mr. Blank's savings were exhausted, it was necessary for him to
accept financial assistance. This, while it provided food and shelter, was an irritation
to the soul and an element in the factors making towards family breakdown. Over
a period of months the social worker gave intensive service. She interpreted the
financial assistance as temporary aid. She brought to the family resources from
within and without, and through continued effort the family regained enthusiasm to
carry on. Provision was made for Mr. Blank to learn a new trade. He will shortly
be self-supporting. °
It is our belief and experience that where the case-work point of view permeates
the public welfare programme, both the taxpayer and the recipient of public assistance
benefit thereby. In so far as is possible the client is served by a trained and experienced worker who has a real interest in his welfare, who individualizes his problem, who
sees that assistance is given fairly and thoughtfully, and who brings to him the available resources of the community with a view to restoring him to the greatest possible
measure of independence and self-support. Our concern is the prevention of human
breakdown and the preservation and rehabilitation of self-sustaining families.
A. L. Mess,
Supervisor. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL ASSISTANCE BRANCH, 1945-46.
S 31
MEDICAL SERVICES DIVISION.
There has been very little change in the work done in the Provincial Medical
Services Division since our report covering the previous fiscal year.
Our principal duties consist of carrying out a programme for the purpose of
providing general and special medical, dental, and optical services to persons in receipt
of Social Allowances, Mothers' Allowances, Old-age Pensions, and Blind Pensions.
Consideration is also given to persons who are not in receipt of assistance, but whose
income will not permit any additional expenses apart from the bare necessities of life.
Medical services have also recently been extended to include the dependent of an old-age
pensioner.
Insulin is supplied to diabetic War Veterans' Allowance cases through this office.
Arranging and providing transportation for Social Assistance cases, etc., to and
from hospitals and doctors' offices for diagnosis and treatment comes within the scope
of our work.
All accounts for the above-mentioned services are received in this office and are
checked and passed for payment, together with all druggists' accounts.
The Provincial Government Dispensary is under the direct supervision of this
office, and we are responsible for its staff and their salaries. Prescriptions are dispensed to the City of Vancouver at a very low price. The drug requirements of the
Provincial Infirmaries at Marpole and Allco are also taken care of through the
Dispensary. Insulin and drugs are sent from there to patients in outlying districts,
and drugs and dressings to nurses in isolated areas.
Our pharmacist is responsible for checking prescription accounts received from
druggists throughout the Province before payment is made through this office.
Following will be found the financial statement of the expenditure by this Division and set out in comparison with the previous fiscal year. This statement shows
the expenditure of the Division in the five regions of the Province and under various
headings. In the column headed " Sundry " are included the payments to municipalities under the general medical services plan and payments to doctors in certain areas
who are on a per capita per month basis. There has been a substantial increase in
the expenditure by this Division, which is doubtless due to more persons availing
themselves of these services.
Comparative Statement of Expenditure, Fiscal Years 1944-45 and 1945-46.
Regional
District.
Fiscal
Year.
Hospitals.
Doctors'
Accounts.
Prescriptions.
Dental.
Optical.
Transportation.
Sundry.
Totals.
No. 1	
I
1944-45           $35.00
$8,785.34
12,089.27
3,417.39
3,615.72
$10,064.89
11,064.24
12,941.81
17,542.00
$173.50
1,052.50
54.00
1,065.00
$162.50
312.45
149.00
710.24
$334.45
268.10
170.55
190.58
$6,828.15
7,499.25
33,095.52
37,154.85
$26,383.83
No. 2	
1945-46
1944-45
1945-46
1944-45
1945-46
1944-45
1945-46
1944-45
1945-46
1944-45
1945-46
70.00
44.00
2,258.95
32,355.81
49,872.27
Dispensary..
62,537.34
1,340.83
1,180.36
No. 3
10,077.38
11,746.05
5,694.93
8,642.50
6,234.40
7,875.35
4,916.42
5,487.06
2,445.08
3,446.09
2,585.09
3,308.01
210.00
574.50
78.00
208.00
191.50
393.00
225.00
172.37
240.00
28.50
50.00
121.50
209.55
471.95
229.66
456.40
2,153.65
2,217.43
2,354.66
2,207.47
2,435.80
17,855.78
No. 4
30.00
20,836.59
10,895.14
No 5
12.50
218.15
610.95
15,229.79
11,432.79
1,821.19
14,130.00
Totals...
1944-45
1945-46
$297.15
2,982.40
$34,209.44
43,968.89
$32,953.29
40,847.40
$707.00
3,293.00
$826.50
1,345.06
$3,097.86 | $44,348.57
3,208.22  |    49,444.56
$117,780.64
146,269.89
Regional Districts Nos.
1945-46, $146,269.89.
1 to 5:   Fiscal year 1944-45, $117,780.64;   fiscal year
A. S. Simpson, M.D.,
Acting Director, Medical Services Division. S 32
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
MOTHERS' ALLOWANCES.
The graph on the following page presents the case-load and expenditure under
this form of social assistance since its inception in 1920. In May, 1940, there were
1,778 mothers on allowance, an all-time high, but since that date there has been a
steady decrease in both case-load and expenditure. The following table shows the
expenditure and percentage change during the past six years:—
Fiscal Year.
Total
Expenditure.
Change over
Previous Year.
Percentage
Change.
1940-41	
$798,097.32
751,835.56
667,213.02
581,541.29
528,442.87
498,901.72
— $12,590.80
—46,261.76
—84,622.50
— 85,671.73
— 53,098.42
—29,541.15
—1.55
1941-42	
— 5.79
1942-43	
— 11.26
1943-44 -	
— 12.85
1944-45	
—9.13
1945-46	
— 5.81
During this  fiscal year 197 allowances were cancelled  and for the following
reasons:—
Analysis of Cancelled Cases.
Reason for Cancellation.
Earnings in excess	
No. of Cases.
__    43
Mother remarried     38
Ineligible because of age of children     24
Children under 18 years ceased attending school     20
Husband ceased to be totally disabled     18
Children under 16 years ceased attending school     10
Unearned income in excess  (War Veterans' Allowance, Dependents' Allowance, etc.)     10
Personal property in excess       9
Mother ceased to be fit and proper person       8
Children employed and able to supports
Only child removed from home	
Mother in hospital indefinitely	
Husband released from penitentiary	
Mother deceased
Removed from Province.
Of the 197 cases cancelled during the year, the following table shows the length
of time they had been on allowance:—
Years     1    2    3    4    5    6    7    8    9   10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
Cases    23 23 16 25 17 10 18 22 11   6    4    4    7    2    5    2    2
Total, 197. Average length of time on allowance, 5.96 years.
As at April 1st, 1945, there were on hand fourteen applications received during
the previous year but on which it had been impossible to make a decision. During the
year 205 new and reapplications were received, making a total of 219 to deal with. Of
this number, four applications were withdrawn and the others were disposed of as
follows:—
Allowances granted   162
Allowances refused      43 NET EXPENDITURE
POPULATION
CASE LOAD
aa,ooo
2000
70.000
1000
J«,000
1000
ea\ooo
1700
64.000
*^"W
K00
80,000
	
1500
««.
^^^^^^
Jf~
MOO
SXfiOO
~  ^^^
1300
A&poo
1200
44000
BOO
1000
3^,000
]
w
'^z
^k. —<■ >
mm
rUfiOO
/
1
%-/
/
<00
/
•*0
400
1
500
400
4,000
too
o
0
192C
1021
1022
1023
1024.
1922
1026
1027
1©23
1020
103O
1031
1032
1033
1034-
J035
1036
1037
193d
1039
104-O
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
MOTHERS ALLOWANCES
BRITISH COLUMBIA
LEGEND:—NET EXPENDITURE
— CASE LOAD
POPULATION     fc«fe - «.* n* c««4rtw) REPORT OF THE SOCIAL ASSISTANCE BRANCH, 1945-46. S 33
A breakdown of reasons for refusal discloses the following:—
Reasons for Refusal. Cases.
Personal property in excess  11
Mother's earnings in excess  7
Husband not totally disabled  7
Unable to fulfil residence requirements  4
Social Allowance considered preferable form of assistance  4
Older children supporting  3
Not legally married  2
Income   2
Not deserted by husband  1
No dependent children in age-group  1
Section 6 of Act  1
Total   43
During the year there were no amendments to the Act, but by Order in Council
No. 1171, dated July 10th, 1945, section 10 (b) of the regulations was amended to read
as follows: "A woman who pays rent or who is making payments on her home or who
has an encumbrance against her home may be granted $5 more per month than a woman
who owns her home free of encumbrance." This amendment permitted increasing the
allowance to a few mothers.
The personnel of the Mothers' Allowances Advisory Board remained unchanged
and under the chairmanship of Mrs. I, E. Smelts, Vancouver.    There were three meetings held during the year and among the subjects discussed were:—
(1.)  Vocational training for boys who have left school.
(2.)  Rehabilitation of disabled husbands.
(3.)  Policy in respect to Family Allowances.
(4.)  Amendment to section 10 of the regulations.
The members of the Advisory Board take a very keen interest in the various
matters under discussion, and their recommendations are of value in the administration
of this Act.
A review of the case-load for the month of March, 1946, discloses that of the total
905 cases, 350 or 38.67 per cent, were one-child cases and 294 or 32.48 per cent, were
families of only two children. Allowances were granted to 225 mothers because of
incapacitated husbands. Tuberculosis again was the main cause of disability, being
responsible for 70 cases, or 31.11 per cent of the whole. This is an increase over the
previous year and would appear to warrant the continuation of " T.B. Benefits," which
are, of course, available to recipients of Mothers' Allowances.
In administering this form of social assistance, it is essential that our social
workers maintain a satisfactory relationship with the mothers on allowance. Caseloads remain extremely heavy throughout the Province, but I am satisfied that our field
staff has done all that was possible under the circumstances in ensuring that the funds
disbursed under the " Mothers' Allowances Act" achieve the maximum benefit to all
concerned. S 34
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
FINANCIAL STATEMENT.
Fiscal Year April 1st, 1945, to March 31st, 1946.
Advance received from Minister of Finance  $499,500.00
Bank interest
Month.
March
April __.
Amount of
Advance.
  $42,150.00
May   41,750.00
June   42,300.00
July   41,500.00
August  41,300.00
September   41,250.00
October    41,000.00
November    40,750.00
December   41,250.00
January  1 42,000.00
February   42,250.00
March   42,000.00
$499,500.00
Allowances paid as follows :-
Month.
April 	
May 	
June 	
July 	
August	
September 	
October 	
Amount of
Interest.
$0.44
.48
.76
.23
.50
.28
.56
.68
.70
1.43
.28
.45
$6.79
December
January __
February
March 	
6.79
$499,506.79
Amount of
Allowances.
  $41,755.43
  42,165.81
  42,236.27
  41,400.92
  41,279.94
  40,931.44
  40,945.74
November   41,142.91
41,665.36
41,825.34
41,839.08
41,713.48
498,901.72
Balance to be accounted for         $605.07
The books and records of the Mothers' Allowances Fund have been examined under
my direction. I hereby certify that the above statement is a true account of the
Receipts and Disbursements of the Director of Welfare under authority of the
"Mothers' Allowances Act" for twelve months ended March 31st, 1946, according to
the information furnished me, and as disclosed by the books and records submitted for
my inspection.
J. A. Craig,
Comptroller-General. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL ASSISTANCE BRANCH, 1945-46. S 35
Statement of Credits and Refunds deducted from Total Amount of
Allowances paid out.
Total amount paid out from April 1st, 1945, to March
31st, 1946, inclusive  $499,101.72
Less refunds paid by—
MA-8827 in April, cheque No. 369829.- $42.50
MA-9354 in April, cheque No. 369930— 55.00
MA-9868 in May, cheque No. 370971-- 42.50
MA-10266   in   November,   cheque   No.
376600      60.00
  200.00
$498,901.72 S 36
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The following summary gives the cause of death of the husbands in cases of widows
in receipt of assistance at March 31st, 1946:—
Cause of Death.
Infectious and parasitic diseases—
Diphtheria   	
Influenza   	
Septicaemia     - 	
Spinal meningitis 	
Tuberculosis 	
Typhoid   -	
Cancer and other tumours—
Cancer  	
Other tumours 	
0
2
3
9
44
3
61
65
1
—   66
Rheumatic and other general diseases-
Arthritis  —	
Diabetes   	
Muscular atrophy 	
Rheumatism 	
Diseases of the blood, etc.—-
Anaemia  —	
Hodgkin's disease 	
Leukeemia  	
Purpura   	
1
0
— 10
2
3
2
0
— 7
Chronic poisons and intoxicants-
Toxemia   	
Diseases of nervous system and organs of special
senses—
Abscess of brain 	
Brain tumour 	
Cerebral haemorrhage  —	
Cerebral thrombosis  	
Encephalitis 	
Epileptic  seizure  	
General paresis 	
Insanity    ^	
Neurasthenia 	
Neuritis   -	
Paralysis agitans 	
Paralysis  	
Parkinson's disease 	
Thrombosis undefined 	
7
36
3
1
1
2
15
1
1
1
Diseases of circulatory system—
Angina pectoris 	
Aortic aneurism 	
Arteriosclerosis 	
Coronary thrombosis and sclerosis
Coronary occlusion 	
Embolism  	
Endocarditis  	
Heart   (ill-defined)   	
Hypertension 	
Pericarditis	
—    83
1
2
19
10
5
8
81.
5
0
— 134
Cause of Death.
Diseases of respiratory system—
Asthma       2
Bronchiectasis      3
Bronchitis        1
Oedema glottis      1
Oedema lungs      3
Pleurisy        2
Pneumonia   40
Silicosis      1
— 53
Diseases of digestive system—
Appendicitis     7
Colitis    :  1
Gastroduodenal ulcer   10
Intestinal obstruction   3
Intestinal  intoxication  1
Gall bladder   1
Liver disease  4
Pancreatitis   1
Peritonitis     8
— 36
Diseases of genito-urinary system—
Bright's  disease       1
Chronic   nephritis     13
Kidney trouble       3
Uraemia  -     7
— 24
Violent or accidental deaths—
Accidents  44
Burns    2
Drowning        13
Fractured skull   1
Murdered     0
Post-operative shock  ._  1
Suicide   9
— 70
Ill-defined causes—
Asphyxia,    1
Blindness     -  0
General   debility     2
Haemorrhage     5
Osteomyelitis    2
Others     0
Poison    —  2
Rupture   2
Sclerosis  3
Ulcers   0
Unknown     2
Suffocation „_  1
— 20
Total     566 REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL ASSISTANCE BRANCH, 1945-46.
S 37
The causes of total disability of husbands in cases coming under the classification
of " husbands totally disabled " at March 31st, 1946:—
Cause of Disability.
Infectious and parasitic diseases—
Poliomyelitis   	
Tuberculosis    	
Cancer and other tumours—
Cancer   	
Other tumours  	
Rheumatic and other general diseases-
Arthritis  	
Diabetes  	
Rheumatism   	
Spondylitis   	
18
1
4
0
Cause of Disability.
Diseases of circulatory system—
Angina  pectoris    1
Arteriosclerosis     2
Coronary sclerosis  and  thrombosis    6
Heart  (ill-defined)     22
Hypertension     4
Tachycardiac     1
36
Diseases of respiratory system—
Asthma  5
Pneumonia   0
Silicosis   1
Diseases of the blood, etc.—
Anaemia   	
Polycythemia 	
Diseases of nervous system and organs of special
senses—
Brain  tumour 	
Cerebral haemorrhage 	
Cerebral thrombosis 	
Chorea 	
Disseminated   sclerosis   	
Eczema   	
Encephalitis 	
Epilepsy	
Claucoma 	
Insane  	
Kyphosis of spine 	
Mastoid   	
Muscular atrophy 	
Muscular degeneration 	
Neurasthenia   	
Neuritis   	
Paralysis    .*	
Paralysis agitans 	
Parkinson's disease 	
Psychosis   	
Psychoneurosis   	
Spinal urebellar 	
Others   	
Diseases of digestive system—
Colitis     2
Gastroduodenal ulcer   8
—    10
Diseases of genito-urinary system—
Bright's disease   1
Epididymitis   1
Nephritis     3
Prostatitis    -  1
—      6
Injuries or accidents—
Accidents   	
Dislocated hip 	
Ill-defined causes—
Blindness  _  10
General debility    6
Osteomyelitis     0
Others     1
Pseudo-angina   1
Rupture   3
Sclerosis    _  5
Senility  2
—   28
Total     225 S 38
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The status and number of children of families in receipt of assistance in March,
1946, was as follows:—
Number of Children.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Total.
234
82
8
7
3
4
2
9
1
176
72
23
8
3
6
5
1
0
98
35
4
6
1
5
2
0
1
37
15
3
1
0
1
1
0
0
9
13
2
0
0
3
1
1
0
9
4
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
566
Incapacitated husbands	
225
41
22
7
20
11
11
2
Totals	
350
294
152
58
29
14
5
1
1
1 -
905
Number of individuals benefited—
Mothers 	
Husbands 	
Children 	
905
225
1,917
3,047
C. W. Lundy,
Director of Welfare. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL ASSISTANCE BRANCH, 1945-46. S 39
OLD-AGE PENSION BOARD.
GENERAL.
In the year covered by this report, an all-time high was reached, both in volume of
cases handled and in amount of expenditure. There were 2,770 new applications
received, including both old-age and blind, as compared with 2,011 the year before,
and 2,519 pensions were granted as compared with 2,085 the year before. At the end
of the fiscal year there were in all 16,977 pensioners on the pay-roll, compared with
15,684 at the end of the previous fiscal year. This represents an increase of 8.24 per
cent. Total expenditures, including pensions proper and cost-of-living bonus for both
blind and old-age pensioners, amounted to $5,738,805.34, compared with $5,361,102.41
in 1944-45.    This shows an increase of $377,702.93 or 7.04 per cent.
These increases would appear to be due largely to the natural increase in the
number of persons in the Province of pensionable age. In addition, however, it is noted
that the percentage of old-age pensioners to the total number of people in the Province
over 70 years of age increased in 1945-46. The percentage last year was 33.36, whereas
it was 35.40 at the end of this fiscal year.
Due to the change in policy outlined in last year's report respecting the making
of claims against estates, fewer claims were made and a smaller amount of money was
collected. Although there, were 1,299 deaths this year as compared with 1,214 last year,
only 111 claims were made as compared with 135 last year, and the amount collected
dropped from $84,918.36 last year to $54,948.34 this year.
There were no changes in the Act or regulations during the year.
Although the volume of work done was considerably greater than last year, it was
accomplished with a slightly reduced staff and a small reduction in salary costs. This
was made possible by reason of the fact that the relatively large number of new persons
whom it had been necessary to employ during the previous year had become more
experienced and consequently more efficient and, in addition, there were no major
Chang6S' CHANGES IN POLICY.
Certain changes in policy were made during the year, but none of major importance.
Chief among them were the following:—
Contributions from Children.
In the 1943-44 report an outline was given of a scale of exemptions allowed children before expecting them to contribute towards the support of their parents. In
1945-46 these exemptions were raised. A single son or daughter is now allowed $1,200
a year plus the amount of income tax paid before assistance is expected as compared
with $1,100 plus income tax as formerly, while a married son is now allowed $2,100
plus $300 for each dependent child plus the amount of income tax paid as compared
with $1,800 plus $300 for each dependent child plus income tax as formerly.
Life Interest in Property.
Heretofore it had been the Board's policy to consider property in which the pensioner had a life interest on the basis of free rent if the pensioner was living on it, but
on the basis of 5 per cent, of its value if it was property other than that used as a home.
After careful consideration, however, it was decided to continue considering on the
basis of free rent the property used as a home, but hereafter to take into account only
the income actually received from property other than that used as a home.
RECIPROCAL AGREEMENTS.
In April, 1942, the Government of British Columbia commenced paying a supplementary allowance or cost-of-living bonus of $5 a month to all pensioners whose pen- S 40 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
sions were granted in this Province. As the Province of Alberta adopted the same
plan, the two Provinces entered into a reciprocal agreement whereby each Province
would pay this bonus to pensioners coming from the other Province and charge the
cost back to that Province. Thus British Columbia and Alberta pensioners were able
to move freely from the one Province to the other without suffering any financial loss.
In the year 1945-46 a similar agreement was entered into with the Province of
Saskatchewan. As Saskatchewan pays a bonus of only $3 a month, however, pensioners
moving from that Province to British Columbia receive only that amount, whereas
British Columbia pensioners moving to Saskatchewan are paid a $5 bonus there, which,
of course, is charged back to British Columbia.
No such reciprocal agreement has yet been reached with any of the six other
Provinces.
SOCIAL SERVICE DIVISION.
Social services to the aged group during the year 1945-46 have been for the most
part an extension of those fully outlined in previous reports. An understanding and
individual approach to every pensioner is the key-note of the service being rendered
by the workers in the generalized programme of the Provincial department.
One yearly visit is required in accordance with the " Old Age Pensions Act " in
order to obtain necessary factual information. In some instances this suffices, otherwise the number of contacts, direct and indirect, made by the social worker is determined only by the situation and needs of the pensioner. The results of such efforts are
difficult to tabulate but are evident in the improved attitude of the pensioners and their
friends in their relations with the Board.
During the past twelve months communications were sent out by the Supervisor of
Social Service on 1,075 cases referred by the district workers and the clerical staff in
head office. In addition, 185 of our pensioners from outside the City of Vancouver
called in person at the Old-age Pension Board office, having come to the city for medical
attention or to visit relatives. Meeting with these old folk gives us an opportunity for
first-hand knowledge of, and interpretation to, the group with which we are working.
(It must be remembered that many of our hardy pioneers choose to live in places so
isolated that it is an achievement for a worker to make even the one required yearly
visit!)
In the course of the past year the intake social worker at head office interviewed an
average of 266 persons a month in relation to problems on pensions already in effect or
more general inquiries. This group included a wide range of pensioners, interested
friends, and professional persons. A continuous flow of telephone calls asking for
explanations of the available services takes up a large share of the time of both of
the social workers.
The Social Service Supervisor, with the assistance of other executives, has accepted
responsibility for seeing that our workers are provided with material which will facilitate the carrying-on of the work. At our present stage of development this has had to
be largely in the form of carefully prepared instructions. A regional conference on
Family Services in the Provincial department was held in Kamioops early in the year,
at which one session was devoted to a full discussion of old-age pension work. The
Supervisor also acted as chairman of a sub-committee which made a study and report
on the situation of the aged in Vancouver, at the request of the Welfare Council of
Greater Vancouver. During the year, under the direction of the Social Service Division, twelve new workers on their way to district offices spent a short time at the
Old-age Pension Board office in order to gain some familiarity with the set-up and
workings of head office. Clerical staff in the Old-age Pension Board office are also
interviewed by the Supervisor of Social Service at the commencement of employment in REPORT OF THE SOCIAL ASSISTANCE BRANCH, 1945-46. S 41
order that they may understand the function of this Division and the necessity of
integration of services with the field staff and other Provincial branches.
Medical services must occupy a fair share of the time of any social worker associated with the aged. It would scarcely be possible to overestimate the value of the
health service now available in this Province, in spite of obvious gaps. In this connection, we at head office are receiving the fullest co-operation from the Vancouver General
Hospital, the cancer clinic, and the Canadian National Institute for the Blind. Workers
speak highly of the services of general practitioners and hospitals throughout the
Province. Service in two important areas, however, is limited and on an individual
basis—that of reading-glasses and dentures. There is also an increasing demand for
hearing aids. Such appliances, since they ease the strain of disabilities and make for
normal living, are perhaps more important to older folk than many of the more generally accepted services.    It is hoped that means may be found to meet these needs.
To consider further the medical aspect brings us to the question of the consideration of the chronic group. The need for making provision for the care of semi-invalids,
invalids, and cases of advanced senility is probably the most baffling problem which the
social worker, fairly or unfairly, is expected to meet. With such facilities as we have
(the Provincial Infirmary, Essondale, and the Home for the Aged) crowded to the
doors, our workers are, in far too many cases, subjected to almost intolerable pressure
from relatives and interested persons in the community who feel that the burden of
caring for an invalid, which has become too heavy, should be immediately lifted. The
pressure, time, and effort required to make any sort of arrangements under these
circumstances tend to becloud the case-work problem of really suitable placement.
Of the applicants for pension in British Columbia during the past year, only a
small percentage had assets of any considerable value, 72 per cent, were living apart
from their children and 50 per cent, were without marital partners. Such figures only
serve to confirm the fact that the care of aged relatives is no longer a generally accepted
responsibility on the part of the younger members of a family. A serious outcome of
this development is the housing situation for the aged, who are in no position to compete in the housing market of to-day, and workers' reports indicate a forced acceptance
by the old people of living standards far below health and comfort requirements.
Workers have noted with feelings of encouragement the interest (in some cases
resulting in action) of various municipalities in the question of homes for ageing
people in their areas. The establishment by the Salvation Army of a well-planned
home for women is a significant step.
When more of these seemingly insurmountable obstacles have been cleared from
their path, our social workers will be ready and able to work more constructively in the
service of the aged. Meantime, efforts from the head office are constantly directed
towards building up an understanding relationship between the pensioners throughout
the Province and the district offices. From the workers in the districts must come the
interpretation which will make them truly the representatives of the Old-age Pension
Board.
GRAPHIC PRESENTATION.
On the following page will be found a graphic presentation of the trends in old-age
and blind pensions in British Columbia from the coming into force of the " Old Age
Pensions Act " in 1927 to the end of the fiscal year 1945-46.
The red line graph shows the trend in cost of pensions; the unbroken black line
shows the trend in numbers of persons in receipt of pension; and the broken line shows
the trend in total population. These graphs may only be compared one with another
in general, as they are not based on any common unit of amount. The trend of costs
graph is based on 72,000 units to the square. The trend of number of pensioners graph
is based on 2,400 units to the square, and the trend of population graph is based on S 42 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
240,000 units to the square. The graphs are made up from statistical records of the
Old-age Pension Board and population figures from Dominion census records.
It will be seen from the graphs that during the first two years' operation of the
Act there was a sharp rise in both the number of pensioners and the cost of pensions.
This, of course, was due to the large initial number of applicants who were granted
pensions in this period.
After this early period there was a lessening in rate of increase of the number of
pensioners added to the pay-roll until the middle of 1930, when, it will be noted,
a further increase in the rate of pensions granted began and continued fairly steadily
until about the middle of 1939.
From the middle of 1939 until the end of 1940 the rate of increase in number of
pensioners is seen to continue evenly. This represented the early period of the war.
The later period of the war, beginning with the year 1941 and continuing to the latter
part of 1943, shows a rate of increase in the number of pensioners less than in any
former period. However, late in 1943 it is noticed that a rise began in this rate of
increase, became steeper towards the end of 1944, and continued through 1945 and
into 1946.
When the graph representing the number of old-age pensioners is compared in
a general way with the graph representing the total population of the Province, it is
evident that at first the number of old-age pensioners increased much more quickly
than population, which, of course, was to be expected. This difference in percentage
increase, although becoming less for some time, has again shown a marked upward
trend during the past three years.
When the graph representing the cost of pensions is compared with the graph
representing the number of pensioners, it is seen that, after the initial sharp rise,
the graph of cost maintained a general, regular, upward trend until the period between
March and April of 1942, when there was a sharp rise, and another of about similar
amount between September and October, 1943. The first of these rises was due to the
granting of the cost-of-living bonus of $5 a month to pensioners in this Province by
the Provincial Government, which bears the full cost of this additional expenditure
itself. The second resulted from an increase of $5 a month in the rate of pension
payments authorized by the Dominion Government under the " War Measures Act"
on August 10th, 1943, by Order in Council P.C. 6367. It will be seen that although
the cost occasioned by the extra $5 a month under the " War Measures Act" resulted
in high points in the graph for October and November, this fell off sharply during the
next two months. The explanation is that the $5 a month payment was made retroactive, so that there resulted an accumulation of more than one month's payment to
be made. A somewhat similar sharp rise followed by a decline is noticed for the
middle period of 1944. This rise is explained by the amendment to the Act which
provided for an allowable income of $425 instead of the former $365, and the computations following this, too, were made retroactive. For this reason the highest point
on the graph was above that which otherwise would have resulted, and the following
months therefore showed a recession. The trend for the past year is normal, considering the increase in the number of pensioners. mm
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S 43
STATISTICS FOR THE YEAR ENDED MARCH 31st, 1946.
OLD-AGE PENSIONS.
Table 1.—Disposition of Applications.
Current
Year.
Number of new applications received  2,726
Number of new applications granted  2,494*
Number of new applicants ineligible	
Total to
March 31st, 1946.
36,258
32,621
276*
* Includes some held over from previous year.
Table 2.—Miscellaneous.
Number of B.C. pensioners returned to B.C	
Number of new " other Province " pensioners transferred to
B.C	
Number of B.C. pensioners transferred to other Provinces	
Number of pensioners from other Provinces transferred out
of B.C. or suspended	
Number of B.C. reinstatements granted	
Number of B.C. pensions suspended	
Number of deaths of B.C. pensioners	
Number of deaths of " other Province " pensioners in B.C	
Total number of pensioners on pay-roll at end of fiscal year	
Table 3.—Causes of Ineligibility of Applicants.
Ineligible on account of age	
Ineligible on account of residence	
Ineligible on account of citizenship	
2,366
73
492
120
287
197
245
1,280
149
16,637
60
19
10
Ineligible on account of income     85
Ineligible on account of assistance from children     28
Ineligible for other miscellaneous reasons     74
Total number ineligible
276
Table 4.—Sex of New Pensioners.
Males _
Females
Total
1,250
1,244
2,494
Married	
Single	
Widows ....
Widowers
Separated
Divorced _
Table 5.—Marital Status of New Pensioners.
  1,048
  348
  641
  283
  157
  17
    2,494
Total.. S 44 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table 6.—Birthplace of Applicants. _   _   .
Per Cent.
British Columbia  1  2.41
Other parts of Canada  27.06
The British Isles  50.12
Other parts of the British Empire  1.32
The United States  6.06
Other foreign countries  13.03
Table 7.—Ages of Applicants. per cent.
Age 70  41.86
Age 71  14.40
Age 72    9.98
Age 73    6.54
Age 74    4.73
Age 75     4.25
Age 76 to 80  12.31
Age 81 to 90    5.37
Age 90 and up    0.56
Table 8.—Ages of Pensioners at Death. per cent.
Age 70     2.83
Age 71     4.43
Age 72    4.43
Age 73    4.50
Age 74    5.10
Age 75    5.64
Age 76 to 80  31.36
Age 81 to 85  24.98
Age 86 to 90  12.16
Age 90 and up    4.57
Table 9.—Living Arrangements of Applicants.      per cent.
Living alone  27.91
Living with spouse ■  32.84
Living with spouse and children      7.94
Living with children  19.69
Living with others  10.14
Living in public institutions     0.84
Living in private institutions     0.64
Table 10.—Economic Status of Applicants.
(a.)  Holding real property of value— Per Cent.
Under $251   67.68
$251 to    $500  7.14
$501 to $1,000  10.02
$1,001 to $2,000  11.15
$2,001 to $5,000  3.85
$5,001 and up  0.16
(6.)   Holding personal property of value—
Under $251  74.10
$251 to    $500  13.23
$501 to $1,000  7.98
$1,001 to $3,000  4.57
$3,001 and up  0.12 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL ASSISTANCE BRANCH, 1945-46. S 45
Table 11.—Claims against Estates, Old-age and Blind.
Number of cases of deaths  1,299
Number of cases where claims made      111
Number of cases where claims were waived or withdrawn in
favour of beneficiaries        30
Number of claims on which collections were made  (including
cases from former years)      174
Total amount collected  $54,948.34
Table 12.—Percentage of Pensioners to Population.*
Percentage of pensioners to the total population of the Province 1.75
Percentage of all persons over 70 years of age to the total population of the Province  4.95
Percentage of pensioners to the population over 70 years of age 35.40
* Percentages based on population estimated as at March 31st, 1946.
BLIND PENSIONS.
Table 1.—Disposition of Applications.
Current Total to
Year. March 31st, 1946.
Number of new applications received  44 618
Number of new applications granted  25* 479
Number of new applicants ineligible     5* 105
Number of new applications withdrawn     4 	
* Includes some held over from previous year.
Table 2.—Miscellaneous.
Number of new " other  Province" pensioners transferred to
B.C.   11
Number of B.C. pensioners transferred to other Provinces  3
Number of pensioners from other Provinces transferred out of
B.C. or suspended  7
Number of reinstatements granted _•_ 3
Number of B.C. pensions suspended  6
Number of deaths of pensioners  19
Number of deaths of " other Province " pensioners in B.C  3
Total number of pensioners on pay-roll at end of fiscal year  340
Table 3.—Causes of Ineligibility of Applicants.
Ineligible on basis of income     1
Ineligible on basis of sight     4
Total number ineligible     5
Table 4.—Sex of New Pensioners.
Males  13
Females   12
Total '  25 S 46 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Table 5.—Marital Status of New Pensioners.
Married  9
Single  7
Widows   4
Widowers   2
Separated   3
Divorced  n  0
Total  25
Table 6.—Birthplace of Applicants. „   „   .
Per Cent.
British Columbia      4.00
Other parts of Canada  12.00
The British Isles  64.00
Other parts of the British Empire  00.00
The United States  00.00
Other foreign countries  20.00
Table 7.—Ages of Applicants. „   _   .
Per Cent.
Age 40 to 44     4.00
Age 45 to 49     4.00
Age 50 to 54     4.00
Age 55 to 59  20.00
Age 60 to 64  28.00
Age 65 to 69  24.00
Age 70 and up  16.00
Table 8.—Living Arrangements of Applicants.    _   _  .
Per Cent.
Living alone   12.00
Living with spouse  32.00
Living with spouse and children     8.00
Living with children   _T  12.00
Living with others  32.00
Living in public institutions     4.00
Living in private institutions  00.00
Table 9.—Economic Status of Applicants.
(a.)  Holding real property of value— per cent.
Under $251   68.00
$251 to    $500  12.00
$501 to $1,000  12.00
$1,001 and up  8.00
(6.)  Holding personal property of value—
Under $251   72.00
$251 to    $500  12.00
$501 to $1,000  12.00
$1,000 and up '.  4.00 REPORT OF THE SOCIAL ASSISTANCE BRANCH, 1945-46. 5 47
FINANCIAL STATEMENT FOR FISCAL YEAR ENDED MARCH 31st, 1946.
Table 1.—Pensions.
Total amount paid pensioners in British Columbia— _      . Supplementary
Pensions. Allowances. lotal.
Old-age   $4,708,531.71 $909,633.48 $5,618,165.19
Blind         100,979.19      19,660.96       120,640.15
Totals   $4,809,510.90 $929,294.44 $5,738,805.34
Less—
Amount of refunds from pensioners and estates—
From estates of old-age pensioners         $54,923.34 $54,923.34
From estates of blind pensioners 25.00 25.00
Overpayments refunded by old-
age pensioners   2,782.72 $188.06 2,970.78
Overpayments refunded by blind
pensioners   285.00 285.00
Miscellaneous refunds from old-
age pensioners   3,545.92 41.90 3,587.82
Miscellaneous refunds from blind
pensioners     75.00 13.00 88.00
Totals  r        $61,636.98 $242.96       $61,879.94
Net amount paid pensioners in British Columbia—
Old-age   $4,647,279.73 $909,403.52 $5,556,683.25
Blind          100,594.19      19,647.96       120,242.15
Totals 	
Add—
Amount paid  other  Provinces  on
account of pensioners for whom
British Columbia is partly responsible—
Old-age     _     _
$4,747,873.92 $929,051.48
$5,676,925.40
$24,424.66
487.05
$6,988.93
135.00
$31,413.59
Blind 	
622.05
Totals 	
Less-
Amount received by British Columbia on account of pensioners
for whom other Provinces are
partly responsible—
Old-age 	
$24,911.71
$7,123.93
$32,035.64
$244,683.74
4,679.70
$62,822.99
738.00
$307,506.73
5,417.70
Blind  :       	
Totals 	
$249,363.44
$63,560.99
$312,924.43 S 48 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Less—
Amount refunded by the Dominion
Government  „      . Supplementary
Pensions. Allowances. Total.
Old-age   $3,485,885.07   $3,485,885.07
Blind   75,441.39   75,441.39
Totals    $3,561,326.46   $3,561,326.46
Total amount paid by British Columbia—
Old-age       $941,135.58 $853,569.46 $1,794,705.04
Blind   20,960.15      19,044.96 40,005.11
Totals       $962,095.73 $872,614.42 $1,834,710.15
Table 2.—Administration Expenses.
Salaries and special services   $57,106.41
Printing and stationery   5,591.31
Permanent equipment :„_ 3,693.86
Postage  9,036.21
Telegraph and telephone  1,015.32
Bank exchange   1,596.45
Travelling expenses  181.85
Miscellaneous   1,146.36
Total   $79,367.77
Table 3.—Supplementary Allowances.
Gross amount of Supplementary Allowances paid in British Columbia '.  $936,175.41
Supplementary Allowances refunded by other Provinces      63,560.99
Net Supplementary Allowances paid by British Columbia $872,614.42
Table 4.—Estimated Travelling and Medical Services Expenses.
Approximate travelling expenses for field service in unorganized territory and municipalities   $34,204.00
Approximate cost of medical services in unorganized territory and municipalities      82,875.00
(The above figures do not include expenditures by municipalities for travelling
expenses and medical services.)
In concluding this report the Board welcomes the opportunity of expressing its
sincere appreciation for the assistance received from many sources in administering
the Act during the year. It would not be possible to record adequately the help
received from the various social agencies, both public and private, but to all of them
we wish to extend our thanks. The guidance given to pensioners and applicants and
the friendly co-operation extended to the administration by the officials of the various
branches of the Old-age Pensioners' Association have been most helpful and
encouraging. REPORT OF THE  SOCIAL ASSISTANCE BRANCH, 1945-46. S 49
We wish also to commend the work of the departmental field staff, who are on the
" front line " of duty. Though labouring with case-loads that must at times be discouraging, they have improved the quality of their work and have shown a splendid
spirit.
To the members of the administration staff we wish to express our special appreciation. Their fine attitude and sustained effort made it possible to accomplish a heavy
year's work successfully.
J. H. Creighton,
Chairman. S 50 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
RESEARCH CONSULTANT.
There were four meetings of the Advisory Committee to the Research Consultant
during the year, at which present and future work of the Consultant were discussed.
At the close of the previous fiscal year, a survey of the Boys' Industrial School was
partly done. This project was completed first. It was a study of the Boys' Industrial
School itself, as well as a study of the group of boys who had been committed there
during the five-year period previous to March 31st, 1940. Special attention was paid
to boys committed through the Vancouver Juvenile Court, although records of all 350
boys from everywhere in the Province were read and analysed. An intensive study of
recidivists from the Vancouver Juvenile Court was also made.
Following this, a short study was made of the comparative costs of protection and
delinquency based on figures supplied by the Industrial Schools, the Children's Aid
Societies, and the Child Welfare Division. A five-year period, 1935-40, was covered,
as well as the year 1944.
The main research project of the year was a survey of the Provincial Infirmary,
undertaken at the suggestion of the Superintendent of the Provincial Infirmary. This
started out to be only a study of the institution but developed into a study of chronic
diseases, with special reference to facilities for treatment and care in British Columbia.
All records of patients in the three units of the Infirmary were studied, and the units
visited. The Provincial Home in Kamloops was included in the survey as many of its
inmates suffer from chronic diseases. Superintendents of some general hospitals in
the Province were interviewed in order to ascertain how many active beds in their
institutions were occupied by chronic patients. An effort was also made to get factual
information about developments for the treatment and care of chronic patients in
other areas.
The next survey is still in process of being completed. This deals with the problem
of housing for the aged in British Columbia. This problem of housing for the older
people is one which is being studied both in England and the United States, and there
is therefore much literature available for study which will be helpful for planning in
British Columbia.
Isobel Harvey,
Research Consultant. REPORT OF THE SOCIAL ASSISTANCE BRANCH, 1945-46. S 51
SOCIAL ALLOWANCES.
This form of assistance is available to unemployable persons and continues to meet
many situations. The report for this year shows an increase both in the numbers of
persons receiving aid and expenditure. While the increase at present is not alarming,
it does require examination to determine the cause. From reports we have received,
I am of the opinion that the greater numbers seeking aid are accounted for to a considerable extent by decreasing employment opportunities. During the war years men
and women formerly considered incapable of supporting themselves obtained employment such as they were capable of performing, and thus removed the necessity of
financial assistance from private or public agencies. With the cessation of hostilities
many of these employment opportunities have disappeared and with a consequently
greater number of persons unable to provide for themselves through their own
resources. Compared to the number receiving this form of aid in March, 1942 (14,617
persons), the increase to date should not, I believe, create undue concern, but does
point up the necessity of examining and utilizing the resources at our disposal to the
end that we fully acquaint ourselves with and utilize all possible rehabilitation
measures.
Below is given the case-loads, municipal and Provincial, for the month of March
in the years 1945 and 1946.
Total Case-load.
March, 1945. March, 1946.
Municipal— Municipal—
Heads of families      843 Heads of families      983
Dependents  1,491 Dependents __jj  1,879
Single   2,894 Single   3,266
Total  5,228 Total  6,128
Provincial— Provincial—■
Heads of families  433                   Heads of families  534
Dependents  951                  Dependents   1,208
Single   999                   Single   1,172
Total  2,383 Total  2,914
Grand total  7,611 Grand total  9,042
Expenditure by the Province for Social Allowances,
Medical Services, etc.
Fiscal Year Fiscal Year
1944-45. 1945-46.
Cases who are the responsibility of a municipality (80 per cent, paid by Province)     $841,279.28 $897,595.06
Cases who are the sole responsibility of the
Province (100 per cent, paid by Province)       460,653.80 525,121.05
Repatriation, transportation within the Province, nursing-home care (other than T.B.)
for Provincial cases         14,055.29 12,545.03
Medical Services—Provincial and municipal
cases (Social Allowance, Old-age Pensioners, and Mothers' Allowance cases) _       117,780.64 146,269.89 S 52
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Emergency payments—such as where family
may lose their home by fire or similar
circumstances 	
Municipal and Provincial cases—
(a.)  Tuberculosis nursing-home cases	
Tuberculosis private home cases	
Transportation of tuberculosis cases
Comforts allowance for tuberculosis
cases 	
Dependents of conscientious objectors	
Dependents of enemy aliens	
Allowances to Saskatchewan Mennonites	
Allowances to Japanese persons	
(&.)
(c.)
(d.)
Fiscal Year
1944-45.
$2,231.14
640.94
53,790.61
1,622.95
52.50
468.90
4,026.57
4,486.35
Fiscal Year
1945-46.
$608.17
127,931.41
2,002.50
3,315.00
1,179.30
871.91
856.52
121.20
$1,501,088.97        $1,718,417.04
Less recovered by refund and payment
from Dominion Government, " Conscientious Objectors "  $468.90
Less recovered by refund and payment
from Dominion Government, " Dependents of Enemy Aliens "  4,026.57
Less recovered from Province of Saskatchewan, " Mennonite Settlers "   4,486.35
Less recovered by refund and payment
from Dominion Government, " Allowances to Japanese Persons "	
Total refunds  $8,981.82
$1,179.30
871.91
856.52
121.20
$3,028.93
Total expenditure by Province— $1,492,107.15        $1,715,388.11
This form of assistance is administered by the local area, municipal or Provincial,
in which the recipient resides. The Provincial Government's contribution to municipalities for municipal cases remained the same as in the previous year; namely,
80 per cent, of the amount of the allowances based on our Social Allowance Guide.
Allowances to Provincial responsibilities are assumed entirely by the Province.
It will be noted that there is a considerable increase in expenditure because of
the Government's " control of tuberculosis " policy. This, I believe, is accounted for
in great measure by municipal officials becoming better acquainted with our policy
and a realization by social workers, both municipal and Provincial, of the necessity of
increased allowances for persons suffering from or in contact with this disease. I feel
confident that this extra expenditure is making a definite contribution towards the
objective of " control of tuberculosis."
Allowances to Mennonite settlers were terminated during the year, as the terms
of our agreement with the Province of Saskatchewan have been fulfilled. There is
good reason to believe that these people will become useful settlers in this Province.
The assistance granted to the dependents of conscientious objectors, interned
enemy aliens, and certain Japanese is a responsibility of the Dominion Government,
who have reimbursed us for the aid granted.
Present indications are that an increase in this form of assistance may be expected,
due mainly to the reasons already set out in this report.
C. W. Lundy,
655-H46-8187 Director of Welfare.

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