Open Collections

BC Sessional Papers

PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER… British Columbia. Legislative Assembly 1946

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcsessional-1.0320813.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcsessional-1.0320813.json
JSON-LD: bcsessional-1.0320813-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcsessional-1.0320813-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcsessional-1.0320813-rdf.json
Turtle: bcsessional-1.0320813-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcsessional-1.0320813-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcsessional-1.0320813-source.json
Full Text
bcsessional-1.0320813-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcsessional-1.0320813.ris

Full Text

 PROVINCE  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA
REPORT
OF THE
PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT
FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31ST, 1944
WITH APPENDICES
PRINTED by
AUTHORITY  OF THE  LEGISLATIVE  ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA,  B.C. :
Printed by Charles F. Banfield, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1945.  To His Honour Colonel W. C. Woodward,
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province of British Columbia.
May it please Your Honour:
I beg to submit herewith the Report of the Provincial Fisheries Department for
the year ended December 31st, 1944, with Appendices.
GEORGE SHARRATT PEARSON,
Commissioner of Fisheries.
Provincial Fisheries Department,
Commissioner of Fisheries' Office,
Victoria, B.C. Honourable George S. Pearson,
Commissioner of Fisheries, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—I have the honour to submit herewith the Annual Report of the Provincial
Fisheries Department for the year ended December 31st, 1944, with Appendices.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
GEORGE J. ALEXANDER,
Assistant Commissioner. TABLE OF CONTENTS.
REPORT OF THE PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT FOR 1944.
Page.
Value of Canadian Fisheries and the Standing of the Provinces in 1943    7
Value of British Columbia's Fisheries in 1944     8
Capital, Equipment, and Employees     9
The Canned-salmon Pack for British Columbia for 1944     9
British Columbia's Canned-salmon Pack by Districts 1  10
Review of British Columbia's Salmon-canning Industry, 1944_.__  19
Other Canneries (Pilchard, Herring, and Shell-fish)  20
Mild-cured Salmon '.  20
Dry-salt Salmon  20
Dry-salt Herring :  21
Pickled Herring  21
Tuna Fish  21
Halibut Production  22
Fish Oil and Meal  22
Net-fishing in Non-tidal Waters  24
Condition of British Columbia's Spawning-grounds    24
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon (Digest).    (No. 30.)  25
Herring Investigation .  26
Shell-fish Investigation  27
International Fisheries Commission, 1944  28
A Preliminary Report on a Fishery Survey of Teslin Lake, British Columbia  30
APPENDICES.
Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon. (No. 30.) By
Wilbert A. Clemens, Ph.D., Department of Zoology, The University of British
Columbia, Vancouver, B.C  32
Report on Pilchard-tag Recovery, 1944-45.   By John Lawson Hart, Ph.D.,
Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C ;  44
Tagging of Herring (Clupea pallasii) in British Columbia: Insertions and
Recoveries during 1944-45. By Albert L. Tester, Ph.D., Pacific Biological
Station, Nanaimo, B.C  45
Biological   Investigations   of   Commercial   Shell-fish.   By   Ferris   Neave,
Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C  64
Report on Investigations of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries
Commission for 1944.    By B. M. Brennan, Director  68
A Preliminary Report on a Fishery Survey of Teslin Lake, British Columbia.
By W. A. Clemens, R. V. Boughton, and J. A. Rattenbury  70
Salmon-spawning Report, British Columbia, 1944.   By Major J. A. Motherwell,
Chief Supervisor of Fisheries  76
Statistical Tables  82  REPORT OF THE
PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT FOR 1944.
VALUE OF CANADIAN FISHERIES AND THE STANDING OF
THE PROVINCES, 1943.
The value of the fisheries products of Canada for the year 1943 totalled $85,857,690.
During that year British Columbia produced fisheries products to the value of
$32,477,964, or 37.7 per cent, of Canada's total.
British Columbia in 1943 led all the Provinces in the Dominion in respect to the
production of fisheries wealth. Her output exceeded that of Nova Scotia, the second
in rank, by $10,824,031.
The market value of the fisheries products of British Columbia in 1943 was
$5,581,595 less than in the year previous. There was a decrease in the value of salmon
amounting to $7,679,583.
The capital invested in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1943 was $31,704,610,
or 51.3 per cent, of the total capital employed in fisheries in all of Canada. Of the total
invested in the fisheries of British Columbia in 1943, $12,800,020 was employed in
catching and handling the catches and $18,904,590 invested in canneries, fish-packing
establishments, and fish-reduction plants.
The number of persons engaged in British Columbia fisheries in 1943 was 17,914,
or 23 per cent, of Canada's total fishery-workers. Of those engaged in British Columbia, 11,903 were employed in catching and handling the catches and 6,011 in packing,
curing, and in fish-reduction plants. The total number engaged in the fisheries in
British Columbia in 1943 was 1,241 less than in the preceding year.
The following statement gives in the order of their rank the value of fishery products of the Provinces of Canada for the years 1939 to 1943, inclusive:—
Province.
1939.
1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
$17,698,980
8,753,548
5,082,393
3,007,315
2,010,953
1,655,273
950,412
478,511
430,724
4.867
$21,710,167
9,843,326
4,956,618
3,035,100
2,002,053
1,988,545
714,870
450,574
403,510
4.994
$31,732,037
12,634,832
6,484,831
3,518,402
3,233,115
2,842,041
952,026
440,444
414,942
6,652
$38,058,559
15,297,446
7,088,302
4,194,092
4,103,345
3,577,616
1,639,539
585,782
492,182
3,066
$32,477,964
21,653,933
11,128,864
5,292,268
5,927,125
4,564,551
2,860,946
1,154,544
795,000
Saskatchewan __ _	
2,495
Totals- _ _	
$40,072,976    i    $45,118,757
$62,258,872
$75,040,919
$85,857,690
SPECIES AND VALUE OF FISH CAUGHT IN BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The total marketed value of each of the principal species of fish taken in British
Columbia for the years 1939 to 1943, inclusive, is given in the following table:—
Species.
1939.
1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
$12,994,812
1,305,542
193,148
$13,767,091
1,397,999
172,999
$20,879,104
1,650,731
470,958
$22,419,881
1,985,705
243,113
$14,740,298
2,517.038
HalibuWivers_ - - -—
244,062
$14,493,502
$15,328,089
$23,000,793
$24,648,699
$17,501,398 M 8
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
Species and Value of Fish caught in British Columbia—Continued.
Species.
1939.
1940.
1941.
1942.
1943.
$14,493,502
2,198,912
100,693
357,990
50,937
79,419
61,633
39,826
12,246
59,976
1,340
5,934
10,693
3,752
4,388
2,459
441
3,026
1,792
32
$15,328,089
4,426,390
632,393
359,798
77,944
132,822
80,628
46,866
16,354
60,596
2,002
27,851
14,574
3,235
7,491
2,460
555
3,452
3,887
88
$23,000,793
4,665,260
1,781,876
398,316
98,970
189,527
83,253
30,470
8,115
116.111
$24,648,699
8,223,754
2,016,607
676,903
155,965
193,840
104,021
42,670
7,222
57,862
$17,501,398
7,809,630
2,756,416
978,973
148,226
399,923
34,743
49,320
10,417
82,318
1,600
72,619
150,551
9,792
Soles _.._       	
14,555
15,832
3,095
5,920
3,675
986
2,478
1,492
25
47,086
24,829
51,375
8,042
2,552
1,965
390
5,235
8,960
7
Sturgeon    	
3,526
Skate  __ -	
5,932
9,504
Trout _ ._	
Grayfish, etc.—
13,117
29,328
531,355
29,569
69,062
298,349
23,250
1,178,242
31,135
18,982
2,028,875
16,756
Oil      	
44,072
36,322
146,112
63,210
137,624
14,050
119,035
567
2,094
60,872
178,667
68,040
80,295
41,857
92,890
1,465
77,515
10,417
40,198
Miscellaneous  	
61,686
162,159
804
44,860
23,913
56,216
11,483
5,760
21,045
158,184
Tuna    	
42,194
165,966
Totals _ _.    	
$17,698,980
$21,710,167
$31,732,037
$38,059,559
$32,477,964
VALUE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA FISHERIES SHOWS
SUBSTANTIAL INCREASE.*
The value of the fisheries of British Columbia in 1944 amounted to $34,900,990,
an increase of $2,422,358 or 7 per cent, as compared with 1943. The salmon-fishery,
the most important single fishery in the Dominion, showed a decrease of 138,495 cwt.,
or 11 per cent, in the quantity caught. Higher prices accounted for a slight increase
in the landed value. The increase in total marketed value of this fish was $822,925 or
6 per cent. Salmon accounted for almost 45 per cent, of the total marketed value of
the fisheries of the Province.
Herring registered an increase of over 2 per cent, in the quantity landed and one
of nearly 2 per cent, in landed value. The marketed value, at $6,758,626, was lower by
13 per cent., owing largely to the smaller quantity canned.
Grayfish advanced to third place, as compared with fifth in 1943, with a marketed
value of $3,751,460, the main factor being the increased production of vitamin oil from
the livers of this fish.
* Note.—These figures are taken from the Advance Report on British Columbia Fisheries, Dominion Department of Statistics, Department of Trade and Commerce. BRITISH COLUMBIA. M 9
Halibut recorded an increase in the quantity landed, but the landed value was lower
than in 1943.    The total marketed value was $2,934,885, an increase of over 6 per cent.
The total quantity of fish taken, including shell-fish, was 4,583,226 cwt., a decrease
of 647,310 cwt. from the 5,230,536 cwt. taken in 1943 and the value to fishermen at the
point of landing was $17,333,347, an increase of 10 per cent, from the previous year.
CAPITAL, EQUIPMENT, AND EMPLOYEES.
Capital.—The value of the capital invested in the fisheries in 1944 was $33,550,302,
an increase of 6 per cent, over the 1943 figure of $31,704,610. The amount invested in
vessels and gear required for landing operations was $14,483,292, and that in fish-
processing establishments was $19,067,010.
Employees.—There were 12,426 persons engaged in primary and 6,150 in secondary
operations in 1944, a total of 18,576 for the industry. There were 523 more persons
engaged in catching and landing the fish and 139 more persons in the processing end
of the industry.
THE CANNED-SALMON PACK FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA FOR 1944.
The total canned-salmon pack put up in British Columbia in 1944 amounted to
1,097,557 cases, according to annual returns submitted by the licensed canners to the
Provincial Fisheries Department. This was the smallest pack of canned salmon produced in British Columbia since the depression years of 1931 and 1932. In 1931 the
total pack amounted to 685,104 cases, while in 1932 the pack was 1,081,031 cases. The
salmon-packs in these two years, however, are no criteria as the small packs recorded
were due entirely to economic conditions. In 1944 the smallness of the pack was
entirely due to a shortage of fish, as every effort was put forth by the canners to pack
as much salmon as possible owing to the Government's demand for a high protein food
for war purposes.
The 1944 pack of canned salmon was 160,664 cases less than the pack of the previous year, which was considered a very small pack. In 1944 the pack was 488,440
cases less than the average for the previous five years and was 510,447 cases below the
ten-year average. The canned-salmon pack in 1944 consisted of 247,714 cases of sockeye, 19,362 cases of springs, 3,926 cases of steelheads, 181,546 cases of cohoes, 389,692
cases of pinks, and 255,316 cases of chums. In each instance half-cases have been
dropped.
An examination of the breakdown of the pack figures shows that the sockeye-pack
of 1944, amounting to 247,714 cases, while slightly higher than the 164,889 cases packed
in the year previous, was, however, a pitifully small pack, the smallest, in fact, since
1928. The 1944 pack was 132,460 cases less than the five-year average, including the
small pack of 1943, and 123,215 cases less than the annual average pack for the previous
ten-year period. A breakdown of the total sockeye-pack figures for 1944 will be found
in the section of this report dealing with British Columbia's canned-salmon pack by
districts.
There were 19,362 cases of spring salmon packed in 1944, which was 8,704 cases
more than were canned in 1943, but was slightly less than the five-year average for this
species. The spring-salmon pack, however, is not indicative of the quantity of this
species caught as spring salmon find their principal outlet in the fresh, frozen, and
mild-cure markets.
Steelhead trout are not salmon, but a few are caught and canned incidental to
salmon fishing and canning operations each year and are accordingly mentioned in the
pages of this report. In 1944, 3,926 cases of steelheads were canned compared with
3,095 cases canned in 1943.
The cohoe-pack in 1944, amounting to 181,546 cases, was slightly less than the
186,043 cases canned in the year previous, but was considerably below the annual pack M 10 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
of this species for a number of years. The 1944 pack was. 65,206 cases less than the
average for the previous five years and 55,921 cases below the annual average for the
preceding ten-year period.
In 1944 there were 389,692 cases of pink salmon canned in British Columbia. This
figure is compared with 530,189 cases of this species canned in 1943. While the 1944
pack of pinks was somewhat larger than the packs for 1940 and 1942, the cycle-years,
it was 28,929 cases below the average pack for this cycle in recent past years.
The 1944 pack of chum salmon of 255,316 cases was most disappointing. Not since
1931, at the depth of the depression, has the chum-salmon pack been so small, in spite
of the fact that every effort was made to can as large a pack as possible. It is understood that a slightly larger percentage of chum salmon caught in 1944 was frozen than
in 1943. Nevertheless, the 1944 pack, when compared with the packs for previous
years, was definitely not encouraging. The 1944 pack of chums was 309,232 cases less
than the annual average for the previous five years and was 265,284 cases below the
annual average for the ten-year period immediately preceding. If chum salmon are
considered to have a four-year cycle, the 1944 pack was considerably below the average
pack for this cycle-year for this species.
The reader is referred to the next section of this report for a breakdown of the
figures for the different species by districts.
BRITISH COLUMBIA'S CANNED-SALMON PACK BY DISTRICTS.
Fraser River System.
In 1944 Canadians packed 130,883 cases of all varieties of salmon from fish caught
and credited to the Fraser River. This was 4,342 cases more than in 1943. The 1944
pack consisted of 88,515 cases of sockeye, 12,577 cases of springs, 293 cases of steelheads, 15,564 cases of cohoes, 130 cases of pinks, and 13,803 cases of chums. The year
1944 was an " off-year " for pinks and probably the other outstanding disappointment
in the 1944 pack was the small production of chum salmon.
Sockeye Salmon.—The 1944 total pack of canned sockeye salmon produced from
Fraser River caught fish by Canadian and American canners amounted to 126,024
cases. Canadian fishermen caught 88,515 cases, while American fishermen took 37,509
cases. The catch percentages of fishermen of the two countries are 70.23 per cent, for
the Canadian fleet and 29.77 per cent, for the American fleet, according to figures
supplied by the Department of Fisheries for the State of Washington. For convenience the percentages for the Fraser River sockeye-catch by American and Canadian
fishermen are tabulated below:— American.        Canadian.
Per Cent. Per Cent.
1930....,  78.00 22.00
1931 .  68.00 32.00
1932  55.00 45.00
1933  71.00 29.00
1934  72.00 28.00
1935  47.00 53.00
1936  25.00 75.00
1937  38.00 62.00
1938  42.00 58.00
1939  44.50 55.50
1940  37.50 62.50
1941  39.30 60.70
1942  37.20 62.80
1943  37.42 62.58
1944  29.77 70.23 BRITISH COLUMBIA. M 11
The Canadian pack of sockeye on the Fraser River in 1944 was somewhat disappointing in view of the size of the packs for the past two cycles. It was thought
that the Fraser River would produce a pack in the neighbourhood of 100,000 cases as
was the case in 1940, the immediately preceding cycle-year. In 1936 the Canadian pack
was 184,854 cases, although previous to that time this cycle had not been producing
large packs for some years.
Except for the escapement to the Chilko Lake spawning area, the sockeye escapement to the various districts of the Fraser River watershed was not particularly
encouraging in 1944, in spite of the comparatively light pack. The escapement to the
Shuswap Lake district was particularly disappointing. While there was some improvement in the Prince George area, the increase of the immediately preceding cycle-year
was not evinced on the spawning-beds in 1944.
Spring Salmon.—The Fraser River pack of spring salmon in 1944 amounted to
12,577 cases, which was the largest pack since 1941, when 34,038 cases of spring salmon
were canned. In comparing the figures for the spring-salmon pack on the Fraser
River, it should be remembered that spring salmon find a market in the fresh- and
frozen-fish trade and, therefore, the size of the canned pack is not necessarily indicative of the size of the run.
Cohoe Salmon.—In 1944 the cohoe-salmon catch on the Fraser River was sufficient to fill 15,564 cases. This figure is compared with 8,809 cases in 1943, 10,542
cases in 1942, 28,265 cases in 1941, and 13,028 cases in 1940.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon make their appearance on the Fraser River every
alternate year, the runs coinciding with the odd-numbered years. There was no run
of pink salmon to the Fraser River in 1944.
Chum Salmon.—The 13,803 cases of chum salmon canned in 1944 from Fraser
River caught fish was most disappointing. The 1944 pack was the smallest pack of
chums on the Fraser River since 1935, when 8,227 cases were canned. The 1944 pack,
however, cannot be compared with the pack of chum salmon on the Fraser River in the
pre-war years because large quantities of Fraser River caught chum salmon were then
salted and, also, the demand for canned chum salmon was not as great as during the
war years. In 1944 every effort was made to can as much as possible of the Fraser
River catch and, while it is true more chum salmon were frozen in 1944 than in the
immediately preceding war years, nevertheless the run was evidently much below what
was expected. The reports from the spawning-grounds indicate that the escapement
of this species was particularly disappointing.
In considering the canned-salmon pack as an indication of the size of the run it is
important that the escapement to the spawning areas of the particular river system
should also be considered. The reader is referred to the report of the Federal Department's Chief Supervisor of Fisheries on the salmon-spawning beds of the Province
which is published in full in the Appendix to this report.
Skeena River.
The total canned-salmon pack of all varieties of salmon caught on the Skeena River
in 1944 amounted to 149,948 cases and is compared with 133,589 cases in the previous
year. The Skeena River pack in 1944 was composed of 68,197 cases of sockeye, 1,500
cases of springs, 2,481 cases of steelheads, 20,191 cases of cohoes, 48,837 cases of pinks,
and 8,741 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The 68,197 cases of sockeye salmon canned on the Skeena River
in 1944, while considerably larger than the 28,268 cases of this species canned in 1943,
was, nevertheless, disappointing when compared with the packs for the previous four-
year cycles of 1940 and 1936, when 116,507 cases and 81,973 cases respectively were
canned.    The catch of Skeena River sockeye in any year is the product of the spawning M 12 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
of four and five years previous. In other words, the fish comprising the Skeena River
run are four- and five-year-old fish. The run of 1944 was derived from the spawning
of 1939 and 1940. In 1939 the pack was 68,485 cases and in that year the escapement
to the spawning-beds was reported to have been particularly good. The catch in 1940
produced 116,507 cases and the escapement in that year was reported as being a "very
heavy one."
In reporting on the escapement in 1944, the Chief Supervisor stated that the
seeding of sockeye was comparable with that of the cycle-year 1940, which was good.
In view of the size of the packs of sockeye on the Skeena in 1939 and 1940 and information on the escapement, it was reasonable to expect a sockeye-pack in 1944 of at
least 85,000 cases.
In the pages of this report for previous years the writer has remarked on the
generally falling production of sockeye for the Skeena River, and the comparatively
small pack in 1944 is a further indication that this fishery requires strong remedial
measures to be taken if production is to be restored to something like this river's
demonstrated capacity to produce. Figure 1 indicates graphically the gradual decline
in the Skeena River sockeye fishery. The broken line represents the annual pack in
cases from 1914 to 1943, inclusive. The unbroken line indicates the trend and is
derived by smoothing twice by moving averages of five. It will be noted that the
average decline in annual pack amounts to about 37,000 cases for the period under
review. Expressed another way it may be said that the Skeena River is presently
producing 35.5 per cent, less than formerly, in spite of the fact that greater incentive
and effort are expended with more efficient gear in order to obtain the smaller pack.
The Federal Department of Fisheries has instigated a biological investigation with a
view to ascertaining the cause and it is hoped that not too much time will elapse before
sufficient information will be at hand to indicate measures of conservation which will
have the desired result.
Spring Salmon.—The spring-salmon pack on the Skeena River in 1944, amounting
to 1,500 cases, is compared with 1,783 cases in 1943. The 1944 pack was the smallest
pack of spring salmon canned on the Skeena River for the past ten or twelve years, but
as spring salmon find their principal outlet in the fresh- and frozen-fish trade the
canned-salmon pack figures are not necessarily indicative of the size of the run.
Cohoe Salmon.—There were 20,191 cases of cohoe salmon canned on the Skeena
River in 1944, compared with 40,479 cases of this species in 1943 and 50,605 cases in
1941, the cycle-year for this species. While cohoe also find an outlet to some extent
in the fresh- and frozen-fish trade, there is no information reaching this Department
which indicates that the small size of the pack in 1944 was caused by a diversion of
fish to other outlets. We can only conclude, therefore, that the small size of the pack
was due to lack of fish.
Reports from the spawning-grounds indicate that the escapement was satisfactory.
Pink Salmon.—The Skeena River in 1944 produced a pack of 48,837 cases of pink
salmon compared with 52,767 cases in the cycle-year. In view of the fact that the packs
of recent cycle-years have been between 45,000 and 50,000 cases, the 1944 pack may be
considered as having been reasonably satisfactory. One should, however, not lose sight
of the fact that this cycle has produced, on the Skeena River, as high as 275,000 cases
of pink salmon in 1930 and 126,000 cases in 1934.
Chum Salmon.—The pack of chum salmon on the Skeena River is never large and
1944 was no exception, there having been canned 8,741 cases of this species. This is
compared with 6,597 cases in 1943, 11,421 cases in 1942, 10,707 cases in 1941, and 4,682
cases in 1940.
In using the catch figures for the various salmon-streams in British Columbia as
a means of indicating the size of the run to the individual streams, the reader is BRITISH COLUMBIA.
M 13
is
is  >
o  eg
£ S
I/I-"1
Cu o
5- O
Q     <SO<a^ci<aQCicriCj
Q   ^   5   ^   ^
N    *o     *Q     ^     «5 M 14 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
cautioned to give due consideration to the escapement to the spawning-beds in the
respective river systems. The reader is referred to the report of the Federal Department's Chief Supervisor of Fisheries on the salmon-spawning beds of the Province,
which is published in full in the Appendix to this report.
Nass River.
The total canned-salmon pack of all species of salmon caught on the Nass River in
1944 was 61,096 cases, compared with 52,333 cases in the year previous, and was composed of 13,083 cases of sockeye, 681 cases of springs, 232 cases of steelheads, 6,102
cases of cohoes, 31,854 cases of pinks, and 9,143 cases of chums. Half-cases have been
dropped in each instance.
Sockeye Salmon.—The Nass River pack of sockeye salmon in 1944 was 13,083
cases, compared with 13,412 cases for the year previous and 13,809 cases in 1940, one
of the cycle-years. In 1939, the other cycle-year, the pack was 24,357 cases, Nass River
runs comprising four- and five-year-old sockeye. The 1944 pack was 4,170 cases less
than the five-year average for this stream and 6,009 cases below the ten-year average.
The escapement to the spawning-grounds was reported by the Chief Supervisor of
Fisheries as being "quite good to satisfactory," although in the upper area the supply
was somewhat lighter than the heavy seeding reported in 1939.
Spring Salmon.—There were only 681 cases of spring salmon packed on the Nass
in 1944, as compared with 1,002 cases in 1943 and 1,515 cases in 1942. The spring
salmon canned on the Nass River are caught incidental to fishing for other species
and, as a consequence, do not indicate the magnitude of the run of this species.
Cohoe Salmon.—The Nass River in 1944 produced a pack of 6,102 cases of cohoes,
compared with 9,768 cases in 1943 and 15,487 cases in 1942. The 1944 pack was the
smallest cohoe-pack on the Nass River since 1939, when only 1,996 cases were packed.
While the cohoe-pack on the Nass is never particularly large, the exceptionally small
pack in 1944 was most disappointing. That year's pack was 5,511 cases below the five-
year average for this stream and 5,891 cases less than the average for the past ten years.
Reports from the spawning-grounds indicate that the escapement was better than
average.
Pink Salmon.—The production of canned pink salmon on the Nass River in 1944
amounted to 31,854 cases, which was 17,149 cases less than were packed in the cycle-
year, although slightly larger than the quantity packed in 1940. The pack in 1944 was
17,646 cases less than the five-year average for the five immediately preceding cycle-
years.
The Chief Supervisor of Fisheries reports that the pink seeding on the Nass River
in 1944 was the best since 1936, the various streams receiving good supplies.
Chum Salmon.—The Nass River is not a large chum producing area and the 9,143
cases of chums packed on this river in 1944 must be considered as reasonably satisfactory. This figure is compared with the immediately preceding years as follows:
1943, 10,146 cases;  1942, 12,518 cases;  1941, 6,246 cases;  1940, 5,461 cases.
The escapement of chum salmon to the spawning-grounds was reported by the
Chief Supervisor of Fisheries as being better than average.
Rivers Inlet.
In Rivers Inlet in 1944 there was packed a total of 59,391 cases of all species,
which was most disappointing when compared with the production record of this inlet.
The pack consisted of 36,582 cases of sockeye, 805 cases of springs, 88 cases of steelheads, 13,921 cases of cohoes, 5,289 cases of pinks, and 2,705 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The 36,582 cases of sockeye salmon packed on Rivers Inlet in
1944 was the smallest pack of sockeye salmon on this inlet on record and was most BRITISH COLUMBIA. M 15
disappointing. The sockeye run to Rivers Inlet is composed of four- and five-year-old
fish.    The pack in 1940 was 63,469 cases while that of 1939 was 54,143 cases.
In 1939 the escapement was reported to be at least an average one and practically
on a par with 1934. In 1940 the Chief Supervisor reported " Notwithstanding a most
disappointing commercial catch of sockeye, conditions on the spawning-grounds were
found to be excellent. Possibly the seeding was not as good as the splendid conditions
obtaining in 1935 and 1936, but decidedly satisfactory." In view of these reasonably
optimistic reports of escapements for the two cycle-years, and the fact that every effort
has been made during the war years to produce as much canned salmon as possible,
there would appear to be factors at work which have caused a decided reduction in the
size of the run of sockeye salmon to this inlet which could have been reasonably
expected in 1944.
The 1944 sockeye-pack on Rivers Inlet was 27,464 cases less than the average for
the previous five-year period and 36,271 cases less than the average annual pack for
the previous ten-year period.
The Chief Supervisor of Fisheries reports that the escapement of sockeye salmon,
while in some rivers was up to normal, in others the escapement was reported as being
below normal.    On the whole the escapement was reported as light.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are caught and canned in Rivers Inlet only incidental to fishing for other varieties and, on this account, the pack is never large. The
805 cases of spring salmon packed on the inlet in 1944 is compared with 765 cases in
1943, 985 cases in 1942, and 1,692 cases in 1941.
Cohoe Salmon.—Rivers Inlet produced a pack of canned cohoes in 1944 amounting
to 13,921 cases. This must be considered as reasonable as the average for the previous
five years was 13,723 cases and for the previous ten-year period 11,738 cases, although
the escapement was reported as being only fairly satisfactory.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon do not frequent Rivers Inlet in large numbers,
although some pinks are caught each year incidental to sockeye-fishing. In 1944 there
were canned 5,289 cases of pinks on Rivers Inlet, compared with 8,347 cases in 1943
and 954 cases in 1942.
Chum Salmon.—Since 1935 Rivers Inlet has produced a pack of chum salmon
between 5,000 and 16,000 cases, the average being in the vicinity of 9,500 cases. The
production in 1944 of 2,705 cases of chum salmon was most disappointing. While no
doubt some of the chum salmon caught in Rivers Inlet in 1944 were frozen, the canned
pack, nevertheless, was quite disappointing. If chum salmon are considered to be a
four-year fish, the cycle-year 1940 produced a pack of 9,025 cases, while the average
annual pack of this species in Rivers Inlet for the previous five years amounted to
10,891 cases.    Apparently the escapement to the spawning-grounds was good.
Smith Inlet.
Smith Inlet is primarily a sockeye producing area, although other species are
caught and canned incidental to sockeye-fishing. The total pack of all species in Smith
Inlet in 1944 was 6,194 cases, composed of 3,165 cases of sockeye, 66 cases of springs,
343 cases of cohoes, 498 cases of pinks, and 2,122 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The 3,165 cases of this species caught in Smith Inlet in 1944
was the smallest pack of Smith Inlet caught sockeye on record. The average annual
pack for the previous five years was 16,311 cases and for the previous ten years the
average annual pack amounted to 20,297 cases. Notwithstanding the small pack, the
Chief Supervisor reports that the spawning, while a decided improvement over the
five-year cycle of 1939, was not entirely satisfactory.
Spring Salmon.—In Smith Inlet, as in Rivers Inlet, spring salmon are caught
incidental to sockeye-fishing.    In 1944 Smith Inlet produced 66 cases of springs com- M 16 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
pared with 118 cases in the year previous, while in 1942 only 8 cases of spring salmon
were packed.    The spring-salmon catch is not indicative of the run of this species.
Cohoe Salmon.—Smith Inlet is not particularly a cohoe-fishing area and, consequently, cohoe are never taken in large numbers here. The catch in 1944 was no
exception, there having been produced 343 cases. This figure is compared with 541
cases for 1943, 1,813 cases for 1942, 1,955 cases in 1941, and 1,102 cases in 1940.
Seeding was reported as being fair.
Pink Salmon.—Pink salmon are also caught in Smith Inlet only incidental to fishing
for sockeye. In 1944 there were canned 498 cases, compared with 556 cases in 1942,
527 cases in 1943, 749 cases in 1941, and 755 cases in 1940.
Chum Salmon.—In recent past years some seine fishing for chum salmon has been
carried on in Smith Inlet in the fall of the year. This is not a large fishery, however,
and the pack of Smith Inlet caught chum salmon in 1944 amounted to 2,122 cases,
compared with 5,693 cases in 1943 and 5,490 cases in 1942. The catch in 1941 produced
7,741 cases, while 6,015 cases were canned in 1940. The escapement was reported as
having been fair.
Queen Charlotte Islands.
Salmon-fishing in the Queen Charlotte Islands, with the exception of trolling, is
confined almost exclusively to seine fishing for pinks and chums, incidentally taking
some cohoes. The other varieties listed as canned from fish caught in this district are
incidental to fishing for the above-named species. Chum salmon are taken in the
Queen Charlotte Islands each year but the pink-salmon runs to the streams on these
islands occur only every alternate year, the runs coinciding with the even-numbered
years.    The year 1944 was a " pink year."
The catch of Queen Charlotte Islands caught fish in 1944 produced a total pack of
192,702 cases of all varieties. Of this total 90,993 cases were pinks, 81,916 cases were
chums, and 19,615 cases were cohoes.
Pink Salmon.—The 90,993 cases of pink salmon canned from Queen Charlotte
Islands caught fish in 1944 was the largest pack of pink salmon caught in the Queen
Charlottes since 1930, although the 1944 pack exceeded the immediately preceding
cycle-year's pack by only 7,664 cases. The average bi-annual pack for the previous
five cycle-years for this species was 73,319 cases. It would appear from the reports
from the spawning areas that the supplies of pink salmon on the spawning-grounds in
1944 were quite satisfactory. It is hoped that by proper conservation measures the
Queen Charlotte Islands pink-salmon run might be again built up to something of its
former production, although on account of the numerous reports of heavy damage to
the spawning-streams by logging operations, it is doubtful whether the desired result
might be attained in the immediate future.
Chum Salmon.—The Queen Charlotte Islands area produced a chum-salmon pack
of 81,916 cases in 1944, which was the largest pack of chums caught in this area since
1940, when 164,911 cases were produced. The 1944 pack was 1,368 cases greater than
for the previous five-year period and 10,173 cases above the average annual pack for
this species for the previous ten-year period.
The escapement to the spawning-beds in the northern area was reported as being
a failure and, while in certain areas in the south islands the chum seeding was reported
as satisfactory, in other areas the seeding was poor.
Cohoe Salmon.—The Queen Charlotte Islands produced a pack of canned cohoe
amounting to 19,615 cases in 1944, which figure is compared with 14,488 cases of this
species canned from Queen Charlotte Islands caught fish in 1943. The canned pack
in 1942 amounted to 16,935 cases, while 27,421 cases were canned in 1941. The supplies
of cohoe salmon on the spawning-grounds were reported as having been satisfactory. BRITISH COLUMBIA. M 17
Central Area.
For statistical purposes the Central Area comprises all the salmon-fishing areas off
the coast of British Columbia between Cape Calvert and the Skeena River, except Rivers
Inlet. The total pack of all varieties of salmon canned from fish caught in this area
in 1944 amounted to 303,626 cases, comprising 32,715 cases of sockeye, 643 cases of
springs, 666 cases of steelheads, 25,823 cases of cohoes, 162,986 cases of pinks, and
80,793 cases of chums.
Sockeye Salmon.—The principal sockeye-fishing grounds in the Central Area are
Fitzhugh Sound, Burke and Dean Channels, while some sockeye are also taken in the
vicinity of Banks Island and Principe Channel, and a small sockeye gill-net fishery is
conducted in Gardner Canal. No attempt is made to report separately on these widely
scattered areas. The 32,715 cases of sockeye produced in the Central Area in 1944
were 7,889 cases above the average for the previous five-year period and is compared
with 32,042 cases packed in 1940, the cycle-year for most of these runs. The 1944 pack
of Central Area caught sockeye was also 5,073 cases above the average pack of this
species in this area for the past ten years.
The reader is referred to the spawning-grounds report for details of the escapement.
Spring Salmon.—Spring salmon are caught and canned in this area but, as in other
districts, the catch is incidental to fishing for other varieties and also much of the
spring salmon caught in this district finds a market in the fresh, frozen, and mild-cured
trades. Consequently, the canned-salmon pack figures do not indicate the size of the
catch.
In 1944 there were 643 cases of spring salmon canned from fish caught in this
district. This figure is compared with 547 cases for 1943, 723 cases for 1942, 460 cases
for 1941, and 15,018 cases for 1940.
Cohoe Salmon.—The cohoe-salmon pack of the Central Area in 1944 amounted to
25,823 cases. This is compared with 26,645 cases in 1943 and 31,274 cases in 1942,
while in 1941, the cycle-year for this species, there were 45,218 cases of cohoe canned.
The 1944 pack was 9,946 cases below the five-year average and 13,442 cases below the
average for the previous ten-year period.
Pink Salmon.—The Central Area has always been considered a large producer of
pink salmon, although for a few years, principally 1940, 1941, and 1942, the runs to
the various streams in this area were most disappointing. In 1943 there was a particularly large run of pink salmon intercepted by the fleet on its way to the Bella Coola
district. Largely as a result of this run, the catch in that year jumped to 288,109 cases.
In 1944, the year under review, the pink-salmon pack in the Central Area amounted to
162,986 cases. This figure is compared with a pack of 69,434 cases in 1942, the cycle-
year for this species, which would indicate particularly favourable conditions of spawning and survival. The 1944 pack was 34,759 cases above the average for the previous
five-year period and was 26,950 cases more than the average for this area for the
previous ten years.
Reports indicate that the escapement of this species to the various spawning-areas
was reasonably satisfactory.
Chum Salmon.—The Central Area produced 80,793 cases of chum salmon in 1944,
which figure was 22,494 cases below the average for this species for the previous five
years and was less than the average for the previous ten-year period by 25,101 cases.
If chums are considered a four-year fish, the 1944 run, as gauged by the pack, was
considerably less than the run in the cycle-year when 135,802 cases were canned.
2 M 18 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
Vancouver Island.
The total pack of canned salmon credited to Vancouver Island in 1944 amounted to
193,459 cases, composed of 5,288 cases of sockeye, 3,068 cases of springs, 165 cases of
steelheads, 79,813 cases of cohoes, 49,092 cases of pinks, and 56,029 cases of chums.
The 1944 pack was 154,251 cases less than the pack for this area in the year previous
and was the smallest pack credited to Vancouver Island since 1931, at the depth of the
depression when canning activities were drastically curtailed.
Sockeye Salmon.—The 5,288 cases of sockeye credited to Vancouver Island in 1944
were 1,897 cases below the exceedingly low pack for the year previous and 19,401 cases
below the ten-year average.
Spring Salmon.—Large quantities of spring salmon are caught in the waters off
Vancouver Island each year. Most of these fish, however, are taken by troll and find
a market in the fresh- and frozen-fish trade. The amount of spring salmon canned
from Vancouver Island caught fish consists principally of spring salmon taken in the
seines while fishing for other varieties. Consequently, the pack figures are not indicative of the size of the catch. In 1944 there were 3,068 cases of spring salmon canned,
while in 1943 the amount was 2,937 cases. In 1942 the figure was 5,407 cases and in
1941 the pack amounted to 8,038 cases.
Cohoe Salmon.—Vancouver Island produced a pack of canned cohoes in 1944
amounting to 79,813 cases. This is compared with 73,846 cases of this species in 1943
and 81,837 cases in 1942. The 1944 pack, while slightly above that of 1943 was, nevertheless, 19,444 cases less than the average for the previous five years and was 15,925
eases less than the ten-year average.
Pink Salmon.—The 49,092 cases of pink salmon canned from Vancouver Island
caught fish in 1944 were 81,733 cases less than were canned in the year previous but
were-84,618 cases greater than in the cycle-year 1942. The 1944 pack of pinks was
32,201 cases below the five-year average and less than the ten-year average by 91,221
cases.
Chum Salmon.—In 1944 there were canned from Vancouver Island caught chum
salmon 56,029 cases, compared with 132,843 cases in the year previous. In commenting
on the small pack of chum salmon credited to Vancouver Island in 1943, it was stated
that " Compared with the record for previous years, the 1943 pack constitutes almost
a failure." Certainly the 56,029 cases packed in 1944 must be considered as having
been a failure for all practical purposes. The chum-salmon pack credited to Vancouver
Island for recent past years is listed herewith for comparison:— cases.
1943  132,843
1942   383,005
1941   593,016
1940 _  279,064
1939  212,949
1938  266,566
1937  203,900
1936  347,954
In comparing Vancouver Island pack figures for recent past years with the pack
figures for this area for pre-war years, due consideration must be given to the fact
that since the outbreak of hostilities the Provincial Government has declined to issue
licences for salmon dry-salteries and the Federal Government has only permitted the
export of chum salmon under permit. These actions were taken for the purpose of
diverting as much as possible of the Vancouver Island chum-salmon catch to the canners. Another fact which must be considered in comparing the 1944 pack with the
packs of recent past years is the amount of chum salmon which was frozen.    It is BRITISH COLUMBIA. M 19
understood that somewhat larger quantities of chum salmon from Vancouver Island
were frozen in 1944 than in recent past years. Notwithstanding this latter consideration, however, the 1944 chum-salmon catch for Vancouver Island was most disappointing.
In all cases where not specifically mentioned, the reader is referred to the report
on the spawning-areas issued by the Chief Supervisor of Fisheries for the Federal
Government, which is published in full in the Appendix to this report.
REVIEW OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SALMON-CANNING INDUSTRY, 1944.
The Provincial Fisheries Department licensed thirty-one salmon-canneries for
operation in British Columbia in 1944, although only thirty of these actually operated.
It is understood that arrangements were made, after the licence was taken out, for this
non-operating cannery to combine operations with another cannery. Actually, the
same number of canneries operated in 1944 as in 1943. The operating canneries were
located as follows:—
Queen Charlotte Islands  1
Skeena River  8
Central Area  4
Rivers Inlet  1
Johnstone Strait  2
Fraser River and Lower Mainland  10
West coast of Vancouver Island  3
Nass River  1
While the same number of canneries operated in 1944 as in 1943 the locations of
the various canneries were slightly different from the latter year. In 1943 there were
no operating canneries on the Nass River, while in 1944 one cannery operated in this
district. In 1944 there was one less cannery operating on the Fraser River and Lower
Mainland than in 1943; otherwise the distribution of operating canneries was the
same in 1944 as in the year previous.
Since the beginning of the war the number of canneries operating in the Province
has been consistently less than before the war. The shortage of labour generally,
and particularly the shortage of technical help, has forced a consolidation of operations
in many cases. Not only have companies been forced to close down one or more of
their operating canneries and consolidate their own operations, but in several instances
different companies have been forced to come to working agreements to can each
other's fish. These consolidations and joint operations have been entirely voluntary
on the part of the companies, brought about principally by the shortage of labour.
Again in 1944, as in previous war years, the Federal Government made arrangements with the British Ministry of Food which resulted in the entire pack of British
Columbia canned salmon being taken over by the Federal Government for Great
Britain. Later on, however, it was announced that 250,000 cases of the 1944 pack
would be made available for domestic consumption. This amount, of course, was not
nearly enough to satisfy Canadian needs, but the distribution of even this small amount
in Canada had the effect of keeping the canners' labels before the public.
In order that as much as possible of the salmon-catch would be canned, certain
restrictions upon the disposal of salmon were again in effect in 1944 as in 1943 and 1942.
The Provincial Government again refused to permit the operation of salmon drysalteries and the Federal Government also placed an embargo on the export of fresh
salmon in certain categories, except under export permit. These measures, no doubt,
were the means of diverting considerable quantities of salmon to the canneries which
might have found an outlet in other markets had these regulations not been in effect.
It is understood that in 1944 a considerably larger quantity of salmon was frozen than
in the year previous. M 20 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
OTHER CANNERIES  (PILCHARD, HERRING, AND SHELL-FISH).
Pilchard.—The pilchard-fishery of British Columbia is conducted largely off the
shores of the west coast of Vancouver Island and most of the catch is reduced to meal
and oil. However, previous to the war there was a growing demand for canned
pilchards and the accelerated requirements for protein foods during the war has
increased the demand for canned pilchards along with other protein foods. The quantity of pilchards canned in any one year is not necessarily indicative of the demand for
this product, nor does it indicate the size of the catch. Pilchards for canning are
selected from the total catch, and, because of conditions inherent in the fishery, there
is not always available a sufficient quantity of pilchards of suitable quality to meet the
requirements of the canners.
In 1944 there were seven pilchard-canneries licensed, although only six operated.
All of these but one were located on the west coast of Vancouver Island. The six
operating pilchard-canneries utilized 2,824 tons of pilchards and produced therefrom
78,772 cases of canned pilchards. In the year previous five pilchard-canneries operated
in British Columbia, producing a pack of 94,512 cases.
Herring.—Herring have been canned in British Columbia for a number of years.
Previous to the war herring-canning was not conducted on a very large scale, the
annual pack amounting to around 25,000 cases. This small pack was due in a large
measure to the limited market for canned herring. Immediately upon the outbreak of
hostilities the demand for canned herring increased enormously, due to the heavy
requirements of a war-time economy for high protein foods. The herring-canning
industry immediately jumped from a rather unimportant branch of British Columbia's
fishery to one of major proportions. In 1939 the industry produced 418,021 cases of
canned herring and since then the annual pack has been over 1,000,000 cases.
In 1944 twenty-two herring-canneries were licensed but only twenty-one actually
operated. These twenty-one canneries utilized 56,055 tons of herring and produced
1,190,762 cases of canned herring. In the year previous twenty-two herring-canneries
operated and the pack in that year was 1,198,632 cases. Practically the whole of the
herring-pack is each year taken over by the Federal Government for the account of
the British Ministry of Food.
Shell-fish.—Shell-fish, particularly clams and oysters, are canned in British Columbia to some extent. The operation is not large and the production fluctuates considerably. In 1944 four shell-fish panneries were licensed to operate, although only two
actually got under operation. The shell-fish pack amounted to 10,457 cases in 1944
compared with 17,463 cases canned in 1943 by three operating canneries.
MILD-CURED SALMON.
There were six tierced-salmon plants licensed to operate in British Columbia in
1944 and all six operated in various degrees. The six operating plants produced 2,300
tierces of mild-cured salmon in 1944, compared with a production of 856 tierces in
1943 by three operating plants.
DRY-SALT SALMON.
In each year previous to 1939 there have been varying amounts of chum salmon
dry-salted for shipment to the Orient. In some years the production of dry-salt
salmon has reached fairly large proportions and in recent past years this industry has
been controlled and regulated by the British Columbia Salt-fish Board, which Board
is a scheme set up under the " Natural Products Marketing (British Columbia) Act."
Chum salmon, normally, are fished in quantity in the fall of the year. There is, however, a considerable pack of canned chum salmon put up during the summer and early BRITISH COLUMBIA. M 21
autumn months. Due to the increased demand occasioned by the war for inexpensive
protein foods, such as canned salmon, the Provincial Government declined to issue
salmon dry-saltery licences in 1939. For similar reasons the licences covering salmon
dry-salteries were again refused by the Provincial Government in 1940. In 1941, 1942,
and again in 1943, the demand of the British Government for a very large portion of
the British Columbia salmon-pack made it imperative that as much as possible of
the salmon-catch be diverted to the canneries. For this reason the Provincial Government again refused to issue licences covering salt-salmon operations, and, as a consequence, no salmon were legally dry-salted in British Columbia in 1944.
For the above-noted reasons the British Columbia Salt-fish Board was again
inoperative during the 1944 season and, on that account, no report of the British
Columbia Salt-fish Board appears in this report.
DRY-SALT HERRING.
Previous to the 1941 season, production of dry-salt herring was, in latter years,
regulated by the British Columbia Salt-fish Board under the " Natural Products
Marketing (British Columbia) Act." The total production of dry-salt herring in
British Columbia was formerly shipped to the Orient, particularly to Japan, and from
there quantities were re-exported to Manchukuo and China. Conditions in the Orient
in recent years have reduced the quantity of dry-salt herring shipped to the Orient
very considerably. Since 1940 the British Columbia Government has refused to issue
herring dry-saltery licences in order to divert as much as possible of the herring-catch
to the herring-canneries, which were all operating on British war orders for this
commodity. There have been no herring dry-salteries operated in British Columbia
since 1940.
PICKLED HERRING.
During World War I. the business of pickling herring in British Columbia
attained fairly large proportions, particularly in Scotch-cured herring. After the
armistice in 1918, however, the demand for pickled herring dropped off rapidly and
for many years no pickled herring was produced in British Columbia. This industry
has again been revived since the beginning of World War IL, due largely to the fact
that the source of supply of this commodity, which is in Europe, was cut off and the
markets in Canada and the United States have had to look elsewhere for this product.
Since 1940 the production of pickled herring in British Columbia, while not assuming the proportions of a major industry, has, nevertheless, been considerable. The production for the years since 1940 was as follows: 1940, 5,500 barrels; 1941, 3,095
barrels; 1942, 2,240 barrels; 1943, 2,928 barrels. The production in these years
apparently was greater than the market could absorb because in 1944, while five
plants were licensed, only two of these operated. These two plants produced 125 barrels
of pickled herring. It is understood that the small production in 1944 was due entirely
to lack of demand and, while it is possible that some pickled herring may be produced
in the immediate post-war years, the outlook for this industry is not bright.
TUNA FISH.
In 1944 one cannery was operated in an experimental way in the production of
canned tuna fish. In the last couple of years some tuna fish have been caught off
Vancouver Island by Canadian fishermen. These have usually been shipped to the
United States for processing.    The pack of this cannery was quite small. M 22 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
HALIBUT PRODUCTION.
The halibut-fishery on the Pacific coast of North America is regulated by the
International Fisheries Commission and is shared in by the nationals of both Canada
and the United States. The Commission regulates the fishery on a quota basis and on
that account there is very little fluctuation in the amount of halibut landed from year
to year. For the purpose of regulation the coast is divided into four areas, the principal
areas, from the standpoint of production, being Areas Nos. 2 and 3. Area No. 2 comprises the waters off the Washington and British Columbia coasts from the approximate
vicinity of Willapa Harbour in the south to Cape Spencer in the north. Area No. 3
comprises the waters from the northern boundary of Area No. 2 to the Aleutians. The
other two areas, Nos. 1 and 4, from which production is very small, comprise the waters
south of Area No. 2 and the Bering Sea respectively.
In 1944 the catch-limits set by the International Fisheries Commission were: For
Area No. 2, 23,500,000 lb. and for Area No. 3, 27,500,000 lb.—a total of 51,000,000 lb.
and an increase of 500,000 lb. over the quota for 1943. These quotas are exclusive of
that quantity of halibut which is permitted to be taken incidental to fishing for other
species under permit in Area No. 2 after that area's closure and before the closure of
Area No. 3. This is the third year in succession in which the International Fisheries
Commission has increased the catch-limits. In doing so the Commission has pointed
out that the action has been taken purely on account of the exigencies caused by the
war and that there is a distinct possibility of the quotas being lowered when the nations'
need for protein food is less demanding at the conclusion of hostilities. In addition to
the quota of 51,000,000 lb. allowed by the International Fisheries Commission, permits
are issued which allow vessels to land halibut up to a certain percentage caught incidental to fishing for other species in Area No. 2 when that area is closed to halibut-
fishing while Area No. 3 is still open.
The total landings of halibut by all vessels in all ports in 1944 amounted to
52,935,000 lb. Of this amount 25,616,000 lb. were caught in Area No. 2 and 26,856,000
lb. were taken in Area No. 3. There were 463,000 lb. caught in Area No. 1. The
total landings by all vessels in Canadian ports in 1944 amounted to 18,698,000 lb. Of
this amount 11,284,000 lb. were reported to have been caught in Area No. 2 and
7,414,000 lb. in Area No. 3.
Canadian vessels landed in all ports 13,308,000 lb. Of this amount the Canadian
catch landed in Canadian ports amounted to 13,262,000 lb. while 46,000 lb. of the Canadian catch was delivered to American ports. Of the total Canadian catch 11,079,000
lb. were reported as having been caught in Area No. 2, while 2,229,000 lb. of the Canadian catch was reported to have been taken in Area No. 3. American vessels landed in
Canadian ports a total of 5,436,000 lb.
The figures for the average prices of halibut usually quoted in this section are
unavailable this year, as are the figures for halibut-livers.
The statistical information furnished above is supplied by the International Fisheries Commission and is gratefully acknowledged.
FISH OIL AND MEAL.
Fish-oil and edible fish-meal have been produced in British Columbia for a number
of years and, previous to the war, this branch of the industry was an important part of
British Columbia's fisheries. Pilchard and herring have been the principal species
used for the production of oil and meal but, since the outbreak of the war and the
demand for natural sources of vitamins, other species have been found to yield oils of
high vitamin content and the sharp demand for these products has increased activity
in this field.    Dogfish and dogfish-livers, shark-livers, codfish-livers, cannery waste, and BRITISH COLUMBIA. M 23
the viscera of a number of species are all utilized for the production of fish-liver oils,
much of which finds a market in the pharmaceutical field. In addition to the medicinal
oil produced, British Columbia fish-oils of the lower vitamin potencies find an outlet in
many manufacturing processes, such as the production of soaps, paints, linoleums,
printer's ink, etc., while large quantities are also sold for the feeding of poultry and
live stock.
Fish-liver Oil.—Since the outbreak of the war in Europe there has been an ever-
increasing demand for a natural source of Vitamin A. It has been known for some
time that the livers and viscera of certain Pacific fishes were a valuable source of vitamins. Because of its vitamin content fish-liver oil has been in greatly increased
demand since the beginning of hostilities.
Since 1942 the Provincial Fisheries Department has required licences for the
operation of fish-liver reduction plants. In 1944 eight fish-liver oil plants were licensed
to operate. These eight plants processed 8,284,000 lb. of fish-livers and produced
545,736 imperial gallons of oil. The oil production from eight plants operated in 1943
was 433,575 imperial gallons. This production of high-vitamin oil finds an outlet
almost exclusively for pharmaceutical purposes and has gone a long way toward meeting the vitamin requirements of the United Nations.
Pilchard Reduction.—The pilchard-fishery in British Columbia is conducted principally off the west coast of Vancouver Island and, while the bulk of the pilchard-catch
is taken well offshore, in latter years the fishing-vessels have been proceeding farther
south to meet the run of pilchards on its northern migration from California waters.
In 1944 seven pilchard-reduction plants were licensed to operate. These seven plants
produced 1,675,090 imperial gallons of oil and 8,435 tons of meal. These figures are
compared with the production of nine plants operated in 1943 when 2,238,987 imperial
gallons of oil and 15,209 tons of meal were produced. In comparing these figures it
should be remembered that the catch of pilchards in 1943 was one of the largest in
recent past years.
Herring Reduction.—The reduction of herring to meal and oil in British Columbia
has become an important branch of our winter fishery. Herring are caught from
October to March and, while heretofore the industry was conducted largely on the west
and south-east coasts of Vancouver Island and in the vicinity of Prince Rupert, later,
particularly during the war years, the industry has spread and now practically covers
the entire coast of British Columbia.
In 1941 and subsequent war years, the demand for a high-protein food at low cost
to meet the exigencies of war caused the Government to take such action as would
divert as much as possible of the herring-catch from the reduction plants to the canneries. The Provincial Government in 1942, 1943, and again in 1944 licensed herring-
reduction plants on the west coast of Vancouver Island on the distinct understanding
that no herring caught on the east coast would be utilized for reduction in west coast
plants, while reduction plants operated on the east coast were licensed on the distinct
understanding that no herring caught on the east coast of Vancouver Island would be
used for reduction purposes except that portion of the catch unsuitable for canning.
The Provincial Government's regulations were supplemented by further regulations of
the Federal Government which prohibited the delivery of east coast caught herring to
any one except a licensed herring-cannery. As a result of the steps taken by the
Federal and Provincial Departments of Fisheries, and the desire of the canners to can
as much as possible of the herring-catch, the reduction plants produced less than would
otherwise have been the case.
In 1944 eleven herring-reduction plants were licensed to operate but only ten
actually got into production. These ten herring-reduction plants produced 717,655
imperial gallons of oil and 9,539 tons of meal.    These figures are compared with the M 24 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
production in the year previous when eleven operating plants produced 512,516 imperial
gallons of oil and 7,662 tons of meal.
Whale Reduction.—Whale reduction has been fairly consistent in recent past years
in British Columbia waters, but in 1944 there was no whaling conducted by Canadian
plants in British Columbia waters.
Miscellaneous Reduction.—Dogfish and fish-offal reduction plants are licensed to
operate each year in British Columbia. These plants produce meal and oil from cannery waste and from the carcasses of dogfish. The oil from the dogfish carcasses is
not to be confused with dogfish-liver oil which is reported in another section of this
report. In 1944 ten plants operated on this source of material and produced 301,038
imperial gallons of oil and 2,721 tons of meal.
NET-FISHING IN NON-TIDAL WATERS.
Under section 23 of the Special Fishery Regulations for British Columbia, fishing
with nets in certain specified non-tidal waters within the Province is permissible
under licence from the Provincial Commissioner of Fisheries. This fishery is confined
almost exclusively to the residents living within reasonable distance of the lakes in the
Interior of the Province. This fishery has been in the past of a very minor nature
and for that reason has not been mentioned heretofore in this report. As the number
of licences issued has been increasing, and as statistics are now available covering
the catch for recent past years, it was deemed advisable that this information should
be contained in the annual report of the Provincial Fisheries Department. There will
be found in the Appendix to this report a table showing the name and number of lakes
in which net-fishing has been permitted, together with the number and approximate
weight of the various species of fish taken from each lake.
It will be noted from the statistical data that there are three different kinds of
fishing licences issued for net-fishing in the non-tidal waters of the Province—namely,
fur-farm, ordinary, and sturgeon. Licensed fur-farmers, under subsection (10) of
section 23 of the Special Fishery Regulations for British Columbia, are permitted to
take coarse fish by the use of nets of suitable mesh in the non-tidal waters of the
Province under licence from the Commissioner of Fisheries.
There were thirty-six licences issued to fur-farmers in the 1944-45 season. This
was the same number as were issued in the year previous. The coarse fish so taken
under these licences are used as food for fur-bearing animals held in captivity.
Ordinary licences permit the licence-holder to use a specified number of pieces of net
to take fish, other than salmon, trout, or sturgeon, in the non-tidal waters of the Province for the licensee's own use, or in certain specified cases the product may be sold.
During the 1944-45 season there were seventy-one ordinary fishing licences issued.
This number is compared with sixty-nine ordinary licences issued in the year previous.
In the 1944-45 season fifty-two of these seventy-one licences were for Okanagan Lake,
whereas in the year previous forty-six licences were issued for Okanagan Lake. In the
case of licences issued for Okanagan Lake, these permit the use of a dip-net only and
for the express purpose of catching kokanee. One sturgeon-fishing licence was issued in
the 1944-45 season, as was the case in the year previous.
In 1944-45 there was a total of 108 non-tidal fishing licences issued. This is
compared with 106 licences for the previous year.
The reader is referred to the table in the Appendix to this report for a detailed
account of the catch of fish taken by licensed nets in the non-tidal waters of the Province during the 1944-45 season.
CONDITION OF BRITISH COLUMBIA'S SPAWNING-GROUNDS.
Owing to this Department having discontinued making inspections of the various
salmon-spawning areas of the Province, we are indebted to Major J. A. Motherwell, Chief Supervisor of Fisheries, and the officers of his Department who conducted the
investigations, for furnishing us with a copy of his Department's report. His courtesy
in supplying us with this report is gratefully acknowledged.
Major Motherwell's report on the condition of British Columbia's salmon-spawning
grounds will be found in full in the Appendix to this report.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON
(DIGEST).     (No. 30.)
There will be found in the Appendix to this report another paper, No. 30, in the
series " Contributions to the Life-history of the Sockeye Salmon." Paper No. 30 is
again contributed by Dr. W. A. Clemens, Department of Zoology, University of British
Columbia.
In the introduction to paper No, 30 Dr. Clemens comments on the comparatively
small packs of sockeye salmon on Rivers Inlet, the Skeena River, and the Nass River in
1944. In connection with the Rivers Inlet pack Dr. Clemens says, " The small return to
Rivers Inlet is a matter of concern. As stated in the report for 1943, it is evident that
provision must be made for larger escapements if the run to this area is to be
maintained." Dr. Clemens then goes on to predict that, unless exceptionally favourable
conditions prevail for the period of the life-history of the 1944 spawning, the returns
of adult salmon in 1948 and 1949 will be small. In connection with the Rivers Inlet
run Dr. Clemens also points out that, since the sockeye salmon comprising these runs
mature at four and five years of age, reduction of the stock in 1944 will affect the
returns in 1948 and 1949 and subsequently in 1952, 1953, and 1954; also, that if reduction of stock occurs in two successive years, the subsequent results are doubly effective
in certain years. For example, the effects of poor returns in 1943 and again in 1944
will be superimposed in 1948 when both the four- and five-year-old fish will be involved
and, similarly, again in 1952 and 1953. It is obvious that if this run is to survive and
continue to produce an average pack, it is very important that a margin of safety be
maintained.
The Rivers Inlet pack in 1944, amounting to 36,852 cases of sockeye salmon, was
the smallest pack on record for this area and was accompanied by a light escapement.
Dr. Clemens is not prepared to essay any explanation at this time. It would appear,
however, from the evidence presented that the condition of the sockeye-salmon runs
to Rivers Inlet is such as to warrant qualified scientific investigation.
In connection with the Skeena River sockeye-salmon run in 1944, which produced
a pack of 68,197 cases, Dr. Clemens suggests that, while this may be considered a pack
of medium size, and as the escapement to the spawning-grounds was reported as good,
it would seem to indicate a reasonable balance between catch and escapement. In connection with this river system the Fisheries Research Board of Canada has commenced
an investigation of the causes of fluctuation in the abundance of sockeye salmon and
the results should be of fundamental importance in relation to maintaining a highly
productive fishery.
In connection with the sockeye-salmon run to the Nass River, Dr. Clemens again
remarks on the fact that the returns to this river are still quite unpredictable. In connection with the 1944 run, while this was evidently not a particularly large run, it was
characterized by an exceptionally large percentage of six-year-old fish. While the
small pack of 13,083 cases of sockeye salmon may have been due in part to less extensive
fishing, Dr. Clemens suggests that the run was evidently relatively small since the
report on the spawning-beds does not refer to a particularly large escapement.
Dr. Clemens is not hopeful of a large return to this river in 1945.
For a more detailed account of the analysis of the runs of sockeye salmon to
Rivers Inlet, the Skeena and Nass Rivers, the reader is referred to Dr. Clemens'
paper published in the Appendix to this report. M 26 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
HERRING INVESTIGATION.
The investigation of the herring of British Columbia, financed jointly by the
Fisheries Research Board of Canada and the Provincial Fisheries Department, was
continued in 1944 by Dr. A. L. Tester, Mr. J. C. Stevenson, and their assistants.
The results of a tagging and tag-recovery programme for the 1944-45 season are
included in detail in the Appendix to this report. For the most part the results serve
to confirm those of previous years regarding the extent of mixture between populations.
Some new information has been obtained. For example, it is shown that fish spawning
on certain grounds in the vicinity of Gilford Island, in the Queen Charlotte Strait area,
contribute to the fishery in the vicinity of Clio Channel but not to that in the upper
reaches of Knight Inlet. It is also shown that there is a limited contribution of fish
spawning in the southern part of the central coast-line to the fishery in the northern
part of the area, in the vicinity of Laredo Sound. Extensive tagging along the Central
coast-line during the spring of 1944, coupled with plans for more satisfactory recovery
(using induction detectors), should serve to clarify the latter situation next year.
At the instigation of the herring investigation, a new type of tag detector has been
designed by Dr. A. C. Young, of the National Research Council, and has been constructed by Mr. F. J. Bartholomew, of the Electric Power Equipment, Limited. Its
chief features are stability of operation and ease of control. Preliminary tests have
shown promise of satisfactory performance and it is expected that the unit will be in
operation during the next fishing season.
Lack of knowledge of the extent of mortality caused by tagging has prevented use
of tag-recovery data for calculating fishing mortality; that is, the fraction of the
available population taken by the fishery. From December, 1944, to March, 1945, an
experiment was conducted to determine the rate of tagging mortality involved in the
use of internal metal tags. Tagged fish and controls were confined in a large concrete
tank in the intertidal zone for the three-month period, interchange of water being
effected by tidal action. The weekly rate of tagging mortality increased rapidly to
the fourth week, reached a peak in the sixth week, and declined to a low value in subsequent weeks. For the three-month period the rate of tagging mortality was unexpectedly high—0.6, or 60 per cent. It was higher for males than for females and
higher for smaller than for larger fish of both sexes. Post-mortem examination indicated that the controls died from infection through abrasion and from " disease," and
that tagged fish died from these causes and also from infection of the tagging incision
and the gonads as a result of the tagging operation. The observed rates of tagging
mortality may be applied to tagging data as a minimal approximation, but further
investigation is necessary to determine the extent of an additional mortality from
preliminary handling of the fish and to determine if similar mortality rates pertain
to fish caught and tagged during the spawning period. The results to date will be
presented for publication in the Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada
under joint authorship of the two investigators.
The commercial catches and spawning runs were again sampled for length, weight,
sex, and age with 122 samples (11,835 fish) from the former and 15 samples (1,461
fish) from the latter. A new method of recording sampling data in the field was
devised, using mimeographed forms. The chief advantage of the new method is that
the time necessary for sampling and for making subsequent calculations on the sampling
data is considerably reduced. The sampling phase of the work is being undertaken by
Mr. Stevenson. A start has been made by both of the herring investigators on a
comprehensive study of the age, length, and weight composition of samples collected
since and including 1935-36.
The detailed study of variation in scale pattern, begun last year, has been largely
discontinued for the present due to a realization that sufficient time was not available. BRITISH COLUMBIA. M 27
Results obtained so far are of limited use in contributing to the accuracy of scale
reading for age-determination.
Spawning reports, covering herring-spawning conditions in 1944 in all areas, were
again collected. Considerable headway has been made in preparing an account of the
nature and extent of herring spawning in British Columbia waters over a fifteen-year
period.
Daily catch records of the herring-fishery were again collected during the 1944-45
fishing season by means of special pilot-house record-books. During the course of the
year an article entitled " Catch statistics of the British Columbia herring fishery to
1943-44 " (by Albert L. Tester, Bulletin No. 67, Fisheries Research Board of Canada)
was published. This includes the presentation of gross and detailed catch statistics
for each fishing area and a discussion of observed fluctuations in availability and
abundance.
Another publication during the year entitled " Echo sounding for summer herring " (by Albert L. Tester, Progress Reports (Pacific) No. 61, Fisheries Research
Board of Canada) deals with the location of herring in Alaska and British Columbia
waters during the summer of 1944.
SHELL-FISH INVESTIGATION.
The investigation into the shell-fish of British Columbia, with particular emphasis
on clams, was continued in 1944. It will be remembered that this investigation was
instituted in order to ascertain the conditions prevailing on some of the clam-beaches
of British Columbia, particularly those which had been exploited commercially for some
considerable time. The investigation was undertaken by the Fisheries Research Board
of Canada at the request of the Provincial Fisheries Department and is financed jointly
by these two organizations. The work was commenced by Dr. Roy Elsey and is now
being conducted by Mr. Ferris Neave, of the Pacific Biological Station at Nanaimo.
While all shell-fish are included in the investigation, particular emphasis is being placed
on clams, as it is felt that exploitation of this species has been greater than the others,
and, consequently, the need for protection is greater on that account.
In the Appendix to this report there will be found a paper by Mr. Ferris Neave,
entitled " Biological Investigations of Commercial Shell-fish." In this paper Mr. Neave
discusses the commercial butter-clam catch of 1943-44 and also the little-neck clam
catch for the same period. In the case of butter-clams the production showed an
increase per unit of fishing effort in the year under review and Mr. Neave feels that
the condition of the butter-clam beaches in the Province might be regarded as satisfactory, while in the case of little-necks, statistics covering several years show little
variation in availability. While the razor-clam production of Graham Island in the
Queen Charlottes for the period under review was low, Mr. -Neave says that this does
not necessarily indicate a depletion of the beaches.
The experiment in managing the production of butter-clams on Seal Island, near
Comox, was continued for the fourth season in February, 1945. At this time 100 tons
of clams were permitted to be taken. Production per unit of effort showed a decline
from previous seasons, although still high in comparison with all of the large coastal
areas. Mr. Neave noticed the appearance of fairly large groups of young clams in
this area which should attain commercial size within a few years. Mr. Neave discusses
generally the condition of the beaches at Seal Island and their future prospects.
The paper also notes that experiments in tank-rearing of oyster larvae were
continued in 1944.
The investigation also covered the reproduction activities of Pacific oysters on the
commercial beds at Ladysmith. It is noted that a commercially valuable set took place
at the end of July and the beginning of August. The reader is referred to the Appendix to this report for the complete paper
Mr. Neave.
INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES COMMISSION, 1944.
As provided in the treaty of 1937 under which it operates, the International
Fisheries Commission continued the regulation of the Pacific halibut fishery and the
investigations upon which the regulations are based. The investigations revealed
further improvement in the condition of the stocks of halibut.
The members of the Commission were the same as in the latter part of 1943;
namely, Mr. G. W. Nickerson and Mr. A. J. Whitmore for Canada, and Mr. Edward W.
Allen and Mr. Charles E. Jackson for the United States. Mr. Nickerson and Mr. Allen
were chairman and secretary respectively.
Meetings of the Commission were held at Seattle on November 27th, 28th, and 29th
to consider matters connected with the investigation and regulation of the fishery.
On November 28th the Commission met with the Halibut Conference Board, composed of representatives of the halibut vessel owners and fishermen. The results of
the Commission's investigations and the effect of regulations upon the condition of the
stocks of halibut were discussed and matters pertaining to the future regulation of the
fishery were considered.
Regulations governing halibut-fishing in 1944 were issued on March 20th. These
were similar to the regulations of the previous year, but contained a few important
changes. The Area 3 catch-limit of 27,500,000 lb. was retained, but that for Area 2
was increased from 23,000,000 to 23,500,000 lb. A minimum length-limit of 26 inches
for fish with heads on was substituted for the previous minimum weight-limit of 5 lb.
13 oz. for dressed fish with heads on. The pre-season.validation of halibut licences for
fishing in Areas 1 and 2 and in Areas 3 and 4 was limited to three and five days respectively before the opening of the fishing season. The use of dory gear, previously prohibited only in Areas 1 and 2, was prohibited in all fishing areas. The provision of the
regulations prohibiting the retention of halibut caught by set nets was extended to
include halibut caught by any type of net.
The changes in the regulations were designed to provide the maximum annual
catch justified by the condition of the stocks of halibut, to reduce illegal fishing prior
to the beginning of the season, and to give additional protection to the small halibut
upon which the future of the fishery depends.
The fishing season opened on April 16th, as in the preceding year, but a dispute
over prices delayed the commencement of fishing until approximately May 23rd. Areas
1 and 2 which include all fishing-grounds south of Cape Spencer, Alaska, were closed at
midnight July 9th, when the Area 2 catch-limit was attained. Areas 3 and 4, including
all grounds north and west of Cape Spencer, were closed at midnight November 30th,
the beginning of the statutory closed season. Permits for the retention and landing
of halibut caught incidentally during fishing for other species in Areas 1 and 2 after
they were closed to halibut-fishing became invalid on November 30th.
The curtailment programme which the fishermen adopted some years earlier as a
means of spreading the catch over a longer season was discontinued. This resulted in
an increase in the size and frequency of landings, which in conjunction with an increase
in the number of Area 2 vessels reduced the Area 2 season to forty-eight days, the
shortest in the history of the fishery. In Area 3 the effect of the larger and more
frequent trips was more than counterbalanced by the diversion of vessels to the shark-
liver and tuna fisheries, with the result that the Area 3 catch-limit was not attained
by the beginning of the statutory closed season.
Landings of halibut on the Pacific Coast during 1944 amounted to 52,935,000 lb.,
approximately 700,000 lb. less than in 1943. The decrease was caused by the failure
of the fishing fleet to catch the Area 3 limit before the winter closed season.    Landings BRITISH COLUMBIA. M 29
from Area 1, which extends south from Willapa Harbour, Washington, amounted to
463,000 lb. Area 2, which lies between Willapa Harbour and Cape Spencer, Alaska,
produced 25,616,000 lb., including 845,000 lb. landed under permit after the closure of
that area to regular halibut-fishing. Area 3, lying between Cape Spencer and the
Aleutian Islands, produced 26,856,000 lb. No halibut were landed from Area 4, in the
Aleutian Islands and Bering Sea region.
The halibut-catch of Canadian vessels amounted to 13,308,000 lb., which was
401,000 lb. greater than in 1943. The landings of United States vessels at Canadian
ports decreased about 6,874,000 lb. as a result of war-time price and operating conditions which made the landing of such vessels at Alaskan ports more advantageous than
in recent previous years.
The programme of biological and statistical investigations, upon which the Commission bases its management policies, was continued by the Commission's staff under
the direction of H. A. Dunlop, Director of Investigations, as well as war-time conditions
and available personnel permitted. Changes in the fishery were observed and changes
in the conditions of the stock of fish resulting from regulation were measured and
analysed.
The abundance of halibut as indicated by the average catch per standard unit of
fishing effort showed considerable improvement over 1943. Preliminary figures indicate increases of 15 per cent, in Area 2 and 13 per cent, in Area 3. The catch per unit
of effort was 143 per cent, and 133 per cent, greater in Areas 2 and 3 respectively than
it was in 1930.
Study of the changes taking place in the composition of the stocks of adult halibut
as a result of regulations was continued by sampling the commercial catch. Approximately 21,000 fish were measured and material for the determination of changes in
age composition was taken from about 3,500 of these. The samples were mainly from
Area 2 catches, as abnormalities in the distribution of landings made it almost impossible to secure samples from the Area 3 grounds.
Analysis of the market measurements showed that the improvement in the catch
per unit of effort in Area 2 during 1944 was caused, as in 1943, mainly by an increase
in the abundance of small commercial sizes. These small fish were present in greater
numbers than in 1943 and averaged somewhat larger in size as a result of the additional
year's growth. A small increase in the abundance of halibut of larger sizes was also
apparent.
Age-determinations, required for determination of the exact year of origin of the
changes that have occurred in the stocks of fish, were continued on a limited scale,
using materials collected in conjunction with the taking of market measurements from
1933 to 1944. Many age-readings have been made but many more remain to be made
before an analysis of the changes in age composition during the period of regulation
can be undertaken.
Work upon the success of spawning in Area 2 was confined to the laboratory
because of war-time conditions which made field-work impracticable. The results of
field-work at sea from 1934 to 1943 inclusive were analysed in greater detail than
previously.    Organization of these materials for publication was begun.
The investigations of the Commission measured and explained the changes in the
stocks of halibut and provided a factual basis for future regulation. They proved that
the condition of the stocks was still improving as a result of regulations. They showed
that the annual yields, which are now about 10,000,000 lb. greater than in the year
before regulation, could be further increased by continued rational control of the
fishery. M 30 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON A FISHERY SURVEY OF TESLIN LAKE,
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The opening of the northern part of the Province of British Columbia by the completion of the British Columbia-Alaska Highway drew the attention of North America
to this vast new territory. Even before the road was completed the Provincial
Fisheries Department was in receipt of inquiries as to the possibilities of fishing commercially in the northern lakes of the Province which the opening of the highway
would make accessible. As the Department had very little or no information as to
the possibilities of the waters in the more remote northern regions of the Province,
it was deemed advisable to obtain authentic information before permitting commercial
fishing in these newly made accessible waters.
In the north-western corner of the Province there are a number of fairly large
lakes, including Teslin, Atlin, Tagish, Bennett, and Gladys, as well as a number of
smaller lakes. All of these drain into the Yukon drainage-basin. Inasmuch as Teslin
Lake lies closest to the highway and was, therefore, the most accessible, it was decided
to conduct a survey of Teslin Lake, with special emphasis as to whether or not this
lake would support a commercial fishery. Dr. W. A. Clemens, of the University of
British Columbia, was in charge of the work and was assisted by Dr. R. V. Boughton
and Mr. J. A. Rattenbury. Arrangements were made with the Federal Government to
permit the party to establish headquarters in the Yukon Territory at the village of
Teslin. Permission was obtained from the Canadian and United States Governments
to permit the party to travel over the Highway from Whitehorse to Teslin and
arrangements were also made with Mr. R. McCleery, a trader at Teslin, for accommodation. The party left Vancouver the latter part of June, 1944, and were in the field
until September. While the party's headquarters were at Teslin, field camps were
established at various points on the lake, both on the British Columbia and Yukon
sides of the boundary-line.
In the Appendix to this report there will be found a preliminary report on the
fishery survey of Teslin Lake. The investigation involved determinations of the
surface area, bottom area, and volume of the lake; distributions of water temperatures, oxygen and hydrogen ion concentration; species of fish, their distribution,
abundance, age-weight-length relationships, stomach content and parasites; quantitative determinations of plankton and bottom organisms as potential food-supplies for
the fish.
Teslin Lake is 78 miles in length and has an average width of approximately
2 miles. The area, as determined from maps, is approximately 137 square miles.
The survey indicated a maximum depth of 700 feet and a somewhat irregular average
depth of 300 feet. During the two months water temperatures ranged from 12° to
19° C. at the surface to 4° C. at approximately 475 feet and deeper, with little evidence
of a thermocline.
During the months of July and August the oxygen content of the water in Teslin
Lake was almost at the saturation point at all depths. The hydrogen ion concentration
during this period ranged from 7.5 to 8.0.
Fishing was conducted by means of gill-nets and a beach-seine and to some extent
by trolling and fly-fishing. The investigators indicated that the fish fauna in Teslin
Lake is limited to twelve species, three or more additional species in the Lower Yukon
River, but apparently these have not yet extended their range to Teslin Lake.
The reader is referred to the interim report in the Appendix for a detailed account of
the twelve species occurring in Teslin Lake. It is interesting to note in passing, however, that spring salmon and chum salmon occur in Teslin Lake, which means a migration of approximately 2,000 miles from the sea. BRITISH COLUMBIA, M 31
The capacity of any body of water to support a fish population is directly proportional to the food organisms available. The collections of plankton and bottom
organisms made in Teslin Lake in 1944 have not yet been examined critically, but it
would seem from a general observation that the plankton and bottom fauna are limited,
both in species and quantity; consequently, the productivity of the lake in terms of
poundage of fish may be expected to be relatively low.
In discussing the potential commercial and sport fisheries of Teslin Lake the
authors draw the following tentative conclusions, subject to revision after a complete
analysis of the pertinent data has been made. Whitefish are the only species which
may be considered for commercial exploitation. It is estimated that the normal annual
requirements for local residents are about 20,000 lb., and in view of the present
abundance of whitefish in the lake, the results of the studies of age composition and
on the basis of data available and the information concerning commercial whitefish
fisheries in other lakes, it would appear than an additional 20,000 to 30,000 lb. of
whitefish might be removed annually, providing the fishery was not localized. The lake-
trout in Teslin are of greater value as a sport fish than as a commercial proposition.
While it would be premature to recommend a policy in regard to exploiting the
commercial possibilities of fishing in Teslin Lake until all of the pertinent data have
been examined critically, it would appear that the northern lakes, based on the data of
Teslin Lake, do not warrant the expectation of developing a commercial fishery in
these northern waters, except possibly to supply purely local needs.
The reader is referred to the preliminary report on the fishery survey of Teslin
Lake which is published in full in the Appendix to this report. M 32 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
APPENDICES.
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LIFE-HISTORY OF THE SOCKEYE SALMON.
(No. 30.)
By W. A. Clemens, Ph.D., Department of Zoology, The University of
British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.
INTRODUCTION.
The run of sockeye salmon to Rivers Inlet and the Skeena and Nass Rivers in
1944 was relatively small as indicated by the pack figures and spawning-bed reports.
The pack data are as follows: Rivers Inlet, 36,852 cases; Skeena River, 68,197 cases;
Nass River, 13,083 cases; total, 118,132 cases. The reports on the escapements, as
supplied by Major J. A. Motherwell, Chief Supervisor of Fisheries, Vancouver, may be
briefly listed as follows: Rivers Inlet, light; Skeena River, good; Nass River, quite
good or satisfactory.
The small return to Rivers Inlet is a matter of concern. As stated in the report
for 1943, it is evident that provision must be made for larger escapements if the run
to this area is to be maintained. Unless exceptionally favourable conditions prevail
for the period of the life-history of the product of the 1944 spawning, the returns of
adult salmon in 1948 and 1949 will be small. Obviously if the same Ashing intensity
is maintained the stock of this cycle will have little chance of recovery. Two further
points may be mentioned: In the first place, since the fish mature at four and five
years of age, reduction of the stock in 1944 will affect the returns in 1948 and 1949
and subsequently in 1952, 1953, and 1954. In the second place, if reduction of stock
occurs in two successive years, the subsequent results are doubly effective in certain
years. For example, the effects of poor returns in 1943 and 1944 will be superimposed in 1948 when both the four- and five-year-old fish will be involved, and again in
1952 and 1953.    The importance of maintaining a " margin of safety " is evident.
The Skeena River produced a run of medium size as was expected. As stated in
the report for 1943, the Fisheries Research Board of Canada has commenced an investigation of the causes of the fluctuation in abundance of sockeye salmon in this river
and the results should be of fundamental importance in relation to maintaining a highly
productive fishery.
The returns to the Nass River still remain unpredictable. The return in 1944
was evidently not particularly large and, as will be referred to later, was characterized
by an exceptionally large percentage of six-year-old fish.
DESIGNATION OF AGE-GROUPS.
Two outstanding features in the life-history of the fish have been selected in
designating the age-groups—namely, the age at maturity and the year of its life in
which the fish migrated from fresh water. These are expressed symbolically by two
numbers, one in large type, which indicates the age of maturity, and the other in small
type, placed to the right and below, which signifies the year of life in which the fish
left the fresh water.    The age-groups which are met most commonly are:—
31( 4X—the " sea-types " or fish which migrate in their first year and mature
at the ages of three and four years respectively.
39—" the grilse,"  usually males,  which  migrate  in  their  second  year and
mature at the age of three. BRITISH COLUMBIA. M 33
42, 52—fish which migrate in their second year and mature at the ages of
four and five respectively.
53, 63—fish which migrate in their third year and mature at the ages of five
and six respectively. ,
64, 74—fish which migrate in their fourth year and mature at the ages of six
and seven respectively.
1. THE RIVERS INLET SOCKEYE RUN OF 1944.
(1.) General Characteristics.
The pack of sockeye salmon at Rivers Inlet in 1944 was 36,852 cases. The run
consisted of 76 per cent, of four-year-old fish, thus fulfilling the prediction made in
last year's report, and the unusual predominance of five-year-old fish, as it occurred
in 1942 and 1943, has not been continued. However, the return to this spawning area
was exceptionally small; in fact, it produced the smallest pack on record with an accompanying "light" escapement. An explanation of this occurrence cannot be made at
the present time.
The return in 1945 will be the result of the spawnings in 1940 and 1941. In the
former year the pack was 63,469 cases, the run was comprised of 69 per cent, of four-
year-old fish and the escapement was reported as large. In 1941, the pack was 93,378
cases, consisting of 59 per cent, of four7year-old fish and the spawning-beds were
reported as well "seeded."    There should be a fairly good return in 1945 of both
four- and five-year-old fish.
(2.) Age-groups.
The data for this year's study are obtained from twenty-eight random samplings of
the commercial catch from June 26th to August 3rd, inclusive, representing 1,732 fish.
The 42 age-group is represented by 1,315 individuals forming 76 per cent. While this
percentage is high, it is not unusually so. The thirty-year average (1912 to 1941,
inclusive) is 51 per cent, while the ten-year average (1932 to 1941, inclusive) is 58 per
cent. The years 1942 and 1943 are excluded in the above calculations because the
runs of those years have exceptionally low representations of four-year-old fish, namely
8 per cent. The 52 age-group is represented by 402 fish or 23 per cent.; the 53 age-
group by 13 fish or 1 per cent.; the 63 age-group by 2 individuals; and the 62 age-
group by 2  individuals.    The latter two  fish  are  not  included  in  the calculations
(Table I.).
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths of the males and females of the 42 age-group are 21.1 and
21 inches respectively and of the 52 age-group 23.5 and 23.3 inches respectively.
The average weights of the males and females of the 42 age-group are 4.6 and 4.4 lb.
and of the 52 age-group 6.2 and 6 lb. respectively. The average lengths and weights of
the 4, fish are close to the averages of the past years of record, but both the average
lengths and weights of the 52 fish are considerably below the averages of the past years
of record (Tables IV. and V.).
The detailed information concerning the distribution of the lengths and weights
in 1944 is given in Tables II. and III.
Two individuals of the 62 age-group occur, both males, 26 and 28% inches in
length and 9 and IIV2 lb. in weight respectively.    These fish are not included in the
calculations. .
(4.) Distribution of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 1,019 and of females 715, percentages
of 59 and 41 respectively. As may be noted in Table VI., females were considerably in
excess in 1942 and 1943. In the 42 age-group the males predominate with a percentage
of 67, while in the 52 age-group the females predominate with a percentage of 67. M 34             REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
Table I.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs.
Year.
Percentage of Individuals.
42
52
h
63
1907
(87,874 cases) _	
1908
(64,652 cases)... _	
__
1909
(89,027 cases) _ 	
	
1910
(126,921 cases)	
lr~
1911
(88,763 cases)  	
	
1912
(112,884 cases)   	
21
79
	
....
1913
(61,745 cases)   	
80
20
	
1914
(89,890 cases)-	
35
65
1915
(130,350 cases)	
13
87
1916
26
74
1917
(61,195 cases) __  	
39
61
1918
57
43
1919
46
54
1920
(121,254 cases)          _. _                                              _
5
95
1921
(46,300 cases) 	
49
51
1922
(60,700 cases)	
81
18
i
.-
1923
(107,174 cases)                                 	
74
24
2
1924
(94,891 cases)  	
43
54
2
1925
23
77
1926
59
38
2
1927
(64,461 cases)  _.  	
81
16
3
1928
(60,044 cases) — _ _—	
55
40
4
1929
(70,260 cases)  _ _ _	
77
18
3
1930
(119,170 cases)    _ _	
49
48
2
1931
(76,428 cases)- - _. ___	
53
44
2
1932
67
27
5
1933
44
55
1
1934
(76,923 cases)   _	
77
20
2
1935
(135,038 cases) 	
57
41
1
1936
(46,351 cases)- - -
53
46
1
1937
(84,832 cases)     	
60
37
2
1938
27
70
1
2
1939
67
32
1
69
28
3
1941
(93,378 cases)  -  	
59
40
1
1942
(79,199 cases)                                                      	
8
91
1
1943
(47,602 cases) .  -__ _-	
8
91
1
1944
(36,852 cases) -	
76
23
1
....
-
- BRITISH COLUMBIA.
M 35
Table II.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1944, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Length in Inches.
Number op Individuals.
42
h
53
63
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
17
18	
1
1
8
56
100
144
118
79
84
94
66
56
32
20
10
5
2
3
4
35
63
73
84
64
60
30
17
5
1
1
3
8
16
20
24
12
14
8
11
2
8
4
2
1
1
5
15
33
41
35
44
34
28
19
9
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
18%  ____	
11
19 	
19%	
61
136
20  	
20 V,     	
208
194
21 	
172
21 y,      	
173
22           	
206-
22%                    	
23 	
157
133
23 %	
95
24 	
24%  	
68
48
25. -_   	
25V, 	
35
14
26
26%..-..
27
27%
10
6
2
1
Totals _	
876
439
134
268
6
7
1
1
1,732
21.1
21.0
23.5     1   23.3
20.4
22.4
25.5
24.5
Table III.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, 1944, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Weight in Pounds.
Number op Individuals.
4
2
52
53
6
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
2    	
3	
1
22
167
205
141
123
86
80
21
21
7
2
5
73
113
110
84
41
10
2
1
4
5
26
26
24
12
5
11
5
7
4
1
4
9
27
36
56
45
32
27
19
11
3
3
1
1
2
1
1
1   '
3
2
1
1
1
1
28
3 %	
241
4                           	
333
4%~~
285
272
__*__
212
6  	
160
6%	
7                 -	
65
56
7V„                                 	
38
8
18
8%--
9
11
7
9 V,  	
1
10           	
4
Totals  	
876
439
134
268
6
7
1
1
1,732
4.6
4.4
6.2
6.0
4.1
5.2
8.5
7.0 M 36
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
Table IV.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of the 42 and 52
Groups, 1912 to 1944.
42
h
Year.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41                                                    	
22.4
21.6
21.9
20.5
21.1
22.4
21.6
21.3
21.1
21.0
25.4
24.6
25.0
24.3
23.5
24.7
23.9
1942      ...                                     	
23.8
1943                   	
23.7
1944 	
23.3
Table V.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of the 4% and 5.,
Groups, 1914 to 194U.
Year.
42
5
2
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41 .                  '
4.9
5.1
4.1
4.6
4.8
.      4.6
4.4
4.4
7.0
7.2
6.8
6.2
6.5
1942 	
6.4
1943 __
1944 - .._ 	
6.0
Table VI.—Rivers Inlet Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1944-
Year.
4
2
5
2
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Total
Females.
63
61
62
67
37
39
38
33
34
35
34
33
66
65
66
67
50
38
36
59
1942 	
1943	
62
1944   _      	
41
2. THE SKEENA RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1944.
(1.) General Characteristics.
The Skeena River sockeye salmon produced a pack of 68,197 cases. While this may
be considered as a pack of medium size, the escapement to the spawning-grounds was
reported as good and would seem to indicate a reasonable balance as between catch
and escapement.
The return in 1945 will be the product of the 1940 and 1941 spawnings. In the
former year the pack was 116,507 cases and the escapement was reported as large.
In the latter year the pack was 81,767 cases and the escapement described as satisfactory.    There is every reason to expect a fairly large return in 1945.
(2.) Age-groups.
The length, weight, and sex data and scale collections were obtained from 2,154 fish
in forty random samplings from June 26th to August 18th, inclusive. The 42 age-
group is represented by 798 individuals or 37 per cent., the 52 by 1,124 or 52 per cent., BRITISH COLUMBIA. M 37
the 53 by 140 or 7 per cent., and the 63 by 92 or 4 per cent.    The distribution of the
age-classes is not unusual, as may be seen by reference to Table VII.
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths of the males and females in the various age-groups are as
follows: 42, 22.4 and 21.7 inches; 52, 24.8 and 23.9 inches; 53, 22.5 and 21.7 inches;
63, 25 and 23.7 inches. The above lengths are all slightly less than averages of the
past years of record and except in the case of the males of the 42 age-class are less
than those of 1943 (Table X.).
The average weights of the males and females in the various age-groups are as
follows: 42, 5.1 and 4.6 lb.; 52, 7 and 6.1 lb.; 53, 5.3 and 4.6 lb.; 63, 7.1 and 5.8 lb.
The above weights are essentially equivalent to those of past years of record, except
that the average weight of 7 lb. for the males in the 52 age-class is above the average
(Table XI.).
The distributions of the lengths and weights are given in Tables VIII. and IX.
(4.) Distribution of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 923 and of females 1,231, percentages of 43 and 57 respectively, which very closely approximate the proportions
of the sexes over the past twenty-nine years of record. The percentage of males in
the 42 age-group is 54, which is slightly above the average of the past years of record.
The females predominate in the 52 age-group with a percentage of 66, which is essentially the average of the past years of record (Table XII.). M 38
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
Table VII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Age-groups in Runs
of Successive Years and Packs.
Year.
Percentage of Individuals.
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
(108,413 cases).
(139,846 cases).
(87,901 cases)....
(187,246 cases).
(131,066 cases) _
(92,498 cases)....
(52,927 cases)—.
(130,166 cases)-.
(116,553 cases) __
(60,923 cases) —
(65,760 cases) ....
(123,322 cases)..
(184,945 cases)..
(90,869 cases)....
(41,018 cases)-.
(96,277 cases) ....
(131,731 cases)..
(144,747 cases).
■(77,784 cases) _...
(82,360 cases)-.
(83,996 eases) —
(34,559 cases)....
(78,017 cases) —
(132,372 cases) _
(93,023 cases)...
(59,916 eases) ....
(30,506 cases) ....
(54,558 cases)....
(52,879 cases) __..
(81,973 cases) —
(42,491 eases) —
(47,257 cases) —
(68,485 cases) ...
(116,507 cases)-.
(81,767 cases) —
(34,544 cases)—.
(28,268 cases) _
(68,197 cases)....
57
50
25
36
34
57
51
27
15
69
70
56
23
51
62
62
51
62
39
40
44
57
58
49
67
45
64
50
80
39
36
39
37
43
50
75
64
38
29
34
60
71
22
16
29
69
45
26
28
39
30
52
30
37
36
34
31
20
40
15
35
15
52
54
39
52
13
9
9
9
6
6
12
9
9
7
6
8
28
7
5
7
18
11
11
16
11
7
16
7
18
5
6
4
8
3
2
7
1
1
3
1
3
2
1
2
12
2
1
2
2
4
5
4
1
1
3
6
4 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
M 39
Table VIII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1944, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Length in Inches.
Number of Individuals.
4
2
52
53
63
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
18%	
19                        	
1
2
3
13
18
25
34
84
79
80
64
22
2
1
1
11
22
58
111
73
53
SO
7
' 4
2
5
6
18
28
36
66
85
72
36
14
7
2
1
1
3
11
46
118
156
174
133
66
26
10
1
1
1
2
2
4
20
10
11
7
4
1
2
8
18
23
11
6
4
3
2
1
3
5
14
16
9
2
2
1
1
4
12
4
12
2
2
2
1
1
3
19%           	
20 	
20V,  -
3
25
50
21-    ,
21%
104
177
22
22%
204
204
23
273
23V,____
272
24 	
259
24%                                   	
218
25    .   —                                	
172
25% 	
110
26	
26%   	
27  	
27% -   	
49
15
10
3
9SV,                                             	
2
428
370
378    |    746
64
76
53
39
2,154
22.4
21.7
24.8     1   23.9
22.5
21.7
25.0
23.7
1
Table IX.—Skeena River Sockeyes, 1944, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Weight in Pounds.
Number of Individuals.
4
2
h
h
€
3
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
3     	
2
16
47
65
119
93
56
26
4
2
12
92
126
91
36
9
2
1
8
14
23
49
64
61
66
44
21
18
4
1
3
1
2
24
103
143
165
142
96
44
21
5
1
5
9
19
16
8
4
1
2
3
21
31
11
5
2
2
1
4
4
12
15
13
2
1
2
11
9
12
1
3
2
1
4
3 V,                                                   .    	
32
4
167
4 V,
263
5                                                 	
368
5%
329
6
305
6%..	
7	
253
180
7%                      _    _ 	
128
8	
8%	
9                                       _ 	
68
26
19
(\U.                                       	
5
10
.
3
10%                          - -•- - ■■■■■■■
3
11 -  -	
1
428
370
378
746
64
76
53
39
2,154
5.1
4.6
7.0
6.1
5.3
4.6
7.1
5.8 M 40
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
Table X.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1944-
42
h
h
63
Year.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41               —    	
23.7
23.0
22.6
21.9
22.4
23.1
22.4
22.3
21.9
21.7
25.8
25.1
25.2
25.1
24.8
24.9
24.2
24.3
23.9
23.9
24.2
23.5
24.1
23.3
22.5
23.4
22.7
23.7
22.6
21.7
25.8
25.1
26.3
25.8
25.0
24.8
24.1
1942 _  	
24.9
1943 _ - 	
24.7
1944 ■■	
23.7
Table XI.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1944.
Year.
42
5
2
h
63
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41                _            	
5.4
4.9
4.7
5.1
5.0
4.7
4.6
4.6
6.8
6.7
6.8
7.0
6.1
6.0
5.9
6.1
5.7
5.8
5.5
5.3
5.1
5.4
4.9
4.6
6.8
7.2
7.3
7.1
6.0
1942	
6.6
1943                      	
6 1
1944	
5.8
Table XII.—Skeena River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females, 1915 to 1944.
Year.
42
52
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
. Per Cent.
M.
F.
M.
F.
Total
Females.
48
42
50
54
52
58
50
46
43
25
31
34
57
75
69
66
46
33
43
43
1942 ___	
1943 .  __	
1944	
67
57
57
3. THE NASS RIVER SOCKEYE RUN OF 1944.
(1.) General Characteristics.
The sockeye salmon proceeding to the Nass River produced a pack of 13,083 cases.
The small catch may have been due in part to less intensive fishing, but the run was
evidently relatively small since the report on the spawning-beds does not refer to a
particularly large escapement.
The return in 1945 will be derived largely from the 1940 and 1941 brood-years.
In the former year the pack was 13,809 cases and the escapement was medium to light.
In the latter year the pack was 24,876 cases and escapement was reported as heavy.
Since 1941 will produce the four-year-old fish which form a small percentage of the
Nass run, there would appear to be little prospect of a large return to this river in 1945.
(2.) Age-groups.
The material for the 1944 study consists of data for 1,522 fish obtained in thirty-
seven random samplings from June 26th to August 18th, inclusive. The representation
of the various age-classes is as follows: 42, 225 or 15 per cent.; 52, 235 or 15 per cent.;
53, 490 or 32 per cent.;   63, 572 or 38 per cent.    The very exceptional feature is the BRITISH COLUMBIA.
M 41
occurrence of the large percentage of six-year-old fish. The highest percentage previously recorded was 15 in 1943. The observation of the Inspector that the run consisted
of 75 per cent, large fish is supported by the analysis of the sampling (Table XIII.).
(3.) Lengths and Weights.
The average lengths of the males and females in the four year-classes are approximately equivalent to the averages of previous years of record as shown in Table XVI.
On the other hand, the average weights of the males and females in the 52, 53, and
63 age-classes are all slightly greater than the averages of the past years of record
(Table XVII.).
The distributions of the lengths and weights are given in Tables XIV. and XV.
One fish of 73 age-class occurs in the sampling. It is a male, 28 inches in length
and 9% lb. in weight.
(4.) Distribution of the Sexes.
The total number of males in the samplings is 762 and of females 760, a percentage
of 50 in each case. The males predominate in the 42 and 63 age-classes with percentages
of 53 and 60 respectively, whereas the females are in excess in the 52 and 53 age-classes
with percentages of 55 and 61 respectively (Table XVIII.).
Table XIII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Principal Age-groups
from 1912 to 1944 and Packs.
Year.
Percentage of Individuals.
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
(36,037 cases)_
(23,574 cases).
(31,327 cases).
(39,349 cases) _
(31,411 cases).
(22,188 cases).
(21,816 cases).
(28,259 cases) „
(16,740 cases).
(9,364 cases)...
(31,277 cases).
(17,821 cases) _
(33,590 cases).
(18,945 cases) .
(15,929 cases).
(12,026 cases ).
(5,540 cases)—.
(16,077 cases).
(26,405 cases)..
(16,929 cases)
(14,154 cases) _.
(9,757 cases)-.
(36,242 cases) .
(12,712 cases)..
(28,562 cases)..
(17,567 cases) -
(21,462 cases).
(24,357 cases) .
(13,809 cases).
(24,876 cases)..
(21,085 cases) _.
(13,412 cases)..
(13,083 cases)..
15
4
19
9
10
30
7
8
10
6
11
4
23
12
8
30
25
28
10
28
35
13
11
16
22
21
14
23
37
22
5
15
27
12
41
14
17
15
16
22
14
7
2
12
7
6
9
15
17
4
7
9
10
7
4
7
7
13
15
63
71
45
59
66
71
45
65
72
75
91
77
91
67
63
81
61
60
54
67
61
55
74
73
67
68
70
66
59
52
66
67
32
10
8
2
2
13
4
3
6
7
3
4
6
10
6
5
7
10
4
5
15 M 42
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
Table XIV.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1944, grouped by Age, Sex, and Length,
and by their Early History.
Length in Inches.
Number of Individuals.
4
2
52
53
63
Total.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
19	
20         	
1
1
1
2
3
2
14
14
32
26
18
3
3
4
8
11
27
30
18
6
1
4
3
9
17
24
23
15
8
2
1
1
1
8
13
30
27
20
17
5
3
1
2
1
2
6
11
14
23
25
33
39
28
7
1
2
1
2
11
26
36
57
71
54
29
7
3
2
1
1
4
22
33
49
43
49
69
46
19
6
2
1
1
3
14
25
42
29
27
31
26
22
6
1
1
1
20% —	
1
21 	
6
21%
22
13
27
22%  __._	
75
23 -	
100
23% —
142
24	
24% _ _
174
162
25  	
167
25 V,  _ -	
152
26
26%.-
27
135
101
85
27V,_.._
97
28    ~
54
28% - -	
20
29	
7
29V,         ____  _	
2
120
105
106
129
192
298
344
228
1,522
23.5
22.7
25.7  1 24.6
24.8
23.8
26.8
25.8
Table XV.—Nass River Sockeyes, 1944, grouped by Age, Sex, and Weight,
and by their Early History.
Weight in Pounds.
Number of Individuals.
M.
M.
F.
M.
Total.
3%__
4—
4%__
5	
5%._
6.	
6%-
7_	
7%	
S%-
9%-
10	
10%-
11	
11%-
12	
Totals—	
Average weights._
1
2
1
8
14
25
46
16
6
1
120
5
28
32
33
5
2
3
4
11
19
19
25
13
8
2
1
106
7.7
5
17
25
40
24
12
4
1
1
129
4
11
17
22
49
42
25
17
3
2
6.7
2
20
57
77
72
47
19
298
19
27
62
54
71
42
33
19
5
1
1
1
1
8
39
39
39
33
39
25
4
344
228
1
2
8
62
121
180
221
223
176
155
140
113
57
35
20
5
1
1
1
1,522 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
M 43
Table XVI.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Lengths in Inches of Principal
Age-groups, 1912 to 1944.
Year.
4
2
5
2
5
3
6
3
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1912-41        	
24.5
23.8
23.9
22.8
23.5
23.7
23.0
23.2
22.2
22.7
26.3
25.6
26.1
26.1
25.7
25.2
24.5
24.9
24.8
24.6
26.1
25.4
24.9
24.1
24.8
25.3
24.6
24.3
23.5
23.8
27.7
27.0
26.9
27.1
26.8
26.4
1912-41 (conversion)	
1942	
25.7
26.0
1948	
1944	
25.8
25.8
Table XVII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Average Weights in Pounds of Principal
Age-groups, 1914 to 1944-
42
h
h
63
Year.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
1914-41                        	
6.0
5.8
5.2
5.7
5.4
5.1
4.7
5.0
7.3
7.1
7.6
6.4
6.3
6.4
6.9
6.2
5.9
6.7
6.2
5.6
5.3
5.7
8.0
7.5
7.9
8.2
7.0
1942	
6.7
1943            	
6.9
1944 	
7.7
6.5
7.1
Table XVIII.—Nass River Sockeyes, Percentages of Males and Females,
1915 to 1944.
4
2
5
2
5
3
6
3
Per Cent.
Total
Males.
Per Cent.
Total
Females.
Year.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
M.
F.
49
42
51
53
52
58
49
47
47
48
67
45
53
52
33
55
45
44
47
39
55
56
53
61
63
70
74
60
37
30
26
40
47
45
54
50
53
1942                                                  	
55
1943	
1944 	
46
50 M 44 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
REPORT ON PILCHARD-TAG RECOVERY, 1944-45.
By John Lawson Hart, Ph.D., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo.
The tagging of pilchards and sardines has been discontinued for some time
throughout the North-east Pacific. However, as might be expected, recoveries continue
to be made on tags put out in earlier years. For the co-operation required to make
these recoveries acknowledgment is made to reduction plant crews and to the accommodation of the operating companies.
This account reports the recovery of twenty-six tags, as follows:—
Canadian tags, put out off the mouth of the Columbia River and
Grays Harbour in 1940 and recovered off San Francisco,
considered as being out five years     2
Oregon tags recovered in British Columbia     4
California tags recovered in British Columbia  20
Data presented previously (Hart, 1944) show that from the first to fourth years
after tagging the number of recoveries of Canadian tags falls off each year to about
30 per cent, of the number taken in the earlier year. As only one recovery was made
four years after tagging less than one tag (0.3) would be expected five years after
tagging if the rates of decline remained constant. Actually three tags were recovered
(two reported herein). The numbers involved are so small that there can be no
certainty that the difference between expectation and observation is biologically significant, but the discrepancy arouses special interest as to whether further recoveries
will be made in the future.
REFERENCE.
Hart, J. L.    Pilchard-tagging and pilchard-tag recovery from 1936 to 1943.    Report,
British Columbia Fisheries Department, 1943, 43-52, 1944. BRITISH COLUMBIA. M 45
TAGGING OF HERRING (CLUPEA PALLASII) IN BRITISH COLUMBIA:
INSERTIONS AND RECOVERIES DURING 1944-45.
By Albert L. Tester, Ph.D., Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
CONTENTS.
Page.
Introduction  45
Tagging ;  45
Tags .  46
Recovery methods  48
Detector recoveries _.  50
Magnet recoveries  52
Stability of populations and movements  57
Major areas  57
West coast of Vancouver Island  58
South-east coast of Vancouver Island and Discovery Passage  58
Queen Charlotte Strait  58
Central coast-line  58
Mortality rate  59
Summary of results  59
Acknowledgments ._  61
Detailed list of tags used in 1944-45 .  62
INTRODUCTION.
This is the ninth in a series of reports giving annual results of a herring-tagging
and tag-recovery programme which is designed (1) to add to the general knowledge of
the life-history of herring in British Columbia waters, (2) to determine the extent of
herring movements, and (3) to determine the strength of the tendency for herring to
form local populations. In addition, it is hoped that some information will be obtained
on the rates of exploitation of the populations supplying the various fishing-grounds.
Reference may be made to former publications for details of methods of tagging
and recovery and for previous results which have been obtained over the period 1936-37
to 1943-44. (Hart and Tester, 1937, 1938, 1939, and 1940; Hart, Tester, and McHugh,
1941; Hart, Tester, and Boughton, 1942; Tester and Boughton, 1943; and Tester, 1944.)
TAGGING.
Methods of tagging in 1944-45 were similar to those of other years. Fish were
obtained during the fishing season from a salmon-trap and during the spawning season
by means of beach-seines and bait-purse seines, as indicated in Table I. Once caught,
they were held (sometimes overnight, or longer) in either a bait-box constructed of
wooden slats or in a collapsible bait-pound constructed of web fastened to a rectangular
float. The usual practice has been to release the fish one by one into the sea as they
are tagged. In one case (9B), however, part of the tagged fish were released into a
live-well aboard a gas-boat and were later liberated as a group over deep water to avoid
loss from gulls and divers.
Since 1941-42 the policy has been (1) to curtail tagging during the fall and winter
fishing season,  (2) to concentrate the spring tagging in two major areas, the Strait M 46
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
of Georgia and Queen Charlotte Strait, but with some tagging in adjacent major areas
as time warranted, and (3) to use a relatively large number of tags (about 3,000)
in each individual tagging.
Conforming with the above policy, the only tagging during the 1944-45 fishing
season was at Sooke (9A), a locality removed from the fishing areas of the south-east
coast of Vancouver Island, but on the route of fish migrating to those areas. Compared
with previous years, spring tagging effort was somewhat curtailed in the Strait of
Georgia where five large taggings were made, three along the south-east coast of Vancouver Island (9B, 9C, and 9D), one along the west coast of the mainland (9E), and
one in Discovery Passage (9F). Concentrated effort in the Queen Charlotte Strait
area resulted in four large taggings, three (9G, 91, and 9J) on the outside and one
(9H) on the inside of Gilford Island. Departing from the policy of former years, the
programme included extensive tagging operations in the Central area and resulted in
seven taggings (9K to 9Q) spaced at intervals along the coast-line from Smith Inlet to
Principe Channel. Four of these—namely, Takush Harbour (9K), Racey Inlet (90),
Union Passage (9P), and Anger Island (9Q)—were in spawning localities where taggings had not previously been made. Lack of time prohibited trips to either the
Northern area or to the west coast of Vancouver Island.
Summarized data on the 1944-45 taggings are given in Table I., along with similar
data for other taggings which produced returns in 1944-45. Tagging localities are
shown on the accompanying map. Detailed data on the 1944-45 taggings, including
code letters or numbers for use in identifying recoveries, are included in Table VII.,
which is placed at the end of this report for ready reference.
The number of tags used according to season and area for the past five years is
shown in the following recapitulation (see previous reports for earlier data):—
Number op Tags used in each Year.
1940-41.
1941-42.
1942-43.
1943-44.
1944-45.
Fall and Winter.
496
697
21,561
5,077
3,493
1,409
1,197
4,947
200
9,759
5,977
2,491
Spring.
Strait   of   Georgia    (including   Puget   Sound   and   north   to
15,559
5,465
29,590
6,023
4,220
6,132
15,201
11,979
1,497
20,399
Totals  	
24,571
23,017
30,828
45,965
48,988
TAGS.
Tags recently manufactured have not been identical with those used over the
period 1936-37 to 1942-43 owing to a war-time shortage of material.    Plating, average
dimensions, and average weight of various shipments are shown in the following
tabulation:—
Lot.
Type.
Plating.
Length.
Width.
Thickness.
Weight.
1 ____	
A
B
C
B
B
Nickel
Silver
Silver
Silver
Silver
Mm.
19.35
19.41
18.65
19.19
19.15
Mm.
4.38
4.43
4.73
4.31
4.35
Mm.
1.58
1.57
1.23
1.58
1.62
G.
2...    	
3	
4  	
5 ...... 	 BRITISH
COLUMBIA.                                                   M 47
Table I.—Summary of the Tagging Data for Taggings producing Returns during the
1944-45 Fishing Season and for Tags inserted during the 1944-45 Fishing and
the 1945 Spawning Season.
Tagging
Code.
Date.
No. of
Tags
inserted.
Method of
Capture of
Fish.*
Place of Tagging.
4L
4Q
5D
5H
5N
5Q
5U
5V
5W
5X
6L
6M
6N
60
7B
7C
7G
71
7J
7K
7L
7M
7N
8B
8D
SE
8G
81
8J
8K
8L
8M
8N
9A
9B
9C
9D
9E
9P
9G
9H
91
9J
9K
9L
9M
9N
90
9P
9Q
Mar. 17, 18, 1940  	
1,797
1,000
975
200
1,495
1,200
992
1,192
1,989
998
1,689
1,497
2,000
1,776
1,892
2,997
2,989
1,693
2,989
1,000
1,099
3,493
2,978
3,017
3,830
1,178
5,021
3,999
2,997
3,026
3,121
3,011
4,220
1,409
1,934
3,555
3,227
3,166
3,319
3,155
3,177
2,754
2,893
3,172
1,895
4,310
3,450
1,523
3,010
3,039
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
D.N.
S.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
S.S.
B.P.
B.P.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
C.B.S.
B.S.
B.P.
B.S.
B.S.
S.T.
S.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
S.S.
C.B.S., S.S.
S.S.
B.S.
S.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
B.S.
Cutter Creek, near Minstrel Island.
Refuge Cove, Sydney Inlet.
Hammond Bay.
Kingcome Inlet, Thomas Point.
Kwakshua Passage, Calvert Island.
Kendrick Arm, Nootka Sound.
Queens Cove, Esperanza Inlet.
Clanniniek Cove, Kyuquot Sound.
Browning Inlet, Quatsino Sound.
Bunsby Islands, Ououkinsh Inlet.
Retreat Passage.
McLaughlin Bay, Campbell Island.
Clio Channel.
Kingcome Inlet.
Ladysmith Harbour.
Shingle Point, Valdes Island.
Deserted Bay, Jervis Inlet.
Union Bay, Baynes Sound.
Deepwater Bay, Discovery Passage.
Bend Island, Clio Channel.
Retreat Passage, Shoal Harbour.
Gunboat Passage.
Chatham Channel.
Departure Bay.
Skuttle Bay, near Sliammon.
Horswell Point, Departure Bay.
Kuper Island, near Clam Bay Spit.
Deepwater Bay, Discovery Passage.
Retreat Passage.
Retreat Passage, Shoal Harbour.
Rivers Inlet, head.
Gunboat Passage.
Matilda Inlet, Clayoquot Sound.
Sooke, Strait of Juan de Fuca.
Ladysmith Harbour.
Departure Bay.
Selby Creek, Prevost Island.
Skuttle Bay, north of.
Deepwater Bay, Discovery Passage.
Viner Sound.
Cutter Creek.
Retreat Passage.
Cramer Passage.
Takush Harbour, Angle Inlet.
Brown Narrows, Campbell Island.
Gunboat Passage.
Parsons Anchorage, Laredo Sound.
Racey Inlet, head.
Union Passage, southerly entrance.
Anger Island, Principe Channel.
Mar. 18, 1940 -	
Mar. 8, 1941 	
Mar. 21, 1941	
Mar. 30, 1941     	
Mar. 8, 9, 1941 	
Mar. 11, 1941 	
Mar. 12, 1941	
Mar. 13, 1941	
Mar. 14, 1941 .__
Mar. 15, 1942	
Mar. 19, 1942 __ _ 	
Mar. 28, 1942 _- __	
Mar. 30, 1942 	
Feb. 25, 26, 1943  	
Mar. 1, 3, 1943- - _
Mar. 29, 1943	
Apr. 11, 1943  -	
Mar. 17, 18, 1943.-  _____	
Mar. 22, 1943  	
Mar. 28, 1943 __ _.	
Mar. 31, 1943	
Apr. 5, 1943  -	
Feb. 24, 25, 1944	
Mar. 2, 3, 1944	
Mar. 7, 1944 	
Mar. 12-15, 1944	
Mar. 31, 1944	
Mar. 6, 1944	
Mar. 27, 1944 _____	
Mar. 18, 1944 ...	
Mar. 20, 1944  	
Mar. 26, 27, 1944	
Oct. 10, 1944  ...
Feb. 17, 1945 	
Mar. 10, 11, 12, 1945	
Mar. 13, 1945	
Mar. 15, 1945	
Apr. 3, 4, 1945	
Mar. 19, 20, 1945  1	
Mar. 22, 1945..... __ _	
Mar. 9. 12, 1945 	
Mar. 7, 14, 15, 1945 	
Mar. 26, 1945.__.__ 	
Apr. 1, 1945	
Mar. 20, 21, 1945	
Mar. 25, 1945 	
Mar. 26, 1945 .„ ___	
Mar. 30, 1945	
Mar. 27, 28,1945     	
* B.S. = bait-seine; S.S.=shore-seine; S.T.=salmon-traps ; D.N.=dip-net; B.P._-__bait-pound; C.B.S.=commercial
bait-seine. M 48
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
Type A represents the original tag used exclusively until, and to a small extent
since, 1942-43. Type B, used for part of the taggings of 1943-44 and 1944-45, differs
from Type A in that silver-plating rather than nickel-plating is used. The dimensions
of the various lots of Types A and B may be considered identical, slight differences
resulting from varying degrees of tumbling (to smooth the edges), except in Lot 5.
In this, the tags are slightly shorter and thicker than in Lots 1, 3, and 4, but they are
similar in weight. Type C, the entire supply of which was used up in some of the
taggings of 1944-45, differs considerably from Types A and B in that it is shorter,
wider, thinner, and lighter.
It is conceivable that recent results might not be strictly comparable with earlier
results because of the change in type of tag. This change might produce a difference in
tagging mortality or in recovery efficiency. The change from nickel- to silver-plated
tags is investigated herewith.
Types A and B were both used in the 1943-44 tagging at Matilda Inlet (8N) and
in the 1944-45 tagging at Sooke (9A) with the following results:—
Code.
Type of Tag.
Number
recovered.
Number
used.
8N
9A
A (nickel-plated).—
B (silver-plated)	
A (nickel-plated).
B (silver-plated) ...
35
39
22
54
2,189
2,031
391
1,018
Application of the Chi-square test to the data gives no significant association
(P = 0.4 and 0.8 respectively) between relative number of recoveries and type of tag
used. From these results it may be assumed that there is no significant difference in
either tagging mortality rate or efficiency in recovery between the nickel-plated and
silver-plated types.
The results for next year should indicate whether any differences have resulted
from the temporary use of Type C (from a consideration of the 9N recoveries in which
both Types B and C were used).
RECOVERY METHODS.
Recovery methods were similar to those of previous years in that induction detectors and magnets were used. The former recovers the tagged fish from a chute in the
unloading system of canneries or reduction plants; the latter recovers the tag only,
from the meal-line of reduction plants.
The detector used at the Imperial Cannery, Steveston, in 1943-44 was again in
operation in 1944-45 with no changes in the installation. Apart from minor breakdowns, it operated successfully and continuously from October 5th, 1944, to December
14th, 1944, and ran efficiently on 87 per cent, of the fish entering the cannery.
The detector used at the Gulf of Georgia cannery in 1943-44 was not used in
1944-45 as there was no possibility of improving its unsatisfactory performance of the
previous year.
In January, 1945, the detector earlier used at the Imperial Cannery was moved to
the Alert Bay reduction plant, where changes in the unloading system had been made
for its accommodation. The installation was similar to that at the Imperial Cannery
(Tester, 1944, p. 56), the fish sliding down a chute, through a coil, and over a trap-door
before entering the weighing-machine. Tests indicated a high efficiency in recovering
tags. The detector operated on 82 per cent, of the fish entering the plant from
January 19th, 1945, until it closed down on February 1st, 1945. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
M 49 M 50
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
Magnets in the meal-lines of reduction plants were again instrumental in recovering tags. Those located in the Strait of Georgia, where the entire catch from adjacent
fishing-grounds was canned, ran mostly on meal from herring offal. Those situated
elsewhere ran mostly, and in some cases exclusively, on meal from whole fish. As
explained in previous reports, there is less opportunity for recovering tags from herring
offal than from whole fish.
DETECTOR RECOVERIES.
Data on detector recoveries are summarized in Table II. Of the 200 tags recovered
one (8M) was taken with the Alert Bay detector and the remainder with the Imperial
detector. Seventy-four of the tags had been out for three months or less (9A); the
remainder had been out for six months or more. Included in the table are calculations
(similar to those made last year) of the total probable number of tags taken by the
fishery and of the probable percentage recovery from individual taggings. These
calculations are based on the assumptions that the detectors were 100 per cent, efficient
at recovering tags and that the recoveries from each fishing-ground were distributed
in the total catch in the same proportion as in that part passing through the detectors.
The following points arising from the data of Table II. warrant discussion :—
(1.) Additional evidence pointing to the essential isolation of the populations in
major areas. Considering only the tags out for six months or more, only five out of
eighty-four (6 per cent.) entered the south-east coast of Vancouver Island and Discovery Passage fishing-grounds from " outside " areas (8N—2; 7N—1; 8J—2); and
only three out of forty-one (7 per cent.) entered Queen Charlotte Strait fishing-grounds
from " outside " areas (7J—1; 81—1; 8M—1). A more thorough discussion, based
on refined data and including magnet returns, will be given later.
(2.) Additional evidence that the herring supplying the south-east coast of Vancouver Island fishing-grounds enter the area by way of the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
This is shown by the recovery of Sooke (9A) tags from fishing-grounds at Swanson
and Satellite Channels and at Porlier Pass. The first tags were recovered at Swanson
Channel on October 14th, 1944, and at Porlier Pass on October 19th, 1944, showing
minimum migration rates of 12.5 and 7.3 nautical miles per day. If the Sooke tags
had been dispersed among the Porlier Pass fish with the same concentration as among
the Swanson and Satellite Channels fish, recoveries would be expected in the ratio 55.6
to 18.4 rather than that actually encountered, 69 to 5. The difference in ratios is not
likely to be due to chance (P less than 0.01). It indicates either that there was lack
of random dispersal to the two fishing-grounds or that an initially high fishing intensity
in Swanson and Satellite Channels plus the addition of new, untagged fish diluted the
concentration of 9A tags in the schools, which later worked their way to Porlier Pass
(probably through either Sansum Narrows or Trincomali Channel).
(3.) Additional evidence indicating the partial isolation of herring in the southern
and northern parts of the Strait of Georgia. Assuming (as in last year's report) a
dividing line across the strait between Parksville and Sechelt and considering only tags
which were used on Strait of Georgia and Discovery Passage spawning-grounds, the
following tabulation results:—
Fishing-grounds.
Number of
Recoveries.
Per Cent. Recoveries.
Southern.
Northern.
46
33
98
J BRITISH COLUMBIA.
M 51
-si
5»
rs
a
a
I
o
En
o
*   rt
CO
o
o
^*
t-
er
U3
00
o
C
CO    rt
O    O
-
c
fc-
Cs
C
c
o
c
<H     ■
0-T3
ft s
rt m
a «
Z&
Cr*          rt-d<OOt-00©CO©OiC-cO,-.rt©          N   t-  Oi   O   O)   00          co   ci   O   t-
O           Nt-«)Ht-©T|im010!NlMHN           O)   ffl   (»   O   O   t-           tr-   CO   O   »
•**           ©rtrtOrtrtOOOCiOJOrtOCM           00   Ol   Ci   ©   ©   Ci           t-   !C   O   ^
rt             _nCONMH«-*W«lNWM«')1             rt    CM    CM    rt    rt    CM             rt    rt    CM    J-H
0
H
H
1               rt          !          j    00    Ci          i
i        frl     j  ■ 1 fc* «     j
to
CO   CO   M   «           WOO           f   Cl   (D   H   rt   H           IO   IO   IO   IO
CN   Ol   t-   ■■?       !   IO   t-           ifl   M   M   rt   rt   rt           IO   _Q   IO   IQ
IO    tO    IO   "#        'CM                      rt             rt    rt    rt   OO
2:
^<          tr-
t-           CO       j
CM    rt
"*oirtoo     ; rt cm        ** rt eo cm cm »o        rtrtrtrt
o
o
CM
■§■§1
a o g
a«_.-
EH
CM
IO
CN
Illll
-_J*
OJ
eo
o
o
IO
CO
Z
~
rt
cj bo d
eh'
j
CM
o
o
Z
0gi
a n'S
EH
m co co
id ci ^
llOrtrtlO           10»OlO»0
!   IO   rt   r-t   t-           lOmiOlO
1          rt   rt   tr-
CO
OO
CO
o
o
00
eo"
z
ill                      rt    Ci    O0
|        jrtWtM-ti*             rt    rt    rt    rt
-<*
■s b
fl a;
QJ    _*   f»
Eri
lli             "fl*   CO    CO        |
«3   ti"   CO       !
1        !   rt        j        !    CO                 lli!
| t*    ]    j ea          |l
"tit
©
00
fc
CO  00   rt      :
Ij   CM       !!   rt               llll
CO
rt
cu
EH
(N
o
o
io
fc
i||;
.a m--
7.B.S
r?^-H
H
1           CO       ;
I    I    1 *{■**■ j
1 *°
!;!
rt
Tit
rt
CM
o
o
CO
eo"
fc
ta        io     1
rf 1
fl
Satellite
and
Swanson
Channels.
EH
:       co    [
id     i
00   Ol       j
t>   CO       !
e»    I
ec
: oo       c- cn    !     :    i
j   t>          IO   CO      |
CO
00
"tit
CO
©
©
IO*
1?
to           CO       !       !
| ^    |
|   <N           •**   rt       j       |      j
(M
ta
c
'5
tt
_.
EH
o
V
6
EH
■a
C
es
&
■tier
J.
6
rC
c
e
C
a
c
c
K
c
1
fl
C
{
S
c
C
*■
0
s
"1
>2
(
~-
h
j
!
■!
"J
i
s
ri
. cr
*~
'   I
r
1   fr
)
>
z
*  c
5-
3   |
J
i c
* a
1
e
e
8
-1
a-
j
c
1
li
,     r
I
i
1
-ti
-.
c
-
r
<
£
i
%
e
tx
a
. r-
j
,      r
0
a
s
1
) a
"ti
a
'1
r
a
- e
SI
r
C
1
s
» fl
e
i
0
e
&
!
Il   1
+
Cl
P
r
c
' pB
B
IS
c\
I  b
R
Cl
0
ct
p.
> +■
;   e
Q
+.
> a
P
a
,1
l
0
1
a
i
p
a
1
s
E
a
a
V
a
t-
e
*  c
i
c
"ti
*
. i
0
3
0
1
*
i
CO
■^
Ci
tt
ci
■8?
"     iff
3       r
9. £
■£>
cs
Ph  p
s    s •;
E?   <
cd   o
!            rl    >
a
I
>
-    -X
«
i
a
i
c
i
e
V
ri
i
c
f
i
cr
cr
.£
t
1
8
>_  c
s
s
8
a
1*
1
c
i
i
a
* i
I
• s
1          I
I i
;   5
0
£
i
' a
&
a
8
t
P
i
c
c
e
Od
■«
C
r-
t
0
T.
e
*  a
3
c
£
Q
■C
c
fr
1
X
a
P
1
S
a
a
&
R
P
e
c
fr
+■
fi
b
r
a
&
a
.            b
c
r
c
fr
9
o
<
c
01
! li
. a
01
1 C
3    CX
ot
ti
a
55
J   0(
)   OC
_-
r       E
) a
1         c-  t*
ia
■      t
■ t
.    c
rt
> «
5
1
&
w
E-.
J.
5>
00
►O
Si
■^
e 5
a  •»
ft,   4
I s
g ^
g   oa
* s
|
S
o
Ei   .
£.1
-s   S
w   ;_,
a
5s
5~
S
i>H M 52
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
Unfortunately no tags were recovered from a small tonnage caught at Nanoose
Bay, so that there was no opportunity of gaining more information on the enigmatical
position of that locality in the above division (Tester, 1944, pp. 59-60).
(4.) Lack of imiform recovery from the. various Strait of Georgia taggings of
1944. The largest recovery (3.1 per cent.) resulted from the Kuper Island tagging
(8G). There were no recoveries from Gabriola Island (8F), Nanaimo Harbour (8A),
Comox Harbour (8C), and Bargain Harbour (8H), and relatively few from Departure
Bay (8B) and Horswell Point (8E). Fish from these taggings apparently failed to
contribute to any great extent to south-east coast of Vancouver Island catches for
reasons which are obscure. In the first three taggings (8F, 8A, and 8C) the fish were
acting abnormally when caught. They were not actually spawning but were massed as
a sluggish body along the shore C8F), under a dock (8A), and in shallow water behind
a spit (8C). Possibly they were moribund and eventually died for reasons not connected with tagging, although they exhibited no symptoms of disease and there were
no reports of unusual mortalities in any of the three localities during the 1944 spawning
period. Possibly their numbers were drastically reduced by predation while in the
sluggish condition. On the other hand, perhaps along with fish of the other taggings
which produced few or no returns (8H, 8B, and 8E) they may have gone to some area
not fished or they may have arrived in the fishing area for the most part after the close
of the fishing season.
(5.) Proof similar to that of previous years that fish from several spawning-
grounds in the Queen Charlotte Strait area contribute to the Clio Channel fishery, and
evidence that these do not necessarily contribute to the fishery at the head of Knight
Inlet. The latter point merits amplification. No Queen Charlotte Strait tags were
recovered from 214 tons of fish from the upper reaches of Knight Inlet, whereas thirty-
eight Queen Charlotte Strait tags were recovered from 686 tons of fish from the vicinity
of Clio Channel. If the fish in the two localities had mixed freely the tags recovered
in each would be expected to be divided in the ratio of 29 to 9 rather than 38 to 0. The
difference between the expected and actual ratio is statistically significant (P less than
0.01). This indicates that the fish at the head of Knight Inlet may have to be regarded
as a local population which is supplied by fish from spawning-grounds possibly well
within the inlet itself on which taggings have not yet taken place.
MAGNET RECOVERIES.
The number of tags recovered from reduction plants, chiefly by means of electromagnets, is shown in the following tabulation:—
Location of Plant.
Name of Plant.
Code.
Number of
Recoveries.
D
C
F
E
A
h
K
B
H
I
3
16
41
26
2
26
Alert Bay.- ' .„	
62
21
7
Total   	
262
For each tagging the recoveries are listed in Table III. according to plant making
the recovery (in code), reported locality of recovery, certain or probable locality of
recovery, and less-likely alternative locality of recovery (with remote alternative locali-
J BRITISH COLUMBIA.
M 53
Table III.—List of the Tags recovered by Magnets in Reduction Plants according to
Tagging, Plant, and Area of Recovery.
(The " certain or probable " area of recovery is that used in tables dealing with
magnet recoveries which follow.    For explanation, see text.)
Code.
No.
of
■ Tags.
Area of Recovery.
Tagging.
Plant.
Reported.
Certain or Probable.
Alternatives.
4L
4Q
5D
K
E
K
K
L
B
F
F
E
F
E
D
I
H
B
L
K
K
K
L
K
K
L
L
K
L
K
1
1
1
Serpentine Pass	
?    (In meal-line)
Serpentine Pass	
Serpentine Pass	
Bones Bay 	
Kent Inlet -
Clio Channel	
West Coast V.I __	
(South-east Coast V.I.)
5H
5N
Passage.
5Q
Sydney Inlet	
Esperanza Inlet. 	
Esperanza Inlet	
Nootka Lighthouse
■--, 'lUU1-.- ]\:''
Esperanza Inlet	
?     (In meal-line)	
Laredo Channel 	
5U
Esperanza Inlet..	
West Coast V.I	
sino Sound).
Clayoquot    and    Barkley    Sounds;
(Quatsino Sound).
(South-east Coast V.I.)
5V
5W
5X
Nootka Sound. __,	
West Coast V.I _	
West Coast V.I. (Barkley or
Clayoquot Sound and Esperanza
Inlet; (Barkley and Quatsino
Sounds).
(South-east Coast V.I.)
6M
6N
Meyers Pass	
Central 	
Clio Channel or Knight Inlet..
Passage.
Serpentine Pass	
Knight Inlet. 	
Bones Bay	
Knight Inlet    	
60
Clio Channel or Knight Inlet-
South-east   Coast   V.I.;    Discovery
Passage.
Clio Channel or Knight Inlet-
Clio Channel or Knight Inlet_.
?
7G
Bones Bay 	
South-east Coast V.I.  or Discovery
Passage.
South-east   Coast   V.I.;    Discovery
Passage.
71
7K
?
Passage.
Strait. M 54
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
Table III.—List of the Tags recovered by Magnets in Reduction Plants according to
Tagging, Plant, and Area of Recovery—Continued.
Code.
No.
of
Tags.
Area of Recovery.
Tagging.
Plant.
Reported.
Certain or Probable.
Alternatives.
7L
L
K
K
H
H
H
B
B
B
B
B
L
L
I
K
K
K
K
K
L
L
E
B
F
c
E
L
L
L
L
K
K
B
B
A
L
F
K
K
K
K
L
L
F
K
1
1
2
3
5
1
2
2
2
1
4
1
4
1
10
1
2
2
5
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
3
2
1
1
1
Clio Channel _..-	
Clio Channel.—   -	
Clio Channel or Knight Inlet.
1943-44, Kwakshua Passage.
South-east   Coast   V.I. ;
Passage.
(Including Aaltanhash Ir
(Including Aaltanhash Ir
Southern Central.
Southern Central.
Northern Central.
Strait of Georgia or Quee
Strait.
South-east   Coast   V.I.;
Passage.
Knight Inlet;   (McKenzie
South-east Coast V.I.
South-east Coast V.I.
(South-east Coast V.I.)
Northern Central.
South-east Coast V.I.
(South-east Coast V.I.)
South-east Coast V.I.
South-east Coast V.I.
South-east Coast V.I.
South-east   Coast   V.I. ;
Passage.
(McKenzie Sound.)
(McKenzie Sound.)
South-east   Coast   V.I.;
. Passage.
(McKenzie Sound.)
Northern Central or Quee
Strait.
South-east   Coast   V.I.;
Passage.
South-east   Coast   V. I.;
Passage.
Discovery
Knight Inlet          	
7M
Surf Inlet
-let.)
let.)
Kent Inlet	
Thistle Pass           	
Bella Bella              	
7N
Satellite Channel.
Bones Bay _
1
Clio Channel 	
Discovery
Knight Inlet           	
Clio Channel or Knight Inlet.
Clio Channel or Knight Inlet.
8D
Deepwater Bay	
Discovery Passage. _	
West Coast V.I	
Bella Bella             	
8G
West Coast V.I	
West Coast V.I.	
West Coast V.I 	
Porlier Pass	
81
Discovery Passage 	
Clio Channel 	
Clio Channel or Knight Inlet.
Clio Channel or Knight Inlet-
Knight Inlet	
Kent Inlet.	
Thistle Pass	
Central  __ ___ __.
?    	
8J
Clio Channel or Knight Inlet-
West Coast V.I  	
Clio Channel  _ 	
Bones Bay	
Knight Inlet	
Clio Channel or Knight Inlet_.
Laredo 	
Bones Bay	
Bones Bay	
n Charlotte
Discovery
Discovery
8K
Clio Channel or Knight Inlet-
West Coast V.I.	
Clio Channel 	 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
M 55
Table III.—List of the Tags recovered by Magnets in Reduction Plants according to
Tagging, Plant, and Area of Recovery—Continued.
Code.
No.
of
Tags.
Area of Recovery.
Tagging.
Plant.
Reported.
Certain or Probable.
Alternatives.
8K
K
K
K
K
K
B
B
B
B
I
I
L
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
H
H
H
H
I
I
D
D
C
C
C
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
E
E
E
E
A
C
5
B
1
2
1
1
8
1
2
1
1
1
2
3
1
1
2
1
24
2
1
6
2
2
1
1
1
2
4
8
3
12
4
2
2
7
1
4
2
10
3
6
1
1
Clio Channel - —-	
Clio Channel or Knight Inlet
Clio Channel or Knight Inlet.
?
Knight Inlet	
Laredo   	
Meyers Pass	
Kent Inlet.__-.	
Meyers Pass	
Bella Bella
Northern Central or Queen Charlotte
Strait.
Central 	
Kent Inlet
Helmcken Inlet	
8M
Clio Channel 	
Northern Central	
Kent Inlet	
Passage.
Kent Inlet
Thistle Pass	
Northern Central 	
Southern Central.
Surf Inlet
Meyers Pass	
Bella Bella
Central   	
Laredo Canal.	
Laredo Inlet	
Surf Inlet _	
Aaltanhash Inlet	
Northern Central —
Northern Central	
Northern Central ____
(Including Aaltanhash Inlet.)
(Including Aaltanhash Inlet.)
(Including Aaltanhash Inlet.)
Surf Inlet
8N
?    (In meal-line)	
West Coast V.I. (Barkley
Sound or Sydney Inlet)	
Sydney Inlet — 	
Barkley Sound or Esperanza Inlet;
South-east Coast V.I.
Clayoquot Sound or Esperanza Inlet;
West Coast V.I.	
South-east Coast V.I.
South-east Coast V.I.
Sydney Inlet  —_	
Sydney Inlet  —
West Coast V.I. _____ 	
West Coast V.I "   _
Quatsino and Nootka Sounds.
Sydney Inlet	
Quatsino and Nootka Sounds.
Western Channel
Nootka Lighthouse.-.
Esperanza Inlet	
Sounds.
West Coast V.I — 	
West Coast V.I.	
Sounds.
?    (In meal-line)
West Coast V.I.	
(South-east Coast V.I.)
Esperanza Inlet ___	
West Coast V.I _
(South-east Coast V.I.)
West Coast V.I	
(South-east Coast V.I.)
9A
?    (In meal-line)
" Herring offal "	
West Coast V.I  	
(South-east Coast V.I.)
West Coast V.I  _	
South-east Coast V.I. M 56
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
I
a
o
CO
5-
a.
S»
o
o
<»
5-
OS
I
fc.
o
5> §   -S
•5 &TJ
I"?
S   ■
a
0)
T3
a
o
o
3
O
i
s
=9
-3
e
<M   w    .-H   CN   rt   rt    rt
CN
CM
t-
CM           C<
N    H    <f
H
e~.
II■ I.I ! i
!      !   H      !      1   i-H
!   i   i
rt        |    lH    CO    rt
00
m a bo-**
cu^
-
.
ca
c
IJIIII
j    j    i    j    : cn
i     i     i
1   rt   CO   OJ   t-
CO
CM
at
O
r        rj
A      ft
t&S
r-l  CO   O   W   t-
CO
o qj a
ii'fi
rt             rt
CO
z  $
Jlj
4gl
1        I   "<*   CM   <■*
rt
1        i                      CM
CO
EQ     g
Clio
han-
el or
nigh
nlet.
iiiii'*
|       i   N   N
1   N   ■*   M   t)
CM
>•
ubw-
IS.
O 0    •
3  Cd  aj
OgB
<M   CM   O   M   CC
ft
(M           r-
M3
Ph
o
__>. !V
1 & fi
X
Q8*
i    i    1    i N °"
IO
<
Ph
Southeast
Coast
V.I.
iiiijii -  iiiiii  ^ii  iiiii  iiiii
-
*** m   -
rH    rH        \    rt        1    rt   r-
1   CO       !       1   rt
'        j        1    i-H    i—
CM
H8>
,
|s«
I§3
iiii!
iiii
iiiii
■£ c
►3 5
fcra
>1
CD +j
3 at
	
aiT3
35
mm
a>
B
bo
s
a>
iH
0
8
_s
|
l-H
01
>
o
C
at
bJ
3
E
E
<
c
C
Ol
>
0
o
ta
r
CD
a>
>     H
0  T3
U    C
«a
-P
J
c
c
fl
a
>
m
'a
p
o
c
a
"3
t.
OJ
P
>
a
+j
tt
OJ
>
c
_0
>
cd
PC
CQ
h
0)
al
0
ej
Si
ft
CJ
tt
a
+■
f
a
E
C
£
6
1
1
a
a
I
c
I
B
c
X
5
0
tl
a
D
a
rt
Ph
^
tti
■ft
cu
a  ^
J  8
*   w
O   M
5  <s
a
t
CC
0
0
a
P-
hJ
Oi
q
St.
ed ■"
B =
■B   j
5  E
01
6
0
H
IT/
0
Pn
-P
s
■a
+
01
t-
a
9>
OD
cd
a
rt
Ph
ul
O
■a
D
C
S«^aofflffl
o
03
W    p     OJ   .H   ^J     4>
ffi W p D ca Q
o 2 a
s
E
4)   X    OJ     (1)
tf CJ Ph Ph
*   d   0 -H   0
M O O K O
oi
•a             i
fcaaP> x£
<
Q O O h  Q W
J W fc O
W   Kl   fc   r,   {_£
ZSKrfg
oo "t1  ia ta us  io u:
in oo c- i> co a
O                  |
J BRITISH COLUMBIA.
M 57
ties in brackets). As in past years, the certain or probable locality of recovery is the
author's unbiased interpretation based on plant records of daily tonnages processed
from each fishing locality, method of processing, and knowledge of the lag between the
time the tagged fish enters the plant and the time the tag is found on the magnet as
shown by magnet efficiency tests. In some cases the reported locality of recovery does
not agree with the interpreted locality. In most cases the interpreted locality of
recovery is a general area rather than a particular fishing-ground. The opportunity
for precise information from magnet recoveries during 1944-45 was more limited than
in previous years because in most major areas fish from several different fishing-
grounds were processed simultaneously or for short intervals of time, thus confusing
the interpretation of place of recovery. Mainly for this reason, but also to avoid
tiresome reading, the results are compiled in tabular form, omitting the detailed
discussion of previous reports.
The results shown in Table III. are summarized according to tagging and presumed
area of recovery in Table IV.
Table V.—Summary, according to Major Areas, of the Known and Interpreted Sources
of all Tags from Taggings producing Returns on both Magnets and Detector during
the 1944-45 Season.
Major Recovery Area.
Major Tagging Area.
West
Coast V.I.
South-east
Coast V.I.
Discovery
Passage.
Queen
Charlotte
Strait.
Central
Coast-line.
?
Total.
West Coast V.I   	
79
3
1
2
2
45
1
1
38
2
1
8
101
3
3
2
83
2
6
81
49
Northern Strait of Georgia and Discovery
53
114
86
Totals....
85
49
40
113
88
8
383
STABILITY OF POPULATIONS AND MOVEMENTS.
Major Areas.
Detector returns included in Table II. and magnet returns given in Table IV. are
combined and further summarized according to major areas in Table V., omitting the
recoveries out for less than six months (9A in Tables II. and IV.) and omitting the
1943-44 returns (7M, in part, in Table IV.). In view of the results of recent years,
the Discovery Passage and northern Strait of Georgia area (north of a line between
Parksville and Sechelt) is separated from the south-east coast of Vancouver Island area.
It may be seen that fish tagged in the northern Strait of Georgia and Discovery
Passage area and in the Queen Charlotte Strait area apparently wandered to a greater
extent than those of other major areas. However, in general the results agree with
those of previous years in showing that mixture between the populations of major areas
is limited, with 346 out of 375 returns, or 92 per cent., coming from the same major
area in which they were originally used.
If the data are adjusted to allow for differences in tonnages caught, tonnages
mechanically searched for tags, and number of tags originally used (Tester, 1944, pp.
66-68), using magnet returns for the west coast of Vancouver Island, Queen Charlotte
Strait, and the Central area, and detector returns for the south-east coast of Vancouver
Island and the Discovery Passage area, the results show a return to the same major
area of 92.3 per cent, and a mixture with other major areas of 7.7 per cent.    If these M 58 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
results are compared with those of last year (82.7 and 17.3 per cent., again segregating
the Strait of Georgia into two areas) they indicate that the extent of mixture between
major areas was less in 1944-45 than in 1943—14.
Details of mixing within major areas will be discussed in the following paragraphs.
West Coast of Vancouver Island.
For the most part, magnet recoveries from the west coast of Vancouver Island can
not be interpreted as coming from particular fishing-grounds. Such results as are
available however (Table IV.) give some information on the dispersal of fish tagged at
Matilda Inlet (8N) in the spring of 1943. These results are of interest in view of the
recent closure (1944-45 season) of Matilda Inlet to commercial purse-seining.
Of the thirty-three Matilda Inlet recoveries by magnets and induction detector
which are referable to particular fishing-grounds, seventeen (52 per cent.) came from
the adjacent waters of Sydney Inlet, two (6 per cent.) came from Nootka Sound, five
(15 per cent.) from Barkley Sound, seven (21 per cent.) from Esperanza Inlet, and
two (6 per cent.) from the south-east coast of Vancouver Island. Closure of Matilda
Inlet, while probably increasing the chances of utilization of its excellent spawning-
ground facilities, did not prevent widespread exploitation in 1944-45 of the fish which
spawned there in the spring of 1944.
South-east Coast of Vancouver Island and Discovery Passage.
The small number of magnet recoveries from these two areas have added little
information to that obtained by induction detector recoveries which have already been
discussed in another section.
It might be noted that one of the current Sooke (9A) tags, used in October, 1944,
was interpreted as being recovered from west coast of Vancouver Island fishing-grounds
(possibly Barkley Sound) during the 1944-45 season.
Queen Charlotte Strait.
As already pointed out, detector returns show that several spawning-grounds in
the Queen Charlotte Strait area contribute to the fishery in the vicinity of Clio Channel,
and that these do not necessarily contribute to the fishery in the upper reaches of
Knight Inlet. Magnet returns (Table IV.) give added support to the first observation
but give no additional information on the second as it was impossible to determine
whether or not tags recovered during the processing of Knight Inlet fish actually came
from fish caught in that locality.
Central Coast-line.
In analysing magnet returns from the Central area, in some cases it has been
possible to designate the area of recovery as " Southern Central " (Bella Bella vicinity,
Bella Coola vicinity, Fish Egg Inlet, etc.), or "Northern Central" (Surf Inlet, Kent
Inlet, Helmcken Inlet, Laredo Channel, Meyers Passage, etc., and for some returns
including Aaltanhash Inlet). The localities in which tagging took place are all in the
Southern Central area, four (5N, 6M, 7M, and 8M) near Bella Bella and one (8L) at
Rivers Inlet.
The results (Table IV.) show that for the taggings near Bella Bella twenty-eight
tags were recovered from the Southern Central area (probably mostly from fish caught
in the Bella Bella vicinity) and thirty tags were recovered from the Northern Central
area; and that for the tagging at Rivers Inlet two were recovered from each of the two
areas. Thus spawning-grounds in the Southern Central area have contributed to the
fishery in the Northern Central area (chiefly in the Laredo Sound vicinity). However,
when the tonnages reduced by the three plants submitting returns are considered
(Northern Central, 27,874 tons;   Southern Central, 4,096 tons)   it is apparent that BRITISH COLUMBIA. M 59
the concentration of the tags was much greater in Southern Central than in Northern
Central fish and that the relative contribution of the Southern Central spawning-
grounds to the two areas is not necessarily in proportion to the number of tags
recovered in each.
If the reported localities of recovery are considered to be the most likely for
tags recovered from particular fishing-grounds in the Northern Central area, the
number of tags from each is roughly proportional to the tonnage processed from each,
suggesting random distribution of the tagged fish on the various fishing-grounds.
An exception to this is the fishing-ground at Hevenor Inlet, in the northern part of
the Northern Central area. Apparently no tags were recovered from fish caught in
this newly exploited locality.
With widespread tagging in the Central area during the 1945 spawning season,
there should be an opportunity of obtaining considerable information of a more detailed
nature from the 1945-46 tagging returns.
MORTALITY RATE.
In Table VI. is shown the probable total number of tags recovered for all 7-series
taggings producing returns in 1943-44 and 1944-45. For the south-east coast of
Vancouver Island and Discovery Passage the results are based on detector returns only
(Table II., this report; Table IIL, report for 1943-44). For other areas they are
based on magnet returns for those plants showing least confusion in the interpretation
of the origin of the tags. In the 1944-45 results for Queen Charlotte Strait, the tags
are considered to have come from Clio Channel catches but not from Knight Inlet
catches.
The decrease in the number of tags recovered between 1943-44 and 1944-45,
an approximation to total mortality rate for fish of the various taggings, is as follows:
South-east coast of Vancouver Island, 88.1 per cent.;   northern Strait of Georgia and
Discovery Passage, 92.3 per cent.;   Queen Charlotte Strait, 83.2 per cent.;  and Central
Coast-line, 92.7 per cent.    The estimate for the south-east coast of Vancouver Island is
similar to that obtained for the 6-series (89 per cent.) and the 5-series (88 per cent.)
as given in previous reports.    It should be pointed out that all estimates may be high,
as migration of untagged fish into the area and migration of tagged fish out of the area
(to some locality not fished, or fished to but a small extent in proportion to the total
population) will increase the apparent mortality rate.    In calculations such as these
it is also assumed that mortality rates (fishing and " natural ") are constant from year
to year, an assumption which may not be even approximately valid for some areas.
Thus it is likely that estimates for Discovery Passage and northern Strait of Georgia,
Queen Charlotte Strait and  (particularly)  the Central coast-line tagged fish are too
high, as tags from all three areas were recovered from the Southern Central area in
1943-44 when the fishery was centred there (Kwakshua Passage) but only to a limited
extent in 1944-45 when the fishery was chiefly concentrated in the Northern Central
area (Laredo Sound vicinity).    Although subject to several sources of error, the rates
are presented with the expectation that they may be of some value in relation to future
determinations.
SUMMARY OF RESULTS.
The results for 1944-45 agree with those of previous years in showing that the
extent of mixture between the herring populations of major areas is small. An interchange of about 8 per cent, is indicated. This is less than that shown by the results
for 1943-44.
Fish tagged at Matilda Inlet, a spawning locality on the west coast of Vancouver
Island which was recently closed to herring seining, were taken from adjacent fishing-
grounds of Sydney Inlet, to a lesser extent from the Nootka and Barkley Sound areas,
and to a small extent from the south-east coast of Vancouver Island. M 60
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
a
O
£
o
I
I
T
Oi
o
&5
E-(
rO
8
rO
O
4
o
Es
3
g
s
Ei
»o
|
tD           O   N   f
■^
©             Ci    -fi    rt
-**
Ol                   CO   CM
a
rt
+5
0
H
ti
^fi
Oi           to   ©   CN
CO
i-h        i> d to
-tf
tr—           t-H   Oi   OJ
a
t-H             H    H   IN
rt
oJ
c
td
-tf
1
eo t-
-p
BQ
3
<N
rt
rH
o
CJ
"3
-p
a
tt)
CJ
■J
T
*
w w «
CO
oi to co*
-tf
n ia a
rt
CN
td
0)
3
O   CO
-p
o
<N   ci
-#
CN
"£   .
is
T-H
fi rt
cj 5
-p
cm
-tf
9
■*
to  O  CO
fl
CO
tD ed  oi
<y
5J
©
CD
<
i-H
ta
CA
ol
IO
<
bo
-tf
1
iH   «D       1
>-
og
a
>
rt
n
ci
Ph
4<
Ci
rt
fc-   CO
o
o
a
8
&
tt)
l>
o
-tf
tP   ta
03
O
*-i
<
CO
oo"   tr-"
OT
5
-tf
OT)
ta oj
s
-p
id
CO
•-fi
to
rt
l
0
""tf
o
CJ
Ci
<N
0J>
fi
■*fi
■p
3
2
CO     .       rt
co
ci          CO
CQ
-tf
eO          M
Ci
rt                       •       •
IO
"<J1
1
>
-tf
Cl
ro
rt
rt
o
CJ
-tf
■p
CO
-1*
rt
QJ
is
CO
cn
ci
>»
fH
01
>
o
o
rt
co
^
cy
U
<
t-
4
fc*
t-
c
•a
ba
a
Eh
t-
Ph   *S -
fc-   b H
t-
OJ           "1   <i
(h
V.I.
of G
,71,
Stra
e (7
to
rt
.st Coast
n Strait>
sagre (7D
harlotte
Coast-lin
?,   H   w CJ _.
V   2   «  Z,   rt
j3  -fl   CL    fl    £
rn -p w oj +3
p
a
tt
o
|Z!
G
a
CJ
O BRITISH COLUMBIA. M 61
Partial independence of the population along the south-east coast of Vancouver
Island from that in the northern Strait of Georgia and Discovery Passage area was
again indicated, although the failure of the fishery at Nanoose Bay prevented clarification of the status of that fishing-ground.
The movement of fish from the Strait of Juan de Fuca to the south-east coast of
Vancouver Island fishing-grounds was again demonstrated.
In the Queen Charlotte Strait area, fish from spawning-grounds in the vicinity of
Kingcome Inlet, Retreat Passage, Cramer Passage, and Clio Channel contributed to
the fishery in the vicinity of Clio Channel but not (to any great extent, at least) to that
in the upper reaches of Knight Inlet.
Although fish from Southern Central area spawning-grounds (in the vicinity of
Bella Bella and at Rivers Inlet) contributed to the fishery in the Northern Central
area (Laredo Sound vicinity) the contribution was relatively small as compared with
that to the fishery in the Southern Central area (Bella Bella, etc., in 1944-45;
Kwakshua Passage in 1943-44).
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
The herring-fishing industry has again given every assistance to the investigation.
British Columbia Packers, Limited, permitted the operation of a tag detector at the
Imperial Cannery and made possible the new installation and operation of the detector
at their Alert Bay reduction plant. The management and crews of these plants gave
every assistance to the detector operators, Mr. A. G. Paul and Mr. R. S. Isaacson.
Reduction plant crews of all companies assisted in the return of tags from magnets.
The seine-boats " Cape Canso " and " Roy Roberts " were loaned for spring tagging
operations by the Canadian Fishing Company, Limited, and by British Columbia
Packers, Limited. The captains, E. Bostrom and C. M. Thomas, and crews, A. Giskovic
and H. Barnes, H. Foster and G. O'Connell, gave every assistance in tagging. Particular acknowledgment is given to Captain Bostrom, whose local knowledge of the Central
coast-line and skill at herring-fishing contributed greatly to the success of tagging.
The assistance of Mr. J. C. Stevenson, M.A., of this station, who was in charge of one
of the tagging-boats, is also gratefully acknowledged.
The investigation has been carried on under joint agreement by the Fisheries
Research Board of Canada and the Fisheries Department of the Province of British
Columbia. Thanks are again extended to Dr. R. E. Foerster and to Mr. G. J. Alexander,
of the respective organizations, for their continued support and assistance.
REFERENCES.
Hart, J. L., and A. L. Tester.    The tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in British
Columbia:  Methods, apparatus, insertions, and recoveries during 1936-37.   Report,
B.C. Provincial Fisheries Department, 1936, 55-67, 1937.     .
Hart, J. L., and A. L. Tester.    The tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in British
Columbia:   Apparatus, insertions, and recoveries during 1937-38.    Report, B.C.
Provincial Fisheries Department, 1937, 64-90, 1938.
Hart, J. L., and A. L. Tester.    The tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in British
Columbia:   Apparatus, insertions, and recoveries during 1938-39.    Report, B.C.
Provincial Fisheries Department, 1938, 51-78, 1939.
Hart, J. L., and A. L. Tester.    The tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in British
Columbia:   Insertions and recoveries during 1939-40.    Report, B.C.  Provincial
Fisheries Department, 1939, 42-66, 1940.
Hart, J. L., A. L. Tester, and J. L. McHugh.   The tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii)
in British Columbia:   Insertions and recoveries during  1940-41.    Report,  B.C.
Provincial Fisheries Department, 1940, 47-74, 1941. M 62
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
Hart, J. L., A. L. Tester, and R. V. Boughton.    Tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii)
in  British  Columbia:    Apparatus,   insertions,  and  recoveries  during  1941-42.
Report, B.C. Provincial Fisheries Department, 1941, 49-78, 1942.
Tester, A. L., and R. V. Boughton.    Tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in British
Columbia:   Apparatus, insertions, and recoveries during 1942-43.    Report, B.C.
Provincial Fisheries Department, 1942, 44-69, 1943.
Tester, A. L.    Tagging of herring (Clupea pallasii) in British Columbia:   Insertions
and recoveries during 1943-44.    Report, B.C. Provincial Fisheries Department,
1943, 53-74, 1944.
Table VII.—Detailed List of Tags inserted during 1944—45.
Identification
Marks.
Type of
Tag.*
Date released.
Tagging
Code.
Where released.
No. of
Tags used.
P22701-P23000
A
A
A
A
A
A
B
B
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
Mar. 12, 1945
Oct.   10, 1944
Apr.    1, 1945
Oct.   10, 1944
Mar. 11, 1945
Mar. 10, 1945
Oct.   10, 1944
Oct.   10, 1944
Mar.    9, 1945
Mar.   9, 1945
Mar. 12, 1945
Mar. 12, 1945
Mar. 14, 1945
Mar. IB, 1945
Mar. 21, 1945
Mar. 20, 1945
Apr. 3, 4, 1945
Apr. 3, 4, 1945
Apr.    4, 1945
Apr.    4, 1945
Apr.    4, 1945
Mar. 15, 1945
Feb.  17, 1945
Mar. 19, 194B
Mar. 19, 1945
Mar. 20, 1945
Mar. 22, 1945
Mar. 22, 1945
Mar. 22, 1945
Mar. 22, 1945
Mar. 22, 1945
Mar. 25, 1945
Mar. 25, 194B
Mar. 25, 194B
Mar. 13, 194B
Mar.   7, 194B
Mar. IB, 1945
Mar. 20, 1945
Mar. 21, 1945
Mar. 21, 1945
Mar. 20, 1945
Mar. 20, 1945
Feb.   17, 1945
Mar. 11, 1945
Mar. 12, 1945
Mar. 13, 1945
Mar. 13, 1945
Mar. 15, 1945
91
9A
9L
9A
9C
9C
9A
9A
91
91
91
91
9J
9J
9M
9K
9F
9F
9F
9F
9F
9E
9B
9G
9G
9G
9H
9H
9H
9H
9H
9N
9N
9N
9D
9J
9J
9M
9M
9M
9K
9K
9B
9C
9C
9D
9D
9E
296
292
393
P27401-P27500
Sooke     ___
99
498
499
514
504
689
ACCA
500
ADDA
575
694
AHHA
631
AHA
600
AJJA
638
AKKA
643
AOOA
651
APPA
699
ASSA
660
ATTA
AUUA
AWWA
Skuttle Bay-  	
AXXA
649
AYYA
AZZA
BAAB
Viner Sound .._  	
615
BCCB
Cutter Creek	
657
BDDB
BEEB
Cutter Creek	
BHHB
BIIB
Cutter Creek  _	
643
BJJB
Laredo Sound, Parsons Anchorage _
654
BKKB
627
BLLB
644
BMMB
Prevost Island, Selby Creek	
654
BNNB
BOOB
BPPB
Cramer Passage  	
Gunboat Passage	
1,278
1 266
BSSB
1,130
1,276
1,315
1,214
BTTB
BUUB
Gunboat Passage	
BWWB
Takush Harbour, Angle Inlet 	
BXXB
Ladysmith Harbour	
1,285
1,391
BYYB
BZZB
Departure Bay, off Horswell Point	
1,167
CAAC
Prevost Island, Selby Creek	
1,244
1,329
1,178
CBBC
CDDC
Skuttle Bay _   _	
* A = Original dimensions and weight, nickel-plated.
B = Original dimensions and weight, silver-plated.
C = Shorter, wider, thinner and lighter, silver-plated. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
M 63
Table VII.—Detailed List of Tags inserted during 1944-45—Continued.
Identification
Marks.
Type of
Tag.*
Date released.
Tagging
Code.
Where released.
No. of
Tags used.
CEEC
C
C
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
B
Mar. 15, 1945
Mar. 19, 1945
Mar. 25, 1945
Mar. 25, 1945
Mar. 25, 1945
Mar. 26, 1945
Mar. 26, 1945
Mar. 26, 1945
Mar. 27, 1945
Mar. 27, 1945
Mar. 28, 1945
Mar. 28, 1945
Mar. 28, 1945
Mar. 28, 1945
Mar. 30, 1945
Mar. 30, 1945
Mar. 30, 1945
Mar. 30, 1945
Mar. 30, 1945
Mar. 30, 1945
Apr.    1, 1945
Apr.    1, 1945
Apr.    1, 1945
9E
9G
9N
9N
9N
90
90
90
9Q
9Q
9Q
9Q
9Q
9Q
9P
9P
9P
9P
9P
9P
9L
9L
9L
Skuttle Bay 	
1,319
CHHC
CJJC
Viner Sound — 	
1,244
520
CLLC
B18
CPPC
esse
cttc
Laredo Sound, Parsons Anchorage	
Racey Inlet, Head   —
487
B02
BIB
cuuc
B06
cwwc
B12
CXXC
B14
CYYC
523
CZZC
502
DAAD
489
DBBD
499
DCCD
509
DHHD
467
DJJD
510
DKKD
511
DLLD
508
DMMD
505
DOOD
DSSD
Campbell Island, Brown Narrows  _	
533
501
DTTD
Campbell Island, Brown Narrows	
468
* A = Original dimensions and weight, nickel-plated.
B — Original dimensions and weight, silver-plated.
C — Shorter, wider, thinner and lighter, silver-plated. M 64
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF COMMERCIAL SHELL-FISH.
By Ferris Neave, Pacific Biological Station, Nanaimo, B.C.
Investigations during the past year have continued along the lines indicated in the
Report of the British Columbia Fisheries Department, 1943.
As in previous years, the programme, under the direction of the Fisheries Research
Board of Canada, has received support, encouragement, and advice from the Provincial
Fisheries Department and active co-operation from the Dominion Department of
Fisheries.
COMMERCIAL CLAM-CATCH.
Statistics were again collected concerning commercial operations for butter, razor,
and little-neck clams, these being the only species of commercial importance at the
present time. While an attempt is made to obtain detailed reports on all such operations and thus approximate the total catch, a main objective is to estimate the availability of clams from year to year in terms of the average catch per man per tide.
Reports received for the season of 1943-44 comprise the following total quantities
of clams:— 1943-44.
Species. Lb.
Butter-clams  :  2,238,627
Razor-clams       298,400
1942-43.
Lb.
2,893,222
389,825
248,920
Little-neck clams     237,753
In the case of each species, the quantity reported was somewhat less than in the
preceding season.
Butter-clams.—The reported catches were distributed as follows:—,
Quantity.
1943-44.
Area.
Northern British Columbia	
Central British Columbia	
1943-44.
1942-43.
Lb.
Lb.
828,407
741,421
123,300
417,934
362,655
1,066,200
330,745
236,825
593,520
430,742
Queen Charlotte Strait and Johnstone Strait
Northern Strait of Georgia    330,745
South-east coast of Vancouver Island     593,520
While these figures show a marked decline in production in the Queen Charlotte
Strait and Central areas, an increased catch was reported from other centres, notably
from the south-east coast of Vancouver Island.
Average catches per man-tide, now available for five consecutive seasons in certain
localities, are given in the following table:—
Area.
Northern British Columbia	
Central British Columbia	
Queen Charlotte Strait, etc..	
Seal Island  _	
South-east Vancouver Island—
(o.) Chemainus district...
(6.)   Sidney district—	
Lb.
200.7
120.0
138.0
1940-41.
Lb.
182.7
198.2
124.7
149.9
1941-42.
Lb.
558.1
272.3
186.7
599.9
153.8
159.1
1942-43.
Lb.
352.2
287.4
248.2
601.1
175.2
202.4
Lb.
300.6
282.1
274.7
792.5
198.0
218.9
In this table the figures given for Seal Island cannot be compared directly with
those for other areas, since digging at this locality takes place only during a short
annual period of favourable tides. The continued rise in the production per man-tide
in the Chemainus and Sidney districts is not due to reduced competition among diggers,
since the digging effort and the total catch have also increased during the past two years. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
M 65
Little-neck Clams.—The area adjacent to the south-east coast of Vancouver Island
has continued to be the main source of little-neck clams. The quantity reported from
this area in 1943-44 was 237,753 lb. This is practically the same as the reported catch
of the previous season (238,080 lb.). In 1943-44 no catches were reported from other
parts of the coast which had previously contributed small quantities to the total British
Columbia catch. The reported Vancouver Island catch, except for 1,753 lb., was taken
between April 1st and August 6th. The catch per man-tide averaged 127.2 lb. This
may be compared with the following figures for previous years: 1941, 129.8 lb.; 1942,
127.8 lb.; 1943, 152.7 lb. It is evident that availability of clams has remained very
constant except for the 1943 season. The cause of the high figure in that year is not
known.
Razor-clams.—In 1944 the Massett Co-operative Association again provided
records of the catches made on the beaches of the north shore of Graham Island, this
being the only area in the Province which produces razor-clams commercially at the
present time. Comparative figures for the production of 1944 and 1943 (when the
present recording system was introduced) are presented in the following table:—
Beach.
Man-tides.
Production.
Average Catch
per Man-tide.
North,   1943                      -                     -	
1,518
2,661
806
458
1,631
1,303
3,955
4,422
Lb.
118,400
147,300
82,350
30,450
189,075
120,650'
389,825
298,400
Lb.
78.0
1944
65.4
Middle, 1943        ' -	
102.2
1944 -. ._	
South,   1943            	
66.5
115.9
1944 _  .     -
All, 1943
92.6
98.6
1944 --..--	
67.5
The total production in 1944 was low in comparison with the annual yields of previous years. The availability of clams in each of the three sections of beach was also
lower than in 1943, which was not regarded as a favourable year. In spite of this
lowered availability, it cannot be justifiably concluded that depletion has occurred. In
1944 operations were greatly restricted by bad weather conditions during what should
have been the most favourable low-tide periods. Even when large areas of beach are
readily accessible for operations, there is much variation in the extent to which the
clams reveal their presence by the surface indications which provide the only guide to
diggers. In spite of the general poor record of 1944, excellent catches were made on
occasional days.
INVESTIGATIONS AT SEAL ISLAND.
Controlled digging of the butter-clam beach at Seal Island, near Comox, was carried out for the fourth consecutive.year in February, 1945.
When this programme was started in 1942 certain areas were delimited within the
boundaries of the!productive portion of the beach. These were subjected to different
intensity of digging in order to observe the effect in subsequent years. With the
information obtained from these plots it was decided that regulation of the production
of the beach as a whole could be attempted. In 1945 no territorial restrictions were
placed on the diggers but a general limit of 100 tons for the season was imposed. This
quantity was reached during thirteen nights' digging between February 8th and February 22nd." ;- •'-'-' :
Operations were conducted in co-operation with the Western Fish Company, which,
took delivery of the clams produced. M 66
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
Production and digging effort on this beach during the period of the investigations
have been as follows:—
Man-tides.
Man-hours.
Catch.
Average Catch.
Per Man-tide.
Per Man-hour.
Lb.
Lb.
Lb.
1942 _    _     	
393
1,586
235,757
B99.89
148.64
1943   -.  	
394
1,588
236,825
601.08
149.09
1944 —	
264
1,160
209,211
792.57
180.38
194B                                                      	
484
2,108
207,160
435.60
98.26
In 1945 the availability of clams, as measured by the average catch per unit of
time, showed a marked decrease, although still very high in comparison with other
areas in the Province. Although the total quantity of clams present in the beach was
certainly less than in the preceding years, the lowered catch per man-tide (and per
man-hour) was not entirely a reflection of this condition, since sizeable areas of previously undug territory were still available to diggers. The skill and zeal displayed by
the latter, while not readily assessable, appear to vary considerably from year to year
and to influence the results to a marked degree.
The total quantity of legal-sized butter-clams in the whole beach at the time of
commencement of the programme is considered to have been roughly 550 tons. At the
beginning of the 1945 dig, that is after three seasons' digging and three years of
growth and replacement, the quantity had been reduced to possibly 350 tons. Since
340 tons had been removed by diggers, these rough calculations would indicate a replacement of 140 tons in that period. This replacement is due of course to the continued
growth of individuals of the original population and the attainment of legal size by
clams which were previously too small to be available. It is evident that these increments have greatly outweighed the natural mortality during the period but have fallen
considerably short of replacing the fishing drain on the stock.
The catches made during the experimental period have depended to a large extent
on the heavy seedings of 1934-36. Succeeding year classes were much less numerous
and, as has been pointed out in previous reports, comparatively small quantities of
clams are attaining legal size each year at the present time. There is now evidence
of an improved seeding probably originating mainly in 1943. These clams should
enter the commercial stock about 1948. In the meantime the available stock can be
expected to decline further if the present annual production is maintained.
It is considered justifiable for production to exceed replacements at the present
time, on the grounds that (a) replacement, while irregular from year to year, might
well exceed the present rate of production over a longer period of time; (b) much of
the present stock has reached an age when natural mortality can be expected to increase.
It should be utilized rather than allowed to die from other causes.
In the immediate future, production per unit of effort can be expected to decline.
Up to this year, in spite of a decrease in total available stock, diggers were able to find
considerable stretches of beach which were as heavily populated as before. The present
remaining population, while far from exhausted, presents fewer opportunities for
uninterrupted exploitation of virgin ground.
INVESTIGATIONS ON OYSTERS.
Experiments on the tank-rearing of oyster larva?, begun in 1943, were continued
in the spring and summer of 1944. Both native and Pacific oysters were used in
these experiments. BRITISH COLUMBIA. M 67
Native oysters placed in the tank on May 4th produced a fairly numerous population of larva? which w.ere reared to the setting stage in June. Setting in some numbers was observed, but thereafter heavy mortality occurred both among the swimming
larva? and the newly-settled spat.
Heavy concentrations of Pacific oyster larva? were obtained in the tank on five
occasions in July and August. Normal development proceeded for varying periods of
time, up to seven days, after which growth was checked and heavy mortality was
apparent. The mortality was not related to any particular stage of development but
appeared to be associated with physical and chemical conditions of the environment.
It is hoped that these difficulties can be overcome in future experiments.
NATURAL REPRODUCTION OF PACIFIC OYSTERS.
. In July and August, 1944, observations were made on the plankton and on the
condition of oysters in Ladysmith Harbour, as a means of judging the prospects of
a commercially valuable set.
A moderate spawning took place about July 11th and the progressive development
of the resulting larva? was noted during the remainder of the month. A good spatfall
of larva? was obtained on floated cultch between July 30th and August 3rd. Light
setting continued for several days after the latter date. No further successful spawnings took place. The relatively good set at Ladysmith provided a contrast with the
very poor results reported from the extensive oyster-grounds in Washington, where the
season of 1944 produced no set of definite commercial value.
SUMMARY.
The commercial butter-clam catch of the 1943-44 season showed a decreased production in the Queen Charlotte Strait and Central areas and an increase in other areas,
notably from the beaches on or near the south-east coast of Vancouver Island. The
latter district continued to show an increase in the production per unit of fishing effort.
The general condition of butter-clam beaches in the Province is regarded as satisfactory.
The little-neck clam-catch was again produced almost entirely in the area adjacent
to the south-east coast of Vancouver Island. Statistics covering several years show
little variation in availability.
Razor-clam production on Graham Island was low, but this does not necessarily
indicate depletion of the beaches.
The experiment in managing the production of butter-clams at Seal Island, near
Comox, was continued for the fourth season in February, 1945. Removal of 100 tons
of clams was permitted. Production per unit of effort showed a decline from previous
seasons, although still very high in comparison with all the large coastal areas. The
appearance of a fairly large crop of young clams, which will attain commercial size
within a few years, was noted. The general condition and future prospects of the
beach are discussed.
Experiments in the tank-rearing of oyster larva? were continued in 1944.
The reproductive activities of Pacific oysters on the commercial beds at Ladysmith
and the development of the free-swimming larval stages were again investigated in the
summer of 1944. A commercially valuable set took place at the end of July and
beginning of August. M 68
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
REPORT ON INVESTIGATIONS OF THE  INTERNATIONAL PACIFIC
SALMON FISHERIES COMMISSION FOR 1944.
By B. M. Brennan, Director.
The International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission was established by treaty
between the Governments of Canada and the United States in order to restore the
Fraser River salmon fishery to something approaching its former magnitude. Investigations towards this end are now in their seventh year and actual rehabilitation
measures, sponsored by the two Governments, are progressing rapidly.
THE HELL'S GATE PROJECT.
On July 5th, 1944, copies of the contract and specifications were sent to prospective
bidders in the United States and Canada for the construction of the Hell's Gate
fishways. The tenders were opened and analysed on August 2nd in the New Westminster offices of the International Pacific Salmon Fisheries Commission. The successful bidder, Coast Construction Co., Limited, began work in the latter part of August.
Work progressed as the river fell, until in December it looked as if a very close race
was in progress between the contractor and the Fraser River. The hope of the Commission that the right bank fishways on the Canadian Pacific Railway side of the river
and the 20-foot wide section of the left bank structure on the Canadian National
Railways side of the river would be in operation to pass the 1945 sockeye-salmon
migration began to cause some worry as December ended with still so much to be
accomplished towards that end.
Much depends upon the time of the break-up of ice conditions and cold weather
in the interior and upper regions of the Fraser. Naturally, the later the spring thaw
the more time will be available to bring the structures as near to completion as will
successfully pass the valuable Chilko sockeye run to the spawning-grounds of the
Chilko Lake system at the head of the Chilcotin River.
This year's run of sockeye cannot remain a commercial asset and experience
another disastrous season such as occurred in the brood-year of 1941 when a block
stage of the river at Hell's Gate of nearly sixty days' duration destroyed an estimated
65 per cent, of the run.
SALT-WATER TAGGING.
Tagging of sockeye salmon was continued at Sooke as in the previous six years.
During the season a total of 1,063 sockeye salmon were tagged, of which 450 or
42 per cent, were recovered. Recoveries for past years ranged between 44 and 59 per
cent. Numbers tagged and recovered for the seven years of the experiment were
as follows:—
Year.
Number
tagged.
Number
recovered.
Per Cent.
recovered.
1938 ' ' r_.__.r " _.._ r
980
1,042
930
.     . 849
1,803
1,053     •
1,063
439
558
437
503
793
502*
4501
44
1939._.,_._._.-_. Z    ■''■''- .        '	
54
1940      _"___■ r • : •'  ■ .' :	
47
1941 ____________ ■
59
1942__	
44
1943     .
48
1944	
42
* Number recovered as of March 31st, 1944.
t Number recovered as of August 20th, 1945.
For further details see the Annual Reports of the International Pacific Salmon
Fisheries Commission for 1943 and 1944. BRITISH COLUMBIA. M 69
THE COMMERCIAL FISHERY.
Beginning in 1946 the Commission is scheduled to manage the Fraser River
sockeye-salmon fishery. In order to be in a position to carry out this important task
it is necessary to have accurate data for all recent years and to obtain current data
without unnecessary delay. Data that have been collected include total landings, total
pack, information concerning fishing boats and fishing areas, etc. Biological information such as age and racial composition of the runs is likewise collected for future use.
THE INDIAN FISHERY.
Interesting methods are being given trials to enumerate the Indian take of sockeye
salmon, which promise to give more accurate and comprehensive figures of this annual
harvest of the salmon taken by the various Indian tribes for their winter food-supplies
on the entire Fraser River system. The co-operation of the Dominion Fisheries
guardians in collecting these statistics is much appreciated.
OTHER PROJECTS.
Studies of other projects, both biological and engineering, are being carried out
on various parts of the Fraser River and its tributaries. Continued studies of
spawning-grounds, scale analysis and research into the life-history of the sockeye are
under way. Tagging programmes on sockeye salmon are in progress at Bridge River
Rapids on the Fraser River proper above the town of Lillooet and at Farwell Canyon
in the Chilcotin River close to the Chilko spawning-grounds, as well as the study
of the Skookumchuck Rapids, a difficult piece of water for salmon to surmount on
the lower Lillooet River. M 70 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
A PRELIMINARY REPORT ON A FISHERY SURVEY OF
TESLIN LAKE, BRITISH COLUMBIA.
By W. A. Clemens, R. V. Boughton, and J. A. Rattenbury.
During July and August, 1944, a survey of the commercial fishery possibilities of
Teslin Lake, British Columbia, was carried out for the Provincial Fisheries Department. This lake, 78 miles in length and averaging 2 miles in width, extends in a north-
south direction and forms one of the headwaters of the Yukon River system. The British
Columbia-Yukon boundary-line (60th parallel of latitude) crosses the lake at approximately mid-length.
The investigation involved the following: Determinations of surface area, bottom
area, and volume; distributions of water temperatures, oxygen and hydrogen ion concentration; species of fish, their distribution, abundance, age-weight-length relationships, stomach contents and parasites; quantitative determinations of plankton and
bottom organisms as potential food-supplies for the fishes.
The present account is preliminary and a complete report will be submitted when
all the material has been examined and the data analysed.
THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL FEATURES OF THE LAKE.
As stated previously, Teslin Lake is 78 miles in length and has an average width
of nearly 2 miles.    Its area as determined from maps is 137 square miles.
' In order to obtain data for the plotting of bottom contours and the calculation of
volume, extensive series of soundings were made across the lake at selected intervals.
The lake occupies a narrow trench whose sides slope rather steeply. The maximum
depth obtained was 700 feet. The mid-channel has a somewhat irregular depth with
an average of about 300 feet.    The calculated volume is 735 X IO9 cubic feet.
Temperatures were taken at various depths with a pair of Negretti-Zambra deep-
sea reversing thermometers. The surface temperatures ranged from 12° to 19° C.
during the two months. The water below approximately 475 feet remained at 4° C.
There was a fairly gradual decrease in temperature from the surface to 4° C. with
little evidence of a thermocline.
Samples of water were obtained at various depths by means of an insulated deep-
sea water-bottle. The oxygen content of each sample was determined by the Winkler
method and the hydrogen-ion concentration by use of a Taylor slide form hydrogen-ion
comparator. The oxygen content of the lake water was almost at the saturation point
at all depths during July and August. The hydrogen-ion concentration ranged from
7.5 to 8.0.
The following meteorological data were kindly supplied by the Department of
Transport at the Teslin airport covering the period September 1st, 1943, to August 27th,
1944:—
Total precipitation  13.68 inches.
Maximum temperature '.  83.4° F.
Minimum temperature....  23.6° F.
Mean temperature  35.9° F.
Total snowfall .  54.8 inches.
THE FISHES.
Fishes were obtained by means of gill-nets and a beach-seine and, to a limited
extent, by trolling and fly-fishing. The gill-nets were operated in a gang consisting
of 50 yards each of iy2-inch, 2%-inch, 3-inch, 3y2-inch, 4-inch, 4%-inch, 5-inch, and
5y2-inch stretched mesh, set on the bottom' at various depths, usually at right angles BRITISH COLUMBIA. M 71
to but occasionally parallel with the shore-line.    The beach-seine measured 50 by 12 feet
and consisted of %-inch stretched mesh.
The scientific names of the coregonine fishes as used herein follow Dymond (1943)
for the most part.    ■
Common Whitefish, Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill).
The most abundant species in the lake was the common whitefish. The largest
specimen obtained was 23% inches in length, 6% lb. in weight, and was at least
12 years of age. A local resident stated that he had obtained an individual which
weighed 9% lb.
Two forms of the whitefish occur in the lake. In one the dorsal profile of the head
is convex while in the other it is flat to concave and there is a prominent hump
immediately behind the head. The former is called the sheep-nose and the latter
the humpback. These two forms appear to be widely distributed in the Canadian
North-west and in Alaska and have been recognized as distinct species under the names
Coregonus kennecotti Milner and C. nelsonii Bean. Dymond in his recent (1943)
critical examination of specimens of whitefish from the Great Lakes to the Yukon
concludes that only one species is represented—namely, C. clupeaformis. In the Teslin
Lake specimens, aside from the differences in shape of head and related features, there
appear to be significant differences in fin-lengths but none in scale-counts or in gill-
raker numbers. Until all the measurements and the age data have been carefully
examined it would seem advisable to regard one species as present in the lake.
The common whitefish is caught by the local residents in short lengths of gill-nets
of about 4-inch mesh, and used as food for themselves and their dogs.
The species is a bottom feeder and in Teslin Lake consumes snails, small clams,
insect larva?, worms, etc.    In turn, it is eaten by lake-trout and pike.
Round Whitefish, Prosopium cylindraceum (Pallas).
The round whitefish occurs in considerable numbers, but in much less abundance
than does the common whitefish. The largest individual taken was 16y2 inches in
length and iy2 lb. in weight. An age of 9 years was attained by three fish approximately 16 inches in length. Very few of these fish are caught by the local residents
as the mesh of net used is too large to retain them.
The round whitefish is a bottom feeder. Its food materials in Teslin Lake were
essentially the same as those of the other whitefishes with a slightly higher percentage
of insect larva?.
Cisco, Leucichthys sardinella (Valenciennes).
Apparently only one species of cisco (lake-herring) occurs in the lake. While
considerable numbers were taken in the gill-nets, the abundance of the species cannot
be judged on the basis of the catches since the fish is pelagic for the most part.
Presumably it occurs in moderate abundance. The largest specimen taken was approximately 12 inches in length, weighed % lb. and was 6 years of age. No individuals
were taken in the gill-nets of larger than 2Vs-inch mesh and few, if any, are caught
in the nets of the local residents.
The cisco is a plankton feeder and in turn forms a considerable part of the food of
lake-trout, inconnu, pike, and ling.
Inconnu, Stenodus leucichthys (Guldenstadt).
The inconnu occurs in Canada only in the Yukon and Mackenzie River systems
and the capture of specimens in the southern portion of Teslin Lake constitutes the
first record of the species within the boundary-lines of the Province of British
Columbia. The species is distributed in Siberian waters but the American population
may be subspecifically distinct. It is closely related to the whitefishes and ciscoes,
with which apparently it interbreeds occasionally. M 72 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
While only twenty-one individuals were obtained, there is reason to believe that
the relative abundance of the inconnu in Teslin Lake is greater than the gill-net catch
indicates. The sizes ranged from 17% inches and 1% lb. to 32% inches and 12% lb.
A few fish are caught by local residents in the gill-nets set for whitefish and are dried
for dog-feed.
The stomach-contents of ten specimens examined consisted of fish remains of
which ciscoes were identified in three individuals.
Lake-trout, Cristivomer namaycush (Walbaum).
Lake-trout is the most abundant piscivorous fish in the lake. It is taken to some
extent in gill-nets set for whitefish but is caught readily on trolls. Considerable
numbers were taken from the north portion of the lake during the period of the building of the Alaska Highway by the men engaged in the construction-work. The largest
individual secured during the period of investigation was a female, 3iy4 inches in
length and 12% lb. in weight.
Examination of the stomach-contents of seventy-two individuals showed that
the cisco formed the chief food item, although the whitefishes were eaten extensively.
Other fishes consumed were lake-trout, pike, ling, and sculpins.
Grayling, Thymallus arcticus signifer Richardson.
The grayling appears to be a stream fish during the summer months. The only
individual obtained in the lake was a specimen about 3 inches in length discovered in
a seine haul. The streams tributary to the lake were well populated. On August 21st
thirty-two fish up to 14y4 inches in length were obtained from the Morley River by
means of angling in the section of the stream immediately at the highway bridge.
While these fish did not put up a good fight the species does provide a fly-fishery.
The food of the specimens in the Morley River consisted of aquatic insects such
as mayfly nymphs, caddis larva?, and midge larva?; terrestrial insects, including
beetles, ants, and wasps; a few snails and traces of fresh-water shrimps and
water-mites.
Spring Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum).
A large number of spring salmon make the journey each year from the Bering
Sea to Teslin Lake, a distance of approximately 2,000 miles. They enter the lake early
in August and are caught in gill-nets by the local residents. Three fish in bright red
spawning coloration were observed in the Morley River on August 21st. One small
specimen, about 4 inches in length, was obtained in a seine haul.
Chum Salmon, Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum).
The chum salmon is reported to enter Teslin Lake inconsiderable numbers, but
usually somewhat later in the season than the spring salmon. No specimens were
observed or reported in 1944 up to end of the period of investigation on August 28th.
This species is taken by the local residents in gill-nets and is used chiefly for dog-feed.
Pike, Esox lucius Linnaeus.
The pike or jackfish was common in the shallow weedy areas of the lake, especially
in the upper portions of Nisutlin and Morley Bays. Very few of the fish are taken
by the local residents either in gill-nets or by troll. The largest individual obtained
was a male 29% inches in length and 7% lb. in weight.
The food of the pike covers a wide range of fish species; namely, common whitefish,
round whitefish, cisco, pike, northern sucker, sculpin, ling.
Northern Sucker, Catostomus catostomus (Forster).
The northern sucker was distributed around the lake in shallow- to medium-depth
waters. It was particularly abundant in Nisutlin Bay. The few specimens caught
by the local residents are discarded. BRITISH COLUMBIA. M 73
The food of the sucker consists of small bottom organisms, especially midge
larva?, small clams and snails, small Crustacea, etc.
Ling, Lota lota maculosa Le Sueur.
The ling, lawyer, or loche was taken almost everywhere in the gill-nets, but never
in numbers. However, considerable numbers of small individuals were obtained in
seine hauls, particularly toward the south end of the lake, and the species may occur in
greater abundance than the gill-net catches would indicate. The largest specimen
was 27% inches in length and 4% lb. in weight.
The ling is a fish-eater and its stomach-contents revealed the presence of round
whitefish, ciscoes, lake-trout, pike, and sculpins.
Sculpin, Cottus cognatus Richardson.
This small shore species was taken everywhere around the lake where seine hauls
were made. It is a bottom-living fish, reaches a length of about 3 inches, and feeds
chiefly upon aquatic insects. On the other hand, it is eaten by small lake-trout, pike,
and ling.
The fish fauna of Teslin Lake • is limited to twelve species. Three or more
additional species occur in the lower Yukon River, but apparently these have not yet
extended their ranges to Teslin Lake. No minnow is known to occur in the Yukon
River system.
Undoubtedly the species of fish now inhabiting Teslin Lake are those which, during
the last glacial period, survived in the lower portion of the Yukon River which was free
of ice. With the disappearance of the glacial ice from the upper Yukon area representatives of these species eventually made their way south-eastward into the Teslin area.
The limited fauna as compared with that of the Mackenzie River system would seem
to indicate the isolation of the Yukon River system from the water areas to the south
and west, at least since the last glacial period. All of the species except the lake-trout
and the sculpin occur in Siberian waters. A critical comparison of the Yukon and
Siberian species is necessary to determine the exact relationships of the fish faunas of
these two areas.
OCCURRENCE OF THE TAPEWORM,  TRISENOPHORUS CRASSUS
(FOREL).
An examination of the fishes of Teslin Lake for parasites disclosed the presence of
the tapeworm, Trisenophorus crassus. The important phases of the life-history of this
parasite (Miller, 1943, 1945) are as follows: The adult worm lives in the intestine of
the pike, Esox lucius. On maturity in the spring, eggs are liberated from the pike and
hatch into free swimming larva? (coracidia). These are eaten by the copepod, Cyclops
bicuspidatus, reach the body-cavity and in about ten days reach a stage known as the
procercoid. If copepods infected with procercoids are eaten by whitefishes and ciscoes,
the larval parasites penetrate the stomach-wall and eventually encyst in the muscles,
principally in the region from immediately behind the head to the dorsal fin. This
stage of the parasite is known as a pleurocercoid and if eaten by the pike develops
in the intestine into an adult tapeworm.
In Teslin Lake the adult form of Trisenophorus crassus was found in considerable
numbers in the intestine of the pike. Pleurocercoids were found as follows: Common
whitefish, 53 per cent, of 59 individuals examined; cisco, 85 per cent, of 177 individuals
examined. No attempt was made to determine the average number of cysts per
specimen, but it was evident that the ciscoes were much more heavily parasitized than
the common whitefish. Of twelve specimens of the round whitefish examined no
infestation was found, possibly due to the small number involved, since this species has
been reported as a host in certain Canadian waters. M 74 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
While this parasite does not infect human beings, the presence of large numbers
of cysts in the muscles of the'whitefish and ciscoes renders these fishes unmarketable.
BASIC FOOD-SUPPLIES FOR FISH.
Of the nine species of fish permanently resident in the lake, four—namely, the two
whitefishes, the sucker, and the sculpin—feed upon small organisms living on the
bottom of the lake; one, the cisco, lives upon the minute animals of the open water
known as the zooplankton; the remaining four—the lake-trout, the inconnu, the pike,
and the ling—are piscivorous, capturing other fishes, chiefly ciscoes and whitefishes.
There are two main food-conversion chains:—
(a.)  Minute plants of the open water (phytoplankton)—zooplankton—ciscoes
—lake-trout, inconnu, pike, and ling.
(6.)   Plankton organisms dying and settling to the bottom—bottom organisms
(worms,   Crustacea,   insect   larva?,   small   clams,   snails)—whitefishes,
suckers, and sculpins—lake-trout, inconnu, pike, and ling.
In order to obtain definite data concerning the quantities of the basic food
materials—that is, the plankton and bottom organisms—a considerable number of
quantitative collections were made.
The plankton collectioHs were obtained by means of a closing plankton-net of
No. 20 bolting silk. Vertical series were taken at various places in the lake and the net
hauls preserved in weak formalin.
The collections of bottom organisms were made with an Ekman grab-dredge which
brought up approximately 81 square inches of bottom. The contents of the dredge
were washed through sieves and the retained animals then picked from the sieves and
preserved in weak formalin.
The collections of plankton and bottom organisms have not been examined critically
as to species taken nor weighed, but it is evident from general observation that both
the plankton and bottom fauna are limited in species and quantity. Correspondingly,
the productivity of the lake in terms of poundage of fish should be relatively low.
POTENTIAL COMMERCIAL AND SPORT FISHERIES.
While the data relating to the fishes and their food-supplies have not been completely analysed, the following tentative conclusions are presented at the present
time:—
The common whitefish is the only species which may be considered for commercial
exploitation. From information collected from residents, the writers estimate the
normal annual requirements for the local residents, including their dogs, at a maximum
of 20,000 lb. In view of the present abundance of the whitefish in the lake and the
results of the studies of age-composition there is no evidence that the annual outtake,
which in some years may have reached 20,000 lb., has appreciably reduced the stock.
On the basis of the data available and the information concerning commercial whitefish
fisheries in other lakes, it would appear that an additional 20,000 to 30,000 lb. might
be removed annually providing that the fishery were not localized. Whether a profitable
commercial market might be developed for a catch of this size cannot be stated.
The lake-trout should be reserved chiefly for sport-fishing. There is need for
providing attractions for tourists and for maintaining recreational facilities for Yukon
residents. Teslin Lake is an attractive body of water and will undoubtedly be visited
by an increasing number of persons. Some lake-trout will be taken in commercial
whitefish gill-nets if operated and there would seem to be no reason for not allowing
these to be marketed, although a distinct commercial fishery for lake-trout should not
be permitted to develop.
The grayling will continue to provide a sport-fishery in the streams. BRITISH COLUMBIA. M 75
A reduction in the number of pike in the lake would be desirable, since this fish
is the host of the adult of the tapeworm, Trisenophorus. Encouragement of a sport-
fishery for pike would be of some value in this respect.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.
The writers wish to gratefully acknowledge the following assistance: Mr. Geo. J.
Alexander, who suggested the investigation and has followed it with sympathetic
interest; Mr. and Mrs. R. McCleery, Teslin, Y.T., through whom all the working
arrangements at the lake were made possible; R.C.M.P. Constable Goodey, in securing
the collection of grayling; the Provincial Game Commission, in the making of preliminary arrangements; the Pacific Biological Station, the International Fisheries
Commission, and the University of British Columbia in the loan of apparatus; and the
Department of Transport at the Teslin Airport for meteorological data.
REFERENCES.
Dymond, J. R., 1943.    The Coregonine Fishes of Northwestern Canada.    Trans. Roy.
Canad. Inst., Vol. XXIV., Part IL, No. 24, 171-231.
Miller, R. B., 1943.    Studies on Cestodes of the Genus Trisenophorus from Fish of
Lesser Slave Lake, Alberta.
I. Introduction and the Life of Trisenophorus crassus Forel and T. nodulosus
(Pallas) in the Definitive Host, Esox lucius. Canad. Journ. Res.,
Vol. 21, 160-170.
II. The Eggs, Coracidia, and Life in the First Intermediate Host of Trisenophorus crassus Forel and T. nodulosus (Pallas). Canad. Journ. Res.,
Vol. 21, 284-291. M 76 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
SALMON-SPAWNING REPORT, BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1944.
By Major J. A. Motherwell.
GENERAL.
Sockeye.—Good supplies were found in the Skeena River watershed, Bella Coola
district, and the Chilko section of the Fraser River watershed. In the Nass and Lowe
Inlet areas the seeding was satisfactory. At Rivers Inlet, whilst some of the most
important streams were well supplied, the seeding generally was only fair. Smith
Inlet was not up to expectations. In view of the fact that disappointing percentages
of four-year fish in 1943 and five-year fish in 1944 were found on the Rivers and Smith
Inlets spawning-beds, there would appear reason to believe that some unknown conditions were present during the spawning of the brood-year of 1939 which caused an
unusual mortality in the eggs or fry.
Springs.—Taking the Province as a whole the seeding was fair.
Cohoes.—In the northern areas satisfactory supplies were observed. Conditions
were better in the southern portion of the Province, particularly in the Vancouver
Island streams.
Pinks.—In the Yakoun River and the streams tributary to Juskatla Inlet, all in
the Masset district, Queen Charlotte Islands, the seeding was good. Similar conditions
obtained in the Lowe Inlet and Bella Bella areas, and along the mainland streams of
the Alert Bay area the seeding was the best observed in the past ten years. The
seeding in the Skeena area was not up to expectations. In the Vancouver Island
streams, south of the Alert Bay area, the supplies were not entirely satisfactory.
Chums.—Generally speaking, there was a very considerable shortage of this variety
found on all the spawning-grounds in the Province, notwithstanding the fact that the
spawning of previous years justified the expectation of a reasonably good return in 1944.
In the inspection of the Rivers and Smith Inlets spawning-grounds this year the
fishery officer was accompanied by representatives of the salmon-canners. An endeavour was made to also have some one representing the fishermen accompany the party,
but without success. It is to be hoped that in future inspections the industry will take
sufficient interest in spawning conditions in the several areas to have representatives
present, particularly during the inspections of the most important areas.
IN DETAIL.
Queen Charlotte Islands Area (North).—Satisfactory supplies of cohoe salmon
were found on the spawning-grounds. A good seeding of pinks occurred in the Yakoun
River and in the streams tributary to Juskatla Inlet, the two most important spawning-
grounds of this species. As a matter of fact, all the streams tributary to Masset Inlet,
with the exception of the Ain River, contained good supplies of pinks, and the seeding
at Yakoun,' Mamon, and Detlamen Rivers is reported as heavy. The seeding in the
streams tributary to Naden Harbour, however, was poor. The chum seeding is reported
as a failure.
Queen Charlotte Islands Area (South).—The pink-supplies on the spawning-
grounds were better than average and quite satisfactory. This applies to all " pink "
creeks, particularly those in the Cumshewa area. The pink seeding in the Skidegate
area and in the streams along the east coast was an improvement over that of the
cycle-year. Supplies in the west coast streams, however, were disappointing. The
chum seeding at Skidegate Inlet, Salmon Creek, and in the Jedway area was satisfactory.    Elsewhere the seeding was poor.
Lower Nass Area.—The escapement of sockeye through the lower reaches of the
Nass district is reported as being quite good, particularly so in view of the less intensive BRITISH COLUMBIA. M 77
fishing this year. The seeding by springs was apparently below average. The cohoe-
supply is reported as being above average in most of the creeks, with a heavy escapement to the Khutzeymateen, Kwinamass, and Ikinik Rivers. The pink seeding was the
best since 1936, the numerous streams in Khutzeymateen Inlet receiving good supplies.
The chum-supply was better than average, with a marked improvement at Toon River
and Alice Arm.
Upper Nass Area.—A satisfactory seeding of sockeye was observed in the Meziadin
Lake district, which is the chief spawning-ground of this variety in the Nass watershed.
The supply was somewhat lighter than the heavy seeding reported in 1939, but better
than that of 1940 and last year. The spawning-grounds of the lake were well covered
with spawning salmon. Fish were still ascending the fishway, and, due to high-water
conditions, also the falls, at the time of inspection. Approximately 75 per cent, of the
run is reported to be the large or five-year variety. Spawning conditions were normal.
The supply of springs was found to be fair, but the cohoes were just commencing to
arrive at the time of the inspection. According to the officer reporting for the lower
reaches of the watershed, however, there was a good run of this variety proceeding
up-river. The fishway is reported to be in good condition, but the outside wall of the
cribbing is rotted away and will require to be repaired in the near future. The Indians
did not take any salmon from the Meziadin Lake area this season.
Upper Skeena Area.—In the upper reaches of the Skeena River watershed the
inspecting officer reports a seeding of sockeye comparable with that of the cycle-year
of 1940, which was reported at that time as good, the fish being of a good average size
individually. The escapement to the Babine, Morice, and Nakina districts is especially
mentioned. Some creeks, of course, were better than others. For instance, at Fifteen
Mile stream the seeding was not quite so good as in 1940. Twin Creek showed an
increase of 100 per cent, over 1940; Pierre Creek, 15 per cent, better than in 1940;
Fulton River showed a seeding comparable with that of 1940, although not quite so good
as 1939 when the seeding in the Babine Lake area was reported as being the largest
during the preceding decade. The supplies in both upper and lower Babine Rivers
were comparable with the years 1939 and 1940. A good seeding of springs occurred
in Bear and Morice Rivers, but only fair quantities were found in Babine River.
A very satisfactory seeding of cohoes occurred in the Morice and Nakina Rivers. The
supply of pinks was disappointing.    The chum seeding was very light.
Lower Skeena Area.—Good supplies of sockeye were observed in Williams Creek,
tributary to Lakelse Lake. This is the principal sockeye-spawning stream. The seeding in the smaller tributaries was light. The seeding in the Ocstahl River is reported
as being good. A heavy supply was observed at Shawatlans. The spring-supplies in
the Ocstahl system are reported as being heavy, and the cohoes satisfactory. The pink
seeding at Lakelse was heavy and good in the Ocstahl system. The chum seeding was
only fair.
Lowe Inlet Area.—Nearly all streams received good supplies of spawning sockeye.
Water conditions in the streams were very favourable to the ascent of the salmon.
The cohoe-supply was normal. The pink seeding in the northern portion of the area
was heavy and nearly all the streams were well seeded, particularly the streams in
Kitkatlah Inlet and the upper portion of Grenville Channel. The supplies in the southern portion of the area, while not being as heavy as those in the north, were quite
satisfactory. The chum seeding is reported as being light, with the exception of Union
Pass where the seeding was heavy.
Butedale Area.—The sockeye seeding in the streams tributary to Gardner Canal
and Talamosa Inlet was good. Conditions in the balance of the area were fair. The
cohoe-supplies showed an improvement over those of the brood-year, particularly in the
Gardner Canal and Devastation Channel portions of the area.    Pinks were found in M 78 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
satisfactory quantities, particularly in the Gardner Canal and Devastation Channel
sections. On the whole, the pink seeding was quite satisfactory. The chum seeding,
apart from that at Price Creek, was poor.
Bella Bella Area.—The sockeye escapement was fully equal to expectations and a
distinct increase compared with the brood-year. There was a satisfactory seeding by
cohoes. Pinks compared well with the brood-year with increases in some streams.
The seeding at Koeye River was particularly heavy. The chum seeding was considerably in excess of that of the brood-year in all the larger streams, particularly those in
the Ellerslie area.
During the season there was an ample supply of water in all streams for the ascent
of salmon.    The spawning conditions generally were satisfactory.
Bella Coola Area.—The sockeye seeding was fairly heavy, especially at Kimsquit
Lake. There were also very good supplies in the Bella Coola-Atnarko River system.
Numerous runts were again observed. The seeding by spring salmon was very good,
especially in the Atnarko River. The early cohoe-supplies are reported as light, but
there was a considerable improvement during October and November. The supply of
this variety is reported as quite adequate. A medium supply of pinks was present on
the spawning-grounds, and an excellent spawning of chums in all streams is reported,
especially so in the streams tributary to Dean Channel.
Rivers Inlet Area.—The usual two inspections were made of this area, the first
between September 4th and 8th and the second between October 16th and 25th. The
escapement of sockeye to the Owikeno Lake system is reported as light. The spawning
in some rivers is up to normal but others are reported as being below. The importance
of the several sockeye-spawning streams, tributary to Owikeno Lake, is in the following
order: Wannock River, Quap River, Shumahault River, Genesee River, Waukwash
River, Asklum River, Indian River, Dallec River, Cheo River, Nookins River, and
Hatchery Creek.
The streams in which conditions are normal are the Wannock, Quap, Genesee, and
Dallec; three of these, fortunately, being of the most important. Conditions found in
the Waukwash and Indian Rivers at the head of the lake were most unsatisfactory.
Viewed in comparison with the commercial catch the seeding could be classed as good,
but the commercial catch was smaller than expected, for which condition weather was a
factor. This year it is the large or five-year-old size sockeye which have failed to
return in large numbers. It will be remembered that last year it was the four-year
fish which were scarce, the conclusion being that some unusual, unknown condition
affected the spawning of 1939. The cohoe-supplies in the area were only fairly satisfactory. Pinks were light, and chums scarce. In the streams below Owikeno Lake
the cohoe-supplies were fair, while the pink seeding is reported as good, although the
runs of this variety are never large. The chum seeding at the Kildala and Chickwilla
Rivers was reported as really good. This also applies to Wannock River. Due to heavy
rains and the resultant flood conditions some damage may have been done in the Rivers
Inlet area, although these conditions occurred previous to the major escapement of
sockeye. Two representatives of the cannery interests accompanied the fishery officer
on his inspections of the Rivers Inlet area.
Smith Inlet Area.—There are only two sockeye-salmon streams of any importance
in this area, these being the Geluck and Delabah Rivers, the first being much the more
important. Two inspections were made, the first between September 10th and 12th
and the second between October 10th and 12th. It was expected that the sockeye
returns would be very poor in 1944 and, consequently, the commercial fishing boundary
was moved out so as to permit a larger percentage of the runs to pass to the spawning-
grounds. As a result the escapement is reported by the local, well-experienced fishery
officer as a decided improvement over the five-year cycle-year of 1939, for instance, BRITISH COLUMBIA. M 79
although not entirely satisfactory. Flood conditions in this area may also have done
some damage between the early and late runs. A heavy seeding by spring salmon is
reported, cohoes fair, pinks to the Nekite River good, and chums only fair in the Nekite
River, poor in the south-east arm, and good in the Takush River. Two representatives
of the cannery interests accompanied the fishery officer on the inspections of Smith
Inlet area.
Fraser River Watershed.
Prince George Area.—The sockeye-supply on the spawning-beds of the Nechako
River system, while not showing the exceptionally large increase of the immediately
preceding cycle-year, yet was an improvement on that of the brood-year. The increase
to the Francois Lake watershed was approximately 40 per cent. The supply in the
Stuart Lake watershed showed a considerable percentage of increase, although the
total numbers in recent years have been small. Spawning conditions generally were
quite favourable.    The supplies of spring salmon were definitely disappointing.
• Quesnel Area.—The run of sockeye to the Chilko Lake district was late in arriving,
but when it did come, between late August and early September, was very heavy, producing some 350,000 spawning fish, which was equal to the seeding of the brood-year
of 1940. Conditions in this area continue to be very encouraging. A few scarred
sockeye were observed and a higher percentage of unspent females than in the past
several years. In the Quesnel Lake system, including the Horsefly and Mitchell Rivers,
the sockeye seeding was practically nil. At Bowron River only about 35 per cent, of
that of the brood-year. A higher percentage of unspawned females than usual was
noticed in this district also. Bears destroyed approximately 10 per cent, of the salmon,
both green and partly spent. The seeding by springs throughout the whole inspectorate was only fair.
Kamloops Area.—The sockeye seeding was disappointing, although no large run
was expected. This applies to all the main sockeye-spawning areas such as Little
River, Adams River, and Raft River systems. The supplies of springs were also disappointing. Indications of the cohoe seeding were more encouraging than those of the
brood-year, although the supply was not large. High water prevailed throughout the
spawning season and, as a consequence, estimates were difficult.
Pemberton Area.—From 300 to 400 sockeye were observed in the Anderson Lake
system. A good seeding occurred in the Birkenhead River. Satisfactory supplies
were also found in the main Lillooet River. Fair supplies of springs were observed in
the Squamish River, Seton Lake, Bridge River, and Birkenhead River systems. The
cohoe seeding was fair in the Squamish River and Birkenhead River systems. Few
pink salmon were observed in the Squamish area. A fair seeding of chums occurred
in the Squamish River.
Chilliwack Area.—The return of sockeye to Cultus Lake totalled slightly over 14,000
salmon, compared with 74,000 in the brood-year. The usual small numbers were
observed in the Chilliwack River. The seeding by springs was light, cohoes not up to
expectations, and chums decidedly disappointing.
Harrison Area.—Only a fair seeding of sockeye salmon at Silver Creek, tributary
to Harrison Lake, but a very satisfactory return to Morris Creek, the main sockeye
tributary. Only a fair seeding of springs and cohoes was observed. The chum-supplies
were definitely disappointing.
Pitt Lake Area.—Sockeye salmon were present in quantities equalling those of the
brood-year.    Only light supplies of springs, cohoes, and chums were observed.
Lower Fraser Area.—Quite a satisfactory seeding of cohoe salmon occurred in the
Nicomekl and Serpentine Rivers. This was the " off " year for pinks in the Fraser
system. M 80 REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
North Vancouver Area.—The supplies of cohoes and chums were far below expectations.
Alert Bay Area.—The sockeye seeding at the Nimpkish River was disappointing,
particularly in view of the satisfactory supplies in the brood-year of 1940. The seeding at Fulmore River, Keough River, McKenzie and Quatsi Rivers was only fair, with
light runs to Kahweiken, Kleena Kleene, Nahwitti, and Shushartie Rivers. The spring-
supplies were found to be normal. The cohoe seeding in nearly all streams was satisfactory. The supply of pinks to the mainland streams is reported as being the heaviest
for the past ten years and nearly all streams were well seeded. Most streams showed
an improvement over the brood-year of 1942. In the streams along the Vancouver
Island portion of the district the seeding was fair. The inspecting officer describes
the seeding of the whole district generally as being 50 per cent, greater than that of
the brood-year. Heavy supplies of chum salmon were observed at Seymour, Salmon,
and Bond Rivers. Other streams throughout the district contained only medium or
light supplies. The Nimpkish River seeding was disappointing in view of the heavy
spawning of 1940.
Quathiaski Area.—At Hayden Bay and Phillips Arm, the principal sockeye-spawning grounds in this area, the seeding is reported as only 25 per cent, of that of
the brood-year at the former point, but quite satisfactory at the latter. The spring
seeding at Campbell, Salmon, and Phillips Rivers was good. The cohoe escapement
was quite satisfactory, particularly to the streams tributary to Bute Inlet. The pink
seeding is reported as a failure all through the area, apart from Bear River and the
streams tributary to Bute Inlet, where good supplies were observed. Chums were very
scarce. The spawning by this variety was estimated to be only 15 per cent, of that
of the cycle-year.
Comox Area.—Natural spawning conditions through the fall from the standpoint
of low-water levels were poor over this whole district. The supply of springs to
the Puntledge River was fairly satisfactory. The cohoe seeding in the streams between
Shelter Point and Cape Lazo was very satisfactory, particularly at Oyster River.
This was no doubt partly the result of the enforcement of longer closed periods.
The supplies in the Courtenay River system were satisfactory. The seeding in the
streams tributary to Bayne Sound and south to Englishman River, including the Big
and Little Qualicums, was decidedly poor. The pink seeding was light. A good percentage of the chum-salmon run passed safely to the spawning-grounds, due to the less
intensive fishing and the timely arrival of the fall rains. It is possible, however, that
there may be some loss in spawn, due to the seeding taking place on gravel-bars above
normal water-levels. In the spawning-streams between Shelter Point and Nile Creek
the seeding compared favourably with the light one of four years previous. The quantities found at Big Qualicum River represented approximately 25 per cent, of the heavy
seeding of 1940 and at Little Qualicum only 33% per cent.
Pender Harbour Area.—Only a light seeding of sockeye was observed in Saginaw
Lake, notwithstanding the fact that the commercial fishing was not intensive.
At Tazoonie River some 5,000 sockeye were observed on the spawning-grounds, compared with 400 during the brood-year. An increased seeding by springs was noted.
There was an adequate escapement of cohoes. The pink seeding in the Jervis and
Toba Inlet systems is considered adequate, although considerably less than that of
the brood-year. The chum-supply, while considered reasonably satisfactory, was not
up to expectations.
Nanaimo Area.—The cohoe-supplies in the streams between Nanaimo and Arbutus
Point, including Nanoose Bay, were quite satisfactory. The chum seeding is reported
as being only 60 per cent, of that of the brood-year.
Ladysmith Area.—No sockeye were observed in the Nanaimo River. There was
an average seeding of springs and a satisfactory supply of cohoes.    The spawning by BRITISH COLUMBIA. M 81
chums was very disappointing, being reported as only about 50 per cent, of that of
the brood-year.
Cowichan Area.—Springs were found in good average quantities on the spawning-
grounds. Cohoes about 70 per cent, of the brood-year and chums 75 per cent, of 1940.
The steelhead-supplies are being well maintained.
Victoria Area.—A satisfactory seeding of cohoe salmon was found in this area.
The chum-supplies in the Sooke River were unsatisfactory, but a good seeding occurred
in the Goldstream Creek.
Alberni Area.—There was a fair seeding of sockeye in the Somass River, Great
Central Lake, and Sproat Lake systems. Whilst fewer salmon were observed using
the fishway at Stamp Falls, this was on account of natural conditions being more
favourable. An unusual percentage of the run passed over the falls without the aid
of the fishway. A satisfactory seeding was observed in the Anderson Lake system.
The escapement to Hobarton Lake is reported as being very satisfactory, partly as
a result, no doubt, of the enforcement of an increased closed period. The supplies of
spring salmon to the Somass River, Stamp River, and Nahmint River systems are
reported as being very good, but the escapement to the Toquart, Sarita, and Nitinat
Rivers was only fair. The cohoe seeding was exceptionally good in all streams
frequented by this variety. The chum-supplies on the other hand were extremely
disappointing and are reported as a failure. No salmon of any species was observed
at the Maggie River fish-ladder.
Clayoquot Area.—A larger proportion than usual of the run of sockeye escaped
to the spawning-grounds of Kennedy Lake and provided a fairly satisfactory seeding,
comparable with that of the brood-year. The seeding in the Medgin River watershed
compared favourably with that of the brood-year. The supplies of spring salmon were
excellent and compared favourably with the spawning of last year, which was the
heaviest in the previous four years. The cohoe-supplies were also found to be excellent.
The chum seeding was the poorest of the last four years.
Nootka Area.—A fair seeding of springs occurred at Gold and Burman Rivers.
The cohoe seeding was average. The chum-supplies, however, are reported as being
the poorest known, except in the Tahsis River and Sow End River.
Kyuquot Area.—The spawning of springs was below average but the cohoe seeding
was fairly satisfactory. The chum-supply was reported as being very poor and even
less than the very light brood-year.
Quatsino Area.—There was the usual small supply of sockeye on the spawning-
grounds, but these runs are of little value commercially. The seeding of springs was
normal in Marble Creek, which is the principal stream used by this species. The cohoe-
supply is reported as being above the average in the district, particularly at East Creek,
Buck Creek, Marble Creek, Rupert River, Spruce River, and Mahatta River. The seeding of pinks, generally speaking, was light, although heavy at East Creek and Rupert
River.    The chum seeding was very disappointing. M 82
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
STATISTICAL TABLES.
PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SALMON, SEASON 1944.
Showing the Origin of Salmon caught in each District.
District.
Sockeye.
Springs.
Steelheads.
Cohoe.
Pinks.
Chums.
Total.
88,615
157
13,083
68,197
36,582}
3,165
32,715
5,288}
11
12.577J
20
681}
1,500}
805
66
643
3,068}
293
1
2321
2,481
88
666
165
15,5641
19,615
6,102
20,1911
13,921
343
25,823
79,8131
173
130
90,993
31,854
48,837
5,2891
4981
162,986
49,092
12
13,8031
81,916
9,143
8,7411
2,705
2,122
80,793
56,0291
63
130,8831
192,702
61,096
149,9481
59,391
6,1941
303,626
193,459
259
Totals ■	
247,714
19,362
3,9261
181,5461
389,692
255,3161
1,097,5571
12,464 cases of bluebacks are combined with cohoes in this table for Vancouver Island.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL SALMON-PACK BY SPECIES
FROM 1936 TO 1944.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
Sockeye  	
Spring  	
247,714
19,362
255,316}
389,692
181,5461
3,9261
164,889
10,658
363,347}
530,189
186,043
3,095
666,570
24,744}
633,834
270,622}
211,138
4,649
455,298
51,593
926,801
427,774
430,513
3,454
366,402
17,740
643,441
213,904
224,522
1,207
269,887
16,098
386,590
620,595
245,097
796
447,450
15,'356
541,819
400,876
301,081
1,036
325,836
16,174
447,760
585,574
133,489
844
414,809
29,853
597,488
Pink	
591,535}
229,750
Steelhead 	
1,068
Totals 	
1,097,5571
1,258,221}
1,811,558
2,295,433
1,467,216
1,539,063
1,707,798
1,509,677
1,864,503}
STATEMENT SHOWING THE TOTAL SALMON-PACK OF
BRITISH COLUMBIA BY DISTRICTS.
Total packed by Districts in 1936 to 1944, inclusive.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
130,8831
149,948}
59,391
6,1941
61,096
193,459
496,587
126,541}
133,589
79,697}
21,942
52,333}
347,710}
496,407
549,617
152,418}
105,539
23,777
100,142}
536,803}
343,260J
431,299
200,497
138,650
32,109
71,330
985,835
398,152
46,561
152,363
196,355
88,665
33,998
60,441
419,579
516,815
199,241
205,604
83,502
28,727
55,946
590,736
375,307
277,084
223,413
122,363
44,921
113,970
458,654
467,493
231,848
133,165
108,782
35,502
49,042
608,798
342,350
260,261
218,634
72,011}
14,888
139,575}
559,746}
599,387
Rivers Inlet- __.	
Smith Inlet
Other Districts	
Grand totals —
1,097,5571
1,258,221}
1,811,558
2,298,433
1,467,216
1,539,063
l,707,798f
1,509,677*
1,864,503}
* Including 527 cases of Alaska cohoe packed at Skeena River.
t Including 5,779 cases of Alaska sockeye and 26,828 cases of Alaska cohoe packed at Skeena River. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
M 83
TABLE   SHOWING  THE  TOTAL
ARRANGED IN ACCORDANCE
SOCKEYE-PACK  OF  THE  FRASER  RIVER,
WITH THE FOUR-YEAR CYCLE, 1895-1944.
British Columbia ._
Washington	
Total —.
British Columbia-
Washington 	
TotaL
British Columbia ..
Washington „
Total	
British Columbia...
Washington	
Total.__...
British Columbia _
Washington ._
Total	
British Columbia .
Washington 	
Total	
British Columbia .
Washington 	
Total..	
British Columbia.
Washington	
Total .
British Columbia _
Washi ngton	
Total-
British Columbia-
Washington 	
Total	
British Columbia-
Washington __	
Total-	
British Columbia-
Washington	
Total....-
British Columbia-
Washington.-	
Total	
1899-
1903-
1907—
1915-
1923—
1939-
1943—
51,090
125,574
395,984
1896—
356,984
1897— 860,459
1898—
256,101
65,143
72,979
312,048
252,000
461,127
429,963
1,172,507
508,101
480,485
1900—
229,800
1901— 928,669
1902—
293,477
499,646
228,704
1,105,096
339,B56
980,131
458,504
2,033,765
633,033
204,809
1904—
72,688
1905— 837,489
1906—
183 007
167,211
123,419
837,122
182-241
372,020
196,107
1,674,611
365,248
59,815
1908—
74,574
1909— 585,435
1910—
150,432
96,974
170,951
1,097,904
248.014
156,789
245,525
1,683,339
398,446
58,487
1912—
123.879
1913— 719,796
1914—
198.183
127,761
184,680
1,673,099
335.230
186,248
308,559
2,392,895
533,413
91,130
1916—
32,146
1917— 148,164
1918—
19,697
64,584
84,637
411,538
50,723
155,714
116,783
559,702
70,420
38,854
1920—
48,399
1921— 39,631
1922—
51,832
64,346
62,654
102,967
48,566
103,200
111,053
142,598
100,398
31,655
1924—
39,743
1925— 35,385
1926—
85,689
47,402
69,369
112,023
44,673
79,057
109,112
147,408
130,362
61,393
1928-
29,299
1929— 61,569
1930—
103,692
97,594
61,044
111,898
352,194
158,987
90,343
173,467
455,886
40.947
1932—
- 65,769
1933— 52,465
1934-
- 139,238
87.211
81,188
126,604
352,579
128,158
146,957
179,069
491,817
62,822
1936-
- 184,854
1937— 100,272
1938-
- 186,794
54,677
59,505
60,259
134,641
117,499
244,359
160,531
321,435
- 54,291
1940-
- 99,009
1941— 171,290
1942-
- 446,371
43,511
59,354
110,605
263,468
97,807
158,363
281,895
709,829
- 31,973}
1944-
- 88,515
19,116}
37,059 M 84
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES.
Fraser River, 1929-44, inclusive.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
Sockeyes-  	
88,515.
12,577}
13,803}
130
15,564}
293
31,973}
3,505}
52,149
29,8601
8,809
244
446,371
9,688
82,573
134
10,542'
309
171,290
34,038
95,070
102,388
28,265
248
99,009
4,504
35,665
12
13,028
145
54,296
5,993
30,150
95,176
13,557
69
186,794
4,308
58,778
63
27,127
14
100,272
5,444
20,878
94,010
11,244
Totals-	
130,883}
126,5411
549,617
431,299
152,363
199,241
277,084
231,848
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
184,854
15,126
31,565
62,822
9,401
8,227
111,328
24,950
139,238
16,218
104.092
2,199
11,392
52,465
5,579
34,391
92.746
13,901
65,769
28,701
14,948
385
16,815
23
40,947
9,740
251
13,307
8,165
657
103,692
21,127
68,946
30,754
25,585
27,879
61,569
10,004
144,159
158,208
28,716
40,520
12,013
Totals  - -	
260,261
216,728
273,139
199,082
126,641
73,067
277,983
426,473
Skeena River, 1929-44, inclusive.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
68,197
1,500}
8,741}
48,837
20,191}
2,481
28,268}
1,783
6,597
54,509
40,479}
1,952
34,544
6,374
11,421
52,767
44.081}
3,231
81,767
4,985
10,707
50,537
50,605
1,896
116,507
6,118
4,682
47,301
20,614
133
68,485
4,857
7,773
95,236
29,198
56
47,257
4,318
16,758
69,610
52,821
42
42,491
4,401
10,811
Pinks    	
59,400
15,514
Steelheads  —_ ___-	
21
Totals	
149,948}
133,589
152,418}
200,497
195,355
205,604
190,806
132,638
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
81,973
4,551}
15,297}
91,389
25,390
33
52,879
4,039
8,122
81,868
23,498
14
70,655
8,300
24,388
126,163
54,456
114
30,506
3,297
15,714
95,783
39,896
267
59,916
28,269
38,549
58,261
48,312
404
93,023
9,857
3,893
44,807
10,637
768
132,372
7,501
5,187
275,642
29,617
58
78,017
4,324
4,908
Pinks  _ —	
95,305
37,678
13
Steelheads - - - _.._._
Totals.- -- -	
218,634
170,420
284,096
185,463
233,711
162,986
450,377
220,245 BRITISH COLUMBIA.
M 85
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES—Continued.
Rivers Inlet, 1929-44, inclusive.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
36,582}
805
2,705
5,289}
13,921
88
47,602}
765
11,448
8,347
11,466
69
79,199
985
15,874
954
8,467
60
93,378
1,692
15,442
4,807
23,202
129
63,469
1,226
9,025
3,329
11,561
55
54,143
745
5,462
12,095
10,974
83
87,942
1,209
7,759
9,063
16,285
105
84,832
917
Chums—_   - 	
Pinks _ 	
9,415
7,536
6,012
70
. Totals    _	
59,391
79,697}
105,539
138,650
88,665
83,502
122,363
108,782
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
Sockeyes — __ —	
46,351
581}
11,505
6,432}
7,122}
19
135,038
429
7,136
4,554
8,375
39
76,923
436
895
2,815
4,852
79
83,507
449
677
5,059
3,446
82
69,732
459
944
3,483
7,062
29
76,428
325
429
5,089
6,571
32
119,170
434
492
18,023
756
105
70,260
342
989
Pinks
2,386
1,120
Steelheads— _  	
29
Totals    _	
72,011}
155,571
86,000
93,220
81,709
88,874
138,980
75,126
Smith Inlet, 1929-44, inclusive.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
3,165
66
343
498}
2,122
666
15,010
118
541
556
5,693
24
15,939
8
1,813
527
5,490
21,495
124
1,955
749
7,741
45
25,947
142
1,102
755
6,015
37
17,833
215
3,880
3,978
2,771
50
33,894
68
1,058
1,761
8,076
64
25,258
21
Cohoes — -  	
Pinks          	
241
483
9,494
5
Totals— - - _
6,194}
21,942
23,777
32,109
33,998
28,727
44,921
35,502
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
Sockeyes— __ _	
Springs  —_ _	
12,788
30
310
65
1,653
42
31,648
216
1,201
4,412
12,427
24
14,607
164
3,941
6,953
15,548
43
37,369
354
5,068
19,995
8,841
87
25,488
48
273
1,148
165
20
12,867
122
112
824
133
36
32,057
290
1,460
16,615
1,660
103
9,683
78
275
853
113
Steelheads    	
12
Totals  _  	
14,888
49,928
41,256
71,714
27,142
14,094
52,185
11,014
* Previously reported in Queen Charlotte and other districts. M 86
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES—Continued.
Nass River, 1929-44, inclusive.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
13,083
681}
9,143
31,854
6,102
232}
13,412}
1,002}
10,1461
17,669
9,768
335
21,085
1,515
12,518
49,003}
15,487
534
24,876
519
6,246
22,667
16,648
374
13,809
1,716
5,461
29,278
10,060
117
24,357
708
2,500
26,370
1,996
15
21,462
773
15,911
61,477
14,159
188
17,567
1,251
10,080
8,031
12,067
46
61,096
52,333}
100,142}
71,330
60,441
55,946
113,970
49,042
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
28,562}
2,167
20,6201
75,887}
11,842
496
12,712
560
17,481
25,508
21,810
143
28,701
654
2,648
32,964
9,935
311
9,767
1,296
1,775
44,306
3,251
49
14,154
4,408
14,515
44,629
7,955
10
16,929
1,439
392
5,178
8,943
26,405
1,891
3,978
79,976
1,126
84
16,077
Springs   	
352
1,212
10,342
1,202
139,575}
78,214
75,213
60,434
85,671
32,881
113,460
29,185
Vancouver Island District, 1929-44, inclusive.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
5,288}
3,068}
56,029}
49,092
79,813}
165
7,185
2,937
132,843
130,825
73,846}
74
51,961
5,407
383,005
14,474
81,837}
119
40,273
8,038
593,016
177,292
166,908
308
15,177
2,454
279,064
33,785
88,885*
214
16,259
2,889
212,949
235,119
123,388
132
27,965
4,254
266,566
70,108
62,054
27,607
25,427
2,359
203,900
318,780
52,244
88
Totals   	
193,459
347,7101
536,803}
986,835
419,579
590,736
458,554
608,798
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
32,696}
6,340
347,951
82,0281
90,625
105
22,928
6,525
143,960
191,627
104,366
21
27,282
1,630
210,239
54,526
78,670
18,397
4,875
96,642
172,945
60,019
147
27,611
10,559
70,629
33,403
35,132
28,596
22,199
4,055
16,329
81,965
26,310
24,638
24,784
3,431
177,856
89,941
30,206
14,177
10,340
1 645
162,246
74,001
35,504
11,118
Pinks-    	
Totals	
559,746
469,427
372,347
353,025
205,930
175,541
340,395
294,854
* 23,277 cases of bluebacks are included with the cohoe-pack for Vancouver Island. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
M 87
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SALMON-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS AND SPECIES—Continued.
Queen Charlotte Islands, 1935-44, inclusive.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
157
20
81,916
90,993
19,615
1
53
1
38
43,801
83,329
16,935
41
149
236
76,745
524
27,421
11
16
62
164,911
44,966
8,897
1
36
45,519
2,123
3,020
179
66
40,882
57,952
16,616
2
140
72,689
13
4,631
85
227
69,304
89,355
19,920
63
35,370
313
14,488
86,298
Pinks	
Cohoes	
1,479
5,461
Totals...
192,702
50,224
144,145
105,086
218,852
50,699
115,695
77,475
178,891
93,301
Central Area, 1935-44, inclusive.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
Sockeyes	
32,715
21,101
17,470
20,854
32,042
26,158
36,178
29,987
27,499
32,417
Springs .__
643
547
723}
460
1,518
655
540
1,641
830
687
Chums	
80,793
109,101
79,152
111,587
135,802
79,384
127,089
110,493
99,592
125,953
Pinks	
162,986
288,109}
69,434
66,130
54,478
150,498
130,842
97,321
246,378
94,190
Cohoes -	
25,823
26,645
31,274
45,218
49,886
44,426
56,716
25,009
45,824
41,831
Steelheads ..
666
397
355
330
506
392
433
614
373
355
Totals..
303,626
445,900}
198,408}
244,579
274,232
301,513
351,798
265,065
420,496
295,433
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SOCKEYE-PACK OF BRITISH COLUMBIA,
BY DISTRICTS, 1929 TO 1944, INCLUSIVE.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
1938.
1937.
88,515
68,197
36,5821
3,165
13,083
5,2881
32,883
31,973}
28,268}
47,602}
15,010
13,412}
7.185
21,437
446,371
34,544
79,199
15,939
21,085
51,961
17,471
171,290
81,767
93,378
21,495
24,876
40,273
22,219
99,009
116,507
63,469
25,947
13,809
15,177
32,484
54,296
68,485
54,143
17,833
24,357
16,259
34,514
186,794
47,257
87,942
33,894
21,462
27,965
36,357
100,272
Skeena River.-— - —	
42,491
84,832
Smith Inlet 	
25,258
17,567
25,427
Other Districts—_ __ -
29,989
Totals  	
247,714
164,889
666,570
455,298
366,402
269,887
441,671*
325,836
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
1932.
1931.
1930.
1929.
183,120
81,973
46,351
12,788
28,562}
34,430}
27,584
62,822
52,879
135,038
31,648
12,712
22,928
32,417
139,238
70,655
76,923
14,607
28,701
27,282
20,438
52,465
30,506
83,507
37,369
9,757
18,397
26,106
65,769
59,916
69,732
25,488
14,154
27,611
21,685
40,947
93,023
76,428
12,867
16,929
22,199
29,071
103,692
132,372
119,170
32,057
26,405
24,784
39,198
61,569
78,017
Rivers Inlet _	
Smith Inlet     _ _ 	
70,260
9,683
16,077
10,340
35,331
Totals -__	
414,809
350,444
377,844
258,107
284,355
291,464
477,678
281,277
216 cases of Alaska sockeye packed in British Columbia canneries are not shown in the above table for the year 1936.
* 5,779 cases of Alaska sockeye packed at Skeena River are not shown in the above table for the year 1938. M 88
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE SPRING-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA, BY DISTRICTS, 1933 TO 1944, INCLUSIVE.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.*
1940.
1939.
12,577}
20
681}
1,500}
805
66
643
3,068}
3,505}
9,688
38
1,515
6,374
985
8
723}
5,407
6
34,038
236
519
4,985
1,692
124
460
8,038
383
4,504
62
1,716
6,118
1,226
142
1,518
2,454
5,993
36
1,002}
1,783
765
118
547
2,937
708
4,857
745
Smith Inlet          „    ~                     	
215
655
2,889
19,362
10,658
24,744}
50,475
17,740
16,098
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
4,308
66
773
4,318
1,209
68
540
4,254
5,444
140
1,251
4,401
917
21
1,641
2,359
15,126
227
2,167
4,551}
581}
30
830
6,340
9,401
63
560
4,039
429
216
687
6,525
16,218
258
654
8,300
436
164
2,116
1,630
5,579
3,575
1,296
3,297
449
Smith Inlet           ._   -          	
354
841
4,875
Totals	
15,536
16,174
29,853
21,920
29,776
20,266
* In addition to the above there were packed 1,118 cases of springs out of cold-storage stocks, catch of 1940.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE COHOE-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA, BY DISTRICTS, 1933 TO 1944, INCLUSIVE.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.*
1940'.
1939.
15,564}
19,615
6,102
20,191}
13,921
343
25,823
79,813}
173
8,809
14,488
9,768
40,479}
11,466
541
26,645
73,846}
10,542
16,935
15,487
44,081}
8,467
1,813
31,274
81,8371
701
28,265
27,421
16,648
50,605
23,202
1,955
45,218
166,908
31,187
13,028
8,897
10,060
20,614
11,561
1,102
49,886
88,885
20,489
3,020
1,996
29,198
10,974
3,880
44,426
123,388
14,658
Smith Inlet _ _
Totals  _ 	
181,546}
186,043
211,138
391,409
224,522
245,097
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
27,127
16,616
14,159
52,821
16,285
1,058
56,716
89,471
26,828
11,244
4,631
12,067
15,514
6,012
241
25,009
58,244
527
28,716
19,920
11,842
25,390
7,122}
310
45,824
90,625}
24,950
5,461
21,810
23,498
8,375
1,201
41,831
104,366
11,392
8,315
9,935
54,476
4,852
3,941
53,850
78,670
13,901
Queen Charlotte Islands- 	
3,251
39,896
3,446
5,068
33,471
60,019
Smith Inlet	
Alaska      ____
Totals  	
301,081
133,489
229,750
231,492
225,431
159,052
* In addition to the above there were packed 39,104 cases of cohoe out of cold-storage stocks, catch of 1940. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
M 89
STATEMENT SHOWING THE PINK-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA, BY DISTRICTS, 1933 TO 1944, INCLUSIVE.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.
1940.
1939.
130
90,993
31,854
48,837
5,289}
4981
162,986
49,092
12
29,860}
313
17,669
54,509
8,347
556
288,109}
130,825
134
83,329
49,003}
52,767
954
527
69,434
14,474
102,388
524
22,667
50,537
4,807
•      749
66,130
177,292
2,680
12
44,966
29,278
47,301
3,329
755
54,478
33,785
95,176
2,123
Nass River  .- __  	
26,370
95,236
12,095
Smith Inlet _	
3,978
150,498
235,119
Totals     	
389,692
530,189
270,622}
427,774
213,904
620,595
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
63
57,952
61,477
69,610
9,063
1,761
130,842
70,108
94,010
13
8,031
59,400
7,536
483
97,321
318,780
89,355
75,887}
91,389
6,432}
65
246,378
82,028}
111,328
1,479
25,508
81,868
4,554
4,412
94,190
191,627
2,199
53,398
32,964
126,163
2,815
6,953
157,336
54,526
92,746
44,306
95,783
5,059
Smith Inlet	
19,995
101,701
172,945
Totals	
400,876
585,574
591,535}
514,966
436,354
532,535
STATEMENT SHOWING THE CHUM-SALMON PACK OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA, BY DISTRICTS, 1933 TO 1944, INCLUSIVE.
1944.
1943.
1942.
1941.*
1940.
1939.
13,803}
81,916
9,143
8,741}
2,705
2,122
80,793
56,029}
63
52,149
35,370
10,146}
6,597
11,448
5,693
109,101
132,843
82,573
43,801
12,518
11,421
15,874
5,490
79,152
383,005
95,070
76,745
6,246
10,707
15,442
7,741
111,587
593,016
3,908
35,665
164,911
5,461
4,682
9,025
6,015
135,802
279,064
2,816
30,150
Queen Charlotte Islands __ 	
45,519
2,500
7,773
5,462
Smith Inlet           	
2,771
79,384
212,949
82
Totals                         	
255,316}
363,347}
633,834
920,462
643,441
386,590
1938.
1937.
1936.
1935.
1934.
1933.
58,778
40,882
15,911
16,758
7,759
8,076
127,089
266,566
20,878
72,689
10,080
10,811
9,415
9,494
110,493
203,900
31,565
69,304
20,620}
15,297}
11,505
1,653
99,592
347,951
8,227
86,298
17,481
8,122
7,136
12,427
125,953
143,960
104,092
38,062
2,648
24,888
895
15,548
117,309
210,239
34,391
6 988
1,775
15,714
677
Smith Inlet                 	
8,841
128,602
96,642
Totals	
541,819
447,760
597,488
409,604
513,181
293,630
* In addition to the above there were packed 6,339 cases of chums out of cold-storage stocks, catch of 1940. M 90
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF PILCHARD PRODUCTS
PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1930 TO 1944.
Season.
Canned.
Meal.
Oil.
1930 31                                                                        _ -	
Cases.
55,166
17,336
4,622
2,946
35,437
27,184
35,007
40,975
69,473
7,300
59,166
72,498
42,008
94,512
78,772
Tons.
13,934
14,200
8,842
1,108
7,628
8,666
8,715
8,483
8,891
906
4,853
11,437
11,003
15,209
8,435
Gals.
3,204,058
1931 32                                                             _	
2,551,914
1932 33                                             . _             	
1,315,864
1933 34                                                             —     -.
275,879
1934-35                                _ _	
1,635,123
1935-36                                              - _   ___	
1,634,592
1936 37                                                                  	
1,217,087
1937  38                                                  -     _	
1,707,276
1938-39                                              _ __ 	
2,195,850
1939  40                                                                  	
178,305
1940 41                                                                           	
890,296
1941 42                                                                                          _
1,916,191
1942  43                                                                                 . -            	
1,560,269
1943 44                                                                                      	
2,238,987
1944-45                                               -   	
1,675,090
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF HERRING PRODUCTS
PRODUCED IN BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1935 TO 1944.
Season.
Canned.
Dry-salted.
Pickled.
Meal.
Oil.
1935-36-   -	
1936-37                                 	
Cases.
26,143
20,914
27,365
23,353
418,021
640,252
1,527,350
1,253,978
1,198,632
1,190,762
Tons.
14,983
16,454
10,230
7,600
7,596
5,039
Tons.
892
779
502
591
26
Tons.
5,313
10,340
14,643
18,028
22,870
10,886
8,780
4,633
7,662
9,539
Gals.
328,639
786,742
1937-38                                  - 	
1,333,245
1938-39  -	
1,526,117
1939-40   -- 	
1940-41                   - 	
1,677,736
923,137
1941-42                                                  	
594,684
1942-43        - -   --  	
	
323,379
1943-44                                 -	
512,516
1944-45                                	
	
717.655
The above figures are for the season, October to March 31st, annually.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE QUANTITY OF MEAL, OIL, AND FERTILIZER,
PRODUCED FROM SOURCES OTHER THAN HERRING AND PILCHARD,
1935 TO 1944.
Season.
From Whales.
From other Sources.
Whalebone
and Meal.
Fertilizer.
Oil.
Meal and
Fertilizer.
Oil.
1935-36	
Tons.
211
332
268
273
181
270
130
62
Tons.
354
687
527
512
434
561
205
90
Gals.
426,772
763,740
662,355
543,378
Tons.
2,226
2,857
2,445
2,059
3,559
4,998
5,410
4,768
4,332
2,721
Gals.
260,387
356,464
266,009
186,261
331,725
415,856
405,340
1,255,225*
882,250f
846,784
1936-37             	
1937-38 _   _	
1938-39 _  	
1939-40      	
1940-41      .           	
361,820
619,025
255,555
134,553
1941-42     _	
1942-43 _._	
1943—44
1944-45 _ _  _ 	
* Includes 916,723 gallons fish-liver oil.
t Includes 822,250 gallons fish-liver oil. BRITISH COLUMBIA.
M 91
o
m
<
H
w
ia
■*$
I
-*
■>*
ca
,H
H
EH
O
fc
tf
Q
w
Eh
<
J
<H
Q
t-H
H
fc
O
fc
o
fc
HH
O
o
H
K
EH
§
O
tf
fa
fc
EH
W
OO
o
W
o
EH
«.
O
Ap-
proximate
Weight
(Lb.).
©
©
o
t_-
■M
t-    rH
Ca   co
00*  t-
cg
©
ec
©
tr-
S3
©
t-
o
OC
ta
tt
IO    C
eg  r-
co
©     Tt
© eg
P "*
CO*
00
©
t^
13,889
2,826
218
1>973
706
687
3,167
882
1,300
**H              •
.  tn  OJ
CO   ©        1
tr- eg     !
oo ©__   i
t-     i
cg©coco     :cgt-T-.t-
tO    CO    to    CQ        !    D-   00    IM    O
Cl    rt    tD    -fi        |    00    ©    ©    00
to   ta  cq            1         co   eg   rH
eg
©SO©©rH        ;        i        |        iOOi-H©
©         ©  Tt<   ©     |      ;      |     |   eg   co  ca
co       io io t-    ;               i tji tp rt
ri            t-"       i        i        i        !    6*   rt
!   CO   CO   00   CO   ©   ©       !
1  i-h ©  t- tj* eg ib     i
I   CO   rt   Tp   ©   ©   ©      ;
ri             io eg
rH    Oa
IO    CO
rH   IO
eg
i   IO
i    ! ca    i     j     i     i
i    n#
1    i    i %-t    1    1    .    I
©    i    i
rH        1        !
d
Z
©    Ci
oa  ©
ta eg
IO    rH
IS
1     1     I o»     |     1     |     J
'      !      !   ©      !
O       I       I
r-t        !
«
0
02
<i w
-1 Ul
Orr
01
i-l
OO   rt       ;
00
rH
cg eg © ©        t- in h oo     |
CO   H   00   t-       |   00   t-   «D   ^        1
© co t> en     :  rH  o  cg
tri   -fi    -fi                 \    ri   ri
©
o
1   ©   rt       j       !       |
1 oo tr-     |     |     |
!  eg  rt     !
© ©
rt    CQ
•     |  eg rt cg rt  rt ©     |
1     i eg © t> © © ©     i
!   rt   rt   CO   rt   eg   CO
i-4            eg*       jA
d
j_j
©    rH        !
eg           !
©
©.-HiorH     i  © eg  eo  eg
coefioo©         N  CO  O rf     !
00   ca   t-   eg      |   ©   ©   oa             |
t-"   ri  Og                               rH
©       !       !   00   rt       ;       !       |
O     !      1   oa  to     ;      |      [
rH        !        1    CO    rt        ■
O    rt
rt  trio
1      i   ca  ©  ©   eo   co  o     i
;   ta   co  cq   -fi  o  to     \
1  io        co eg  ca ©
coeo     ;     ; oa  eg © ©     jt-oo
io io    :    1 eg eg fc- t-    i Tf io
Cg                          i    rt    lb    rH    rt        !    N    1(5
i  eg
"*      !
io  o     |   io  oa
t- i-h     |   co  oa
i ^ ^
1             rH
T(<
IO
1 eg
I t-
O       !
O       !
d
55
CO    rt        !
©    rH        !
© © eg ■<*
IO    -fi     rt    Ol
co oo  rt eg
eo"
eg eg
©    i-H
©      I
© ©     !   ___-  io            !
©               ]   tji   rt       |
!    rt   O0        |
ca
Tf      «
rH
o
CO
00
tr-
Carp.            Ling.
.d
rl
ta eg     I
t- Tf     ;
©     1
© © eg Tf     1 io **     1 io     :
tr-   tr-  O0   eg      |   tr-   rH          co      j
O Cr- eg                    eg     i ©     i
eg                    i                  h
!      !   co  ©     ;      !      |
t-    :    i
t-
©
rt
eg
j
CD
oa     I
00      !
d
Z
ta   rt      ;
rt    CO         j
oo oa oo oo
eg in ©
©    i-H
io t-    it-    :
rn eg        ©
eg     i eg     :
!      J  rH  t-     ;     |      |      ;
io     :
eg
ca
©
i    i P
|    CO
to    i
;    l    :    : io    :
1 ~°    :
1      !     !   ©     |      !      |     ;   io     !
©                               |t-!
C6      !      I
oo      ;  ©
rt        I    ©
1    ©
d
55
1
©
!      !      !   O      !      1      1      1   co      |
.t-N
!   tr-      ;
!    rt        j        !        j        i
L     t     1 kO
i    i    i
o
©
00
CO
White-
fish.
,d
ta     :     ;
eg     :     ;
CO    ©    ©
Tf © ©
eg  ©   oa
«*    rH
: w     !  eg tr-     l
: eg    i oo t-     1
|    CO   ©        (
©        !    ©        j    rH                 ■        !        !
io    i ©    i ©    :    :    !
rH        |    O        !    00        |        |
i  co"    :
CO    00
rt
eg
!  co eg  co     l eg
1   IO   00               !   00
; © Tf           i  co
d
Z
to     :     ;
eg    i
O    rt    ©
eg t- oo
lO   00   ©
l io     ! io h     ;
j eg     I  eg t-     i
:  rn eg     ;
©      :   ©      i   OO      !      !      J      |
©     : ©     l  co     i     i     j     i
eg     i  io     !  co     t     i
I   rt*      !    rt       i       i       1
CO   ©       !       !   Tf   N   CO       !   IO       !       !
ca      |      !   Ca   rt             !   og      !      !
rt       !           ©   rt               |rt!
Hg
r6
ri
© ■«*     ',
IO   rH       :
eg     :
©    1
■«*    |
■«*    i
1    I
6
Z
! I
io  co     !
•"J1     !
■f      !
tr-
i    i    i
III!
_!
a
2;
o
M
ib   in     ;
t- ©    !
©      !
eg*    i
j
io © us ©     !
t-   CO   00   ©       1
CO   rH    Tf        !
Tt<
©
00
CO
j
IO
00
d
fc
©   CO      !
ia oo     |
rt   Tf       j
fcj      j
©   ©   CO   o
IO    H    00    Q
rH   CO   TT   IO
ri
|
!
IO
Ol
CO
©
eg
oo
t<'
©
Eh
ri
6
Z
o Tf <o     :     i     :
eg         rt     |
oa      !      !      !
-*    ;
I     1     1 -tP     i     I     1     l     I •©     t *  1     !     1     t oo     t ■*     l     1
leg;                     i N    i          i    i    | n    i ia    |
eg co oo    1     !     ;    1 o    j     1
j        i        1        i    rt        !        !
rt||
©      !      1      !      I      !   ©      1   ©      1      1
rt          \          !          !          !          !    rt         1    rH         !          !
Illll           ; r-t     I     i
fc a
O o
SB
*,3
r>   G
3 5
-r>   0>
mfi >»
V H
«  C3
O c
!  !' | i i' | !  ||  f |'| i 1 I'M 1 II II  ! I i
!t-.rH...!._!.00i-_.__Cg...i.!Cg.rH:j;;j;j;;;
6P
Cg             HHNNNWHNNN        |        !    H    H    H             rt   CO    rt        !i-Ht-H        i    N        ji-HrtCgrtCgrtCgrtrt
.
no
H
!_>
»
3
d
C
tf
OJ
«
4
a
r*
a
a
P
PC
a
g
cd
t
%
T
fi
O
r*
c
a
£
>
oi
C
«
i-
2
r-
l
1
%
c
%
rt
c
a
1
i
f
Q
f.
i
i
.s
i
C
1
■
i
1
!
■I
c
e
|
r
a
<
P
J!
a
ft
r
i
a
t
>-
«
c
2
E
s
*•
i
1
<
-r
hi
<
1
a
h-
t
1
i
t-
t
s
J
i-
l
I
C
5
It
i
"rZ
X
c.
t-
p
s
1
i
s
rZ
0
1
5
1
I
0
r-
i
1
2
i!
>
—
a
2
a
1
(
F
ct
s
pi
f
>  a
b
J
C
1
t
c
c
*
1 tl
a
?
ct
c
8
s
c
I!
:
r-
p-
t
£
i
r
a
At
«
I
1
a
I
i
h
B
t   C
+
c
1
a
A
3
.5
V
a
A
G
rt
e
5
rtH1
r-
a
a
r-
e
rt
4J
3
.£
Cl
a
QJ
,i
0
rt
ed
'ci
A M 92
REPORT OF PROVINCIAL FISHERIES DEPARTMENT, 1944.
S
s
so
s
55
o
m
<
H
T
H
H
<
a
Z
o
fc
o
Jz;
it
o
J
o
fa
w
W
H
a
o
W
H
<
EH
w
fa
O
W
o
H
■a!
O
Approximate
Weight
(Lb.).
00
©
Tf
IO
Tf
00
to
C
°-b 8
.  03   CJ
55^.3
CO        1    ©
tr     I o
©       j   IO
eg"    |  ri
CO
©
rt
CO*
I W
EH w
.d
i-I
CO
Tf
d
55
i    i
i    ;
iO
IO
CO
1
o
0
-B
►J
oo     ! io
©     | ca
Ca     !  ■rti
Tf            j
CO
Tf
©
co"
Tf
d
eo     !   co
t-     !   io
Q        I    CO
cg*
00
oo
CO
Tf
cg
DQ
i-3
©
IO
CO
©
oo
d
CO
eg
©
CO*
g
Hi
IO
00
ca
00*
6
fc
ca
00
CO
oi
i
<
fi
1   i   I
CO
©
eg*
6
Z
©
©
IO
A .
isfc
fi
_-]
t-
©
©^
CO*
d
oa
io
38
.d
cg
tr-
Tf
Tf
d
1
eg
IO
t-
z
H
W
o
M
Irt
j
oa
ta
©
t^1
d
fc
1
oa
io
03
©*
ib
B
O
QC
H
_jd
CO
eg
d
fc
111
©
CO
CM
Ec,  M
o 3
a I
g@
W bo
"g m
i! ct)
O s
_3  h
Irt d
rtrtrt
i
2
u
>
3
s
a
s
ii
aj
fl
a
c
J.
C
>
B
E-
i
*
ri
C
C
> i_
«
is
oi
,£
c3
(-1
i,
QJ
s
CD
-a
rt
t
E-
o 5
M o
H U
rr *
w a
O -E
__     -- U    -X
a c b s
2 2 2 2
C « <B CC
c u o
ikfrS
•2 fc o S

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/cdm.bcsessional.1-0320813/manifest

Comment

Related Items